Sample records for aid maximum output

  1. Have We Reached a Maximum Astronomical Research Output?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abt, Helmut A.

    2010-08-01

    The US astronomical research output during the past 50 yr has been growing at 6 times the population increase and we wonder whether that ratio can continue. I counted pages of the AJ and ApJ for the past 50 yr, and corrected them for changes in format, foreign input, online contributions, and population increases. For the combined two journals, the American astronomical output is still increasing at a current 128 pages per million people. The same is true for UK contributions to the MNRAS, except that those lag behind the US by 10 yr. For Europe I did not want to dilute the contributions in A&A from the major producers with those of the countries still developing major astronomical centers. Therefore I counted pages for France, Germany, Italy, and the Netherlands (FGIN) only. However, Europeans still publish many of their articles in MNRAS, in particular, and ApJ. Counting FGIN articles in all four journals showed a steady rise but with a 12 yr lag behind the US. We conclude that the astronomical research rates in all three regions have not yet reached a maximum.

  2. Adaptive Trellis Using Interim Maximum-Likelihood Detector Output for a Holographic Storage System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Gukhui; Kim, Jinyoung; Lee, Jaejin

    2011-09-01

    The performance of partial response maximum likelihood (PRML) for holographic data storage can be reduced by asymmetric channel characteristics such as radial/tangential tilts. Therefore, we proposed the adaptive trellis scheme to improve performance. The proposed algorithm updates the reference branch values through using interim maximum-likelihood detector output, using the changed channel condition. Thus, this system guarantees better bit error rate performance than conventional PRML detection.

  3. Program Aids In Printing FORTRAN-Coded Output

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akian, Richard A.

    1993-01-01

    FORPRINT computer program prints FORTRAN-coded output files on most non-Postscript printers with such extra features as control of fonts for Epson and Hewlett Packard printers. Rewrites data to printer and inserts correct printer-control codes. Alternative uses include ability to separate data or ASCII file during printing by use of editing software to insert "1" in first column of data line that starts new page. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  4. Efficiency at Maximum Power Output of a Quantum-Mechanical Brayton Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Yuan; He, Ji-Zhou; Gao, Yong; Wang, Jian-Hui

    2014-03-01

    The performance in finite time of a quantum-mechanical Brayton engine cycle is discussed, without introduction of temperature. The engine model consists of two quantum isoenergetic and two quantum isobaric processes, and works with a single particle in a harmonic trap. Directly employing the finite-time thermodynamics, the efficiency at maximum power output is determined. Extending the harmonic trap to a power-law trap, we find that the efficiency at maximum power is independent of any parameter involved in the model, but depends on the confinement of the trapping potential.

  5. Effects of superpositions of quantum states on quantum isoenergetic cycles: Efficiency and maximum power output

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, X. Y.; Huang, X. L.; Shang, Y. F.; Wang, X. Y.

    2015-04-01

    Superposition principle plays a crucial role in quantum mechanics, thus its effects on thermodynamics is an interesting topic. Here, the effects of superpositions of quantum states on isoenergetic cycle are studied. We find superposition can improve the heat engine efficiency and release the positive work condition in general case. In the finite time process, we find the efficiency at maximum power output in superposition case is lower than the nonsuperposition case. This efficiency depends on one index of the energy spectrum of the working substance. This result does not mean the superposition discourages the heat engine performance. For fixed efficiency or fixed power, the superposition improves the power or efficiency respectively. These results show how quantum mechanical properties affect the thermodynamical cycle.

  6. Work output and efficiency at maximum power of linear irreversible heat engines operating with a finite-sized heat source.

    PubMed

    Izumida, Yuki; Okuda, Koji

    2014-05-01

    We formulate the work output and efficiency for linear irreversible heat engines working between a finite-sized hot heat source and an infinite-sized cold heat reservoir until the total system reaches the final thermal equilibrium state with a uniform temperature. We prove that when the heat engines operate at the maximum power under the tight-coupling condition without heat leakage the work output is just half of the exergy, which is known as the maximum available work extracted from a heat source. As a consequence, the corresponding efficiency is also half of its quasistatic counterpart. PMID:24856684

  7. Upper and Lower Bounds on Maximum Nonlinearity of n -input m -output Boolean Function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tadashi Wadayama; Toru Hada; Koichiro Wakasugi; Masao Kasahara

    2001-01-01

    The paper presents lower and upper bounds on the maximumnonlinearity for an n-input m-output Booleanfunction. We show a systematic construction method for a highlynonlinear Boolean function based on binary linear codes whichcontain the first order Reed-Muller code as a subcode. We alsopresent a method to prove the nonexistence of some nonlinearBoolean functions by using nonexistence results on binary linearcodes. Such

  8. Abstract-This paper proposes a neural network based approach to estimating the maximum possible output power of a solar photovoltaic

    E-print Network

    Lehman, Brad

    output power of a solar photovoltaic array under the non-uniform shadow conditions at a given geographic as inputs, a multilayer feed-forward neural network estimates the output power of the solar photovoltaic output power of the solar PV arrays accurately. Further, the network is able to estimate the maximum

  9. Focusing National Institutes of Health HIV/AIDS research for maximum population impact.

    PubMed

    Walensky, Rochelle P; Auerbach, Judith D

    2015-03-15

    Progress in advancing research on the pathophysiology, prevention, treatment, and impact of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is threatened by the decaying purchasing power of National Institutes of Health (NIH) dollars. A working group of the NIH Office of AIDS Research Advisory Council was charged by the NIH Director with developing a focused and concise blueprint to guide the use of limited funding over the next few years. Science priorities outlined by the working group and reported here are intended to maximally address individuals, groups, and settings most affected by the epidemic, and to redress shortcomings in realizing population-level HIV prevention, treatment, and eradication goals. Optimizing these priorities requires that traditional silos--defined by topic focus and by scientific discipline--be dissolved and that structural issues affecting the pipeline of new investigators and the ability of the Office of AIDS Research to fulfill its role of steward of the NIH HIV/AIDS research program be directly addressed. PMID:25422391

  10. A Non-Data-Aided Maximum Likelihood Time Delay Estimator Using Importance Sampling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmed Masmoudi; Faouzi Bellili; Sofiène Affes; Alex Stephenne

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new time delay maximum likelihood estimator based on importance sampling (IS). We show that a grid search and lack of convergence from which most iterative estimators suffer can be avoided. It is assumed that the transmitted data are completely unknown at the receiver. Moreover the carrier phase is considered as an unknown nuisance parameter.

  11. Increasing communicative interactions of young children with autism using a voice output communication aid and naturalistic teaching.

    PubMed Central

    Schepis, M M; Reid, D H; Behrmann, M M; Sutton, K A

    1998-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of a voice output communication aid (VOCA) and naturalistic teaching procedures on the communicative interactions of young children with autism. A teacher and three assistants were taught to use naturalistic teaching strategies to provide opportunities for VOCA use in the context of regularly occurring classroom routines. Naturalistic teaching procedures and VOCA use were introduced in multiple probe fashion across 4 children and two classroom routines (snack and play). As the procedures were implemented, all children showed increases in communicative interactions using VOCAs. Also, there was no apparent reductive effect of VOCA use within the naturalistic teaching paradigm on other communicative behaviors. Teachers' ratings of children's VOCA communication, as well as ratings of a person unfamiliar with the children, supported the contextual appropriateness of the VOCA. Probes likewise indicated that the children used the VOCAs for a variety of different messages including requests, yes and no responses, statements, and social comments. Results are discussed in regard to the potential benefits of a VOCA when combined with naturalistic teaching procedures. Future research needs are also discussed, focusing on more precise identification of the attributes of VOCA use for children with autism, as well as for their support personnel. PMID:9891394

  12. Location specific forecasting of maximum and minimum temperatures over India by using the statistical bias corrected output of global forecasting system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durai, V. R.; Bhardwaj, Rashmi

    2014-06-01

    The output from Global Forecasting System (GFS) T574L64 operational at India Meteorological Department (IMD), New Delhi is used for obtaining location specific quantitative forecast of maximum and minimum temperatures over India in the medium range time scale. In this study, a statistical bias correction algorithm has been introduced to reduce the systematic bias in the 24-120 hour GFS model location specific forecast of maximum and minimum temperatures for 98 selected synoptic stations, representing different geographical regions of India. The statistical bias correction algorithm used for minimizing the bias of the next forecast is Decaying Weighted Mean (DWM), as it is suitable for small samples. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the skill of Direct Model Output (DMO) and Bias Corrected (BC) GFS for location specific forecast of maximum and minimum temperatures over India. The performance skill of 24-120 hour DMO and BC forecast of GFS model is evaluated for all the 98 synoptic stations during summer (May-August 2012) and winter (November 2012-February 2013) seasons using different statistical evaluation skill measures. The magnitude of Mean Absolute Error (MAE) and Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) for BC GFS forecast is lower than DMO during both summer and winter seasons. The BC GFS forecasts have higher skill score as compared to GFS DMO over most of the stations in all day-1 to day-5 forecasts during both summer and winter seasons. It is concluded from the study that the skill of GFS statistical BC forecast improves over the GFS DMO remarkably and hence can be used as an operational weather forecasting system for location specific forecast over India.

  13. Robustness analysis for multi-channel hearing aid algorithms with binaural output by means of objective perceptual quality measures

    E-print Network

    -channel HRTFs in an anechoic room and real-world environmen- tal noise in a cafeteria have been recorded- channel HRTFs in an anechoic room (hr). These beam- formers had monaural outputs that were enhanced

  14. Ranking Hearing Aid Input-Output Functions for Understanding Low-, Conversational-, and High-Level Speech in Multitalker Babble

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, King; Killion, Mead C.; Christensen, Laurel A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the rankings of 6 input-output functions for understanding low-level, conversational, and high-level speech in multitalker babble without manipulating volume control for listeners with normal hearing, flat sensorineural hearing loss, and mildly sloping sensorineural hearing loss. Method: Peak clipping, compression limiting,…

  15. Automating Output Size and Reuse Metrics in a Repository-Based Computer-Aided Software Engineering (CASE) Environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rajiv D. Banker; Robert J. Kauffman; Charles Wright; Dani Zweig

    1994-01-01

    Measurement of software development productivity is needed in order to control software costs, but it is discouragingly labor-intensive and expensive. Computer-aided software engineering (CASE) technologies\\/spl minus\\/especially repository-based, integrated CASE\\/spl minus\\/have the potential to support the automation of this measurement. We discuss the conceptual basis for the development of automated analyzers for function point and software reuse measurement for object-based CASE.

  16. Output Characteristics of P-doped Raman Fiber Laser at 1484 nm with 2.11 W Maximum Output Power Pumped by CW 1064 nm Yb-doped Double-Clad Fiber Laser

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nam Seong Kim; Mahendra Prabhu; Cheng Li; Jie Song; Ken-ichi Ueda

    2000-01-01

    The output dependence on output reflectivity and fiber length is reported for a phosphosilicate Raman fiber laser (RFL) at the second Stokes wavelength of 1484 nm using a pump of CW 8.4 W\\/1064 nm Yb-doped double-clad fiber laser (DCFL) and cascaded cavities for the first and second Stokes wavelength. The output reflectivities for the second Stokes light were 15 and

  17. A Handbook for Supplementary Aids and Services: A Best Practice and IDEA Guide "To Enable Children with Disabilities To Be Educated with Nondisabled Children to the Maximum Extent Appropriate".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Edward

    This book describes how supplementary aids and services are defined by best practice, interpreted by individual states, and viewed by the courts to enable children with disabilities to be educated with typical children to the maximum extent appropriate. The first three chapters of the book deal with the need to provide a free appropriate public…

  18. A complex-weighted, decision-aided, maximum-likelihood carrier phase and frequency-offset estimation algorithm for coherent optical detection.

    PubMed

    Meiyappan, Adaickalavan; Kam, Pooi-Yuen; Kim, Hoon

    2012-08-27

    We present a symbol-by-symbol coherent optical receiver, which employs a novel, complex-weighted, decision-aided, maximum-likelihood (CW-DA-ML) carrier phase and frequency offset estimator. The CW-DA-ML carrier estimator uses a CW transversal filter to generate a carrier reference phasor, and the filter weights are automatically adapted on-line by linear regression on the observed signals. A complete modulo-R reduced frequency offset estimation (FOE) range of ± R/2 is achieved, independent of modulation format, where R is the symbol rate. Carrier phase and frequency tracking is achieved rapidly. The acquisition speed of frequency offset in quaternary phase-shift keying (4-PSK) signals is more than 5 times faster than that of differential FOE. A constant penalty of approximately 1 dB at bit-error rate of 10(-4) is demonstrated for all frequency offsets in 4-PSK signals with laser-linewidth-symbol-duration product of 8 × 10(-5). PMID:23037063

  19. Hearing-aid tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessinger, R.; Polhemus, J. T.; Waring, J. G.

    1977-01-01

    Hearing aids are automatically checked by circuit that applies half-second test signal every thirty minutes. If hearing-aid output is distorted, too small, or if battery is too low, a warning lamp is activated. Test circuit is incorporated directly into hearing-aid package.

  20. Implantable digital hearing aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kissiah, A. M., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Hearing aid converts analog output of microphone into digital pulses in about 10 channels of audiofrequencies. Each pulse band could be directly connected to portion of auditory nerve most sensitive to that range.

  1. System for Memorizing Maximum Values

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    The invention discloses a system capable of memorizing maximum sensed values. The system includes conditioning circuitry which receives the analog output signal from a sensor transducer. The conditioning circuitry rectifies and filters the analog signal and provides an input signal to a digital driver, which may be either liner or logarithmic. The driver converts the analog signal to discrete digital values, which in turn triggers an output signal on one of a plurality of driver output lines n. The particular output lines selected is dependent on the converted digital value. A microfuse memory device connects across the driver output lines, with n segments. Each segment is associated with one driver output line, and includes a microfuse that is blown when a signal appears on the associated driver output line.

  2. System for memorizing maximum values

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr. (inventor)

    1992-01-01

    The invention discloses a system capable of memorizing maximum sensed values. The system includes conditioning circuitry which receives the analog output signal from a sensor transducer. The conditioning circuitry rectifies and filters the analog signal and provides an input signal to a digital driver, which may be either linear or logarithmic. The driver converts the analog signal to discrete digital values, which in turn triggers an output signal on one of a plurality of driver output lines n. The particular output lines selected is dependent on the converted digital value. A microfuse memory device connects across the driver output lines, with n segments. Each segment is associated with one driver output line, and includes a microfuse that is blown when a signal appears on the associated driver output line.

  3. A memory-mapped output interface: Omega navigation output data from the JOLT (TM) microcomputer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lilley, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    A hardware interface which allows both digital and analog data output from the JOLT microcomputer is described in the context of a software-based Omega Navigation receiver. The interface hardware described is designed for output of six (or eight with simple extensions) bits of binary output in response to a memory store command from the microcomputer. The interface was produced in breadboard form and is operational as an evaluation aid for the software Omega receiver.

  4. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePLUS

    ... with certain types of hearing loss. How Hearing Aids Help So you went to the audiologist and ... aid is turned on. Continue Types of Hearing Aids There are several hearing aid styles. Some are ...

  5. Music and hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Sara M K; Moore, Brian C J

    2014-01-01

    The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems. PMID:25361601

  6. Maximum Likelihood

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Siegrist, Kyle

    This material introduces the basic theory of maximum likelihood estimation by discussing the likelihood function, the log likelihood function, and maximizing these functions using calculus. Several exercises ask students to derive certain estimators, while others have students compare the behavior of those estimators with other possibilities through the use of various JAVA applets. The applets use the same control features: the sliders set the parameter values, the Â?Stop #Â? drop down menu sets the number of samples taken, the Â?Update #Â? drop down menu sets how often the graph and tables update during the experiment, the single arrow takes one sample, the double arrow runs the full experiment, the square stops the experiment, and the back arrow resets the applet. This page is one lesson from the Virtual Laboratories in Statistics.

  7. Potential and natural output

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giorgio Primiceri; Alejandro Justiniano

    2009-01-01

    We estimate a DSGE model with imperfectly competitive products and labor markets, and sticky prices and wages. We use the model to back out two counterfactual objects: potential output, i.e. the level of output that would prevail under perfect competition, and natural output, i.e. the level of output that would prevail with flexible prices and wages. We find that potential

  8. Aid allocation and poverty reduction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Collier; David Dollar

    2002-01-01

    This paper derives a poverty-efficient allocation of aid and compares it with actual aid allocations. The allocation of aid that has the maximum effect on poverty depends on the level of poverty and the quality of policies. Using the headcount, poverty-gap, and squared poverty gap measures of poverty, alternatively, all yield similar poverty-efficient allocations. Finally, we find that the actual

  9. Binaural noise reduction algorithms for hearing aids that preserve interaural time delay cues

    E-print Network

    Binaural noise reduction algorithms for hearing aids that preserve interaural time delay cues Abstract-- Binaural hearing aids use microphone inputs from both the left and right hearing aid to generate an output for each ear. On the other hand, a monaural hearing aid generates an output by processing only its

  10. FINANCIAL AID Undergraduate Financial Aid

    E-print Network

    Varela, Carlos

    FINANCIAL AID Undergraduate Financial Aid Director: James H. Stevenson Education for leadership cost, many students and families are not able to meet the cost with their own resources. Financial aid are invited to contact the Financial Aid Office, which at Rensselaer is part of the Office of Student Records

  11. 1 Financial Aid FINANCIAL AID

    E-print Network

    Vertes, Akos

    1 Financial Aid FINANCIAL AID GW offers a comprehensive program of student financial assistance for students. Undergraduate aid consists of two basic types: awards for academic achievement or talent without based on both academic achievement and demonstrated financial need. All undergraduate gift aid

  12. Input-Output Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald E. Miller; Peter D. Blair

    This 2009 edition of Ronald Miller and Peter Blair's classic textbook is an essential reference for students and scholars in the input-output research and applications community. The book has been fully revised and updated to reflect important developments in the field since its original publication. New topics covered include SAMs (and extended input-output models) and their connection to input-output data,

  13. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePLUS

    ... more in both quiet and noisy situations. Hearing aids help people who have hearing loss from damage ... your doctor. There are different kinds of hearing aids. They differ by size, their placement on or ...

  14. Standing Aids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Parent, 1992

    1992-01-01

    This article briefly describes standing aids for individuals with physical disabilities. It covers the physiological, psychological, and vocational benefits of such aids; their use in daily living and recreational activities; and types of aids (prone standers, supine standers, vertical standers, standing boxes and tables, mobility in standing,…

  15. Hearing aid malfunction detection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessinger, R. L. (inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A malfunction detection system for detecting malfunctions in electrical signal processing circuits is disclosed. Malfunctions of a hearing aid in the form of frequency distortion and/or inadequate amplification by the hearing aid amplifier, as well as weakening of the hearing aid power supply are detectable. A test signal is generated and a timed switching circuit periodically applies the test signal to the input of the hearing aid amplifier in place of the input signal from the microphone. The resulting amplifier output is compared with the input test signal used as a reference signal. The hearing aid battery voltage is also periodically compared to a reference voltage. Deviations from the references beyond preset limits cause a warning system to operate.

  16. Visualization of Model Output

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Visualization of output from mathematical or statistical models is one of the best ways to introduce introductory geoscience students to the results and behavior of sophisticated models. Example of good sites ...

  17. Solar maximum: solar array degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, T.

    1985-08-01

    The 5-year in-orbit power degradation of the silicon solar array aboard the Solar Maximum Satellite was evaluated. This was the first spacecraft to use Teflon R FEP as a coverglass adhesive, thus avoiding the necessity of an ultraviolet filter. The peak power tracking mode of the power regulator unit was employed to ensure consistent maximum power comparisons. Telemetry was normalized to account for the effects of illumination intensity, charged particle irradiation dosage, and solar array temperature. Reference conditions of 1.0 solar constant at air mass zero and 301 K (28 C) were used as a basis for normalization. Beginning-of-life array power was 2230 watts. Currently, the array output is 1830 watts. This corresponds to a 16 percent loss in array performance over 5 years. Comparison of Solar Maximum Telemetry and predicted power levels indicate that array output is 2 percent less than predictions based on an annual 1.0 MeV equivalent election fluence of 2.34 x ten to the 13th power square centimeters space environment.

  18. Types of Hearing Aids

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Devices Consumer Products Hearing Aids Types of Hearing Aids What are hearing aids? What are the different ... some features for hearing aids? What are hearing aids? Hearing aids are sound-amplifying devices designed to ...

  19. State Aid

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This report, published by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), will most likely be used by financial aid professionals and researchers. The report, offered in .pdf format, is a statistical analysis of the differences among students attending institutions in states that provide different levels of financial aid.

  20. Diodes stabilize LED output

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deters, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    Small-signal diodes are placed in series with light-emitting diodes (LED's) to stabilize LED output against temperature fluctuations. Simple inexpensive method compensates for thermal fluctuations over a broad temperature range. Requiring few components, technique is particularly useful where circuit-board space is limited.

  1. Input/Output Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, J.

    This paper discusses batch processing; and on-line, time-sharing operations, and their associate input/output equipment. Special emphasis is placed on electronic display equipment. It concludes that future equipment trends will allow the user more and easier access to the machine he uses. (Author)

  2. Convergence in International Output

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew B. Bernard; Steven N. Durlauf

    1995-01-01

    This paper proposes and tests new definitions of convergence and common trends for per capita output. We define convergence for a group of countries to mean that each country has identical long-run trends, either stochastic, while common trends allow for proportionality of the stochastic elements. These definitions lead naturally to the use of cointegration techniques in testing. Using century-long time

  3. AN INTEGRATEDMICROELECTROMECHANICALRESONANT OUTPUT GYROSCOPE -

    E-print Network

    Tang, William C

    AN INTEGRATEDMICROELECTROMECHANICALRESONANT OUTPUT GYROSCOPE - Ashwin A. Seshia*,Roger T. Howe vibratory rate gyroscope based on resonant sensing of the Coriolis force. The new design has several advantages over rate gyroscopes that utilize open-loop displacement sensing for rotation rate measurement

  4. programming input/output

    E-print Network

    Liu, Yanhong Annie

    would ML fit in? COBOL and ML could safely be put down far apart. The in­ put/output facilities in COBOL to the verbose COBOL and ML is much better suited for structuring data and algorithms than COBOL is. ML is closer

  5. Financial Aid Services Financial Aid Services

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    Financial Aid Services Financial Aid Services University of Massachusetts Amherst #12;2Financial Aid Services Agenda Definition of financial aid How to apply Definition of financial need Descriptions of major financial aid programs Where to look for information about private sources of aid, including how

  6. Most efficient quantum thermoelectric at finite power output.

    PubMed

    Whitney, Robert S

    2014-04-01

    Machines are only Carnot efficient if they are reversible, but then their power output is vanishingly small. Here we ask, what is the maximum efficiency of an irreversible device with finite power output? We use a nonlinear scattering theory to answer this question for thermoelectric quantum systems, heat engines or refrigerators consisting of nanostructures or molecules that exhibit a Peltier effect. We find that quantum mechanics places an upper bound on both power output and on the efficiency at any finite power. The upper bound on efficiency equals Carnot efficiency at zero power output but decays with increasing power output. It is intrinsically quantum (wavelength dependent), unlike Carnot efficiency. This maximum efficiency occurs when the system lets through all particles in a certain energy window, but none at other energies. A physical implementation of this is discussed, as is the suppression of efficiency by a phonon heat flow. PMID:24745399

  7. Most efficient quantum thermoelectric at finite power output

    E-print Network

    Robert S. Whitney

    2014-03-13

    Machines are only Carnot efficient if they are reversible, but then their power output is vanishingly small. Here we ask, what is the maximum efficiency of an irreversible device with finite power output? We use a nonlinear scattering theory to answer this question for thermoelectric quantum systems; heat engines or refrigerators consisting of nanostructures or molecules that exhibit a Peltier effect. We find that quantum mechanics places an upper bound on both power output, and on the efficiency at any finite power. The upper bound on efficiency equals Carnot efficiency at zero power output, but decays with increasing power output. It is intrinsically quantum (wavelength dependent), unlike Carnot efficiency. This maximum efficiency occurs when the system lets through all particles in a certain energy window, but none at other energies. A physical implementation of this is discussed, as is the suppression of efficiency by a phonon heat flow.

  8. Most Efficient Quantum Thermoelectric at Finite Power Output

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitney, Robert S.

    2014-04-01

    Machines are only Carnot efficient if they are reversible, but then their power output is vanishingly small. Here we ask, what is the maximum efficiency of an irreversible device with finite power output? We use a nonlinear scattering theory to answer this question for thermoelectric quantum systems, heat engines or refrigerators consisting of nanostructures or molecules that exhibit a Peltier effect. We find that quantum mechanics places an upper bound on both power output and on the efficiency at any finite power. The upper bound on efficiency equals Carnot efficiency at zero power output but decays with increasing power output. It is intrinsically quantum (wavelength dependent), unlike Carnot efficiency. This maximum efficiency occurs when the system lets through all particles in a certain energy window, but none at other energies. A physical implementation of this is discussed, as is the suppression of efficiency by a phonon heat flow.

  9. Robust linear output feedback control of a synchronous generator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hebertt Sira-Ramirez

    2011-01-01

    In this article we propose a robust linear output feedback control scheme for the regulation and trajectory tracking tasks of the load angle variable in a widely used, nonlinear, single synchronous generator model. The proposed linear feedback scheme is based on the use of a classical linear feedback controller and a suitably extended high gain linear observer; aiding the linear

  10. Maximum constant boost control of the Z-source inverter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miaosen Shen; Jin Wang; Alan Joseph; F. Z. Peng; L. M. Tolbert; D. J. Adams

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes two maximum constant boost control methods for the Z-source inverter, which can obtain maximum voltage gain at any given modulation index without producing any low-frequency ripple that is related to the output frequency. Thus the Z-network requirement will be independent of the output frequency and determined only by the switching frequency. The relationship of voltage gain to

  11. 47 CFR 95.639 - Maximum transmitter power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...modulation, shall exceed 2 Watts transmitter power output. (i) DSRCS-OBUs are governed under subpart L of this part, except the maximum output power for portable DSRCS-OBUs is 1.0 mW. For purposes of this paragraph, a portable is a...

  12. 47 CFR 95.639 - Maximum transmitter power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...modulation, shall exceed 2 Watts transmitter power output. (i) DSRCS-OBUs are governed under subpart L of this part, except the maximum output power for portable DSRCS-OBUs is 1.0 mW. For purposes of this paragraph, a portable is a...

  13. Mammography segmentation with maximum likelihood active contours Peyman Rahmati a,

    E-print Network

    Hamarneh, Ghassan

    Mammography segmentation with maximum likelihood active contours Peyman Rahmati a, , Andy Adler: Active contour models Computer-aided diagnosis Level sets Maximum likelihood Mammography a b s t r a c 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Mammography has a demonstrated potential

  14. Optimized Transistor Output Power—Extending Cripps' Loadline Method to Cascode Stages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan Hauptmann; Frank Ellinger

    2011-01-01

    A method for analytical optimization of maximum distortionless output power in a class-A amplifier stage is pre- sented. This method is based on Brown's ideas to optimize the load resistance of triode vacuum tubes and Cripps' loadline method. As a result, the maximum distortionless output power of a cascode stage can be directly calculated as a function of load impedance.

  15. FIRST AID

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mr. Hughes

    2006-03-05

    DESK Standard: Understand basic first-aid principles. . DATES: You can begin this activity on April 23. You should complete it by April 27. OBJECTIVE: Have you ever been in a situation where someone was hurt and you weren\\'t sure what to do? It can be very scary. The objective of this lesson is ...

  16. Dietitian Aide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech. Univ., Lubbock. School of Home Economics.

    This course of study for the dietitian aide is one of a series available for use by teacher-coordinators and students in Grade 11 and 12 home economics cooperative education programs. Based on job analysis interviews with health care facilities personnel, this course was prepared by teachers and Instructional Materials Center staff, field-tested,…

  17. Classroom Aids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Activities: Classroom Projects and Curriculum Ideas, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This article describes 6 aids for science instruction, including (1) the use of fudge to represent lava; (2) the "Living by Chemistry" program, designed to make high school chemistry more accessible to a diverse pool of students without sacrificing content; (3) NOAA and NSTA's online coral reef teaching tool, a new web-based "science toolbox" for…

  18. Instructional Aides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Earl T.

    This monograph is designed to assist administrative school personnel in selecting, training, and retaining the best qualified instructional aides available. It covers five areas: (1) employment procedures--outlining important points under recruitment, applications, examinations, interviews, and selection; (2) payroll procedures--outlining how to…

  19. Floriculture Aide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Joyce; Looney, Era

    Designed for use in a self-paced, open-entry/open-exit vocational training program for a floriculture aide, this program guide is one of six for teachers of adult women offenders from a correctional institution. Module topic outlines and sample lesson plans are presented on eleven topics: occupational opportunities in the retail florist industry;…

  20. Effects of Synthetic Speech Output and Orthographic Feedback on Spelling in a Student with Autism: A Preliminary Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ralf W. Schlosser; Doreen M. Blischak; Phillip J. Belfiore; Clair Bartley; Nanette Barnett

    1998-01-01

    The effects of speech output and orthographic feedback on spelling performance were evaluated in this preliminary study. A nonspeaking student with autism was taught to spell words under three feedback conditions using a voice output communication aid. In the auditory-visual condition, the participant received speech output and orthographic feedback. In the visual condition, the participant received only the orthographic feedback.

  1. Maximum a Posteriori Maximum Entropy Signal Denoising

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seghouane, Abd-Krim; Knockaert, Luc

    2007-11-01

    When fitting wavelet based models, shrinkage of the empirical wavelet coefficients is an effective tool for signal denoising. Based on different approaches, different shrinkage functions have been proposed in the literature. The shrinkage functions derived using Bayesian estimation theory depend on the prior used on the wavelet coefficients. However, no simple and direct method exists for the choice of the prior. In this paper a new method based on maximum entropy considerations is proposed for the construction of the prior on the wavelet coefficients. The new shrinkage function is obtained by coupling this prior to maximum a posteriori arguments. A comparison with classical shrinkage functions is given in a simulation example of image denoising in order to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed thresholding method.

  2. Some effects of noise upon maximum entropy spectral analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. R. King

    1977-01-01

    Some parameters of the Maximum Entropy Spectral Analysis (MESA) technique are defined for the case of an input signal added to noise. Also an optimal MESA filter is defined for determining the particular MESA power spectrum having the maximum output signal-to-noise ratio.

  3. Simplified maximum power point controller for PV installations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. B. Snyman; J. H. R. Enslin

    1993-01-01

    A new low-cost, simplified control strategy, based on the positive feedback of the output current in a maximum power point tracking (MPPT) converter, is introduced. Cost effective MPPT reduces the energy cost of renewable energy generators by optimizing the utilization of the renewable energy source. Maximum power point tracking for relative small photovoltaic (PV) power systems, with battery back-up, is

  4. Hex Inverter Outputs Source/Sink 24 mA

    E-print Network

    Berns, Hans-Gerd

    5-1 FACT DATA Hex Inverter · Outputs Source/Sink 24 mA · ACT04 Has TTL Compatible Inputs 1314 12 11 Voltage (Referenced to GND) ­0.5 to VCC +0.5 V Iin DC Input Current, per Pin ±20 mA Iout DC Output Sink/Source 10 9 8 21 3 4 5 6 7 GND VCC MAXIMUM RATINGS* Symbol Parameter Value Unit VCC DC Supply Voltage

  5. Optimum soft-output detection for channels with intersymbol interference

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yunxin Li; Branka Vucetic; Yoichi Sato

    1995-01-01

    In contrast to the conventional Viterbi algorithm (VA) which generates hard-outputs, an optimum soft-output algorithm (OSA) is derived under the constraint of fixed decision delay for detection of M-ary digital signals in the presence of intersymbol interference and additive white Gaussian noise. The OSA, a new type of the conventional symbol-by-symbol maximum a posteriori probability algorithm, requires only a forward

  6. Achieving Maximum Power in Thermoelectric Generation with Simple Power Electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youn, Nari; Lee, Hohyun; Wee, Daehyun; Gomez, Miguel; Reid, Rachel; Ohara, Brandon

    2014-06-01

    A thermoelectric generator typically delivers a relatively low power output, and hence it is of great practical importance to determine a design and operating condition close to those which can provide the maximum attainable power. To maintain a favorable condition for the maximum power output, power electronics circuits are usually applied. One of the simplest methods is to control the operating voltage at half the open-circuit voltage, assuming that the typical impedance-matching condition, in which the load and internal resistances are matched, yields the maximum power output. However, recent investigations have shown that, when external thermal resistances exist between the thermoelectric modules and thermal reservoirs, the impedance-matching condition is not identical to the condition for the maximum power output. In this article, it is argued that, although the impedance-matching condition is not the condition for maximum power output, the maximum power is still achievable when the operating voltage is kept at half the open-circuit voltage. More precisely, it is shown that the typical V- I curve for thermoelectric generators must show approximately linear behavior, which justifies the use of a simple strategy in thermoelectric power generation applications. The conditions for the validity of the approximation are mathematically discussed, supported by a few examples. Experimental evidence at room temperature is also provided.

  7. Financial Aid 2011 -2012

    E-print Network

    Saidak, Filip

    UNCG Financial Aid Handbook 2011 - 2012 #12;UNCG Financial Aid Office 2 Websites and Abbreviations 3 Financial Aid Checklist 4 Interaction with the Financial Aid Office 5 UNCGenie 5 The Application Aid and your bill 10 Return of Funds policy 11 Financial Aid Programs Federal, State and Institutional

  8. Edge-emitting diode lasers with narrow circular beam output

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lijie; Tong, Cunzhu; Zeng, Yugang; Ning, Yongqiang; Wang, Lijun

    2015-05-01

    We report near circular beam output from 808 nm edge-emitting diode lasers based on Bragg reflection waveguide design. Increasing quantum well number combined with reducing defect layer index and thickness was used to achieve high power output and extremely low vertical far field divergence. The TQW-BRLs achieve the lowest vertical divergence of 4.91° (full width at half maximum) and 9.8° (95% power). The maximum power of 4.6 W was achieved in the mounted DQW-BRL device under continuous-wave operation, being limited by thermal rollover.

  9. The cartel of good intentions: The problem of bureaucracy in foreign aid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William Easterly

    2002-01-01

    Well-meaning national and international bureaucracies dispense foreign aid under conditions in which bureaucracy fails. The environment that created aid bureaucracies led those organizations to (a) define their output as money disbursed rather than service delivered, (b) produce many low-return observable outputs (glossy reports and \\

  10. Lightweight multiple output converter development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kisch, J. J.; Martinelli, R. M.

    1978-01-01

    A high frequency, multiple output power conditioner was developed and breadboarded using an eight-stage capacitor diode voltage multiplier to provide +1200 Vdc, and a three-stage for -350 Vdc. In addition, two rectifier bridges were capacitively coupled to the eight-stage multiplier to obtain 0.5 and 0.65 a dc constant current outputs referenced to +1200 Vdc. Total power was 120 watts, with an overall efficiency of 85 percent at the 80 kHz operating frequency. All outputs were regulated to three percent or better, with complete short circuit protection. The power conditioner component weight and efficiency were compared to the equivalent four outputs of the 10 kHz conditioner for the 8 cm ion engine. Weight reduction for the four outputs was 557 grams; extrapolated in the same ratio to all nine outputs, it would be 1100 to 1400 grams.

  11. Electronic filters, hearing aids and methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engebretson, A. Maynard (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    An electronic filter for an electroacoustic system. The system has a microphone for generating an electrical output from external sounds and an electrically driven transducer for emitting sound. Some of the sound emitted by the transducer returns to the microphone means to add a feedback contribution to its electrical output. The electronic filter includes a first circuit for electronic processing of the electrical output of the microphone to produce a first signal. An adaptive filter, interconnected with the first circuit, performs electronic processing of the first signal to produce an adaptive output to the first circuit to substantially offset the feedback contribution in the electrical output of the microphone, and the adaptive filter includes means for adapting only in response to polarities of signals supplied to and from the first circuit. Other electronic filters for hearing aids, public address systems and other electroacoustic systems, as well as such systems and methods of operating them are also disclosed.

  12. Electronic filters, hearing aids and methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engebretson, A. Maynard (Inventor); O'Connell, Michael P. (Inventor); Zheng, Baohua (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    An electronic filter for an electroacoustic system. The system has a microphone for generating an electrical output from external sounds and an electrically driven transducer for emitting sound. Some of the sound emitted by the transducer returns to the microphone means to add a feedback contribution to its electical output. The electronic filter includes a first circuit for electronic processing of the electrical output of the microphone to produce a filtered signal. An adaptive filter, interconnected with the first circuit, performs electronic processing of the filtered signal to produce an adaptive output to the first circuit to substantially offset the feedback contribution in the electrical output of the microphone, and the adaptive filter includes means for adapting only in response to polarities of signals supplied to and from the first circuit. Other electronic filters for hearing aids, public address systems and other electroacoustic systems, as well as such systems, and methods of operating them are also disclosed.

  13. AIDS and Stigma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GREGORY M. HEREK

    1999-01-01

    This article briefly reviews current knowledge about AIDS-related stigma, defined as prejudice, discounting, discrediting, and discrimination directed at people perceived to have AIDS or HIV, and the individuals, groups, and communities with which they are associated. AIDS stigma has been manifested in discrimination, violence, and personal rejection of people with AIDS (PWAs). Whereas the characteristics of AIDS as an illness

  14. Output coupler for laser resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Lundstrom, E.A.

    1984-07-17

    A laser output coupler utilizes a birefrigent lens which has one side thereof curved so as to present a non uniform polarization distribution across the face of the lens. A polarized beam splitter is employed to separate the output beam from the feedback beam; the feedback beam having a non uniform distribution across the laser aperture enhances mode discrimination of a pulsed resonator.

  15. Output coupler for laser resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Lundstrom, E.A.

    1981-09-15

    A laser output coupler utilizes a birefringent lens which has one side thereof curved so as to present a non-uniform polarization distribution across the face of the lens. A polarized beam splitter is employed to separate the output beam from the feedback beam; the feedback beam having a non uniform distribution across the laser aperture enhances mode discrimination of a pulsed resonator.

  16. PLA optimization using output encoding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Saldanha; R. H. Katz

    1988-01-01

    An automatic tool that heuristically determines a good partitioning of a single large programmable logic array (PLA) into a PLA with a smaller number of encoded outputs (and usually fewer product terms), followed by a set of decoders to regenerate the original outputs, has been developed. Initial results using logic descriptions of processor chips and a benchmark set of industrial

  17. Benchmarking for maximum value.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Ed

    2009-03-01

    Speaking at the most recent Healthcare Estates conference, Ed Baldwin, of international built asset consultancy EC Harris LLP, examined the role of benchmarking and market-testing--two of the key methods used to evaluate the quality and cost-effectiveness of hard and soft FM services provided under PFI healthcare schemes to ensure they are offering maximum value for money. PMID:19344004

  18. Last Glacial Maximum

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kristine DeLong

    In this activity for undergraduates, students explore the CLIMAP (Climate: Long-Range Investigation, Mapping and Prediction) model results for differences between the modern and the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and discover the how climate and vegetation may have changed in different regions of the Earth based on scientific data.

  19. HIV/AIDS Basics

    MedlinePLUS

    ... you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | Subscribe ... Get Email Updates on HIV Anonymous Feedback HIV/AIDS Media Infographics Syndicated Content Podcasts Slide Sets HIV/ ...

  20. Hearing Aids for Children

    MedlinePLUS

    Hearing Aids for Children What do I need to know about hearing aids for my child? To achieve the best results ... it. It is important to understand how hearing aids work and how to select, operate, and care ...

  1. Heart attack first aid

    MedlinePLUS

    First aid - heart attack; First aid - cardiopulmonary arrest; First aid - cardiac arrest ... A heart attack occurs when the blood flow that carries oxygen to the heart is blocked. The heart muscle ...

  2. Output characteristics of LMA Yb3+-doped photonic crystal fiber lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Hongxin; Guan, Zelin; Sun, Jiang; Guo, Qinglin

    2009-07-01

    The output characteristics of fiber lasers built with large-mode-area(LMA) Yb3+-doped double-clad PCF are experimentally investigated. The gain fiber used in the experimental setup is a LMA Yb3+-doped double-clad PCF, which contains an Yb3+-doped core of 23?m in diameter and a holy inner clad of 420?m in diameter. In the forwardoutput configuration the maximum output is 3.43W and the slope efficiency is 34.6%. At the same pump power, the maximum output in the backward-output configuration is 3.63W and the slope efficiency is 38%. The spectra show that the fiber lasers in both forward-output and backward-output configurations produce multi-wavelength output in a range from 1067nm to 1076nm and unstable. Single wavelength output at 1067.5 nm with a FWHM of about 0.2nm is demonstrated by using a dual-end-output configuration, and a maximum output of 4.25W with a slope efficiency of 44.1% is obtained.

  3. Output optics for laser velocimeters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynch, Dana H. (inventor); Gunter, William D. (inventor); Mcalister, Kenneth W. (inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Space savings are effected in the optical output system of a laser velocimeter. The output system is comprised of pairs of optical fibers having output ends from which a beam of laser light emerges, a transfer lens for each light beam, and at least one final (LV) lens for receiving the light passing through the transfer lenses and for focussing that light at a common crossing point or area. In order to closely couple the transfer lenses to the final lens, each transfer lens is positioned relative to the final lens receiving light therefrom such that the output waist of the corresponding beam received by the final lens from the transfer lens is a virtual waist located before the transfer lens.

  4. Sensitive electrometer features digital output

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doong, H.

    1965-01-01

    Four-stage transistorized electrometer eliminates the need for a logarithmic compression network. It measures very low currents and produces a digital output directly indicative of the input current magnitude.

  5. Efficiency at maximum power of motor traffic on networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golubeva, N.; Imparato, A.

    2014-06-01

    We study motor traffic on Bethe networks subject to hard-core exclusion for both tightly coupled one-state machines and loosely coupled two-state machines that perform work against a constant load. In both cases we find an interaction-induced enhancement of the efficiency at maximum power (EMP) as compared to noninteracting motors. The EMP enhancement occurs for a wide range of network and single-motor parameters and is due to a change in the characteristic load-velocity relation caused by phase transitions in the system. Using a quantitative measure of the trade-off between the EMP enhancement and the corresponding loss in the maximum output power we identify parameter regimes where motor traffic systems operate efficiently at maximum power without a significant decrease in the maximum power output due to jamming effects.

  6. Efficiency at maximum power of motor traffic on networks.

    PubMed

    Golubeva, N; Imparato, A

    2014-06-01

    We study motor traffic on Bethe networks subject to hard-core exclusion for both tightly coupled one-state machines and loosely coupled two-state machines that perform work against a constant load. In both cases we find an interaction-induced enhancement of the efficiency at maximum power (EMP) as compared to noninteracting motors. The EMP enhancement occurs for a wide range of network and single-motor parameters and is due to a change in the characteristic load-velocity relation caused by phase transitions in the system. Using a quantitative measure of the trade-off between the EMP enhancement and the corresponding loss in the maximum output power we identify parameter regimes where motor traffic systems operate efficiently at maximum power without a significant decrease in the maximum power output due to jamming effects. PMID:25019736

  7. A cost-effective maximum likelihood receiver for multicarrier systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacky S. Chow; John M. Cioffi

    1992-01-01

    Equalization structures for maximum likelihood (ML) reception of data transmitted over intersymbol interference channels are studied. The equalizer that is best for the ML receiver is derived from a general theory of decision-aided equalization. The resulting optimum equalizers are linear and do not use previous decisions. If the equalizer complexity is permitted to be infinite, then a general optimum class

  8. International Student Financial Aid &

    E-print Network

    Jacobs, Lucia

    Options (in brief) BIO Financial Aid Program Scholarships & SearchTips Loans 3Tips for Handling FinancialInternational Student Financial Aid & Scholarship Search Berkeley International Office (BIO) 2299 below Financial HealthTips What is Financial Aid & Common Questions Aid from UC Berkeley Employment

  9. Aid and growth regressions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henrik Hansen; Finn Tarp

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between foreign aid and growth in real GDP per capita as it emerges from simple augmentations of popular cross-country growth specifications. It is shown that aid in all likelihood increases the growth rate, and this result is not conditional on ‘good’ policy. There are, however, decreasing returns to aid, and the estimated effectiveness of aid

  10. Perspectives on Financial Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Entrance Examination Board, New York, NY.

    The purpose of this book is to provide background information on administration of financial aid and financial aid resources. Sections are written by experts in financial aid who represent various geographical areas as well as the various sections of postsecondary education. Sections cover: (1) history of institutional aid in the United States;…

  11. Predicting maximum lake depth from surrounding topography.

    PubMed

    Hollister, Jeffrey W; Milstead, W Bryan; Urrutia, M Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Information about lake morphometry (e.g., depth, volume, size, etc.) aids understanding of the physical and ecological dynamics of lakes, yet is often not readily available. The data needed to calculate measures of lake morphometry, particularly lake depth, are usually collected on a lake-by-lake basis and are difficult to obtain across broad regions. To span the gap between studies of individual lakes where detailed data exist and regional studies where access to useful data on lake depth is unavailable, we developed a method to predict maximum lake depth from the slope of the topography surrounding a lake. We use the National Elevation Dataset and the National Hydrography Dataset - Plus to estimate the percent slope of surrounding lakes and use this information to predict maximum lake depth. We also use field measured maximum lake depths from the US EPA's National Lakes Assessment to empirically adjust and cross-validate our predictions. We were able to predict maximum depth for ?28,000 lakes in the Northeastern United States with an average cross-validated RMSE of 5.95 m and 5.09 m and average correlation of 0.82 and 0.69 for Hydrological Unit Code Regions 01 and 02, respectively. The depth predictions and the scripts are openly available as supplements to this manuscript. PMID:21984945

  12. The master hearing aid.

    PubMed

    Curran, James R; Galster, Jason A

    2013-06-01

    As early as the 1930s the term Master Hearing Aid (MHA) described a device used in the fitting of hearing aids. In their original form, the MHA was a desktop system that allowed for simulated or actual adjustment of hearing aid components that resulted in a changed hearing aid response. Over the years the MHA saw many embodiments and contributed to a number of rationales for the fitting of hearing aids. During these same years, the MHA was viewed by many as an inappropriate means of demonstrating hearing aids; the audio quality of the desktop systems was often superior to the hearing aids themselves. These opinions and the evolution of the MHA have molded the modern perception of hearing aids and the techniques used in the fitting of hearing aids. This article reports on a history of the MHA and its influence on the fitting of hearing aids. PMID:23686682

  13. The Master Hearing Aid

    PubMed Central

    Curran, James R.

    2013-01-01

    As early as the 1930s the term Master Hearing Aid (MHA) described a device used in the fitting of hearing aids. In their original form, the MHA was a desktop system that allowed for simulated or actual adjustment of hearing aid components that resulted in a changed hearing aid response. Over the years the MHA saw many embodiments and contributed to a number of rationales for the fitting of hearing aids. During these same years, the MHA was viewed by many as an inappropriate means of demonstrating hearing aids; the audio quality of the desktop systems was often superior to the hearing aids themselves. These opinions and the evolution of the MHA have molded the modern perception of hearing aids and the techniques used in the fitting of hearing aids. This article reports on a history of the MHA and its influence on the fitting of hearing aids. PMID:23686682

  14. Acoustic feedback cancellation in hearing aids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rongtai Wang; Ramesh Harjani

    1993-01-01

    The authors describe a maximum phase cancellation scheme for hearing aids that prevents acoustic oscillations. In this scheme, the open-loop phase delay in the primary audio frequency region is cancelled to the largest extent possible. At the same time, the magnitude response of the new open-loop transfer function outside the primary audio frequency region is suppressed by using negative feedback.

  15. Achieving Maximum Power from Thermoelectric Generators with Maximum-Power-Point-Tracking Circuits Composed of a Boost-Cascaded-with-Buck Converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hyunbin; Sim, Minseob; Kim, Shiho

    2015-06-01

    We propose a way of achieving maximum power and power-transfer efficiency from thermoelectric generators by optimized selection of maximum-power-point-tracking (MPPT) circuits composed of a boost-cascaded-with-buck converter. We investigated the effect of switch resistance on the MPPT performance of thermoelectric generators. The on-resistances of the switches affect the decrease in the conversion gain and reduce the maximum output power obtainable. Although the incremental values of the switch resistances are small, the resulting difference in the maximum duty ratio between the input and output powers is significant. For an MPPT controller composed of a boost converter with a practical nonideal switch, we need to monitor the output power instead of the input power to track the maximum power point of the thermoelectric generator. We provide a design strategy for MPPT controllers by considering the compromise in which a decrease in switch resistance causes an increase in the parasitic capacitance of the switch.

  16. Input-output characterization of fiber reinforced composites by P waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renneisen, John D.; Williams, James H., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Input-output characterization of fiber composites is studied theoretically by tracing P waves in the media. A new path motion to aid in the tracing of P and the reflection generated SV wave paths in the continuum plate is developed. A theoretical output voltage from the receiving transducer is calculated for a tone burst. The study enhances the quantitative and qualitative understanding of the nondestructive evaluation of fiber composites which can be modeled as transversely isotropic media.

  17. 47 CFR 95.639 - Maximum transmitter power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...whichever is less. (d) No FRS unit, under any condition of modulation, shall exceed 0.500 W effective radiated power (ERP). (e) The maximum transmitter output power authorized for LPRS stations is 100 mW. (f) In the MedRadio...

  18. 47 CFR 95.639 - Maximum transmitter power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...whichever is less. (d) No FRS unit, under any condition of modulation, shall exceed 0.500 W effective radiated power (ERP). (e) The maximum transmitter output power authorized for LPRS stations is 100 mW. (f) In the MedRadio...

  19. 47 CFR 95.639 - Maximum transmitter power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...whichever is less. (d) No FRS unit, under any condition of modulation, shall exceed 0.500 W effective radiated power (ERP). (e) The maximum transmitter output power authorized for LPRS stations is 100 mW. (f) In the MedRadio...

  20. Maximum wind energy extraction strategies using power electronic converters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Quincy Qing Wang

    2003-01-01

    This thesis focuses on maximum wind energy extraction strategies for achieving the highest energy output of variable speed wind turbine power generation systems. Power electronic converters and controls provide the basic platform to accomplish the research of this thesis in both hardware and software aspects. In order to send wind energy to a utility grid, a variable speed wind turbine

  1. AIDS and AIDS-treatment neuropathies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Derek Williams; Anthony Geraci; David M. Simpson

    2002-01-01

    AIDS and AIDS-treatment neuropathies are common in individuals infected with HIV. As patients live longer due to improved\\u000a antiretroviral therapies, the impact of painful neuropathy on patients’ lives may increase. Several antiretroviral medications\\u000a are known to cause toxic neuropathy in patients with AIDS, but this may be outweighed by the beneficial effects of viral suppression.\\u000a Current theories on the pathogenesis

  2. Introduction to maximum entropy

    SciTech Connect

    Sivia, D.S.

    1988-01-01

    The maximum entropy (MaxEnt) principle has been successfully used in image reconstruction in a wide variety of fields. We review the need for such methods in data analysis and show, by use of a very simple example, why MaxEnt is to be preferred over other regularizing functions. This leads to a more general interpretation of the MaxEnt method, and its use is illustrated with several different examples. Practical difficulties with non-linear problems still remain, this being highlighted by the notorious phase problem in crystallography. We conclude with an example from neutron scattering, using data from a filter difference spectrometer to contrast MaxEnt with a conventional deconvolution. 12 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Maximum gravitational recoil.

    PubMed

    Campanelli, Manuela; Lousto, Carlos O; Zlochower, Yosef; Merritt, David

    2007-06-01

    Recent calculations of gravitational radiation recoil generated during black-hole binary mergers have reopened the possibility that a merged binary can be ejected even from the nucleus of a massive host galaxy. Here we report the first systematic study of gravitational recoil of equal-mass binaries with equal, but counteraligned, spins parallel to the orbital plane. Such an orientation of the spins is expected to maximize the recoil. We find that recoil velocity (which is perpendicular to the orbital plane) varies sinusoidally with the angle that the initial spin directions make with the initial linear momenta of each hole and scales up to a maximum of approximately 4000 km s-1 for maximally rotating holes. Our results show that the amplitude of the recoil velocity can depend sensitively on spin orientations of the black holes prior to merger. PMID:17677894

  4. Maximum power configuration for multireservoir chemical engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Shaojun; Chen, Lingen; Sun, Fengrui

    2009-06-01

    A model of a multireservoir isothermal endoreversible chemical engine is put forward in this paper. Optimal control theory is used to determine the optimal configuration of the multireservoir isothermal endoreversible chemical engine for maximum power output. The optimal cycle consists of two constant chemical potential branches and two instantaneous constant mass-flux branches, which is independent of the number of mass reservoirs and the mass transfer law. The results show that, in order to obtain the maximum power output, some mass reservoirs should never connect to the working fluid in the mass transfer processes. A numerical example is provided for a linear mass transfer law three-mass-reservoir chemical engine. The effects of the potential changes of the intermediate mass reservoir on the optimal configuration of the chemical engine and the performance corresponding to the optimal configuration are analyzed. The obtained results are compared with those obtained for a multireservoir endoreversible heat engine. The object studied in this paper is general, and the results could provide some guidelines for optimal design and operation of real chemical engines.

  5. Method for optimizing the mechanical output of a fluid pressure free piston engine

    SciTech Connect

    Dibrell, E.W.; Schaich, W.A.

    1988-07-05

    The method is described for minimizing rotational speed variations of a centrifugal piston expander engine comprising the steps of: (1) supplying a pressured gas to a centrifugal piston expander engine having a rotatable output element and a discharge conduit for cooled exhaust gas; (2) expanding and cooling the pressured gas in the centrifugal piston expander engine to produce cyclically varying oppositely directed, positive and negative torques on the rotatable output shaft; (3) driving a rotary load in the positive torque direction by the rotatable output element through one rotatable element of a unidirectional clutch having two rotating elements relatively movable in only the negative torque direction; and (4) connecting a battery operated motor-generator unit to the rotatable output shaft to supplement the rotary speed of the output shaft during periods of negative torque output by the centrifugal piston expander engine and to recharge the battery during periods of maximum positive torque output of the centrifugal expander engine.

  6. Output Interference in Recognition Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Criss, Amy H.; Malmberg, Kenneth J.; Shiffrin, Richard M.

    2011-01-01

    Dennis and Humphreys (2001) proposed that interference in recognition memory arises solely from the prior contexts of the test word: Interference does not arise from memory traces of other words (from events prior to the study list or on the study list, and regardless of similarity to the test item). We evaluate this model using output

  7. Output regulation of nonlinear systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Isidori; C. I. Byrnes

    1990-01-01

    The problem of controlling a fixed nonlinear plant in order to have its output track (or reject) a family of reference (or disturbance) signal produced by some external generator is discussed. It is shown that, under standard assumptions, this problem is solvable if and only if a certain nonlinear partial differential equation is solvable. Once a solution of this equation

  8. x1 OUTPUT OUTPUT ROUTINES * 1. Output routines. This is the file that contains all the output routines fo*

    E-print Network

    van Leeuwen, Marc

    specific standard header files and `* *X Windows' programs are no exception. #include #include #include #include 3. There is one general header file pictures routines. This is the file that contains all the output routines fo* *r the pictures `X' envirom- ment

  9. High Precision HalfWave Rectifier Circuit In Dual Phase Output Mode

    E-print Network

    Jamjaem, Theerayut

    2010-01-01

    This paper present high precision halfwave rectifier circuit in dual phase output mode by 0.5 micrometer CMOS technology, plus or minus 1.5 V low voltage, it has received input signal and sent output current signal, respond in high frequency. The main structure compound with CMOS inverter circuit, common source circuit, and current mirror circuit. Simulation and confirmation quality of working by PSpice program, then it able to operating at maximum frequency about 100 MHz, maximum input current range about 400 \\mu Ap p, high precision output signal, low power dissipation, and uses a little transistor.

  10. Finding the quantum thermoelectric with maximal efficiency and minimal entropy production at given power output

    E-print Network

    Robert S. Whitney

    2015-03-16

    We investigate the nonlinear scattering theory for quantum systems with strong Seebeck and Peltier effects, and consider their use as heat-engines and refrigerators with finite power outputs. This article gives detailed derivations of the results summarized in Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 130601 (2014). It shows how to use the scattering theory to find (i) the quantum thermoelectric with maximum possible power output, and (ii) the quantum thermoelectric with maximum efficiency at given power output. The latter corresponds to a minimal entropy production at that power output. These quantities are of quantum origin since they depend on system size over electronic wavelength, and so have no analogue in classical thermodynamics. The maximal efficiency coincides with Carnot efficiency at zero power output, but decreases with increasing power output. This gives a fundamental lower bound on entropy production, which means that reversibility (in the thermodynamic sense) is impossible for finite power output. The suppression of efficiency by (nonlinear) phonon and photon effects is addressed in detail; when these effects are strong, maximum efficiency coincides with maximum power. Finally, we show in particular limits (typically without magnetic fields) that relaxation within the quantum system does not allow the system to exceed the bounds derived for relaxation-free systems, however, a general proof of this remains elusive.

  11. First Aid Kit

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This is a first aid kit used in fieldwork in the west. The kit is likely an army surplus item. The kit includes first aid materials for snake bites as well as more common ailments. Object ID: USGS-000057...

  12. First Aid: Influenza (Flu)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Safe Concussions: What to Know First Aid: The Flu KidsHealth > Parents > First Aid & Safety > Printable Safety Guides > ... tiredness What to Do If Your Child Has Flu Symptoms: Call your doctor. Encourage rest. Keep your ...

  13. MICROFICHE AIDS DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data set contains counts of AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) cases reported to state and local health departments, by demographics; case-definition; HIV exposure group (risk factors for AIDS); Half-year of diagnosis, report, and death....

  14. Adaptive Neural Output Feedback Control of Output-Constrained Nonlinear Systems With Unknown Output Nonlinearity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi; Lai, Guanyu; Zhang, Yun; Chen, Chun Lung Philip

    2015-08-01

    This paper addresses the problem of adaptive neural output-feedback control for a class of special nonlinear systems with the hysteretic output mechanism and the unmeasured states. A modified Bouc-Wen model is first employed to capture the output hysteresis phenomenon in the design procedure. For its fusion with the neural networks and the Nussbaum-type function, two key lemmas are established using some extended properties of this model. To avoid the bad system performance caused by the output nonlinearity, a barrier Lyapunov function technique is introduced to guarantee the prescribed constraint of the tracking error. In addition, a robust filtering method is designed to cancel the restriction that all the system states require to be measured. Based on the Lyapunov synthesis, a new neural adaptive controller is constructed to guarantee the prescribed convergence of the tracking error and the semiglobal uniform ultimate boundedness of all the signals in the closed-loop system. Simulations are implemented to evaluate the performance of the proposed neural control algorithm in this paper. PMID:25915964

  15. Comparison of performance across three directional hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Ricketts, T; Dhar, S

    1999-04-01

    This study compared the speech recognition performance of 12 hearing-impaired listeners fit with three commercially available behind-the-ear hearing aids in both directional and omnidirectional modes. One digitally programmable analog and two "true digital" hearing aids were selected as test instruments. Testing was completed in both "living room" and anechoic room environments. Speech recognition was examined using modified forms of the Hearing in Noise Test and the Nonsense Syllable Test. The single competing stimuli of these tests were replaced with five uncorrelated competing sources. Results revealed a significant speech recognition in noise advantage for all directional hearing aids in comparison to their omnidirectional counterparts. Maximum performance of the directional hearing aids did not significantly vary across circuit type, suggesting that processing differences did not affect maximum directional hearing aid performance. In addition, the results suggest that performance in one reverberant environment cannot be used to accurately predict performance in an environment with differing reverberation. PMID:10941709

  16. FINANCIAL AID AT WESLEYAN

    E-print Network

    Royer, Dana

    xi FINANCIAL AID AT WESLEYAN A G U I D E TO F I N A N C I A L A I D P RO G R A M S F O R A P P L I Applying for Financial Aid 1 The Financial Aid Award Letter 1 Verification of Information 1 Additional Required Documents for Disbursement of Aid 2 The Student Expense Budget 2 The Family Contribution 2

  17. FINANCIAL AID AT WESLEYAN

    E-print Network

    Devoto, Stephen H.

    xi FINANCIAL AID AT WESLEYAN A G U I D E TO F I N A N C I A L A I D P RO G R A M S F O R A P P L I Applying for Financial Aid 1 The Financial Aid Award Letter 1 Verification of Information 1 Additional Required Documents for Disbursement of Aid 1 The Student Expense Budget 2 The Family Contribution 2

  18. UNDERSTANDING FINANCIAL AID

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    understand the components of your financial aid package as well as the options available for financing your with questions you may have regarding your financial aid award and financing options available for your college2013-2014 GUIDE TO UNDERSTANDING FINANCIAL AID for UndergradUate Students ContinUing & Profe

  19. AIDS awareness: Indian context.

    PubMed

    Izhar, N

    1990-01-01

    A survey of the level of public awareness of AIDS in India was conducted on 600 men and women from Aligarth town, 180 km east of Delhi, and in Srinagar City in Kashmir Valley. Subjects were chosen from illiterate and below matriculate level; matriculate to graduate level; and graduate and above. Subjects were asked if they had heard of a disease called AIDS, when they first hears about AIDS, what was their 1st source of information, what are the reasons behind the incidence of AIDS and whether they are scared of AIDS. None of the illiterate group had heard of AIDS. 24% of the men and 14% of the women in the matriculate and graduate level group (clerks, mechanics, primary school teachers, businessmen and undergraduate students) had heard of AIDS. 92% of the highest educated group (lawyers, engineers, school principals and university students or teachers) had heard of AIDS. The 8% who had not were mostly women. Most of the highly educated, but fewer of the middle group were afraid of AIDS, but most thought AIDS would not spread in India because "our life pattern is different." None was aware that AIDS can spread from unchecked blood transfusions and re-use of unsterilized needles in hospitals. The most common information sources were newspapers, radio, magazines and friends. Most had not heard of AIDS from doctors or other health workers, or from television, which could be an extremely effective medium to reach people. PMID:2292385

  20. Designing State Aid Formulas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Bo; Bradbury, Katharine

    2009-01-01

    This paper designs a new equalization-aid formula based on fiscal gaps of local communities. When states are in transition to a new local aid formula, the issue of whether and how to hold existing aid harmless poses a challenge. The authors show that some previous studies and the formulas derived from them give differential weights to existing and…

  1. Aid, Policies, and Growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Craig Burnside; David Dollar

    2000-01-01

    This paper uses a new database on foreign aid to examine the relationships among foreign aid, economic policies, and growth per capita GDP. We find that aid has a positive impact on growth in developing countries with good fiscal, monetary, and trade policies but has little effect in the presence of poor policies. Good policies are ones that are themselves

  2. Microgyroscope with closed loop output

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Challoner, A. Dorian (Inventor); Gutierrez, Roman C. (Inventor); Tang, Tony K. (Inventor); Cargille, Donald R. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A micro-gyroscope (10) having closed loop operation by a control voltage (V.sub.TY), that is demodulated by an output signal of the sense electrodes (S1, S2), providing Coriolis torque rebalance to prevent displacement of the micro-gyroscope (10) on the output axis (y-axis). The present invention provides wide-band, closed-loop operation for a micro-gyroscope (10) and allows the drive frequency to be closely tuned to a high Q sense axis resonance. A differential sense signal (S1-S2) is compensated and fed back by differentially changing the voltage on the drive electrodes to rebalance Coriolis torque. The feedback signal is demodulated in phase with the drive axis signal (K.sub..omega..crclbar..sub.x) to produce a measure of the Coriolis force.

  3. Financial Aid Basics // 1 Special Aid Categories // 34

    E-print Network

    Slatton, Clint

    2013-14 Financial Aid Basics // 1 Special Aid Categories // 34 Additional Info // 28 Receiving your aid // 23 Financial Aid Programs // 10 How to Apply // 5 G TOR A DAI UF Handbook of Financial Aid legislation, as well as unintended error. All financial aid awards are contingent upon availability of funds

  4. HIV, AIDS, and the Future

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV, AIDS, and the Future Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table ... and your loved ones from HIV/AIDS. The AIDS Memorial Quilt In 1987, a total of 1, ...

  5. Simplified feed-forward control of the maximum power point in PV installations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. H. R. Enslin; D. B. Snyman

    1992-01-01

    A novel simplified control strategy, based on the positive feedback of a maximum power point tracking (MPPT) converter output current, is introduced. Cost-effective MPPT reduces the energy cost from renewable energy generators by optimizing the utilization of the renewable energy source. MPPT for relative small photovoltaic (PV) systems, with battery back-up, is achieved by maximization of the output current to

  6. Phosphorus utilization by rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss): estimation of dissolved phosphorus waste output

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. p. Bureau; C. y. Cho

    1999-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) waste output, notably in the dissolved form (DWP), is a major concern for many fish culture operations. Fish are believed to excrete DWP via the urine but this aspect has never been examined in detail. A better understanding of P utilization and renal P handling of fish could aid development of nutritional strategies for the management and reduction

  7. Maximal Cardiac Output Determines 6 Minutes Walking Distance in Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Deboeck, Gaël; Taboada, Dolores; Hagan, Guy; Treacy, Carmen; Page, Kathy; Sheares, Karen; Naeije, Robert; Pepke-Zaba, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The 6 minutes walk test (6MWT) is often shown to be the best predictor of mortality in pulmonary hypertension (PH) probably because it challenges the failing heart to deliver adequate cardiac output. We hypothesised that the 6MWT elicits maximal cardiac output as measured during a maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). Methods 18 patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (n?=?12) or pulmonary arterial hypertension (n?=?6) and 10 healthy subjects performed a 6MWT and CPET with measurements of cardiac output (non invasive rebreathing device) before and directly after exercise. Heart rate was measured during 6MWT with a cardiofrequence meter. Results Cardiac output and heart rate measured at the end of the 6MWT were linearly related to 6MW distance (mean±SD: 490±87 m). Patients with a high NT-pro-BNP achieve a maximum cardiac output during the 6MWT, while in normal subjects and in patients with a low-normal NT-proBNP, cardiac output at the end of a 6MWT was lower than achieved at maximum exercise during a CPET. In both cases, heart rate is the major determinant of exercise-induced increase in cardiac output. However, stroke volume increased during CPET in healthy subjects, not in PH patients. Conclusion Maximal cardiac output is elicited by 6MWT in PH patients with failing right ventricle. Cardiac output increase is dependent on chronotropic response in patients with PH. PMID:24647561

  8. Space Derived Health Aids (AID, Heart Monitor)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    CPI's spinoff from miniaturized pace circuitry is the new heart-assist device, the AID implantable automatic pulse generator. AID pulse generator monitors the heart continuously, recognizes onset of fibrillation, then administers a corrective electrical shock. A mini- computer, a power source, and two electrodes which sense heart activity are included in the unit. An associated system was also developed. It includes an external recorder to be worn by AID patients and a physician's console to display the data stored by the recorder. System provides a record of fibrillation occurrences and the ensuing defibrillation.

  9. Maximum equivalent efficiency and power output of a PEM fuel cell\\/refrigeration cycle hybrid system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiuqin Zhang; Xiaohang Chen; Bihong Lin; Jincan Chen

    2011-01-01

    With the help of the current models of proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells and three-heat-source refrigeration cycles, the general model of a PEM fuel cell\\/refrigeration cycle hybrid system is originally established, so that the waste heat produced in the PEM fuel cell may be availably utilized. Based on the theory of electrochemistry and non-equilibrium thermodynamics, expressions for the efficiency

  10. Maximum Output Amplitude of Linear Systems for certain Input Constraints1

    E-print Network

    Sontag, Eduardo

    a finite throughput capacity and tanks can only hold a cer- tain volume. These input- or actuator, possibly applied to the control system. In the example of the tank from above, not only the liquid-level is bounded (by the tanks height), additionally the liquid cannot change its level arbitrarily fast. A design

  11. Hearing Aid Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, Richard N. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Progress in hearing aids has come a long way. Yet despite such progress hearing aids are not the perfect answer to many hearing problems. Some adult ears cannot accommodate tightly fitting hearing aids. Mouth movements such as chewing, talking, and athletic or other active endeavors also lead to loosely fitting ear molds. It is well accepted that loosely fitting hearing aids are the cause of feedback noise. Since feedback noise is the most common complaint of hearing aid wearers it has been the subject of various patents. Herein a hearing aid assembly is provided eliminating feedback noise. The assembly includes the combination of a hearing aid with a headset developed to constrict feedback noise.

  12. Cardiac output monitoring in horses.

    PubMed

    Shih, Andre

    2013-04-01

    Cardiac output (CO) is the volume of blood pumped out by the heart in 1 minute. Monitoring of CO can guide therapy and improve clinical outcome in critically ill patients and during anesthesia. Although there is increasing research into clinically useful methods of monitoring CO in equine patients, there are limitations to the available methods. There are 4 basic methods of measuring CO: (1) indicator methods, (2) a derivation of the Fick principle, (3) arterial pulse wave analysis, and (4) imaging diagnostic techniques. This article discusses the importance of CO, available technology, and challenges of monitoring CO in equine medicine. PMID:23498050

  13. Output power analyses for the thermodynamic cycles of thermal power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Chen; Cheng, Xue-Tao; Liang, Xin-Gang

    2014-05-01

    Thermal power plant is one of the important thermodynamic devices, which is very common in all kinds of power generation systems. In this paper, we use a new concept, entransy loss, as well as exergy destruction, to analyze the single reheating Rankine cycle unit and the single stage steam extraction regenerative Rankine cycle unit in power plants. This is the first time that the concept of entransy loss is applied to the analysis of the power plant Rankine cycles with reheating and steam extraction regeneration. In order to obtain the maximum output power, the operating conditions under variant vapor mass flow rates are optimized numerically, as well as the combustion temperatures and the off-design flow rates of the flue gas. The relationship between the output power and the exergy destruction rate and that between the output power and the entransy loss rate are discussed. It is found that both the minimum exergy destruction rate and the maximum entransy loss rate lead to the maximum output power when the combustion temperature and heat capacity flow rate of the flue gas are prescribed. Unlike the minimum exergy destruction rate, the maximum entransy loss rate is related to the maximum output power when the highest temperature and heat capacity flow rate of the flue gas are not prescribed.

  14. Pomics: A Computer-aided Storytelling System with Automatic Picture-to-Comics Composition

    E-print Network

    Chen, Sheng-Wei

    Pomics: A Computer-aided Storytelling System with Automatic Picture-to-Comics Composition Ming for comic-based computer-aided storytelling systems to help users become comic storytellers. Such systems take users' photos as the input and output comic strips that tell the story behind the photos. We see

  15. LabVIEW Based Simulation System for the Output Characteristics of PV Cells and the Influence of Internal Resistance on It

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yang Gang; Chen Ming

    2009-01-01

    By using LabVIEW as software, a model of solar cells based on its output characteristic is built. The output characteristics of silicon solar cells and the maximum power point tracking system are simulated under different solar radiations. The influence of the internal resistance to the maximum power point and the fill factor of silicon solar cells are also simulated. The

  16. A Seamless Mode Transfer Maximum Power Point Tracking Controller for Thermoelectric Generator Applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rae-Young Kim; Jih-Sheng Lai

    2007-01-01

    A boost-cascaded-with-buck converter based power conditioning system employing a seamless mode transfer maximum power point tracking controller is proposed to maximize energy production of a thermoelectric generator while balancing the vehicle battery charging, alternator output power, and vehicle load. When a maximum power point exceeds a load demand, the proposed controller switches to a power matching mode seamlessly by a

  17. The Network Structure of Economic Output

    E-print Network

    Hidalgo, Cesar A.

    Much of the analysis of economic growth has focused on the study of aggregate output. Here, we deviate from this tradition and look instead at the structure of output embodied in the network connecting countries to the ...

  18. Financial Aid at HMS Bob Coughlin, Director of Financial Aid

    E-print Network

    Chou, James

    The Financial Aid Process The Award Package What Else to Expect Appeal Process Other Options/Resources Available Aid Process Two Pathways to Financial Aid Option I Applying for unit loan and grants ParentFinancial Aid at HMS Bob Coughlin, Director of Financial Aid Victor Anciano Granadillo, HMS '15

  19. Financial Aid Office 2012-2013 FINANCIAL AID TIMELINE

    E-print Network

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    financial aid options and anticipated educational costs. These websites provide estimates only; in orderFinancial Aid Office 2012-2013 FINANCIAL AID TIMELINE WVU's Net Price Calculator at www to officially apply for financial aid you must file the 2012-13 Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA

  20. Financial Aid Office 2011-2012 FINANCIAL AID TIMELINE

    E-print Network

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    Financial Aid Office 2011-2012 FINANCIAL AID TIMELINE To explore your financial aid options before, check with the agency for application and deadline information. March 2011 ! WVU Financial Aid Offices an award notification detailing how to accept/decline the financial aid offers from WVU. June 2011 ! First

  1. Financial Aid Office 2010-2011 FINANCIAL AID TIMELINE

    E-print Network

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    Financial Aid Office 2010-2011 FINANCIAL AID TIMELINE To explore your financial aid options before for application and deadline information. March 2010 WVU Financial Aid Offices begins to send award notifications/decline the financial aid offers from WVU. June 2010 First-time Direct Loan borrowers complete online Master Promissory

  2. Mathematics and the Heart: Understanding Cardiac Output

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Champanerkar, Jyoti

    2013-01-01

    This paper illustrates a biological application of the concepts of relative change and area under a curve, from mathematics. We study two biological measures "relative change in cardiac output" and "cardiac output", which are predictors of heart blockages and other related ailments. Cardiac output refers to the quantity of…

  3. Digital plus analog output encoder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hafle, R. S. (inventor)

    1976-01-01

    The disclosed encoder is adapted to produce both digital and analog output signals corresponding to the angular position of a rotary shaft, or the position of any other movable member. The digital signals comprise a series of binary signals constituting a multidigit code word which defines the angular position of the shaft with a degree of resolution which depends upon the number of digits in the code word. The basic binary signals are produced by photocells actuated by a series of binary tracks on a code disc or member. The analog signals are in the form of a series of ramp signals which are related in length to the least significant bit of the digital code word. The analog signals are derived from sine and cosine tracks on the code disc.

  4. Guide to Understanding Financial Aid

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    regarding your financial aid award and financing options available. Graduate Financial Aid Services canGuide to Understanding Graduate Financial Aid FINANCIAL AID SERVICES ACADEMIC AFFAIRS 2012-2013 #12;MESSAGE FROM THE DIRECTOR FINANCIAL AID SERVICES UNIVERSITY OF MASSACHUSETS AMHERST Dear UMass Amherst

  5. AIDS is your business.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Sydney; Simon, Jonathon; Vincent, Jeffrey R; MacLeod, William; Fox, Matthew; Thea, Donald M

    2003-02-01

    If your company operates in a developing country, AIDS is your business. While Africa has received the most attention, AIDS is also spreading swiftly in other parts of the world. Russia and Ukraine had the fastest-growing epidemics last year, and many experts believe China and India will suffer the next tidal wave of infection. Why should executives be concerned about AIDS? Because it is destroying the twin rationales of globalization strategy-cheap labor and fast-growing markets--in countries where people are heavily affected by the epidemic. Fortunately, investments in programs that prevent infection and provide treatment for employees who have HIV/AIDS are profitable for many businesses--that is, they lead to savings that outweigh the programs' costs. Due to the long latency period between HIV infection and the onset of AIDS symptoms, a company is not likely to see any of the costs of HIV/AIDS until five to ten years after an employee is infected. But executives can calculate the present value of epidemic-related costs by using the discount rate to weigh each cost according to its expected timing. That allows companies to think about expenses on HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment programs as investments rather than merely as costs. The authors found that the annual cost of AIDS to six corporations in South Africa and Botswana ranged from 0.4% to 5.9% of the wage bill. All six companies would have earned positive returns on their investments if they had provided employees with free treatment for HIV/AIDS in the form of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), according to the mathematical model the authors used. The annual reduction in the AIDS "tax" would have been as much as 40.4%. The authors' conclusion? Fighting AIDS not only helps those infected; it also makes good business sense. PMID:12577655

  6. High-Current Photodetectors as Efficient, Linear, and High-Power RF Output Stages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David A. Tulchinsky; John Brad Boos; Peter G. Goetz; William S. Rabinovich; Keith J. Williams

    2008-01-01

    Recent progress in high-current photodiodes now makes it possible to efficiently generate over 26 dBm of RF power directly from the output of a photodiode. This paper describes two photodetector designs which demonstrate excellent large- and small-signal behavior. Maximum small-signal compression currents have increased to over 700 mA at 300 MHz. Output RF power amplifier stage efficiencies of over 45%

  7. Maximum Error Modeling for Fault-Tolerant Computation using Maximum a posteriori (MAP) Hypothesis

    E-print Network

    Karthikeyan Lingasubramanian; Syed M. Alam; Sanjukta Bhanja

    2009-10-27

    The application of current generation computing machines in safety-centric applications like implantable biomedical chips and automobile safety has immensely increased the need for reviewing the worst-case error behavior of computing devices for fault-tolerant computation. In this work, we propose an exact probabilistic error model that can compute the maximum error over all possible input space in a circuit specific manner and can handle various types of structural dependencies in the circuit. We also provide the worst-case input vector, which has the highest probability to generate an erroneous output, for any given logic circuit. We also present a study of circuit-specific error bounds for fault-tolerant computation in heterogeneous circuits using the maximum error computed for each circuit. We model the error estimation problem as a maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimate, over the joint error probability function of the entire circuit, calculated efficiently through an intelligent search of the entire input space using probabilistic traversal of a binary join tree using Shenoy-Shafer algorithm. We demonstrate this model using MCNC and ISCAS benchmark circuits and validate it using an equivalent HSpice model. Both results yield the same worst-case input vectors and the highest % difference of our error model over HSpice is just 1.23%. We observe that the maximum error probabilities are significantly larger than the average error probabilities, and provides a much tighter error bounds for fault-tolerant computation. We also find that the error estimates depend on the specific circuit structure and the maximum error probabilities are sensitive to the individual gate failure probabilities.

  8. Computer Aided Interpretation Approach for Optical Tomographic Images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian D. Klose; Alexander D. Klose; Uwe Netz; Juergen Beuthan; Andreas H. Hielscher

    2010-01-01

    A computer-aided interpretation approach is proposed to detect rheumatic\\u000aarthritis (RA) of human finger joints in optical tomographic images. The image\\u000ainterpretation method employs a multi-variate signal detection analysis aided\\u000aby a machine learning classification algorithm, called Self-Organizing Mapping\\u000a(SOM). Unlike in previous studies, this allows for combining multiple physical\\u000aimage parameters, such as minimum and maximum values of the

  9. Teaching about AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grady, Michael L.; Miller, Wanda

    1987-01-01

    One article describes Boston (Massachusetts) City Schools' efforts to train school nurses and health and science teachers as AIDS educators while developing a factual program for students. Another article offers steps for implementing an effective AIDS curriculum. An inset provides information on practices and procedures used by certain school…

  10. Psychosocial aspects of AIDS.

    PubMed

    Goldmeier, D

    1987-03-01

    Bereavement after diagnosing AIDS or other HIV disease, psychological symptoms secondary to brain disease and the social consequences of having AIDS all interact to produce a devastating illness where the patient may be intensely grieving, demented and totally rejected by all of society. PMID:3828647

  11. First Aid: Falls

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Aid: What to Do Pregnant? What to Expect Sports: Keeping Kids Safe Concussions: What to Know First Aid: Falls KidsHealth > Parents > ... Bones A to Z: Head Injury Preventing Children's Sports Injuries Broken Bones Concussions Household Safety: Preventing Injuries From Falling, Climbing, and ...

  12. The aid effectiveness literature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hristos Doucouliagos; Supmartin Paldam

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: The AEL consists of empirical macro studies of the effects of development aid. At the end of 2004 it had reached 97 studies of three families, which we have summarized in one study each using meta-analysis. Studies of the effect on investments show that they rise by ,\\/3 ofthe aid – the rest is crowded out by a fall

  13. AIDS PUBLIC INFORMATION DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The AIDS Public Information Data Set is computer software designed to run on a Microsoft Windows microcomputer, and contains information abstracted from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) cases reported in the United States. The data set is created by the Division of HIV/A...

  14. Mental first aid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ø. T. Foss

    1994-01-01

    This paper reports a survey of staff of Oslo Sporveier who had been involved in serious incidents such as accidents resulting in severe personal injuries and death, suicide, robbery and assault. The survey was carried out to evaluate the efficacy of Mental First Aid in a restrospective study. The introduction of Mental First Aid was based on the beneficial effects

  15. Innovative Teaching Aids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christner, Chris

    1988-01-01

    Describes the DACUM (Developing A CurriculUM) process and how it is used at Universal Technical Institute to determine what types of training aids to produce. Indicates that examining the employment needs of industry and educational needs of students enhances programs and promotes development of innovative aids. (JOW)

  16. International Aid to Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benavot, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    Recent evidence highlights several worrisome trends regarding aid pledges and disbursements, which have been exacerbated by the global financial crisis. First, while overall development assistance rose in 2008, after 2 years of decline, the share of all sector aid going to the education sector has remained virtually unchanged at about 12 percent…

  17. Aid, Development, and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klees, Steven J.

    2010-01-01

    The world faces pervasive poverty and inequality. Hundreds of billions of dollars in international aid have been given or loaned to developing countries though bilateral and multilateral mechanisms, at least, ostensibly, in order to do something about these problems. Has such aid helped? Debates around this question have been ongoing for decades,…

  18. Federal Aid to Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooker, Clifford P.

    The nature of the shared responsibility for education is examined in this paper in which federal funds for education are viewed as an aid to the states and local communities. A brief review of the history of federal aid to education is given to place the topic in perspective. The central question examined is, Whose objectives are to be satisfied…

  19. AIDS Fact Pack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Population Options, Washington, DC.

    The three fact sheets presented in this document address issues surrounding adolescent sexuality and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), especially the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). The first fact sheet, "Young Women and AIDS: A Worldwide Perspective," suggests that since open discussions of adolescent sexuality have long been…

  20. Power output in vertical jumps: Does optimum loading depend on activity profiles?

    PubMed Central

    Pazin, Nemanja; Berjan, Bobana; Nedeljkovic, Aleksandar; Markovic, Goran; Jaric, Slobodan

    2013-01-01

    The previously proposed Maximum Dynamic Output hypothesis (MDO; i.e. the optimum load for maximizing the power output during jumping is one's own body) was tested on individuals of various activity profiles. Forty males (10 strength-trained athletes, 10 speed-trained athletes, 10 physically active non-athletes, and 10 sedentary individuals) performed different vertical jumps on a force plate while a pulley system was used to either reduce or increase the subject's body weight by 10–30%. As expected, an increase in external loading resulted in a significant increase (p < 0.001) in force output and a concomitant decrease of peak jumping velocity in all groups of participants. The main finding, however, was that all groups revealed the maximum peak and mean power output at approximately the subjects’ own body weight although their weight represented prominently different percentage of their maximum dynamic strength. While a significant (p < 0.05), albeit moderate, 'group × load' interaction in one jump was observed for the peak power output, the individual optimum load for maximizing the power output number did not differ among the groups. Although apparently further research on various types of movements is needed, the present results provide, so far, the strongest support of the MDO hypothesis. PMID:22864398

  1. Research Report: HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Home » HIV/AIDS » Letter from the Director HIV/AIDS Email Facebook Twitter Letter from the Director Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) — the virus that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) — has been with us for three decades now. ...

  2. HIV/AIDS and Alcohol

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Psychiatric Disorders Other Substance Abuse HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) targets the body’s immune ... and often leads to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Each year in the United States, between 55, ...

  3. AIDS Training in the Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vest, Jusanne M.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Management training regarding Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) begins with three needs assessment tools--instruments measuring fear of AIDS, knowledge of AIDS, and beliefs about the business consequences of the disease. (SK)

  4. FINANCIAL AID OVERVIEW SHEET FINANCIAL AID PORTAL

    E-print Network

    Cui, Yan

    to be considered for federal grants, loans, as well as UTHSC scholarships must complete the FAFSA. · UTHSC's FAFSA Scholarships and Grants: If you are a resident of the state of Tennessee, you might be eligible for state" with their designated Financial Aid counselor. Contact your counselor to complete this requirement. SCHOLARSHIPS

  5. [Output-factors for squared, rectangular, and elongated photon fields of medical linear accelerators].

    PubMed

    Jensen, Johannes M

    2004-01-01

    For reduction of data scattering in output-factor calculation, a new correction for Stirling's formula is introduced that takes into account the position of the upper and lower collimator jaw settings of linear accelerators. This correction factor requires two simple geometrical data of the treatment head, to describe the collimator exchange effect for open- as well as wedged fields. This model also implies a reduction of output measurements to only three field sizes, the minimum, the maximum, and a reference field size, without significant loss of accuracy in output factors. PMID:15323289

  6. Optimal filter design subject to output delobe constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortmann, T. E.; Athans, M.

    1972-01-01

    The design of filters for detection and estimation in radar and communications systems is considered, with inequality constraints on the maximum output sidelobe levels. A constrained optimization problem in Hilbert space is formulated, incorporating the sidelobe constraints via a partial ordering of continuous functions. Generalized versions (in Hilbert space) of the Kuhn-Tucker and Duality Theorems allow the reduction of this problem to an unconstrained one in the dual space of regular Borel measures. A convergent algorithm is presented for computational solution of the dual problem.

  7. Model output: fact or artefact?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melsen, Lieke

    2015-04-01

    As a third-year PhD-student, I relatively recently entered the wonderful world of scientific Hydrology. A science that has many pillars that directly impact society, for example with the prediction of hydrological extremes (both floods and drought), climate change, applications in agriculture, nature conservation, drinking water supply, etcetera. Despite its demonstrable societal relevance, hydrology is often seen as a science between two stools. Like Klemeš (1986) stated: "By their academic background, hydrologists are foresters, geographers, electrical engineers, geologists, system analysts, physicists, mathematicians, botanists, and most often civil engineers." Sometimes it seems that the engineering genes are still present in current hydrological sciences, and this results in pragmatic rather than scientific approaches for some of the current problems and challenges we have in hydrology. Here, I refer to the uncertainty in hydrological modelling that is often neglected. For over thirty years, uncertainty in hydrological models has been extensively discussed and studied. But it is not difficult to find peer-reviewed articles in which it is implicitly assumed that model simulations represent the truth rather than a conceptualization of reality. For instance in trend studies, where data is extrapolated 100 years ahead. Of course one can use different forcing datasets to estimate the uncertainty of the input data, but how to prevent that the output is not a model artefact, caused by the model structure? Or how about impact studies, e.g. of a dam impacting river flow. Measurements are often available for the period after dam construction, so models are used to simulate river flow before dam construction. Both are compared in order to qualify the effect of the dam. But on what basis can we tell that the model tells us the truth? Model validation is common nowadays, but validation only (comparing observations with model output) is not sufficient to assume that a model reflects reality. E.g. due to nonuniqueness or so called equifinality; different model construction lead to same output (Oreskes et al., 1994, Beven, 2005). But also because validation only does not provide us information on whether we are 'right for the wrong reasons' (Kirchner, 2006; Oreskes et al., 1994). We can never know how right or wrong our models are, because we do not fully understand reality. But we can estimate the uncertainty from the model and the input data itself. Many techniques have been developed that help in estimating model uncertainty. E.g. model structural uncertainty, studied in the FUSE framework (Clark et al., 2008), parameter uncertainty with GLUE (Beven and Binley, 1992) and DREAM (Vrugt et al., 2008), input data uncertainty using BATEA (Kavetski et al., 2006). These are just some examples that pop-up in a first search. But somehow, these techniques are only used and applied in studies that focus on the model uncertainty itself, and hardly ever occur in studies that have a research question outside of the uncertainty-region. We know that models don't tell us the truth, but we have the tendency to claim they are, based on validation only. A model is always a simplification of reality, which by definition leads to uncertainty when model output and observations of reality are compared. The least we could do is estimate the uncertainty of the model and the data itself. My question therefore is: As a scientist, can we accept that we believe things of which we know they might not be true? And secondly: How to deal with this? How should model uncertainty change the way we communicate scientific results? References Beven, K., and A. Binley, The future of distributed models: Model calibration and uncertainty prediction, HP 6 (1992). Beven, K., A manifesto for the equifinality thesis, JoH 320 (2006). Clark, M.P., A.G. Slater, D.E. Rupp, R.A. Woods, J.A. Vrugt, H.V. Gupta, T. Wagener and L.E. Hay, Framework for Understanding Structural Errors (FUSE): A modular framework to diagnose differences between hydrological models, WRR 44 (20

  8. Principles of maximum entropy and maximum caliber in statistical physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pressé, Steve; Ghosh, Kingshuk; Lee, Julian; Dill, Ken A.

    2013-07-01

    The variational principles called maximum entropy (MaxEnt) and maximum caliber (MaxCal) are reviewed. MaxEnt originated in the statistical physics of Boltzmann and Gibbs, as a theoretical tool for predicting the equilibrium states of thermal systems. Later, entropy maximization was also applied to matters of information, signal transmission, and image reconstruction. Recently, since the work of Shore and Johnson, MaxEnt has been regarded as a principle that is broader than either physics or information alone. MaxEnt is a procedure that ensures that inferences drawn from stochastic data satisfy basic self-consistency requirements. The different historical justifications for the entropy S=-?ipilog?pi and its corresponding variational principles are reviewed. As an illustration of the broadening purview of maximum entropy principles, maximum caliber, which is path entropy maximization applied to the trajectories of dynamical systems, is also reviewed. Examples are given in which maximum caliber is used to interpret dynamical fluctuations in biology and on the nanoscale, in single-molecule and few-particle systems such as molecular motors, chemical reactions, biological feedback circuits, and diffusion in microfluidics devices.

  9. Prediction of electron beam output factors.

    PubMed

    Mills, M D; Hogstrom, K R; Almond, P R

    1982-01-01

    A method to predict square and rectangular field output factors from the measurement of selected fields of electron beams on the Therac 20 Saturne has been developed. A two parameter fit of the square field output factor data, based on the functional dependence as predicted by a pencil beam calculational model, has proven clinically acceptable. The pencil beam distributions are given by the Fermi-Eyges theory of multiple Coulomb scattering. For a rectangular field, the output factor can be calculated from the square root of the product of the two square field output factors wtih sides equal to those of the rectangular field. If however, there is a significant asymmetry between the X and Y collimator systems, then rectangular field output factors should be predicted from the product of the X and Y one-dimensional output factors. One-dimensional output factors are defined as output factors of rectangular fields where one side remains constant and equal to the side of the square reference field. Measured data indicate either of the two methods of determining rectangular field output factors to be clinically acceptable for the Therac 20, the use of one-dimensional output factors demonstrating greater accuracy. Data show agreement to within approximately 1.5% at electron energies of 6, 9, 13, and 17 MeV. PMID:6804772

  10. Geometrical entity and operation unification for computer-aided design and manufacture

    SciTech Connect

    Seidman, G.R.

    1990-01-01

    Three major issues faced by the software developer of a CAD/CAM system for the design and manufacturing industries are reducing the development time for a desired level of system capability, making the system expandable, and maintaining a desired tolerance for all geometric operations while simultaneously achieving a minimal memory requirement of operator output. This dissertation presents a completely unified approach to the construction of a geometric modeler for computer aided design and manufacture. The completely unified geometric modeler not only unifies the geometric representation for all geometric entities, but also unifies geometric operations to be performed on those entities, hence the term, Geometrical Entity and Operation Unification. Since Geometrical Entity Unification guarantees the functional equivalence of all geometric entities, geometric operations are performed with equal facility on all entities. With Geometrical Operation Unification, only a very small family of geometric operation procedures need to be coded, where a single operator procedure is able to perform many familiar operations when given various input parameters. The unification of entities and operations achieves the minimum development time with maximum capability and expandability. GEU-maker, the unifying computation engine of every geometric operation, is also presented in this dissertation. The GEU-maker is the single mechanism employed by each geometric operator to compute a result which achieves near minimum representation and which maintains a given tolerance of tau from the true result relative to a minimum-maximum norm.

  11. Design and material variation for an improved power output of AMTEC cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lodhi, M. A. K.; Daloglu, A.

    A number of design changes for improving the alkali metal thermo-electric converter (AMTEC) cell performance are investigated. In this study, both the material used in AMTEC cell and the dimensions of the cell are changed at the same time. Two different hot side temperatures, Thot=1173 K and Thot=1023 K, are tested. The condenser temperature, Tcond, is kept at 623 K. Results show that the maximum cell conversion efficiency and the maximum electrical power output take place for different cases. Comparing the PX-3A in operation at Thot=1173 K with the one proposed here, the maximum electrical power output and the maximum cell conversion efficiency increased by 43 and 44%, respectively. The corresponding values for Thot=1023 K are 46 and 48%.

  12. HIV / AIDS and tourism.

    PubMed

    Forsythe, S

    1999-01-01

    Since it tends to be significantly affected by HIV/AIDS, the tourism sector is a likely target for HIV/AIDS interventions in many countries. The tourist industry is at particular risk from the pandemic because of the mobility of the work force, the presence of sex tourists, and the heavy reliance of many countries upon tourism revenues. Indeed, tourism is one of the largest and fastest growing industries in many countries. Some people have speculated that potential tourists' fear of AIDS could discourage them from visiting certain countries, while others have even suggested that tourism should be discouraged because the industry contributes to the spread of HIV/AIDS. When traveling, tourists often take risks that they would not take at home. They tend to drink more, use drugs more, and be generally more adventurous while on holiday. Such adventures often include taking sexual risks. When tourists have sex with prostitutes, hotel staff, and others in the local population, a bridge can be created for HIV to cross back and forth between the tourist's home country and the tourist destination. The author reviews selected studies on the relationship between HIV/AIDS and tourism. Overall, the existing literature offers no definitive evidence that AIDS has had any lasting impact upon the tourism industry anywhere in the world. Rather, promoting a healthy tourism industry and HIV/AIDS prevention are likely complementary in many ways. PMID:12349153

  13. Implantable Heart Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Medrad utilized NASA's Apollo technology to develop a new device called the AID implantable automatic pulse generator which monitors the heart continuously, recognizes the onset of ventricular fibrillation and delivers a corrective electrical shock. AID pulse generator is, in effect, a miniaturized version of the defibrillator used by emergency squads and hospitals to restore rhythmic heartbeat after fibrillation, but has the unique advantage of being permanently available to the patient at risk. Once implanted, it needs no specially trained personnel or additional equipment. AID system consists of a microcomputer, a power source and two electrodes which sense heart activity.

  14. Bessel function output from an optical correlator.

    PubMed

    Davis, J A; Haavig, L L; Cottrell, D M

    1997-04-10

    We introduce a new filter for an optical correlator that produces a Bessel function correlation output. The advantage of this type of output is that the width of the central dark spot at the center of the correlator output is narrower than the width of the usual correlation spot. In addition, the dark spot is insensitive to changes in illumination intensity. We present experimental results with which we write the new filter onto a programmable magneto-optic spatial light modulator. PMID:18253215

  15. Financial Aid Handbook Office of Financial Aid and Scholarships

    E-print Network

    Collins, Gary S.

    of this Handbook is to help you understand financial aid processes, options for paying your college costs, and your2013-2014 Financial Aid Handbook Office of Financial Aid and Scholarships #12;2 The purpose rights and responsibilities as a student receiving financial aid at Washington State University

  16. Pulmonary complications of AIDS: radiologic features. [AIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, B.A.; Pomeranz, S.; Rabinowitz, J.G.; Rosen, M.J.; Train, J.S.; Norton, K.I.; Mendelson, D.S.

    1984-07-01

    Fifty-two patients with pulmonary complications of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were studied over a 3-year period. The vast majority of the patients were homosexual; however, a significant number were intravenous drug abusers. Thirteen different organisms were noted, of which Pneumocystis carinii was by far the most common. Five patients had neoplasia. Most patients had initial abnormal chest films; however, eight patients subsequently shown to have Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia had normal chest films. A significant overlap in chest radiographic findings was noted among patients with different or multiple organisms. Lung biopsy should be an early consideration for all patients with a clinical history consistent with the pulmonary complications of AIDS. Of the 52 patients, 41 had died by the time this report was completed.

  17. A Study of a Two Stage Maximum Power Point Tracking Control of a Photovoltaic System under Partially Shaded Insolation Conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenji Kobayashi; Ichiro Takano; Yoshio Sawada

    2004-01-01

    A photovoltaic array shows relatively low output power density, and has a greatly drooping Current-Voltage (I-V) characteristic. Therefore, Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) control is used to maximize the output power of the array. Many papers have been reported in relation to MPPT. However, the Current-Power (I-P) curve sometimes shows multi-local maximum points mode under non-uniform insolation conditions. The operating

  18. A study on a two stage maximum power point tracking control of a photovoltaic system under partially shaded insolation conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Kobayashi; I. Takano; Y. Sawada

    2003-01-01

    A photovoltaic (PV) array shows relatively low output power density, and has a greatly drooping current-voltage (I-V) characteristic. Therefore, maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control is used to maximize the output power of the PV array. Many papers have been reported in relation to MPPT. However, the current-power (I-P) curve sometimes shows multilocal maximum points mode under nonuniform insolation conditions.

  19. First Aid and Safety

    MedlinePLUS

    ... First-Aid Kit Food Safety for Your Family Gun Safety Halloween Candy Hints Household Safety Checklists Household ... Climbing, and Grabbing Household Safety: Preventing Injuries From Firearms Household Safety: Preventing Injuries in the Crib Household ...

  20. Computer Aided Creativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proctor, Tony

    1988-01-01

    Explores the conceptual components of a computer program designed to enhance creative thinking and reviews software that aims to stimulate creative thinking. Discusses BRAIN and ORACLE, programs intended to aid in creative problem solving. (JOW)

  1. HIV and AIDS

    MedlinePLUS

    ... that causes the disease AIDS. HIV Hurts the Immune System People who are HIV positive have been tested ... to everyone in the world. When the person's immune system has weakened and more of the blood's T ...

  2. [AIDS and human rights].

    PubMed

    Rico, B; Uribe-Zúñiga, P; Panebianco-Labbé, S; del Río-Chiriboga, C

    1995-01-01

    AIDS and human rights are closely related issues. This paper describes the relationship between AIDS and human rights, the impact and consequences of discrimination and the importance of the defense of human rights as a cornerstone strategy in AIDS prevention. Some general ethical aspects are addressed and two dilemmas which have been raised by the epidemic are discussed: the apparent conflict between individual and community rights and the reactions of intolerance and repression from those who claim that only through coercive strategies will the epidemic be brought under control. Specific problems in Mexico are described based on data collected at CONASIDA's Human Rights Department between 1992 and 1994. Finally some conclusions are stated emphasizing that, in the AIDS epidemic, the defense of human rights is the cornerstone of any public health strategy. PMID:8599140

  3. Nosebleed, First Aid

    MedlinePLUS

    ... measures discussed in the First Aid Guide, seek medical care. Treatments Your Provider May Prescribe The physician may pack the nose with gauze or an inflatable latex balloon to properly put pressure on the blood vessel(s) ...

  4. Home Health Aides

    MedlinePLUS

    ... skills demonstrating competency, and passing a written exam. Training Home health aides may be trained in housekeeping ... all workers was $34,750. On-the-job Training Additional training needed (postemployment) to attain competency in ...

  5. Home First Aid Kit

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Never give aspirin to treat the flu. q Cough and Cold Medications. Be sure to give medications ... Also be mindful of choking hazards when giving cough drops to young children. HOMe FIrst AId KIt ...

  6. First Aid: Choking

    MedlinePLUS

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading All About Allergies First Aid: What to Do ... make the situation worse. Keep the following in mind: If your child is gagging and coughing but ...

  7. House OK's Russian aid

    SciTech Connect

    Rothstein, L.

    1993-09-01

    This article discusses the 2.5 Billion dollar aid package to Russia which House Appropriations Foreign Operations Subcommittee Chairman David Obey successfully defended on the House floor last June. Arizona Republican Jon Kyl offered an admendment that would cut 700 million from the package and was defeated with a 118 to 140 vote. The bill is currently in the hands of the Senate. The controversy over the bill and details concerning the aid package are discussed. The aid deal includes 250 million dollars for nuclear reactor safety and energy as well as environmental technical assistance, 655 million dollars to aid private sector development, and 704 million dollars for additional technical and economic assistance.

  8. Hearing Aid Tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Hearing aids often develop malfunctions that are not detected by the wearer. This is particularly true when the wearers are school-age children. Studies of selected groups showed that from 30 to more than 50 percent of school children were not getting adequate benefit from their hearing aids because of unrecognized malfunctions, usually low or dead batteries. This can be serious because hearing impairment retards a child's educational progress. NASA technology incorporated in the Hearing Aid Malfunction Detection Unit (HAMDU), the device pictured, is expected to provide an effective countermeasure to the childrens' hearing aid problem. A patent license has been awarded to a minority-owned firm, Hopkins International Company, a subsidiary of H. H. Aerospace Design Co., Inc., Elmford, New York. The company plans early commercial availability of its version of the device.

  9. How HIV Causes AIDS

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Tools Print this page Get email updates Order publications Volunteer for Clinical Studies Help people who are suffering from chronic, serious, or life-threatening illnesses related to HIV/AIDS by volunteering for NIAID clinical ...

  10. Joint Bias Correction of Multiple Climate Model Outputs for Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGinnis, S. A.; Sain, S. R.; Mearns, L. O.

    2014-12-01

    Climate model output often contains significant biases that can hinder its use in impacts analysis. Recent work has shown that, of the many bias correction methods in use, the best overall performance is provided by distribution mapping. Distribution mapping corrects bias via a transfer function that adjusts data points such that the cumulative distribution function (CDF) of the model output matches the CDF of the observational data. However, this method is not guaranteed to preserve the relationships between variables when applied to the variables individually.We present a new method of bias-correcting multiple variables jointly based on simultaneous diagonalization of the covariance matrices. This process transforms the variables into an uncorrelated form, where each component can be corrected independently using distribution mapping; the corrected variables are then transformed back into their original form, restoring the correlations of their joint distribution.We apply the method to model output from NARCCAP (the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program), bias-correcting 7 impacts-relevant variables (daily minimum and maximum temperature, precipitation, incoming solar radiation, specific humidity, and u- and v-winds) to match the University of Idaho's METDATA, which combines NLDAS-2 reanalysis with PRISM observations to derive a high-resolution daily gridded observational dataset for the contiguous United States. This joint multivariate bias correction produces results that better capture regional climate processes, such as the seasonal pattern of differences in moisture flux on dry vs rainy days and seasonal changes in diurnal heating on clear vs cloudy days.

  11. Guide to Understanding Financial Aid

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    the components of your financial aid package as well as the options available for financing your education. What your financial aid award and financing options available for your college education. Financial Aid1 Guide to Understanding Financial Aid for Undergraduate Continuing & Professional Education

  12. Financial Aid SUMMER TERM 2014

    E-print Network

    Amin, S. Massoud

    ends with summer term which often means that financial aid options are limited. Complete instructionsFinancial Aid SUMMER TERM 2014 FINANCIAL AID To be eligible for Office of Student Finance (OSF) summer term financial aid you must be officially admitted to a U of M Twin Cities degree program

  13. Living with HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Finding your HIV care team Mental health and HIV/AIDS Pregnancy and HIV/AIDS Parenting a child with HIV ... Finding your HIV care team Mental health and HIV/AIDS Pregnancy and HIV/AIDS Parenting a child with HIV ...

  14. First Aid at Work Introduction

    E-print Network

    First Aid at Work Introduction 1. The Forestry Commission has updated its First Aid at Work policy will need to: Assess your first aid provision and requirements, with the help of this document. Put that we have first aid provision in place so that we can give them immediate attention and call

  15. AIDS and racism in America.

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, J.

    1992-01-01

    Institutionalized racism affects general health care as well as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) health intervention and services in minority communities. The overrepresentation of minorities in various disease categories, including AIDS, is partially related to racism. The national response to the AIDS epidemic in minority communities has been slow, showing an insensitivity to ethnic diversity in prevention efforts and AIDS health services. PMID:1602509

  16. Foreign aid and illegal immigration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helena Gaytán-Fregoso; Sajal Lahiri

    2000-01-01

    We develop a two-country model of illegal immigration. We analyse the effect of foreign aid on illegal immigration, and consider both exogenous and endogenous income repatriation. In the former, an increase in aid increases illegal immigration if the total amount of aid is small. A transfer of resources from border control to aid increases illegal immigration when the total amount

  17. Control strategy for maximum anaerobic co-digestion performance.

    PubMed

    García-Gen, Santiago; Rodríguez, Jorge; Lema, Juan M

    2015-09-01

    A control strategy for optimising the performance of anaerobic co-digestion in terms of methane productivity, digestate quality and process stability is presented. A linear programming approach is adopted to calculate the feeding of multiple substrates for maximum methane productivity, subjected to restrictions based on experimental and heuristic knowledge. Process stability is quantitatively assessed by an empirical diagnosis function comparing alkalinity ratio measurements against reference values (outputs between (-1,1]). A second empirical diagnosis function is defined to compare methane flow rate measurements against a reference value of maximum capacity (outputs between (0,1]). A variable-gain control function (outputs between (-1,1]), derived from the diagnosis functions, is defined to determine the quantitative change applied to the most active constraint of the substrate blend optimisation problem leading to a new set-point of feeding substrates blend. The control strategy works in a closed-loop architecture under which the process performance for each blend of substrates is continuously assessed. The system was successfully validated in a 1 m(3) hybrid Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket - Anaerobic Filter (UASB-AF) reactor, treating blends of substrates (gelatine, glycerine and pig manure supernatant) at OLR values between 0.71 and 6.33 gCOD/L d over a period of 210 days at mesophilic conditions. PMID:26001824

  18. The Maximum Density of Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses a series of experiments performed by Thomas Hope in 1805 which show the temperature at which water has its maximum density. Early data cast into a modern form as well as guidelines and recent data collected from the author provide background for duplicating Hope's experiments in the classroom. (JN)

  19. Maximum Chemical and Physical Hardness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ralph G. Pearson

    1999-01-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) is briefly reviewed, especially concepts such as the electronic chemical potential and the hardness of the electron density function. There is much evidence, and a mathematical proof, that this chemical hardness is a maximum for an equilibrium system. The proof is based on a combination of statistical mechanics, the fluctuation-dissipation theorem, and correlation functions. In MO

  20. Water resources and environmental input-output analysis and its key study issues: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    YANG, Z.; Xu, X.

    2013-12-01

    Used to study the material and energy flow in socioeconomic system, Input-Output Analysis(IOA) had been an effective analysis tool since its appearance. The research fields of Input-Output Analysis were increasingly expanded and studied in depth with the development of fundamental theory. In this paper, starting with introduction of theory development, the water resources input-output analysis and environmental input-output analysis had been specifically reviewed, and two key study issues mentioned as well. Input-Occupancy-Output Analysis and Grey Input-Output Analysis whose proposal and development were introduced firstly could be regard as the effective complements of traditional IOA theory. Because of the hypotheses of homogeneity, stability and proportionality, Input-Occupancy-Output Analysis and Grey Input-Output Analysis always had been restricted in practical application inevitably. In the applied study aspect, with investigation of abundant literatures, research of water resources input-output analysis and environmental input-output analysis had been comprehensively reviewed and analyzed. The regional water resources flow between different economic sectors had been systematically analyzed and stated, and several types of environmental input-output analysis models combined with other effective analysis tools concluded. In two perspectives in terms of external and inland aspect, the development of water resources and environmental input-output analysis model had been explained, and several typical study cases in recent years listed respectively. By the aid of sufficient literature analysis, the internal development tendency and study hotspot had also been summarized. In recent years, Chinese literatures reporting water resources consumption analysis and virtue water study had occupied a large share. Water resources consumption analysis had always been the emphasis of inland water resources IOA. Virtue water study had been considered as the new hotspot of inland water resources IOA. Recent internal study references related to environmental input-output table, pollution discharge analysis and environmental impact assessment had taken the leading position. Pollution discharge analysis mainly aiming at CO2 discharge had been regard as a new hotspot of environmental IOA. Environmental impact assessment was an important direction of inland environmental IOA in recent years. Key study issues including Domestic Technology Assumption(DTA) and Sectoral Aggregation(SA) had been mentioned remarkably. It was pointed out that multiply multi-region input-output analysis(MIOA) may be helpful to solve DTA. Because there was little study using effective analysis tools to quantify the bias of SA and the exploration of the appropriate sectoral aggregation degree was scarce, research dedicating to explore and solve these two key issues was deemed to be urgently needed. According to the study status, several points of outlook were proposed in the end.

  1. Output characteristics of Stirling thermoacoustic engine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daming Sun; Limin Qiu; Bo Wang; Yong Xiao; Liang Zhao

    2008-01-01

    A thermoacoustic engine (TE), which converts thermal energy into acoustic power by the thermoacoustic effect, shows several advantages due to the absence of moving parts, such as high reliability and long lifetime associated with reduced manufacturing costs. Power output and efficiency are important criteria of the performance of a TE. In order to increase the acoustic power output and thermal

  2. Computer Output Microfilm and Library Catalogs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Richard W.

    Early computers dealt with mathematical and scientific problems requiring very little input and not much output, therefore high speed printing devices were not required. Today with increased variety of use, high speed printing is necessary and Computer Output Microfilm (COM) devices have been created to meet this need. This indirect process can…

  3. VF CWEB OUTPUT 1 The Voting Farm

    E-print Network

    VF CWEB OUTPUT 1 The Voting Farm A Distributed Class for Software Voting V1.5 by Vincenzo De Florio Katholieke Universiteit Leuven Departement Elektrotechniek Afdeling ESAT/ACCA #12;2 CWEB OUTPUT VF 1. VotingFarm module connected to one user module and to a farm of fellow voters arranged into a cliqu´e. User Module

  4. The pagesel package "Selecting shipout output pages"

    E-print Network

    Mintmire, John W.

    The pagesel package "Selecting shipout output pages" 1999/04/13, v1.1 Heiko Oberdiek1 Abstract With this package single pages or page areas can be selected for output. Contents 1 Usage 1 1.1 Page selecting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1.1.1 Options for selecting pages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1.1.2 Examples

  5. Transient Expression Assays for Quantifying Signaling Output

    E-print Network

    Sheen, Jen

    Chapter 16 Transient Expression Assays for Quantifying Signaling Output Yajie Niu and Jen Sheen Abstract The protoplast transient expression system has become a powerful and popular tool for studying the output of various signaling pathways. Key words: Arabidopsis, Mesophyll protoplast, Transient expression

  6. Efficient input—output model representations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Herschel Rabitz; Ömer F. Ali?; Jeffrey Shorter; Kyurhee Shim

    1999-01-01

    A family of multivariate representations is presented to capture the input—output relationships of physical systems with many input variables. The high-dimensional model representations (HDMR) are based on the ansatz that for most physical systems, only relatively low order correlations of the input variables will have an impact on the output. Application of the HDMR tools can dramatically reduce the computational

  7. Nonlinear internal models for output regulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. I. Byrnes; A. Isidori

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we show how nonlinear internal models can be effectively used in the design of output regulators for nonlinear systems. This result provides a significant enhancement of the non-equilibrium theory for output regulation, which we have presented in the recent paper entitled \\

  8. Nonlinear internal models for output regulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. I. Byrnes; A. Isidori

    2004-01-01

    In this note, we show how nonlinear internal models can be effectively used in the design of output regulators for nonlinear systems. This result provides a significant enhancement of the nonequilibrium theory for output regulation, which we have presented in a recent paper.

  9. OUTPUT REGULATION OF NONLINEAR NEUTRAL SYSTEMS

    E-print Network

    Fridman, Emilia

    OUTPUT REGULATION OF NONLINEAR NEUTRAL SYSTEMS Emilia Fridman1 Department of Electrical Engineering, Tel-Aviv University Ramat-Aviv, Tel-Aviv 69978, Israel emilia@eng.tau.ac.il Summary. Output regulation regulation, regulator equations, center manifold 1 Introduction One of the most important problems in control

  10. Rich Tactile Output on Mobile Devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alireza Sahami; Paul Holleis; Albrecht Schmidt; Jonna Häkkilä

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we assess the potential of rich tactile notifications on mobile phones. Many mobile phone users use vibration output for various types of notification on their phone. Currently, tactile output in phones is limited to one single actuator that can potentially present patterns based on different vibration intensity over time. To explore the possible design space, we conducted

  11. DIST/AVC Out-Put Definition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Gene L.

    The first stage of development of a management information system for DIST/AVC (Division of Instructional Technology/Audio-Visual Center) is the definition of out-put units. Some constraints on the definition of output units are: 1) they should reflect goals of the organization, 2) they should reflect organizational structure and procedures, and…

  12. Atom Laser with a cw Output Coupler

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Immanuel Bloch; Theodor W. Hänsch; Tilman Esslinger

    1999-01-01

    We demonstrate a continuous output coupler for magnetically trapped atoms. Over a period of up to 100 ms, a collimated and monoenergetic beam of atoms is continuously extracted from a Bose-Einstein condensate. The intensity and kinetic energy of the output beam of this atom laser are controlled by a weak rf field that induces spin flips between trapped and untrapped

  13. Equal gain transmission in multiple-input multiple-output wireless systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J. Love

    2003-01-01

    Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) wireless systems are of interest due to their ability to provide substantial gains in capacity and quality. The paper proposes equal gain transmission (EGT) to provide diversity advantage in MIMO systems experiencing Rayleigh fading. The applications of EGT with selection diversity combining, equal gain combining, and maximum ratio combining are addressed. It is proven that systems using

  14. Influence of design parameters on output torque of flux-switching permanent magnet machines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Q. Zhu; Y. Pang; J. T. Chen; Z. P. Xia; D. Howe

    2008-01-01

    The influence of design parameters of a flux-switching PM (FSPM) machine for maximum output torque has been investigated by finite element analyses and validated by measurements made on a prototype FSPM motor. These parameters include the split ratio of the inner diameter to outer diameter of the stator, the stator tooth width, the stator magnet thickness, the stator back-iron thickness,

  15. Control of induction motors via feedback linearization with input-output decoupling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DONG-IL KIM; IN-JOONG HA; MYOUNG-SAM KO

    1990-01-01

    In induction motor control, power efficiency is an important factor to be considered. We attempt to achieve both high dynamic performance and maximum power efficiency by means of linear decoupling of rotor speed (or motor torque) and rotor flux. The induction motor with our controller possesses the input-output dynamic characteristics of a linear system such that the rotor speed (or

  16. Space traveling wave tube amplifiers with on-orbit flexible saturated output power

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas K. Phelps; John D. McDowell; William L. Menninger

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes several approaches to achieving adjustable power output from a traveling wave tube amplifier. It can be adjusted in flight for maximum flexibility in matching the amplifier capability to the applicationpsilas need. The efficiency can be maximized without changing the hardware.

  17. Maximum cooling and maximum efficiency of thermoacoustic refrigerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tartibu, L. K.

    2015-06-01

    This work provides valid experimental evidence on the difference between design for maximum cooling and maximum efficiency for thermoacoustic refrigerators. In addition, the influence of the geometry of the honeycomb ceramic stack on the performance of thermoacoustic refrigerators is presented as it affects the cooling power. Sixteen cordierite honeycomb ceramic stacks with square cross sections having four different lengths of 26, 48, 70 and 100 mm are considered. Measurements are taken at six different locations of the stack hot ends from the pressure antinode, namely 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 mm respectively. Measurement of temperature difference across the stack ends at steady state for different stack geometries are used to compute the cooling load and the coefficient of performance. The results obtained with atmospheric air showed that there is a distinct optimum depending on the design goal.

  18. Maximum windmill efficiency in finite time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huleihil, Mahmoud

    2009-05-01

    The fraction of the kinetic energy of the wind impinging on the rotor-swept area that a wind turbine can convert to useful power has been shown by Betz in an idealized laminar-flow model to have an upper limit of 16/27 or 59% approximately [I. H. Shames, Mechanics of Fluids, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1982), pp. A26-A31]. This figure is known as Betz number. Other studies [A. Rauh and W. Seelret, Appl. Energy 17, 15 (1984)] suggested that this figure should be considered as a guideline. In this paper, a new model is introduced and its efficiency at maximum power output is derived. The derived value is shown to be a function of the Betz number B and given by the formula ?mp=1-?1-B . This value is 36.2%, which agrees well with those of actually operating wind turbines. As a guideline, the wind turbine efficiency can be considered to be within the range of the two numbers of merit, the Betz number and ?mp.

  19. Isohaline Salinity Budget of the North Atlantic Salinity Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryan, F.; Bachman, S.

    2014-12-01

    The Salinity Processes in the Upper Ocean Regional Study (SPURS) field experiment was designed as a multi-scale investigation of the processes that give rise to the North Atlantic subtropical salinity maximum. The choice of control volume influences the processes that dominate budgets of ocean properties. In this study we analyze the salinity budget of the North Atlantic subtropical salinity maximum region for control volumes bounded by isohaline surfaces. We provide closed budgets based on output from a high-resolution numerical simulation, and partial budgets based on climatological analyses of observations. With this choice of control volume, advection is eliminated from the instantaneous volume integrated salt budget, and time mean advection eliminated from the budget evaluated from time-averaged data. In this way, the role of irreversible mixing processes in the maintenance and variability of the salinity maximum are more readily revealed. By carrying out the analysis with near instantaneous and time-filtered model output, the role of mesoscale eddies in stirring and mixing for this region is determined. We find that the small-scale mixing acting on enhanced gradients generated by the mesoscale eddies is approximately equal to that acting on the large-scale gradients estimated from climatological mean conditions. The isohaline salinity budgets can be related to water mass transformation rates associated with surface forcing and mixing processes in a straightforward manner. We find that the surface net evaporation in the North Atlantic salinity maximum region accounts for a transformation of 7 Sv of water into the salinity maximum in the simulation, whereas the estimate based on climatological observations is 10 Sv.

  20. Financial Aid Guide FOR CONTINUING & PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION STUDENTS

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    (FAFSA). The FAFSA should be completed on-line at www.fafsa.gov every academic year you want to apply the FAFSA. The university's priority filing date is May 1 for maximum consideration of financial aid. You do not need to be admitted to the university before submitting the FAFSA. Before starting the FAFSA, you

  1. Data-aided carrier phase estimation for GMSK

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Rice; Bill McIntire; Osama Haddadin

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the bias in data-aided maximum likelihood carrier phase estimation for GMSK based on a linear detector structure using only the first Laurent pulse. The bias in the ML phase estimate increases with decreasing BTb and decreasing training sequence length. Three methods for bias compensation are described and their performance examined. Simulation results show that the performance of

  2. Visual Speech-Training Aid for the Deaf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Robert J.

    1987-01-01

    Teaching deaf to speak aided by electronic system provides striking colored, pictorial representation of sound; energy at different frequencies as function of time. Other modalities, such as nasality, intra-oral pressure, and lip-muscle contraction, pictorialized simultaneously. Use of standard components, including personal microcomputer, helps reduce cost below prior voice-training systems. Speech-training system, microphone output separated by filters into narrow frequency bands, changed into digital signals, formatted by computer, and displayed on television screen. Output from other sensors displayed simultaneously or screen split to allow sound produced by student to be compared with that of teacher.

  3. Total Maximum Daily Load Program

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) provides this informative resource on Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDL). A term used to discuss water quality, TMDL refers to "a calculation of the maximum amount of a pollutant that a water body can receive and still meet water quality standards." The TMDL Program Website offers background information on TMDLs (including FAQs), a National Overview of Impaired Waters in the US, and two standard presentations on TMDLs (HTML and Power Point). The heart of the site, however, is the interactive map of the US, which allows users access to each state's TMDL Program. Within each state, watershed names and maps, as well as source information (Water body, Parameter of Concern, Priority for TMDL Development), are provided.

  4. [AIDS: "We will win"].

    PubMed

    Chabrier, H

    1989-11-13

    An international colloquium on AIDS held near Paris from October 26-28, 1989, unlike the World Conference on AIDS in Montreal the year before, was able to find reasons for optimism. Significant progress was reported in immunotherapy and in chemotherapy. Successful experiments in vaccinating monkeys against the AIDS virus were reported from the US, France, and Zaire. Time is needed to prove the efficacy of the vaccines because of the slow development in AIDS. A vaccine is being tested by Jonas Salk and collaborators in 75 seropositive volunteers who do not yet show full blown disease but who have very low levels of T4 lymphocytes. Plans are underway for a larger test on 500 seropositive patients at different stages of infection. According to Salk, the new chemical and logical approach toward AIDS will allow combinations of immunotherapy and chemotherapy to destroy the virus. R. Gallo of France listed as accomplishments of the past year a better understanding of the virus, improved case management techniques, increased ability to control Kaposi's sarcoma, considerable progress in the search for a vaccine, and detection of immune proteins that affect the virus. New biological markers permit establishment of correlations between cellular modifications and the progress of the disease as well as the precise effects of treatment. The new immune system drugs immuthiol and DDI are expected to reach the market soon. Patients very soon will be able to receive less toxic alternative treatments, which can be combined for greater efficacy once their toxic interactions are understood. PMID:12342689

  5. High output piezo/triboelectric hybrid generator.

    PubMed

    Jung, Woo-Suk; Kang, Min-Gyu; Moon, Hi Gyu; Baek, Seung-Hyub; Yoon, Seok-Jin; Wang, Zhong-Lin; Kim, Sang-Woo; Kang, Chong-Yun

    2015-01-01

    Recently, piezoelectric and triboelectric energy harvesting devices have been developed to convert mechanical energy into electrical energy. Especially, it is well known that triboelectric nanogenerators have a simple structure and a high output voltage. However, whereas nanostructures improve the output of triboelectric generators, its fabrication process is still complicated and unfavorable in term of the large scale and long-time durability of the device. Here, we demonstrate a hybrid generator which does not use nanostructure but generates much higher output power by a small mechanical force and integrates piezoelectric generator into triboelectric generator, derived from the simultaneous use of piezoelectric and triboelectric mechanisms in one press-and-release cycle. This hybrid generator combines high piezoelectric output current and triboelectric output voltage, which produces peak output voltage of ~370 V, current density of ~12 ?A · cm(-2), and average power density of ~4.44 mW · cm(-2). The output power successfully lit up 600 LED bulbs by the application of a 0.2 N mechanical force and it charged a 10 ?F capacitor to 10 V in 25 s. Beyond energy harvesting, this work will provide new opportunities for developing a small, built-in power source in self-powered electronics such as mobile electronics. PMID:25791299

  6. High Energy Output Marx Generator Design

    SciTech Connect

    Monty Lehmann

    2011-07-01

    High Energy Output Marx Generator Design a design of a six stage Marx generator that has a unipolar pulse waveform of 200 kA in a 50×500 microsecond waveform is presented. The difficulties encountered in designing the components to withstand the temperatures and pressures generated during the output pulse are discussed. The unique methods and materials used to successfully overcome these problems are given. The steps necessary to increase the current output of this Marx generator design to the meg-ampere region or higher are specified.

  7. GAMS program used to estimate capacity output using a distance function with both desirable and undesirable outputs, and weak disposability for the undesirable outputs.

    E-print Network

    (GOUTPUT, OBS) DEA constraint for each output CONSTR2(BOUTPUT, OBS) DEA constraint for BAD Outputs CONSTR3(FIXED, OBS) DEA constraint for Fixed Inputs CONSTR4(VAR,OBS) DEA Constraint for Variable Outputs; CONSTR

  8. The research on the algorithm of maximum power point tracking in photo voltaic array of solar car

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiujuan Ma; Yude Sun; Jiayu Wu; Shiqiang Liu

    2009-01-01

    Combined with the practical working environment of the vehicle photovoltaic cell plate on the electric vehicle, according to the engineering mathematic model of photovoltaic cell, the output characteristics is nonlinear, and the maximum power is on one point. Adopting the improved conductance increment method, the maximum power tracking rate and accuracy are enhanced.

  9. Body size and countermovement depth confound relationship between muscle power output and jumping performance

    PubMed Central

    Markovic, Srdjan; Dragan, Mirkov; Nedeljkovic, Aleksandar; Jaric, Slobodan

    2013-01-01

    A number of studies based on maximum vertical jumps have presumed that the maximum jump height reveals the maximum power of lower limb muscles, as well as the tested muscle power output predicts the jumping performance. The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that both the body size and countermovement depth confound the relationship between the muscle power output and performance of maximum vertical jumps. Sixty young and physically active males were tested on the maximum countermovement (CMJ) and squat jumps (SJ). The jumping performance (Hmax), peak (Ppeak) and the average power output (Pavg) during the concentric phase, countermovement depth (only in CMJ) and body mass as an index of body size were assessed. To assess the power-performance relationship, the correlations between Hmax with both Ppeak and Pavg were calculated without and with controlling for the effects of body mass, as well as for the countermovement depth. The results revealed moderate power-performance relationships (range 0.55output with the performance of maximum vertical jumps. Regarding routine assessments of muscle power from jumping performance and vice versa, the use of CMJ is recommended, while Ppeak, rather than Pavg, should be the variable of choice. PMID:24280557

  10. AIDS, euthanasia and grief.

    PubMed

    van den Boom, F

    1995-01-01

    Almost 50% of people with AIDS in the Netherlands make the necessary arrangements for a possible death by the administration of thanatic drugs. In approximately 50% of those who arranged for it, euthanasia is performed. Euthanasia is a well-considered decision. By means of euthanasia people with AIDS want to prevent unbearable suffering and a degrading existence. Those who have arranged for euthanasia were proven to have adapted to the disease better than those who had not. No relationship was found between ending life by means of euthanasia and complicated grief in survivors. However, if the euthanasia process itself was complicated, the risk of complicated grief increased. PMID:8664360

  11. World AIDS Day 

    E-print Network

    Valentine, A.

    2000-01-01

    Author's Note: The fanzine you hold in your hands represents a departure for me. For the first time ever I have written a story about the work I have engaged in for the past 14 years, HIV / AIDS counseling and testing and case management. I have always... wanted to write about this subject but until now did not want to merge fan universes with the all too real universe of HIV / AIDS, nor did I want to write a Mary Sue story. Finally, with the characters in The Sentinel, living in today's world...

  12. Anisotropic Grid Adaptation for Multiple Aerodynamic Outputs

    E-print Network

    Venditti, David A.

    Anisotropic grid–adaptive strategies are presented for viscous flow simulations in which the accurate prediction of multiple aerodynamic outputs (such as the lift, drag, and moment coefficients) is required from a single ...

  13. Memory-based parallel data output controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stattel, R. J.; Niswander, J. K. (inventors)

    1984-01-01

    A memory-based parallel data output controller employs associative memories and memory mapping to decommutate multiple channels of telemetry data. The output controller contains a random access memory (RAM) which has at least as many address locations as there are channels. A word counter addresses the RAM which provides as it outputs an encoded peripheral device number and a MSB/LSB-first flag. The encoded device number and a bit counter address a second RAM which contains START and STOP flags to pick out the required bits from the specified word number. The LSB/MSB, START and STOP flags, along with the serial input digital data go to a control block which selectively fills a shift register used to drive the parallel data output bus.

  14. Mapping Circadian Output Pathways in Neurospora crassa 

    E-print Network

    Bennett, Lindsay Danielle

    2013-12-09

    . Our lab has focused on identifying output pathways from the clock, using the model organism Neurospora crassa. We have previously demonstrated the circadian regulation of the conserved Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) OS-2 pathway, a homolog...

  15. Testing Input\\/Output Partial Order Automata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan Haar; Claude Jard; Guy-vincent Jourdan

    2007-01-01

    We propose an extension of the Finite State Machine frame- work in distributed systems, using input\\/output partial order automata (IOPOA). In this model, transitions can be executed non-atomically, reacting to asynchronous inputs on several ports, and producing asyn- chronous output on those ports. We develop the formal framework for distributed testing in this architecture and compare with the synchronous I\\/O

  16. Characterizing Detonator Output Using Dynamic Witness Plates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael John Murphy; Ronald J. Adrian

    2009-01-01

    A sub-microsecond, time-resolved micro-particle-image velocimetry (PIV) system is developed to investigate the output of explosive detonators. Detonator output is directed into a transparent solid that serves as a dynamic witness plate and instantaneous shock and material velocities are measured in a two-dimensional plane cutting through the shock wave as it propagates through the solid. For the case of unloaded initiators

  17. CHARACTERIZING DETONATOR OUTPUT USING DYNAMIC WITNESS PLATES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J. Murphy; Ronald J. Adrian

    2009-01-01

    A sub-microsecond, time-resolved micro-particle-image velocimetry (PIV) system is developed to investigate the output of explosive detonators. Detonator output is directed into a transparent solid that serves as a dynamic witness plate and instantaneous shock and material velocities are measured in a two-dimensional plane cutting through the shock wave as it propagates through the solid. For the case of unloaded initiators

  18. Maximum life spur gear design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, M.; Mackulin, M. J.; Coe, H. H.; Coy, J. J.

    1991-01-01

    Optimization procedures allow one to design a spur gear reduction for maximum life and other end use criteria. A modified feasible directions search algorithm permits a wide variety of inequality constraints and exact design requirements to be met with low sensitivity to initial guess values. The optimization algorithm is described, and the models for gear life and performance are presented. The algorithm is compact and has been programmed for execution on a desk top computer. Two examples are presented to illustrate the method and its application.

  19. HIV and AIDS

    MedlinePLUS

    KidsHealth > Teens > Sexual Health > STDs & Other Infections > HIV and AIDS Print A A A Text Size What's in this article? What ... one HIV test by the time they are teens. If you are having sex, have had sex in the past, or shared ...

  20. Machine-Aided Indexing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Charles R.

    Progress is reported at the 1,000,000 word level on the development of a partial syntatic analysis technique for indexing text. A new indexing subroutine for hyphens is provided. New grammars written and programmed for Machine Aided Indexing (MAI) are discussed. (ED 069 290 is a related document) (Author)

  1. Parent Hearing Aid Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Karen; Roberts, Mallory; Mullings, Day; Harward, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This study addresses parent experiences in obtaining and managing hearing aids for their young child. The purpose was to identify challenges parents encounter to determine what state agencies can do to improve parent access to amplification. Data were collected July through September of 2010; 40 parents of children ages birth to 3 years old…

  2. Robot-aided neurorehabilitation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hermano Igo Krebs; Neville Hogan; Mindy L. Aisen; Bruce T. Volpe

    1998-01-01

    The authors' goal is to apply robotics and automation technology to assist, enhance, quantify, and document neurorehabilitation. This paper reviews a clinical trial involving 20 stroke patients with a prototype robot-aided rehabilitation facility developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, (MIT) and tested at Burke Rehabilitation Hospital, White Plains, NY. It also presents the authors' approach to analyze kinematic

  3. HIV-AIDS Connection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... immune system. In fact, depletion of CD4+ T cells in HIV-infected individuals is an extremely powerful predictor of the ... people have revealed that most who are HIV-infected carry the virus for ... in CD4+ T cell numbers and development of AIDS. Furthermore, reducing the ...

  4. More than First Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoessler, Sally

    2011-01-01

    The school nurse is an important member of the school team since school health services keep students in school, in the classroom, and ready to learn. Although school nurses are often seen as the people who deliver first aid at school, their role is much deeper and has such breadth that only a registered, professional nurse has the skill set to…

  5. Computer Aided Manufacturing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Insolia, Gerard

    This document contains course outlines in computer-aided manufacturing developed for a business-industry technology resource center for firms in eastern Pennsylvania by Northampton Community College. The four units of the course cover the following: (1) introduction to computer-assisted design (CAD)/computer-assisted manufacturing (CAM); (2) CAM…

  6. Scholarships & Financial Aid 10002000300040005000600070008000900010000

    E-print Network

    INDEPENDENT DEPENDENT FAFSA Applications Received by Month Tel. 979-845-3236 Fax 979-847-9061 https://financialaid.tamu.edu/apply.aspx http://www.fafsa.ed.gov Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA) Texas A&M received 28,356 FAFSA applications for their students in the 2012-2013 award year, which comprises approximately 53

  7. Dietary Aide. Instructor Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This instructional module was designed to assist health services assistant educators in facilitating adult students' learning in health careers outside nursing. The module may be used to provide classroom instruction, assist assigned staff in providing on-the-job instruction, or provide selected units for independent study for dietary aides. The…

  8. Good Teaching Aids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    This set of teaching aids consists of 14 Audubon Nature Bulletins with these titles: Schoolyard Laboratories, How to Lead a Field Trip, Natural Resources in the City, Mysteries of Bird Migration, Rock Stories and How to Read Them, The Ground Water Table, The Terrarium, Some Adventures With Wild Plants Outdoors and Indoors, Plant Propagation in the…

  9. Range Scheduling Aid (RSA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, J. R.; Pulvermacher, M. K.

    1991-01-01

    Range Scheduling Aid (RSA) is presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: satellite control network; current and new approaches to range scheduling; MITRE tasking; RSA features; RSA display; constraint based analytic capability; RSA architecture; and RSA benefits.

  10. HIV/AIDS Statistics Overview

    MedlinePLUS

    ... expenditure data from the Kaiser Family Foundation. International Statistics HIV disease continues to be a serious health ... impact. Other resources for international HIV and AIDS statistics: For information on international HIV infection and AIDS ...

  11. [AIDS in Tanzania].

    PubMed

    Barstad, S

    1993-04-20

    The World Health Organization has announced that within 3 years 10% of Tanzania's population of 26 million will be infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). But there is some faint hope in the research of Tanzanian traditional medicine. An almost 90-year-man, Waziri Mrisho, is credited with having treated AIDS patients successfully with herbs that strengthen the immune system. Margaret Nakamya was stricken by the symptoms of AIDs in March 1990. She was referred to Waziri and started using his herbs. 3 years later she weighs 49 kg compared to 40 kg before. The old man's son set up a little factory where he pulverizes herbs and sells them at the price he can command The 3 types of trees that the herbal medicine is taken from grow in the wild, but some have also been planted around the factory. Even if these herbs are effective, it will take years before the AIDS epidemic is over, when people have changed their lifestyles. The means of communication (TV, cinema, radio, telephone) are missing or inadequate. In the Kagera region, with 1.2 million inhabitants, 25% of pregnant women are HIV-infected and 65,000 children lost their parents to AIDS. There are 2000 children in Dar Es Salaam living in the streets. The Anglican St. Albans Church runs a center for street kids where they get meals 3 times a week. The nurse Ruth Nesje enlisted a Norwegian physician and homeopath in a research project involving 30 AIDS patients in Norway. The University in Bergen will do in vitro testing. One group of patients will receive both AZT and the herbs, another group will get only AZT, and the 3rd group will obtain only the herbs. The Norwegian Nursing Association, NORAD, and DANIDA also plan various projects in the Tanga region. PMID:8499187

  12. EGRAM- ECHELLE SPECTROGRAPH DESIGN AID

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dantzler, A. A.

    1994-01-01

    EGRAM aids in the design of spectrographic systems that utilize an echelle-first order cross disperser combination. This optical combination causes a two dimensional echellogram to fall on a detector. EGRAM describes the echellogram with enough detail to allow the user to effectively judge the feasibility of the spectrograph's design. By iteratively altering system parameters, the desired echellogram can be achieved without making a physical model. EGRAM calculates system parameters which are accurate to the first order and compare favorably to results from ray tracing techniques. The spectrographic system modelled by EGRAM consists of an entrance aperture, collimator, echelle, cross dispersion grating, focusing options, and a detector. The system is assumed to be free of aberrations and the echelle, cross disperser, and detector should be planar. The EGRAM program is menu driven and has a HELP facility. The user is prompted for information such as minimum and maximum wavelengths, slit dimensions, ruling frequencies, detector geometry, and angle of incidence. EGRAM calculates the resolving power and range of order numbers covered by the echellogram. A numerical map is also produced. This tabulates the order number, slit bandpass, and high/middle/low wavelengths. EGRAM can also compute the centroid coordinates of a specific wavelength and order (or vice versa). EGRAM is written for interactive execution and is written in Microsoft BASIC A. It has been implemented on an IBM PC series computer operating under DOS. EGRAM was developed in 1985.

  13. Cardiac output measurement in children: comparison of the Ultrasound Cardiac Output Monitor with thermodilution cardiac output measurement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walter Knirsch; Oliver Kretschmar; Maren Tomaske; Kathrina Stutz; Nicole Nagdyman; Christian Balmer; Achim Schmitz; Dominique Béttex; Felix Berger; Urs Bauersfeld; Markus Weiss

    2008-01-01

    Objective  To compare the assessment of cardiac output (CO) in children using the noninvasive Ultrasound Cardiac Output Monitor (USCOM)\\u000a with the invasive pulmonary artery catheter (PAC) thermodilution cardiac output measurement.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design and setting  Prospective observational study in a tertiary center for pediatric cardiology of a university children's hospital.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Patients  Twenty-four pediatric patients with congenital heart disease without shunt undergoing cardiac catheterization under general\\u000a anesthesia.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Measurements

  14. PRINCETON UNIVERSITY FINANCIAL AID INFORMATION

    E-print Network

    PRINCETON UNIVERSITY FINANCIAL AID INFORMATION SUMMER SCHOOL EXPENSES SUMMER 2014 Currently requirements: 1. You must be an enrolled need-based financial aid recipient. 2. You must be enrolled in one at http://www.princeton.edu/pr/aid/pdf/1314/PU-financing-options.pdf Once you have been officially

  15. Director of Financial Aid Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorenson, Lynn D.

    Although many independent schools are seeing a diversification in their student bodies, existing structures, such as financial aid awards, have not been modified. In addition, many financial-aid managers in independent schools have 0-5 years of experience in student financial aid. This handbook profiles the overall step-by-step process for…

  16. Teachers' Aides: Tasks and Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balderson, James H.; Nixon, Mary

    1976-01-01

    Addresses three questions: (1) What tasks do aides perform? (2) Does training make a difference in the type of tasks aides perform? (3) What are the concerns of aides? (Available from the Department of Educational Administration, The University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2G5; $0.50, single copy.) (Author/IRT)

  17. Computer-aided Vegetation Mapping

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. L. Jarman

    1985-01-01

    Computer-aided vegetation mapping is illustrated by an approach which utilised LANDSAT multispectral scanner data in digital form to aid in mapping the vegetation of the fynbos biome. Computer-aided analysis of digital imagery is equated to visual interpretation of standard photo products. The steps undertaken in a visual approach are converted into a flow chart utilising available PIPS & CATNIPS image

  18. AIDS Stigma and Sexual Prejudice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GREGORY M. HEREK; JOHN P. CAPITANIO

    1999-01-01

    This article presents national survey data to assess the extent to which AIDS-related stigma remains linked to public attitudes toward homosexuality in the United States. Most heterosexuals continue to associate AIDS primarily with homosexuality or bisexuality, and this association is correlated with higher levels of sexual prejudice (antigay attitudes). Although all people who contract AIDS sexually are assigned blame for

  19. Living with AIDS: Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daedalus: Journal of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 1989

    1989-01-01

    A series of articles concerning various aspects of AIDS and the dilemmas it poses for U.S. society, culture, and government are presented, in this theme issue, e.g., "Introduction to the Issue" (K. Keniston); "Prospects for the Medical Control of the AIDS Epidemic" (W. Haseltine); "Social Policy: AIDS and Intravenous Drug Use" (N. Zinberg);…

  20. Educational Aids for Visually Handicapped.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Printing House for the Blind, Louisville, KY.

    Listings specifying source and cost are provided of tactile aids and materials designed for the visually handicapped. Items are presented in the following categories: supply sources and catalogs for aids; braille devices, including duplicators, reading and writing aids, reading readiness materials, and writing machines, slates, and styluses; deaf…

  1. Pharmacotherapeutics for the AIDS Patient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fife, Kenneth H.

    1991-01-01

    Anticipated shifts in the demographics of the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) epidemic are examined, current state-of-the-art AIDS patient management is summarized, and some unique facets of drug therapy in the AIDS patient are discussed, including adverse reactions, complex drug interactions, use of investigational drugs, and…

  2. College Costs and Student Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kenneth C.

    The growing campus role in providing student financial aid is discussed based on data from the Cooperative Institutional Research Program, Peterson's Guide, and other sources. The campus contribution to student aid programs has grown far more than recent tuition increases. A significant portion of the financial aid burden has passed from federal…

  3. Stand-alone photovoltaic energy storage system with maximum power point tracking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. A. Pacheco; L. C. Freitas; E. A. A. Coelho; V. J. Farias

    2003-01-01

    This digests deals with the study of a stand-alone photovoltaic system, which is able to extract the maximum power from photovoltaic array for all solar intensity conditions and to provide output voltage regulation. The proposed system consists of a DC-DC converter in combination with battery energy storage in a simple structure. Operating principle and control strategy are described. Digital simulation

  4. Design of a piezoelectric actuator and compliant mechanism combination for maximum energy efficiency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mostafa Abdalla; Mary Frecker; Zafer Gürdal; Terrence Johnson; Douglas K. Lindner

    2005-01-01

    The combined optimization of a compliant mechanism and a piezoelectric stack actuator for maximum energy conversion efficiency is considered. The analysis assumes all components to be free from dissipation and that the piezoelectric stack actuator is driven by an ideal sinusoidal voltage source. The energy conversion efficiency is defined as the ratio of the output mechanical energy to the input

  5. RELATING ERROR BOUNDS FOR MAXIMUM CONCENTRATION ESTIMATES TO DIFFUSION METEOROLOGY UNCERTAINTY (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper relates the magnitude of the error bounds of data, used as inputs to a Gaussian dispersion model, to the magnitude of the error bounds of the model output. The research addresses the uncertainty in estimating the maximum concentrations from elevated buoyant sources duri...

  6. Wind noise in hearing aids with directional and omnidirectional microphones: Polar characteristics of custom-made hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Chung, King; McKibben, Nicholas; Mongeau, Luc

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the characteristics of wind noise at the output of in-the-ear, in-the-canal, and completely-in-the-canal hearing aids. The hearing aids were programed to have linear amplification with matching flat frequency responses for directional (DIR) and omnidirectional (OMNI) microphones. The microphone output was then recorded in a quiet wind tunnel when the Knowles electronic manikin for acoustic research (KEMAR) head was turned from 0 degrees to 360 degrees . The overall, 125, 500, and 2000 Hz one-third octave band flow noise levels were calculated and plotted in polar patterns. Correlation coefficients, average differences, and level differences between DIR and OMNI were also calculated. Flow noise levels were the highest when KEMAR was facing the direction of the flow and angles between 190 degrees and 250 degrees . The noise levels were the lowest when the hearing aids were facing the direction of the flow. The polar patterns of DIR and OMNI had similar shapes and DIR generally had higher levels than OMNI. DIR, however, could have lower levels than OMNI in some angles because of its capability to reduce noise in the far field. Comparisons of polar characteristics with behind-the-ear hearing aids, and clinical and engineering design applications of current results are discussed. PMID:20370035

  7. Thulium channel waveguide laser with 1.6 W of output power and ?80% slope efficiency.

    PubMed

    van Dalfsen, K; Aravazhi, S; Grivas, C; García-Blanco, S M; Pollnau, M

    2014-08-01

    Laser experiments were performed on buried, ridge-type channel waveguides in 8 at.% thulium-doped, yttrium-gadolinium-lutetium co-doped potassium double tungstate. By pumping with a Ti:sapphire laser at 794 nm, 1.6 W of output power at 1.84 ?m with a maximum slope efficiency of ?80% was obtained in a laser resonator with a high output-coupling degree of 89%. To the best of our knowledge, this result represents the most efficient 2-?m channel waveguide laser to date. PMID:25078182

  8. The output power and beam divergence behaviors of tapered terahertz quantum cascade lasers.

    PubMed

    Li, YanFang; Wang, Jian; Yang, Ning; Liu, Junqi; Wang, Tao; Liu, Fengqi; Wang, Zhanguo; Chu, Weidong; Duan, Suqing

    2013-07-01

    We report on Terahertz quantum cascade lasers with tapered waveguide structure operating at ? 103 ?m. The tapered waveguide effect on the output power and the laser beam divergence are experimentally studied with the tapered angle ranging from 0° to 8°. It is found that the peak output power of the devices with same length reaches the maximum at about 5° ? 6° tapered angle. Meanwhile, the horizontal divergence angle of the laser beam can be greatly reduced. The existence of such optimal tapered angle is explained by the finite-element simulation with the consideration of the self-focusing effect for the devices with larger tapered angle. PMID:23842386

  9. Response requirements as constraints on output

    PubMed Central

    Zeiler, Michael D.; Buchman, Irvin B.

    1979-01-01

    Two experiments studied how added response requirements affected fixed-interval schedule performance. Experiment 1 involved tandem fixed-interval fixed-ratio schedules, and Experiment 2 studied conjunctive fixed-interval fixed-ratio schedules. In both, pigeons' output, defined as overall response rate or as responses during the interval, first increased and then decreased as the ratio was raised. With small ratio requirements, the frequency of reinforcement in time either did not change or decreased slightly. With progressively larger ratios, reinforcement frequency decreased consistently. Alternative explanations were discussed. The first, a reinforcement theory account, was that response strength is an increasing monotonic function of both the response requirement and reinforcement frequency, and the bitonic output function represents interacting effects. Increases in the response requirement accompanied by small changes in reinforcement frequency enhance output, but further increases result in large enough decrements in reinforcement frequency so that output is lowered. The second explanation does not view reinforcement as a basic process but, instead, derives from concepts of economics and conservation. Organisms allocate their behavior among alternatives so as to maximize value, where value is a function of the responses that can occur in a given situation under the set of restrictions imposed by particular schedules. One form of this theory explicitly predicts that output is a bitonic function of ratio requirements in simple ratio schedules. However, it was not clear that this model could explain the present effects involving joint ratio and interval schedule restrictions. PMID:16812142

  10. [AIDS in Africa].

    PubMed

    Sansone, R; Carobbi, S; Alloro, G; Strigini, P

    1989-01-01

    While AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome) certainly represents a worldwide health problem, the attention of many researchers and epidemiologists, besides the WHO itself, has recently focused on Africa for the following reasons: 1) The etiologic agent of AIDS, the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) (previously named HTLV-III or LAV) is likely to have originated in Africa. Solid evidence has been accumulated that antibodies against HIV were present in African sera collected in the early 1960s. In the same period widespread infection by viruses strictly related to HIV has been documented in primates living in tropical Africa. A second type of HIV (now named HIV-2 and previously known as HTLV-IV or LAV-2) which is responsible for a milder AIDS-related disease, has been subsequently identified in West African inhabitants with its own simian correlate. Although epidemiological evidence for the presence of AIDS in Africa in these early periods is scanty, sporadic cases have retrospectively been identified. 2) Up to 1986, AIDS epidemiology in Africa has been hampered by inconsistency of demographic data, inadequacy of public health services and difficulty of obtaining the necessary laboratory evidence. The few data available (Zaire, Rwanda), suggests an annual incidence in 1983 of 170-800 per million, comparable to higher U.S. and European rates. There is no evidence, however, that African epidemy precedes that of the U.S., for which there is no explanation at present. On the other hand, recent data indicate an alarming acceleration of the African epidemy, that spreads well beyond the risk groups which have been recognized in Western countries. 3) Prevalent infection routes in Africa are not entirely overlapping with Western countries'. Rather than homosexual intercourse (U.S.) and syringe sharing by drug abusers (Italy), most African cases seem to be transmitted by heterosexual promiscuous contacts and, to a lesser extent, by blood derivates and recycled syringes. Insects and tribal rituals have been also suspected as vehicles of infection in Africa; widespread prostitution and inadequate health facilities certainly are. As a consequence, transplacental infection appear much more common than in the West. 4) Clinical aspects of AIDS progression in Africa appear linked to the different spectrum of opportunistic agents present on the continent and to the general hygienic and social conditions prevailing among its people. Rather than generalized lymphoadenopathies and Pneumocystes Carini pneumonia, diarrhoea and extreme weight loss ("Slim disease") represent the most common clinical pattern. PMID:2483891

  11. Financial Aid Administrators' Views on Simplifying Financial Aid: NASFAA's 2008 Financial Aid Simplification Survey Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    Despite a decade of simplification efforts, students and families are often still baffled by the student aid process and cringe at the sight of financial aid application forms. Contrary to its purpose of helping students to access college, the student aid application process causes families frustration and confusion that has been cited as an…

  12. PV output smoothing with energy storage.

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, Abraham; Schoenwald, David Alan

    2012-03-01

    This report describes an algorithm, implemented in Matlab/Simulink, designed to reduce the variability of photovoltaic (PV) power output by using a battery. The purpose of the battery is to add power to the PV output (or subtract) to smooth out the high frequency components of the PV power that that occur during periods with transient cloud shadows on the PV array. The control system is challenged with the task of reducing short-term PV output variability while avoiding overworking the battery both in terms of capacity and ramp capability. The algorithm proposed by Sandia is purposely very simple to facilitate implementation in a real-time controller. The control structure has two additional inputs to which the battery can respond. For example, the battery could respond to PV variability, load variability or area control error (ACE) or a combination of the three.

  13. Validation of RetroPath, a computer-aided design tool for metabolic pathway engineering.

    PubMed

    Fehér, Tamás; Planson, Anne-Gaëlle; Carbonell, Pablo; Fernández-Castané, Alfred; Grigoras, Ioana; Dariy, Ekaterina; Perret, Alain; Faulon, Jean-Loup

    2014-11-01

    Metabolic engineering has succeeded in biosynthesis of numerous commodity or high value compounds. However, the choice of pathways and enzymes used for production was many times made ad hoc, or required expert knowledge of the specific biochemical reactions. In order to rationalize the process of engineering producer strains, we developed the computer-aided design (CAD) tool RetroPath that explores and enumerates metabolic pathways connecting the endogenous metabolites of a chassis cell to the target compound. To experimentally validate our tool, we constructed 12 top-ranked enzyme combinations producing the flavonoid pinocembrin, four of which displayed significant yields. Namely, our tool queried the enzymes found in metabolic databases based on their annotated and predicted activities. Next, it ranked pathways based on the predicted efficiency of the available enzymes, the toxicity of the intermediate metabolites and the calculated maximum product flux. To implement the top-ranking pathway, our procedure narrowed down a list of nine million possible enzyme combinations to 12, a number easily assembled and tested. One round of metabolic network optimization based on RetroPath output further increased pinocembrin titers 17-fold. In total, 12 out of the 13 enzymes tested in this work displayed a relative performance that was in accordance with its predicted score. These results validate the ranking function of our CAD tool, and open the way to its utilization in the biosynthesis of novel compounds. PMID:25224453

  14. New observations of scintillation climatology from the Scintillation Network Decision Aid (SCINDA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Y.; Caton, R. G.; Wiens, K.; Groves, K. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Scintillation Network Decision Aid (SCINDA) was established with three ground sites in the mid-1990's by the Air Force Research Laboratory and has continued to grow into a global scintillation observation network. This system consists of an array of VHF and GPS receivers which continually measure scintillation in the equatorial region. In the past few years, the extended network of ground stations has expanded into the African sector. Initial results from yearly scintillation data obtained from two VHF receivers in Narobi, Kenya and Bahir Dar, Ethiopia in 2011 indicate the presence of scintillation activity throughout the June-July -August (northern summer) season which is inconsistent with current state-of-the-art ionospheric climatology models. It is well known that seasonal equatorial scintillation patterns vary with longitude based on geographical location. For example, the scintillation activity at VHF frequencies are absent in the Pacific sector during the months of November to February while observations from South America show nearly continuous scintillation during this same time period. With little to no ground-based observations, the scintillation climatology over the African region has not been well understood. In the paper, we will present S4 measurements various longitudinal sectors, including the first look at solar maximum type conditions over the African sector, and provide comparisons with output from a global climatology model.

  15. World AIDs Day Map

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Created by Lex Talkington Design, Inc. this visually stimulating and engaging website takes visitors into the AIDS pandemic and how it has affected children throughout the developing world. After a brief introduction, visitors will be presented with a rotating series of images that profile different children from Thailand, India, Kenya, and a host of other places. Upon clicking each icon, visitors can then read short narratives about young people like Fred in Uganda, who at age eight became the primary caregiver for his younger brother after his parents both succumbed to AIDS. All told, the site contains over two dozen profiles that offer unique, albeit troubling, portraits of the struggles faced by young people who are coping with the increasingly widespread effects of this disease.

  16. Technical aids for dermabrasion.

    PubMed

    Alt, T H

    1987-06-01

    Since the introduction in the 1940s of an effective method for facial dermabrasion using the wire brush, there have been many ancillary procedures developed. Preoperative aids include scar elevation and punch grafting of deep scars prior to dermabrasion. Retinoic acid can prime the skin for more rapid healing. Gas sterilization of electrical equipment eliminates cross-contamination between patients. Intraoperative improvements include regional block anesthesia of the face, staged narcotic administration and newer methods of facial prechilling, and criteria for the ambient air in the operatory. Gentian Violet staining of the face and use of microfoam tape to delineate the mandibular boundary of a dermabrasion are helpful. The use of a custom handle for the spray refrigerant, the safety of Turkish towels used for retraction, and the application of a sharp Buck's curette make the procedure simpler and more effective. Postoperative aids include the use of systemic steroids and the new biological dressings which simplify the postoperative recovery period. PMID:2884244

  17. Psychologic implications of AIDS.

    PubMed

    Frierson, R L; Lippmann, S B

    1987-03-01

    Eleven patients with AIDS were seen by a psychiatric consultation service over a four-year period. Psychologic issues identified in these patients included changes in body image, feelings of helplessness and isolation, sexual concerns and the grief process. Management should be aimed toward maintaining a nonjudgmental stance, providing liaison with other caregivers and securing appropriate information and grief counseling for patients, with provision for the patient's loved ones. PMID:3825841

  18. Computer aided production engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This book presents the following contents: CIM in avionics; computer analysis of product designs for robot assembly; a simulation decision mould for manpower forecast and its application; development of flexible manufacturing system; advances in microcomputer applications in CAD/CAM; an automated interface between CAD and process planning; CAM and computer vision; low friction pneumatic actuators for accurate robot control; robot assembly of printed circuit boards; information systems design for computer integrated manufacture; and a CAD engineering language to aid manufacture.

  19. Adolescents and AIDS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isiaah Crawford; W. Lavome Robinson

    1991-01-01

    This study examined midwestern, African-American, Latino, and Caucasian male adolescents' knowledge and beliefs regarding AIDS. The relationship between attitudes towards homosexuals and AlDS knowledge was also investigated. Subjects were 140 Caucasian, 68 African-American, and 50 Latino high school seniors. All participants were randomly assigned to one of three experimental conditions. Subjects in Condition One viewed an AlDS prevention video. Subjects

  20. AIDS in Africa.

    PubMed

    Fleming, A F

    1990-01-01

    The seroprevalence, clinical epidemiology, modes of transmission, clinical presentation in adults, pregnancy women and children, diagnosis, impact and control strategies of AIDS in Africa are covered in this review. HIV-1, the causative virus in AIDS, is epidemic in a central Africa belt from Gabon to the east coast, and from Uganda to Zimbabwe, with the highest prevalence in the lakes and highlands of Central Africa. HIV-2 causes a milder disease in Western Africa centered in Senegal. HIV infections occur primarily in young adult men aged 30-34, women aged 20-24, infants and children under 4, and a few girls. Transmission patterns vary widely depending on sexual customs in the ethnically diverse continent. Prevalence tends to be high in cities and among subgroups such as prostitutes, where promiscuity is restricted. Where female sexual permissiveness exists, seropositivity is high in women generally. Besides sexual behavior, risk factors for HIV in Africa also include uncircumcised man, oral contraception, STDs causing genital ulceration and Chlamydia infection. Transmission to neonates occurs, especially if the mother has advanced AIDS, but transmission by breast milk is uncertain. Transmission by blood transfusion is common because transfusion are up to 10 times as common in Africa as in the West, especially in obstetrics and pediatrics. Clinically, HIV infections present as herpes zoster in 95% of Africans, and commonly as slim disease: weakness, fever, chronic watery diarrhea and weight loss of unknown cause. Associated infection are candidiasis, cryptosporidiosis, isosporiasis, tuberculosis and salmonellosis. Other presenting symptoms are unusual sites of lymphadenopathy, cough and sepsis. Diagnosis can be made by the WHO clinical case definition, or be screening tests, which are now more reliable for African patients than formerly. In Africa, AIDS can cause destitution and disgrace for families, and will probable severely affect progress made national economies because of deaths of young productive adults. Strategies for control of HIV in Africa are outlined. PMID:2182139

  1. AIDS in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Ryan, M P

    1991-02-18

    The reasons for the rapid spread of AIDS in Thailand, and the impact of the unique non-governmental agency Population and Community Development Association (PDA) directed by the charismatic Dr. Mechai are described. The rapid spread of AIDS in Thailand is due to presence of all possible factors facilitating HIV transmission, a large population of injecting drug addicts, an extensive mobile domestic and tourist sex industry, and an active gay community. The number of HIV-positive persons rose from 179 in 1988 to 16,359 in 1989, and is now estimated at 100,000. 1% of the Thai population works in prostitution, and from 16% of the high-income to 72% of the low-income prostitutes are infected, with their infection rates rising 10% per month. 75% of Thai men use cheap prostitutes. While the government was ignoring the AIDS threat in the early '80s, Dr. Mechai, whose name translated as "condom," was organizing the grass-roots community-based condom distribution system PDA, said to be responsible for the fall in annual population growth from 3.4% in 1968 to 1.5% in 1990. His organization now distributes contraceptives to 16,000 villages by 12,000 volunteers. He uses booklets, cards, cassettes, slide shows, videos and appearances with condom-inflating contests and costumes to de-mystify condoms with humor. Now AIDS messages are heard in taxis, on military TV and radio, and in remote villages. Converting knowledge into practice is more difficult, requiring tactful convincing of brothel operators and finding some way to reach their clients, who exert economic control over young female prostitutes. PMID:1867668

  2. Pulmonary mycosis in AIDS.

    PubMed

    Rizzi, E B; Schinina, V; Bellussi, A; De Santis, A; Mazzuoli, G; Giosué, S; Bibbolino, C

    2001-01-01

    We retrospectively reviewed our series of 35 pulmonary mycosis in patients with AIDS, observed from 1987 to 1999, to correlate the imaging and pathologic findings. We further evaluated the frequency of fungal pneumonia before and after the use of a highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Early recognition of pulmonary mycosis is imperative in these patients and improved survival can be achieved with early CT detection and prompt institution of high-dose antifungal therapy. PMID:11274838

  3. Cardiac output monitoring devices: an analytic review.

    PubMed

    Porhomayon, Jahan; El-Solh, Ali; Papadakos, Peter; Nader, Nader Djalal

    2012-04-01

    To evaluate cardiac output (CO), both invasive and semi-invasive monitors are used in critical care medicine. The pulmonary artery catheter is an invasive tool to assess CO with the major criticism that the level of its invasiveness is not supported by an improvement in patients' outcomes. The interest in a lesser invasive techniques is high. Therefore, alternative techniques have been developed recently, and are used frequently in critical care medicine. Cardiac output can be monitored continuously by different devices that analyze the stroke volume and CO. The purpose of this review is to understand these new technologies and their applications and limitations. PMID:22147648

  4. HIV and AIDS

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    American Association for the Advancement of Science (; )

    2004-01-01

    The Science Inside: HIV and AIDSThis booklet helps to explain what doctors and scientists know about the HIV and AIDS epidemic. It summarizes what HIV and AIDS are and what happens when HIV becomes AIDS, including the health problems that can result. The e-book explains how the diseases are spread, what groups suffer most from them, how they may be prevented, how they are treated, and what the latest research reveals.The Science Inside e-book series is intended to be a bridge between the consumer health brochure and the scientific paper, the booklets in this series focus on the science that is inside of, or behind, the disease its cause, its possible cure, its treatment, promising research, and so on. These booklets are designed to appeal to people who have not had the opportunity to study the science and to understand why they may have been given some of the advice that they have been given through some of the more consumer-oriented materials.

  5. Output specification and performance measurement in fire services: An ordinal output variable approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henrik Jaldell

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates performance differences in fire services with an ordinal output variable. An output variable is constructed for fires in detached houses in Sweden. The ordered probit model is used in the estimation of a production function. Performance differences are found by using the “individual effects” method having panel data. However, here the dimensions are not time and cross-section,

  6. GABAergic output of the basal ganglia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Hikosaka

    2007-01-01

    Using GABAergic outputs from the SNr or GPi, the basal ganglia exert inhibitory control over several motor areas in the brainstem which in turn control the central pattern generators for the basic motor repertoire including eye–head orientation, locomotion, mouth movements, and vocalization. These movements are by default kept suppressed by tonic rapid firing of SNr\\/GPi neurons, but can be released

  7. Procedure or Substance? Discursive Politics and Outputs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Markus Spörndli

    While a relatively large body of theoretical literature concentrates on the legitimacy of deliberatively reached decisions, it widely ignores the actual quality of political outputs of deliberative procedures. Systematic empirical accounts are yet lacking in this field altogether. This paper provides an overview of a research project which attempts to explore deliberation in real world politics and link it to

  8. Single Inductor Dual Output Buck Converter 

    E-print Network

    Eachempatti, Haritha

    2010-07-14

    of value 3V. The main focus areas are low cross regulation between the outputs and supply of completely independent load current levels while maintaining desired values (1.2V,1.5V) within well controlled ripple levels. Dynamic hysteresis control is used...

  9. Output transition time modeling of CMOS structures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philippe Maurine; Mustapha Rezzoug; Daniel Auvergne

    2001-01-01

    Non zero signal rise and fall times contribute significantly to CMOS gate performances such as propagation delay or short circuit power dissipation. We present a closed form expression to model output rise and fall times in deep submicron CMOS structures. The model is first developed for inverters considering fast and slow input ramp conditions. It is then extended to gates

  10. Tactical voice input\\/output devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Ruppe; B. Tirabassi

    1992-01-01

    The authors address the technology insertion and feasibility demonstration issues that are paramount to the effective implementation of voice interaction between man and machine. Results of preliminary feasibility demonstrations are discussed in three critical technology areas: (1) input and output appliances that offer noise immunity, (2) voice recognition and speech synthesis accuracy, and (3) command and control vocabulary development and

  11. The Concept of Output in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Henry H.

    1979-01-01

    Those with the burden of financing public education are looking toward product measurement for guidance in planning and modifying programs and in justifying expenditures to taxpayers. "Outcomes orientation" is rooted in program budgeting theory with emphasis on cost-benefit analysis and input-output relationships that can be demonstrated and…

  12. Myotatic Reflex: Its Input-Output Relation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. E. Poppele; C. A. Terzuolo

    1968-01-01

    The dynamic properties of the myotatic reflex and of its components were determined by a systems-analysis approach. The gain and phase relations between an applied stretch, which initiates the reflex, and the output of the primary muscle spindles, which impinge upon alpha -motoneurons, are not further changed by the properties of the motoneurons. The dynamic relation between motoneuron activity and

  13. MINING INTERESTING SUBGRAPHS BY OUTPUT SPACE SAMPLING

    E-print Network

    Zaki, Mohammed Javeed

    MINING INTERESTING SUBGRAPHS BY OUTPUT SPACE SAMPLING By Mohammad Al Hasan A Thesis Submitted, Member Dr. Jeffrey T. Kreulen, External Member Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Troy, New York July 2009 (For Graduation August 2009) #12;c Copyright 2009 by Mohammad Al Hasan All Rights Reserved ii #12

  14. A Large Scale Computer Terminal Output Controller.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Paul Thomas

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a large scale computer terminal output controller which supervises the transfer of information from a Control Data 6400 Computer to a PLATO IV data network. It discusses the cost considerations leading to the selection of educational television channels rather than telephone lines for…

  15. Characterizing Detonator Output Using Dynamic Witness Plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Michael; Adrian, Ronald

    2009-06-01

    A sub-microsecond, time-resolved micro-particle-image velocimetry (PIV) system is developed to investigate the output of explosive detonators. Detonator output is directed into a transparent solid that serves as a dynamic witness plate and instantaneous shock and material velocities are measured in a two-dimensional plane cutting through the shock wave as it propagates through the solid. For the case of unloaded initiators (e.g. exploding bridge wires, exploding foil initiators, etc.) the witness plate serves as a surrogate for the explosive material that would normally be detonated. The velocity-field measurements quantify the velocity of the shocked material and visualize the geometry of the shocked region. Furthermore, the time-evolution of the velocity-field can be measured at intervals as small as 10 ns using the PIV system. Current experimental results of unloaded exploding bridge wire output in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) witness plates demonstrate 20 MHz velocity-field sampling just 300 ns after initiation of the wire. Successful application of the PIV system to full-up explosive detonator output is also demonstrated.

  16. Multiple output timing and trigger generator

    SciTech Connect

    Wheat, Robert M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dale, Gregory E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    In support of the development of a multiple stage pulse modulator at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, we have developed a first generation, multiple output timing and trigger generator. Exploiting Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) Micro Controller Units (MCU's), the timing and trigger generator provides 32 independent outputs with a timing resolution of about 500 ns. The timing and trigger generator system is comprised of two MCU boards and a single PC. One of the MCU boards performs the functions of the timing and signal generation (the timing controller) while the second MCU board accepts commands from the PC and provides the timing instructions to the timing controller. The PC provides the user interface for adjusting the on and off timing for each of the output signals. This system provides 32 output or timing signals which can be pre-programmed to be in an on or off state for each of 64 time steps. The width or duration of each of the 64 time steps is programmable from 2 {micro}s to 2.5 ms with a minimum time resolution of 500 ns. The repetition rate of the programmed pulse train is only limited by the time duration of the programmed event. This paper describes the design and function of the timing and trigger generator system and software including test results and measurements.

  17. OUTPUT SYNCHRONIZATION FOR TELEOPERATION OF ROBOT MANIPULATORS

    E-print Network

    Krovi, Venkat

    of the control algorithm to compensate for delay induced instability while providing a transparent feel of a wheeled mobile manipulator using the stylus endpoint Phantom Omni haptic device will serve to form our will rendered the dynamics passive to a secondary coupling input. A passive mapping is used to couple the output

  18. Emulating Multivariate Output with Derivative Information

    E-print Network

    Oakley, Jeremy

    of derivatives in emulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1.2 The Radiation Transport model each output of the radiation transport model independently . . 12 2.3.1 Emulators with all 100 runs.3 Multivariate emulation of the radiation transport model . . . . . . . . . . . 27 4 Calibration of the Radiation

  19. 1 Static Output Feedback: A Survey

    E-print Network

    1 Static Output Feedback: A Survey in the Proceedings of the 33rd * *IEEE CDC, 1994, Lake Buena Vista, Fl., pp. 837-842 Corresponding Author: P. Dorato in control engineering, see for example the two recent surveys (Bernstein, 1992; Blondel e* *t al., 1995

  20. Parameterized Algorithms for Directed Maximum Leaf Problems

    E-print Network

    Krivelevich, Michael

    Parameterized Algorithms for Directed Maximum Leaf Problems Noga Alon 1 , Fedor V. Fomin 2 spanning tree, then D contains one with at least (n/2) 1/5 - 1 leaves. 1 Introduction The Maximum Leaf a digraph D, the Directed Maximum Leaf Out­Branching problem is the problem of finding an out­branching in D

  1. Maximum entropy principal for transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Bilich, F. [University of Brasilia (Brazil); Da Silva, R. [National Research Council (Brazil)

    2008-11-06

    In this work we deal with modeling of the transportation phenomenon for use in the transportation planning process and policy-impact studies. The model developed is based on the dependence concept, i.e., the notion that the probability of a trip starting at origin i is dependent on the probability of a trip ending at destination j given that the factors (such as travel time, cost, etc.) which affect travel between origin i and destination j assume some specific values. The derivation of the solution of the model employs the maximum entropy principle combining a priori multinomial distribution with a trip utility concept. This model is utilized to forecast trip distributions under a variety of policy changes and scenarios. The dependence coefficients are obtained from a regression equation where the functional form is derived based on conditional probability and perception of factors from experimental psychology. The dependence coefficients encode all the information that was previously encoded in the form of constraints. In addition, the dependence coefficients encode information that cannot be expressed in the form of constraints for practical reasons, namely, computational tractability. The equivalence between the standard formulation (i.e., objective function with constraints) and the dependence formulation (i.e., without constraints) is demonstrated. The parameters of the dependence-based trip-distribution model are estimated, and the model is also validated using commercial air travel data in the U.S. In addition, policy impact analyses (such as allowance of supersonic flights inside the U.S. and user surcharge at noise-impacted airports) on air travel are performed.

  2. Entanglement and visibility at the output of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    E-print Network

    Matteo G. A. Paris

    1998-11-27

    We study the entanglement between the two beams exiting a Mach-Zehnder interferometer fed by a couple of squeezed-coherent states with arbitrary squeezing parameter. The quantum correlations at the output are function of the internal phase-shift of the interferometer, with the output state ranging from a totally disentangled state to a state whose degree of entanglement is an increasing function of the input squeezing parameter. A couple of squeezed vacuum at the input leads to maximum entangled state at the output. The fringes visibilities resulting from measuring the coincidence counting rate or the squared difference photocurrent are evaluated and compared each other. Homodyne-like detection turns out to be preferable in almost all situations, with the exception of the very low signals regime.

  3. Wind noise in hearing aids with directional and omnidirectional microphones: polar characteristics of behind-the-ear hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Chung, King; Mongeau, Luc; McKibben, Nicholas

    2009-04-01

    Wind noise can be a significant problem for hearing instrument users. This study examined the polar characteristics of flow noise at outputs of two behind-the-ear digital hearing aids, and a microphone mounted on the surface of a cylinder at flow velocities ranging from a gentle breeze (4.5 m/s) to a strong gale (22.5 m/s) . The hearing aids were programed in an anechoic chamber, and tested in a quiet wind tunnel for flow noise recordings. Flow noise levels were estimated by normalizing the overall gain of the hearing aids to 0 dB. The results indicated that the two hearing aids had similar flow noise characteristics: The noise level was generally the lowest when the microphone faced upstream, higher when the microphone faced downstream, and the highest for frontal and rearward incidence angles. Directional microphones often generated higher flow noise level than omnidirectional microphones but they could reduce far-field background noise, resulting in a lower ambient noise level than omnidirectional microphones. Data for the academic microphone- on-cylinder configuration suggested that both turbulence and flow impingement might have contributed to the generation of flow noise in the hearing aids. Clinical and engineering design applications are discussed. PMID:19354400

  4. Grassmannian beamforming for multiple-input multiple-output wireless systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David James Love; Robert W. Heath Jr.; Thomas Strohmer

    2003-01-01

    Transmit beamforming and receive combining are simple methods for exploiting the significant diversity that is available in multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) wireless systems. Unfortunately, optimal performance requires either complete channel knowledge or knowledge of the optimal beam- forming vector which are not always realizable in practice. In this correspondence, a quantized maximum signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) beamforming technique is proposed where

  5. Harvest Aids in Sorghum 

    E-print Network

    Stichler, Charles; Livingston, Stephen

    2003-03-11

    for stalk degradation from diseases such as charcoal rot, which will cause premature lodging during natural dry down or after harvest aids are applied (Figure 2). To check the plants before treatment, split the stalk lengthwise and look for a hollow stem... or black rot just above the root crown. If the stalk is unhealthy, it will generally fall, whether or not it has been treated. Figures 3 and 4 show what to look for in finding charcoal rot and what to expect if an application is made without assessing...

  6. Is Foreign Aid Paternalistic?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Breman; Ola Granström; Felix Masiye

    Abstract We experimentally,investigate whether,donors,are paternalistically al- truistic when contributing to foreign aid. In a double-blind experiment, a subject chooses whether,to make,a monetary,or a tied transfer (mosquito nets) to an anonymous,household,in Zambia. Recipients have,revealed preferences,for money,as their willingness to pay for mosquito,nets is pos- itive but below,the market,price. A monetary,transfer will therefore pre- serve the household’s preferences,while a tied transfer is

  7. Electronic filters, signal conversion apparatus, hearing aids and methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morley, Jr., Robert E. (Inventor); Engebretson, A. Maynard (Inventor); Engel, George L. (Inventor); Sullivan, Thomas J. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An electronic filter for filtering an electrical signal. Signal processing circuitry therein includes a logarithmic filter having a series of filter stages with inputs and outputs in cascade and respective circuits associated with the filter stages for storing electrical representations of filter parameters. The filter stages include circuits for respectively adding the electrical representations of the filter parameters to the electrical signal to be filtered thereby producing a set of filter sum signals. At least one of the filter stages includes circuitry for producing a filter signal in substantially logarithmic form at its output by combining a filter sum signal for that filter stage with a signal from an output of another filter stage. The signal processing circuitry produces an intermediate output signal, and a multiplexer connected to the signal processing circuit multiplexes the intermediate output signal with the electrical signal to be filtered so that the logarithmic filter operates as both a logarithmic prefilter and a logarithmic postfilter. Other electronic filters, signal conversion apparatus, electroacoustic systems, hearing aids and methods are also disclosed.

  8. Computer-aided diagnosis in medical imaging: Historical review, current status and future potential

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kunio Doi

    2007-01-01

    Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) has become one of the major research subjects in medical imaging and diagnostic radiology. In this article, the motivation and philosophy for early development of CAD schemes are presented together with the current status and future potential of CAD in a PACS environment. With CAD, radiologists use the computer output as a \\

  9. Computer-Aided Implant Dentistry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wolfgang Birkfellner; Peter Solar; André Gahleitner; Klaus Huber; Franz Kainberger; Joachim Kettenbach; Peter Homolka; Markus Diemling; Georg Watzek; Helmar Bergmann

    \\u000a Computer-aided implant dentistry (CAID), the direct translation of preoperative prosthetic planning to the operating theater\\u000a by means of image guidance technologies, is a novel application of computer aided surgery (CAS). This work deals with the\\u000a application of a modular software system for computer-aided interventions to CAID. The system is based on AVW-2.5, a software\\u000a library dedicated to biomedical image processing,

  10. Frequency-Shift Hearing Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, Leonard M.

    1994-01-01

    Proposed hearing aid maps spectrum of speech into band of lower frequencies at which ear remains sensitive. By redirecting normal speech frequencies into frequency band from 100 to 1,500 Hz, hearing aid allows people to understand normal conversation, including telephone calls. Principle operation of hearing aid adapted to other uses such as, clearing up noisy telephone or radio communication. In addition, loud-speakers more easily understood in presence of high background noise.

  11. Foreign Aid and Domestic Politics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rune Jansen Hagen

    Abstract The links between,foreign aid and,policies in developing,countries have,been,at the forefront of the policy debate,for decades.,An emerging,consensus,touts aid selectivity as the solution to the failures of conditionality. In recent years, many recipients have implemented,political reforms,resulting in more democratic,regimes. I show,that donor influence depends,on the aid budget,being large enough,relative to the recipient. I also demonstrate that if aid influences policies, the

  12. AIDS and the Duesberg Phenomenon

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Clyde Freeman Herreid

    1999-01-01

    Renowned virologist and member of the prestigious National Academy of Science, Peter Duesberg has argued that AIDS is not caused by HIV, but is the result of recreational and anti-HIV drugs.  In this PBL case, students read Duesberg’s 1999 article in Science magazine titled “HIV is Not the Cause of AIDS” as well as a response to it titled “HIV Causes AIDS” by medical researchers Dr. William A. Blattner and colleagues.  Students work in groups to identify the issues as well as any terms or concepts they don’t understand, then research these out of class to pool their information as they learn about AIDS and HIV.

  13. Automatic Circumference Measurement for Aiding in the Estimation of Maximum Voluntary

    E-print Network

    Hu, Huosheng

    (MVC) in EMG Systems James A.R. Cannan and Huosheng Hu University of Essex, Wivenhoe Park, Colchester Voluntary Contraction(MVC) is frequently used in human machine muscle interfaces, especially the ones using Elec- tromyography(EMG) and Acousticmyography(AMG). In some cases MVC alone is enough to adapt a system

  14. Characterizing output bottlenecks in a supercomputer

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Bing [Duke University; Chase, Jeffrey [Duke University; Dillow, David A [ORNL; Drokin, Oleg [Intel Corporation; Klasky, Scott A [ORNL; Oral, H Sarp [ORNL; Podhorszki, Norbert [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Supercomputer I/O loads are often dominated by writes. HPC (High Performance Computing) file systems are designed to absorb these bursty outputs at high bandwidth through massive parallelism. However, the delivered write bandwidth often falls well below the peak. This paper characterizes the data absorption behavior of a center-wide shared Lustre parallel file system on the Jaguar supercomputer. We use a statistical methodology to address the challenges of accurately measuring a shared machine under production load and to obtain the distribution of bandwidth across samples of compute nodes, storage targets, and time intervals. We observe and quantify limitations from competing traffic, contention on storage servers and I/O routers, concurrency limitations in the client compute node operating systems, and the impact of variance (stragglers) on coupled output such as striping. We then examine the implications of our results for application performance and the design of I/O middleware systems on shared supercomputers.

  15. Fuel dispenser aid

    SciTech Connect

    Bobst, J.M.

    1993-08-31

    A fuel dispenser aid is described for holding a trigger-like valve operating lever relative to a pistol grip-like handle portion of a valving device for dispensing gasoline or other fuels through a nozzle of the valving device, said fuel dispenser aid comprising: a mounting member formed of a material having a resilient, shape retaining character and configured for mounting over the pistol grip-like handle portion of the valving device, a flexible strap secured at a first end thereof to the mounting member and extending freely therefrom such that when the mounting member is mounted over the pistol grip-like handle portion of the valving device the free portion of the strap can he looped under the trigger-like valve operating lever and up to the mounting member, and fastening means for releasably and adjustably fastening the free portion of the strap to the mounting member after the free portion of the strap has been looped under the valve operating lever and up to the mounting member whereby the valve operating lever can be held in a desired set position relative to the handle portion of the valving device for dispensing fuel without requiring that the operating lever of the valving device continuously be manually held in said set position.

  16. Output spectra of the argon ion laser

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Bridges; W. Rigrod

    1965-01-01

    The output spectra of an A+ laser in its ? 4879.90 Å transition has been observed at various levels above threshold, in a ring resonator, a two-mirror resonator of the same longitudinal mode spacing (107 Mc\\/s), and another two-mirror resonator of about three times that mode spacing. Oscillations were restricted to the fundamental (Gaussian) mode. The A+ laser spectra display

  17. Frequency modulated output from capacitance transducers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. M. Brown

    1975-01-01

    A capacity-to-frequency converter based on a parallel-plate capacitance transducer whose output frequency is proportional to the capacitance has been designed as part of an analog integrated circuit, with applications as: (1) biaxial force transducer, in the design of a zero-interaction tension torsion force transducer or interaction-free load cell; (2) pressure transducer. The IC chip and other discrete components (modulator, current

  18. ARMA parameter estimation using only output cumulants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ANANTHRAM SWAMI; JERRY M. MENDEL

    1990-01-01

    Several algorithms are developed to estimate the parameters of a causal nonminimum-phase autoregressive moving average (ARMA) (p,q) system which is excited by an unobservable independently identically distributed non-Gaussian process. The output is contaminated by additive colored Gaussian noise of unknown power spectral density. A fundamental result is presented pertaining to the identifiability of AR parameters, based on the Yule-Walker equations

  19. Reducing RFQ output emittance by external bunching

    SciTech Connect

    Staples, J. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-05-01

    RFQ accelerators normally incorporate adiabatic bunchers in the accelerator proper. This produces high accelerator acceptance but less-than-optimum longitudinal emittance as a result of severe filamentation of the longitudinal phase space. The use of discrete bunchers both internal and external to the RFQ, along with new approaches in accelerator-only (no adiabatic buncher) RFQ beam dynamics designs produce significantly lower longitudinal output emittance with high acceptance.

  20. Bone Anchored Hearing Aid

    PubMed Central

    2002-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The objective of this health technology policy assessment was to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of bone-anchored hearing aid (BAHA) in improving the hearing of people with conduction or mixed hearing loss. The Technology The (BAHA) is a bone conduction hearing device that includes a titanium fixture permanently implanted into the mastoid bone of the skull and an external percutaneous sound processor. The sound processor is attached to the fixture by means of a skin penetrating abutment. Because the device bypasses the middle ear and directly stimulates the cochlea, it has been recommended for individuals with conduction hearing loss or discharging middle ear infection. The titanium implant is expected to last a lifetime while the external sound processor is expected to last 5 years. The total initial device cost is approximately $5,300 and the external sound processor costs approximately $3,500. Review of BAHA by the Medical Advisory Secretariat The Medical Advisory Secretariat’s review is a descriptive synthesis of findings from 36 research articles published between January 1990 and May 2002. Summary of Findings No randomized controlled studies were found. The evidence was derived from level 4 case series with relative small sample sizes (ranging from 30-188). The majority of the studies have follow-up periods of eight years or longer. All except one study were based on monaural BAHA implant on the side with the best bone conduction threshold. Safety Level 4 evidence showed that BAHA has been be implanted safely in adults and children with success rates of 90% or higher in most studies. No mortality or life threatening morbidity has been reported. Revision rates for tissue reduction or resiting were generally under 10% for adults but have been reported to be as high as 25% in pediatric studies. Adverse skin reaction around the skin penetration site was the most common complication reported. Most of these conditions were successfully treated with antibiotics, and only 1% to 2% required surgical revision. Less than 1% required removal of the fixture. Other complications included failure to osseointegrate and loss of fixture and/or abutment due to trauma or infection. Effectiveness Studies showed that BAHAs were implanted in people who have conduction or mixed hearing loss, congenital atresia or suppurative otitis media who were not candidates for surgical repair, and who cannot use conventional bone conduction hearing aids. The need for BAHA is not age- related. Objective audiometric measures and subjective patient satisfaction surveys showed that BAHA significantly improved the unaided and aided free field and sound field thresholds as well as speech discrimination in quiet and in noise for former users of conventional bone conduction hearing aids. The outcomes were ambiguous for former users of air conduction hearing aids. BAHA has been shown to reduce the frequency of ear infection and reduce the discharge particularly among patients with suppurative otitis media. Patients have reported that BAHA improved their quality of life. Reported benefits were improved speech intelligibility, better sound comfort, less pressure on the head, less skin irritation, greater cosmetic acceptance and increase in confidence. Main reported shortcomings were wind noise, feedback and difficulty in using the telephone. Experts and the BAHA manufacturer recommended that recipients of a BAHA implant be at least 5 years old. Challenges associated with the implantation of BAHA in pediatric patients include thin bone, soft bone, higher rates of fixture loss due to trauma, psychological problems, and higher revision rates due to rapid bone growth. The overall outcomes are comparable to adult BAHA. The benefits of pediatric BAHA (e.g. on speech development) appear to outweigh the disadvantages. Screening according to strict eligibility criteria, preoperative counselling, close monitoring by a physician with BAHA expertise and on-going follow-up were identified as critical factors for long-ter

  1. Characterizing Detonator Output Using Dynamic Witness Plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Michael J.; Adrian, Ronald J.

    2009-12-01

    A sub-microsecond, time-resolved micro-particle-image velocimetry (PIV) system is developed to investigate the output of explosive detonators. Detonator output is directed into a transparent solid that serves as a dynamic witness plate and instantaneous shock and material velocities are measured in a two-dimensional plane cutting through the shock wave as it propagates through the solid. For the case of unloaded initiators (e.g. exploding bridge wires, exploding foil initiators, etc.) the witness plate serves as a surrogate for the explosive material that would normally be detonated. The velocity-field measurements quantify the velocity of the shocked material and visualize the geometry of the shocked region. Furthermore, the time-evolution of the velocity-field can be measured at intervals as small as 10 ns using the PIV system. Current experimental results of unloaded exploding bridge wire output in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) witness plates demonstrate 20 MHz velocity-field sampling just 300 ns after initiation of the wire.

  2. Characterizing detonator output using dynamic witness plates

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Michael John [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Adrian, Ronald J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    A sub-microsecond, time-resolved micro-particle-image velocimetry (PIV) system is developed to investigate the output of explosive detonators. Detonator output is directed into a transparent solid that serves as a dynamic witness plate and instantaneous shock and material velocities are measured in a two-dimensional plane cutting through the shock wave as it propagates through the solid. For the case of unloaded initiators (e.g. exploding bridge wires, exploding foil initiators, etc.) the witness plate serves as a surrogate for the explosive material that would normally be detonated. The velocity-field measurements quantify the velocity of the shocked material and visualize the geometry of the shocked region. Furthermore, the time-evolution of the velocity-field can be measured at intervals as small as 10 ns using the PIV system. Current experimental results of unloaded exploding bridge wire output in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) witness plates demonstrate 20 MHz velocity-field sampling just 300 ns after initiation of the wire.

  3. When is foreign aid policy credible? Aid dependence and conditionality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jakob Svensson

    2000-01-01

    Disbursements of foreign aid are guided (in part) by the needs of the poor. Anticipating this, recipients have little incentive to improve the welfare of the poor. In principle, conditionality could partly solve the problem, but this requires a strong commitment ability by the donor. Without such a commitment technology, aid will be allocated (partly) to those in most need,

  4. Comparison of CAISO-run Plexos output with LLNL-run Plexos output

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, A; Meyers, C; Smith, S

    2011-12-20

    In this report we compare the output of the California Independent System Operator (CAISO) 33% RPS Plexos model when run on various computing systems. Specifically, we compare the output resulting from running the model on CAISO's computers (Windows) and LLNL's computers (both Windows and Linux). We conclude that the differences between the three results are negligible in the context of the entire system and likely attributed to minor differences in Plexos version numbers as well as the MIP solver used in each case.

  5. GAMS program used to estimate capacity output using a distance function with both good and bad output, variable returns to scale and weak disposability of the bad outputs.

    E-print Network

    (obs) weights ; POSITIVE Variable weight, lambda; EQUATIONS CONSTR1(GOUTPUT, OBS) DEA constraint for each output CONSTR2(BOUTPUT, OBS) DEA constraint for BAD Outputs CONSTR3(FIXED, OBS) DEA constraint for Fixed Inputs CONSTR4(VAR,OBS) DEA Constraint for Variable Outputs CONSTR5 DEA Constraint for Variable Returns to Scale

  6. 2014 -2015 FAU Financial Aid Guide

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    the Office of Student Financial Aid. Emails are generated from student's financial aid records to inform them2014 - 2015 FAU Financial Aid Guide #12;2 Office of Student Financial Aid At Florida Atlantic, with different goals and needs. FAU will provide a comprehensive student financial aid program, based

  7. FINANCIAL AID RECIPIENTS CLASS OF 2018 INFORMATION FOR FINANCIAL AID RECIPIENTS CLASS IAL AID RECIPIENTS CLASS OF 2018 INFORMATION FOR FINANCIAL AID RECIPIENTS CLASS OF 2018

    E-print Network

    Plotkin, Joshua B.

    FINANCIAL AID RECIPIENTS CLASS OF 2018 INFORMATION FOR FINANCIAL AID RECIPIENTS CLASS IAL AID RECIPIENTS CLASS OF 2018 INFORMATION FOR FINANCIAL AID RECIPIENTS CLASS OF 2018 `` Benjamin Franklin An investment in knowledge always pays the best interest. Information for Financial Aid Recipients www

  8. Financial Aid ServicesFinancial Aid ServicesFinancial Aid ServicesFinancial Aid Services Lender/Loan Program Interest Rate Ranges/Fees

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    Financial Aid ServicesFinancial Aid ServicesFinancial Aid ServicesFinancial Aid Services Lender) Required Minimum Enrollment Lifetime Aggregate Payment of Prior Balance Citizens Bank TRUEFIT STUDENT LOAN.citizensbank.com/truefitstudentloan 1-800-708-6684 $1,000/Cost of attendance minus financial aid 6 months after graduation Up to 15

  9. Financial Aid ServicesFinancial Aid ServicesFinancial Aid ServicesFinancial Aid Services Lender/Loan Program Name Interest Rate

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    Financial Aid ServicesFinancial Aid ServicesFinancial Aid ServicesFinancial Aid Services Lender Citizens Bank TRUEFIT STUDENT LOAN Variable Rate: LIBOR + 2.50- 9.25% Fixed Rate: LIBOR +5.75- 11.75% www.citizensbank.com/truefitstudentloan 1-800-708-6684 Certificate Program $1,000/Cost of attendance minus financial aid 6 months after

  10. @ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS l Absolute Maximum Ratings

    E-print Network

    Grantner, Janos L.

    .5v for the LCD output level. The LCD @s 0.25 xA drive voltage condition for the LCD output level is specified in "LCD i voltage "LCD". Symbol Test condition Input "High" Voltage (1) VIHl Input "Low" Voltage filter 245 250 255 kHz1 (9) LCD Voltage 'LCD1 Vcc_V5 l/5 bias 4.6 - 11 v I (13) 1 VLCDZ l/4 bias 3.0 - 11

  11. Optimal loading range for the development of peak power output in the hexagonal barbell jump squat.

    PubMed

    Turner, Thomas S; Tobin, Daniel P; Delahunt, Eamonn

    2015-06-01

    Turner, TS, Tobin, DP, and Delahunt, E. Optimal loading range for the development of peak power output in the hexagonal barbell jump squat. J Strength Cond Res 29(6): 1627-1632, 2015-Recent studies indicate that the utilization of the hexagonal barbell jump squat (HBJS) compared with the traditional barbell jump squat may offer a superior method of developing peak power. The notion that a single optimal load may be prescribed in training programs aiming to develop peak power is subject to debate. The purpose of this study was to identify the optimal load corresponding with peak power output during the HBJS in professional rugby union players. Seventeen professional rugby union players participated in this study. Participants performed 3 unloaded countermovement jumps on a force plate and 3 HBJS at each of the following randomized loads: 10, 20, 30, and 40% of box squat 1 repetition maximum (1RM). Peak power output was the dependent variable of interest. A one-way repeated measures analysis of variance was conducted to compare peak power output across each load. Peak power output was the dependent variable of interest. A significant main effect for load was observed (Wilk's Lambda = 0.11, F(4,13) = 18.07, p < 0.01, partial ? = 0.88). Results of the Bonferroni-adjusted pairwise comparisons indicated that peak power output in the HBJS is optimized at a load range between 10 and 20% of box squat 1RM. The results of this study indicate that the use of the HBJS with a training load between 10 and 20% of box squat 1RM optimizes peak power output in professional rugby union players. PMID:25486301

  12. Speech processing using conditional observable maximum likelihood continuity mapping

    DOEpatents

    Hogden, John; Nix, David

    2004-01-13

    A computer implemented method enables the recognition of speech and speech characteristics. Parameters are initialized of first probability density functions that map between the symbols in the vocabulary of one or more sequences of speech codes that represent speech sounds and a continuity map. Parameters are also initialized of second probability density functions that map between the elements in the vocabulary of one or more desired sequences of speech transcription symbols and the continuity map. The parameters of the probability density functions are then trained to maximize the probabilities of the desired sequences of speech-transcription symbols. A new sequence of speech codes is then input to the continuity map having the trained first and second probability function parameters. A smooth path is identified on the continuity map that has the maximum probability for the new sequence of speech codes. The probability of each speech transcription symbol for each input speech code can then be output.

  13. Teaching Aids at Low Cost.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Felicity Savage

    1985-01-01

    Describes the activities of Teaching Aids at Low Cost (TALC), a nonprofit component of the Institute of Child Health in London. TALC develops and distributes books, sets of slides, flannelgraphs, and other teaching aids to developing nations for use in teaching health workers--nurses, auxiliary medical workers, medical students, and doctors. (MBR)

  14. Stanford University RCO Job Aid

    E-print Network

    Puglisi, Joseph

    , Continuing Review, and Final Report AID-23m 1/1 File:AID01023 rev2 09/12 Research Compliance Office A study (Confirmed with attached FDA documentation) · Investigational Device: IDE number (Confirmed with attached FDA ..." is selected, then it is SIR. Attachments for eProtocol (Section 16), as applicable: · FDA IND letter

  15. Student Financial Aid Delivery System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neal, John R.; Carpenter, Catharine A.

    1983-01-01

    Ohio University's use of computer programing for the need analysis and internal accounting functions in financial aid is described. A substantial improvement of services resulted, with 6,000-10,000 students and the offices of financial aid, bursar, registration, student records, housing, admissions, and controller assisted in the process. Costs…

  16. HIV/AIDS and Pregnancy

    MedlinePLUS

    If you have HIV/AIDS and find out you are pregnant or think you may be pregnant, you should let your health care provider know as soon as possible. Some HIV/AIDS medicines may harm your baby. Your health care ...

  17. Moral Character and Student Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flint, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    Thirty years after the creation of federal student financial aid programs through the Higher Education Act of 1965, the link between moral character and student financial aid programs is once again influencing the public policy debate. A careful look at the debate, though, shows that the nature of concerns has shifted. In the past, the question…

  18. Certification of Financial Aid Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Stacey A.

    2011-01-01

    The certification of financial aid administrators has been debated for over 37 years. A job satisfaction survey conducted by the National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NASFAA, 2008a) revealed that college and university administrators' perceptions of the efficiency, effectiveness, and quality of the services provided by the…

  19. Hearing Aid Fitting in Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Brenda M.

    2000-01-01

    This article examines the latest technological advances in hearing aids and explores the available research to help families and professionals make informed decisions when fitting amplification devices on infants and young children. Diagnostic procedures, evaluation techniques, hearing aid selection, circuit and advanced technology options, and…

  20. [Retinal manifestations of AIDS].

    PubMed

    Cassoux, N; Reux, I; Guex-Crosier, Y; LeHoang, P

    1996-09-15

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis is the most common retinal opportunistic infection in AIDS patients and is the main cause of blindness. It is generally associated with a CD4+ lymphocyte count below 50/microL. CMV retinitis is often asymptomatic (54% of the cases), frequent ophtalmoscopic screening is very important. Two virostatic drugs (Cymevan and Foscavir) have been approved for the treatment of CMV retinitis. Both are effective in preventing the progression of the lesion within 3 weeks of induction therapy. Long-term use of virostatic maintenance therapy delays the onset of relapses. The differential diagnosis of CMV retinitis are: human immunodeficiency virus retinopathy, varicella-zoster virus retinitis, ocular toxoplasmosis, syphilis, candida endophthalmitis in intravenous drug users, and unfrequently, tuberculosis, choroidal pneumocystosis, intraocular lymphoma. PMID:8949282

  1. The range scheduling aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halbfinger, Eliezer M.; Smith, Barry D.

    1991-01-01

    The Air Force Space Command schedules telemetry, tracking and control activities across the Air Force Satellite Control network. The Range Scheduling Aid (RSA) is a rapid prototype combining a user-friendly, portable, graphical interface with a sophisticated object-oriented database. The RSA has been a rapid prototyping effort whose purpose is to elucidate and define suitable technology for enhancing the performance of the range schedulers. Designing a system to assist schedulers in their task and using their current techniques as well as enhancements enabled by an electronic environment, has created a continuously developing model that will serve as a standard for future range scheduling systems. The RSA system is easy to use, easily ported between platforms, fast, and provides a set of tools for the scheduler that substantially increases his productivity.

  2. AIDS and sex tourism.

    PubMed

    Herold, E S; Van Kerkwijk, C

    1992-01-01

    Tourists traveling internationally lower their inhibitions and take greater risks than they would typically in their home cultures. Loneliness, boredom, and a sense of freedom contribute to this behavioral change. Some tourists travel internationally in search of sexual gratification. This motivation may be actively conscious or subconscious to the traveler. Billed as romantic with great natural beauty, Thailand, the Philippines, Brazil, the Dominican Republic, and Kenya are popular destinations of tourists seeking sex. The Netherlands and countries in eastern Europe are also popular. With most initial cases of HIV infection in Europe having histories of international travel, mass tourism is a major factor in the international transmission of AIDS. While abroad, tourists have sex with casual partners, sex workers, and/or other tourists. Far from all tourists, however, carry and consistently use condoms with these partners. One study found female and non white travelers to be less likely than Whites and males to carry condoms. The risk of HIV infection increases in circumstances where condoms are not readily available in the host country and/or are of poor quality. Regarding actual condom use, a study found only 34% of sex tourists from Switzerland to consistently use condoms while abroad. 28% of men in an STD clinic in Melbourne, Australia, reported consistent condom use in sexual relations while traveling in Asia; STDs were identified in 73% of men examined. The few studies of tourists suggest that a significant proportion engage in risky behavior while traveling. HIV prevalence is rapidly increasing in countries known as destinations for sex tourism. High infection rates are especially evident among teenage sex workers in Thailand. Simply documenting the prevalence of risky behavior among sex tourists will not suffice. More research is needed on travelers and AIDS with particular attention upon the motivating factors supporting persistent high-risk behavior. PMID:12286016

  3. Satisfactory Academic Progress for Federal Title IV Aid Federal Financial Aid Academic Progress Improvement Plan

    E-print Network

    Shamos, Michael I.

    . The Financial Aid Academic Progress Appeal Committee will review the academic records of all students whose aidSatisfactory Academic Progress for Federal Title IV Aid Federal Financial Aid Academic Progress for federal financial aid must appeal to have their aid reinstated. Appeals for reinstatement of federal

  4. RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access AIDS and non-AIDS severe morbidity associated

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access AIDS and non-AIDS severe morbidity associated with hospitalizations from predominantly AIDS-related to non-AIDS-related conditions. In the context of universal access morbid events (AIDS- and non-AIDS-related) were defined as all clinical diagnoses associated

  5. Older people's views on what they need to successfully adjust to life with a hearing aid

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Timothy B; Tolson, Debbie; Day, Tracy; McColgan, Gillian; Kroll, Thilo; Maclaren, William

    2013-01-01

    This article reports a study exploring what older people believe would enable them to adjust to and gain maximum benefit from wearing a hearing aid. A mixed methods approach was employed during 2006 involving interviews with key stakeholders, a survey across three Scottish health board areas and focus groups. Nine key stakeholders from six national and local organisations were interviewed about the needs of older people being fitted with hearing aids. In total, 240 older people belonging to three different types of hearing impaired older people were surveyed: long-term users of hearing aids, new hearing aid users, and those on a waiting list from urban and rural areas (response rate = 24%). A series of eight follow-up focus groups with 31 audiology patients was held. Health professionals appeared to neglect appropriate provision of information and overly rely on technological interventions. Of 154 older people already fitted with hearing aids, only 52% of hearing aid users reported receiving enough practical help post fitting and only 41% reported receiving enough support. Approximately 40% reported not feeling confident in the use of their aids or their controls. Older people wanted more information than they received both before and after hearing aid fitting. Information provision and attention to the psychosocial aspects of care are key to enabling older people to adjust and optimise hearing aid benefit. PMID:23373520

  6. Global HIV / AIDS & STD Surveillance

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site, provided by the United Nations World Health Organization and the UNAIDS Joint Programme on HIV/AIDS, contains Report on the global HIV/AIDS epidemic - June 1998, along with Adobe Acrobat (.pdf) fact sheets for 167 countries. Users can also access report annex data on "estimated and reported global AIDS cases" in Microsoft Excel and .dif format. Among the report's findings: 5.8 million people were infected with HIV in 1997; 30.6 million people are living with HIV/AIDS; 2.3 million died of AIDS in 1997; 11.7 million have died since the beginning of the epidemic; and 8.2 million children have been orphaned since the beginning of the epidemic. The report and tables are available in English, French, and Spanish (the latter two versions are available in .pdf format only).

  7. 45 CFR 707.10 - Auxiliary aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Auxiliary aids. 707.10 Section 707.10...COMMISSION ON CIVIL RIGHTS § 707.10 Auxiliary aids. (a) The Agency shall furnish appropriate auxiliary aids where necessary to afford...

  8. 29 CFR 1926.1416 - Operational aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 2012-07-01 false Operational aids. 1926.1416 Section 1926.1416...Construction § 1926.1416 Operational aids. (a) The devices listed in this section (“listed operational aids”) are required on all equipment...

  9. HIV/AIDS and Asian Americans

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS and Asian Americans Asian Americans have slightly lower ... 23.pdf [PDF | 2.32MB] At a glance – AIDS Cases and Rates (Adults): Estimated number of cases ...

  10. 7 CFR 15b.37 - Auxiliary aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Auxiliary aids. 15b.37 Section 15b.37 Agriculture...RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Other Aid, Benefits, or Services § 15b.37 Auxiliary aids. (a) A recipient to which this...

  11. 7 CFR 15b.37 - Auxiliary aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Auxiliary aids. 15b.37 Section 15b.37 Agriculture...RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Other Aid, Benefits, or Services § 15b.37 Auxiliary aids. (a) A recipient to which this...

  12. 29 CFR 1926.1416 - Operational aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 2013-07-01 false Operational aids. 1926.1416 Section 1926.1416...Construction § 1926.1416 Operational aids. (a) The devices listed in this section (“listed operational aids”) are required on all equipment...

  13. 30 CFR 75.1913 - Starting aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Starting aids. 75.1913 Section 75.1913 Mineral Resources...Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1913 Starting aids. (a) Volatile fuel starting aids shall be used in accordance with...

  14. 7 CFR 15b.37 - Auxiliary aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Auxiliary aids. 15b.37 Section 15b.37 Agriculture...RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Other Aid, Benefits, or Services § 15b.37 Auxiliary aids. (a) A recipient to which this...

  15. 30 CFR 75.1913 - Starting aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Starting aids. 75.1913 Section 75.1913 Mineral Resources...Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1913 Starting aids. (a) Volatile fuel starting aids shall be used in accordance with...

  16. HIV/AIDS Clinical Trials Fact Sheet

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and effective in people. What is an HIV/AIDS clinical trial? HIV/AIDS clinical trials help researchers ... to HIV Can anyone participate in an HIV/AIDS clinical trial? It depends on the study. Some ...

  17. 30 CFR 75.1913 - Starting aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Starting aids. 75.1913 Section 75.1913 Mineral Resources...Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1913 Starting aids. (a) Volatile fuel starting aids shall be used in accordance with...

  18. 29 CFR 1926.1416 - Operational aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 2011-07-01 false Operational aids. 1926.1416 Section 1926.1416...Construction § 1926.1416 Operational aids. (a) The devices listed in this section (“listed operational aids”) are required on all equipment...

  19. HIV / AIDS: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV / AIDS: Symptoms , Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment Past Issues / Summer ... and have resulted in a dramatic decrease in AIDS deaths in the U.S. NIH Research to Results ...

  20. 30 CFR 75.1913 - Starting aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Starting aids. 75.1913 Section 75.1913 Mineral Resources...Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1913 Starting aids. (a) Volatile fuel starting aids shall be used in accordance with...

  1. 30 CFR 75.1913 - Starting aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Starting aids. 75.1913 Section 75.1913 Mineral Resources...Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1913 Starting aids. (a) Volatile fuel starting aids shall be used in accordance with...

  2. 29 CFR 1926.1416 - Operational aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 2014-07-01 false Operational aids. 1926.1416 Section 1926.1416...Construction § 1926.1416 Operational aids. (a) The devices listed in this section (“listed operational aids”) are required on all equipment...

  3. 7 CFR 15b.37 - Auxiliary aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Auxiliary aids. 15b.37 Section 15b.37 Agriculture...RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Other Aid, Benefits, or Services § 15b.37 Auxiliary aids. (a) A recipient to which this...

  4. 75 FR 49432 - Impact Aid Programs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ...ED-2010-OESE-0013] RIN 1810-AB11 Impact Aid Programs AGENCY: Office of Elementary and...amend the regulations governing the Impact Aid Discretionary Construction Program, which...educational agencies (LEAs) that receive Impact Aid formula funds. The proposed...

  5. 78 FR 73075 - World AIDS Day, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-04

    ...Proclamation 9064--World AIDS Day, 2013 Presidential Documents...Proclamation 9064 of November 27, 2013 World AIDS Day, 2013 By the President of the...of America A Proclamation Each year on World AIDS Day, we come together as a...

  6. Global Health Observatory (GHO): HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Number of people (all ages) living with HIV Mortality 1.5 million people died of AIDS-related ... Size of the HIV/AIDS epidemic Prevalence and mortality HIV/AIDS response Prevention and treatment Sexually Transmitted ...

  7. The Science of HIV/AIDS

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Baylor College of Medicine (Baylor College of Medicine Human Genome Sequencing Center)

    2010-01-01

    The Science of HIV/AIDS contains student activities and essays that help students understand the virus that causes AIDS, how infectious agents multiply in organisms, and the worldwide spread of HIV/AIDS.

  8. Combining Multiple Gyroscope Outputs for Increased Accuracy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayard, David S.

    2003-01-01

    A proposed method of processing the outputs of multiple gyroscopes to increase the accuracy of rate (that is, angular-velocity) readings has been developed theoretically and demonstrated by computer simulation. Although the method is applicable, in principle, to any gyroscopes, it is intended especially for application to gyroscopes that are parts of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). The method is based on the concept that the collective performance of multiple, relatively inexpensive, nominally identical devices can be better than that of one of the devices considered by itself. The method would make it possible to synthesize the readings of a single, more accurate gyroscope (a virtual gyroscope) from the outputs of a large number of microscopic gyroscopes fabricated together on a single MEMS chip. The big advantage would be that the combination of the MEMS gyroscope array and the processing circuitry needed to implement the method would be smaller, lighter in weight, and less power-hungry, relative to a conventional gyroscope of equal accuracy. The method (see figure) is one of combining and filtering the digitized outputs of multiple gyroscopes to obtain minimum-variance estimates of rate. In the combining-and-filtering operations, measurement data from the gyroscopes would be weighted and smoothed with respect to each other according to the gain matrix of a minimum- variance filter. According to Kalman-filter theory, the gain matrix of the minimum-variance filter is uniquely specified by the filter covariance, which propagates according to a matrix Riccati equation. The present method incorporates an exact analytical solution of this equation.

  9. Off-set stabilizer for comparator output

    DOEpatents

    Lunsford, James S. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1991-01-01

    A stabilized off-set voltage is input as the reference voltage to a comparator. In application to a time-interval meter, the comparator output generates a timing interval which is independent of drift in the initial voltage across the timing capacitor. A precision resistor and operational amplifier charge a capacitor to a voltage which is precisely offset from the initial voltage. The capacitance of the reference capacitor is selected so that substantially no voltage drop is obtained in the reference voltage applied to the comparator during the interval to be measured.

  10. Uncertainties in predicting solar panel power output

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anspaugh, B.

    1974-01-01

    The problem of calculating solar panel power output at launch and during a space mission is considered. The major sources of uncertainty and error in predicting the post launch electrical performance of the panel are considered. A general discussion of error analysis is given. Examples of uncertainty calculations are included. A general method of calculating the effect on the panel of various degrading environments is presented, with references supplied for specific methods. A technique for sizing a solar panel for a required mission power profile is developed.

  11. Output ratios in a miniphantom for asymmetric fields shaped by a multileaf collimator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georg, D.; Garibaldi, C.; Dutreix, A.

    1997-11-01

    The integrated GE multileaf collimator (MLC) provides the ability to achieve `double' asymmetric fields: each of the 64 leaves allow an over-axis travel of 10 cm and the Y-jaws allow 20 cm. A formalism has recently been proposed by the authors to calculate the output ratio in a miniphantom for this type of MLC by the product of independent leaf and jaw correction factors. The original proposed formalism was restricted to regular or irregular fields including the collimator rotational axis. Introducing `reduced coordinates' for the correction factors in the present work this formalism is extended to asymmetric fields where central leaves or jaws overlap the collimator axis. The extended formalism is applied to asymmetric square, rectangular and irregular fields. For all fields checked at a given off-axis position, measured and calculated output ratios agree within 1% for 6, 18 and 25 MV photon beams. To relate output ratios normalized to off-axis points with output ratios on-axis, off-axis ratios are derived from film and miniphantom measurements. Both off-axis ratios agree to within 1% for 6 and 25 MV photon beams; a maximum deviation of 1.3% is observed at 18 MV. Calculated products of output ratios and off-axis ratios derived from films are compared with measurements for asymmetric square, rectangular and irregular fields, and agree mostly within 1% for all energies checked; maximum deviations of 1.3 and 1.6% are observed for 6 and 18 MV photon beams.

  12. AIDS: "it's the bacteria, stupid!".

    PubMed

    Broxmeyer, Lawrence; Cantwell, Alan

    2008-11-01

    Acid-fast tuberculous mycobacterial infections are common in AIDS and are regarded as secondary "opportunistic infections." According to the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, TB is the major attributable cause of death in AIDS patients. Could such bacteria play a primary or causative role in AIDS? Certainly, In screening tests for HIV, there is frequent, up to 70%, cross-reactivity, between the gag and pol proteins of HIV and patients with mycobacterial infections such as tuberculosis. By 1972, five years before gays started dying in the U.S., Rolland wrote Genital Tuberculosis, a Forgotten Disease? And ironically, in 1979, on the eve of AIDS recognition, Gondzik and Jasiewicz showed that even in the laboratory, genitally infected tubercular male guinea pigs could infect healthy females through their semen by an HIV-compatible ratio of 1 in 6 or 17%, prompting him to warn his patients that not only was tuberculosis a sexually transmitted disease, but also the necessity of the application of suitable contraceptives, such as condoms, to avoid it. Gondzik's solution and date of publication are chilling; his findings significant. Since 1982 Cantwell et al found acid-fast bacteria closely related to tuberculosis (TB) and atypical tuberculosis in AIDS tissue. On the other hand molecular biologist and virologist Duesberg, who originally defined retroviral ultrastructure, has made it clear that HIV is not the cause of AIDS and that the so-called AIDS retrovirus has never been isolated in its pure state. Dr. Etienne de Harven, first to examine retroviruses under the electron, agrees. In 1993 HIV co-discoverer Luc Montagnier reported on cell-wall-deficient (CWD) bacteria which he called "mycoplasma" in AIDS tissue. He suspected these as a necessary "co-factor" for AIDS. Remarkably, Montagnier remained silent on Cantwell's reports of acid-fast bacteria which could simulate "mycoplasma" in AIDS tissue. Mattman makes clear that the differentiation between mycoplasma and CWD bacteria is difficult at best and cites Pachas's 1985 study wherein one mycoplasma was actually mistaken for a CWD form of a bacterium closely related to the mycobacteria. It is important to realize that the statement "HIV is the sole cause of AIDS" is just a hypothesis. There are unanswered questions and controversy concerning the role of HIV "as the sole cause of AIDS." And until they are resolved, a cure is not possible. This paper explores the possible role of acid-fast tuberculous mycobacteria as "primary agents" in AIDS. PMID:18691828

  13. Maximum Electrical Stimulation for Urge Incontinence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masahiro Nakamura; Tsutomu Sakurai; Hideki Sugao; Takao Sonoda

    1987-01-01

    Urge incontinence was controlled in 13 (62%) of 21 patients by maximum electrical stimulation which was applied to the anus or the perianal skin. The first session of maximum electrical stimulation was able to determine if this treatment would be successful. This method of patient selection for further stimulation was simple and reliable and achieved clinical success in all of

  14. Maximum entropy principle and nonlinear stochastic oscillators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Sobczyk; J. Trebicki

    1993-01-01

    The principle of maximum entropy introduced first in physics and successfully applied in many other fields (e.g. statistics, reliability estimation, simulation) has recently been developed to analyze the systems governed by stochastic differential equations. In this paper we extend the maximum entropy method to the general class of stochastic nonlinear systems and apply it to stochastic nonlinear oscillators. To indicate

  15. 49 CFR 107.329 - Maximum penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...the maximum civil penalty is $110,000 if the violation results in death, serious illness...minimum $495 civil penalty applies to a violation...the maximum civil penalty is $110,000 if the violation results in death, serious...

  16. MAXIMUM LIKELIHOOD ESTIMATION FOR GENERALISED LOGISTIC DISTRIBUTIONS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Quanxi Shao

    2002-01-01

    Maximum likelihood estimation for the type I generalised logistic distributions is investigated. We show that the maximum likelihood estimation usually exists, except when the so-called embedded model problem occurs. A full set of embedded distributions is derived, including Gumbel distribution and a two-parameter reciprocal exponential distribution. Properties relating the embedded distributions are given. We also provide criteria to determine when

  17. On bias in maximum likelihood estimators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. V. Mardia; H. R. Southworth; C. C. Taylor

    1999-01-01

    It is well known that maximum likelihood estimators are often biased, and it is of use to estimate the expected bias so that we can reduce the mean square errors of our parameter estimates. Expressions for estimating the bias in maximum likelihood estimates have been given by Cox and Hinkley (1974), (Theoretical Statistics, Chapman & Hall, London). In this paper,

  18. Maximum-Likelihood Stereo Correspondence using Field

    E-print Network

    MacLean, W. James

    estimation. 1 Introduction Stereo vision makes use of two images from different view points to construct) motion-compensated stereo estimation. 2 Maximum-Likelihood Stereo Vision Dense stereo correspondence mayMaximum-Likelihood Stereo Correspondence using Field Programmable Gate Arrays Siraj Sabihuddin & W

  19. A new maximum power point tracking system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. J. A. Teulings; J. C. Marpinard; A. Capel; D. O'Sullivan

    1993-01-01

    In power systems involving a load, a battery and a solar array, MPPT (maximum power point tracking) is a promising principle to extract the maximum amount of energy from the solar array and distribute it to the battery and loads. A digital hill-climbing control strategy combined with a bidirectional current mode power cell is presented that makes it possible to

  20. Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood Neural Networks

    E-print Network

    Nielsen, Finn Ã?rup

    Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood Neural Networks Finn A ffi rup Nielsen Section for Digital Signal, 1998 OVERVIEW ffl Artificial neural networks ffl Maximum likelihood, MAP, MPL neural networks ffl Bayesian neural networks -- MCMC Bayesian neural networks \\Lambda Hybrid Monte Carlo ffl lyngby matlab

  1. Systolic Arrays for Lattice-Reduction-Aided MIMO Detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ni-Chun Wang; Ezio Biglieri; Kung Yao

    2011-01-01

    Multiple-input, multiple-output (MIMO) technology provides high data rate and\\u000aenhanced QoS for wireless com- munications. Since the benefits from MIMO result\\u000ain a heavy computational load in detectors, the design of low-complexity\\u000asub-optimum receivers is currently an active area of research.\\u000aLattice-reduction-aided detection (LRAD) has been shown to be an effective\\u000alow-complexity method with near-ML performance. In this paper we

  2. Input/output modeling for process control

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, T.R.; Rhodes, C.A.; Morari, M. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Traditionally, for ease of operation and analysis, technological systems (manufacturing systems, communication systems, etc.) have been designed to behave in as linear a manner as possible. Increasingly tight specifications, environmental considerations and economic pressures are pushing the operational windows into regions where assumptions of linearity tend to break down. Despite a flurry of activity in the area of nonlinear dynamical systems (both analysis and control systems design) we see very few applications of these new results. One important reason is the lack of suitable nonlinear dynamic models. The objective of this project is the development of tools for building nonlinear models based on input/output data. The developed techniques build on results from nonlinear time series analysis, classical statistics and chemometrics. We show how to use the False Nearest Neighbor method to determine the order of a nonlinear ARMAX model, and explore the local linear structure of the input/output map via PLS (Partial Least Squares or Projection to Local Structures). By putting PLS in the general context of {open_quotes}significance regression{close_quotes} we are able to deal effectively with collinear data sets involving errors on the inputs ({open_quotes}Measurement Error Model{close_quotes}) and outliers ({open_quotes}Robust Regression{close_quotes}).

  3. Constant modulus algorithm aided soft decision directed scheme for blind space-time equalisation of SIMO channels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sheng Chen; Andreas Wolfgang; Lajos Hanzo

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates a blind space-time equaliser (STE) designed for single-input multiple-output (SIMO) systems that employ high-throughput quadrature amplitude modulation schemes. A constant modulus algorithm (CMA) aided soft decision-directed (SDD) scheme, originally derived for low-complexity blind equalisation of single-input single-output channels, is extended to the SIMO scenario. Simulations are conducted to compare the performance of this blind adaptive scheme with

  4. Output statistics of laser anemometers in sparsely seeded flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, R. V.; Jensen, A. S.

    1982-01-01

    It is noted that until very recently, research on this topic concentrated on the particle arrival statistics and the influence of the optical parameters on them. Little attention has been paid to the influence of subsequent processing on the measurement statistics. There is also controversy over whether the effects of the particle statistics can be measured. It is shown here that some of the confusion derives from a lack of understanding of the experimental parameters that are to be controlled or known. A rigorous framework is presented for examining the measurement statistics of such systems. To provide examples, two problems are then addressed. The first has to do with a sample and hold processor, the second with what is called a saturable processor. The sample and hold processor converts the output to a continuous signal by holding the last reading until a new one is obtained. The saturable system is one where the maximum processable rate is arrived at by the dead time of some unit in the system. At high particle rates, the processed rate is determined through the dead time.

  5. AIDS. Grim news for Asia.

    PubMed

    1992-12-01

    While Asia was the last region to be exposed to the global spread of HIV and AIDS, the incidence of HIV infection there is increasing fastest. The Asian Development Bank predicts mortality from AIDS will cause some town and village populations to begin declining by the year 2000. With an estimated 1 million people infected in India, and 400,000 in Thailand, these 2 countries are particularly exposed to the risk of epidemic HIV spread. In 5 years, more people may be affected by AIDS in India than anywhere else in the world. Concern over a growing presence of HIV is also merited for the Philippines, Indonesia, China, and the drug trade's Golden Triangle. The Second International Conference on AIDS in Asia and the Pacific in November 1992 stressed that AIDS no longer affects only homosexual and IV drug using populations. 50% of new infections worldwide in the first half of 1992 were among women, 65% of Thailand's AIDS cases are among heterosexuals, and 3-5% of Thailand's long-haul truck drivers have tested positive for HIV infection. HIV and AIDS robs economies and societies of their best workers. The immediate costs of caring for AIDS patients will pale next to the far greater losses to be realized in private sector economic productivity. Asia's more developed economies will probably be able to survive the epidemic, but small, poor countries like Laos will wilt. Prompt action must be taken to overcome public and religious ignorance and objections to promoting and using condoms throughout the region. For the first time, Beijing has organized an AIDS awareness conference for male homosexuals. Further, Singapore has implemented compulsory testing for lower-income foreign workers. Pakistan has even solicited educational assistance and support from Islamic religious leaders; similar action is being considered in Bangladesh. PMID:12285939

  6. Optimal and sub-optimal maximum a posteriori algorithms suitable for turbo decoding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick Robertson; Peter Hoeher; Emmanuelle Villebrun

    1997-01-01

    For estimating the states or outputs of a Markov process, the symbol-by-symbol maximum a posteriori(MAP) algorithm is optimal. However, this algorithm, even in its recursive form, poses technical difficultiesbecause of numerical representation problems, the necessity of non-linear functions and a high number ofadditions and multiplications. MAP like algorithms operating in the logarithmic domain presented in thepast solve the numerical problem

  7. Maximum-Likeliho od Seauence Estimation of Digital Sequences i&he Presence of Intersymbol Interference

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. DAVID FORNEY

    1972-01-01

    A maximum-likelihood sequence estimator for a digital pulse-amplitude-modulated sequence in the presence of finite intersymbol interference and white Gaussian noise is developed. The structure cbm- prises a sampled linear filter, called a whitened matched filter, and a recursive nonlinear processor, called the Viterbi algorithm. The outputs of the whitened matched filter, sampled once for each input symbol, are shown to

  8. Maximum-likelihood sequence estimation of digital sequences in the presence of intersymbol interference

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1972-01-01

    A maximum-likelihood sequence estimator for a digital pulse-amplitude-modulated sequence in the presence of finite intersymbol interference and white Gaussian noise is developed, The structure comprises a sampled linear filter, called a whitened matched filter, and a recursive nonlinear processor, called the Viterbi algorithm. The outputs of the whitened matched filter, sampled once for each input symbol, are shown to form

  9. The effect of inspiratory muscle training upon maximum lactate steady-state and blood lactate concentration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alison K. McConnell; Graham R. Sharpe

    2005-01-01

    Several studies have reported that improvements in endurance performance following respiratory muscle training (RMT) are associated with a decrease in blood lactate concentration ([Lac]B). The present study examined whether pressure threshold inspiratory muscle training (IMT) elicits an increase in the cycling power output corresponding to the maximum lactate steady state (MLSS). Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled design, 12 healthy, non-endurance-trained male

  10. TS Fuzzy Maximum Power Point Tracking Control of Solar Power Generation Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chian-Song Chiu

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control for stand-alone solar power generation systems via the Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy-model-based approach. In detail, we consider a dc\\/dc buck converter to regulate the output power of the photovoltaic panel array. First, the system is represented by the T-S fuzzy model. Next, in order to reduce the number of measured signals, a

  11. SCI Identification (SCIDNT) program user's guide. [maximum likelihood method for linear rotorcraft models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The computer program Linear SCIDNT which evaluates rotorcraft stability and control coefficients from flight or wind tunnel test data is described. It implements the maximum likelihood method to maximize the likelihood function of the parameters based on measured input/output time histories. Linear SCIDNT may be applied to systems modeled by linear constant-coefficient differential equations. This restriction in scope allows the application of several analytical results which simplify the computation and improve its efficiency over the general nonlinear case.

  12. Optimum Power Allocation for Maximum-Likelihood Channel Estimation in Space-Time Coded MIMO Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chaiyod Pirak; Z. Jane Wang; K. J. Ray Liu; Somchai Jitapunkul

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an optimum power allocation strategy for the maximum likelihood based channel estimation in the space-time coded multiple-input multiple-output systems employing a data-bearing approach for pilot-embedding. The corresponding channel estimation error, the Chernoff's upper bound on the detection error probability, and a lower bound on channel capacity of such systems are analyzed. Based on such analysis, the relationship

  13. A Seamless Mode Transfer Maximum Power Point Tracking Controller For Thermoelectric Generator Applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rae-Young Kim; Jih-Sheng Lai

    2008-01-01

    A boost-cascaded-with-buck converter-based power conditioning system employing a seamless mode transfer maximum power point tracking controller is proposed to maximize energy production of a thermoelectric generator while balancing a vehicle battery, alternator output power, and vehicle load. When a vehicle battery is fully charged, the proposed controller switches to a power matching mode seamlessly by a dual loop control system,

  14. AIDS epidemic update: December 1998

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1998-01-01

    This new update from the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and the World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that by the end of the year 33.4 million people will be infected with HIV, ten percent more than one year ago. Almost every country in the world has seen new infections in 1998, but new cases have been concentrated in the developing world, home of 95% of all HIV-infected people and 95% of AIDS fatalities. As this report reveals, AIDS and its repercussions, such as declining life expectancy, increased orphanhood, and overburdened health care systems, now pose one of the most serious threats to development.

  15. Predicting Maximum Lake Depth from Surrounding Topography

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lake volume aids understanding of the physical and ecological dynamics of lakes, yet is often not readily available. The data needed to calculate lake volume (i.e. bathymetry) are usually only collected on a lake by lake basis and are difficult to obtain across broad regions. ...

  16. Input\\/output characteristics of scalable parallel applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Phyllis E. Crandall; Ruth A. Aydt; Andrew A. Chien; Daniel A. Reed

    1995-01-01

    Rapid increases in computing and communication performance are exacerbating the long-standing problem of performance-limited input\\/output. Indeed, for many otherwise scalable parallel applications. input\\/output is emerging as a major performance bottleneck. The design of scalable input\\/output systems depends critically on the input\\/output requirements and access patterns for this emerging class of large-scale parallel applications. However, hard data on the behavior of

  17. Approximate maximum likelihood estimation of scanning observer templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbey, Craig K.; Samuelson, Frank W.; Wunderlich, Adam; Popescu, Lucretiu M.; Eckstein, Miguel P.; Boone, John M.

    2015-03-01

    In localization tasks, an observer is asked to give the location of some target or feature of interest in an image. Scanning linear observer models incorporate the search implicit in this task through convolution of an observer template with the image being evaluated. Such models are becoming increasingly popular as predictors of human performance for validating medical imaging methodology. In addition to convolution, scanning models may utilize internal noise components to model inconsistencies in human observer responses. In this work, we build a probabilistic mathematical model of this process and show how it can, in principle, be used to obtain estimates of the observer template using maximum likelihood methods. The main difficulty of this approach is that a closed form probability distribution for a maximal location response is not generally available in the presence of internal noise. However, for a given image we can generate an empirical distribution of maximal locations using Monte-Carlo sampling. We show that this probability is well approximated by applying an exponential function to the scanning template output. We also evaluate log-likelihood functions on the basis of this approximate distribution. Using 1,000 trials of simulated data as a validation test set, we find that a plot of the approximate log-likelihood function along a single parameter related to the template profile achieves its maximum value near the true value used in the simulation. This finding holds regardless of whether the trials are correctly localized or not. In a second validation study evaluating a parameter related to the relative magnitude of internal noise, only the incorrect localization images produces a maximum in the approximate log-likelihood function that is near the true value of the parameter.

  18. Motivations Particle Swarm Optimisation PSO Aided Linear MUT PSO Aided Nonlinear MUT Conclusions Particle Swarm Optimisation Aided Multiuser

    E-print Network

    Chen, Sheng

    Motivations Particle Swarm Optimisation PSO Aided Linear MUT PSO Aided Nonlinear MUT Conclusions Processing #12;Motivations Particle Swarm Optimisation PSO Aided Linear MUT PSO Aided Nonlinear MUT Conclusions Outline 1 Motivations Bio-Inspired Computation Our Novelty 2 Particle Swarm Optimisation PSO

  19. Lattice reduction-aided regularized block diagonalization for multiuser MIMO systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keke Zu; Rodrigo C. de Lamare; Martin Haardt

    2012-01-01

    By employing the regularized block diagonalization (RBD) preprocessing technique, the multi-user multi-input multi-output (MU-MIMO) broadcast channel is decomposed into multiple parallel independent single user multi-input multi-output (SU-MIMO) channels and achieves the maximum diversity order at high data rates. The computational complexity of RBD, however, is relatively high due to two singular value decomposition (SVD) operations. In this paper, a low-complexity

  20. Support vector machine learning for interdependent and structured output spaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ioannis Tsochantaridis; Thomas Hofmann; Thorsten Joachims; Yasemin Altun

    2004-01-01

    Learning general functional dependencies is one of the main goals in machine learning. Recent progress in kernel-based methods has focused on designing flexible and powerful input representations. This paper addresses the complementary issue of problems involving complex outputs such as multiple dependent output variables and structured output spaces. We propose to generalize multiclass Support Vector Machine learning in a formulation

  1. Constellation Shaping for Communication Channels with Quantized Outputs

    E-print Network

    Valenti, Matthew C.

    Constellation Shaping for Communication Channels with Quantized Outputs Chandana Nannapaneni signal constellation and the output is quantized by a uniform scalar quantizer. The goal is to jointly constellation and outputs that must be quantized prior to decoding (e.g. by passing the received signal through

  2. Monitoring the Heat Output of a Wood-Burning Stove

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. P. MODERA

    1986-01-01

    To find a simple means for monitoring the heat output of a wood stove, general engineering models of heat transfer are used to develop a model that predicts the heat output of a stove from measurements of surface temperature. Using the surface area and the measured surface temperature as inputs, the model predicts the heat output of the stove by

  3. Kernel K-means Based Framework for Aggregate Outputs Classification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shuo Chen; Bin Liu; Mingjie Qian; Changshui Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Aggregate outputs learning is a newly proposed setting in data mining and machine learning. It differs from the classical supervised learning setting in that, training samples are packed into bags with only the aggregate outputs (labels for classification or real values for regression) provided. This problem is associated with several kinds of application background. We focus on the aggregate outputs

  4. Has output become more predictable? changes in Greenbook forecast accuracy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Tulip

    2005-01-01

    Several researchers have recently documented a large reduction in output volatility. In contrast, this paper examines whether output has become more predictable. Using forecasts from the Federal Reserve Greenbooks, I find the evidence is somewhat mixed. Output seems to have become more predictable at short horizons, but not necessarily at longer horizons. The reduction in unpredictability is much less than

  5. Global HIV/AIDS Epidemic

    MedlinePLUS

    ... it impacts households, communities, and the development and economic growth of nations. Many of the countries hardest ... AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) in 2003 brought significant new attention and funding to address the global epidemic, as ...

  6. AIDS lays waste to Uganda.

    PubMed

    Bond, C

    1986-07-01

    In Uganda, people are dying every day of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), known as "Slim." In the Rakai district, as may as 2500 people may have died of Slim in the past 4 years, around 1% of Rakai population. There is no chance that people with Slim in Rakai are suffering from malnourishment, and the disease's link with AIDS was established last year when blood tests from patients gave a positive reaction to the HTLV3 test for AIDS. Rakai's trade links with neighboring countries appear to have joined it to Africa's AIDS belt, which cuts across Zaire, Zambia, Rwanda, Burundi, Tanzania, and Uganda. Experts now say that 100 people in every 100,000 are AIDS victims in this zone compared to 80-90 people per 100,000 in New York and San Francisco, where AIDS has hit homosexuals particularly hard. Yet, in Africa homosexuality is rare, and AIDS is heterosexually transmitted, putting any sexually active man or woman in these East and Central African countries at high risk of catching the disease. Nurses in the Mulago Hospital in the Ugandan capital of Kampala say that AIDS patients rarely stay longer than 6 weeks. Only the symptoms of AIDS can be treated. After that, medical care is more or less irrelevant as there is no cure for the disease itself. From the point of view of research, doctors try to keep track of people who give a positive result to the AIDS test. Some patients develop AIDS symptoms and then appear to recover though doctors assume that they may become ill again. Not all people in Europe and America who carry the AIDS virus develop the disease, but it is too soon to tell whether they will live to old age or develop it at some later stage, maybe after several years. In Rakai, residents told about women whose husbands had died of Slim a few years ago but who themselves were alive and well. Rakai harbors the worst of Uganda's AIDS epidemic, but the disease is increasing at an alarming rate elsewhere in the country. Since the civil war ended at Easter, AIDS has gained much coverage in the local press. It also has become the main topic of conversation in Kampala's downtown bars. The Health Ministry has distributed posters to hospitals and dispensaries, which read "Warning-Advice on the (Slim) AIDS disease," and list precautions such as limiting sexual partners, preferably to 1. The posters also recommend the use of condoms during sexual intercourse, but these are not available in Uganda. About 15% of Kampala's blood donors have been found to be contaminated with HTLV3. Researchers are concentrating their efforts on pregnant women who have been found to have the AIDS antibody and on children. PMID:12340745

  7. : Computer Aided Learning in Computer

    E-print Network

    Milenkovi, Aleksandar

    CAL2 : Computer Aided Learning in Computer Architecture Laboratory JOVAN DJORDJEVIC,1 BOSKO NIKOLIC,1 TANJA BOROZAN,1 ALEKSANDAR MILENKOVIC´ 2 1 Computer Engineering Department, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia 2 Electrical and Computer Engineering Department

  8. Thailand's fear of AIDS patients.

    PubMed

    Sivaraman, S

    1995-07-01

    Because of a terrorist incident against Bangkok's Relief Center for HIV/AIDS Carriers, it is feared that a rising intolerance is occurring in Thailand. Such fears are damaging efforts to help those with HIV/AIDS. Misconceptions about the nature of HIV/AIDS continue to dominate Thai society. The Thai government is particularly worried that an overemphasis on HIV/AIDS will hurt tourism. According to the Population and Community Development Association, Thai people are infected with HIV at the rate of 500 per day and treatment costs may exceed $170 million a year by the year 2000. Unfortunately, the lack of nongovernmental institutions (other than Buddhist monasteries) and the lack of positive response from other Thai social institutions is driving relatives and friends to take care of the afflicted, and the terrorist attack shows that many Thai people are still unprepared for the challenge. PMID:11362731

  9. TRANSIMS simulation output subsystem for IOC-1

    SciTech Connect

    Kerkbigler, K.P.; Bush, B.W.

    1997-04-02

    The output subsystem collects data from a running microsimulation, stores the data for future use, and manages the subsequent retrieval of the data. It forms a layer separating the other subsystems from the actual data files so that the other subsystems do not need to access the data files at the physical level or deal with the physical location and organization of the files. This subsystem also allows the user to specify what data is collected and retrieved, and to filter it by space and time. The collection occurs in a distributed manner such that the subsystem`s impact on the microsimulation performance is minimized; the retrieval provides a unified view of the distributed data.

  10. Turbulent Output-Based Anisotropic Adaptation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Michael A.; Carlson, Jan-Renee

    2010-01-01

    Controlling discretization error is a remaining challenge for computational fluid dynamics simulation. Grid adaptation is applied to reduce estimated discretization error in drag or pressure integral output functions. To enable application to high O(10(exp 7)) Reynolds number turbulent flows, a hybrid approach is utilized that freezes the near-wall boundary layer grids and adapts the grid away from the no slip boundaries. The hybrid approach is not applicable to problems with under resolved initial boundary layer grids, but is a powerful technique for problems with important off-body anisotropic features. Supersonic nozzle plume, turbulent flat plate, and shock-boundary layer interaction examples are presented with comparisons to experimental measurements of pressure and velocity. Adapted grids are produced that resolve off-body features in locations that are not known a priori.

  11. Application of computer voice input/output

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, W.; Shirk, D.G.

    1981-01-01

    The advent of microprocessors and other large-scale integration (LSI) circuits is making voice input and output for computers and instruments practical; specialized LSI chips for speech processing are appearing on the market. Voice can be used to input data or to issue instrument commands; this allows the operator to engage in other tasks, move about, and to use standard data entry systems. Voice synthesizers can generate audible, easily understood instructions. Using voice characteristics, a control system can verify speaker identity for security purposes. Two simple voice-controlled systems have been designed at Los Alamos for nuclear safeguards applicaations. Each can easily be expanded as time allows. The first system is for instrument control that accepts voice commands and issues audible operator prompts. The second system is for access control. The speaker's voice is used to verify his identity and to actuate external devices.

  12. Newer methods of cardiac output monitoring.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Yatin; Arora, Dheeraj

    2014-09-26

    Cardiac output (CO) is the volume of blood ejected by each ventricle per minute and is the product of stroke volume and heart rate. CO can thus be manipulated by alteration in heart rate or rhythm, preload, contractility and afterload. Moreover it gives important information about tissue perfusion and oxygen delivery. CO can be measured by various methods and thermodilution method using pulmonary artery catheter (PAC) is till date considered as gold standard method. Complications associated with PAC led to development of newer methods which are minimally or non-invasive. Newer methods fulfil other properties like continuous and reproducible reading, cost effective, reliable during various physiological states and have fast response time. These methods are validated against the gold standard with good level agreement. In this review we have discussed various newer methods of CO monitoring and their effectiveness in clinical use. PMID:25276302

  13. Timber Product Output (TPO) Database Retrieval System

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    First developed in 1997, the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) units of the USDA Forest Service provide the Timber Product Output (TPO) Database Retrieval System to track timber harvesting in the US. This national set of TPO data consists of "11 data variables that describe for each county the roundwood products harvested, the logging residues left behind, the timber otherwise removed, and the wood and bark residues generated by its primary wood-using mills." Data are provided at the regional, subregional, state, and county scales, with many updates listed for 1999. To access the data, read the detailed instructions and submit a query; data are given in table format, with multiple tables. Numerous color images showing 1996 county level TPO data supply additional information.

  14. Cardiac output monitoring: basic science and clinical application: Cardiac output monitoring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Jhanji; J. Dawson; R. M. Pearse

    2008-01-01

    Summary Derangements in the circulation are a common feature of sepsis, trauma, major surgery and other critical illnesses. Detailed evaluation of the circulation is therefore an essential aspect of the clinical management of such patients. The use of cardiac output monitoring technology is an increasingly important aspect of evaluating patients in the operating theatre, critical care unit and elsewhere. There

  15. Telerobotic workstation design aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corker, K.; Hudlicka, E.; Young, D.; Cramer, N.

    1989-01-01

    Telerobot systems are being developed to support a number of space mission applications. In low earth orbit, telerobots and teleoperated manipulators will be used in shuttle operations and space station construction/maintenance. Free flying telerobotic service vehicles will be used at low and geosynchronous orbital operations. Rovers and autonomous vehicles will be equipped with telerobotic devices in planetary exploration. In all of these systems, human operators will interact with the robot system at varied levels during the scheduled operations. The human operators may be in either orbital or ground-based control systems. To assure integrated system development and maximum utility across these systems, designers must be sensitive to the constraints and capabilities that the human brings to system operation and must be assisted in applying these human factors to system development. The simulation and analysis system is intended to serve the needs of system analysis/designers as an integrated workstation in support of telerobotic design.

  16. Pakistan combats hidden AIDS menace.

    PubMed

    1996-05-20

    The conservative Islamic society in Pakistan associates human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) with prostitution, homosexuality, and drug abuse, activities which are prohibited in Pakistan. There are 1000 reported cases of HIV, 55 with advanced AIDS (53 have died) in Pakistan. Birjees Mazhar Kazi, head of the National AIDS Program, believes that, based on the computer model of the World Health Organization (WHO), the number of HIV cases in Pakistan can be 50,000 to 80,000. Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto's government has allocated $2 million for AIDS prevention. Although some officials argue that Islamic strictures and traditional social pressures discourage sexual license, the poor public health and education standards in Pakistan make it vulnerable to AIDS. Drug abuse has risen in the last 20 years; there are an estimated 1.5 million heroin users among an estimated 3 million addicts. According to Health Ministry Director General Naik Muhammad Shaikh, the government has established 30 HIV/AIDS screening centers and is sponsoring a law that would require all blood banks to provide only safe blood and blood products for transfusion. Marvi states that the reuse and poor disposal of needles, a common practice in Pakistan, could be responsible for most of the transmission there of AIDS and hepatitis C. Health experts acknowledge the obstacles placed in the way of AIDS awareness campaigns by sex taboos and religious sensitivities; condoms cannot be mentioned or displayed in shops, or used in electronic or print media campaigns. They can be mentioned in a recorded message on a 24-hr AIDS hotline. Community-based and nongovernmental organizations are being used to reach segments of society who cannot use the hotline. Eunuchs (hijras), who are much in demand as "female" entertainers at weddings, are particularly resistant to safe sex messages, according to Abid Atiq, head of the information and education section of the National AIDS Program. He says families conceal AIDS patients because of the stigma, and, although counseling services are provided, most are reluctant to contact the program. PMID:12320183

  17. Handling Input and Output for COAMPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzpatrick, Patrick; Tran, Nam; Li, Yongzuo; Anantharaj, Valentine

    2007-01-01

    Two suites of software have been developed to handle the input and output of the Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Prediction System (COAMPS), which is a regional atmospheric model developed by the Navy for simulating and predicting weather. Typically, the initial and boundary conditions for COAMPS are provided by a flat-file representation of the Navy s global model. Additional algorithms are needed for running the COAMPS software using global models. One of the present suites satisfies this need for running COAMPS using the Global Forecast System (GFS) model of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The first step in running COAMPS downloading of GFS data from an Internet file-transfer-protocol (FTP) server computer of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) is performed by one of the programs (SSC-00273) in this suite. The GFS data, which are in gridded binary (GRIB) format, are then changed to a COAMPS-compatible format by another program in the suite (SSC-00278). Once a forecast is complete, still another program in the suite (SSC-00274) sends the output data to a different server computer. The second suite of software (SSC- 00275) addresses the need to ingest up-to-date land-use-and-land-cover (LULC) data into COAMPS for use in specifying typical climatological values of such surface parameters as albedo, aerodynamic roughness, and ground wetness. This suite includes (1) a program to process LULC data derived from observations by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments aboard NASA s Terra and Aqua satellites, (2) programs to derive new climatological parameters for the 17-land-use-category MODIS data; and (3) a modified version of a FORTRAN subroutine to be used by COAMPS. The MODIS data files are processed to reformat them into a compressed American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) format used by COAMPS for efficient processing.

  18. Library-Media Aide Orientation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Albion Middle School Library--Mrs. Bates

    2010-01-15

    Please follow this self-paced introduction to the library and the Dewey Decimal System to help you prepare to be a great library aide! 1. Review alphabetizing. This is an elementary website, but alphabetizing is an important skill for every library aide. Alphabetizing 2. Review putting decimal numbers in order. Decimal Numbers 3. Using the website below you will learn about Melville Dewey, how the fiction and non-fiction sections of the library are arranged, and ...

  19. Money Matters for Students Financial Aid & Student Financial Services

    E-print Network

    Ronquist, Fredrik

    Awarded upon University Admission Private Scholarships Student will report on financial aid toolkitMoney Matters for Students Financial Aid & Student Financial Services Orientation 2012 #12;FINANCIAL AID Review submitted FAFSA Award Financial Aid Counsel students regarding aid Accept payments

  20. Modelling the input output behaviour of piezoelectric structural health monitoring systems for composite plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tierang, Liu; Veidt, Martin; Kitipornchai, Sritawat

    2003-10-01

    This paper investigates the input-output characteristics of structural health monitoring systems for composite plates based on permanently attached piezoelectric transmitter and sensor elements. Using dynamic piezoelectricity theory and a multiple integral transform method to describe the propagating and scattered flexural waves an electro-mechanical model for simulating the voltage input-output transfer function for circular piezoelectric transmitters and sensors adhesively attached to an orthotropic composite plate is developed. The method enables the characterization of all three physical processes, i.e. wave generation, wave propagation and wave reception. The influence of transducer, plate and attached electrical circuit characteristics on the voltage output behaviour of the system is examined through numerical calculations, both in frequency and the time domain. The results show that the input-output behaviour of the system is not properly predicted by the transducers' properties alone. Coupling effects between the transducers and the tested structure have to be taken into account, and adding backing materials to the piezoelectric elements can significantly improve the sensitivity of the system. It is shown that in order to achieve maximum sensitivity, particular piezoelectric transmitters and sensors need to be designed according to the structure to be monitored and the specific frequency regime of interest.

  1. Predicting Power Output of Upper Body using the OMNI-RES Scale

    PubMed Central

    Bautista, Iker J.; Chirosa, Ignacio J.; Tamayo, Ignacio Martín; González, Andrés; Robinson, Joseph E.; Chirosa, Luis J.; Robertson, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to determine the optimal training zone for maximum power output. This was to be achieved through estimating mean bar velocity of the concentric phase of a bench press using a prediction equation. The values for the prediction equation would be obtained using OMNI–RES scale values of different loads of the bench press exercise. Sixty males (age 23.61 2.81 year; body height 176.29 6.73 cm; body mass 73.28 4.75 kg) voluntarily participated in the study and were tested using an incremental protocol on a Smith machine to determine one repetition maximum (1RM) in the bench press exercise. A linear regression analysis produced a strong correlation (r = ?0.94) between rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and mean bar velocity (Velmean). The Pearson correlation analysis between real power output (PotReal) and estimated power (PotEst) showed a strong correlation coefficient of r = 0.77, significant at a level of p = 0.01. Therefore, the OMNI–RES scale can be used to predict Velmean in the bench press exercise to control the intensity of the exercise. The positive relationship between PotReal and PotEst allowed for the identification of a maximum power-training zone. PMID:25713677

  2. Commissioning of output factors for uniform scanning proton beams

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng Yuanshui; Ramirez, Eric; Mascia, Anthony; Ding Xiaoning; Okoth, Benny; Zeidan, Omar; Hsi Wen; Harris, Ben; Schreuder, Andries N.; Keole, Sameer [ProCure Proton Therapy Center, 5901 West Memorial Road, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73142 (United States); ProCure Treatment Centers, 420 North Walnut Street, Bloomington, Indiana 47404 (United States); ProCure Proton Therapy Center, 5901 West Memorial Road, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73142 (United States)

    2011-04-15

    Purpose: Current commercial treatment planning systems are not able to accurately predict output factors and calculate monitor units for proton fields. Patient-specific field output factors are thus determined by either measurements or empirical modeling based on commissioning data. The objective of this study is to commission output factors for uniform scanning beams utilized at the ProCure proton therapy centers. Methods: Using water phantoms and a plane parallel ionization chamber, the authors first measured output factors with a fixed 10 cm diameter aperture as a function of proton range and modulation width for clinically available proton beams with ranges between 4 and 31.5 cm and modulation widths between 2 and 15 cm. The authors then measured the output factor as a function of collimated field size at various calibration depths for proton beams of various ranges and modulation widths. The authors further examined the dependence of the output factor on the scanning area (i.e., uncollimated proton field), snout position, and phantom material. An empirical model was developed to calculate the output factor for patient-specific fields and the model-predicted output factors were compared to measurements. Results: The output factor increased with proton range and field size, and decreased with modulation width. The scanning area and snout position have a small but non-negligible effect on the output factors. The predicted output factors based on the empirical modeling agreed within 2% of measurements for all prostate treatment fields and within 3% for 98.5% of all treatment fields. Conclusions: Comprehensive measurements at a large subset of available beam conditions are needed to commission output factors for proton therapy beams. The empirical modeling agrees well with the measured output factor data. This investigation indicates that it is possible to accurately predict output factors and thus eliminate or reduce time-consuming patient-specific output measurements for proton treatments.

  3. AIDS knows no borders.

    PubMed

    Hulewicz, J M

    1994-09-01

    No one knows for sure how many migrants there are around the world, but the UN High Commission for Refugees estimates the existence of more than 43 million displaced people and the International Labor Organization estimates there are up to 85 million male and female temporary and permanent migrant workers. Many of these millions of migrants and refugees who leave home each year in search of work, peace, and/or survival contract HIV. The global HIV/AIDS situation of migrants is in fact growing steadily worse. Refugees who arrive at some temporary endpoint destination are justifiably preoccupied with securing the basic and immediate necessities of food, clothing, and shelter; they really aren't thinking about the potential for contracting and/or transmitting HIV and the attendant long-term consequences. Refugees otherwise sell sex, trade sex, or are raped and sexually exploited. An estimated 30-50% of the world's 100 million streetchildren prostitute themselves. Among the primarily male population of migrant workers, they frequently have sex with each other despite the existence of strong taboos against homosexuality in many of their home cultures. These norms are even documented in the case of South Africa's mines dating back to at least the turn of the century. Targeted, sensitive projects supported with money, know-how, and political will are called for to reduce the incidence of HIV infection in these populations. Such projects should be designed in culturally appropriate fashion with attention to accommodate the refugees and migrants who are illiterate. Finally, the deleterious public health effects of immigration laws which discourage aliens from partaking of public health program services should be understood with changes made accordingly. PMID:12287973

  4. Check Aid Status & Loans on ISIS

    E-print Network

    Fang, Yuguang "Michael"

    Check Aid Status & Loans on ISIS As a University of Florida (UF) financial aid applicant, you can business using ISIS (the UF Integrated Student Information System): www.isis.ufl.edu 1.CheCk Aid StAtuS/AwArdS on iSiS You are responsible for keeping track of your financial aid file and awards, including

  5. Office of Student Services Financial Aid

    E-print Network

    Olsen, Stephen L.

    or telephone number MUST be immediately reported to the Records Office AND the Financial Aid Office. 3Office of Student Services Financial Aid The Hawaii Community College Financial Aid Office 200 W HAWAII COMMUNITY COLLEGE FINANCIAL AID TERMS OF AWARDS All awards have been "Automatically" accepted

  6. Learning Aids for the Hearing Impaired Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Learning Resource Center of Pennsylvania, King of Prussia.

    Intended for parents, the booklet provides a practical guide to the types of learning aids that are helpful to the hearing impaired child. Sections cover the following: an explanation of residual hearing; types of hearing aids and hearing aid equipment; language development aids (brief descriptions are provided for materials in beginning language,…

  7. A Microphone Array for Hearing Aids

    E-print Network

    Widrow, Bernard

    26 A Microphone Array for Hearing Aids A Microphone Array for Hearing Aids 1531-636X/06/$10.00©2001IEEE by Bernard Widrow 0.00©31-636X/06 #12;27 Microphone Array for Hearing Aids There is a big speech when given sufficient amplification from their hearing aids. In many cases, however

  8. Politics and the effectiveness of foreign aid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Boone

    1996-01-01

    Critics of foreign aid programs have long argued that poverty reflects government failure. In this paper I test predictions for aid effectiveness based on an analytical framework that relates aid effectiveness to political regimes. I find that aid does not significantly increase investment, nor benefit the poor as measured by improvements in human development indicators, but it does increase the

  9. HIV, AIDS and Integrated Development Planning

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    HIV, AIDS and Integrated Development Planning: A Reality Check December 2004 Cécile Ambert HIV, AIDS and Integrated Development Planning: A Reality Check #12;CONTENTS LIST OF ACRONYMS the scene: HIV and AIDS impacts on local development 12 2.4. HIV and AIDS impact on the municipality

  10. Training Aids for Online Instruction: An Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guy, Robin Frederick

    This paper describes a number of different types of training aids currently employed in online training: non-interactive audiovisual presentations; interactive computer-based aids; partially interactive aids based on recorded searches; print-based materials; and kits. The advantages and disadvantages of each type of aid are noted, and a table…

  11. 5 CFR 534.203 - Maximum stipends.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 ...OTHER SYSTEMS Student-Employees... First year college undergraduate... Fourth year college undergraduate...maximum money amount in each...agency may pay a student-employee...

  12. 14 CFR 65.47 - Maximum hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Air Traffic Control Tower Operators § 65.47 Maximum hours. Except in an emergency, a certificated air traffic control tower operator must be relieved of all duties...

  13. 14 CFR 65.47 - Maximum hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Air Traffic Control Tower Operators § 65.47 Maximum hours. Except in an emergency, a certificated air traffic control tower operator must be relieved of all duties...

  14. 14 CFR 65.47 - Maximum hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Air Traffic Control Tower Operators § 65.47 Maximum hours. Except in an emergency, a certificated air traffic control tower operator must be relieved of all duties...

  15. 14 CFR 65.47 - Maximum hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Air Traffic Control Tower Operators § 65.47 Maximum hours. Except in an emergency, a certificated air traffic control tower operator must be relieved of all duties...

  16. 14 CFR 65.47 - Maximum hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Air Traffic Control Tower Operators § 65.47 Maximum hours. Except in an emergency, a certificated air traffic control tower operator must be relieved of all duties...

  17. On the efficiency at maximum cooling power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apertet, Y.; Ouerdane, H.; Michot, A.; Goupil, C.; Lecoeur, Ph.

    2013-08-01

    The efficiency at maximum power (EMP) of heat engines operating as generators is one corner stone of finite-time thermodynamics, the Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency \\eta_CA being considered as a universal upper bound. Yet, no valid counterpart to \\eta_CA has been derived for the efficiency at maximum cooling power (EMCP) for heat engines operating as refrigerators. In this letter we analyse the reasons of the failure to obtain such a bound and we demonstrate that, despite the introduction of several optimisation criteria, the maximum cooling power condition should be considered as the genuine equivalent of maximum power condition in the finite-time thermodynamics frame. We then propose and discuss an analytic expression for the EMCP in the specific case of exoreversible refrigerators.

  18. Incremental Network Design with Maximum Flows

    E-print Network

    2013-12-21

    Dec 21, 2013 ... Incremental Network Design with Maximum Flows. Thomas ... optimization problems capturing that feature and combining two types of ...... The following computational tools were used to develop and analyze the formulations.

  19. Multiple high voltage output DC-to-DC power converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cronin, Donald L. (Inventor); Farber, Bertrand F. (Inventor); Gehm, Hartmut K. (Inventor); Goldin, Daniel S. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    Disclosed is a multiple output DC-to-DC converter. The DC input power is filtered and passed through a chopper preregulator. The chopper output is then passed through a current source inverter controlled by a squarewave generator. The resultant AC is passed through the primary winding of a transformer, with high voltages induced in a plurality of secondary windings. The high voltage secondary outputs are each solid-state rectified for passage to individual output loads. Multiple feedback loops control the operation of the chopper preregulator, one being responsive to the current through the primary winding and another responsive to the DC voltage level at a selected output.

  20. Input-output analysis and the hospital budgeting process.

    PubMed Central

    Cleverly, W O

    1975-01-01

    Two hospitals budget systems, a conventional budget and an input-output budget, are compared to determine how they affect management decisions in pricing, output, planning, and cost control. Analysis of data from a 210-bed not-for-profit hospital indicates that adoption of the input-output budget could cause substantial changes in posted hospital rates in individual departments but probably would have no impact on hospital output determination. The input-output approach promises to be a more accurate system for cost control and planning because, unlike the conventional approach, it generates objective signals for investigating variances of expenses from budgeted levels. PMID:1205865

  1. Mode-locked Nd: GdVO4 laser with graphene oxide/polyvinyl alcohol composite material absorber as well as an output coupler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, YongGang; Chen, Houren; Hsieh, Wenfeng; Tsang, YuenHong

    2013-02-01

    Graphene oxide/polyvinyl alcohol (GO/PVA) composite material saturable absorbers were fabricated. Sandwich structured GO/PVA absorber was used as an absorber as well as an output coupler in mode-locked Nd: GdVO4 laser. The laser pulses with the duration of 12 ps, repetition rate of 120 MHz and the maximum average output power of 680 mW were produced.

  2. On minimizing maximum transient energy growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James F. Whidborne; John McKernan; Anthony J. Steer

    2005-01-01

    Abstract The problem of minimizing the maximum,transient energy growth is considered. This problem has importance in some fluid flow control problems and other classes of non-linear systems. Conditions for the existence of static controllers that restrict the maximum,transient energy growth to unity are established. An explicit parametrization of all linear controllers ensuring monotonic decrease of the transient energy is derived.

  3. Suppression of beam induced pulse shortening modes in high power RF generator TW output structures

    SciTech Connect

    Haimson, J.; Mecklenburg, B.

    1992-12-31

    Several different style 11.4 GHz relativistic klystrons, operating with beam pulse widths of 50 ns and using large aperture, tapered phase-velocity TW structures,` have recently demonstrated output RF power levels in the range of 100 to 300 MW without breakdown or pulse shortening. To extend this performance into the long pulse regime (1 {mu}s) or to demonstrate a threefold increase in output power by using higher currents, the existing TW circuit designs must be modified (a) to reduce the cavity maximum surface E-fields by a factor of 2 to 3, and (b) to elevate the current threshold values of the beam induced higher order modes (HOM) to ensure avoidance of RF pulse shortening and associated instabilities. A technique for substantially elevating this threshold current is described, and microwave data and photographs are presented showing the degree of HOM damping achieved in a recently constructed 11.4 GHz TW structure.

  4. Financial Aid White Financial Aid Yellow Student 4/24/2014

    E-print Network

    Rosen, Jay

    Financial Aid White ­ Financial Aid Yellow ­ Student 4/24/2014 REQUEST FOR SUMMER FINANCIAL AID Students applying for Summer Financial Aid must have filed their FAFSA application before submitting view your financial aid via eFAP through the CUNY Portal (www.cuny.edu). Please note that your request

  5. Aide la mobilit-cotutelle internationale de thse Aide la mobilit-cotutelle internationale de thse

    E-print Network

    Di Girolami, Cristina

    Aide à la mobilité-cotutelle internationale de thèse Aide à la mobilité-cotutelle internationale de thèse retour Formation doctorale Aide à la mobilité-cotutelle internationale de thèse L'Université du'enseignement supérieur étranger. Une seule aide peut être attribuée pendant la durée de la thèse. Appel à projet "aide

  6. AIDS . Author manuscript Non-AIDS-defining deaths and immunodeficiency in the era of combination

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    AIDS . Author manuscript Page /1 12 Non-AIDS-defining deaths and immunodeficiency in the era immunodeficiency is associated with the most frequent non-AIDS-defining causes of death, in the era of combination (71,230 person-years follow-up), 597 died, 333 (55.7 ) from non-AIDS-defining causes. Non-AIDS

  7. MCNP output data analysis with ROOT (MODAR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carasco, C.

    2010-12-01

    MCNP Output Data Analysis with ROOT (MODAR) is a tool based on CERN's ROOT software. MODAR has been designed to handle time-energy data issued by MCNP simulations of neutron inspection devices using the associated particle technique. MODAR exploits ROOT's Graphical User Interface and functionalities to visualize and process MCNP simulation results in a fast and user-friendly way. MODAR allows to take into account the detection system time resolution (which is not possible with MCNP) as well as detectors energy response function and counting statistics in a straightforward way. New version program summaryProgram title: MODAR Catalogue identifier: AEGA_v1_1 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEGA_v1_1.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 150 927 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 4 981 633 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++ Computer: Most Unix workstations and PCs Operating system: Most Unix systems, Linux and windows, provided the ROOT package has been installed. Examples where tested under Suse Linux and Windows XP. RAM: Depends on the size of the MCNP output file. The example presented in the article, which involves three two dimensional 139×740 bins histograms, allocates about 60 MB. These data are running under ROOT and include consumption by ROOT itself. Classification: 17.6 Catalogue identifier of previous version: AEGA_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 181 (2010) 1161 External routines: ROOT version 5.24.00 ( http://root.cern.ch/drupal/) Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes Nature of problem: The output of a MCNP simulation is an ascii file. The data processing is usually performed by copying and pasting the relevant parts of the ascii file into Microsoft Excel. Such an approach is satisfactory when the quantity of data is small but is not efficient when the size of the simulated data is large, for example when time-energy correlations are studied in detail such as in problems involving the associated particle technique. In addition, since the finite time resolution of the simulated detector cannot be modeled with MCNP, systems in which time-energy correlation is crucial cannot be described in a satisfactory way. Finally, realistic particle energy deposit in detectors is calculated with MCNP in a two step process involving type-5 then type-8 tallies. In the first step, the photon flux energy spectrum associated to a time region is selected and serves as a source energy distribution for the second step. Thus, several files must be manipulated before getting the result, which can be time consuming if one needs to study several time regions or different detectors performances. In the same way, modeling counting statistics obtained in a limited acquisition time requires several steps and can also be time consuming. Solution method: In order to overcome the previous limitations, the MODAR C++ code has been written to make use of CERN's ROOT data analysis software. MCNP output data are read from the MCNP output file with dedicated routines. Two dimensional histograms are filled and can be handled efficiently within the ROOT framework. To keep a user friendly analysis tool, all processing and data display can be done by means of ROOT Graphical User Interface. Specific routines have been written to include detectors finite time resolution and energy response function as well as counting statistics in a straightforward way. Reasons for new version: For applications involving the Associate Particle Technique, a large number of gamma rays are produced by the fast neutrons interactions. To study the energy spectra, it is useful to identify the gamma-ray energy peaks in a straightforward way. Therefore, the possibility to show gamma rays corresponding to specific reactions has been added in MODAR. Summary of

  8. MCNP Output Data Analysis with ROOT (MODAR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carasco, C.

    2010-06-01

    MCNP Output Data Analysis with ROOT (MODAR) is a tool based on CERN's ROOT software. MODAR has been designed to handle time-energy data issued by MCNP simulations of neutron inspection devices using the associated particle technique. MODAR exploits ROOT's Graphical User Interface and functionalities to visualize and process MCNP simulation results in a fast and user-friendly way. MODAR allows to take into account the detection system time resolution (which is not possible with MCNP) as well as detectors energy response function and counting statistics in a straightforward way. Program summaryProgram title: MODAR Catalogue identifier: AEGA_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEGA_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 155 373 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 14 815 461 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++ Computer: Most Unix workstations and PC Operating system: Most Unix systems, Linux and windows, provided the ROOT package has been installed. Examples where tested under Suse Linux and Windows XP. RAM: Depends on the size of the MCNP output file. The example presented in the article, which involves three two-dimensional 139×740 bins histograms, allocates about 60 MB. These data are running under ROOT and include consumption by ROOT itself. Classification: 17.6 External routines: ROOT version 5.24.00 ( http://root.cern.ch/drupal/) Nature of problem: The output of an MCNP simulation is an ASCII file. The data processing is usually performed by copying and pasting the relevant parts of the ASCII file into Microsoft Excel. Such an approach is satisfactory when the quantity of data is small but is not efficient when the size of the simulated data is large, for example when time-energy correlations are studied in detail such as in problems involving the associated particle technique. In addition, since the finite time resolution of the simulated detector cannot be modeled with MCNP, systems in which time-energy correlation is crucial cannot be described in a satisfactory way. Finally, realistic particle energy deposit in detectors is calculated with MCNP in a two-step process involving type-5 then type-8 tallies. In the first step, the photon flux energy spectrum associated to a time region is selected and serves as a source energy distribution for the second step. Thus, several files must be manipulated before getting the result, which can be time consuming if one needs to study several time regions or different detectors performances. In the same way, modeling counting statistics obtained in a limited acquisition time requires several steps and can also be time consuming. Solution method: In order to overcome the previous limitations, the MODAR C++ code has been written to make use of CERN's ROOT data analysis software. MCNP output data are read from the MCNP output file with dedicated routines. Two-dimensional histograms are filled and can be handled efficiently within the ROOT framework. To keep a user friendly analysis tool, all processing and data display can be done by means of ROOT Graphical User Interface. Specific routines have been written to include detectors finite time resolution and energy response function as well as counting statistics in a straightforward way. Additional comments: The possibility of adding tallies has also been incorporated in MODAR in order to describe systems in which the signal from several detectors can be summed. Moreover, MODAR can be adapted to handle other problems involving two-dimensional data. Running time: The CPU time needed to smear a two-dimensional histogram depends on the size of the histogram. In the presented example, the time-energy smearing of one of the 139×740 two-dimensional histograms takes 3 minutes with a DELL computer equipped with INTEL Core 2.

  9. 40 CFR 141.65 - Maximum residual disinfectant levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Maximum Contaminant Levels and Maximum Residual Disinfectant Levels § 141.65 Maximum residual disinfectant levels. (a) Maximum...

  10. 24 CFR 941.306 - Maximum project cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Maximum project cost. 941.306 Section 941.306 Housing...Application and Proposal § 941.306 Maximum project cost. (a) Calculation of maximum project cost. The maximum project cost...

  11. 24 CFR 941.306 - Maximum project cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maximum project cost. 941.306 Section 941.306 Housing...Application and Proposal § 941.306 Maximum project cost. (a) Calculation of maximum project cost. The maximum project cost...

  12. 24 CFR 941.306 - Maximum project cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Maximum project cost. 941.306 Section 941.306 Housing...Application and Proposal § 941.306 Maximum project cost. (a) Calculation of maximum project cost. The maximum project cost...

  13. 24 CFR 941.306 - Maximum project cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Maximum project cost. 941.306 Section 941.306 Housing...Application and Proposal § 941.306 Maximum project cost. (a) Calculation of maximum project cost. The maximum project cost...

  14. "America Responds to AIDS": its content, development process, and outcome.

    PubMed Central

    Woods, D R; Davis, D; Westover, B J

    1991-01-01

    During the 1987-90 period, five phases of new AIDS information materials were released to the general public in the ARTA campaign, including a national mailer. The five were "General Awareness: Humanizing AIDS" in October 1987, "Understanding AIDS," the national mailout, April 1988, "Women at Risk/Multiple Partner, Sexually Active Adults," October 1988, "Parents and Youth," May 1989, and "Preventing HIV Infection and AIDS: Taking The Next Steps," July 1990. From planning to implementation to evaluation, ARTA is based on well-established theory and practice. Initially, the campaign was a response to an immediate crisis. It has evolved into the deliberate and systematic development of objectives to combat a chronic problem. ARTA represents one of the most comprehensive formative research processes in the history of public service campaigns. The dynamic process of carefully developing each new phase to include such important entities as State and local health agencies and community-based organizations is at least as important as the quality of the end materials. The objectives of each new phase are based on the needs of the public and of specific audiences. Maximum input from all relevant constituencies is obtained to ensure that they support the campaign's objectives and implementation strategy. PMID:1720249

  15. [Noninvasive measurement of cardiac output by pulsed Doppler echocardiography. Correlation with thermodilution].

    PubMed

    Dericbourg, C; Tribouilloy, C; Kugener, H; Avinee, P; Rey, J L; Lesbre, J P

    1990-02-01

    Cardiac output was measured simultaneously by pulsed Doppler echocardiography and thermodilution in 22 patients, 18 of whom also underwent atrial pacing at different rates to give a total of 42 different measurements. The aortic diameter was measured firstly at the aortic ring at the level of insertion of the aortic cusps and then at the point of maximum separation of the valve cups in the left parasternal long-axis view. The aortic velocities were recorded in the apical 5-chamber view immediately below the level of the aortic valve. The correlations obtained at the aortic ring (R1) and at the point of maximum separation of the valve cusps (R2) were 0.77 (y = 0.67x + 1.17: standard error = 0.81 l/m) and 0.64 (y = 0.56x + 0.87; standard error = 1.01 l/mn) respectively. The correlations were much better when 7 technically unsatisfactory measurements were excluded (R2 = 0.76: y = 0.59x + 0.74: standard error = 0.79 l/mn) (R1 = 0.87: y = 0.72x + 1.04: standard error = 0.65 l/mn). THe correlations of stroke volume measured at aortic ring level also improved from r = 0.82 (y = 0.75x + 7.29: standard error = 8.9 ml) to r = 0.89 (y = 0.78x + 7.38: standard error = 7.3 ml). The measurement of cardiac output by pulsed Doppler echocardiography in the aortic root seems to be reliable. The correlations of the values of stroke volume and cardiac output with the thermodilution method are good, allowing detection of beat-to-beat variations of cardiac output, in suitable patients in the hands of experienced operators. PMID:2106860

  16. Computer-aided design for metabolic engineering.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Castané, Alfred; Fehér, Tamás; Carbonell, Pablo; Pauthenier, Cyrille; Faulon, Jean-Loup

    2014-12-20

    The development and application of biotechnology-based strategies has had a great socio-economical impact and is likely to play a crucial role in the foundation of more sustainable and efficient industrial processes. Within biotechnology, metabolic engineering aims at the directed improvement of cellular properties, often with the goal of synthesizing a target chemical compound. The use of computer-aided design (CAD) tools, along with the continuously emerging advanced genetic engineering techniques have allowed metabolic engineering to broaden and streamline the process of heterologous compound-production. In this work, we review the CAD tools available for metabolic engineering with an emphasis, on retrosynthesis methodologies. Recent advances in genetic engineering strategies for pathway implementation and optimization are also reviewed as well as a range of bionalytical tools to validate in silico predictions. A case study applying retrosynthesis is presented as an experimental verification of the output from Retropath, the first complete automated computational pipeline applicable to metabolic engineering. Applying this CAD pipeline, together with genetic reassembly and optimization of culture conditions led to improved production of the plant flavonoid pinocembrin. Coupling CAD tools with advanced genetic engineering strategies and bioprocess optimization is crucial for enhanced product yields and will be of great value for the development of non-natural products through sustainable biotechnological processes. PMID:24704607

  17. HIV/AIDS Monitoring and Evaluation Systems Strengthening for the National AIDS Program in Albania.

    PubMed

    Rjepaj, Klodian; Bani, Roland

    2013-12-01

    The Institute of Public Health (IPH) is the Principal Recipient (PR) of the Global Fund for AIDS, TB and Malaria Round 5 HIV/AIDS and TB grants. The GF HIV Grant is highly targeted, aimed at filling key gaps in the national response to HIV/AIDS. Albania is considered a low HIV prevalence country based on the number of reported cases. The work presented in this paper is carried out as part of the Monitoring and evaluation framework development in respect to the National AIDS strategy and Global Fund agreement. The performance framework consists of a range of indicators agreed by the PR (IPH in Albania), and specific targets to be met on an annual base. The PR must, therefore, be able to measure its performance against this framework in order to demonstrate that it is meeting its targets. To assist this process, the GFATM requires PRs to undertake an assessment of their capacity to monitor and evaluate the program, and put in place measures to strengthen any identified weaknesses. The Global Fund's M&E Systems Strengthening Tool, MESST, was used. The MESST is conducted via a participatory workshop involving the PR, SRs,(Subrecipients) some representatives of the Country Coordinating Mechanism (CCM), the donor community and other stakeholders or implementing partners relevant to the exercise. The proposed output for this exercise is an M&E Action Plan for the PR. A 2-day MESST workshop was held in Tirana, Albania. Participants at the workshop assessed the M&E capacity of the national HIV program, and its implementers, the IPH and the sub recipients (SRs), by looking at three elements of the M&E system. These are: The Monitoring and Evaluation Plan, The ability of collate and analyze data at the IPH, The reporting systems in the health facilities, the community and the laboratories, The result was identification of a range of strengths and weaknesses, and from these, the development of a list of key actions to address the weaknesses identified. PMID:24511274

  18. Evaluation of a photovoltaic energy mechatronics system with a built-in quadratic maximum power point tracking algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, R.M.; Ko, S.H.; Lin, I.H. [Department of Systems and Naval Mechatronics Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan 701 (China); Pai, F.S. [Department of Electronic Engineering, National University of Tainan (China); Chang, C.C. [Department of Environment and Energy, National University of Tainan (China)

    2009-12-15

    The historically high cost of crude oil price is stimulating research into solar (green) energy as an alternative energy source. In general, applications with large solar energy output require a maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm to optimize the power generated by the photovoltaic effect. This work aims to provide a stand-alone solution for solar energy applications by integrating a DC/DC buck converter to a newly developed quadratic MPPT algorithm along with its appropriate software and hardware. The quadratic MPPT method utilizes three previously used duty cycles with their corresponding power outputs. It approaches the maximum value by using a second order polynomial formula, which converges faster than the existing MPPT algorithm. The hardware implementation takes advantage of the real-time controller system from National Instruments, USA. Experimental results have shown that the proposed solar mechatronics system can correctly and effectively track the maximum power point without any difficulties. (author)

  19. LR-aided MMSE lattice decoding is DMT optimal for all approximately universal codes

    E-print Network

    Gesbert, David

    LR-aided MMSE lattice decoding is DMT optimal for all approximately universal codes Joakim Jald tradeoff (DMT) are known to do so only when decoded using maximum like- lihood (ML) decoding, which may and DMT optimal decoding of any approximately universal lattice- based code. The result identifies

  20. A comparison of pilot-aided channel estimation methods for OFDM systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michele Morelli; Umberto Mengali

    2001-01-01

    This paper deals with the estimation of the channel impulse response (CIR) in orthogonal frequency division multiplexed (OFDM) systems. In particular, we focus on two pilot-aided schemes: the maximum likelihood estimator (MLE) and the Bayesian minimum mean square error estimator (MMSEE). The advantage of the former is that it is simpler to implement as it needs no information on the

  1. Evaluation of tactical decision aid code predictions of FLIR range performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alfred W. Cooper; Philip L. Walker; Edmund A. Milne; B. J. Cook

    1992-01-01

    Tactical Decision Aid codes provide field prediction of maximum range of FLIR use using simplified local environmental parameter input. A series of experimental comparisons at sea using airborne operational FLIRs with an instrumented ship target have shown poor correlation of observed range with prediction for detection and recognition. Classification and recognition range in UFLR are found to be highly insensitive

  2. Computer Aided Interpretation Approach for Optical Tomographic Images

    E-print Network

    Klose, Christian D; Netz, Uwe; Beuthan, Juergen; Hielscher, Andreas H

    2010-01-01

    A computer-aided interpretation approach is proposed to detect rheumatic arthritis (RA) of human finger joints in optical tomographic images. The image interpretation method employs a multi-variate signal detection analysis aided by a machine learning classification algorithm, called Self-Organizing Mapping (SOM). Unlike in previous studies, this allows for combining multiple physical image parameters, such as minimum and maximum values of the absorption coefficient for identifying affected and not affected joints. Classification performances obtained by the proposed method were evaluated in terms of sensitivity, specificity, Youden index, and mutual information. Different methods (i.e., clinical diagnostics, ultrasound imaging, magnet resonance imaging and inspection of optical tomographic images), were used as "ground truth"-benchmarks to determine the performance of image interpretations. Using data from 100 finger joints, findings suggest that some parameter combinations lead to higher sensitivities while...

  3. Output data formatter for the Electronically Scanned Thinned Array Radiometer (ESTAR) instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chren, William A., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    A prototype Output Data Formatter (ODF) for the ESTAR (Electronically Scanned Thinned Array Radiometer) instrument has been designed and tested. It employs programmable logic devices to format and tag correlator data for transmission to Earth. After accepting 170 bits or correlator and error data in parallel, it appends an identification word and then serially passes the data to the Small Explorer Data System (SEDS) for transmission at a maximum rate of greater than 15 Mb/sec. Implemented with two reprogrammable field programmable gate arrays (FPGA's), each contained in a 132-pin plastic pin grid array (PGA) package, the design is cascadeable, fully testable, and low-power.

  4. TractRender: a new generalized 3D medical image visualization and output platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Darryl H.; Tsao, Sinchai; Gajawelli, Niharika; Law, Meng; Lepore, Natasha

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion MRI allows us not only voxelized diffusion characteristics but also the potential to delineate neuronal ?ber path through tractography. There is a dearth of ?exible open source tractography software programs for visualizing these complicated 3D structures. Moreover, rendering these structures using various shading, lighting, and representations will result in vastly different graphical feel. In addition, the ability to output these objects in various formats increases the utility of this platform. We have created TractRender that leverages openGL features through Matlab, allowing for maximum ease of use but still maintain the ?exibility of custom scene rendering.

  5. Note: resonant microwave compressor with two output ports for synchronous energy extraction.

    PubMed

    Avgustinovich, V A; Artemenko, S N; Kaminsky, V L; Novikov, S A; Yushkov, Yu G

    2011-04-01

    The brief theoretical analysis shows the resonant microwave compressor provides the output pulse power higher than the traveling wave power in the storage cavity. The experimental study was made with the model of the S-band microwave compressor. The power of pulses generated by the device reached the value three times as much as the value of the traveling wave power in the storage cavity at the maximum amplification 23 dB, peak power 400 MW, and pulse width 4-5 ns. PMID:21529048

  6. Parameterization of electron beam output factor.

    PubMed

    Akino, Yuichi; Zhu, Timothy C; Das, Indra J

    2015-06-01

    Electron beam dose distribution is dependent on the beam energy and complicated trajectory of particles. Recent treatment planning systems using Monte Carlo calculation algorithm provide accurate dose calculation. However, double check of monitor units (MUs) based on an independent algorithm is still required. In this study, we have demonstrated single equation that reproduces the measured relative output factor (ROF) that can be used for MU calculation for electron radiotherapy. Electron beams generated by an iX (Varian Medical Systems) and a PRIMUS (Siemens) accelerator were investigated. For various energies of electron beams, the ROF at respective dmax were measured using diode detector in a water phantom at SSD of 100 cm. Curve fitting was performed with an exponential generalized equation ROF = ?(? - e(-?R)) including three variables (?, ?, ?) as a function of field radius and electron energy. The correlation coefficients between the ROF measured and that calculated by the equation were greater than 0.998. For ROF of Varian electron beams, the average values of all fitting formulas were applied for two of the constants; ? and ?. The parameter ? showed good agreement with the quadratic approximation as a function of mean energy at surface (E0). The differences between measured and calculated ROF values were within ±3% for beams with cutout radius of ?1.5 cm for electron beams with energies from 6 MeV to 15 MeV. The proposed formula will be helpful for double-check of MUs, as it requires minimal efforts for MU calculation. PMID:25726475

  7. A Simple Model for Microchannel Plate Output

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, E. C.; Weaver, J. L.

    2005-10-01

    Microchannel plates (MCPs) are an essential component in an imaging diagnostic known as an x-ray framing camera, which is currently used by NIF, Omega, Nike, and Z to image radiation imploded targets. An MCP is used to convert incident x-ray photons into electrons with gains of 10^2 to 10^4. These electrons are accelerated into a phosphor and the subsequent visible light is captured with a CCD. A variety of parameters, such as photocathode material type (Au, Ni, CsI), photocathode coating depth, and MCP bias angle, affect the gain and gain variations in the MCP electron output. This poster presents initial results of a simple 3D MCP computer model along with an experimental comparison. Several ideas for increasing MCP imaging performance by reducing gain variations and increasing MCP quantum efficiency are presented. Work supported by the Naval Research Laboratory, National Nuclear Security Administration under the Stewardship Science Academic Alliances program through DOE Research Grant DE-FG52-03NA00064, and through DE FG53 2005 NA26014, and Livermore National Laboratory.

  8. Computer-aided diagnosis of mammograms using an artificial neural network: merging of standardized input features from the ACR lexicon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph Y. Lo; Allen T. Grisson; Carey E. Floyd; Phyllis J. Kornguth

    1995-01-01

    This study aimed to develop an artificial neural network for computer-aided diagnosis in mammography, using an optimally minimized number of inputs from a standardized lexicon for mammographic features. A three-layer backpropagation neural network merged seven inputs (six radiographic findings extracted by radiologists plus age) to predict biopsy outcome as its output. Each input feature was ranked by importance, as determined

  9. User's manual: Computer-aided design programs for inductor-energy-storage dc-to-dc electronic power converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffman, S.

    1977-01-01

    Detailed instructions on the use of two computer-aided-design programs for designing the energy storage inductor for single winding and two winding dc to dc converters are provided. Step by step procedures are given to illustrate the formatting of user input data. The procedures are illustrated by eight sample design problems which include the user input and the computer program output.

  10. HIV/AIDS and blindness.

    PubMed Central

    Kestelyn, P. G.; Cunningham, E. T.

    2001-01-01

    Nearly 34 million people are currently living with HIV/AIDS: ocular complications are common, affecting 50% to 75% of all such patients at some point during the course of their illness. Cytomegalovirus retinitis is by far the most frequent cause of vision loss in patients with AIDS. Although the prevalence of cytomegalovirus retinitis is decreasing in industrialized countries because of the widespread availability of highly active antiretroviral therapy, between 10% and 20% of HIV-infected patients worldwide can be expected to lose vision in one or both eyes as a result of ocular cytomegalovirus infection. Less frequent but important causes of bilateral vision loss in patients with HIV/AIDS include varicella zoster virus and herpes simplex virus retinitis, HIV-related ischaemic microvasculopathy, ocular syphilis, ocular tuberculosis, cryptococcal meningitis, and ocular toxic or allergic drug reactions. At present, most patients with HIV/AIDS in developing countries who lose their vision have a very limited life expectancy. As antiretroviral therapy makes its way to these countries, however, both life expectancy and the prevalence of blindness related to HIV/AIDS can be expected to increase dramatically. PMID:11285664

  11. Pulsed nanogenerator with huge instantaneous output power density.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Gang; Lin, Zong-Hong; Lin, Long; Du, Zu-Liang; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2013-08-27

    A nanogenerator (NG) usually gives a high output voltage but low output current, so that the output power is low. In this paper, we developed a general approach that gives a hugely improved instantaneous output power of the NG, while the entire output energy stays the same. Our design is based on an off-on-off contact based switching during mechanical triggering that largely reduces the duration of the charging/discharge process, so that the instantaneous output current pulse is hugely improved without sacrificing the output voltage. For a vertical contact-separation mode triboelectric NG (TENG), the instantaneous output current and power peak can reach as high as 0.53 A and 142 W at a load of 500 ?, respectively. The corresponding instantaneous output current and power density peak even approach 1325 A/m(2) and 3.6 × 10(5) W/m(2), which are more than 2500 and 1100 times higher than the previous records of TENG, respectively. For the rotation disk based TENG in the lateral sliding mode, the instantaneous output current and power density of 104 A/m(2) and 1.4 × 10(4) W/m(2) have been demonstrated at a frequency of 106.7 Hz. The approach presented here applies to both a piezoelectric NG and a triboelectric NG, and it is a major advance toward practical applications of a NG as a high pulsed power source. PMID:23883160

  12. Cell development obeys maximum Fisher information

    E-print Network

    B. R. Frieden; R. A. Gatenby

    2014-04-29

    Eukaryotic cell development has been optimized by natural selection to obey maximal intracellular flux of messenger proteins. This, in turn, implies maximum Fisher information on angular position about a target nuclear pore complex (NPR). The cell is simply modeled as spherical, with cell membrane (CM) diameter 10 micron and concentric nuclear membrane (NM) diameter 6 micron. The NM contains about 3000 nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). Development requires messenger ligands to travel from the CM-NPC-DNA target binding sites. Ligands acquire negative charge by phosphorylation, passing through the cytoplasm over Newtonian trajectories toward positively charged NPCs (utilizing positive nuclear localization sequences). The CM-NPC channel obeys maximized mean protein flux F and Fisher information I at the NPC, with first-order delta I = 0 and approximate 2nd-order delta I = 0 stability to environmental perturbations. Many of its predictions are confirmed, including the dominance of protein pathways of from 1-4 proteins, a 4nm size for the EGFR protein and the approximate flux value F =10^16 proteins/m2-s. After entering the nucleus, each protein ultimately delivers its ligand information to a DNA target site with maximum probability, i.e. maximum Kullback-Liebler entropy HKL. In a smoothness limit HKL approaches IDNA/2, so that the total CM-NPC-DNA channel obeys maximum Fisher I. Thus maximum information approaches non-equilibrium, one condition for life.

  13. 14 CFR 151.13 - Federal-aid Airport Program: Policy affecting landing aid requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Federal-aid Airport Program: Policy affecting landing aid requirements. 151.13 Section 151.13...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS General Requirements §...

  14. 14 CFR 151.13 - Federal-aid Airport Program: Policy affecting landing aid requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Federal-aid Airport Program: Policy affecting landing aid requirements. 151.13 Section 151.13...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS General Requirements §...

  15. 14 CFR 151.13 - Federal-aid Airport Program: Policy affecting landing aid requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Federal-aid Airport Program: Policy affecting landing aid requirements. 151.13 Section 151.13...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS General Requirements §...

  16. 14 CFR 151.13 - Federal-aid Airport Program: Policy affecting landing aid requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Federal-aid Airport Program: Policy affecting landing aid requirements. 151.13 Section 151.13...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS General Requirements §...

  17. 75 FR 45114 - Rite Aid Corporation; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order to Aid Public Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-02

    ...TRADE COMMISSION [File No. 072 3121] Rite Aid Corporation; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order to Aid Public Comment AGENCY: Federal Trade Commission...methods of competition. The attached Analysis to Aid Public Comment describes both the...

  18. 14 CFR 151.13 - Federal-aid Airport Program: Policy affecting landing aid requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Federal-aid Airport Program: Policy affecting landing aid requirements. 151.13 Section 151.13...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS General Requirements §...

  19. Connection between maximum-work and maximum-power thermal cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Ayala, Julian; Arias-Hernandez, L. A.; Angulo-Brown, F.

    2013-11-01

    A new connection between maximum-power Curzon-Ahlborn thermal cycles and maximum-work reversible cycles is proposed. This linkage is built through a mapping between the exponents of a class of heat transfer laws and the exponents of a family of heat capacities depending on temperature. This connection leads to the recovery of known results and to a wide and interesting set of results for a class of thermal cycles. Among other results it was found that it is possible to use analytically closed expressions for maximum-work efficiencies to calculate good approaches to maximum-power efficiencies. Behind the proposed connection is an interpretation of endoreversibility hypothesis. Additionally, we suggest that certain reversible maximum-work cycles depending on working substance can be used as reversible landmarks for FTT maximum-power cycles, which also depend on working substance properties.

  20. Break the silence: Let's talk about AIDS.

    PubMed

    1999-10-11

    The organizers of the Confederation of East and Central Africa Football Associations¿ (CECAFA) Youth Tournament in Kenya will organize a campaign on AIDS prevention. ¿Break the Silence: Let¿s Talk About AIDS¿ is the campaign slogan, which will be used before, during, and after the 2-week football tournament. The campaign will involve an estimated 300 players and coaches and millions of fans who will attend, watch television, or listen to radios. AIDS prevention efforts linked to the tournament include: radio and television AIDS prevention spots featuring famous football players; campaign orientation and training in AIDS outreach and education for coaches and team managers; telephone hotlines for HIV/AIDS counseling through public phone booths and health information booths; AIDS information caravans to support community awareness rallies about AIDS prevention; and a minute of silence at the beginning of all matches to commemorate soccer heroes and other loved ones who have died of AIDS. PMID:12346562

  1. Adaptive Intrusion Data System (AIDS)

    SciTech Connect

    Corlis, N. E.

    1980-05-01

    The adaptive intrusion data system (AIDS) was developed to collect data from intrusion alarm sensors as part of an evaluation system to improve sensor performance. AIDS is a unique data system which uses computer controlled data systems, video cameras and recorders, analog-to-digital conversion, environmental sensors, and digital recorders to collect sensor data. The data can be viewed either manually or with a special computerized data-reduction system which adds new data to a data base stored on a magnetic disc recorder. This report provides a synoptic account of the AIDS as it presently exists. Modifications to the purchased subsystems are described, and references are made to publications which describe the Sandia-designed subsystems.

  2. Density estimation by maximum quantum entropy

    SciTech Connect

    Silver, R.N.; Wallstrom, T.; Martz, H.F.

    1993-11-01

    A new Bayesian method for non-parametric density estimation is proposed, based on a mathematical analogy to quantum statistical physics. The mathematical procedure is related to maximum entropy methods for inverse problems and image reconstruction. The information divergence enforces global smoothing toward default models, convexity, positivity, extensivity and normalization. The novel feature is the replacement of classical entropy by quantum entropy, so that local smoothing is enforced by constraints on differential operators. The linear response of the estimate is proportional to the covariance. The hyperparameters are estimated by type-II maximum likelihood (evidence). The method is demonstrated on textbook data sets.

  3. SD of maximum Stem Diameter (in cm)

    E-print Network

    Schierup, Mikkel Heide

    SD of maximum Stem Diameter (in cm) 1,4 - 13,3 13,4 - 14,8 14,9 - 15,6 15,7 - 16,5 16,6 - 17,3 17,8 12,9 - 14,3 14,4 - 16,1 16,2 - 30,0 Mean of maximum Stem Diameter (in cm) 0,0 - 13,3 13,4 - 14,5 14 look quite similar. Mean of Stem Height, Stem Diameter and Leaf Number seem to show higher values

  4. Caffeine supplementation and peak anaerobic power output.

    PubMed

    Glaister, Mark; Muniz-Pumares, Daniel; Patterson, Stephen D; Foley, Paul; McInnes, Gillian

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of caffeine supplementation on peak anaerobic power output (Wmax). Using a counterbalanced, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled design, 14 well-trained men completed three trials of a protocol consisting of a series of 6-s cycle ergometer sprints, separated by 5-min passive recovery periods. Sprints were performed at progressively increasing torque factors to determine the peak power/torque relationship and Wmax. Apart from Trial 1 (familiarisation), participants ingested a capsule containing 5 mg·kg(-1) of caffeine or placebo, one hour before each trial. The effects of caffeine on blood lactate were investigated using capillary samples taken after each sprint. The torque factor which produced Wmax was not significantly different (p ? 0.05) between the caffeine (1.15 ± 0.08 N·m·kg(-1)) and placebo (1.13 ± 0.10 N·m·kg(-1)) trials. There was, however, a significant effect (p < 0.05) of supplementation on Wmax, with caffeine producing a higher value (1885 ± 303 W) than placebo (1835 ± 290 W). Analysis of the blood lactate data revealed a significant (p < 0.05) torque factor × supplement interaction with values being significantly higher from the sixth sprint (torque factor 1.0 N·m·kg(-1)) onwards following caffeine supplementation. The results of this study confirm previous reports that caffeine supplementation significantly increases blood lactate and Wmax. These findings may explain why the majority of previous studies, which have used fixed-torque factors of around 0.75 N·m·kg(-1) and thereby failing to elicit Wmax, have failed to find an effect of caffeine on sprinting performance. PMID:25275888

  5. Trajectory Model Outputs Over Southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freiman, M.; Riphagen, H.

    2001-12-01

    Trajectories provide a useful and relatively simple method of analysing possible three-dimensional transportation paths of air, aerosols, trace gases and water vapour with time. Wind trajectories advect a large number of measurements, all made at different times, backward or forward in time from the point at which they were made using forecast (during the campaign) and analysed (after the campaign) wind fields. These fields change both spatially and temporally over time. A Lagrangian kinematic trajectory analysis is employed. The trajectory model was driven by two sets of data: forecast meteorological, real-time, 3-hourly input data during the SAFARI2000 campaign, and analysed meteorological, 6-hourly input wind data after the campaign. In both cases the resolution of the data over Southern Africa was 0.5 degrees. Five-point trajectory clusters (at 2.5 degree spacing) were run to and from Maun, Mongu, Middleburg, Windhoek, Springbok and Durban to roughly cover the whole Southern African region at multiple levels from the lower to the upper-troposphere. In total, 6163 trajectories were calculated using forecast data. The dominant transport modes during the Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000) are direct westerly and recirculated transport (predominantly on a subcontinental scale). The frequencies at which these transport modes occur vary with height and location. The trajectory output data is useful first and foremost to observe the dominant circulation patterns over Southern Africa both spatially and temporally at different levels of the troposphere and at various scales of motion. Secondly, the data is useful for anyone wishing to examine the sources of monitored upper-air aerosols and / or trace gases, to discriminate, for instance, between oceanic, clean continental and polluted continental air masses contributing to the observed concentrations. Finally, the data can be used to explain elevated or declined concentrations downwind within specified times.

  6. Global NeuroAIDS roundtable.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Jeymohan; Achim, Cristian L; Boivin, Michael J; Brew, Bruce J; Clifford, David B; Colosi, Deborah A; Ellis, Ronald J; Heaton, Robert K; Gallo-Diop, Amadou; Grant, Igor; Kanmogne, Georgette D; Kumar, Mahendra; Letendre, Scott; Marcotte, Thomas D; Nath, Avindra; Pardo, Carlos A; Paul, Robert H; Pulliam, Lynn; Robertson, Kevin; Royal, Walter; Sacktor, Ned; Sithinamsuwan, Pasiri; Smith, Davey M; Valcour, Victor; Wigdahl, Brian; Wood, Charles

    2013-02-01

    In May 2012, the Division of AIDS Research at the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) organized the "Global NeuroAIDS Roundtable" in conjunction with the 11th International Symposium on Neurovirology and the 2012 Conference on HIV in the Nervous System. The meeting was held in New York, NY, USA and brought together NIMH-funded investigators who are currently working on projects related to the neurological complications of AIDS (NeuroAIDS) in Africa, Asia, Eastern Europe, and Latin America in order to provide an opportunity to share their recent findings and discuss the challenges encountered within each country. The major goals of the roundtable were to evaluate HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment and determine if it may be directly attributable to distinct HIV subtypes or clades and to discuss the future priorities for global NeuroAIDS research. At the "Global NeuroAIDS Roundtable", presentations of preliminary research indicated that HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment is prevalent in all countries examined regardless of which HIV clade is present in the region. The only clear-cut difference between HIV-1 clades was in relation to subtypes A and D in Uganda. However, a key point that emerged from the discussions was that there is an urgent need to standardize neurocognitive assessment methodologies across the globe before definitive conclusions can be drawn regarding the relationship between HIV clade diversity and neuropathogenesis. Future research directions were also discussed at the roundtable with particular emphasis on the potential of viral and host factor molecular interactions to impact the pathophysiology of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) from a global perspective. PMID:23354550

  7. Method and apparatus for varying accelerator beam output energy

    DOEpatents

    Young, Lloyd M. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1998-01-01

    A coupled cavity accelerator (CCA) accelerates a charged particle beam with rf energy from a rf source. An input accelerating cavity receives the charged particle beam and an output accelerating cavity outputs the charged particle beam at an increased energy. Intermediate accelerating cavities connect the input and the output accelerating cavities to accelerate the charged particle beam. A plurality of tunable coupling cavities are arranged so that each one of the tunable coupling cavities respectively connect an adjacent pair of the input, output, and intermediate accelerating cavities to transfer the rf energy along the accelerating cavities. An output tunable coupling cavity can be detuned to variably change the phase of the rf energy reflected from the output coupling cavity so that regions of the accelerator can be selectively turned off when one of the intermediate tunable coupling cavities is also detuned.

  8. Phosphate single mode large mode area all-solid photonic crystal fiber with multi-watt output power

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Longfei; He, Dongbing; Yu, Chunlei; Hu, Lili; Chen, Danping, E-mail: dpchen2008@aliyun.com [Key Laboratory of High Power Laser Materials, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Liu, Hui [Navigation Staff Room, Anhui Bengbu Petty Officer Academy of Navy, Bengbu 233000 (China); Qiu, Jianrong [Institute of Optical Communication Materials, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China)

    2014-03-31

    An index-depressed active core, single-mode phosphate all-solid large-mode-area photonic crystal fiber (PCF) is theoretically investigated using full-vectorial finite difference approach and experimentally realized. The PCF has a maximum output power of 5.4?W and 31% slope efficiency. Single-mode operation is realized through PCFs with core diameters of 30, 35, and 40??m, respectively. The beam quality is not degraded even at maximum output power. Our simulations and experiments reveal that the laser performance is significantly affected by the center-to-center distance between the two nearest rods ?, the rod diameter d, and their ratio d/?, implying that much attention should be given in employing optimal parameters to achieve excellent laser performance.

  9. Effect of Bromocriptine on Acetylcholine Output from the Cerebral Cortex

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Pepeu; P. Mantovani

    1978-01-01

    The effect of bromocriptine on acetylcholine (ACh) output from the cerebral cortex was investigated in anaesthetized rats. Bromocriptine caused a brief decrease in ACh output at the dose of 0.1 mg\\/kg i.p. and a dose-related long-lasting increase at doses from 1.25 to 10 mg\\/kg i.p. Apomorphine elicited an increase in ACh output when injected intraperitoneally at doses from 0.1 to

  10. Control Strategy for Input-Series Output-Paralleled Converter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xinbo Ruan; Lulu Cheng; Tao Zhang

    2006-01-01

    The input-series output-paralleled (ISOP) converter, which consists of multiple dc-dc modules connected in series at the input and paralleled at the output, are very attractive in the high input voltage and high power applications. The input voltage sharing and output current sharing of the modules of the ISOP converter should be ensured. This paper reveals the relationship between the input

  11. Directional light output from photonic-wire microcavity semiconductor lasers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. P. Zhang; D. Y. Chu; S. L. Wu; W. G. Bi; R. C. Tiberio; C. W. Tu; S. T. Ho

    1996-01-01

    We have obtained directional light output from a recently realized InGaAsP photonic-wire microcavity ring lasers. The output was achieved by fabricating a 0.45-?m-wide U-shape waveguide next to a 10-?m diameter microcavity ring laser. The laser has a threshold pump power of around 124 ?W when optically pumped at 514 nm. It is comparable to the former structure without output coupling.

  12. A Dual-Input–Dual-Output Z-Source Inverter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seyed Mohammad Dehghan; Mustafa Mohamadian; Ali Yazdian; Farhad Ashrafzadeh

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a new z-source inverter with two AC outputs and two DC inputs. This inverter is based on the z-source inverter and nine-switch inverter. The presented inverter can control amplitude, frequency, and phase of both AC outputs and also control current of both DC inputs. Input dc voltages are boosted to the required level. Also, both outputs continue

  13. Output power characteristics of erbium-doped fiber ring lasers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Pfeiffer; H. Schmuck; H. Bulow

    1992-01-01

    The output power of an erbium-doped fiber ring laser has been measured as a function of pump power, emission wavelength, doped-fiber length, and reflectivity of the output coupler. A theoretical model for the calculation of the output power is introduced that is based on a previously derived gain equation for erbium-doped fiber amplifiers. The calculated values are in good agreement

  14. Quantum superchemistry in an output coupler of coherent matter waves

    SciTech Connect

    Jing, H. [Department of Physics, University of Arizona, 1118 East 4th Street, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States); State Key Lab of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, CAS, Wuhan 430071 (China); Cheng, J. [Lab for Quantum Optics, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2006-12-15

    We investigate the quantum superchemistry or Bose-enhanced atom-molecule conversions in a coherent output coupler of matter waves, as a simple generalization of the two-color photoassociation. The stimulated effects of molecular output step and atomic revivals are exhibited by steering the rf output couplings. The quantum noise-induced molecular damping occurs near a total conversion in a levitation trap. This suggests a feasible two-trap scheme to make a stable coherent molecular beam.

  15. Quantum superchemistry in an output coupler of coherent matter waves

    E-print Network

    Hui Jing; Jing Cheng

    2006-11-08

    We investigate the quantum superchemistry or Bose-enhanced atom-molecule conversions in a coherent output coupler of matter waves, as a simple generalization of the two-color photo-association. The stimulated effects of molecular output step and atomic revivals are exhibited by steering the rf output couplings. The quantum noise-induced molecular damping occurs near a total conversion in a levitation trap. This suggests a feasible two-trap scheme to make a stable coherent molecular beam.

  16. Quantum superchemistry in an output coupler of coherent matter waves

    E-print Network

    Jing, H; Cheng, Jing; Jing, Hui

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the quantum superchemistry or Bose-enhanced atom-molecule conversions in a coherent output coupler of matter waves, as a simple generalization of the two-color photo-association. The stimulated effects of molecular output step and atomic revivals are exhibited by steering the rf output couplings. The quantum noise-induced molecular damping occurs near a total conversion in a levitation trap. This suggests a feasible two-trap scheme to make a stable coherent molecular beam.

  17. Quantum superchemistry in an output coupler of coherent matter waves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hui Jing; Jing Cheng

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the quantum superchemistry or Bose-enhanced atom-molecule conversions in a coherent output coupler of matter waves, as a simple generalization of the two-color photoassociation. The stimulated effects of molecular output step and atomic revivals are exhibited by steering the rf output couplings. The quantum noise-induced molecular damping occurs near a total conversion in a levitation trap. This suggests a

  18. Output feedback control of nonlinear two-time-scale systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Panagiotis D. Christofides

    1997-01-01

    This work focuses on dynamic output feedback control of a class of nonlinear singularly perturbed systems. A nonlinear two-time-scale output feedback controller is synthesized which guarantees stability and enforces output tracking in the closed-loop system, provided that the singular perturbation parameter is sufficiently small. The proposed controller is successfully tested on a chemical process modeled by a nonlinear singularly perturbed

  19. Robust output feedback control of nonlinear singularly perturbed systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Panagiotis D. Christofides

    2000-01-01

    In this work, we consider nonlinear singularly perturbed systems with time-varying uncertain variables, for which the fast subsystem is asymptotically stable and the slow subsystem is input\\/output linearizable and possesses input-to-state stable (ISS) inverse dynamics. For these systems, we synthesize a robust output feedback controller that ensures boundedness of the state and enforces robust asymptotic output tracking with attenuation of

  20. Generalization of Higher Order SAC to Vector Output Boolean Functions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kaoru Kurosawa; Takashi Satoh

    1996-01-01

    . S-boxes (vector output Boolean functions) should satisfy cryptographiccriteria even if some input bits (say, k bits) are kept constant.However, this kind of security has been studied only for scalar outputBoolean functions. SAC(k) is a criterion for scalar output Boolean functionsof this type. This paper studies a generalization of SAC(k) to vectoroutput Boolean functions as the first step toward the