Note: This page contains sample records for the topic aid maximum output from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: August 15, 2014.
1

Maximum output of an OTEC power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper theoretically investigates the effects of the temperature and flowrate of cold seawater on the net output of an OTEC plant. Parameters of pipe length, pipe diameter, seawater depth, and the flowrate of seawater are considered. It shows that a maximum output of the net work exists at a certain flowrate of cooling seawater. The output work is higher

Rong-Hua Yeh; Tar-Zen Su; Min-Shong Yang

2005-01-01

2

Cutting rock can aid coal output  

SciTech Connect

An account is given of operations at a small Pennsylvania mine where the seam being worked is 27 in thick at its maximum. Top and bottom rock are taken so that entries and rooms are maintained at a height of 38 in. Roadways are 48 in high. Two sections are worked by Lee Norse continuous miners and one by a Wilcox miner. Some 5500 tons/month are mined, which after cleaning in a heavy media plant yield 3100 tons of clean coal, with a reject rate of over 40%.

Brezovec, D.

1982-08-01

3

Have We Reached a Maximum Astronomical Research Output?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The US astronomical research output during the past 50 yr has been growing at 6 times the population increase and we wonder whether that ratio can continue. I counted pages of the AJ and ApJ for the past 50 yr, and corrected them for changes in format, foreign input, online contributions, and population increases. For the combined two journals, the American astronomical output is still increasing at a current 128 pages per million people. The same is true for UK contributions to the MNRAS, except that those lag behind the US by 10 yr. For Europe I did not want to dilute the contributions in A&A from the major producers with those of the countries still developing major astronomical centers. Therefore I counted pages for France, Germany, Italy, and the Netherlands (FGIN) only. However, Europeans still publish many of their articles in MNRAS, in particular, and ApJ. Counting FGIN articles in all four journals showed a steady rise but with a 12 yr lag behind the US. We conclude that the astronomical research rates in all three regions have not yet reached a maximum.

Abt, Helmut A.

2010-08-01

4

Speech Intelligibility of Two Voice Output Communication Aids.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The intelligibility of two voice-output communication aids ("Personal Communicator" and "SpeechPAC'") was evaluated by presenting synthesized words and sentences to 20 listeners. Analysis of listener transcriptions revealed significantly higher intelligibility scores for the "Personal Communicator" compared to the "SpeechPAC" and higher scores for…

Kannenberg, Patricia; And Others

1988-01-01

5

BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS: Maximum output energy of an electron-beam-controlled CO2 laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental and theoretical investigation was made of an electron-beam-controlled CO2 laser operating under conditions ensuring the maximum output energy. This energy exceeded 1000 J per pulse. Overheating of the active mixture and the development of electric discharges in the active region at high pump powers limited the specific output energy to 75-80 J·liter-1atm-1. Bibtex entry for this abstract Preferred

N. G. Basov; V. A. Danilychev; Andrei A. Ionin; Ivan B. Kovsh; V. A. Sobolev; A. F. Suchkov; B. M. Urin

1975-01-01

6

Universal efficiency bounds of weak-dissipative thermodynamic cycles at the maximum power output.  

PubMed

Based on the assumption of weak dissipation introduced by Esposito et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 150603 (2010)], analytic expressions for the efficiency bounds of several classes of typical thermodynamic cycles at the maximum power output are derived. The results obtained are of universal significance. They can be used to conveniently reveal the general characteristics of not only Carnot heat engines, but also isothermal chemical engines, non-Carnot heat engines, flux flow engines, gravitational engines, quantum Carnot heat engines, and two-level quantum Carnot engines at the maximum power output and to directly draw many important conclusions in the literature. PMID:23410309

Guo, Juncheng; Wang, Junyi; Wang, Yuan; Chen, Jincan

2013-01-01

7

MATCHING OF SEPARATELY EXCITED DC MOTORS TO PHOTOVOLTAIC GENERATORS FOR MAXIMUM POWER OUTPUT  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the matching of separately excited dc motors to photovoltaic generators (PVG) for maximum power output. The dc motor is used to drive a centrifugal water pump. A PVG is a nonlinear device having insolation dependent I–V (current–voltage) characteristic, and hence a natural mismatch exists between the motor loads and the PVG. Therefore, considering the high initial cost

Mehmet Akbaba; Isa Qamber; Adel Kamal

1998-01-01

8

Program Aids In Printing FORTRAN-Coded Output  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

FORPRINT computer program prints FORTRAN-coded output files on most non-Postscript printers with such extra features as control of fonts for Epson and Hewlett Packard printers. Rewrites data to printer and inserts correct printer-control codes. Alternative uses include ability to separate data or ASCII file during printing by use of editing software to insert "1" in first column of data line that starts new page. Written in FORTRAN 77.

Akian, Richard A.

1993-01-01

9

Feature selection in MLPs and SVMs based on maximum output information.  

PubMed

This paper presents feature selection algorithms for multilayer perceptrons (MLPs) and multiclass support vector machines (SVMs), using mutual information between class labels and classifier outputs, as an objective function. This objective function involves inexpensive computation of information measures only on discrete variables; provides immunity to prior class probabilities; and brackets the probability of error of the classifier. The maximum output information (MOI) algorithms employ this function for feature subset selection by greedy elimination and directed search. The output of the MOI algorithms is a feature subset of user-defined size and an associated trained classifier (MLP/SVM). These algorithms compare favorably with a number of other methods in terms of performance on various artificial and real-world data sets. PMID:15461085

Sindhwani, Vikas; Rakshit, Subrata; Deodhare, Dipti; Erdogmus, Deniz; Principe, Jose C; Niyogi, Partha

2004-07-01

10

Computation of Locational and Hourly Maximum Output of a Distributed Generator Connected to a Distribution Feeder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, the total number of distributed generation such as photovoltaic generation system and wind turbine generation system connected to distribution network is drastically increased. Distributed generation utilizing renewable energy can reduce the distribution loss and emission of CO2. However the distribution network with the distributed generators must be operated keeping reliability of power supply and power quality. In this paper, the authors propose a computation method to determine the maximum output of a distributed generator under the operational constrains ((1) voltage limit, (2) line current capacity, and (3) no reverse flow to bank) at arbitrary connection point and hourly period. In the proposed method, three-phase iterative load flow calculation is applied to evaluate the above operational constraints. Three-phase iterative load flow calculation has two simple procedures: (Procedure1) addition of load currents from terminal node of feeder to root one, and (Procedure2) subtraction of voltage drop from root node of feeder to terminal one. In order to check the validity of the proposed method, numerical simulations are accomplished for a distribution system model. Furthermore, characteristics of locational and hourly maximum output of distributed generator connected to distribution feeder are analyzed by several numerical examples.

Hayashi, Yasuhiro; Matsuki, Junya; Hanai, Yuji; Hosokawa, Shinpei; Kobayashi, Naoki

11

Class E RF\\/microwave power amplifier: linear “equivalent” of transistor's nonlinear output capacitance, normalized design and maximum operating frequency vs. output capacitance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies led by the authors yield a maximum operating frequency value for a class E amplifier considering a linear capacitance shunting the device. This linearity also appears in most classical mathematical analyses published so far. This paper faces the problem of finding a linear equivalent capacitance (easy to handle) of the nonlinear voltage-dependent output capacitance of the semiconductor device.

Arturo Mediano; Pilar Molina; J. Navarro

2000-01-01

12

Work Output and Efficiency at Maximum Power of Linear Irreversible Heat Engines Operating with a Finite-Sized Heat Source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We formulate the work output and efficiency for linear irreversible heat engines working between a finite-sized hot heat source and an infinite-sized cold heat reservoir until the total system reaches the final thermal equilibrium state with a uniform temperature. We prove that when the heat engines operate at the maximum power under the tight-coupling condition without heat leakage the work output is just half of the exergy, which is known as the maximum available work extracted from a heat source. As a consequence, the corresponding efficiency is also half of its quasistatic counterpart.

Izumida, Yuki; Okuda, Koji

2014-05-01

13

Work output and efficiency at maximum power of linear irreversible heat engines operating with a finite-sized heat source.  

PubMed

We formulate the work output and efficiency for linear irreversible heat engines working between a finite-sized hot heat source and an infinite-sized cold heat reservoir until the total system reaches the final thermal equilibrium state with a uniform temperature. We prove that when the heat engines operate at the maximum power under the tight-coupling condition without heat leakage the work output is just half of the exergy, which is known as the maximum available work extracted from a heat source. As a consequence, the corresponding efficiency is also half of its quasistatic counterpart. PMID:24856684

Izumida, Yuki; Okuda, Koji

2014-05-01

14

Utilizing Maximum Power Point Trackers in Parallel to Maximize the Power Output of a Solar (Photovoltaic) Array.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It is common when optimizing a photovoltaic (PV) system to use a maximum power point tracker (MPPT) to increase the power output of the solar array. Currently, most military applications that utilize solar energy omit or use only a single MPPT per PV syst...

C. A. Stephenson

2012-01-01

15

Electroacoustic Comparison of Hearing Aid Output of Phonemes in Running Speech versus Isolation: Implications for Aided Cortical Auditory Evoked Potentials Testing  

PubMed Central

Background. Functioning of nonlinear hearing aids varies with characteristics of input stimuli. In the past decade, aided speech evoked cortical auditory evoked potentials (CAEPs) have been proposed for validation of hearing aid fittings. However, unlike in running speech, phonemes presented as stimuli during CAEP testing are preceded by silent intervals of over one second. Hence, the present study aimed to compare if hearing aids process phonemes similarly in running speech and in CAEP testing contexts. Method. A sample of ten hearing aids was used. Overall phoneme level and phoneme onset level of eight phonemes in both contexts were compared at three input levels representing conversational speech levels. Results. Differences of over 3?dB between the two contexts were noted in one-fourth of the observations measuring overall phoneme levels and in one-third of the observations measuring phoneme onset level. In a majority of these differences, output levels of phonemes were higher in the running speech context. These differences varied across hearing aids. Conclusion. Lower output levels in the isolation context may have implications for calibration and estimation of audibility based on CAEPs. The variability across hearing aids observed could make it challenging to predict differences on an individual basis.

Easwar, Vijayalakshmi; Purcell, David W.; Scollie, Susan D.

2012-01-01

16

Electrical failure of an ICD lead due to a presumed insulation defect only diagnosed by a maximum output shock.  

PubMed

A 55-year-old male patient presented after a single shock caused by oversensing of isolated nonphysiologic signals on both the distal HV and pace-sense channels. No other abnormalities were found. He subsequently returned complaining of device "vibration" and his St. Jude implantable defibrillator (ICD; St. Jude Medical, St. Paul, MN, USA) was found to be in VVI backup mode and could not be interrogated. Direct testing in the electrophysiology lab showed normal lead impedances and thresholds with an inability to reproduce the abnormal signals. Detailed cine fluoroscopy of the leads found no abnormalities. A new ICD was connected and successfully delivered a 20-joule shock but failed to deliver a maximum output (39-joule) shock. The new ICD was again found to be in backup mode. A new Endotak Reliance G lead (Boston Scientific, Natick, MA, USA) was implanted and a maximum-output shock was successful using a new Fortify DR ICD. This case likely represents a Durata lead insulation defect in the form of an inside-out abrasion under the distal HV coil. Increased awareness of this defect is warranted, particularly since routine interrogation and submaximum-output shocks may fail to detect the problem. PMID:23731252

Goldstein, Matthew A; Badri, Marwan; Kocovic, Dusan; Kowey, Peter R

2013-09-01

17

Impedance optimization of wireless electromagnetic energy harvester for maximum output efficiency at ?W input power  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work presents the optimization of radio frequency (RF) to direct current (DC) circuits using Schottky diodes for remote wireless energy harvesting applications. Since different applications require different wireless RF to DC circuits, RF harvesters are presented for different applications. Analytical parameters influencing the sensitivity and efficiency of the circuits are presented. Results showed in this report are analytical, simulated and measured. The presented circuits operate around the frequency 434 MHz. The result of an L-matched RF to DC circuit operates at a maximum efficiency of 27 % at -35 dBm input. The result of a voltage multiplier achieves an open circuit voltage of 6 V at 0 dBm input. The result of a broadband circuit with a frequency band of 300 MHz, achieves an average efficiency of 5 % at -30 dBm and open circuit voltage of 47 mV. A high quality factor (Q) circuit is also realized with a PI network matching for narrow band applications.

Nimo, Antwi; Grgic, Dario; Reindl, Leonhard M.

2012-03-01

18

On the implementation of an automated acoustic output optimization algorithm for subharmonic aided pressure estimation  

PubMed Central

Incident acoustic output (IAO) dependent subharmonic signal amplitudes from ultrasound contrast agents can be categorized into occurrence, growth or saturation stages. Subharmonic aided pressure estimation (SHAPE) is a technique that utilizes growth stage subharmonic signal amplitudes for hydrostatic pressure estimation. In this study, we developed an automated IAO optimization algorithm to identify the IAO level eliciting growth stage subharmonic signals and also studied the effect of pulse length on SHAPE. This approach may help eliminate the problems of acquiring and analyzing the data offline at all IAO levels as was done in previous studies and thus, pave the way for real-time clinical pressure monitoring applications. The IAO optimization algorithm was implemented on a Logiq 9 (GE Healthcare, Milwaukee, WI) scanner interfaced with a computer. The optimization algorithm stepped the ultrasound scanner from 0 to 100 % IAO. A logistic equation fitting function was applied with the criterion of minimum least squared error between the fitted subharmonic amplitudes and the measured subharmonic amplitudes as a function of the IAO levels and the optimum IAO level was chosen corresponding to the inflection point calculated from the fitted data. The efficacy of the optimum IAO level was investigated for in vivo SHAPE to monitor portal vein (PV) pressures in 5 canines and was compared with the performance of IAO levels, below and above the optimum IAO level, for 4, 8 and 16 transmit cycles. The canines received a continuous infusion of Sonazoid microbubbles (1.5 ?l/kg/min; GE Healthcare, Oslo, Norway). PV pressures were obtained using a surgically introduced pressure catheter (Millar Instruments, Inc., Houston, TX) and were recorded before and after increasing PV pressures. The experiments showed that optimum IAO levels for SHAPE in the canines ranged from 6 to 40 %. The best correlation between changes in PV pressures and in subharmonic amplitudes (r = -0.76; p = 0.24), and between the absolute PV pressures and the subharmonic amplitudes (r = -0.89; p < 0.01) were obtained for the optimized IAO and 4 transmit cycles. Only for the optimized IAO and 4 transmit cycles did the subharmonic amplitudes differ significantly (p < 0.01) before and after increasing PV pressures. A new algorithm to identify optimum IAO levels for SHAPE has been developed and validated with the best results being obtained for 4 transmit cycles. The work presented in this study may pave the way for real-time clinical applications of estimating pressures using the subharmonic signals from ultrasound contrast agents.

Dave, J. K.; Halldorsdottir, V. G.; Eisenbrey, J. R.; Merton, D. A.; Liu, J. B.; Machado, P.; Zhao, H.; Park, S.; Dianis, S.; Chalek, C. L.; Thomenius, K. E.; Brown, D. B.; Forsberg, F.

2013-01-01

19

Description of a parametric maximum likelihood estimator in the frequency domain for multi-input, multi-output systems and its application to flight flutter analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The basic formula of a parametric maximum likelihood estimator (MLE) in the frequency domain for multi-input, multi-output (MIMO) systems is given. The proposed method takes into account the perturbation noise on all the measured input and output signals. It is an extension to MIMO systems of the single-input, single-output (SISO) estimation method called ELiS (Estimation of Linear Systems). The MIMO estimator will be shown to determine more accurately the natural frequencies and damping ratios of mechanical structures than the SISO estimator. The estimators are applied to very noisy flight flutter data.

Guillaume, Patrick; Pintelon, Rik; Schoukens, Johan

1990-09-01

20

How funding structures for HIV/AIDS research shape outputs and utilization: a Swiss case study  

PubMed Central

Background Research policy in the field of HIV has changed substantially in recent decades in Switzerland. Until 2004, social science research on HIV/AIDS was funded by specialized funding agencies. After 2004, funding of such research was “normalized” and integrated into the Swiss National Science Foundation as the main funding agency for scientific research in Switzerland. This paper offers a longitudinal analysis of the relationship between the changing nature of funding structures on the one hand and the production and communication of policy-relevant scientific knowledge in the field of HIV on the other hand. Methods The analysis relies on an inventory of all social sciences research projects on HIV in Switzerland that were funded between 1987 and 2010, including topics covered and disciplines involved, as well as financial data. In addition, in-depth interviews were conducted with 18 stakeholders. Results The analysis highlights that the pre-2004 funding policy ensured good coverage of important social science research themes. Specific incentives and explicit promotion of social science research related to HIV gave rise to a multidisciplinary, integrative and health-oriented approach. The abolition of a specific funding policy in 2004 was paralleled by a drastic reduction in the number of social science research projects submitted for funding, and a decline of public money dedicated to such research. Although the public administration in charge of HIV policy still acknowledges the relevance of findings from social sciences for the development of prevention, treatment and care, HIV-related social science research does not flourish under current funding conditions. Conclusions The Swiss experience sheds light on the difficulties of sustaining social science research and multidisciplinary approaches related to HIV without specialized funding agencies. Future funding policy might not necessarily require specialized agencies, but should better take into account research dynamics and motivations in the field of social sciences.

2011-01-01

21

A Non-Data-Aided Maximum Likelihood Time Delay Estimator Using Importance Sampling  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a new time delay maximum likelihood estimator based on importance sampling (IS). We show that a grid search and lack of convergence from which most iterative estimators suffer can be avoided. It is assumed that the transmitted data are completely unknown at the receiver. Moreover the carrier phase is considered as an unknown nuisance parameter.

Ahmed Masmoudi; Faouzi Bellili; Sofiène Affes; Alex Stephenne

2011-01-01

22

Increasing communicative interactions of young children with autism using a voice output communication aid and naturalistic teaching.  

PubMed Central

We evaluated the effects of a voice output communication aid (VOCA) and naturalistic teaching procedures on the communicative interactions of young children with autism. A teacher and three assistants were taught to use naturalistic teaching strategies to provide opportunities for VOCA use in the context of regularly occurring classroom routines. Naturalistic teaching procedures and VOCA use were introduced in multiple probe fashion across 4 children and two classroom routines (snack and play). As the procedures were implemented, all children showed increases in communicative interactions using VOCAs. Also, there was no apparent reductive effect of VOCA use within the naturalistic teaching paradigm on other communicative behaviors. Teachers' ratings of children's VOCA communication, as well as ratings of a person unfamiliar with the children, supported the contextual appropriateness of the VOCA. Probes likewise indicated that the children used the VOCAs for a variety of different messages including requests, yes and no responses, statements, and social comments. Results are discussed in regard to the potential benefits of a VOCA when combined with naturalistic teaching procedures. Future research needs are also discussed, focusing on more precise identification of the attributes of VOCA use for children with autism, as well as for their support personnel.

Schepis, M M; Reid, D H; Behrmann, M M; Sutton, K A

1998-01-01

23

Ranking Hearing Aid Input-Output Functions for Understanding Low-, Conversational-, and High-Level Speech in Multitalker Babble  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To determine the rankings of 6 input-output functions for understanding low-level, conversational, and high-level speech in multitalker babble without manipulating volume control for listeners with normal hearing, flat sensorineural hearing loss, and mildly sloping sensorineural hearing loss. Method: Peak clipping, compression limiting,…

Chung, King; Killion, Mead C.; Christensen, Laurel A.

2007-01-01

24

CONTROL OF LASER RADIATION PARAMETERS: Optimisation of waveguide parameters of laser InGaAs/AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructures for obtaining the maximum beam width in the resonator and the maximum output power  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The waveguide design of a laser heterostructure is optimised to expand the laser beam in the vertical direction at the output mirror of a laser diode (up to 1.5 ?m at the half intensity for the zero mode). Experimental samples of such diodes operated in the cw transverse single-mode lasing regime up to the output power of 0.5 W. The radiation divergence was 11°—12° and 4°—7° in the vertical and horizontal directions, respectively.

Bogatov, A. P.; Gushchik, T. I.; Drakin, A. E.; Nekrasov, A. P.; Popovichev, V. V.

2008-10-01

25

New output improvements for CLASSY  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Additional output data and formats for the CLASSY clustering algorithm were developed. Four such aids to the CLASSY user are described. These are: (1) statistical measures; (2) special map types; (3) formats for standard output; and (4) special cluster display method.

Rassbach, M. E. (principal investigator)

1981-01-01

26

A memory-mapped output interface: Omega navigation output data from the JOLT (TM) microcomputer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A hardware interface which allows both digital and analog data output from the JOLT microcomputer is described in the context of a software-based Omega Navigation receiver. The interface hardware described is designed for output of six (or eight with simple extensions) bits of binary output in response to a memory store command from the microcomputer. The interface was produced in breadboard form and is operational as an evaluation aid for the software Omega receiver.

Lilley, R. W.

1976-01-01

27

Igniter and actuator output testing  

SciTech Connect

Closed system mechanical work output measurements were made for five types of thermal battery igniters and one type of valve actuator. Each unit was fired into a high-precision fit piston/cylinder arrangement, and the work output was determined from measuring the rise of a known weight. The results showed that work output for an individual igniter type varied over a considerable range while the mean work output values of the various igniter types appeared to depend principally on the type of closure disc and the details of the charge mix. The large variability in igniter output was the principal inducement to build a second apparatus, with approximately 10 times the capacity of the first, to investigate the output actuators. Compared with igniters, the actuator work output was appropriately in scale, but the variability was considerably reduced (R=1.5), and was attributed to increase in scale. Motion picture photography at 8000 to 9000 frames per second was used to determine the motion of the rising weight and the associated output pressure, which exhibited three distinct phases. Initially, the average acceleration of the weight was of the order of 100 g during the first half-millisecond of weight rise and corresponded to average pressures of 15,000 to 37,000 psi, depending principally on the mass of the weight. This was followed by a significant weight rise at a constant pressure of approximately 150 to 450 psi. Finally, the weight decelerated to rest under gravity to reach the maximum recorded height. 2 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

Evans, N.A.

1988-01-01

28

Output saturation in fiber lasers  

SciTech Connect

An analytical theory is developed for a four-level cw fiber laser which accounts for saturation of the output due to bleaching of the pump transition. A simple closed form expression is obtained which relates the pump power and output power. Output saturation is most important for systems having at least one long lived excited state other than the upper laser level. The model is used to optimize the fiber length, core radius, and mirror reflectivities for an Er{sup 3+} doped fluorozirconate fiber laser operating at 2.7 {mu}m. The optimized efficiency is found to be independent of pump power. Maximum efficiencies of 9.8 and 12.9% are calculated for fibers with attenuation coefficients of 100 and 10 dB/km, respectively. Key words: Fiber lasers, optimization, saturation.

Quimby, R.S. (Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Physics Department, Worcester, Massachusetts 01609-2280 (USA))

1990-03-20

29

Output characteristics of the Dual Channel EST  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis of the output characteristics of the Dual Channel EST (DC-EST) is provided for the first time in this article. It is demonstrated by analytical modelling and with the aid of two dimensional numerical simulations that the output resistance in the region of current saturation is determined by the activation of the narrow base NPN transistor in the IGBT segment. Based upon this model, the experimentally observed degradation in the output resistance with an increase in the distance between the shorts in the P-base region of the main thyristor segment can be explained. This model is shown to be consistent with the experimentally observed degradation in the output resistance with larger design rules used for device fabrication because this determines the current level at which the NPN transistor becomes activated. The observed reduction in the output resistance results in a degradation in the forward bias safe operating area.

Sridhar, S.; Baliga, B. J.

1997-08-01

30

Understanding cardiac output  

PubMed Central

Cardiac output is the amount of blood the heart pumps in 1 minute, and it is dependent on the heart rate, contractility, preload, and afterload. Understanding of the applicability and practical relevance of each of these four components is important when interpreting cardiac output values. In the present article, we use a simple analogy comparing cardiac output with the speed of a bicycle to help appreciate better the effects of various disease processes and interventions on cardiac output and its four components.

Vincent, Jean-Louis

2008-01-01

31

Urine output - decreased  

MedlinePLUS

Decreased urine output means that you produce less than 500 milliliters of urine in 24 hours. ... A large decrease in urine output may be a sign of a serious, or even life-threatening, condition. However, urine output can usually be restored ...

32

Aid allocation and poverty reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper derives a poverty-efficient allocation of aid and compares it with actual aid allocations. The allocation of aid that has the maximum effect on poverty depends on the level of poverty and the quality of policies. Using the headcount, poverty-gap, and squared poverty gap measures of poverty, alternatively, all yield similar poverty-efficient allocations. Finally, we find that the actual

Paul Collier; David Dollar

2002-01-01

33

Standardized multiple output power supply  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A comprehensive program to develop a prototype model of a standardized multiple output power supply for use in space flight applications is described. The prototype unit was tested and evaluated to assure that the design would provide near optimum performance for the planned application. The prototype design used a dc-to-dc converter incorporating reqenerative current feedback with a time-ratio controlled duty cycle to achieve high efficiency over a wide variation of input voltage and output loads. The packaging concept uses a mainframe capable of accommodating up to four inverter/regulator modules with one common input filter and housekeeping module. Each inverter/regulator module provides a maximum of 100 watts or 10 amperes. Each module is adaptable to operate at any voltage between 4.0 volts and 108 volts. The prototype unit contains +5, + or - 15 and +28 volt modules.

Ragusa, E. V.

1975-01-01

34

Binaural Noise Reduction Algorithms for Hearing Aids That Preserve Interaural Time Delay Cues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Binaural hearing aids use microphone inputs from both the left and right hearing aid to generate an output for each ear. On the other hand, a monaural hearing aid generates an output by processing only its own microphone inputs. This correspondence presents a binaural extension of a monaural multichannel noise reduction algorithm for hearing aids based on Wiener filtering. In

Thomas J. Klasen; Tim Van Den Bogaert; Marc Moonen; Jan Wouters

2007-01-01

35

Ergogenic aids.  

PubMed

In the context of sport, an ergogenic aid can be broadly defined as a technique or substance used for the purpose of enhancing performance. Ergogenic aids have been classified as nutritional, pharmacologic, physiologic, or psychologic and range from use of accepted techniques such as carbohydrate loading to illegal and unsafe approaches such as anabolic-androgenic steroid use. The efficacy of many of these techniques is controversial, whereas the deleterious side effects are clear. The purpose of this article is to review the epidemiology, administration, efficacy, pharmacology, and side effects of commonly used ergogenic aids. Physical therapists should be able to recognize the signs of ergogenic aid abuse in individuals under their care, and they should be aware of the side effects of these aids. Moreover, the physical therapist can serve as a resource for those individuals seeking information on the risks and benefits of ergogenic aids. PMID:7732086

Thein, L A; Thein, J M; Landry, G L

1995-05-01

36

Hearing aid malfunction detection system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A malfunction detection system for detecting malfunctions in electrical signal processing circuits is disclosed. Malfunctions of a hearing aid in the form of frequency distortion and/or inadequate amplification by the hearing aid amplifier, as well as weakening of the hearing aid power supply are detectable. A test signal is generated and a timed switching circuit periodically applies the test signal to the input of the hearing aid amplifier in place of the input signal from the microphone. The resulting amplifier output is compared with the input test signal used as a reference signal. The hearing aid battery voltage is also periodically compared to a reference voltage. Deviations from the references beyond preset limits cause a warning system to operate.

Kessinger, R. L. (inventor)

1977-01-01

37

Aid Effectiveness Research: Assessing Aid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The latest in a series of World Bank Policy Research Reports, this major new report summarizes the findings of a multi-year research program on aid effectiveness. The 1990s has seen official Development Assistance fall by one-third in real terms. One of the reasons for this has been "a sense that aid does not work very well. Assessing Aid aims to understand when aid works and when it does not, so that the lessons can be used to make aid more effective." The report identifies two key components of aid -- money and ideas -- and discusses how and when they can best be applied to promote developing economies. Users can read a detailed overview in HTML or download the full text of the report in .pdf format. Additional resources at the site include a PowerPoint slide presentation and a news release in several languages.

Dollar, David.; Pritchett, Lant.

1998-01-01

38

Solar maximum: Solar array degradation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 5-year in-orbit power degradation of the silicon solar array aboard the Solar Maximum Satellite was evaluated. This was the first spacecraft to use Teflon R FEP as a coverglass adhesive, thus avoiding the necessity of an ultraviolet filter. The peak power tracking mode of the power regulator unit was employed to ensure consistent maximum power comparisons. Telemetry was normalized to account for the effects of illumination intensity, charged particle irradiation dosage, and solar array temperature. Reference conditions of 1.0 solar constant at air mass zero and 301 K (28 C) were used as a basis for normalization. Beginning-of-life array power was 2230 watts. Currently, the array output is 1830 watts. This corresponds to a 16 percent loss in array performance over 5 years. Comparison of Solar Maximum Telemetry and predicted power levels indicate that array output is 2 percent less than predictions based on an annual 1.0 MeV equivalent election fluence of 2.34 x ten to the 13th power square centimeters space environment.

Miller, T.

1985-01-01

39

State Aid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report, published by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), will most likely be used by financial aid professionals and researchers. The report, offered in .pdf format, is a statistical analysis of the differences among students attending institutions in states that provide different levels of financial aid.

40

Input-Output Experiment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the suggested Input-Output experiment was to determine the feasibility of using auroral phenomena to simulate the ionizing effects produced by high-altitude nuclear detonations. Present objectives are focused primarily on the measurement ...

R. E. Meyerott

1964-01-01

41

Hearing Aids  

MedlinePLUS

... future maintenance and repairs? Can the audiologist make adjustments and provide servicing and minor repairs? Will loaner ... by earwax or fluid. See your audiologist for adjustments. I hear background noise. A hearing aid does ...

42

Hearing Aids  

MedlinePLUS

... An alternative, promising approach in cases with preserved low-frequency (low-pitch) hearing and severe high-frequency hearing loss provides acoustical stimulation to the low-frequency region of the cochlea through a hearing aid ...

43

Linear output nitinol engine  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a linear output nitinol engine consisting of a number of integrated communicating parts. The engine has an external support framework which is described in detail. The patent further describes a wire transport mechanism, a pair of linkage levers with a loom secured to them, a number of nitinol wires strung between the looms, and a power takeoff block secured to the linkage levers. A pulley positioned in a flip-flop supporting bracket and a power takeoff modality including a tension member connected to a power output cable in order to provide linear power output transmission is described. A method for biasing the timing and the mechanism for timing the synchronization of the throw over arms and the flip-flop of the pulley are also described.

Banks, R.M.

1986-01-14

44

Linear output nitinol engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a linear output nitinol engine consisting of a number of integrated communicating parts. The engine has an external support framework which is described in detail. The patent further describes a wire transport mechanism, a pair of linkage levers with a loom secured to them, a number of nitinol wires strung between the looms, and a power takeoff

1986-01-01

45

Multiple target tracking using maximum likelihood principle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proposes a method (tracking algorithm (TAL)) based on the maximum likelihood (ML) principle for multiple target tracking in near-field using outputs from a large uniform linear array of passive sensors. The targets are assumed to be narrowband signals and modeled as sample functions of a Gaussian stochastic process. The phase delays of these signals are expressed as functions of both

A. Satish; Rangasami L. Kashyap

1995-01-01

46

AIDS talk  

Microsoft Academic Search

The observations of Michel Foucault, noted Twentieth Century French philosopher, regarding modern power relations and orders of discourse, form the framework utilized to analyze and interpret the power struggles of AIDS activists and their opponents--the religious and radical right, and the administrative agencies of the 'Liberal' welfare State. Supported by the tools of sociolinguistic inquiry, the analysis highlights the success

Joyce Elizabeth Elder Yost

1996-01-01

47

Classroom Aids  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes 6 aids for science instruction, including (1) the use of fudge to represent lava; (2) the "Living by Chemistry" program, designed to make high school chemistry more accessible to a diverse pool of students without sacrificing content; (3) NOAA and NSTA's online coral reef teaching tool, a new web-based "science toolbox" for…

Science Activities: Classroom Projects and Curriculum Ideas, 2007

2007-01-01

48

Maximum Score Type Estimators  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents maximum score type estimators for linear, binomial, tobit and truncated regression models. These estimators estimate the normalized vector of slopes and do not provide the estimator of intercept, although it may appear in the model. Strong consistency is proved. In addition, in the case of truncated and tobit regression models, maximum score estimators allow restriction of the

Marcin Owczarczuk

2009-01-01

49

Aid and Australian Aid Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few issues of economic development arouse such deep emotions or controversies as the role of the foreign sector. Most orthodox economists believe that foreign aid, investment, technology and transnational corporations (TNC) are important contributory factors to economic development. On the other hand, the neo-Marxist paradigm suggests that the present system revolving around the foreign sector represents the continuation of domination

Debesh Bhattacharya

1990-01-01

50

Maximum windmill efficiency  

SciTech Connect

A result frequently quoted in engineering handbooks is that one-dimensional fluid flow theory places an upper limit on windmill efficiency at 16/27 or 59.3%. An error in the development invalidates this conclusion. One-dimensional flow analysis places no restrictions on realizable windmill output.

Greet, R.J.

1980-09-01

51

[AIDS therapy].  

PubMed

Therapy of AIDS comprises two aspects: (1) causative therapy, directed against HIV, and (2) symptomatic therapy of opportunistic infections and malignancies. The best results regarding antiretroviral therapy - both in vitro and in vivo - have been obtained, so far, with inhibitors of reverse transcriptase. We discuss the mechanism of action, the efficacy, and the side effects of AZT, a nucleoside analogue, and comment on combined therapies with acyclovir and immunomodulators. We report on the therapy of the most frequent opportunistic infection - i.e. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia - with sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim and pentamidine as well as the chemoprophylaxis of this disease. During the last few years, important progress has been made in the field of antiviral chemotherapy (HSV, CMV, VZV) and the therapy of gastrointestinal infections. Moreover, the therapy of Kaposi's sarcoma associated with AIDS and that of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma has been established by now. PMID:2205064

Hutterer, J

1990-07-01

52

Maximum thrust mode evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measured reductions in acceleration times which resulted from the application of the F-15 performance seeking control (PSC) maximum thrust mode during the dual-engine test phase is presented as a function of power setting and flight condition. Data were collected at altitudes of 30,000 and 45,000 feet at military and maximum afterburning power settings. The time savings for the supersonic acceleration is less than at subsonic Mach numbers because of the increased modeling and control complexity. In addition, the propulsion system was designed to be optimized at the mid supersonic Mach number range. Recall that even though the engine is at maximum afterburner, PSC does not trim the afterburner for the maximum thrust mode. Subsonically at military power, time to accelerate from Mach 0.6 to 0.95 was cut by between 6 and 8 percent with a single engine application of PSC, and over 14 percent when both engines were optimized. At maximum afterburner, the level of thrust increases were similar in magnitude to the military power results, but because of higher thrust levels at maximum afterburner and higher aircraft drag at supersonic Mach numbers the percentage thrust increase and time to accelerate was less than for the supersonic accelerations. Savings in time to accelerate supersonically at maximum afterburner ranged from 4 to 7 percent. In general, the maximum thrust mode has performed well, demonstrating significant thrust increases at military and maximum afterburner power. Increases of up to 15 percent at typical combat-type flight conditions were identified. Thrust increases of this magnitude could be useful in a combat situation.

Orme, John S.; Nobbs, Steven G.

1995-01-01

53

Fiscal output data produce versatile graphic-numeric charts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Refined computerized plotting system produces low-cost graphic-numeric charts that illustrate fiscal data on monthly incremental or cumulative basis, or both. Output is in the form of hard copy or microfilm, or visual-aid transparencies prepared from hard copy for rapid management status presentations.

Powell, R. W.; Romo, J. J.

1971-01-01

54

Maximum constant boost control of the Z-source inverter  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes two maximum constant boost control methods for the Z-source inverter, which can obtain maximum voltage gain at any given modulation index without producing any low-frequency ripple that is related to the output frequency. Thus the Z-network requirement will be independent of the output frequency and determined only by the switching frequency. The relationship of voltage gain to

Miaosen Shen; Jin Wang; Alan Joseph; F. Z. Peng; L. M. Tolbert; D. J. Adams

2004-01-01

55

First Aid for Seizures  

MedlinePLUS

... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Epilepsy Share Compartir First Aid for Seizures First aid ... or heart disease or is pregnant. Related Links Epilepsy Foundation First Aid First Aid for Seizures Newsroom ...

56

Most Efficient Quantum Thermoelectric at Finite Power Output  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Machines are only Carnot efficient if they are reversible, but then their power output is vanishingly small. Here we ask, what is the maximum efficiency of an irreversible device with finite power output? We use a nonlinear scattering theory to answer this question for thermoelectric quantum systems, heat engines or refrigerators consisting of nanostructures or molecules that exhibit a Peltier effect. We find that quantum mechanics places an upper bound on both power output and on the efficiency at any finite power. The upper bound on efficiency equals Carnot efficiency at zero power output but decays with increasing power output. It is intrinsically quantum (wavelength dependent), unlike Carnot efficiency. This maximum efficiency occurs when the system lets through all particles in a certain energy window, but none at other energies. A physical implementation of this is discussed, as is the suppression of efficiency by a phonon heat flow.

Whitney, Robert S.

2014-04-01

57

Most efficient quantum thermoelectric at finite power output.  

PubMed

Machines are only Carnot efficient if they are reversible, but then their power output is vanishingly small. Here we ask, what is the maximum efficiency of an irreversible device with finite power output? We use a nonlinear scattering theory to answer this question for thermoelectric quantum systems, heat engines or refrigerators consisting of nanostructures or molecules that exhibit a Peltier effect. We find that quantum mechanics places an upper bound on both power output and on the efficiency at any finite power. The upper bound on efficiency equals Carnot efficiency at zero power output but decays with increasing power output. It is intrinsically quantum (wavelength dependent), unlike Carnot efficiency. This maximum efficiency occurs when the system lets through all particles in a certain energy window, but none at other energies. A physical implementation of this is discussed, as is the suppression of efficiency by a phonon heat flow. PMID:24745399

Whitney, Robert S

2014-04-01

58

The maximum likelihood degree  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maximum likelihood estimation in statistics leads to the problem of\\u000amaximizing a product of powers of polynomials. We study the algebraic degree of\\u000athe critical equations of this optimization problem. This degree is related to\\u000athe number of bounded regions in the corresponding arrangement of\\u000ahypersurfaces, and to the Euler characteristic of the complexified complement.\\u000aUnder suitable hypotheses, the maximum

Serkan Hosten; Amit Khetan; Bernd Sturmfels

2006-01-01

59

Maximum ratio transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the concept, principles, and analysis of maximum ratio transmission for wireless communications, where multiple antennas are used for both transmission and reception. The principles and analysis are applicable to general cases, including maximum-ratio combining. Simulation results agree with the analysis. The analysis shows that the average overall signal-to-mise ratio (SNR) is proportional to the cross correlation between

Titus K. Y. Lo

1999-01-01

60

Fluxgate: tuned vs. untuned output  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluxgate voltage output contains information about the measured DC magnetic field in amplitude of even harmonic components. Tuning the sensor output causes the concentration of output energy to specific harmonics (usually 2f) and parametric amplification. A short-circuited output current fluxgate cannot be tuned, but it in principle requires less turns of the pick-up coil. The noise measurements performed on amorphous

P. Ripka; S. W. Billingsley

1998-01-01

61

Fitting statistical distributions to air quality data by the maximum likelihood method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A computer program has been developed for fitting statistical distributions to air pollution data using maximum likelihood estimation. Appropriate uses of this software are discussed and a grouped data example is presented. The program fits the following continuous distributions: normal, three-parameter lognormal, three-parameter gamma, three-parameter Weibull, Johnson SB, and four-parameter beta. The parameters of each distribution are estimated by closed solutions or the Nelder-Mead Simplex iterative search. Graphical output contains a plot of the fitted distribution superimposed upon the histogram of the data for each model. Six goodness-of-fit criteria are supplied and ranked by the program to aid in the selection of the most appropriate choice among the six models.

Holland, David M.; Fitz-Simons, Terence

62

[Noninvasive cardiac output determinations].  

PubMed

The thermodilution determination of cardiac output (CO) by pulmonary arterial catheterization is considered to be the gold standard. However, a diversity of complications associated with the insertion and use of a catheter has made for the design of CO-measuring devices in a mini- or noninvasive mode. This prospective controlled study has been conducted to compare various CO determination techniques by the shape of the arterial curve (ART), as shown by the use of a transesophageal Doppler ultrasonic sensor (TEDUS) determining the blood flow velocity in the descending thoracic aorta by the Fick's backward equation with partial CO2 recirculation, by measuring thoracic bioimpedance (Tbio) by bolus thermodilution as the reference method (CO BT). In all the study examined, the mean CO values are lower than those in the reference method. In addition, there was a wide scatter of the CO values calculated by alternative methods. The mean difference and its standard deviation are 1.27 +/- 2.26 (ART); 0.87 +/- 1.57 (TEDUS); 1.01 +/- 1.46 (Fick); and 1.46 +/- 1.70 (Tbio). The errors of the methods, as compared to CO BT have the following values: APT, 27% (24-31% conference interval (CI)); TEDUS, 19% (17-21% CI); Fick, 20% (19-22%); Tbio, 25% (22-27%). By taking into account the findings, it should be stated that there is not any accurate mini- or noninvasive CO determination method that could completely substitute for the classical thermodilution technique. PMID:18051495

Subbotin, V V; Sitnikov, A V; Il'in, S A; Ovezov, A M; Chernogaeva, N V

2007-01-01

63

ARTIST tape output formats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The format of the ARTIST data and raw data records written to magnetic tape are described. The contents of each record type are fully explained making possible an unpacking of the data for subsequent analysis. A new generation of modern ionosondes is now being deployed world wide. These are the University of Lowell Center for Atmospheric Research (ULCAR) Digisonde 256 and AN/FMQ-12 DISS systems. The Digisonde 256 network will provide a consistent data set of ionospheric parameters that are automatically scaled in real time. The automated stations output the standard ionospheric parameters, the h'N(f) traces with amplitudes and Doppler frequencies, and the electron density profiles. There are currently 32 systems in operation or are close to being installed. The global station distribution is very uneven, the majority of sites lying in the northern hemisphere, and there are no equatorial stations. Nevertheless this network provides an extensive data base of ionospheric parameters in digital form, making it easy to process and analyze the data in terms of average diurnal variations, storms, and irregularities. This data base will be invaluable for the testing of global ionosphere models.

Tang, Jane; Dozois, Claude G.; Gamache, Robert R.

1990-07-01

64

The Maximum Principle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A relatively simple proof of the maximum principle is presented. The main objective was to obtain a proof, similar to that due to Halkin, but replacing the use of Brouwer's fixed point theorem by an easily proven contraction mapping theorem. The first use...

G. F. Bryant D. Q. Mayne

1973-01-01

65

Correlations between internal and external power outputs during weightlifting exercise.  

PubMed

Identifying loads that maximize mechanical power is important because training at such loads may optimize gains in dynamic athletic performance. The purpose of this study was to examine correlations between measures of external mechanical power output and internal mechanical joint power output across different loads during a weightlifting exercise. Ten subjects performed 3 sets of the clean exercise at 65, 75, and 85% of 1 repetition maximum (1RM). Peak external mechanical power output was calculated with 4 commonly used methods, whereas an inverse dynamics approach was used to calculate peak internal mechanical power output for the hip, knee, and ankle joints along with the peak of the sum of all internal joint powers. All peak mechanical power outputs were expressed as relative peak power by either ratio (watts per kilogram) or allometrically scaling to body mass (W·kg). Correlation coefficients were used to compare power output measures. The greatest numbers of significant correlations between internal and external power outputs were observed at 85% of 1RM, at this load hip and knee joint power outputs were correlated to external mechanical power output when calculated with the traditional work-energy method. In addition, the peak sum of all mechanical joint powers was correlated to mechanical power output when calculated with the impulse-momentum method at loads of 75 and 85% of the 1RM. Allometric scaling of power outputs yielded one more significant correlation than did the ratio scaled power outputs. These findings support the use of the work-energy method when making inferences about internal joint powers from external power outputs when loads equal to 85% of 1RM are being lifted. In addition, the impulse-momentum method may be used to make inferences about the sum of all internal joint powers from external power outputs when loads between 75 and 85% of 1RM are being lifted. PMID:22739324

Kipp, Kristof; Harris, Chad; Sabick, Michelle B

2013-04-01

66

Comparison of Onset and Steady-State Responses of Hearing Aids: Implications for Use of the Auditory Brainstem Response in the Selection of Hearing Aids.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Input-output (I/O) functions of hearing aids were measured in response to a 2000 Hz tone burst, having 0.5 ms rise/fall time and 10 ms duration. Findings indicated that the steady-state output limitation characteristics of hearing aids cannot be estimated from their onset responses. (Author/DB)

Gorga, Michael P.; And Others

1987-01-01

67

Mobile Decision Aid for Determining Detection Probabilities for Acoustic Targets.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Army Research Laboratory (ARL) has developed a physics based Acoustic Battlefield Aid (ABFA) for acoustic sources and sensors. This application computes numerous output parameters (e.g., probability of detection, transmission loss, signal-to-noise rat...

D. Marlin D. Sauter

2002-01-01

68

Studies of the output efficiency of signal wave as a function of reflectance of output coupler in nanosecond single-resonant optical parametric oscillators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the output efficiency of signal wave as a function of reflectance of output coupler in nanosecond optical parametric oscillators. The measurements are performed for a type-I critically phase matched signal-resonant optical parametric oscillator of Beta-Barium-Borate crystal. It is observed that the threshold fluence and slope efficiency increases as the reflectance of output coupler decreases, resulting that the maximum efficiency of the signal output was achieved with ~ 60% reflectance of output coupler. It is found that the experimental result of output characteristics is in good agreement with the numerical prediction by a simple numerical model.

Cho, Ki-Ho; Rhee, Bum Ku; Han, Song-Hee

2009-02-01

69

Achieving Maximum Power in Thermoelectric Generation with Simple Power Electronics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A thermoelectric generator typically delivers a relatively low power output, and hence it is of great practical importance to determine a design and operating condition close to those which can provide the maximum attainable power. To maintain a favorable condition for the maximum power output, power electronics circuits are usually applied. One of the simplest methods is to control the operating voltage at half the open-circuit voltage, assuming that the typical impedance-matching condition, in which the load and internal resistances are matched, yields the maximum power output. However, recent investigations have shown that, when external thermal resistances exist between the thermoelectric modules and thermal reservoirs, the impedance-matching condition is not identical to the condition for the maximum power output. In this article, it is argued that, although the impedance-matching condition is not the condition for maximum power output, the maximum power is still achievable when the operating voltage is kept at half the open-circuit voltage. More precisely, it is shown that the typical V- I curve for thermoelectric generators must show approximately linear behavior, which justifies the use of a simple strategy in thermoelectric power generation applications. The conditions for the validity of the approximation are mathematically discussed, supported by a few examples. Experimental evidence at room temperature is also provided.

Youn, Nari; Lee, Hohyun; Wee, Daehyun; Gomez, Miguel; Reid, Rachel; Ohara, Brandon

2014-06-01

70

Effects of Synthetic Speech Output and Orthographic Feedback on Spelling in a Student with Autism: A Preliminary Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of speech output and orthographic feedback on spelling performance were evaluated in this preliminary study. A nonspeaking student with autism was taught to spell words under three feedback conditions using a voice output communication aid. In the auditory-visual condition, the participant received speech output and orthographic feedback. In the visual condition, the participant received only the orthographic feedback.

Ralf W. Schlosser; Doreen M. Blischak; Phillip J. Belfiore; Clair Bartley; Nanette Barnett

1998-01-01

71

Serial Input Output  

SciTech Connect

Serial Input/Output (SIO) is designed to be a long term storage format of a sophistication somewhere between simple ASCII files and the techniques provided by inter alia Objectivity and Root. The former tend to be low density, information lossy (floating point numbers lose precision) and inflexible. The latter require abstract descriptions of the data with all that that implies in terms of extra complexity. The basic building blocks of SIO are streams, records and blocks. Streams provide the connections between the program and files. The user can define an arbitrary list of streams as required. A given stream must be opened for either reading or writing. SIO does not support read/write streams. If a stream is closed during the execution of a program, it can be reopened in either read or write mode to the same or a different file. Records represent a coherent grouping of data. Records consist of a collection of blocks (see next paragraph). The user can define a variety of records (headers, events, error logs, etc.) and request that any of them be written to any stream. When SIO reads a file, it first decodes the record name and if that record has been defined and unpacking has been requested for it, SIO proceeds to unpack the blocks. Blocks are user provided objects which do the real work of reading/writing the data. The user is responsible for writing the code for these blocks and for identifying these blocks to SIO at run time. To write a collection of blocks, the user must first connect them to a record. The record can then be written to a stream as described above. Note that the same block can be connected to many different records. When SIO reads a record, it scans through the blocks written and calls the corresponding block object (if it has been defined) to decode it. Undefined blocks are skipped. Each of these categories (streams, records and blocks) have some characteristics in common. Every stream, record and block has a name with the condition that each stream, record or block name must be unique in its category (i.e. all streams must have different names, but a stream can have the same name as a record). Each category is an arbitrary length list which is handled by a 'manager' and there is one manager for each category.

Waite, Anthony; /SLAC

2011-09-07

72

Body size and work output.  

PubMed

The relationship between work output and anthropometric, biochemical, and socioeconomic varables was studied in 57 male industrial workers engaged in the production of detonator fuses. These workers were studied for 3 months and their daily work output was carefully measured. Work output was measured in terms of the number of fuses produced per day. Clinical and biochemical examination indicated that their current nutritional status was adequate. Among the parameters studied only body weight, height, and lean body weight were significantly correlated with work output. Body weight and lean body weight were significantly correlated (P less than 0.001) with work output even after removing the influence of height by partial correlation. Total daily work output was significantly higher (P less than 0.01) in those with higher body weight and lean body weight. The rate of work was also higher in the higher body weight group PMID:842484

Satyanarayana, K; Naidu, A N; Chatterjee, B; Rao, N

1977-03-01

73

Aid, Shocks, and Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Not surprisingly, extreme negative export price shocks reduce growth. But these adverse effects can be mitigated through offsetting increases in aid. Indeed, targeting aid to countries experiencing negative shocks appears to be even more important for aid effectiveness than targeting aid to countries with good policies.Analysis of the relationship between aid and growth by Burnside and Dollar found that the

Paul Collier; Jan Dehn

2001-01-01

74

Solar PV design aid expert system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A design aid expert system for solar photovoltaic (PV) power supplies corresponding to Indian region is developed. The knowledge base is evolved from the climatological data of 14 stations in Indian region. The approach involves combining both the site and array characteristics in a single parameter referred to as equivalent unit array output and expressing the composite parameter as a

N. D. Kaushika; Anil K. Rai

2006-01-01

75

Electronic filters, hearing aids and methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An electronic filter for an electroacoustic system. The system has a microphone for generating an electrical output from external sounds and an electrically driven transducer for emitting sound. Some of the sound emitted by the transducer returns to the microphone means to add a feedback contribution to its electical output. The electronic filter includes a first circuit for electronic processing of the electrical output of the microphone to produce a filtered signal. An adaptive filter, interconnected with the first circuit, performs electronic processing of the filtered signal to produce an adaptive output to the first circuit to substantially offset the feedback contribution in the electrical output of the microphone, and the adaptive filter includes means for adapting only in response to polarities of signals supplied to and from the first circuit. Other electronic filters for hearing aids, public address systems and other electroacoustic systems, as well as such systems, and methods of operating them are also disclosed.

Engebretson, A. Maynard (Inventor); O'Connell, Michael P. (Inventor); Zheng, Baohua (Inventor)

1991-01-01

76

Electronic filters, hearing aids and methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An electronic filter for an electroacoustic system. The system has a microphone for generating an electrical output from external sounds and an electrically driven transducer for emitting sound. Some of the sound emitted by the transducer returns to the microphone means to add a feedback contribution to its electrical output. The electronic filter includes a first circuit for electronic processing of the electrical output of the microphone to produce a first signal. An adaptive filter, interconnected with the first circuit, performs electronic processing of the first signal to produce an adaptive output to the first circuit to substantially offset the feedback contribution in the electrical output of the microphone, and the adaptive filter includes means for adapting only in response to polarities of signals supplied to and from the first circuit. Other electronic filters for hearing aids, public address systems and other electroacoustic systems, as well as such systems and methods of operating them are also disclosed.

Engebretson, A. Maynard (Inventor)

1995-01-01

77

Breathing difficulties - first aid  

MedlinePLUS

Difficulty breathing - first aid; Dyspnea - first aid; Shortness of breath - first aid ... Breathing difficulty is almost always a medical emergency (other than feeling slightly winded from normal activity such ...

78

First Aid: Animal Bites  

MedlinePLUS

... Breastfeeding FAQs Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth First Aid: Animal Bites KidsHealth > Parents > First Aid & Safety > Printable Safety Guides > First Aid: Animal Bites Print A A A Text Size What's ...

79

Output control apparatus for stirling engines  

SciTech Connect

A stirling engine output control apparatus is described comprising: a working gas compressor; a maximum cycle pressure line connecting a working space to the working gas compressor via a first check valve; a pressure reducing valve provided in the maximum cycle pressure line; a minimum cycle pressure line connecting the working space to the working gas compressor via a second check valve; a pressure boost valve provided in the minimum cycle pressure line; an operating lever pivotable about a movable pivot point for controlling opening and closing of the pressure reducing valve and the pressure boost valve; a motor for moving the movable pivot point; electronic control means for driving the motor; sensing means for supplying the electronic control means with signals indicative of engine rotating speed, displacement of the operating lever and working gas pressure; and an unload valve provided in aline shorting intake and discharge sides of the compressor.

Hasegawa, M.

1988-03-22

80

Aides to Career Education: Counselor Aide Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The handbook, designed for use by career advisors and counselor aides working with disadvantaged students in regular Los Angeles Unified School District vocational programs, provides information for the classification of counselor aide (job definition, typical duties, and qualifications), guidelines for effective utilization of aides, and…

Sandoval, Bernardo; Ray, Dorothy

81

Enhanced performance CCD output amplifier  

DOEpatents

A low-noise FET amplifier is connected to amplify output charge from a che coupled device (CCD). The FET has its gate connected to the CCD in common source configuration for receiving the output charge signal from the CCD and output an intermediate signal at a drain of the FET. An intermediate amplifier is connected to the drain of the FET for receiving the intermediate signal and outputting a low-noise signal functionally related to the output charge signal from the CCD. The amplifier is preferably connected as a virtual ground to the FET drain. The inherent shunt capacitance of the FET is selected to be at least equal to the sum of the remaining capacitances.

Dunham, Mark E. (Los Alamos, NM); Morley, David W. (Santa Fe, NM)

1996-01-01

82

Introduction to maximum entropy  

SciTech Connect

The maximum entropy (MaxEnt) principle has been successfully used in image reconstruction in a wide variety of fields. We review the need for such methods in data analysis and show, by use of a very simple example, why MaxEnt is to be preferred over other regularizing functions. This leads to a more general interpretation of the MaxEnt method, and its use is illustrated with several different examples. Practical difficulties with non-linear problems still remain, this being highlighted by the notorious phase problem in crystallography. We conclude with an example from neutron scattering, using data from a filter difference spectrometer to contrast MaxEnt with a conventional deconvolution. 12 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

Sivia, D.S.

1988-01-01

83

Aid and growth regressions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the relationship between foreign aid and growth in real GDP per capita as it emerges from simple augmentations of popular cross-country growth specifications. It is shown that aid in all likelihood increases the growth rate, and this result is not conditional on ‘good’ policy. There are, however, decreasing returns to aid, and the estimated effectiveness of aid

Henrik Hansen; Finn Tarp

2001-01-01

84

Maximum aposteriori joint source/channel coding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A maximum aposteriori probability (MAP) approach to joint source/channel coder design is presented in this paper. This method attempts to explore a technique for designing joint source/channel codes, rather than ways of distributing bits between source coders and channel coders. For a nonideal source coder, MAP arguments are used to design a decoder which takes advantage of redundancy in the source coder output to perform error correction. Once the decoder is obtained, it is analyzed with the purpose of obtaining 'desirable properties' of the channel input sequence for improving overall system performance. Finally, an encoder design which incorporates these properties is proposed.

Sayood, Khalid; Gibson, Jerry D.

1991-01-01

85

Reducing Spurious Output Of NCO's  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spurious frequency components in output of numerically controlled oscillator (NCO) reduced by dithering appropriate digital signals with small random noise signal prior to truncation. Enables reduction of word length without increasing spurious signal power.

Zimmerman, George A.; Flanagan, Michael J.

1994-01-01

86

Measuring Air-Ionizer Output  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Test apparatus checks ion content of airstream from commercial air ionizer. Apparatus ensures ion output is sufficient to neutralize static charges in electronic assembly areas and concentrations of positive and negative ions are balanced.

Lonborg, J. O.

1985-01-01

87

Model Output Statistics Forecast Guidance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This publication describes data in the National Weather Services's Model Output Statistics Final Forecast Guidance teletype bulletins. It is intended to serve as a comprehensive guide to the interpretation and use of the forecast bulletins by AWS forecast...

H. Hughes

1976-01-01

88

The master hearing aid.  

PubMed

As early as the 1930s the term Master Hearing Aid (MHA) described a device used in the fitting of hearing aids. In their original form, the MHA was a desktop system that allowed for simulated or actual adjustment of hearing aid components that resulted in a changed hearing aid response. Over the years the MHA saw many embodiments and contributed to a number of rationales for the fitting of hearing aids. During these same years, the MHA was viewed by many as an inappropriate means of demonstrating hearing aids; the audio quality of the desktop systems was often superior to the hearing aids themselves. These opinions and the evolution of the MHA have molded the modern perception of hearing aids and the techniques used in the fitting of hearing aids. This article reports on a history of the MHA and its influence on the fitting of hearing aids. PMID:23686682

Curran, James R; Galster, Jason A

2013-06-01

89

Predicting maximum lake depth from surrounding topography.  

PubMed

Information about lake morphometry (e.g., depth, volume, size, etc.) aids understanding of the physical and ecological dynamics of lakes, yet is often not readily available. The data needed to calculate measures of lake morphometry, particularly lake depth, are usually collected on a lake-by-lake basis and are difficult to obtain across broad regions. To span the gap between studies of individual lakes where detailed data exist and regional studies where access to useful data on lake depth is unavailable, we developed a method to predict maximum lake depth from the slope of the topography surrounding a lake. We use the National Elevation Dataset and the National Hydrography Dataset - Plus to estimate the percent slope of surrounding lakes and use this information to predict maximum lake depth. We also use field measured maximum lake depths from the US EPA's National Lakes Assessment to empirically adjust and cross-validate our predictions. We were able to predict maximum depth for ?28,000 lakes in the Northeastern United States with an average cross-validated RMSE of 5.95 m and 5.09 m and average correlation of 0.82 and 0.69 for Hydrological Unit Code Regions 01 and 02, respectively. The depth predictions and the scripts are openly available as supplements to this manuscript. PMID:21984945

Hollister, Jeffrey W; Milstead, W Bryan; Urrutia, M Andrea

2011-01-01

90

AIDS and AIDS-treatment neuropathies  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIDS and AIDS-treatment neuropathies are common in individuals infected with HIV. As patients live longer due to improved\\u000a antiretroviral therapies, the impact of painful neuropathy on patients’ lives may increase. Several antiretroviral medications\\u000a are known to cause toxic neuropathy in AIDS patients, but this may be outweighed by the beneficial effects of viral suppression.\\u000a Current theories on the pathogenesis of

Derek Williams; Anthony Geraci; David M. Simpson

2001-01-01

91

AIDS and AIDS-treatment neuropathies  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIDS and AIDS-treatment neuropathies are common in individuals infected with HIV. As patients live longer due to improved\\u000a antiretroviral therapies, the impact of painful neuropathy on patients’ lives may increase. Several antiretroviral medications\\u000a are known to cause toxic neuropathy in patients with AIDS, but this may be outweighed by the beneficial effects of viral suppression.\\u000a Current theories on the pathogenesis

Derek Williams; Anthony Geraci; David M. Simpson

2002-01-01

92

Efficiency at maximum power of motor traffic on networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study motor traffic on Bethe networks subject to hard-core exclusion for both tightly coupled one-state machines and loosely coupled two-state machines that perform work against a constant load. In both cases we find an interaction-induced enhancement of the efficiency at maximum power (EMP) as compared to noninteracting motors. The EMP enhancement occurs for a wide range of network and single-motor parameters and is due to a change in the characteristic load-velocity relation caused by phase transitions in the system. Using a quantitative measure of the trade-off between the EMP enhancement and the corresponding loss in the maximum output power we identify parameter regimes where motor traffic systems operate efficiently at maximum power without a significant decrease in the maximum power output due to jamming effects.

Golubeva, N.; Imparato, A.

2014-06-01

93

A new control method of permanent magnet generator for maximum power tracking in wind turbine application  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses a new and simple control method for maximum power tracking in a variable speed wind turbine by using a step-up dc-dc converter. The output voltage of permanent magnet generator is connected to a fixed dc-link through a three-phase rectifier and the dc-dc converter. A maximum power-tracking algorithm calculates the speed command that corresponds to maximum power output

R. Esmaili; L. Xu; D. K. Nichols

2005-01-01

94

Maximum Weighted Sum Rate of Multi-Antenna Broadcast Channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, researchers showed that dirty paper cod- ing (DPC) is the optimal transmission strategy for multiple-input multiple-output broadcast channels (MIMO-BC). In this paper, we study how to determine the maximum weighted sum of DPC rates through solving the maximum weighted sum rate problem of the dual MIMO multiple access channel (MIMO-MAC) with a sum power constraint. We first simplify the

Jia Liu; Y. Thomas Hou

2007-01-01

95

First aid kit  

MedlinePLUS

... ahead, you can create a well-stocked home first aid kit. Keep all of your supplies in one location ... expired. Other supplies may be included in a first aid kit. This depends on the area in which you ...

96

First Aid Kit  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

This is a first aid kit used in fieldwork in the west. The kit is likely an army surplus item. The kit includes first aid materials for snake bites as well as more common ailments. Object ID: USGS-000057...

2009-07-22

97

MICROFICHE AIDS DATA  

EPA Science Inventory

This data set contains counts of AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) cases reported to state and local health departments, by demographics; case-definition; HIV exposure group (risk factors for AIDS); Half-year of diagnosis, report, and death....

98

Comparative study of maximum power point tracking algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maximum power point trackers (MPPTs) play an important role in photovoltaic (PV) power systems because they maximize the power output from a PV system for a given set of conditions, and therefore maximize the array efficiency. Thus, an MPPT can minimize the overall system cost. MPPTs find and maintain operation at the maxi- mum power point, using an MPPTalgorithm. Many

D. P. Hohm; M. E. Ropp

2003-01-01

99

Isosceles detector provides maximum resolution in expanded range  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dynamic range expansion system for radio frequency /RF/ signal detection equipment consists of RF amplifiers, RF amplitude modulated detectors, and operational amplifier. The analog output gives maximum resolution over fixed voltage range, without switching. Two minor drawbacks of this circuit are cited.

Watterson, R. F.

1971-01-01

100

Maximum wind energy extraction strategies using power electronic converters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis focuses on maximum wind energy extraction strategies for achieving the highest energy output of variable speed wind turbine power generation systems. Power electronic converters and controls provide the basic platform to accomplish the research of this thesis in both hardware and software aspects. In order to send wind energy to a utility grid, a variable speed wind turbine

Quincy Qing Wang

2003-01-01

101

47 CFR 95.639 - Maximum transmitter power.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...whichever is less. (d) No FRS unit, under any condition of modulation, shall exceed 0.500 W effective radiated power (ERP). (e) The maximum transmitter output power authorized for LPRS stations is 100 mW. (f) In the MedRadio...

2013-10-01

102

Infomax and maximum likelihood for blind source separation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Algorithms for the blind separation of sources can be derived from several different principles. This article shows that the infomax (information-maximization) principle is equivalent to the maximum likelihood. The application of the infomax principle to source separation consists of maximizing an output entropy

Jean-Francois Cardoso

1997-01-01

103

Exploiting the Maximum Entropy Principle to Increase Retrieval Effectiveness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents information retrieval design approach in which queries of computer-based system consist of sets of terms, either unweighted or weighted with subjective term precision estimates, and retrieval outputs ranked by probability of usefulness estimated by "maximum entropy principle." Boolean and weighted request systems are discussed. Twenty-two…

Cooper, William S.

1983-01-01

104

Output Interference in Recognition Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dennis and Humphreys (2001) proposed that interference in recognition memory arises solely from the prior contexts of the test word: Interference does not arise from memory traces of other words (from events prior to the study list or on the study list, and regardless of similarity to the test item). We evaluate this model using output

Criss, Amy H.; Malmberg, Kenneth J.; Shiffrin, Richard M.

2011-01-01

105

Output prediction of cone crushers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The output prediction of cone crushers has been focused on both by the aggregate producing industry and the mining industry as the demands for higher quality and lower costs increase. In this paper a method for prediction of cone crusher performance is presented By using the method both product size distributions and total capacity can be predicted. By combining these

C. M. Evertsson

1998-01-01

106

Tuned current-output fluxgate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current-output fluxgate may be tuned by using a serial capacitor. Such tuning increases the sensor sensitivity in the situation when the pick-up coil has a low number of turns. We achieved a signal\\/feedthrough ratio improvement by a factor of 5. The measured parameters fit the simplified theoretical model within 20% deviation.

Pavel Ripka; Fritz Primdahl

2000-01-01

107

Output regulation of nonlinear systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of controlling a fixed nonlinear plant in order to have its output track (or reject) a family of reference (or disturbance) signal produced by some external generator is discussed. It is shown that, under standard assumptions, this problem is solvable if and only if a certain nonlinear partial differential equation is solvable. Once a solution of this equation

A. Isidori; C. I. Byrnes

1990-01-01

108

Publication output of European physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

More recently, samples have been drawn from Physics Abstrscts to reveal publication output in the Netherlands, Belgium, Denmark, Sweden and Canada \\/6,7\\/, Spain \\/8\\/ and Czechoslovakia \\/3\\/. Seversl ~inds of trends and proportions have been computed for the journals participating in the Euro- physics scheme \\/5\\/ and for citation analyses of world and European physics journals \\/9\\/. Physics Abstracts also

Jan Vlachý

1979-01-01

109

Compact Circuit Preprocesses Accelerometer Output  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Compact electronic circuit transfers dc power to, and preprocesses ac output of, accelerometer and associated preamplifier. Incorporated into accelerometer case during initial fabrication or retrofit onto commercial accelerometer. Made of commercial integrated circuits and other conventional components; made smaller by use of micrologic and surface-mount technology.

Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

1993-01-01

110

Development and Qualification of Computer-Aided Assessments (CAS).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Maximum utilization of computer-aided assessments (CAS) techniques and proper understanding of nuclear safety and reliability assessments can be achieved by the use of a program called GO . This document is a basic, yet substantive, qualification of the G...

R. L. Williams N. Zuck

1983-01-01

111

Aid, Policies, and Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses a new database on foreign aid to examine the relationships among foreign aid, economic policies, and growth per capita GDP. We find that aid has a positive impact on growth in developing countries with good fiscal, monetary, and trade policies but has little effect in the presence of poor policies. Good policies are ones that are themselves

Craig Burnside; David Dollar

2000-01-01

112

The Teacher Aide Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Tuba City Elementary School, located in a Bureau of Indian Affairs Sub-agency Headquarters on the Navajo Reservation in Arizona, has conducted a teacher aide program since August 1965. Specific teacher aide duties have been developed for routine record-keeping, small group and individual instruction, and supervisory activities. Teacher aides

Thomas, Hadley A.

113

Types of Hearing Aids  

MedlinePLUS

... aids, but they convert sound waves into digital signals and produce an exact duplication of sound. Computer chips in digital hearing aids analyze speech and other environmental sounds. The digital hearing aids allow for more complex processing of sound during the amplification process which may ...

114

BSP\\/CGM Algorithms for Maximum Subsequence and Maximum Subarray  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The maximum subsequence problem finds the contiguous subsequence of n real numbers with the highest sum. This problem appears in the analysis of DNA or protein sequences. It can be solved sequentially\\u000a in O(n) time. In the 2-D version, given an n × n array A, the maximum subarray of A is the contiguous subarray that has the maximum sum.

Carlos E. R. Alves; Edson Cáceres; Siang W. Song

2004-01-01

115

Computer aided flexible envelope designs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computer aided design methods are presented for the design and construction of strong, lightweight structures which require complex and precise geometric definition. The first, flexible structures, is a unique system of modeling folded plate structures and space frames. It is possible to continuously vary the geometry of a space frame to produce large, clear spans with curvature. The second method deals with developable surfaces, where both folding and bending are explored with the observed constraint of available building materials, and what minimal distortion result in maximum design capability. Alternative inexpensive fabrication techniques are being developed to achieve computer defined enclosures which are extremely lightweight and mathematically highly precise.

Resch, R. D.

1975-01-01

116

Space Derived Health Aids (AID, Heart Monitor)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

CPI's spinoff from miniaturized pace circuitry is the new heart-assist device, the AID implantable automatic pulse generator. AID pulse generator monitors the heart continuously, recognizes onset of fibrillation, then administers a corrective electrical shock. A mini- computer, a power source, and two electrodes which sense heart activity are included in the unit. An associated system was also developed. It includes an external recorder to be worn by AID patients and a physician's console to display the data stored by the recorder. System provides a record of fibrillation occurrences and the ensuing defibrillation.

1981-01-01

117

Effects of Synthetic Speech Output and Orthographic Feedback on Spelling in a Student with Autism: A Preliminary Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A nonspeaking student (age 10) with autism was taught to spell words under three feedback conditions using a voice output communication aid. Results found that the provision of speech output alone and in combination with orthographic feedback resulted in more efficient spelling than the provision of orthographic feedback alone. (Author/CR)

Schlosser, Ralf W.; Blischak, Doreen M.; Belfiore, Phillip J.; Bartley, Clair; Barnett, Nanette

1998-01-01

118

Approximate maximum likelihood decoding of block codes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Approximate maximum likelihood decoding algorithms, based upon selecting a small set of candidate code words with the aid of the estimated probability of error of each received symbol, can give performance close to optimum with a reasonable amount of computation. By combining the best features of various algorithms and taking care to perform each step as efficiently as possible, a decoding scheme was developed which can decode codes which have better performance than those presently in use and yet not require an unreasonable amount of computation. The discussion of the details and tradeoffs of presently known efficient optimum and near optimum decoding algorithms leads, naturally, to the one which embodies the best features of all of them.

Greenberger, H. J.

1979-01-01

119

Individual Module Maximum Power Point Tracking for Thermoelectric Generator Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a thermoelectric generator (TEG) system the DC/DC converter is under the control of a maximum power point tracker which ensures that the TEG system outputs the maximum possible power to the load. However, if the conditions, e.g., temperature, health, etc., of the TEG modules are different, each TEG module will not produce its maximum power. If each TEG module is controlled individually, each TEG module can be operated at its maximum power point and the TEG system output power will therefore be higher. In this work a power converter based on noninverting buck-boost converters capable of handling four TEG modules is presented. It is shown that, when each module in the TEG system is operated under individual maximum power point tracking, the system output power for this specific application can be increased by up to 8.4% relative to the situation when the modules are connected in series and 16.7% relative to the situation when the modules are connected in parallel.

Vadstrup, Casper; Schaltz, Erik; Chen, Min

2013-07-01

120

Hearing Aid Assembly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress in hearing aids has come a long way. Yet despite such progress hearing aids are not the perfect answer to many hearing problems. Some adult ears cannot accommodate tightly fitting hearing aids. Mouth movements such as chewing, talking, and athletic or other active endeavors also lead to loosely fitting ear molds. It is well accepted that loosely fitting hearing aids are the cause of feedback noise. Since feedback noise is the most common complaint of hearing aid wearers it has been the subject of various patents. Herein a hearing aid assembly is provided eliminating feedback noise. The assembly includes the combination of a hearing aid with a headset developed to constrict feedback noise.

Grugel, Richard N. (Inventor)

2002-01-01

121

Microgyroscope with closed loop output  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A micro-gyroscope (10) having closed loop operation by a control voltage (V.sub.TY), that is demodulated by an output signal of the sense electrodes (S1, S2), providing Coriolis torque rebalance to prevent displacement of the micro-gyroscope (10) on the output axis (y-axis). The present invention provides wide-band, closed-loop operation for a micro-gyroscope (10) and allows the drive frequency to be closely tuned to a high Q sense axis resonance. A differential sense signal (S1-S2) is compensated and fed back by differentially changing the voltage on the drive electrodes to rebalance Coriolis torque. The feedback signal is demodulated in phase with the drive axis signal (K.sub..omega..crclbar..sub.x) to produce a measure of the Coriolis force.

Challoner, A. Dorian (Inventor); Gutierrez, Roman C. (Inventor); Tang, Tony K. (Inventor); Cargille, Donald R. (Inventor)

2002-01-01

122

Acoustic saturation and output regulation.  

PubMed

Acoustic saturation pressures are predicted for ultrasonic beams of a range of frequencies and focal depths. Using reasonable approximations, saturation values for mechanical index (MI) and derated spatial-peak, time-average and pulse-average intensities are calculated. These are compared with thresholds set for regulatory purposes by the U. S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). It is concluded that there are many conditions for which acoustic saturation in water prevents the values of MI and regulated intensities from exceeding thresholds set by the FDA. These conditions are particularly associated with higher frequencies and deeper focal lengths. The thresholds for action set by IEC 61157 are sufficiently low that similar problems do not arise. It is concluded that present regulations are not fully effective in limiting the output from diagnostic ultrasound equipment, and that some conditions exist that are not subject to output control. PMID:10461731

Duck, F A

1999-07-01

123

UFO - The Universal FEYNRULES Output  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new model format for automatized matrix-element generators, the so-called Universal FEYNRULES Output (UFO). The format is universal in the sense that it features compatibility with more than one single generator and is designed to be flexible, modular and agnostic of any assumption such as the number of particles or the color and Lorentz structures appearing in the interaction vertices. Unlike other model formats where text files need to be parsed, the information on the model is encoded into a PYTHON module that can easily be linked to other computer codes. We then describe an interface for the MATHEMATICA package FEYNRULES that allows for an automatic output of models in the UFO format.

Degrande, Céline; Duhr, Claude; Fuks, Benjamin; Grellscheid, David; Mattelaer, Olivier; Reiter, Thomas

2012-06-01

124

Absolute light output of scintillators  

Microsoft Academic Search

The absolute light outputs of BGO, CsI(Tl) and some new Ce-doped crystals have been measured to an accuracy of about ±5% using calibrated XP2020Q photomultipliers and standard S3590.03 and S2740.03 photodiodes. The use of small crystals, 9 mm in diameter and 1 mm thick, reduces the corrections for imperfections in the light collection process and in the photoelectron collection by

M. Moszynski; M. Kapusta; M. Mayhugh; D. Wolski; S. O. Flyckt

1997-01-01

125

High-Output Injection Laser  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Terraced double-heterojunction large optical cavity laser features high output in single optical mode. Semiconductor laser consists of body of single-crystal semiconductor material, typically composed of Group III to V compounds in form of rectangular parallelepiped. One of laser end faces partially transparent so that light may be emitted from it. Lateral thickness variation of active and guide layers in semiconductor laser produces confinement of propagating laser beam in lateral direction.

Connolly, J. C.; Botez, D.

1985-01-01

126

Climate Change Impacts on Probable Maximum Precipitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The estimation of the potential impacts of anthropogenic forcing of the climate system on extreme weather events relies heavily on the direct output of global and regional climate models, combined perhaps with extreme value statistical techniques. In this study, we use these tools along with physical and theoretical considerations to examine the potential impacts on Probable Maximum Precipitation estimates. Probable Maximum Precipitation (PMP) is the theoretically greatest depth of precipitation for a given duration that is physically possible over a particular drainage basin at a particular time of year. PMP values are used in the design of long-lived structures with lifetimes of many decades, such as dams. Climate change is an unavoidable consideration on those time scales. Many studies have documented an upward temporal trend in the frequency and intensity of extreme precipitation events. As the globe warms in response to increasing greenhouse gas concentrations, there is the potential for further changes in precipitation extremes. There are reasons why warming could lead to increased PMP values. One, the Clausius-Clapeyron relationship indicates that the saturation water vapor pressure increases with temperature; thus, precipitation-producing systems could have more "fuel" to precipitate. Two, warming may lead to an increase in the length of the convective season, when most of the extreme precipitation events occur. The methodology for estimation of PMP values has changed little over the last 30-40 years. The basic approach is to consider the factors that contribute to heavy precipitation and then consider the potential precipitation rates if all of those factors were simultaneously maximized. Convergence and vertical motion is one factor. Past work has assumed that there no empirical or satisfactory theoretical basis for assigning maximum values to this factor. The approach has been to use observed rainfall in notable storms as an indirect measure of maximum convergence and vertical motion. Notable storms are chosen to indicate the likely occurrence of near-maximum values. A second central factor is moisture availability. Observational data are used to determine maximum levels of moisture availability. Where topographic effects are important, wind maximization is a third factor. We are examining these factors in present-day and future simulations from global and regional climate models. Initial results strongly indicate the possibility for large future increases in maximum moisture, by about the same amount as increases in mean moisture content. This would lead directly to substantial increases in PMP values. Given the potential catastrophic consequences of dam failure, these findings should be considered carefully in future design activities.

Kunkel, K.; Easterling, D. R.

2011-12-01

127

The Load That Maximizes the Average Mechanical Power Output During Explosive Bench Press Throws in Highly Trained Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The power output generated with different barbell loads and which resistance generated the maximum mechanical power output (Pmax) during explosive bench press-type throws (BT) in a smith machine device were investigated in power- trained athletes. Thirty-one rugby league players were tested for 1 repetition maximum (1RM) free-weight bench press strength (1RM BP). Maximal power output was assessed by the Plyometric

DANIEL BAKER; STEVEN NANCE; MICHAEL MOORE

2001-01-01

128

A Maximum Likelihood Stereo Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

A stereo algorithm is presented that optimizes a maximum likelihood cost function. The maximum likelihood cost function assumes that corresponding features in the left and right images are normally distributed about a common true value and consists of a weighted squared error term if two features are matched or a (fixed) cost if a feature is determined to be occluded.

Ingemar J. Cox; Sunita L. Hingorani; Satish B. Rao; Bruce M. Maggs

1996-01-01

129

Effect of seasonal variation of windspeed on energy output  

SciTech Connect

In India the cropping seasons are broadly classified as Kharif (July to October), Rabi (November to February) and Hot Season (March to June). In this paper an attempt is made to know the variation of windspeed and hence the energy output at 10 places based on IMD data (1958-63). This will enable the farmer to chalk out the cropping pattern to reap maximum benefits from the installed windmill.

Jagadeesh, A.

1983-12-01

130

Metal Coat Increases Output Sensitivity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Charge-coupled photodetector optimized for maximum quantum efficiency (QE), high charge-collection efficiency, and ultralow read noise. Called "flash-coupled" photodetector, sensor delivers high quantum-efficiency sensitivity in spectral range extending from soft x ray to near infrared.

Janesick, James R.

1989-01-01

131

First Aid and Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... for Toddlers and Preschoolers Computer-Related Repetitive Stress Injuries Concussions Electrical, Heating & Cooling: Household Safety Checklist Farm Safety Fire Safety Firesetting First-Aid Kit Food ...

132

AIDS and civil disobedience.  

PubMed

Members of groups such as ACT UP (AIDS Coalition to Unleash Power) risk arrest and criminal charges to protest laws and policies they view as unjust to persons with AIDS. Spiers, a founding member of ACT UP, discusses the rationale behind the tactics of civil disobedience employed by AIDS activists. He argues that civil disobedience is justified by American political and legal traditions, and by the federal government's lack of response to the needs of its citizens. Spiers warns that while AIDS protests have been nonviolent and characterized by conscientious planning and execution, violence cannot be ruled out as a "political act born of desperation." PMID:2606659

Spiers, H R

1989-01-01

133

Conditional Maximum Likelihood Timing Recovery: Estimators and Bounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is concerned with the derivation of new estimators and performance bounds for the problem of timing estimation of (linearly) digitally modulated signals. The condi- tional maximum likelihood (CML) method is adopted, in contrast to the classical low-SNR unconditional ML (UML) formulation that is systematically applied in the literature for the derivation of non-data-aided (NDA) timing-error-detectors (TEDs). A new

Jaume Rib; Josep Sal; Gregori Vázquez

2001-01-01

134

Downscaling GCM Output with Genetic Programming Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change impact studies on watershed hydrology require reliable data at appropriate spatial and temporal resolution. However, the outputs of the current global climate models (GCMs) cannot be used directly because GCM do not provide hourly or daily precipitation and temperature reliable enough for hydrological modeling. Nevertheless, we can get more reliable data corresponding to future climate scenarios derived from GCM outputs using the so called 'downscaling techniques'. This study applies Genetic Programming (GP) based technique to downscale daily precipitation and temperature values at the Chute-du-Diable basin of the Saguenay watershed in Canada. In applying GP downscaling technique, the objective is to find a relationship between the large-scale predictor variables (NCEP data which provide daily information concerning the observed large-scale state of the atmosphere) and the predictand (meteorological data which describes conditions at the site scale). The selection of the most relevant predictor variables is achieved using the Pearson's coefficient of determination ( R2) (between the large-scale predictor variables and the daily meteorological data). In this case, the period (1961 - 2000) is identified to represent the current climate condition. For the forty years of data, the first 30 years (1961-1990) are considered for calibrating the models while the remaining ten years of data (1991-2000) are used to validate those models. In general, the R2 between the predictor variables and each predictand is very low in case of precipitation compared to that of maximum and minimum temperature. Moreover, the strength of individual predictors varies for every month and for each GP grammar. Therefore, the most appropriate combination of predictors has to be chosen by looking at the output analysis of all the twelve months and the different GP grammars. During the calibration of the GP model for precipitation downscaling, in addition to the mean daily precipitation and daily precipitation variability for each month, monthly average dry and wet-spell lengths are also considered as performance criteria. For the cases of Tmax and Tmin, means and variances of these variables corresponding to each month were considered as performance criteria. The GP downscaling results show satisfactory agreement between the observed daily temperature (Tmax and Tmin) and the simulated temperature. However, the downscaling results for the daily precipitation still require some improvement - suggesting further investigation of other grammars. KEY WORDS: Climate change; GP downscaling; GCM.

Shi, X.; Dibike, Y. B.; Coulibaly, P.

2004-05-01

135

Solar Forcing of Greenland Climate during the Last Glacial Maximum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of solar forcing in climate changes is a matter of continuous debate. Challenges arise from the short period of direct observations of total solar irradiance (TSI), which indicate minor TSI variations of approximately 1 ‰ over an 11-year cycle, and the limited understanding of possible feedback mechanisms. Opposed to this, there is evidence from paleoclimate records for a tight coupling of solar activity and regional climate (e.g., Bond et al. 2001, Martin-Puertas et al. 2012). One proposed mechanism to amplify the Sun's influence on climate involves the relatively large modulation of the solar UV output (Haigh et al. 2010). This alters the radiative balance in the stratosphere via ozone feedback processes and eventually propagates downwards causing changes in the tropospheric circulation (Inesson et al. 2011). The regional response to this forcing may, however, also depend on orbital forcing of the mean state of the atmosphere (Dietrich et al. 2012). Prior to direct observations cosmogenic radionuclides such as 10Be and 14C are the most reliable proxies of solar activity. Their atmospheric production rates depend on the flux of galactic cosmic rays into the atmosphere which in turn is modulated by the strength of the Earth's and the solar magnetic fields. However, archives of 10Be and 14C are additionally affected by changes of their respective geochemical environment. Owing to their fundamentally different geochemistry, a combined analysis of 10Be and 14C records can aid to isolate production rate variations more reliably and thus, lead to improved reconstructions of solar variability. Due to the absence of high-quality high-resolution data this approach has so far been limited to the Holocene. We will present the first solar activity reconstruction for the end of the last glacial (22.5 - 10 ka BP) based on the cosmogenic radionuclides 10Be and 14C. We will compare glacial solar activity variations to Holocene features through combined interpretation of new 10Be data from the GRIP ice core and published 14C records (Reimer et al. 2013, Southon et al. 2012). We will present evidence for solar forcing of sub-millennial climate changes during the last glacial maximum and will discuss potential mechanisms involved.

Adolphi, Florian; Muscheler, Raimund; Svensson, Anders; Aldahan, Ala; Possnert, Göran; Beer, Juerg; Sjolte, Jesper; Björck, Svante

2014-05-01

136

Scientometric indicators for evaluating medical research output of mid-size countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The medical research output of eleven mid-size countries were compared with the aid of scientometric indicators. Papers published by clinical medicine journals and those of professors working at clinical faculties were used for comparison. The professors proved to be more productive authors than average scientists of the same country, but no particular eminence of the professors could be revealed. A

A. Schubert; S. Zsindely; T. Braun

1985-01-01

137

Arctic Sea Ice Maximum 2011  

NASA Video Gallery

AMSR-E Arctic Sea Ice: September 2010 to March 2011: Scientists tracking the annual maximum extent of Arctic sea ice said that 2011 was among the lowest ice extents measured since satellites began ...

138

Computer aided stress analysis of long bones utilizing computer tomography  

SciTech Connect

A computer aided analysis method, utilizing computed tomography (CT) has been developed, which together with a finite element program determines the stress-displacement pattern in a long bone section. The CT data file provides the geometry, the density and the material properties for the generated finite element model. A three-dimensional finite element model of a tibial shaft is automatically generated from the CT file by a pre-processing procedure for a finite element program. The developed pre-processor includes an edge detection algorithm which determines the boundaries of the reconstructed cross-sectional images of the scanned bone. A mesh generation procedure than automatically generates a three-dimensional mesh of a user-selected refinement. The elastic properties needed for the stress analysis are individually determined for each model element using the radiographic density (CT number) of each pixel with the elemental borders. The elastic modulus is determined from the CT radiographic density by using an empirical relationship from the literature. The generated finite element model, together with applied loads, determined from existing gait analysis and initial displacements, comprise a formatted input for the SAP IV finite element program. The output of this program, stresses and displacements at the model elements and nodes, are sorted and displayed by a developed post-processor to provide maximum and minimum values at selected locations in the model.

Marom, S.A.

1986-01-01

139

Design technique for class E RF\\/MW amplifiers with linear equivalent of transistor's output capacitance  

Microsoft Academic Search

In class E amplifiers the nonlinear output capacitance of the device often reaches, or even exceeds the necessary value given by classical analysis in RF applications. The 100-percent efficiency condition imposes a constraint on the maximum susceptance value of the shunting capacitor consequently limiting the maximum frequency of the stage. In order to easily incorporate this nonlinear capacitance to the

Arturo Mediano; P. Molina-Gaudo; C. Bernal

2005-01-01

140

AIDS in the Workplace  

Microsoft Academic Search

The testing of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) remains a political factor. Questions are being raised as to an individual's right to privacy and the public's concern for safety. Despite the controversy, the law protects contagious disease sufferers from employment discrimination. Along with AIDS testing, drug testing remains a controversial issue. Mandatory drug testing remains in both the public and

Nick Nykodym; Ian A. Miners; Jack L. Simonetti; Neha S. Patel

1989-01-01

141

Bioluminescence Risk Detection Aid.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The long-term goal of this project is to develop a bioluminescence risk detection aid (BRDA) for underwater vehicle navigation and mission planning. The purpose of the bioluminescence risk detection aid is to provide real-time information as to the probab...

C. Orrico

2010-01-01

142

AIDS and Chemical Dependency.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After defining HIV and the AIDS disease and outlining symptoms and means of infection, this fact sheet lists the ways alcohol and drugs are involved with the AIDS epidemic, noting that needle-sharing transmits the virus; that alcohol or mood-altering drugs like crack cocaine cause disinhibition, increase sex drive, encourage sex for drugs, and…

Pohl, Melvin I.

143

Hospital Nurse Aide. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents results of a project to revise the current 120-hour advanced nurse aide course to include all recommended minimum competencies. A three-page description of project objectives, activities, and outcomes is followed by a list of the competencies for the 75-hour nurse aide course for long-term care and for the 120-hour advanced…

Iowa Univ., Iowa City. Coll. of Education.

144

Trends in Student Aid.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents annual data on the amount of financial assistance available to postsecondary students in the form of grants, loans, and work-study. The data cover virtually all federal aid and most state and institutional assistance; not included in the study is financial aid in the form of indirect subsidies, students' wages, employer-paid…

College Board, Washington, DC. Washington Office.

145

AIDS-Related Malignancies  

Microsoft Academic Search

OVERVIEW OF MALIGNANCY IN PATIENTS WITH AIDS Despite the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy, the incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-asso- ciated malignancies has not decreased. The United States Centers for Disease Control (CDC) has determined that Kaposi's sarcoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (including pri- mary central nervous system lymphoma), and cervical carci- noma define the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).

G. MICHAEL WOOL

146

BIBLIOGRAPHY OF TRAINING AIDS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS COMPILATION OF INSTRUCTIONAL AIDS FOR USE IN AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION TRAINING PROGRAMS CONTAINS LISTS OF VISUAL AND AUDIOVISUAL TRAINING AIDS AND GUEST LECTURERS AVAILABLE FROM MEMBER COMPANIES OF THE AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION INSTITUTE AS AN INDUSTRY SERVICE TO SCHOOL OFFICIALS INTERESTED IN CONDUCTING SUCH PROGRAMS. THE…

MCKEONE, CHARLES J.

147

AIDS Epidemiological models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this paper is to present mathematical modelling of the spread of infection in the context of the transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). These models are based in part on the models suggested in the field of th AIDS mathematical modelling as reported by ISHAM [6].

Rahmani, Fouad Lazhar

2010-11-01

148

AIDS: Children Too.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This journal issue is devoted to the many problems faced by children with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) who live in both developing and developed countries. Section 1 provides general information on the pandemic, defining AIDS and exploring the social aspects of the disease. It also addresses child health, child mortality, moral and…

Lejeune, Genevieve, Ed.

1994-01-01

149

Preventing AIDS via Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) epidemic to past epidemics, including social and political responses. Identifies populations at risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Discusses current social and economic factors affecting AIDS education programs. Makes recommendations and identifies resources for starting…

House, Reese M.; Walker, Catherine M.

1993-01-01

150

Frequency divider is free of spurious outputs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Frequency divider provides sixteen output states free of spurious pulses from four input circuits. The input is binary coded, and a change of one in the input only changes the number of output states by one.

Mc Dermond, D.

1966-01-01

151

Efficiency at maximum power of thermally coupled heat engines.  

PubMed

We study the efficiency at maximum power of two coupled heat engines, using thermoelectric generators (TEGs) as engines. Assuming that the heat and electric charge fluxes in the TEGs are strongly coupled, we simulate numerically the dependence of the behavior of the global system on the electrical load resistance of each generator in order to obtain the working condition that permits maximization of the output power. It turns out that this condition is not unique. We derive a simple analytic expression giving the relation between the electrical load resistance of each generator permitting output power maximization. We then focus on the efficiency at maximum power (EMP) of the whole system to demonstrate that the Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency may not always be recovered: The EMP varies with the specific working conditions of each generator but remains in the range predicted by irreversible thermodynamics theory. We discuss our results in light of nonideal Carnot engine behavior. PMID:22680454

Apertet, Y; Ouerdane, H; Goupil, C; Lecoeur, Ph

2012-04-01

152

Closed analytical model of a 20 kV output voltage, 800 W output power series-parallel-resonant converter with Walton Cockroft multiplier  

Microsoft Academic Search

A closed analytical model of an asymmetrically switched class D converter with series-parallel-resonant (LCC) tank and three-stage Walton Cockroft multiplier featuring output voltage adjustable from zero to 20 kV and a maximum output power of 800 W is presented. The converter circuit is briefly described. A model for the dynamic behaviour of the Walton Cockroft multiplier is developed via state

Martin Rentzsch; Frank Gleisberg; Henry Güldner; Frank Benecke; Chester Ditmanson

2008-01-01

153

Optimizing power output by varying repetition tempo.  

PubMed

The effects of varying interrepetition rest and eccentric velocity on power output (PO) and the number of repetitions performed during a bench press set were examined in 24 college-aged resistance trained men. On 6 separate occasions, subjects performed a set of bench press at 80% 1 repetition maximum until volitional fatigue. For each of the 6 repetition tempo trials, the bench press set was paced by metronome to a unique repetition tempo involving a combination of the following: interrepetition rest of 0 or 4 seconds; eccentric velocity of 1 or 4 seconds and bottom rest of 0 or 3 seconds. The velocity of concentric contraction was maximal during all 6 tempo trials. During each trial, video data were captured to determine PO variables and number of successful repetitions completed at each tempo. One-way repeated measures analysis of variance showed tempos with a fast eccentric phase (1 second), and no bottom rest produced significantly greater (p ? 0.05) PO and repetitions than tempos involving slower eccentric velocity (4 seconds) or greater bottom rest (4 seconds). This combination of greater repetitions and PO resulted in a greater volume of work. Varying interrepetition rest (1 or 4 seconds) did not significantly affect PO or repetitions. The results of this study support the use of fast eccentric speed and no bottom rest during acute performance testing to maximize PO and number of repetitions during a set of bench press. PMID:21881531

Pryor, Riana R; Sforzo, Gary A; King, Deborah L

2011-11-01

154

Mathematics and the Heart: Understanding Cardiac Output  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper illustrates a biological application of the concepts of relative change and area under a curve, from mathematics. We study two biological measures "relative change in cardiac output" and "cardiac output", which are predictors of heart blockages and other related ailments. Cardiac output refers to the quantity of…

Champanerkar, Jyoti

2013-01-01

155

Supervised Learning by Training on Aggregate Outputs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supervised learning is a classic data mining problem where one wishes to be able to predict an output value associated with a particular input vector. We present a new twist on this classic problem where, instead of having the training set contain an individual output value for each input vector, the output values in the training set are only given

David R. Musicant; Janara M. Christensen; Jamie F. Olson

2007-01-01

156

Processing of the fluxgate output signal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluxgate sensors measure magnetic field with a resolution up to 10 pT. New methods of the output signal processing allow to decrease the sensor size, lower the energy consumption and increase the working frequency. Tuning the voltage output may substantially increase the sensitivity, but in certain cases it may cause unstability. Fluxgate in current-output mode requires lower number of turns

P. Ripka; S. Kawahito

157

Computer-aided diagnosis in radiology: potential and pitfalls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) may be defined as a diagnosis made by a physician who takes into account the computer output as a second opinion. The purpose of CAD is to improve the diagnostic accuracy and the consistency of the radiologists’ image interpretation. This article is to provide a brief overview of some of CAD schemes for detection and differential diagnosis

Kunio Doi; Heber MacMahon; Shigehiko Katsuragawa; Robert M Nishikawa; Yulei Jiang

1999-01-01

158

HIV/AIDS - Opportunistic Infections  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

English - HIV/AIDS-Opportunistic Infections Video Audio Handout Terms of Use Close Window This information made possible with support from ... National Library of Medicine For more information on HIV/AIDS see AIDS.gov

159

HIV, AIDS, and Older People  

MedlinePLUS

... fight against AIDS. What Are the Symptoms of HIV/AIDS? Many people have no symptoms when they first ... not always give correct results. Getting Tested for HIV/AIDS It can take as long as 3 to ...

160

HIV/AIDS - Viral Load  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

English - HIV/AIDS-Viral Load Video Audio Handout Terms of Use Close Window This information made possible with support from ... National Library of Medicine For more information on HIV/AIDS see AIDS.gov

161

HIV/AIDS Basics - Treatment  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

English - Treatment of HIV/AIDS Video Audio Handout Terms of Use Close Window This information made possible with support from The Division of Specialized ... National Library of Medicine For more information on HIV/AIDS see AIDS.gov

162

HIV/AIDS Clinical Trials  

MedlinePLUS

... safe and effective in people. What is an HIV/AIDS clinical trial? HIV/AIDS clinical trials help researchers ... related to HIV Can anyone participate in an HIV/AIDS clinical trial? It depends on the needs of ...

163

AIDS Training in the Workplace.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Management training regarding Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) begins with three needs assessment tools--instruments measuring fear of AIDS, knowledge of AIDS, and beliefs about the business consequences of the disease. (SK)

Vest, Jusanne M.; And Others

1991-01-01

164

Model-Aided INS With Sea Current Estimation for Robust Underwater Navigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thispaperreportsthedevelopmentandexperimental evaluation of a state-of-the-art model-aided inertial navigation system (MA-INS) for underwater vehicles. Together with real-time sea current estimation, the output from an experimentally vali- dated kinetic vehicle model is integrated in the navigation system to provide velocity aiding for the INS. Additional aiding sources include ultrashort base line (USBL) acoustic positioning, pressure readings, and measurements from a Doppler velocity

Øyvind Hegrenaes; Oddvar Hallingstad

2011-01-01

165

Solidarity and AIDS: introduction.  

PubMed

Perhaps more than any other disease in recent history, AIDS has taught a cruel and crucial lesson: the constraints on our response to this epidemic are as deep as our denial, as entrenched as the inequities that permeate our society, as circumscribed as our knowledge, and as unlimited as our compassion and our commitment to human rights. Elaborating on these themes, the final three articles in this Special Section on AIDS consider three widely divergent yet intimately connected topics: AIDS in Cuba, AIDS in Brazil, and global AIDS prevention in the 1990s. Together, they caution that if we persist in treating AIDS as a problem only of "others," no country will be spared the social and economic devastation that promises to be the cost of our contempt and our folly. Solidarity is not an option; it is a necessity. Without conscious recognition of the worldwide relationship between health, human rights, and social inequalities, our attempts to abate the spread of AIDS--and to ease the suffering that follows in its wake--most surely will fall short of our goals. Finally, as we mourn our dead, we must take to heart the words of Mother Jones, and "fight like hell for living." This is the politics of survival. PMID:1917210

Krieger, N

1991-01-01

166

A new approach to achieve maximum power point tracking for PV system with a variable inductor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maximum Power Transfer in solar photovoltaic applications is achieved by impedance matching with a dc-dc converter with maximum power point tracking by the incremental conductance method. Regulation and dynamic control is achieved by operating with continuous conduction. It can be shown that under stable operation, the required output inductor has an inductance versus current characteristic whereby the inductance falls off

Longlong Zhang; William Gerard Hurley; Werner Wolfle

2010-01-01

167

Implementation of a Solar Power Battery Energy Storage System with Maximum Power Point Tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work implements a solar power battery energy storage system (BESS) with maximum power point tracking (MPPT) under substantial variation in temperature and intensity of illumination. A tracker is also designed based on the perturbation and observation method to track rapidly the maximum power point of the energy output of the solar cells. The power generation data are then transmitted

Yu-Lung Ke; Ying-Chun Chuang; Yuan-Kang Wu; Bo-Tsung Jou

2010-01-01

168

A Seamless Mode Transfer Maximum Power Point Tracking Controller for Thermoelectric Generator Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A boost-cascaded-with-buck converter based power conditioning system employing a seamless mode transfer maximum power point tracking controller is proposed to maximize energy production of a thermoelectric generator while balancing the vehicle battery charging, alternator output power, and vehicle load. When a maximum power point exceeds a load demand, the proposed controller switches to a power matching mode seamlessly by a

Rae-Young Kim; Jih-Sheng Lai

2007-01-01

169

Gaussian Prior for Smoothing Maximum Entropy Models.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In certain contexts, maximum entropy (ME) modeling can be viewed as maximum likelihood training for exponential models, and like other maximum likelihood methods is prone to overfitting of training data. Several smoothing methods for maximum entropy model...

S. F. Chen R. Rosenfeld

1999-01-01

170

Maximum Acceptable Weight of Lift  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the maximum amount of weight that an individual can be expected to lift comfortably and without strain. Recommendations based on empirical estimates, biomechanical techniques, and psychophysical methods are reviewed, including those of the International Labour Office, the Swiss Accident Insurance Institute, the Danish National Association for Infantile Paralysis, and the U. S. Air Force. The approach used

S. H. Snook; C. H. Irvine

1967-01-01

171

Graphs with maximum connectivity index  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let G be a graph and dv the degree (=number of first neighbors) of its vertex v. The connectivity index of G is ?=?(dudv)?1\\/2, with the summation ranging over all pairs of adjacent vertices of G. In a previous paper (Comput. Chem. 23 (1999) 469), by applying a heuristic combinatorial optimization algorithm, the structure of chemical trees possessing extremal (maximum

Gilles Caporossi; Ivan Gutman; Pierre Hansen; Ljiljana Pavlovic

2003-01-01

172

Mammography segmentation with maximum likelihood active contours.  

PubMed

We present a computer-aided approach to segmenting suspicious lesions in digital mammograms, based on a novel maximum likelihood active contour model using level sets (MLACMLS). The algorithm estimates the segmentation contour that best separates the lesion from the background using the Gamma distribution to model the intensity of both regions (foreground and background). The Gamma distribution parameters are estimated by the algorithm. We evaluate the performance of MLACMLS on real mammographic images. Our results are compared to those of two leading related methods: The adaptive level set-based segmentation method (ALSSM) and the spiculation segmentation using level sets (SSLS) approach, and show higher segmentation accuracy (MLACMLS: 86.85% vs. ALSSM: 74.32% and SSLS: 57.11%). Moreover, our results are qualitatively compared with those of the Active Contour Without Edge (ACWOE) and show a better performance. Further, the suitability of using ML as the objective function as opposed to the KL divergence and to the energy functional of the ACWOE is also demonstrated. Our algorithm is also shown to be robust to the selection of a required single seed point. PMID:22831774

Rahmati, Peyman; Adler, Andy; Hamarneh, Ghassan

2012-08-01

173

Home First Aid Kit  

MedlinePLUS

... Never give aspirin to treat the flu. q Cough and Cold Medications. Be sure to give medications ... Also be mindful of choking hazards when giving cough drops to young children. HOMe FIrst AId KIt ...

174

Robot-Aided Neurorehabilitation  

PubMed Central

Our goal is to apply robotics and automation technology to assist, enhance, quantify, and document neurorehabilitation. This paper reviews a clinical trial involving 20 stroke patients with a prototype robot-aided rehabilitation facility developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, (MIT) and tested at Burke Rehabilitation Hospital, White Plains, NY. It also presents our approach to analyze kinematic data collected in the robot-aided assessment procedure. In particular, we present evidence 1) that robot-aided therapy does not have adverse effects, 2) that patients tolerate the procedure, and 3) that peripheral manipulation of the impaired limb may influence brain recovery. These results are based on standard clinical assessment procedures. We also present one approach using kinematic data in a robot-aided assessment procedure.

Krebs, Hermano Igo; Hogan, Neville; Aisen, Mindy L.; Volpe, Bruce T.

2009-01-01

175

Myopathy associated with AIDS.  

PubMed

We report 3 cases of AIDS complicated by muscular disease: 2 with acute polymyositis and 1 with severe noninflammatory myopathy. Tests for an alternative infectious etiology were negative. HIV may well have a tropism for muscle tissue. PMID:2793415

Marolda, M; De Mercato, R; Camporeale, F S; Carandente, M; Noce, S; Cioffi, M; Orsini, A V; Cauli, M; Bassi, A

1989-08-01

176

Nosebleed, First Aid  

MedlinePLUS

... measures discussed in the First Aid Guide, seek medical care. Treatments Your Provider May Prescribe The physician may pack the nose with gauze or an inflatable latex balloon to properly put pressure on the blood vessel(s) ...

177

Jellyfish Stings, First Aid  

MedlinePLUS

... is not actually a jellyfish but rather a colony of small, predatory animals (hydrozoan). However, due to ... treat itching. References/Trusted Links References Handal KA; American Red Cross. Part 2: first aid. In: The ...

178

Underwater Inspection Aid.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent application describes an underwater inspection aid designed to facilitate underwater inspection and instrumentation or measuring device reading in very murky water where visibility is low. The device consists of a sealed acrylic cylinder with b...

J. Mittleman F. B. Barrett

1975-01-01

179

Home Health Aides  

MedlinePLUS

... of home health aides. Occupation Job Duties ENTRY-LEVEL EDUCATION 2012 MEDIAN PAY Childcare Workers Childcare workers care for children when parents and other family members are unavailable. They care ...

180

Computer-Aided Writing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The production of written communications is an important and time-consuming activity for most professional organizations. Computer-aided writing offers great potential for increased productivity, quality, and convenience. In addition to word processors, c...

D. A. King

1988-01-01

181

Output power analyses for the thermodynamic cycles of thermal power plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal power plant is one of the important thermodynamic devices, which is very common in all kinds of power generation systems. In this paper, we use a new concept, entransy loss, as well as exergy destruction, to analyze the single reheating Rankine cycle unit and the single stage steam extraction regenerative Rankine cycle unit in power plants. This is the first time that the concept of entransy loss is applied to the analysis of the power plant Rankine cycles with reheating and steam extraction regeneration. In order to obtain the maximum output power, the operating conditions under variant vapor mass flow rates are optimized numerically, as well as the combustion temperatures and the off-design flow rates of the flue gas. The relationship between the output power and the exergy destruction rate and that between the output power and the entransy loss rate are discussed. It is found that both the minimum exergy destruction rate and the maximum entransy loss rate lead to the maximum output power when the combustion temperature and heat capacity flow rate of the flue gas are prescribed. Unlike the minimum exergy destruction rate, the maximum entransy loss rate is related to the maximum output power when the highest temperature and heat capacity flow rate of the flue gas are not prescribed.

Sun, Chen; Cheng, Xue-Tao; Liang, Xin-Gang

2014-05-01

182

AID and the law  

PubMed Central

The present state of the law is unsatisfactory. The exact effect on the marriage of the parties has not been decided although in English law if artificial insemination by donor (AID) takes place without consent that would appear to be a ground for divorce since 1969. The law regards a child born as a result of AID as illegitimate and draws no distinction between the case where the husband consents and where he does not. Theoretically, an offence is committed if the birth entry is falsified, presumably in cases where the husband consents. The AID child, like any other illegitimate child, has rights against the natural parents, but he is in a worse position than most illegitimate children, in that he may not have any information about his father. It is now possible to freeze sperm and so preserve it over longer periods. All the problems associated with AID are present also when sperm is preserved in banks, but if the law is in an unsatisfactory state in relation to AID this is even more true in relation to sperm banks. The main criticism of the Feversham Report (1960) could be that it recommended, broadly speaking, the `status quo' but scientific progress has now overtaken and left the Feversham findings well behind. What, therefore, is required is a full consideration of the subject of AID and, on the basis of that, some statutory code regulating all its aspects.

Cusine, D J

1975-01-01

183

Computer-aided diagnosis in thoracic CT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) provides a computer output as a "second opinion" in order to assist radiologists in the diagnosis of various diseases on medical images. Currently, a hot topic in CAD is the development of computerized schemes for detection of lung abnormalities, such as lung nodule and interstitial lung disease, in computed tomography (CT) images. The author describes in this article the current status of the CAD schemes for the detection of lung nodules and interstitial lung disease in CT developed by the author and his colleagues at the University of Chicago and Duke University.

Li, Qiang

2009-10-01

184

Power output by an asynchronous flight muscle from a beetle.  

PubMed

The basalar muscle of the beetle Cotinus mutabilis is a large, fibrillar flight muscle composed of approximately 90 fibers. The paired basalars together make up approximately one-third of the mass of the power muscles of flight. Changes in twitch force with changing stimulus intensity indicated that a basalar muscle is innervated by at least five excitatory axons and at least one inhibitory axon. The muscle is an asynchronous muscle; during normal oscillatory operation there is not a 1:1 relationship between muscle action potentials and contractions. During tethered flight, the wing-stroke frequency was approximately 80 Hz, and the action potential frequency in individual motor units was approximately 20 Hz. As in other asynchronous muscles that have been examined, the basalar is characterized by high passive tension, low tetanic force and long twitch duration. Mechanical power output from the basalar muscle during imposed, sinusoidal strain was measured by the work-loop technique. Work output varied with strain amplitude, strain frequency, the muscle length upon which the strain was superimposed, muscle temperature and stimulation frequency. When other variables were at optimal values, the optimal strain for work per cycle was approximately 5%, the optimal frequency for work per cycle approximately 50 Hz and the optimal frequency for mechanical power output 60-80 Hz. Optimal strain decreased with increasing cycle frequency and increased with muscle temperature. The curve relating work output and strain was narrow. At frequencies approximating those of flight, the width of the work versus strain curve, measured at half-maximal work, was 5% of the resting muscle length. The optimal muscle length for work output was shorter than that at which twitch and tetanic tension were maximal. Optimal muscle length decreased with increasing strain. The curve relating work output and muscle length, like that for work versus strain, was narrow, with a half-width of approximately 3 % at the normal flight frequency. Increasing the frequency with which the muscle was stimulated increased power output up to a plateau, reached at approximately 100 Hz stimulation frequency (at 35 degrees C). The low lift generated by animals during tethered flight is consistent with the low frequency of muscle action potentials in motor units of the wing muscles. The optimal oscillatory frequency for work per cycle increased with muscle temperature over the temperature range tested (25-40 degrees C). When cycle frequency was held constant, the work per cycle rose to an optimum with increasing temperature and then declined. We propose that there is a temperature optimum for work output because increasing temperature increases the shortening velocity of the muscle, which increases the rate of positive work output during shortening, but also decreases the durations of the stretch activation and shortening deactivation that underlie positive work output, the effect of temperature on shortening velocity being dominant at lower temperatures and the effect of temperature on the time course of activation and deactivation being dominant at higher temperatures. The average wing-stroke frequency during free flight was 94 Hz, and the thoracic temperature was 35 degrees C. The mechanical power output at the measured values of wing-stroke frequency and thoracic temperature during flight, and at optimal muscle length and strain, averaged 127 W kg(-1)muscle, with a maximum value of 200 W kg(-1). The power output from this asynchronous flight muscle was approximately twice that measured with similar techniques from synchronous flight muscle of insects, supporting the hypothesis that asynchronous operation has been favored by evolution in flight systems of different insect groups because it allows greater power output at the high contraction frequencies of flight. PMID:10934007

Josephson, R K; Malamud, J G; Stokes, D R

2000-09-01

185

Maximum windmill efficiency in finite time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fraction of the kinetic energy of the wind impinging on the rotor-swept area that a wind turbine can convert to useful power has been shown by Betz in an idealized laminar-flow model to have an upper limit of 16/27 or 59% approximately [I. H. Shames, Mechanics of Fluids, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1982), pp. A26-A31]. This figure is known as Betz number. Other studies [A. Rauh and W. Seelret, Appl. Energy 17, 15 (1984)] suggested that this figure should be considered as a guideline. In this paper, a new model is introduced and its efficiency at maximum power output is derived. The derived value is shown to be a function of the Betz number B and given by the formula ?mp=1-1-B. This value is 36.2%, which agrees well with those of actually operating wind turbines. As a guideline, the wind turbine efficiency can be considered to be within the range of the two numbers of merit, the Betz number and ?mp.

Huleihil, Mahmoud

2009-05-01

186

Teaching Young People about AIDS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To date, education is the only method that has worked to prevent the spread of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Effective AIDS prevention must do two things simultaneously: emphasize that AIDS is a worldwide issue, that males and females of all ages, colors, and nationalities are susceptible to the virus; and emphasize that AIDS is a…

Starkman, Neal

187

Sensory Aids for the Blind.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The problems of providing sensory aids for the blind are presented and a report on the present status of aids discusses direct translation and recognition reading machines as well as mobility aids. Aspects of required research considered are the following: assessment of needs; vision, audition, taction, and multimodal communication; reading aids,…

National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Committee on Prosthetics Research and Development.

188

Foreign aid and illegal immigration  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a two-country model of illegal immigration. We analyse the effect of foreign aid on illegal immigration, and consider both exogenous and endogenous income repatriation. In the former, an increase in aid increases illegal immigration if the total amount of aid is small. A transfer of resources from border control to aid increases illegal immigration when the total amount

Helena Gaytán-Fregoso; Sajal Lahiri

2000-01-01

189

Global Trends in AIDS Mortality  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter reviews the evolution of the HIV\\/AIDS epidemic and provides estimates of past trends and future projections of\\u000a AIDS mortality indicators, including numbers of AIDS deaths, the proportion of all deaths that are due to AIDS, and life expectancy.\\u000a In 2007, a total of 2.0 million men, women, and children died of AIDS worldwide. The death toll will remain

John P. Bongaarts; François Pelletier; Patrick Gerland

2010-01-01

190

Health sector development: from aid coordination to resource management.  

PubMed

Aid coordination has assumed a prominent place on health policy agendas. This paper synthesizes the findings of research undertaken to explore the changing practices of aid coordination across a number of countries. It begins by reviewing the key issues giving rise to increased attention to aid coordination in the health sector. The second section describes, assesses and compares the strengths and weaknesses of the dominant mechanisms or instruments which were found to be employed to coordinate health sector aid in the case studies. From this analysis, four factors become clear. First, in many countries, coordination mechanisms have been introduced as a part of an incremental process of trying out different approaches--there is no one model that stands out at any one time. Secondly, some instruments function largely for consultation, predominantly coordinating inputs, while others are more directive and operational, and are used to manage inputs, processes and outputs. Third, many of the mechanisms have not excelled, although, fourth, it is difficult to judge the effectiveness or impact of aid coordination. It is therefore argued that concern with the effectiveness of aid coordination arrangements must give way to a broader analysis of the processes, outputs and outcomes governing the use of both external and domestic resources, focusing on institutional characteristics, the distribution and nature of influence among the actors, and the interests which they pursue through the aid regime. These factors varied considerably across the countries indicating that aid management is context dependent and subject to continuing changes. Finally, the paper looks at the findings in the light of the introduction of sector-wide approaches. PMID:10621238

Walt, G; Pavignani, E; Gilson, L; Buse, K

1999-09-01

191

Single-frequency master-oscillator photonic crystal fiber amplifier with 148 W output power  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on a high-power ytterbium doped photonic crystal fiber amplifier using a single-frequency Nd:YAG non-planar ring oscillator seed source. With a large-mode-area photonic crystal fiber, operation below the threshold of stimulated Brillouin scattering is demonstrated with up to 148 W of continuous-wave output power and a slope efficiency of 75%. At maximum output power the amplified spontaneous emission was

Matthias Hildebrandt; Maik Frede; Patrick Kwee; Benno Willke; Dietmar Kracht

2006-01-01

192

Operation of a quasi-optical gyrotron with a Gaussian output coupler  

SciTech Connect

The operation of a 92 GHz quasi-optical gyrotron having a resonator formed by a spherical mirror and a diffraction grating placed in {minus}1 order Littrow mount is presented. A power of 150 kW with a Gaussian output pattern was measured. The Gaussian content in the output was 98{percent} with less than 1{percent} of depolarization. By optimizing the magnetic field at fixed frequency, a maximum efficiency of 15{percent} was reached.

Hogge, J.P.; Tran, T.M.; Paris, P.J.; Tran, M.Q. [Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, Association Euratom--Confederation Suisse, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, 21, Avenue des Bains, CH-1007 Lausanne (Switzerland)] [Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, Association Euratom--Confederation Suisse, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, 21, Avenue des Bains, CH-1007 Lausanne (Switzerland)

1996-09-01

193

AIDS in Africa.  

PubMed

Numerous cultural practices and attitudes in Africa represent formidable obstacles to the prevention of the further spread of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Polygamy and concubinage are still widely practiced throughout Africa. In fact, sexual promiscuity on the part of males is traditionally viewed as positive--a reflection of male supremacy and male sexual prowess. The disintegration of the rural African family, brought about by urbanization, the migrant labor system, and poverty, has resulted in widespread premarital promiscuity. Contraceptive practices are perceived by many as a white conspiracy aimed at limiting the growth of the black population and thereby diminishing its political power. Condom use is particularly in disfavor. Thus, AIDS prevention campaigns urging Africans to restrict the number of sexual partners and to use condoms are unlikely to be successful. Another problem is that most Africans cannot believe that AIDS is sexually linked in that the disease does not affect the sex organs as is the case with other sexually transmitted diseases. The degree to which African governments are able to allocate resources to AIDS education will determine whether the epidemic can be controlled. Even with a massive outpouring of resources, it may be difficult to arouse public alarm about AIDS since Africans are so acclimated to living with calamities of every kind. PMID:2733760

Mokhobo, D

1989-03-01

194

[AIDS: "We will win"].  

PubMed

An international colloquium on AIDS held near Paris from October 26-28, 1989, unlike the World Conference on AIDS in Montreal the year before, was able to find reasons for optimism. Significant progress was reported in immunotherapy and in chemotherapy. Successful experiments in vaccinating monkeys against the AIDS virus were reported from the US, France, and Zaire. Time is needed to prove the efficacy of the vaccines because of the slow development in AIDS. A vaccine is being tested by Jonas Salk and collaborators in 75 seropositive volunteers who do not yet show full blown disease but who have very low levels of T4 lymphocytes. Plans are underway for a larger test on 500 seropositive patients at different stages of infection. According to Salk, the new chemical and logical approach toward AIDS will allow combinations of immunotherapy and chemotherapy to destroy the virus. R. Gallo of France listed as accomplishments of the past year a better understanding of the virus, improved case management techniques, increased ability to control Kaposi's sarcoma, considerable progress in the search for a vaccine, and detection of immune proteins that affect the virus. New biological markers permit establishment of correlations between cellular modifications and the progress of the disease as well as the precise effects of treatment. The new immune system drugs immuthiol and DDI are expected to reach the market soon. Patients very soon will be able to receive less toxic alternative treatments, which can be combined for greater efficacy once their toxic interactions are understood. PMID:12342689

Chabrier, H

1989-11-13

195

Maximum life spur gear design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Optimization procedures allow one to design a spur gear reduction for maximum life and other end use criteria. A modified feasible directions search algorithm permits a wide variety of inequality constraints and exact design requirements to be met with low sensitivity to initial guess values. The optimization algorithm is described, and the models for gear life and performance are presented. The algorithm is compact and has been programmed for execution on a desk top computer. Two examples are presented to illustrate the method and its application.

Savage, M.; Mackulin, M. J.; Coe, H. H.; Coy, J. J.

1991-01-01

196

Combination of Buck and Boost Modes to Minimize Transients in the Output of a Positive Buck-Boost Converter  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a new method for minimizing the transients in the output of a DC-DC converter required for small powered portable electronic applications. The transient problem has been the most serious problem for power supplies needing the output voltage in the mid-range of the input voltage. The maximum transient arises when the input voltage becomes almost equal to the

A. Chakraborty; A. Khaligh; A. Emadi

2006-01-01

197

Power output in vertical jumps: Does optimum loading depend on activity profiles?  

PubMed Central

The previously proposed Maximum Dynamic Output hypothesis (MDO; i.e. the optimum load for maximizing the power output during jumping is one's own body) was tested on individuals of various activity profiles. Forty males (10 strength-trained athletes, 10 speed-trained athletes, 10 physically active non-athletes, and 10 sedentary individuals) performed different vertical jumps on a force plate while a pulley system was used to either reduce or increase the subject's body weight by 10–30%. As expected, an increase in external loading resulted in a significant increase (p < 0.001) in force output and a concomitant decrease of peak jumping velocity in all groups of participants. The main finding, however, was that all groups revealed the maximum peak and mean power output at approximately the subjects’ own body weight although their weight represented prominently different percentage of their maximum dynamic strength. While a significant (p < 0.05), albeit moderate, 'group × load' interaction in one jump was observed for the peak power output, the individual optimum load for maximizing the power output number did not differ among the groups. Although apparently further research on various types of movements is needed, the present results provide, so far, the strongest support of the MDO hypothesis.

Pazin, Nemanja; Berjan, Bobana; Nedeljkovic, Aleksandar; Markovic, Goran; Jaric, Slobodan

2013-01-01

198

RV strings of maximum curvature  

SciTech Connect

To design an effective interceptor for a string of reentry vehicles (RV's) released by a post-boost vehicle (PBV), it is necessary to have information about possible geometries of the string when it reaches a given altitude above the target. The geometry of the string, assumed for simplicity to contain three RV's, is determined by the motion of the PBV which is controlled by varying its thrust direction. Of interest in this study is maximizing the curvature of the string, which is represented by the distance of RV{sub 2} from the line joining RV{sub 1} and RV{sub 3} when RV{sub 1} reaches the intercept attitude, subject to the constraints that all three RV's must land within 3000 ft distance of the target. The maximum curvature problem is formulated as a parameter optimization problem and solved by a nonlinear programming code known as GRG2. The thrust angles are assumed to be piecewise linear, and a total of 21 parameters is used. The maximum curvature is shown to be approximately 2900 ft. 4 refs., 8 figs.

Hull, D.G. (Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States)); Zazworsky, R.M. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

1991-01-01

199

Linear time maximum margin clustering.  

PubMed

Maximum margin clustering (MMC) is a newly proposed clustering method which has shown promising performance in recent studies. It extends the computational techniques of support vector machine (SVM) to the unsupervised scenario. Traditionally, MMC is formulated as a nonconvex integer programming problem which makes it difficult to solve. Several methods have been proposed in the literature to solve the MMC problem based on either semidefinite programming (SDP) or alternating optimization. However, these methods are still time demanding when handling large scale data sets, which limits its application in real-world problems. In this paper, we propose a cutting plane maximum margin clustering (CPMMC) algorithm. It first decomposes the nonconvex MMC problem into a series of convex subproblems by making use of the constrained concave-convex procedure (CCCP), then for each subproblem, our algorithm adopts the cutting plane algorithm to solve it. Moreover, we show that the CPMMC algorithm takes O(sn) time to converge with guaranteed accuracy, where n is the number of samples in the data set and s is the sparsity of the data set, i.e., the average number of nonzero features of the data samples. We also derive the multiclass version of our CPMMC algorithm. Experimental evaluations on several real-world data sets show that CPMMC performs better than existing MMC methods, both in efficiency and accuracy. PMID:20083456

Wang, Fei; Zhao, Bin; Zhang, Changshui

2010-02-01

200

Computer aided manual tracking  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A scheme was developed to assist the human operator by augmenting an optic sight manual tracking loop with target rate estimates from a computer control algorithm which can either be a Kalman Filter or an alpha, beta, gamma filter. The idea is for the computer to provide rate tracking while the human operator is responsible for nullifying the tracking error. A simple schematic is shown to illustrate the implementation of this concept. A hybrid real-time man-in-loop simulation was used to compare the tracking performance of the same flight trajectory with or without this form of computer-aided track. Preliminary results show the advantage of computer-aided track against high speed aircraft at close range. However, good tracking before target state estimator maturity becomes more critical for aided track than without. Results are presented for a constant velocity flight trajectory.

Yin, Y. K.; Berg, R. F.

1981-01-01

201

AID AND SOMATIC HYPERMUTATION  

PubMed Central

In response to an assault by foreign organisms, peripheral B cells can change their antibody affinity and isotype by somatically mutating their genomic DNA. The ability of a cell to modify its DNA is exceptional in light of the potential consequences of genetic alterations to cause human disease and cancer. Thus, as expected, this mechanism of antibody diversity is tightly regulated and coordinated through one protein, activation induced deaminase (AID). AID produces diversity by converting cytosine to uracil within the immunoglobulin loci. The deoxyuracil residue is mutagenic when paired with deoxyguanosine, since it mimics thymidine during DNA replication. Additionally, B cells can manipulate the DNA repair pathways so that deoxyuracils are not faithfully repaired. Therefore, an intricate balance exists which is regulated at multiple stages to promote mutation of immunoglobulin genes, while retaining integrity of the rest of the genome. Here we discuss and summarize the current understanding of how AID functions to cause somatic hypermutation.

Maul, Robert W.; Gearhart, Patricia J.

2010-01-01

202

A constitution for AIDS.  

PubMed

The Indian Health Organization projected the number of deaths per day due to AIDS by the year 2000 at 10,000. An interdisciplinary international conference was held in New Delhi to draft an international law governing the issues related to AIDS. Human freedom and public health policies are the most affected by this disease. In the absence of an international AIDS law, judicial verdicts set precedents and could have serious ramifications. A participant from the John Marshall Law School, Chicago, suggested that instead of making new laws, the existing ones from the colonial past should be repealed. This includes Section 377 of the Indian Penal Code, which provides criminal sanctions against those who indulge in unnatural relations with man, woman, or animal. Penalizing homosexuality will only perpetuate clandestine relations and spread the virus into their families. Another participant seconded this motion stating that even a sex worker must be protected from abuse and indignity. The National AIDS Control Organization responded to the criticism that the government had not utilized all the World Bank funds allocated for anti-AIDS projects. The trends of the epidemic were the most important indicators not just the numbers. In Manipur and Mizoram, infection was almost entirely due to injecting drug use. The Saheli project undertaken in the red-light areas of Bombay encompassed brothel owners and prostitutes, which could be replicated in other areas. Because existing government policies were focusing on prevention, there was no protection of an HIV-infected individual's privacy, one participant from Madras stated. The confidentiality issue was also echoed by a US participant. The New Delhi Declaration and Action Plan on HIV/AIDS was also discussed. It forbids discrimination in employment, education, housing, health care, social security, travel, and marital and reproductive rights. Providing sterile needles and ensuring the safety of the blood supply were other concerns mentioned. PMID:12179199

Koshy, L M

1996-01-15

203

Cardiac output: a view from Buffalo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiac output ( Q?) is a primary determinant of blood pressure and O 2 delivery and is critical in the maintenance of homeostasis, particularly during environmental stress. Cardiac output can be determined invasively in patients; however, indirect methods are required for other situations. Soluble gas techniques are widely used to determine Q?. Historically, measurements during a breathhold, prolonged expiration and

A. J. Olszowka; B. E. Shykoff; D. R. Pendergast; C. E. G. Lundgren; L. E. Farhi

2003-01-01

204

Input-Output Analyses of Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cognitive and noncognitive outputs are surveyed, as well as the effects of inputs on outputs. Groups of student inputs include background characteristics, school-related characteristics, and attitudes. School inputs include conditions and instructional personnel. The literature is surveyed by population samples, data aggregation, and statistical…

Glasman, Naftaly S.; Biniaminov, Israel

1981-01-01

205

Pole assignment by gain output feedback  

Microsoft Academic Search

This short paper deals with the problem of pole assignment with incomplete state observation. It is shown that if the system is controllable and observable, and ifn leq r + m - 1, an almost arbitrary set of distinct closed-loop poles is assignable by gain output feedback, wheren, r, andmare the numbers of state variables, inputs and outputs, respectively. This

H. Kimura

1975-01-01

206

A Calorimeter for Measuring Laser Output Energy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new calorimeter design for measuring the output energy of pulse lasers and the output power of CW lasers is described which traces the intensity reduction of the irradiation of the walls of an absorption body and the shortening of the time for equalizin...

D. Vavrouch

1969-01-01

207

20 Years of AIDS  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

According to the Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC), May 31 marked the 20-year anniversary of the first discovery of AIDS. Perhaps not surprisingly, the Web has seen a corresponding flurry of activity devoted to the history and current status of research on the disease. The CDC has posted this site, which collects research findings from the Centers' Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, videos covering the epidemic's history and current status, and CDC bulletins and commentary. For further sites devoted to AIDS/HIV see the June 6, 2001 Scout Report for Science & Engineering).

2001-01-01

208

Subtle manifestations of AIDS.  

PubMed

The current AIDS epidemic continues unabated. The steadily increasing number of HIV-infected persons in United States, and the prolonged latent period from time of infection to the development of clinical signs and symptoms, increase the likelihood of the undiagnosed patient arriving a t the dental office for treatment. Keen examination skills are required to recognize the early manifestations of infection. The purpose of this article is to present the clinical features of HIV infection and indicator oral diseases, and to illustrate the importance of the dental hygienist in providing early recognition of the very subtle clinical findings often associated with AIDS Related Complex. PMID:2370582

Sobieralski, M F; Miller, C S; Jones, S E

1990-02-01

209

An AIDS information center.  

PubMed

Because busy members of the health care team are confronted with a plethora of articles and information on AIDS, the Health Sciences Library at the University of Alabama has developed a current awareness information center on AIDS. The materials in the center can be easily accessed by patrons. Books and audiovisuals are included in the center; however, the primary emphasis is on accessing articles in journals to which the library subscribes and the journals which have granted blanket photocopy permission. The planning and organization of the center are described. PMID:10295658

Doughty, B P; Russell, L R

1989-01-01

210

NeuroAIDS  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NeuroAIDS is a Science Online experiment to "determine whether the creation of an on-line knowledge environment centered around one scientific area can foster increased collaboration among scientists." Funded by the National Institute of Mental Health, the site consists of web-based articles on the topic and discussions of both neuroAIDS and the uses of the Internet for the scientific community. Both of these focuses are extended in the News and Resources sections which link to current news updates from various sources including the American Association for the Advancement of Science's EurekAlert!, related citations to relevant journal articles, and Internet resources including software.

211

Optimal Output Trajectory Redesign for Invertible Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Given a desired output trajectory, inversion-based techniques find input-state trajectories required to exactly track the output. These inversion-based techniques have been successfully applied to the endpoint tracking control of multi-joint flexible manipulators and to aircraft control. The specified output trajectory uniquely determines the required input and state trajectories that are found through inversion. These input-state trajectories exactly track the desired output; however, they might not meet acceptable performance requirements. For example, during slewing maneuvers of flexible structures, the structural deformations, which depend on the required state trajectories, may be unacceptably large. Further, the required inputs might cause actuator saturation during an exact tracking maneuver for example, in the flight control of conventional takeoff and landing aircraft. In such situations, a compromise is desired between the tracking requirement and other goals such as reduction of internal vibrations and prevention of actuator saturation; the desired output trajectory needs to be redesigned.

Devasia, Santosh

1996-01-01

212

Nonlinearities in Magnetostrictive Transducer Dynamic Output  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have designed a magnetostrictive transducer for use in characterizing material properties of 11.5 cm long by 1.27 cm diameter cylindrical samples of the magnetostrictive material Terfenol-D. The material studied is a commercially available Terfenol-D, made using a modified Brigman manufacturing process. Output displacements in the stiffness controlled portion of the transducer's dynamic range (as loaded, up to 1000 Hz) were measured using a LVDT. Trends in output were observed as controlled changes in operating conditions were made. Excitation frequency, amplitude of magnetic excitation, and prestress were varied independently as other operating conditions (including temperature, mass load, and magnetic bias) were held fixed. Data are presented demonstrating distinct nonlinearities associated with a monotonic decrease in output with increased excitation frequency, a monotonic increase in output with increased excitation amplitude, and an initial increase followed by a decrease in output with increased prestress.

Flatau, Alison; Faidley, L. E.; Calkins, F. T.; Dapino, M. J.

1997-03-01

213

Coil Welding Aid  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Positioner holds coil inside cylinder during tack welding. Welding aid spaces turns of coil inside cylinder and applies contact pressure while coil is tack-welded to cylinder. Device facilitates fabrication of heat exchangers and other structures by eliminating hand-positioning and clamping of individual coil turns.

Wiesenbach, W. T.; Clark, M. C.

1983-01-01

214

Aid and Conditionality  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter examines the conditions under which foreign aid will be effective in raising growth, reducing poverty, and meeting basic needs in areas such as education and health. The primary aim is not to draw policy conclusions, but to highlight the main questions that arise, the contributions of the academic literature in addressing them, and the areas where much remains

Jonathan R. W. Temple

2010-01-01

215

Street Youth & AIDS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interviews were conducted with 712 Canadian street youth (ages 15-20 years) to assess their knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors with regard to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Youth were interviewed in 10 cities across Canada on the basis of 5 street culture lifestyles: prostitution, drug…

Radford, Joyce L.; And Others

216

Contracting for aid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foreign aid is analyzed as a contract where the North gives a transfer to the South in return for poverty reduction, regarded as an international public good. The issue of conditionality is first discussed in a moral hazard framework, and then under asymmetric information about the degree of altruism of the government of the South. Additional actors like local NGOs

Jean-Paul Azam; Jean-Jacques Laffont

2003-01-01

217

When Decision Aids Fail.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research was concerned with ways in which a C3-system adapts to the breakdown of a decision aiding device (DAD). Subjects were tested in a team judgement task in which they had to predict the outcome of an uncertain, dynamic event on discrete trails,...

E. O. Eimer

1987-01-01

218

Instructional Aide Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Instructional Aide Program (Shoreline Community College, Seattle, Washington) is a flexible curriculum designed to prepare students to meet the paraprofessional manpower needs of several kinds of institution. It was prepared after consultation with representatives of the schools, the YMCA, and the country park system. Other agencies still to…

Thomson, Henry

219

Metrics for Nurses Aides.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to meet the job-related metric measurement needs of students interested in becoming nurses aides, this instructional package is one of five for the health occupations cluster, part of a set of 55 packages for metric instruction in different occupations. The package is intended for students who already know the occupational terminology,…

Cooper, Gloria S., Ed.; Magisos, Joel H., Ed.

220

Robot-aided neurorehabilitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors' goal is to apply robotics and automation technology to assist, enhance, quantify, and document neurorehabilitation. This paper reviews a clinical trial involving 20 stroke patients with a prototype robot-aided rehabilitation facility developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, (MIT) and tested at Burke Rehabilitation Hospital, White Plains, NY. It also presents the authors' approach to analyze kinematic

Hermano Igo Krebs; Neville Hogan; Mindy L. Aisen; Bruce T. Volpe

1998-01-01

221

Machine Aids to Translation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the TEAM Program System of the Siemens Language Services Department, particularly the main features of its terminology data bank. Discusses criteria to which stored terminology must conform and methods of data bank utilization. Concludes by summarizing the consequences that machine-aided translation development has had for the…

Brinkmann, Karl-Heinz

1981-01-01

222

Computer Aided Lecturing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveyed students taking a natural resource conservation course to determine the effects of computer software that provides tools for creating and managing visual presentations to students. Results indicated that 94% of the respondents believed computer-aided lectures helped them and recommended their continued use; note taking was more effective,…

Van Meter, Donald E.

1994-01-01

223

Living with AIDs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because events move swiftly in the contemporary world, it is easy to forget that acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a phenomenon of the 1980s. It is generally agreed that this is only the very beginning of a scientific investigation that will go on well into the 21st century. This issue attempts to provide some of the basic information…

Graubard, Stephen R., Ed.

1989-01-01

224

First Aid Challenge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a challenge wherein students will be asked to design a portable first aid kit that is normally carried in a recreational vehicle (RV), but can also be hand-carried or backpacked off road for distances of approximately 1-2 miles. This can be a very practical challenge for the students because it touches everyone. Everybody…

Roman, Harry T.

2011-01-01

225

Good Teaching Aids.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This set of teaching aids consists of 14 Audubon Nature Bulletins with these titles: Schoolyard Laboratories, How to Lead a Field Trip, Natural Resources in the City, Mysteries of Bird Migration, Rock Stories and How to Read Them, The Ground Water Table, The Terrarium, Some Adventures With Wild Plants Outdoors and Indoors, Plant Propagation in the…

National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

226

AIDS Education: High School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This resource package provides teaching strategies to help students discuss and integrate the information they must have to avoid high-risk sexual behavior. It also attempts to promote positive lifestyle decisions in the face of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic. The specific goals of the program are to help students: (1)…

Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg.

227

Newspaper Lesson Aids.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides photocopy-ready lesson aids on story ideas, interviewing, inverted pyramid writing style, newswriting, sports/scavenger hunt, finding feature material, identifying feature leads, feature lead selection, evaluating feature leads, compiling survey material, cutlines, headlines, paste-up rules, advertising, final semester project, newspaper…

Communication: Journalism Education Today (C:JET), 1986

1986-01-01

228

HIV/AIDS Basics - How You Get HIV/AIDS?  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

English - HIV/AIDS Basics - How you get HIV/AIDS Video Audio Handout Terms of Use Close Window This information made possible with support from The Division of Specialized Information Services of the ...

229

FinAid: The Financial Aid Information Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Maintained by Mark Kantrowitz and sponsored by the National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NASFAA), the Financial Aid Information Page is one of the finest online sources of free information and guidance on student financial aid. The site is divided into categories which address various aspects of finding and securing aid. The Assistance section includes an overview of financial aid, a glossary, a bibliography, and scam alerts. Under Tools users will find Kantrowitz's financial aid calculators, which help students and their parents better plan their financial futures. The core of the site is the collection of links to databases of aid sources, lists of lenders and loan guarantors, government information, and links to major scholarship and fellowship sources such as FastWEB, SRN Express, and ExPAN. FinAid is an excellent place for students at any level to begin their electronic search for funding.

Kantrowitz, Mark.

1997-01-01

230

Matlab/Simulink-Based Research on Maximum Power Point Tracking of Photovoltaic Generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to improve the output efficiency of PV system, A novel variable step size perturbation and observation (P&O) method is proposed to track the maximum power point of PV system. Based on the mathematical model of PV system, this method tracks the maximum power point by regulating the output voltage after measuring the changes of output power. The simulation model of PV system is established, and the experiment is implemented. The experimental results show that the method can track the maximum power point fast and exactly, which shows that adaptive P&O has better steady-state and dynamic performance than the traditional P&O, and can improve the efficiency of photovoltaic power generation system effectively.

Qin, Lijun; Lu, Xiao

231

Multi-input multi-output fading channel tracking and equalization using Kalman estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the problem of channel tracking and equalization for multi-input multi-output (MIMO) time-varying frequency-selective channels. These channels model the effects of inter-symbol interference (ISI), co-channel interference (CCI), and noise. A low-order autoregressive model approximates the MIMO channel variation and facilitates tracking via a Kalman filter. Hard decisions to aid Kalman tracking come from a MIMO finite-length minimum-mean-squared-error decision-feedback

Christos Komninakis; Christina Fragouli; Ali H. Sayed; Richard D. Wesel

2002-01-01

232

The radar simulator: deriving the radar signal using the cloud model output  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an approach to simulate cloud radar signals on the basis of cloud model output, the radar simulator. The simulator is being developed to aid validation of the cloud model. The cloud model applies double-moment bulk warm-rain and ice schemes developed by Morrison and Grabowski.1, 2 As an input, the simulator uses profiles of the mixing ratios and number

Aleksandra E. Kardas; Sally McFarlane; Hugh Morrison; Jennifer Comstock; Wojciech W. Grabowski; Szymon P. Malinowski

2009-01-01

233

A study on a two stage maximum power point tracking control of a photovoltaic system under partially shaded insolation conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A photovoltaic (PV) array shows relatively low output power density, and has a greatly drooping current-voltage (I-V) characteristic. Therefore, maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control is used to maximize the output power of the PV array. Many papers have been reported in relation to MPPT. However, the current-power (I-P) curve sometimes shows multilocal maximum points mode under nonuniform insolation conditions.

K. Kobayashi; I. Takano; Y. Sawada

2003-01-01

234

Design of hydraulic output Stirling engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A hydraulic output system for the RE-1000 free piston stirling engine (FPSE) was designed. The hydraulic output system can be readily integrated with the existing hot section of RE-1000 FPSE. The system has two simply supported diaphragms which separate the engine gas from the hydraulic fluid, a dynamic balance mechanism, and a novel, null center band hydraulic pump. The diaphragms are designed to endure more than 10 billion cycles, and to withstand the differential pressure load as high as 14 MPa. The projected thermodynamic performance of the hydraulic output version of RE-1000 FPSE is 1.87 kW at 29/7 percent brake efficiency.

Toscano, W. M.; Harvey, A. C.; Lee, K.

1983-01-01

235

Eigenvalue/eigenvector assignment using output feedback  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problem of eigenvalue assignment in a linear time-invariant system using output feedback is considered. New sufficient conditions are derived to assign an almost arbitrary set of minimum (n,m + r - 1) distinct eigenvalues where n, m, and r are the number of states, inputs, and outputs, respectively. These conditions precisely identify the class of systems where such an assignment is impossible. The synthesis technique also highlights the freedom in selection of closed-loop eigenvectors under output feedback. The utility of eigenvalue/eigenvector assignment in transient response shaping is illustrated by the design of a controller for the lateral dynamics of an aircraft.

Srinathkumar, S.

1978-01-01

236

Optimization of a lasertron double output cavity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Double output cavities have been used experimentally to increase the efficiency of high-power klystrons. We have used particle-in-cell simulations with the 2 + 1/2 dimensional code MASK to optimize the design of double output cavities for the lasertron under development at SLAC. We discuss design considerations for double output cavities (e.g., optimum choice of voltages and phases, efficiency, wall interception, breakdown). We describe how one calculates the cavity impedance matrix from the gap voltages and phases. Some results of the effect of varying voltage, perveance, and pulse are reported.

Eppley, K. R.

1986-02-01

237

High Energy Output Marx Generator Design  

SciTech Connect

High Energy Output Marx Generator Design a design of a six stage Marx generator that has a unipolar pulse waveform of 200 kA in a 50×500 microsecond waveform is presented. The difficulties encountered in designing the components to withstand the temperatures and pressures generated during the output pulse are discussed. The unique methods and materials used to successfully overcome these problems are given. The steps necessary to increase the current output of this Marx generator design to the meg-ampere region or higher are specified.

Monty Lehmann

2011-07-01

238

Adaptive Maximum Power Point Tracking Algorithm for Photovoltaic Power Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an adaptive maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm. The aim is to dynamically adjust the step length for updating duty ratio (or operating voltage) so as to make full utilization of the output power of photovoltaic (PV) systems, even under the rapidly changing atmospheric conditions. To this end, the average slope in terms of voltage and power is exploited for reducing the harmful effect of noise and error (incurred in measurement or quantization) on the slope. Also, a statistical decision-making scheme is employed for reliably deciding the time instant at which atmospheric conditions actually change. Empirical study has adduced grounds for its dominance over existing references.

Ahn, Chang Wook; Choi, Ju Yeop; Lee, Dong-Ha; An, Jinung

239

The maximum drag reduction asymptote  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Addition of a small amount of long chain polymers to a Newtonian solvent can lead to a dramatic drag reduction in turbulent flows. This effect has been extensively studied since its discovery in the late 1940's. The drag reduction at first is proportional to the polymer concentration (Weisenberg number) but then saturates to the maximum drag reduction (MDR) asymptote. It is commonly believed that drag reduction results from an adjustment of the turbulent flow structure due to the action of the polymers. We here present experimental results of turbulent pipe flows using dilute polyacrylamid solutions at relatively large Weisenberg numbers (˜10). Our results show that for relatively low polymer concentrations transition to turbulence is postponed to higher Reynolds numbers. However when the Weisenberg number is increased further we find that the subcritical transition to turbulence, typical for Newtonian pipe flow disappears. Instead a supercritical instability is found at much lower Reynolds numbers which gives rise to a disordered flow. The observed drag of this disordered flow is identical to the well known MDR asymptote.

Hof, Björn; Samanta, Devranjan; Wagner, Christian

2011-11-01

240

Alternating consecutive maximum contractions as a test of muscle function.  

PubMed

Although regularly used, the standard strength test (SST) is known to have several shortcomings, such as being based only on sustained maximum forces, and on a relatively large number of trials that expose the tested muscle to rapid fatigue. The purpose of this study was to evaluate alternating consecutive maximum contractions (ACMCs) as a test of the muscle function through its comparison with SST. Twenty-four participants performed both the externally paced isometric ACMC (i.e., series of consecutive maximum force exertions in 2 directions) and SST of the knee extensor and flexor muscle. The derived variables of both tests included the knee extensor and flexor peak forces (PFs) and their maximum rates of development. Movement speed and muscle power output were also assessed through standard maximum performance tests. Both ACMC and SST revealed on average high intratrial (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] > 0.80) and moderate-to-high test-retest reliability (ICC > 0.60), and significant (p < 0.05) positive relationships among the PFs and their rates of development of the tested muscles. The variables of both tests also suggested on average moderate correlations with the maximum performance tests. Finally, ACMC variables revealed relatively stable values across a wide range of frequencies including the 'self-selected' one. Although some properties of ACMC could be similar to SST, the important comparative advantages of ACMC could be relatively low and transitional maximum forces exerted, and fewer trials needed for testing 2 antagonistic muscles. Although further research is needed, particularly concerning the external validity and generalizability, we conclude that the ACMC represents a test of muscle function that could be applied either as an alternative or complementary test to SST. PMID:21602647

Bozic, Predrag; Suzovic, Dejan; Nedeljkovic, Aleksandar; Jaric, Slobodan

2011-06-01

241

Executive Aid for Crisis Management.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the development and structure of CACI's crisis management executive aid developed for the Cybernetics Technology Office of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency; presents the structure of the executive aid and reviews the cha...

L. Hazlewood R. Mahoney F. Abolfathi J. Fain J. Hayes

1978-01-01

242

HIV/AIDS Basics - Prevention  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

English - HIV/AIDS Basics - Prevention of HIV/AIDS Video Audio Handout Terms of Use Close Window This information made possible with support from The Division of Specialized Information Services of ...

243

Output power distributions of terminals in a 3G mobile communication network.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to examine the distribution of the output power of mobile phones and other terminals connected to a 3G network in Sweden. It is well known that 3G terminals can operate with very low output power, particularly for voice calls. Measurements of terminal output power were conducted in the Swedish TeliaSonera 3G network in November 2008 by recording network statistics. In the analysis, discrimination was made between rural, suburban, urban, and dedicated indoor networks. In addition, information about terminal output power was possible to collect separately for voice and data traffic. Information from six different Radio Network Controllers (RNCs) was collected during at least 1 week. In total, more than 800000?h of voice calls were collected and in addition to that a substantial amount of data traffic. The average terminal output power for 3G voice calls was below 1?mW for any environment including rural, urban, and dedicated indoor networks. This is <1% of the maximum available output power. For data applications the average output power was about 6-8?dB higher than for voice calls. For rural areas the output power was about 2?dB higher, on average, than in urban areas. Bioelectromagnetics. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:22012866

Persson, Tomas; Törnevik, Christer; Larsson, Lars-Eric; Lovén, Jan

2011-10-19

244

PUZZLE - A program for computer-aided design of printed circuit artwork  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Program assists in solving spacing problems encountered in printed circuit /PC/ design. It is intended to have maximum use for two-sided PC boards carrying integrated circuits, and also aids design of discrete component circuits.

Harrell, D. A. W.; Zane, R.

1971-01-01

245

Coupling output of multichannel high power microwaves  

SciTech Connect

The coupling output of multichannel high power microwaves is a promising technique for the development of high power microwave technologies, as it can enhance the output capacities of presently studied devices. According to the investigations on the spatial filtering method and waveguide filtering method, the hybrid filtering method is proposed for the coupling output of multichannel high power microwaves. As an example, a specific structure is designed for the coupling output of S/X/X band three-channel high power microwaves and investigated with the hybrid filtering method. In the experiments, a pulse of 4 GW X band beat waves and a pulse of 1.8 GW S band microwave are obtained.

Li Guolin; Shu Ting; Yuan Chengwei; Zhang Jun; Yang Jianhua; Jin Zhenxing; Yin Yi; Wu Dapeng; Zhu Jun; Ren Heming; Yang Jie [College of Optoelectric Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China)

2010-12-15

246

Memory-based parallel data output controller  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A memory-based parallel data output controller employs associative memories and memory mapping to decommutate multiple channels of telemetry data. The output controller contains a random access memory (RAM) which has at least as many address locations as there are channels. A word counter addresses the RAM which provides as it outputs an encoded peripheral device number and a MSB/LSB-first flag. The encoded device number and a bit counter address a second RAM which contains START and STOP flags to pick out the required bits from the specified word number. The LSB/MSB, START and STOP flags, along with the serial input digital data go to a control block which selectively fills a shift register used to drive the parallel data output bus.

Stattel, R. J.; Niswander, J. K. (inventors)

1984-01-01

247

Achieving Specified Accuracy in Simulation Output Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper extends the use of the regenerative property of queueing systems in the analysis of simulation output. In particular, it describes a sequential estimation method which when used with the regenerative property allows results to be obtained with ...

G. S. Fishman

1974-01-01

248

Modeling Plants With Moving-Average Outputs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three discrete-state-variable representations derived. Paper discusses mathematical modeling of digital control systems for plants in which outputs include combinations of instantaneous and moving-average-prefiltered measurements.

Polites, Michael E.

1989-01-01

249

Output Tube Emission Characteristics of Operational Radars.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains the emission spectra of 19 different types of radars, selected to show the different emission spectrum characteristics produced by a variety of radar output tube technologies. The radars include examples of ground-based search, airpor...

R. J. Matheson J. D. Smilley G. D. Falcon V. S. Lawrence

1982-01-01

250

Fiber Optic Gyroscope with Alternating Output Signal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present invention relates generally to Sagnac fiber-optic rotation-sensing interferometers and more particularly to a Sagnac fiber-optic rotation-sensing interferometer which produces an alternating output signal. The Sagnac rotation sensing interfero...

S. C. Rashleigh

1982-01-01

251

Maximum-power quantum-mechanical Carnot engine.  

PubMed

In their work [J. Phys. A 33, 4427 (2000)], Bender, Brody, and Meister have shown by employing a two-state model of a particle confined in the one-dimensional infinite potential well that it is possible to construct a quantum-mechanical analog of the Carnot engine through changes of both the width of the well and the quantum state in a specific manner. Here, a discussion is developed about realizing the maximum power of such an engine, where the width of the well moves at low but finite speed. The efficiency of the engine at the maximum power output is found to be universal independently of any of the parameters contained in the model. PMID:21599125

Abe, Sumiyoshi

2011-04-01

252

A Primer on Foreign Aid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Controversies about aid effectiveness go back decades. Some experts charge that aid has enlarged government bureaucracies, perpetuated bad governments, enriched the elite in poor countries, or just been wasted. Others argue that although aid has sometimes failed, it has supported poverty reduction and growth in some countries and prevented worse performance in others. This new working paper by CGD senior

Steven Radelet

2006-01-01

253

Director of Financial Aid Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although many independent schools are seeing a diversification in their student bodies, existing structures, such as financial aid awards, have not been modified. In addition, many financial-aid managers in independent schools have 0-5 years of experience in student financial aid. This handbook profiles the overall step-by-step process for…

Sorenson, Lynn D.

254

AIDS: Scientific or Viral Catastrophe?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scientists have not been able to ascertain how HIV causes AIDS, despite more than $100 billion spent on AIDS research and treatment by US taxpayers alone. Predictions about the course of the epidemic have proved inaccurate. While millions are said to be infected and dying in Africa, AIDS deaths have fallen in Europe and the USA and now total fewer

NEVILLE HODGKINSON

2003-01-01

255

Living with AIDS: Part II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A series of articles concerning various aspects of AIDS and the dilemmas it poses for U.S. society, culture, and government are presented, in this theme issue, e.g., "Introduction to the Issue" (K. Keniston); "Prospects for the Medical Control of the AIDS Epidemic" (W. Haseltine); "Social Policy: AIDS and Intravenous Drug Use" (N. Zinberg);…

Daedalus: Journal of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 1989

1989-01-01

256

Pharmacotherapeutics for the AIDS Patient.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Anticipated shifts in the demographics of the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) epidemic are examined, current state-of-the-art AIDS patient management is summarized, and some unique facets of drug therapy in the AIDS patient are discussed, including adverse reactions, complex drug interactions, use of investigational drugs, and…

Fife, Kenneth H.

1991-01-01

257

Output time response approximation. [of nonlinear systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The approximation of the output response of a nonlinear system by the output response of a linear system to a desired order irrespective of the admissible input applied should prove useful for purposes of control generation and simulation. Given a nonlinear system, an integer k, and an open subset of state space, sufficient conditions are stated that such a linear approximation exists to order k for every point in the set. In addition, a method for finding the approximating linear systems is presented.

Hunt, L. R.; Su, R.

1986-01-01

258

Surface emitting lasers with combined output  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Surface emitting lasers are laterally aligned and coupled together and also have their light output signals combined. This results in greater phase and frequency coherency and narrower and reduced amplitude sidelobes. Preferably, not more than two lasers are longitudinally aligned along the same axis for still greater coherency compared with adding the light output signals of more than two longitudinally aligned lasers. The lasers can be of the DH-LOC type or of the QW type.

Carlin, Donald B. (Inventor)

1990-01-01

259

Eigenvalue/eigenvector assignment using output feedback  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problem of pole-assignment in a linear time-invariant multivariable system using output feedback is considered. New sufficient conditions are derived to assign an almost arbitrary set of min (n, m+r-1) distinct eigenvalues, where n, m, and r are the number of states, inputs, and outputs, respectively. The analysis also highlights the freedom in selection of closed-loop eigenvectors which can be used for response shaping.

Srinathkumar, S.

1978-01-01

260

Characterizing Detonator Output Using Dynamic Witness Plates  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sub-microsecond, time-resolved micro-particle-image velocimetry (PIV) system is developed to investigate the output of explosive detonators. Detonator output is directed into a transparent solid that serves as a dynamic witness plate and instantaneous shock and material velocities are measured in a two-dimensional plane cutting through the shock wave as it propagates through the solid. For the case of unloaded initiators

Michael John Murphy; Ronald J. Adrian

2009-01-01

261

CHARACTERIZING DETONATOR OUTPUT USING DYNAMIC WITNESS PLATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sub-microsecond, time-resolved micro-particle-image velocimetry (PIV) system is developed to investigate the output of explosive detonators. Detonator output is directed into a transparent solid that serves as a dynamic witness plate and instantaneous shock and material velocities are measured in a two-dimensional plane cutting through the shock wave as it propagates through the solid. For the case of unloaded initiators

Michael J. Murphy; Ronald J. Adrian

2009-01-01

262

Maximum Entropy Principle for Transportation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we deal with modeling of the transportation phenomenon for use in the transportation planning process and policy-impact studies. The model developed is based on the dependence concept, i.e., the notion that the probability of a trip starting at origin i is dependent on the probability of a trip ending at destination j given that the factors (such as travel time, cost, etc.) which affect travel between origin i and destination j assume some specific values. The derivation of the solution of the model employs the maximum entropy principle combining a priori multinomial distribution with a trip utility concept. This model is utilized to forecast trip distributions under a variety of policy changes and scenarios. The dependence coefficients are obtained from a regression equation where the functional form is derived based on conditional probability and perception of factors from experimental psychology. The dependence coefficients encode all the information that was previously encoded in the form of constraints. In addition, the dependence coefficients encode information that cannot be expressed in the form of constraints for practical reasons, namely, computational tractability. The equivalence between the standard formulation (i.e., objective function with constraints) and the dependence formulation (i.e., without constraints) is demonstrated. The parameters of the dependence-based trip-distribution model are estimated, and the model is also validated using commercial air travel data in the U.S. In addition, policy impact analyses (such as allowance of supersonic flights inside the U.S. and user surcharge at noise-impacted airports) on air travel are performed.

Bilich, F.; Dasilva, R.

2008-11-01

263

The Sherpa Maximum Likelihood Estimator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A primary goal for the second release of the Chandra Source Catalog (CSC) is to include X-ray sources with as few as 5 photon counts detected in stacked observations of the same field, while maintaining acceptable detection efficiency and false source rates. Aggressive source detection methods will result in detection of many false positive source candidates. Candidate detections will then be sent to a new tool, the Maximum Likelihood Estimator (MLE), to evaluate the likelihood that a detection is a real source. MLE uses the Sherpa modeling and fitting engine to fit a model of a background and source to multiple overlapping candidate source regions. A background model is calculated by simultaneously fitting the observed photon flux in multiple background regions. This model is used to determine the quality of the fit statistic for a background-only hypothesis in the potential source region. The statistic for a background-plus-source hypothesis is calculated by adding a Gaussian source model convolved with the appropriate Chandra point spread function (PSF) and simultaneously fitting the observed photon flux in each observation in the stack. Since a candidate source may be located anywhere in the field of view of each stacked observation, a different PSF must be used for each observation because of the strong spatial dependence of the Chandra PSF. The likelihood of a valid source being detected is a function of the two statistics (for background alone, and for background-plus-source). The MLE tool is an extensible Python module with potential for use by the general Chandra user.

Nguyen, D.; Doe, S.; Evans, I.; Hain, R.; Primini, F.

2011-07-01

264

Maximum entropy principal for transportation  

SciTech Connect

In this work we deal with modeling of the transportation phenomenon for use in the transportation planning process and policy-impact studies. The model developed is based on the dependence concept, i.e., the notion that the probability of a trip starting at origin i is dependent on the probability of a trip ending at destination j given that the factors (such as travel time, cost, etc.) which affect travel between origin i and destination j assume some specific values. The derivation of the solution of the model employs the maximum entropy principle combining a priori multinomial distribution with a trip utility concept. This model is utilized to forecast trip distributions under a variety of policy changes and scenarios. The dependence coefficients are obtained from a regression equation where the functional form is derived based on conditional probability and perception of factors from experimental psychology. The dependence coefficients encode all the information that was previously encoded in the form of constraints. In addition, the dependence coefficients encode information that cannot be expressed in the form of constraints for practical reasons, namely, computational tractability. The equivalence between the standard formulation (i.e., objective function with constraints) and the dependence formulation (i.e., without constraints) is demonstrated. The parameters of the dependence-based trip-distribution model are estimated, and the model is also validated using commercial air travel data in the U.S. In addition, policy impact analyses (such as allowance of supersonic flights inside the U.S. and user surcharge at noise-impacted airports) on air travel are performed.

Bilich, F. [University of Brasilia (Brazil); Da Silva, R. [National Research Council (Brazil)

2008-11-06

265

Student Financial Aid in Florida. Final Report and Recommendations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In response to a 1982 directive by the Florida Legislature, the State Department of Education conducted a comprehensive study of financial assistance programs available to the state's postsecondary education students. The study sought to establish goals for student aid programs which would promote maximum effectiveness of state funding; to…

Tebo, Jack; Dallet, Patrick

266

Unstable resonator with reduced output coupling.  

PubMed

The properties of a laser beam coupled out of a standard unstable laser resonator are heavily dependent on the chosen resonator magnification. A higher magnification results in a higher output coupling and a better beam quality. But in some configurations, an unstable resonator with a low output coupling in combination with a good beam quality is desirable. In order to reduce the output coupling for a particular resonator, magnification fractions of the outcoupled radiation are reflected back into the cavity. In the confocal case, the output mirror consists of a spherical inner section with a high reflectivity and a flat outer section with a partial reflectivity coating. With the application of the unstable resonator with reduced output coupling (URROC), magnification and output coupling can be adjusted independently from each other and it is possible to get a good beam quality and a high power extraction for lasers with a large low gain medium. The feasibility of this resonator design is examined numerically and experimentally with the help of a chemical oxygen iodine laser. PMID:22722301

Pargmann, Carsten; Hall, Thomas; Duschek, Frank; Grünewald, Karin Maria; Handke, Jürgen

2012-06-20

267

[The heart and AIDS].  

PubMed

Records of 133 AIDS patients treated at the Internal Medicine and Cardiology Service of the University Hospital in Brazzaville between January 1986 and December 1995 were analyzed. During the 10 years, 342 patients with AIDS were admitted, of whom 133 (38.9%) had recently developed cardiopathies. Patient ages ranged from 17 to 78 years (average, 35 years). 75 were male and 58 female. Clinical manifestations were often minor or even absent, but patient histories revealed functional symptoms. The patients were generally in an advanced stage of HIV infection. Clinical examination showed myocarditis to be the most frequent condition, with 81 cases (61%). Isolated liquid pericarditis was observed in 47 cases, including 15 with blockage. 25 patients showed mitral insufficiency, 16 tricuspid insufficiency, 2 aortic insufficiency due to infectious endocarditis, and 2 myocardial infarct. In 17 cases the onset was abrupt, with influenza-like symptoms. Standard cardiac radiography demonstrated cardiomegaly in all cases. Only 23 of the 133 electrocardiograms were considered normal. The other 110 showed various anomalies, of which the most frequent and significant was diffuse and concordant inversion of the T waves. Cardiac ultrasound in the 90 patients examined allowed diagnosis of 58 cases of myocarditis, 27 of liquid pericarditis not associated with myocarditis, and 5 of infectious endocarditis. 20 deaths were observed. The condition was stabilized in 85%. The fatality rate for AIDS-related cardiopathy is relatively low, on the order of 15-20%. Early diagnosis allows initiation of treatment, which often reduces patient discomfort. PMID:9026616

Bouramoue, C; Ekoba, J

1996-01-01

268

The pathology of AIDS.  

PubMed Central

The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a devastating new disease caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This retrovirus causes profound immunoincompetence in its infected hosts, who are thereafter susceptible to develop myriad severe and relapsing protozoal, fungal, bacterial, viral, and arthropodal opportunistic infections, as well as unusual malignancies. The more than 50,000 patients who have developed AIDS in the United States have produced a sudden unexpected deluge of diagnostic dilemmas that are stressing laboratories of pathology everywhere. This paper describes the gross and microscopic pathology of the numerous complications in patients infected by HIV: (a) the prodromal AIDS-related complex with persistent generalized lymphadenopathy, (b) lymphoid infiltration of salivary gland and lung, including the complex of lymphoid interstitial pneumonitis-pulmonary lymphoid hyperplasia, (c) extranodal non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, (d) multifocal mucocutaneous and visceral Kaposi's sarcoma, (e) small cell undifferentiated (oat cell) carcinomas, (f) protozoal infections caused by Pneumocystis carinii, Toxoplasma gondii, Acanthamoeba, Cryptosporidium species (sp.), and Isospora belli, (g) the causes of chronic enteritis, (h) mycotic infections caused by Candida sp., Cryptococcus neoformans, Histoplasma capsulatum, Coccidioides immitis, and Sporothrix schenckii, (i) bacterial infections caused by Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare, M. tuberculosis, M. kansasii, Nocardia sp., Listeria monocytogenes, Legionella sp., Treponema pallidum, and others, (j) viral infections caused by cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex and zoster, polyomavirus (progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy), hepatitis B, molluscum contagiosum, and papillomavirus, (k) oral hairy leukoplakia, (l) subacute encephalopathy, and (m) Norwegian scabies.

Macher, A M

1988-01-01

269

HIV and AIDS  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Science Inside: HIV and AIDSThis booklet helps to explain what doctors and scientists know about the HIV and AIDS epidemic. It summarizes what HIV and AIDS are and what happens when HIV becomes AIDS, including the health problems that can result. The e-book explains how the diseases are spread, what groups suffer most from them, how they may be prevented, how they are treated, and what the latest research reveals.The Science Inside e-book series is intended to be a bridge between the consumer health brochure and the scientific paper, the booklets in this series focus on the science that is inside of, or behind, the disease its cause, its possible cure, its treatment, promising research, and so on. These booklets are designed to appeal to people who have not had the opportunity to study the science and to understand why they may have been given some of the advice that they have been given through some of the more consumer-oriented materials.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (;)

2004-01-01

270

EGRAM- ECHELLE SPECTROGRAPH DESIGN AID  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

EGRAM aids in the design of spectrographic systems that utilize an echelle-first order cross disperser combination. This optical combination causes a two dimensional echellogram to fall on a detector. EGRAM describes the echellogram with enough detail to allow the user to effectively judge the feasibility of the spectrograph's design. By iteratively altering system parameters, the desired echellogram can be achieved without making a physical model. EGRAM calculates system parameters which are accurate to the first order and compare favorably to results from ray tracing techniques. The spectrographic system modelled by EGRAM consists of an entrance aperture, collimator, echelle, cross dispersion grating, focusing options, and a detector. The system is assumed to be free of aberrations and the echelle, cross disperser, and detector should be planar. The EGRAM program is menu driven and has a HELP facility. The user is prompted for information such as minimum and maximum wavelengths, slit dimensions, ruling frequencies, detector geometry, and angle of incidence. EGRAM calculates the resolving power and range of order numbers covered by the echellogram. A numerical map is also produced. This tabulates the order number, slit bandpass, and high/middle/low wavelengths. EGRAM can also compute the centroid coordinates of a specific wavelength and order (or vice versa). EGRAM is written for interactive execution and is written in Microsoft BASIC A. It has been implemented on an IBM PC series computer operating under DOS. EGRAM was developed in 1985.

Dantzler, A. A.

1994-01-01

271

Influence of design parameters on output torque of flux-switching permanent magnet machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of design parameters of a flux-switching PM (FSPM) machine for maximum output torque has been investigated by finite element analyses and validated by measurements made on a prototype FSPM motor. These parameters include the split ratio of the inner diameter to outer diameter of the stator, the stator tooth width, the stator magnet thickness, the stator back-iron thickness,

Z. Q. Zhu; Y. Pang; J. T. Chen; Z. P. Xia; D. Howe

2008-01-01

272

Simultaneous detection and target motion analysis from conventional passive beamforming outputs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventionally, source location estimation from passive sonar beams needs three successive steps: detection, data association and tracking, and target motion analysis (TMA). An alternate approach is presented for considering the problem from a global point of view. The maximum likelihood estimator of source position is shown to consist of maximizing the integral of beamforming outputs on the bearing history. This

M. Solal; Denis PILLON; S. Brasseur

1991-01-01

273

Output Power Maximization of a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator Based Stand-alone Wind Turbine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes output power maximization control of wind energy system. A permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) is used as a variable speed generator in the proposed wind energy system. In order to achieve the maximum power control of wind turbine across a wide range of wind speeds, a dynamic modeling and simulation of wind system with battery energy storage

T. Tafticht; K. Agbossou; A. Cheriti; M. L. Doumbia

2006-01-01

274

Equal gain transmission in multiple-input multiple-output wireless systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) wireless systems are of interest due to their ability to provide substantial gains in capacity and quality. The paper proposes equal gain transmission (EGT) to provide diversity advantage in MIMO systems experiencing Rayleigh fading. The applications of EGT with selection diversity combining, equal gain combining, and maximum ratio combining are addressed. It is proven that systems using

David J. Love

2003-01-01

275

Control of induction motors via feedback linearization with input-output decoupling  

Microsoft Academic Search

In induction motor control, power efficiency is an important factor to be considered. We attempt to achieve both high dynamic performance and maximum power efficiency by means of linear decoupling of rotor speed (or motor torque) and rotor flux. The induction motor with our controller possesses the input-output dynamic characteristics of a linear system such that the rotor speed (or

DONG-IL KIM; IN-JOONG HA; MYOUNG-SAM KO

1990-01-01

276

Non-cooperative game decision for capacity evaluation under output demand uncertainty  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to solve decision problem for maximum production capacity of different products under output demand uncertainty, the non-cooperative game theory was introduced to describe competition relationship between various products for shared manufacturing resources. Firstly the production line model is built based on complex network, which the manufacturing resources was aggregated to manufacturing vertices and the process relationships was described

Ting Yang; Dinghua Zhang; Bing Chen; Shan Li

2011-01-01

277

Maximum Parsimony on Phylogenetic networks  

PubMed Central

Background Phylogenetic networks are generalizations of phylogenetic trees, that are used to model evolutionary events in various contexts. Several different methods and criteria have been introduced for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Maximum Parsimony is a character-based approach that infers a phylogenetic tree by minimizing the total number of evolutionary steps required to explain a given set of data assigned on the leaves. Exact solutions for optimizing parsimony scores on phylogenetic trees have been introduced in the past. Results In this paper, we define the parsimony score on networks as the sum of the substitution costs along all the edges of the network; and show that certain well-known algorithms that calculate the optimum parsimony score on trees, such as Sankoff and Fitch algorithms extend naturally for networks, barring conflicting assignments at the reticulate vertices. We provide heuristics for finding the optimum parsimony scores on networks. Our algorithms can be applied for any cost matrix that may contain unequal substitution costs of transforming between different characters along different edges of the network. We analyzed this for experimental data on 10 leaves or fewer with at most 2 reticulations and found that for almost all networks, the bounds returned by the heuristics matched with the exhaustively determined optimum parsimony scores. Conclusion The parsimony score we define here does not directly reflect the cost of the best tree in the network that displays the evolution of the character. However, when searching for the most parsimonious network that describes a collection of characters, it becomes necessary to add additional cost considerations to prefer simpler structures, such as trees over networks. The parsimony score on a network that we describe here takes into account the substitution costs along the additional edges incident on each reticulate vertex, in addition to the substitution costs along the other edges which are common to all the branching patterns introduced by the reticulate vertices. Thus the score contains an in-built cost for the number of reticulate vertices in the network, and would provide a criterion that is comparable among all networks. Although the problem of finding the parsimony score on the network is believed to be computationally hard to solve, heuristics such as the ones described here would be beneficial in our efforts to find a most parsimonious network.

2012-01-01

278

Optimization of the optical output in a C-to-C pulsed gas laser  

SciTech Connect

An investigation of the optimum condition for maximum optical output in a C-to-C pulsed gas laser (N{sub 2} laser) showed that this condition does not happen when the two capacitances are equal (C{sub 1} = C{sub 2}) as this happens in the ``Doubling circuit`` case, but when the peaking capacitance obtains a critical value. This behavior is attributed to the electric pumping pulse formed by the temporary loading of the peaking capacitor. This electric pumping pulse increases as the peaking capacitor increases. However, for low values of the peaking capacitor the optical output follows the rise of the electric pumping pulse. On the other hand, for higher values of the peaking capacitor than a critical one, a part of the electric energy arrives at the laser channel after the laser output, while the exploitable electric energy decreases causing reduction of the optical output.

Persephonis, P.; Giannetas, V.; Parthenios, J.; Ioannou, A.; Georgiades, C. [Univ. of Patras, Patra (Greece). Dept. of Physics] [Univ. of Patras, Patra (Greece). Dept. of Physics

1995-06-01

279

Fuzzy Adaptive Output-Feedback Control Design for Nonlinear Dynamic Systems with Output Delay  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a fuzzy adaptive output feedback control design method for a class of nonlinear output-delayed single-input single-output systems with guaranteed control performance is proposed. First, the Takagi and Sugeno fuzzy model is employed to approximate a nonlinear system. Next, based on the fuzzy model, a fuzzy observer-based controller is developed to achieve the control performance with a desired

Tzu-Sung Wu; Wen-Shyong Yu

2006-01-01

280

Study Guide for First Aid Practices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study guide is designed to accompany the American National Red Cross texts ADVANCED FIRST AID AND EMERGENCY CARE and STANDARD FIRST AID AND PERSONAL SAFETY. Part one serves as an introduction to first aid. The legal aspects of first aid are discussed along with a list of suggested first aid kit contents, and information on first aid books is…

Thygerson, Alton L.

281

Tracked Vehicle Acceleration: Maximum and Minimum Speeds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document describes procedures for conducting acceleration and maximum and minimum speed tests of tracked vehicles. Acceleration and maximum speed are basic measures of vehicle power; they define the ability of a vehicle to execute a change in locatio...

1987-01-01

282

Maximum power point tracking control of photovoltaic generation system under non-uniform insolation by means of monitoring cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

A photovoltaic power generation system (PV system) is operated under various insolation conditions. Sometimes the PV system is operated under nonuniform insolation, which may generate several maximum output power points on the V-I curve of the PV array and raises serious problem on maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control of the system. In order to solve this problem, the authors

Kei Irisawa; Takeshi Saito; I. Takano; Y. Sawada

2000-01-01

283

The research on the algorithm of maximum power point tracking in photo voltaic array of solar car  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combined with the practical working environment of the vehicle photovoltaic cell plate on the electric vehicle, according to the engineering mathematic model of photovoltaic cell, the output characteristics is nonlinear, and the maximum power is on one point. Adopting the improved conductance increment method, the maximum power tracking rate and accuracy are enhanced.

Xiujuan Ma; Yude Sun; Jiayu Wu; Shiqiang Liu

2009-01-01

284

Wind noise in hearing aids with directional and omnidirectional microphones: Polar characteristics of custom-made hearing aids.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the characteristics of wind noise at the output of in-the-ear, in-the-canal, and completely-in-the-canal hearing aids. The hearing aids were programed to have linear amplification with matching flat frequency responses for directional (DIR) and omnidirectional (OMNI) microphones. The microphone output was then recorded in a quiet wind tunnel when the Knowles electronic manikin for acoustic research (KEMAR) head was turned from 0 degrees to 360 degrees . The overall, 125, 500, and 2000 Hz one-third octave band flow noise levels were calculated and plotted in polar patterns. Correlation coefficients, average differences, and level differences between DIR and OMNI were also calculated. Flow noise levels were the highest when KEMAR was facing the direction of the flow and angles between 190 degrees and 250 degrees . The noise levels were the lowest when the hearing aids were facing the direction of the flow. The polar patterns of DIR and OMNI had similar shapes and DIR generally had higher levels than OMNI. DIR, however, could have lower levels than OMNI in some angles because of its capability to reduce noise in the far field. Comparisons of polar characteristics with behind-the-ear hearing aids, and clinical and engineering design applications of current results are discussed. PMID:20370035

Chung, King; McKibben, Nicholas; Mongeau, Luc

2010-04-01

285

Signal-Processing-Aided Distributed Compression in Virtual MIMO-Based Wireless Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

An adaptive signal-processing-aided distributed source coding scheme for virtual multiple-input-multiple-output communication-based wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is proposed. A computationally inexpensive distributed compression scheme that exploits the spatiotemporal correlations of sensor data is implemented with the aid of a recursive least squares (RLS)-based adaptive correlation tracking algorithm. The tracked correlation is used to compute side information that assists in distributed source

Sudharman K. Jayaweera; Madhavi L. Chebolu; Rakesh K. Donapati

2007-01-01

286

The Relaxed Online Maximum Margin Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a new incremental algorithm for training linear threshold functions: the Relaxed Online Maximum Margin Algorithm, or ROMMA. ROMMA can be viewed as an approximation to the algorithm that repeatedly chooses the hyperplane that classifies previously seen examples correctly with the maximum margin. It is known that such a maximum-margin hypothesis can be computed by minimizing the length of

Yi Li; Philip M. Long

2002-01-01

287

A current mode feed-forward gain control system for a 0.8 V CMOS hearing aid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A current mode feed-forward gain control (CMFGC) technique is presented, which is applied in the front-end system of a hearing aid chip. Compared with conventional automatic gain control (AGC), CMFGC significantly improves the total harmonic distortion (THD) by digital gain control. To attain the digital gain control codes according to the extremely weak output signal from the microphone, a rectifier and a state controller implemented in current mode are proposed. A prototype chip has been designed based on a 0.13 ?m standard CMOS process. The measurement results show that the supply voltage can be as low as 0.6 V. And with the 0.8 V supply voltage, the THD is improved and below 0.06% (-64 dB) at the output level of 500 mVp-p, yet the power consumption is limited to 40 ?W. In addition, the input referred noise is only 4 ?Vrms and the maximum gain is maintained at 33 dB.

Fanyang, Li; Haigang, Yang; Fei, Liu; Tao, Yin

2011-06-01

288

DNA Memory and Input/Output.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project started as a means to design and test various synthetic biology approaches to Biocomputing with DNA. Initial designs focused on biopolymer synthesis (DNA, RNA, protein) and in-vitro focused on computer aided design (e.g. CAD-PAM). Testing of ...

2006-01-01

289

Push-Pull Control of Motor Output  

PubMed Central

Inhibition usually decreases input-output excitability of neurons. If, however, inhibition is coupled to excitation in a push-pull fashion, where inhibition decreases as excitation increases, neuron excitability can be increased. Although the presence of push-pull organization has been demonstrated in single cells, its functional impact on neural processing depends on its effect on the system level. We studied push-pull in the motor output stage of the feline spinal cord, a system which hallows in dependent control of inhibitory and excitatory components. Push-pull organization was clearly present in ankle extensor motoneurons, producing increased peak to peak modulation of synaptic currents. The effect at the system level was equally strong. Independent control of the inhibitory component showed that the stronger the background of inhibition, the greater the peak force production. This illustrates the paradox at the heart of push-pull organization: increased force output can be achieved by increasing background inhibition to provide greater disinhibition.

Johnson, Michael D.; Hyngstrom, Allison S.; Manuel, Marin; Heckman, C.J.

2012-01-01

290

Inhibition of citrate lyase may aid aerobic endurance.  

PubMed

Owing to a substantial increase in glucose uptake by working muscle, glucose homeostasis during sustained aerobic exercise requires a severalfold increase in hepatic glucose output. As exercise continues and liver glycogen declines, an increasing proportion of this elevated glucose output must be provided by gluconeogenesis. Increased gluconeogenic efficiency in trained individuals is a key adaptation promoting increased endurance, since failure of hepatic glucose output to keep pace with muscle uptake rapidly leads to hypoglycaemia and exhaustion. Pre-administration of (-)-hydroxycitrate, a potent inhibitor of citrate lyase found in fruits of the genus Garcinia, may aid endurance during post-absorptive aerobic exercise by promoting gluconeogenesis. Carnitine and bioactive chromium may potentiate this benefit. The utility of this technique may be greatest in exercise regimens designed to promote weight loss. PMID:8569547

McCarty, M F

1995-09-01

291

Using Wavelet Support Vector Machines to Generate Expected Outputs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A test case consists of a set of inputs and a list of expected outputs. To automatically generate the expected outputs for the test case is rather difficult. An approach based on wavelet support vector machines (WSVM) is proposed to overcome it. After training, WSVM is used to automatically generate the expected outputs, which approximate the correct outputs. Actual outputs

Mao Ye; Boqin Feng; Li Zhu; Yao Lin

2006-01-01

292

Noncoherent Combination Of Optical-Heterodyne Outputs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In proposed scheme for reception of amplitude- or frequency-modulated signals transmitted optically through atmosphere, main receiver aperture divided into subapertures equipped with receivers, and outputs of receivers combined noncoherently. Multiple subaperture receivers used instead of attempting to focus all light from single large aperture onto one receiver. Outputs of receivers combined after demodulation. System will not perform as well as fully coherent system, but surpasses single-large-aperture system in presence of atmospheric turbulence. Offers superior performance in presence of distorted wavefront and/or imperfect receiver optics.

Chen, Chien-Chung; Lesh, James R.

1990-01-01

293

Maximum power point tracking: a cost saving necessity in solar energy systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is argued that a well-engineered renewable remote energy system utilizing the principal of maximum power point tracking (MPPT) can be cost effective, has a high reliability, and can improve the quality of life in remote areas. A highly efficient power electronic converter for converting the output voltage of a solar panel or wind generator to the required DC battery

J. H. R. Enslin

1990-01-01

294

Modified hill-top algorithm based maximum power point tracking for solar PV module  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a maximum power point tracking (MPPT) controller employing a modified hill top algorithm implemented using embedded microcontroller for solar photovoltaic (PV) module. The proposed MPPT algorithm has high efficiency compared to conventional hill top algorithm in terms of transferring power from source to load. The designed controller regulates the output voltage through control of the DC-DC boost

S Rajasekar; Rajesh Gupta; Anurag Upadhyay; Puneet Agarwal; Sudhir Kumar; Y. Shasi Kumar

2012-01-01

295

Wind speed sensorless maximum power point tracking control of variable speed wind energy conversion systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A maximum power point tracking (MPPT) controller for variable speed wind energy conversion system (WECS) is proposed. The proposed method, without requiring the knowledge of wind speed, air density or turbine parameters, generates at its output the optimum speed command for speed control loop of rotor flux oriented vector controlled machine side converter control system using only the instantaneous active

J. S. Thongam; P. Bouchard; H. Ezzaidi; M. Ouhrouche

2009-01-01

296

Optimality of the maximum average correlation height filter for detection of targets in noise  

Microsoft Academic Search

A statistical analysis is provided for the properties of the recently developed maximum average correlation height (MACH) filter (Mahalanobis et al. 1994). It is shown that the MACH filter can be interpreted as an optimum filter for the detection of targets in additive noise. A rationale is given for using a popular peak-to-sidelobe ratio metric to characterize the output of

Abhijit Mahalanobis; B. V. K. Vijaya Kumar

1997-01-01

297

RELATING ERROR BOUNDS FOR MAXIMUM CONCENTRATION ESTIMATES TO DIFFUSION METEOROLOGY UNCERTAINTY (JOURNAL VERSION)  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper relates the magnitude of the error bounds of data, used as inputs to a Gaussian dispersion model, to the magnitude of the error bounds of the model output. The research addresses the uncertainty in estimating the maximum concentrations from elevated buoyant sources duri...

298

Climate change implications on maximum monthly stream flow in Cyprus using fuzzy regression models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maximum stream flow data collected from Cyprus Water Development Department and outputs of global circulation models (General Circulation Models, GCM) are used in this study, to develop statistical downscaling techniques in order to investigate the impact of climate change on stream flow at Yermasoyia watershed, Cyprus. The Yermasoyia watershed is located in the southern side of mountain Troodos, northeast of

A. Loukas; M. Spiliotopoulos

2010-01-01

299

Hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell and Thermoelectric Generator for Maximum Power Output in Micro-CHP Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most obvious early market applications for thermoelectric generators (TEG) is decentralized micro combined heat\\u000a and power (CHP) installations of 0.5 kWe to 5 kWe based on fuel cell technology. Through the use of TEG technology for waste\\u000a heat recovery it is possible to increase the electricity production in micro-CHP systems by more than 15%, corresponding to\\u000a system electrical efficiency

L. A. Rosendahl; Paw V. Mortensen; Ali A. Enkeshafi

2011-01-01

300

[Mycoplasmas and AIDS].  

PubMed

AIDS is a complex illness due to HIV type 1 and 2 infection. It is characterized by an important immunodeficiency mainly caused by depletion of CD4+ T lymphocytes. The reasons for this depletion have not been sufficiently clarified yet. In 1986, Shy Ching Lo astonished the scientific community with reported evidence concerning the direct role played by mycoplasma in the etiopathology of AIDS. Since then, different theories have pointed to mycoplasma as cofactors, commensals or opportunistic agents. Although in vivo and in vitro experiments are controversial they suggest a possible mechanism that would explain the synergism between both agents: the mycoplasma belonging to normal intestinal flora could move to urethra, oropharynx or blood due to high risk sexual practice. There it would proliferate favoured by early immunological disorders related to HIV. It has been speculated that several microorganisms including mycoplasma, acting as superantigens, could induce a chronic CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes activation resulting in apoptosis of the infected lymphocytes. The release of cytokines induced by mycoplasma could influence the progression of the disease. PMID:9411491

Coronato, S

1997-01-01

301

Therapeutic AIDS vaccines.  

PubMed

Therapeutic HIV vaccines represent promising strategy as an adjunct or alternative to current antiretroviral treatment options for HIV. Unlike prophylactic AIDS vaccines designed to prevent HIV infection, therapeutic vaccines are given to already infected individuals to help fight the disease by modulating their immune response. The first immunotherapeutic trial in AIDS patients was conducted in 1983. Since then several dozen conventional therapeutic vaccine trials have been carried out. Unfortunately, the results have consistently shown that while HIV-specific immune responses were evident as a result of vaccination, the clinical improvement has been seldom observed. The instances of the apparent clinical benefit were invariably associated with unconventional vaccines that acted in accord with the principles of alloimmunization and/or autologous vaccination. All such vaccines were derived from the blood of HIV carriers or a cell culture and thus they inherently contained allo- or self-antigens unrelated to HIV. This intriguing observation raises the issue whether this clinically successful approach has been unduly neglected. The current strategy biased toward vaccines, which have shown little evidence of clinical efficacy, needs to be diversified and supplemented with research on alternative vaccine approaches geared toward immune tolerance induction. PMID:16787245

Bourinbaiar, A S; Root-Bernstein, R S; Abulafia-Lapid, R; Rytik, P G; Kanev, A N; Jirathitikal, V; Orlovsky, V G

2006-01-01

302

Frequency-Shift Hearing Aid  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed hearing aid maps spectrum of speech into band of lower frequencies at which ear remains sensitive. By redirecting normal speech frequencies into frequency band from 100 to 1,500 Hz, hearing aid allows people to understand normal conversation, including telephone calls. Principle operation of hearing aid adapted to other uses such as, clearing up noisy telephone or radio communication. In addition, loud-speakers more easily understood in presence of high background noise.

Weinstein, Leonard M.

1994-01-01

303

Output estimation of Si-based photovoltaic modules with outdoor environment and output map  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estimation of the output energy of photovoltaic (PV) modules is difficult, because the output energy of PV modules installed outdoors is influenced by various environmental factors. To estimate the output energy, specifically the annual energy production from a PV module, a new method is proposed using contour maps centered on environmental factors. The output energy contour map estimated using the proposed method was quite similar to the experimentally measured contour map. The error ratios of the estimated annual energy production against that experimentally measured were lower than 3.7% and 7.6% for single crystalline and amorphous silicon PV modules, respectively. The results indicate that this method is useful to estimate the output energy of PV modules.

Takahashi, H.; Fukushige, S.; Minemoto, T.; Takakura, H.

2009-01-01

304

Economic and Ecological Input-Output Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This documentation presents an input-output model which has been modified to include the environmental impact of economic operation. In lieu of market prices for the environmental factors, trade-offs with regional income and employment are estimated for use in regional planning. The program is written in FORTRAN IV with single precision for the…

Blaylock, James E.; Jones, Lonnie L.

305

Finite Element Output Bounds for Hyperbolic Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a Neumann-subproblem a posteriori finite element error bound technique for linear stationary scalar advection problems. The method is similar in many respects to the previous output bound technique developed for elliptic problems. In the new approach, however, the primal residual is enhanced with a streamline diffusion term. We first formulate the bound algorithm, with particular emphasis on the

Machiels

2000-01-01

306

Solar cell system having alternating current output  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A monolithic multijunction solar cell was modified by fabricating an integrated circuit inverter on the back of the cell to produce a device capable of generating an alternating current output. In another embodiment, integrated curcuit power conditioning electronics was incorporated in a module containing a solar cell power supply.

Evans, J. C., Jr. (inventor)

1980-01-01

307

Better sensors = better imagery = better outputs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The photogrammetric workflow has traditionally relied upon the use of high quality metric cameras that enable the acquisition of good quality imagery, from which outputs with a well constrained geometry can be obtained. However with the proliferation of low altitude aerial photography from a range of platforms, the quality of sensor itself has largely become of secondary importance in order to reduce weight and minimise cost. These instruments are often "off-the-shelf" consumer digital cameras, not designed for either aerial photography or photogrammetry. This imposes limitations upon the quality of imagery that can be collected and outputs subsequently produced. Photogrammetric techniques such as a self-calibrating bundle adjustment or Structure from Motion allow the use of "less stable" imagery. Yet at the simplest level, the better the sensor, the better the imagery, the better the output. Where analysis and the validity of scientific conclusions are dependent upon the quality of outputs it is critical that consideration is given to the choice of sensor - the wide availability and application of UAVs across disciplines means that users may not be aware of such choices and their implications. This presentation is designed to stimulate discussion around the use of consumer cameras with a focus upon the exposure triangle of ISO-aperture-shutter speed and how this is related to dynamic range and the signal-to-noise ratio. A further important factor is understanding the ground resolution element in terms of resolution, focal length, sensor size (crop factor) and height.

Smith, Michael

2014-05-01

308

Smoothing the output from a DAC  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Circuit smooths stepped waveform from analog-to-digital converter without appreciable phase shift between stepped input signal and smoothed output signal and without any effect from stepping rate. Waveform produced is suitable for driving controls used in manufacturing processes, aerospace systems, and automobiles.

Wagner, C.

1980-01-01

309

Uncertainties in Predicting Solar Panel Power Output.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The problem of calculating solar panel power output at launch and during a space mission is considered. The major sources of uncertainty and error in predicting the post launch electrical performance of the panel are considered. A general discussion of er...

B. Anspaugh

1974-01-01

310

Input and output in chemistry applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A discussion of input and output (1/0) requirements for broad classes of computational chemistry applications is presented. An analysis of 1/0 requirements is presented for Hartree-Fock algorithms along with a general description of correlated electronic ...

R. A. Kendall M. F. Guest

1994-01-01

311

Characterizing Detonator Output Using Dynamic Witness Plates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A sub-microsecond, time-resolved micro-particle-image velocimetry (PIV) system is developed to investigate the output of explosive detonators. Detonator output is directed into a transparent solid that serves as a dynamic witness plate and instantaneous shock and material velocities are measured in a two-dimensional plane cutting through the shock wave as it propagates through the solid. For the case of unloaded initiators (e.g. exploding bridge wires, exploding foil initiators, etc.) the witness plate serves as a surrogate for the explosive material that would normally be detonated. The velocity-field measurements quantify the velocity of the shocked material and visualize the geometry of the shocked region. Furthermore, the time-evolution of the velocity-field can be measured at intervals as small as 10 ns using the PIV system. Current experimental results of unloaded exploding bridge wire output in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) witness plates demonstrate 20 MHz velocity-field sampling just 300 ns after initiation of the wire. Successful application of the PIV system to full-up explosive detonator output is also demonstrated.

Murphy, Michael; Adrian, Ronald

2009-06-01

312

RAM-Based parallel-output controller  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Selected bit strings in serial-data link are extracted for processing. Controller is programmable interface between serial-data link and peripherals that accept parallel data. It can be used to drive displays, printers, plotters, digital-to-analog converters, and parallel-output ports.

Niswander, J. K.; Stattel, R. J.

1980-01-01

313

Nonlinear inversion-based output tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

An inversion procedure is introduced for nonlinear systems which constructs a bounded input trajectory in the preimage of a desired output trajectory. In the case of minimum phase systems, the trajectory produced agrees with that generated by Hirschorn's inverse dynamic system; however, the preimage trajectory is noncausal (rather than unstable) in the nonminimum phase case. In addition, the analysis leads

Santosh Devasia; Degang Chen; Brad Paden

1996-01-01

314

Robust regional pole assignment with output feedback  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considers output feedback control design for regional pole placement for continuous time systems. The techniques presented are based on covariance control theory and yield parametrizations of controllers that assign closed loop poles into regions of specified shape like vertical strip, circle, and parabola. Robustification of pole placement to accommodate plant perturbations and derivation of covariance upper bounds are included

Engin Yaz; Robert E. Skelton; Karolos Grigoriadis

1993-01-01

315

Coatings Boost Solar-Cell Outputs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Efficiencies increased by more-complete utilization of incident light. Electrical outputs of thin solar photovoltaic cells made of dendritic-web silicon increased by combination of front-surface, antireflective coatings and back-surface, reflective coatings. Improvements achieved recently through theoretical and experimental studies of ways to optimize coatings for particular wavelengths of incident light, cell thicknesses, and cell materials.

Rohatgi, Ajeet; Campbell, Robert B.; O'Keefe, T. W.; Rai-Choudbury, Posenjit; Hoffman, Richard A.

1988-01-01

316

Traditional healers and AIDS prevention.  

PubMed

A qualitative case study of the views and experiences of an isangoma was undertaken to explore potential preventive health roles that traditional healers could play with regard to the AIDS epidemic. The isangoma's knowledge of the transmission mechanisms, risk groups and prevention strategies for AIDS was accurate. Her questionable beliefs included a Nazi conspiracy as the source of AIDS, a string ritual to prevent promiscuity and a conviction that she could treat AIDS. Notwithstanding the latter beliefs, her generally factual knowledge of AIDS indicated that she could be an important source of AIDS information in the community; she was, in fact, already providing some AIDS counselling. Considering their large clientele, established preventive health ethic, extensive distribution in rural areas and potential ability to influence the contextual factors that affect risk-reducing behaviours (e.g. condom use), it is recommended that traditional healers be incorporated into AIDS prevention programmes where they can play a role in community-based AIDS education and condom promotion. PMID:8211461

Abdool Karim, S S

1993-06-01

317

Public knowledge about AIDS increasing.  

PubMed

In response to concern over the perceived limited effectiveness of Department of Health and Social Security (UK) advertising campaigns to inform the public of the basic facts of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), a prospective questionnaire study was undertaken in Southampton, England to test the effectiveness of government education prior to a January, 1987 government television/leaflet advertising campaign. 300 questionnaires about AIDS were mailed in December of 1986 to a sample drawn from electoral rolls. The response rate was 61%. Most of the questions were drawn from material covered in the campaign. The results seemed to indicate a small overall increase in knowledge about AIDS. Some changes from a June survey were noted, e.g.: more people were aware that AIDS is a virus for which there is no cure and that it is not readily transmitted by sharing washing, eating or drinking utensils; more people believed that the statement that women are at greater risk for catching AIDS is false. Respondents were generally favorable to the government's continued use of television, even with explicit language, and to its use of the schools, for AIDS education. Many were not aware of the dangers to intravenous drug users or of the symptoms of AIDS. Other surveys have shown an increasing knowledge of AIDS dangers. It is possible that television coverage of the problem will continue to be necessary, in order that less literate populations be reached. Further AIDS health education in general is needed. PMID:3105789

Campbell, M J; Waters, W E

1987-04-01

318

Muscle power output during escape responses in an Antarctic fish  

PubMed

Escape responses (C-shaped fast-starts) were filmed at 500 frames s-1 in the Antarctic rock cod (Notothenia coriiceps) at 0 °C. The activation and strain patterns of the superficial fast myotomal muscle were measured simultaneously using electromyography and sonomicrometry respectively. In order to bend the body into the initial C-shape, the muscle fibres in the rostral myotomes (at 0.35L, where L is total length) shortened by up to 13 % of their resting length at a maximum velocity of 1.68 fibre lengths s-1. During the contralateral contraction, muscle fibres were stretched (by 5 % and 7 % at 0.35L and 0.65L, respectively) and were activated prior to the end of lengthening, before shortening by up to 12 % of resting fibre length (peak-to-peak strain). Representative strain records were digitised to create cyclical events corresponding to the C-bend and contralateral contraction. Isolated fibres were subjected to the abstracted strain cycles and stimulated at the same point and for the same duration as occurs in vivo. During the early phase of shortening, muscle shortening velocity (V) increased dramatically whilst the load was relatively constant and represented a substantial fraction of the maximum isometric stress. Pre-stretch of active muscle was associated with significant force enhancement. For the contralateral contraction, V exceeded that predicted by the steady-state force­velocity relationship for considerable periods during each tailbeat, contributing to relatively high maximum instantaneous power outputs of up to 290 W kg-1 wet muscle mass. In vitro experiments, involving adjusting strain, cycle duration and stimulation parameters, indicated that in vivo muscle fibres produce close to their maximum power. During escape responses, the maximum velocity and acceleration recorded from the centre of gravity of the fish were 0.71±0.03 m s-1 and 17.1±1.4 m s-2, respectively (mean ± s.e.m., N=7 fish). Muscle performance was sufficient to produce maximum velocities and accelerations that were within the lower end of the range reported for temperate-zone fish. PMID:9318455

Franklin; Johnston

1997-01-01

319

The range scheduling aid  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Air Force Space Command schedules telemetry, tracking and control activities across the Air Force Satellite Control network. The Range Scheduling Aid (RSA) is a rapid prototype combining a user-friendly, portable, graphical interface with a sophisticated object-oriented database. The RSA has been a rapid prototyping effort whose purpose is to elucidate and define suitable technology for enhancing the performance of the range schedulers. Designing a system to assist schedulers in their task and using their current techniques as well as enhancements enabled by an electronic environment, has created a continuously developing model that will serve as a standard for future range scheduling systems. The RSA system is easy to use, easily ported between platforms, fast, and provides a set of tools for the scheduler that substantially increases his productivity.

Halbfinger, Eliezer M.; Smith, Barry D.

1991-01-01

320

Spatial dependence of output pulse delay in a niobium nitride nanowire superconducting single-photon detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the position-dependent variation in output pulse timing across a superconducting single-photon detector. Our device consists of a single niobium nitride nanowire meander (100 nm width, 4 nm film thickness, 2 mm length). We use a confocal microscope configuration (full width at half maximum-spot size 1.3 ?m at 1550 nm wavelength) and a femtosecond laser to study local variations in detection efficiency and output pulse timing. Pulse delays of up to 50 ps across the device correlate to local detection efficiency and resistance variations. This study indicates an underlying mechanism for timing jitter in superconducting nanowire devices.

O'Connor, J. A.; Tanner, M. G.; Natarajan, C. M.; Buller, G. S.; Warburton, R. J.; Miki, S.; Wang, Z.; Nam, S. W.; Hadfield, R. H.

2011-05-01

321

Greater efforts to combat AIDS.  

PubMed

In China the first AIDS case was reported in 1985, and by August 1996 there were 4305 HIV-infected patients registered, of whom 131 had full-blown AIDS. The number of afflicted people doubled every year after 1994. The actual number of infected people is estimated to range from 50,000 to 100,000. Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are the main cause of the spreading of AIDS. By the end of 1995 China had a cumulated total of 1,744,659 cases of STDs including 362,000 cases that were registered in 1995 alone. The government launched efforts to prevent and treat AIDS by laws, regulations, and policies. An information, education, and communication (IEC) program was started using the mass media. A national network has been set up for monitoring AIDS and HIV infection. Exhibitions and counseling sessions are also held regularly. Nevertheless, the epidemic spread of AIDS in neighboring countries also poses a threat to Chinese public health. Therefore, the government is intensifying its efforts to curb drug addiction and prostitution and to strengthen the management of transfusion and blood products. The Beijing municipal government funded the establishment of a network for the monitoring and prevention of AIDS, with 25 laboratories for screening for AIDS and 10 sub-centers for STD prevention and treatment. The Beijing Association for Preventing STDs and AIDS was also founded and a telephone hot-line in operation delivers counseling on STDs and AIDS. An exhibition on AIDS prevention was held in December, 1996, in a park in the center of the city, and similar exhibitions will be held in other parts of the country. PMID:12347917

1997-04-01

322

'Brain aided' musk design.  

PubMed

This brief review, including new experimental results, is the summary of a talk at the RSC/SCI conference flavours & fragrances 2004 in Manchester, United Kingdom, 12-14 May, 2004. Musk odorants have been a classical domain for computer aided structure-odor relationship (SOR) studies, but, contrary to sandalwood or amber odorants, they belong to structurally very different substance classes, e.g., macrocycles, aromatic polycycles, and nitro arenes. Most SOR computer models are restricted to one class, excluding structural diversity to increase predictability. But even within a musk family, structural similarities are often due to a common synthetic access, and do not reflect binding requirements for the musk receptor. Beyond that, the importance of structural key features can be missed, which is discussed on the example of the (4S)-Me group of Galaxolide. By synthesis and olfactory evaluation of Galaxolide-like shaped macrobicycles as model compounds for conformationally constrained (12R)-12-methyltridecano-13-lactone, it was investigated how likely there is more than one musk receptor. Finally, the new family of so-called linear musks is discussed, especially with respect to the conformational importance of the gem-2',2'-dimethyl moiety in Helvetolide and the additional 2'-carbonyl group of Romandolide--structural features that strongly diminish the musk odor of macrocycles. On the example of 2-methyl-2-[(E)-1,2,4-trimethylpent-2-enyloxy]propyl esters, the 'brain-aided' design and conformational analysis of musk odorants is illustrated. The overview concludes with the synthesis, odor evaluation, and conformational discussion of the new musk odorant 2-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl)propanoic acid ethoxycarbonylmethyl ester. PMID:17191832

Kraft, Philip

2004-12-01

323

A Multistage Interleaved Synchronous Buck Converter With Integrated Output Filter in 0.18 ?m SiGe Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design and analysis of a fully integrated multistage interleaved synchronous buck dc-dc converter with on-chip filter inductor and capacitor is presented. The dc-dc converter is designed and fabricated in 0.18 mum SiGe RF BiCMOS process technology and generates 1.5 V-2.0 V programmable output voltage supporting a maximum output current of 200 mA. High switching frequency of 45 MHz, multiphase

Siamak Abedinpour; Bertan Bakkaloglu; Sayfe Kiaei

2007-01-01

324

Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).  

PubMed

The International Planned Parenthood Medical Advisory Panel has developed recommendations to assist family planning associations in playing a more active role in the prevention and control of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Of primary importance is an effective program of information and education aimed at communicating the following facts: AIDS is a fatal disease for which there is no cure; AIDS is spread by sexual intercourse, contaminated blood, and contaminated needles; an infected woman can transmit AIDS to her fetus during pregnancy; a monogamous sexual relationship is the surest way to avoid AIDS infection; condom use is good protection; an infected person can look and feel well, yet still be able to transmit the AIDS virus; and AIDS is not spread by ordinary contact with an infected person. Family planning associations should include information on AIDS in all existing IEC projects, as well as develop new materials. Among the target audiences for IEC activities are family planning workers, family planning clients, and the general public including youth, teachers, parents, employers, and national leaders. Special attention should be given to high-risk groups such as homosexual and bisexual men, hemophiliacs, male and female prostitutes, clients of sexually transmitted disease clinics, people with many sexual partners, illegal users of intravenous drugs, and the sexual partners of those in any of these groups. Wide promotion of condom use is a priority activity for family planning organizations. PMID:12340977

1987-02-01

325

Translation: Aids, Robots, and Automation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines electronic aids to translation both as ways to automate it and as an approach to solve problems resulting from shortage of qualified translators. Describes the limitations of robotic MT (Machine Translation) systems, viewing MAT (Machine-Aided Translation) as the only practical solution and the best vehicle for further automation. (MES)

Andreyewsky, Alexander

1981-01-01

326

Aids and the nervous system  

SciTech Connect

This book contains 19 chapters. Some of the titles are: Neuroradiology of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; The AIDS dementia complex; primary infection with human immunodeficiency virus; The biology of the human immunodeficiency virus and its role in neurological disease; and Algorithms for the treatment of AIDS patients with neurological disease.

Rosenblum, M.L. (Univ. of California School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA (US)); Levy, R.M. (Northwestern Univ. Medical School, Chicago, IL (US)); Bredesen, D.E. (Univ. of California School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA (US))

1988-01-01

327

Find HIV/AIDS Care  

MedlinePLUS

... gov presents private insurance plans, public programs and community services available, based upon where you live, and explains ... options under the Affordable Care Act. Ryan White Community ... for HIV/AIDS services. State HIV/AIDS Hotlines will put you in ...

328

Teaching Aids at Low Cost.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the activities of Teaching Aids at Low Cost (TALC), a nonprofit component of the Institute of Child Health in London. TALC develops and distributes books, sets of slides, flannelgraphs, and other teaching aids to developing nations for use in teaching health workers--nurses, auxiliary medical workers, medical students, and doctors. (MBR)

King, Felicity Savage

1985-01-01

329

HIV/AIDS and Pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

If you have HIV/AIDS and find out you are pregnant or think you may be pregnant, you should let your health care provider know as soon as possible. Some HIV/AIDS medicines may harm your baby. Your health care ...

330

Human Sexuality/AIDS Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary intent of this theme issue is to clarify the urgent problems faced by the nation's youth in regard to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and human sexuality for Kansas educators and curriculum developers. The first section includes an overview of the Kansas Department of Education's mandate/regulation for human sexuality/AIDS

Foyle, Harvey C., Ed.; Wilson, John H., Ed.

1989-01-01

331

AIDS Epidemic May Be Subsiding  

MedlinePLUS

... Related MedlinePlus Pages HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS Medicines International Health WEDNESDAY, July 16, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- A new ... HIV are getting the lifesaving medications they need. International health officials even set a tentative date for the ...

332

Spacelab output processing system architectural study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two different system architectures are presented. The two architectures are derived from two different data flows within the Spacelab Output Processing System. The major differences between these system architectures are in the position of the decommutation function (the first architecture performs decommutation in the latter half of the system and the second architecture performs that function in the front end of the system). In order to be examined, the system was divided into five stand-alone subsystems; Work Assembler, Mass Storage System, Output Processor, Peripheral Pool, and Resource Monitor. The work load of each subsystem was estimated independent of the specific devices to be used. The candidate devices were surveyed from a wide sampling of off-the-shelf devices. Analytical expressions were developed to quantify the projected workload in conjunction with typical devices which would adequately handle the subsystem tasks. All of the study efforts were then directed toward preparing performance and cost curves for each architecture subsystem.

1977-01-01

333

Electronic filters, signal conversion apparatus, hearing aids and methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An electronic filter for filtering an electrical signal. Signal processing circuitry therein includes a logarithmic filter having a series of filter stages with inputs and outputs in cascade and respective circuits associated with the filter stages for storing electrical representations of filter parameters. The filter stages include circuits for respectively adding the electrical representations of the filter parameters to the electrical signal to be filtered thereby producing a set of filter sum signals. At least one of the filter stages includes circuitry for producing a filter signal in substantially logarithmic form at its output by combining a filter sum signal for that filter stage with a signal from an output of another filter stage. The signal processing circuitry produces an intermediate output signal, and a multiplexer connected to the signal processing circuit multiplexes the intermediate output signal with the electrical signal to be filtered so that the logarithmic filter operates as both a logarithmic prefilter and a logarithmic postfilter. Other electronic filters, signal conversion apparatus, electroacoustic systems, hearing aids and methods are also disclosed.

Morley, Jr., Robert E. (Inventor); Engebretson, A. Maynard (Inventor); Engel, George L. (Inventor); Sullivan, Thomas J. (Inventor)

1994-01-01

334

Global HIV / AIDS & STD Surveillance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, provided by the United Nations World Health Organization and the UNAIDS Joint Programme on HIV/AIDS, contains Report on the global HIV/AIDS epidemic - June 1998, along with Adobe Acrobat (.pdf) fact sheets for 167 countries. Users can also access report annex data on "estimated and reported global AIDS cases" in Microsoft Excel and .dif format. Among the report's findings: 5.8 million people were infected with HIV in 1997; 30.6 million people are living with HIV/AIDS; 2.3 million died of AIDS in 1997; 11.7 million have died since the beginning of the epidemic; and 8.2 million children have been orphaned since the beginning of the epidemic. The report and tables are available in English, French, and Spanish (the latter two versions are available in .pdf format only).

1998-01-01

335

Maximum Urban Heat Island Intensity in Seoul.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The maximum urban heat island (UHI) intensity in Seoul, Korea, is investigated using data measured at two meteorological observatories (an urban site and a rural site) during the period of 1973-96. The average maximum UHI is weakest in summer and is strong in autumn and winter. Similar to previous studies for other cities, the maximum UHI intensity is more frequently observed in the nighttime than in the daytime, decreases with increasing wind speed, and is pronounced for clear skies. A multiple linear regression analysis is performed to relate the maximum UHI to meteorological elements. Four predictors considered in this study are the maximum UHI intensity for the previous day, wind speed, cloudiness, and relative humidity. The previous-day maximum UHI intensity is positively correlated with the maximum UHI, and the wind speed, cloudiness, and relative humidity are negatively correlated with the maximum UHI intensity. Among the four predictors, the previous-day maximum UHI intensity is the most important. The relative importance among the predictors varies depending on time of day and season. A three-layer back-propagation neural network model with the four predictors as input units is constructed to predict the maximum UHI intensity in Seoul, and its performance is compared with that of a multiple linear regression model. For all test datasets, the neural network model improves upon the regression model in predicting the maximum UHI intensity. The improvement of the neural network model upon the regression model is 6.3% for the unstratified test data, is higher in the daytime (6.1%) than in the nighttime (3.3%), and ranges from 0.8% in spring to 6.5% in winter.

Kim, Yeon-Hee; Baik, Jong-Jin

2002-06-01

336

Finite Element Output Bounds for Hyperbolic Problems  

SciTech Connect

We propose a Neumann-subproblem a posteriori finite element error bound technique for linear stationary scalar advection problems. The method is similar in many respects to the previous output bound technique developed for elliptic problems. In the new approach, however, the primal residual is enhanced with a streamline diffusion term. We first formulate the bound algorithm, with particular emphasis on the proof of the bounding properties; then, we provide numerical results for an illustrative example.

Machiels, L.

2000-03-27

337

Input\\/Output Compatibility of Reactive Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The notion of I\\/O compatibility of reactive systems is defined. It models the fact that two systems can be connected and establish\\u000a a correct dialogue through their input and output events. I\\/O compatibility covers safeness and liveness properties that can\\u000a be checked with a polynomial-time decision procedure. The relationship between observational equivalence, I\\/O compatibility\\u000a and input properness is also studied

Josep Carmona; Jordi Cortadella

2002-01-01

338

Research output, socialization, and the biglan model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study first presents a test of the Biglan model of faculty subcultures using measures of research output and then tests the model controlling for the effects of faculty socialization. Developed in 1973, the Biglan model categorizes academic subject areas into three dimensions: hard-soft, pure-applied, and life-nonlife. Although the model has been empirically validated seven times, only the present test

John W. Creswell; John P. Bean

1981-01-01

339

Expedited analysis of DFT outputs: introducing MOAnalyzer.  

PubMed

MOAnalyzer, a Matlab-based program, has been developed to facilitate the analysis of density functional theory output files from ORCA. The program allows the user to define fragments within a molecule and then provides information on the contribution of each fragment to the molecular orbitals based on the Loewdin population analysis. Correlations to spectroscopy (X-ray absorption and X-ray emission) are also obtained, and the resulting information can be visualized in tables or MO diagrams. PMID:22718497

Delgado-Jaime, Mario Ulises; DeBeer, Serena

2012-10-15

340

Sampled-data output regulation for ships  

Microsoft Academic Search

In navigation and control of vehicles such as automotives, ships and airplanes, control of attitude and\\/or trajectories is important. In this paper we consider the stabilization and the step tracking control problems of a ship. Using the output regulation of constant exogenous signals for linear sampled-data systems with time-varying measurement matrices, we design step tracking controllers. Then we apply the

Hirotaka Kaji; Hitoshi Katayama

2008-01-01

341

Characterizing detonator output using dynamic witness plates  

SciTech Connect

A sub-microsecond, time-resolved micro-particle-image velocimetry (PIV) system is developed to investigate the output of explosive detonators. Detonator output is directed into a transparent solid that serves as a dynamic witness plate and instantaneous shock and material velocities are measured in a two-dimensional plane cutting through the shock wave as it propagates through the solid. For the case of unloaded initiators (e.g. exploding bridge wires, exploding foil initiators, etc.) the witness plate serves as a surrogate for the explosive material that would normally be detonated. The velocity-field measurements quantify the velocity of the shocked material and visualize the geometry of the shocked region. Furthermore, the time-evolution of the velocity-field can be measured at intervals as small as 10 ns using the PIV system. Current experimental results of unloaded exploding bridge wire output in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) witness plates demonstrate 20 MHz velocity-field sampling just 300 ns after initiation of the wire.

Murphy, Michael John [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Adrian, Ronald J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

342

Characterizing Detonator Output Using Dynamic Witness Plates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A sub-microsecond, time-resolved micro-particle-image velocimetry (PIV) system is developed to investigate the output of explosive detonators. Detonator output is directed into a transparent solid that serves as a dynamic witness plate and instantaneous shock and material velocities are measured in a two-dimensional plane cutting through the shock wave as it propagates through the solid. For the case of unloaded initiators (e.g. exploding bridge wires, exploding foil initiators, etc.) the witness plate serves as a surrogate for the explosive material that would normally be detonated. The velocity-field measurements quantify the velocity of the shocked material and visualize the geometry of the shocked region. Furthermore, the time-evolution of the velocity-field can be measured at intervals as small as 10 ns using the PIV system. Current experimental results of unloaded exploding bridge wire output in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) witness plates demonstrate 20 MHz velocity-field sampling just 300 ns after initiation of the wire.

Murphy, Michael J.; Adrian, Ronald J.

2009-12-01

343

Maximum likelihood identification of non-stationary operational data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In-operation modal analysis has become a valid alternative for structures where a classic input-output test would be difficult if not impossible to conduct. Due to practical considerations, measurements are sometimes performed in patches (roving sensor setups) instead of covering the entire structure at once. In practice, one is often confronted with non-stationary ambient excitation sources (e.g., wind, traffic, waves, etc.). Since the scaling of operational mode shape estimates depends on the unknown level of the ambient excitation, an extra effort is required in order to correctly merge the different parts of the mode shapes. In this contribution, two different approaches, for merging operational mode shapes from non-stationary data, are proposed. Both methods are based upon a single maximum likelihood estimation procedure. For comparison and validation, both techniques were applied to non-stationary data sets obtained by scanning laser vibrometry as well as the Z24 bridge bench mark data.

Parloo, E.; Guillaume, P.; Cauberghe, B.

2003-12-01

344

Extreme inputs/outputs for multiple input multiple output linear systems.  

SciTech Connect

A linear structure is excited at multiple points with a stationary normal random process. The response of the structure is measured at multiple outputs. If the auto spectral densities of the inputs are specified, the phase relationships between the inputs are derived that will minimize or maximize the trace of the auto spectral density matrix of the outputs. If the autospectral densities of the outputs are specified, the phase relationships between the outputs that will minimize or maximize the trace of the input auto spectral density matrix are derived. It is shown that other phase relationships and ordinary coherence less than one will result in a trace intermediate between these extremes. Least favorable response and some classes of critical response are special cases of the development. It is shown that the derivation for stationary random waveforms can also be applied to nonstationary random, transients, and deterministic waveforms.

Smallwood, David Ora

2005-09-01

345

Money Does Granger-Cause Output in the Bivariate Money-Output Relation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A bivariate Granger-causality test on money and output finds statistically significant causality when data are measured in log levels, but not when they are measured in first differences of the logs. Bootstrap simulation experiments indicate that, most pr...

L. J. Christiano, L. Ljungqvist

2002-01-01

346

On the maximum mass of neutron stars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Upper limits to the maximum mass of neutron stars with locally isotropic pressure are derived within the framework of general relativity and discussed. The equations of stellar structure for stars with locally anisotropic pressure are derived from the field equations of general relativity, and upper limits to the maximum mass for such stars as derived and discussed. The equations of

D. R. Mikkelsen

1975-01-01

347

49 CFR 107.329 - Maximum penalties.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the maximum civil penalty is $175,000 if the violation results in death, serious illness...no minimum civil penalty, except for a minimum...the maximum civil penalty is $175,000 if the violation results in death, serious...

2013-10-01

348

49 CFR 107.329 - Maximum penalties.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the maximum civil penalty is $100,000 if the violation results in death, serious illness...minimum $450 civil penalty applies to a violation...the maximum civil penalty is $100,000 if the violation results in death, serious...

2009-10-01

349

49 CFR 107.329 - Maximum penalties.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the maximum civil penalty is $110,000 if the violation results in death, serious illness...minimum $495 civil penalty applies to a violation...the maximum civil penalty is $110,000 if the violation results in death, serious...

2010-10-01

350

Radiochemical spectral analysis by maximum likelihood  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radiochemical spectral analysis problem is expressed mathematically. ; Maximum likelihood estimates are derived for the two situations of standard ; spectra well-known and standard spectra imprecise. The maximum likelihood method ; is applied to backward-scattered alpha particle analysis of lunar soil samples ; from the Surveyor V moonlander. The standard spectra are assumed known. (JSR)

W. L. Nicholson; D. L. Jr. Stevens

1975-01-01

351

Maximum Likelihood Estimation in Generalized Rasch Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review various models and techniques that have been proposed for item analysis according to the ideas of Rasch. A general model is proposed that unifies them, and maximum likelihood procedures are discussed for this general model. We show that unconditional maximum likelihood estimation in the functional Rasch model, as proposed by Wright and Haberman, is an important special case.

Jan De Leeuw; Norman Verhelst

1986-01-01

352

Maximum Entropy Pole-Zero Estimation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Maximum Entropy has been suggested by numerous authors as a good objective measure for optimally modeling the power spectrum of a wide-sense stationary random process. This documents describes a new Maximum Entropy pole-zero spectrum estimation method. Th...

B. R. Musicus A. M. Kabel

1985-01-01

353

47 CFR 2.1046 - Measurements required: RF power output.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 false Measurements required: RF power output. 2.1046 Section 2...Certification § 2.1046 Measurements required: RF power output. (a) For transmitters...radiotelephone, power output shall be measured at the RF output terminals when the...

2009-10-01

354

47 CFR 2.1046 - Measurements required: RF power output.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Measurements required: RF power output. 2.1046 Section 2...Certification § 2.1046 Measurements required: RF power output. (a) For transmitters...radiotelephone, power output shall be measured at the RF output terminals when the...

2010-10-01

355

Delay Testing of Digital Circuits by Output Waveform Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method for delay fault testing of digital circuits is presented. Unlike catastrophic failures that simply have incorrect steady-state logic values at the circuit outputs, delay faults change the shape of the output waveforms by moving the signal transitions in time. Therefore, since the output waveforms contain information about the circuit delays, instead of only latching the outputs at

Piero Franco; Edward J. Mccluskey

1991-01-01

356

The lead of output over inflation in sticky price models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Output growth is negatively correlated with inflation, and detrended output is positively correlated with inflation, in the major North American and European economies. In addition, output growth and detrended output lead inflation. I explore the consistency of these correlations with three models of price adjustment: the partial adjustment model, a staggered price setting model, and the P-bar model. The ratio

Michael T. Kiley

1996-01-01

357

Comparison of CAISO-run Plexos output with LLNL-run Plexos output  

SciTech Connect

In this report we compare the output of the California Independent System Operator (CAISO) 33% RPS Plexos model when run on various computing systems. Specifically, we compare the output resulting from running the model on CAISO's computers (Windows) and LLNL's computers (both Windows and Linux). We conclude that the differences between the three results are negligible in the context of the entire system and likely attributed to minor differences in Plexos version numbers as well as the MIP solver used in each case.

Schmidt, A; Meyers, C; Smith, S

2011-12-20

358

Magnetic field generated resistivity maximum in graphite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In zero magnetic field, B, the electrical resistivity, rho(O,T) of highly oriented pyrolytic (polycrystalline) graphite drops smoothly with decreasing T, becoming constant below 4 K. However, in a fixed applied magnetic field B, the resistivity rho(B,T) goes through a maximum as a function of T, with larger maximum for larger B. The temperature of the maximum increases with B, but saturates to a constant value near 25 K (exact T depends on sample) at high B. In single crystal graphite a maximum in rho(B,T) as a function of T is also present, but has the effects of Landau level quantization superimposed. Several possible explanations for the rho(B,T) maximum are proposed, but a complete explanation awaits detailed calculations involving the energy band structure of graphite, and the particular scattering mechanisms involved.

Wollam, J. A.; Kreps, L. W.; Rojeski, M.; Vold, T.; Devaty, R.

1976-01-01

359

Maximum oxygen uptake utilising different treadmill protocols.  

PubMed Central

The study compared five treadmill protocols (four utilising a motorised, and one a non-motorised, treadmill) on maximum oxygen uptake. The five male and five female subjects, all actively engaged in training, were assigned the tests in random order. Statistical analysis revealed no significant differences between the five protocols for maximal oxygen uptake, maximum ventilation, maximum heart rate and blood lactate inflection point, relative to maximal oxygen uptake. Significant differences were observed between the 3' protocol with incline increments of 1.5% and all other protocols on time to exhaustion (p = less than 0.01) and maximum blood lactate levels (HLA, p = less than 0.05). The results indicate that the protocols used in this study did not significantly influence the maximum oxygen uptake attained. Images p74-a p74-b p74-c

Davies, B.; Daggett, A.; Jakeman, P.; Mulhall, J.

1984-01-01

360

Computer-aided diagnosis in medical imaging: Historical review, current status and future potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) has become one of the major research subjects in medical imaging and diagnostic radiology. In this article, the motivation and philosophy for early development of CAD schemes are presented together with the current status and future potential of CAD in a PACS environment. With CAD, radiologists use the computer output as a \\

Kunio Doi

2007-01-01

361

Laser safety evaluation and output measurements for the VITAL -2 Variable Intensity Tactical Aiming Light (laser) used with the Proforce M-4 system in force-on-force exercises.  

SciTech Connect

A laser safety hazard evaluation and pertinent output measurements were performed (June 2003 through August 2003) on several VITAL-2 Variable Intensity Tactical Aiming Light--infrared laser, associated with the Proforce M-4 system used in force-on-force exercises. The VITAL-2 contains two diode lasers presenting 'Extended Source' viewing out to a range on the order of 1.3 meters before reverting to a 'Small Source' viewing hazard. Laser hazard evaluation was performed in concert with the ANSI Std. Z136.1-2000 for the safe use of lasers and the ANSI Std. Z136.6-2000 for the safe use of lasers outdoors. The results of the laser hazard analysis for the VITAL-2, indicates that this Tactical Aiming IR laser presents a Class 1 laser hazard to personnel in the area of use. Field measurements performed on 71 units confirmed that the radiant outputs were at all times below the Allowable Emission Limit and that the irradiance of the laser spot was at all locations below the Maximum Exposure Limit. This system is eye-safe and it may be used under current SNL policy in force-on-force exercises. The VITAL-2 Variable Intensity Tactical Aiming Light does not present a laser hazard greater than Class 1, to aided viewing with binoculars.

Augustoni, Arnold L.

2004-02-01

362

AIDS: "it's the bacteria, stupid!".  

PubMed

Acid-fast tuberculous mycobacterial infections are common in AIDS and are regarded as secondary "opportunistic infections." According to the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, TB is the major attributable cause of death in AIDS patients. Could such bacteria play a primary or causative role in AIDS? Certainly, In screening tests for HIV, there is frequent, up to 70%, cross-reactivity, between the gag and pol proteins of HIV and patients with mycobacterial infections such as tuberculosis. By 1972, five years before gays started dying in the U.S., Rolland wrote Genital Tuberculosis, a Forgotten Disease? And ironically, in 1979, on the eve of AIDS recognition, Gondzik and Jasiewicz showed that even in the laboratory, genitally infected tubercular male guinea pigs could infect healthy females through their semen by an HIV-compatible ratio of 1 in 6 or 17%, prompting him to warn his patients that not only was tuberculosis a sexually transmitted disease, but also the necessity of the application of suitable contraceptives, such as condoms, to avoid it. Gondzik's solution and date of publication are chilling; his findings significant. Since 1982 Cantwell et al found acid-fast bacteria closely related to tuberculosis (TB) and atypical tuberculosis in AIDS tissue. On the other hand molecular biologist and virologist Duesberg, who originally defined retroviral ultrastructure, has made it clear that HIV is not the cause of AIDS and that the so-called AIDS retrovirus has never been isolated in its pure state. Dr. Etienne de Harven, first to examine retroviruses under the electron, agrees. In 1993 HIV co-discoverer Luc Montagnier reported on cell-wall-deficient (CWD) bacteria which he called "mycoplasma" in AIDS tissue. He suspected these as a necessary "co-factor" for AIDS. Remarkably, Montagnier remained silent on Cantwell's reports of acid-fast bacteria which could simulate "mycoplasma" in AIDS tissue. Mattman makes clear that the differentiation between mycoplasma and CWD bacteria is difficult at best and cites Pachas's 1985 study wherein one mycoplasma was actually mistaken for a CWD form of a bacterium closely related to the mycobacteria. It is important to realize that the statement "HIV is the sole cause of AIDS" is just a hypothesis. There are unanswered questions and controversy concerning the role of HIV "as the sole cause of AIDS." And until they are resolved, a cure is not possible. This paper explores the possible role of acid-fast tuberculous mycobacteria as "primary agents" in AIDS. PMID:18691828

Broxmeyer, Lawrence; Cantwell, Alan

2008-11-01

363

The Science of HIV/AIDS  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Science of HIV/AIDS contains student activities and essays that help students understand the virus that causes AIDS, how infectious agents multiply in organisms, and the worldwide spread of HIV/AIDS.

Baylor College of Medicine (Baylor College of Medicine Human Genome Sequencing Center)

2010-01-01

364

HIV/AIDS Basics - Signs & Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

English - HIV/AIDS-Signs and Symptoms Video Audio Handout Terms of Use Close Window This information made possible with support ... National Library of Medicine For more information on HIV/AIDS see AIDS.gov

365

HIV/AIDS Prevention -- Substance Abuse  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

English - HIV/AIDS-Substance Abuse Video Audio Handout Terms of Use Close Window This information made possible with support from ... National Library of Medicine For more information on HIV/AIDS see AIDS.gov

366

HIV/AIDS - CD4 Count  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

English - HIV/AIDS - CD4 Count Video Audio Handout Terms of Use Close Window This information made possible with support from ... National Library of Medicine For more information on HIV/AIDS see AIDS.gov

367

78 FR 73075 - World AIDS Day, 2013  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Proclamation 9064--World AIDS Day, 2013 Presidential Documents...Proclamation 9064 of November 27, 2013 World AIDS Day, 2013 By the President of the...of America A Proclamation Each year on World AIDS Day, we come together as a...

2013-12-04

368

AIDE: internal dosimetry software.  

PubMed

AIDE (Activity and Internal Dose Estimates) is a software for calculating activities in compartments and committed doses due to occupational exposures, and for performing intake and dose estimates using bioassay data. It has been continuously developed and tested for more than 20 years. Its calculation core has been applied in several situations, like performing all dose estimates due to (137)Cs intakes, which occurred during the Goiania accident in 1987; performing quality assurance of the ICRP Task Group on Dose Calculations regarding calculations of activities in compartments and generation of dose coefficients for adults due to intakes by inhalation, ingestion and injection of several radionuclides; and producing the tables of activities in compartments and dose coefficients using the NCRP Wound Model for the NCRP report. It provides several capabilities like performing calculations using modified Human Respiratory Tract Model parameters for the mechanical transport, blood absorption and partitions of deposit in the AI region. The existing systemic models can also be modified or new ones can be entered. All estimate procedures are in accordance with the methods presented in the ICRP-78 Publication, in the IAEA Safety Reports Series no. 37 and in the IDEAS Project Guidelines 2006. PMID:18337289

Bertelli, L; Melo, D R; Lipsztein, J; Cruz-Suarez, R

2008-01-01

369

Multi-input\\/multi-output block diagram grammar  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multi-input\\/multi-output block diagram grammar for a block diagram with multiple inputs and\\/or multiple outputs is formalized in terms of a context-sensitive graph grammar. This grammar is defined by adding to the single-input, single-output block diagram grammar we proposed previously dummy nodes and new productions for dealing with multiple inputs and\\/or multiple outputs. A parser based on the multi-input\\/multi-output block

Yoshihiro Adachi; Suguru Kobayashi; Kensei Tsuchida

1998-01-01

370

On Weyl channels being covariant with respect to the maximum commutative group of unitaries  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the Weyl channels being covariant with respect to the maximum commutative group of unitary operators. This class includes the quantum depolarizing channel and the 'two-Pauli' channel as well. Then, we show that our estimation of the output entropy for a tensor product of the phase damping channel and the identity channel based upon the decreasing property of the relative entropy allows to prove the additivity conjecture for the minimal output entropy for the quantum depolarizing channel in any prime dimension and for the two-Pauli channel in the qubit case.

Amosov, Grigori G. [Department of Higher Mathematics, Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Dolgoprudny 141700 (Russian Federation)

2007-01-15

371

Fighting AIDS the Cuban way.  

PubMed

Cuba is using elements of classical public health practice in its national AIDS control program. Its AIDS policy appears to be successful. Cuba has 927 HIV-positive cases and 187 AIDS cases (111 deaths) in a population of more than 10 million. Its neighbors have cumulative AIDS prevalence rates at least on par with those of the US. Puerto Rico (around 3 million population) has more than 8000 AIDS cases. Cuba's health system provides for a family physician for every 12 apartment blocks. This physician lives in the community and makes home visits. Medical testing and screenings, including HIV screening, are routine in Cuba. Cuba has the most comprehensive HIV testing program in the world. This program detects fewer than 125 new HIV-positive cases annually. Cuba's successful health system existed before the advent of AIDS. More than 60% of HIV-positive persons are heterosexuals. Many were infected while serving abroad (internationalists) or as sexual partners of internationalists. Cuba considered AIDS as just another health threat and handled it accordingly. It did not worry about offending high risk populations. HIV-infected persons living in the HIV/AIDS sanatoria receive full salaries regardless of their work status and are expected to follow rules that serve to benefit themselves as well as Cuban society. They must accept the three safe sex commandments of the sanatoria before being allowed to leave after completion of a 6-month probationary period. Some patients are allowed to return home after the probationary period. Residents who practice unsafe sex lose their right to leave unchaperoned. All residents receive an individually tailored regimen, which regimen includes exercise, interferon or AZT, and a high calorie and protein diet (5000 kc/day). The Cuban AIDS program focuses on protecting gays, women, and children. PMID:12319588

Hughes, N S

1995-01-01

372

Reprieve for Thailand's AIDS campaign.  

PubMed

A promilitary coalition began to govern Thailand in March 1992. It reduced the budget for the original proposed national AIDS awareness campaign from 30 million British pounds to almost 15 million British pounds. The Ministry of Health professed that the campaign had exaggerated the problem of AIDS in Thailand and had damaged tourism. Yet prodemocracy demonstrations in Bangkok in which troops killed many protesters restored the politicians who started the AIDS campaign to power in May 1992. There were to remain in power until new elections in September 1992. In July, the Minister of Health, Mechai Viravaidya, said he would step down if the government did not completely restore the 30 million British pounds for the AIDS campaign. It then increased the budget to almost that amount. Mr. Viravaidya initiated Thailand's open policy on the AIDS crisis and was known as Mr. Condom. He claimed that at the present HIV prevalence rate, Thailand may have between 2-4 million HIV infected people by 2000. If the country would take on anti-AIDS efforts now, however, they could cut the spread of HIV by 75%. As of mid-1992, about 400,000 people living in Thailand were HIV positive. The AIDS campaign planned to sue the mass media to inform people about AIDS especially those in universities and schools and high risk occupational groups. The increasing number of construction workers in Bangkok and existing sex workers were a high risk occupational group. At the 2nd national seminar of AIDS, the Minister of Health reproached tourists who come to Thailand for its sex industry. He said that Thailand does not need the 1 billion British pounds they bring to Thailand annually, and Thais do not want their homeland to be referred to as the sex capital. PMID:1392821

Clements, A

1992-07-25

373

An environmental simulator for the FDNY computer aided dispatch system  

Microsoft Academic Search

FDNY's MICS computer-aided dispatch system is designed about dual PDP 11\\/45s and supported in fallback by dual INTEL 8080 micro-processors. The computer processes alarms, assigns available units, notifies these units by voice and hard copy terminals located in the fire stations, monitors status changes of firefighting units and incidents, and dynamically adjusts firefighting coverage for maximum effect. This paper describes

John Mohan; M. Geller

1976-01-01

374

Data-aided synchronization of coherent CPM-receivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

By means of a signal representation in a signal space spanned by a few time-limited exponential basis-functions, and data-aided maximum-likelihood techniques, novel methods for the joint and nonjoint estimation of carrier-phase and symbol-timing for general coherent CPM (continuous phase modulation) receivers are proposed. The estimators are quite simple, especially in obtaining symbol-timing. Simulation results show that synchronizers using such estimation

Johannes Huber; Weilin Liu

1992-01-01

375

AIDS epidemic update: December 1998  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This new update from the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and the World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that by the end of the year 33.4 million people will be infected with HIV, ten percent more than one year ago. Almost every country in the world has seen new infections in 1998, but new cases have been concentrated in the developing world, home of 95% of all HIV-infected people and 95% of AIDS fatalities. As this report reveals, AIDS and its repercussions, such as declining life expectancy, increased orphanhood, and overburdened health care systems, now pose one of the most serious threats to development.

1998-01-01

376

2-µm high-brilliance micro-cavity VECSEL with >2W output power  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents recent advances of 2-?m GaSb-based vertical external cavity surface emitting laser (VECSEL) with special emphasis on quantum deficit reduction and miniaturization. Operating the VECSEL in a 5-cm long cavity, we could demonstrate an increase in maximum cw output power from 4.2 W to 7.2 W at room temperature when barrier pumping a 2.0-?m emitting VECSEL at a pump wavelength of 1.5 ?m instead of 980 nm. Furthermore, miniaturized VECSELs were realized by depositing a high-reflectivity (~97 %) coating on top of a 375-?m thick SiC heat spreader, which acts as output coupler of the micro cavity (?C) formed. This planar cavity is rendered stable by thermal lensing induced by the absorption of pump light. At the same time, thermal lensing influences the beam quality. We will report a detailed study of the influence of the thermal lens on the stability and beam diameter of the ?C-VECSEL by using two different VECSEL structures optimized for 980 nm and 1.5 ?m barrier pumping, respectively. Using different pump photon energies results in different amounts of heat generated at a given pump photon flux, and thus thermal lenses with different focal lengths. Using the low-quantum deficit pumping scheme we could achieve a factor-7 increase in output power in TEM00 emission from the ?C-VECSEL compared to the 980 nm pumped device, as well as a maximum output power of 2.2 W. This 2-?m ?C-VECSEL exhibits 110-nm tunable single-frequency emission at a 7-MHz linewidth at an output power of up to 90 mW. The linewidth of the ?C-VECSEL is comparable to that of VCSELs, which typically emit output powers in the milli-Watt range.

Kaspar, Sebastian; Rattunde, Marcel; Holl, Peter; Adler, Steffen; Schilling, Christian; Bächle, Andreas; Manz, Christian; Aidam, Rolf; Köhler, Klaus; Wagner, Joachim

2014-03-01

377

Combining Multiple Gyroscope Outputs for Increased Accuracy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A proposed method of processing the outputs of multiple gyroscopes to increase the accuracy of rate (that is, angular-velocity) readings has been developed theoretically and demonstrated by computer simulation. Although the method is applicable, in principle, to any gyroscopes, it is intended especially for application to gyroscopes that are parts of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). The method is based on the concept that the collective performance of multiple, relatively inexpensive, nominally identical devices can be better than that of one of the devices considered by itself. The method would make it possible to synthesize the readings of a single, more accurate gyroscope (a virtual gyroscope) from the outputs of a large number of microscopic gyroscopes fabricated together on a single MEMS chip. The big advantage would be that the combination of the MEMS gyroscope array and the processing circuitry needed to implement the method would be smaller, lighter in weight, and less power-hungry, relative to a conventional gyroscope of equal accuracy. The method (see figure) is one of combining and filtering the digitized outputs of multiple gyroscopes to obtain minimum-variance estimates of rate. In the combining-and-filtering operations, measurement data from the gyroscopes would be weighted and smoothed with respect to each other according to the gain matrix of a minimum- variance filter. According to Kalman-filter theory, the gain matrix of the minimum-variance filter is uniquely specified by the filter covariance, which propagates according to a matrix Riccati equation. The present method incorporates an exact analytical solution of this equation.

Bayard, David S.

2003-01-01

378

Automatic Detection of Pectoral Muscle with the Maximum Intensity Change Algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The accurate segmentation of pectoral muscle in mammograms is necessary to detect breast abnormalities in computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) of breast cancer. Based on morphological characteristics of pectoral muscle, a corner detector and the Maximum Intensity Change (MIC) algorithm were proposed in this research to detect the edge of pectoral muscle. The initial result shows that the proposed approach detected pectoral muscle with high quality.

Zhang, Zhiyong; Lu, Joan; Yip, Yau Jim

379

ALGEBRA: a computer program that algebraically manipulates finite element output data. [In extended FORTRAN for CDC 7600 or CYBER 76 only  

SciTech Connect

ALGEBRA is a program that allows the user to process output data from finite-element analysis codes before they are sent to plotting routines. These data take the form of variable values (stress, strain, and velocity components, etc.) on a tape that is both the output tape from the analyses code and the input tape to ALGEBRA. The ALGEBRA code evaluates functions of these data and writes the function values on an output tape that can be used as input to plotting routines. Convenient input format and error detection capabilities aid the user in providing ALGEBRA with the functions to be evaluated. 1 figure.

Richgels, M A; Biffle, J H

1980-09-01

380

Variable Length Virtual Output Queue Based Fuzzy Adaptive RED for Congestion Control at Routers  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Internet routers play an important role during the time of network congestion. All the Internet routers have some buffer at\\u000a input and output ports, which hold the packets at the time of congestion. Many queue management algorithms have been proposed\\u000a but they focus on fixed queue limit. Recognizing the fact that active queue management algorithms have fixed maximum queue\\u000a limit,

Pramod Kumar Singh; Santosh Kumar Gupta

381

Output beam characteristics of a Nd:YVO4 miniature laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

The output beam characteristics of a CW diode end-pumped miniature Nd:YVO4 laser (1.1 at.%, 1 X 3 X 3 mm3) operating in fundamental and SHG regime are presented. Using M2 factor to describe the multimode pump beam's propagation from the broad-emission-area diode-laser the coupling optics was designed to obtain a high value for the mode-matching efficiency. A maximum slope efficiency

Nicolaie I. Pavel; Takunori Taira; M. Furuhata; Takao Kobayashi

1998-01-01

382

High power TEM00 output from Nd:YVO4 slab laser with astigmatic cavity design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. We report operation of the grazing-incidence bounce geometry with a cavity incorporating cylindrical optics to maximise the mode-matching between pump and single-mode laser radiation and, hence, maximising energy extraction in a TEM00 mode. We demonstrate single mode output power of 23.1 W for 39.5 W of diode pumping. A maximum optical conversion efficiency of >68% is

A. Minassian; B. Thompson; A. J. Darnzen

2002-01-01

383

Grassmannian beamforming for multiple-input multiple-output wireless systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transmit beamforming and receive combining are simple methods for exploiting the significant diversity that is available in multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) wireless systems. Unfortunately, optimal performance requires either complete channel knowledge or knowledge of the optimal beam- forming vector which are not always realizable in practice. In this correspondence, a quantized maximum signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) beamforming technique is proposed where

David James Love; Robert W. Heath Jr.; Thomas Strohmer

2003-01-01

384

On the Outage Probability of a Multiple-Input Single-Output Communication Link  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the outage probability of a 2 times 1 multiple-input single-output (MISO) communication link subjected to quasi-static flat Rayleigh fading, under total and individual (per antenna) average power constraints and under a maximum correlation constraint. For a system with normalized fading and noise powers and a total power constraint P, it is shown that up to a rate of

Michael Katz; Shlomo Shamai

2007-01-01

385

Off-set stabilizer for comparator output  

DOEpatents

A stabilized off-set voltage is input as the reference voltage to a comparator. In application to a time-interval meter, the comparator output generates a timing interval which is independent of drift in the initial voltage across the timing capacitor. A precision resistor and operational amplifier charge a capacitor to a voltage which is precisely offset from the initial voltage. The capacitance of the reference capacitor is selected so that substantially no voltage drop is obtained in the reference voltage applied to the comparator during the interval to be measured.

Lunsford, James S. (Los Alamos, NM)

1991-01-01

386

Uncertainties in predicting solar panel power output  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problem of calculating solar panel power output at launch and during a space mission is considered. The major sources of uncertainty and error in predicting the post launch electrical performance of the panel are considered. A general discussion of error analysis is given. Examples of uncertainty calculations are included. A general method of calculating the effect on the panel of various degrading environments is presented, with references supplied for specific methods. A technique for sizing a solar panel for a required mission power profile is developed.

Anspaugh, B.

1974-01-01

387

Room reverberation effects in hearing aid feedback cancellation.  

PubMed

Room reverberation can affect feedback cancellation in hearing aids, with the strength of the effects depending on the acoustical conditions. These effects were studied using a behind the ear (BTE) hearing aid mounted on a dummy head and coupled to the ear canal via an open fitting. The hearing aid impulse response was measured for the dummy head placed at eight closely spaced locations in a typical office. The feedback cancellation in the hearing aid used a set of filter coefficients that were initialized for one location within the room, and then allowed to adapt to the feedback path measured at the same or to a different location. The maximum stable gain for the hearing aid was then estimated without feedback cancellation, for the initial set of feedback cancellation filter coefficients prior to adaptation, and for the feedback cancellation filter after adaptation. A low-order ARMA model combining a fixed set of poles with an adaptive FIR filter is shown to be effective in representing the feedback path exclusive of reverberation. Increasing the adaptive filter length has only a small benefit in improving the feedback cancellation performance due to the inability of the system to model the room reverberation. The mismatch between the modeled and actual feedback paths limits the headroom increase that can be achieved when using feedback cancellation, and varies with the location within the room. PMID:11206165

Kates, J M

2001-01-01

388

Computer aided surface representation  

SciTech Connect

The central research problem of this project is the effective representation and display of surfaces, interpolating to given information, in three or more dimensions. In a typical problem, we wish to create a surface from some discrete information. If this information is itself on another surface, the problem is to determine a surface defined on a surface,'' which is discussed below. Often, properties of an already constructed surface are desired: such geometry processing'' is described below. The Summary of Proposed Research from our original proposal describes the aims of this research project. This Summary and the Table of Contents from the original proposal are enclosed as an Appendix to this Progress Report. The broad sweep from constructive mathematics through algorithms and computer graphics displays is utilized in the research. The wide range of activity, directed in both theory and applications, makes this project unique. Last month in the first Ardent Titan delivered in the State of Arizona came to our group, funded by the DOE and Arizona State University. Although the Titan is a commercial product, its newness requires our close collaboration with Ardent to maximize results. During the past year, four faculty members and several graduate research assistants have worked on this DOE project. The gaining of new professionals is an important aspect of this project. A listing of the students and their topics is given in the Appendix. The most significant publication during the past year is the book, Curves and Surfaces for Computer Aided Geometric Design, by Dr. Gerald Farin. This 300 page volume helps fill a considerable gap in the subject and includes many new results on Bernstein-Bezier curves and surfaces.

Barnhill, R.E.

1989-02-09

389

Laplacian eigenvalues and the maximum cut problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce and study an eigenvalue upper bound?(G) on the maximum cut mc (G) of a weighted graph. The function?(G) has several interesting properties that resemble the behaviour of mc (G). The following results are presented.

Charles Delorme; Svatopluk Poljak

1993-01-01

390

Density estimation by maximum quantum entropy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new Bayesian method for non-parametric density estimation is proposed, based on a mathematical analogy to quantum statistical physics. The mathematical procedure is related to maximum entropy methods for inverse problems and image reconstruction. The in...

R. N. Silver T. Wallstrom H. F. Martz

1993-01-01

391

Entropy Maximum Principle and Instantaneous Failure Statistics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A Shannon entropy for instantaneous failure statistics is defined in terms of an integral over the full epoch of possible failure times. An entropy maximum principle subject only to the normalization of the probability density integral and the existence o...

S. Teitler, A. K. Rajagopal, K. L. Ngai

1984-01-01

392

Maximum a Posteriori Filtering and Smoothing Algorithms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper presents the approximate solution of the non-linear two-point boundary value problem for maximum a posteriori estimation. Filtering, fixed point smoothing, fixed interval smoothing, and fixed lag smoothing algorithms are obtained by the discrete...

A. P. Sage

1969-01-01

393

5 CFR 534.203 - Maximum stipends.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...L-2 Second year college undergraduate ...L-3 Third year college undergraduate ...L-4 Fourth year college undergraduate ...1 The maximum money amount in...agency may pay a student-employee a...Office of Personnel Management has...

2010-01-01

394

5 CFR 534.203 - Maximum stipends.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...L-2 Second year college undergraduate ...L-3 Third year college undergraduate ...L-4 Fourth year college undergraduate ...1 The maximum money amount in...agency may pay a student-employee a...Office of Personnel Management has...

2009-01-01

395

A dual method for maximum entropy restoration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simple iterative dual algorithm for maximum entropy image restoration is presented. The dual algorithm involves fewer parameters than conventional minimization in the image space. Minicomputer test results for Fourier synthesis with inadequate phantom data are given.

Smith, C. B.

1979-01-01

396

Pulmonary artery thermodilution cardiac output vs. transpulmonary thermodilution cardiac output in two patients with intrathoracic pathology.  

PubMed

In two adult patients, one with a severe hemorrhage and one with a partial anomalous pulmonary vein, cardiac output (CO) measurements were performed simultaneously by means of the bolus transpulmonary thermodilution technique (COao) and continuous pulmonary artery thermodilution method (CCOpa). In both cases, the methods revealed clinically significant different cardiac output values based upon the site of measurement and the underlying pathology. The assessment of cardiac output (CO) is considered an important part of cardiovascular monitoring of the critically ill patient. Cardiac output is most commonly determined intermittently by the bolus thermodilution technique with a pulmonary artery catheter (COpa). As continuous monitoring of CO is preferable to this intermittent technique, two major techniques have been proposed. Firstly, a nearly continuous thermodilution method (CCOpa) using a heating filament mounted on a pulmonary artery catheter (Baxter Edwards Laboratories, Irvine, CA), with a clinically acceptable accuracy compared with the intermittent bolus technique. Based on these results we assumed CCOpa equivalent to real CO during hemodynamically stable conditions, and secondly, a continuous cardiac output system based on pulse contour analysis (PCCO), such as the PiCCO system (Pulsion Medical System, Munchen, Germany). To calibrate this device, which uses a derivation of the algorithm of Wesseling and colleagues, an independently obtained value of CO by the transpulmonary thermodilution method (COao) is used. Clinical validation studies in patients without underlying intrathoracic pathology, comparing transpulmonary COao with the pulmonary technique (COpa), mostly yielded good agreement. PMID:15101866

Breukers, R B G E; Jansen, J R C

2004-05-01

397

Multi-programmable hearing aid.  

PubMed

A basic problem in hearing-aid fitting is the difficulty in finding one setting optimal to all listening situations that might occur. The objective was to develop a behind-the-ear hearing-aid with a very flexible analog signal processor which is digitally controlled, and a memory with logic, so that the hearing-impaired person can select from eight completely different fittings. To program and adjust this multi-programmable hearing-aid (called MemoryMate) a hearing evaluation and recommendation system (called Master-Fit) has been developed, based on an IBM PS/2 computer. This system offers the dispenser prescriptive fitting methods and performance of real ear measurements. It can be used to manage a client database. Preliminary results from a clinical study conducted in 1988 are presented. The paper also describes the uniqueness of this multi-programmable hearing aid as a powerful new research tool. PMID:2356739

Mangold, S; Eriksson-Mangold, M; Israelsson, B; Leijon, A; Ringdahl, A

1990-01-01

398

Basic HIV/AIDS Statistics  

MedlinePLUS

... Añadir en... Favorites Delicious Digg Google Bookmarks Basic Statistics HIV and AIDS remain a persistent problem for ... Q. Interested in learning more about CDC’s HIV statistics? Terms, definitions, and calculations that CDC uses in ...

399

Travelers' Health: Humanitarian Aid Workers  

MedlinePLUS

... Home CDC 24/7: Saving Lives. Protecting People.™ Travelers' Health All CDC Topics Search The CDC Note: Javascript ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Travelers' Health: Travel Safe, Travel Smart Share Compartir Humanitarian Aid ...

400

The Sobering Geography of AIDS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The rate at which the epidemic of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is spreading in North America, Asia, Latin America, and Africa is discussed. The number of people infected globally and in low-risk urban populations is presented. (KR)

Palca, Joseph

1991-01-01

401

CAD (Computer Aided Design) Guidelines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The CAD-guidelines (CAD = Computer Aided Design) contain rules for programming, structuring and documentation of programs. The standard deals with the structure of CAD-programs, their components, the programming-methods, the language etc. It describes wha...

E. G. Schlechtendahl G. Lang-Lendorff

1982-01-01

402

Computer Aided Breast Cancer Diagnosis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The long range goal of this project is to improve the accuracy and consistency of breast cancer diagnosis by developing a Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) system for early prediction of breast cancer from patients' mammographic findings and medical history....

C. E. Floyd

1998-01-01

403

Different Styles of Hearing Aids  

MedlinePLUS

... available and offer some cosmetic and listening advantages. Photo courtesy of Phonak Click for larger image In- ... may be easier to handle than smaller aids. Photo courtesy of Phonak Click for larger image Behind- ...

404

Physical Therapist Assistants and Aides  

MedlinePLUS

... licensing board for more information. <- Summary Work Environment -> Work Environment About this section Physical therapist assistants and ... by using proper techniques when they assist patients. Work Schedules Most physical therapist assistants and aides work ...

405

Maximum forces and deflections from orthodontic appliances.  

PubMed

The maximum bending moment of an orthodontic wire is an important parameter in the design and use of an orthodontic appliance. It is the wire property that determines how much force an appliance can deliver. A bending test which allows direct measurement of the maximum bending moment was developed. Data produced from this test are independent of wire length and configuration. The maximum bending moment, percent recovery, and maximum springback were determined for round and rectangular cross sections of stainless steel, nickel-titanium, and beta-titanium wires. The data suggest the need for more specifically defining maximum moment and maximum springback. Three maximum bending moments are described: Me, My, and Mult. My and Mult are clinically the most significant. Appliances that are required to have no permanent deformation must operate below My. Appliances that exhibit marked permanent deformation may be used in some applications and, if so, higher bending moments can be produced. In order of magnitude, the maximum bending moment at yield is largest in stainless steel, beta-titanium, and nickel-titanium for a given cross section. Nickel-titanium and beta-titanium have significantly larger springback than stainless steel determined at the moment at yield. Nickel-titanium did not follow the theoretical ratio between ultimate bending moment and the bending moment at yield, exhibiting a very large ratio. The study supports the hypothesis that most orthodontic appliances are activated in a range where both plastic and elastic behavior occurs; therefore, the use of yield strengths for calculation of force magnitude can lead to a significant error in predicting the forces delivered. PMID:6576645

Burstone, C J; Goldberg, A J

1983-08-01

406

Maximum, Minimum, and Current Temperature Protocol  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this activity is to measure air (and optionally soil) temperature within one hour of solar noon and the maximum and minimum air temperatures for the previous 24 hours. Intended outcomes are that students will learn to read minimum, maximum, and current temperatures using a U-shaped thermometer, understand diurnal and annual temperature variations, and recognize factors that influence atmospheric temperatures. Supporting background materials for both student and teacher are included.

The GLOBE Program, UCAR (University Corporation for Atmospheric Research)

2003-08-01

407

Inferring biological networks with output kernel trees  

PubMed Central

Background Elucidating biological networks between proteins appears nowadays as one of the most important challenges in systems biology. Computational approaches to this problem are important to complement high-throughput technologies and to help biologists in designing new experiments. In this work, we focus on the completion of a biological network from various sources of experimental data. Results We propose a new machine learning approach for the supervised inference of biological networks, which is based on a kernelization of the output space of regression trees. It inherits several features of tree-based algorithms such as interpretability, robustness to irrelevant variables, and input scalability. We applied this method to the inference of two kinds of networks in the yeast S. cerevisiae: a protein-protein interaction network and an enzyme network. In both cases, we obtained results competitive with existing approaches. We also show that our method provides relevant insights on input data regarding their potential relationship with the existence of interactions. Furthermore, we confirm the biological validity of our predictions in the context of an analysis of gene expression data. Conclusion Output kernel tree based methods provide an efficient tool for the inference of biological networks from experimental data. Their simplicity and interpretability should make them of great value for biologists.

Geurts, Pierre; Touleimat, Nizar; Dutreix, Marie; d'Alche-Buc, Florence

2007-01-01

408

World crude output overcomes Persian Gulf disruption  

SciTech Connect

Several OPEC producers made good on their promises to replace 2.7 MMbpd of oil exports that vanished from the world market after Iraq took over Kuwait. Even more incredibly, they accomplished this while a breathtaking 1.2- MMbopd reduction in Soviet output took place during the course of 1991. After Abu Dhabi, Indonesia, Iran, Libya, Nigeria, Saudi Arabia and Venezuela turned the taps wide open, their combined output rose 2.95 MMbopd. Put together with a 282,000-bopd increase by Norway and contributions from smaller producers, this enabled world oil production to remain within 400,000 bopd of its 1990 level. The 60.5-MMbopd average was off by just 0.7%. This paper reports that improvement took place in five of eight regions. Largest increases were in Western Europe and Africa. Greatest reductions occurred in Eastern Europe and the Middle East. Fifteen nations produced 1 MMbopd or more last year, compared with 17 during 1990.

Not Available

1992-02-01

409

Library-Media Aide Orientation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Please follow this self-paced introduction to the library and the Dewey Decimal System to help you prepare to be a great library aide! 1. Review alphabetizing. This is an elementary website, but alphabetizing is an important skill for every library aide. Alphabetizing 2. Review putting decimal numbers in order. Decimal Numbers 3. Using the website below you will learn about Melville Dewey, how the fiction and non-fiction sections of the library are arranged, and ...

Bates, Albion M.

2010-01-15

410

Opportunity Egress Aid Contacts Soil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image from the navigation camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows the rover's egress aid touching the martian soil at Meridiani Planum, Mars. The image was taken after the rear lander petal hyperextended in a manuever to tilt the lander forward. The maneuver pushed the front edge lower, placing the tips of the egress aids in the soil. The rover will drive straight ahead to exit the lander.

2004-01-01

411

Spreadsheet aided fuzzy model for prediction of chapati making quality.  

PubMed

A spreadsheet aided fuzzy logic model for predicting chapati making quality characteristics of Indian wheat varieties was created. Data collected from 19 randomly selected wheat varieties were used. Starch damage, Farinograph water absorption as input variables and chapati overall score as output variable were fuzzified by the use of excel spreadsheet and defuzzification was carried out using weighted average method. Fuzzy model was compared with the regression model of measured data for its error levels and ease of application. Standard error of estimate of fuzzy model was smaller (1.825) than measured (2.895) chapati quality score regression model. PMID:23572757

Gangadharappa, Gundabhakthara Hosamane; Prabhasankar, P

2011-06-01

412

Older people's views on what they need to successfully adjust to life with a hearing aid  

PubMed Central

This article reports a study exploring what older people believe would enable them to adjust to and gain maximum benefit from wearing a hearing aid. A mixed methods approach was employed during 2006 involving interviews with key stakeholders, a survey across three Scottish health board areas and focus groups. Nine key stakeholders from six national and local organisations were interviewed about the needs of older people being fitted with hearing aids. In total, 240 older people belonging to three different types of hearing impaired older people were surveyed: long-term users of hearing aids, new hearing aid users, and those on a waiting list from urban and rural areas (response rate = 24%). A series of eight follow-up focus groups with 31 audiology patients was held. Health professionals appeared to neglect appropriate provision of information and overly rely on technological interventions. Of 154 older people already fitted with hearing aids, only 52% of hearing aid users reported receiving enough practical help post fitting and only 41% reported receiving enough support. Approximately 40% reported not feeling confident in the use of their aids or their controls. Older people wanted more information than they received both before and after hearing aid fitting. Information provision and attention to the psychosocial aspects of care are key to enabling older people to adjust and optimise hearing aid benefit.

Kelly, Timothy B; Tolson, Debbie; Day, Tracy; McColgan, Gillian; Kroll, Thilo; Maclaren, William

2013-01-01

413

Maximum magnitudes in aftershock sequences in Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, Båth's Law, the b-value in Gutenberg–Richter Law (G–R Law) in the form of the 1/? relationship, and both the a- and b-values in the G–R Law were introduced in order to estimate maximum aftershock magnitudes of earthquake sequences in the Taiwan region. The averaged difference of magnitude between the mainshock and the maximum aftershock is 1.20, and is consistent with Båth's Law, however, with a large uncertainty. The large uncertainty implies that the difference may result from a variable controlled by other factors, such as the aftershocks number of an earthquake sequence and magnitude threshold for mainshock. With 1/?, since 86% of the earthquake sequences with a M ? 6.0 mainshock follow this relationship, the upper bound of the maximum magnitude can be estimated for an earthquake sequence with a large mainshock. The a- and b-values in the G–R Law was also considered by evaluating maximum aftershock magnitudes. As there are low residuals between the model and the observations, the results suggest that the G–R Law is a good index for maximum aftershock magnitude determinations. In order to evaluate the temporal decays of maximum aftershock magnitudes, modified Omori's Law was introduced. Using the approaches mentioned above, the maximum magnitudes and the temporal evolution of an earthquake sequence could be modeled. Among them, the model of the G–R Law has the best fit with observations for most of earthquake sequences. It shows its feasibility. The results of this work may benefit seismic hazards mitigation in the form of rapid re-evaluations for short-term seismic hazards immediately following devastating earthquakes.

Chan, Chung-Han; Wu, Yih-Min

2013-09-01

414

“There is no proof that HIV causes AIDS”: AIDS denialism beliefs among people living with HIV\\/AIDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIDS denialists offer false hope to people living with HIV\\/AIDS by claiming that HIV is harmless and that AIDS can be cured\\u000a with natural remedies. The current study examined the prevalence of AIDS denialism beliefs and their association to health-related\\u000a outcomes among people living with HIV\\/AIDS. Confidential surveys and unannounced pill counts were collected from a convenience\\u000a sample of 266

Seth C. Kalichman; Lisa Eaton; Chauncey Cherry

2010-01-01

415

Response for all AIDS affected children, not AIDS orphans alone.  

PubMed

This article focuses on the response for all AIDS affected children in South Africa. In a study by the National HIV/AIDS Care and Support Task Team in South Africa and the Save the Children Fund by the UK, a variety of categories were identified when defining Children Living with AIDS/HIV. Among the most threatened groups identified were those children from infected households where children carry the burden of caring for their dying parents. In response, the government must incorporate planning for the future of children who will be orphaned as well as provide support for those children who act as caregivers while their parents are still alive. Another group are those from uninfected households who are affected by reduced access to core services and decline in economic capacity. Moreover, the escalating phenomenon is worsened by the prevailing sexual abuse cases in the country. The situation is further aggravated by the lack of policy framework that acts as a barrier to an effective and coordinated action. This article advocates the mainstreaming of HIV/AIDS and children's issues into all key program and development areas across all sectors. Likewise, moving the children from the peripheries of the planning process and acknowledging their pivotal role, practitioners will immeasurably strengthen the capacity of South Africa in its fight against AIDS. PMID:12295851

Morgan, S

2000-01-01

416

Development Aid to Agriculture and Economic Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractThe link between foreign aid and economic growth has been a controversial issue with no strong consensus so far. This paper argues that a possible reason why some studies may conclude that aid is ineffective in promoting economic growth might be that not all aid is given for development purposes (i.e. aid given for strategic considerations, humanitarian reasons or emergency

Ozgur Kaya; Ilker Kaya; Lewell Gunter

2012-01-01

417

Politics and the effectiveness of foreign aid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Critics of foreign aid programs have long argued that poverty reflects government failure. In this paper I test predictions for aid effectiveness based on an analytical framework that relates aid effectiveness to political regimes. I find that aid does not significantly increase investment, nor benefit the poor as measured by improvements in human development indicators, but it does increase the

Peter Boone

1996-01-01

418

AIDS in the Hispanic Community. Issue Brief.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document reports on the incidence of AIDS among Hispanics and addresses Hispanic concerns regarding AIDS education, prevention, and treatment. Hispanic Americans are proportionately more likely to suffer from AIDS than any other minority group, and health officials predict there will be a seven-fold increase in the number of AIDS cases among…

Lopez, Norma Y.

419

Human Subjects Issues in AIDS Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Six articles are presented on the use of human subjects in research on acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Topics include the ethics of human experimentation, female and pediatric AIDS patients, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and AIDS among correctional inmates, community-based AIDS research, and clinical trials of HIV…

Bayer, Ronald, Ed.

1990-01-01

420

Estimation of Maximum Earthquakes in Northeast India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We attempt to estimate possible maximum earthquakes in the northeast Indian region for four seismic source zones, namely EHZ, MBZ, EBZ, and SHZ, which encapsulates the various seismogenic structures of the region and also for combined source zones taken as a single seismic source regime. The latter case exhibits a high maximum earthquake estimate of MW 9.4 (±0.85) through Bayesian interpretation of frequency magnitude distribution with Gamma function implicating a moderate deviation from the standard Gutenberg Richter model at the higher magnitudes. However, tapering Gutenberg Richter models with corner magnitudes at MW 8.01, 8.7 and 9.1, respectively indicated maximum values corresponding to MW 8.4, 9.0, and 9.3. The former approach was applied to each of the source zones wherein the data are presented in parts according to the data completeness, thereof. EHZ, MBZ, EBZ and SHZ are seen with maximum earthquakes of MW 8.35 (±0.59), 8.79 (±0.31), 8.20 (±0.50), and 8.73 (±0.70), respectively. The maximum possible earthquakes estimated for each individual zone are seen to be lower than that estimated for the single regime. However, the pertaining return periods estimated for the combined zone are far less than those estimated for the demarcated ones.

Thingbaijam, K. K. S.; Nath, S. K.

2008-05-01

421

Maximum permissible voltage of YBCO coated conductors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) could reduce short circuit currents in electrical power system. One of the most important thing in developing SFCL is to find out the maximum permissible voltage of each limiting element. The maximum permissible voltage is defined as the maximum voltage per unit length at which the YBCO coated conductors (CC) do not suffer from critical current (Ic) degradation or burnout. In this research, the time of quenching process is changed and voltage is raised until the Ic degradation or burnout happens. YBCO coated conductors test in the experiment are from American superconductor (AMSC) and Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU). Along with the quenching duration increasing, the maximum permissible voltage of CC decreases. When quenching duration is 100 ms, the maximum permissible of SJTU CC, 12 mm AMSC CC and 4 mm AMSC CC are 0.72 V/cm, 0.52 V/cm and 1.2 V/cm respectively. Based on the results of samples, the whole length of CCs used in the design of a SFCL can be determined.

Wen, J.; Lin, B.; Sheng, J.; Xu, J.; Jin, Z.; Hong, Z.; Wang, D.; Zhou, H.; Shen, X.; Shen, C.

2014-06-01

422

Maximum magnitude earthquakes induced by fluid injection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

of numerous case histories of earthquake sequences induced by fluid injection at depth reveals that the maximum magnitude appears to be limited according to the total volume of fluid injected. Similarly, the maximum seismic moment seems to have an upper bound proportional to the total volume of injected fluid. Activities involving fluid injection include (1) hydraulic fracturing of shale formations or coal seams to extract gas and oil, (2) disposal of wastewater from these gas and oil activities by injection into deep aquifers, and (3) the development of enhanced geothermal systems by injecting water into hot, low-permeability rock. Of these three operations, wastewater disposal is observed to be associated with the largest earthquakes, with maximum magnitudes sometimes exceeding 5. To estimate the maximum earthquake that could be induced by a given fluid injection project, the rock mass is assumed to be fully saturated, brittle, to respond to injection with a sequence of earthquakes localized to the region weakened by the pore pressure increase of the injection operation and to have a Gutenberg-Richter magnitude distribution with a b value of 1. If these assumptions correctly describe the circumstances of the largest earthquake, then the maximum seismic moment is limited to the volume of injected liquid times the modulus of rigidity. Observations from the available case histories of earthquakes induced by fluid injection are consistent with this bound on seismic moment. In view of the uncertainties in this analysis, however, this should not be regarded as an absolute physical limit.

McGarr, A.

2014-02-01

423

Output testing of small-arms primers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The performance of two standard primers for initiating small-caliber ammunition are compared to that of a primer for initiating aircraft escape-system components. Three testing methods are employed including: (1) firing the primer to measure total energy delivered; (2) monitoring output in terms of gaseous product-mass flow rate and pressure as a function of time; and (3) firing the primer onto ignition material to study gas pressure produced during ignition and burning as a function of time. The results of the test demonstrate differences in the ignitability factors of the standard primers and time peak pressures of less than 100 microseconds. One unexpected result is that two percussion primers (the FA-41 and the M42C1) developed for different applications have the same ignitability. The ignitability test method is shown to yield the most useful data and can be used to specify percussion primers and optimize their performance.

Bement, Laurence J.; Doris, Thomas A.; Schimmel, Morry L.

1991-01-01

424

Artificial lift boosts United Kingdom output  

SciTech Connect

Increasing numbers of North Sea fields are approaching the stage where artificial lift techniques will be needed to bolster falling oil output. Most North Sea reservoirs have enough pressure to produce naturally, though many have required pressure maintenance programs at an early stage. Now reservoir pressures are falling, peripheral wells are watering out, and where water injection is taking place, water breakthrough is occurring. The need for artificial lift is not yet widespread, but it will be shortly. A small number of North Sea companies have been forced over the past 5 yr to introduce artificial lift for various reasons. Reservoirs are commonly over 10,000 ft deep, so pressures are high. Typical temperatures are in the 250/sup 0/F range. Most producing wells are deviated at angles up to 70, and production rates are high. Sand production is common, and frequently fields have a high gas/oil ratio.

Steven, R.R.

1983-05-01

425

TRANSIMS simulation output subsystem for IOC-1  

SciTech Connect

The output subsystem collects data from a running microsimulation, stores the data for future use, and manages the subsequent retrieval of the data. It forms a layer separating the other subsystems from the actual data files so that the other subsystems do not need to access the data files at the physical level or deal with the physical location and organization of the files. This subsystem also allows the user to specify what data is collected and retrieved, and to filter it by space and time. The collection occurs in a distributed manner such that the subsystem`s impact on the microsimulation performance is minimized; the retrieval provides a unified view of the distributed data.

Kerkbigler, K.P.; Bush, B.W.

1997-04-02

426

Handling Input and Output for COAMPS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two suites of software have been developed to handle the input and output of the Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Prediction System (COAMPS), which is a regional atmospheric model developed by the Navy for simulating and predicting weather. Typically, the initial and boundary conditions for COAMPS are provided by a flat-file representation of the Navy s global model. Additional algorithms are needed for running the COAMPS software using global models. One of the present suites satisfies this need for running COAMPS using the Global Forecast System (GFS) model of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The first step in running COAMPS downloading of GFS data from an Internet file-transfer-protocol (FTP) server computer of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) is performed by one of the programs (SSC-00273) in this suite. The GFS data, which are in gridded binary (GRIB) format, are then changed to a COAMPS-compatible format by another program in the suite (SSC-00278). Once a forecast is complete, still another program in the suite (SSC-00274) sends the output data to a different server computer. The second suite of software (SSC- 00275) addresses the need to ingest up-to-date land-use-and-land-cover (LULC) data into COAMPS for use in specifying typical climatological values of such surface parameters as albedo, aerodynamic roughness, and ground wetness. This suite includes (1) a program to process LULC data derived from observations by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments aboard NASA s Terra and Aqua satellites, (2) programs to derive new climatological parameters for the 17-land-use-category MODIS data; and (3) a modified version of a FORTRAN subroutine to be used by COAMPS. The MODIS data files are processed to reformat them into a compressed American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) format used by COAMPS for efficient processing.

Fitzpatrick, Patrick; Tran, Nam; Li, Yongzuo; Anantharaj, Valentine

2007-01-01

427

Assessing the suitability of input–output analysis for enhancing our understanding of potential economic effects of Peak Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given recent developments on energy markets and skyrocketing oil prices, we argue for an urgent need to study the potential effects of world oil production reaching a maximum (Peak Oil) in order to facilitate the development of adaptation policies. We consider input–output (IO) modelling as a powerful tool for this purpose. However, the standard Leontief type model implicitly assumes that

Christian Kerschner; Klaus Hubacek

2009-01-01

428

40 CFR 1065.210 - Work input and output sensors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Work input and output sensors. 1065.210 Section 1065...210 Work input and output sensors. (a) Application. ...We recommend that you use sensors, transducers...compressor or turbine work. Use pressure transducer and flow-meter...

2009-07-01

429

40 CFR 1065.210 - Work input and output sensors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Work input and output sensors. 1065.210 Section 1065...210 Work input and output sensors. (a) Application. ...We recommend that you use sensors, transducers...compressor or turbine work. Use pressure transducer and flow-meter...

2010-07-01

430

Improved system measures output energy of pyrotechnic devices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

System for measuring the output energy of pyrotechnic devices discharges the reaction products into a test chamber. It measures the radiant heat output from a pinhole aperture as well as internal pressure changes on a common time base.

Shortly, E. M.

1966-01-01

431

Transmit Precoding for Flat-Fading MIMO Multiuser Systems With Maximum Ratio Combining Receivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the application of transmit precoding in multi- user multi-input-multi-output (MIMO) communication systems with max- imum ratio combining (MRC) receivers. In many multiuser applications, the maximum-likelihood or minimum mean-square error (MMSE) re- ceivers can be prohibitive to implement due to their high implementation complexity. We examine the performance of the system with simple MRC receivers and carefully selected precoders,

Adem Coskun

2011-01-01

432

Adaptive Maximum-Likelihood Receiver for Carrier-Modulated Data-Transmission Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new look is taken at maximum-likelihood sequence estimation in the presence of intersymbol interference. A uniform receiver structure for linear carrier-modulated data-transmission systems is derived which for decision making uses a modified version of the Viterbi algorithm. The algorithm operates directly on the output signal of a complex matched filter and, in contrast to the original algorithm, requires no

GOTTFRIED UNGERBOECK

1974-01-01

433

Development of a microcontroller-based, photovoltaic maximum power point tracking control system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) is used in photovoltaic (PV) systems to maximize the photovoltaic array output power, irrespective of the temperature and irradiation conditions and of the load electrical characteristics. A new MPPT system has been developed, consisting of a buck-type DC\\/DC converter, which is controlled by a microcontroller-based unit. The main difference between the method used in the

Eftichios Koutroulis; Kostas Kalaitzakis; Nicholas C. Voulgaris

2001-01-01

434

A Seamless Mode Transfer Maximum Power Point Tracking Controller For Thermoelectric Generator Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A boost-cascaded-with-buck converter-based power conditioning system employing a seamless mode transfer maximum power point tracking controller is proposed to maximize energy production of a thermoelectric generator while balancing a vehicle battery, alternator output power, and vehicle load. When a vehicle battery is fully charged, the proposed controller switches to a power matching mode seamlessly by a dual loop control system,

Rae-Young Kim; Jih-Sheng Lai

2008-01-01

435

TS Fuzzy Maximum Power Point Tracking Control of Solar Power Generation Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control for stand-alone solar power generation systems via the Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy-model-based approach. In detail, we consider a dc\\/dc buck converter to regulate the output power of the photovoltaic panel array. First, the system is represented by the T-S fuzzy model. Next, in order to reduce the number of measured signals, a

Chian-Song Chiu

2010-01-01

436

Testing the Output Hypothesis: Effects of Output on Noticing and Second Language Acquisition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Addresses one of the functions of output proposed by Swain (1993, 1995, 1998). In particular, the activity of producing the target language may, under certain circumstances, prompt second language (L2) learners to recognize some of their linguistic problems and bring to their attention something they need to discover about their L2. (Author/VWL)

Izumi, Shinichi; Bigelow, Martha; Fujiwara, Miho; Fearnow, Sarah

1999-01-01

437

A wide output range reconfigurable structure dc-dc converter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents a new wide output range reconfigurable structure (WOR-RS) dc-dc converter, which is an extension of the full bridge isolated dc-dc converter with two output channels by adding an active switch and two diodes. The proposed WOR-RS is able to smoothly reconfigure the two output channels in parallel or series to realize wide output range. With this approach,

Pengju Sun; Luowei Zhou; Keyue Smedley

2010-01-01

438

Nurturing Development: Aid and Cooperation in Today's Changing World.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: A Changing World (The World Setting; Consider These Facts; The Aid Debate in Context); Foreign Aid and Economic Development (The Arguments against Aid; Rebuttal of the Arguments against Aid; The Problems of Aid); What We Have Learned (The Proper...

I. Serageldin

1995-01-01

439

Gigantic Maximum of Nanoscale Noncontact Friction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report measurements of noncontact friction between surfaces of NbSe2 and SrTiO3 and a sharp Pt-Ir tip that is oscillated laterally by a quartz tuning fork cantilever. At 4.2 K, the friction coefficients on both the metallic and insulating materials show a giant maximum at the tip-surface distance of several nanometers. The maximum is strongly correlated with an increase in the spring constant of the cantilever. These features can be understood phenomenologically by a distance-dependent relaxation mechanism with distributed time scales.

Saitoh, Kohta; Hayashi, Kenichi; Shibayama, Yoshiyuki; Shirahama, Keiya

2010-12-01

440

Estimating Maximum Discharge of Geothermal Wells  

SciTech Connect

We cannot tell how 'good' a well is unless we can estimate the maximum flow possible under such ideal conditions as complete permeability a t the production horizon and boiling point throughout the depth of the reservoir. Calculated Lip pressures for vertical wide-open discharge under these conditions are surprisingly independent of the kind of fluid tapped by the well, whether dry saturated steam or saturated hot water. The status of an actual well can be established by comparing the measured Lip pressure with the calculated theoretical maximum. Discharges are simply determined from the values of Lip pressure and supply fluid enthalpy.

James, Russell

1980-12-16

441

Density estimation by maximum quantum entropy  

SciTech Connect

A new Bayesian method for non-parametric density estimation is proposed, based on a mathematical analogy to quantum statistical physics. The mathematical procedure is related to maximum entropy methods for inverse problems and image reconstruction. The information divergence enforces global smoothing toward default models, convexity, positivity, extensivity and normalization. The novel feature is the replacement of classical entropy by quantum entropy, so that local smoothing is enforced by constraints on differential operators. The linear response of the estimate is proportional to the covariance. The hyperparameters are estimated by type-II maximum likelihood (evidence). The method is demonstrated on textbook data sets.

Silver, R.N.; Wallstrom, T.; Martz, H.F.

1993-11-01

442

Maximum predictive power and the superposition principle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In quantum physics the direct observables are probabilities of events. We ask how observed probabilities must be combined to achieve what we call maximum predictive power. According to this concept the accuracy of a prediction must only depend on the number of runs whose data serve as input for the prediction. We transform each probability to an associated variable whose uncertainty interval depends only on the amount of data and strictly decreases with it. We find that for a probability which is a function of two other probabilities maximum predictive power is achieved when linearly summing their associated variables and transforming back to a probability. This recovers the quantum mechanical superposition principle.

Summhammer, Johann

1994-01-01

443

Comparison of energy output during ramp and staircase shortening in frog muscle fibres.  

PubMed Central

1. We compared the rates of work and heat production during ramp shortening with those during staircase shortening (sequence of step releases of the same amplitude, separated by regular time intervals). Ramp or staircase shortening was applied to isolated muscle fibres (sarcomere length, 2.2 microns; temperature, approximately 1 degree C) at the plateau of an isometric tetanus. The total amount of shortening was no greater than 6% of the fibre length. 2. During ramp shortening the power output showed a maximum at about 0.8 fibre lengths per second (Lo s-1), which corresponds to 1/3 the maximum shortening velocity (Vo). For the same average shortening velocity during staircase shortening (step size, approximately 0.5% Lo) the power output was 40-60% lower. The rate of heat production for the same average shortening velocity was approximately 45% higher during staircase shortening than during ramp shortening. 3. The relation between rate of total energy output and shortening velocity was well described by a second order regression line in the range of velocities used (0.1-2.3 Lo s-1). For any shortening velocity the rate of total energy output (power plus heat rate) was not statistically different for staircase (step size, approximately 0.5% Lo) and ramp shortening. 4. The mechanical efficiency (the ratio of the power over the total energy rate) during ramp shortening had a maximum value of 0.36 at 1/5 Vo; during staircase shortening, for any given shortening velocity, the mechanical efficiency was reduced compared with ramp shortening: with a staircase step of about 0.5% Lo at 1/5 Vo the efficiency was approximately 0.2. 5. The results indicate that a cross-bridge is able to convert different quantities of energy into work depending on the different shortening protocol used. The fraction of energy dissipated as heat is larger during staircase shortening than during ramp shortening.

Linari, M; Woledge, R C

1995-01-01

444

Does State Aid Stimulate Public Library Expenditures? Evidence from Pennsylvania's Enhancement Aid Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pennsylvania public libraries began receiving increased allotments of state aid in 2000. In the first two years of enhancement aid, total state aid received by Pennsylvania libraries more than doubled. This reversed the trend of little growth in the years preceding 2000. The enhancement aid program also redesigned certain categories of state aid

Stine, William F.

2006-01-01

445

Static Output Feedback Control of Uncertain Dynamic Fuzzy Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the problem of static output feedback control of a T-S fuzzy system. The existence of an uncertain static output feedback control is given in terms of the solvability of bilinear matrix inequalities (BMI). An iterative algorithm based on linear matrix inequality (LMI) is developed to compute the uncertain static output feedback gain. A numerical simulation example is

Xiao Guang Yang; Qing Ling Zhang; Xiao Dong Liu; Da Qing Zhang

2007-01-01

446

An optimized output stage for MOS integrated circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

An output device for optimizing propagation delay and minimizing chip area is described. An optimum means of tapering the output stages to minimize propagation delay is determined. The minimum delay is a function of the capacitive load to node ratio, the number of output stages, and the interstage propagation delay. The effects on area are also presented. A figure of

L. W. Linholm

1975-01-01

447

Computing output prediction bounds using ellipsoidal parameter bounding  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents an algorithm for output prediction in linear ARX models by computing bounds on future output values. Ellipsoidal bounding is used to compute a set of future outputs consistent with the model structure, noise bounds and observed data. Simulation results are presented

D. Maksarov; Z. S. Chalabi

1998-01-01

448

On Inflation and the Persistence of shocks to Output  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to examine whether the level of inflation matters for the persistence of output growth when shocks to output have asymmetric effects. The idea that inflation could have such threshold effects is worth investigating because some authors have suggested that a low inflation environment was instrumental in generating the unprecedented strong and sustained output growth

2001-01-01

449

An AIDS campaign in Brazil.  

PubMed

The Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) distribution program in Brazil, spearheaded by the National Division of Sanitary Surveillance in Ports, Airports, and Borders, was part of the government's massive education campaign to prevent the transmission of HIV-AIDS in Brazil. Beginning in February 1987, the climate was sufficiently favorable to operate a coordinated information campaign during the Carnival celebration, and tourists arriving in the cities of Brazil for the annual Carnival celebration were handed an educational brochure in Portugese, Spanish, English, and French. Yet, beyond reaching the tourist populations, it is particularly important to reach large portions of the Brazilian population. Planners of the national AIDS campaign intend to use television, radio, and all major newspapers in their effort to cover the country. Initial television coverage is comprised of short informational messages directed at high-risk groups. There also are plans to use radio and the print media in order to reach a wider audience. It is estimated that US $6 million will be needed to adequately meet the costs of AIDS prevention and medical care, but due to extreme budget constraints, only $45,000 has been earmarked for ongoing AIDS activities at this time. PMID:12281284

Janoff, D

1987-01-01

450

Understanding physicians' response to AIDS.  

PubMed Central

Attempts to comprehend physicians' extreme reaction to AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) have met with great difficulty since the disease brings into question traditional norms and assumptions. As the medical profession struggles to develop guidelines and policies to help it deal with this disease, it can draw on very little systematic research on the effect of AIDS on physicians' attitudes and practices. We suggest a framework developed from the literature on physicians' and society's response to other disorders that would provide a basis for organizing the ever-increasing amount of information on physicians and AIDS and would guide systematic research aimed at understanding and predicting physicians' participation in the prevention and management of AIDS. Within this framework we consider how characteristics of the disease, elements of the health care system and physicians' attitudes interact to influence clinical and personal practices. AIDS had led to new delineations of physicians' responsibility, modification of prevailing beliefs about physician autonomy and thus a redefinition of the role of the physician in North America.

Taylor, K M; Shapiro, M; Skinner, H A; Eakin, J; Kelner, M

1989-01-01

451

Implications for oxidative and nitrative stress in the pathogenesis of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma  

PubMed Central

AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma (AIDS-KS), which is the most prevalent AIDS related cancer, arises in a unique environment characterized by profound immunosuppression in conjunction with sustained immunostimulation. Persistent inflammation and the accompanying increased production of reactive species can promote carcinogenesis by numerous routes including sustained cell proliferation, initiation of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA mutations and induction of a proangiogenic environment. Furthermore, during conditions of continuous inflammation, protein nitration can result in irreversible inactivation of enzymes including the cytoprotective and reactive species degrading enzyme, mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (MnSOD). Because MnSOD serves as a putative tumor suppressor gene in addition to its reactive species inactivating capacities, the loss of MnSOD's cytoprotective functions could markedly facilitate malignant transformation. The purpose of this study was to investigate biochemical and molecular pathways by which reactive species facilitate AIDS-KS pathogenesis. Immunohistochemical studies of AIDS-KS tumors showed intense AIDS-KS lesional cell staining for MnSOD, inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS 2) and the presence of a cellular ‘fingerprint’ of nitrative stress, 3-nitrotyrosine. Collectively, these results that imply reactive species stress occurs in situ. Similarly, cultured AIDS-KS cells derived from the AIDS-KS tumors contained both MnSOD protein and the ‘high output’ isoform, NOS 2. Co-localization studies established that the mitochondria are a primary site for 3-nitrotyrosine localization and immunoprecipitation/immunoblotting experiments confirmed that MnSOD tyrosine nitration occurs in AIDS-KS cells. Functional SOD assays showed that AIDS-KS cells possess significantly lower MnSOD activity relative to matched control cells; findings which correspond with ongoing MnSOD tyrosine nitration and subsequent inactivation within AIDS-KS cells. These results, which show in situ evidence of reactive species stress within AIDS-KS tumors and functional deficits attributable to nitrative stress in tumor-derived AIDS-KS lesional cells, imply that reactive species are intimately associated with AIDS-KS pathogenesis and provide insights for development of novel strategies for AIDS-KS clinical treatments.

Mallery, Susan R.; Pei, Ping; Landwehr, David J.; Clark, Christopher M.; Bradburn, Jennifer E.; Ness, Gregory M.; Robertson, Fredika M.

2008-01-01

452

MCNP output data analysis with ROOT (MODAR)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MCNP Output Data Analysis with ROOT (MODAR) is a tool based on CERN's ROOT software. MODAR has been designed to handle time-energy data issued by MCNP simulations of neutron inspection devices using the associated particle technique. MODAR exploits ROOT's Graphical User Interface and functionalities to visualize and process MCNP simulation results in a fast and user-friendly way. MODAR allows to take into account the detection system time resolution (which is not possible with MCNP) as well as detectors energy response function and counting statistics in a straightforward way. New version program summaryProgram title: MODAR Catalogue identifier: AEGA_v1_1 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEGA_v1_1.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 150 927 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 4 981 633 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++ Computer: Most Unix workstations and PCs Operating system: Most Unix systems, Linux and windows, provided the ROOT package has been installed. Examples where tested under Suse Linux and Windows XP. RAM: Depends on the size of the MCNP output file. The example presented in the article, which involves three two dimensional 139×740 bins histograms, allocates about 60 MB. These data are running under ROOT and include consumption by ROOT itself. Classification: 17.6 Catalogue identifier of previous version: AEGA_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 181 (2010) 1161 External routines: ROOT version 5.24.00 ( http://root.cern.ch/drupal/) Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes Nature of problem: The output of a MCNP simulation is an ascii file. The data processing is usually performed by copying and pasting the relevant parts of the ascii file into Microsoft Excel. Such an approach is satisfactory when the quantity of data is small but is not efficient when the size of the simulated data is large, for example when time-energy correlations are studied in detail such as in problems involving the associated particle technique. In addition, since the finite time resolution of the simulated detector cannot be modeled with MCNP, systems in which time-energy correlation is crucial cannot be described in a satisfactory way. Finally, realistic particle energy deposit in detectors is calculated with MCNP in a two step process involving type-5 then type-8 tallies. In the first step, the photon flux energy spectrum associated to a time region is selected and serves as a source energy distribution for the second step. Thus, several files must be manipulated before getting the result, which can be time consuming if one needs to study several time regions or different detectors performances. In the same way, modeling counting statistics obtained in a limited acquisition time requires several steps and can also be time consuming. Solution method: In order to overcome the previous limitations, the MODAR C++ code has been written to make use of CERN's ROOT data analysis software. MCNP output data are read from the MCNP output file with dedicated routines. Two dimensional histograms are filled and can be handled efficiently within the ROOT framework. To keep a user friendly analysis tool, all processing and data display can be done by means of ROOT Graphical User Interface. Specific routines have been written to include detectors finite time resolution and energy response function as well as counting statistics in a straightforward way. Reasons for new version: For applications involving the Associate Particle Technique, a large number of gamma rays are produced by the fast neutrons interactions. To study the energy spectra, it is useful to identify the gamma-ray energy peaks in a straightforward way. Therefore, the possibility to show gamma rays corresponding to specific reactions has been added in MODAR. Summary of

Carasco, C.

2010-12-01

453

24 CFR 941.306 - Maximum project cost.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maximum project cost. 941.306 Section 941.306 Housing...Application and Proposal § 941.306 Maximum project cost. (a) Calculation of maximum project cost. The maximum project cost...

2010-04-01

454

24 CFR 941.306 - Maximum project cost.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Maximum project cost. 941.306 Section 941.306 Housing...Application and Proposal § 941.306 Maximum project cost. (a) Calculation of maximum project cost. The maximum project cost...

2012-04-01

455

24 CFR 941.306 - Maximum project cost.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Maximum project cost. 941.306 Section 941.306 Housing...Application and Proposal § 941.306 Maximum project cost. (a) Calculation of maximum project cost. The maximum project cost...

2011-04-01

456

40 CFR 94.107 - Determination of maximum test speed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Determination of maximum test speed. 94.107 Section 94.107 Protection...107 Determination of maximum test speed. (a) Overview. This section specifies how to determine maximum test speed from a lug curve. This maximum...

2009-07-01

457

40 CFR 94.107 - Determination of maximum test speed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Determination of maximum test speed. 94.107 Section 94.107 Protection...107 Determination of maximum test speed. (a) Overview. This section specifies how to determine maximum test speed from a lug curve. This maximum...

2013-07-01

458

40 CFR 94.107 - Determination of maximum test speed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Determination of maximum test speed. 94.107 Section 94.107 Protection...107 Determination of maximum test speed. (a) Overview. This section specifies how to determine maximum test speed from a lug curve. This maximum...

2010-07-01

459

40 CFR 141.13 - Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity. 141.13 Section 141.13...DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Maximum Contaminant Levels § 141.13 Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity. The maximum...

2013-07-01

460

40 CFR 141.65 - Maximum residual disinfectant levels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Maximum residual disinfectant levels. 141.65 Section 141.65 Protection...Drinking Water Regulations: Maximum Contaminant Levels and Maximum Residual Disinfectant Levels § 141.65 Maximum residual...

2013-07-01

461

Maximum wind energy extraction strategies using power electronic converters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis focuses on maximum wind energy extraction strategies for achieving the highest energy output of variable speed wind turbine power generation systems. Power electronic converters and controls provide the basic platform to accomplish the research of this thesis in both hardware and software aspects. In order to send wind energy to a utility grid, a variable speed wind turbine requires a power electronic converter to convert a variable voltage variable frequency source into a fixed voltage fixed frequency supply. Generic single-phase and three-phase converter topologies, converter control methods for wind power generation, as well as the developed direct drive generator, are introduced in the thesis for establishing variable-speed wind energy conversion systems. Variable speed wind power generation system modeling and simulation are essential methods both for understanding the system behavior and for developing advanced system control strategies. Wind generation system components, including wind turbine, 1-phase IGBT inverter, 3-phase IGBT inverter, synchronous generator, and rectifier, are modeled in this thesis using MATLAB/SIMULINK. The simulation results have been verified by a commercial simulation software package, PSIM, and confirmed by field test results. Since the dynamic time constants for these individual models are much different, a creative approach has also been developed in this thesis to combine these models for entire wind power generation system simulation. An advanced maximum wind energy extraction strategy relies not only on proper system hardware design, but also on sophisticated software control algorithms. Based on literature review and computer simulation on wind turbine control algorithms, an intelligent maximum wind energy extraction control algorithm is proposed in this thesis. This algorithm has a unique on-line adaptation and optimization capability, which is able to achieve maximum wind energy conversion efficiency through continuously improving the performance of wind power generation systems. This algorithm is independent of wind power generation system characteristics, and does not need wind speed and turbine speed measurements. Therefore, it can be easily implemented into various wind energy generation systems with different turbine inertia and diverse system hardware environments. In addition to the detailed description of the proposed algorithm, computer simulation results are presented in the thesis to demonstrate the advantage of this algorithm. As a final confirmation of the algorithm feasibility, the algorithm has been implemented inside a single-phase IGBT inverter, and tested with a wind simulator system in research laboratory. Test results were found consistent with the simulation results. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Wang, Quincy Qing

2003-10-01

462

Commissioning of output factors for uniform scanning proton beams  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Current commercial treatment planning systems are not able to accurately predict output factors and calculate monitor units for proton fields. Patient-specific field output factors are thus determined by either measurements or empirical modeling based on commissioning data. The objective of this study is to commission output factors for uniform scanning beams utilized at the ProCure proton therapy centers. Methods: Using water phantoms and a plane parallel ionization chamber, the authors first measured output factors with a fixed 10 cm diameter aperture as a function of proton range and modulation width for clinically available proton beams with ranges between 4 and 31.5 cm and modulation widths between 2 and 15 cm. The authors then measured the output factor as a function of collimated field size at various calibration depths for proton beams of various ranges and modulation widths. The authors further examined the dependence of the output factor on the scanning area (i.e., uncollimated proton field), snout position, and phantom material. An empirical model was developed to calculate the output factor for patient-specific fields and the model-predicted output factors were compared to measurements. Results: The output factor increased with proton range and field size, and decreased with modulation width. The scanning area and snout position have a small but non-negligible effect on the output factors. The predicted output factors based on the empirical modeling agreed within 2% of measurements for all prostate treatment fields and within 3% for 98.5% of all treatment fields. Conclusions: Comprehensive measurements at a large subset of available beam conditions are needed to commission output factors for proton therapy beams. The empirical modeling agrees well with the measured output factor data. This investigation indicates that it is possible to accurately predict output factors and thus eliminate or reduce time-consuming patient-specific output measurements for proton treatments.

Zheng Yuanshui; Ramirez, Eric; Mascia, Anthony; Ding Xiaoning; Okoth, Benny; Zeidan, Omar; Hsi Wen; Harris, Ben; Schreuder, Andries N.; Keole, Sameer [ProCure Proton Therapy Center, 5901 West Memorial Road, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73142 (United States); ProCure Treatment Centers, 420 North Walnut Street, Bloomington, Indiana 47404 (United States); ProCure Proton Therapy Center, 5901 West Memorial Road, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73142 (United States)

2011-04-15

463

Maximum Fillet Stresses in Breech Ring.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effect of fillet geometry and wall thickness on maximum fillet stresses was investigated in the 105mm M137 Howitzer breech ring. The NASTRAN finite element analysis of three fillet geometries and two wall thicknesses shows that an elliptical fillet is...

Y. F. Cheng

1972-01-01

464

Maximum versus meaningful discrimination in scale response  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper argues for the use of the number of response categories that are meaningful to respondents as a criterion in designing attribute rating scales in marketing in contrast to a focus in past research on using scales to maximize the discrimination elicited from respondents. Whereas scales eliciting a maximum level of discrimination may be more reliable than scales eliciting

Madhubalan Viswanathan; Seymour Sudman; Michael Johnson

2004-01-01

465

Maximum Entropy Estimation for Survey sampling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calibration methods have been widely studied in survey sampling over the last decades. Viewing calibration as an inverse problem, we extend the calibration technique by using a maximum entropy method. Finding the optimal weights is achieved by considering random weights and looking for a discrete distribution which maximizes an entropy under the calibration constraint. This method points a new frame

Fabrice Gamboa; Jean-Michel Loubes; Paul Rochet

2009-01-01

466

Maximum Sunspot Numbers and Active Days  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Parameters associated with solar minimum have been studied to relate them to solar activity at solar maximum so that one could possibly predict behaviors of an upcoming solar cycle. The number of active days has been known as a reliable indicator of solar activity around solar minimum. Active days are days with sunspots reported on the solar disk. In this work, we have explored the relationship between the sunspot numbers at solar maximum and the characteristics of the monthly number of active days. Specifically, we have statistically examined how the maximum monthly sunspot number of a given solar cycle is correlated with the slope of the linear relationship between monthly sunspot numbers and the monthly number of active days for the corresponding solar cycle. We have calculated the linear correlation coefficient r and the Spearman rank-order correlation coefficient rs for data sets prepared under various conditions. Even though marginal correlations are found, they turn out to be insufficiently significant (r ~ 0.3). Nonetheless, we have confirmed that the slope of the linear relationship between monthly sunspot numbers and the monthly number of active days is less steep when solar cycles belonging to the "Modern Maximum" are considered compared with rests of solar cycles. We conclude, therefore, that the slope of the linear relationship between monthly sunspot numbers and the monthly number of active days is indeed dependent on the solar activity at its maxima, but that this simple relationship should be insufficient as a valid method to predict the following solar activity amplitude.

Chang, Heon-Young

2013-09-01

467

Analysis of Photovoltaic Maximum Power Point Trackers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The photovoltaic generator exhibits a non-linear i-v characteristic and its maximum power point (MPP) varies with solar insolation. An intermediate switch-mode dc-dc converter is required to extract maximum power from the photovoltaic array. In this paper buck, boost and buck-boost topologies are considered and a detailed mathematical analysis, both for continuous and discontinuous inductor current operation, is given for MPP operation. The conditions on the connected load values and duty ratio are derived for achieving the satisfactory maximum power point operation. Further, it is shown that certain load values, falling out of the optimal range, will drive the operating point away from the true maximum power point. Detailed comparison of various topologies for MPPT is given. Selection of the converter topology for a given loading is discussed. Detailed discussion on circuit-oriented model development is given and then MPPT effectiveness of various converter systems is verified through simulations. Proposed theory and analysis is validated through experimental investigations.

Veerachary, Mummadi

468

Heliospheric Magnetic Field Structure At Solar Maximum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolution of the heliospheric magnetic field (HMF) from the relative simplicity at solar minimum has been charted by the Ulysses spacecraft through the ascending phase of the solar cycle through the recent maximum activity epoch. The changes that occurred in solar and coronal magnetic fields from 1997 to 2001 are reflected in a com- plex way in the evolution

A. Balogh; E. J. Smith; R. J. Forsyth; G. H. Jones; D. J. McComas

2002-01-01

469

Mammographic image restoration using maximum entropy deconvolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

An image restoration approach based on a Bayesian maximum entropy method (MEM) has been applied to a radiological image deconvolution problem, that of reduction of geometric blurring in magnification mammography. The aim of the work is to demonstrate an improvement in image spatial resolution in realistic noisy radiological images with no associated penalty in terms of reduction in the signal-to-noise

A. Jannetta; J. C. Jackson; C. J. Kotre; I. P. Birch; K. J. Robson; R. Padgett

2004-01-01

470

Entropy Maximum Principle and Relaxation Phenomena.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A Shannon (epoch) entropy is defined in terms of an integral over the full temporal epoch of relaxation. A maximum entropy principle yields a linear exponential as a fundamental form for relaxation to equilibrium. It is observed that the time scale of mea...

A. K. Rajagopal, S. Teitler, K. L. Ngai

1984-01-01

471

Maximum entropy image restoration in astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theoretical basis and applications of the Maximum Entropy Method of inference for obtaining the most probable nonnegative image consistent with astronomical data are detailed. The generalized image restoration problem is reviewed, noting the effects of atmospheric blurring and the practice of representing images as a Fourier series. The problem is encountered in both single aperture and synthesis observations, and

Ramesh Narayan; Rajaram Nityananda

1986-01-01

472

The Maximum Sinkage of a Ship  

Microsoft Academic Search

A ship moving steadily forward in shallow water of constant depth h is usually subject to downward forces and hence squat, which is a potentially dangerous sinkage or increase in draft. Sinkage increases with ship speed, until it reaches a maximum at just below the critical speed p gh. Here we use both a linear transcritical shallow-water equation and a

T. P. Gourlay; E. O. Tuck

473

Menu Plans: Maximum Nutrition for Minimum Cost.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests that menu planning is the key to getting maximum nutrition in day care meals and snacks for minimum cost. Explores United States Department of Agriculture food pyramid guidelines for children and tips for planning menus and grocery shopping. Includes suggested meal patterns and portion sizes. (HTH)

Texas Child Care, 1995

1995-01-01

474

Library of Congress Finding Aids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Encoded Archival Description Working Group at the Library of Congress has announced the first release of a search system for archival finding aids at the LOC. These finding aids are extremely useful to researchers because they offer more detailed information on primary source material than standard catalog records, often providing "information about a collection's provenance and the conditions under which it may be accessed or copied; biographical or organizational histories related to the collection; a note describing the scope and content of the collection; and progressively detailed descriptions of the parts or components of the collection together with the corresponding call numbers [or] container numbers." The aids have been encoded in SGML using Encoded Archival Description (EAD), and search returns are available in both HTML and SGML. Users can search by keyword or browse by subject, name, collection title, or collections by date.

475

Space assembly fixtures and aids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Concepts and requirements for assembly fixtures and aids necessary for the assembly and maintenance of spare platforms were studied. Emphasis was placed on erectable and deployable type structures with the shuttle orbiter as the assembly base. Both single and multiple orbiter flight cases for the platform assembly were considered. Applicable space platform assembly studies were reviewed to provide a data base for establishing the assembly fixture and aids design requirements, assembly constraints, and the development of representative design concepts. Conclusions indicated that fixture requirements will vary with platform size. Larger platforms will require translation relative to the orbiter RMS working volume. The installation of platform payloads and subsystems (e.g., utility distribution) must also be considered in the specification of assembly fixtures and aids.

Bloom, K. A.; Lillenas, A. N.

1980-01-01

476

Climate change implications on maximum monthly stream flow in Cyprus using fuzzy regression models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Maximum stream flow data collected from Cyprus Water Development Department and outputs of global circulation models (General Circulation Models, GCM) are used in this study, to develop statistical downscaling techniques in order to investigate the impact of climate change on stream flow at Yermasoyia watershed, Cyprus. The Yermasoyia watershed is located in the southern side of mountain Troodos, northeast of Limassol city and it drains into Yermasoyia reservoir. The watershed area is about 157 km2 and its altitude ranges from 70 m up to 1400 m, above mean sea level. The watershed is constituted mainly by igneous rocks, degraded basalt and handholds. The mean annual precipitation is 638 mm while the mean annual flow is estimated in 22,5 millions m3. The reservoir water surface is 110 hectares and has maximum capacity of 13,6 million m3. Earlier studies have shown that the development of downscaling methodologies using multiple linear fuzzy regression models can give quite satisfactory results. In this study, the outputs of SRES A2 and SRES B2 scenarios of the second version of the Canadian Coupled Global Climate Model (CGCM2) are utilized. This model is based on the earlier CGCM1 (Flato et al. (2000), but with some improvements to address shortcomings identified in the first version. Fuzzy regression is used for the downscaling of maximum monthly stream flow. The methodology is validated by independent historical data and used for the estimation of future maximum stream flow time series. From the 30 years of observed data representing the current climate, the first 25 years (1968-1993) are considered for calibrating the downscaling model while the remaining 5 years (1994-1998) are used in order to validate the model. The model was first developed using the logarithm of observed maximum monthly streamflow as the depended variable and 36 output parameters of GCM as the candidate independent variables. Then, five (5) independent GCM parameters were selected, namely, mean daily maximum screen temperature, precipitation, 850 hPa geopotential height, 500 hPa specific humidity and screen specific humidity, using stepwise linear regression. Finally, fuzzy rules were applied to the multiple linear regression coefficients, indicating the uncertainty of the model. The results indicate that the developed model can predict maximum monthly stream flow quite satisfactory. The developed model was, then, applied to estimate the effect of climate change on maximum monthly stream flow for a medium term future period (2030-2060) and a long time future period (2070-2100). These results indicate the significant effect of climate change on the frequency and temporal distribution of maximum stream flow.

Loukas, A.; Spiliotopoulos, M.

2010-09-01

477

Global NeuroAIDS roundtable.  

PubMed

In May 2012, the Division of AIDS Research at the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) organized the "Global NeuroAIDS Roundtable" in conjunction with the 11th International Symposium on Neurovirology and the 2012 Conference on HIV in the Nervous System. The meeting was held in New York, NY, USA and brought together NIMH-funded investigators who are currently working on projects related to the neurological complications of AIDS (NeuroAIDS) in Africa, Asia, Eastern Europe, and Latin America in order to provide an opportunity to share their recent findings and discuss the challenges encountered within each country. The major goals of the roundtable were to evaluate HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment and determine if it may be directly attributable to distinct HIV subtypes or clades and to discuss the future priorities for global NeuroAIDS research. At the "Global NeuroAIDS Roundtable", presentations of preliminary research indicated that HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment is prevalent in all countries examined regardless of which HIV clade is present in the region. The only clear-cut difference between HIV-1 clades was in relation to subtypes A and D in Uganda. However, a key point that emerged from the discussions was that there is an urgent need to standardize neurocognitive assessment methodologies across the globe before definitive conclusions can be drawn regarding the relationship between HIV clade diversity and neuropathogenesis. Future research directions were also discussed at the roundtable with particular emphasis on the potential of viral and host factor molecular interactions to impact the pathophysiology of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) from a global perspective. PMID:23354550

Joseph, Jeymohan; Achim, Cristian L; Boivin, Michael J; Brew, Bruce J; Clifford, David B; Colosi, Deborah A; Ellis, Ronald J; Heaton, Robert K; Gallo-Diop, Amadou; Grant, Igor; Kanmogne, Georgette D; Kumar, Mahendra; Letendre, Scott; Marcotte, Thomas D; Nath, Avindra; Pardo, Carlos A; Paul, Robert H; Pulliam, Lynn; Robertson, Kevin; Royal, Walter; Sacktor, Ned; Sithinamsuwan, Pasiri; Smith, Davey M; Valcour, Victor; Wigdahl, Brian; Wood, Charles

2013-02-01

478

Global NeuroAIDS Roundtable  

PubMed Central

In May 2012, the Division of AIDS Research at the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) organized the “Global NeuroAIDS Roundtable” in conjunction with the 11th International Symposium on Neurovirology and the 2012 Conference on HIV in the Nervous System. The meeting was held in New York, NY, USA and brought together NIMH-funded investigators who are currently working on projects related to the neurological complications of AIDS (NeuroAIDS) in Africa, Asia, Eastern Europe, and Latin America in order to provide an opportunity to share their recent findings and discuss the challenges encountered within each country. The major goals of the roundtable were to evaluate HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment and determine if it may be directly attributable to distinct HIV subtypes or clades and to discuss the future priorities for global NeuroAIDS research. At the “Global NeuroAIDS Roundtable”, presentations of preliminary research indicated that HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment is prevalent in all countries examined regardless of which HIV clade is present in the region. The only clear-cut difference between HIV-1 clades was in relation to subtypes A and D in Uganda. However, a key point that emerged from the discussions was that there is an urgent need to standardize neurocognitive assessment methodologies across the globe before definitive conclusions can be drawn regarding the relationship between HIV clade diversity and neuropathogenesis. Future research directions were also discussed at the roundtable with particular emphasis on the potential of viral and host factor molecular interactions to impact the pathophysiology of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) from a global perspective.

Achim, Cristian L.; Boivin, Michael J.; Brew, Bruce J.; Clifford, David B.; Colosi, Deborah A.; Ellis, Ronald J.; Heaton, Robert K.; Gallo-Diop, Amadou; Grant, Igor; Kanmogne, Georgette D.; Kumar, Mahendra; Letendre, Scott; Marcotte, Thomas D.; Nath, Avindra; Pardo, Carlos A.; Paul, Robert H.; Pulliam, Lynn; Robertson, Kevin; Royal, Walter; Sacktor, Ned; Sithinamsuwan, Pasiri; Smith, Davey M.; Valcour, Victor; Wigdahl, Brian; Wood, Charles

2013-01-01

479

Multiple high voltage output DC-to-DC power converter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Disclosed is a multiple output DC-to-DC converter. The DC input power is filtered and passed through a chopper preregulator. The chopper output is then passed through a current source inverter controlled by a squarewave generator. The resultant AC is passed through the primary winding of a transformer, with high voltages induced in a plurality of secondary windings. The high voltage secondary outputs are each solid-state rectified for passage to individual output loads. Multiple feedback loops control the operation of the chopper preregulator, one being responsive to the current through the primary winding and another responsive to the DC voltage level at a selected output.

Cronin, Donald L. (Inventor); Farber, Bertrand F. (Inventor); Gehm, Hartmut K. (Inventor); Goldin, Daniel S. (Inventor)

1977-01-01

480

PBS Newshour Extra: AIDS Today  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

AIDS Today, a lesson plan for grades 9-12 form PBS Newshour Extra, "engages students in learning about the AIDS epidemic and focuses them on the importance of HIV prevention, at home and abroad." The lesson plan requires two 90-minute periods to complete and calls for nothing fancier than Internet access for materials. Links to PBS Newshour story transcripts are provided for use with the lesson plan, which consists primarily of questions for class discussion as well as small group and individual learning activities.

2002-01-01

481

Telemedicine for AIDS patients accommodations.  

PubMed Central

People suffering from AIDS are subject to frequent hospitalisations. In some cases, they cannot go back home after hospitalisations, due to severe illness, family or sociologic problems. This is the reason why some therapeutic flats are at their disposal to make easier their medical follow-up after the hospital's discharge. In these Therapy Accommodation, they are treated by trained GP who often suffer from lack of information and lack of expertise in difficult cases. For this purpose we included these flats in the regional Telemedicine AIDS network to give these physicians free access to the computerised multimedia medical record of their patients and to provide them with synchronous co-operation facilities.

Kulik, J. F.; de la Tribonniere, X.; Bricon-Souf, N.; Beuscart, R. J.; Mouton, Y.

1997-01-01

482

Aiding IPI. A Manual for Teacher Aides in IPI Mathematics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objectives of this manual are to provide general information about individualized instruction and the Individually Prescribed Instruction (IPI) mathematics program, to familiarize the user with the materials used in IPI Mathematics, to provide a chance to practice necessary skills, and to give suggestions for making the job of the IPI aide

Fawcett, Temple

483

The effects of speech output technology in the learning of graphic symbols.  

PubMed Central

The effects of auditory stimuli in the form of synthetic speech output on the learning of graphic symbols were evaluated. Three adults with severe to profound mental retardation and communication impairments were taught to point to lexigrams when presented with words under two conditions. In the first condition, participants used a voice output communication aid to receive synthetic speech as antecedent and consequent stimuli. In the second condition, with a nonelectronic communications board, participants did not receive synthetic speech. A parallel treatments design was used to evaluate the effects of the synthetic speech output as an added component of the augmentative and alternative communication system. The 3 participants reached criterion when not provided with the auditory stimuli. Although 2 participants also reached criterion when not provided with the auditory stimuli, the addition of auditory stimuli resulted in more efficient learning and a decreased error rate. Maintenance results, however, indicated no differences between conditions. Finding suggest that auditory stimuli in the form of synthetic speech contribute to the efficient acquisition of graphic communication symbols.

Schlosser, R W; Belfiore, P J; Nigam, R; Blischak, D; Hetzroni, O

1995-01-01

484

Windmill having thermal and electric power output  

SciTech Connect

A windmill is described which has thermal and electric power output and includes windmill blades rotatably mounted and connected to a speed increaser mechanism of gears and shafts and a centrifugal compressor connected to the windmill thru the speed increaser to be driven by virtue of the wind applied to the blades of the windmill itself. A directional control is connected to the windmill head to have the windmill blades face into the wind, as desired. The compressor is connected to an insulated heat storage tank which contains storage material, such as brick, and the compressor discharge velocity and pressure difference are converted to heat, and the compressor fluid is returned to the compressor thru a screen which protects the compressor, and there is a flow control which automatically compensates for changes in density of the circulated air or compressor fluid. Also, a gas turbine generator can be connected with the compressor to be driven thereby, and electric elements could be connected with the generator for producing electricity. Two other embodiments show an impeller type of air brake and a valve and a heat-sensitive control, for generating heat or power.

Kenney, C.E.

1980-11-25

485

Methods and apparatus for determining cardiac output  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention provides methods and apparatus for determining a dynamical property of the systemic or pulmonary arterial tree using long time scale information, i.e., information obtained from measurements over time scales greater than a single cardiac cycle. In one aspect, the invention provides a method and apparatus for monitoring cardiac output (CO) from a single blood pressure signal measurement obtained at any site in the systemic or pulmonary arterial tree or from any related measurement including, for example, fingertip photoplethysmography.According to the method the time constant of the arterial tree, defined to be the product of the total peripheral resistance (TPR) and the nearly constant arterial compliance, is determined by analyzing the long time scale variations (greater than a single cardiac cycle) in any of these blood pressure signals. Then, according to Ohm's law, a value proportional to CO may be determined from the ratio of the blood pressure signal to the estimated time constant. The proportional CO values derived from this method may be calibrated to absolute CO, if desired, with a single, absolute measure of CO (e.g., thermodilution). The present invention may be applied to invasive radial arterial blood pressure or pulmonary arterial blood pressure signals which are routinely measured in intensive care units and surgical suites or to noninvasively measured peripheral arterial blood pressure signals or related noninvasively measured signals in order to facilitate the clinical monitoring of CO as well as TPR.

Cohen, Richard J. (Inventor); Mukkamala, Ramakrishna (Inventor); Sherman, Derin A. (Inventor)

2010-01-01

486

14 CFR 151.13 - Federal-aid Airport Program: Policy affecting landing aid requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Federal-aid Airport Program: Policy affecting landing aid requirements...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS General Requirements § 151.13...

2010-01-01

487

A hearing aid malfunction detection unit.  

PubMed

A system is described, the Hearing Aid Malfunction Detection Unit (HAMDU), that electrically checks for proper operation of several aspects of hearing aid function. HAMDU is a miniature, add-on device which performs a check of hearing aid operation about every half hour, and which indicates malfunction by means of a highly visible, electrically tripped indicator. Functions checked include battery voltage, gain, distortion and noise, and continuity of the receiver cord. In addition, the indicator will be tripped if the hearing aid is turned off. HAMDU is small, low in cost, can be adapted to most body aids, and has no effect on hearing aid performance. The primary features of the system are that the hearing aid is checked periodically throughout its use, and the aid does not have to be removed from the wearer. The unit is designed specifically for body type hearing aids worn by children. PMID:881816

Roeser, R J; Glorig, A; Gerken, G M; Kessinger, R

1977-08-01

488

A Study of a Two Stage Maximum Power Point Tracking Control of a Photovoltaic System under Partially Shaded Insolation Conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A photovoltaic array shows relatively low output power density, and has a greatly drooping Current-Voltage (I-V) characteristic. Therefore, Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) control is used to maximize the output power of the array. Many papers have been reported in relation to MPPT. However, the Current-Power (I-P) curve sometimes shows multi-local maximum points mode under non-uniform insolation conditions. The operating point of the PV system tends to converge to a local maximum output point which is not the real maximal output point on the I-P curve. Some papers have been also reported, trying to avoid this difficulty. However most of those control systems become rather complicated. Then, the two stage MPPT control method is proposed in this paper to realize a relatively simple control system which can track the real maximum power point even under non-uniform insolation conditions. The feasibility of this control concept is confirmed for steady insolation as well as for rapidly changing insolation by simulation study using software PSIM and LabVIEW. In addition, simulated experiment confirms fundament al operation of the two stage MPPT control.

Kobayashi, Kenji; Takano, Ichiro; Sawada, Yoshio

489

PLS regression-based pan evaporation and minimum-maximum temperature projections for an arid lake basin in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change information required for impact studies is of a much finer scale than that provided by Global circulation models (GCMs). This paper presents an application of partial least squares (PLS) regression for downscaling GCMs output. Statistical downscaling models were developed using PLS regression for simultaneous downscaling of mean monthly maximum and minimum temperatures ( T max and T min)

Manish Kumar Goyal; C. S. P. Ojha

2011-01-01

490

Analysis of recruitment and industrial human resources management for optimal productivity in the presence of the HIV/AIDS epidemic.  

PubMed

The aim of this paper is to analyze the recruitment effects of susceptible and infected individuals in order to assess the productivity of an organizational labor force in the presence of HIV/AIDS with preventive and HAART treatment measures in enhancing the workforce output. We consider constant controls as well as time-dependent controls. In the constant control case, we calculate the basic reproduction number and investigate the existence and stability of equilibria. The model is found to exhibit backward and Hopf bifurcations, implying that for the disease to be eradicated, the basic reproductive number must be below a critical value of less than one. We also investigate, by calculating sensitivity indices, the sensitivity of the basic reproductive number to the model's parameters. In the time-dependent control case, we use Pontryagin's maximum principle to derive necessary conditions for the optimal control of the disease. Finally, numerical simulations are performed to illustrate the analytical results. The cost-effectiveness analysis results show that optimal efforts on recruitment (HIV screening of applicants, etc.) is not the most cost-effective strategy to enhance productivity in the organizational labor force. Hence, to enhance employees' productivity, effective education programs and strict adherence to preventive measures should be promoted. PMID:23860836

Okosun, Kazeem O; Makinde, Oluwole D; Takaidza, Isaac

2013-01-01

491

Batch maximum likelihood (ML) and maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimation with process noise for tracking applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Batch maximum likelihood (ML) and maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimation with process noise is now more than thirty-five years old, and its use in multiple target tracking has long been considered to be too computationally intensive for real-time applications. While this may still be true for general usage, it is ideally suited for special needs such as bias estimation, track

Aubrey B. Poore; Benjamin J. Slocumb; Brian J. Suchomel; Fritz H. Obermeyer; Shawn M. Herman; Sabino M. Gadaleta

2004-01-01

492

Batch maximum likelihood (ML) and maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimation with process noise for tracking applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Batch maximum likelihood (ML) and maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimation with process noise is now more than thirty-five years old, and its use in multiple target tracking has long been considered to be too computationally intensive for real-time applications. While this may still be true for general usage, it is ideally suited for special needs such as bias estimation, track

Aubrey B. Poore; Benjamin J. Slocumb; Brian J. Suchomel; Fritz H. Obermeyer; Shawn M. Herman; Sabino M. Gadaleta

2003-01-01

493

Batch Maximum Likelihood (ML) and Maximum A Posteriori (MAP) Estimation with Process Noise for Tracking Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Batch maximum likelihood (ML) and maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimation with process noise is now more than thirty-five years old, and its use in multiple target tracking has long been considered to be too computationally intensive for real-time applicati...

A. B. Poore B. J. Slocumb B. J. Suchomel F. H. Obermeyer S. M. Herman

2003-01-01

494

Finding maximum colorful subtrees in practice.  

PubMed

In metabolomics and other fields dealing with small compounds, mass spectrometry is applied as a sensitive high-throughput technique. Recently, fragmentation trees have been proposed to automatically analyze the fragmentation mass spectra recorded by such instruments. Computationally, this leads to the problem of finding a maximum weight subtree in an edge-weighted and vertex-colored graph, such that every color appears, at most once in the solution. We introduce new heuristics and an exact algorithm for this Maximum Colorful Subtree problem and evaluate them against existing algorithms on real-world and artificial datasets. Our tree completion heuristic consistently scores better than other heuristics, while the integer programming-based algorithm produces optimal trees with modest running times. Our fast and accurate heuristic can help determine molecular formulas based on fragmentation trees. On the other hand, optimal trees from the integer linear program are useful if structure is relevant, for example for tree alignments. PMID:23509858

Rauf, Imran; Rasche, Florian; Nicolas, François; Böcker, Sebastian

2013-04-01

495

Deconvolution of planar scintigrams by maximum entropy.  

PubMed

Planar scintigrams are deconvolved with a point spread function using the maximum entropy method with the aim of improving image quality. The technique requires the specification of several parameters. These are related to the level of noise present in the data and our a priori knowledge of the object imaged. The performance of the technique is tested for a wide range of these parameters using images of a Williams phantom in scattering material and a figure of merit, derived from the detectability of the smallest cold spot, is calculated. For close to optimal values of the parameters a factor of two improvement in the figure is found. A processed bone image shows improved contrast and resolution. Maximum entropy processing could be used to increase image quality or allow comparable image quality with reduced imaging time or patient dose. PMID:7708837

Simpson, D E; Fleming, J S; Aldous, A J; Daniell, G J

1995-01-01

496

Maximum Noise Levels in City Traffic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Manual and automatic noise measurements were made along 13 streets in Gothenburg, Sweden to explore sources of maximum noise levels. Noise from different types of vehicles driven in a realistic way in inner city traffic was measured. In summary, the results show that the most important vehicle component as regards the maximum noise level in inner city traffic was a medium-weight truck (delivery truck). Among the higher noise levels measured (>80 dB(A)), this type of vehicle is dominant. This is supported by tests that demonstrated that the noise level of a light truck, driven in a realistic way, exceeds that of cars and is on the same level as heavy trucks. Measures can be taken against the noisiest vehicle types specifically, and the noise load can be limited by introducing noise bans for particular streets in which vehicles that emit greater than a certain noise level would not be allowed use of the street.

Björkman, M.; Rylander, R.

1997-08-01

497

Spanish Aid in Clinical Dietetics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to aid dietitians, nutritionists, and other health professionals to better serve the nutritional needs of Hispanics, this bilingual booklet describes the different cultural eating habits of Mexican, Cuban, and Puerto Rican Americans, with in-depth description of Mexican Americans. Written in Spanish and English, the booklet includes…

Bringas, Juliet G.; Chan, Teresa Y.

498

Adolescents, AIDS and HIV. Resources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This compilation of educational resources is designed for communities which have been either overlooked in Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) education efforts or disproportionately affected by Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. The materials listed target Blacks, Latinos, Asians and Pacific Islanders, Native Americans, young…

Resources for Educators, 1990

1990-01-01

499

Trends in Student Aid, 2003.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents annual data on the amount of financial assistance--grants, loans, and work-study--available to students to help pay for postsecondary education. The College Board began this data series in 1983 to track the value of financial aid over time from federal, state, and institutional sources. The report also contains information on…

Baum, Sandy; Payea, Kathleen

500

How Forgetting Aids Heuristic Inference  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some theorists, ranging from W. James (1890) to contemporary psychologists, have argued that forgetting is the key to proper functioning of memory. The authors elaborate on the notion of beneficial forgetting by proposing that loss of information aids inference heuristics that exploit mnemonic information. To this end, the authors bring together 2 research programs that take an ecological approach to

Lael J. Schooler; Ralph Hertwig

2005-01-01