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1

Maximum output at minimum cost  

E-print Network

at generator output terminals, on low voltage side before transformer input terminals. Rotor Blades Tubular converters and PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) electronic control. Benefits: ®® Active and reactive power

Firestone, Jeremy

2

Perceptions of the Design of Voice Output Communication Aids  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Voice output communication aids (VOCAs) are a key form of aided communication within the field of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). In recent years, rapid developments in technology have resulted in an explosion of devices available commercially, yet little research has been conducted into what people who use VOCAs

Judge, Simon; Townend, Gillian

2013-01-01

3

Have We Reached a Maximum Astronomical Research Output?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The US astronomical research output during the past 50 yr has been growing at 6 times the population increase and we wonder whether that ratio can continue. I counted pages of the AJ and ApJ for the past 50 yr, and corrected them for changes in format, foreign input, online contributions, and population increases. For the combined two journals, the American astronomical output is still increasing at a current 128 pages per million people. The same is true for UK contributions to the MNRAS, except that those lag behind the US by 10 yr. For Europe I did not want to dilute the contributions in A&A from the major producers with those of the countries still developing major astronomical centers. Therefore I counted pages for France, Germany, Italy, and the Netherlands (FGIN) only. However, Europeans still publish many of their articles in MNRAS, in particular, and ApJ. Counting FGIN articles in all four journals showed a steady rise but with a 12 yr lag behind the US. We conclude that the astronomical research rates in all three regions have not yet reached a maximum.

Abt, Helmut A.

2010-08-01

4

Maximum efficiency of a conventional klystron output cavity  

SciTech Connect

By using a photocathode instead of a thermionic cathode in a klystron, the possibility exists to make very short low energy spread bunches of high efficiency. However, there is a fundamental limit to the efficiency of a conventional output cavity, such as the one used in the SLAC XK-5 klystron. The fringing electric field in the drift tube acts on the beam as it leaves the output cavity and results in a net acceleration. All electrons which eventually reach the collector emerge from the drift tube with a substantial kinetic energy and as a result, the highest practical efficiency is about 80% for a 400 kV single output cavity tube. The behavior of these very short low energy spread bunches was calculated using MASK, a 2D field and particle program as well a much simpler 1D program. Using multiple output cavities, it may be possible to extract energy from the electrons more efficiently.

Welch, J.J.

1986-05-01

5

Universal efficiency bounds of weak-dissipative thermodynamic cycles at the maximum power output.  

PubMed

Based on the assumption of weak dissipation introduced by Esposito et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 150603 (2010)], analytic expressions for the efficiency bounds of several classes of typical thermodynamic cycles at the maximum power output are derived. The results obtained are of universal significance. They can be used to conveniently reveal the general characteristics of not only Carnot heat engines, but also isothermal chemical engines, non-Carnot heat engines, flux flow engines, gravitational engines, quantum Carnot heat engines, and two-level quantum Carnot engines at the maximum power output and to directly draw many important conclusions in the literature. PMID:23410309

Guo, Juncheng; Wang, Junyi; Wang, Yuan; Chen, Jincan

2013-01-01

6

An Adaptive Feedforward Amplifier Under Maximum Output Control Method for UMTS Downlink Transmitters  

Microsoft Academic Search

An adaptive feedforward amplifier is implemented for a Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS) downlink channel (21102170 MHz). An exhaustive characterization of the space of solution has corroborated the feedforward theoretical behavior. As a result, an alternative adjustment method is proposed, called maximum output, which entails maximizing a specific designed objective function. Besides this, an adaptive control system, based on distortion

Jon Legarda; Jorge Presa; Erik Hernndez; Hctor Solar; Jaizki Mendizabal; Jos A. Pearanda

2005-01-01

7

Economic input\\/output analysis to aid life cycle assessment of electronics products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic input\\/output (EIO) analysis is a well established modelling framework for tracing the flows of inputs and outputs throughout an economy. It can aid life cycle analysis by providing a comprehensive framework for analyzing environmental costs, thereby eliminating the ad hoc boundary assumptions required in conventional life cycle analysis. We illustrate use of the EIO method with applications to electronics

E. Cobas; C. Hendrickson; L. Lave; F. McMichael

1995-01-01

8

Program Aids In Printing FORTRAN-Coded Output  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

FORPRINT computer program prints FORTRAN-coded output files on most non-Postscript printers with such extra features as control of fonts for Epson and Hewlett Packard printers. Rewrites data to printer and inserts correct printer-control codes. Alternative uses include ability to separate data or ASCII file during printing by use of editing software to insert "1" in first column of data line that starts new page. Written in FORTRAN 77.

Akian, Richard A.

1993-01-01

9

The Effect of Valve Cooling upon Maximum Permissible Engine Output as Limited by Knock  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Wright GR-1820-G200 cylinder was tested over a wide range of fuel-air ratios at maximum permissible power output as limited by knock with three different degrees of valve cooling. The valves used were stock valves (solid inlet valve and hollow sodium-cooled exhaust valve), hollow valves with no coolant, and hollow valves with flowing water as a coolant. Curves showing the variation in maximum permissible values of inlet-air pressure, indicated mean effective pressure, cylinder charge, and indicated specific fuel consumption with change in fuel-air ratio and valve cooling are shown. The use of valves cooled by a stream of water passing through their hollow interiors permitted indicated mean effective pressures 10 percent higher than the mean effective pressures permissible with stock valves when the engine was operated with fuel-air ratios from 0.055 to 0.065. Operation of the engine with lean mixtures with uncooled hollow valves resulted in power output below the output obtained with the stock valves. The data show an increase in maximum permissible indicated mean effective pressure due to cooling the valves, which averages only 2.1 percent with fuel-air ratios from 0.075 to 0.105.

Munger, Maurice; Wilsted, H D; Mulcahy, B A

1942-01-01

10

Relationships between muscle power output using the stretch-shortening cycle and eccentric maximum strength.  

PubMed

This study aimed to examine the relationships between muscle power output using the stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) and eccentric maximum strength under elbow flexion. Eighteen young adult males pulled up a constant light load (2 kg) by ballistic elbow flexion under the following two preliminary conditions: 1) the static relaxed muscle state (SR condition), and 2) using the SSC with countermovement (SSC condition).Muscle power was determined from the product of the pulling velocity and the load mass by a power measurement instrument that adopted the weight-loading method. We assumed the pulling velocity to be the subject's muscle power parameters as a matter of convenience, because we used a constant load. The following two parameters were selected in reference to a previous study: 1) peak velocity (m x s(-1)) (peak power) and 2) 0.1-second velocity during concentric contraction (m x s(-1)) (initial power). Eccentric maximum strength by elbow flexion was measured by a handheld dynamometer.Initial power produced in the SSC condition was significantly larger than that in the SR condition. Eccentric maximum strength showed a significant and high correlation (r = 0.70) with peak power in the SSC condition but not in the SR condition. Eccentric maximum strength showed insignificant correlations with initial power in both conditions. In conclusion, it was suggested that eccentric maximum strength is associated with peak power in the SSC condition, but the contribution of the eccentric maximum strength to the SSC potentiation (initial power) may be low. PMID:18841080

Miyaguchi, Kazuyoshi; Demura, Shinichi

2008-11-01

11

Scaling of maximum net force output by motors used for locomotion.  

PubMed

Biological and engineered motors are surprisingly similar in their adherence to two or possibly three fundamental regimes for the mass scaling of maximum force output (Fmax). One scaling regime (Group 1: myosin, kinesin, dynein and RNA polymerase molecules; muscle cells; whole muscles; winches; linear actuators) comprises motors that create slow translational motion with force outputs limited by the axial stress capacity of the motor, which results in Fmax scaling as motor mass0.67 (M0.67). Another scaling regime (Group 2: flying birds, bats and insects; swimming fish; running animals; piston engines; electric motors; jets) comprises motors that cycle rapidly, with significant internal and external accelerations, and for whom inertia and fatigue life appear to be important constraints. The scaling of inertial loads and fatigue life both appear to enforce Fmax scaling as M1.0 in these motors. Despite great differences in materials and mechanisms, the mass specific Fmax of Group 2 motors clusters tightly around a mean of 57 N kg(-1), a region of specific force loading where there appears to be a common transition from high- to low-cycle fatigue. For motors subject to multi-axial stresses, the steepness of the load-life curve in the neighborhood of 50-100 N kg(-1) may overwhelm other material and mechanistic factors, thereby homogenizing the mass specific Fmax of grossly dissimilar animals and machines. Rockets scale with Group 1 motors but for different mechanistic reasons; they are free from fatigue constraints and their thrust is determined by mass flow rates that depend on cross sectional area of the exit nozzle. There is possibly a third scaling regime of Fmax for small motors (bacterial and spermatazoan flagella; a protozoan spring) where viscosity dominates over inertia. Data for force output of viscous regime motors are scarce, but the few data available suggest a gradually increasing scaling slope that converges with the Group 2 scaling relationship at a Reynolds number of about 10(2). The Group 1 and Group 2 scaling relationships intersect at a motor mass of 4400 kg, which restricts the force output and design of Group 2 motors greater than this mass. Above 4400 kg, all motors are limited by stress and have Fmax that scales as M0.67; this results in a gradual decline in mass specific Fmax at motor mass greater than 4400 kg. Because of declining mass specific Fmax, there is little or no potential for biological or engineered motors or rockets larger than those already in use. PMID:15855397

Marden, James H

2005-05-01

12

A Voice-Input Voice-Output Communication Aid for People With Severe Speech Impairment  

E-print Network

AbstractA new form of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) device for people with severe speech impairmentthe voice-input voice-output communication aid (VIVOCA)is described. The VIVOCA recognizes the disordered speech of the user and builds messages, which are converted into synthetic speech. System development was carried out employing user-centered design and development methods, which identified and refined key requirements for the device. A novel methodology for building small vocabulary, speaker-dependent automatic speech recognizers with reduced amounts of training data, was applied. Experiments showed that this method is successful in generating good recognition performance (mean accuracy 96%) on highly disordered speech, even when recognition perplexity is increased. The selected message-building technique traded off various factors including speed of message construction and range of available message outputs. The VIVOCA was evaluated in a field trial by individuals with moderate to severe dysarthria and confirmed that they can make use of the device to produce intelligible speech output from disordered speech input. The trial highlighted some issues which limit the performance and usability of the device when applied in real usage situations, with mean recognition accuracy of 67 % in these circumstances. These limitations will be addressed in future work. Index TermsAugmentative and alternative communication, automatic speech recognition, dysarthria, voice output communication aid. I.

Mark S. Hawley; Stuart P. Cunningham; Phil D. Green; Pam Enderby; Rebecca Palmer; Siddharth Sehgal

13

Work Output and Efficiency at Maximum Power of Linear Irreversible Heat Engines Operating with a Finite-Sized Heat Source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We formulate the work output and efficiency for linear irreversible heat engines working between a finite-sized hot heat source and an infinite-sized cold heat reservoir until the total system reaches the final thermal equilibrium state with a uniform temperature. We prove that when the heat engines operate at the maximum power under the tight-coupling condition without heat leakage the work output is just half of the exergy, which is known as the maximum available work extracted from a heat source. As a consequence, the corresponding efficiency is also half of its quasistatic counterpart.

Izumida, Yuki; Okuda, Koji

2014-05-01

14

Robustness analysis for multi-channel hearing aid algorithms with binaural output by means of objective perceptual quality measures  

E-print Network

Robustness analysis for multi-channel hearing aid algorithms with binaural output by means that it is important that the beamformer preserves the binaural information so that the listener can make use of the effect of spatial unmasking. In order to generate a binaural output [6] was adopted. Signal model

15

A voice-input voice-output communication aid for people with severe speech impairment.  

PubMed

A new form of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) device for people with severe speech impairment-the voice-input voice-output communication aid (VIVOCA)-is described. The VIVOCA recognizes the disordered speech of the user and builds messages, which are converted into synthetic speech. System development was carried out employing user-centered design and development methods, which identified and refined key requirements for the device. A novel methodology for building small vocabulary, speaker-dependent automatic speech recognizers with reduced amounts of training data, was applied. Experiments showed that this method is successful in generating good recognition performance (mean accuracy 96%) on highly disordered speech, even when recognition perplexity is increased. The selected message-building technique traded off various factors including speed of message construction and range of available message outputs. The VIVOCA was evaluated in a field trial by individuals with moderate to severe dysarthria and confirmed that they can make use of the device to produce intelligible speech output from disordered speech input. The trial highlighted some issues which limit the performance and usability of the device when applied in real usage situations, with mean recognition accuracy of 67% in these circumstances. These limitations will be addressed in future work. PMID:22875259

Hawley, Mark S; Cunningham, Stuart P; Green, Phil D; Enderby, Pam; Palmer, Rebecca; Sehgal, Siddharth; O'Neill, Peter

2013-01-01

16

Abstract--This paper presents an approach and associated circuitry for harvesting near maximum output from low power  

E-print Network

over a 10:1 input power range from 500 µµµµW to 50 µµµµW. A closed-system efficiency of 65% at 50 µµµµ-3]. One approach is to harvest or scavenge energy from a variety of power sources for extended battery life or batteryless operation [3]. A challenge for power management is in maintaining maximum output

17

Techniques for maintaining design efficiency when operating klystron amplifiers at levels below the maximum output power  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some accelerator designs require that the amount of RF power supplied to the accelerating cavities be varied along the accelerator length. In order to minimize operating expense for a high-power, CW system, it is also desirable to maximize RF-generator efficiency. Klystrons are the traditional source used for RF-accelerator applications, but a high-efficiency klystron design is optimized to provide high efficiency at only one operating point, usually at saturation. Different klystron designs could be used for different power levels to maintain high efficiency; however, this approach would increase the capital costs of the accelerator. We discuss several methods of varying the output power of a klystron and show semi-empirically a way to preserve klystron efficiency. We derive two semi-empirical methods to predict the variations in power and efficiency under nonoptimum operating conditions. Experimental data from a 1.25 MW klystron are also shown. These data support our hypothesis and our models.

Tallerico, Paul; Rees, Daniel; Young, Andrew; Laycock, Don; Symons, Robert

1995-04-01

18

Abstract-This paper proposes a neural network based approach to estimating the maximum possible output power of a solar photovoltaic  

E-print Network

output power of a solar photovoltaic array under the non-uniform shadow conditions at a given geographic as inputs, a multilayer feed-forward neural network estimates the output power of the solar photovoltaic output power of the solar PV arrays accurately. Further, the network is able to estimate the maximum

Lehman, Brad

19

Application of error modeling at the output of maximum likelihood decoder to concatenated coded 16 PSK  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors study the performance of coded 16 PSK inner code concatenated with a Reed-Solomon (RS) outer code. The overall redundancy introduced by the codes is 33 percent (spectral efficiency 2.7 b/s/Hz), 10 percent for the outer code (transmitted at the expense of data rate), and 25 percent for the rate-3/4 convolutional code (transmitted by increasing the size of the alphabet from 8 to 16). Because the performance of the outer code is strongly influenced by the error characteristics of the inner decoder, which is based on the maximum likelihood principle, the errors that result from this type of decoding are modeled. This model is used to evaluate the performance of different RS codes. Particular attention is paid to the memory effect of the inner Viterbi decoder.

Fazel, K.; Salembier, P.

20

Electroacoustic Comparison of Hearing Aid Output of Phonemes in Running Speech versus Isolation: Implications for Aided Cortical Auditory Evoked Potentials Testing  

PubMed Central

Background. Functioning of nonlinear hearing aids varies with characteristics of input stimuli. In the past decade, aided speech evoked cortical auditory evoked potentials (CAEPs) have been proposed for validation of hearing aid fittings. However, unlike in running speech, phonemes presented as stimuli during CAEP testing are preceded by silent intervals of over one second. Hence, the present study aimed to compare if hearing aids process phonemes similarly in running speech and in CAEP testing contexts. Method. A sample of ten hearing aids was used. Overall phoneme level and phoneme onset level of eight phonemes in both contexts were compared at three input levels representing conversational speech levels. Results. Differences of over 3?dB between the two contexts were noted in one-fourth of the observations measuring overall phoneme levels and in one-third of the observations measuring phoneme onset level. In a majority of these differences, output levels of phonemes were higher in the running speech context. These differences varied across hearing aids. Conclusion. Lower output levels in the isolation context may have implications for calibration and estimation of audibility based on CAEPs. The variability across hearing aids observed could make it challenging to predict differences on an individual basis. PMID:23316236

Easwar, Vijayalakshmi; Purcell, David W.; Scollie, Susan D.

2012-01-01

21

Effects of a Voice Output Communication Aid on Interactions between Support Personnel and an Individual with Multiple Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A young adult with multiple disabilities (profound mental retardation, spastic quadriplegia, and visual impairment) was provided with a voice output communication aid (VOCA) which allowed communication through synthesized speech. Both educational and residential staff members interacted with the individual more frequently when she had access to

Schepis, Maureen M.; Reid, Dennis H.

1995-01-01

22

The Effects of Enhanced Milieu Teaching and a Voice Output Communication Aid on the Requesting of Three Children with Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of enhanced milieu teaching when combined with a voice output communication aid on the requesting skills of three children with autism. The research design was a multiple probe across participants. All sessions were conducted during 5-min play sessions in the child's classroom. All three

Olive, Melissa L.; de la Cruz, Berenice; Davis, Tonya N.; Chan, Jeffrey M.; Lang, Russell B.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Dickson, Sarah M.

2007-01-01

23

Heart mass and the maximum cardiac output of birds and mammals: implications for estimating the maximum aerobic power input of flying animals  

PubMed Central

Empirical studies of cardiovascular variables suggest that relative heart muscle mass (relative Mh) is a good indicator of the degree of adaptive specialization for prolonged locomotor activities, for both birds and mammals. Reasonable predictions for the maximum oxygen consumption of birds during flight can be obtained by assuming that avian heart muscle has the same maximum physiological and biomechanical performance as that of terrestrial mammals. Thus, data on Mh can be used to provide quantitative estimates for the maximum aerobic power input (aerobic Pi,max) available to animals during intense levels of locomotor activity. The maximum cardiac output of birds and mammals is calculated to scale with respect to Mh (g) as 213 Mh0.88+-0.04 (ml min-1), while aerobic Pi,max is estimated to scale approximately as 11 Mh0.88+-0.09 (W). In general, estimated inter-species aerobic Pi,max, based on Mh for all bird species (excluding hummingbirds), is calculated to scale with respect to body mass (Mb in kg) as 81 Mb0.82+-0.11 (W). Comparison of family means for Mh indicate that there is considerable diversity in aerobic capacity among birds and mammals, for example, among the medium to large species of birds the Tinamidae have the smallest relative Mh (0.25 per cent) while the Otidae have unusually large relative Mh (1.6 per cent). Hummingbirds have extremely large relative Mh (2.28 per cent), but exhibit significant sexual dimorphism in their scaling of Mh and flight muscle mass, so that when considering hummingbird flight performance it may be useful to control for sexual differences in morphology. The estimated scaling of aerobic Pi,max (based on Mh and Mb in g) for male and female hummingbirds is 0.51 Mb0.83 +/-0.07 and 0.44 Mb0.85+- 0.11 (W), respectively. Locomotory muscles are dynamic structures and it might be anticipated that where additional energetic 'costs' occur seasonally (e.g. due to migratory fattening or the development of large secondary sexual characteristics) then the relevant cardiac and locomotor musculature might also be regulated seasonally. This is an important consideration, both due to the intrinsic interest of studying muscular adaptation to changes in energy demand, but also as a confounding variable in the practical use of heart rate to estimate the energetics of animals. Haemoglobin concentration (or haematocrit) may also be a confounding variable. Thus, it is concluded that data on the cardiovascular and flight muscle morphology of animals provides essential information regarding the behavioural, ecological and physiological significance of the flight performance of animals.

Bishop, C. M.

1997-01-01

24

Microphone-array hearing aids with binaural output .I. Fixed-processing systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work is aimed at developing a design for the use of a microphone array with binaural hearing aids. The goal of such a hearing aid is to provide both the spatial-filtering benefits of the array and the natural benefits to sound localization and speech intelligibility that accrue from binaural listening. The present study examines two types of designs for

Joseph G. Desloge; William M. Rabinowitz; Patrick M. Zurek

1997-01-01

25

Hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell and Thermoelectric Generator for Maximum Power Output in Micro-CHP Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most obvious early market applications for thermoelectric generators (TEG) is decentralized micro combined heat and power (CHP) installations of 0.5 kWe to 5 kWe based on fuel cell technology. Through the use of TEG technology for waste heat recovery it is possible to increase the electricity production in micro-CHP systems by more than 15%, corresponding to system electrical efficiency increases of some 4 to 5 percentage points. This will make fuel cell-based micro-CHP systems very competitive and profitable and will also open opportunities in a number of other potential business and market segments which are not yet quantified. This paper quantifies a micro-CHP system based on a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and a high-performance TE generator. Based on a 3 kW fuel input, the hybrid SOFC implementation boosts electrical output from 945 W to 1085 W, with 1794 W available for heating purposes.

Rosendahl, L. A.; Mortensen, Paw V.; Enkeshafi, Ali A.

2011-05-01

26

Location specific forecasting of maximum and minimum temperatures over India by using the statistical bias corrected output of global forecasting system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The output from Global Forecasting System (GFS) T574L64 operational at India Meteorological Department (IMD), New Delhi is used for obtaining location specific quantitative forecast of maximum and minimum temperatures over India in the medium range time scale. In this study, a statistical bias correction algorithm has been introduced to reduce the systematic bias in the 24-120 hour GFS model location specific forecast of maximum and minimum temperatures for 98 selected synoptic stations, representing different geographical regions of India. The statistical bias correction algorithm used for minimizing the bias of the next forecast is Decaying Weighted Mean (DWM), as it is suitable for small samples. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the skill of Direct Model Output (DMO) and Bias Corrected (BC) GFS for location specific forecast of maximum and minimum temperatures over India. The performance skill of 24-120 hour DMO and BC forecast of GFS model is evaluated for all the 98 synoptic stations during summer (May-August 2012) and winter (November 2012-February 2013) seasons using different statistical evaluation skill measures. The magnitude of Mean Absolute Error (MAE) and Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) for BC GFS forecast is lower than DMO during both summer and winter seasons. The BC GFS forecasts have higher skill score as compared to GFS DMO over most of the stations in all day-1 to day-5 forecasts during both summer and winter seasons. It is concluded from the study that the skill of GFS statistical BC forecast improves over the GFS DMO remarkably and hence can be used as an operational weather forecasting system for location specific forecast over India.

Durai, V. R.; Bhardwaj, Rashmi

2014-06-01

27

Automating Output Size and Reuse Metrics in a Repository-Based Computer-Aided Software Engineering (CASE) Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurement of software development productivity is needed in order to control software costs, but it is discouragingly labor-intensive and expensive. Computer-aided software engineering (CASE) technologies\\/spl minus\\/especially repository-based, integrated CASE\\/spl minus\\/have the potential to support the automation of this measurement. We discuss the conceptual basis for the development of automated analyzers for function point and software reuse measurement for object-based CASE.

Rajiv D. Banker; Robert J. Kauffman; Charles Wright; Dani Zweig

1994-01-01

28

CONTROL OF LASER RADIATION PARAMETERS: Optimisation of waveguide parameters of laser InGaAs/AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructures for obtaining the maximum beam width in the resonator and the maximum output power  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The waveguide design of a laser heterostructure is optimised to expand the laser beam in the vertical direction at the output mirror of a laser diode (up to 1.5 ?m at the half intensity for the zero mode). Experimental samples of such diodes operated in the cw transverse single-mode lasing regime up to the output power of 0.5 W. The radiation divergence was 1112 and 47 in the vertical and horizontal directions, respectively.

Bogatov, A. P.; Gushchik, T. I.; Drakin, A. E.; Nekrasov, A. P.; Popovichev, V. V.

2008-10-01

29

650 nm tapered lasers with 1 W maximum output power and nearly diffraction limited beam quality at 500 mW  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-brightness 650 nm tapered lasers with output powers up to 1 W and nearly diffraction limited beam quality at 500 mW were realized. The vertical structure is based on an InGaP single quantum well (SQW) embedded in AlGaInP waveguide layers and n-AlInP and p-AlGaAs cladding layers. The tapered structure consists of a 750 ?m long ridge waveguide section and a 1.25 mm long flared section. Taper angles of 2, 3 and 4 were manufactured. At 15C, the devices achieve 1 W at an operating current below 2 A in CW operation. The conversion efficiency is about 20%. At 500 mW output power a nearly diffraction limited beam quality with a beam propagation ratio of about 1.5 was measured. The reliability was studied in a long-term test for five tapered diodes at 250 mW over 1,000 h and than at 500 mW over 2,000 h. All diodes survived this test. The beam quality remains nearly stable over the complete reliability test.

Sumpf, B.; Adamiec, P.; Zorn, M.; Froese, P.; Fricke, J.; Ressel, P.; Wenzel, H.; Weyers, M.; Erbert, G.; Trnkle, G.

2008-02-01

30

New output improvements for CLASSY  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Additional output data and formats for the CLASSY clustering algorithm were developed. Four such aids to the CLASSY user are described. These are: (1) statistical measures; (2) special map types; (3) formats for standard output; and (4) special cluster display method.

Rassbach, M. E. (principal investigator)

1981-01-01

31

System for memorizing maximum values  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The invention discloses a system capable of memorizing maximum sensed values. The system includes conditioning circuitry which receives the analog output signal from a sensor transducer. The conditioning circuitry rectifies and filters the analog signal and provides an input signal to a digital driver, which may be either linear or logarithmic. The driver converts the analog signal to discrete digital values, which in turn triggers an output signal on one of a plurality of driver output lines n. The particular output lines selected is dependent on the converted digital value. A microfuse memory device connects across the driver output lines, with n segments. Each segment is associated with one driver output line, and includes a microfuse that is blown when a signal appears on the associated driver output line.

Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

1992-08-01

32

Maximum Likelihood  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This material introduces the basic theory of maximum likelihood estimation by discussing the likelihood function, the log likelihood function, and maximizing these functions using calculus. Several exercises ask students to derive certain estimators, while others have students compare the behavior of those estimators with other possibilities through the use of various JAVA applets. The applets use the same control features: the sliders set the parameter values, the Stop # drop down menu sets the number of samples taken, the Update # drop down menu sets how often the graph and tables update during the experiment, the single arrow takes one sample, the double arrow runs the full experiment, the square stops the experiment, and the back arrow resets the applet. This page is one lesson from the Virtual Laboratories in Statistics.

Siegrist, Kyle

2009-07-20

33

Hearing Aids  

MedlinePLUS

... with certain types of hearing loss. How Hearing Aids Help So you went to the audiologist and ... aid is turned on. Continue Types of Hearing Aids There are several hearing aid styles. Some are ...

34

Music and hearing AIDS.  

PubMed

The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems. PMID:25361601

Madsen, Sara M K; Moore, Brian C J

2014-01-01

35

Co-seeded Er3+:Yb3+ single frequency fiber amplifier with 60 W output power and over 90% TEM(00) content.  

PubMed

We report on the design and fabrication of an Er(3+):Yb(3+) triple clad fiber and on the power scaling of a single frequency fiber amplifier at 1.5 ?m based on that fiber. In addition, we report on mode content measurements in order to reveal the overlap of the amplifier output with the TEM(00) mode. The triple clad design was used to enable high output power levels, a good slope efficiency and an excellent beam quality. A maximum single frequency output power of 61 W at 1.5 ?m could be achieved with the aid of the co-seeding method, which was used to suppress parasitic processes at 1.0 ?m. With a scanning ring cavity the mode content of the amplifier output was analyzed with respect to the TEM modes. For all output power levels the TEM(00) content was above 90%. PMID:25090490

Steinke, M; Croteau, A; Par, C; Zheng, H; Laperle, P; Proulx, A; Neumann, J; Kracht, D; Wessels, P

2014-07-14

36

Multiple Output Sensory Trainer (MOST). Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This final report describes the design, development, and testing of the Multiple Output Sensory Trainer (MOST), a computer-based system which enables the evaluation of students with visual impairments to determine the optimal combination of sensory adaptive aids to meet their needs. The system uses multimedia devices in conjunction with customized

Automated Functions, Inc., Arlington, VA.

37

HIV / AIDS  

MedlinePLUS

... on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. HIV/AIDS Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area ... are being affected by HIV/AIDS. Understanding HIV/AIDS Overview Cause Transmission Symptoms Testing and Diagnosis Treatment ...

38

Aid Allocation and Aid Effectiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper performs aid allocation analysis using OECD-DAC data covering 20 aid donors and 176 recipients over the period 1980-2003. We improve upon earlier work in this area by employing inter alia the variable 'past outcome' measuring aid effectiveness in order to link together aid allocation and aid effectiveness. In line with previous work, we also account for both altruistic

Alessia Isopi; George Mavrotas

2006-01-01

39

Standardized multiple output power supply  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A comprehensive program to develop a prototype model of a standardized multiple output power supply for use in space flight applications is described. The prototype unit was tested and evaluated to assure that the design would provide near optimum performance for the planned application. The prototype design used a dc-to-dc converter incorporating reqenerative current feedback with a time-ratio controlled duty cycle to achieve high efficiency over a wide variation of input voltage and output loads. The packaging concept uses a mainframe capable of accommodating up to four inverter/regulator modules with one common input filter and housekeeping module. Each inverter/regulator module provides a maximum of 100 watts or 10 amperes. Each module is adaptable to operate at any voltage between 4.0 volts and 108 volts. The prototype unit contains +5, + or - 15 and +28 volt modules.

Ragusa, E. V.

1975-01-01

40

Aid allocation and poverty reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper derives a poverty-efficient allocation of aid and compares it with actual aid allocations. The allocation of aid that has the maximum effect on poverty depends on the level of poverty and the quality of policies. Using the headcount, poverty-gap, and squared poverty gap measures of poverty, alternatively, all yield similar poverty-efficient allocations. Finally, we find that the actual

Paul Collier; David Dollar

2002-01-01

41

Binaural noise reduction algorithms for hearing aids that preserve interaural time delay cues  

E-print Network

Binaural noise reduction algorithms for hearing aids that preserve interaural time delay cues Abstract-- Binaural hearing aids use microphone inputs from both the left and right hearing aid to generate an output for each ear. On the other hand, a monaural hearing aid generates an output by processing only its

42

Hearing Aids  

MedlinePLUS

... more in both quiet and noisy situations. Hearing aids help people who have hearing loss from damage ... your doctor. There are different kinds of hearing aids. They differ by size, their placement on or ...

43

Hearing Aids  

MedlinePLUS

... improved significantly over the years and todays hearing aids are vastly more sophisticated than 20 years ago. ... percent of people who could benefit from hearing aids actually use them. NIH-supported researchers are seeking ...

44

Visualization of Model Output  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Visualization of output from mathematical or statistical models is one of the best ways to introduce introductory geoscience students to the results and behavior of sophisticated models. Example of good sites ...

45

What Is an Output?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recurrent idea in the history of psychology is that one is conscious of outputs but not of the complex processes underlying the generation of outputs, which is evident in the out-of-the-blue, eureka-like experiences associated with intuition. We examine how this idea may suffer from a logical fallacy and may thus have inadvertently hindered progress on the study of the

Ezequiel Morsella; John A. Bargh

2010-01-01

46

Linear accelerator output variability.  

PubMed

The Wellington Cancer Centre is equipped with two matched linear accelerators (Varian 2100CD) linear accelerators (identified as SN1027 and SN42). Each morning, before treatments commence, a radiation therapist carries out an output constancy check of the radiation output and every fortnight a physicist measures, in a phantom, the delivered radiation dose to check on the machine calibration. The daily output checks have been recorded into a database (Argus QA for Radiation Oncology) since August 1997 and in June 1998 the fortnightly calibration measurements were added. The information in the database, up to April 2003, has been analysed to consider the quality of the daily constancy checks as compared with the fortnightly calibration measurements and whether the data contains useful information on machine performance. After allowance for the effects of machine recalibration the fortnightly calibration measurements had an average standard deviation of 0.4% and the daily constancy checks 0.8%. The daily constancy checks had a greater number of large deviations than would be expected assuming a normal distribution and were not a good predictor of the need for a recalibration. The fortnightly calibration measurements with a much lower spread give a reliable indication of the need for a recalibration allowing the adoption of a +/- 1% tolerance. Over the period analysed one accelerator (SN42) was relatively stable with the output generally drifting between +/- 1% while the other (SN1027) had a consistent increase in the average output of about 2.5% per year. PMID:15580846

Luketina, I A; Greig, L

2004-09-01

47

Linear output nitinol engine  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a linear output nitinol engine consisting of a number of integrated communicating parts. The engine has an external support framework which is described in detail. The patent further describes a wire transport mechanism, a pair of linkage levers with a loom secured to them, a number of nitinol wires strung between the looms, and a power takeoff block secured to the linkage levers. A pulley positioned in a flip-flop supporting bracket and a power takeoff modality including a tension member connected to a power output cable in order to provide linear power output transmission is described. A method for biasing the timing and the mechanism for timing the synchronization of the throw over arms and the flip-flop of the pulley are also described.

Banks, R.M.

1986-01-14

48

Hearing aid malfunction detection system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A malfunction detection system for detecting malfunctions in electrical signal processing circuits is disclosed. Malfunctions of a hearing aid in the form of frequency distortion and/or inadequate amplification by the hearing aid amplifier, as well as weakening of the hearing aid power supply are detectable. A test signal is generated and a timed switching circuit periodically applies the test signal to the input of the hearing aid amplifier in place of the input signal from the microphone. The resulting amplifier output is compared with the input test signal used as a reference signal. The hearing aid battery voltage is also periodically compared to a reference voltage. Deviations from the references beyond preset limits cause a warning system to operate.

Kessinger, R. L. (inventor)

1977-01-01

49

AN INTEGRATEDMICROELECTROMECHANICALRESONANT OUTPUT GYROSCOPE -  

E-print Network

AN INTEGRATEDMICROELECTROMECHANICALRESONANT OUTPUT GYROSCOPE - Ashwin A. Seshia*,Roger T. Howe vibratory rate gyroscope based on resonant sensing of the Coriolis force. The new design has several advantages over rate gyroscopes that utilize open-loop displacement sensing for rotation rate measurement

Tang, William C

50

Maximum Throughput in Multiple-Antenna Systems  

E-print Network

The point-to-point multiple-antenna channel is investigated in uncorrelated block fading environment with Rayleigh distribution. The maximum throughput and maximum expected-rate of this channel are derived under the assumption that the transmitter is oblivious to the channel state information (CSI), however, the receiver has perfect CSI. First, we prove that in multiple-input single-output (MISO) channels, the optimum transmission strategy maximizing the throughput is to use all available antennas and perform equal power allocation with uncorrelated signals. Furthermore, to increase the expected-rate, multi-layer coding is applied. Analogously, we establish that sending uncorrelated signals and performing equal power allocation across all available antennas at each layer is optimum. A closed form expression for the maximum continuous-layer expected-rate of MISO channels is also obtained. Moreover, we investigate multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) channels, and formulate the maximum throughput in the asympt...

Zamani, Mahdi

2012-01-01

51

Keyboard With Voice Output  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Voice synthesizer tells what key is about to be depressed. Verbal feedback useful for blind operators or where dim light prevents sighted operator from seeing keyboard. Also used where operator is busy observing other things while keying data into control system. Used as training aid for touch typing, and to train blind operators to use both standard and braille keyboards. Concept adapted to such equipment as typewriters, computers, calculators, telephones, cash registers, and on/off controls.

Huber, W. C.

1986-01-01

52

Last Glacial Maximum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Short lecture on CLIMAP project (see PowerPoint) 20 minutes Powerpoint (PowerPoint 444kB Nov7 10) Group activity - Reading for CLIMAP study assumptions, 20 minutes to read, 20 minutes for discussion Student Handout (Microsoft Word 50kB Nov7 10) Students break into groups (4 per group is good division of work) with 2 students per paper. Split the assumptions between students. Each group skims the CLIMAP papers for the assumptions (modern and/or LGM) used in the CLIMAP model-based reconstruction of the LGM. In the groups, students compare the assumptions between papers. Resources: CLIMAP (1976), The surface of the ice-age earth, Science, 191(4232), 1131-1137 and CLIMAP (1984), The last interglacial ocean, Quaternary Research, 21(2), 123. Class Discussion - Summarize assumptions used in CLIMAP studies. Group activity Exploring CLIMAP LGM Reconstructions, 40 minutes for model data, 20 minutes for discussion (Could be modified with as a "jigsaw" activity with a larger class). Learn more about the jigsaw teaching method. Students work on this activity in pairs; one person will create LGM maps, the other modern. Students should sit together with their computer monitors close together to compare. The students will use the IRI/LDEO Climate Data Library to access the CLIMAP reconstruction and produce maps using the tools available on this web site. In a web browser, go to http://iridl.ldeo.columbia.edu/SOURCES/.CLIMAP/ This is the main page for the CLIMAP Model output for the LGM 18,000 BP. In the middle of the page is the label "Datasets and variables" with two data sets below http://iridl.ldeo.columbia.edu/SOURCES/.CLIMAP/.LGM/ and http://iridl.ldeo.columbia.edu/SOURCES/.CLIMAP/.MOD/. Each student clicks on the link they are assigned to. There are several data sets listed for each period and the students will examine each data set and compare the LGM and Modern. As a class, go through each data set allowing pairs to compare the maps then summarize the results as a class. The worksheet has a table for the students and the PowerPoint has table for summarizing. Class Discussion - Summarize differences between modern and LGM in the CLIMAP model output. Discuss how the assumptions of the CLIMAP model studies may have influenced the results. Extra activities The students can explore the data further using the data selection and filters in the IRI/LDEO Climate Data Library. For the two SST data sets, click on "Data Selection" and narrow the data to the just the tropics (23.5º N-S). Click on "Filters" then select XY next to "Average over." The next window gives you the average over the tropics close to the top of the page. In the next class, the students repeat the Readings exercise by reading the COHMAP and MARGO papers to see how the scientific knowledge has progressed since the original CLIMAP studies. COHMAP Members, (1988), Climatic Changes of the Last 18,000 Years: Observations and Model Simulations, Science, 241(4869), 1043-1052. MARGO (2009), Constraints on the magnitude and patterns of ocean cooling at the Last Glacial Maximum, Nature Geoscience, 2(2), 127-132.

Delong, Kristine

53

State Aid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report, published by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), will most likely be used by financial aid professionals and researchers. The report, offered in .pdf format, is a statistical analysis of the differences among students attending institutions in states that provide different levels of financial aid.

54

Reliability study of TWT output RF window  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rome Air Development Center Computer-Aided Systems Engineering Branch (RBES) has documented an in-house effort to evaluate the structural reliability of the output waveguides window on a Traveling Wave Tube (TWT). This window acts as a seal between the TWT's vacuum envelope and output waveguide. Its purpose is to prevent any loss due to leakage of the vacuum while allowing passage of the microwave signal. This particular disk-shaped window is constructed of a ceramic material, beryllia, and contains an inner ring of copper and an outer ring of Monel K-500 (70 to 30 nickle-copper). It was suspected that excessive thermal stresses associated with the very high operating temperatures by this window has caused it to fail. Finite element analyses, along with material failure theories were used to determine the window's response to a time-dependent heat source and operating heat sink temperature.

Rocci, Peter J.

1990-05-01

55

Principles of Optimizing Photovoltaic Cell Power Output  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is adapted from PSU's GREATT lesson, "Solar Power: The History, Chemistry, and Application of Photovoltaics." In this lesson, students will investigate how to optimize the power output of a photovoltaic cell using a home-made gnomon stand. Data collected from students' investigations will be used to create current-voltage and power-voltage curves to determine the "maximum power point" at which their photovoltaic cell operates.

2008-11-13

56

Nonlinear Hearing Aids and Verification of Fitting Targets  

PubMed Central

This paper addresses the issue of initial verification of hearing aid gain and output for nonlinear hearing aids. Specifically, urban legend has it that nonlinear hearing aids with digital noise reduction circuitry may not be accurately measured using functional gain and/or probe microphone measures. Discussed are the advantages and disadvantages of both measurement strategies, and how they may be used to acoustically match hearing aids to individual patients. An evaluation protocol that employs both optimal aided thresholds and probe microphone measurements to assess gain, output, and audibility in hearing-impaired patients. PMID:15004649

Fabry, David A.

2003-01-01

57

Teaching Aids  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides evaluations of several aids for teaching chemistry. Included are The Use of Chemical Abstracts, Practical Technical Writing, Infrared Spectroscopy Programs, and a film titled "You Can't Go Back." (RH)

Barnard, W. Robert, Ed.

1976-01-01

58

Most Efficient Quantum Thermoelectric at Finite Power Output  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Machines are only Carnot efficient if they are reversible, but then their power output is vanishingly small. Here we ask, what is the maximum efficiency of an irreversible device with finite power output? We use a nonlinear scattering theory to answer this question for thermoelectric quantum systems, heat engines or refrigerators consisting of nanostructures or molecules that exhibit a Peltier effect. We find that quantum mechanics places an upper bound on both power output and on the efficiency at any finite power. The upper bound on efficiency equals Carnot efficiency at zero power output but decays with increasing power output. It is intrinsically quantum (wavelength dependent), unlike Carnot efficiency. This maximum efficiency occurs when the system lets through all particles in a certain energy window, but none at other energies. A physical implementation of this is discussed, as is the suppression of efficiency by a phonon heat flow.

Whitney, Robert S.

2014-04-01

59

Most efficient quantum thermoelectric at finite power output  

E-print Network

Machines are only Carnot efficient if they are reversible, but then their power output is vanishingly small. Here we ask, what is the maximum efficiency of an irreversible device with finite power output? We use a nonlinear scattering theory to answer this question for thermoelectric quantum systems; heat engines or refrigerators consisting of nanostructures or molecules that exhibit a Peltier effect. We find that quantum mechanics places an upper bound on both power output, and on the efficiency at any finite power. The upper bound on efficiency equals Carnot efficiency at zero power output, but decays with increasing power output. It is intrinsically quantum (wavelength dependent), unlike Carnot efficiency. This maximum efficiency occurs when the system lets through all particles in a certain energy window, but none at other energies. A physical implementation of this is discussed, as is the suppression of efficiency by a phonon heat flow.

Robert S. Whitney

2013-06-04

60

Stellar disks Maximum disk  

E-print Network

& Stellar Systems 5, ch.21 (1965) 7 P.C. van der Kruit & K.C. Freeman, K.C., Ap.J. 303, 556 (1986) Piet vanOutline Stellar disks Maximum disk Truncations Conclusions STRUCTURE, MASS AND STABILITY Stellar disks Maximum disk Truncations Conclusions Outline Stellar disks Vertical stellar dynamics Stellar

Kruit, Piet van der

61

Maximum Constant Boost Control of the Z-Source Inverter  

E-print Network

, which can obtain maximum voltage gain at any given modulation index without producing any low-frequency of the output frequency and determined only by the switching frequency. The relationship of voltage gain and capacitor voltage have no ripples that are associated with the output frequency. As has been examined in [2

Tolbert, Leon M.

62

Maximum constant boost control of the Z-source inverter  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes two maximum constant boost control methods for the Z-source inverter, which can obtain maximum voltage gain at any given modulation index without producing any low-frequency ripple that is related to the output frequency. Thus the Z-network requirement will be independent of the output frequency and determined only by the switching frequency. The relationship of voltage gain to

Miaosen Shen; Jin Wang; Alan Joseph; F. Z. Peng; L. M. Tolbert; D. J. Adams

2004-01-01

63

Maximum thrust mode evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measured reductions in acceleration times which resulted from the application of the F-15 performance seeking control (PSC) maximum thrust mode during the dual-engine test phase is presented as a function of power setting and flight condition. Data were collected at altitudes of 30,000 and 45,000 feet at military and maximum afterburning power settings. The time savings for the supersonic acceleration is less than at subsonic Mach numbers because of the increased modeling and control complexity. In addition, the propulsion system was designed to be optimized at the mid supersonic Mach number range. Recall that even though the engine is at maximum afterburner, PSC does not trim the afterburner for the maximum thrust mode. Subsonically at military power, time to accelerate from Mach 0.6 to 0.95 was cut by between 6 and 8 percent with a single engine application of PSC, and over 14 percent when both engines were optimized. At maximum afterburner, the level of thrust increases were similar in magnitude to the military power results, but because of higher thrust levels at maximum afterburner and higher aircraft drag at supersonic Mach numbers the percentage thrust increase and time to accelerate was less than for the supersonic accelerations. Savings in time to accelerate supersonically at maximum afterburner ranged from 4 to 7 percent. In general, the maximum thrust mode has performed well, demonstrating significant thrust increases at military and maximum afterburner power. Increases of up to 15 percent at typical combat-type flight conditions were identified. Thrust increases of this magnitude could be useful in a combat situation.

Orme, John S.; Nobbs, Steven G.

1995-01-01

64

Maximum ratio transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the concept, principles, and analysis of maximum ratio transmission for wireless communications, where multiple antennas are used for both transmission and reception. The principles and analysis are applicable to general cases, including maximum-ratio combining. Simulation results agree with the analysis. The analysis shows that the average overall signal-to-mise ratio (SNR) is proportional to the cross correlation between

Titus K. Y. Lo

1999-01-01

65

Classroom Aids  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes 6 aids for science instruction, including (1) the use of fudge to represent lava; (2) the "Living by Chemistry" program, designed to make high school chemistry more accessible to a diverse pool of students without sacrificing content; (3) NOAA and NSTA's online coral reef teaching tool, a new web-based "science toolbox" for

Science Activities: Classroom Projects and Curriculum Ideas, 2007

2007-01-01

66

Floriculture Aide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for use in a self-paced, open-entry/open-exit vocational training program for a floriculture aide, this program guide is one of six for teachers of adult women offenders from a correctional institution. Module topic outlines and sample lesson plans are presented on eleven topics: occupational opportunities in the retail florist industry;

Martin, Joyce; Looney, Era

67

FIRST AID  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

DESK Standard: Understand basic first-aid principles. . DATES: You can begin this activity on April 23. You should complete it by April 27. OBJECTIVE: Have you ever been in a situation where someone was hurt and you weren\\'t sure what to do? It can be very scary. The objective of this lesson is ...

Hughes, Mr.

2006-03-05

68

AIDS talk  

Microsoft Academic Search

The observations of Michel Foucault, noted Twentieth Century French philosopher, regarding modern power relations and orders of discourse, form the framework utilized to analyze and interpret the power struggles of AIDS activists and their opponents--the religious and radical right, and the administrative agencies of the 'Liberal' welfare State. Supported by the tools of sociolinguistic inquiry, the analysis highlights the success

Joyce Elizabeth Elder Yost

1996-01-01

69

Body size and work output.  

PubMed

The relationship between work output and anthropometric, biochemical, and socioeconomic varables was studied in 57 male industrial workers engaged in the production of detonator fuses. These workers were studied for 3 months and their daily work output was carefully measured. Work output was measured in terms of the number of fuses produced per day. Clinical and biochemical examination indicated that their current nutritional status was adequate. Among the parameters studied only body weight, height, and lean body weight were significantly correlated with work output. Body weight and lean body weight were significantly correlated (P less than 0.001) with work output even after removing the influence of height by partial correlation. Total daily work output was significantly higher (P less than 0.01) in those with higher body weight and lean body weight. The rate of work was also higher in the higher body weight group PMID:842484

Satyanarayana, K; Naidu, A N; Chatterjee, B; Rao, N

1977-03-01

70

Maximum Parsimony and Maximum Likelihood Methods Comparisons and Bootstrap Tests  

E-print Network

Maximum Parsimony and Maximum Likelihood Methods Comparisons and Bootstrap Tests Character Likelihood Methods Comparisons and Bootstrap Tests Character Reconstruction PHYLIP and T-REX Exercises Outline 1 Maximum Parsimony and Maximum Likelihood 2 Methods Comparisons and Bootstrap Tests 3 Character

Qiu, Weigang

71

Serial Input Output  

SciTech Connect

Serial Input/Output (SIO) is designed to be a long term storage format of a sophistication somewhere between simple ASCII files and the techniques provided by inter alia Objectivity and Root. The former tend to be low density, information lossy (floating point numbers lose precision) and inflexible. The latter require abstract descriptions of the data with all that that implies in terms of extra complexity. The basic building blocks of SIO are streams, records and blocks. Streams provide the connections between the program and files. The user can define an arbitrary list of streams as required. A given stream must be opened for either reading or writing. SIO does not support read/write streams. If a stream is closed during the execution of a program, it can be reopened in either read or write mode to the same or a different file. Records represent a coherent grouping of data. Records consist of a collection of blocks (see next paragraph). The user can define a variety of records (headers, events, error logs, etc.) and request that any of them be written to any stream. When SIO reads a file, it first decodes the record name and if that record has been defined and unpacking has been requested for it, SIO proceeds to unpack the blocks. Blocks are user provided objects which do the real work of reading/writing the data. The user is responsible for writing the code for these blocks and for identifying these blocks to SIO at run time. To write a collection of blocks, the user must first connect them to a record. The record can then be written to a stream as described above. Note that the same block can be connected to many different records. When SIO reads a record, it scans through the blocks written and calls the corresponding block object (if it has been defined) to decode it. Undefined blocks are skipped. Each of these categories (streams, records and blocks) have some characteristics in common. Every stream, record and block has a name with the condition that each stream, record or block name must be unique in its category (i.e. all streams must have different names, but a stream can have the same name as a record). Each category is an arbitrary length list which is handled by a 'manager' and there is one manager for each category.

Waite, Anthony; /SLAC

2011-09-07

72

HIV/AIDS Basics  

MedlinePLUS

... About CDC.gov . Act Against AIDS Share Compartir HIV/AIDS Basics Before we can stop any epidemic, ... before, AIDS is still a significant health issue. HIV 101 HIV/AIDS Basic Statistics Transmission Testing Prevention ...

73

Modeling and Predicting Hearing Aid Outcome  

PubMed Central

Following a brief tutorial on the application of factor analysis to hearing aid outcome measures, three studies of hearing aid outcome measures in elderly adults are presented and analyzed. Two of the studies were completed at Indiana University (IU-1 and IU-2), and one was a collaborative multisite study by the Veterans Administration and the National Institute of Deafness and other Communication Disorders (NIDCD/VA). IU-1 measured hearing aid outcome in 173 elderly wearers of single-channel, linear, in-the-ear hearing aids with output-limiting compression, whereas IU-2 obtained the same extensive set of outcome measures from 53 elderly wearers of two-channel, wide-dynamic-range compression, in-the-canal hearing aids. In the NIDCD/VA study, 333 to 338 participants wore three single-channel circuits in succession, with each circuit housed within an in-the-ear shell. The three circuits included in that study and in this analysis were: (1) linear with peak clipping, (2) linear with output-limiting compression, and (3) single-channel, wide-dynamic-range compression. Evaluation of the many outcome measures completed in each study using principal components factor analysis revealed that from three (both IU studies) to five (NIDCD/VA study) principal components captured the individual differences in hearing aid outcome. This was independent of hearing aid type (in-the-ear or in-the-canal) and circuitry. Subsequent multiple regression analyses of individual differences in performance along each dimension of hearing aid outcome revealed that these individual differences could be accounted for reasonably well by various prefit variables for some dimensions of outcome, but not others. In general, measures of speech recognition performance were well accounted for by prefit measures, with the best predictors being hearing loss, cognitive performance, and age. Measures of hearing aid usage were less well accounted for by prefit measures, with the most accurate predictor of current hearing aid use being prior hearing aid use. The outcome dimension accounted for most poorly was that associated with hearing aid satisfaction, with subjective measures of aided sound quality being the best predictor of performance along this dimension of hearing aid outcome. Additional multicenter, large-scale studies are needed to develop more complete models of hearing aid outcome and to identify the variables that influence various aspects of hearing aid outcome. It is only through this additional research that it will be possible to optimize outcome for hearing aid wearers. PMID:15004647

Humes, Larry E.

2003-01-01

74

Can Aid Reform Institutions?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nature of foreign aid and of aid-giving organizations are at odds with what we know about institutional change: that it is often gradual, path dependent, and contrary to Western notions of best practice. Empirical analyses find no positive correlation between aid and better institutions. If aid cannot reform institutions, can aid avoid damaging institutions? Efforts to insulated aid projects

Mary M. Shirley

75

Characterizing the effects of cell settling on bioprinter output.  

PubMed

The time variation in bioprinter output, i.e. the number of cells per printed drop, was studied over the length of a typical printing experiment. This variation impacts the cell population size of bioprinted samples, which should ideally be consistent. The variation in output was specifically studied in the context of cell settling. The bioprinter studied is based on the thermal inkjet HP26A cartridge; however, the results are relevant to other cell delivery systems that draw fluid from a reservoir. A simple mathematical model suggests that the cell concentration in the bottom of the reservoir should increase linearly over time, up to some maximum, and that the cell output should be proportional to this concentration. Two studies were performed in which D1 murine stem cells and similarly sized polystyrene latex beads were printed. The bead output profiles were consistent with the model. The cell output profiles initially followed the increasing trend predicted by the settling model, but after several minutes the cell output peaked and then decreased. The decrease in cell output was found to be associated with the number of use cycles the cartridge had experienced. The differing results for beads and cells suggest that a biological process, such as adhesion, causes the decrease in cell output. Further work will be required to identify the exact process. PMID:22257751

Pepper, Matthew E; Seshadri, Vidya; Burg, Timothy C; Burg, Karen J L; Groff, Richard E

2012-03-01

76

Frequency Tracking to Maximum Power of Piezoelectric Transformer HV Converters under Load Variations  

E-print Network

that the operating frequency of the PT, at which maximum voltage gain is reached, is a function of the load. Hence frequency [1]. Fig. 1. Rosen type piezoelectric transformer. Hence, to maintain maximum output voltage under) it is necessary to lock the operating frequency to the one that will ensure highest possible output voltage

77

Output optics for laser velocimeters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space savings are effected in the optical output system of a laser velocimeter. The output system is comprised of pairs of optical fibers having output ends from which a beam of laser light emerges, a transfer lens for each light beam, and at least one final (LV) lens for receiving the light passing through the transfer lenses and for focussing that light at a common crossing point or area. In order to closely couple the transfer lenses to the final lens, each transfer lens is positioned relative to the final lens receiving light therefrom such that the output waist of the corresponding beam received by the final lens from the transfer lens is a virtual waist located before the transfer lens.

Lynch, Dana H. (inventor); Gunter, William D. (inventor); Mcalister, Kenneth W. (inventor)

1993-01-01

78

World Input-Output Network  

E-print Network

Economic systems, traditionally analyzed as almost independent national systems, are increasingly connected on a global scale. Only recently becoming available, the World Input-Output Database (WIOD) is one of the first efforts to construct the multi-regional input-output (MRIO) tables at the global level. By viewing the world input-output system as an interdependent network where the nodes are the individual industries in different economies and the edges are the monetary goods flows between industries, we study the network properties of the so-called world input-output network (WION) and document its evolution over time. We are able to quantify not only some global network properties such as assortativity, clustering coefficient, and degree and strength distributions, but also its subgraph structure and dynamics by using community detection techniques. Over time, we detect a marked increase in cross-country connectivity of the production system, only temporarily interrupted by the 2008-2009 crisis. Moreover...

Cerina, Federica; Chessa, Alessandro; Riccaboni, Massimo

2014-01-01

79

Output collapses and productivity destruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we analyze the long-run relationship between output collapsesdefined as GDP falling substantially below trendand\\u000a total factor productivity (TFP). We use a panel of 76 developed and developing countries during the period 19602004 to identify\\u000a episodes of output collapse and estimate counterfactual post-collapse TFP trends. Collapses are concentrated in developing\\u000a countries, especially Africa and Latin America, and were

Juan S. Blyde; Christian Daude; Eduardo Fernndez-Arias

2010-01-01

80

Electronic filters, hearing aids and methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An electronic filter for an electroacoustic system. The system has a microphone for generating an electrical output from external sounds and an electrically driven transducer for emitting sound. Some of the sound emitted by the transducer returns to the microphone means to add a feedback contribution to its electrical output. The electronic filter includes a first circuit for electronic processing of the electrical output of the microphone to produce a first signal. An adaptive filter, interconnected with the first circuit, performs electronic processing of the first signal to produce an adaptive output to the first circuit to substantially offset the feedback contribution in the electrical output of the microphone, and the adaptive filter includes means for adapting only in response to polarities of signals supplied to and from the first circuit. Other electronic filters for hearing aids, public address systems and other electroacoustic systems, as well as such systems and methods of operating them are also disclosed.

Engebretson, A. Maynard (Inventor)

1995-01-01

81

Electronic filters, hearing aids and methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An electronic filter for an electroacoustic system. The system has a microphone for generating an electrical output from external sounds and an electrically driven transducer for emitting sound. Some of the sound emitted by the transducer returns to the microphone means to add a feedback contribution to its electical output. The electronic filter includes a first circuit for electronic processing of the electrical output of the microphone to produce a filtered signal. An adaptive filter, interconnected with the first circuit, performs electronic processing of the filtered signal to produce an adaptive output to the first circuit to substantially offset the feedback contribution in the electrical output of the microphone, and the adaptive filter includes means for adapting only in response to polarities of signals supplied to and from the first circuit. Other electronic filters for hearing aids, public address systems and other electroacoustic systems, as well as such systems, and methods of operating them are also disclosed.

Engebretson, A. Maynard (Inventor); O'Connell, Michael P. (Inventor); Zheng, Baohua (Inventor)

1991-01-01

82

The cartel of good intentions: The problem of bureaucracy in foreign aid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Well-meaning national and international bureaucracies dispense foreign aid under conditions in which bureaucracy fails. The environment that created aid bureaucracies led those organizations to (a) define their output as money disbursed rather than service delivered, (b) produce many low-return observable outputs (glossy reports and \\

William Easterly

2002-01-01

83

Clinical experience with downsized lower energy output implantable cardioverter defibrillators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and study objective: Technical improvements in cardioverter defibrillators technology has resulted in decrease in can size coupled with improved electrodes technology. A decrease in maximum energy output allows further decrease in device size. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of a single lead transvenous implant employing a downsized cardioverter-defibrillator (volume 59 cm3), with a related

Giuseppe Boriani; Lorenzo Frabetti; Mauro Biffi; Luciano Sallusti

1998-01-01

84

The Solar Maximum observatory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The successful retrieval and repair of the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) satellite by Shuttle astronauts in April 1984 permitted continuance of solar flare observations that began in 1980. The SMM carries a soft X ray polychromator, gamma ray, UV and hard X ray imaging spectrometers, a coronagraph/polarimeter and particle counters. The data gathered thus far indicated that electrical potentials of 25 MeV develop in flares within 2 sec of onset. X ray data show that flares are composed of compressed magnetic loops that have come too close together. Other data have been taken on mass ejection, impacts of electron beams and conduction fronts with the chromosphere and changes in the solar radiant flux due to sunspots.

Rust, D. M.

1984-01-01

85

Output stream of binding neuron with delayed feedback  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A binding neuron (BN) with delayed feedback is considered. The neuron is fed externally with a Poisson stream of intensity ?. The neurons output spikes are fed back into its input with time delay ?. The resulting output stream of the BN is not Poissonian. The main purpose of this paper is to find interspike intervals (ISI) distribution of the output stream. For BN with threshold 2 the exact mathematical expressions as functions of ?, ? and BNs internal memory, ? are derived for the ISI distribution and coefficient of variation. For higher thresholds these quantities are found numerically. The distributions found are characterized with jumps, derivative discontinuities and include singularity of Diracs ?-function type. The ISI coefficient of variation found is a unimodal function of input intensity, with the maximum value considerably bigger than unity. It is concluded that delayed feedback presence can radically alter neuronal output firing statistics.

Vidybida, A. K.; Kravchuk, K. G.

2009-11-01

86

Maximum aposteriori joint source/channel coding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A maximum aposteriori probability (MAP) approach to joint source/channel coder design is presented in this paper. This method attempts to explore a technique for designing joint source/channel codes, rather than ways of distributing bits between source coders and channel coders. For a nonideal source coder, MAP arguments are used to design a decoder which takes advantage of redundancy in the source coder output to perform error correction. Once the decoder is obtained, it is analyzed with the purpose of obtaining 'desirable properties' of the channel input sequence for improving overall system performance. Finally, an encoder design which incorporates these properties is proposed.

Sayood, Khalid; Gibson, Jerry D.

1991-01-01

87

Heart attack first aid  

MedlinePLUS

First aid - heart attack; First aid - cardiopulmonary arrest; First aid - cardiac arrest ... A heart attack occurs when the blood flow that carries oxygen to the heart is blocked. The heart muscle ...

88

Hearing Aid Device  

MedlinePLUS

... showing how the hearing aid works. First, the drawing shows a hearing aid identifying the internal components. ... battery, sound processor, and speaker/receiver. A larger drawing shows the hearing aid placed in the ear. ...

89

Buying a Hearing Aid  

MedlinePLUS

... and evaluation. It may be an otolaryngologist, an audiologist, or a hearing aid dispenser. Only two types ... and dispense hearing aids in the U.S.: an audiologist and a hearing aid dispenser. An otolaryngologist is ...

90

Crawling Aid  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Institute for the Achievement of Human Potential developed a device known as the Vehicle for Initial Crawling (VIC); the acronym is a tribute to the crawler's inventor, Hubert "Vic" Vykukal; is an effective crawling aid. The VIC is used by brain injured children who are unable to crawl due to the problems of weight-bearing and friction, caused by gravity. It is a rounded plywood frame large enough to support the child's torso, leaving arms and legs free to move. On its underside are three aluminum discs through which air is pumped to create an air-bearing surface that has less friction than a film of oil. Upper side contains the connection to the air supply and a pair of straps which restrain the child and cause the device to move with him. VIC is used with the intent to recreate the normal neurological connection between brain and muscles. Over repetitive use of the device the child develops his arm and leg muscles as well as coordination. Children are given alternating therapy, with and without the VIC until eventually the device is no longer needed.

1982-01-01

91

Generalized Maximum Entropy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A long standing mystery in using Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) is how to deal with constraints whose values are uncertain. This situation arises when constraint values are estimated from data, because of finite sample sizes. One approach to this problem, advocated by E.T. Jaynes [1], is to ignore this uncertainty, and treat the empirically observed values as exact. We refer to this as the classic MaxEnt approach. Classic MaxEnt gives point probabilities (subject to the given constraints), rather than probability densities. We develop an alternative approach that assumes that the uncertain constraint values are represented by a probability density {e.g: a Gaussian), and this uncertainty yields a MaxEnt posterior probability density. That is, the classic MaxEnt point probabilities are regarded as a multidimensional function of the given constraint values, and uncertainty on these values is transmitted through the MaxEnt function to give uncertainty over the MaXEnt probabilities. We illustrate this approach by explicitly calculating the generalized MaxEnt density for a simple but common case, then show how this can be extended numerically to the general case. This paper expands the generalized MaxEnt concept introduced in a previous paper [3].

Cheeseman, Peter; Stutz, John

2005-01-01

92

Efficiency at maximum power of motor traffic on networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study motor traffic on Bethe networks subject to hard-core exclusion for both tightly coupled one-state machines and loosely coupled two-state machines that perform work against a constant load. In both cases we find an interaction-induced enhancement of the efficiency at maximum power (EMP) as compared to noninteracting motors. The EMP enhancement occurs for a wide range of network and single-motor parameters and is due to a change in the characteristic load-velocity relation caused by phase transitions in the system. Using a quantitative measure of the trade-off between the EMP enhancement and the corresponding loss in the maximum output power we identify parameter regimes where motor traffic systems operate efficiently at maximum power without a significant decrease in the maximum power output due to jamming effects.

Golubeva, N.; Imparato, A.

2014-06-01

93

Efficiency at maximum power of motor traffic on networks.  

PubMed

We study motor traffic on Bethe networks subject to hard-core exclusion for both tightly coupled one-state machines and loosely coupled two-state machines that perform work against a constant load. In both cases we find an interaction-induced enhancement of the efficiency at maximum power (EMP) as compared to noninteracting motors. The EMP enhancement occurs for a wide range of network and single-motor parameters and is due to a change in the characteristic load-velocity relation caused by phase transitions in the system. Using a quantitative measure of the trade-off between the EMP enhancement and the corresponding loss in the maximum output power we identify parameter regimes where motor traffic systems operate efficiently at maximum power without a significant decrease in the maximum power output due to jamming effects. PMID:25019736

Golubeva, N; Imparato, A

2014-06-01

94

Multi-Output Battery Cells  

E-print Network

+ + + _ _ _ Fig.2 Multi-output SC (MoSC) based power management system. Intermediate bus Battery cells LDO loads power management system. A LOW-VOLUME POWER MANAGEMENT MODULE FOR PORTABLE APPLICATIONS BASED ON A MULTI,prodic}@ele.utoronto.ca Abstract-- This paper introduces a 2-stage power management architecture for battery powered portable

Prodiæ, Aleksandar

95

The Determinants of Cardiac Output  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part of the Gross Physiology of the Cardiovascular System site, this 22-minute video presentation explains fundamental but often misunderstood concepts about the determinants of cardiac output, using Dr. Anderson's hydraulic model of the cardiovascular system. It is a useful summary and overview of the concepts presented in greater detail in the online text. A transcript of the video presentation is available.

Anderson, Robert M.

2012-01-25

96

Viewing Output With IRIS Explorer  

E-print Network

combination of components may be displayed together. The user may view the output from any angle or distance pages or help files for use on other machines. After reading this overview, you may wish to run through via anonymous ftp from: bishop.stanford.edu in the directory /pub/p3dexplorer These tools may

Cooke, Michele

97

Output prediction of cone crushers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The output prediction of cone crushers has been focused on both by the aggregate producing industry and the mining industry as the demands for higher quality and lower costs increase. In this paper a method for prediction of cone crusher performance is presented By using the method both product size distributions and total capacity can be predicted. By combining these

C. M. Evertsson

1998-01-01

98

Aid and growth regressions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the relationship between foreign aid and growth in real GDP per capita as it emerges from simple augmentations of popular cross-country growth specifications. It is shown that aid in all likelihood increases the growth rate, and this result is not conditional on good policy. There are, however, decreasing returns to aid, and the estimated effectiveness of aid

Henrik Hansen; Finn Tarp

2001-01-01

99

Maximum of oil output of a treadle-powered peanut oil press  

E-print Network

The manual processing of food products has become a substantial part of the daily routine of a typical household in the developing world. Consumption of oil is an essential part of an individual's diet and thus, the ...

Patel, Ravi M. (Ravi Mahendra)

2007-01-01

100

Optimal solar array configuration and DC motor field parameters for maximum annual output mechanical energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A procedure is presented for the proper design of systems comprising photovoltaic solar generators directly supplying DC motors. The method is based on maximizing the total annual gross mechanical energy delivered to a mechanical load with a given torque-speed characteristic. The seasonal variations of both the isolation level and the ambient temperature are taken into account. The proposed technique is

M. M. Saied; M. G. Jaboori

1989-01-01

101

Maximum wind energy extraction strategies using power electronic converters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis focuses on maximum wind energy extraction strategies for achieving the highest energy output of variable speed wind turbine power generation systems. Power electronic converters and controls provide the basic platform to accomplish the research of this thesis in both hardware and software aspects. In order to send wind energy to a utility grid, a variable speed wind turbine

Quincy Qing Wang

2003-01-01

102

A maximum power transfer battery charger for electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A battery charger is described that uses an on-line microcontroller to maximize its output power. This is done by always operating at either the maximum allowable input current or the thermal limit imposed by the charger itself. In this case the thermal limit is determined by the junction temperatures of the two main insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs). Since direct

B. J. Masserant; T. A. Stuart

1997-01-01

103

Exploiting the Maximum Entropy Principle to Increase Retrieval Effectiveness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents information retrieval design approach in which queries of computer-based system consist of sets of terms, either unweighted or weighted with subjective term precision estimates, and retrieval outputs ranked by probability of usefulness estimated by "maximum entropy principle." Boolean and weighted request systems are discussed. Twenty-two

Cooper, William S.

1983-01-01

104

Maximum likelihood signal estimation for polarization sensitive arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors consider the problem of separating and estimating the waveforms of superimposed signals received by a polarization-sensitive array. Signal estimation is accomplished by a two-step maximum likelihood procedure: (i) The directions of arrival and polarization parameters of all the signals are estimated. (ii) The estimated signal is obtained as a linear combination of the array outputs, with weights which

Anthony J. Weiss; Benjamin Friedlander

1993-01-01

105

Maximum power point tracker for a photovoltaic system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for renewable energy sources is on the rise because of the acute energy crisis in the world today. The main hindrance for the penetration and reach of solar PV system is its low efficiency and high capital cost. The output characteristics of photovoltaic arrays are nonlinear and change with the cell's temperature and solar radiation. Maximum power point

J. Suganya; M. Carolin Mabel

2012-01-01

106

Common Voting Rules as Maximum Likelihood Estimators Vincent Conitzer  

E-print Network

Common Voting Rules as Maximum Likelihood Estimators Vincent Conitzer Computer Science Department@cs.cmu.edu Abstract Voting is a very general method of preference aggregation. A voting rule takes as input ev- ery voter's vote (typically, a ranking of the alternatives), and produces as output either just the winning

Gordon, Geoffrey J.

107

The Master Hearing Aid  

PubMed Central

As early as the 1930s the term Master Hearing Aid (MHA) described a device used in the fitting of hearing aids. In their original form, the MHA was a desktop system that allowed for simulated or actual adjustment of hearing aid components that resulted in a changed hearing aid response. Over the years the MHA saw many embodiments and contributed to a number of rationales for the fitting of hearing aids. During these same years, the MHA was viewed by many as an inappropriate means of demonstrating hearing aids; the audio quality of the desktop systems was often superior to the hearing aids themselves. These opinions and the evolution of the MHA have molded the modern perception of hearing aids and the techniques used in the fitting of hearing aids. This article reports on a history of the MHA and its influence on the fitting of hearing aids. PMID:23686682

Curran, James R.

2013-01-01

108

The master hearing aid.  

PubMed

As early as the 1930s the term Master Hearing Aid (MHA) described a device used in the fitting of hearing aids. In their original form, the MHA was a desktop system that allowed for simulated or actual adjustment of hearing aid components that resulted in a changed hearing aid response. Over the years the MHA saw many embodiments and contributed to a number of rationales for the fitting of hearing aids. During these same years, the MHA was viewed by many as an inappropriate means of demonstrating hearing aids; the audio quality of the desktop systems was often superior to the hearing aids themselves. These opinions and the evolution of the MHA have molded the modern perception of hearing aids and the techniques used in the fitting of hearing aids. This article reports on a history of the MHA and its influence on the fitting of hearing aids. PMID:23686682

Curran, James R; Galster, Jason A

2013-06-01

109

Microgyroscope with closed loop output  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A micro-gyroscope (10) having closed loop operation by a control voltage (V.sub.TY), that is demodulated by an output signal of the sense electrodes (S1, S2), providing Coriolis torque rebalance to prevent displacement of the micro-gyroscope (10) on the output axis (y-axis). The present invention provides wide-band, closed-loop operation for a micro-gyroscope (10) and allows the drive frequency to be closely tuned to a high Q sense axis resonance. A differential sense signal (S1-S2) is compensated and fed back by differentially changing the voltage on the drive electrodes to rebalance Coriolis torque. The feedback signal is demodulated in phase with the drive axis signal (K.sub..omega..crclbar..sub.x) to produce a measure of the Coriolis force.

Challoner, A. Dorian (Inventor); Gutierrez, Roman C. (Inventor); Tang, Tony K. (Inventor); Cargille, Donald R. (Inventor)

2002-01-01

110

Sum frequency mixing of copper vapor laser output in KDP and. beta. -BBO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Generation at 271nm by frequency summing the two CVL output wavelengths (at 511 and 578 nm) in β-BBO and KDP is reported. A maximum sum frequency output of 100 mW was obtained for 6.8W total pump power from a CVL operating with a fully unstable (M=16) confocal cavity.

D. W. Coutts; M. D. Ainsworth; J. A. Piper

1989-01-01

111

Sum frequency mixing of copper vapor laser output in KDP and. beta. -BBO  

SciTech Connect

Generation at 271nm by frequency summing the two CVL output wavelengths (at 511 and 578 nm) in {beta}-BBO and KDP is reported. A maximum sum frequency output of 100 mW was obtained for 6.8W total pump power from a CVL operating with a fully unstable (M=16) confocal cavity.

Coutts, D.W.; Ainsworth, M.D.; Piper, J.A. (Centre for Lasers and Applications, Macquarie Univ., N.S.W. 2109 (AU))

1989-09-01

112

Thymic output, ageing and zinc  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of the thymus is vital for orchestration of T-cell development and maturation. With increasing age the thymus undergoes a process of involution which results in a reduction in thymic size, function and output. Until relatively recent it was not feasible to accurately measure the magnitude of age-related loss of thymic function. With the discovery of T-cell receptor excision

Wayne A Mitchell; Irene Meng; Stuart A Nicholson; Richard Aspinall

2006-01-01

113

Minimal output sets for identifiability.  

PubMed

Ordinary differential equation models in biology often contain a large number of parameters that must be determined from measurements by parameter estimation. For a parameter estimation procedure to be successful, there must be a unique set of parameters that can have produced the measured data. This is not the case if a model is not uniquely structurally identifiable with the given set of outputs selected as measurements. In designing an experiment for the purpose of parameter estimation, given a set of feasible but resource-consuming measurements, it is useful to know which ones must be included in order to obtain an identifiable system, or whether the system is unidentifiable from the feasible measurement set. We have developed an algorithm that, from a user-provided set of variables and parameters or functions of them assumed to be measurable or known, determines all subsets that when used as outputs give a locally structurally identifiable system and are such that any output set for which the system is structurally identifiable must contain at least one of the calculated subsets. The algorithm has been implemented in Mathematica and shown to be feasible and efficient. We have successfully applied it in the analysis of large signalling pathway models from the literature. PMID:22609467

Anguelova, Milena; Karlsson, Johan; Jirstrand, Mats

2012-09-01

114

The Load That Maximizes the Average Mechanical Power Output During Explosive Bench Press Throws in Highly Trained Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The power output generated with different barbell loads and which resistance generated the maximum mechanical power output (Pmax) during explosive bench press-type throws (BT) in a smith machine device were investigated in power- trained athletes. Thirty-one rugby league players were tested for 1 repetition maximum (1RM) free-weight bench press strength (1RM BP). Maximal power output was assessed by the Plyometric

DANIEL BAKER; STEVEN NANCE; MICHAEL MOORE

2001-01-01

115

Overload protection circuit for output driver  

Microsoft Academic Search

A protection circuit for preventing excessive power dissipation in an output transistor whose conduction path is connected between a power terminal and an output terminal. The protection circuit includes means for sensing the application of a turn on signal to the output transistor and the voltage at the output terminal. When the turn on signal is maintained for a period

Roger G

1982-01-01

116

Constraints for Input\\/Output Logics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a previous paper we developed a general theory of input\\/output logics. These are operations resembling inference, but where inputs need not be included among outputs, and outputs need not be reusable as inputs. In the present paper we study what happens when they are constrained to render output consistent with input. This is of interest for deontic logic, where

David Makinson; Leendert van der Torre

2001-01-01

117

Individual Module Maximum Power Point Tracking for Thermoelectric Generator Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a thermoelectric generator (TEG) system the DC/DC converter is under the control of a maximum power point tracker which ensures that the TEG system outputs the maximum possible power to the load. However, if the conditions, e.g., temperature, health, etc., of the TEG modules are different, each TEG module will not produce its maximum power. If each TEG module is controlled individually, each TEG module can be operated at its maximum power point and the TEG system output power will therefore be higher. In this work a power converter based on noninverting buck-boost converters capable of handling four TEG modules is presented. It is shown that, when each module in the TEG system is operated under individual maximum power point tracking, the system output power for this specific application can be increased by up to 8.4% relative to the situation when the modules are connected in series and 16.7% relative to the situation when the modules are connected in parallel.

Vadstrup, Casper; Schaltz, Erik; Chen, Min

2013-07-01

118

Microwave generated electrodeless lamp for producing bright output  

SciTech Connect

A microwave generated electrodeless light source for producing a bright output comprising a lamp structure including a microwave chamber and a plasma medium-containing lamp envelope having a maximum dimension which is substantially less than a wavelength disposed therein. To provide the desired radiation output the interior of the chamber is coated with a UV-reflective material and the chamber has an opening for allowing UV radiation to exit, which is covered with a metallic mesh. The chamber is arranged to be near-resonant at a single wavelength, and the lamp envelope has a fill including mercury at an operating pressure of 1-2 atmospheres, while a power density of at least 250-300 (watts/cm/sup 3/) is coupled to the envelope to result in a relatively high deep UV output at a relatively high brightness.

Wood, Ch. H.; Ury, M. G.

1985-03-26

119

Differentially Private Search Log Sanitization with Optimal Output Utility  

E-print Network

Web search logs contain extremely sensitive data, as evidenced by the recent AOL incident. However, storing and analyzing search logs can be very useful for many purposes (i.e. investigating human behavior). Thus, an important research question is how to privately sanitize search logs. Although several search log anonymization techniques have been proposed with concrete privacy models, the output utility of most techniques is merely evaluated but not necessarily maximized. Indeed, when applying any privacy standard to the search log anonymization, the optimal (maximum utility) output can be derived according to the inter-relation between privacy and utility. In this paper, we take a first step towards tackling this problem by formulating utility-maximizing optimization problems based on the rigorous privacy standard of differential privacy. Specifically, we utilize optimization models to maximize the output utility of the sanitization for different applications, while ensuring that the production process sati...

Hong, Yuan; Lu, Haibing; Wu, Mingrui

2011-01-01

120

Quality, precision and accuracy of the maximum No. 40 anemometer  

SciTech Connect

This paper synthesizes available calibration data for the Maximum No. 40 anemometer. Despite its long history in the wind industry, controversy surrounds the choice of transfer function for this anemometer. Many users are unaware that recent changes in default transfer functions in data loggers are producing output wind speed differences as large as 7.6%. Comparison of two calibration methods used for large samples of Maximum No. 40 anemometers shows a consistent difference of 4.6% in output speeds. This difference is significantly larger than estimated uncertainty levels. Testing, initially performed to investigate related issues, reveals that Gill and Maximum cup anemometers change their calibration transfer functions significantly when calibrated in the open atmosphere compared with calibration in a laminar wind tunnel. This indicates that atmospheric turbulence changes the calibration transfer function of cup anemometers. These results call into question the suitability of standard wind tunnel calibration testing for cup anemometers. 6 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

Obermeir, J. [Otech Engineering, Davis, CA (United States); Blittersdorf, D. [NRG Systems Inc., Hinesburg, VT (United States)

1996-12-31

121

Improved output performance of high-power VCSELs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intention of this paper is to report on state-of-the-art high-power vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser diodes (VCSELs), single devices as well as two-dimensional (2-D) arrays. Both approaches are studied in terms of electrooptical characteristics, beam performance, and scaling behavior. The maximum continuous wave (CW) output power at room temperature of large-area bottom-emitting devices with active diameters up to 320 ?m is

Michael Miller; Martin Grabherr; Roger King; Roland Jger; Rainer Michalzik; Karl Joachim Ebeling

2001-01-01

122

Approximate maximum likelihood decoding of block codes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Approximate maximum likelihood decoding algorithms, based upon selecting a small set of candidate code words with the aid of the estimated probability of error of each received symbol, can give performance close to optimum with a reasonable amount of computation. By combining the best features of various algorithms and taking care to perform each step as efficiently as possible, a decoding scheme was developed which can decode codes which have better performance than those presently in use and yet not require an unreasonable amount of computation. The discussion of the details and tradeoffs of presently known efficient optimum and near optimum decoding algorithms leads, naturally, to the one which embodies the best features of all of them.

Greenberger, H. J.

1979-01-01

123

Finding the quantum thermoelectric with maximal efficiency and minimal entropy production at given power output  

E-print Network

We investigate the nonlinear Landauer-Buttiker scattering theory for quantum systems with strong Seebeck and Peltier effects, and their use as heat-engines and refrigerators with finite power outputs. This article gives detailed derivations of the results summarized in Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 130601 (2014). It shows how to use the scattering theory to find (i) the quantum thermoelectric with maximum possible power output, and (ii) the quantum thermoelectric with maximum efficiency at given power output. The latter corresponds to a minimal entropy production at that power output. These quantities are of quantum origin since they depend on system size over electronic wavelength, and so have no analogue in classical thermodynamics. The maximal efficiency coincides with Carnot efficiency at zero power output, but decreases with increasing power output. This gives a fundamental lower bound on entropy production, which means that reversibility (in the thermodynamic sense) is impossible for finite power output. The suppression of efficiency by (nonlinear) phonon and photon effects is addressed in detail; when these effects are strong, maximum efficiency coincides with maximum power. Finally, we show that relaxation within the quantum system does not appear to allow it to exceed the bounds derived for relaxation-free systems.

Robert S. Whitney

2014-08-14

124

Optimization of output power in a fiber optical parametric oscillator.  

PubMed

Fiber optical parametric oscillators (FOPOs) are coherent sources that can provide ultra-broadband tunability and high output power levels and are been considered for applications such as medical imaging and sensing. While most recent literature has focused on advancing the performance of these devices experimentally, theoretical studies are still scarce. In contrast, ordinary laser theory is very mature, has been thoroughly studied and is now well understood from the point of view of fundamental physics. In this work, we present a theoretical study of OPOs and in particular we theoretically discuss the process of gain saturation in optical parametric amplifiers. In order to emphasize the significant difference between the two coherent sources, we compare the optimized coupling ratios for maximum output powers of the ordinary laser and the optical parametric oscillator and demonstrate that in contrast to ordinary lasers, highest output powers in optical parametric oscillators are achieved with output coupling ratios close to 1. We confirm experimentally our theoretical studies by building a narrowband fiber optical parametric oscillator at 1450nm with multi-watt output power. We show that the device is robust to intracavity losses and achieve peak power as high as 2.4W. PMID:24104150

Jin, Lei; Martinez, Amos; Yamashita, Shinji

2013-09-23

125

First Aid: Falls  

MedlinePLUS

... First Aid & Safety > Printable Safety Guides > First Aid: Falls Print A A A Text Size What's in this article? What to Do Seek Medical Care Think Prevention! With all the running, climbing, and exploring kids ...

126

An AIDS Primer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The literature on the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is filled with confusing technical terms and jargon. This primer defines some of those terms and provides some basic information about AIDS. (MLF)

Koeze, Jeffrey S.

1988-01-01

127

Students with AIDS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Addresses the law as it pertains to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in public elementary and secondary schools. Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 has been used successfully in the majority of the AIDS cases discussed. (MLF)

Broadwell, Cathy Allen; Strope, John L., Jr.

1989-01-01

128

Unconsciousness - first aid  

MedlinePLUS

Loss of consciousness - first aid; Coma - first aid; Mental status change; Altered mental status ... person is unconscious and: Does not return to consciousness quickly (within a minute) Has fallen down or ...

129

First Aid: Influenza (Flu)  

MedlinePLUS

... Social Media: Connect With Us First Aid: The Flu KidsHealth > Parents > First Aid & Safety > Printable Safety Guides > ... tiredness What to Do If Your Child Has Flu Symptoms: Call your doctor. Encourage rest. Keep your ...

130

First Aid for Seizures  

MedlinePLUS

... CDC.gov . Epilepsy Share Compartir First Aid for Seizures First aid for seizures involves responding in ways ... him until full awareness has returned. Consider a seizure an emergency and call 911 if any of ...

131

HIV and AIDS  

MedlinePLUS

... actually the virus that causes the disease AIDS. HIV Hurts the Immune System People who are HIV ... a serious infection. Continue How Many People Have HIV/AIDS? Since the discovery of the virus almost ...

132

Power output in the jump squat in adolescent male athletes.  

PubMed

The load that maximizes power output in the jump squat (JS) in college-aged athletic males has been reported to be 0% of 1 repetition maximum [1RM] squat strength) or in other words body mass. No data exist concerning adolescent athletic males. In addition, strength levels have been theorized to possibly affect the load that maximizes power output in the JS. The purpose of this investigation was to identify the load that maximizes power output in the JS in adolescent athletic men, and concurrently describe their strength level and its effect on the load that maximizes power output. Eleven high-school male athletes were tested on 2 occasions, first determining their 1RM in the squat (1RM = 141.14 28.08 kg; squat 1RM-to-body mass ratio = 1.76 0.15) and then performing JS testing at loads equal to 0% (body mass), 20, 40, 60, and 80% of squat 1RM. Peak power (PP), peak force, peak velocity (PV), and peak displacement were measured at each load. Jump squat at the 0% load produced significantly (p ? 0.05) higher PP, PV, and peak displacement in comparison with the 40, 60, and 80% loading conditions. It was concluded that the load that maximizes power output in the JS is 0% of 1RM in adolescent athletic men, the same as found in college-aged athletic men. In addition, strength level relative to body mass did not affect the load that maximized power output. Practically, when devising a training program to increase PP, it is important to include JSs at body mass along with traditional strength training at heavier loads to increase power output across the entire loading spectrum. PMID:20571447

Dayne, Andrea M; McBride, Jeffrey M; Nuzzo, James L; Triplett, N Travis; Skinner, Jared; Burr, Alan

2011-03-01

133

Identification of Multiple Input-Single Output (MISO) model for MPPT of Photovoltaic System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a modelling of Multiple Input-Single Output (MISO) model for tracking maximum point of Photovoltaic (PV) Systems. A system identification approach is used to obtain the model characteristics of existing structural systems through dynamic observations which incorporate with traditional direct control Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) algorithm. The generate model characteristics was used in designing the MPPT of

M. N. M. Hussain; A. M. Omar; A. A. A. Samat

2011-01-01

134

Computer aided flexible envelope designs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computer aided design methods are presented for the design and construction of strong, lightweight structures which require complex and precise geometric definition. The first, flexible structures, is a unique system of modeling folded plate structures and space frames. It is possible to continuously vary the geometry of a space frame to produce large, clear spans with curvature. The second method deals with developable surfaces, where both folding and bending are explored with the observed constraint of available building materials, and what minimal distortion result in maximum design capability. Alternative inexpensive fabrication techniques are being developed to achieve computer defined enclosures which are extremely lightweight and mathematically highly precise.

Resch, R. D.

1975-01-01

135

Phosphorus utilization by rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss): estimation of dissolved phosphorus waste output  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphorus (P) waste output, notably in the dissolved form (DWP), is a major concern for many fish culture operations. Fish are believed to excrete DWP via the urine but this aspect has never been examined in detail. A better understanding of P utilization and renal P handling of fish could aid development of nutritional strategies for the management and reduction

D. p. Bureau; C. y. Cho

1999-01-01

136

The output of budesonide from spacer devices assessed under simulated breathing conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Spacer devices are increasingly used to aid inhalational therapy, and many different devices are available. Patient and spacer size and spacer static charge may affect drug delivery, but the optimum spacer size and method of reducing static charge is not certain. Objective: We sought to determine the output of budesonide from 3 different spacer devices when assessed by using

Peter W. Barry; Chris OCallaghan

1999-01-01

137

Aid, Policies, and Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses a new database on foreign aid to examine the relationships among foreign aid, economic policies, and growth per capita GDP. We find that aid has a positive impact on growth in developing countries with good fiscal, monetary, and trade policies but has little effect in the presence of poor policies. Good policies are ones that are themselves

Craig Burnside; David Dollar

2000-01-01

138

JPRS Report Epidemiology: Aids.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains translations/transcriptions of articles and/or broadcasts on AIDS. Titles (from all over the world) include: Progress of Anti-AIDS Campaign Assessed; Financial Burden of AIDS on Country Noted; Sixty Percent of TB Cases HIV Positive; S...

1991-01-01

139

Designing State Aid Formulas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper designs a new equalization-aid formula based on fiscal gaps of local communities. When states are in transition to a new local aid formula, the issue of whether and how to hold existing aid harmless poses a challenge. The authors show that some previous studies and the formulas derived from them give differential weights to existing and

Zhao, Bo; Bradbury, Katharine

2009-01-01

140

Student Financial Aid Scholarships  

E-print Network

· Accessing Your Aid information in myMemphis #12;FAFSA Overview · Free Application for Federal Student Aid Scholarship, college work study · Requires income tax information from prior year · Must be done online every will be processed #12;Aid Programs · Grants ­ all are need-based ­ Federal Pell Grant ­ has a yearly amount; awarded

Dasgupta, Dipankar

141

Bruises, First Aid  

MedlinePLUS

newsletter | contact Share | Bruises, First Aid A A A Bruises lighten and change color before they completely fade away. First Aid Guide Bruises (contusions) are ... Bruises can be a sign of internal bleeding. First Aid Guide If there is external bleeding in ...

142

Maximum entropy discrimination Tommi Jaakkola  

E-print Network

;) that maximizes the entropy H(P ) subject to the classi#12;cation constraints R P(#2;) [ y t L(X t j#2;) ] d#2Maximum entropy discrimination Tommi Jaakkola MIT AI Lab 545 Technology Sq. Cambridge, MA 02139 framework for discriminative estimation based on the maximum entropy principle and its extensions. All

Jaakkola, Tommi S.

143

Group maximum power tracking for distributed power sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper offers a useful application of Uniform Input Voltage Distribution (UIVD) control [6-9] for Distributed-Input Parallel-Output (DIPO) converter power systems. The primary control objective of UIVD for DIPO converters is to achieve grouped maximum power throughput from non-identical renewable power sources. Secondly, this paper features a revised Maximum Power Tracking (MPT) controller design developed for DIPO configurations that facilitate simultaneous processing of distributed power flows. In earlier research, the distributed source peak powers are individually tracked by converters controlled by independent MPT controllers without UIVD. However, when distributed power sources have similar peak power voltages with an achievable tracking efficiency of greater than 96%, such independent MPT controllers are not necessary. By utilizing UIVD control, near-maximum use of available power is achieved using a single MPT controller. The resulting system and control architectures offer near-maximum power transfer with a lower parts count. Two DIPO power converter bus architectures are described herein: one having a battery-dominated output voltage and the other with a regulated output voltage. Through computer simulation and prototype testing, both power architectures are validated for fault-tolerant grouped UIVD control.

Siri, Kasemsan

144

The Network Structure of Economic Output  

E-print Network

Much of the analysis of economic growth has focused on the study of aggregate output. Here, we deviate from this tradition and look instead at the structure of output embodied in the network connecting countries to the ...

Hidalgo, Cesar A.

145

Space Derived Health Aids (AID, Heart Monitor)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

CPI's spinoff from miniaturized pace circuitry is the new heart-assist device, the AID implantable automatic pulse generator. AID pulse generator monitors the heart continuously, recognizes onset of fibrillation, then administers a corrective electrical shock. A mini- computer, a power source, and two electrodes which sense heart activity are included in the unit. An associated system was also developed. It includes an external recorder to be worn by AID patients and a physician's console to display the data stored by the recorder. System provides a record of fibrillation occurrences and the ensuing defibrillation.

1981-01-01

146

Hybrid optoelectronic device with multiple bistable outputs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optoelectronic circuits which exhibit optical and electrical bistability with hysteresis behavior are proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The systems are based on semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOA), bipolar junction transistors (BJT), PIN photodiodes (PD) and laser diodes externally modulated with integrated electro-absorption modulators (LD-EAM). The device operates based on two independent phenomena leading to both electrical bistability and optical bistability. The electrical bistability is due to the series connection of two p-i-n structures (SOA, BJT, PD or LD) in reverse bias. The optical bistability is consequence of the quantum confined Stark effect (QCSE) in the multi-quantum well (MQW) structure in the intrinsic region of the device. This effect produces the optical modulation of the transmitted light through the SOA (or reflected from the PD). Finally, because the optical transmission of the SOA (in reverse bias) and the reflected light from the PD are so small, a LD-EAM modulated by the voltage across these devices are employed to obtain a higher output optical power. Experiments show that the maximum switching frequency is in MHz range and the rise/fall times lower than 1 us. The temporal response is mainly limited by the electrical capacitance of the devices and the parasitic inductances of the connecting wires. The effects of these components can be reduced in current integration technologies.

Costazo-Caso, Pablo A.; Jin, Yiye; Gelh, Michael; Granieri, Sergio; Siahmakoun, Azad

2011-01-01

147

HIV, AIDS, and the Future  

MedlinePLUS

... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV, AIDS, and the Future Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table ... and your loved ones from HIV/AIDS. The AIDS Memorial Quilt In 1987, a total of 1, ...

148

American Foundation for AIDS Research  

MedlinePLUS

... AIDS by 2020 More A Blueprint for Ending AIDS The TREAT Asia Report Interview: U.S. Global AIDS ... Ambassador Deborah L. Birx, M.D More Making AIDS History: From Science to Solutions Leading research and ...

149

Different Styles of Hearing Aids  

MedlinePLUS

... of Oticon Click for larger image Extended Wear Hearing Aids These aids are devices that are nonsurgically ... worn while exercising, showering, etc. The majority of hearing aids sold today are canal hearing aids and ...

150

Mathematics and the Heart: Understanding Cardiac Output  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper illustrates a biological application of the concepts of relative change and area under a curve, from mathematics. We study two biological measures "relative change in cardiac output" and "cardiac output", which are predictors of heart blockages and other related ailments. Cardiac output refers to the quantity of

Champanerkar, Jyoti

2013-01-01

151

Hearing Aid Assembly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress in hearing aids has come a long way. Yet despite such progress hearing aids are not the perfect answer to many hearing problems. Some adult ears cannot accommodate tightly fitting hearing aids. Mouth movements such as chewing, talking, and athletic or other active endeavors also lead to loosely fitting ear molds. It is well accepted that loosely fitting hearing aids are the cause of feedback noise. Since feedback noise is the most common complaint of hearing aid wearers it has been the subject of various patents. Herein a hearing aid assembly is provided eliminating feedback noise. The assembly includes the combination of a hearing aid with a headset developed to constrict feedback noise.

Grugel, Richard N. (Inventor)

2002-01-01

152

Designing an Adaptive Fuzzy Controller for Maximum Wind Energy Extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wind power production spreading, also aided by the transition from constant to variable speed operation, involves the development of efficient control systems to improve the effectiveness of power production systems. This paper presents a data-driven design methodology able to generate a Takagi-Sugeno-Kang (TSK) fuzzy model for maximum energy extraction from variable speed wind turbines. In order to obtain the

Vincenzo Galdi; Antonio Piccolo; Pierluigi Siano

2008-01-01

153

Correctional Officers' Attitudes Toward AIDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined correctional officers' views and attitudes about working with inmates with AIDS. At three prisons in Texas, 153 correctional officers were administered the AIDS in Prison Scale, the AIDS Attitude Scale, an AIDS\\/HIV Knowledge Test, and a Homophobia Scale. Correctional officers who had more positive attitudes about people with AIDS, who were more knowledgeable about AIDS\\/HIV, and who

KATHERINE J. MAHAFFEY; DAVID K. MARCUS

1995-01-01

154

HIV/AIDS and Vaccines  

MedlinePLUS

... AIDS.gov Mission and Team Contact Us Privacy Policy Disclaimer Network blog.aids.gov locator.aids.gov facing.aids.gov providertools.aids.gov HIV/AIDS Service Locator Locator ... & Viewers HHS 508 Privacy Policy White House USA.gov This is an official ...

155

Maximum power transfer for full-wave rectifier circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

With a view to such potential applications as implanted medical instruments, inductive power transfer to weapons, power transfer by means of space reflectors, and power generation in space, an analysis is conducted to ascertain the maximum power transfer conditions for full wave rectifier circuits. The optimum ratio of ac-to-dc voltage output is determined for resistive\\/inductive, resistive\\/capacitive, and resistive\\/inductive\\/capacitive types of

R. J. Arthur

1983-01-01

156

A Maximum Entropy Characterization of Spatially Correlated MIMO Wireless Channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the problem of establishing the joint probability distribution of the entries of a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) spatially correlated flat-fading channel, when little or no information about the channel properties are available. We show that the entropy of a random positive semidefinite matrix is maximized by the Wishart distribution. We subsequently obtain the maximum entropy distribution of the MIMO

Maxime Guillaud; M. Debbah; Aris L. Moustakas

2007-01-01

157

Women and AIDS. AIDS and sexuality.  

PubMed

AIDS education campaigns, which tend to be practical and direct, assume people have viable choices in sexual relationships, but they do not. Cultural, social, political, and economic factors restrict their control, including protecting themselves against AIDS. People in developing countries often must leave their families for long periods of time for employment, which makes them lonely; so they seek sexual affairs. In Thailand, poverty and underdevelopment force rural families to send young women to the cities to earn money for the families, but the cities already have many unemployed and unskilled people, so the women resort to prostitution. Girls often have sex with married men who provide them essentials. HIV appears to be more prevalent among women of low status. 82% of female AIDS cases in the world are found in Africa, where women have little control over their lives. They cannot even mention safe sex to regular partners without being rejected or battered. This is especially a problem for wives of migrant workers or truckers. The AIDS pandemic has illustrated how family planning programs have left out men in contraceptive decision making. Thus, family planning and AIDS education programs must reverse this trend to convince men to use condoms. In developing countries, just 3% of couples of childbearing age use condoms. Condoms are often linked with prostitution, casual affairs, and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases. In South Africa, many Blacks think Whites promote condom use to control black population growth. In one AIDS project in South Africa, older women teach young girls about sex to eliminate harmful taboos. AIDS has forced public health and education professionals to come up with an approach to sex education which examines relationships and acknowledges the imbalances of power between men and women, e.g., assertiveness training courses in Swaziland. PMID:12285433

1992-01-01

158

Output power analyses for the thermodynamic cycles of thermal power plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal power plant is one of the important thermodynamic devices, which is very common in all kinds of power generation systems. In this paper, we use a new concept, entransy loss, as well as exergy destruction, to analyze the single reheating Rankine cycle unit and the single stage steam extraction regenerative Rankine cycle unit in power plants. This is the first time that the concept of entransy loss is applied to the analysis of the power plant Rankine cycles with reheating and steam extraction regeneration. In order to obtain the maximum output power, the operating conditions under variant vapor mass flow rates are optimized numerically, as well as the combustion temperatures and the off-design flow rates of the flue gas. The relationship between the output power and the exergy destruction rate and that between the output power and the entransy loss rate are discussed. It is found that both the minimum exergy destruction rate and the maximum entransy loss rate lead to the maximum output power when the combustion temperature and heat capacity flow rate of the flue gas are prescribed. Unlike the minimum exergy destruction rate, the maximum entransy loss rate is related to the maximum output power when the highest temperature and heat capacity flow rate of the flue gas are not prescribed.

Sun, Chen; Cheng, Xue-Tao; Liang, Xin-Gang

2014-05-01

159

Smoothing PV Systems Output by Tuning MPPT Control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A PV systems output is not stable and fluctuates depending on a weather condition. Using a battery is one of the feasible ways to stabilize a PV systems output, although it requires an additional cost and provides an additional waste of the used battery. In this paper, we propose tuning a characteristic of Maxiumum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) control for smoothing a short term change of PV systems output during a sharp insolation fluctuation, as an approach without additional equipments. In our proposed method, when an insolation increases rapidly, the operation point of MPPT control changes to the new point where the maximum power is not generated with present insolation, so that the speed of PV systems output increase is limited to a certain value, i. e. 1%/min. In order to evaluate the effect of our proposed method in terms of reducing the additional operation task of the electric power system, we evaluated the additional LFC capacity for a large-scale installation of PV systems. As a result, it was revealed that the additional LFC capacity is not required even if a PV system is installed by 5% of utility system, when our proposed method is applied to all PV systems.

Ina, Nobuhiko; Yanagawa, Shigeyuki; Kato, Takeyoshi; Suzuoki, Yasuo

160

Aid and the growth of income in aid-favoured developing countries: policy issues.  

PubMed

This paper opens by expressing disappointment in the disparities between published estimations of the effectiveness of foreign aid to developing countries and effectiveness data which arise from the application of complex econometric methods. The new dilemmas for aid policy include the fact that aid increasingly devoted to human development at the expense of productive activity is unlikely to create the material development which will allow maintenance of human development targets. The second part of the paper presents comparative statistics on gross national product, official development assistance, and savings growth which paint a disturbing picture because the growth of domestic savings has been negative in the period 1967-87 in nine of the 11 less developed countries with data available. Section 3 covers the shortcomings of econometric experiments which neither confirm nor deny the findings of other studies on the effectiveness of aid. The fourth section describes constraints to the growth of income imposed by the foreign exchange, the rate of return on investment, and the growth of labor productivity and presents statistical evidence supporting aid policy which would 1) take advantage of opportunities to rehabilitate output growth in traditional industries without the addition of a great deal of capital, 2) direct attention to increasing the absolute gross national product (GNP) to raise the growth of per capital income, and 3) strategically reorient the structure of aid to increase the absolute GNP faster to accelerate reversal of the negative savings pattern and speed the reduction of fertility. Section 5 considers suggested shifts in aid policy orientation dealing with 1) population growth, income level, and food security; 2) reconstruction and structural adjustment; 3) rationalizing aid for social, institutional, and human development and technical assistance. The concluding section notes that the suggested strategic reorientation of the structure of aid should result in reduced population growth. PMID:12291834

Brewster, H; Yeboah, D

1994-04-01

161

Aid Allocation and Aid Effectiveness: An Empirical Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper performs aid allocation analysis using OECD-DAC data covering 20 aid donors and 176 recipients over the period 1980-2003. We improve upon earlier work in this area by employing inter alia a Past Outcome variable measuring aid effectiveness to link together aid allocation and aid effectiveness. In line with previous work in this area, we also account for both

Alessia Isopi; George Mavrotas

2006-01-01

162

BINAURAL NOISE REDUCTION FOR HEARING AIDS: PRESERVING INTERAURAL TIME DELAY CUES  

E-print Network

BINAURAL NOISE REDUCTION FOR HEARING AIDS: PRESERVING INTERAURAL TIME DELAY CUES Thomas J. Klasen Leuven, Belgium {tim.vandenbogaert,jan.wouters}@uz.kuleuven.ac.be ABSTRACT This paper presents a binaural filtering. This algorithm provides the hearing aid user with a binaural output. In addition to significantly

163

Optimal output mirror reflection coefficient for powerful InGaAs/AlGaAs laser diode arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The optimal value of the output mirror reflection coefficient providing the maximum output power under a constant level of electrical power consumption and the maximum external (slope) lasing efficiency for powerful InGaAs/AlGaAs laser diode arrays (LDA) has been estimated experimentally and theoretically. The LDA active layer overheating and amplified spontaneous emission have been taken into account. For advanced LDAs with the thermal resistance of 0.2 K/W and the internal optical loss of 0.5 cm-1 the optimal output mirror reflection coefficient is equal to 20%. This value is shifted to the high output mirror reflection coefficient side with a decrease of the LDA excitation level, the LDA thermal resistivity and the internal optical loss. It has been shown that the right selection of the output mirror reflection coefficient optimal value provides the LDA operation with 20% excess of the lasing output power and 10% excess of the external lasing efficiency.

Bogdanovich, M. V.; Kabanov, V. V.; Lebiadok, Y. V.; Ryabtsev, A. G.; Ryabtsev, G. I.; Shchemelev, M. A.; Kurlenkov, S. S.; Sapozhnikov, S. M.; Mehta, S. K.

2013-02-01

164

Computer-aided diagnosis in radiology: potential and pitfalls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) may be defined as a diagnosis made by a physician who takes into account the computer output as a second opinion. The purpose of CAD is to improve the diagnostic accuracy and the consistency of the radiologists image interpretation. This article is to provide a brief overview of some of CAD schemes for detection and differential diagnosis

Kunio Doi; Heber MacMahon; Shigehiko Katsuragawa; Robert M Nishikawa; Yulei Jiang

1999-01-01

165

AFB's Computerized Travel Aid: Two Years of Research and Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Progress on the computerized travel aid, an electronic device, using elements of the Polaroid Sonar Camera and a microprocessor, for visually handicapped persons is reviewed, and research on the effectiveness of various models noted. Recommended modifications touch on aspects of mounting, beam shape, and audible outputs. (CL)

Uslan, Mark M.; And Others

1983-01-01

166

Cointegration of output, capital, labor, and energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cointegration analysis is applied to the linear combinations of the time series of (the logarithms of) output, capital, labor, and energy for Germany, Japan, and the USA since 1960. The computed cointegration vectors represent the output elasticities of the aggregate energy-dependent Cobb-Douglas function. The output elasticities give the economic weights of the production factors capital, labor, and energy. We find that they are for labor much smaller and for energy much larger than the cost shares of these factors. In standard economic theory output elasticities equal cost shares. Our heterodox findings support results obtained with LINEX production functions.

Stresing, R.; Lindenberger, D.; Kmmel, R.

2008-11-01

167

Fast maximum entropy Doppler mapping  

E-print Network

A numerical code is described for constructing Doppler maps from the orbital variation of line profiles of (mass transfering) binaries. It uses an algorithm related to Richardson-Lucy iteration, and is much faster than the standard algorithm used for ME problems. The method has been tested on data of cataclysmic variables (including WZ Sge and SS Cyg), producing maps of up to 300X300 points. It includes an IDL-based set of routines for manipulating and plotting the input and output data, and can be downloaded from http://www.mpa-garching.mpg.de/~henk

H. C. Spruit

1998-06-10

168

Optimum Input and Output Filters for a Single-Phase Rectifier Power Supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ``optimum'' output filter inductance Lf and the input filter capacitor Ci for a single-phase uncontrolled bridge rectifier employed for low power de-to-dc converters or inverters is established. The filter Ci is optimized to obtain maximum input power factor, minimum filter inductance, and minimum output dc voltage regulation. A design example is provided and theoretical results have been verified on

Shashi B. Dewan

1981-01-01

169

Maximum Entropy Inverse Reinforcement Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research has shown the benefit of framing problems of imitation learning as solutions to Markov Decision Prob- lems. This approach reduces learning to the problem of re- covering a utility function that makes the behavior induced by a near-optimal policy closely mimic demonstrated behav- ior. In this work, we develop a probabilistic approach based on the principle of maximum

Brian Ziebart; Andrew L. Maas; J. Andrew Bagnell; Anind K. Dey

2008-01-01

170

Use of regional climate model output for hydrologic simulations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Daily precipitation and maximum and minimum temperature time series from a regional climate model (RegCM2) configured using the continental United States as a domain and run on a 52-km (approximately) spatial resolution were used as input to a distributed hydrologic model for one rainfall-dominated basin (Alapaha River at Statenville, Georgia) and three snowmelt-dominated basins (Animas River at Durango. Colorado; east fork of the Carson River near Gardnerville, Nevada: and Cle Elum River near Roslyn, Washington). For comparison purposes, spatially averaged daily datasets of precipitation and maximum and minimum temperature were developed from measured data for each basin. These datasets included precipitation and temperature data for all stations (hereafter, All-Sta) located within the area of the RegCM2 output used for each basin, but excluded station data used to calibrate the hydrologic model. Both the RegCM2 output and All-Sta data capture the gross aspects of the seasonal cycles of precipitation and temperature. However, in all four basins, the RegCM2- and All-Sta-based simulations of runoff show little skill on a daily basis [Nash-Sutcliffe (NS) values range from 0.05 to 0.37 for RegCM2 and -0.08 to 0.65 for All-Sta]. When the precipitation and temperature biases are corrected in the RegCM2 output and All-Sta data (Bias-RegCM2 and Bias-All, respectively) the accuracy of the daily runoff simulations improve dramatically for the snowmelt-dominated basins (NS values range from 0.41 to 0.66 for RegCM2 and 0.60 to 0.76 for All-Sta). In the rainfall-dominated basin, runoff simulations based on the Bias-RegCM2 output show no skill (NS value of 0.09) whereas Bias-All simulated runoff improves (NS value improved from - 0.08 to 0.72). These results indicate that measured data at the coarse resolution of the RegCM2 output can be made appropriate for basin-scale modeling through bias correction (essentially a magnitude correction). However, RegCM2 output, even when bias corrected, does not contain the day-to-day variability present in the All-Sta dataset that is necessary for basin-scale modeling. Future work is warranted to identify the causes for systematic biases in RegCM2 simulations, develop methods to remove the biases, and improve RegCM2 simulations of daily variability in local climate.

Hay, L.E.; Clark, M.P.; Wilby, R.L.; Gutowski, W.J.; Leavesley, G.H.; Pan, Z.; Arritt, R.W.; Takle, E.S.

2002-01-01

171

Model-Aided INS With Sea Current Estimation for Robust Underwater Navigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thispaperreportsthedevelopmentandexperimental evaluation of a state-of-the-art model-aided inertial navigation system (MA-INS) for underwater vehicles. Together with real-time sea current estimation, the output from an experimentally vali- dated kinetic vehicle model is integrated in the navigation system to provide velocity aiding for the INS. Additional aiding sources include ultrashort base line (USBL) acoustic positioning, pressure readings, and measurements from a Doppler velocity

yvind Hegrenaes; Oddvar Hallingstad

2011-01-01

172

AIDS Epidemiological models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this paper is to present mathematical modelling of the spread of infection in the context of the transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). These models are based in part on the models suggested in the field of th AIDS mathematical modelling as reported by ISHAM [6].

Rahmani, Fouad Lazhar

2010-11-01

173

AIDS: Children Too.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This journal issue is devoted to the many problems faced by children with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) who live in both developing and developed countries. Section 1 provides general information on the pandemic, defining AIDS and exploring the social aspects of the disease. It also addresses child health, child mortality, moral and

Lejeune, Genevieve, Ed.

1994-01-01

174

Implantable Heart Aid  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

CPI's human-implantable automatic implantable defibrillator (AID) is a heart assist system, derived from NASA's space circuitry technology, that can prevent erratic heart action known as arrhythmias. Implanted AID, consisting of microcomputer power source and two electrodes for sensing heart activity, recognizes onset of ventricular fibrillation (VF) and delivers corrective electrical countershock to restore rhythmic heartbeat.

1984-01-01

175

Hospital Nurse Aide. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents results of a project to revise the current 120-hour advanced nurse aide course to include all recommended minimum competencies. A three-page description of project objectives, activities, and outcomes is followed by a list of the competencies for the 75-hour nurse aide course for long-term care and for the 120-hour advanced

Iowa Univ., Iowa City. Coll. of Education.

176

AIDS and Chemical Dependency.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After defining HIV and the AIDS disease and outlining symptoms and means of infection, this fact sheet lists the ways alcohol and drugs are involved with the AIDS epidemic, noting that needle-sharing transmits the virus; that alcohol or mood-altering drugs like crack cocaine cause disinhibition, increase sex drive, encourage sex for drugs, and

Pohl, Melvin I.

177

Teachers with AIDS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the application of Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 as a legal theory available to an employee of a public school system who faces isolation, transfer, suspension, or termination because of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Addresses AIDS in the workplace and the law. (MLF)

Strope, John L., Jr.

1988-01-01

178

BIBLIOGRAPHY OF TRAINING AIDS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS COMPILATION OF INSTRUCTIONAL AIDS FOR USE IN AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION TRAINING PROGRAMS CONTAINS LISTS OF VISUAL AND AUDIOVISUAL TRAINING AIDS AND GUEST LECTURERS AVAILABLE FROM MEMBER COMPANIES OF THE AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION INSTITUTE AS AN INDUSTRY SERVICE TO SCHOOL OFFICIALS INTERESTED IN CONDUCTING SUCH PROGRAMS. THE

MCKEONE, CHARLES J.

179

Trends in Student Aid.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents annual data on the amount of financial assistance available to postsecondary students in the form of grants, loans, and work-study. The data cover virtually all federal aid and most state and institutional assistance; not included in the study is financial aid in the form of indirect subsidies, students' wages, employer-paid

College Board, Washington, DC. Washington Office.

180

Innovative Teaching Aids.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the DACUM (Developing A CurriculUM) process and how it is used at Universal Technical Institute to determine what types of training aids to produce. Indicates that examining the employment needs of industry and educational needs of students enhances programs and promotes development of innovative aids. (JOW)

Christner, Chris

1988-01-01

181

Financial Aid Information On  

E-print Network

for school, you will need to submit an Alternative Loan Consent form to our office before your alternative for these loans School-certified alternative loans are considered a source of financial aid and must be includedFinancial Aid Information On Alternative Loans Other UNCG Offices Cashiers & Student Accounts

Saidak, Filip

182

International Aid to Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent evidence highlights several worrisome trends regarding aid pledges and disbursements, which have been exacerbated by the global financial crisis. First, while overall development assistance rose in 2008, after 2 years of decline, the share of all sector aid going to the education sector has remained virtually unchanged at about 12 percent

Benavot, Aaron

2010-01-01

183

AIDS PUBLIC INFORMATION DATABASE  

EPA Science Inventory

The AIDS Public Information Data Set is computer software designed to run on a Microsoft Windows microcomputer, and contains information abstracted from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) cases reported in the United States. The data set is created by the Division of HIV/A...

184

Applying Error-Correcting Output Coding to Enhance Convolutional Neural Network for Target Detection and Pattern Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper views target detection and pattern recognition as a kind of communications problem and applies error-correcting coding to the outputs of a convolutional neural network to improve the accuracy and reliability of detection and recognition of targets. The outputs of the convolutional neural network are designed according to codewords with maximum Hamming distances. The effects of the codewords on

Huiqun Deng; George Stathopoulos; Ching Y. Suen

2010-01-01

185

Output Characteristics of High-Power Continuous Wave Raman Fiber Laser at 1239 nm Using Phosphosilicate Fiber  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-power singlemode Raman fiber laser (RFL) with maximum output power of 4.11 W and maximum power conversion efficiency of 47.40% at 1239 nm is realized using continuous wave 8.4 W Yb-doped double-clad fiber laser as a pump, 700 m phosphosilicate fiber, and a Raman cavity formed by a pair of fiber Bragg grating mirrors at 1239 nm. The output

Mahendra Prabhu; Nam Seong Kim; Ken-Ichi Ueda

2000-01-01

186

Foreign aid and fiscal response: Does aid disaggregation matter?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foreign Aid and Fiscal Response: Does Aid Disaggregation Matter? The present paper constitutes a new approach in the aid-effectiveness\\u000a literature in two important respects. Firstly, it develops and then tests a model of foreign aid and fiscal response, which,\\u000a for the first time in the aid-effectiveness literature, embraces the aiddisaggregation issue; we do this by disaggregating\\u000a aid flows into three

George Mavrotas

2002-01-01

187

Multi-output programmable quantum processor  

E-print Network

By combining telecloning and programmable quantum gate array presented by Nielsen and Chuang [Phys.Rev.Lett. 79 :321(1997)], we propose a programmable quantum processor which can be programmed to implement restricted set of operations with several identical data outputs. The outputs are approximately-transformed versions of input data. The processor successes with certain probability.

Yafei Yu; Jian Feng; Mingsheng Zhan

2002-09-10

188

Laser wavelength selector and output coupler  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Optical system eliminates displacement occurring when wavelengths are selected in multiple wavelength laser utilizing intracavity wavelength selection by first-order Littrow reflection of plane grating. Output coupling varies direction of output beam as different wavelengths are selected by grating rotation.

Hard, T. M.

1970-01-01

189

Test Generation with Inputs, Outputs, and Quiescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies testing based on labelled transition systems, using the assumption that implementations communicate with their environment via inputs and outputs. Such implementations are formalized by restricting the class of transition systems to those systems that can always accept input actions, as in input\\/output automata. Implementation relations, formalizing the notion of conformance of these implementations with respect to labelled

Jan Tretmans

1996-01-01

190

Multi-output programmable quantum processor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By combining telecloning and the programmable quantum gate array presented by Nielsen and Chuang [Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 321 (1997)], we propose a programmable quantum processor which can be programmed to implement a restricted set of operations with several identical data outputs. The outputs are approximately transformed versions of input data. The processor successes with certain probability.

Yu, Yafei; Feng, Jian; Zhan, Mingsheng

2002-11-01

191

Computer Output Microfilm and Library Catalogs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Early computers dealt with mathematical and scientific problems requiring very little input and not much output, therefore high speed printing devices were not required. Today with increased variety of use, high speed printing is necessary and Computer Output Microfilm (COM) devices have been created to meet this need. This indirect process can

Meyer, Richard W.

192

Output characteristics of Stirling thermoacoustic engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A thermoacoustic engine (TE), which converts thermal energy into acoustic power by the thermoacoustic effect, shows several advantages due to the absence of moving parts, such as high reliability and long lifetime associated with reduced manufacturing costs. Power output and efficiency are important criteria of the performance of a TE. In order to increase the acoustic power output and thermal

Daming Sun; Limin Qiu; Bo Wang; Yong Xiao; Liang Zhao

2008-01-01

193

Nonlinearities in Magnetostrictive Transducer Dynamic Output  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have designed a magnetostrictive transducer for use in characterizing material properties of 11.5 cm long by 1.27 cm diameter cylindrical samples of the magnetostrictive material Terfenol-D. The material studied is a commercially available Terfenol-D, made using a modified Brigman manufacturing process. Output displacements in the stiffness controlled portion of the transducer's dynamic range (as loaded, up to 1000 Hz) were measured using a LVDT. Trends in output were observed as controlled changes in operating conditions were made. Excitation frequency, amplitude of magnetic excitation, and prestress were varied independently as other operating conditions (including temperature, mass load, and magnetic bias) were held fixed. Data are presented demonstrating distinct nonlinearities associated with a monotonic decrease in output with increased excitation frequency, a monotonic increase in output with increased excitation amplitude, and an initial increase followed by a decrease in output with increased prestress.

Flatau, Alison; Faidley, L. E.; Calkins, F. T.; Dapino, M. J.

1997-03-01

194

Solar maximum thermal surface assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The inflight repair of the Solar Maximum Spacecraft provided the first opportunity to make actual measurements of thermal control surfaces after 4 years exposure in low Earth orbit. Defective hardware was replaced by astronauts and returned to Earth while protected from reentry damage in the Shuttle Payload bay. A preliminary thermal surface assessment was made soon after retrieval in support of Space Telescope and other current spacecraft programs. This included visual examination and measurement of Kapton and Teflon film to determine change in thermal radiative properties after 4 years exposure to solar radiation and reaction with atomic oxygen. Comparative measurements were made with a portable solar reflectometer used for inspection of spacecraft hardware. Post flight measurements and observations reveal significant surface changes that further confirm Kapton mass loss predictions made prior to Solar Maximum repair. Details of thermal surface application, measurements and experimental results are presented and discussed.

Rhoads, G. D.

1985-01-01

195

HIV/AIDS and Alcohol  

MedlinePLUS

... Psychiatric Disorders Other Substance Abuse HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) targets the bodys immune ... and often leads to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Each year in the United States, between 55, ...

196

AIDS Epidemic May Be Subsiding  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. AIDS Epidemic May Be Subsiding: Report Number of new ... Wednesday, July 16, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS Medicines International Health WEDNESDAY, July 16, ...

197

AIDS Training in the Workplace.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Management training regarding Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) begins with three needs assessment tools--instruments measuring fear of AIDS, knowledge of AIDS, and beliefs about the business consequences of the disease. (SK)

Vest, Jusanne M.; And Others

1991-01-01

198

HIV/AIDS Clinical Trials  

MedlinePLUS

... safe and effective in people. What is an HIV/AIDS clinical trial? HIV/AIDS clinical trials help ... related to HIV Can anyone participate in an HIV/AIDS clinical trial? It depends on the study. ...

199

Maximum Sustainable Yield Lives On  

Microsoft Academic Search

I examined 142 papers published from 1977 through 1985 that used the concept of maximum sustainable yield (MSY). I classified them as to how MSY was used, year of publication, subject, and publication forum. The primary uses of MSY were in estimating long-term yield (28.9%), evaluating stock condition (28.2%), and analyzing policy (21.8%). The number of such publications declined significantly

Willard E. Barber

1988-01-01

200

BGIM : Maximum Likelihood Estimation Primer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Shaun Purcell of the Social, Genetic and Development Pyschiatry Research Centre, this set of pages is an introduction to the maximum likelihood estimation. It discusses the likelihood and log-likelihood functions and the process of optimizing. The author breaks the page down in this way: introduction, model-fitting, MLE in practice, likelihood ratio test, MLE analysis of twin data and MLE analysis of linkage data. The author offers further reading for extra study of this statistical method.

Purcell, Shaun

2009-02-26

201

LCLS Maximum Credible Beam Power  

SciTech Connect

The maximum credible beam power is defined as the highest credible average beam power that the accelerator can deliver to the point in question, given the laws of physics, the beam line design, and assuming all protection devices have failed. For a new accelerator project, the official maximum credible beam power is determined by project staff in consultation with the Radiation Physics Department, after examining the arguments and evidence presented by the appropriate accelerator physicist(s) and beam line engineers. The definitive parameter becomes part of the project's safety envelope. This technical note will first review the studies that were done for the Gun Test Facility (GTF) at SSRL, where a photoinjector similar to the one proposed for the LCLS is being tested. In Section 3 the maximum charge out of the gun for a single rf pulse is calculated. In Section 4, PARMELA simulations are used to track the beam from the gun to the end of the photoinjector. Finally in Section 5 the beam through the matching section and injected into Linac-1 is discussed.

Clendenin, J.

2005-01-12

202

Hearing Aids and Music  

PubMed Central

Historically, the primary concern for hearing aid design and fitting is optimization for speech inputs. However, increasingly other types of inputs are being investigated and this is certainly the case for music. Whether the hearing aid wearer is a musician or merely someone who likes to listen to music, the electronic and electro-acoustic parameters described can be optimized for music as well as for speech. That is, a hearing aid optimally set for music can be optimally set for speech, even though the converse is not necessarily true. Similarities and differences between speech and music as inputs to a hearing aid are described. Many of these lead to the specification of a set of optimal electro-acoustic characteristics. Parameters such as the peak input-limiting level, compression issuesboth compression ratio and knee-pointsand number of channels all can deleteriously affect music perception through hearing aids. In other cases, it is not clear how to set other parameters such as noise reduction and feedback control mechanisms. Regardless of the existence of a music program, unless the various electro-acoustic parameters are available in a hearing aid, music fidelity will almost always be less than optimal. There are many unanswered questions and hypotheses in this area. Future research by engineers, researchers, clinicians, and musicians will aid in the clarification of these questions and their ultimate solutions. PMID:15497032

Chasin, Marshall; Russo, Frank A.

2004-01-01

203

Solidarity and AIDS: introduction.  

PubMed

Perhaps more than any other disease in recent history, AIDS has taught a cruel and crucial lesson: the constraints on our response to this epidemic are as deep as our denial, as entrenched as the inequities that permeate our society, as circumscribed as our knowledge, and as unlimited as our compassion and our commitment to human rights. Elaborating on these themes, the final three articles in this Special Section on AIDS consider three widely divergent yet intimately connected topics: AIDS in Cuba, AIDS in Brazil, and global AIDS prevention in the 1990s. Together, they caution that if we persist in treating AIDS as a problem only of "others," no country will be spared the social and economic devastation that promises to be the cost of our contempt and our folly. Solidarity is not an option; it is a necessity. Without conscious recognition of the worldwide relationship between health, human rights, and social inequalities, our attempts to abate the spread of AIDS--and to ease the suffering that follows in its wake--most surely will fall short of our goals. Finally, as we mourn our dead, we must take to heart the words of Mother Jones, and "fight like hell for living." This is the politics of survival. PMID:1917210

Krieger, N

1991-01-01

204

AIDS radio triggers.  

PubMed

In April 1991, the Ethnic Communities' Council of NSW was granted funding under the Community AIDS Prevention and Education Program through the Department of Community Services and Health, to produce a series of 6x50 second AIDS radio triggers with a 10-second tag line for further information. The triggers are designed to disseminate culturally-sensitive information about HIV/AIDS in English, Italian, Greek, Spanish, Khmer, Turkish, Macedonian, Serbo-Croatian, Arabic, Cantonese, and Vietnamese, with the goal of increasing awareness and decreasing the degree of misinformation about HIV/AIDS among people of non-English-speaking backgrounds through radio and sound. The 6 triggers cover the denial that AIDS exists in the community, beliefs that words and feelings do not protect one from catching HIV, encouraging friends to be compassionate, compassion within the family, AIDS information for a young audience, and the provision of accurate and honest information on HIV/AIDS. The triggers are slated to be completed by the end of July 1991 and will be broadcast on all possible community, ethnic, and commercial radio networks across Australia. They will be available upon request in composite form with an information kit for use by health care professionals and community workers. PMID:12179698

Elias, A M

1991-07-01

205

AIDS: an African viewpoint.  

PubMed

The author presents arguments to refute what he considers alarmist, unsupported generalizations about the origin and soread of AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) in Africa. The first myth is that AIDS originated in Africa, after a green monkey bit a man. There is no concrete evidence to support this theory. Moreover, if it were true, AIDS would have been known for years; there would be effective herbal remedies and folk traditions about the danger of green monkey bites. The syndrome is so distinctive, for example the oral candidiasis and striking wasting disease, called "slim" disease, that it would have been recognized long ago. Finally, numbers of cases have peaked in America first, a few years ago, and are now beginning to surge in some areas of Africa. A second myth is that countries are not reporting cases out of embarrassment. The author claims that reports to the WHO show far more cases of AIDS in the U.S. and Europe, and even if the 1000 cases in Africa as of 1986 were 1000-fold underestimated, they would be nowhere near the 5 or 10 million often printed. The third myth, that AIDS is out of control in Africa, is unsupported when the efforts of countries like Uganda are considered. Uganda has an extensive media campaign, significant funds relegated to fighting AIDS, foreign experts called in, blood testing equipment on order and in use in 2 hospitals. AIDS is only a problem in a few urban areas. PMID:12315093

Kibedi, W

1987-03-01

206

AIDS in Malaysia.  

PubMed

The first people to be infected with HIV in Malaysia were mainly homosexual men with foreign connections. IV drug users, however, rapidly became the population group with the highest prevalence of HIV. Accurate, timely data are needed in order to responsibly describe the pattern of HIV infection and AIDS in any given setting. In Malaysia, however, there has been little systematic surveillance in population groups other than blood donors. This surveillance indicates the existence of a rapidly increasing rate of seropositivity among blood donors. Otherwise, many people are loathe to undergo voluntary HIV testing to determine their serostatus. Moreover, some people with STDs avoid contact with the health system and the potential for HIV testing. The extent to which AIDS cases are underreported or reported late is unknown. On the other hand, an estimated 10% of notified AIDS cases have been wrongly classified as such. The lack of hard data on HIV/AIDS in Malaysia makes it difficult to project the future course of the epidemic in the country. Since Malaysia shares a land border with Thailand and there is much sea-borne traffic between the two countries, it is highly possible that Malaysia will experience a significant epidemic of HIV infection similar to its neighbors. A National AIDS Committee was established April 1985 to develop responses to the HIV epidemic, while the National AIDS Program Manager of the Ministry of Health is responsible for controlling STDs. A national plan of action for the prevention and control of AIDS, drawn up in 1985 and revised in 1988, includes planning for the continued surveillance of HIV infection and AIDS through existing notification systems, and for screening and sentinel programs for IV drug users, prostitutes, and STD patients. Recent nongovernmental organization responses complement government efforts to prevent HIV and AIDS in Malaysia. PMID:7857575

Singh, J; Che'Rus, S; Chong, S; Chong, Y K; Crofts, N

1994-01-01

207

Plasma-aided manufacturing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present and potential applications of plasma-aided manufacturing are discussed and described. Plasma-aided manufacturing is used for producing new materials with unusual and superior properties, for developing new chemical compounds and processes, for machining, and for altering and refining materials and surfaces. Plasma-aided manufacturing has direct applications to semiconductor fabrication, materials synthesis, welding, lighting, polymers, anticorrosion coatings, machine tools, metallurgy, electrical and electronics devices, hazardous waste removal, high-performance ceramics, and many other items in both the high-technology and the more traditional industries in the United States.

Shohet, J. L.

1991-10-01

208

Aggregate Input Output Models of Neuronal Populations  

PubMed Central

An extraordinary amount of electrophysiological data has been collected from various brain nuclei to help us understand how neural activity in one region influences another region. In this paper, we exploit the point process modeling (PPM) framework and describe a method for constructing aggregate input-output (IO) stochastic models that predict spiking activity of a population of neurons in the output region as a function of the spiking activity of a population of neurons in the input region. We first build PPMs of each output neuron as a function of all input neurons, and then cluster the output neurons using the model parameters. Output neurons that lie within the same cluster have the same functional dependence on the input neurons. We first applied our method to simulated data, and successfully uncovered the predetermined relationship between the two regions. We then applied our method to experimental data to understand the input-output relationship between motor cortical neurons and (i) somatosensory and (ii) premotor cortical neurons during a behavioral task. Our aggregate IO models highlighted interesting physiological dependencies including relative effects of inhibition/excitation from input neurons and extrinsic factors on output neurons. PMID:22552544

Saxena, Shreya; Schieber, Marc H.; Thakor, Nitish V.; Sarma, Sridevi V.

2014-01-01

209

Water resources and environmental input-output analysis and its key study issues: a review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Used to study the material and energy flow in socioeconomic system, Input-Output Analysis(IOA) had been an effective analysis tool since its appearance. The research fields of Input-Output Analysis were increasingly expanded and studied in depth with the development of fundamental theory. In this paper, starting with introduction of theory development, the water resources input-output analysis and environmental input-output analysis had been specifically reviewed, and two key study issues mentioned as well. Input-Occupancy-Output Analysis and Grey Input-Output Analysis whose proposal and development were introduced firstly could be regard as the effective complements of traditional IOA theory. Because of the hypotheses of homogeneity, stability and proportionality, Input-Occupancy-Output Analysis and Grey Input-Output Analysis always had been restricted in practical application inevitably. In the applied study aspect, with investigation of abundant literatures, research of water resources input-output analysis and environmental input-output analysis had been comprehensively reviewed and analyzed. The regional water resources flow between different economic sectors had been systematically analyzed and stated, and several types of environmental input-output analysis models combined with other effective analysis tools concluded. In two perspectives in terms of external and inland aspect, the development of water resources and environmental input-output analysis model had been explained, and several typical study cases in recent years listed respectively. By the aid of sufficient literature analysis, the internal development tendency and study hotspot had also been summarized. In recent years, Chinese literatures reporting water resources consumption analysis and virtue water study had occupied a large share. Water resources consumption analysis had always been the emphasis of inland water resources IOA. Virtue water study had been considered as the new hotspot of inland water resources IOA. Recent internal study references related to environmental input-output table, pollution discharge analysis and environmental impact assessment had taken the leading position. Pollution discharge analysis mainly aiming at CO2 discharge had been regard as a new hotspot of environmental IOA. Environmental impact assessment was an important direction of inland environmental IOA in recent years. Key study issues including Domestic Technology Assumption(DTA) and Sectoral Aggregation(SA) had been mentioned remarkably. It was pointed out that multiply multi-region input-output analysis(MIOA) may be helpful to solve DTA. Because there was little study using effective analysis tools to quantify the bias of SA and the exploration of the appropriate sectoral aggregation degree was scarce, research dedicating to explore and solve these two key issues was deemed to be urgently needed. According to the study status, several points of outlook were proposed in the end.

YANG, Z.; Xu, X.

2013-12-01

210

Generalization ability of perceptrons with continuous outputs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we examine the influence of different input-output relations on the generalization ability of a single-layer perceptron. The input-output relations can be linear, binary, or sigmoid. With this choice we take into account most of the cases which are of present interest. The generalization problem will be realizable or unrealizable if the input-output relations for teacher and student are identical or not. We show that sometimes it can have a positive effect on the generalization ability, if one learns with errors.

Bs, S.; Kinzel, W.; Opper, M.

1993-02-01

211

Design of hydraulic output Stirling engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A hydraulic output system for the RE-1000 free piston stirling engine (FPSE) was designed. The hydraulic output system can be readily integrated with the existing hot section of RE-1000 FPSE. The system has two simply supported diaphragms which separate the engine gas from the hydraulic fluid, a dynamic balance mechanism, and a novel, null center band hydraulic pump. The diaphragms are designed to endure more than 10 billion cycles, and to withstand the differential pressure load as high as 14 MPa. The projected thermodynamic performance of the hydraulic output version of RE-1000 FPSE is 1.87 kW at 29/7 percent brake efficiency.

Toscano, W. M.; Harvey, A. C.; Lee, K.

1983-01-01

212

High output power from an efficient praseodymium-doped fluoride fiber amplifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

A praseodymium doped fluoride fiber amplifier (PDFFA) exhibiting efficient operation in both the large- and the small-signal regimes is described. The amplifier, based on a high NA fluoride fiber, exhibited a maximum small-signal gain of 29 dB and a low-pump small-signal. efficiency of 0.13 dB\\/mW. In the saturated regime a maximum output power of 212 mW was achieved. In this

T. J. Whitley; R. Wyatt; D. Szebesta; S. Davey

1993-01-01

213

Maximum life spur gear design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Optimization procedures allow one to design a spur gear reduction for maximum life and other end use criteria. A modified feasible directions search algorithm permits a wide variety of inequality constraints and exact design requirements to be met with low sensitivity to initial guess values. The optimization algorithm is described, and the models for gear life and performance are presented. The algorithm is compact and has been programmed for execution on a desk top computer. Two examples are presented to illustrate the method and its application.

Savage, M.; Mackulin, B. J.; Coe, H. H.; Coy, J. J.

1991-01-01

214

Maximum likelihood techniques in QELS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A framework for the analysis of Quasi Elastic Light Scattering (QELS) experiments designed to be used in microgravity environment is derived. Example calculations of the type to be used to design the QELS system are given. The framework for the analysis is based on the concepts of parameter estimation typified by Maximum Likelihood Estimation methods. These methods not only serve as the template for parameter estimation algorithms, but can also be used for optimal design of the experiments. Optimal design of experiments is facilitated by the fact that these methods not only give procedures for parameter estimation, but also estimates of the errors associated with the parameter estimation.

Edwards, Robert V.

1989-01-01

215

Multi-input multi-output fading channel tracking and equalization using Kalman estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the problem of channel tracking and equalization for multi-input multi-output (MIMO) time-varying frequency-selective channels. These channels model the effects of inter-symbol interference (ISI), co-channel interference (CCI), and noise. A low-order autoregressive model approximates the MIMO channel variation and facilitates tracking via a Kalman filter. Hard decisions to aid Kalman tracking come from a MIMO finite-length minimum-mean-squared-error decision-feedback

Christos Komninakis; Christina Fragouli; Ali H. Sayed; Richard D. Wesel

2002-01-01

216

Types of Hearing Aids  

MedlinePLUS

... are programmable. They have a microchip which allows the aid to have settings programmed for different listening environments, such as in a quiet place, like at a library, or in a noisy place like in a ...

217

Heatstroke, First Aid  

MedlinePLUS

... cloth, and position a fan toward him/her. Evaporation of water on the skin aids in cooling. ... may use different cooling techniques that involve immersion, evaporation, or invasive means. Medication may be given to ...

218

First Aid: Rashes  

MedlinePLUS

... THIS TOPIC First Aid: Skin Infections Hives (Urticaria) Erythema Multiforme Pityriasis Rosea Eczema A to Z Symptoms: Rash Molluscum Contagiosum Erythema Toxicum Fifth Disease Diaper Rash Poison Ivy Shingles ...

219

Teaching Children about AIDS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Health authorities believe that formal instruction about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is crucial by grades 6 to 8. Teachers of primary children, however, need to be prepared to answer questions in a knowledgeable, reassuring way. Resources are listed. (MT)

Schall, Jane; Harbaugh, Mary

1987-01-01

220

AIDS Education for Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the information needs of adolescents concerning Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Examines current efforts by schools, community organizations, the federal government, and the media to change the attitudes of high risk students. (FMW)

Shayne, Vivian T.; Kaplan, Barbara J.

1988-01-01

221

Nurses and Aides  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gerontological nursing (the care of the elderly) as a specialization for registered nurses, licensed practical nurses, and nursing aides is discussed with respect to training and qualifications, employment outlook, and earnings for each group. (JT)

Franklin, John

1976-01-01

222

Robot-Aided Neurorehabilitation  

PubMed Central

Our goal is to apply robotics and automation technology to assist, enhance, quantify, and document neurorehabilitation. This paper reviews a clinical trial involving 20 stroke patients with a prototype robot-aided rehabilitation facility developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, (MIT) and tested at Burke Rehabilitation Hospital, White Plains, NY. It also presents our approach to analyze kinematic data collected in the robot-aided assessment procedure. In particular, we present evidence 1) that robot-aided therapy does not have adverse effects, 2) that patients tolerate the procedure, and 3) that peripheral manipulation of the impaired limb may influence brain recovery. These results are based on standard clinical assessment procedures. We also present one approach using kinematic data in a robot-aided assessment procedure. PMID:9535526

Krebs, Hermano Igo; Hogan, Neville; Aisen, Mindy L.; Volpe, Bruce T.

2009-01-01

223

Unconsciousness, First Aid  

MedlinePLUS

... try to determine what caused the loss of consciousness. Check to see if he/she is wearing ... you can determine what caused the loss of consciousness, call emergency medical services and give first aid ...

224

HIV/AIDS  

MedlinePLUS

HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. It kills or damages the body's immune system cells. AIDS stands ... is the most advanced stage of infection with HIV. HIV most often spreads through unprotected sex with ...

225

HIV/AIDS  

MedlinePLUS

HIV infection; Infection HIV; Human immunodeficiency virus; Acquired immune deficiency syndrome ... Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes HIV infection and AIDS. The virus attacks the immune system. As the immune system weakens, the body is ...

226

AIDS and the AIDS Virus (HIV): Facts and Implications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses what is currently known about acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), including routes for the transmission of the AIDS virus, the prevention of AIDS, and some of the non-issues regarding the disease. Urges community leaders and teachers to become more involved in AIDS education. (TW)

Pinching, Anthony J.

1987-01-01

227

Aid Loans versus Aid Grants: Are the Effects Different?  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is some debate regarding whether aid to poor recipients should be given in the form of loans or grants. This paper concentrates on whether the form of aid influences the effects on recipient fiscal behaviour. The main part of this paper investigates the recipient tax revenue response to inflows of aid and whether the composition of aid, i.e. loans

Oliver Morrissey; Olaf Islei; Daniel MAmanja

2006-01-01

228

When is foreign aid policy credible : aid dependence and conditionality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author studies foreign aid policy within a principal-agent framework. He shows that one reason for foreign aid's poor overall record may be a moral hazard problem that shapes the aid recipient s incentive to undertake structural reform. The model's basic prediction is a two-way relationship: Disbursements of foreign aid are guided (in part) by the needs of the poor.

Jakob Svensson

1997-01-01

229

AIDS and economic disruption.  

PubMed

Child and adult mortality increases in Cameroon due to AIDS will cause life expectancy to fall by as many as 8 years, from just over 50 to just over 40 years. The social consequences of AIDS include grieving, stigmatizing, and the large-scale disruption of family and community structures. Widows and widowers due to AIDS mortality are affected differently from each other, with the widows of men who have died from AIDS facing potential sociocultural and economic hardship. The economic consequences of AIDS in Bamenda and elsewhere in Cameroon will occur mainly through the epidemic's impact upon the size and quality of the labor force. By killing a significant number of male and female workers aged 15-60 years, AIDS will reduce the size and growth rate of the labor force. Despite, rapid population growth, labor is a relatively scarce factor of agricultural production in Cameroon. The spread of HIV in rural areas, combined with the intensity and scarcity of agricultural labor, suggests that AIDS will have an impact upon production and per capita incomes, and increase the already high rates of hunger and absolute poverty. In the context of HIV/AIDS, young people must be empowered to make informed decisions about sex. Adolescents are most at risk because they tend to experiment more than married couples and have many sex partners. Sexual activity begins as early as age 8 years and penetrative sex at age 13 or earlier. The author considers the factors which encourage adolescents to engage in sexual activities. PMID:12293251

Johnson, G S

1996-10-01

230

Mycobacteremia in AIDS patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The importance of blood cultures in diagnosing disseminated mycobacteriosis in AIDS patients was evaluated. Blood samples were screened for mycobacteria by culture and microscopic techniques. Mycobacteremia was proven in 20\\/136 (14.7%) AIDS patients, the agent being M. avium-M. intracellulare (MAI) in 16 cases and M. tuberculosis in four cases. The rate of cases with positive blood samples in disseminated

B. Ruf; D. Schrmann; W. Brehmer; H. Mauch; H. D. Pohle

1989-01-01

231

Coupling output of multichannel high power microwaves  

SciTech Connect

The coupling output of multichannel high power microwaves is a promising technique for the development of high power microwave technologies, as it can enhance the output capacities of presently studied devices. According to the investigations on the spatial filtering method and waveguide filtering method, the hybrid filtering method is proposed for the coupling output of multichannel high power microwaves. As an example, a specific structure is designed for the coupling output of S/X/X band three-channel high power microwaves and investigated with the hybrid filtering method. In the experiments, a pulse of 4 GW X band beat waves and a pulse of 1.8 GW S band microwave are obtained.

Li Guolin; Shu Ting; Yuan Chengwei; Zhang Jun; Yang Jianhua; Jin Zhenxing; Yin Yi; Wu Dapeng; Zhu Jun; Ren Heming; Yang Jie [College of Optoelectric Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China)

2010-12-15

232

Output Tube Emission Characteristics of Operational Radars.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains the emission spectra of 19 different types of radars, selected to show the different emission spectrum characteristics produced by a variety of radar output tube technologies. The radars include examples of ground-based search, airpor...

R. J. Matheson, J. D. Smilley, G. D. Falcon, V. S. Lawrence

1982-01-01

233

Memory-based parallel data output controller  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A memory-based parallel data output controller employs associative memories and memory mapping to decommutate multiple channels of telemetry data. The output controller contains a random access memory (RAM) which has at least as many address locations as there are channels. A word counter addresses the RAM which provides as it outputs an encoded peripheral device number and a MSB/LSB-first flag. The encoded device number and a bit counter address a second RAM which contains START and STOP flags to pick out the required bits from the specified word number. The LSB/MSB, START and STOP flags, along with the serial input digital data go to a control block which selectively fills a shift register used to drive the parallel data output bus.

Stattel, R. J.; Niswander, J. K. (inventors)

1984-01-01

234

Mapping Circadian Output Pathways in Neurospora crassa  

E-print Network

. Our lab has focused on identifying output pathways from the clock, using the model organism Neurospora crassa. We have previously demonstrated the circadian regulation of the conserved Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) OS-2 pathway, a homolog...

Bennett, Lindsay Danielle

2013-12-09

235

297 W continuous-wave output power  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have demonstrated a high-power and high-efficiency erbium:ytterbium (Er:Yb) co-doped fiber laser that produces 297 W of continuous-wave output at 1567 nm. The slope efficiency with respect to the launched pump power changed from 40% to 19% at higher output power due to the onset of Yb co-lasing at 1067 nm. However, the Yb co-lasing was essential for the suppression

Y. Jeong; S. Yoo; C. A. Codemard; J. Nilsson; J. K. Sahu; D. N. Payne; R. Horley; P. W. Turner; Louise Hickey; Andrew Harker; Mike Lovelady

236

Generalized Hash Chain Traversal with Selective Output  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A hash chain H for a one-way hash function h() is a sequence of hash values < v0, v1, . . . , vn >, where v0 is a public value, vn a secret value, and vi =h(vi+1). A hash chain traversal algorithm T computes and outputs the hash chain H, returning vi in time period (called round) i for 1 ? i ? n. While previous hash chain traversal algorithms were designed to output all hash values vi (1 ? i ? n) in order, there are applications where every m-th hash value (i.e., vm, v2m, v3m, . . .) is required to be output. We introduce a hash chain traversal algorithm that selectively outputs every m-th hash value efficiently. The main technique is a transformation from a hash chain traversal algorithm outputting every hash value into that outputting every m-th hash value. Compared with the direct use of previous hash chain traversal algorithms, our proposed method requires less memory storages and computational costs.

Yum, Dae Hyun; Seo, Jae Woo; Cho, Kookrae; Lee, Pil Joong

237

Unstable resonator with reduced output coupling.  

PubMed

The properties of a laser beam coupled out of a standard unstable laser resonator are heavily dependent on the chosen resonator magnification. A higher magnification results in a higher output coupling and a better beam quality. But in some configurations, an unstable resonator with a low output coupling in combination with a good beam quality is desirable. In order to reduce the output coupling for a particular resonator, magnification fractions of the outcoupled radiation are reflected back into the cavity. In the confocal case, the output mirror consists of a spherical inner section with a high reflectivity and a flat outer section with a partial reflectivity coating. With the application of the unstable resonator with reduced output coupling (URROC), magnification and output coupling can be adjusted independently from each other and it is possible to get a good beam quality and a high power extraction for lasers with a large low gain medium. The feasibility of this resonator design is examined numerically and experimentally with the help of a chemical oxygen iodine laser. PMID:22722301

Pargmann, Carsten; Hall, Thomas; Duschek, Frank; Grnewald, Karin Maria; Handke, Jrgen

2012-06-20

238

Foreign aid and illegal immigration  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a two-country model of illegal immigration. We analyse the effect of foreign aid on illegal immigration, and consider both exogenous and endogenous income repatriation. In the former, an increase in aid increases illegal immigration if the total amount of aid is small. A transfer of resources from border control to aid increases illegal immigration when the total amount

Helena Gaytn-Fregoso; Sajal Lahiri

2000-01-01

239

Multilateral development aid for Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inequities and inefficiencies in development aid arise from donorrecipient motivational conflicts, agency problems, and institutional deficiencies. Recent thinking on reforming official aid recommends technocratic solutions including recipient ownership, selectivity, budgetary grants, and multilateralization of aid management. Locating persistent policy failure in Africa primarily in its political institutions, this paper explores three alternative models of multilateral aid for reconciling need and

Berhanu Abegaz

2005-01-01

240

Mommy, Daddy--What's AIDS?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brochure is designed to help parents answer the questions that their children may ask them about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and the Human Immuno Deficiency Virus (HIV), the virus that causes AIDS. It provides basic information about AIDS and HIV, as well as sources for further information, such as the National AIDS Hotline. It

National Association of Pediatric Nurse Associates and Practitioners, Cherry Hill, NJ.

241

Answering Your Questions about AIDS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book focuses on AIDS education and answers 350 commonly asked questions about Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) taken from questions addressed to two major urban AIDS hotlines (Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and Houston, Texas). Chapter 1, "HIV - The Virus That Causes AIDS," discusses: the HIV virus; the

Kalichman, Seth C.

242

First Aid at Work Introduction  

E-print Network

First Aid at Work Introduction 1. The Forestry Commission has updated its First Aid at Work policy will need to: Assess your first aid provision and requirements, with the help of this document. Put that we have first aid provision in place so that we can give them immediate attention and call

243

Teaching Young People about AIDS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To date, education is the only method that has worked to prevent the spread of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Effective AIDS prevention must do two things simultaneously: emphasize that AIDS is a worldwide issue, that males and females of all ages, colors, and nationalities are susceptible to the virus; and emphasize that AIDS is a

Starkman, Neal

244

Space traveling wave tube amplifiers with on-orbit flexible saturated output power  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes several approaches to achieving adjustable power output from a traveling wave tube amplifier. It can be adjusted in flight for maximum flexibility in matching the amplifier capability to the applicationpsilas need. The efficiency can be maximized without changing the hardware.

Thomas K. Phelps; John D. McDowell; William L. Menninger

2008-01-01

245

Simulation Research on Photovoltaic Array Output Characteristics and Improved MPPT Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrical model and nonlinear characteristics of the silicon photovoltaic (PV) cell are analyzed in this paper. The SIMULINK simulation model is built based on the output characteristics of single PV cell. The common methods of maximum power point tracking (MPPT) are comparatively studied. An improved method based on the traditional incremental conductance method is simulated and studied. Simulation results

Tai Liuchen; Wang Jinmei; Su Ting

2012-01-01

246

Control of induction motors via feedback linearization with input-output decoupling  

Microsoft Academic Search

In induction motor control, power efficiency is an important factor to be considered. We attempt to achieve both high dynamic performance and maximum power efficiency by means of linear decoupling of rotor speed (or motor torque) and rotor flux. The induction motor with our controller possesses the input-output dynamic characteristics of a linear system such that the rotor speed (or

DONG-IL KIM; IN-JOONG HA; MYOUNG-SAM KO

1990-01-01

247

A note on greedy algorithms for the maximum weighted independent set problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we consider three simple and natural greedy algorithms for the MaximumWeighted Independent Set problem. We show that two of them output an independent set of weightPv2V (G)W (v)d(v)+1and the other outputs an independent set of weight Pv2V (G)W (v)2Pu2N +G(v)W (u).Those results are generalization of Tur'an's theorem.1 IntroductionThe Maximum (Weighted) Independent Set (MIS(MWIS)) is one of most

Shuichi Sakai; Mitsunori Togasaki; Koichi Yamazaki

2003-01-01

248

Global Trends in AIDS Mortality  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter reviews the evolution of the HIV\\/AIDS epidemic and provides estimates of past trends and future projections of\\u000a AIDS mortality indicators, including numbers of AIDS deaths, the proportion of all deaths that are due to AIDS, and life expectancy.\\u000a In 2007, a total of 2.0 million men, women, and children died of AIDS worldwide. The death toll will remain

John P. Bongaarts; Franois Pelletier; Patrick Gerland

2010-01-01

249

When Does Aid Conditionality Work?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Does aid conditionalitythe setting of policy goals in exchange for access to aidpromote reform? Many studies on the impact\\u000a of aid and reform suggest not. However, few explicitly examine whether the impact of aid on reform is mediated by recipient\\u000a regime type. I argue that conditional aid is effective but its efficacy depends on recipient countries level of democracy\\u000a because

Gabriella R. Montinola

2010-01-01

250

AIDS prevention with adolescents.  

PubMed

Prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) among adolescents is increasingly recognized as an important public health priority. Sexual risk acts associated with HIV/AIDS transmission (unprotected sexual intercourse with multiple partners of unknown serostatus) are typically initiated by late adolescence, with many youths engaging in sexual relations earlier. Despite being well informed about HIV/AIDS and having positive attitudes toward HIV/AIDS prevention, adolescents have not changed their behavior in response to the pandemic. AIDS-prevention programs must be tailored to consider stereotypic sex roles, gay youths' sexual orientation, and substance abuse. Intensive prevention programs focusing on helping youths perceive HIV as a problem, motivate them to act safely, and implement safe acts by acquiring coping skills, access to condoms and health care, and identifying individual barriers to implementing safe acts have successfully reduced adolescents' risk acts. However, avenues for broad-scale dissemination of such programs or alternative models to change youths' behaviors must be identified. PMID:7577308

Rotheram-Borus, M J; Mahler, K A; Rosario, M

1995-08-01

251

Maximum entropy production in daisyworld  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Daisyworld was first introduced in 1983 by Watson and Lovelock as a model that illustrates how life can influence a planet's climate. These models typically involve modeling a planetary surface on which black and white daisies can grow thus influencing the local surface albedo and therefore also the temperature distribution. Since then, variations of daisyworld have been applied to study problems ranging from ecological systems to global climate. Much of the interest in daisyworld models is due to the fact that they enable one to study self-regulating systems. These models are nonlinear, and as such they exhibit sensitive dependence on initial conditions, and depending on the specifics of the model they can also exhibit feedback loops, oscillations, and chaotic behavior. Many daisyworld models are thermodynamic in nature in that they rely on heat flux and temperature gradients. However, what is not well-known is whether, or even why, a daisyworld model might settle into a maximum entropy production (MEP) state. With the aim to better understand these systems, this paper will discuss what is known about the role of MEP in daisyworld models.

Maunu, Haley A.; Knuth, Kevin H.

2012-05-01

252

AIDS--legal issues.  

PubMed

Legal issues worldwide prompted by the AIDS epidemic are discussed, in a general way, since legal systems vary widely in different countries and localities. WHO publishes a tabulation of legal instruments dealing with AIDS and HIV infection. Criminal laws intended to protect people from harm from HIV infection have been enacted, such as a penalty for unprotected sexual intercourse by infected persons, in some Australian states. Knowing spread of HIV already amounts to a crime in many systems. The U.S. Supreme Court has already ruled that states do not violate the constitution for punishing homosexuals for consensual sodomy, nor the Army for discharging homosexuals. Quarantine law is a civil matter, but may provide penalties stricter than criminal penalties, without as much protection. No quarantines against AIDS have been enacted, although some countries require screening of immigrants. Legal issues regarding screening, liability of suppliers of blood products, and tracing of sexual partners are much discussed. Stigmatization of minority and alienated groups such as homosexuals, prostitutes, migrants, drug users and prisoners is a tricky legal problem. The apparent failure of the criminalization of drug users and how to contain the spread of AIDS into the drug free population may prompt drastic new solutions. Other legal issues drawing attention include regulation of health insurance, changes in family law, pre-marriage HIV tests, screening for HIV ostensibly to detect HIV-associated dementia, liability protection for developers and testers of vaccines, and euthanasia and the treatment of the deceased. The legal system tends to lag behind medicine. In the case of AIDS, it cannot afford to delay, therefore effective legal strategies will include effective media presentation of AIDS information to the general public; ready and cheap supply of condoms; and a new approach to illegal drugs. PMID:3147672

Kirby, M

1988-01-01

253

A constitution for AIDS.  

PubMed

The Indian Health Organization projected the number of deaths per day due to AIDS by the year 2000 at 10,000. An interdisciplinary international conference was held in New Delhi to draft an international law governing the issues related to AIDS. Human freedom and public health policies are the most affected by this disease. In the absence of an international AIDS law, judicial verdicts set precedents and could have serious ramifications. A participant from the John Marshall Law School, Chicago, suggested that instead of making new laws, the existing ones from the colonial past should be repealed. This includes Section 377 of the Indian Penal Code, which provides criminal sanctions against those who indulge in unnatural relations with man, woman, or animal. Penalizing homosexuality will only perpetuate clandestine relations and spread the virus into their families. Another participant seconded this motion stating that even a sex worker must be protected from abuse and indignity. The National AIDS Control Organization responded to the criticism that the government had not utilized all the World Bank funds allocated for anti-AIDS projects. The trends of the epidemic were the most important indicators not just the numbers. In Manipur and Mizoram, infection was almost entirely due to injecting drug use. The Saheli project undertaken in the red-light areas of Bombay encompassed brothel owners and prostitutes, which could be replicated in other areas. Because existing government policies were focusing on prevention, there was no protection of an HIV-infected individual's privacy, one participant from Madras stated. The confidentiality issue was also echoed by a US participant. The New Delhi Declaration and Action Plan on HIV/AIDS was also discussed. It forbids discrimination in employment, education, housing, health care, social security, travel, and marital and reproductive rights. Providing sterile needles and ensuring the safety of the blood supply were other concerns mentioned. PMID:12179199

Koshy, L M

1996-01-15

254

Visual Speech-Training Aid for the Deaf  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Teaching deaf to speak aided by electronic system provides striking colored, pictorial representation of sound; energy at different frequencies as function of time. Other modalities, such as nasality, intra-oral pressure, and lip-muscle contraction, pictorialized simultaneously. Use of standard components, including personal microcomputer, helps reduce cost below prior voice-training systems. Speech-training system, microphone output separated by filters into narrow frequency bands, changed into digital signals, formatted by computer, and displayed on television screen. Output from other sensors displayed simultaneously or screen split to allow sound produced by student to be compared with that of teacher.

Miller, Robert J.

1987-01-01

255

Measurement of attack-release times in compression hearing aids.  

PubMed

A system for measurement of attack-release times in hearing aids with automatic-gain-control circuitry is described, with a view toward implementing that portion of the ANSI S3.22-1976 Standard in which parameters for these measurements are specified. Signal generation is accomplished by using a phased-array loudspeaker arrangement designed to produce transient-free pulsed acoustic sinusoids. Output waveforms are captured by a commercial transient recorder, and are displayed in either an oscilloscopic or graphic mode. A specific means of calculating attack and release times is recommended whereby variously shaped output waveforms are amenable to the basic protocol outlined in the ANSI Standard. PMID:703280

Punch, J L; Lawrence, W F; Causey, G D

1978-06-01

256

20 Years of AIDS  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

According to the Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC), May 31 marked the 20-year anniversary of the first discovery of AIDS. Perhaps not surprisingly, the Web has seen a corresponding flurry of activity devoted to the history and current status of research on the disease. The CDC has posted this site, which collects research findings from the Centers' Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, videos covering the epidemic's history and current status, and CDC bulletins and commentary. For further sites devoted to AIDS/HIV see the June 6, 2001 Scout Report for Science & Engineering).

2001-01-01

257

HIV/AIDS Review.  

PubMed

Many advances have been made in the prevention of HIV transmission and management of HIV/AIDS since the virus was discovered in the early 1980s. One of the most important discoveries has been antiretroviral treatment, which can halt the replication of HIV and ease symptoms, turning AIDS into a chronic condition instead of a rapidly terminal illness. Despite advances, HIV remains a major public health challenge. This article reviews the genus, life cycle, and transmission of HIV, as well as workplace issues surrounding the virus and the challenges of developing an HIV vaccine. PMID:23322863

Moss, Joseph Anthony

2013-01-01

258

PV output smoothing with energy storage.  

SciTech Connect

This report describes an algorithm, implemented in Matlab/Simulink, designed to reduce the variability of photovoltaic (PV) power output by using a battery. The purpose of the battery is to add power to the PV output (or subtract) to smooth out the high frequency components of the PV power that that occur during periods with transient cloud shadows on the PV array. The control system is challenged with the task of reducing short-term PV output variability while avoiding overworking the battery both in terms of capacity and ramp capability. The algorithm proposed by Sandia is purposely very simple to facilitate implementation in a real-time controller. The control structure has two additional inputs to which the battery can respond. For example, the battery could respond to PV variability, load variability or area control error (ACE) or a combination of the three.

Ellis, Abraham; Schoenwald, David Alan

2012-03-01

259

Caffeine, maximal power output and fatigue.  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of caffeine ingestion on maximal power output and fatigue during short term, high intensity exercise. Nine adult males performed 15 s maximal exercise bouts 60 min after ingestion of caffeine (7 mg.kg-1) or placebo. Exercise bouts were carried out on a modified cycle ergometer which allowed power output to be computed for each one-half pedal stroke via microcomputer. Peak power output under caffeine conditions was not significantly different from that obtained following placebo ingestion. Similarly, time to peak power, total work, power fatigue index and power fatigue rate did not differ significantly between caffeine and placebo conditions. These results suggest that caffeine ingestion does not increase one's maximal ability to generate power. Further, caffeine does not alter the rate or magnitude of fatigue during high intensity, dynamic exercise. PMID:3228680

Williams, J H; Signorile, J F; Barnes, W S; Henrich, T W

1988-01-01

260

Output radiation from a degenerate parametric oscillator  

E-print Network

We study the squeezing as well as the statistical properties of the output radiation from a degenerate parametric oscillator coupled to a squeezed vacuum reservoir employing the stochastic differential equations associated with the normal ordering. It is found that the degree of squeezing of the output radiation is less than the corresponding cavity radiation. However, for output radiation the correlation of the quadrature operators evaluated at different times also exhibits squeezing, which is the reason for quenching of the overall noise in one of the quadrature components of the squeezing spectrum even when the oscillator is coupled to a vacuum reservoir. Moreover, coupling the oscillator to the squeezed vacuum reservoir enhances the squeezing exponentially and it also increases the mean photon number.

Sintayehu Tesfa

2007-02-12

261

Visual aid for the hearing impaired  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A multichannel electronic visual aid device which is able to signal to the user whether sound is coming from the left or right, front or back, or both is presented. For the plurality of channels, which may operate in pairs, the sound is picked up by a respective microphone and amplified and rectified into a DC voltage. The DC voltage is next fed to an analog to digital converter and then to a digital encoder. The binary code from the encoder is coupled into a logic circuit where the binary code is decoded to proved a plurality of output levels which are used to drive an indicator which, in turn, provides a visual indication of the sound level received. The binary codes for each pair of channels are also fed into a digital comparator. The output of the comparator is used to enable the logic circuits of the two channels such that if, for example, the signal coming from the right is louder than that coming from the left, the output of the logic unit of the right channel will be enabled and the corresponding indicator activated, indicating the sound source on the right. An indication of the loudness is also provided. One embodiment of the invention may be carried by the hearing impaired or deaf, as a system which is embedded into eye glasses or a cap. Another embodiment of the invention may be integrated with a vehicle to give a hearing impaired or deaf driver a warning, with a directional indication, that an emergency vehicle is in the vicinity. In this second embodiment, the emergency vehicle transmits a radio frequency signal which would be used as an enabling signal for the visual aid device to avoid false alarms from traffic and other sound sources in the vicinity of the driver's vehicle.

Jhabvala, Murzban D.; Lin, Hung C.

1991-07-01

262

CLIMATOLOGICAL VARIABILITY IN MODELED MAXIMUM CONCENTRATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper analyzes a 17-year data base consisting of CRSTER outputs. Only the high and the high second-high (HSH) concentrations for two typical sources for the 17 years of CRSTER air quality output were investigated. Resampling techniques are used to assign probabilities of choo...

263

Maximum entropy principal for transportation  

SciTech Connect

In this work we deal with modeling of the transportation phenomenon for use in the transportation planning process and policy-impact studies. The model developed is based on the dependence concept, i.e., the notion that the probability of a trip starting at origin i is dependent on the probability of a trip ending at destination j given that the factors (such as travel time, cost, etc.) which affect travel between origin i and destination j assume some specific values. The derivation of the solution of the model employs the maximum entropy principle combining a priori multinomial distribution with a trip utility concept. This model is utilized to forecast trip distributions under a variety of policy changes and scenarios. The dependence coefficients are obtained from a regression equation where the functional form is derived based on conditional probability and perception of factors from experimental psychology. The dependence coefficients encode all the information that was previously encoded in the form of constraints. In addition, the dependence coefficients encode information that cannot be expressed in the form of constraints for practical reasons, namely, computational tractability. The equivalence between the standard formulation (i.e., objective function with constraints) and the dependence formulation (i.e., without constraints) is demonstrated. The parameters of the dependence-based trip-distribution model are estimated, and the model is also validated using commercial air travel data in the U.S. In addition, policy impact analyses (such as allowance of supersonic flights inside the U.S. and user surcharge at noise-impacted airports) on air travel are performed.

Bilich, F. [University of Brasilia (Brazil); Da Silva, R. [National Research Council (Brazil)

2008-11-06

264

Input/Output Subroutine Library Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Efficient, easy-to-use program moved easily to different computers. Purpose of NAVIO, Input/Output Subroutine Library, provides input/output package of software for FORTRAN programs that is portable, efficient, and easy to use. Implemented as hierarchy of libraries. At bottom is very small library containing only non-portable routines called "I/O Kernel." Design makes NAVIO easy to move from one computer to another, by simply changing kernel. NAVIO appropriate for software system of almost any size wherein different programs communicate through files.

Collier, James B.

1988-01-01

265

Mass auto-detection in mammogram based on wavelet transform modulus maximum  

Microsoft Academic Search

High accurate detection of mass in mammogram is critical for improving the performance and efficiency of computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to enhance the detection performance of mass in mammograms using Wavelet Transform Modulus Maximum (WTMM). First, hunt the region of interest (ROI) through the whole image and the ROI was approximately located

Li Ke; Wei He; Yan Kang

2009-01-01

266

FinAid: The Financial Aid Information Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Maintained by Mark Kantrowitz and sponsored by the National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NASFAA), the Financial Aid Information Page is one of the finest online sources of free information and guidance on student financial aid. The site is divided into categories which address various aspects of finding and securing aid. The Assistance section includes an overview of financial aid, a glossary, a bibliography, and scam alerts. Under Tools users will find Kantrowitz's financial aid calculators, which help students and their parents better plan their financial futures. The core of the site is the collection of links to databases of aid sources, lists of lenders and loan guarantors, government information, and links to major scholarship and fellowship sources such as FastWEB, SRN Express, and ExPAN. FinAid is an excellent place for students at any level to begin their electronic search for funding.

Kantrowitz, Mark.

1997-01-01

267

The research on the algorithm of maximum power point tracking in photo voltaic array of solar car  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combined with the practical working environment of the vehicle photovoltaic cell plate on the electric vehicle, according to the engineering mathematic model of photovoltaic cell, the output characteristics is nonlinear, and the maximum power is on one point. Adopting the improved conductance increment method, the maximum power tracking rate and accuracy are enhanced.

Xiujuan Ma; Yude Sun; Jiayu Wu; Shiqiang Liu

2009-01-01

268

REAL TIME ESTIMATION OF POTENTIAL OUTPUT AND OUTPUT GAP FOR THE EURO-AREA : COMPARING PRODUCTION FUNCTION WITH  

E-print Network

REAL TIME ESTIMATION OF POTENTIAL OUTPUT AND OUTPUT GAP FOR THE EURO-AREA : COMPARING PRODUCTION2014 #12;1 Real time estimation of potential output and output gap for the euro- area : comparing) approach usually used for estimating the output gap of the euro area. Our version does not call for any

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

269

Robot-aided neurorehabilitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors' goal is to apply robotics and automation technology to assist, enhance, quantify, and document neurorehabilitation. This paper reviews a clinical trial involving 20 stroke patients with a prototype robot-aided rehabilitation facility developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, (MIT) and tested at Burke Rehabilitation Hospital, White Plains, NY. It also presents the authors' approach to analyze kinematic

Hermano Igo Krebs; Neville Hogan; Mindy L. Aisen; Bruce T. Volpe

1998-01-01

270

Leishmaniasis and AIDS coinfection*  

PubMed Central

Cutaneous leishmaniasis and HIV coinfection has been reported in Brazil since the initial description of AIDS in the country. We report an HIV-positive patient under antiretroviral treatment who presented with cutaneous leishmaniasis which was successfully treated with meglumine antimoniate. PMID:24474115

Hozannah, Adriana; Santos, Monica; Chrusciak-Talhari, Anette; Talhari, Carolina

2013-01-01

271

Kool-Aid Chromatography  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers guidelines and suggests activities that can introduce middle school students to the process and principles of chromatography in an inexpensive and safe manner. Proposes that experiences with Kool-aid and food coloring chromatography can provide insights into how scientists think, work, and communicate. (ML)

Jenkins, Christie L.

1986-01-01

272

Good Teaching Aids.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This set of teaching aids consists of 14 Audubon Nature Bulletins with these titles: Schoolyard Laboratories, How to Lead a Field Trip, Natural Resources in the City, Mysteries of Bird Migration, Rock Stories and How to Read Them, The Ground Water Table, The Terrarium, Some Adventures With Wild Plants Outdoors and Indoors, Plant Propagation in the

National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

273

Management of Student Aid.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The principles, practices, responsibilities, and controls in student financial aid are described in this manual. It traces the flow of funds, management activities, and legal issues as they occur in the process. The emphasis is on sound management principles of a general and permanent nature rather than on specific government requirements that may

Nevin, Jeanne, Ed.

274

Parent Hearing Aid Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study addresses parent experiences in obtaining and managing hearing aids for their young child. The purpose was to identify challenges parents encounter to determine what state agencies can do to improve parent access to amplification. Data were collected July through September of 2010; 40 parents of children ages birth to 3 years old

Munoz, Karen; Roberts, Mallory; Mullings, Day; Harward, Richard

2012-01-01

275

International Student Financial Aid &  

E-print Network

& use a budget 3. Make good choices ­ learn to say no 4. Manage your accounts wisely 5. Protect yourInternational Student Financial Aid & Scholarship Search Berkeley International Office (BIO) 2299@berkeley.edu #12;What does this presentation include? To go directly to section of interest, click on the links

Jacobs, Lucia

276

Children, health and AIDS.  

PubMed

The World Health Organization expects there to be 10 million children infected with HIV by the year 2000 as a result of mother to child transmission. Most of these children will in developing countries, but there is also a growing problem in Europe and the US. Rates of HIV-1 transmission from infected mothers to their babies in developing countries range 25-39%, but are as low as 12% in some more developed countries. Recent studies have shown a 26% transmission rate from mothers who were infected post-natally and a 16% rate for those infected pre-natally. Infection rates do not seem to be related to the duration of breast feeding. Pediatricians with experience of HIV infection, however, think that the rate of transmission is much higher than statistics would indicate. AIDS is firmly established among heterosexuals. It should therefore be clear that the number of infected infants and children will continue to increase. The author presents concerns with regard to the clinical management problem of diagnosing HIV infection in children, the main indicator diseases for AIDS in children, the Bangui criteria used for the clinical definition of AIDS, psychological and social factors, confidentiality, childhood immunizations for HIV-infected children, the sexual abuse of children, and children orphaned because of AIDS. PMID:12179298

O'donohue, M

1993-01-01

277

Living with AIDs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because events move swiftly in the contemporary world, it is easy to forget that acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a phenomenon of the 1980s. It is generally agreed that this is only the very beginning of a scientific investigation that will go on well into the 21st century. This issue attempts to provide some of the basic information

Graubard, Stephen R., Ed.

1989-01-01

278

Instructional Aide Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Instructional Aide Program (Shoreline Community College, Seattle, Washington) is a flexible curriculum designed to prepare students to meet the paraprofessional manpower needs of several kinds of institution. It was prepared after consultation with representatives of the schools, the YMCA, and the country park system. Other agencies still to

Thomson, Henry

279

Financial Aid and Support  

E-print Network

reason, a minor reason, or not a reason, that you selected Berea College Cost of attendance/affordable price Rate your level of understanding of each of the following: The Berea College financial aid program Balancing a budget Credit card usage Staying out of debt How to invest money Best buys

Baltisberger, Jay H.

280

First Aid Challenge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a challenge wherein students will be asked to design a portable first aid kit that is normally carried in a recreational vehicle (RV), but can also be hand-carried or backpacked off road for distances of approximately 1-2 miles. This can be a very practical challenge for the students because it touches everyone. Everybody

Roman, Harry T.

2011-01-01

281

Os lutos da aids  

Microsoft Academic Search

During our lives we face situations of losses and mournings, connected or not to death. A loss invariably brings secondary losses. And, in cases of diseases as aids, other aspects as prejudices, the fact that it is contagious and incurable (up to now) and considered as death sentence, the losses can gain larger proportions, and affect its personal, affective, social

Tnia Regina; Corra de Souza; Emi Shimma

282

Hypermedia-aided design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, the Internet revolutionized many activities from entertainment to marketing and business. Two key underlying Internet technologies, efficient data delivery and hypertext, demonstrated exceptional potential as new application enablers. In this paper, we present a novel Hypermedia-Aided Design (HAD) collaboration framework that facilitates new communication and data presentation paradigms to improve the effectiveness of typical EDA applications. The framework leverages

Darko Kirovski; Milenko Drinic; Miodrag Potkonjak

2001-01-01

283

Analysis of output capacitor parasitic effects to output voltage ripple on power converter  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides analysis of output capacitor parasitic effects to output ripple on power converter and verification is made by experiments, thereby giving suggestions to persons skilled in the related art. Generally, a capacitor roughly consists of a nominal capacitance, an equivalent series resistance (ESR) and an equivalent series inductance (ESL) where ESR and ESL are called the parasitic elements.

Sheng-Yuan Ou; Huei-Fa Su; Cheng-Yu Tang

2011-01-01

284

AIDS and society.  

PubMed

Noting the hysteria caused by an outbreak of AIDS among intravenous drug users in the state of Manipur, India, the author discusses the social and emotional aspects of the epidemic. Local media has been Manipur's main source of information concerning the outbreak, but this information has often been misleading and has served to stir up fear and hatred of HIV carriers. Many have even begun talking about an Isolation Centre. The author, the director of a drug rehabilitation center, relates his experiences in counseling 50 intravenous drug users on the subject of AIDS. He discovered that the group had very poor knowledge about the disease. When told about AIDS, they became alarmed at the possibility of dying. 1/2 of the group swore to take revenge on those who had introduced them to drugs, but the other 1/2 showed a more positive attitude, saying that they would like to help other drug addicts. The author also describes the case history of a patient who had succeeded in staying off of drugs for 8 months. HIV screening, however, revealed that the young man was seropositive. Somehow, a local newspaper got a hold of this information and published his name as a seropositive along with the names of others. Distraught by this, the young man returned to drugs. The author stresses that revealing the names of HIV carriers serves no social purpose, and in fact, only makes the problem worse. He recommends the following for dealing with the outbreak of AIDS: 1) intensive public health education on AIDS with the aim or removing unwarranted fears; 2) education to prevent drug addiction; 3) counselling to parents of drug addicts; and 4) the establishment of Seropositive Anonymous, an organization designed to help carriers deal with their problems. PMID:12284228

Singh, N K

1991-08-01

285

[AIDS in Tanzania].  

PubMed

The World Health Organization has announced that within 3 years 10% of Tanzania's population of 26 million will be infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). But there is some faint hope in the research of Tanzanian traditional medicine. An almost 90-year-man, Waziri Mrisho, is credited with having treated AIDS patients successfully with herbs that strengthen the immune system. Margaret Nakamya was stricken by the symptoms of AIDs in March 1990. She was referred to Waziri and started using his herbs. 3 years later she weighs 49 kg compared to 40 kg before. The old man's son set up a little factory where he pulverizes herbs and sells them at the price he can command The 3 types of trees that the herbal medicine is taken from grow in the wild, but some have also been planted around the factory. Even if these herbs are effective, it will take years before the AIDS epidemic is over, when people have changed their lifestyles. The means of communication (TV, cinema, radio, telephone) are missing or inadequate. In the Kagera region, with 1.2 million inhabitants, 25% of pregnant women are HIV-infected and 65,000 children lost their parents to AIDS. There are 2000 children in Dar Es Salaam living in the streets. The Anglican St. Albans Church runs a center for street kids where they get meals 3 times a week. The nurse Ruth Nesje enlisted a Norwegian physician and homeopath in a research project involving 30 AIDS patients in Norway. The University in Bergen will do in vitro testing. One group of patients will receive both AZT and the herbs, another group will get only AZT, and the 3rd group will obtain only the herbs. The Norwegian Nursing Association, NORAD, and DANIDA also plan various projects in the Tanga region. PMID:8499187

Barstad, S

1993-04-20

286

Ethical concerns about AIDS.  

PubMed

The HIV/ARC/AIDS story continues to unfold. It is both the old, sadly familiar experience of plague and disease, of lepers isolated as unclean, of smallpox decimating the American Indians, of a Black Death sweeping medieval Europe, of the 1918 influenza. It is also a new story, one in which medical scientists rather quickly identified the causative infectious agent but, as yet, have been unable to cure the infection, although some amelioration of the basic course of the illness appear possible if treatment with AZT is begun relatively early. The ethical problems are numerous and constantly change as the understanding of the disease and its potency evolves. The social answers have, after initial delay, received positive action on an official level. On the more personal level of the average American there remains animosity, prejudice, and a deeply rooted fear, the ancient fear of the leper, of the plague victim. The health professionals have also officially responded well to the challenge of AIDS. Personally, as in society generally, there has been a mixed response. We believe that the ethical concerns enumerated in this article will be resolved in favor of persons with AIDS. Nevertheless, the personal, spiritual, emotional, and economic isolation experienced by persons with AIDS and their families challenge us about what kind of society we wish to be. We will ultimately be measured as a civilization by the way in which we treated the least fortunate. America's track record in this regard has been mixed. AIDS presents us with a chance to change. PMID:2339179

Thomasma, D C; McElhinney, T K

1990-01-01

287

AIDS: there's hope.  

PubMed

In 1993, 10 years after realizing that AIDS posed a threat to the future of mankind, social mobilization will improve the odds against AIDS. The objective is to create awareness about the virus, and to affect positive behavioral change through advocacy, communication, and grass-roots actions. The first goal is to change the societal attitude about the status of youth and women in order to understand that gender inequality fuels the pandemic. They are the most vulnerable groups, therefore their economic and social power must be improved. The Convention on the Rights of the Child and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women constitute a platform for broader action by governmental, nongovernmental, and religious institutions. In addition, these organizations need strong allies in society: 1) the media, which can communicate the importance of youth, women, and attitudes in the epidemic; 2) religious leaders, who can be powerful sources of advocacy for change in attitudes as well as support and care for AIDS-affected individuals and families; 3) policy makers, who can be crucial in changing existing policies and altering the allocation of government resources to youth and women; 4) human rights organizations, which play an important role in promoting the concept of health as a human right and for enhancing the understanding of AIDS in the context of discrimination and poverty; 5) the private sector, including commerce and industry, which can promote changes in attitude within the work force and AIDS prevention initiatives; and 6) parent-teacher groups and models for youth, who can educate them about socially acceptable and unacceptable behavior and can empower them to make responsible behavior choices. PMID:12179231

1993-06-01

288

Computational Mechanics: Linear Functional Outputs and  

E-print Network

Computational Mechanics: Linear Functional Outputs and Certificates J. Peraire Massachusetts scale and leaving nothing but a pile of debris at a depth of 220m · Sinking traced to a failure registering 3.0 on the Richter scale and leaving nothing but a pile of debris at a depth of 220m · Sinking

Peraire, Jaime

289

Solar cell system having alternating current output  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A monolithic multijunction solar cell was modified by fabricating an integrated circuit inverter on the back of the cell to produce a device capable of generating an alternating current output. In another embodiment, integrated curcuit power conditioning electronics was incorporated in a module containing a solar cell power supply.

Evans, J. C., Jr. (inventor)

1980-01-01

290

Static output feedbackA survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the static output feedback problem in the control of linear, time-invariant (LTI) systems. It includes analytical and computational methods and presents in a unified fashion the knowledge gained in the decades of research into this important open problem. The paper shows that although many approaches and techniques exist to approach different versions of the problem, no efficient

V. L. Syrmos; C. T. Abdallah; P. Dorato; K. Grigoriadis

1997-01-01

291

Adjoint Error Correction for Integral Outputs  

E-print Network

.1 Output functionals Why do engineers perform CFD calculations? In the case of a transport air- craft at cruise conditions, a calculation might be performed to investigate whether there is an adverse pressure engineer, the lift and drag on the aircraft. The quality of the CFD calculation is judged, #12;rst

Pierce, Niles A.

292

Police officer salaries and agency performance outputs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spending on law enforcement services, including police officer salaries, is an important public policy issue. What is unclear is whether raising officer salaries results in an increase in the services police officer provide. This pilot test involves a partial, macro-level test to determine if, after controlling for community contextual values, higher officer salaries are associated with law enforcement agency outputs.

Richard R. Johnson

2012-01-01

293

Clutchless multiple drive source for output shaft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A first shaft is connected to a source of rotational power and has a gear fixedly mounted on the shaft. A second gear is fixedly mounted on a gear shaft that is parallel to the first shaft. A third gear, also fixedly mounted on gear shaft, meshes with a fourth gear fixedly mounted on the output shaft. The first input shaft and output shaft are rotatably mounted through a housing that is itself rotatable with respect to a support. Both shafts are coaxial and in end-to-end relationship. A second input shaft is connected to a second source of rotational power. A fifth gear, fixedly mounted on second input shaft, meshes with a sixth gear, which is fixedly mounted on rotatable housing and in coaxial relationship with first input shaft. In operation, the first drive source and gear train provide rotational power in a first direction to drive the output shaft in a given direction of rotation. The second source of rotational power may be operated either to decrease the rate of rotation imparted to the output shaft by the first source of rotational power, or to increase that rate of rotation, depending on which direction the housing is rotated by the second source of rotational power.

Webster, L. D. (inventor)

1982-01-01

294

RAM-Based parallel-output controller  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Selected bit strings in serial-data link are extracted for processing. Controller is programmable interface between serial-data link and peripherals that accept parallel data. It can be used to drive displays, printers, plotters, digital-to-analog converters, and parallel-output ports.

Niswander, J. K.; Stattel, R. J.

1980-01-01

295

Title Slide "The broadband acoustic output of  

E-print Network

, Landro, Laws, Vaage, Ziolkowski Treatment of very close clustering and high- frequency output by Hatton next Overview #12;The current position Conventional data (0-500Hz) Most gun types measured under laboratory conditions for depths 3-30m Extended data (0-1500Hz) Some gun types in restricted conditions IFRC

Hatton, Les

296

Micropower CMOS temperature sensor with digital output  

Microsoft Academic Search

A CMOS smart temperature sensor with digital output is presented. It consumes only 7 ?W. To achieve this extremely low-power consumption, the system is equipped with a facility that switches off the supply power after each sample. The circuit uses substrate bipolars as a temperature sensor. Conversion to the digital domain is done by a sigma-delta converter which makes the

Anton Bakker; J. H. Huijsing

1996-01-01

297

Multiple Output Channels in the Basal Ganglia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The neural circuits that link the basal ganglia with the cerebral cortex are critically involved in the generation and control of voluntary movement. Retrograde transneuronal transport or herpes simplex virus type 1 was used to examine the organization of connections in the cebus monkey between an output nucleus of the basal ganglia, the internal segment of the globus pallidus (GPi),

John E. Hoover; Peter L. Strick

1993-01-01

298

Debugging by asking questions about program output  

Microsoft Academic Search

One reason debugging is the most time-consuming part of software development is because developers struggle to map their questions about a program's behavior onto debugging tools' limited support for analyzing code. Interrogative debugging is a new debugging paradigm that allows developers to ask questions directly about their programs' output, helping them to more efficiently and accurately determine what parts of

Andrew Jensen Ko

2006-01-01

299

Better sensors = better imagery = better outputs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The photogrammetric workflow has traditionally relied upon the use of high quality metric cameras that enable the acquisition of good quality imagery, from which outputs with a well constrained geometry can be obtained. However with the proliferation of low altitude aerial photography from a range of platforms, the quality of sensor itself has largely become of secondary importance in order to reduce weight and minimise cost. These instruments are often "off-the-shelf" consumer digital cameras, not designed for either aerial photography or photogrammetry. This imposes limitations upon the quality of imagery that can be collected and outputs subsequently produced. Photogrammetric techniques such as a self-calibrating bundle adjustment or Structure from Motion allow the use of "less stable" imagery. Yet at the simplest level, the better the sensor, the better the imagery, the better the output. Where analysis and the validity of scientific conclusions are dependent upon the quality of outputs it is critical that consideration is given to the choice of sensor - the wide availability and application of UAVs across disciplines means that users may not be aware of such choices and their implications. This presentation is designed to stimulate discussion around the use of consumer cameras with a focus upon the exposure triangle of ISO-aperture-shutter speed and how this is related to dynamic range and the signal-to-noise ratio. A further important factor is understanding the ground resolution element in terms of resolution, focal length, sensor size (crop factor) and height.

Smith, Michael

2014-05-01

300

Porous radiant burners having increased radiant output  

DOEpatents

Means and methods for enhancing the output of radiant energy from a porous radiant burner by minimizing the scattering and increasing the adsorption, and thus emission of such energy by the use of randomly dispersed ceramic fibers of sub-micron diameter in the fabrication of ceramic fiber matrix burners and for use therein.

Tong, Timothy W. (Tempe, AZ); Sathe, Sanjeev B. (Tempe, AZ); Peck, Robert E. (Tempe, AZ)

1990-01-01

301

HIV/AIDS and Pediatric AIDS. The Arc Q & A.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This fact sheet uses a question-and-answer format to summarize what is known about HIV/AIDS (Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) and pediatric AIDS and applies this information to children in school settings. Questions and answers address the following topics: what the AIDS disease and HIV infection are; estimates

Kowalski, Jo Anne T.

302

Healthy Aid? Preliminary Results on Health Aid Effectiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is considerable theoretical debate over if and when development aid can be effective, but cross-sectional quantitative analyses have been relatively inconclusive. Using new foreign aid data, we focus on development projects specifically designed to improve the health of recipient country populations to see if these projects have positive impacts on the health sector. If health aid is effective, it

Nathaniel Gebhard; Ashley Anne Mitchell; Daniel Nielson; Sven Wilson

2008-01-01

303

HIV\\/AIDS in Nigeria: a bibliometric analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Nigeria is home to more people living with HIV than any other country in the world, except South Africa and India-where an estimated 2.9 million [1.7 million 4.2 million] people were living with the virus in 2005. A systematic assessment of recent HIV\\/AIDS research output from Nigeria is not available. Without objective information about the current deficiencies and

Olalekan A Uthman

2008-01-01

304

Ensuring Accuracy of the Pediatric Hearing Aid Fitting  

PubMed Central

Considerable effort has recently been dedicated towards early detection of hearing loss in infants. The goal is to subsequently fit hearing aids to hearing-impaired infants so that they can develop speech and language as early and as well as possible. The responsibility of the audiologist is to provide the child with the optimal amplification from the hearing aid. This paper gives an overview of aspects involved in correctly assessing the hearing loss and optimally fitting and verifying the performance of the child's hearing aids. Special emphasis is directed towards differences that exist between children and adults, and how these differences can be considered during a pediatric fitting. We suggest a stringent terminology that can help avoid ambiguous terms and connotations in the child's domain which are derived from those that have become established in adult audiometry and hearing aid fittings. The quantification of hearing thresholds and their appropriate representation is reviewed. An appropriate threshold-based prescription of gain or output of the hearing aid is described. Issues of verification and the actual programming of the hearing aid are discussed. PMID:15004645

Marcoux, Andr; Hansen, Martin

2003-01-01

305

Hearing Aids and Cell Phones  

MedlinePLUS

... Products and Devices to Improve Hearing Links Hearing Aids and Cell Phones What is that buzzing noise ... in my cell phone? People who wear hearing aids or have implanted hearing devices may experience some ...

306

AIDS Education for the Workplace.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sun Life in Wellesley, Massachusetts, has an ongoing education program about acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) that provides employees with facts and works to change attitudes about the implications of AIDS for the workplace. (SK)

Mello, Jeffrey A.

1990-01-01

307

AIDS as a Handicapping Condition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article examines disability issues in terms of implications for people with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Public health issues are analyzed, including protective actions, criminal sanctions, confidentiality and blood testing, and liability related to AIDS. (Author/CL)

Mental Disability Law Reporter, 1985

1985-01-01

308

Depression and HIV/AIDS  

MedlinePLUS

... see the NIMH booklet on Depression . What is HIV/AIDS? Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus ... they can function normally. How are depression and HIV/AIDS linked? Studies show that people who are ...

309

14 CFR 1261.102 - Maximum amount.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Maximum amount. 1261.102 Section 1261.102 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND... Employees' Personal Property Claims 1261.102 Maximum amount. From October 1, 1982,...

2010-01-01

310

Beamforming with a Maximum Negentropy Kenichi Kumatani, John McDonough, Barbara Rauch, Dietrich Klakow,  

E-print Network

far-field sensors, in a realistic acoustic environment, and spoken by real speakers. On the MC the active weight vectors of the GSC so as to obtain an output signal with maximum negentropy (MN beamforming algorithms. We demonstrate this fact through a set of acoustic simulations. More- over, we show

Garner, Philip N.

311

Sequentially controlled distributed solar-array power system with maximum power tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presented herein is the sequentially controlled distributed solar-array power system with maximum power tracking (MPT). The power system controller sequentially activates sufficient solar-array sourced dc-dc converter power-processing channels, of which paralleled-outputs supply power to a common load. A \\

Kasemsan Siri; Kenneth A. Conner

2004-01-01

312

Lifetest of the High Output Maximum Efficiency Resonator (HOMER) Laser for the SAFFIRE Instrument on NASA's DESDynI Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We update the status of a diode-pumped, Nd:YAG oscillator that is the prototype laser for NASA's DESDynI mission. After completing TRL-6 testing, this laser has fired over 5.5 billion shots in lifetesting.

Stysley, Paul R.; Coyle, D. Barry; Kay, Richard B.; Frederickson, Robert; Poulios, Demetrios; Blair, Bryan; Scott, Stan; Arnold, Ed

2011-01-01

313

Maximum Urban Heat Island Intensity in Seoul  

Microsoft Academic Search

The maximum urban heat island (UHI) intensity in Seoul, Korea, is investigated using data measured at two meteorological observatories (an urban site and a rural site) during the period of 1973-96. The average maximum UHI is weakest in summer and is strong in autumn and winter. Similar to previous studies for other cities, the maximum UHI intensity is more frequently

Yeon-Hee Kim; Jong-Jin Baik

2002-01-01

314

HYDROMETEOROLOGICAL REPORT NO. 39 PROBABLE MAXIMUM PRECIPITATION"  

E-print Network

HYDROMETEOROLOGICAL REPORT NO. 39 PROBABLE MAXIMUM PRECIPITATION" IN THE HAWAllAN ISLANDS LOAN COPY (Nos. 6-22 Numbered Retroactively) *No: 1. Maximum possible precipitation over the Ompompanoos~c Basin above Union Villag~, Vt. 1943. *No. 2. Maximum possible precipitation over'the Ohio River-Basin above

315

Psychiatric Aide II. Instructor's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This instructor's guide is for a Psychiatric Aide II course intended to provide Psychiatric Aids Is who have demonstrated expertise in giving basic nursing care to the mentally ill with more advanced nursing interventions and techniques. (It is assumed that all nursing care the aides provide is under the direction of a Registered Nurse.)

Heimericks, Belinda K.

316

Women and HIV/AIDS  

MedlinePLUS

Home > HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS This information in Spanish ( en espaol ) The human immunodeficiency (IH-myoo-noh-di-FISH-uhn-see) virus, or HIV, is a sexually transmitted infection and causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or AIDS. Today, about one in four Americans ...

317

Nurse's Aides in Nursing Homes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nurse's aides, primarily women, provide the majority of care to residents, primarily older women, in nursing homes. This pilot study deals with an understudied area: characteristics and perceptions of nurse's aides. The data in this exploratory study are drawn from extensive semi-structured interviews with 27 randomly selected nurse's aides in three skilled care nursing homes in central Arkansas. The study

Susan O. Mercer; Patricia Heacock; Cornelia Beck

1994-01-01

318

Financial Aid's New Playing Field.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The decline of aid-blind college admissions, therefore of a "level playing field," complicates both admissions and financial aid processes. Institutions will have to revise recruitment procedures to bring in the best students. Financial aid will be one element in those procedures, depending on the relative wealth of the institution. (MSE)

Chace, William M.

1994-01-01

319

Educational Aids for Visually Handicapped.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Listings specifying source and cost are provided of tactile aids and materials designed for the visually handicapped. Items are presented in the following categories: supply sources and catalogs for aids; braille devices, including duplicators, reading and writing aids, reading readiness materials, and writing machines, slates, and styluses; deaf

American Printing House for the Blind, Louisville, KY.

320

Foreign Aid and Policy Concessions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We model foreign-aid-for-policy deals, assuming that leaders want to maximize their time in office. Their actions are shaped by two political institutions, their selectorate and winning coalition. Leaders who depend on a large coalition, a relatively small selectorate, and who extract valuable policy concessions from prospective recipients are likely to give aid. Prospective recipients are likely to get aid if

Bruce Bueno de Mesquita; Alastair Smith

2007-01-01

321

AIDS Counseling: A Psychosocial Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Psychosocial Counseling Model which organizes into five phases the major psychosocial issues encountered by homosexual and bisexual clients with AIDS: (1) overcoming the initial fear of AIDS; (2) redefining relationships; (3) modifying lifestyles; (4) re-evaluating life's meaning; and (5)

Allers, Christopher Tait; Katrin, Susan Ellen

1988-01-01

322

AIDS: Scientific or Viral Catastrophe?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scientists have not been able to ascertain how HIV causes AIDS, despite more than $100 billion spent on AIDS research and treatment by US taxpayers alone. Predictions about the course of the epidemic have proved inaccurate. While millions are said to be infected and dying in Africa, AIDS deaths have fallen in Europe and the USA and now total fewer

NEVILLE HODGKINSON

2003-01-01

323

EGRAM- ECHELLE SPECTROGRAPH DESIGN AID  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

EGRAM aids in the design of spectrographic systems that utilize an echelle-first order cross disperser combination. This optical combination causes a two dimensional echellogram to fall on a detector. EGRAM describes the echellogram with enough detail to allow the user to effectively judge the feasibility of the spectrograph's design. By iteratively altering system parameters, the desired echellogram can be achieved without making a physical model. EGRAM calculates system parameters which are accurate to the first order and compare favorably to results from ray tracing techniques. The spectrographic system modelled by EGRAM consists of an entrance aperture, collimator, echelle, cross dispersion grating, focusing options, and a detector. The system is assumed to be free of aberrations and the echelle, cross disperser, and detector should be planar. The EGRAM program is menu driven and has a HELP facility. The user is prompted for information such as minimum and maximum wavelengths, slit dimensions, ruling frequencies, detector geometry, and angle of incidence. EGRAM calculates the resolving power and range of order numbers covered by the echellogram. A numerical map is also produced. This tabulates the order number, slit bandpass, and high/middle/low wavelengths. EGRAM can also compute the centroid coordinates of a specific wavelength and order (or vice versa). EGRAM is written for interactive execution and is written in Microsoft BASIC A. It has been implemented on an IBM PC series computer operating under DOS. EGRAM was developed in 1985.

Dantzler, A. A.

1994-01-01

324

World AIDs Day Map  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Lex Talkington Design, Inc. this visually stimulating and engaging website takes visitors into the AIDS pandemic and how it has affected children throughout the developing world. After a brief introduction, visitors will be presented with a rotating series of images that profile different children from Thailand, India, Kenya, and a host of other places. Upon clicking each icon, visitors can then read short narratives about young people like Fred in Uganda, who at age eight became the primary caregiver for his younger brother after his parents both succumbed to AIDS. All told, the site contains over two dozen profiles that offer unique, albeit troubling, portraits of the struggles faced by young people who are coping with the increasingly widespread effects of this disease.

325

Automatic Circumference Measurement for Aiding in the Estimation of Maximum Voluntary  

E-print Network

(MVC) in EMG Systems James A.R. Cannan and Huosheng Hu University of Essex, Wivenhoe Park, Colchester Voluntary Contraction(MVC) is frequently used in human machine muscle interfaces, especially the ones using Elec- tromyography(EMG) and Acousticmyography(AMG). In some cases MVC alone is enough to adapt a system

Hu, Huosheng

326

Directional Hearing Aid  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hearing-aid device indicates visually whether sound is coming from left, right, back, or front. Device intended to assist individuals who are deaf in at least one ear and unable to discern naturally directions to sources of sound. Device promotes safety in street traffic, on loading docks, and in presence of sirens, alarms, and other warning sounds. Quadraphonic version of device built into pair of eyeglasses and binaural version built into visor.

Jhabvala, M.; Lin, H. C.

1989-01-01

327

The AIDS epidemic.  

PubMed

AIDS epidemic began about 15 years ago; since then, the number of new cases have increased over time. By the end of 1994, 1,025,073 AIDS cases had been reported to the WHO, with a 20% increase in the number of cases since December 1993. As is now evident that the majority of cases occur in developing countries, under-diagnosis, under-reporting and delays in reporting explain the big difference existing between reported and estimated AIDS cases, giving a 4.5 million cumulative AIDS cases worldwide, as of late 1994. In the industrialized countries, the spread of HIV infection began in the late 1970's or early 1980's among homosexual men and IVDU's. Heterosexual transmission was, at first, very limited, though recent data has shown an increase in its diffusion. On the contrary, in Sub-Saharan Africa and the Caribbean, transmission was almost exclusively heterosexual. High rates of infection among young women led to a corresponding increase of perinatal transmission, infecting more than 1.5 million children since the beginning of the pandemic. The estimated number of HIV infections worldwide, as of late 1994, is of 17 millions. Thus, even if some evidence indicates a possible decline of the pandemic in industrialized countries over the next few years, probably because heterosexual transmission was less common, developing countries appear to present an increasing number of HIV infections in young people and, consequently, in children. The real impact of such an epidemic is stressed by the fact that HIV is becoming the leading cause of death among, young people, both in industrialized and developing countries.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7552938

Galli, M; Santambrogio, S

1995-09-01

328

Aide alimentaire et politique des prix craliers en Rpublique islamique de Mauritanie  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyses the market for cereals in Mauritania and uses a cereals market model (MAURAZD) to show that optimal allocation of aid can promote domestic cereals output growth.Two major issues arise from the analysis of the cereals market in 198081. The first question at stake concerns the large-scale distribution on a short-term basis of food aid sold at a

Frdric Martin

1983-01-01

329

AIDS and Africa. Introduction.  

PubMed

Sub-Saharan Africa is the epicenter of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, and in this issue of the Journal, seven authors discuss the moral, social and medical implications of having 70% of those stricken living in this area. Anton A. van Niekerk considers complexities of plague in this region (poverty, denial, poor leadership, illiteracy, women's vulnerability, and disenchantment of intimacy) and the importance of finding responses that empower its people. Solomon Benatar reinforces these issues, but also discusses the role of global politics in sub-Saharan Africa, especially discrimination, imperialism and its exploitation by first world countries. Given the public health crisis, Udo Schklenk and Richard E. Ashcroft defend compulsory licensing of essential HIV/AIDS medications on consequentialist grounds. Keymanthri Moodley discusses the importance of conducting research and the need to understand a moderate form of communitarianism, also referred to as "ubuntu" or "communalism", to help some Africans understand research as an altruistic endeavour. Godfrey B. Tangwa also defends traditional African values of empathy and ubuntu, discussing how they should be enlisted to fight this pandemic. Loretta M. Kopelman criticizes the tendency among those outside Africa to dismiss the HIV/AIDS pandemic, attributing one source to the ubiquitous and misguided punishment theory of disease. The authors conclude that good solutions must be cooperative ventures among countries within and outside of sub-Saharan Africa with far more support from wealthy countries. PMID:11961693

Kopelman, Loretta M; van Niekerk, Anton A

2002-04-01

330

HIV and AIDS  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Science Inside: HIV and AIDSThis booklet helps to explain what doctors and scientists know about the HIV and AIDS epidemic. It summarizes what HIV and AIDS are and what happens when HIV becomes AIDS, including the health problems that can result. The e-book explains how the diseases are spread, what groups suffer most from them, how they may be prevented, how they are treated, and what the latest research reveals.The Science Inside e-book series is intended to be a bridge between the consumer health brochure and the scientific paper, the booklets in this series focus on the science that is inside of, or behind, the disease its cause, its possible cure, its treatment, promising research, and so on. These booklets are designed to appeal to people who have not had the opportunity to study the science and to understand why they may have been given some of the advice that they have been given through some of the more consumer-oriented materials.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (;)

2004-01-01

331

UFO - The Universal FeynRules Output  

E-print Network

We present a new model format for automatized matrix-element generators, the so- called Universal FeynRules Output (UFO). The format is universal in the sense that it features compatibility with more than one single generator and is designed to be flexible, modular and agnostic of any assumption such as the number of particles or the color and Lorentz structures appearing in the interaction vertices. Unlike other model formats where text files need to be parsed, the information on the model is encoded into a Python module that can easily be linked to other computer codes. We then describe an interface for the Mathematica package FeynRules that allows for an automatic output of models in the UFO format.

Degrande, Cline; Fuks, Benjamin; Grellscheid, David; Mattelaer, Olivier; Reiter, Thomas

2011-01-01

332

UFO - The Universal FeynRules Output  

E-print Network

We present a new model format for automatized matrix-element generators, the so- called Universal FeynRules Output (UFO). The format is universal in the sense that it features compatibility with more than one single generator and is designed to be flexible, modular and agnostic of any assumption such as the number of particles or the color and Lorentz structures appearing in the interaction vertices. Unlike other model formats where text files need to be parsed, the information on the model is encoded into a Python module that can easily be linked to other computer codes. We then describe an interface for the Mathematica package FeynRules that allows for an automatic output of models in the UFO format.

Cline Degrande; Claude Duhr; Benjamin Fuks; David Grellscheid; Olivier Mattelaer; Thomas Reiter

2011-08-09

333

Spacelab output processing system architectural study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two different system architectures are presented. The two architectures are derived from two different data flows within the Spacelab Output Processing System. The major differences between these system architectures are in the position of the decommutation function (the first architecture performs decommutation in the latter half of the system and the second architecture performs that function in the front end of the system). In order to be examined, the system was divided into five stand-alone subsystems; Work Assembler, Mass Storage System, Output Processor, Peripheral Pool, and Resource Monitor. The work load of each subsystem was estimated independent of the specific devices to be used. The candidate devices were surveyed from a wide sampling of off-the-shelf devices. Analytical expressions were developed to quantify the projected workload in conjunction with typical devices which would adequately handle the subsystem tasks. All of the study efforts were then directed toward preparing performance and cost curves for each architecture subsystem.

1977-01-01

334

ARMA parameter estimation using only output cumulants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several algorithms are developed to estimate the parameters of a causal nonminimum-phase autoregressive moving average (ARMA) (p,q) system which is excited by an unobservable independently identically distributed non-Gaussian process. The output is contaminated by additive colored Gaussian noise of unknown power spectral density. A fundamental result is presented pertaining to the identifiability of AR parameters, based on the Yule-Walker equations

ANANTHRAM SWAMI; JERRY M. MENDEL

1990-01-01

335

Bipolar magnetotransistor sensor with digital output  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reported CMOS microsystem with digital output is a key element for accurate magnetic measurements. The integrated system includes a magnetic microsensor - double-collector lateral bipolar magnetotransistor and signal conditioning CMOS circuitry. The imbalance in collector currents is compensated by the change of resistance of collector load in the control circuit of an "?-ladder". The chip is fabricated in a generic 2-?m CMOS process and covers an area of 2.6 3.2 mm 2.

Tikhonov, R. D.

2010-11-01

336

Why is Chinese provincial output diverging?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a recent paper Pedroni and Yao (2006) present strong evidence suggesting that Chinese provincial per-capita output is diverging, a result that goes against the Chinese governments goal of a balanced wealth-creation across provinces. This paper provides an in-depth analysis of the reasoning behind this finding. Our main result is that the divergence does exist, even when new data and

Joakim Westerlundy; David L. Edgerton; Sonja Opper

2010-01-01

337

Generalized Input-Output Inequality Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper two types of generalized Leontief input-output inequality systems are introduced. The minimax properties for\\u000a a class of functions associated with the\\u000a inequalities are studied. Sufficient and necessary conditions for the inequality systems to have solutions are obtained in\\u000a terms of the minimax value. Stability analysis for the solution set is provided in terms of upper semi-continuity and

Yingfan Liu; Qinghong Zhang

2006-01-01

338

Extreme inputs/outputs for multiple input multiple output linear systems.  

SciTech Connect

A linear structure is excited at multiple points with a stationary normal random process. The response of the structure is measured at multiple outputs. If the auto spectral densities of the inputs are specified, the phase relationships between the inputs are derived that will minimize or maximize the trace of the auto spectral density matrix of the outputs. If the autospectral densities of the outputs are specified, the phase relationships between the outputs that will minimize or maximize the trace of the input auto spectral density matrix are derived. It is shown that other phase relationships and ordinary coherence less than one will result in a trace intermediate between these extremes. Least favorable response and some classes of critical response are special cases of the development. It is shown that the derivation for stationary random waveforms can also be applied to nonstationary random, transients, and deterministic waveforms.

Smallwood, David Ora

2005-09-01

339

A primer on financial aid.  

PubMed

It is apparent that financial aid is a complicated, ever-changing business. The information provided in this article is only the tip of the financial aid iceberg. As student debt levels continue to increase, I encourage deans to work cooperatively with their financial aid officers. Invite your financial aid officers to participate in orientation and other pre- and post-admission activities, help facilitate effective entrance and exist interviews, and encourage financial aid officers to meet and work with your students on a frequent basis. I also strongly encourage you to support their participation in national meetings such as the Professional Development Conference (PDC) for Health Professionals (which AADS cosponsors with the AAMC) and the National Association of Student Financial Aid Officers (NASFAA). Participation in annual conferences is an important way for financial aid officers to network with other officers and to learn about important new legislation. PMID:9655075

Wells, A

1998-05-01

340

Novel maximum-margin training algorithms for supervised neural networks.  

PubMed

This paper proposes three novel training methods, two of them based on the backpropagation approach and a third one based on information theory for multilayer perceptron (MLP) binary classifiers. Both backpropagation methods are based on the maximal-margin (MM) principle. The first one, based on the gradient descent with adaptive learning rate algorithm (GDX) and named maximum-margin GDX (MMGDX), directly increases the margin of the MLP output-layer hyperplane. The proposed method jointly optimizes both MLP layers in a single process, backpropagating the gradient of an MM-based objective function, through the output and hidden layers, in order to create a hidden-layer space that enables a higher margin for the output-layer hyperplane, avoiding the testing of many arbitrary kernels, as occurs in case of support vector machine (SVM) training. The proposed MM-based objective function aims to stretch out the margin to its limit. An objective function based on Lp-norm is also proposed in order to take into account the idea of support vectors, however, overcoming the complexity involved in solving a constrained optimization problem, usually in SVM training. In fact, all the training methods proposed in this paper have time and space complexities O(N) while usual SVM training methods have time complexity O(N (3)) and space complexity O(N (2)) , where N is the training-data-set size. The second approach, named minimization of interclass interference (MICI), has an objective function inspired on the Fisher discriminant analysis. Such algorithm aims to create an MLP hidden output where the patterns have a desirable statistical distribution. In both training methods, the maximum area under ROC curve (AUC) is applied as stop criterion. The third approach offers a robust training framework able to take the best of each proposed training method. The main idea is to compose a neural model by using neurons extracted from three other neural networks, each one previously trained by MICI, MMGDX, and Levenberg-Marquard (LM), respectively. The resulting neural network was named assembled neural network (ASNN). Benchmark data sets of real-world problems have been used in experiments that enable a comparison with other state-of-the-art classifiers. The results provide evidence of the effectiveness of our methods regarding accuracy, AUC, and balanced error rate. PMID:20409990

Ludwig, Oswaldo; Nunes, Urbano

2010-06-01

341

Is the European Commissions recent interpretation of Article 107 (3)(b) a departure from established State aid policy on the financial sector?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chapter 3.5 The Credit Lyonnais Application To limit the economic damage of State aid the Commission stated that the aid should be proportional to the objectives in question and the amount of aid should be limited to the strict minimum needed for restructuring so that the recipient company itself makes a maximum contribution to the recovery plan This complies with

Eoin Pentony

2010-01-01

342

Variations in power output of the Piezon-Master 400 ultrasonic endodontic unit.  

PubMed

The present study was undertaken to see if there was any variability in the power output of Piezon-Master 400 ultrasonic files when driven using different generators, tranducers and file holders. The displacement amplitude of the oscillating tip of the file in air was used as a measure of the power output. The results showed that there was considerable variability in the power output of Piezon-Master 400 ultrasonic files of similar size and length when driven using different generators, transducers and file holders. In consideration of this, it is recommended that a calibration device be incorporated in the ultrasonic unit so that the operator will have some knowledge of when the unit is working at its maximum efficiency. PMID:7806408

Ahmad, M; Roy, R A; Kamarudin, A G

1994-01-01

343

Laser safety evaluation and output measurements for the VITAL -2 Variable Intensity Tactical Aiming Light (laser) used with the Proforce M-4 system in force-on-force exercises.  

SciTech Connect

A laser safety hazard evaluation and pertinent output measurements were performed (June 2003 through August 2003) on several VITAL-2 Variable Intensity Tactical Aiming Light--infrared laser, associated with the Proforce M-4 system used in force-on-force exercises. The VITAL-2 contains two diode lasers presenting 'Extended Source' viewing out to a range on the order of 1.3 meters before reverting to a 'Small Source' viewing hazard. Laser hazard evaluation was performed in concert with the ANSI Std. Z136.1-2000 for the safe use of lasers and the ANSI Std. Z136.6-2000 for the safe use of lasers outdoors. The results of the laser hazard analysis for the VITAL-2, indicates that this Tactical Aiming IR laser presents a Class 1 laser hazard to personnel in the area of use. Field measurements performed on 71 units confirmed that the radiant outputs were at all times below the Allowable Emission Limit and that the irradiance of the laser spot was at all locations below the Maximum Exposure Limit. This system is eye-safe and it may be used under current SNL policy in force-on-force exercises. The VITAL-2 Variable Intensity Tactical Aiming Light does not present a laser hazard greater than Class 1, to aided viewing with binoculars.

Augustoni, Arnold L.

2004-02-01

344

[No remedy for AIDS?].  

PubMed

Vila Mimosa, a site of street prostitution in Rio de Janeiro since the 1930s, is the place of work for over 2000 prostitution who charge an average of $3-4 per client. Several years ago the Association of Prostitutes of Rio de Janeiro (APRJ) was founded by Eunice Coelho Reis. APRJ membership has increased steadily and its list of accomplishments is impressive. A state hospital performs free medical examinations of APRJ members, and the Brazilian family planning association BEMFAM provides 180,000 condoms each month. AIDS control projects have also been successful, and no APRJ members have contracted HIV infection. In the country with the 4th highest rate of infection, the rigid norm of condom use adopted by the prostitutes of Vila Mimosa has led to effective prevention of sexually transmitted diseases. The prostitutes report however that a large proportion of their clients resist condom use, sometimes violently. The proportion of seropositive individuals who are women has been rising steadily. Family Health International estimates that the proportion of new cases among women has risen from 25% in 1990 to 40% at present. AIDS prevention campaigns are attempting to persuade women to "negotiate" condom use during sex. But power relations between the sexes place women at a disadvantage. Men often make the sexual decisions. Socialization patterns of females in Latin America are oriented to maternity. Passive sexual behavior has become a primary obstacle to adoption of safer sex practices. The World Health Organization estimates that currently 9-11 million persons are latent carriers of the HIV virus. Prostitution originating in poverty and unemployment, the vulnerability of adolescents who begin their sexual lives with little knowledge of contraception or sexually transmitted diseases, and the lack of sex education that transcends the biological to consider interpersonal relations are all factors that hinder AIDS prevention. PMID:12178192

Ramirez, M M

1993-01-01

345

2-m high-brilliance micro-cavity VECSEL with >2W output power  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents recent advances of 2-?m GaSb-based vertical external cavity surface emitting laser (VECSEL) with special emphasis on quantum deficit reduction and miniaturization. Operating the VECSEL in a 5-cm long cavity, we could demonstrate an increase in maximum cw output power from 4.2 W to 7.2 W at room temperature when barrier pumping a 2.0-?m emitting VECSEL at a pump wavelength of 1.5 ?m instead of 980 nm. Furthermore, miniaturized VECSELs were realized by depositing a high-reflectivity (~97 %) coating on top of a 375-?m thick SiC heat spreader, which acts as output coupler of the micro cavity (?C) formed. This planar cavity is rendered stable by thermal lensing induced by the absorption of pump light. At the same time, thermal lensing influences the beam quality. We will report a detailed study of the influence of the thermal lens on the stability and beam diameter of the ?C-VECSEL by using two different VECSEL structures optimized for 980 nm and 1.5 ?m barrier pumping, respectively. Using different pump photon energies results in different amounts of heat generated at a given pump photon flux, and thus thermal lenses with different focal lengths. Using the low-quantum deficit pumping scheme we could achieve a factor-7 increase in output power in TEM00 emission from the ?C-VECSEL compared to the 980 nm pumped device, as well as a maximum output power of 2.2 W. This 2-?m ?C-VECSEL exhibits 110-nm tunable single-frequency emission at a 7-MHz linewidth at an output power of up to 90 mW. The linewidth of the ?C-VECSEL is comparable to that of VCSELs, which typically emit output powers in the milli-Watt range.

Kaspar, Sebastian; Rattunde, Marcel; Holl, Peter; Adler, Steffen; Schilling, Christian; Bchle, Andreas; Manz, Christian; Aidam, Rolf; Khler, Klaus; Wagner, Joachim

2014-03-01

346

Migration and AIDS.  

PubMed

A successful short-term solution to transmission of AIDS in Western Africa by migrants involves provision of accessible and acceptable basic health and social services to migrants at their destination. The aim is to establish a sense of security and community, which is a health requirement. When migrants are excluded from community life or victimized as carriers of HIV infections, they will be driven by basic survival needs and dysfunctional social organization, which results in the rapid spread of HIV. Closing borders and mass deportation may not be an option. The long-term solution is population policy, environmental protection, and economic development. The focus on mapping the spread of AIDS must shift to a consideration of the migrant social conditions that make them vulnerable to AIDS. The issue of migration and AIDS will be addressed at the First European Conference on Tropical Medicine in October 1995 in Hamburg, Germany. In Uganda, HIV seroprevalence rates ranged from 5.5% among the stable population to 12.4% among internal migrants moving between villages to 16.3% among migrants from other areas. A World Bank project is operating in Western Africa, which traces seasonal male migration from the Cameroon to Liberia, Senegal to Nigeria, and from the Sahel to the coast during dry seasons. National border rules may influence the routes but not the extent of migration. A major destination place is Cote d' Ivoire, which has 25% of total population comprised of migrants from other countries and one of the highest HIV prevalence rates in Western Africa. On plantations prostitutes are brought in. Each prostitute serves about 25 workers. The pattern of sexual mixing contributes to the high HIV rates. Female migration is smaller and usually concentrated in prostitution at place of destination. Illiteracy and poverty drive women migrants into the trade. Their frequent health problems are malaria, pelvic pain, menstrual irregularity, vaginal discharge, and genital sores. Drugs are bought on the streets or from friends and may be of questionable efficacy. Health services may be sought upon return to the home country. PMID:7674750

Decosas, J; Kane, F; Anarfi, J K; Sodji, K D; Wagner, H U

1995-09-23

347

A CMOS 2D Micro-Fluxgate Earth Magnetic Field Sensor with Digital Output  

Microsoft Academic Search

A complete CMOS integrated microsystem for detecting the direction of the Earth's magnetic field (whose full-scale value is on the order of 60muT), realized with the micromodule approach, including both sensor and electronic interface circuit, achieves 4deg accuracy on the measured angle and provides a digital output. The system response is linear in the range of plusmn60muT with a maximum

Andrea Baschirotto; Enrico Dallago; Vincenzo Ferragina; Massimo Ferri; Marco Grassi; Piero Malcovati; Marco Marchesi; Enrico Melissano; Marco Morelli; Andrea Rossini; Stefano Ruzza; Pietro Siciliano; Giuseppe Venchi

2007-01-01

348

Grassmannian beamforming for multiple-input multiple-output wireless systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transmit beamforming and receive combining are simple methods for exploiting the significant diversity that is available in multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) wireless systems. Unfortunately, optimal performance requires either complete channel knowledge or knowledge of the optimal beam- forming vector which are not always realizable in practice. In this correspondence, a quantized maximum signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) beamforming technique is proposed where

David James Love; Robert W. Heath Jr.; Thomas Strohmer

2003-01-01

349

High output power widely tunable laser module  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed highly reliable widely tunable module, whose performances were comparable with fixed-wavelength DFB laser module. To realize wide tunability, 12 l/4-shifted DFB laser array, S-bend waveguides, MMI coupler and an SOA were integrated on a chip. We could achieve 37nm tunability by controlling each chip temperature in the range of 5 to 45C. High output fiber coupled power of 30mW and very uniform L-I curves out of 12 DFB lasers were achieved even at 50C. Good quality of lasing spectrum was obtained. Side mode suppression ratio (SMSR) > 45dB. The well-suppressed reflection at chip front facet contributed to the lower noise characteristics, such as RIN < -140dB/Hz and linewidth < 4MHz. The shift of locked frequency was less than 0.4GHz as the case temperature varied from -5 to 75C. Very small frequency shift was realized by controlling the temperature of locker part, independently. By optimizing TEC design, we could achieve low TEC power consumption less than 4W under Tcase=75C and the end of life condition of SOA current. The new function by incorporating SOA was VOA. By changing the operating SOA current, we could vary output power from 1mW to 20mW, maintaining SMSR > 40dB, RIN < -135dB/Hz, linewidth < 4MHz. We also performed optical blocking > 40dB, when SOA current was turned off. We examined modules reliability under high temperature storage of 85C. The change of output power was < +/- 10%, and the shift of locked frequency was < +/- 5pm after 2000 hours.

Mukaihara, Toshikazu; Kurobe, Tatsuro; Kimoto, Tatsuya; Shinagawa, Tatsuyuki; Nishita, Masayoshi; Kasukawa, Akihiko

2004-10-01

350

Input and output constraints affecting irrigation development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many of the developing countries the expansion of irrigated agriculture is used as a major development tool for bringing about increases in agricultural output, rural economic growth and income distribution. Apart from constraints imposed by water availability, the major limitations considered to any acceleration of such programs are usually thought to be those of costs and financial resources. However, as is shown on the basis of empirical data drawn from Mexico, in reality the feasibility and effectiveness of such development programs is even more constrained by the lack of specialized physical and human factors on the input and market limitations on the output side. On the input side, the limited availability of complementary factors such as, for example, truly functioning credit systems for small-scale farmers or effective agricultural extension services impose long-term constraints on development. On the output side the limited availability, high risk, and relatively slow growth of markets for high-value crops sharply reduce the usually hoped-for and projected profitable crop mix that would warrant the frequently high costs of irrigation investments. Three conclusions are drawn: (1) Factors in limited supply have to be shadow-priced to reflect their high opportunity costs in alternative uses. (2) Re-allocation of financial resources from immediate construction of projects to longer-term increase in the supply of scarce, highly-trained manpower resources are necessary in order to optimize development over time. (3) Inclusion of high-value, high-income producing crops in the benefit-cost analysis of new projects is inappropriate if these crops could potentially be grown in already existing projects.

Schramm, G.

1981-05-01

351

[Effect of Cu2+ on the power output of dual-chamber microbial fuel cell].  

PubMed

After addition of Cu2+ into the anodic and/or cathodic chamber, the effect of Cu2+ on the internal resistance and its distribution, power output and coulombic efficiency of dual-chamber microbial fuel cell (MFC) was investigated in this manuscript with the aid of analyzing the distribution of copper speciation. It could provide helpful information for correlative research on treatment of copper-containing wastewater by MFC. It showed that the addition of 10 mg x L(-1) Cu2+ into the anodic chamber inhibited the microbial activity, and increased the anodic activation resistance as well as the apparent internal resistance, consequently reduced the power output and coulombic efficiency of the system. However, the addition of 500 mg x L(-1) Cu2+ into the cathodic chamber significantly reduced the cathodic activation resistance as well as the apparent internal resistance, while improved the power output and the coulombic efficiency. Cu2+ in the anodic chamber was not transfered into the cathodic chamber. When adding Cu2+ into the cathodic chamber, it was mainly reduced and deposited on the cathodic chamber. It could also be transferred/diffused to the anodic chamber across the proton exchange membrane (2.8%) because of its concentration difference, thus affecting the microbial activity and power output. Only a small amount of Cu2+ remained in the supernatant of the cathodic chamber at the end of experiment. PMID:25244870

Mu, Shu-Jun; Li, Xiu-Fen; Ren, Yue-Ping; Wang, Xin-Hua

2014-07-01

352

Monte Carlo simulation of the effect of miniphantom on in-air output ratio  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The aim of the study was to quantify the effect of miniphantoms on in-air output ratio measurements, i.e., to determine correction factors for in-air output ratio. Methods: Monte Carlo (MC) simulations were performed to simulate in-air output ratio measurements by using miniphantoms made of various materials (PMMA, graphite, copper, brass, and lead) and with different longitudinal thicknesses or depths (2-30 g/cm{sup 2}) in photon beams of 6 and 15 MV, respectively, and with collimator settings ranging from 3x3 to 40x40 cm{sup 2}. EGSnrc and BEAMnrc (2007) software packages were used. Photon energy spectra corresponding to the collimator settings were obtained from BEAMnrc code simulations on a linear accelerator and were used to quantify the components of in-air output ratio correction factors, i.e., attenuation, mass energy absorption, and phantom scatter correction factors. In-air output ratio correction factors as functions of miniphantom material, miniphantom longitudinal thickness, and collimator setting were calculated and compared to a previous experimental study. Results: The in-air output ratio correction factors increase with collimator opening and miniphantom longitudinal thickness for all the materials and for both energies. At small longitudinal thicknesses, the in-air output ratio correction factors for PMMA and graphite are close to 1. The maximum magnitudes of the in-air output ratio correction factors occur at the largest collimator setting (40x40 cm{sup 2}) and the largest miniphantom longitudinal thickness (30 g/cm{sup 2}): 1.008{+-}0.001 for 6 MV and 1.012{+-}0.001 for 15 MV, respectively. The MC simulations of the in-air output ratio correction factor confirm the previous experimental study. Conclusions: The study has verified that a correction factor for in-air output ratio can be obtained as a product of attenuation correction factor, mass energy absorption correction factor, and phantom scatter correction factor. The correction factors obtained in the present study can be used in studies involving in-air output ratio measurements using miniphantoms.

Li Jun; Zhu, Timothy C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19107 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States)

2010-10-15

353

Uncertainties in predicting solar panel power output  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problem of calculating solar panel power output at launch and during a space mission is considered. The major sources of uncertainty and error in predicting the post launch electrical performance of the panel are considered. A general discussion of error analysis is given. Examples of uncertainty calculations are included. A general method of calculating the effect on the panel of various degrading environments is presented, with references supplied for specific methods. A technique for sizing a solar panel for a required mission power profile is developed.

Anspaugh, B.

1974-01-01

354

New observations of scintillation climatology from the Scintillation Network Decision Aid (SCINDA)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Scintillation Network Decision Aid (SCINDA) was established with three ground sites in the mid-1990's by the Air Force Research Laboratory and has continued to grow into a global scintillation observation network. This system consists of an array of VHF and GPS receivers which continually measure scintillation in the equatorial region. In the past few years, the extended network of ground stations has expanded into the African sector. Initial results from yearly scintillation data obtained from two VHF receivers in Narobi, Kenya and Bahir Dar, Ethiopia in 2011 indicate the presence of scintillation activity throughout the June-July -August (northern summer) season which is inconsistent with current state-of-the-art ionospheric climatology models. It is well known that seasonal equatorial scintillation patterns vary with longitude based on geographical location. For example, the scintillation activity at VHF frequencies are absent in the Pacific sector during the months of November to February while observations from South America show nearly continuous scintillation during this same time period. With little to no ground-based observations, the scintillation climatology over the African region has not been well understood. In the paper, we will present S4 measurements various longitudinal sectors, including the first look at solar maximum type conditions over the African sector, and provide comparisons with output from a global climatology model.

Su, Y.; Caton, R. G.; Wiens, K.; Groves, K. M.

2012-12-01

355

Validation of RetroPath, a computer-aided design tool for metabolic pathway engineering.  

PubMed

Metabolic engineering has succeeded in biosynthesis of numerous commodity or high value compounds. However, the choice of pathways and enzymes used for production was many times made ad hoc, or required expert knowledge of the specific biochemical reactions. In order to rationalize the process of engineering producer strains, we developed the computer-aided design (CAD) tool RetroPath that explores and enumerates metabolic pathways connecting the endogenous metabolites of a chassis cell to the target compound. To experimentally validate our tool, we constructed 12 top-ranked enzyme combinations producing the flavonoid pinocembrin, four of which displayed significant yields. Namely, our tool queried the enzymes found in metabolic databases based on their annotated and predicted activities. Next, it ranked pathways based on the predicted efficiency of the available enzymes, the toxicity of the intermediate metabolites and the calculated maximum product flux. To implement the top-ranking pathway, our procedure narrowed down a list of nine million possible enzyme combinations to 12, a number easily assembled and tested. One round of metabolic network optimization based on RetroPath output further increased pinocembrin titers 17-fold. In total, 12 out of the 13 enzymes tested in this work displayed a relative performance that was in accordance with its predicted score. These results validate the ranking function of our CAD tool, and open the way to its utilization in the biosynthesis of novel compounds. PMID:25224453

Fehr, Tams; Planson, Anne-Galle; Carbonell, Pablo; Fernndez-Castan, Alfred; Grigoras, Ioana; Dariy, Ekaterina; Perret, Alain; Faulon, Jean-Loup

2014-11-01

356

ALGEBRA: a computer program that algebraically manipulates finite element output data. [In extended FORTRAN for CDC 7600 or CYBER 76 only  

SciTech Connect

ALGEBRA is a program that allows the user to process output data from finite-element analysis codes before they are sent to plotting routines. These data take the form of variable values (stress, strain, and velocity components, etc.) on a tape that is both the output tape from the analyses code and the input tape to ALGEBRA. The ALGEBRA code evaluates functions of these data and writes the function values on an output tape that can be used as input to plotting routines. Convenient input format and error detection capabilities aid the user in providing ALGEBRA with the functions to be evaluated. 1 figure.

Richgels, M A; Biffle, J H

1980-09-01

357

Pulmonary artery thermodilution cardiac output vs. transpulmonary thermodilution cardiac output in two patients with intrathoracic pathology.  

PubMed

In two adult patients, one with a severe hemorrhage and one with a partial anomalous pulmonary vein, cardiac output (CO) measurements were performed simultaneously by means of the bolus transpulmonary thermodilution technique (COao) and continuous pulmonary artery thermodilution method (CCOpa). In both cases, the methods revealed clinically significant different cardiac output values based upon the site of measurement and the underlying pathology. The assessment of cardiac output (CO) is considered an important part of cardiovascular monitoring of the critically ill patient. Cardiac output is most commonly determined intermittently by the bolus thermodilution technique with a pulmonary artery catheter (COpa). As continuous monitoring of CO is preferable to this intermittent technique, two major techniques have been proposed. Firstly, a nearly continuous thermodilution method (CCOpa) using a heating filament mounted on a pulmonary artery catheter (Baxter Edwards Laboratories, Irvine, CA), with a clinically acceptable accuracy compared with the intermittent bolus technique. Based on these results we assumed CCOpa equivalent to real CO during hemodynamically stable conditions, and secondly, a continuous cardiac output system based on pulse contour analysis (PCCO), such as the PiCCO system (Pulsion Medical System, Munchen, Germany). To calibrate this device, which uses a derivation of the algorithm of Wesseling and colleagues, an independently obtained value of CO by the transpulmonary thermodilution method (COao) is used. Clinical validation studies in patients without underlying intrathoracic pathology, comparing transpulmonary COao with the pulmonary technique (COpa), mostly yielded good agreement. PMID:15101866

Breukers, R B G E; Jansen, J R C

2004-05-01

358

AIDS, myth, and ethics.  

PubMed

The present paper is a commentary on an article by Larry Churchill. Churchill has argued that the negative attitudes and adverse behavior we commonly encounter in connection with (suspected) AIDS patients may be understood in terms of a dualistic 'myth' inspiring a 'ritual' avoidance of 'dirt', of 'dirt' as something that does not belong to a 'clean' world order. The deep-seated mythical character of attitudes and behavior here makes them less accessible to the kind of rational argument commonly employed in ethics. Churchill also proposes a remedy for the (morally outrageous) dualistic mythical-ritual behavior he has focused - a remedy that may be overly intellectualistic. Three further comments are made: on the metaphorical meaning of 'myth', on a reductionist tendency in Churchill's 'deep'-looking project, and on an ethically crucial ambiguity in the meaning of the other person's 'otherness'. These (mildly critical) comments do not, however, detract from a positive overall evaluation of Churchill's basic idea that we will understand more about adverse attitudes and behavior in connection with AIDS if we think in terms of 'myth', 'ritual', 'dirt', and 'cleanliness'. PMID:1896953

Sundstrm, P

1991-06-01

359

On Weyl channels being covariant with respect to the maximum commutative group of unitaries  

E-print Network

We investigate the Weyl channels being covariant with respect to the maximum commutative group of unitary operators. This class includes the quantum depolarizing channel and the "two-Pauli" channel as well. Then, we show that our estimation of the output entropy for a tensor product of the phase damping channel and the identity channel based upon the decreasing property of the relative entropy allows to prove the additivity conjecture for the minimal output entropy for the quantum depolarizing channel in any prime dimesnsion and for the "two Pauli" channel in the qubit case.

G. G. Amosov

2006-05-19

360

Depression and HIV\\/AIDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

HIV\\/AIDS continues to be a significant public health problem. Millions of people worldwide are infected with this virus daily,\\u000a and thousands die yearly of AIDS-related illnesses. Despite rapid advances in our knowledge about HIV and its mode of transmission,\\u000a we have been unable to find a cure or prevent new infections. Psychiatric comorbidity is associated with HIV\\/AIDS: as a risk

Tami D. Benton

2008-01-01

361

Frequency-Shift Hearing Aid  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed hearing aid maps spectrum of speech into band of lower frequencies at which ear remains sensitive. By redirecting normal speech frequencies into frequency band from 100 to 1,500 Hz, hearing aid allows people to understand normal conversation, including telephone calls. Principle operation of hearing aid adapted to other uses such as, clearing up noisy telephone or radio communication. In addition, loud-speakers more easily understood in presence of high background noise.

Weinstein, Leonard M.

1994-01-01

362

Argumentation Theory and Decision Aiding  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The purpose of this chapter is to examine the existent and potential contribution of argumentation theory to decision aiding,\\u000a more specifically to multi-criteria decision aiding. On the one hand, decision aiding provides a general framework that can\\u000a be adapted to different contexts of decision making and a formal theory about preferences. On the other hand, argumentation\\u000a theory is a growing

Wassila Ouerdane; Nicolas Maudet; Alexis Tsoukis

363

Magnetron with axial output of radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the limiting case of a magnetron with diffraction output [1], we consider a magnetron with axial extraction of electromagnetic energy through a cylindrical waveguide joined to the resonant system. A short length of waveguide with small cross section (less than cut off for the radiated wave) is placed between the resonant system and the output waveguide to obtain the optimal Q-factor. This magnetron is very compact due to its symmetrical design, even when the magnetic system is included. Importantly, any synchronous mode can be used as the operating mode because of identical loads for all the cavities. Computer simulations of the well-known A6 magnetron geometry, using the 3D fully relativistic particle-in-cell code MAGIC, demonstrate stable operation for the 2?-type of oscillations, with radiation power of about 0.7 GW and radiation frequency of 3 GHz. Electron efficiency is about 15% when and the applied voltage is 350 kV. Application of a cathode [2] that consists of several individual longitudinal emitting strips arranged in a cylindrical geometry, provides fast start of oscillations. [1] M. Fuks and N. Kovalev, Program and abstracts of XI Int. Conf. On High Power Electromagnetics, Tel-Aviv, 1998, 23. [2] M. Fuks and E. Schamiloglu, Papers of USA-Japan Meeting on Plasma Science, Hawaii, 2004, 71-76.

Fuks, M.

2005-10-01

364

[Input and output channels of quantum biocomputers].  

PubMed

It is proposed that "Quantum Molecular" computer of a neuron consists of the cell cytoskeleton serving as calculating media and input ionic channel sending a hypersound signal to observe these media. The sound spreads through the media travelling along microtubules and microfilaments and switching between those via molecular bridges which serve as elementary switches. The whole system works like a wave guiding net connecting input ionic channels (which generate different sound signals) and output ionic channels (which are controlled by the processed sound signals). Thus the output of such systems depends on the input (controlled by synaptic activity) and on the construction and state of these calculating media. We think that the sound waves spreading through different calculating media solve different physical problems. The construction of the calculating part of the cytoskeleton, according to the hypothesis, is different in different neurons. It is defined by special protein which is produced by DNA, RNA and protein molecular word processor (during brain development and, may be, education). We comment on how the existence of an extremal computer produces an impact on physics and mathematics exemplified by the optimality principle as substitution of physical relativity principle for a complex problem. PMID:1693290

Minina, S V; Liberman, E A

1990-01-01

365

An alternative high output tissue microarray technique  

PubMed Central

Background Tissue microarray (TMA) is a high throughput research tool, which has greatly facilitated and accelerated in situ tissue analyses. However, its productivity has been restricted due to the confined thickness of traditional donor block. Here, we introduce an improved high output TMA method that is applicable to a broader range of tissue samples. Methods In this method, a 3.6 cm long and 2.7 cm wide recipient block with 88 square lattices (3 mm in width) was first prepared using several commercial instruments. A 2 mm wide and 6 mm long tissue rod was then prepared using a self-made blade-shaped knife from each paraffin embedded donor block of gastrointestinal stromal tumors. These rods were manually arrayed one by one into the corresponding lattices of the 60C pre-softened recipient block with the guide of holes drilled with a steel needle. A 70-rod TMA was made to testify this method. Results The prepared TMA had well defined array configurations, good tissue morphology and fully preserved proteins and DNA. A total of 5001000 TMA sections could be easily obtained from a TMA block. Conclusion This low-cost and time-saving method provides an alternative sampling tool for high output TMA. Virtual Slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1979605867857990 PMID:23336116

2013-01-01

366

Maximum surface charge density for triboelectric nanogenerators achieved by ionized-air injection: methodology and theoretical understanding.  

PubMed

For the maximization of the surface charge density in triboelectric nanogenerators, a new method of injecting single-polarity ions onto surfaces is introduced for the generation of surface charges. The triboelectric nanogenerator's output power gets greatly enhanced and its maximum surface charge density is systematically studied, which shows a huge room for the improvement of the output of triboelectric nanogenerators by surface modification. PMID:25146891

Wang, Sihong; Xie, Yannan; Niu, Simiao; Lin, Long; Liu, Chang; Zhou, Yu Sheng; Wang, Zhong Lin

2014-10-01

367

Inverse maximum flow and minimum cut problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we consider two inverse problems in combinatorial optimization: inverse maximum flow (IMF) problem and inverse minimum cut (IMC) problem. IMF (or IMC) problem can be described as: how to change the capacity vector C of a network as little as possible so that a given flow (or cut) becomes a maximum flow (or minimum cut) in the

C. Yang; J. Zhang; Z. Ma

1997-01-01

368

Maximum Allowable Load of Two Cooperative Manipulators  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a computational technique for determining the maximum allowable load of two cooperative manipulators for a desired trajectory of the load is presented. There are number of factors that limit the maximum allowable load of two cooperative robotic arms. With attention to configuration of cooperative manipulators with redundant actuation as a closed form chain, the most important limitation

H. Ghariblu; A. Javanmard

2010-01-01

369

Learning Markov Structure by Maximum Entropy Relaxation  

E-print Network

the maximum entropy re- laxation (MER) within an exponential fam- ily, which maximizes entropy subject to con on a set of statis- tics, the entropy-maximizing distribution among all distributions liesLearning Markov Structure by Maximum Entropy Relaxation Jason K. Johnson, Venkat Chandrasekaran

Willsky, Alan S.

370

Maximum likelihood training of probabilistic neural networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A maximum likelihood method is presented for training probabilistic neural networks (PNN's) using a Gaussian kernel, or Parzen window. The proposed training algorithm enables general nonlinear discrimination and is a generalization of Fisher's method for linear discrimination. Important features of maximum likelihood training for PNN's are: 1) it economizes the well known Parzen window estimator while preserving feedforward NN architecture,

Roy L. Streit; Tod E. Luginbuhl

1994-01-01

371

The maximum modulus of a trigonometric trinomial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let ? be a set of three integers and let \\u000a be the space of 2?-periodic functions with spectrum in ? endowed with the maximum modulus norm. We isolate the maximum modulus points x of trigonometric trinomials T ? \\u000a and prove that x is unique unless |T| has an axis of symmetry. This enables us to compute the exposed and the

Stefan Neuwirth

2008-01-01

372

Predicting Maximum Lake Depth from Surrounding Topography  

EPA Science Inventory

Lake volume aids understanding of the physical and ecological dynamics of lakes, yet is often not readily available. The data needed to calculate lake volume (i.e. bathymetry) are usually only collected on a lake by lake basis and are difficult to obtain across broad regions. ...

373

Electronic filters, signal conversion apparatus, hearing aids and methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An electronic filter for filtering an electrical signal. Signal processing circuitry therein includes a logarithmic filter having a series of filter stages with inputs and outputs in cascade and respective circuits associated with the filter stages for storing electrical representations of filter parameters. The filter stages include circuits for respectively adding the electrical representations of the filter parameters to the electrical signal to be filtered thereby producing a set of filter sum signals. At least one of the filter stages includes circuitry for producing a filter signal in substantially logarithmic form at its output by combining a filter sum signal for that filter stage with a signal from an output of another filter stage. The signal processing circuitry produces an intermediate output signal, and a multiplexer connected to the signal processing circuit multiplexes the intermediate output signal with the electrical signal to be filtered so that the logarithmic filter operates as both a logarithmic prefilter and a logarithmic postfilter. Other electronic filters, signal conversion apparatus, electroacoustic systems, hearing aids and methods are also disclosed.

Morley, Jr., Robert E. (Inventor); Engebretson, A. Maynard (Inventor); Engel, George L. (Inventor); Sullivan, Thomas J. (Inventor)

1994-01-01

374

HIV/AIDS in Nigeria: a bibliometric analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Nigeria is home to more people living with HIV than any other country in the world, except South Africa and India-where an estimated 2.9 million [1.7 million 4.2 million] people were living with the virus in 2005. A systematic assessment of recent HIV/AIDS research output from Nigeria is not available. Without objective information about the current deficiencies and strengths in the HIV research output from Nigeria, it is difficult to plan substantial improvements in HIV/AIDS research that could enhance population health. The aim of this study was to analyse the trends in Nigeria's SCI publications in HIV/AIDS from 1980 to 2006. Special attention was paid to internationally collaborated works that were identified based on the countries of the authors' affiliation. Methods A bibliometric analysis regarding Nigerian HIV/AIDS research was conducted in the ISI databases for the period of 1980 to 2006. An attempt was made to identify the patterns of the growth in HIV/AIDS literature, as well as type of document published, authorship, institutional affiliations of authors, and subject content. International collaboration was deemed to exist in an article if any co-author's affiliation was located outside Nigeria. The impact factors in the 2006 Journal Citations Reports Science Edition was arbitrarily adopted to estimate the quality of articles. Results Nigeria's ISI publications in HIV/AIDS increased from one articles in 1987 to 33 in 2006, and the articles with international collaboration increased from one articles in 1980 to 16 in 2006. Articles with international collaboration appeared in journals with higher impact factors and received more citations. A high pattern of co-authorship was found. Over 85% of the articles were published in collaboration among two or more authors. The USA, as the most important collaborating partner of Nigeria's HIV/AIDS researchers, contributed 30.8% of articles with international collaboration. Conclusion Nigeria has achieved a significant increase in the number of SCI publications and collaborations in HIV literature from 1987 to 2005. There is need to challenge the status, scientists from Nigeria should forge multiple collaborations beyond historical, political, and cultural lines to share knowledge and expertise on HIV/AIDS. PMID:18302752

Uthman, Olalekan A

2008-01-01

375

Aids and Infectious Diseases (aid) Pmp 2013 Report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The AIDS and Infectious Diseases (AID) PMP of the WFS contributed this year with a session on August 22nd to the Plenary Sessions of the International Seminars on Planetary Emergencies and Associated Meetings--46th Session: The Role of Science in the Third Millennium (Erice, 19-24 August 2013). Furthermore a workshop on August 24th was organized...

Buonaguro, Franco M.

2014-07-01

376

GNU-Aid: Intelligent computer aided instruction system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Educational applications of computer technology have been under development since the early 1960s. These applications have included scheduling courses, managing teaching aids, and grading tests. The predominant application , however, has been to use the computer as a device that interacts directly with the student. This has led to the evolution of Intelligent Computer Aided Instruction System (ICAI). This paper

Swati Deodhar

1990-01-01

377

Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood Neural Networks  

E-print Network

Input weights Output weights bias bias Positive Negative ``Forward equation'' or ``network equation order ffl Optimize network with: gradient descent (``back­ propagation'': First order derivative only­ ization error), e.g., Moody's GPE [Moody, 1992] (Akaike's FPE for regularized models) -- Gaussian prior

Nielsen, Finn ?rup

378

Bimap - a tool for computer aided modeling in chemical reaction engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computer aided modeling program is presented. It is based on a general form of the equations of change in one dimension. A specific model is derived through symbolic manipulation of the basic equations, e.g. the skipping of specific terms or expansion of detailed flux models. Consistency of the model is ensured in the model definition step. The output consists

E. E. Dieterich; G. Eigenberger

1995-01-01

379

OBJECTIVE PERCEPTUAL QUALITY ASSESSMENT FOR SELF-STEERING BINAURAL HEARING AID MICROPHONE ARRAYS  

E-print Network

OBJECTIVE PERCEPTUAL QUALITY ASSESSMENT FOR SELF-STEERING BINAURAL HEARING AID MICROPHONE ARRAYS@ant.uni-bremen.de ABSTRACT In this study a self-steering beamformer with binaural output for a head-worn microphone array a combination of a binaural beamformer [1, 2] and an automatic steering (electronic control of the look

380

The range scheduling aid  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Air Force Space Command schedules telemetry, tracking and control activities across the Air Force Satellite Control network. The Range Scheduling Aid (RSA) is a rapid prototype combining a user-friendly, portable, graphical interface with a sophisticated object-oriented database. The RSA has been a rapid prototyping effort whose purpose is to elucidate and define suitable technology for enhancing the performance of the range schedulers. Designing a system to assist schedulers in their task and using their current techniques as well as enhancements enabled by an electronic environment, has created a continuously developing model that will serve as a standard for future range scheduling systems. The RSA system is easy to use, easily ported between platforms, fast, and provides a set of tools for the scheduler that substantially increases his productivity.

Halbfinger, Eliezer M.; Smith, Barry D.

1991-01-01

381

Thailand: AIDS crisis looms.  

PubMed

Although Thailand's Ministry of Public Health has recorded slightly under 15,000 cases of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection to date, an independent team of health and medical experts has estimated that 200,000-300,000 Thais are infected. Moreover, the team has predicted that 1.6 million people--2.5% of the population--will be infected by 1995 in the absence of an aggressive, immediate prevention campaign. When AIDS 1st emerged in Thailand in the mid-1980s, it was largely restricted to homosexual prostitutes who came into contact with foreign men in gay bars. Soon, however, HIV infections was spreading rapidly among intravenous drug abusers and the infection rate among this group is currently estimated to be 45%. Another heavily affected group has been poorly paid prostitutes who work in Thailand's brothels; rates of 44-70% infectivity have been recorded among these women. Most recently, HIV infection has shown signs of entering the general population. Of the recorded cases of HIV infection in Chiang Mai, 59% involve prostitutes, 17% are workers, 6% are civil servants, 7% are students, and 2% are housewives. The sex ratio of HIV-infected persons has changed from 17 males per 1 female in 1986 to 5 males for every 1 female in 1989. Since the change in government in 1988, Thailand has stepped up AIDS education and information dissemination activities and condom use has increased by as much as 70%. Given the gravity of the situation, however, assistance from the World Bank and United Nations agencies in addition to the World Health Organization are needed. PMID:1969521

Smith, D G

1990-03-31

382

Output testing of small-arms primers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The performance of two standard primers for initiating small-caliber ammunition are compared to that of a primer for initiating aircraft escape-system components. Three testing methods are employed including: (1) firing the primer to measure total energy delivered; (2) monitoring output in terms of gaseous product-mass flow rate and pressure as a function of time; and (3) firing the primer onto ignition material to study gas pressure produced during ignition and burning as a function of time. The results of the test demonstrate differences in the ignitability factors of the standard primers and time peak pressures of less than 100 microseconds. One unexpected result is that two percussion primers (the FA-41 and the M42C1) developed for different applications have the same ignitability. The ignitability test method is shown to yield the most useful data and can be used to specify percussion primers and optimize their performance.

Bement, Laurence J.; Doris, Thomas A.; Schimmel, Morry L.

1991-01-01

383

On source radiation. [power output computation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The power output from given sources is usually ascertained via an energy flux integral over the normal directions to a remote (farfield) surface; an alternative procedure, which utilizes an integral that specifies the direct rate of working by the source on the resultant field, is described and illustrated for both point and continuous source distributions. A comparison between the respective procedures is made in the analysis of sound radiated from a periodic dipole source whose axis rotates in a plane, on a full or partial angular range, with prescribed frequency. Thus, adopting a conventional approach, Sretenskii (1956) characterizes the rotating dipole in terms of an infinite number of stationary ones along a pair of orthogonal directions in the plane and, through the farfield representation of the latter, arrives at a series development for the instantaneous radiated power, whereas the local manner of power calculation dispenses with the equivalent infinite aggregate of sources and yields a compact analytical result.

Levine, H.

1980-01-01

384

Newer methods of cardiac output monitoring.  

PubMed

Cardiac output (CO) is the volume of blood ejected by each ventricle per minute and is the product of stroke volume and heart rate. CO can thus be manipulated by alteration in heart rate or rhythm, preload, contractility and afterload. Moreover it gives important information about tissue perfusion and oxygen delivery. CO can be measured by various methods and thermodilution method using pulmonary artery catheter (PAC) is till date considered as gold standard method. Complications associated with PAC led to development of newer methods which are minimally or non-invasive. Newer methods fulfil other properties like continuous and reproducible reading, cost effective, reliable during various physiological states and have fast response time. These methods are validated against the gold standard with good level agreement. In this review we have discussed various newer methods of CO monitoring and their effectiveness in clinical use. PMID:25276302

Mehta, Yatin; Arora, Dheeraj

2014-09-26

385

Newer methods of cardiac output monitoring  

PubMed Central

Cardiac output (CO) is the volume of blood ejected by each ventricle per minute and is the product of stroke volume and heart rate. CO can thus be manipulated by alteration in heart rate or rhythm, preload, contractility and afterload. Moreover it gives important information about tissue perfusion and oxygen delivery. CO can be measured by various methods and thermodilution method using pulmonary artery catheter (PAC) is till date considered as gold standard method. Complications associated with PAC led to development of newer methods which are minimally or non-invasive. Newer methods fulfil other properties like continuous and reproducible reading, cost effective, reliable during various physiological states and have fast response time. These methods are validated against the gold standard with good level agreement. In this review we have discussed various newer methods of CO monitoring and their effectiveness in clinical use.

Mehta, Yatin; Arora, Dheeraj

2014-01-01

386

Determination of signal parameters according to a single observation sample at the output of an equidistant antenna array  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper considers the application of the maximum likelihood method to the estimation of signal parameters according to a single observation sample at the output of a linear equidistant antenna array. The solution is obtained through an iterative procedure, with an estimate according to the generalized Prony method being used as the first approximation. Also presented are results of a

L. N. Konovalov; I. D. Merkulenko

1987-01-01

387

Handling Input and Output for COAMPS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two suites of software have been developed to handle the input and output of the Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Prediction System (COAMPS), which is a regional atmospheric model developed by the Navy for simulating and predicting weather. Typically, the initial and boundary conditions for COAMPS are provided by a flat-file representation of the Navy s global model. Additional algorithms are needed for running the COAMPS software using global models. One of the present suites satisfies this need for running COAMPS using the Global Forecast System (GFS) model of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The first step in running COAMPS downloading of GFS data from an Internet file-transfer-protocol (FTP) server computer of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) is performed by one of the programs (SSC-00273) in this suite. The GFS data, which are in gridded binary (GRIB) format, are then changed to a COAMPS-compatible format by another program in the suite (SSC-00278). Once a forecast is complete, still another program in the suite (SSC-00274) sends the output data to a different server computer. The second suite of software (SSC- 00275) addresses the need to ingest up-to-date land-use-and-land-cover (LULC) data into COAMPS for use in specifying typical climatological values of such surface parameters as albedo, aerodynamic roughness, and ground wetness. This suite includes (1) a program to process LULC data derived from observations by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments aboard NASA s Terra and Aqua satellites, (2) programs to derive new climatological parameters for the 17-land-use-category MODIS data; and (3) a modified version of a FORTRAN subroutine to be used by COAMPS. The MODIS data files are processed to reformat them into a compressed American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) format used by COAMPS for efficient processing.

Fitzpatrick, Patrick; Tran, Nam; Li, Yongzuo; Anantharaj, Valentine

2007-01-01

388

The output of flunisolide from different nebulisers.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the output, in-vitro, solution of a concentrated solution of flunisolide from two different nebulisers under simulated breathing conditions. The BimboNeb and Nebula nebulisers were used to nebulise 2.6 mL of flunisolide solution (600 microg). Particle size was determined by inertial impaction and the total output of drug from the nebulisers under simulated breathing conditions was measured using a sinus flow pump. Two different breathing patterns were used, simulating nebuliser use by a child and an adult. The mass median aerodynamic diameter of flunisolide particles from the BimboNeb and Nebula were both 3.9 microm. With the simulated paediatric breathing pattern, both nebulisers delivered similar amounts of flunisolide (56.4 microg (s.d. 1.4 microg) and 56.1 microg (5 microg) over 5 min from the BimboNeb and Nebula, respectively). With the adult breathing pattern, flunisolide delivery from the BimboNeb was increased to 88.9 microg (3.3 microg), but delivery from the Nebula was only slightly increased to 64.6 microg (1.4 microg). With both nebulisers, little drug was released after 5 min of nebulisation. Both nebulisers delivered 9-15% of the nominal dose of flunisolide to the breathing simulator, a similar percentage to previous studies with budesonide and more than previous studies with beclometasone. Drug delivery from the BimboNeb, but not the Nebula, was affected by the simulated breathing pattern. This study suggests that drug delivery from nebulisers is dependent upon the interaction between the nebuliser, the drug and the patient. PMID:11999135

O'Callaghan, Chris; White, Judy; Jackson, Judith; Barry, Peter; Kantar, Ahmad

2002-04-01

389

2007 IEEE Workshop on Applications of Signal Processing to Audio and Acoustics October 21-24, 2007, New Paltz, NY ROBUSTNESS ANALYSIS OF BINAURAL HEARING AID BEAMFORMER ALGORITHMS  

E-print Network

, New Paltz, NY ROBUSTNESS ANALYSIS OF BINAURAL HEARING AID BEAMFORMER ALGORITHMS BY MEANS OF OBJECTIVE binaural output and are evalu- ated using objective perceptual quality measures [1, 2, 3]. It has been, binaural cue distor- tions introduced by the different binaural output strategies could be identified

390

Scholarships & Financial Aid data report/analysis  

E-print Network

Scholarships & Financial Aid data report/analysis 1 | P a g e Graduation Rates for Texas A received athletic-based financial aid during their first enrolled year, by gender, race/ethnicity, and specified aid recipient categories (these aid categories are also based on received aid during the first

Behmer, Spencer T.

391

Financial Aid ServicesFinancial Aid ServicesFinancial Aid ServicesFinancial Aid Services Lender/Loan Program Name Interest Rate  

E-print Network

Financial Aid ServicesFinancial Aid ServicesFinancial Aid ServicesFinancial Aid Services Lender Citizens Bank TRUEFIT STUDENT LOAN Variable Rate: LIBOR + 2.50- 9.25% Fixed Rate: LIBOR +5.75- 11.75% www.citizensbank.com/truefitstudentloan 1-800-708-6684 Certificate Program $1,000/Cost of attendance minus financial aid 6 months after

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

392

Financial Aid ServicesFinancial Aid ServicesFinancial Aid ServicesFinancial Aid Services Lender/Loan Program Interest Rate Ranges/Fees  

E-print Network

Financial Aid ServicesFinancial Aid ServicesFinancial Aid ServicesFinancial Aid Services Lender) Required Minimum Enrollment Lifetime Aggregate Payment of Prior Balance Citizens Bank TRUEFIT STUDENT LOAN.citizensbank.com/truefitstudentloan 1-800-708-6684 $1,000/Cost of attendance minus financial aid 6 months after graduation Up to 15

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

393

Foreign aid: is it all consumed?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have found evidence to suggest that aid's effectiveness on growth has improved. Yet the debate on aid and domestic savings is still inconclusive and aid fungibility continues to be particularly contentious. One of the problems with much of the earlier literature examining the relationship between aid and savings (or aid-consumption) is that the relationship is not well embedded

Ramesh Durbarry

2004-01-01

394

Cardiac output monitoring: basic science and clinical application: Cardiac output monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Derangements in the circulation are a common feature of sepsis, trauma, major surgery and other critical illnesses. Detailed evaluation of the circulation is therefore an essential aspect of the clinical management of such patients. The use of cardiac output monitoring technology is an increasingly important aspect of evaluating patients in the operating theatre, critical care unit and elsewhere. There

S. Jhanji; J. Dawson; R. M. Pearse

2008-01-01

395

Wage Effects on Industrial Output and Import Demand  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the Household Interactive Variable Input-Output (HIVIO) Model and uses it to measure the wage effects on industrial price, output and import demand. By using 198O Korean Input-Output transac- tion table, the paper briefly discusses the Korean industrial structure and finds the wage effects on industrial price, and output and import demand. The paper concludes that wage hike,

Chung J. Liew

396

Moral Character and Student Aid  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Thirty years after the creation of federal student financial aid programs through the Higher Education Act of 1965, the link between moral character and student financial aid programs is once again influencing the public policy debate. A careful look at the debate, though, shows that the nature of concerns has shifted. In the past, the question

Flint, Thomas A.

2012-01-01

397

Certification of Financial Aid Administrators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The certification of financial aid administrators has been debated for over 37 years. A job satisfaction survey conducted by the National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NASFAA, 2008a) revealed that college and university administrators' perceptions of the efficiency, effectiveness, and quality of the services provided by the

Peterson, Stacey A.

2011-01-01

398

AIDS in Prison: Legal Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both current statutory and case law concerning AIDS in correctional institutions are discussed. The article examines the legal status of mandatory testing, the confidentiality of test results, segregating prisoners with AIDS from the rest of the prison population, adequacy of health care, and inmate assaults on correctional officers. The article emphasizes the fast-developing and changing nature of the law in

Barbara A. Belbot; Rolando V. del Carmen

1991-01-01

399

Aids and the nervous system  

SciTech Connect

This book contains 19 chapters. Some of the titles are: Neuroradiology of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; The AIDS dementia complex; primary infection with human immunodeficiency virus; The biology of the human immunodeficiency virus and its role in neurological disease; and Algorithms for the treatment of AIDS patients with neurological disease.

Rosenblum, M.L. (Univ. of California School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA (US)); Levy, R.M. (Northwestern Univ. Medical School, Chicago, IL (US)); Bredesen, D.E. (Univ. of California School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA (US))

1988-01-01

400

Let's Talk about Teacher Aides  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since 1989, teacher aides have become a familiar part of our classrooms as they support students with special educational needs. International and New Zealand research shows that despite many teacher aide practices that effectively support student learning in inclusive settings, there are some practices that work against the inclusion of some

Ward, Angela

2011-01-01

401

SPARTA: A System Partitioning Aid  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents SPARTA, the System PARTitioning Aid. Partitioning is the design phase in which a system's functionality is divided into smaller parts that fit onto physical units. SPARTA is a unique and interesting approach to computer-aided partitioning of systems SPARTA performs the tedious calculation of each design factor (such as area) for each partition (such as chips). This allows

Martin L. Resnick

1986-01-01

402

HIV/AIDS and Pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

If you have HIV/AIDS and find out you are pregnant or think you may be pregnant, you should let your health care provider know as soon as possible. Some HIV/AIDS medicines may harm your baby. Your health ...

403

Information Handbook for Teacher Aides.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook provides an introduction for teacher aides recently hired by the Nassau Board of Cooperative Education Services (BOCES) to work with handicapped students. Topics covered include mental, learning, physical and emotional disabilities, the role of the teacher aide, crisis intervention, building students' self-esteem, managing student

Pucciarelli, Catherine S., Ed.

404

Some Facts About Financial Aid  

E-print Network

from federal, state, university, and private sources to help students meet college costs. Financial aid helps fill the gap between the cost of attending college and the amount that students and their families Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA). Foreign students with student visas are not eligible

California at Santa Cruz, University of

405

Global HIV / AIDS & STD Surveillance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, provided by the United Nations World Health Organization and the UNAIDS Joint Programme on HIV/AIDS, contains Report on the global HIV/AIDS epidemic - June 1998, along with Adobe Acrobat (.pdf) fact sheets for 167 countries. Users can also access report annex data on "estimated and reported global AIDS cases" in Microsoft Excel and .dif format. Among the report's findings: 5.8 million people were infected with HIV in 1997; 30.6 million people are living with HIV/AIDS; 2.3 million died of AIDS in 1997; 11.7 million have died since the beginning of the epidemic; and 8.2 million children have been orphaned since the beginning of the epidemic. The report and tables are available in English, French, and Spanish (the latter two versions are available in .pdf format only).

1998-01-01

406

The GFDL Data Portal: a Doorway to Sharing Model Outputs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to increasing community interest in the output of models run at GFDL, we have embarked upon the design of a data portal for sharing numerical model output. Effective sharing of model output requires software standards and tools and then utilizing those tools to build data portals. Among the tools that the GFDL data portal will utilize is the

K. M. Obrien; S. Hankin; J. Callahan; V. Balaji; R. Schweitzer; J. McLean; Y. Wei; A. Manke

2004-01-01

407

SMART CONTROL OF CANTILEVER STRUCTURES USING OUTPUT FEEDBACK  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper features the modelling and design of a type of multirate output feedback based controller (Fast Output Sampling Feedback - FOS) to control the flexural vibrations of a smart flexible Timoshenko cantilever beam for a Single Input Single Output (SISO) case by retaining the first 2 dominant vibratory modes. Piezoelectric patches are bonded as sensor \\/ actuator to the

T. C. MANJUNATH; B. BANDYOPADHYAY

408

Optimal Output Local Control of Multimachine Power Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The local output control of a multimachine power system to improve the dynamic stability studied in this work. A reliable algorithm has been developed to determine the local feedback gains so as to minimize a functional of the error between output vectors of the system separately equipped with optimal controller and the local output controller and also the error between

K. Rashid; H. Talaat; R. Moret

1986-01-01

409

Challenges in Predicting Power Output from Offshore Wind Farms  

E-print Network

Challenges in Predicting Power Output from Offshore Wind Farms R. J. Barthelmie1 and S. C. Pryor2 an offshore wind farm, accurate assessment of the wind resource/power output from the wind farm is a necessity. Accurately predicting the power output requires an estimate of the wind resource over the lifetime

Pryor, Sara C.

410

Sectoral output trends and cycles in Victorian Britain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results presented in this paper confirm that, as with aggregate output, sectoral outputs before World War I are best characterised as trend stationary, rather than as the difference stationary processes which seem to best characterise sectoral and aggregate output post-World War II. The major sectors of the Victorian economy exhibited trend growth of approximately 2% per annum, consistent with

Terence C. Mills; Nicholas F. R. Crafts

2004-01-01

411

Support vector machine learning for interdependent and structured output spaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Learning general functional dependencies is one of the main goals in machine learning. Recent progress in kernel-based methods has focused on designing flexible and powerful input representations. This paper addresses the complementary issue of problems involving complex outputs such as multiple dependent output variables and structured output spaces. We propose to generalize multiclass Support Vector Machine learning in a formulation

Ioannis Tsochantaridis; Thomas Hofmann; Thorsten Joachims; Yasemin Altun

2004-01-01

412

The Minimum Cannot Become the Maximum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper the author shares his concerns about minimal competency testing, fearing that the minimum may become the maximum. He discusses this fear based on examples from the English curriculum--Language, Writing, and Literature. (KC)

Bushman, John H.

1980-01-01

413

On the efficiency at maximum cooling power  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The efficiency at maximum power (EMP) of heat engines operating as generators is one corner stone of finite-time thermodynamics, the Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency \\eta_CA being considered as a universal upper bound. Yet, no valid counterpart to \\eta_CA has been derived for the efficiency at maximum cooling power (EMCP) for heat engines operating as refrigerators. In this letter we analyse the reasons of the failure to obtain such a bound and we demonstrate that, despite the introduction of several optimisation criteria, the maximum cooling power condition should be considered as the genuine equivalent of maximum power condition in the finite-time thermodynamics frame. We then propose and discuss an analytic expression for the EMCP in the specific case of exoreversible refrigerators.

Apertet, Y.; Ouerdane, H.; Michot, A.; Goupil, C.; Lecoeur, Ph.

2013-08-01

414

A dual method for maximum entropy restoration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simple iterative dual algorithm for maximum entropy image restoration is presented. The dual algorithm involves fewer parameters than conventional minimization in the image space. Minicomputer test results for Fourier synthesis with inadequate phantom data are given.

Smith, C. B.

1979-01-01

415

5 CFR 534.203 - Maximum stipends.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Maximum stipends for positions in the Public Health Service in which duty requires intimate contact with persons afflicted with leprosy are increased above the rates prescribed in paragraph (a) of this section to the same extent that additional pay is...

2011-01-01

416

5 CFR 534.203 - Maximum stipends.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Maximum stipends for positions in the Public Health Service in which duty requires intimate contact with persons afflicted with leprosy are increased above the rates prescribed in paragraph (a) of this section to the same extent that additional pay is...

2013-01-01

417

5 CFR 534.203 - Maximum stipends.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Maximum stipends for positions in the Public Health Service in which duty requires intimate contact with persons afflicted with leprosy are increased above the rates prescribed in paragraph (a) of this section to the same extent that additional pay is...

2012-01-01

418

14 CFR 65.47 - Maximum hours.  

...CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Air Traffic Control Tower Operators 65.47 Maximum hours. Except in an emergency, a certificated air traffic control tower operator must be relieved of all duties...

2014-01-01

419

14 CFR 65.47 - Maximum hours.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Air Traffic Control Tower Operators 65.47 Maximum hours. Except in an emergency, a certificated air traffic control tower operator must be relieved of all duties...

2013-01-01

420

14 CFR 65.47 - Maximum hours.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Air Traffic Control Tower Operators 65.47 Maximum hours. Except in an emergency, a certificated air traffic control tower operator must be relieved of all duties...

2011-01-01

421

14 CFR 65.47 - Maximum hours.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Air Traffic Control Tower Operators 65.47 Maximum hours. Except in an emergency, a certificated air traffic control tower operator must be relieved of all duties...

2012-01-01

422

14 CFR 65.47 - Maximum hours.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Air Traffic Control Tower Operators 65.47 Maximum hours. Except in an emergency, a certificated air traffic control tower operator must be relieved of all duties...

2010-01-01

423

Incremental Network Design with Maximum Flows  

E-print Network

Dec 21, 2013 ... We study an incremental network design problem, where in each time period of ... In a series of computational experiments, we compare ...... maximum flow (F - f), the number of instances not solved to optimality within the time.

2013-12-21

424

Photoemission spectromicroscopy with MAXIMUM at Wisconsin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the development of the scanning photoemission spectromicroscope MAXIMUM at the Wisoncsin Synchrotron Radiation Center, which uses radiation from a 30-period undulator. The article includes a discussion of the first tests after the initial commissioning.

Ng, W.; Ray-Chaudhuri, A. K.; Cole, R. K.; Wallace, J.; Crossley, S.; Crossley, D.; Chen, G.; Green, M.; Guo, J.; Hansen, R. W. C.; Cerrina, F.; Margaritondo, G.; Underwood, J. H.; Korthright, J.; Perera, R. C. C.

1990-06-01

425

Theoretical maximum concentration factors for solar concentrators  

SciTech Connect

The theoretical maximum concentration factors are determined for different definitions of the factor for two-dimensional and three-dimensional solar concentrators that are valid for any source with nonuniform intensity distribution. Results are obtained starting from those derived by Winston (1970) for Lambertian sources. In particular, maximum concentration factors for three models of the solar-disk intensity distribution are calculated. 12 references.

Nicolas, R.O.; Duran, J.C.

1984-11-01

426

Maximum-Likelihood Detection Of Noncoherent CPM  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Simplified detectors proposed for use in maximum-likelihood-sequence detection of symbols in alphabet of size M transmitted by uncoded, full-response continuous phase modulation over radio channel with additive white Gaussian noise. Structures of receivers derived from particular interpretation of maximum-likelihood metrics. Receivers include front ends, structures of which depends only on M, analogous to those in receivers of coherent CPM. Parts of receivers following front ends have structures, complexity of which would depend on N.

Divsalar, Dariush; Simon, Marvin K.

1993-01-01

427

Maximum-Likelihood Parameter-Estimation Algorithm  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Efficient version of maximum-likelihood algorithm devised for calculating normal-mode frequencies and damping parameters of vibrating system from experimental data where both process noise and measurement noise present. Method applicable in vibration analysis of such complicated structures as vehicles, aircraft, and spacecraft. New algorithm simplification of existing maximum-likelihood formulation using Kalman filter that allows for both process and measurement noise.

Eldred, D. B.; Hamidi, M.; Rodriguez, G.

1986-01-01

428

Shape-enhanced maximum intensity projection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maximum intensity projection (MIP) displays the voxel with the maximum intensity along the viewing ray, and this offers simplicity\\u000a in usage, as it does not require a complex transfer function, the specification of which is a highly challenging and time-consuming\\u000a process in direct volume rendering (DVR). However, MIP also has its inherent limitation, the loss of spatial context and shape

Zhiguang Zhou; Yubo Tao; Hai Lin; Feng Dong; Gordon Clapworthy

2011-01-01

429

75 FR 43840 - Inflation Adjustment of the Ordinary Maximum and Aggravated Maximum Civil Monetary Penalties for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

FRA is adjusting the ordinary maximum penalty and the aggravated maximum penalty that it will apply when assessing a civil monetary penalty for a violation of the Federal hazardous material transportation laws or a regulation, special permit, or approval issued under those laws. The aggravated maximum penalty is available only for a violation that results in death, serious illness, or severe......

2010-07-27

430

The measurement of maximum cylinder pressures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The work presented in this report was undertaken at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics to determine a suitable method for measuring the maximum pressures occurring in aircraft engine cylinders. The study and development of instruments for the measurement of maximum cylinder pressures has been conducted in connection with carburetor and oil engine investigations on a single cylinder aircraft-type engine. Five maximum cylinder-pressure devices have been designed, and tested, in addition to the testing of three commercial indicators. Values of maximum cylinder pressures are given as obtained with various indicators for the same pressures and for various kinds and values of maximum cylinder pressures, produced chiefly by variation of the injection advance angle in high-speed oil engine. The investigations indicate that the greatest accuracy in determining maximum cylinder pressures can be obtained with an electric, balanced-pressure, diaphragm or disk-type indicator so constructed as to have a diaphragm or disk of relatively large area and minimum seat width and mass.

Hicks, Chester W

1929-01-01

431

Commissioning of output factors for uniform scanning proton beams  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Current commercial treatment planning systems are not able to accurately predict output factors and calculate monitor units for proton fields. Patient-specific field output factors are thus determined by either measurements or empirical modeling based on commissioning data. The objective of this study is to commission output factors for uniform scanning beams utilized at the ProCure proton therapy centers. Methods: Using water phantoms and a plane parallel ionization chamber, the authors first measured output factors with a fixed 10 cm diameter aperture as a function of proton range and modulation width for clinically available proton beams with ranges between 4 and 31.5 cm and modulation widths between 2 and 15 cm. The authors then measured the output factor as a function of collimated field size at various calibration depths for proton beams of various ranges and modulation widths. The authors further examined the dependence of the output factor on the scanning area (i.e., uncollimated proton field), snout position, and phantom material. An empirical model was developed to calculate the output factor for patient-specific fields and the model-predicted output factors were compared to measurements. Results: The output factor increased with proton range and field size, and decreased with modulation width. The scanning area and snout position have a small but non-negligible effect on the output factors. The predicted output factors based on the empirical modeling agreed within 2% of measurements for all prostate treatment fields and within 3% for 98.5% of all treatment fields. Conclusions: Comprehensive measurements at a large subset of available beam conditions are needed to commission output factors for proton therapy beams. The empirical modeling agrees well with the measured output factor data. This investigation indicates that it is possible to accurately predict output factors and thus eliminate or reduce time-consuming patient-specific output measurements for proton treatments.

Zheng Yuanshui; Ramirez, Eric; Mascia, Anthony; Ding Xiaoning; Okoth, Benny; Zeidan, Omar; Hsi Wen; Harris, Ben; Schreuder, Andries N.; Keole, Sameer [ProCure Proton Therapy Center, 5901 West Memorial Road, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73142 (United States); ProCure Treatment Centers, 420 North Walnut Street, Bloomington, Indiana 47404 (United States); ProCure Proton Therapy Center, 5901 West Memorial Road, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73142 (United States)

2011-04-15

432

Estimating potential output and the output gap for the euro area: a model-based production function approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an analysis of multivariate unobserved components models for the estimation of potential output and the\\u000a output gap in the euro area. Bivariate models of output and inflation and multivariate model-based implementations of the\\u000a production function approach are considered; according to the latter potential output is derived from the permanent components\\u000a of the factors of production consistent with

Tommaso Proietti; Alberto Musso; Thomas Westermann

2007-01-01

433

XVII International AIDS Conference: From Evidence to Action - AIDS 2008 and the global response to AIDS  

PubMed Central

The impact of the XVII International AIDS Conference (AIDS 2008) was reflected in a number of commitments from political and business leaders, who announced initiatives ranging from implementing comprehensive sexual education for young people in Latin America to reducing regulatory barriers and the price of drugs in the host country. The unprecedented media coverage brought attention and public awareness to the epidemic in Latin America. Several meetings and sessions at AIDS 2008 also addressed the potential for the International AIDS Conference to play an even stronger role in tracking progress towards universal access and in improving accountability in the global response to AIDS, particularly given some of the inherent weaknesses in the United Nations General Assembly Special Session (UNGASS) review process. The impact of AIDS 2008 was strongest in Mexico, the host country, and in Latin America. Highlights included the policy changes announced by President Calderon on pharmaceutical manufacturing to the focus on sex workers and gay and other MSM in marches, activism and the conference programme. The next two years will determine whether the successes reported in Mexico are sustained and whether there is progress in addressing the barriers that continue to hamper an evidence-based response to HIV/AIDS. The next International AIDS Conference is scheduled for the universal address deadline of 2010. PMID:19811673

2009-01-01

434

XVII International AIDS Conference: From Evidence to Action - AIDS 2008 and the global response to AIDS.  

PubMed

The impact of the XVII International AIDS Conference (AIDS 2008) was reflected in a number of commitments from political and business leaders, who announced initiatives ranging from implementing comprehensive sexual education for young people in Latin America to reducing regulatory barriers and the price of drugs in the host country. The unprecedented media coverage brought attention and public awareness to the epidemic in Latin America.Several meetings and sessions at AIDS 2008 also addressed the potential for the International AIDS Conference to play an even stronger role in tracking progress towards universal access and in improving accountability in the global response to AIDS, particularly given some of the inherent weaknesses in the United Nations General Assembly Special Session (UNGASS) review process. The impact of AIDS 2008 was strongest in Mexico, the host country, and in Latin America. Highlights included the policy changes announced by President Calderon on pharmaceutical manufacturing to the focus on sex workers and gay and other MSM in marches, activism and the conference programme.The next two years will determine whether the successes reported in Mexico are sustained and whether there is progress in addressing the barriers that continue to hamper an evidence-based response to HIV/AIDS. The next International AIDS Conference is scheduled for the universal address deadline of 2010. PMID:19811673

Kort, Rodney

2009-01-01

435

Web Sites Related to HIV/Aids Web Sites Related to HIV/Aids  

E-print Network

Web Sites Related to HIV/Aids Web Sites Related to HIV/Aids "Surviving AIDS" http://gbgm-umc.org/cam/ Gay Men's Health Crisis http://www.thebody.com/gmhc/gmhcpage.html Global HIV/AIDS and STD Surveillance http://www.who.int/emc-hiv/ HIV and AIDS Activities http://www.fda.gov/oashi/aids/hiv.html HIV

de Lijser, Peter

436

78 FR 73075 - World AIDS Day, 2013  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Proclamation 9064--World AIDS Day, 2013 Presidential Documents...Proclamation 9064 of November 27, 2013 World AIDS Day, 2013 By the President of the...of America A Proclamation Each year on World AIDS Day, we come together as a...

2013-12-04

437

30 CFR 75.1913 - Starting aids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Starting aids. 75.1913 Section 75.1913 Mineral Resources...Diesel-Powered Equipment 75.1913 Starting aids. (a) Volatile fuel starting aids shall be used in accordance with...

2011-07-01

438

30 CFR 75.1913 - Starting aids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Starting aids. 75.1913 Section 75.1913 Mineral Resources...Diesel-Powered Equipment 75.1913 Starting aids. (a) Volatile fuel starting aids shall be used in accordance with...

2010-07-01

439

30 CFR 75.1913 - Starting aids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Starting aids. 75.1913 Section 75.1913 Mineral Resources...Diesel-Powered Equipment 75.1913 Starting aids. (a) Volatile fuel starting aids shall be used in accordance with...

2013-07-01

440

7 CFR 15b.37 - Auxiliary aids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Auxiliary aids. 15b.37 Section 15b.37 Agriculture...RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Other Aid, Benefits, or Services 15b.37 Auxiliary aids. (a) A recipient to which this...

2010-01-01

441

7 CFR 15b.37 - Auxiliary aids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Auxiliary aids. 15b.37 Section 15b.37 Agriculture...RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Other Aid, Benefits, or Services 15b.37 Auxiliary aids. (a) A recipient to which this...

2011-01-01

442

30 CFR 75.1913 - Starting aids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Starting aids. 75.1913 Section 75.1913 Mineral Resources...Diesel-Powered Equipment 75.1913 Starting aids. (a) Volatile fuel starting aids shall be used in accordance with...

2012-07-01

443

7 CFR 15b.37 - Auxiliary aids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Auxiliary aids. 15b.37 Section 15b.37 Agriculture...RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Other Aid, Benefits, or Services 15b.37 Auxiliary aids. (a) A recipient to which this...

2013-01-01

444

29 CFR 1926.1416 - Operational aids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 false Operational aids. 1926.1416 Section 1926.1416...Construction 1926.1416 Operational aids. (a) The devices listed in this section (listed operational aids) are required on all equipment...

2012-07-01

445

7 CFR 15b.37 - Auxiliary aids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Auxiliary aids. 15b.37 Section 15b.37 Agriculture...RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Other Aid, Benefits, or Services 15b.37 Auxiliary aids. (a) A recipient to which this...

2012-01-01

446

29 CFR 1926.1416 - Operational aids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Operational aids. 1926.1416 Section 1926.1416...Construction 1926.1416 Operational aids. (a) The devices listed in this section (listed operational aids) are required on all equipment...

2013-07-01

447

7 CFR 15b.37 - Auxiliary aids.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Auxiliary aids. 15b.37 Section 15b.37 Agriculture...RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Other Aid, Benefits, or Services 15b.37 Auxiliary aids. (a) A recipient to which this...

2014-01-01

448

HIV / AIDS: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment  

MedlinePLUS

... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV / AIDS: Symptoms , Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment Past Issues / Summer ... and have resulted in a dramatic decrease in AIDS deaths in the U.S. NIH Research to Results ...

449

AIDS: A Training Program for School Counselors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) training program for school counselors which covers these aspects of AIDS: general facts, medical issues, prevention and education, psychological issues, and working with AIDS-infected persons. (ABL)

Holder, Jim R.

1989-01-01

450

AIDS: Confronting the Human and Moral Virus.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Addresses the effects of the spread of the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) on Catholic schools and communities. Discusses the goals and federally recommended content of AIDS education. Considers ways to include AIDS education in Catholic school curricula. (DMM)

Hunter, Judi

1992-01-01

451

76 FR 76025 - World AIDS Day, 2011  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AIDS-free generation. To combat the HIV epidemic in the United States...first comprehensive National HIV/AIDS Strategy in our country's history, which calls for strong, coordinated...policy initiatives, enhanced HIV/ AIDS education,...

2011-12-06

452

HIV/AIDS and the Flu  

MedlinePLUS

... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button HIV/AIDS and the Flu Questions & Answers Language: English ... to people with HIV/AIDS. Should people with HIV/AIDS receive the inactivated influenza vaccine? People with ...

453

The Science of HIV/AIDS  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Science of HIV/AIDS contains student activities and essays that help students understand the virus that causes AIDS, how infectious agents multiply in organisms, and the worldwide spread of HIV/AIDS.

Baylor College of Medicine (Baylor College of Medicine Human Genome Sequencing Center)

2010-01-01

454

30 CFR 75.1913 - Starting aids.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Starting aids. 75.1913 Section 75.1913 Mineral Resources...Diesel-Powered Equipment 75.1913 Starting aids. (a) Volatile fuel starting aids shall be used in accordance with...

2014-07-01

455

A novel maximum power point tracking technique for solar panels using a SEPIC or Cuk converter  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel technique for efficiently extracting the maximum output power from a solar panel under varying meteorological conditions is presented. The methodology is based on connecting a pulse-width-modulated (PWM) DC\\/DC SEPIC or Cuk converter between a solar panel and a load or battery bus. The converter operates in discontinuous capacitor voltage mode whilst its input current is continuous. By modulating

Henry Shu-Hung Chung; K. K. Tse; S. Y. Ron Hui; C. M. Mok; M. T. Ho

2003-01-01

456

Adaptive Maximum-Likelihood Receiver for Carrier-Modulated Data-Transmission Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new look is taken at maximum-likelihood sequence estimation in the presence of intersymbol interference. A uniform receiver structure for linear carrier-modulated data-transmission systems is derived which for decision making uses a modified version of the Viterbi algorithm. The algorithm operates directly on the output signal of a complex matched filter and, in contrast to the original algorithm, requires no

GOTTFRIED UNGERBOECK

1974-01-01

457

Development of a microcontroller-based, photovoltaic maximum power point tracking control system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) is used in photovoltaic (PV) systems to maximize the photovoltaic array output power, irrespective of the temperature and irradiation conditions and of the load electrical characteristics. A new MPPT system has been developed, consisting of a buck-type DC\\/DC converter, which is controlled by a microcontroller-based unit. The main difference between the method used in the

Eftichios Koutroulis; Kostas Kalaitzakis; Nicholas C. Voulgaris

2001-01-01

458

COMPARISON OF DEGRADATION RATES OF INDIVIDUAL MODULES HELD AT MAXIMUM POWER1  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a comparison of maximum power degradation rates of individual modules under out- door conditions in Golden, Colorado. Test modules in- clude single- and polycrystalline-Si (x -Si, poly-Si), amor- phous Si (a-Si, single, dual, and triple junction), CdTe, Cu- In-Ga-Se-S (CIS), and c-Si\\/a-Si heterostructure, from nine difference manufacturers. From monthly blocks of output power data, ratings

C. R. Osterwald; J. Adelstein; J. A. del Cueto; B. Kroposki; D. Trudell; T. Moriarty

459

Comparison of Degradation Rates of Individual Modules Held at Maximum Power  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a comparison of maximum power degradation rates of individual modules under outdoor conditions in Golden, Colorado. Test modules include single- and polycrystalline-Si (x-Si, poly-Si), amorphous Si (a-Si, single, dual, and triple junction), CdTe, Cu-In-Ga-Se-S (CIS), and c-Si\\/a-Si heterostructure, from nine difference manufacturers. From monthly blocks of output power data, ratings were determined using multiple regressions

C. R. Osterwald; J. Adelstein; J. A. D. Cueto; B. Kroposki; D. Trudell; T. Moriarty

2006-01-01

460

The effect of inspiratory muscle training upon maximum lactate steady-state and blood lactate concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several studies have reported that improvements in endurance performance following respiratory muscle training (RMT) are associated with a decrease in blood lactate concentration ([Lac]B). The present study examined whether pressure threshold inspiratory muscle training (IMT) elicits an increase in the cycling power output corresponding to the maximum lactate steady state (MLSS). Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled design, 12 healthy, non-endurance-trained male

Alison K. McConnell; Graham R. Sharpe

2005-01-01

461

Fuzzy Cognitive Networks for Maximum Power Point Tracking in Photovoltaic Arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The studies on the photovoltaic (PV) power generation are extensively increasing, since it is considered as an essentially\\u000a inexhaustible and broadly available energy resource. However, the output power of the photovoltaic modules depends on solar\\u000a radiation and temperature of the solar cells. Therefore, to maximize the efficiency of the renewable energy system, it is\\u000a necessary to track the maximum power

Thodoris L. Kottas; Athanasios D. Karlis; Yiannis S. Boutalis

462

Short-current pulse-based maximum-power-point tracking method for multiple photovoltaic-and-converter module system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a novel maximum-power-point tracking (MPPT) method with a simple algorithm for photovoltaic (PV) power generation systems. The method is based on use of a short-current pulse of the PV to determine an optimum operating current where the maximum output power can be obtained and completely differs from conventional hill-climbing-based methods. In the proposed system, the optimum operating

Toshihiko Noguchi; Shigenori Togashi; Ryo Nakamoto

2002-01-01

463

MAXIMUM-LIKELIHOOD DECOMPOSITION OF OVERLAPPING AND TOUCHING M-FISH CHROMOSOMES USING GEOMETRY, SIZE AND COLOR INFORMATION  

E-print Network

MAXIMUM-LIKELIHOOD DECOMPOSITION OF OVERLAPPING AND TOUCHING M-FISH CHROMOSOMES USING GEOMETRY Since the birth of chromosome analysis by the aid of computers, building a fully automated chromosome analysis system has been the ultimate goal. Along with many other challenges, automating chromosome

Texas at Austin, University of

464

Quality assurance: monitoring lithotriptor output and its clinical implications.  

PubMed

Serial acoustic output measurements performed on the an electromagnetic lithotriptor consistently showed significant decreases in the output of the shock heads. A decrease in output during the lifetime of the shock head to less than 50% of its original output was observed. Decreased output was related to a higher number of shocks per treatment and a higher retreatment rate. Quality control of the lithotriptor output was reflected in better clinical results, a lower mean number of shocks per treatment, a lower retreatment rate and less time on the table, which has important clinical and financial implications. Acoustic output measurements on lithotriptors should be mandatory to achieve the best possible clinical results from extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. PMID:8201688

Mishriki, S F

1994-07-01

465

Hearing aid electromagnetic interference from digital wireless telephones.  

PubMed

Several in-the-ear (ITE) and behind-the-ear (BTE) hearing aids were tested for audible interference at various distances from five types of digital wireless telephones. The interference which takes the form of a buzzing and a static sound was quantified using a calibrated system including a frequency analyzer and a pressure field microphone. The output of the each hearing aid was coupled to the microphone via Tygon tubing and a standard 2 cc coupler. The highest interference-induced sound pressure level (SPL), 122.5 dB, was measured from a BTE hearing aid placed within 2 cm of a transmitting Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) phone. In this case, interference was detected up to a separation distance of almost 3 m. While all phones tested produced a similar interference level within 2 cm of this hearing aid, interference SPL from the code division multiple access (CDMA)-based system decreased more rapidly with distance than the time division multiple access (TDMA)-based phones tested. PMID:9631332

Skopec, M

1998-06-01

466

[Pharmaceutical aids in gerontopharmacology].  

PubMed

The administration of drugs is often subject to error when performed by geriatric patients, resulting in reduced therapeutic effects. In particular, the correct administration technique for different dosage forms is a problem in elderly patients with limited audiovisual and ergonomic abilities. In addition to physician and carer intervention, community pharmacists can also contribute to solving outpatient problems of this kind at the time of issuing the drugs. This should preferably be done in collaboration with the respective medical practice. Some of the most common problems in drug administration, as well as the corresponding solutions offered by the pharmacist, are featured in the present paper. Inhalers, injection devices and ophthalmic solutions often cause difficulties for geriatric patients, as do even simple dosage forms such as drops. Pharmacy-based solutions to these problems include for instance: taking over the assembly of complex devices comprising multiple components, instructing patients in the proper use of additional dosing aids or adapting the administration technique to the patient's abilities. PMID:23111593

Kircher, W

2013-01-01

467

Methods and apparatus for determining cardiac output  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention provides methods and apparatus for determining a dynamical property of the systemic or pulmonary arterial tree using long time scale information, i.e., information obtained from measurements over time scales greater than a single cardiac cycle. In one aspect, the invention provides a method and apparatus for monitoring cardiac output (CO) from a single blood pressure signal measurement obtained at any site in the systemic or pulmonary arterial tree or from any related measurement including, for example, fingertip photoplethysmography.According to the method the time constant of the arterial tree, defined to be the product of the total peripheral resistance (TPR) and the nearly constant arterial compliance, is determined by analyzing the long time scale variations (greater than a single cardiac cycle) in any of these blood pressure signals. Then, according to Ohm's law, a value proportional to CO may be determined from the ratio of the blood pressure signal to the estimated time constant. The proportional CO values derived from this method may be calibrated to absolute CO, if desired, with a single, absolute measure of CO (e.g., thermodilution). The present invention may be applied to invasive radial arterial blood pressure or pulmonary arterial blood pressure signals which are routinely measured in intensive care units and surgical suites or to noninvasively measured peripheral arterial blood pressure signals or related noninvasively measured signals in order to facilitate the clinical monitoring of CO as well as TPR.

Cohen, Richard J. (Inventor); Mukkamala, Ramakrishna (Inventor); Sherman, Derin A. (Inventor)

2010-01-01

468

Windmill having thermal and electric power output  

SciTech Connect

A windmill is described which has thermal and electric power output and includes windmill blades rotatably mounted and connected to a speed increaser mechanism of gears and shafts and a centrifugal compressor connected to the windmill thru the speed increaser to be driven by virtue of the wind applied to the blades of the windmill itself. A directional control is connected to the windmill head to have the windmill blades face into the wind, as desired. The compressor is connected to an insulated heat storage tank which contains storage material, such as brick, and the compressor discharge velocity and pressure difference are converted to heat, and the compressor fluid is returned to the compressor thru a screen which protects the compressor, and there is a flow control which automatically compensates for changes in density of the circulated air or compressor fluid. Also, a gas turbine generator can be connected with the compressor to be driven thereby, and electric elements could be connected with the generator for producing electricity. Two other embodiments show an impeller type of air brake and a valve and a heat-sensitive control, for generating heat or power.

Kenney, C.E.

1980-11-25

469

Fighting AIDS the Cuban way.  

PubMed

Cuba is using elements of classical public health practice in its national AIDS control program. Its AIDS policy appears to be successful. Cuba has 927 HIV-positive cases and 187 AIDS cases (111 deaths) in a population of more than 10 million. Its neighbors have cumulative AIDS prevalence rates at least on par with those of the US. Puerto Rico (around 3 million population) has more than 8000 AIDS cases. Cuba's health system provides for a family physician for every 12 apartment blocks. This physician lives in the community and makes home visits. Medical testing and screenings, including HIV screening, are routine in Cuba. Cuba has the most comprehensive HIV testing program in the world. This program detects fewer than 125 new HIV-positive cases annually. Cuba's successful health system existed before the advent of AIDS. More than 60% of HIV-positive persons are heterosexuals. Many were infected while serving abroad (internationalists) or as sexual partners of internationalists. Cuba considered AIDS as just another health threat and handled it accordingly. It did not worry about offending high risk populations. HIV-infected persons living in the HIV/AIDS sanatoria receive full salaries regardless of their work status and are expected to follow rules that serve to benefit themselves as well as Cuban society. They must accept the three safe sex commandments of the sanatoria before being allowed to leave after completion of a 6-month probationary period. Some patients are allowed to return home after the probationary period. Residents who practice unsafe sex lose their right to leave unchaperoned. All residents receive an individually tailored regimen, which regimen includes exercise, interferon or AZT, and a high calorie and protein diet (5000 kc/day). The Cuban AIDS program focuses on protecting gays, women, and children. PMID:12319588

Hughes, N S

1995-01-01

470

The effects of speech output technology in the learning of graphic symbols.  

PubMed Central

The effects of auditory stimuli in the form of synthetic speech output on the learning of graphic symbols were evaluated. Three adults with severe to profound mental retardation and communication impairments were taught to point to lexigrams when presented with words under two conditions. In the first condition, participants used a voice output communication aid to receive synthetic speech as antecedent and consequent stimuli. In the second condition, with a nonelectronic communications board, participants did not receive synthetic speech. A parallel treatments design was used to evaluate the effects of the synthetic speech output as an added component of the augmentative and alternative communication system. The 3 participants reached criterion when not provided with the auditory stimuli. Although 2 participants also reached criterion when not provided with the auditory stimuli, the addition of auditory stimuli resulted in more efficient learning and a decreased error rate. Maintenance results, however, indicated no differences between conditions. Finding suggest that auditory stimuli in the form of synthetic speech contribute to the efficient acquisition of graphic communication symbols. PMID:14743828

Schlosser, R W; Belfiore, P J; Nigam, R; Blischak, D; Hetzroni, O

1995-01-01

471

AIDS and the news media.  

PubMed

News reports on AIDS have appeared at a time of general public concern about health risks, and, like the coverage of risk, the reporting on AIDS has been controversial. Perceptions of this disease have been linked to economic and personal stakes, professional ideologies, administrative responsibilities, and moral beliefs. It is from this perspective that news coverage of AIDS must be understood. The norms and practices of journalism, the technical uncertainties of risk evaluation, and the pressures placed on the media by various interests have influenced the reporting on this disease. However, media reports also shape the social context of the epidemic, affecting public perceptions, personal behavior, and policy agendas. PMID:1791792

Nelkin, D

1991-01-01

472

AIDS epidemic update: December 1998  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This new update from the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and the World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that by the end of the year 33.4 million people will be infected with HIV, ten percent more than one year ago. Almost every country in the world has seen new infections in 1998, but new cases have been concentrated in the developing world, home of 95% of all HIV-infected people and 95% of AIDS fatalities. As this report reveals, AIDS and its repercussions, such as declining life expectancy, increased orphanhood, and overburdened health care systems, now pose one of the most serious threats to development.

1998-01-01

473

Cell development obeys maximum Fisher information  

E-print Network

Eukaryotic cell development has been optimized by natural selection to obey maximal intracellular flux of messenger proteins. This, in turn, implies maximum Fisher information on angular position about a target nuclear pore complex (NPR). The cell is simply modeled as spherical, with cell membrane (CM) diameter 10 micron and concentric nuclear membrane (NM) diameter 6 micron. The NM contains about 3000 nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). Development requires messenger ligands to travel from the CM-NPC-DNA target binding sites. Ligands acquire negative charge by phosphorylation, passing through the cytoplasm over Newtonian trajectories toward positively charged NPCs (utilizing positive nuclear localization sequences). The CM-NPC channel obeys maximized mean protein flux F and Fisher information I at the NPC, with first-order delta I = 0 and approximate 2nd-order delta I = 0 stability to environmental perturbations. Many of its predictions are confirmed, including the dominance of protein pathways of from 1-4 proteins, a 4nm size for the EGFR protein and the approximate flux value F =10^16 proteins/m2-s. After entering the nucleus, each protein ultimately delivers its ligand information to a DNA target site with maximum probability, i.e. maximum Kullback-Liebler entropy HKL. In a smoothness limit HKL approaches IDNA/2, so that the total CM-NPC-DNA channel obeys maximum Fisher I. Thus maximum information approaches non-equilibrium, one condition for life.

B. R. Frieden; R. A. Gatenby

2014-04-29

474

Maximum likelihood deconvolution: a new perspective  

SciTech Connect

Maximum-likelihood deconvolution can be presented from at least two very different points of view. Unfortunately, in most journal articles, it is couched in the mystique of state-variable models and estimation theory, both of which, are generally quite foreign to geophysical signal processors. This paper explains maximum-likelihood deconvolution using the well-known convolutional model and some relatively simple ideas from optimization theory. Both of these areas should be well known to geophysical signal processors. Although it is straightforward to develop the theory of maximum-likelihood deconvolution using the convolutional model and optimization theory, this approach does not lead to practical computational algorithms. Recursive algorithms must be used; they are orders of magnitude faster than the batch algorithms that are associated with the convolutional model.

Mendel, J.M.

1988-03-01

475

Maximum stabilizer dimension for nonproduct states  

SciTech Connect

Composite quantum states can be classified by how they behave under local unitary transformations. Each quantum state has a stabilizer subgroup and a corresponding Lie algebra, the structure of which is a local unitary invariant. In this paper, we study the structure of the stabilizer subalgebra for n-qubit pure states, and find its maximum dimension to be n-1 for nonproduct states of three qubits and higher. The n-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state has a stabilizer subalgebra that achieves the maximum possible dimension for pure nonproduct states. The converse, however, is not true: We show examples of pure 4-qubit states that achieve the maximum nonproduct stabilizer dimension, but have stabilizer subalgebra structures different from that of the n-qubit GHZ state.

Walck, Scott N.; Lyons, David W. [Lebanon Valley College, Annville, Pennsylvania 17003 (United States)

2007-08-15

476

Maximum stabilizer dimension for nonproduct states  

E-print Network

Composite quantum states can be classified by how they behave under local unitary transformations. Each quantum state has a stabilizer subgroup and a corresponding Lie algebra, the structure of which is a local unitary invariant. In this paper, we study the structure of the stabilizer subalgebra for n-qubit pure states, and find its maximum dimension to be n-1 for nonproduct states of three qubits and higher. The n-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state has a stabilizer subalgebra that achieves the maximum possible dimension for pure nonproduct states. The converse, however, is not true: we show examples of pure 4-qubit states that achieve the maximum nonproduct stabilizer dimension, but have stabilizer subalgebra structures different from that of the n-qubit GHZ state.

Scott N. Walck; David W. Lyons

2007-06-12

477

Climate change implications on maximum monthly stream flow in Cyprus using fuzzy regression models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Maximum stream flow data collected from Cyprus Water Development Department and outputs of global circulation models (General Circulation Models, GCM) are used in this study, to develop statistical downscaling techniques in order to investigate the impact of climate change on stream flow at Yermasoyia watershed, Cyprus. The Yermasoyia watershed is located in the southern side of mountain Troodos, northeast of Limassol city and it drains into Yermasoyia reservoir. The watershed area is about 157 km2 and its altitude ranges from 70 m up to 1400 m, above mean sea level. The watershed is constituted mainly by igneous rocks, degraded basalt and handholds. The mean annual precipitation is 638 mm while the mean annual flow is estimated in 22,5 millions m3. The reservoir water surface is 110 hectares and has maximum capacity of 13,6 million m3. Earlier studies have shown that the development of downscaling methodologies using multiple linear fuzzy regression models can give quite satisfactory results. In this study, the outputs of SRES A2 and SRES B2 scenarios of the second version of the Canadian Coupled Global Climate Model (CGCM2) are utilized. This model is based on the earlier CGCM1 (Flato et al. (2000), but with some improvements to address shortcomings identified in the first version. Fuzzy regression is used for the downscaling of maximum monthly stream flow. The methodology is validated by independent historical data and used for the estimation of future maximum stream flow time series. From the 30 years of observed data representing the current climate, the first 25 years (1968-1993) are considered for calibrating the downscaling model while the remaining 5 years (1994-1998) are used in order to validate the model. The model was first developed using the logarithm of observed maximum monthly streamflow as the depended variable and 36 output parameters of GCM as the candidate independent variables. Then, five (5) independent GCM parameters were selected, namely, mean daily maximum screen temperature, precipitation, 850 hPa geopotential height, 500 hPa specific humidity and screen specific humidity, using stepwise linear regression. Finally, fuzzy rules were applied to the multiple linear regression coefficients, indicating the uncertainty of the model. The results indicate that the developed model can predict maximum monthly stream flow quite satisfactory. The developed model was, then, applied to estimate the effect of climate change on maximum monthly stream flow for a medium term future period (2030-2060) and a long time future period (2070-2100). These results indicate the significant effect of climate change on the frequency and temporal distribution of maximum stream flow.

Loukas, A.; Spiliotopoulos, M.

2010-09-01

478

Density estimation by maximum quantum entropy  

SciTech Connect

A new Bayesian method for non-parametric density estimation is proposed, based on a mathematical analogy to quantum statistical physics. The mathematical procedure is related to maximum entropy methods for inverse problems and image reconstruction. The information divergence enforces global smoothing toward default models, convexity, positivity, extensivity and normalization. The novel feature is the replacement of classical entropy by quantum entropy, so that local smoothing is enforced by constraints on differential operators. The linear response of the estimate is proportional to the covariance. The hyperparameters are estimated by type-II maximum likelihood (evidence). The method is demonstrated on textbook data sets.

Silver, R.N.; Wallstrom, T.; Martz, H.F.

1993-11-01

479

Entropy generation: Minimum inside and maximum outside  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extremum of entropy generation is evaluated for both maximum and minimum cases using a thermodynamic approach which is usually applied in engineering to design energy transduction systems. A new result in the thermodynamic analysis of the entropy generation extremum theorem is proved by the engineering approach. It follows from the proof that the entropy generation results as a maximum when it is evaluated by the exterior surroundings of the system and a minimum when it is evaluated within the system. The Bernoulli equation is analyzed as an example in order to evaluate the internal and external dissipations, in accordance with the theoretical results obtained.

Lucia, Umberto

2014-02-01

480

Older people's views on what they need to successfully adjust to life with a hearing aid.  

PubMed

This article reports a study exploring what older people believe would enable them to adjust to and gain maximum benefit from wearing a hearing aid. A mixed methods approach was employed during 2006 involving interviews with key stakeholders, a survey across three Scottish health board areas and focus groups. Nine key stakeholders from six national and local organisations were interviewed about the needs of older people being fitted with hearing aids. In total, 240 older people belonging to three different types of hearing impaired older people were surveyed: long-term users of hearing aids, new hearing aid users, and those on a waiting list from urban and rural areas (response rate = 24%). A series of eight follow-up focus groups with 31 audiology patients was held. Health professionals appeared to neglect appropriate provision of information and overly rely on technological interventions. Of 154 older people already fitted with hearing aids, only 52% of hearing aid users reported receiving enough practical help post fitting and only 41% reported receiving enough support. Approximately 40% reported not feeling confident in the use of their aids or their controls. Older people wanted more information than they received both before and after hearing aid fitting. Information provision and attention to the psychosocial aspects of care are key to enabling older people to adjust and optimise hearing aid benefit. PMID:23373520

Kelly, Timothy B; Tolson, Debbie; Day, Tracy; McColgan, Gillian; Kroll, Thilo; Maclaren, William

2013-05-01

481

Older people's views on what they need to successfully adjust to life with a hearing aid  

PubMed Central

This article reports a study exploring what older people believe would enable them to adjust to and gain maximum benefit from wearing a hearing aid. A mixed methods approach was employed during 2006 involving interviews with key stakeholders, a survey across three Scottish health board areas and focus groups. Nine key stakeholders from six national and local organisations were interviewed about the needs of older people being fitted with hearing aids. In total, 240 older people belonging to three different types of hearing impaired older people were surveyed: long-term users of hearing aids, new hearing aid users, and those on a waiting list from urban and rural areas (response rate = 24%). A series of eight follow-up focus groups with 31 audiology patients was held. Health professionals appeared to neglect appropriate provision of information and overly rely on technological interventions. Of 154 older people already fitted with hearing aids, only 52% of hearing aid users reported receiving enough practical help post fitting and only 41% reported receiving enough support. Approximately 40% reported not feeling confident in the use of their aids or their controls. Older people wanted more information than they received both before and after hearing aid fitting. Information provision and attention to the psychosocial aspects of care are key to enabling older people to adjust and optimise hearing aid benefit. PMID:23373520

Kelly, Timothy B; Tolson, Debbie; Day, Tracy; McColgan, Gillian; Kroll, Thilo; Maclaren, William

2013-01-01

482

AID-induced T-lymphoma or B-leukemia/lymphoma in a mouse BMT model.  

PubMed

Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) diversifies immunoglobulin through somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class-switch recombination (CSR). AID-transgenic mice develop T-lymphoma, indicating that constitutive expression of AID leads to tumorigenesis. Here, we transplanted mouse bone marrow cells transduced with AID. Twenty-four of the 32 recipient mice developed T-lymphoma 2-4 months after the transplantation. Surprisingly, unlike AID-transgenic mice, seven recipients developed B-leukemia/lymphoma with longer latencies. None of the mice suffered from myeloid leukemia. When we used nude mice as recipients, they developed only B-leukemia/lymphoma, presumably due to lack of thymus. Analysis of AID mutants suggested that an intact form with SHM activity is required for maximum ability of AID to induce lymphoma. Except for a K-ras active mutant in one case, specific mutations could not be identified in T-lymphoma; however, Notch1 was constitutively activated in most cases. Importantly, truncations of Ebf1 or Pax5 were observed in B-leukemia/lymphoma. In conclusion, this is the first report on the potential of AID overexpression to promote B-cell lymphomagenesis in a mouse model. Aberrant expression of AID in bone marrow cells induced leukemia/lymphoma in a cell-lineage-dependent manner, mainly through its function as a mutator. PMID:20357822

Komeno, Y; Kitaura, J; Watanabe-Okochi, N; Kato, N; Oki, T; Nakahara, F; Harada, Y; Harada, H; Shinkura, R; Nagaoka, H; Hayashi, Y; Honjo, T; Kitamura, T

2010-05-01

483

Computer aided surface representation  

SciTech Connect

The central research problem of this project is the effective representation and display of surfaces, interpolating to given information, in three or more dimensions. In a typical problem, we wish to create a surface from some discrete information. If this information is itself on another surface, the problem is to determine a surface defined on a surface,'' which is discussed below. Often, properties of an already constructed surface are desired: such geometry processing'' is described below. The Summary of Proposed Research from our original proposal describes the aims of this research project. This Summary and the Table of Contents from the original proposal are enclosed as an Appendix to this Progress Report. The broad sweep from constructive mathematics through algorithms and computer graphics displays is utilized in the research. The wide range of activity, directed in both theory and applications, makes this project unique. Last month in the first Ardent Titan delivered in the State of Arizona came to our group, funded by the DOE and Arizona State University. Although the Titan is a commercial product, its newness requires our close collaboration with Ardent to maximize results. During the past year, four faculty members and several graduate research assistants have worked on this DOE project. The gaining of new professionals is an important aspect of this project. A listing of the students and their topics is given in the Appendix. The most significant publication during the past year is the book, Curves and Surfaces for Computer Aided Geometric Design, by Dr. Gerald Farin. This 300 page volume helps fill a considerable gap in the subject and includes many new results on Bernstein-Bezier curves and surfaces.

Barnhill, R.E.

1989-02-09

484

Pet First Aid Supplies Checklist  

MedlinePLUS

... Health Awareness Events About AVMA Who We Are Governance AVMF Student AVMA (SAVMA) Allied Organizations AVMA Store ( ... wounds Adhesive tape for bandages *do NOT use human adhesive bandages (eg, Band-Aids ) on pets For ...

485

Computer-Aided Laboratory Instruction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This chapter introduces how computer-aided instruction may be used in the biology laboratory setting. Descriptions of programs, suggestions on how to find instructional software, and general guides and resources are included.

Catherine J. Schaap (University of Prince Edward Island;)

1989-06-06

486

How to Get Hearing Aids  

MedlinePLUS

... medical treatment, and rehabilitation of hearing loss (an audiologist) to identify the type and amount of your ... to a hearing healthcare professional (for example, an audiologist or a hearing aid dispenser), as appropriate, for ...

487

The Sobering Geography of AIDS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The rate at which the epidemic of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is spreading in North America, Asia, Latin America, and Africa is discussed. The number of people infected globally and in low-risk urban populations is presented. (KR)

Palca, Joseph

1991-01-01

488

Decision-aiding system: DACFOOD.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The DACFOOD (Decision Aiding for Contaminated FOODstuffs) system provides decision makers with necessary data for the implementation of optimized protection measures in case of radioactive contamination of foodstuffs. The system evaluates the dose impact ...

A. Despres, P. Heymes

1994-01-01

489

HIV/AIDS in Women  

MedlinePLUS

HIV, the human immunodeficiency virus, kills or damages cells of the body's immune system. The most advanced stage of infection with HIV is AIDS, which stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. ...

490

AIDS and the Duesberg Phenomenon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Renowned virologist and member of the prestigious National Academy of Science, Peter Duesberg has argued that AIDS is not caused by HIV, but is the result of recreational and anti-HIV drugs.  In this PBL case, students read Duesberg’s 1999 article in Science magazine titled “HIV is Not the Cause of AIDS” as well as a response to it titled “HIV Causes AIDS” by medical researchers Dr. William A. Blattner and colleagues.  Students work in groups to identify the issues as well as any terms or concepts they don’t understand, then research these out of class to pool their information as they learn about AIDS and HIV.

Herreid, Clyde F.

1999-01-01

491

Maximum wind energy extraction strategies using power electronic converters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis focuses on maximum wind energy extraction strategies for achieving the highest energy output of variable speed wind turbine power generation systems. Power electronic converters and controls provide the basic platform to accomplish the research of this thesis in both hardware and software aspects. In order to send wind energy to a utility grid, a variable speed wind turbine requires a power electronic converter to convert a variable voltage variable frequency source into a fixed voltage fixed frequency supply. Generic single-phase and three-phase converter topologies, converter control methods for wind power generation, as well as the developed direct drive generator, are introduced in the thesis for establishing variable-speed wind energy conversion systems. Variable speed wind power generation system modeling and simulation are essential methods both for understanding the system behavior and for developing advanced system control strategies. Wind generation system components, including wind turbine, 1-phase IGBT inverter, 3-phase IGBT inverter, synchronous generator, and rectifier, are modeled in this thesis using MATLAB/SIMULINK. The simulation results have been verified by a commercial simulation software package, PSIM, and confirmed by field test results. Since the dynamic time constants for these individual models are much different, a creative approach has also been developed in this thesis to combine these models for entire wind power generation system simulation. An advanced maximum wind energy extraction strategy relies not only on proper system hardware design, but also on sophisticated software control algorithms. Based on literature review and computer simulation on wind turbine control algorithms, an intelligent maximum wind energy extraction control algorithm is proposed in this thesis. This algorithm has a unique on-line adaptation and optimization capability, which is able to achieve maximum wind energy conversion efficiency through continuously improving the performance of wind power generation systems. This algorithm is independent of wind power generation system characteristics, and does not need wind speed and turbine speed measurements. Therefore, it can be easily implemented into various wind energy generation systems with different turbine inertia and diverse system hardware environments. In addition to the detailed description of the proposed algorithm, computer simulation results are presented in the thesis to demonstrate the advantage of this algorithm. As a final confirmation of the algorithm feasibility, the algorithm has been implemented inside a single-phase IGBT inverter, and tested with a wind simulator system in research laboratory. Test results were found consistent with the simulation results. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Wang, Quincy Qing

2003-10-01

492

40 CFR 94.107 - Determination of maximum test speed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Determination of maximum test speed. 94.107 Section 94.107 Protection...107 Determination of maximum test speed. (a) Overview. This section specifies how to determine maximum test speed from a lug curve. This maximum...

2010-07-01

493

40 CFR 94.107 - Determination of maximum test speed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Determination of maximum test speed. 94.107 Section 94.107 Protection...107 Determination of maximum test speed. (a) Overview. This section specifies how to determine maximum test speed from a lug curve. This maximum...

2011-07-01

494

[The letters of my AIDS].  

PubMed

On March 15, 1997, members of the National Organization of Latino Gays and Lesbians (LLEGO) and the HIC Community Coalition (HCC) gathered together to present a program on HIV/AIDS education and prevention. The program brought together various communities in Maryland who are infected or affected by HIV/AIDS. The thoughts and views of these people were presented as poetry. Program contributors and speakers discuss the importance of this event to promote cultural unity. PMID:11364502

Gutierrez, J

1997-01-01

495

Opportunity Egress Aid Contacts Soil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image from the navigation camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows the rover's egress aid touching the martian soil at Meridiani Planum, Mars. The image was taken after the rear lander petal hyperextended in a manuever to tilt the lander forward. The maneuver pushed the front edge lower, placing the tips of the egress aids in the soil. The rover will drive straight ahead to exit the lander.

2004-01-01

496

Computer-aided system design  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the Computer-Aided System Design (CASD) system, a proposed collection of computer programs to aid in the design of computers and similar devices. CASD is a unified system for design, encompassing high-level description of digital devices, simulation of the device functions, automatic translation of the description to detailed hardware (or other) specifications, and complete record-keeping support. The entire

E. David Crockett; David H. Copp; J. W. Frandeen; Clifford A. Isberg; Peter Bryant; W. E. Dickinson; Michael R. Paige

1970-01-01

497

AIDS and the management prerogative.  

PubMed

As with affirmative action in the '70s, it is the big companies that have, in just the last 10 or 12 months, begun to address AIDS in the workplace. Their top executives have come to add such action to the list of management responsibilities. More employers of all sizes may join them, especially those that grasp the true role--and the non-role--of geography in the AIDS epidemic. PMID:10286638

Gildea, J

1988-01-01

498

First aid, transport, and triage.  

PubMed

A favorable outcome for a patient suffering acute trauma or disease is more likely if prehospital first aid can be administered. Veterinary facilities should teach their clients about first aid and transport and be able to give instructions over the telephone. Once a patient arrives at a veterinary facility, the entire staff should be prepared so that triage, the primary survey, resuscitation and stabilization, and the secondary survey may be performed efficiently and effectively. PMID:7879363

Faggella, A M

1994-11-01

499

Maximum likelihood estimation of time delays in multipath acoustic channel - performance versus number of multipath and noise  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present the performance of maximum likelihood (ML) estimator for number of multipath and SNR scenarios. Here the multipath acoustic channel output signal is modeled as a superposition of the delayed, attenuated, and filtered version of the stationary Gaussian stochastic input signal. Accuracy percentage (AP) performance measure has been used to characterize the performance of the estimator.

Tarkeshwar Prasad Bhardwaj; R. Natha

2010-01-01

500

A branch and bound algorithm for the one-machine scheduling problem with minimum and maximum time lags  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the one-machine scheduling problem with minimum and maximum time lags while minimizing the makespan. This problem typically arises in a manufacturing environment where the next job has to be carried out within a specific time range after the completion of the immediately preceding job. We describe a branch and bound algorithm, based on the input and output of

Gwo-ji Sheen; Lu-wen Liao

2007-01-01