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Sample records for aid maximum output

  1. Perceptions of the Design of Voice Output Communication Aids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judge, Simon; Townend, Gillian

    2013-01-01

    Background: Voice output communication aids (VOCAs) are a key form of aided communication within the field of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). In recent years, rapid developments in technology have resulted in an explosion of devices available commercially, yet little research has been conducted into what people who use VOCAs…

  2. Perceptions of the Design of Voice Output Communication Aids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judge, Simon; Townend, Gillian

    2013-01-01

    Background: Voice output communication aids (VOCAs) are a key form of aided communication within the field of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). In recent years, rapid developments in technology have resulted in an explosion of devices available commercially, yet little research has been conducted into what people who use VOCAs

  3. A flexible decision-aided maximum likelihood phase estimation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jian; Wang, Ping; You, Xiaodi; Yu, Changyuan

    2015-08-01

    In coherent optical phase-shift-keying (PSK) system, the conventional decision-aided maximum likelihood (DA-ML) phase estimator only considers constant phase noise over the entire observation interval. In this paper, we take into account the time-varying phase noise and propose a flexible DA-ML phase estimator for carrier phase estimation. The weighted coefficients are introduced to estimate carrier phase more accurately than the conventional scheme. The phase estimation error of this flexible DA-ML receiver is analyzed and compared with results from the conventional DA-ML receiver. The analytical bit error rate (BER) follows well with Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. Simulation results also show that by using the flexible DA-ML receiver in quadrature PSK (QPSK) system, bit signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) improvement over the conventional DA-ML receiver at BER of 10-3 is 0.2dB and 1.2dB with block length of 20 and 50, respectively, when the laser linewidth is 2MHz.

  4. Efficiency at Maximum Power Output of a Quantum-Mechanical Brayton Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Yuan; He, Ji-Zhou; Gao, Yong; Wang, Jian-Hui

    2014-03-01

    The performance in finite time of a quantum-mechanical Brayton engine cycle is discussed, without introduction of temperature. The engine model consists of two quantum isoenergetic and two quantum isobaric processes, and works with a single particle in a harmonic trap. Directly employing the finite-time thermodynamics, the efficiency at maximum power output is determined. Extending the harmonic trap to a power-law trap, we find that the efficiency at maximum power is independent of any parameter involved in the model, but depends on the confinement of the trapping potential.

  5. Optimum operation of irreversible Carnot heat engines of finite size at maximum power output

    SciTech Connect

    Oezkaynak, S.

    1996-04-01

    In this article the author considers the optimum performance at the maximum power output of internally and externally irreversible heat engines of finite size in which heat transfer is proportional to the difference of temperature to an n-power. For the case n = 1, where heat transfer is Newtonian heat conduction, the hot-end/cold-end heat-exchanger size ratio is less than unity. For the case n = 4, which corresponds to radiative heat transfer, the values of design parameters are obtained from the numerical solution of two coupled nonlinear equations. For a radiative heat engine of finite size, the upper limit to the optimum efficiency at maximum power output is found to be 0.339.

  6. Relationship of maximum aerobic power output to productivity and absenteeism of East African sugar cane workers

    PubMed Central

    Davies, C. T. M.

    1973-01-01

    Davies, C. T. M. (1973).British Journal of Industrial Medicine,30, 146-154. Relationship of maximum aerobic power output to productivity and absenteeism of East African sugar cane workers. The relationship of the physiological responses to laboratory exercise on an upright bicycle ergometer and predicted maximum aerobic power output (V?O2max) to daily and season output has been investigated in 78 cane cutters aged 18 to 50 years working on the Kilombero sugar estate, Tanzania. The results showed that the (V?O2max) was independent of absolute productivity in terms of kilotons of cane cut per season but positively correlated (r = + 046) with daily output. There was a small but significant (r = - 032, P < 0001) negative association of V?O2max with the number of days that an individual voluntarily absented himself from the cane fields. The importance of these findings to the selection and training of personnel for the cane-cutting industry are discussed. It was suggested that the industry might consider the introduction of a simple exercise (step) test together with a medical examination and simple anthropometric measurements at the time of recruitment of workers at the beginning of the season. PMID:4703085

  7. The Effect of Valve Cooling upon Maximum Permissible Engine Output as Limited by Knock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munger, Maurice; Wilsted, H D; Mulcahy, B A

    1942-01-01

    A Wright GR-1820-G200 cylinder was tested over a wide range of fuel-air ratios at maximum permissible power output as limited by knock with three different degrees of valve cooling. The valves used were stock valves (solid inlet valve and hollow sodium-cooled exhaust valve), hollow valves with no coolant, and hollow valves with flowing water as a coolant. Curves showing the variation in maximum permissible values of inlet-air pressure, indicated mean effective pressure, cylinder charge, and indicated specific fuel consumption with change in fuel-air ratio and valve cooling are shown. The use of valves cooled by a stream of water passing through their hollow interiors permitted indicated mean effective pressures 10 percent higher than the mean effective pressures permissible with stock valves when the engine was operated with fuel-air ratios from 0.055 to 0.065. Operation of the engine with lean mixtures with uncooled hollow valves resulted in power output below the output obtained with the stock valves. The data show an increase in maximum permissible indicated mean effective pressure due to cooling the valves, which averages only 2.1 percent with fuel-air ratios from 0.075 to 0.105.

  8. Program Aids In Printing FORTRAN-Coded Output

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akian, Richard A.

    1993-01-01

    FORPRINT computer program prints FORTRAN-coded output files on most non-Postscript printers with such extra features as control of fonts for Epson and Hewlett Packard printers. Rewrites data to printer and inserts correct printer-control codes. Alternative uses include ability to separate data or ASCII file during printing by use of editing software to insert "1" in first column of data line that starts new page. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  9. A new approach to rowing ergometry: establishing exercise intensity relative to maximum force output.

    PubMed

    Jensen, R L; Katch, F I

    1991-01-01

    The present experiment evaluated a new approach to establish exercise intensity during hydraulic rowing ergometry. In contrast to the traditional approach where exercise intensity is augmented by systematically increasing workload, the new procedure increments the intensity of exercise while maintaining a constant percentage of maximum force output. Ten college females exercised on a hydraulic rower that allowed for control of rowing speed and resistance. The new method to establish work intensity was to row at a cadence of 30 c.min-1 at a force output equal to 50% of maximum rowing force at each setting determined dynamically prior to testing. Two protocols were used for the maximum tests on the hydraulic rower. Row 1 was a 17-min, six-stage, incremental continuous row test performed at increasingly difficult settings from easy (setting 1; 603 N) to difficult (setting 6; 893 N). Row 2 was identical to row 1 until 15 min when resistance was reduced to setting 2 (658 N) for "allout" effort during the last 2 min. During this time, cadence declined from 30 c.min-1 to 19.4 c.min-1 at dial setting 6 and increased to 35.4 c.min-1 at dial setting 2. Both rowing protocols were compared to maximal physiological responses during treadmill running (TM). Compared to TM, both rowing protocols elicited significantly lower maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max; P less than 0.05; row 1 = delta 29.0% and row 2 = delta 12.9%) and maximum heart rate (HRmax; P less than 0.05; row 1 = delta 12.9% and row 2 = delta 6.7%). Maximum ventilation (VEmax) during row 1 was also lower by 30.4% than TM (P less than 0.05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2007396

  10. Adaptive robust maximum power point tracking control for perturbed photovoltaic systems with output voltage estimation.

    PubMed

    Koofigar, Hamid Reza

    2016-01-01

    The problem of maximum power point tracking (MPPT) in photovoltaic (PV) systems, despite the model uncertainties and the variations in environmental circumstances, is addressed. Introducing a mathematical description, an adaptive sliding mode control (ASMC) algorithm is first developed. Unlike many previous investigations, the output voltage is not required to be sensed and the upper bound of system uncertainties and the variations of irradiance and temperature are not required to be known. Estimating the output voltage by an update law, an adaptive-based H∞ tracking algorithm is then developed for the case the perturbations are energy-bounded. The stability analysis is presented for the proposed tracking control schemes, based on the Lyapunov stability theorem. From a comparison viewpoint, some numerical and experimental studies are also presented and discussed. PMID:26606851

  11. High Output Maximum Efficiency Resonator (HOMER) Laser for NASA's Global Ecosystem Dynamics Investigation (GEDI) Lidar Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stysley, Paul; Coyle, Barry; Clarke, Greg; Poulios, Demetrios; Kay, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The Global Ecosystems Dynamics Investigation (GEDI) is a planned mission sending a LIDAR instrument to the International Space Station that will employ three NASA laser transmitters. This instrument will produce parallel tracks on the Earth's surface that will provide global 3D vegetation canopy measurements. To meet the mission goals a total of 5 High Output Maximum Efficiency Resonator lasers will to be built (1 ETU + 3 Flight + 1 spare) in-house at NASA-GSFC. This presentation will summarize the HOMER design, the testing the design has completed in the past, and the plans to successfully build the units needed for the GEDI mission.

  12. Effects of superpositions of quantum states on quantum isoenergetic cycles: Efficiency and maximum power output

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, X. Y.; Huang, X. L.; Shang, Y. F.; Wang, X. Y.

    2015-04-01

    Superposition principle plays a crucial role in quantum mechanics, thus its effects on thermodynamics is an interesting topic. Here, the effects of superpositions of quantum states on isoenergetic cycle are studied. We find superposition can improve the heat engine efficiency and release the positive work condition in general case. In the finite time process, we find the efficiency at maximum power output in superposition case is lower than the nonsuperposition case. This efficiency depends on one index of the energy spectrum of the working substance. This result does not mean the superposition discourages the heat engine performance. For fixed efficiency or fixed power, the superposition improves the power or efficiency respectively. These results show how quantum mechanical properties affect the thermodynamical cycle.

  13. Scaling of maximum net force output by motors used for locomotion.

    PubMed

    Marden, James H

    2005-05-01

    Biological and engineered motors are surprisingly similar in their adherence to two or possibly three fundamental regimes for the mass scaling of maximum force output (Fmax). One scaling regime (Group 1: myosin, kinesin, dynein and RNA polymerase molecules; muscle cells; whole muscles; winches; linear actuators) comprises motors that create slow translational motion with force outputs limited by the axial stress capacity of the motor, which results in Fmax scaling as motor mass0.67 (M0.67). Another scaling regime (Group 2: flying birds, bats and insects; swimming fish; running animals; piston engines; electric motors; jets) comprises motors that cycle rapidly, with significant internal and external accelerations, and for whom inertia and fatigue life appear to be important constraints. The scaling of inertial loads and fatigue life both appear to enforce Fmax scaling as M1.0 in these motors. Despite great differences in materials and mechanisms, the mass specific Fmax of Group 2 motors clusters tightly around a mean of 57 N kg(-1), a region of specific force loading where there appears to be a common transition from high- to low-cycle fatigue. For motors subject to multi-axial stresses, the steepness of the load-life curve in the neighborhood of 50-100 N kg(-1) may overwhelm other material and mechanistic factors, thereby homogenizing the mass specific Fmax of grossly dissimilar animals and machines. Rockets scale with Group 1 motors but for different mechanistic reasons; they are free from fatigue constraints and their thrust is determined by mass flow rates that depend on cross sectional area of the exit nozzle. There is possibly a third scaling regime of Fmax for small motors (bacterial and spermatazoan flagella; a protozoan spring) where viscosity dominates over inertia. Data for force output of viscous regime motors are scarce, but the few data available suggest a gradually increasing scaling slope that converges with the Group 2 scaling relationship at a Reynolds number of about 10(2). The Group 1 and Group 2 scaling relationships intersect at a motor mass of 4400 kg, which restricts the force output and design of Group 2 motors greater than this mass. Above 4400 kg, all motors are limited by stress and have Fmax that scales as M0.67; this results in a gradual decline in mass specific Fmax at motor mass greater than 4400 kg. Because of declining mass specific Fmax, there is little or no potential for biological or engineered motors or rockets larger than those already in use. PMID:15855397

  14. Work output and efficiency at maximum power of linear irreversible heat engines operating with a finite-sized heat source.

    PubMed

    Izumida, Yuki; Okuda, Koji

    2014-05-01

    We formulate the work output and efficiency for linear irreversible heat engines working between a finite-sized hot heat source and an infinite-sized cold heat reservoir until the total system reaches the final thermal equilibrium state with a uniform temperature. We prove that when the heat engines operate at the maximum power under the tight-coupling condition without heat leakage the work output is just half of the exergy, which is known as the maximum available work extracted from a heat source. As a consequence, the corresponding efficiency is also half of its quasistatic counterpart. PMID:24856684

  15. Maximum power output and load matching of a phosphoric acid fuel cell-thermoelectric generator hybrid system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaohang; Wang, Yuan; Cai, Ling; Zhou, Yinghui

    2015-10-01

    Based on the current models of phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFCs) and thermoelectric generators (TGs), a new hybrid system is proposed, in which the effects of multi-irreversibilities resulting from the activation, concentration, and ohmic overpotentials in the PAFC, Joule heat and heat leak in the TG, finite-rate heat transfer between the TG and the heat reservoirs, and heat leak from the PAFC to the environment are taken into account. Expressions for the power output and efficiency of the PAFC, TG, and hybrid system are analytically derived and directly used to discuss the performance characteristics of the hybrid system. The optimal relationship between the electric currents in the PAFC and TG is obtained. The maximum power output is numerically calculated. It is found that the maximum power output density of the hybrid system will increase about 150 Wm-2, compared with that of a single PAFC. The problem how to optimally match the load resistances of two subsystems is discussed. Some significant results for practical hybrid systems are obtained.

  16. Progress in increasing the maximum achievable output power of broad area diode lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crump, P.; Wenzel, H.; Erbert, G.; Tränkle, G.

    2012-03-01

    High power broad area diode lasers provide the optical energy for all high performance laser systems, either directly or as pump sources for solid-state lasers. Continuous improvement is required in the peak achievable output power of these diode laser devices in order to enable performance improvements in full laser systems. In recent years, device technology has advanced to the point where the main limit to optical power is no longer device failure, but is instead power saturation due to various physical effects within the semiconductor device itself. For example, the combination of large optical cavity designs with advanced facet passivation means that facet failure is no longer the dominant limiting factor. Increases in the optical power therefore require firstly a clear identification of the limiting mechanisms, followed by design changes and material improvements to address these. Recent theoretical and experimental diagnostic studies at the Ferdinand-Braun-Institut have helped trace the saturation effects to three main effects: gain saturation, longitudinal-holeburning and current driven carrier leakage. Design changes based on these studies have enabled increases in the achievable emitted power density from broad area lasers. Recent experimental examples include ~100W from 100μm stripes under short-pulsed conditions, > 30W from 100μm stripes under quasi-continuous wave conditions and > 10W from 30μm stripes under continuous wave conditions. An overview of the results of the diagnostic studies performed at the FBH will be presented, and the design changes necessary to address the observed power saturation will be discussed.

  17. Electroacoustic Comparison of Hearing Aid Output of Phonemes in Running Speech versus Isolation: Implications for Aided Cortical Auditory Evoked Potentials Testing

    PubMed Central

    Easwar, Vijayalakshmi; Purcell, David W.; Scollie, Susan D.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Functioning of nonlinear hearing aids varies with characteristics of input stimuli. In the past decade, aided speech evoked cortical auditory evoked potentials (CAEPs) have been proposed for validation of hearing aid fittings. However, unlike in running speech, phonemes presented as stimuli during CAEP testing are preceded by silent intervals of over one second. Hence, the present study aimed to compare if hearing aids process phonemes similarly in running speech and in CAEP testing contexts. Method. A sample of ten hearing aids was used. Overall phoneme level and phoneme onset level of eight phonemes in both contexts were compared at three input levels representing conversational speech levels. Results. Differences of over 3 dB between the two contexts were noted in one-fourth of the observations measuring overall phoneme levels and in one-third of the observations measuring phoneme onset level. In a majority of these differences, output levels of phonemes were higher in the running speech context. These differences varied across hearing aids. Conclusion. Lower output levels in the isolation context may have implications for calibration and estimation of audibility based on CAEPs. The variability across hearing aids observed could make it challenging to predict differences on an individual basis. PMID:23316236

  18. Toward Functional Augmentative and Alternative Communication for Students with Autism: Manual Signs, Graphic Symbols, and Voice Output Communication Aids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirenda, Pat

    2003-01-01

    This article summarizes research regarding the delivery of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) supports to students with autism. Focus is on: (1) what AAC modality is preferable to use (manual signs or graphic symbols); and (2) what is known about the use of voice output communication aids with people with autism. (Author/DB)

  19. Performance comparison of spectrum-narrowing equalizations with maximum likelihood sequence estimation and soft-decision output.

    PubMed

    Jia, Zhensheng; Cai, Yi; Chien, Hung-Chang; Yu, Jianjun

    2014-03-10

    Maximum likelihood sequence estimation (MLSE) offers effective equalizations for bandwidth-limited optical signal on mitigation towards inter-symbol-interference (ISI) impairment. In this paper, we provide the first comprehensive comparisons and analysis of three post-compensation algorithms on the same modeling platform for high spectral-efficiency (SE) optical systems employing the spectral prefiltering. Those algorithms include 1-tap constant modulus algorithm (CMA) and 3-tap MLSE, regular CMA and digital filter with 2-tap MLSE, and constant multi-modulus algorithm (CMMA) with 2-tap MLSE. Furthermore, a novel and effective approach is proposed and verified for the generation of both hard value and soft value at the output of MLSE in order to be compatible with the implementation of soft-decision forward error correction (SD-FEC) decoding process. PMID:24663940

  20. Computer Aided Theragnosis Using Quantitative Ultrasound Spectroscopy and Maximum Mean Discrepancy in Locally Advanced Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Gangeh, Mehrdad J; Tadayyon, Hadi; Sannachi, Lakshmanan; Sadeghi-Naini, Ali; Tran, William T; Czarnota, Gregory J

    2016-03-01

    A noninvasive computer-aided-theragnosis (CAT) system was developed for the early therapeutic cancer response assessment in patients with locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The proposed CAT system was based on multi-parametric quantitative ultrasound (QUS) spectroscopic methods in conjunction with advanced machine learning techniques. Specifically, a kernel-based metric named maximum mean discrepancy (MMD), a technique for learning from imbalanced data based on random undersampling, and supervised learning were investigated with response-monitoring data from LABC patients. The CAT system was tested on 56 patients using statistical significance tests and leave-one-subject-out classification techniques. Textural features using state-of-the-art local binary patterns (LBP), and gray-scale intensity features were extracted from the spectral parametric maps in the proposed CAT system. The system indicated significant differences in changes between the responding and non-responding patient populations as well as high accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity in discriminating between the two patient groups early after the start of treatment, i.e., on weeks 1 and 4 of several months of treatment. The proposed CAT system achieved an accuracy of 85%, 87%, and 90% on weeks 1, 4 and 8, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of developed CAT system for the same times was 85%, 95%, 90% and 85%, 85%, 91%, respectively. The proposed CAT system thus establishes a noninvasive framework for monitoring cancer treatment response in tumors using clinical ultrasound imaging in conjunction with machine learning techniques. Such a framework can potentially facilitate the detection of refractory responses in patients to treatment early on during a course of therapy to enable possibly switching to more efficacious treatments. PMID:26529750

  1. Compairing Picture Exchange and Voice Output Communication Aids in Young Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorah, Elizabeth R.

    2012-01-01

    The Center for Disease Control estimates that one in 88 births result in a diagnosis of autism (CDC, 2012). Of those individuals diagnosed with autism approximately 25-61% fail to develop vocal output capabilities (Weitxz, Dexter, & Moore, 1997). The use of Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) systems, such as Picture Exchange (PE)

  2. Focusing National Institutes of Health HIV/AIDS research for maximum population impact.

    PubMed

    Walensky, Rochelle P; Auerbach, Judith D

    2015-03-15

    Progress in advancing research on the pathophysiology, prevention, treatment, and impact of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is threatened by the decaying purchasing power of National Institutes of Health (NIH) dollars. A working group of the NIH Office of AIDS Research Advisory Council was charged by the NIH Director with developing a focused and concise blueprint to guide the use of limited funding over the next few years. Science priorities outlined by the working group and reported here are intended to maximally address individuals, groups, and settings most affected by the epidemic, and to redress shortcomings in realizing population-level HIV prevention, treatment, and eradication goals. Optimizing these priorities requires that traditional silos--defined by topic focus and by scientific discipline--be dissolved and that structural issues affecting the pipeline of new investigators and the ability of the Office of AIDS Research to fulfill its role of steward of the NIH HIV/AIDS research program be directly addressed. PMID:25422391

  3. How funding structures for HIV/AIDS research shape outputs and utilization: a Swiss case study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Research policy in the field of HIV has changed substantially in recent decades in Switzerland. Until 2004, social science research on HIV/AIDS was funded by specialized funding agencies. After 2004, funding of such research was normalized and integrated into the Swiss National Science Foundation as the main funding agency for scientific research in Switzerland. This paper offers a longitudinal analysis of the relationship between the changing nature of funding structures on the one hand and the production and communication of policy-relevant scientific knowledge in the field of HIV on the other hand. Methods The analysis relies on an inventory of all social sciences research projects on HIV in Switzerland that were funded between 1987 and 2010, including topics covered and disciplines involved, as well as financial data. In addition, in-depth interviews were conducted with 18 stakeholders. Results The analysis highlights that the pre-2004 funding policy ensured good coverage of important social science research themes. Specific incentives and explicit promotion of social science research related to HIV gave rise to a multidisciplinary, integrative and health-oriented approach. The abolition of a specific funding policy in 2004 was paralleled by a drastic reduction in the number of social science research projects submitted for funding, and a decline of public money dedicated to such research. Although the public administration in charge of HIV policy still acknowledges the relevance of findings from social sciences for the development of prevention, treatment and care, HIV-related social science research does not flourish under current funding conditions. Conclusions The Swiss experience sheds light on the difficulties of sustaining social science research and multidisciplinary approaches related to HIV without specialized funding agencies. Future funding policy might not necessarily require specialized agencies, but should better take into account research dynamics and motivations in the field of social sciences. PMID:21968292

  4. Hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell and Thermoelectric Generator for Maximum Power Output in Micro-CHP Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosendahl, L. A.; Mortensen, Paw V.; Enkeshafi, Ali A.

    2011-05-01

    One of the most obvious early market applications for thermoelectric generators (TEG) is decentralized micro combined heat and power (CHP) installations of 0.5 kWe to 5 kWe based on fuel cell technology. Through the use of TEG technology for waste heat recovery it is possible to increase the electricity production in micro-CHP systems by more than 15%, corresponding to system electrical efficiency increases of some 4 to 5 percentage points. This will make fuel cell-based micro-CHP systems very competitive and profitable and will also open opportunities in a number of other potential business and market segments which are not yet quantified. This paper quantifies a micro-CHP system based on a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and a high-performance TE generator. Based on a 3 kW fuel input, the hybrid SOFC implementation boosts electrical output from 945 W to 1085 W, with 1794 W available for heating purposes.

  5. A flexible decision-aided maximum likelihood phase estimation in hybrid QPSK/OOK coherent optical WDM systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong; Wang, Yulong

    2016-04-01

    Although decision-aided (DA) maximum likelihood (ML) phase estimation (PE) algorithm has been investigated intensively, block length effect impacts system performance and leads to the increasing of hardware complexity. In this paper, a flexible DA-ML algorithm is proposed in hybrid QPSK/OOK coherent optical wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) systems. We present a general cross phase modulation (XPM) model based on Volterra series transfer function (VSTF) method to describe XPM effects induced by OOK channels at the end of dispersion management (DM) fiber links. Based on our model, the weighted factors obtained from maximum likelihood method are introduced to eliminate the block length effect. We derive the analytical expression of phase error variance for the performance prediction of coherent receiver with the flexible DA-ML algorithm. Bit error ratio (BER) performance is evaluated and compared through both theoretical derivation and Monte Carlo (MC) simulation. The results show that our flexible DA-ML algorithm has significant improvement in performance compared with the conventional DA-ML algorithm as block length is a fixed value. Compared with the conventional DA-ML with optimum block length, our flexible DA-ML can obtain better system performance. It means our flexible DA-ML algorithm is more effective for mitigating phase noise than conventional DA-ML algorithm.

  6. 47 CFR 95.639 - Maximum transmitter power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... citations affecting 95.639, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids... (ERP). (e) The maximum transmitter output power authorized for LPRS stations is 100 mW. (f) In the...

  7. 47 CFR 95.639 - Maximum transmitter power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... citations affecting 95.639, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids... (ERP). (e) The maximum transmitter output power authorized for LPRS stations is 100 mW. (f) In the...

  8. 47 CFR 95.639 - Maximum transmitter power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 95.639, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... (ERP). (e) The maximum transmitter output power authorized for LPRS stations is 100 mW. (f) In the...

  9. 47 CFR 95.639 - Maximum transmitter power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 95.639, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... (ERP). (e) The maximum transmitter output power authorized for LPRS stations is 100 mW. (f) In the...

  10. Decision-aided maximum likelihood phase estimation with optimum block length in hybrid QPSK/16QAM coherent optical WDM systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong; Wang, Yulong

    2016-01-01

    We propose a general model to entirely describe XPM effects induced by 16QAM channels in hybrid QPSK/16QAM wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) systems. A power spectral density (PSD) formula is presented to predict the statistical properties of XPM effects at the end of dispersion management (DM) fiber links. We derive the analytical expression of phase error variance for optimizing block length of QPSK channel coherent receiver with decision-aided (DA) maximum-likelihood (ML) phase estimation (PE). With our theoretical analysis, the optimum block length can be employed to improve the performance of coherent receiver. Bit error rate (BER) performance in QPSK channel is evaluated and compared through both theoretical derivation and Monte Carlo simulation. The results show that by using the DA-ML with optimum block length, bit signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) improvement over DA-ML with fixed block length of 10, 20 and 40 at BER of 10-3 is 0.18 dB, 0.46 dB and 0.65 dB, respectively, when in-line residual dispersion is 0 ps/nm.

  11. Ranking Hearing Aid Input-Output Functions for Understanding Low-, Conversational-, and High-Level Speech in Multitalker Babble

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, King; Killion, Mead C.; Christensen, Laurel A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the rankings of 6 input-output functions for understanding low-level, conversational, and high-level speech in multitalker babble without manipulating volume control for listeners with normal hearing, flat sensorineural hearing loss, and mildly sloping sensorineural hearing loss. Method: Peak clipping, compression limiting,

  12. Exploring the effectiveness of the output-based aid voucher program to increase uptake of gender-based violence recovery services in Kenya: A qualitative evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Few studies in Africa have explored in detail the ability of output-based aid (OBA) voucher programs to increase access to gender-based violence recovery (GBVR) services. Methods A qualitative study was conducted in 2010 and involved: (i) in-depth interviews (IDIs) with health managers, service providers, voucher management agency (VMA) managers and (ii) focus group discussions (FGDs) with voucher users, voucher non-users, voucher distributors and opinion leaders drawn from five program sites in Kenya. Results The findings showed promising prospects for the uptake of OBA GBVR services among target population. However, a number of factors affect the uptake of the services. These include lack of general awareness of the GBVR services vouchers, lack of understanding of the benefit package, immediate financial needs of survivors, as well as stigma and cultural beliefs that undermine reporting of cases or seeking essential medical services. Moreover, accreditation of only hospitals to offer GBVR services undermines access to the services in rural areas. Poor responsiveness from law enforcement agencies and fear of reprisal from perpetrators also undermine treatment options and access to medical services. Low provider knowledge on GBVR services and lack of supplies also affect effective provision and management of GBVR services. Conclusions The above findings suggest that there is a need to build the capacity of health care providers and police officers, strengthen the community strategy component of the OBA program to promote the GBVR services voucher, and conduct widespread community education programs aimed at prevention, ensuring survivors know how and where to access services and addressing stigma and cultural barriers. PMID:22691436

  13. Collector-Output Analysis Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glandorf, D. R.; Phillips, Robert F., II

    1986-01-01

    Collector-Output Analysis Program (COAP) programmer's aid for analyzing output produced by UNIVAC collector (MAP processor). COAP developed to aid in design of segmentation structures for programs with large memory requirements and numerous elements but of value in understanding relationships among components of any program. Crossreference indexes and supplemental information produced. COAP written in FORTRAN 77.

  14. Hearing-aid tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessinger, R.; Polhemus, J. T.; Waring, J. G.

    1977-01-01

    Hearing aids are automatically checked by circuit that applies half-second test signal every thirty minutes. If hearing-aid output is distorted, too small, or if battery is too low, a warning lamp is activated. Test circuit is incorporated directly into hearing-aid package.

  15. Comprehensible Output?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krashen, Stephen

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the comprehensible output (CO) hypothesis, which states that we acquire language when we attempt to transmit a message to a conversation partner, fail, try again, and eventually arrive at the correct form of the utterance. Examines weaknesses of the CO hypothesis in second language acquisition, suggesting that providing more

  16. System for memorizing maximum values

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr. (inventor)

    1992-01-01

    The invention discloses a system capable of memorizing maximum sensed values. The system includes conditioning circuitry which receives the analog output signal from a sensor transducer. The conditioning circuitry rectifies and filters the analog signal and provides an input signal to a digital driver, which may be either linear or logarithmic. The driver converts the analog signal to discrete digital values, which in turn triggers an output signal on one of a plurality of driver output lines n. The particular output lines selected is dependent on the converted digital value. A microfuse memory device connects across the driver output lines, with n segments. Each segment is associated with one driver output line, and includes a microfuse that is blown when a signal appears on the associated driver output line.

  17. System for Memorizing Maximum Values

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    The invention discloses a system capable of memorizing maximum sensed values. The system includes conditioning circuitry which receives the analog output signal from a sensor transducer. The conditioning circuitry rectifies and filters the analog signal and provides an input signal to a digital driver, which may be either liner or logarithmic. The driver converts the analog signal to discrete digital values, which in turn triggers an output signal on one of a plurality of driver output lines n. The particular output lines selected is dependent on the converted digital value. A microfuse memory device connects across the driver output lines, with n segments. Each segment is associated with one driver output line, and includes a microfuse that is blown when a signal appears on the associated driver output line.

  18. Implantable digital hearing aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kissiah, A. M., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Hearing aid converts analog output of microphone into digital pulses in about 10 channels of audiofrequencies. Each pulse band could be directly connected to portion of auditory nerve most sensitive to that range.

  19. Maximum Jailbreak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singleton, B.

    First formulated one hundred and fifty years ago by the heretical scholar Nikolai Federov, the doctrine of cosmism begins with an absolute refusal to treat the most basic factors conditioning life on Earth gravity and death as necessary constraints on action. As manifest through the intoxicated cheers of its early advocates that humans should storm the heavens and conquer death, cosmism's foundational gesture was to conceive of the earth as a trap. Its duty was therefore to understand the duty of philosophy, economics and design to be the creation of means to escape it. This could be regarded as a jailbreak at the maximum possible scale, a heist in which the human species could steal itself from the vault of the Earth. After several decades of relative disinterest new space ventures are inspiring scientific, technological and popular imaginations, this essay explores what kind of cosmism might be constructed today. In this paper cosmism's position as a means of escape is both reviewed and evaluated by reflecting on the potential of technology that actually can help us achieve its aims and also through the lens and state-ofthe-art philosophy of accelerationism, which seeks to outrun modern tropes by intensifying them.

  20. A memory-mapped output interface: Omega navigation output data from the JOLT (TM) microcomputer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lilley, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    A hardware interface which allows both digital and analog data output from the JOLT microcomputer is described in the context of a software-based Omega Navigation receiver. The interface hardware described is designed for output of six (or eight with simple extensions) bits of binary output in response to a memory store command from the microcomputer. The interface was produced in breadboard form and is operational as an evaluation aid for the software Omega receiver.

  1. FIBER OPTICS: Theoretical basis of the method for reducing drift of the zero level of the output signal of a fiber-optic gyroscope with the aid of a Lyot depolarizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseev, . I.; Bazarov, E. N.

    1992-09-01

    A theoretical justification is given of the widely used method of stabilization of the output signal from a fiber-optic gyroscope with a broad-band radiation source by a Lyot depolarizer. Different variants of including a depolarizer in such a gyroscope are considered and the role of the dichroism and birefringence induced in the gyroscope system is discussed.

  2. Music and Hearing Aids

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Brian C. J.

    2014-01-01

    The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems. PMID:25361601

  3. Multiple Output Sensory Trainer (MOST). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Automated Functions, Inc., Arlington, VA.

    This final report describes the design, development, and testing of the Multiple Output Sensory Trainer (MOST), a computer-based system which enables the evaluation of students with visual impairments to determine the optimal combination of sensory adaptive aids to meet their needs. The system uses multimedia devices in conjunction with customized

  4. Co-seeded Er3+:Yb3+ single frequency fiber amplifier with 60 W output power and over 90% TEM(00) content.

    PubMed

    Steinke, M; Croteau, A; Par, C; Zheng, H; Laperle, P; Proulx, A; Neumann, J; Kracht, D; Wessels, P

    2014-07-14

    We report on the design and fabrication of an Er(3+):Yb(3+) triple clad fiber and on the power scaling of a single frequency fiber amplifier at 1.5 ?m based on that fiber. In addition, we report on mode content measurements in order to reveal the overlap of the amplifier output with the TEM(00) mode. The triple clad design was used to enable high output power levels, a good slope efficiency and an excellent beam quality. A maximum single frequency output power of 61 W at 1.5 ?m could be achieved with the aid of the co-seeding method, which was used to suppress parasitic processes at 1.0 ?m. With a scanning ring cavity the mode content of the amplifier output was analyzed with respect to the TEM modes. For all output power levels the TEM(00) content was above 90%. PMID:25090490

  5. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePLUS

    ... hear a buzzing sound when I use my cell phone. Some people who wear hearing aids or have ... with the radio frequency interference caused by digital cell phones. Both hearing aids and cell phones are improving, ...

  6. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a result of disease, aging, or injury from noise or certain medicines. A hearing aid magnifies sound ... See your audiologist for adjustments. I hear background noise. A hearing aid does not completely separate the ...

  7. AIDS (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is caused by HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), and is a syndrome that ... life-threatening illnesses. There is no cure for AIDS, but treatment with antiviral medication can suppress symptoms. ...

  8. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePLUS

    ... more in both quiet and noisy situations. Hearing aids help people who have hearing loss from damage ... your doctor. There are different kinds of hearing aids. They differ by size, their placement on or ...

  9. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePLUS

    ... hearing aid has three basic parts: a microphone, amplifier, and speaker. The hearing aid receives sound through ... to electrical signals and sends them to an amplifier. The amplifier increases the power of the signals ...

  10. Solar maximum: Solar array degradation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, T.

    1985-01-01

    The 5-year in-orbit power degradation of the silicon solar array aboard the Solar Maximum Satellite was evaluated. This was the first spacecraft to use Teflon R FEP as a coverglass adhesive, thus avoiding the necessity of an ultraviolet filter. The peak power tracking mode of the power regulator unit was employed to ensure consistent maximum power comparisons. Telemetry was normalized to account for the effects of illumination intensity, charged particle irradiation dosage, and solar array temperature. Reference conditions of 1.0 solar constant at air mass zero and 301 K (28 C) were used as a basis for normalization. Beginning-of-life array power was 2230 watts. Currently, the array output is 1830 watts. This corresponds to a 16 percent loss in array performance over 5 years. Comparison of Solar Maximum Telemetry and predicted power levels indicate that array output is 2 percent less than predictions based on an annual 1.0 MeV equivalent election fluence of 2.34 x ten to the 13th power square centimeters space environment.

  11. 50 CFR 259.34 - Minimum and maximum deposits; maximum time to deposit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Minimum and maximum deposits; maximum time to deposit. 259.34 Section 259.34 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AID TO FISHERIES CAPITAL CONSTRUCTION FUND Capital Construction Fund Agreement §...

  12. Linear output nitinol engine

    SciTech Connect

    Banks, R.M.

    1986-01-14

    This patent describes a linear output nitinol engine consisting of a number of integrated communicating parts. The engine has an external support framework which is described in detail. The patent further describes a wire transport mechanism, a pair of linkage levers with a loom secured to them, a number of nitinol wires strung between the looms, and a power takeoff block secured to the linkage levers. A pulley positioned in a flip-flop supporting bracket and a power takeoff modality including a tension member connected to a power output cable in order to provide linear power output transmission is described. A method for biasing the timing and the mechanism for timing the synchronization of the throw over arms and the flip-flop of the pulley are also described.

  13. Hearing aid malfunction detection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessinger, R. L. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A malfunction detection system for detecting malfunctions in electrical signal processing circuits is disclosed. Malfunctions of a hearing aid in the form of frequency distortion and/or inadequate amplification by the hearing aid amplifier, as well as weakening of the hearing aid power supply are detectable. A test signal is generated and a timed switching circuit periodically applies the test signal to the input of the hearing aid amplifier in place of the input signal from the microphone. The resulting amplifier output is compared with the input test signal used as a reference signal. The hearing aid battery voltage is also periodically compared to a reference voltage. Deviations from the references beyond preset limits cause a warning system to operate.

  14. Development lifts Egyptian output

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-08-01

    Oil revenue is now the largest source of foreign exchange for the Arab Republic of Egypt, and, as such, is of vital importance to the country's plans for industrial and social development. Last year oil exports earned Egypt $2.9 billion, playing a key role in keeping the nation's economy in the black. Oil production in 1980 averaged 585,000 bpd, up from 510,000 bpd in 1979. This year oil output should average 650,000 bpd. While output is increasing, it does not appear to be doing so at a sufficient rate to meet the 1984 government target of 1 million bpd. However, the oil industry view in Egypt is that this target is achievable, though not until the mid to late 1980s. Development work scheduled for completion by 1984 only seems set to lift output to between 750,000 and 800,000 bpd. At the same time, if expansions plans for gas production are taken into account, then total hydrocarbon output measured in oil equivalents will not be too far short of the 1-million-bpd figure.

  15. Diodes stabilize LED output

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deters, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    Small-signal diodes are placed in series with light-emitting diodes (LED's) to stabilize LED output against temperature fluctuations. Simple inexpensive method compensates for thermal fluctuations over a broad temperature range. Requiring few components, technique is particularly useful where circuit-board space is limited.

  16. Financial Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Mary A.

    This workbook assists college and vocational school bound American Indian students in determining their financial needs and in locating sources of financial aid. A checklist helps students assess the state of their knowledge of financial programs; a glossary defines terms pertinent to the realm of financial aid (i.e., graduate study programs,

  17. Financial Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Mary A.

    This workbook assists college and vocational school bound American Indian students in determining their financial needs and in locating sources of financial aid. A checklist helps students assess the state of their knowledge of financial programs; a glossary defines terms pertinent to the realm of financial aid (i.e., graduate study programs,…

  18. Maximum a Posteriori Maximum Entropy Signal Denoising

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seghouane, Abd-Krim; Knockaert, Luc

    2007-11-01

    When fitting wavelet based models, shrinkage of the empirical wavelet coefficients is an effective tool for signal denoising. Based on different approaches, different shrinkage functions have been proposed in the literature. The shrinkage functions derived using Bayesian estimation theory depend on the prior used on the wavelet coefficients. However, no simple and direct method exists for the choice of the prior. In this paper a new method based on maximum entropy considerations is proposed for the construction of the prior on the wavelet coefficients. The new shrinkage function is obtained by coupling this prior to maximum a posteriori arguments. A comparison with classical shrinkage functions is given in a simulation example of image denoising in order to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed thresholding method.

  19. Maximum power tracking

    SciTech Connect

    O'Sullivan, G.

    1983-03-01

    By definition, a maximum power tracking device causes the photovoltaic array to operate on the locus of maximum power points within a specified accuracy. There are limitations to the application of maximum power tracking. A prerequisite is that the load be capable of absorbing all of the power availble at all times. Battery chargers, electrical heaters, water pumps, and most significantly, returning power to the utility grid, are prime examples of applications that are adaptable to maximum power tracking. Maximum power tracking is available to either dc or ac loads. An inverter equipped with a means of changing input voltage by controlling its input impedance can deliver maximum power to ac loads. The inverter can be fixed or variable frequency and fixed or variable voltage, but must be compatible with the ac load. The discussion includes applications, techniques, and cost factors.

  20. Output power modulated wind responsive apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Benton, W. M.

    1983-12-06

    A wind responsive power generating apparatus is disclosed, which comprises a pair of normally mutually orthagonal cross arms carrying impeller members that apply torque to a load through an output shaft. The power output of the apparatus is reduced from maximum by reducing the angle between adjacent cross arms and simultaneously rotating impeller members about corresponding cross arm axes to provide air spillthrough. The impellers are selectively vented by valves to reduce drag as each impeller member swings upstream. Operation of the valves is synchronized to impeller rotation and wind direction by a synchronization device. Various different types of impeller members and applications are disclosed.

  1. Climate Model Output Rewriter

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2004-06-21

    CMOR comprises a set of FORTRAN 90 dunctions that can be used to produce CF-compliant netCDF files. The structure of the files created by CMOR and the metadata they contain fulfill the requirements of many of the climate community’s standard model experiments (which are referred to here as "MIPS", which stands for "model intercomparison project", including, for example, AMIP, CMIP, CFMIP, PMIP, APE, and IPCC scenario runs), CMOR was not designed to serve as anmore » all-purpose wfiter of CF-compliant netCDF files, but simply to reduce the effort required to prepare and manage MIP data. Although MIPs encourage systematic analysis of results across models, this is only easy to do if the model output is written in a common format with files structured similarly and with sufficient metadata uniformly stored according to a common standard. Individual modeling groups store their data in different ways. but if a group can read its own data with FORTRAN, then it should easily be able to transform the data, using CMOR, into the common format required by the MIPs, The adoption of CMOR as a standard code for exchanging climate data will facilitate participation in MIPs because after learning how to satisfy the output requirements of one MIP, it will be easy to prepare output for the other MIPs.« less

  2. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePLUS

    ... case goes behind the ear that holds the electronics that make up the actual hearing aid. It's ... there's a hard plastic case that holds the electronic components, but it's joined to the earmold itself, ...

  3. Hearing Aid

    MedlinePLUS

    ... health care professional. Spotlight Public Workshop - Streamlining Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs) for Hearing Aids, April 21, 2016 ... 463-6332) Contact FDA Subscribe to FDA RSS feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook ...

  4. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePLUS

    ... hair cells (outer and inner rows). When the vibrations move through this fluid, the tiny outer hair ... ear to the brain. Hearing aids intensify sound vibrations that the damaged outer hair cells have trouble ...

  5. Maximum windmill efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Greet, R.J.

    1980-09-01

    A result frequently quoted in engineering handbooks is that one-dimensional fluid flow theory places an upper limit on windmill efficiency at 16/27 or 59.3%. An error in the development invalidates this conclusion. One-dimensional flow analysis places no restrictions on realizable windmill output.

  6. Nonlinear Hearing Aids and Verification of Fitting Targets

    PubMed Central

    Fabry, David A.

    2003-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of initial verification of hearing aid gain and output for nonlinear hearing aids. Specifically, “urban legend” has it that nonlinear hearing aids with digital noise reduction circuitry may not be accurately measured using functional gain and/or probe microphone measures. Discussed are the advantages and disadvantages of both measurement strategies, and how they may be used to “acoustically match” hearing aids to individual patients. An evaluation protocol that employs both optimal aided thresholds and probe microphone measurements to assess gain, output, and audibility in hearing-impaired patients. PMID:15004649

  7. Confronting AIDS.

    PubMed

    Squire, L

    1998-03-01

    By 2020, HIV/AIDS will be the leading infectious killer of young and middle-aged adults in the developing world. Past gains in life expectancy are already being eroded in some countries. Millions of lives can, however, be saved if developing country governments, the international community, and nongovernmental organizations act now. Although more than 11 million people have already died of AIDS, 2.3 billion people live in developing countries in which the disease has not yet spread beyond certain risk groups. If the spread of HIV is checked, the quality of care available to people who are infected with HIV will probably be better than it would be in the context of a full-blown AIDS epidemic. However, while governments need to respond urgently to HIV/AIDS, using resources to help people with AIDS will reduce the resources available for other investments, such as child education, providing safe drinking water, and building roads. Economics can help governments set priorities as they decide how best to allocate their available resources. Externalities, public goods, and redistribution are discussed. All countries will need to use some combination of preventive and coping measures. PMID:12293445

  8. AIDS wars.

    PubMed

    Several evidences were presented during the meeting in London entitled "Origins of AIDS and the HIV epidemic," debating the idea that AIDS was an accidental result of a polio vaccination campaign conducted by a virologist, Hilary Koprowski, and colleagues in the late 1950s among thousands of people in the Belgian Congo. The meeting carefully examined the CHAT theory presented by a writer, Edward Hooper, in his book "The River" and has raised questions on the correlation between vaccination sites and early records of HIV-1, and on the estimated amount of HIV particles that would get through each stage of the process of creating CHAT. Overall, the meeting agreed to reject the CHAT theory of AIDS for it has no basis, since Koprowski and colleagues denied the use of chimpanzee kidneys, which Hooper openly suggests in his book. The meeting noted that the disease's origins remain a mystery. PMID:12349802

  9. Most Efficient Quantum Thermoelectric at Finite Power Output

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitney, Robert S.

    2014-04-01

    Machines are only Carnot efficient if they are reversible, but then their power output is vanishingly small. Here we ask, what is the maximum efficiency of an irreversible device with finite power output? We use a nonlinear scattering theory to answer this question for thermoelectric quantum systems, heat engines or refrigerators consisting of nanostructures or molecules that exhibit a Peltier effect. We find that quantum mechanics places an upper bound on both power output and on the efficiency at any finite power. The upper bound on efficiency equals Carnot efficiency at zero power output but decays with increasing power output. It is intrinsically quantum (wavelength dependent), unlike Carnot efficiency. This maximum efficiency occurs when the system lets through all particles in a certain energy window, but none at other energies. A physical implementation of this is discussed, as is the suppression of efficiency by a phonon heat flow.

  10. Most efficient quantum thermoelectric at finite power output.

    PubMed

    Whitney, Robert S

    2014-04-01

    Machines are only Carnot efficient if they are reversible, but then their power output is vanishingly small. Here we ask, what is the maximum efficiency of an irreversible device with finite power output? We use a nonlinear scattering theory to answer this question for thermoelectric quantum systems, heat engines or refrigerators consisting of nanostructures or molecules that exhibit a Peltier effect. We find that quantum mechanics places an upper bound on both power output and on the efficiency at any finite power. The upper bound on efficiency equals Carnot efficiency at zero power output but decays with increasing power output. It is intrinsically quantum (wavelength dependent), unlike Carnot efficiency. This maximum efficiency occurs when the system lets through all particles in a certain energy window, but none at other energies. A physical implementation of this is discussed, as is the suppression of efficiency by a phonon heat flow. PMID:24745399

  11. Fiscal output data produce versatile graphic-numeric charts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, R. W.; Romo, J. J.

    1971-01-01

    Refined computerized plotting system produces low-cost graphic-numeric charts that illustrate fiscal data on monthly incremental or cumulative basis, or both. Output is in the form of hard copy or microfilm, or visual-aid transparencies prepared from hard copy for rapid management status presentations.

  12. Floriculture Aide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Joyce; Looney, Era

    Designed for use in a self-paced, open-entry/open-exit vocational training program for a floriculture aide, this program guide is one of six for teachers of adult women offenders from a correctional institution. Module topic outlines and sample lesson plans are presented on eleven topics: occupational opportunities in the retail florist industry;

  13. HIV / AIDS

    MedlinePLUS

    ... trying to access this site from a secured browser on the server. Please enable scripts and reload ... of Medicine, MedlinePlus AIDS.gov ​​​​​​​​​​​ Javascript Error Your browser JavaScript is turned off causing certain features of ...

  14. Dietitian Aide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech. Univ., Lubbock. School of Home Economics.

    This course of study for the dietitian aide is one of a series available for use by teacher-coordinators and students in Grade 11 and 12 home economics cooperative education programs. Based on job analysis interviews with health care facilities personnel, this course was prepared by teachers and Instructional Materials Center staff, field-tested,

  15. Classroom Aids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Activities: Classroom Projects and Curriculum Ideas, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This article describes 6 aids for science instruction, including (1) the use of fudge to represent lava; (2) the "Living by Chemistry" program, designed to make high school chemistry more accessible to a diverse pool of students without sacrificing content; (3) NOAA and NSTA's online coral reef teaching tool, a new web-based "science toolbox" for…

  16. Classroom Aids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Activities: Classroom Projects and Curriculum Ideas, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This article describes 6 aids for science instruction, including (1) the use of fudge to represent lava; (2) the "Living by Chemistry" program, designed to make high school chemistry more accessible to a diverse pool of students without sacrificing content; (3) NOAA and NSTA's online coral reef teaching tool, a new web-based "science toolbox" for

  17. Maximum Likelihood Additivity Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takane, Yoshio

    1982-01-01

    A maximum likelihood estimation procedure was developed to fit weighted and unweighted additive models of conjoint data obtained by categorical rating, paired comparisons or directional ranking methods. Practical uses of the procedure are presented to demonstrate various advantages of the procedure as a statistical method. (Author/JKS)

  18. Maximum Likelihood Additivity Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takane, Yoshio

    A maximum likelihood estimation procedure is developed for the simple and the weighted additive models. The data are assumed to be taken by either one of the following methods: (1) categorical ratings--the subject is asked to rate a set of stimuli with respect to an attribute of the stimuli on rating scales with a relatively few observation…

  19. Correlations between internal and external power outputs during weightlifting exercise.

    PubMed

    Kipp, Kristof; Harris, Chad; Sabick, Michelle B

    2013-04-01

    Identifying loads that maximize mechanical power is important because training at such loads may optimize gains in dynamic athletic performance. The purpose of this study was to examine correlations between measures of external mechanical power output and internal mechanical joint power output across different loads during a weightlifting exercise. Ten subjects performed 3 sets of the clean exercise at 65, 75, and 85% of 1 repetition maximum (1RM). Peak external mechanical power output was calculated with 4 commonly used methods, whereas an inverse dynamics approach was used to calculate peak internal mechanical power output for the hip, knee, and ankle joints along with the peak of the sum of all internal joint powers. All peak mechanical power outputs were expressed as relative peak power by either ratio (watts per kilogram) or allometrically scaling to body mass (Wkg). Correlation coefficients were used to compare power output measures. The greatest numbers of significant correlations between internal and external power outputs were observed at 85% of 1RM, at this load hip and knee joint power outputs were correlated to external mechanical power output when calculated with the traditional work-energy method. In addition, the peak sum of all mechanical joint powers was correlated to mechanical power output when calculated with the impulse-momentum method at loads of 75 and 85% of the 1RM. Allometric scaling of power outputs yielded one more significant correlation than did the ratio scaled power outputs. These findings support the use of the work-energy method when making inferences about internal joint powers from external power outputs when loads equal to 85% of 1RM are being lifted. In addition, the impulse-momentum method may be used to make inferences about the sum of all internal joint powers from external power outputs when loads between 75 and 85% of 1RM are being lifted. PMID:22739324

  20. Serial Input Output

    SciTech Connect

    Waite, Anthony; /SLAC

    2011-09-07

    Serial Input/Output (SIO) is designed to be a long term storage format of a sophistication somewhere between simple ASCII files and the techniques provided by inter alia Objectivity and Root. The former tend to be low density, information lossy (floating point numbers lose precision) and inflexible. The latter require abstract descriptions of the data with all that that implies in terms of extra complexity. The basic building blocks of SIO are streams, records and blocks. Streams provide the connections between the program and files. The user can define an arbitrary list of streams as required. A given stream must be opened for either reading or writing. SIO does not support read/write streams. If a stream is closed during the execution of a program, it can be reopened in either read or write mode to the same or a different file. Records represent a coherent grouping of data. Records consist of a collection of blocks (see next paragraph). The user can define a variety of records (headers, events, error logs, etc.) and request that any of them be written to any stream. When SIO reads a file, it first decodes the record name and if that record has been defined and unpacking has been requested for it, SIO proceeds to unpack the blocks. Blocks are user provided objects which do the real work of reading/writing the data. The user is responsible for writing the code for these blocks and for identifying these blocks to SIO at run time. To write a collection of blocks, the user must first connect them to a record. The record can then be written to a stream as described above. Note that the same block can be connected to many different records. When SIO reads a record, it scans through the blocks written and calls the corresponding block object (if it has been defined) to decode it. Undefined blocks are skipped. Each of these categories (streams, records and blocks) have some characteristics in common. Every stream, record and block has a name with the condition that each stream, record or block name must be unique in its category (i.e. all streams must have different names, but a stream can have the same name as a record). Each category is an arbitrary length list which is handled by a 'manager' and there is one manager for each category.

  1. Body size and work output.

    PubMed

    Satyanarayana, K; Naidu, A N; Chatterjee, B; Rao, N

    1977-03-01

    The relationship between work output and anthropometric, biochemical, and socioeconomic varables was studied in 57 male industrial workers engaged in the production of detonator fuses. These workers were studied for 3 months and their daily work output was carefully measured. Work output was measured in terms of the number of fuses produced per day. Clinical and biochemical examination indicated that their current nutritional status was adequate. Among the parameters studied only body weight, height, and lean body weight were significantly correlated with work output. Body weight and lean body weight were significantly correlated (P less than 0.001) with work output even after removing the influence of height by partial correlation. Total daily work output was significantly higher (P less than 0.01) in those with higher body weight and lean body weight. The rate of work was also higher in the higher body weight group PMID:842484

  2. Neurological Complications of AIDS

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Find People About NINDS NINDS Neurological Complications of AIDS Information Page Feature Federal domestic HIV/AIDS information ... resources from MedlinePlus What are Neurological Complications of AIDS? AIDS is primarily an immune system disorder caused ...

  3. Optical output enhances flowmeter accuracy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolpin, E. G.

    1965-01-01

    Magnetic flowmeter with a direct-coupled optical output increases accuracy and operates independently of other system inputs. The design includes simple external adjustment and signal amplitude control.

  4. Maximum Entropy Approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukumar, N.

    2005-11-01

    In this paper, the construction of scattered data approximants is studied using the principle of maximum entropy. For under-determined and ill-posed problems, Jaynes's principle of maximum information-theoretic entropy is a means for least-biased statistical inference when insufficient information is available. Consider a set of distinct nodes {xi}i=1n in Rd, and a point p with coordinate x that is located within the convex hull of the set {xi}. The convex approximation of a function u(x) is written as: uh(x) = ?i=1n ?i(x)ui, where {?i}i=1n ? 0 are known as shape functions, and uh must reproduce affine functions (d = 2): ?i=1n ?i = 1, ?i=1n ?ixi = x, ?i=1n ?iyi = y. We view the shape functions as a discrete probability distribution, and the linear constraints as the expectation of a linear function. For n > 3, the problem is under-determined. To obtain a unique solution, we compute ?i by maximizing the uncertainty H(?) = - ?i=1n ?i log ?i, subject to the above three constraints. In this approach, only the nodal coordinates are used, and neither the nodal connectivity nor any user-defined parameters are required to determine ?ithe defining characteristics of a mesh-free Galerkin approximant. Numerical results for {?i}i=1n are obtained using a convex minimization algorithm, and shape function plots are presented for different nodal configurations.

  5. Is There a Role for Speech Output in Interventions for Persons with Autism? A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlosser, Ralf W.; Blischak, Doreen M.

    2001-01-01

    This review of the literature synthesizes theory and research on the use of speech output communication aids to determine potential benefits for persons with autism. Although results suggest such aids are likely to be useful with this population, the paper urges research into the characteristics of synthetic speech in conjunction with the learning

  6. Maximum Entropy Fundamentals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harremoes, P.; Topse, F.

    2001-09-01

    In its modern formulation, the Maximum Entropy Principle was promoted by E.T. Jaynes, starting in the mid-fifties. The principle dictates that one should look for a distribution, consistent with available information, which maximizes the entropy. However, this principle focuses only on distributions and it appears advantageous to bring information theoretical thinking more prominently into play by also focusing on the "observer" and on coding. This view was brought forward by the second named author in the late seventies and is the view we will follow-up on here. It leads to the consideration of a certain game, the Code Length Game and, via standard game theoretical thinking, to a principle of Game Theoretical Equilibrium. This principle is more basic than the Maximum Entropy Principle in the sense that the search for one type of optimal strategies in the Code Length Game translates directly into the search for distributions with maximum entropy. In the present paper we offer a self-contained and comprehensive treatment of fundamentals of both principles mentioned, based on a study of the Code Length Game. Though new concepts and results are presented, the reading should be instructional and accessible to a rather wide audience, at least if certain mathematical details are left aside at a rst reading. The most frequently studied instance of entropy maximization pertains to the Mean Energy Model which involves a moment constraint related to a given function, here taken to represent "energy". This type of application is very well known from the literature with hundreds of applications pertaining to several different elds and will also here serve as important illustration of the theory. But our approach reaches further, especially regarding the study of continuity properties of the entropy function, and this leads to new results which allow a discussion of models with so-called entropy loss. These results have tempted us to speculate over the development of natural languages. In fact, we are able to relate our theoretical findings to the empirically found Zipf's law which involves statistical aspects of words in a language. The apparent irregularity inherent in models with entropy loss turns out to imply desirable stability properties of languages.

  7. The Solar Maximum observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rust, D. M.

    1984-01-01

    The successful retrieval and repair of the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) satellite by Shuttle astronauts in April 1984 permitted continuance of solar flare observations that began in 1980. The SMM carries a soft X ray polychromator, gamma ray, UV and hard X ray imaging spectrometers, a coronagraph/polarimeter and particle counters. The data gathered thus far indicated that electrical potentials of 25 MeV develop in flares within 2 sec of onset. X ray data show that flares are composed of compressed magnetic loops that have come too close together. Other data have been taken on mass ejection, impacts of electron beams and conduction fronts with the chromosphere and changes in the solar radiant flux due to sunspots.

  8. Introduction to maximum entropy

    SciTech Connect

    Sivia, D.S.

    1988-01-01

    The maximum entropy (MaxEnt) principle has been successfully used in image reconstruction in a wide variety of fields. We review the need for such methods in data analysis and show, by use of a very simple example, why MaxEnt is to be preferred over other regularizing functions. This leads to a more general interpretation of the MaxEnt method, and its use is illustrated with several different examples. Practical difficulties with non-linear problems still remain, this being highlighted by the notorious phase problem in crystallography. We conclude with an example from neutron scattering, using data from a filter difference spectrometer to contrast MaxEnt with a conventional deconvolution. 12 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Maximum gravitational recoil.

    PubMed

    Campanelli, Manuela; Lousto, Carlos O; Zlochower, Yosef; Merritt, David

    2007-06-01

    Recent calculations of gravitational radiation recoil generated during black-hole binary mergers have reopened the possibility that a merged binary can be ejected even from the nucleus of a massive host galaxy. Here we report the first systematic study of gravitational recoil of equal-mass binaries with equal, but counteraligned, spins parallel to the orbital plane. Such an orientation of the spins is expected to maximize the recoil. We find that recoil velocity (which is perpendicular to the orbital plane) varies sinusoidally with the angle that the initial spin directions make with the initial linear momenta of each hole and scales up to a maximum of approximately 4000 km s-1 for maximally rotating holes. Our results show that the amplitude of the recoil velocity can depend sensitively on spin orientations of the black holes prior to merger. PMID:17677894

  10. Enhanced performance CCD output amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Dunham, Mark E. (Los Alamos, NM); Morley, David W. (Santa Fe, NM)

    1996-01-01

    A low-noise FET amplifier is connected to amplify output charge from a che coupled device (CCD). The FET has its gate connected to the CCD in common source configuration for receiving the output charge signal from the CCD and output an intermediate signal at a drain of the FET. An intermediate amplifier is connected to the drain of the FET for receiving the intermediate signal and outputting a low-noise signal functionally related to the output charge signal from the CCD. The amplifier is preferably connected as a virtual ground to the FET drain. The inherent shunt capacitance of the FET is selected to be at least equal to the sum of the remaining capacitances.

  11. Generalized Maximum Entropy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheeseman, Peter; Stutz, John

    2005-01-01

    A long standing mystery in using Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) is how to deal with constraints whose values are uncertain. This situation arises when constraint values are estimated from data, because of finite sample sizes. One approach to this problem, advocated by E.T. Jaynes [1], is to ignore this uncertainty, and treat the empirically observed values as exact. We refer to this as the classic MaxEnt approach. Classic MaxEnt gives point probabilities (subject to the given constraints), rather than probability densities. We develop an alternative approach that assumes that the uncertain constraint values are represented by a probability density {e.g: a Gaussian), and this uncertainty yields a MaxEnt posterior probability density. That is, the classic MaxEnt point probabilities are regarded as a multidimensional function of the given constraint values, and uncertainty on these values is transmitted through the MaxEnt function to give uncertainty over the MaXEnt probabilities. We illustrate this approach by explicitly calculating the generalized MaxEnt density for a simple but common case, then show how this can be extended numerically to the general case. This paper expands the generalized MaxEnt concept introduced in a previous paper [3].

  12. Maximum aposteriori joint source/channel coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sayood, Khalid; Gibson, Jerry D.

    1991-01-01

    A maximum aposteriori probability (MAP) approach to joint source/channel coder design is presented in this paper. This method attempts to explore a technique for designing joint source/channel codes, rather than ways of distributing bits between source coders and channel coders. For a nonideal source coder, MAP arguments are used to design a decoder which takes advantage of redundancy in the source coder output to perform error correction. Once the decoder is obtained, it is analyzed with the purpose of obtaining 'desirable properties' of the channel input sequence for improving overall system performance. Finally, an encoder design which incorporates these properties is proposed.

  13. Research on output feedback control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calise, Anthony J.

    1988-01-01

    A summary is presented of the main results obtained during the course of research on output feedback control. The term output feedback is used to denote a controller design approach which does not rely on an observer to estimate the states of the system. Thus, the order of the controller is fixed, and can even be zero order, which amounts to constant gain ouput feedback. The emphasis has been on optimal output feedback. That is, a fixed order controller is designed based on minimizing a suitably chosen quadratic performance index. A number of problem areas that arise in this context have been addressed. These include developing suitable methods for selecting an index of performance, both time domain and frequency domain methods for achieving robustness of the closed loop system, developing canonical forms to achieve a minimal parameterization for the controller, two time scale design formulations for ill-conditioned systems, and the development of convergent numerical algorithms for solving the output feedback problem.

  14. Regions of constrained maximum likelihood parameter identifiability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, C.-H.; Herget, C. J.

    1975-01-01

    This paper considers the parameter identification problem of general discrete-time, nonlinear, multiple-input/multiple-output dynamic systems with Gaussian-white distributed measurement errors. Knowledge of the system parameterization is assumed to be known. Regions of constrained maximum likelihood (CML) parameter identifiability are established. A computation procedure employing interval arithmetic is proposed for finding explicit regions of parameter identifiability for the case of linear systems. It is shown that if the vector of true parameters is locally CML identifiable, then with probability one, the vector of true parameters is a unique maximal point of the maximum likelihood function in the region of parameter identifiability and the CML estimation sequence will converge to the true parameters.

  15. Electronic filters, hearing aids and methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engebretson, A. Maynard (Inventor); O'Connell, Michael P. (Inventor); Zheng, Baohua (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    An electronic filter for an electroacoustic system. The system has a microphone for generating an electrical output from external sounds and an electrically driven transducer for emitting sound. Some of the sound emitted by the transducer returns to the microphone means to add a feedback contribution to its electical output. The electronic filter includes a first circuit for electronic processing of the electrical output of the microphone to produce a filtered signal. An adaptive filter, interconnected with the first circuit, performs electronic processing of the filtered signal to produce an adaptive output to the first circuit to substantially offset the feedback contribution in the electrical output of the microphone, and the adaptive filter includes means for adapting only in response to polarities of signals supplied to and from the first circuit. Other electronic filters for hearing aids, public address systems and other electroacoustic systems, as well as such systems, and methods of operating them are also disclosed.

  16. Electronic filters, hearing aids and methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engebretson, A. Maynard (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    An electronic filter for an electroacoustic system. The system has a microphone for generating an electrical output from external sounds and an electrically driven transducer for emitting sound. Some of the sound emitted by the transducer returns to the microphone means to add a feedback contribution to its electrical output. The electronic filter includes a first circuit for electronic processing of the electrical output of the microphone to produce a first signal. An adaptive filter, interconnected with the first circuit, performs electronic processing of the first signal to produce an adaptive output to the first circuit to substantially offset the feedback contribution in the electrical output of the microphone, and the adaptive filter includes means for adapting only in response to polarities of signals supplied to and from the first circuit. Other electronic filters for hearing aids, public address systems and other electroacoustic systems, as well as such systems and methods of operating them are also disclosed.

  17. Crawling Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The Institute for the Achievement of Human Potential developed a device known as the Vehicle for Initial Crawling (VIC); the acronym is a tribute to the crawler's inventor, Hubert "Vic" Vykukal; is an effective crawling aid. The VIC is used by brain injured children who are unable to crawl due to the problems of weight-bearing and friction, caused by gravity. It is a rounded plywood frame large enough to support the child's torso, leaving arms and legs free to move. On its underside are three aluminum discs through which air is pumped to create an air-bearing surface that has less friction than a film of oil. Upper side contains the connection to the air supply and a pair of straps which restrain the child and cause the device to move with him. VIC is used with the intent to recreate the normal neurological connection between brain and muscles. Over repetitive use of the device the child develops his arm and leg muscles as well as coordination. Children are given alternating therapy, with and without the VIC until eventually the device is no longer needed.

  18. Efficiency at maximum power of motor traffic on networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golubeva, N.; Imparato, A.

    2014-06-01

    We study motor traffic on Bethe networks subject to hard-core exclusion for both tightly coupled one-state machines and loosely coupled two-state machines that perform work against a constant load. In both cases we find an interaction-induced enhancement of the efficiency at maximum power (EMP) as compared to noninteracting motors. The EMP enhancement occurs for a wide range of network and single-motor parameters and is due to a change in the characteristic load-velocity relation caused by phase transitions in the system. Using a quantitative measure of the trade-off between the EMP enhancement and the corresponding loss in the maximum output power we identify parameter regimes where motor traffic systems operate efficiently at maximum power without a significant decrease in the maximum power output due to jamming effects.

  19. HIV and AIDS

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Snowboarding, Skating Crushes What's a Booger? HIV and AIDS KidsHealth > For Kids > HIV and AIDS Print A ... serious infection. continue How Many People Have HIV/AIDS? Since the discovery of the virus almost 30 ...

  20. Heart attack first aid

    MedlinePLUS

    First aid - heart attack; First aid - cardiopulmonary arrest; First aid - cardiac arrest ... A heart attack occurs when the blood flow that carries oxygen to the heart is blocked. The heart muscle ...

  1. HIV and AIDS

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Sledding, Skiing, Snowboarding, Skating Crushes What's a Booger? HIV and AIDS KidsHealth > For Kids > HIV and AIDS ... actually the virus that causes the disease AIDS. HIV Hurts the Immune System People who are HIV ...

  2. Output trends, characteristics, and measurements of three megavoltage radiotherapy linear accelerators.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Murshed

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to characterize and understand the long-term behavior of the output from megavoltage radiotherapy linear accelerators. Output trends of nine beams from three linear accelerators over a period of more than three years are reported and analyzed. Output, taken during daily warm-up, forms the basis of this study. The output is measured using devices having ion chambers. These are not calibrated by accredited dosimetry laboratory, but are baseline-compared against monthly output which is measured using calibrated ion chambers. We consider the output from the daily check devices as it is, and sometimes normalized it by the actual output measured during the monthly calibration of the linacs. The data show noisy quasi-periodic behavior. The output variation, if normalized by monthly measured "real' output, is bounded between ± 3%. Beams of different energies from the same linac are correlated with a correlation coefficient as high as 0.97, for one particular linac, and as low as 0.44 for another. These maximum and minimum correlations drop to 0.78 and 0.25 when daily output is normalized by the monthly measurements. These results suggest that the origin of these correlations is both the linacs and the daily output check devices. Beams from different linacs, independent of their energies, have lower correlation coefficient, with a maximum of about 0.50 and a minimum of almost zero. The maximum correlation drops to almost zero if the output is normalized by the monthly measured output. Some scatter plots of pairs of beam output from the same linac show band-like structures. These structures are blurred when the output is normalized by the monthly calibrated output. Fourier decomposition of the quasi-periodic output is consistent with a 1/f power law. The output variation appears to come from a distorted normal distribution with a mean of slightly greater than unity. The quasi-periodic behavior is manifested in the seasonally averaged output, showing annual variability with negative variations in the winter and positive in the summer. This trend is weakened when the daily output is normalized by the monthly calibrated output, indicating that the variation of the periodic component may be intrinsic to both the linacs and the daily measurement devices. Actual linac output was measured monthly. It needs to be adjusted once every three to six months for our tolerance and action levels. If these adjustments are artificially removed, then there is an increase in output of about 2%-4% per year. PMID:25207404

  3. Heat output and maximum heat transfer of heat pipes with continuous corrugated wicks

    SciTech Connect

    Afanas'ev, B.A.; Smirnov, G.F.; Vinogradova, E.P.

    1986-07-01

    This paper describes experiments to study heat transfer with vapor formation in corrugated metal foil wicks. The heat transfer in the evaporation zone of the heat pipe was modeled using an approved technique. In parallel with the study of heat transfer the authors determined the limiting heat flux from the intense growth of the heater surface temperature. The test results on limiting heat flux obtained for various modules and structure strip widths at zero level of heat transfer relative to the heater surface are shown. It follows from analysis of these data that an increase of structure strip width reduces the limiting heat-flux density. A reduction of the codule leads to the same result.

  4. Exploiting the Maximum Entropy Principle to Increase Retrieval Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, William S.

    1983-01-01

    Presents information retrieval design approach in which queries of computer-based system consist of sets of terms, either unweighted or weighted with subjective term precision estimates, and retrieval outputs ranked by probability of usefulness estimated by "maximum entropy principle." Boolean and weighted request systems are discussed. Twenty-two

  5. Classroom Interaction and Language Output

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Qiaoying; Castro, Carolyn D.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of classroom interactions between a) students and students and b) students and teachers on the learning of English passivization by L1 Chinese adult learners of English as a foreign language during the language input and output treatments. In phase 1, both groups were asked to read and underline the input

  6. Coral Mortality and Bleaching Output

    EPA Science Inventory

    COMBO is a spreadsheet-based model for the use of managers, conservationists, and biologists for projecting the effects of climate change on coral reefs at local-to-regional scales. The COMBO (Coral Mortality and Bleaching Output) model calculates the impacts to coral reefs from...

  7. Output Interference in Recognition Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Criss, Amy H.; Malmberg, Kenneth J.; Shiffrin, Richard M.

    2011-01-01

    Dennis and Humphreys (2001) proposed that interference in recognition memory arises solely from the prior contexts of the test word: Interference does not arise from memory traces of other words (from events prior to the study list or on the study list, and regardless of similarity to the test item). We evaluate this model using output

  8. World Input-Output Network

    PubMed Central

    Cerina, Federica; Zhu, Zhen; Chessa, Alessandro; Riccaboni, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Production systems, traditionally analyzed as almost independent national systems, are increasingly connected on a global scale. Only recently becoming available, the World Input-Output Database (WIOD) is one of the first efforts to construct the global multi-regional input-output (GMRIO) tables. By viewing the world input-output system as an interdependent network where the nodes are the individual industries in different economies and the edges are the monetary goods flows between industries, we analyze respectively the global, regional, and local network properties of the so-called world input-output network (WION) and document its evolution over time. At global level, we find that the industries are highly but asymmetrically connected, which implies that micro shocks can lead to macro fluctuations. At regional level, we find that the world production is still operated nationally or at most regionally as the communities detected are either individual economies or geographically well defined regions. Finally, at local level, for each industry we compare the network-based measures with the traditional methods of backward linkages. We find that the network-based measures such as PageRank centrality and community coreness measure can give valuable insights into identifying the key industries. PMID:26222389

  9. World Input-Output Network.

    PubMed

    Cerina, Federica; Zhu, Zhen; Chessa, Alessandro; Riccaboni, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Production systems, traditionally analyzed as almost independent national systems, are increasingly connected on a global scale. Only recently becoming available, the World Input-Output Database (WIOD) is one of the first efforts to construct the global multi-regional input-output (GMRIO) tables. By viewing the world input-output system as an interdependent network where the nodes are the individual industries in different economies and the edges are the monetary goods flows between industries, we analyze respectively the global, regional, and local network properties of the so-called world input-output network (WION) and document its evolution over time. At global level, we find that the industries are highly but asymmetrically connected, which implies that micro shocks can lead to macro fluctuations. At regional level, we find that the world production is still operated nationally or at most regionally as the communities detected are either individual economies or geographically well defined regions. Finally, at local level, for each industry we compare the network-based measures with the traditional methods of backward linkages. We find that the network-based measures such as PageRank centrality and community coreness measure can give valuable insights into identifying the key industries. PMID:26222389

  10. The Master Hearing Aid

    PubMed Central

    Curran, James R.

    2013-01-01

    As early as the 1930s the term Master Hearing Aid (MHA) described a device used in the fitting of hearing aids. In their original form, the MHA was a desktop system that allowed for simulated or actual adjustment of hearing aid components that resulted in a changed hearing aid response. Over the years the MHA saw many embodiments and contributed to a number of rationales for the fitting of hearing aids. During these same years, the MHA was viewed by many as an inappropriate means of demonstrating hearing aids; the audio quality of the desktop systems was often superior to the hearing aids themselves. These opinions and the evolution of the MHA have molded the modern perception of hearing aids and the techniques used in the fitting of hearing aids. This article reports on a history of the MHA and its influence on the fitting of hearing aids. PMID:23686682

  11. How to Get Hearing Aids

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Consumer Products Hearing Aids How to get Hearing Aids Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... my hearing aids? How do I get hearing aids? To get hearing aids, you should first have ...

  12. Achieving Maximum Power from Thermoelectric Generators with Maximum-Power-Point-Tracking Circuits Composed of a Boost-Cascaded-with-Buck Converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hyunbin; Sim, Minseob; Kim, Shiho

    2015-06-01

    We propose a way of achieving maximum power and power-transfer efficiency from thermoelectric generators by optimized selection of maximum-power-point-tracking (MPPT) circuits composed of a boost-cascaded-with-buck converter. We investigated the effect of switch resistance on the MPPT performance of thermoelectric generators. The on-resistances of the switches affect the decrease in the conversion gain and reduce the maximum output power obtainable. Although the incremental values of the switch resistances are small, the resulting difference in the maximum duty ratio between the input and output powers is significant. For an MPPT controller composed of a boost converter with a practical nonideal switch, we need to monitor the output power instead of the input power to track the maximum power point of the thermoelectric generator. We provide a design strategy for MPPT controllers by considering the compromise in which a decrease in switch resistance causes an increase in the parasitic capacitance of the switch.

  13. Approximate maximum likelihood decoding of block codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberger, H. J.

    1979-01-01

    Approximate maximum likelihood decoding algorithms, based upon selecting a small set of candidate code words with the aid of the estimated probability of error of each received symbol, can give performance close to optimum with a reasonable amount of computation. By combining the best features of various algorithms and taking care to perform each step as efficiently as possible, a decoding scheme was developed which can decode codes which have better performance than those presently in use and yet not require an unreasonable amount of computation. The discussion of the details and tradeoffs of presently known efficient optimum and near optimum decoding algorithms leads, naturally, to the one which embodies the best features of all of them.

  14. UFO - The Universal FEYNRULES Output

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degrande, Céline; Duhr, Claude; Fuks, Benjamin; Grellscheid, David; Mattelaer, Olivier; Reiter, Thomas

    2012-06-01

    We present a new model format for automatized matrix-element generators, the so-called Universal FEYNRULES Output (UFO). The format is universal in the sense that it features compatibility with more than one single generator and is designed to be flexible, modular and agnostic of any assumption such as the number of particles or the color and Lorentz structures appearing in the interaction vertices. Unlike other model formats where text files need to be parsed, the information on the model is encoded into a PYTHON module that can easily be linked to other computer codes. We then describe an interface for the MATHEMATICA package FEYNRULES that allows for an automatic output of models in the UFO format.

  15. Output gear of automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Ideta, Y.; Miida, S.

    1986-12-16

    An automatic transmission is described for a front engine, front wheel drive vehicle, comprising: a torque converter; a main power train comprising a rotatory terminal member, the main power train being connected with the torque converter for transmitting a driving torque from the torque converter to the terminal member; housing means enclosing the main power train, the housing means having a cylindrical bore and at least one oil feed passage opening in a cylindrical surface of the bore, and an output gear rotatably supported by the housing means and connected detachably with the terminal member of the main power train for transmitting the driving torque from the main power train to front wheels of the vehicle. The main power train is placed between the torque converter and the output gear, the output gear having a hub which is splined detachably to the terminal member, and which is fitting in the bore of the housing means in such a manner that the hub can rotate in the bore. The hub has an annular groove formed on an outer cylindrical surface of the hub, the output gear being formed with lubricating means extending from the annular groove for conveying oil from the annular groove, the oil feed passage of the housing means opening into the annular groove for supplying oil into the lubricating means through the annular groove. The annular groove has sufficient depth and width within a range permitted by a strength of the hub to prevent a shortage of the oil supply through the annular groove to the lubricating means due to a centrifugal force of the oil rotating in the annular groove together with walls of the annular groove.

  16. Effects of Synthetic Speech Output and Orthographic Feedback on Spelling in a Student with Autism: A Preliminary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlosser, Ralf W.; Blischak, Doreen M.; Belfiore, Phillip J.; Bartley, Clair; Barnett, Nanette

    1998-01-01

    A nonspeaking student (age 10) with autism was taught to spell words under three feedback conditions using a voice output communication aid. Results found that the provision of speech output alone and in combination with orthographic feedback resulted in more efficient spelling than the provision of orthographic feedback alone. (Author/CR)

  17. Input-output characterization of fiber reinforced composites by P waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renneisen, John D.; Williams, James H., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Input-output characterization of fiber composites is studied theoretically by tracing P waves in the media. A new path motion to aid in the tracing of P and the reflection generated SV wave paths in the continuum plate is developed. A theoretical output voltage from the receiving transducer is calculated for a tone burst. The study enhances the quantitative and qualitative understanding of the nondestructive evaluation of fiber composites which can be modeled as transversely isotropic media.

  18. 1180nm VECSEL with 50 W output power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kantola, Emmi; Leinonen, Tomi; Ranta, Sanna; Tavast, Miki; Penttinen, Jussi-Pekka; Guina, Mircea

    2015-03-01

    We report on the development of a high-power vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser (VECSEL) emitting around 1180 nm. The laser emitted 50 W of output power when the mount of the gain chip was cooled to -15C. The output power was measured using a 97% reflective cavity end-mirror. The VECSEL was arranged to form an I-shaped cavity with a length of ~100 mm; the gain chip and a curved dielectric mirror (RoC=150) acting as cavity end mirrors. The gain chip was grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and incorporated 10 GaInAs/GaAs quantum wells. For efficient heat extraction, the chip was capillary bonded to a diamond heat spreader which was attached to a TEC-cooled copper mount. The maximum optical-to-optical conversion efficiency of 28% was achieved for 42 W of output power and -15C mount temperature.

  19. Group maximum power tracking for distributed power sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siri, Kasemsan

    This paper offers a useful application of Uniform Input Voltage Distribution (UIVD) control [6-9] for Distributed-Input Parallel-Output (DIPO) converter power systems. The primary control objective of UIVD for DIPO converters is to achieve grouped maximum power throughput from non-identical renewable power sources. Secondly, this paper features a revised Maximum Power Tracking (MPT) controller design developed for DIPO configurations that facilitate simultaneous processing of distributed power flows. In earlier research, the distributed source peak powers are individually tracked by converters controlled by independent MPT controllers without UIVD. However, when distributed power sources have similar peak power voltages with an achievable tracking efficiency of greater than 96%, such independent MPT controllers are not necessary. By utilizing UIVD control, near-maximum use of available power is achieved using a single MPT controller. The resulting system and control architectures offer near-maximum power transfer with a lower parts count. Two DIPO power converter bus architectures are described herein: one having a battery-dominated output voltage and the other with a regulated output voltage. Through computer simulation and prototype testing, both power architectures are validated for fault-tolerant grouped UIVD control.

  20. Metal Coat Increases Output Sensitivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janesick, James R.

    1989-01-01

    Charge-coupled photodetector optimized for maximum quantum efficiency (QE), high charge-collection efficiency, and ultralow read noise. Called "flash-coupled" photodetector, sensor delivers high quantum-efficiency sensitivity in spectral range extending from soft x ray to near infrared.

  1. First Aid Kit

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This is a first aid kit used in fieldwork in the west. The kit is likely an army surplus item. The kit includes first aid materials for snake bites as well as more common ailments. Object ID: USGS-000057...

  2. Buying a Hearing Aid

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the ear, they are extremely small and nearly invisible. In-the-ear (ITE) hearing aids fill the ... and ear canal, and the dexterity of your hands. Many hearing aids have tele-coil "T" switches ...

  3. Unconsciousness - first aid

    MedlinePLUS

    Loss of consciousness - first aid; Coma - first aid; Mental status change; Altered mental status ... 2014. Bassin BS, Cooke JL. Depressed consciousness and coma. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, eds. ...

  4. First Aid: Influenza (Flu)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Child All About Food Allergies First Aid: The Flu KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: The Flu Print ... tiredness What to Do If Your Child Has Flu Symptoms: Call your doctor. Encourage rest. Keep your ...

  5. AIDS Myths and Misunderstandings

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 21, 2014 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 158 AIDS Myths and Misunderstandings WHY ARE THERE SO MANY ... support this belief. Myth: Current medications can cure AIDS. It’s no big deal if you get infected. ...

  6. First Aid: Influenza (Flu)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Bullies Pregnant? What to Expect First Aid: The Flu KidsHealth > Parents > First Aid & Safety > Printable Safety Guides > ... tiredness What to Do If Your Child Has Flu Symptoms: Call your doctor. Encourage rest. Keep your ...

  7. MICROFICHE AIDS DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data set contains counts of AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) cases reported to state and local health departments, by demographics; case-definition; HIV exposure group (risk factors for AIDS); Half-year of diagnosis, report, and death.

  8. HIV/AIDS Basics

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Providers Prevention Videos Newsletter Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or ... AIDS Get Email Updates on AAA Anonymous Feedback HIV/AIDS Media Infographics Syndicated Content Podcasts Slide Sets ...

  9. Method for optimizing the mechanical output of a fluid pressure free piston engine

    SciTech Connect

    Dibrell, E.W.; Schaich, W.A.

    1988-07-05

    The method is described for minimizing rotational speed variations of a centrifugal piston expander engine comprising the steps of: (1) supplying a pressured gas to a centrifugal piston expander engine having a rotatable output element and a discharge conduit for cooled exhaust gas; (2) expanding and cooling the pressured gas in the centrifugal piston expander engine to produce cyclically varying oppositely directed, positive and negative torques on the rotatable output shaft; (3) driving a rotary load in the positive torque direction by the rotatable output element through one rotatable element of a unidirectional clutch having two rotating elements relatively movable in only the negative torque direction; and (4) connecting a battery operated motor-generator unit to the rotatable output shaft to supplement the rotary speed of the output shaft during periods of negative torque output by the centrifugal piston expander engine and to recharge the battery during periods of maximum positive torque output of the centrifugal expander engine.

  10. Computer aided flexible envelope designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Resch, R. D.

    1975-01-01

    Computer aided design methods are presented for the design and construction of strong, lightweight structures which require complex and precise geometric definition. The first, flexible structures, is a unique system of modeling folded plate structures and space frames. It is possible to continuously vary the geometry of a space frame to produce large, clear spans with curvature. The second method deals with developable surfaces, where both folding and bending are explored with the observed constraint of available building materials, and what minimal distortion result in maximum design capability. Alternative inexpensive fabrication techniques are being developed to achieve computer defined enclosures which are extremely lightweight and mathematically highly precise.

  11. Principles of maximum entropy and maximum caliber in statistical physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pressé, Steve; Ghosh, Kingshuk; Lee, Julian; Dill, Ken A.

    2013-07-01

    The variational principles called maximum entropy (MaxEnt) and maximum caliber (MaxCal) are reviewed. MaxEnt originated in the statistical physics of Boltzmann and Gibbs, as a theoretical tool for predicting the equilibrium states of thermal systems. Later, entropy maximization was also applied to matters of information, signal transmission, and image reconstruction. Recently, since the work of Shore and Johnson, MaxEnt has been regarded as a principle that is broader than either physics or information alone. MaxEnt is a procedure that ensures that inferences drawn from stochastic data satisfy basic self-consistency requirements. The different historical justifications for the entropy S=-∑ipilog⁡pi and its corresponding variational principles are reviewed. As an illustration of the broadening purview of maximum entropy principles, maximum caliber, which is path entropy maximization applied to the trajectories of dynamical systems, is also reviewed. Examples are given in which maximum caliber is used to interpret dynamical fluctuations in biology and on the nanoscale, in single-molecule and few-particle systems such as molecular motors, chemical reactions, biological feedback circuits, and diffusion in microfluidics devices.

  12. Designing State Aid Formulas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Bo; Bradbury, Katharine

    2009-01-01

    This paper designs a new equalization-aid formula based on fiscal gaps of local communities. When states are in transition to a new local aid formula, the issue of whether and how to hold existing aid harmless poses a challenge. The authors show that some previous studies and the formulas derived from them give differential weights to existing and

  13. HIV and AIDS

    MedlinePLUS

    ... I Help a Friend Who Cuts? HIV and AIDS KidsHealth > For Teens > HIV and AIDS Print A A A Text Size What's in ... in human history. HIV causes a condition called acquired immunodeficiency syndrome better known as AIDS . HIV destroys a type ...

  14. Designing State Aid Formulas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Bo; Bradbury, Katharine

    2009-01-01

    This paper designs a new equalization-aid formula based on fiscal gaps of local communities. When states are in transition to a new local aid formula, the issue of whether and how to hold existing aid harmless poses a challenge. The authors show that some previous studies and the formulas derived from them give differential weights to existing and…

  15. AIDS Education Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horry County Board of Education, Conway, SC.

    This curriculum guide was developed, based on sound principles of human growth and development, to present the most recently available information on AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). The curriculum presents information on the known facts about AIDS and the AIDS virus infection. It also addresses the potential for adolescents and adults

  16. The Teacher Aide Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Hadley A.

    The Tuba City Elementary School, located in a Bureau of Indian Affairs Sub-agency Headquarters on the Navajo Reservation in Arizona, has conducted a teacher aide program since August 1965. Specific teacher aide duties have been developed for routine record-keeping, small group and individual instruction, and supervisory activities. Teacher aides

  17. Downscaling GCM Output with Genetic Programming Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, X.; Dibike, Y. B.; Coulibaly, P.

    2004-05-01

    Climate change impact studies on watershed hydrology require reliable data at appropriate spatial and temporal resolution. However, the outputs of the current global climate models (GCMs) cannot be used directly because GCM do not provide hourly or daily precipitation and temperature reliable enough for hydrological modeling. Nevertheless, we can get more reliable data corresponding to future climate scenarios derived from GCM outputs using the so called 'downscaling techniques'. This study applies Genetic Programming (GP) based technique to downscale daily precipitation and temperature values at the Chute-du-Diable basin of the Saguenay watershed in Canada. In applying GP downscaling technique, the objective is to find a relationship between the large-scale predictor variables (NCEP data which provide daily information concerning the observed large-scale state of the atmosphere) and the predictand (meteorological data which describes conditions at the site scale). The selection of the most relevant predictor variables is achieved using the Pearson's coefficient of determination ( R2) (between the large-scale predictor variables and the daily meteorological data). In this case, the period (1961 - 2000) is identified to represent the current climate condition. For the forty years of data, the first 30 years (1961-1990) are considered for calibrating the models while the remaining ten years of data (1991-2000) are used to validate those models. In general, the R2 between the predictor variables and each predictand is very low in case of precipitation compared to that of maximum and minimum temperature. Moreover, the strength of individual predictors varies for every month and for each GP grammar. Therefore, the most appropriate combination of predictors has to be chosen by looking at the output analysis of all the twelve months and the different GP grammars. During the calibration of the GP model for precipitation downscaling, in addition to the mean daily precipitation and daily precipitation variability for each month, monthly average dry and wet-spell lengths are also considered as performance criteria. For the cases of Tmax and Tmin, means and variances of these variables corresponding to each month were considered as performance criteria. The GP downscaling results show satisfactory agreement between the observed daily temperature (Tmax and Tmin) and the simulated temperature. However, the downscaling results for the daily precipitation still require some improvement - suggesting further investigation of other grammars. KEY WORDS: Climate change; GP downscaling; GCM.

  18. Space Derived Health Aids (AID, Heart Monitor)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    CPI's spinoff from miniaturized pace circuitry is the new heart-assist device, the AID implantable automatic pulse generator. AID pulse generator monitors the heart continuously, recognizes onset of fibrillation, then administers a corrective electrical shock. A mini- computer, a power source, and two electrodes which sense heart activity are included in the unit. An associated system was also developed. It includes an external recorder to be worn by AID patients and a physician's console to display the data stored by the recorder. System provides a record of fibrillation occurrences and the ensuing defibrillation.

  19. Overload protection circuit for output driver

    DOEpatents

    Stewart, Roger G.

    1982-05-11

    A protection circuit for preventing excessive power dissipation in an output transistor whose conduction path is connected between a power terminal and an output terminal. The protection circuit includes means for sensing the application of a turn on signal to the output transistor and the voltage at the output terminal. When the turn on signal is maintained for a period of time greater than a given period without the voltage at the output terminal reaching a predetermined value, the protection circuit decreases the turn on signal to, and the current conduction through, the output transistor.

  20. Repeatability and classifier bias in computer-aided diagnosis for breast ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drukker, K.; Pesce, L. L.; Giger, M. L.

    2010-03-01

    The purpose was to investigate the repeatability and bias of the output of two classifiers commonly used in computeraided diagnosis for the task of distinguishing benign from malignant lesions. Classifier training and testing were performed within a bootstrap approach using a dataset of 125 sonographic breast lesions (54 malignant, 71 benign). The classifiers investigated were linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and a Bayesian Neural Net (BNN) with 5 hidden units. Both used the same 4 input lesion features. The bootstrap .632plus area under the ROC curve (AUC) was used as a summary performance metric. On an individual case basis, the variability of the classifier output was used in a detailed performance evaluation of repeatability and bias. The LDA obtained an AUC value of 0.87 with 95% confidence interval [0.81; 0.92]. For the BNN, those values were 0.86 and [.76; .93], respectively. The classifier outputs for individual cases displayed better repeatability (less variability) for the LDA than for the BNN and for the LDA the maximum repeatability (lowest variability) lied in the middle of the range of possible outputs, while the BNN was least repeatable (highest variability) in this region. There was a small but significant systematic bias in the LDA output, however, while for the BNN the bias appeared to be weak. In summary, while ROC analysis suggested similar classifier performance, there were substantial differences in classifier behavior on a by-case basis. Knowledge of this behavior is crucial for successful translation and implementation of computer-aided diagnosis in clinical decision making.

  1. Finding the quantum thermoelectric with maximal efficiency and minimal entropy production at given power output

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitney, Robert S.

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the nonlinear scattering theory for quantum systems with strong Seebeck and Peltier effects, and consider their use as heat engines and refrigerators with finite power outputs. This paper gives detailed derivations of the results summarized in a previous paper [R. S. Whitney, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 130601 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.130601]. It shows how to use the scattering theory to find (i) the quantum thermoelectric with maximum possible power output, and (ii) the quantum thermoelectric with maximum efficiency at given power output. The latter corresponds to a minimal entropy production at that power output. These quantities are of quantum origin since they depend on system size over electronic wavelength, and so have no analog in classical thermodynamics. The maximal efficiency coincides with Carnot efficiency at zero power output, but decreases with increasing power output. This gives a fundamental lower bound on entropy production, which means that reversibility (in the thermodynamic sense) is impossible for finite power output. The suppression of efficiency by (nonlinear) phonon and photon effects is addressed in detail; when these effects are strong, maximum efficiency coincides with maximum power. Finally, we show in particular limits (typically without magnetic fields) that relaxation within the quantum system does not allow the system to exceed the bounds derived for relaxation-free systems, however, a general proof of this remains elusive.

  2. Optimization of output power in a fiber optical parametric oscillator.

    PubMed

    Jin, Lei; Martinez, Amos; Yamashita, Shinji

    2013-09-23

    Fiber optical parametric oscillators (FOPOs) are coherent sources that can provide ultra-broadband tunability and high output power levels and are been considered for applications such as medical imaging and sensing. While most recent literature has focused on advancing the performance of these devices experimentally, theoretical studies are still scarce. In contrast, ordinary laser theory is very mature, has been thoroughly studied and is now well understood from the point of view of fundamental physics. In this work, we present a theoretical study of OPOs and in particular we theoretically discuss the process of gain saturation in optical parametric amplifiers. In order to emphasize the significant difference between the two coherent sources, we compare the optimized coupling ratios for maximum output powers of the ordinary laser and the optical parametric oscillator and demonstrate that in contrast to ordinary lasers, highest output powers in optical parametric oscillators are achieved with output coupling ratios close to 1. We confirm experimentally our theoretical studies by building a narrowband fiber optical parametric oscillator at 1450nm with multi-watt output power. We show that the device is robust to intracavity losses and achieve peak power as high as 2.4W. PMID:24104150

  3. One Mann against AIDS.

    PubMed

    Stocker, C

    1990-11-30

    This article features Jonathan Mann, director of the International AIDS Center of the Harvard AIDS Institute and his efforts to combat AIDS in the global context. Mann built the largest program in the history of the World Health Organization specifically in fighting AIDS. He helped originate the World AIDS Day observed annually throughout the world. As the director of the International AIDS Center at Harvard, Mann is launching a new role for himself concerning with research and ideas related to AIDS issue. According to him, AIDS pandemic offers "opportunities" to speed up research and spur people around the globe to address longstanding social problems with new energy. Mann hopes to get involved with local AIDS efforts. He foresees AIDS as an escalating problem that will continue to persist in one or two generations, which could rise as high as tenfold in the 1990s. He believes a vaccine will be available in the middle to late 1990s but to purge the virus from those positive persons is impossible. If the World AIDS Day can bring about attitude change, Mann hopes it will able be to foster a feeling of unity among people and countries. PMID:12349354

  4. Hearing Aid Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, Richard N. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Progress in hearing aids has come a long way. Yet despite such progress hearing aids are not the perfect answer to many hearing problems. Some adult ears cannot accommodate tightly fitting hearing aids. Mouth movements such as chewing, talking, and athletic or other active endeavors also lead to loosely fitting ear molds. It is well accepted that loosely fitting hearing aids are the cause of feedback noise. Since feedback noise is the most common complaint of hearing aid wearers it has been the subject of various patents. Herein a hearing aid assembly is provided eliminating feedback noise. The assembly includes the combination of a hearing aid with a headset developed to constrict feedback noise.

  5. Efficiency at maximum power of thermally coupled heat engines.

    PubMed

    Apertet, Y; Ouerdane, H; Goupil, C; Lecoeur, Ph

    2012-04-01

    We study the efficiency at maximum power of two coupled heat engines, using thermoelectric generators (TEGs) as engines. Assuming that the heat and electric charge fluxes in the TEGs are strongly coupled, we simulate numerically the dependence of the behavior of the global system on the electrical load resistance of each generator in order to obtain the working condition that permits maximization of the output power. It turns out that this condition is not unique. We derive a simple analytic expression giving the relation between the electrical load resistance of each generator permitting output power maximization. We then focus on the efficiency at maximum power (EMP) of the whole system to demonstrate that the Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency may not always be recovered: The EMP varies with the specific working conditions of each generator but remains in the range predicted by irreversible thermodynamics theory. We discuss our results in light of nonideal Carnot engine behavior. PMID:22680454

  6. Efficiency at maximum power of thermally coupled heat engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apertet, Y.; Ouerdane, H.; Goupil, C.; Lecoeur, Ph.

    2012-04-01

    We study the efficiency at maximum power of two coupled heat engines, using thermoelectric generators (TEGs) as engines. Assuming that the heat and electric charge fluxes in the TEGs are strongly coupled, we simulate numerically the dependence of the behavior of the global system on the electrical load resistance of each generator in order to obtain the working condition that permits maximization of the output power. It turns out that this condition is not unique. We derive a simple analytic expression giving the relation between the electrical load resistance of each generator permitting output power maximization. We then focus on the efficiency at maximum power (EMP) of the whole system to demonstrate that the Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency may not always be recovered: The EMP varies with the specific working conditions of each generator but remains in the range predicted by irreversible thermodynamics theory. We discuss our results in light of nonideal Carnot engine behavior.

  7. 33 CFR 183.33 - Maximum weight capacity: Inboard and inboard-outdrive boats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... citations affecting 183.33, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids... purposes of paragraph (a) of this section: (1) Maximum displacement is the weight of the volume of water displaced by the boat at its maximum level immersion in calm water without water coming aboard. For...

  8. 33 CFR 183.33 - Maximum weight capacity: Inboard and inboard-outdrive boats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... citations affecting 183.33, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids... purposes of paragraph (a) of this section: (1) Maximum displacement is the weight of the volume of water displaced by the boat at its maximum level immersion in calm water without water coming aboard. For...

  9. 33 CFR 183.33 - Maximum weight capacity: Inboard and inboard-outdrive boats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... citations affecting 183.33, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids... purposes of paragraph (a) of this section: (1) Maximum displacement is the weight of the volume of water displaced by the boat at its maximum level immersion in calm water without water coming aboard. For...

  10. Publication output in telemedicine in Spain.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Francisco; Castro, Adrian F

    2005-01-01

    We searched the MEDLINE database for publications about telemedicine from 1966 to 2003. Only publications with a first institutional address in Spain and from journals listed in the JCR Science Edition 2002 were included in the study. A total of 118 publications were found. The first publication appeared in 1988 and publication output showed a sudden increase starting in 1995, reaching a maximum in 2002 with 21 publications. The number of authors per publication in non-multicentre studies ranged from 1 to 14 (median 6.5). Most authors (79%) contributed to only a single publication; 10% of authors participated in three or more publications. Most publications were full papers (88%). The most active Autonomous Community in the number of publications relative to inhabitants was Galicia (0.91 publications per 100,000 inhabitants). The Community that produced the highest absolute number of publications was Madrid (29% of the total). The mean impact factor of the journals in which the publications appeared was 0.961. Production of telemedicine publications in Spain has followed the same temporal course as has been observed worldwide. There is an unequal geographical and institutional distribution of publications. The highest production is concentrated in a few institutions and only a small number of authors show steady research activity. PMID:15829040

  11. Maximal Cardiac Output Determines 6 Minutes Walking Distance in Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Deboeck, Gal; Taboada, Dolores; Hagan, Guy; Treacy, Carmen; Page, Kathy; Sheares, Karen; Naeije, Robert; Pepke-Zaba, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The 6 minutes walk test (6MWT) is often shown to be the best predictor of mortality in pulmonary hypertension (PH) probably because it challenges the failing heart to deliver adequate cardiac output. We hypothesised that the 6MWT elicits maximal cardiac output as measured during a maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). Methods 18 patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (n?=?12) or pulmonary arterial hypertension (n?=?6) and 10 healthy subjects performed a 6MWT and CPET with measurements of cardiac output (non invasive rebreathing device) before and directly after exercise. Heart rate was measured during 6MWT with a cardiofrequence meter. Results Cardiac output and heart rate measured at the end of the 6MWT were linearly related to 6MW distance (meanSD: 49087 m). Patients with a high NT-pro-BNP achieve a maximum cardiac output during the 6MWT, while in normal subjects and in patients with a low-normal NT-proBNP, cardiac output at the end of a 6MWT was lower than achieved at maximum exercise during a CPET. In both cases, heart rate is the major determinant of exercise-induced increase in cardiac output. However, stroke volume increased during CPET in healthy subjects, not in PH patients. Conclusion Maximal cardiac output is elicited by 6MWT in PH patients with failing right ventricle. Cardiac output increase is dependent on chronotropic response in patients with PH. PMID:24647561

  12. Mathematics and the Heart: Understanding Cardiac Output

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Champanerkar, Jyoti

    2013-01-01

    This paper illustrates a biological application of the concepts of relative change and area under a curve, from mathematics. We study two biological measures "relative change in cardiac output" and "cardiac output", which are predictors of heart blockages and other related ailments. Cardiac output refers to the quantity of…

  13. Mathematics and the Heart: Understanding Cardiac Output

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Champanerkar, Jyoti

    2013-01-01

    This paper illustrates a biological application of the concepts of relative change and area under a curve, from mathematics. We study two biological measures "relative change in cardiac output" and "cardiac output", which are predictors of heart blockages and other related ailments. Cardiac output refers to the quantity of

  14. The Maximum Density of Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses a series of experiments performed by Thomas Hope in 1805 which show the temperature at which water has its maximum density. Early data cast into a modern form as well as guidelines and recent data collected from the author provide background for duplicating Hope's experiments in the classroom. (JN)

  15. Abolishing the maximum tension principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D?browski, Mariusz P.; Gohar, H.

    2015-09-01

    We find the series of example theories for which the relativistic limit of maximum tension Fmax =c4 / 4 G represented by the entropic force can be abolished. Among them the varying constants theories, some generalized entropy models applied both for cosmological and black hole horizons as well as some generalized uncertainty principle models.

  16. Women and AIDS. AIDS and sexuality.

    PubMed

    1992-01-01

    AIDS education campaigns, which tend to be practical and direct, assume people have viable choices in sexual relationships, but they do not. Cultural, social, political, and economic factors restrict their control, including protecting themselves against AIDS. People in developing countries often must leave their families for long periods of time for employment, which makes them lonely; so they seek sexual affairs. In Thailand, poverty and underdevelopment force rural families to send young women to the cities to earn money for the families, but the cities already have many unemployed and unskilled people, so the women resort to prostitution. Girls often have sex with married men who provide them essentials. HIV appears to be more prevalent among women of low status. 82% of female AIDS cases in the world are found in Africa, where women have little control over their lives. They cannot even mention safe sex to regular partners without being rejected or battered. This is especially a problem for wives of migrant workers or truckers. The AIDS pandemic has illustrated how family planning programs have left out men in contraceptive decision making. Thus, family planning and AIDS education programs must reverse this trend to convince men to use condoms. In developing countries, just 3% of couples of childbearing age use condoms. Condoms are often linked with prostitution, casual affairs, and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases. In South Africa, many Blacks think Whites promote condom use to control black population growth. In one AIDS project in South Africa, older women teach young girls about sex to eliminate harmful taboos. AIDS has forced public health and education professionals to come up with an approach to sex education which examines relationships and acknowledges the imbalances of power between men and women, e.g., assertiveness training courses in Swaziland. PMID:12285433

  17. Maximum cooling and maximum efficiency of thermoacoustic refrigerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tartibu, L. K.

    2016-01-01

    This work provides valid experimental evidence on the difference between design for maximum cooling and maximum efficiency for thermoacoustic refrigerators. In addition, the influence of the geometry of the honeycomb ceramic stack on the performance of thermoacoustic refrigerators is presented as it affects the cooling power. Sixteen cordierite honeycomb ceramic stacks with square cross sections having four different lengths of 26, 48, 70 and 100 mm are considered. Measurements are taken at six different locations of the stack hot ends from the pressure antinode, namely 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 mm respectively. Measurement of temperature difference across the stack ends at steady state for different stack geometries are used to compute the cooling load and the coefficient of performance. The results obtained with atmospheric air showed that there is a distinct optimum depending on the design goal.

  18. Borrowing at the Maximum: Undergraduate Stafford Loan Borrowers in 2007-08. Stats in Brief. NCES 2012-161

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Christina Chang; Skomsvold, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Using data from the 2007-08 National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS:08), this Statistics in Brief examines the extent to which undergraduate students borrow the maximum possible within the limits of the Stafford loan program (the program maximum) and their own financial need and student budgets (the individual maximum). Students who…

  19. 30 CFR 36.44 - Maximum allowable fuel:air ratio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... composition (see 36.43) show not more than 0.30 percent, by volume, of carbon monoxide, the applicant's... above sea level. (b) When the carbon monoxide content of the exhaust exceeds 0.30 percent, by volume, only near maximum power output, the maximum fuel:air ratio at which carbon monoxide does not exceed...

  20. Model output: fact or artefact?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melsen, Lieke

    2015-04-01

    As a third-year PhD-student, I relatively recently entered the wonderful world of scientific Hydrology. A science that has many pillars that directly impact society, for example with the prediction of hydrological extremes (both floods and drought), climate change, applications in agriculture, nature conservation, drinking water supply, etcetera. Despite its demonstrable societal relevance, hydrology is often seen as a science between two stools. Like Klemeš (1986) stated: "By their academic background, hydrologists are foresters, geographers, electrical engineers, geologists, system analysts, physicists, mathematicians, botanists, and most often civil engineers." Sometimes it seems that the engineering genes are still present in current hydrological sciences, and this results in pragmatic rather than scientific approaches for some of the current problems and challenges we have in hydrology. Here, I refer to the uncertainty in hydrological modelling that is often neglected. For over thirty years, uncertainty in hydrological models has been extensively discussed and studied. But it is not difficult to find peer-reviewed articles in which it is implicitly assumed that model simulations represent the truth rather than a conceptualization of reality. For instance in trend studies, where data is extrapolated 100 years ahead. Of course one can use different forcing datasets to estimate the uncertainty of the input data, but how to prevent that the output is not a model artefact, caused by the model structure? Or how about impact studies, e.g. of a dam impacting river flow. Measurements are often available for the period after dam construction, so models are used to simulate river flow before dam construction. Both are compared in order to qualify the effect of the dam. But on what basis can we tell that the model tells us the truth? Model validation is common nowadays, but validation only (comparing observations with model output) is not sufficient to assume that a model reflects reality. E.g. due to nonuniqueness or so called equifinality; different model construction lead to same output (Oreskes et al., 1994, Beven, 2005). But also because validation only does not provide us information on whether we are 'right for the wrong reasons' (Kirchner, 2006; Oreskes et al., 1994). We can never know how right or wrong our models are, because we do not fully understand reality. But we can estimate the uncertainty from the model and the input data itself. Many techniques have been developed that help in estimating model uncertainty. E.g. model structural uncertainty, studied in the FUSE framework (Clark et al., 2008), parameter uncertainty with GLUE (Beven and Binley, 1992) and DREAM (Vrugt et al., 2008), input data uncertainty using BATEA (Kavetski et al., 2006). These are just some examples that pop-up in a first search. But somehow, these techniques are only used and applied in studies that focus on the model uncertainty itself, and hardly ever occur in studies that have a research question outside of the uncertainty-region. We know that models don't tell us the truth, but we have the tendency to claim they are, based on validation only. A model is always a simplification of reality, which by definition leads to uncertainty when model output and observations of reality are compared. The least we could do is estimate the uncertainty of the model and the data itself. My question therefore is: As a scientist, can we accept that we believe things of which we know they might not be true? And secondly: How to deal with this? How should model uncertainty change the way we communicate scientific results? References Beven, K., and A. Binley, The future of distributed models: Model calibration and uncertainty prediction, HP 6 (1992). Beven, K., A manifesto for the equifinality thesis, JoH 320 (2006). Clark, M.P., A.G. Slater, D.E. Rupp, R.A. Woods, J.A. Vrugt, H.V. Gupta, T. Wagener and L.E. Hay, Framework for Understanding Structural Errors (FUSE): A modular framework to diagnose differences between hydrological models, WRR 44 (2008). Kavetski, D., G. Kuczera and S.W. Franks, Bayesian analysis of input uncertainty in hydrological modeling: 1. Theory, WRR 42 (2006). Kirchner, J.W., Getting the right answers for the right reasons: Linking measurements, analyses, and models to advance the science of hydrology, WRR 42 (2006). Klemeš, V., Dilettantism in Hydrology: Transition or Destiny?, WRR 22-9 (1986). Oreskes, N., K. Shrader-Frechette, and K. Belitz, Verification, Validation and Confirmation of Numerical Models in Earth Sciences, SCIENCE 263 (1994). Vrugt, J.A., C.J.F. ter Braak, M.P. Clar, J.M. Hyman, and B.A. Robinson, Treatment of input uncertainty in hydrologic modeling: Doing hydrology backward with Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation, WRR 44, (2008).

  1. AIDS in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ijsselmuiden, C; Evian, C; Matjilla, J; Steinberg, M; Schneider, H

    1993-01-01

    The National AIDS Convention in South Africa (NACOSA) in October 1992 was the first real attempt to address HIV/AIDS. In Soweto, government, the African National Congress, nongovernmental organizations, and organized industry and labor representatives worked for 2 days to develop a national plan of action, but it did not result in a united effort to fight AIDS. The highest HIV infection rates in South Africa are among the KwaZulu in Natal, yet the Inkatha Freedom Party did not attend NACOSA. This episode exemplifies the key obstacles for South Africa to prevent and control AIDS. Inequality of access to health care may explain why health workers did not diagnose the first AIDS case in blacks until 1985. Migrant labor, Bantu education, and uprooted communities affect the epidemiology of HIV infection. Further, political and social polarization between blacks and whites contributes to a mindset that AIDS is limited to the other race which only diminishes the personal and collective sense of susceptibility and the volition and aptitude to act. The Department of National Health and Population Development's voluntary register of anonymously reported cases of AIDS specifies 1517 cumulative AIDS cases (October 1992), but this number is low. Seroprevalence studies show between 400,000-450,000 HIV positive cases. Public hospitals cannot give AIDS patients AZT and DDI. Few communities provided community-based care. Not all hospitals honor confidentiality and patients' need for autonomy. Even though HIV testing is not mandatory, it is required sometimes, e.g., HIV testing of immigrants. AIDS Training, Information and Counselling Centers are in urban areas, but not in poor areas where the need is most acute. The government just recently developed in AIDS education package for schools, but too many people consider it improper, so it is not being used. The poor quality education provided blacks would make it useless anyhow. Lifting of the academic boycott will allow South African researchers to catch up with AIDS research. PMID:12317931

  2. Optical Waveguide Output Couplers Fabricated in Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Michael D.; Abushagur, Mustafa A. G.; Ashley, Paul R.; Johnson-Cole, Helen

    1998-01-01

    Waveguide output couplers fabricated in Norland Optical Adhesive (NOA) #81 and AMOCO Ultradel 9020D polyimide are investigated. The output couplers are implemented using periodic relief gratings on a planar waveguide. Design theory of the couplers is based on the perturbation approach. Coupling of light from waveguide propagation modes to output radiation modes is described by coupled mode theory and the transmission line approximation of the perturbed area (grating structure). Using these concepts, gratings can be accurately designed to output a minimum number of modes at desired output angles. Waveguide couplers were designed using these concepts. These couplers were fabricated and analyzed for structural accuracy, output beam accuracy, and output efficiency. The results for the two different materials are compared.

  3. AIDS and civil disobedience.

    PubMed

    Spiers, H R

    1989-01-01

    Members of groups such as ACT UP (AIDS Coalition to Unleash Power) risk arrest and criminal charges to protest laws and policies they view as unjust to persons with AIDS. Spiers, a founding member of ACT UP, discusses the rationale behind the tactics of civil disobedience employed by AIDS activists. He argues that civil disobedience is justified by American political and legal traditions, and by the federal government's lack of response to the needs of its citizens. Spiers warns that while AIDS protests have been nonviolent and characterized by conscientious planning and execution, violence cannot be ruled out as a "political act born of desperation." PMID:2606659

  4. AIDS: Psychosocial Dimensions

    PubMed Central

    Stapleton, Dan

    1986-01-01

    In order to provide comprehensive care to patients who have AIDS, it is important for the family physician to understand the psychosocial elements of the disease. Homosexual men who have AIDS face particular problems, such as the disclosure of sexual orientation to family and friends. Issues discussed in this article include the reactions of the patient, family and friends to the diagnosis, the stigma of AIDS, the patient's support network, and preparations for disability and death. The facts about AIDS are discussed briefly, and the psychosocial implications of the illness for patients and their “significant others” are examined. The role of the family physician is highlighted. PMID:21267233

  5. Mammography segmentation with maximum likelihood active contours.

    PubMed

    Rahmati, Peyman; Adler, Andy; Hamarneh, Ghassan

    2012-08-01

    We present a computer-aided approach to segmenting suspicious lesions in digital mammograms, based on a novel maximum likelihood active contour model using level sets (MLACMLS). The algorithm estimates the segmentation contour that best separates the lesion from the background using the Gamma distribution to model the intensity of both regions (foreground and background). The Gamma distribution parameters are estimated by the algorithm. We evaluate the performance of MLACMLS on real mammographic images. Our results are compared to those of two leading related methods: The adaptive level set-based segmentation method (ALSSM) and the spiculation segmentation using level sets (SSLS) approach, and show higher segmentation accuracy (MLACMLS: 86.85% vs. ALSSM: 74.32% and SSLS: 57.11%). Moreover, our results are qualitatively compared with those of the Active Contour Without Edge (ACWOE) and show a better performance. Further, the suitability of using ML as the objective function as opposed to the KL divergence and to the energy functional of the ACWOE is also demonstrated. Our algorithm is also shown to be robust to the selection of a required single seed point. PMID:22831774

  6. PREVIMER : Meteorological inputs and outputs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravenel, H.; Lecornu, F.; Kerlguer, L.

    2009-09-01

    PREVIMER is a pre-operational system aiming to provide a wide range of users, from private individuals to professionals, with short-term forecasts about the coastal environment along the French coastlines bordering the English Channel, the Atlantic Ocean, and the Mediterranean Sea. Observation data and digital modelling tools first provide 48-hour (probably 96-hour by summer 2009) forecasts of sea states, currents, sea water levels and temperatures. The follow-up of an increasing number of biological parameters will, in time, complete this overview of coastal environment. Working in partnership with the French Naval Hydrographic and Oceanographic Service (Service Hydrographique et Ocanographique de la Marine, SHOM), the French National Weather Service (Mto-France), the French public science and technology research institute (Institut de Recherche pour le Dveloppement, IRD), the European Institute of Marine Studies (Institut Universitaire Europen de la Mer, IUEM) and many others, IFREMER (the French public institute fo marine research) is supplying the technologies needed to ensure this pertinent information, available daily on Internet at http://www.previmer.org, and stored at the Operational Coastal Oceanographic Data Centre. Since 2006, PREVIMER publishes the results of demonstrators assigned to limited geographic areas and to specific applications. This system remains experimental. The following topics are covered : Hydrodynamic circulation, sea states, follow-up of passive tracers, conservative or non-conservative (specifically of microbiological origin), biogeochemical state, primary production. Lastly, PREVIMER provides researchers and R&D departments with modelling tools and access to the database, in which the observation data and the modelling results are stored, to undertake environmental studies on new sites. The communication will focus on meteorological inputs to and outputs from PREVIMER. It will draw the lessons from almost 3 years during which the system has been operational almost everyday and propose perspectives in terms of technical improvements and possible business models.

  7. Output power analyses for the thermodynamic cycles of thermal power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Chen; Cheng, Xue-Tao; Liang, Xin-Gang

    2014-05-01

    Thermal power plant is one of the important thermodynamic devices, which is very common in all kinds of power generation systems. In this paper, we use a new concept, entransy loss, as well as exergy destruction, to analyze the single reheating Rankine cycle unit and the single stage steam extraction regenerative Rankine cycle unit in power plants. This is the first time that the concept of entransy loss is applied to the analysis of the power plant Rankine cycles with reheating and steam extraction regeneration. In order to obtain the maximum output power, the operating conditions under variant vapor mass flow rates are optimized numerically, as well as the combustion temperatures and the off-design flow rates of the flue gas. The relationship between the output power and the exergy destruction rate and that between the output power and the entransy loss rate are discussed. It is found that both the minimum exergy destruction rate and the maximum entransy loss rate lead to the maximum output power when the combustion temperature and heat capacity flow rate of the flue gas are prescribed. Unlike the minimum exergy destruction rate, the maximum entransy loss rate is related to the maximum output power when the highest temperature and heat capacity flow rate of the flue gas are not prescribed.

  8. AIDS is your business.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Sydney; Simon, Jonathon; Vincent, Jeffrey R; MacLeod, William; Fox, Matthew; Thea, Donald M

    2003-02-01

    If your company operates in a developing country, AIDS is your business. While Africa has received the most attention, AIDS is also spreading swiftly in other parts of the world. Russia and Ukraine had the fastest-growing epidemics last year, and many experts believe China and India will suffer the next tidal wave of infection. Why should executives be concerned about AIDS? Because it is destroying the twin rationales of globalization strategy-cheap labor and fast-growing markets--in countries where people are heavily affected by the epidemic. Fortunately, investments in programs that prevent infection and provide treatment for employees who have HIV/AIDS are profitable for many businesses--that is, they lead to savings that outweigh the programs' costs. Due to the long latency period between HIV infection and the onset of AIDS symptoms, a company is not likely to see any of the costs of HIV/AIDS until five to ten years after an employee is infected. But executives can calculate the present value of epidemic-related costs by using the discount rate to weigh each cost according to its expected timing. That allows companies to think about expenses on HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment programs as investments rather than merely as costs. The authors found that the annual cost of AIDS to six corporations in South Africa and Botswana ranged from 0.4% to 5.9% of the wage bill. All six companies would have earned positive returns on their investments if they had provided employees with free treatment for HIV/AIDS in the form of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), according to the mathematical model the authors used. The annual reduction in the AIDS "tax" would have been as much as 40.4%. The authors' conclusion? Fighting AIDS not only helps those infected; it also makes good business sense. PMID:12577655

  9. Maximum windmill efficiency in finite time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huleihil, Mahmoud

    2009-05-01

    The fraction of the kinetic energy of the wind impinging on the rotor-swept area that a wind turbine can convert to useful power has been shown by Betz in an idealized laminar-flow model to have an upper limit of 16/27 or 59% approximately [I. H. Shames, Mechanics of Fluids, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1982), pp. A26-A31]. This figure is known as Betz number. Other studies [A. Rauh and W. Seelret, Appl. Energy 17, 15 (1984)] suggested that this figure should be considered as a guideline. In this paper, a new model is introduced and its efficiency at maximum power output is derived. The derived value is shown to be a function of the Betz number B and given by the formula ηmp=1-√1-B . This value is 36.2%, which agrees well with those of actually operating wind turbines. As a guideline, the wind turbine efficiency can be considered to be within the range of the two numbers of merit, the Betz number and ηmp.

  10. AIDS and Chemical Dependency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pohl, Melvin I.

    After defining HIV and the AIDS disease and outlining symptoms and means of infection, this fact sheet lists the ways alcohol and drugs are involved with the AIDS epidemic, noting that needle-sharing transmits the virus; that alcohol or mood-altering drugs like crack cocaine cause disinhibition, increase sex drive, encourage sex for drugs, and…

  11. Hospital Nurse Aide. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa Univ., Iowa City. Coll. of Education.

    This report presents results of a project to revise the current 120-hour advanced nurse aide course to include all recommended minimum competencies. A three-page description of project objectives, activities, and outcomes is followed by a list of the competencies for the 75-hour nurse aide course for long-term care and for the 120-hour advanced

  12. International Aid to Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benavot, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    Recent evidence highlights several worrisome trends regarding aid pledges and disbursements, which have been exacerbated by the global financial crisis. First, while overall development assistance rose in 2008, after 2 years of decline, the share of all sector aid going to the education sector has remained virtually unchanged at about 12 percent

  13. BIBLIOGRAPHY OF TRAINING AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCKEONE, CHARLES J.

    THIS COMPILATION OF INSTRUCTIONAL AIDS FOR USE IN AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION TRAINING PROGRAMS CONTAINS LISTS OF VISUAL AND AUDIOVISUAL TRAINING AIDS AND GUEST LECTURERS AVAILABLE FROM MEMBER COMPANIES OF THE AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION INSTITUTE AS AN INDUSTRY SERVICE TO SCHOOL OFFICIALS INTERESTED IN CONDUCTING SUCH PROGRAMS. THE…

  14. Types of Hearing Aids

    MedlinePLUS

    ... help are offered a choice of only digital technology these days. What are some features for hearing aids? Hearing aids have optional features that can be built in to assist in different communication situations. For example: Directional microphone may help you ...

  15. The New Merit Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dynarski, Susan

    2004-01-01

    Merit aid, a discount to college costs contingent upon academic performance, is nothing new. Colleges and private organizations have long rewarded high-achieving, college-bound high school students with scholarships. While merit aid has a long history in the private sector, it has not played a major role in the public sector. At the state level,…

  16. Aid, Development, and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klees, Steven J.

    2010-01-01

    The world faces pervasive poverty and inequality. Hundreds of billions of dollars in international aid have been given or loaned to developing countries though bilateral and multilateral mechanisms, at least, ostensibly, in order to do something about these problems. Has such aid helped? Debates around this question have been ongoing for decades,…

  17. Aids for visual impairment.

    PubMed Central

    Dudley, N J

    1990-01-01

    This article provides only a flavour of the type and range of aids available to the visually impaired person. Many other aids for leisure, learning, and daily living are illustrated in the RNIB equipment and games catalogue. Images FIG 1 FIG 3 FIG 4 FIG 5 FIG 6 FIG 7 FIG 8 FIG 9 FIG 10 PMID:2252929

  18. [AIDS: current aspects].

    PubMed

    Ostby, B A

    1987-05-01

    With 982 registered AIDS cases, Brazil is in 3rd place in the number of AIDS cases, exceeded only by the US and France. The World Health Organization, however, says that Brazil could experience an uncontrolled AIDS epidemic as intense as that in central Africa. A Copenhagen statistician says that AIDS will not continue to grow exponentially the way it did at the beginning of the epidemic. People who have already been infected by AIDS are primarily members of high risk groups in which the disease spreads at least 10 times and more likely 100 times more rapidly than in the remainder of the population. From these statistics one can forecast that the worst case scenario will reach a peak in 1997, after which the AIDS epidemic will grow slowly. The British football league has issued a circular advising athletes on avoiding the risks of AIDS infection. Among other items they are advised not to drink victory champagne from the same bottle. Specialists, however, feel that the risk for AIDS infection in football contact is extremely small and that the biggest danger lies in unsanitary injections in connection with doping. The students at an Innherred, Norway, nursing school have signed a petition in support of a woman who was fired from her bartender job when she told her employer she was HIV-positive. A local magistrate had found that the firing was unfounded but did not order the woman's job restored. PMID:3648997

  19. AIDS: Children Too.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lejeune, Genevieve, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This journal issue is devoted to the many problems faced by children with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) who live in both developing and developed countries. Section 1 provides general information on the pandemic, defining AIDS and exploring the social aspects of the disease. It also addresses child health, child mortality, moral and…

  20. Computer Aids to Translation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krollmann, Friedrich

    1981-01-01

    Describes the structure and modes of operation of the Bundessprachenamt's (BSprA: Federal Office of Languages of the Federal Republic of Germany) terminology data bank as an aid to translation. Analyzes advantages and disadvantages of each user mode, and discusses probable developments in the immediate future of machine-aided translation. (MES)

  1. Implantable Heart Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    CPI's human-implantable automatic implantable defibrillator (AID) is a heart assist system, derived from NASA's space circuitry technology, that can prevent erratic heart action known as arrhythmias. Implanted AID, consisting of microcomputer power source and two electrodes for sensing heart activity, recognizes onset of ventricular fibrillation (VF) and delivers corrective electrical countershock to restore rhythmic heartbeat.

  2. Health Aides Serve...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huscher, John

    1976-01-01

    The student health aide program of the University of Nebraska at Lincoln is a paid, auxiliary, trained health position in dorms, co-ops, and Greek houses, with personnel evaluated on the assistance provided for any physical, personal, social, or environmental health concerns students may have in accordance with the aide's training. (MB)

  3. Ergonomically Designed Job Aids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, Nancy A.; Newby, Timothy J.

    1989-01-01

    Describes job aids and the characteristics that have potential effects on their usability and utility. Highlights include accessibility; worker motivation; convenience of use; ease of perception; focus to task; recommendations for designing job aids; and the need for a pilot test of a draft with the user population. (11 references) (LRW)

  4. Trends in Student Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Board, Washington, DC. Washington Office.

    This report presents annual data on the amount of financial assistance available to postsecondary students in the form of grants, loans, and work-study. The data cover virtually all federal aid and most state and institutional assistance; not included in the study is financial aid in the form of indirect subsidies, students' wages, employer-paid…

  5. AIDS Fact Pack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Population Options, Washington, DC.

    The three fact sheets presented in this document address issues surrounding adolescent sexuality and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), especially the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). The first fact sheet, "Young Women and AIDS: A Worldwide Perspective," suggests that since open discussions of adolescent sexuality have long been

  6. School District AIDS Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strouse, Joan H.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses whether school districts are prepared to deal with AIDS among students and school personnel based on questionnaire data. Results indicate a lack of preparedness for these situations. Discusses why districts lack written policies to deal with these situations and what type of AIDS policy a school district should have. (JS)

  7. International Aid to Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benavot, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    Recent evidence highlights several worrisome trends regarding aid pledges and disbursements, which have been exacerbated by the global financial crisis. First, while overall development assistance rose in 2008, after 2 years of decline, the share of all sector aid going to the education sector has remained virtually unchanged at about 12 percent…

  8. AIDS Epidemiological models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmani, Fouad Lazhar

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to present mathematical modelling of the spread of infection in the context of the transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). These models are based in part on the models suggested in the field of th AIDS mathematical modelling as reported by ISHAM [6].

  9. Heat Cramps, First Aid

    MedlinePLUS

    ... rash and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Heat Cramps, First Aid A A A Heat cramp signs and symptoms can include heavy perspiration, ... and back), and weakness/lightheadedness. First Aid Guide Heat cramps are a form of heat illness. Heat ...

  10. AIDS PUBLIC INFORMATION DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The AIDS Public Information Data Set is computer software designed to run on a Microsoft Windows microcomputer, and contains information abstracted from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) cases reported in the United States. The data set is created by the Division of HIV/A...

  11. Characteristic analysis of a polarization output coupling Porro prism resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hailong; Meng, Junqing; Chen, Weibiao

    2015-02-01

    An Electro-optical Q-switched Nd:YAG slab laser with a crossed misalignment Porro prism resonator for space applications has been theoretically and experimentally investigated. The phase shift induced by the combination of different wave plates and Porro prism azimuth angles have been studied for creating high loss condition prior to Q-switching. The relationship of the effective output coupling reflectivity and the employed Q-switch driving voltage is explored by using Jones matrix optics. In the experiment, the maximum output pulse energy of 93 mJ with 14-ns pulse duration is obtained at the repetition rate of 20 Hz and the optical-to-optical conversion efficiency is 16.8%. The beam quality factors are M 2 x = 2.5 and M 2y = 2.2, respectively.

  12. Output characteristics of a cataphoresis He-Sr + recombination laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y. J.; Pan, B. L.; Chen, L.; Mao, B. N.

    2008-11-01

    A cataphoresis discharge tube of 7 mm inner diameter and 38 cm active length was designed and made for the He-Sr+ laser. The cataphoretic input of uniform distribution of strontium vapor concentrations along the active region was realized by the cataphoresis effect and the slow flowing (0.5 nl/h) of helium buffer gas. The strontium ionic recombination laser at 430.5 nm and the R-M transition laser at 1.03 ?m were obtained with the modified Blumlein circuit by high-frequency longitudinal pulsed discharge. The laser components are concentrated on the 430.5 nm wavelength. Dependences of working parameters such as the pulse frequency, the supply voltage, and the helium pressure on laser output characteristics were measured and discussed. The maximum laser output power of 819 mW and specific power of 56 mW/cm3 were obtained, respectively.

  13. Puppetry and AIDS education.

    PubMed

    Friedman, G

    1992-01-01

    The effectiveness of puppet theater in communicating information about acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has been demonstrated in a project launched in 1988 by the African Research and Education Puppetry Program (AREPP). Puppetry is a vital part of the Bambara, Bozo, and Yoruba cultures. "Puppets Against AIDS" tells the story of a condom refuser who transmits the AIDS virus to his wife and their infant. An evaluation conducted by social epidemiologists in 1989 found the production to be comprehensive in its educational messages and effective in contributing to the audiences' knowledge and intended behavioral changes. A discussion period follows the production. The show was subsequently incorporated into an existing community-based AIDS education program. Because AIDS touches upon sensitive and often taboo areas of social life, the dissemination of information through puppets is not perceived as threatening as interpersonal interaction. PMID:12288845

  14. Maximum life spur gear design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, M.; Mackulin, M. J.; Coe, H. H.; Coy, J. J.

    1991-01-01

    Optimization procedures allow one to design a spur gear reduction for maximum life and other end use criteria. A modified feasible directions search algorithm permits a wide variety of inequality constraints and exact design requirements to be met with low sensitivity to initial guess values. The optimization algorithm is described, and the models for gear life and performance are presented. The algorithm is compact and has been programmed for execution on a desk top computer. Two examples are presented to illustrate the method and its application.

  15. AIDS, drugs and history.

    PubMed

    Berridge, V

    1992-03-01

    This paper analyses the relationship of history to two current and inter-related policy issues, AIDS and drugs. AIDS, in particular in its early years, was a disease surrounded by history; and historians and others actively brought the 'lesson of history' into the public debates. Cholera and the Black Death provided historical examples of reactions to past epidemic disease; and the record of voluntarism in Britain in the area of sexually transmitted diseases was used to justify a non-punitive response to AIDS. As the perception of AIDS has changed from epidemic to chronic disease, as reactions to the disease have become 'normalized', so the type of historical input has also altered. The 'lesson of history' approach has appeared less relevant, or has changed focus to encompass chronic--TB, multiple sclerosis--rather than epidemic disease. The concept of AIDS itself as an historic event, of the 'contemporary history' of AIDS has also come to the fore. The paper contrasts the relationship of AIDS and history with the historical reaction to the particular impact of AIDS on drug policy. The policy reaction to illicit drugs has been historically conscious, in particular in the 1960's. But little of this historical perspective filtered into the reaction to AIDS on drug policy. Drugs, unlike AIDS, was not an open policy arena. The paper argues that overall drug policy objectives were already clear and it suited no policy interest to call on the historical record. The achievement of established policy objectives was better achieved by an emphasis on the newness of development, a response to potentially epidemic and unusual circumstances. PMID:1559035

  16. Output Control Using Feedforward And Cascade Controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seraji, Homayoun

    1990-01-01

    Report presents theoretical study of open-loop control elements in single-input, single-output linear system. Focus on output-control (servomechanism) problem, in which objective is to find control scheme that causes output to track certain command inputs and to reject certain disturbance inputs in steady state. Report closes with brief discussion of characteristics and relative merits of feedforward, cascade, and feedback controllers and combinations thereof.

  17. AFB's Computerized Travel Aid: Two Years of Research and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uslan, Mark M.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Progress on the computerized travel aid, an electronic device, using elements of the Polaroid Sonar Camera and a microprocessor, for visually handicapped persons is reviewed, and research on the effectiveness of various models noted. Recommended modifications touch on aspects of mounting, beam shape, and audible outputs. (CL)

  18. Efficiency at maximum power of a discrete feedback ratchet.

    PubMed

    Jarillo, Javier; Tangarife, Toms; Cao, Francisco J

    2016-01-01

    Efficiency at maximum power is found to be of the same order for a feedback ratchet and for its open-loop counterpart. However, feedback increases the output power up to a factor of five. This increase in output power is due to the increase in energy input and the effective entropy reduction obtained as a consequence of feedback. Optimal efficiency at maximum power is reached for time intervals between feedback actions two orders of magnitude smaller than the characteristic time of diffusion over a ratchet period length. The efficiency is computed consistently taking into account the correlation between the control actions. We consider a feedback control protocol for a discrete feedback flashing ratchet, which works against an external load. We maximize the power output optimizing the parameters of the ratchet, the controller, and the external load. The maximum power output is found to be upper bounded, so the attainable extracted power is limited. After, we compute an upper bound for the efficiency of this isothermal feedback ratchet at maximum power output. We make this computation applying recent developments of the thermodynamics of feedback-controlled systems, which give an equation to compute the entropy reduction due to information. However, this equation requires the computation of the probability of each of the possible sequences of the controller's actions. This computation becomes involved when the sequence of the controller's actions is non-Markovian, as is the case in most feedback ratchets. We here introduce an alternative procedure to set strong bounds to the entropy reduction in order to compute its value. In this procedure the bounds are evaluated in a quasi-Markovian limit, which emerge when there are big differences between the stationary probabilities of the system states. These big differences are an effect of the potential strength, which minimizes the departures from the Markovianicity of the sequence of control actions, allowing also to minimize the departures from the optimal performance of the system. This procedure can be applied to other feedback ratchets and, more in general, to other control systems. PMID:26871058

  19. Efficiency at maximum power of a discrete feedback ratchet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarillo, Javier; Tangarife, Tomás; Cao, Francisco J.

    2016-01-01

    Efficiency at maximum power is found to be of the same order for a feedback ratchet and for its open-loop counterpart. However, feedback increases the output power up to a factor of five. This increase in output power is due to the increase in energy input and the effective entropy reduction obtained as a consequence of feedback. Optimal efficiency at maximum power is reached for time intervals between feedback actions two orders of magnitude smaller than the characteristic time of diffusion over a ratchet period length. The efficiency is computed consistently taking into account the correlation between the control actions. We consider a feedback control protocol for a discrete feedback flashing ratchet, which works against an external load. We maximize the power output optimizing the parameters of the ratchet, the controller, and the external load. The maximum power output is found to be upper bounded, so the attainable extracted power is limited. After, we compute an upper bound for the efficiency of this isothermal feedback ratchet at maximum power output. We make this computation applying recent developments of the thermodynamics of feedback-controlled systems, which give an equation to compute the entropy reduction due to information. However, this equation requires the computation of the probability of each of the possible sequences of the controller's actions. This computation becomes involved when the sequence of the controller's actions is non-Markovian, as is the case in most feedback ratchets. We here introduce an alternative procedure to set strong bounds to the entropy reduction in order to compute its value. In this procedure the bounds are evaluated in a quasi-Markovian limit, which emerge when there are big differences between the stationary probabilities of the system states. These big differences are an effect of the potential strength, which minimizes the departures from the Markovianicity of the sequence of control actions, allowing also to minimize the departures from the optimal performance of the system. This procedure can be applied to other feedback ratchets and, more in general, to other control systems.

  20. Cointegration of output, capital, labor, and energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stresing, R.; Lindenberger, D.; Kmmel, R.

    2008-11-01

    Cointegration analysis is applied to the linear combinations of the time series of (the logarithms of) output, capital, labor, and energy for Germany, Japan, and the USA since 1960. The computed cointegration vectors represent the output elasticities of the aggregate energy-dependent Cobb-Douglas function. The output elasticities give the economic weights of the production factors capital, labor, and energy. We find that they are for labor much smaller and for energy much larger than the cost shares of these factors. In standard economic theory output elasticities equal cost shares. Our heterodox findings support results obtained with LINEX production functions.

  1. Inaccurate calculation of drug output from nebulisers.

    PubMed

    O'Callaghan, C; Clarke, A R; Milner, A D

    1989-02-01

    A multistage liquid impinger was used to collect the nebulised cloud from three separate nebulisers. The output of sodium cromoglycate collected was determined by a spectrophotometric assay. Estimating drug output purely from weight loss during nebulisation resulted in a considerable overestimate compared with direct assay of the drug output from the nebulised cloud. During nebulisation, weight loss from the nebuliser occurs in the form of particle formation and also by evaporation. By only weighing the nebuliser chamber before and after nebulisation, weight loss due to evaporation is not taken into account and this is the cause of the overestimation of drug output by this method. PMID:2493380

  2. Maximum-information photoelectron metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hockett, P.; Lux, C.; Wollenhaupt, M.; Baumert, T.

    2015-07-01

    Photoelectron interferograms, manifested in photoelectron angular distributions (PADs), are high-information, coherent observables. In order to obtain the maximum information from angle-resolved photoionization experiments it is desirable to record the full, three-dimensional (3D), photoelectron momentum distribution. Here we apply tomographic reconstruction techniques to obtain such 3D distributions from multiphoton ionization of potassium atoms, and fully analyze the energy and angular content of the 3D data. The PADs obtained as a function of energy indicate good agreement with previous 2D data and detailed analysis [Hockett et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 223001 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.223001] concerning the main spectral features, but also indicate unexpected symmetry breaking in certain regions of momentum space, thus revealing additional continuum interferences which cannot otherwise be observed. These observations reflect the presence of additional ionization pathways and, most generally, illustrate the power of maximum-information measurements of coherent observables for quantum metrology of complex systems.

  3. Economics and Maximum Entropy Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, R. D.

    2003-04-01

    Price differentials, sales volume and profit can be seen as analogues of temperature difference, heat flow and work or entropy production in the climate system. One aspect in which economic systems exhibit more clarity than the climate is that the empirical and/or statistical mechanical tendency for systems to seek a maximum in production is very evident in economics, in that the profit motive is very clear. Noting the common link between 1/f noise, power laws and Self-Organized Criticality with Maximum Entropy Production, the power law fluctuations in security and commodity prices is not inconsistent with the analogy. There is an additional thermodynamic analogy, in that scarcity is valued. A commodity concentrated among a few traders is valued highly by the many who do not have it. The market therefore encourages via prices the spreading of those goods among a wider group, just as heat tends to diffuse, increasing entropy. I explore some empirical price-volume relationships of metals and meteorites in this context.

  4. Control strategy for maximum anaerobic co-digestion performance.

    PubMed

    García-Gen, Santiago; Rodríguez, Jorge; Lema, Juan M

    2015-09-01

    A control strategy for optimising the performance of anaerobic co-digestion in terms of methane productivity, digestate quality and process stability is presented. A linear programming approach is adopted to calculate the feeding of multiple substrates for maximum methane productivity, subjected to restrictions based on experimental and heuristic knowledge. Process stability is quantitatively assessed by an empirical diagnosis function comparing alkalinity ratio measurements against reference values (outputs between (-1,1]). A second empirical diagnosis function is defined to compare methane flow rate measurements against a reference value of maximum capacity (outputs between (0,1]). A variable-gain control function (outputs between (-1,1]), derived from the diagnosis functions, is defined to determine the quantitative change applied to the most active constraint of the substrate blend optimisation problem leading to a new set-point of feeding substrates blend. The control strategy works in a closed-loop architecture under which the process performance for each blend of substrates is continuously assessed. The system was successfully validated in a 1 m(3) hybrid Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket - Anaerobic Filter (UASB-AF) reactor, treating blends of substrates (gelatine, glycerine and pig manure supernatant) at OLR values between 0.71 and 6.33 gCOD/L d over a period of 210 days at mesophilic conditions. PMID:26001824

  5. Acoustical and Perceptual Comparison of Noise Reduction and Compression in Hearing Aids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brons, Inge; Houben, Rolph; Dreschler, Wouter A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Noise reduction and dynamic-range compression are generally applied together in hearing aids but may have opposite effects on amplification. This study evaluated the acoustical and perceptual effects of separate and combined processing of noise reduction and compression. Design: Recordings of the output of 4 hearing aids for speech in

  6. Electroacoustic Evaluation of Frequency-Modulated Receivers Interfaced with Personal Hearing Aids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schafer, Erin C.; Thibodeau, Linda M.; Whalen, Holly S.; Overson, Gary J.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the electroacoustic outputs of frequency-modulated (FM) systems coupled to hearing aids. Method: Electroacoustic performance of FM systems coupled to hearing aids was determined for 3 FM receivers: body-worn with neck loop, ear-level nonprogrammable, and ear-level programmable. Systems were…

  7. Electroacoustic Evaluation of Frequency-Modulated Receivers Interfaced with Personal Hearing Aids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schafer, Erin C.; Thibodeau, Linda M.; Whalen, Holly S.; Overson, Gary J.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the electroacoustic outputs of frequency-modulated (FM) systems coupled to hearing aids. Method: Electroacoustic performance of FM systems coupled to hearing aids was determined for 3 FM receivers: body-worn with neck loop, ear-level nonprogrammable, and ear-level programmable. Systems were

  8. Acoustical and Perceptual Comparison of Noise Reduction and Compression in Hearing Aids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brons, Inge; Houben, Rolph; Dreschler, Wouter A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Noise reduction and dynamic-range compression are generally applied together in hearing aids but may have opposite effects on amplification. This study evaluated the acoustical and perceptual effects of separate and combined processing of noise reduction and compression. Design: Recordings of the output of 4 hearing aids for speech in…

  9. Functional electrical stimulation by nanogenerator with 58 V output voltage.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guang; Wang, Aurelia C; Liu, Ying; Zhou, Yusheng; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2012-06-13

    We demonstrate a new type of integrated nanogenerator based on arrays of vertically aligned piezoelectric ZnO nanowires. The peak open-circuit voltage and short-circuit current reach a record high level of 58 V and 134 ?A, respectively, with a maximum power density of 0.78 W/cm(3). The electric output was directly applied to a sciatic nerve of a frog, inducing innervation of the nerve. Vibrant contraction of the frog's gastrocnemius muscle is observed as a result of the instantaneous electric input from the nanogenerator. PMID:22594588

  10. A dual-end-pumped Ho:YAG laser with a high energy output

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, X. M.; Cui, Zh; Li, L. J.; Dai, T. Y.; Yu, K. K.; Yao, B. Q.

    2015-08-01

    We report a high energy output from a Ho:YAG oscillator resonantly double-end pumped by Tm:YLF lasers at room temperature. The maximum pulse energy of 52.5 mJ was achieved at a pulse repetition rate of 100Hz and a pulse duration of 35.2 ns, corresponding to a peak power of approximately 1.5 MW. The output wavelength was 2090.7 nm with beam quality factor M2 ~ 1.2.

  11. [Mechanisms of changes in cardiac output during stimulation of afferent fibers of a somatic nerve].

    PubMed

    Osadchi?, L I; Balueva, T V; Sergeev, I V

    1985-06-01

    In anesthetized cats, the technique of electromagnetic expenditure-metry aided to study changes of the cardiac output and venous inflow in pressor responses to stimulation of the tibial nerve's afferent fibers. The cardiac output was found to increase in 47% of observations which was accompanied by increased venous inflow in half of the cases and by decreased one in 1/3 of observations. Vagotomy as well as suppression of the efferent link of cardiac responses with atropin and obsidan induced shifts of the cardiac output in the somatic nerve stimulation. The optimum level of arterial pressure responses was revealed peculiar by positive shifts of the cardiac output in pressor responses to the above action. PMID:2993045

  12. Hearing AIDS and music.

    PubMed

    Chasin, Marshall; Russo, Frank A

    2004-01-01

    Historically, the primary concern for hearing aid design and fitting is optimization for speech inputs. However, increasingly other types of inputs are being investigated and this is certainly the case for music. Whether the hearing aid wearer is a musician or merely someone who likes to listen to music, the electronic and electro-acoustic parameters described can be optimized for music as well as for speech. That is, a hearing aid optimally set for music can be optimally set for speech, even though the converse is not necessarily true. Similarities and differences between speech and music as inputs to a hearing aid are described. Many of these lead to the specification of a set of optimal electro-acoustic characteristics. Parameters such as the peak input-limiting level, compression issues-both compression ratio and knee-points-and number of channels all can deleteriously affect music perception through hearing aids. In other cases, it is not clear how to set other parameters such as noise reduction and feedback control mechanisms. Regardless of the existence of a "music program,'' unless the various electro-acoustic parameters are available in a hearing aid, music fidelity will almost always be less than optimal. There are many unanswered questions and hypotheses in this area. Future research by engineers, researchers, clinicians, and musicians will aid in the clarification of these questions and their ultimate solutions. PMID:15497032

  13. Research Report: HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Reports HIV/AIDS Letter from the Director HIV/AIDS Email Facebook Twitter Letter from the Director Human ... the virus that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) has been with us for three decades now. ...

  14. Research Report: HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Home HIV/AIDS Letter from the Director HIV/AIDS Email Facebook Twitter Letter from the Director Human ... the virus that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) has been with us for three decades now. ...

  15. HIV/AIDS and Alcohol

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Psychiatric Disorders Other Substance Abuse HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) targets the body’s immune ... and often leads to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Each year in the United States, between 55, ...

  16. HIV, AIDS, and the Future

    MedlinePLUS

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV, AIDS, and the Future Past Issues / Summer 2009 ... turn Javascript on. Photo: The NAMES Project Foundation HIV and AIDS are a global catastrophe. While advances ...

  17. Medicare and HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePLUS

    HIV/AIDS POLICY FACT SHEET Medicare and HIV/AIDS February 2009 Medicare, the federal health insurance program for people ... beneficiaries. 2 Figure 1: Federal Funding for HIV/AIDS Care by Program, FY 2008 4,5,6 ...

  18. On the maximum scatter TSP

    SciTech Connect

    Arkin, E.M.; Chiang, Yi-Jen; Mitchell, J.S.B.

    1997-06-01

    We study the problem of computing a Hamiltonian tour (cycle) or path on a set of points in order to maximize the minimum edge length in the tour or path. This {open_quotes}maximum scatter{close_quotes} TSP is closely related to the bottleneck TSP, and is motivated by applications in manufacturing (e.g., sequencing of rivet operations) and medical imaging. In this paper, we give the first algorithmic study of these problems, including complexity results, approximation algorithms, and exact algorithms for special cases. In an attempt to model more accurately the real problems that arise in practice, we also generalize the basic problem to consider a more general measure of {open_quote}scatter{close_quote} in which points on a tour or path should be far not only from their immediate predecessor and successor, but also from other near-neighbors along the tour or path.

  19. Discrimination networks for maximum selection.

    PubMed

    Jain, Brijnesh J; Wysotzki, Fritz

    2004-01-01

    We construct a novel discrimination network using differentiating units for maximum selection. In contrast to traditional competitive architectures like MAXNET the discrimination network does not only signal the winning unit, but also provides information about its evidence. In particular, we show that a discrimination network converges to a stable state within finite time and derive three characteristics: intensity normalization (P1), contrast enhancement (P2), and evidential response (P3). In order to improve the accuracy of the evidential response we incorporate distributed redundancy into the network. This leads to a system which is not only robust against failure of single units and noisy data, but also enables us to sharpen the focus on the problem given in terms of a more accurate evidential response. The proposed discrimination network can be regarded as a connectionist model for competitive learning by evidence. PMID:14690714

  20. Implantable Heart Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Medrad utilized NASA's Apollo technology to develop a new device called the AID implantable automatic pulse generator which monitors the heart continuously, recognizes the onset of ventricular fibrillation and delivers a corrective electrical shock. AID pulse generator is, in effect, a miniaturized version of the defibrillator used by emergency squads and hospitals to restore rhythmic heartbeat after fibrillation, but has the unique advantage of being permanently available to the patient at risk. Once implanted, it needs no specially trained personnel or additional equipment. AID system consists of a microcomputer, a power source and two electrodes which sense heart activity.

  1. Pulmonary complications of AIDS: radiologic features. [AIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, B.A.; Pomeranz, S.; Rabinowitz, J.G.; Rosen, M.J.; Train, J.S.; Norton, K.I.; Mendelson, D.S.

    1984-07-01

    Fifty-two patients with pulmonary complications of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were studied over a 3-year period. The vast majority of the patients were homosexual; however, a significant number were intravenous drug abusers. Thirteen different organisms were noted, of which Pneumocystis carinii was by far the most common. Five patients had neoplasia. Most patients had initial abnormal chest films; however, eight patients subsequently shown to have Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia had normal chest films. A significant overlap in chest radiographic findings was noted among patients with different or multiple organisms. Lung biopsy should be an early consideration for all patients with a clinical history consistent with the pulmonary complications of AIDS. Of the 52 patients, 41 had died by the time this report was completed.

  2. Power output in vertical jumps: does optimum loading depend on activity profiles?

    PubMed

    Pazin, Nemanja; Berjan, Bobana; Nedeljkovic, Aleksandar; Markovic, Goran; Jaric, Slobodan

    2013-03-01

    The previously proposed maximum dynamic output hypothesis (MDO: i.e. the optimum load for maximizing the power output during jumping is one's own body) was tested on individuals of various activity profiles. Forty males (10 strength-trained athletes, 10 speed-trained athletes, 10 physically active non-athletes, and 10 sedentary individuals) performed different vertical jumps on a force plate while a pulley system was used to either reduce or increase the subject's body weight by 10-30 %. As expected, an increase in external loading resulted in a significant increase (p < 0.001) in force output and a concomitant decrease of peak jumping velocity in all groups of participants. The main finding, however, was that all groups revealed the maximum peak and mean power output at approximately the subjects' own body weight although their weight represented prominently different percentage of their maximum dynamic strength. While a significant (p < 0.05), albeit moderate, 'group load' interaction in one jump was observed for the peak power output, the individual optimum load for maximizing the power output number did not differ among the groups. Although apparently further research on various types of movements is needed, the present results provide, so far, the strongest support of the MDO hypothesis. PMID:22864398

  3. Power output in vertical jumps: Does optimum loading depend on activity profiles?

    PubMed Central

    Pazin, Nemanja; Berjan, Bobana; Nedeljkovic, Aleksandar; Markovic, Goran; Jaric, Slobodan

    2013-01-01

    The previously proposed Maximum Dynamic Output hypothesis (MDO; i.e. the optimum load for maximizing the power output during jumping is one's own body) was tested on individuals of various activity profiles. Forty males (10 strength-trained athletes, 10 speed-trained athletes, 10 physically active non-athletes, and 10 sedentary individuals) performed different vertical jumps on a force plate while a pulley system was used to either reduce or increase the subject's body weight by 1030%. As expected, an increase in external loading resulted in a significant increase (p < 0.001) in force output and a concomitant decrease of peak jumping velocity in all groups of participants. The main finding, however, was that all groups revealed the maximum peak and mean power output at approximately the subjects own body weight although their weight represented prominently different percentage of their maximum dynamic strength. While a significant (p < 0.05), albeit moderate, 'group load' interaction in one jump was observed for the peak power output, the individual optimum load for maximizing the power output number did not differ among the groups. Although apparently further research on various types of movements is needed, the present results provide, so far, the strongest support of the MDO hypothesis. PMID:22864398

  4. Computer Output Microfilm and Library Catalogs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Richard W.

    Early computers dealt with mathematical and scientific problems requiring very little input and not much output, therefore high speed printing devices were not required. Today with increased variety of use, high speed printing is necessary and Computer Output Microfilm (COM) devices have been created to meet this need. This indirect process can

  5. Laser wavelength selector and output coupler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hard, T. M.

    1970-01-01

    Optical system eliminates displacement occurring when wavelengths are selected in multiple wavelength laser utilizing intracavity wavelength selection by first-order Littrow reflection of plane grating. Output coupling varies direction of output beam as different wavelengths are selected by grating rotation.

  6. DIST/AVC Out-Put Definition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Gene L.

    The first stage of development of a management information system for DIST/AVC (Division of Instructional Technology/Audio-Visual Center) is the definition of out-put units. Some constraints on the definition of output units are: 1) they should reflect goals of the organization, 2) they should reflect organizational structure and procedures, and

  7. Computer output to RDD-1 plotter

    SciTech Connect

    Solnvshkin, S.D.; Chikhman, V.N.

    1986-03-01

    Hardware and software for data output from a CAMAC-interfaced SM-4 computer to an RDD-1 plotter are described. A type-350 ''Output Register'' module is used for communication of the RDD-1 with the CAMAC dataway. The graphics software is written in Macro for a RAFOS operating system.

  8. Power output measurement during treadmill cycling.

    PubMed

    Coleman, D A; Wiles, J D; Davison, R C R; Smith, M F; Swaine, I L

    2007-06-01

    The study aim was to consider the use of a motorised treadmill as a cycling ergometry system by assessing predicted and recorded power output values during treadmill cycling. Fourteen male cyclists completed repeated cycling trials on a motorised treadmill whilst riding their own bicycle fitted with a mobile ergometer. The speed, gradient and loading via an external pulley system were recorded during 20-s constant speed trials and used to estimate power output with an assumption about the contribution of rolling resistance. These values were then compared with mobile ergometer measurements. To assess the reliability of measured power output values, four repeated trials were conducted on each cyclist. During level cycling, the recorded power output was 257.2 +/- 99.3 W compared to the predicted power output of 258.2 +/- 99.9 W (p > 0.05). For graded cycling, there was no significant difference between measured and predicted power output, 268.8 +/- 109.8 W vs. 270.1 +/- 111.7 W, p > 0.05, SEE 1.2 %. The coefficient of variation for mobile ergometer power output measurements during repeated trials ranged from 1.5 % (95 % CI 1.2 - 2.0 %) to 1.8 % (95 % CI 1.5 - 2.4 %). These results indicate that treadmill cycling can be used as an ergometry system to assess power output in cyclists with acceptable accuracy. PMID:17497583

  9. Reinvestigating the Noticing Function of Output

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uggen, Maren S.

    2012-01-01

    A conceptual replication of Izumi and Bigelow's research, this study used multiple measures to investigate second language (L2) learners' processes in output-input-output sequences. Specifically, it examined whether producing the target language impacts learners' attention to L2 structures in subsequent input. Thirty learners of English as a

  10. Reinvestigating the Noticing Function of Output

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uggen, Maren S.

    2012-01-01

    A conceptual replication of Izumi and Bigelow's research, this study used multiple measures to investigate second language (L2) learners' processes in output-input-output sequences. Specifically, it examined whether producing the target language impacts learners' attention to L2 structures in subsequent input. Thirty learners of English as a…

  11. Isohaline Salinity Budget of the North Atlantic Salinity Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryan, F.; Bachman, S.

    2014-12-01

    The Salinity Processes in the Upper Ocean Regional Study (SPURS) field experiment was designed as a multi-scale investigation of the processes that give rise to the North Atlantic subtropical salinity maximum. The choice of control volume influences the processes that dominate budgets of ocean properties. In this study we analyze the salinity budget of the North Atlantic subtropical salinity maximum region for control volumes bounded by isohaline surfaces. We provide closed budgets based on output from a high-resolution numerical simulation, and partial budgets based on climatological analyses of observations. With this choice of control volume, advection is eliminated from the instantaneous volume integrated salt budget, and time mean advection eliminated from the budget evaluated from time-averaged data. In this way, the role of irreversible mixing processes in the maintenance and variability of the salinity maximum are more readily revealed. By carrying out the analysis with near instantaneous and time-filtered model output, the role of mesoscale eddies in stirring and mixing for this region is determined. We find that the small-scale mixing acting on enhanced gradients generated by the mesoscale eddies is approximately equal to that acting on the large-scale gradients estimated from climatological mean conditions. The isohaline salinity budgets can be related to water mass transformation rates associated with surface forcing and mixing processes in a straightforward manner. We find that the surface net evaporation in the North Atlantic salinity maximum region accounts for a transformation of 7 Sv of water into the salinity maximum in the simulation, whereas the estimate based on climatological observations is 10 Sv.

  12. First aid kit

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and elbow injuries Eye shield, pads, and bandages Latex or non-latex gloves to reduce contamination risk Sterile gauze pads, ... instant ice bags First-aid manual Hand sanitizer Latex or non-latex gloves to reduce contamination risk ...

  13. First Aid: Rashes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to Z Symptoms: Rash First Aid: Skin Infections Poison Ivy Erythema Multiforme Hives (Urticaria) Erythema Toxicum Eczema Pityriasis ... Shingles Diaper Rash Word Find: Skin Fungal Infections Poison Ivy Rashes: The Itchy Truth Your Skin Impetigo Ringworm ...

  14. Robot-Aided Neurorehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Krebs, Hermano Igo; Hogan, Neville; Aisen, Mindy L.; Volpe, Bruce T.

    2009-01-01

    Our goal is to apply robotics and automation technology to assist, enhance, quantify, and document neurorehabilitation. This paper reviews a clinical trial involving 20 stroke patients with a prototype robot-aided rehabilitation facility developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, (MIT) and tested at Burke Rehabilitation Hospital, White Plains, NY. It also presents our approach to analyze kinematic data collected in the robot-aided assessment procedure. In particular, we present evidence 1) that robot-aided therapy does not have adverse effects, 2) that patients tolerate the procedure, and 3) that peripheral manipulation of the impaired limb may influence brain recovery. These results are based on standard clinical assessment procedures. We also present one approach using kinematic data in a robot-aided assessment procedure. PMID:9535526

  15. Hearing Aid Tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Hearing aids often develop malfunctions that are not detected by the wearer. This is particularly true when the wearers are school-age children. Studies of selected groups showed that from 30 to more than 50 percent of school children were not getting adequate benefit from their hearing aids because of unrecognized malfunctions, usually low or dead batteries. This can be serious because hearing impairment retards a child's educational progress. NASA technology incorporated in the Hearing Aid Malfunction Detection Unit (HAMDU), the device pictured, is expected to provide an effective countermeasure to the childrens' hearing aid problem. A patent license has been awarded to a minority-owned firm, Hopkins International Company, a subsidiary of H. H. Aerospace Design Co., Inc., Elmford, New York. The company plans early commercial availability of its version of the device.

  16. Computer Aided Creativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proctor, Tony

    1988-01-01

    Explores the conceptual components of a computer program designed to enhance creative thinking and reviews software that aims to stimulate creative thinking. Discusses BRAIN and ORACLE, programs intended to aid in creative problem solving. (JOW)

  17. First Aid: Rashes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... First Aid: Skin Infections Poison Ivy Erythema Multiforme Hives (Urticaria) Erythema Toxicum Eczema Pityriasis Rosea Molluscum Contagiosum Fifth ... Your Skin Impetigo Ringworm Molluscum Contagiosum Poison Ivy Hives (Urticaria) Eczema Erythema Multiforme Pityriasis Rosea Shingles Contact ...

  18. HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 2014 Fact sheets Features Commentaries 2014 Multimedia Contacts HIV/AIDS Fact sheet N°360 Updated November 2015 ... rule out any potential testing or reporting error. HIV testing services HIV testing should be voluntary and ...

  19. HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePLUS

    HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. It kills or damages the body's immune system cells. AIDS stands ... is the most advanced stage of infection with HIV. HIV most often spreads through unprotected sex with ...

  20. Heatstroke, First Aid

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Evaporation of water on the skin aids in cooling. Apply cold compresses (eg, to neck, armpits, groin). ... safely as possible, the physician may use different cooling techniques that involve immersion, evaporation, or invasive means. ...

  1. Heat Exhaustion, First Aid

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Evaporation of water on the skin aids in cooling. Apply cold compresses (eg, to neck, armpits, groin). If possible, take the person's temperature while starting cooling measures and continue to check the temperature every ...

  2. AIDS: the hidden enemy.

    PubMed

    Tinker, J; Sabatier, R

    1987-01-01

    This article discusses the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic an its effect on developing countries, with emphasis on Africa. The AIDS death toll will be high in the US: 180,000 by 1991, but it will be in the millions in developing countries. In Africa, AIDS is mainly transmitted heterosexually, is as prevalent among women as among men, and is taking a serious toll among professional classes and young wage earners. The social costs of funerals has increased, and company clinics and sick pay funds have been overwhelmed. In Uganda, the epidemic adds to the state of psychological shock people have sufferred because of the civil war. Medical professionals have been hard-pressed to acquire equipment for testing blood for the virus, although there have been efforts to protect blood supplies through exhaustive testing. Endemic tuberculosis becomes an even more serious problem in developing countries, since AIDS lowers resistance to it. AIDS also effects many developing country children, usually through infected mothers, who can transmit AIDS through breast milk or during pregnancy of birth. This poses a dilemma for promoters of breastfeeding. It is also feared that innoculation of immunosuppressed children may be dangerous. The global picture suggests that Africa is hardest hit: seropositivity prevalence ranges from 0.7% of Congo blood donors to 33% of male donors in Lusaka Zambia. Brazil's cases are mainly homosexual, and in Asia the prevalence is mostly low, although there is a great potential danger in countries where prostitution and heroin addiction are prevalent. The only effective weapon against AIDS is education and blood testing to prevent spread. Despite good education programs in some countries, e.g. Rwanda, there is still widespread ignorance of how AIDS is spread. PMID:12314457

  3. AIDS and the AIDS Virus (HIV): Facts and Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinching, Anthony J.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses what is currently known about acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), including routes for the transmission of the AIDS virus, the prevention of AIDS, and some of the non-issues regarding the disease. Urges community leaders and teachers to become more involved in AIDS education. (TW)

  4. Maximum entropy production in daisyworld

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maunu, Haley A.; Knuth, Kevin H.

    2012-05-01

    Daisyworld was first introduced in 1983 by Watson and Lovelock as a model that illustrates how life can influence a planet's climate. These models typically involve modeling a planetary surface on which black and white daisies can grow thus influencing the local surface albedo and therefore also the temperature distribution. Since then, variations of daisyworld have been applied to study problems ranging from ecological systems to global climate. Much of the interest in daisyworld models is due to the fact that they enable one to study self-regulating systems. These models are nonlinear, and as such they exhibit sensitive dependence on initial conditions, and depending on the specifics of the model they can also exhibit feedback loops, oscillations, and chaotic behavior. Many daisyworld models are thermodynamic in nature in that they rely on heat flux and temperature gradients. However, what is not well-known is whether, or even why, a daisyworld model might settle into a maximum entropy production (MEP) state. With the aim to better understand these systems, this paper will discuss what is known about the role of MEP in daisyworld models.

  5. Piezoelectric potential in vertically aligned nanowires for high output nanogenerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, Giuseppe; Mantini, Giulia; Di Carlo, Aldo; D'Amico, Arnaldo; Falconi, Christian; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2011-11-01

    In this work we analyze the coupled piezoelectric and semiconductive behavior of vertically aligned ZnO nanowires under uniform compression. The screening effect on the piezoelectric field caused by the free carriers in vertically compressed zinc oxide nanowires (NWs) has been computed by means of both analytical considerations and finite element calculations. We predict that, for typical geometries and donor concentrations, the length of the NW does not significantly influence the maximum output piezopotential because the potential mainly drops across the tip, so that relatively short NWs can be sufficient for high-efficiency nanogenerators, which is an important result for wet-chemistry fabrication of low-cost, CMOS- or MEMS-compatible nanogenerators. Furthermore, simulations reveal that the dielectric surrounding the NW influences the output piezopotential, especially for low donor concentrations. Other parameters such as the applied force, the sectional area and the donor concentration have been varied in order to understand their effects on the output voltage of the nanogenerator.

  6. High Output Piezo/Triboelectric Hybrid Generator

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Woo-Suk; Kang, Min-Gyu; Moon, Hi Gyu; Baek, Seung-Hyub; Yoon, Seok-Jin; Wang, Zhong-Lin; Kim, Sang-Woo; Kang, Chong-Yun

    2015-01-01

    Recently, piezoelectric and triboelectric energy harvesting devices have been developed to convert mechanical energy into electrical energy. Especially, it is well known that triboelectric nanogenerators have a simple structure and a high output voltage. However, whereas nanostructures improve the output of triboelectric generators, its fabrication process is still complicated and unfavorable in term of the large scale and long-time durability of the device. Here, we demonstrate a hybrid generator which does not use nanostructure but generates much higher output power by a small mechanical force and integrates piezoelectric generator into triboelectric generator, derived from the simultaneous use of piezoelectric and triboelectric mechanisms in one press-and-release cycle. This hybrid generator combines high piezoelectric output current and triboelectric output voltage, which produces peak output voltage of ~370 V, current density of ~12 μA·cm−2, and average power density of ~4.44 mW·cm−2. The output power successfully lit up 600 LED bulbs by the application of a 0.2 N mechanical force and it charged a 10 μF capacitor to 10 V in 25 s. Beyond energy harvesting, this work will provide new opportunities for developing a small, built-in power source in self-powered electronics such as mobile electronics. PMID:25791299

  7. High output piezo/triboelectric hybrid generator.

    PubMed

    Jung, Woo-Suk; Kang, Min-Gyu; Moon, Hi Gyu; Baek, Seung-Hyub; Yoon, Seok-Jin; Wang, Zhong-Lin; Kim, Sang-Woo; Kang, Chong-Yun

    2015-01-01

    Recently, piezoelectric and triboelectric energy harvesting devices have been developed to convert mechanical energy into electrical energy. Especially, it is well known that triboelectric nanogenerators have a simple structure and a high output voltage. However, whereas nanostructures improve the output of triboelectric generators, its fabrication process is still complicated and unfavorable in term of the large scale and long-time durability of the device. Here, we demonstrate a hybrid generator which does not use nanostructure but generates much higher output power by a small mechanical force and integrates piezoelectric generator into triboelectric generator, derived from the simultaneous use of piezoelectric and triboelectric mechanisms in one press-and-release cycle. This hybrid generator combines high piezoelectric output current and triboelectric output voltage, which produces peak output voltage of ~370 V, current density of ~12 μA · cm(-2), and average power density of ~4.44 mW · cm(-2). The output power successfully lit up 600 LED bulbs by the application of a 0.2 N mechanical force and it charged a 10 μF capacitor to 10 V in 25 s. Beyond energy harvesting, this work will provide new opportunities for developing a small, built-in power source in self-powered electronics such as mobile electronics. PMID:25791299

  8. High Output Piezo/Triboelectric Hybrid Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Woo-Suk; Kang, Min-Gyu; Moon, Hi Gyu; Baek, Seung-Hyub; Yoon, Seok-Jin; Wang, Zhong-Lin; Kim, Sang-Woo; Kang, Chong-Yun

    2015-03-01

    Recently, piezoelectric and triboelectric energy harvesting devices have been developed to convert mechanical energy into electrical energy. Especially, it is well known that triboelectric nanogenerators have a simple structure and a high output voltage. However, whereas nanostructures improve the output of triboelectric generators, its fabrication process is still complicated and unfavorable in term of the large scale and long-time durability of the device. Here, we demonstrate a hybrid generator which does not use nanostructure but generates much higher output power by a small mechanical force and integrates piezoelectric generator into triboelectric generator, derived from the simultaneous use of piezoelectric and triboelectric mechanisms in one press-and-release cycle. This hybrid generator combines high piezoelectric output current and triboelectric output voltage, which produces peak output voltage of ~370 V, current density of ~12 μA.cm-2, and average power density of ~4.44 mW.cm-2. The output power successfully lit up 600 LED bulbs by the application of a 0.2 N mechanical force and it charged a 10 μF capacitor to 10 V in 25 s. Beyond energy harvesting, this work will provide new opportunities for developing a small, built-in power source in self-powered electronics such as mobile electronics.

  9. High Energy Output Marx Generator Design

    SciTech Connect

    Monty Lehmann

    2011-07-01

    High Energy Output Marx Generator Design a design of a six stage Marx generator that has a unipolar pulse waveform of 200 kA in a 50500 microsecond waveform is presented. The difficulties encountered in designing the components to withstand the temperatures and pressures generated during the output pulse are discussed. The unique methods and materials used to successfully overcome these problems are given. The steps necessary to increase the current output of this Marx generator design to the meg-ampere region or higher are specified.

  10. Methods in pharmacology: measurement of cardiac output

    PubMed Central

    Geerts, Bart F; Aarts, Leon P; Jansen, Jos R

    2011-01-01

    Many methods of cardiac output measurement have been developed, but the number of methods useful for human pharmacological studies is limited. The holy grail for the measurement of cardiac output would be a method that is accurate, precise, operator independent, fast responding, non-invasive, continuous, easy to use, cheap and safe. This method does not exist today. In this review on cardiac output methods used in pharmacology, the Fick principle, indicator dilution techniques, arterial pulse contour analysis, ultrasound and bio-impedance are reviewed. PMID:21284692

  11. Design of hydraulic output Stirling engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toscano, W. M.; Harvey, A. C.; Lee, K.

    1983-01-01

    A hydraulic output system for the RE-1000 free piston stirling engine (FPSE) was designed. The hydraulic output system can be readily integrated with the existing hot section of RE-1000 FPSE. The system has two simply supported diaphragms which separate the engine gas from the hydraulic fluid, a dynamic balance mechanism, and a novel, null center band hydraulic pump. The diaphragms are designed to endure more than 10 billion cycles, and to withstand the differential pressure load as high as 14 MPa. The projected thermodynamic performance of the hydraulic output version of RE-1000 FPSE is 1.87 kW at 29/7 percent brake efficiency.

  12. Maximum entropy principal for transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Bilich, F.; Da Silva, R.

    2008-11-06

    In this work we deal with modeling of the transportation phenomenon for use in the transportation planning process and policy-impact studies. The model developed is based on the dependence concept, i.e., the notion that the probability of a trip starting at origin i is dependent on the probability of a trip ending at destination j given that the factors (such as travel time, cost, etc.) which affect travel between origin i and destination j assume some specific values. The derivation of the solution of the model employs the maximum entropy principle combining a priori multinomial distribution with a trip utility concept. This model is utilized to forecast trip distributions under a variety of policy changes and scenarios. The dependence coefficients are obtained from a regression equation where the functional form is derived based on conditional probability and perception of factors from experimental psychology. The dependence coefficients encode all the information that was previously encoded in the form of constraints. In addition, the dependence coefficients encode information that cannot be expressed in the form of constraints for practical reasons, namely, computational tractability. The equivalence between the standard formulation (i.e., objective function with constraints) and the dependence formulation (i.e., without constraints) is demonstrated. The parameters of the dependence-based trip-distribution model are estimated, and the model is also validated using commercial air travel data in the U.S. In addition, policy impact analyses (such as allowance of supersonic flights inside the U.S. and user surcharge at noise-impacted airports) on air travel are performed.

  13. Trends in Student Aid: California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gladieux, Lawrence E.; King, Jacqueline E.

    This report was designed to provide complete and comparable statistics on student aid for all California postsecondary institutions from 1990 through 1994. It includes information on all major sources of financial aid, the types of aid available, the amount of funding for each type, and the distribution of student aid dollars among the three…

  14. Mommy, Daddy--What's AIDS?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Pediatric Nurse Associates and Practitioners, Cherry Hill, NJ.

    This brochure is designed to help parents answer the questions that their children may ask them about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and the Human Immuno Deficiency Virus (HIV), the virus that causes AIDS. It provides basic information about AIDS and HIV, as well as sources for further information, such as the National AIDS Hotline. It

  15. The First Aid Training Picture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Ian

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the history of first aid training provisions in the United Kingdom with respect to the outdoor industry, what to look for in a first aid training provider, an experiential model of first aid training, and the current National Governing Body requirements for first aid training for various types of coaches and instructors. (TD)

  16. Answering Your Questions about AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalichman, Seth C.

    This book focuses on AIDS education and answers 350 commonly asked questions about Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) taken from questions addressed to two major urban AIDS hotlines (Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and Houston, Texas). Chapter 1, "HIV - The Virus That Causes AIDS," discusses: the HIV virus; the

  17. HIV/AIDS: Women's Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Text Size Print Women's Health Female and Facing HIV: The Challenges As a woman living with HIV, ... aids.gov • locator.aids.gov • facing.aids.gov • HIV/AIDS Service Locator Locator Widgets • Instructions • API Find ...

  18. Sensory Aids for the Blind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Committee on Prosthetics Research and Development.

    The problems of providing sensory aids for the blind are presented and a report on the present status of aids discusses direct translation and recognition reading machines as well as mobility aids. Aspects of required research considered are the following: assessment of needs; vision, audition, taction, and multimodal communication; reading aids,

  19. Water resources and environmental input-output analysis and its key study issues: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    YANG, Z.; Xu, X.

    2013-12-01

    Used to study the material and energy flow in socioeconomic system, Input-Output Analysis(IOA) had been an effective analysis tool since its appearance. The research fields of Input-Output Analysis were increasingly expanded and studied in depth with the development of fundamental theory. In this paper, starting with introduction of theory development, the water resources input-output analysis and environmental input-output analysis had been specifically reviewed, and two key study issues mentioned as well. Input-Occupancy-Output Analysis and Grey Input-Output Analysis whose proposal and development were introduced firstly could be regard as the effective complements of traditional IOA theory. Because of the hypotheses of homogeneity, stability and proportionality, Input-Occupancy-Output Analysis and Grey Input-Output Analysis always had been restricted in practical application inevitably. In the applied study aspect, with investigation of abundant literatures, research of water resources input-output analysis and environmental input-output analysis had been comprehensively reviewed and analyzed. The regional water resources flow between different economic sectors had been systematically analyzed and stated, and several types of environmental input-output analysis models combined with other effective analysis tools concluded. In two perspectives in terms of external and inland aspect, the development of water resources and environmental input-output analysis model had been explained, and several typical study cases in recent years listed respectively. By the aid of sufficient literature analysis, the internal development tendency and study hotspot had also been summarized. In recent years, Chinese literatures reporting water resources consumption analysis and virtue water study had occupied a large share. Water resources consumption analysis had always been the emphasis of inland water resources IOA. Virtue water study had been considered as the new hotspot of inland water resources IOA. Recent internal study references related to environmental input-output table, pollution discharge analysis and environmental impact assessment had taken the leading position. Pollution discharge analysis mainly aiming at CO2 discharge had been regard as a new hotspot of environmental IOA. Environmental impact assessment was an important direction of inland environmental IOA in recent years. Key study issues including Domestic Technology Assumption(DTA) and Sectoral Aggregation(SA) had been mentioned remarkably. It was pointed out that multiply multi-region input-output analysis(MIOA) may be helpful to solve DTA. Because there was little study using effective analysis tools to quantify the bias of SA and the exploration of the appropriate sectoral aggregation degree was scarce, research dedicating to explore and solve these two key issues was deemed to be urgently needed. According to the study status, several points of outlook were proposed in the end.

  20. Output control using feedforward and cascade controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seraji, H.

    1987-01-01

    An open-loop solution to the output control problem in SISO (single-input, single-output) systems by means of feedforward and cascade controllers is investigated. A simple characterization of feedforward controllers, which achieve steady-state disturbance rejection, is given in a transfer-function setting. Cascade controllers which cause steady-state command tracking are characterized. Disturbance decoupling and command matching controllers are identified. Conditions for existence of feedforward and cascade controllers are given. For unstable systems, it is shown that a stabilizing feedback controller can be used without affecting the feedforward and cascade controllers used for output control; hence, the three controllers can be designed independently. Output control by a combination of feedforward and feedback is discussed.

  1. Modeling Plants With Moving-Average Outputs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polites, Michael E.

    1989-01-01

    Three discrete-state-variable representations derived. Paper discusses mathematical modeling of digital control systems for plants in which outputs include combinations of instantaneous and moving-average-prefiltered measurements.

  2. Coupling output of multichannel high power microwaves

    SciTech Connect

    Li Guolin; Shu Ting; Yuan Chengwei; Zhang Jun; Yang Jianhua; Jin Zhenxing; Yin Yi; Wu Dapeng; Zhu Jun; Ren Heming; Yang Jie

    2010-12-15

    The coupling output of multichannel high power microwaves is a promising technique for the development of high power microwave technologies, as it can enhance the output capacities of presently studied devices. According to the investigations on the spatial filtering method and waveguide filtering method, the hybrid filtering method is proposed for the coupling output of multichannel high power microwaves. As an example, a specific structure is designed for the coupling output of S/X/X band three-channel high power microwaves and investigated with the hybrid filtering method. In the experiments, a pulse of 4 GW X band beat waves and a pulse of 1.8 GW S band microwave are obtained.

  3. AIDS education: whose morality?

    PubMed

    Perlman, J

    This article focuses on issues concerning morality and AIDS education. The decision made by the Transvaal Education Department (TED) on long-term AIDS education, which may likewise be employed in the schools nationwide, raises a crucial debate concerning its moral perspectives. Guidelines say that the ultimate goal is to encourage pupils to accept a healthy and a biblically based lifestyle. The TED AIDS education program would emphasize that the solution to the AIDS problem is a biblically based lifestyle, self-control, and the ability to say "no" to sexual manipulation. Moreover, the program takes into account the perspective on life by parents in the community, their religion, their values, and their manner of teaching their children. Several comments concerning the TED approach were raised. One health educator commented that the family guidance approach adopted by the program is totally out of line with reality. Plans to introduce the AIDS education programs in schools have been welcomed, but how it is to be taught, is a matter of contention. The Department of Health however, is not yet staking out a position in this debate. PMID:12349356

  4. AIDS in Africa.

    PubMed

    Mokhobo, D

    1989-03-01

    Numerous cultural practices and attitudes in Africa represent formidable obstacles to the prevention of the further spread of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Polygamy and concubinage are still widely practiced throughout Africa. In fact, sexual promiscuity on the part of males is traditionally viewed as positive--a reflection of male supremacy and male sexual prowess. The disintegration of the rural African family, brought about by urbanization, the migrant labor system, and poverty, has resulted in widespread premarital promiscuity. Contraceptive practices are perceived by many as a white conspiracy aimed at limiting the growth of the black population and thereby diminishing its political power. Condom use is particularly in disfavor. Thus, AIDS prevention campaigns urging Africans to restrict the number of sexual partners and to use condoms are unlikely to be successful. Another problem is that most Africans cannot believe that AIDS is sexually linked in that the disease does not affect the sex organs as is the case with other sexually transmitted diseases. The degree to which African governments are able to allocate resources to AIDS education will determine whether the epidemic can be controlled. Even with a massive outpouring of resources, it may be difficult to arouse public alarm about AIDS since Africans are so acclimated to living with calamities of every kind. PMID:2733760

  5. AIDS in the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Deschamps, M D

    1988-01-01

    The incidence of HIV infections in the Caribbean, derived from official reports and selected studies, is assessed. AIDS has been reported in all countries except British Virgin Islands and Montserrat (excluding Bermuda and Puerto Rico). Cuba is the only country with a national survey: 147 cases out of 1 million were reported seropositive. Expressed by prevalence, AIDS is highest in the Bahamas (229/100,000), French Guiana (84.0), ranges between 17.5 and 16.0 in Barbados, Trinidad/Tobago, Guadeloupe, and Haiti, and least in the Dominican Republic (3.2). AIDS first appeared in Haiti in 1979. Examination of hospital records for Kaposi's sarcoma, and tests of frozen sera have failed to find evidence of HIV infection before that date. The magnitude of the epidemic is difficult to define because many countries have no national register. The 1st CDC case definition does not apply well to tropical areas. It is estimated that rates will rise 30% with application of the new CDC definition. Initially AIDS was spread primarily by homosexual contact among bisexual males, but since 1983, it has spread by heterosexual means in Haiti, the Dominican Republic and Trinidad, the 3 countries with the highest number of reported cases. In Haiti, heterosexual spread between couples occurred in 26% of females and 27% of males over 24 months. Reports of AIDS among women have doubled between 1979-1982. Perinatal spread is 30-40%, but transmission by breastfeeding has not been documented. PMID:12315930

  6. AIDS in Romania.

    PubMed

    Nedelcu, I

    1992-09-01

    Of the 1446 AIDS cases reported in Romania, 79% were in the pediatric age group. Of these children, 28% lived with their families, 30% were orphans, and 42% were abandoned. Among the AIDS-affected children, 32% were less than 1 year old and 67% were 1-4 years old. The natural history of AIDS in Romania was characterized by a high death rate from opportunistic infections. Chronic undernutrition imposed by the communist program of "rational feeding of the population," immunodepression induced by the radiation generated by the accident at Chernobyl, hard physical work in an environment intensely polluted by industrial waste, excessive use of injectable therapies and transfusions of HIV-untested blood, lack of education of the medical staff and the population, and tourism have contributed to the AIDS epidemic in Romania. Kaposi's sarcoma was infrequent (7.7%) in AIDS patients. However, a significant number of European-type Kaposi's sarcoma cases with negative tests for the HIV infection were reported. PMID:1476158

  7. [AIDS: "We will win"].

    PubMed

    Chabrier, H

    1989-11-13

    An international colloquium on AIDS held near Paris from October 26-28, 1989, unlike the World Conference on AIDS in Montreal the year before, was able to find reasons for optimism. Significant progress was reported in immunotherapy and in chemotherapy. Successful experiments in vaccinating monkeys against the AIDS virus were reported from the US, France, and Zaire. Time is needed to prove the efficacy of the vaccines because of the slow development in AIDS. A vaccine is being tested by Jonas Salk and collaborators in 75 seropositive volunteers who do not yet show full blown disease but who have very low levels of T4 lymphocytes. Plans are underway for a larger test on 500 seropositive patients at different stages of infection. According to Salk, the new chemical and logical approach toward AIDS will allow combinations of immunotherapy and chemotherapy to destroy the virus. R. Gallo of France listed as accomplishments of the past year a better understanding of the virus, improved case management techniques, increased ability to control Kaposi's sarcoma, considerable progress in the search for a vaccine, and detection of immune proteins that affect the virus. New biological markers permit establishment of correlations between cellular modifications and the progress of the disease as well as the precise effects of treatment. The new immune system drugs immuthiol and DDI are expected to reach the market soon. Patients very soon will be able to receive less toxic alternative treatments, which can be combined for greater efficacy once their toxic interactions are understood. PMID:12342689

  8. Anomalous light output from lightning dart leaders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, C.; Krider, E. P.

    1985-01-01

    About 5 percent of the multiple-stroke cloud-to-ground lightning discharges recorded at the NASA Kennedy Space Center during the summer of 1981 contained dart leaders that produced an unusually large light output. An analysis of these cases indicates that the average peak light output per unit length in the leader may be comparable to or even exceed that of the return stroke that follows.

  9. Generalized Hash Chain Traversal with Selective Output

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yum, Dae Hyun; Seo, Jae Woo; Cho, Kookrae; Lee, Pil Joong

    A hash chain H for a one-way hash function h(·) is a sequence of hash values < v0, v1, . . . , vn >, where v0 is a public value, vn a secret value, and vi =h(vi+1). A hash chain traversal algorithm T computes and outputs the hash chain H, returning vi in time period (called round) i for 1 ≤ i ≤ n. While previous hash chain traversal algorithms were designed to output all hash values vi (1 ≤ i ≤ n) in order, there are applications where every m-th hash value (i.e., vm, v2m, v3m, . . .) is required to be output. We introduce a hash chain traversal algorithm that selectively outputs every m-th hash value efficiently. The main technique is a transformation from a hash chain traversal algorithm outputting every hash value into that outputting every m-th hash value. Compared with the direct use of previous hash chain traversal algorithms, our proposed method requires less memory storages and computational costs.

  10. Unstable resonator with reduced output coupling.

    PubMed

    Pargmann, Carsten; Hall, Thomas; Duschek, Frank; Grnewald, Karin Maria; Handke, Jrgen

    2012-06-20

    The properties of a laser beam coupled out of a standard unstable laser resonator are heavily dependent on the chosen resonator magnification. A higher magnification results in a higher output coupling and a better beam quality. But in some configurations, an unstable resonator with a low output coupling in combination with a good beam quality is desirable. In order to reduce the output coupling for a particular resonator, magnification fractions of the outcoupled radiation are reflected back into the cavity. In the confocal case, the output mirror consists of a spherical inner section with a high reflectivity and a flat outer section with a partial reflectivity coating. With the application of the unstable resonator with reduced output coupling (URROC), magnification and output coupling can be adjusted independently from each other and it is possible to get a good beam quality and a high power extraction for lasers with a large low gain medium. The feasibility of this resonator design is examined numerically and experimentally with the help of a chemical oxygen iodine laser. PMID:22722301

  11. Effective nutritional ergogenic aids.

    PubMed

    Applegate, E

    1999-06-01

    Athletes use a variety of nutritional ergogenic aids to enhance performance. Most nutritional aids can be categorized as a potential energy source, an anabolic enhancer, a cellular component, or a recovery aid. Studies have consistently shown that carbohydrates consumed immediately before or after exercise enhance performance by increasing glycogen stores and delaying fatigue. Protein and amino acid supplementation may serve an anabolic role by optimizing body composition crucial in strength-related sports. Dietary antioxidants, such as vitamins C and E and carotenes, may prevent oxidative stress that occurs with intense exercise. Performance during high-intensity exercise, such as sprinting, may be improved with short-term creatine loading, and high effort exercise lasting 1-7 min may be improved through bicarbonate loading immediately prior to activity. Caffeine dosing before exercise delays fatigue and may enhance performance of high-intensity exercise. PMID:10362455

  12. Rapid Message Composition for Large Vocabulary Speech Output Aids: A Review of the Possibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damper, R. I.

    1986-01-01

    Three types of rapid message composition for non-speaking persons, classified according to keyboard, are described: sequential keyboard, "semantic" input through iconic representation, and chord keyboard. The strengths, drawbacks, and potential of each type are discussed for a user population with good keying ability and normal cognitive and

  13. AIDS--legal issues.

    PubMed

    Kirby, M

    1988-01-01

    Legal issues worldwide prompted by the AIDS epidemic are discussed, in a general way, since legal systems vary widely in different countries and localities. WHO publishes a tabulation of legal instruments dealing with AIDS and HIV infection. Criminal laws intended to protect people from harm from HIV infection have been enacted, such as a penalty for unprotected sexual intercourse by infected persons, in some Australian states. Knowing spread of HIV already amounts to a crime in many systems. The U.S. Supreme Court has already ruled that states do not violate the constitution for punishing homosexuals for consensual sodomy, nor the Army for discharging homosexuals. Quarantine law is a civil matter, but may provide penalties stricter than criminal penalties, without as much protection. No quarantines against AIDS have been enacted, although some countries require screening of immigrants. Legal issues regarding screening, liability of suppliers of blood products, and tracing of sexual partners are much discussed. Stigmatization of minority and alienated groups such as homosexuals, prostitutes, migrants, drug users and prisoners is a tricky legal problem. The apparent failure of the criminalization of drug users and how to contain the spread of AIDS into the drug free population may prompt drastic new solutions. Other legal issues drawing attention include regulation of health insurance, changes in family law, pre-marriage HIV tests, screening for HIV ostensibly to detect HIV-associated dementia, liability protection for developers and testers of vaccines, and euthanasia and the treatment of the deceased. The legal system tends to lag behind medicine. In the case of AIDS, it cannot afford to delay, therefore effective legal strategies will include effective media presentation of AIDS information to the general public; ready and cheap supply of condoms; and a new approach to illegal drugs. PMID:3147672

  14. A constitution for AIDS.

    PubMed

    Koshy, L M

    1996-01-15

    The Indian Health Organization projected the number of deaths per day due to AIDS by the year 2000 at 10,000. An interdisciplinary international conference was held in New Delhi to draft an international law governing the issues related to AIDS. Human freedom and public health policies are the most affected by this disease. In the absence of an international AIDS law, judicial verdicts set precedents and could have serious ramifications. A participant from the John Marshall Law School, Chicago, suggested that instead of making new laws, the existing ones from the colonial past should be repealed. This includes Section 377 of the Indian Penal Code, which provides criminal sanctions against those who indulge in unnatural relations with man, woman, or animal. Penalizing homosexuality will only perpetuate clandestine relations and spread the virus into their families. Another participant seconded this motion stating that even a sex worker must be protected from abuse and indignity. The National AIDS Control Organization responded to the criticism that the government had not utilized all the World Bank funds allocated for anti-AIDS projects. The trends of the epidemic were the most important indicators not just the numbers. In Manipur and Mizoram, infection was almost entirely due to injecting drug use. The Saheli project undertaken in the red-light areas of Bombay encompassed brothel owners and prostitutes, which could be replicated in other areas. Because existing government policies were focusing on prevention, there was no protection of an HIV-infected individual's privacy, one participant from Madras stated. The confidentiality issue was also echoed by a US participant. The New Delhi Declaration and Action Plan on HIV/AIDS was also discussed. It forbids discrimination in employment, education, housing, health care, social security, travel, and marital and reproductive rights. Providing sterile needles and ensuring the safety of the blood supply were other concerns mentioned. PMID:12179199

  15. AIDS, euthanasia and grief.

    PubMed

    van den Boom, F

    1995-01-01

    Almost 50% of people with AIDS in the Netherlands make the necessary arrangements for a possible death by the administration of thanatic drugs. In approximately 50% of those who arranged for it, euthanasia is performed. Euthanasia is a well-considered decision. By means of euthanasia people with AIDS want to prevent unbearable suffering and a degrading existence. Those who have arranged for euthanasia were proven to have adapted to the disease better than those who had not. No relationship was found between ending life by means of euthanasia and complicated grief in survivors. However, if the euthanasia process itself was complicated, the risk of complicated grief increased. PMID:8664360

  16. Smaller Output Beam Divergence in the Slowly Opened Q-Switch Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Junewen; Lin, Jun-Ting; Mang, Ou-Yang

    The mechanism of the slowly opened Q-switch operation was investigated thoroughly. Maximum energy extraction from the resonator could be optimized, and the smallest output beam divergence could be achieved. In this article, we present a detailed analysis that has numerically verified the mode-selection mechanism in the slowly opened Q-switch operation, and the degree of the smaller output laser beam divergence that has been achieved. The mechanism of the slowly opened Q-switch operation is the inherent advantage of the passive saturable absorber in this operation. We can use the maximum energy extraction and the smallest output beam divergence results of the slowly opened Q-switch operation to design and optimize various passive saturable absorbers: plastic dye sheets, LiF:F2- color center crystals, Cr4+: YAG crystals, RG1000 color glass filters, and the single crystal semiconductor saturable absorber wafers that are in developed in our microchip laser systems.

  17. AIDS: the frightening facts.

    PubMed

    Ryan, M

    1986-01-01

    Aquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has succeeded in creating an unprecedented wave of panic among the Western public and some sections of the medical profession. Research clearly shows that the AIDS virus is transmissible in a number of ways: from man to woman and vice versa during sexual intercourse, through semen and possibly vaginal fluids; from mothers to their children through breast milk; through exchange of saliva (but not through just a casual kiss); and through blood and blood products. Far from being exclusive to homosexuals, studies in Europe have shown that female virus carriers can transmit AIDS to healthy men through sexual intercourse--the predominant means by which transmission appears to occur in Central Africa. Although cases of AIDS began being diagnosed in a few Central African countries at the beginning of the 1980s, at the same time as they were first being observed in Europe and North America, many commentators assumed that the virus originated in Africa. Yet, it is safe to say that the nature of the virus, let alone its origins, remains controversial among scientists and virologists. 1 supporter of the theory that the AIDS virus has African origins is Robert Gall of the US National Institute of Health (NIH). He is one of the co-discoverers of the virus, which he named HTLV3 (Human T-cell Lymphotropic Virus 3). The virus also was discovered at France's Pasteur Institute by Luc Montaigner, who called it LAV (Lymphadenpathy Associated Virus). Gallo named the virus as he did because he believes it to be related to a pair of other viruses, HTLV1 and HTLV2, which like the AIDS virus attack the body's immunity system. Unlike AIDS, these 2 viruses, do not destroy the T-cells but cause them to replicate into cancer tumors. In Gallo's view, HTLV1 has long been endemic to some parts of Africa, from where he believes it spread via the slave trade to other parts of the world. Montaigner does not agree. He denies that the AIDS virus is related to either HTLV1 or HTLV2, claiming that ist shape and behavior makes it closer to a group of viruses known as lenti-viruses, so called because they can lie dormant in an animal host for between 5-20 years before becoming active. Prior to the appearance of AIDS, lenti-viruses were hardly ever found in humans. Due to this controversy, the virus has been HTLV3/LAV by the scientific community. What is evident from studies of the disease in Africa, Europe, and the US, is that there are no easy remedies for this highly complex syndrome. Nor is it possible to generalize about it from 1 country to another, let alone 1 continent from another. The way the disease presents itself in Zaire is different from the way it presents itself in Uganda, and both are very different from the way it presents itself in Europe and the US. In Zaire, chronic diarrhea, tuberculosis, pneumonia, and cryptococcal meningitis could all be symptoms of the AIDS patient. AIDS is a recognized public health problem in a number of Central African countries. In those areas where the disease's presence has been confirmed, sexual promiscuity has been singled out as a high risk factor for its transmission. In all affected countries, health authorities are aware of the need to launch health education campaigns. PMID:12314086

  18. Cortical and corticospinal output modulations during reaching movements with varying directions and magnitudes of interaction torques.

    PubMed

    Asmussen, M J; Bailey, A Z; Nelson, A J

    2015-12-17

    The neural command required to coordinate a multi-joint movement is inherently complex. During multi-joint movement of the limb, the force created from movement at one joint may create a torque at a second joint known as an interaction torque. Interaction torques may be assistive or resistive thereby aiding or opposing the motion of the second joint, respectively. For movement to be effectively controlled, the central nervous system should modulate neural output to the muscles to appropriately account for interaction torques. The present study examined the neural output from the primary motor cortex before and during reaching movements that required different combinations of assistive and resistive interaction torques occurring at the shoulder and elbow joints. Using transcranial magnetic stimulation to probe neural output from the primary motor cortex, results indicate that corticospinal output controlling the upper arm is related to resistive interaction torques occurring at the shoulder joint. Further, cortical output to bi-articular muscles is associated with interaction torque and this may be driven by the fact that these muscles are in an advantageous position to control torques produced between inter-connection segments. Humans have a tendency to avoid reaching movements that involve resistive interaction torques and this may be driven by the requirement of increased neural output associated with these movements. PMID:26525892

  19. Development and testing of AIDS vaccines.

    PubMed

    Koff, W C; Hoth, D F

    1988-07-22

    Recent advances in delineating the molecular biology of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) have led to innovative approaches to development of a vaccine for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). However, the lack of understanding of mechanisms of protective immunity against HIV-1, the magnitude of genetic variation of the virus, and the lack of effective animal models for HIV-1 infection and AIDS have impeded progress. The testing of AIDS vaccines also presents challenges. These include liability concerns over vaccine-related injuries; identification of suitable populations for phase 3 efficacy studies; balancing the ethical obligation to counsel research subjects to avoid high-risk behavior with the necessity to obtain vaccine efficacy data; and the effect of vaccine-induced seroconversion on the recruiting and welfare of trial volunteers. Several candidate AIDS vaccines are nevertheless currently under development, and some are undergoing phase 1 clinical trials. Rapid progress will depend on continued scientific advancement in conjunction with maximum use of resources, open information and reagent exchange, and a spirit of international collaboration. PMID:3293212

  20. 20 CFR 229.48 - Family maximum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Family maximum. 229.48 Section 229.48 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT SOCIAL SECURITY OVERALL MINIMUM GUARANTEE Computation of the Overall Minimum Rate § 229.48 Family maximum. (a) Family maximum defined. Under the Social Security...

  1. Living with AIDs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graubard, Stephen R., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Because events move swiftly in the contemporary world, it is easy to forget that acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a phenomenon of the 1980s. It is generally agreed that this is only the very beginning of a scientific investigation that will go on well into the 21st century. This issue attempts to provide some of the basic information

  2. Parent Hearing Aid Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Karen; Roberts, Mallory; Mullings, Day; Harward, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This study addresses parent experiences in obtaining and managing hearing aids for their young child. The purpose was to identify challenges parents encounter to determine what state agencies can do to improve parent access to amplification. Data were collected July through September of 2010; 40 parents of children ages birth to 3 years old

  3. AIDS: A Selective Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Candaras, Barbara J.

    Intended for use primarily by the general adult public, this pathfinder lists selected information sources on the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) that are in the collections of the State University of New York (SUNY) at Buffalo Health Sciences Library, the Central Library-Buffalo, and the Erie County Public Library. A broad range of

  4. Computer Aided Art Major.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Jim

    The Computer Aided Art program offered at Northern State State University (Aberdeen, South Dakota), is coordinated with the traditional art major. The program is designed to familiarize students with a wide range of art-related computer hardware and software and their applications and to prepare students for problem-solving with unfamiliar

  5. More than First Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoessler, Sally

    2011-01-01

    The school nurse is an important member of the school team since school health services keep students in school, in the classroom, and ready to learn. Although school nurses are often seen as the people who deliver first aid at school, their role is much deeper and has such breadth that only a registered, professional nurse has the skill set to

  6. Good Teaching Aids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    This set of teaching aids consists of 14 Audubon Nature Bulletins with these titles: Schoolyard Laboratories, How to Lead a Field Trip, Natural Resources in the City, Mysteries of Bird Migration, Rock Stories and How to Read Them, The Ground Water Table, The Terrarium, Some Adventures With Wild Plants Outdoors and Indoors, Plant Propagation in the

  7. Machine Aids to Translation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinkmann, Karl-Heinz

    1981-01-01

    Describes the TEAM Program System of the Siemens Language Services Department, particularly the main features of its terminology data bank. Discusses criteria to which stored terminology must conform and methods of data bank utilization. Concludes by summarizing the consequences that machine-aided translation development has had for the…

  8. First Aid Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a challenge wherein students will be asked to design a portable first aid kit that is normally carried in a recreational vehicle (RV), but can also be hand-carried or backpacked off road for distances of approximately 1-2 miles. This can be a very practical challenge for the students because it touches everyone. Everybody

  9. AIDS and Native Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luna, G. Cajetan

    Native Americans throughout North America suffer from a greater prevalence of health problems than the population as a whole. One might believe that the problem of AIDS is insignificant for Native youth, but such a belief is inaccurate and shortsighted. As of March 1989, the Centers for Disease Control reported 1,792 cases of childhood and

  10. AIDS Researcher Gives Retrospective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, B. Denise

    2011-01-01

    Nearly 30 years ago, renowned immunologist James E.K. Hildreth, M.D., Ph.D., was compelled to start researching the virus that causes AIDS. He marveled at its enigma and was pressed into action by its ability to cut lives short and devastate communities. The disease set him on a course of medical inquiry that has included biomedical breakthroughs

  11. HIV-AIDS Connection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... trying to access this site from a secured browser on the server. Please enable scripts and reload ... of Medicine, MedlinePlus AIDS.gov ​​​​​​​​​​​ Javascript Error Your browser JavaScript is turned off causing certain features of ...

  12. How HIV Causes AIDS

    MedlinePLUS

    ... trying to access this site from a secured browser on the server. Please enable scripts and reload ... of Medicine, MedlinePlus AIDS.gov ​​​​​​​​​​​ Javascript Error Your browser JavaScript is turned off causing certain features of ...

  13. Good Teaching Aids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    This set of teaching aids consists of 14 Audubon Nature Bulletins with these titles: Schoolyard Laboratories, How to Lead a Field Trip, Natural Resources in the City, Mysteries of Bird Migration, Rock Stories and How to Read Them, The Ground Water Table, The Terrarium, Some Adventures With Wild Plants Outdoors and Indoors, Plant Propagation in the…

  14. The War against AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowles, L. Thompson

    1987-01-01

    Efforts of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services to combat AIDS are reported. Health implications of the viral disease are summarized, along with economic costs, research achievements, the importance of education, and appropriate and workable solutions. (LB)

  15. Impact Aid Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Elementary and Secondary Education (ED), Washington, DC.

    Impact Aid is a federal formula grant program designed to assist local school districts that have lost property tax revenue due to the presence of tax-exempt federal property or that have experienced increased expenditures due to the enrollment of federally connected children. Federally connected children are those whose parents pay minimal or no

  16. More than First Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoessler, Sally

    2011-01-01

    The school nurse is an important member of the school team since school health services keep students in school, in the classroom, and ready to learn. Although school nurses are often seen as the people who deliver first aid at school, their role is much deeper and has such breadth that only a registered, professional nurse has the skill set to…

  17. Machine-Aided Indexing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Charles R.

    Progress is reported at the 1,000,000 word level on the development of a partial syntatic analysis technique for indexing text. A new indexing subroutine for hyphens is provided. New grammars written and programmed for Machine Aided Indexing (MAI) are discussed. (ED 069 290 is a related document) (Author)

  18. Management of Student Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevin, Jeanne, Ed.

    The principles, practices, responsibilities, and controls in student financial aid are described in this manual. It traces the flow of funds, management activities, and legal issues as they occur in the process. The emphasis is on sound management principles of a general and permanent nature rather than on specific government requirements that may

  19. Circulation Aide Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergeson, Alan O.

    This training manual provides instruction on shelving and other duties for student assistants in the learning resources center at the College of Dupage, located in Illinois. It is noted that prospective student circulation aides are required to read the manual and pass a written test on policies and procedures before they are allowed to shelve

  20. AIDS Researcher Gives Retrospective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, B. Denise

    2011-01-01

    Nearly 30 years ago, renowned immunologist James E.K. Hildreth, M.D., Ph.D., was compelled to start researching the virus that causes AIDS. He marveled at its enigma and was pressed into action by its ability to cut lives short and devastate communities. The disease set him on a course of medical inquiry that has included biomedical breakthroughs…

  1. AIDS and Native Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luna, G. Cajetan

    Native Americans throughout North America suffer from a greater prevalence of health problems than the population as a whole. One might believe that the problem of AIDS is insignificant for Native youth, but such a belief is inaccurate and shortsighted. As of March 1989, the Centers for Disease Control reported 1,792 cases of childhood and…

  2. Kool-Aid Chromatography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Christie L.

    1986-01-01

    Offers guidelines and suggests activities that can introduce middle school students to the process and principles of chromatography in an inexpensive and safe manner. Proposes that experiences with Kool-aid and food coloring chromatography can provide insights into how scientists think, work, and communicate. (ML)

  3. Newspaper Lesson Aids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Communication: Journalism Education Today (C:JET), 1986

    1986-01-01

    Provides photocopy-ready lesson aids on story ideas, interviewing, inverted pyramid writing style, newswriting, sports/scavenger hunt, finding feature material, identifying feature leads, feature lead selection, evaluating feature leads, compiling survey material, cutlines, headlines, paste-up rules, advertising, final semester project, newspaper…

  4. First aid advisor

    SciTech Connect

    Saffer, S.I.; Weng, Wen-Chang

    1996-12-31

    A knowledge-based system (KBS), First Aid Advisor (FAA), is developed to provide a guidance for either a trained or untrained person to take some emergent actions to rescue the victim from life-threatening hazard or to prevent from causing serious problem before the Emergency Medical Service System (EMS) personnels arrive the scene. The First Aid Advisor will collect victim`s information by interacting with the user through a sequence of questions, analyze the victim`s problem, and give instructions step by step before offering a final advice. Since all the possible conditions are taken into consideration, it will guide the user to perform first aid from the most to the least urgent step for the victim. Furthermore, it will offer a suitable first aid advice for victim and eliminate the possibility of wrong actions done by trained person due to carelessness or nervousness. Offering advice to handle problems involving life-threatening conditions is the main objective of this system. In this paper, we will describe six major components of FAA and their respective tasks. Decision tables and dependency diagrams used in FAA implementation will also be described. System performance issues will conclude the paper.

  5. Range Scheduling Aid (RSA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, J. R.; Pulvermacher, M. K.

    1991-01-01

    Range Scheduling Aid (RSA) is presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: satellite control network; current and new approaches to range scheduling; MITRE tasking; RSA features; RSA display; constraint based analytic capability; RSA architecture; and RSA benefits.

  6. First Aid Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a challenge wherein students will be asked to design a portable first aid kit that is normally carried in a recreational vehicle (RV), but can also be hand-carried or backpacked off road for distances of approximately 1-2 miles. This can be a very practical challenge for the students because it touches everyone. Everybody…

  7. Parent Hearing Aid Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Karen; Roberts, Mallory; Mullings, Day; Harward, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This study addresses parent experiences in obtaining and managing hearing aids for their young child. The purpose was to identify challenges parents encounter to determine what state agencies can do to improve parent access to amplification. Data were collected July through September of 2010; 40 parents of children ages birth to 3 years old…

  8. USGS Science Aids Manatees

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    For nearly four decades, the U.S. Geological Survey's Sirenia Project has been committed to understanding the biology and ecology of the West Indian manatee to aid managers in actions that could best help the population. To do this, USGS manatee researchers rely on a variety of tools and techniques....

  9. First Aid Instruction Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Mines (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    Prepared by the Department of the Interior, this teaching guide is for the instructors' use in teaching a first aid course. Six fundamental areas include: (1) Artificial Respiration, (2) Control of Bleeding, (3) Physical Shock, (4) Open Wounds, Closed Wounds, and Burns, (5) Fractures and Dislocations, and (6) Transportation. A complete

  10. Conventional CO2 Gas Laser With High-Stability Of Output Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalski, Wojciech; Percak, Henryk; Pienkowski, Janusz

    1987-10-01

    This paper presents results of experimental investigations of radiation output power level of a CO2 molecular laser. This laser works with a simultaneous stabilization of the frequency and of the output radiation power. The frequency of the laser radiation is stabilized by using a frequency stabilization automatic system, whose frequency standard is the maximum of the laser gain curve represented in opto-voltaic signal. The power of the laser output radiation is stabilized by using automatic stabilization system which regulates the output power by changing the intensity of the laser discharge current. The measurements show, that the amplifications and time-constants of both the servo-loops decide about the parameters of power stabilization. The optimal values of amplification and time-constants of these both servo-loops were found experimentally and have been presented in the paper.

  11. Multi-order Stokes output based on intra-cavity KTiOAsO? Raman crystal.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Haiyong; Shao, Zhenhua; Wang, Hongyan; Duan, Yanmin; Zhang, Jian; Tang, Dingyuan; Kaminskii, A A

    2014-08-11

    We report efficient multi-Stokes Raman output of a KTiOAsO4 (KTA) crystal driven by a laser diode end-pumped acousto-optic Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. The Raman outputs of two x-cut KTA crystals, one with a length of 20 mm and the other one of 25-mm, were experimentally compared. Under an incident pump power of 10.9 W, a maximum output power of 1.12 W with a pulse width of 7.6 ns and a pulse repetition frequency of 15 kHz were obtained. The conversion efficiency and slope efficiency with respect to the incident diode pump power were 10.3% and 15.2%, respectively. The laser output contains multiple Raman Stokes lines with different spectral strengths that varied with the pump power. PMID:25321049

  12. Visual Speech-Training Aid for the Deaf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Robert J.

    1987-01-01

    Teaching deaf to speak aided by electronic system provides striking colored, pictorial representation of sound; energy at different frequencies as function of time. Other modalities, such as nasality, intra-oral pressure, and lip-muscle contraction, pictorialized simultaneously. Use of standard components, including personal microcomputer, helps reduce cost below prior voice-training systems. Speech-training system, microphone output separated by filters into narrow frequency bands, changed into digital signals, formatted by computer, and displayed on television screen. Output from other sensors displayed simultaneously or screen split to allow sound produced by student to be compared with that of teacher.

  13. Achieving Maximum Possible Speed on Constrained Block Transmission Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ndili, Obianuju; Ogunfunmi, Tokunbo

    2006-12-01

    We develop a theoretical framework for achieving the maximum possible speed on constrained digital channels with a finite alphabet. A common inaccuracy that is made when computing the capacity of digital channels is to assume that the inputs and outputs of the channel are analog Gaussian random variables, and then based upon that assumption, invoke the Shannon capacity bound for an additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel. In a channel utilizing a finite set of inputs and outputs, clearly the inputs are not Gaussian distributed and Shannon bound is not exact. We study the capacity of a block transmission AWGN channel with quantized inputs and outputs, given the simultaneous constraints that the channel is frequency selective, there exists an average power constraint[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] at the transmitter and the inputs of the channel are quantized. The channel is assumed known at the transmitter. We obtain the capacity of the channel numerically, using a constrained Blahut-Arimoto algorithm which incorporates an average power constraint[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] at the transmitter. Our simulations show that under certain conditions the capacity approaches very closely the Shannon bound. We also show the maximizing input distributions. The theoretical framework developed in this paper is applied to a practical example: the downlink channel of a dial-up PCM modem connection where the inputs to the channel are quantized and the outputs are real. We test how accurate is the bound 53.3 kbps for this channel. Our results show that this bound can be improved upon.

  14. PV output smoothing with energy storage.

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, Abraham; Schoenwald, David Alan

    2012-03-01

    This report describes an algorithm, implemented in Matlab/Simulink, designed to reduce the variability of photovoltaic (PV) power output by using a battery. The purpose of the battery is to add power to the PV output (or subtract) to smooth out the high frequency components of the PV power that that occur during periods with transient cloud shadows on the PV array. The control system is challenged with the task of reducing short-term PV output variability while avoiding overworking the battery both in terms of capacity and ramp capability. The algorithm proposed by Sandia is purposely very simple to facilitate implementation in a real-time controller. The control structure has two additional inputs to which the battery can respond. For example, the battery could respond to PV variability, load variability or area control error (ACE) or a combination of the three.

  15. Pole placement with constant gain output feedback

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridhar, B.; Lindorff, D. P.

    1972-01-01

    Given a linear time invariant multivariable system with m inputs and p outputs, it was shown that p closed loop poles of the system can be preassigned arbitrarily using constant gain output feedback provided (A circumflex, B circumflex) is controllable. These data show that if (A circumflex, B circumflex, C circumflex) is controllable and observable, and Rank B circumflex = m, Rank C circumflex = p, then max (m,p) poles of the system can be assigned arbitarily using constant gain output feedback. Further, it is shown that in some cases more than max (m,p) poles can be arbitrarily assigned. A least square design technique is outlined to approximate the desired pole locations when it is not possible to place all the poles.

  16. Antiresonant ring output-coupled continuous-wave optical parametric oscillator.

    PubMed

    Devi, Kavita; Kumar, S Chaitanya; Esteban-Martin, A; Ebrahim-Zadeh, M

    2012-08-13

    We demonstrate the successful deployment of an antiresonant ring (ARR) interferometer for the attainment of optimum output coupling in a continuous-wave (cw) optical parametric oscillator (OPO). The cw OPO, configured as a singly-resonant oscillator (SRO), is based on a 50-mm-long MgO:PPLN crystal and pumped by cw Ytterbium-fiber laser at 1064 nm, with the ARR interferometer integrated into one arm of the standing-wave cavity. By fine adjustment of the ARR transmission, a continuously variable signal output coupling from 0.8% to 7.3% has been achieved, providing optimum output coupling for signal and optimum power extraction for the idler, at different input pumping levels. The experimental results are compared with theoretical calculations for conventional output-coupled cw SRO, and the study shows that by reducing the insertion loss of the ARR elements, the performance of the ARR-coupled cw SRO can be further enhanced. We also show that the use of the ARR does not lead to any degradation in the cw SRO output beam quality. The proof-of-principle demonstration confirms the effectiveness of the technique for continuous, in situ, and fine control of output coupling in cw OPOs to achieve maximum output power at any arbitrary pumping level above threshold. PMID:23038573

  17. Long term performance of the High Output Maximum Efficiency Resonator (HOMER) laser for NASA's Global Ecosystem Dynamics Investigation (GEDI) lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stysley, Paul R.; Coyle, D. Barry; Kay, Richard B.; Frederickson, Robert; Poulios, Demetrios; Cory, Ken; Clarke, Greg

    2015-05-01

    We report the results of a 2 year, continuous operational life test of the diode pumped, solid state HOMER laser; a flight-quality prototype, producing over 16 billion, 15 mJ, 10 ns Q-switched laser pulses with an acceptable measured decay rate.

  18. Lifetest of the High Output Maximum Efficiency Resonator (HOMER) Laser for the SAFFIRE Instrument on NASA's DESDynI Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stysley, Paul R.; Coyle, D. Barry; Kay, Richard B.; Frederickson, Robert; Poulios, Demetrios; Blair, Bryan; Scott, Stan; Arnold, Ed

    2011-01-01

    We update the status of a diode-pumped, Nd:YAG oscillator that is the prototype laser for NASA's DESDynI mission. After completing TRL-6 testing, this laser has fired over 5.5 billion shots in lifetesting.

  19. HIV/AIDS and Pediatric AIDS. The Arc Q & A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowalski, Jo Anne T.

    This fact sheet uses a question-and-answer format to summarize what is known about HIV/AIDS (Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) and pediatric AIDS and applies this information to children in school settings. Questions and answers address the following topics: what the AIDS disease and HIV infection are; estimates

  20. PUZZLE - A program for computer-aided design of printed circuit artwork

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrell, D. A. W.; Zane, R.

    1971-01-01

    Program assists in solving spacing problems encountered in printed circuit /PC/ design. It is intended to have maximum use for two-sided PC boards carrying integrated circuits, and also aids design of discrete component circuits.

  1. Global HIV/AIDS Epidemic

    MedlinePLUS

    ... UNAIDS. How AIDS Changed Everything ; 2015. ← Return to text UNAIDS. 2015 Epidemiological slides – How AIDS Changed Everything report ; 2015. ← Return to text WHO/UNAIDS/UNICEF. Global update on HIV treatment ...

  2. AIDS Education for the Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mello, Jeffrey A.

    1990-01-01

    Sun Life in Wellesley, Massachusetts, has an ongoing education program about acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) that provides employees with facts and works to change attitudes about the implications of AIDS for the workplace. (SK)

  3. Women and HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePLUS

    ... About Us Contact Us Text size | Print | HIV/AIDS This information in Spanish ( en español ) The human ... HIV, is a sexually transmitted infection and causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or AIDS. Today, about one in four Americans ...

  4. AIDS Surveillance in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorensen, William

    1998-01-01

    Defines disease surveillance and provides data from the Centers for Disease Control about AIDS cases. Recommends that schools invite people from AIDS surveillance to speak with classes of students about preventing the disease. (DDR)

  5. HIV/AIDS Clinical Trials

    MedlinePLUS

    ... APIs Widgets Order Publications Skip Nav HIV/AIDS Clinical Trials Home > Clinical Trials Español Text Size Use ... Vaccine Research HIV Preventive Vaccines HIV Therapeutic Vaccines Clinical Trial News Friday, March 18, 2016 AIDS-Kaposi’s ...

  6. What Is HIV/AIDS?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... AIDS? Subscribe Translate Text Size Print What Is HIV/AIDS? Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. If left ... need medical treatment to prevent death. WHERE DID HIV COME FROM? Scientists identified a type of chimpanzee ...

  7. HIV / AIDS: An Unequal Burden

    MedlinePLUS

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV / AIDS: An Unequal Burden Past Issues / Summer 2009 ... high-risk category, emphasizes Dr. Cargill. Photo: iStock HIV and Pregnancy Are there ways to help HIV- ...

  8. Caribbean AIDS explosion examined.

    PubMed

    2000-03-13

    Homophobia, sex tourism, infidelity, and poverty are major factors causing a rapid explosion of AIDS and increasingly infecting women in the Caribbean. The region has the second largest incidence of AIDS in the world after Africa. The number of people with the HIV virus is likely greater than 500,000 and could be as high as 700,000, about twice the previously reported figures. Societal norms encourage homosexuals to have heterosexual relationships, and married men to have extramarital affairs, while poverty forces men and women to prostitution, often with tourists. In addition, a survey of 8100 school children in 4 English-speaking Caribbean islands revealed that 42% of the children had experienced sex before the age of 10 years; 62% had experienced it by age 12. This finding may reflect a high rate of child molestation in the region. PMID:12296107

  9. Pharmacotherapeutics for the AIDS Patient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fife, Kenneth H.

    1991-01-01

    Anticipated shifts in the demographics of the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) epidemic are examined, current state-of-the-art AIDS patient management is summarized, and some unique facets of drug therapy in the AIDS patient are discussed, including adverse reactions, complex drug interactions, use of investigational drugs, and

  10. How Do People Get AIDS?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a Friend Who Cuts? How Do People Get AIDS? KidsHealth > For Teens > How Do People Get AIDS? Print A A A Text Size en espaol Cmo contrae alguien el SIDA? AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome , a disease that ...

  11. College Costs and Student Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kenneth C.

    The growing campus role in providing student financial aid is discussed based on data from the Cooperative Institutional Research Program, Peterson's Guide, and other sources. The campus contribution to student aid programs has grown far more than recent tuition increases. A significant portion of the financial aid burden has passed from federal

  12. Teachers' Aides: Tasks and Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balderson, James H.; Nixon, Mary

    1976-01-01

    Addresses three questions: (1) What tasks do aides perform? (2) Does training make a difference in the type of tasks aides perform? (3) What are the concerns of aides? (Available from the Department of Educational Administration, The University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2G5; $0.50, single copy.) (Author/IRT)

  13. Educational Aids for Visually Handicapped.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Printing House for the Blind, Louisville, KY.

    Listings specifying source and cost are provided of tactile aids and materials designed for the visually handicapped. Items are presented in the following categories: supply sources and catalogs for aids; braille devices, including duplicators, reading and writing aids, reading readiness materials, and writing machines, slates, and styluses; deaf…

  14. How Do People Get AIDS?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a Friend Who Cuts? How Do People Get AIDS? KidsHealth > For Teens > How Do People Get AIDS? Print A A A Text Size en español ¿Cómo contrae alguien el SIDA? AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome , a disease that ...

  15. Better sensors = better imagery = better outputs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Michael

    2014-05-01

    The photogrammetric workflow has traditionally relied upon the use of high quality metric cameras that enable the acquisition of good quality imagery, from which outputs with a well constrained geometry can be obtained. However with the proliferation of low altitude aerial photography from a range of platforms, the quality of sensor itself has largely become of secondary importance in order to reduce weight and minimise cost. These instruments are often "off-the-shelf" consumer digital cameras, not designed for either aerial photography or photogrammetry. This imposes limitations upon the quality of imagery that can be collected and outputs subsequently produced. Photogrammetric techniques such as a self-calibrating bundle adjustment or Structure from Motion allow the use of "less stable" imagery. Yet at the simplest level, the better the sensor, the better the imagery, the better the output. Where analysis and the validity of scientific conclusions are dependent upon the quality of outputs it is critical that consideration is given to the choice of sensor - the wide availability and application of UAVs across disciplines means that users may not be aware of such choices and their implications. This presentation is designed to stimulate discussion around the use of consumer cameras with a focus upon the exposure triangle of ISO-aperture-shutter speed and how this is related to dynamic range and the signal-to-noise ratio. A further important factor is understanding the ground resolution element in terms of resolution, focal length, sensor size (crop factor) and height.

  16. Multiple output timing and trigger generator

    SciTech Connect

    Wheat, Robert M.; Dale, Gregory E

    2009-01-01

    In support of the development of a multiple stage pulse modulator at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, we have developed a first generation, multiple output timing and trigger generator. Exploiting Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) Micro Controller Units (MCU's), the timing and trigger generator provides 32 independent outputs with a timing resolution of about 500 ns. The timing and trigger generator system is comprised of two MCU boards and a single PC. One of the MCU boards performs the functions of the timing and signal generation (the timing controller) while the second MCU board accepts commands from the PC and provides the timing instructions to the timing controller. The PC provides the user interface for adjusting the on and off timing for each of the output signals. This system provides 32 output or timing signals which can be pre-programmed to be in an on or off state for each of 64 time steps. The width or duration of each of the 64 time steps is programmable from 2 {micro}s to 2.5 ms with a minimum time resolution of 500 ns. The repetition rate of the programmed pulse train is only limited by the time duration of the programmed event. This paper describes the design and function of the timing and trigger generator system and software including test results and measurements.

  17. Solar cell system having alternating current output

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, J. C., Jr. (inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A monolithic multijunction solar cell was modified by fabricating an integrated circuit inverter on the back of the cell to produce a device capable of generating an alternating current output. In another embodiment, integrated curcuit power conditioning electronics was incorporated in a module containing a solar cell power supply.

  18. RAM-Based parallel-output controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niswander, J. K.; Stattel, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    Selected bit strings in serial-data link are extracted for processing. Controller is programmable interface between serial-data link and peripherals that accept parallel data. It can be used to drive displays, printers, plotters, digital-to-analog converters, and parallel-output ports.

  19. Neural network output optimization using interval analysis.

    PubMed

    de Weerdt, E; Chu, Q P; Mulder, J A

    2009-04-01

    The problem of output optimization within a specified input space of neural networks (NNs) with fixed weights is discussed in this paper. The problem is (highly) nonlinear when nonlinear activation functions are used. This global optimization problem is encountered in the reinforcement learning (RL) community. Interval analysis is applied to guarantee that all solutions are found to any degree of accuracy with guaranteed bounds. The major drawbacks of interval analysis, i.e., dependency effect and high-computational load, are both present for the problem of NN output optimization. Taylor models (TMs) are introduced to reduce these drawbacks. They have excellent convergence properties for small intervals. However, the dependency effect still remains and is even made worse when evaluating large input domains. As an alternative to TMs, a different form of polynomial inclusion functions, called the polynomial set (PS) method, is introduced. This new method has the property that the bounds on the network output are tighter or at least equal to those obtained through standard interval arithmetic (IA). Experiments show that the PS method outperforms the other methods for the NN output optimization problem. PMID:19244020

  20. Porous radiant burners having increased radiant output

    DOEpatents

    Tong, Timothy W. (Tempe, AZ); Sathe, Sanjeev B. (Tempe, AZ); Peck, Robert E. (Tempe, AZ)

    1990-01-01

    Means and methods for enhancing the output of radiant energy from a porous radiant burner by minimizing the scattering and increasing the adsorption, and thus emission of such energy by the use of randomly dispersed ceramic fibers of sub-micron diameter in the fabrication of ceramic fiber matrix burners and for use therein.

  1. EGRAM- ECHELLE SPECTROGRAPH DESIGN AID

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dantzler, A. A.

    1994-01-01

    EGRAM aids in the design of spectrographic systems that utilize an echelle-first order cross disperser combination. This optical combination causes a two dimensional echellogram to fall on a detector. EGRAM describes the echellogram with enough detail to allow the user to effectively judge the feasibility of the spectrograph's design. By iteratively altering system parameters, the desired echellogram can be achieved without making a physical model. EGRAM calculates system parameters which are accurate to the first order and compare favorably to results from ray tracing techniques. The spectrographic system modelled by EGRAM consists of an entrance aperture, collimator, echelle, cross dispersion grating, focusing options, and a detector. The system is assumed to be free of aberrations and the echelle, cross disperser, and detector should be planar. The EGRAM program is menu driven and has a HELP facility. The user is prompted for information such as minimum and maximum wavelengths, slit dimensions, ruling frequencies, detector geometry, and angle of incidence. EGRAM calculates the resolving power and range of order numbers covered by the echellogram. A numerical map is also produced. This tabulates the order number, slit bandpass, and high/middle/low wavelengths. EGRAM can also compute the centroid coordinates of a specific wavelength and order (or vice versa). EGRAM is written for interactive execution and is written in Microsoft BASIC A. It has been implemented on an IBM PC series computer operating under DOS. EGRAM was developed in 1985.

  2. Computer aided production engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This book presents the following contents: CIM in avionics; computer analysis of product designs for robot assembly; a simulation decision mould for manpower forecast and its application; development of flexible manufacturing system; advances in microcomputer applications in CAD/CAM; an automated interface between CAD and process planning; CAM and computer vision; low friction pneumatic actuators for accurate robot control; robot assembly of printed circuit boards; information systems design for computer integrated manufacture; and a CAD engineering language to aid manufacture.

  3. Directional Hearing Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jhabvala, M.; Lin, H. C.

    1989-01-01

    Hearing-aid device indicates visually whether sound is coming from left, right, back, or front. Device intended to assist individuals who are deaf in at least one ear and unable to discern naturally directions to sources of sound. Device promotes safety in street traffic, on loading docks, and in presence of sirens, alarms, and other warning sounds. Quadraphonic version of device built into pair of eyeglasses and binaural version built into visor.

  4. AIDS in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Ryan, M P

    1991-02-18

    The reasons for the rapid spread of AIDS in Thailand, and the impact of the unique non-governmental agency Population and Community Development Association (PDA) directed by the charismatic Dr. Mechai are described. The rapid spread of AIDS in Thailand is due to presence of all possible factors facilitating HIV transmission, a large population of injecting drug addicts, an extensive mobile domestic and tourist sex industry, and an active gay community. The number of HIV-positive persons rose from 179 in 1988 to 16,359 in 1989, and is now estimated at 100,000. 1% of the Thai population works in prostitution, and from 16% of the high-income to 72% of the low-income prostitutes are infected, with their infection rates rising 10% per month. 75% of Thai men use cheap prostitutes. While the government was ignoring the AIDS threat in the early '80s, Dr. Mechai, whose name translated as "condom," was organizing the grass-roots community-based condom distribution system PDA, said to be responsible for the fall in annual population growth from 3.4% in 1968 to 1.5% in 1990. His organization now distributes contraceptives to 16,000 villages by 12,000 volunteers. He uses booklets, cards, cassettes, slide shows, videos and appearances with condom-inflating contests and costumes to de-mystify condoms with humor. Now AIDS messages are heard in taxis, on military TV and radio, and in remote villages. Converting knowledge into practice is more difficult, requiring tactful convincing of brothel operators and finding some way to reach their clients, who exert economic control over young female prostitutes. PMID:1867668

  5. Output-Only Techniques for Fault Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brzezinski, Adam John

    Fault detection is relevant to many applications, including structural health monitoring and machine health monitoring. Furthermore, output measurement data may be the only information known about a system. Hence we develop and demonstrate techniques for output-only fault detection. We also investigate implementation issues, including computational complexity and output noise. First, we consider real-time detection of an abrupt change in a noisy signal. Existing techniques exhibit sensitivity to gradual (incipient) changes in the data, as well as detection delays, false alarms, and missed detections. Hence, we propose an adjacent moving window peak detection (AMWPD) approach that uses an approximate low-pass filter and statistical process control techniques to determine whether an abrupt change has occurred. We compare the AMWPD approach with existing techniques for change detection and show that the AMWPD approach exhibits comparable detection speed and number of missed detections while providing fewer false alarms. Second, we consider feature extraction and clustering for classification. For industrial applications, existing methods provide insufficient classification accuracy and require significant training time. Hence, we propose new features that improve classification accuracy and apply a modified tabu search and probabilistic neural network (mTS + PNN) approach to select and cluster the features and thereby classify the data. We compare the mTS + PNN approach with an existing feature selection and clustering technique that employs principal component analysis and a multi-layer perceptron neural network. Using an application example, we demonstrate that the mTS + PNN approach provides higher classification accuracy while requiring less training and classification time. Finally, we consider identification of output-to-output relationships in linear system dynamics. Existing approaches, including operational modal analysis, assume that the excitation signal is a realization of a white random process, which may not be true. Hence, we define and characterize pseudo transfer functions (PTFs), which relate output measurements, and we use changes in the identified PTF to detect faults. We demonstrate the effects of non-zero initial conditions, non-white excitation, unknown model order, and output noise on the accuracy of the identification and fault detection results.

  6. Optimal Output Trajectory Redesign for Invertible Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devasia, S.

    1996-01-01

    Given a desired output trajectory, inversion-based techniques find input-state trajectories required to exactly track the output. These inversion-based techniques have been successfully applied to the endpoint tracking control of multijoint flexible manipulators and to aircraft control. The specified output trajectory uniquely determines the required input and state trajectories that are found through inversion. These input-state trajectories exactly track the desired output; however, they might not meet acceptable performance requirements. For example, during slewing maneuvers of flexible structures, the structural deformations, which depend on the required state trajectories, may be unacceptably large. Further, the required inputs might cause actuator saturation during an exact tracking maneuver, for example, in the flight control of conventional takeoff and landing aircraft. In such situations, a compromise is desired between the tracking requirement and other goals such as reduction of internal vibrations and prevention of actuator saturation; the desired output trajectory needs to redesigned. Here, we pose the trajectory redesign problem as an optimization of a general quadratic cost function and solve it in the context of linear systems. The solution is obtained as an off-line prefilter of the desired output trajectory. An advantage of our technique is that the prefilter is independent of the particular trajectory. The prefilter can therefore be precomputed, which is a major advantage over other optimization approaches. Previous works have addressed the issue of preshaping inputs to minimize residual and in-maneuver vibrations for flexible structures; Since the command preshaping is computed off-line. Further minimization of optimal quadratic cost functions has also been previously use to preshape command inputs for disturbance rejection. All of these approaches are applicable when the inputs to the system are known a priori. Typically, outputs (not inputs) are specified in tracking problems, and hence the input trajectories have to be computed. The inputs to the system are however, difficult to determine for non-minimum phase systems like flexible structures. One approach to solve this problem is to (1) choose a tracking controller (the desired output trajectory is now an input to the closed-loop system and (2) redesign this input to the closed-loop system. Thus we effectively perform output redesign. These redesigns are however, dependent on the choice of the tracking controllers. Thus the controller optimization and trajectory redesign problems become coupled; this coupled optimization is still an open problem. In contrast, we decouple the trajectory redesign problem from the choice of feedback-based tracking controller. It is noted that our approach remains valid when a particular tracking controller is chosen. In addition, the formulation of our problem not only allows for the minimization of residual vibration as in available techniques but also allows for the optimal reduction fo vibrations during the maneuver, e.g., the altitude control of flexible spacecraft. We begin by formulating the optimal output trajectory redesign problem and then solve it in the context of general linear systems. This theory is then applied to an example flexible structure, and simulation results are provided.

  7. Ensuring Accuracy of the Pediatric Hearing Aid Fitting

    PubMed Central

    Marcoux, Andr; Hansen, Martin

    2003-01-01

    Considerable effort has recently been dedicated towards early detection of hearing loss in infants. The goal is to subsequently fit hearing aids to hearing-impaired infants so that they can develop speech and language as early and as well as possible. The responsibility of the audiologist is to provide the child with the optimal amplification from the hearing aid. This paper gives an overview of aspects involved in correctly assessing the hearing loss and optimally fitting and verifying the performance of the child's hearing aids. Special emphasis is directed towards differences that exist between children and adults, and how these differences can be considered during a pediatric fitting. We suggest a stringent terminology that can help avoid ambiguous terms and connotations in the child's domain which are derived from those that have become established in adult audiometry and hearing aid fittings. The quantification of hearing thresholds and their appropriate representation is reviewed. An appropriate threshold-based prescription of gain or output of the hearing aid is described. Issues of verification and the actual programming of the hearing aid are discussed. PMID:15004645

  8. Quantum degeneracy effect on the work output from a Stirling cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saygin, Hasan; ?i?man, Altu?

    2001-09-01

    The effect of quantum degeneracy on the work output from a Stirling cycle working at quantum degeneracy conditions (QDCs) is analyzed. Expressions for net work outputs of Stirling power cycles working with monatomic ideal Bose and Fermi gases are derived by using the quantum ideal gas equation of state. Ratios of net work outputs of Stirling cycles working with Bose and Fermi gases to the net work output of a classical Stirling cycle (RWB and RWF, respectively) are obtained. Variations of RWB and RWF with TH are examined for a given temperature ratio (?=TL/TH) and a specific volume ratio (r?=?H/?L). At QDC, it is seen that RWB has a maximum value, which is greater than unity. On the other hand, there is no maximum or minimum point for RWF and RWF?1 for any values of TH. Consequently, the use of Bose gas as a working fluid in a Stirling cycle provides an advantage since it causes the net work output per cycle to increase by consuming more heat energy. This fact is seen to be in the opposite direction for a Stirling cycle working with Fermi gas.

  9. Financial Aid Administrators' Views on Simplifying Financial Aid: NASFAA's 2008 Financial Aid Simplification Survey Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    Despite a decade of simplification efforts, students and families are often still baffled by the student aid process and cringe at the sight of financial aid application forms. Contrary to its purpose of helping students to access college, the student aid application process causes families frustration and confusion that has been cited as an

  10. Thulium channel waveguide laser with 1.6 W of output power and ?80% slope efficiency.

    PubMed

    van Dalfsen, K; Aravazhi, S; Grivas, C; Garca-Blanco, S M; Pollnau, M

    2014-08-01

    Laser experiments were performed on buried, ridge-type channel waveguides in 8at.% thulium-doped, yttrium-gadolinium-lutetium co-doped potassium double tungstate. By pumping with a Ti:sapphire laser at 794nm, 1.6W of output power at 1.84?m with a maximum slope efficiency of ?80% was obtained in a laser resonator with a high output-coupling degree of 89%. To the best of our knowledge, this result represents the most efficient 2-?m channel waveguide laser to date. PMID:25078182

  11. A primer on financial aid.

    PubMed

    Wells, A

    1998-05-01

    It is apparent that financial aid is a complicated, ever-changing business. The information provided in this article is only the tip of the financial aid iceberg. As student debt levels continue to increase, I encourage deans to work cooperatively with their financial aid officers. Invite your financial aid officers to participate in orientation and other pre- and post-admission activities, help facilitate effective entrance and exist interviews, and encourage financial aid officers to meet and work with your students on a frequent basis. I also strongly encourage you to support their participation in national meetings such as the Professional Development Conference (PDC) for Health Professionals (which AADS cosponsors with the AAMC) and the National Association of Student Financial Aid Officers (NASFAA). Participation in annual conferences is an important way for financial aid officers to network with other officers and to learn about important new legislation. PMID:9655075

  12. 20 CFR 229.48 - Family maximum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Computation of the family maximum—(1) The employee attains retirement age prior to 1979. The maximum is the... month the benefit is payable. (2) The employee attains retirement age in 1979. (i) The maximum is... rounded to the next lower multiple of $0.10. (3) The employee attains retirement age after 1979....

  13. 20 CFR 229.48 - Family maximum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) Computation of the family maximum—(1) The employee attains retirement age prior to 1979. The maximum is the... month the benefit is payable. (2) The employee attains retirement age in 1979. (i) The maximum is... rounded to the next lower multiple of $0.10. (3) The employee attains retirement age after 1979....

  14. 24 CFR 200.15 - Maximum mortgage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Maximum mortgage. 200.15 Section... Generally Applicable to Multifamily and Health Care Facility Mortgage Insurance Programs; and Continuing Eligibility Requirements for Existing Projects Eligible Mortgage 200.15 Maximum mortgage. Mortgages must...

  15. 24 CFR 200.15 - Maximum mortgage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Maximum mortgage. 200.15 Section... Generally Applicable to Multifamily and Health Care Facility Mortgage Insurance Programs; and Continuing Eligibility Requirements for Existing Projects Eligible Mortgage 200.15 Maximum mortgage. Mortgages must...

  16. 24 CFR 200.15 - Maximum mortgage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Maximum mortgage. 200.15 Section... Generally Applicable to Multifamily and Health Care Facility Mortgage Insurance Programs; and Continuing Eligibility Requirements for Existing Projects Eligible Mortgage 200.15 Maximum mortgage. Mortgages must...

  17. 24 CFR 200.15 - Maximum mortgage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maximum mortgage. 200.15 Section... Generally Applicable to Multifamily and Health Care Facility Mortgage Insurance Programs; and Continuing Eligibility Requirements for Existing Projects Eligible Mortgage 200.15 Maximum mortgage. Mortgages must...

  18. 24 CFR 200.15 - Maximum mortgage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Maximum mortgage. 200.15 Section... Generally Applicable to Multifamily and Health Care Facility Mortgage Insurance Programs; and Continuing Eligibility Requirements for Existing Projects Eligible Mortgage 200.15 Maximum mortgage. Mortgages must...

  19. 34 CFR 674.12 - Loan maximums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Loan maximums. 674.12 Section 674.12 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL PERKINS LOAN PROGRAM General Provisions 674.12 Loan maximums. (a)...

  20. 13 CFR 130.440 - Maximum grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maximum grant. 130.440 Section 130... § 130.440 Maximum grant. No recipient shall receive an SBDC grant exceeding the greater of the minimum statutory amount, or its pro rata share of all SBDC grants as determined by the statutory formula set...

  1. 13 CFR 130.440 - Maximum grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maximum grant. 130.440 Section 130... § 130.440 Maximum grant. No recipient shall receive an SBDC grant exceeding the greater of the minimum statutory amount, or its pro rata share of all SBDC grants as determined by the statutory formula set...

  2. 13 CFR 130.440 - Maximum grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum grant. 130.440 Section 130... § 130.440 Maximum grant. No recipient shall receive an SBDC grant exceeding the greater of the minimum statutory amount, or its pro rata share of all SBDC grants as determined by the statutory formula set...

  3. 7 CFR 1778.11 - Maximum grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maximum grants. 1778.11 Section 1778.11 Agriculture... (CONTINUED) EMERGENCY AND IMMINENT COMMUNITY WATER ASSISTANCE GRANTS § 1778.11 Maximum grants. (a) Grants not... the filing of an application. (b) Grants made for repairs, partial replacement, or...

  4. 7 CFR 1778.11 - Maximum grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maximum grants. 1778.11 Section 1778.11 Agriculture... (CONTINUED) EMERGENCY AND IMMINENT COMMUNITY WATER ASSISTANCE GRANTS § 1778.11 Maximum grants. (a) Grants not... the filing of an application. (b) Grants made for repairs, partial replacement, or...

  5. 49 CFR 107.329 - Maximum penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... maximum civil penalty is $110,000 if the violation results in death, serious illness or severe injury to... them to be transported or shipped is liable for a civil penalty of not more than $55,000 and not less than $250 for each violation, except the maximum civil penalty is $110,000 if the violation results...

  6. 49 CFR 107.329 - Maximum penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... maximum civil penalty is $110,000 if the violation results in death, serious illness or severe injury to... them to be transported or shipped is liable for a civil penalty of not more than $55,000 and not less than $250 for each violation, except the maximum civil penalty is $110,000 if the violation results...

  7. 49 CFR 107.329 - Maximum penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... maximum civil penalty is $110,000 if the violation results in death, serious illness or severe injury to... them to be transported or shipped is liable for a civil penalty of not more than $55,000 and not less than $250 for each violation, except the maximum civil penalty is $110,000 if the violation results...

  8. 7 CFR 1778.11 - Maximum grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Maximum grants. 1778.11 Section 1778.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) EMERGENCY AND IMMINENT COMMUNITY WATER ASSISTANCE GRANTS 1778.11 Maximum grants. (a) Grants not to exceed $500,000 may be made...

  9. 7 CFR 1778.11 - Maximum grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maximum grants. 1778.11 Section 1778.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) EMERGENCY AND IMMINENT COMMUNITY WATER ASSISTANCE GRANTS 1778.11 Maximum grants. (a) Grants not to exceed $500,000 may be made...

  10. 14 CFR 65.47 - Maximum hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maximum hours. 65.47 Section 65.47 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Air Traffic Control Tower Operators 65.47 Maximum hours. Except in an emergency, a certificated...

  11. Magnetic field generated resistivity maximum in graphite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woollam, J. A.; Kreps, L. W.; Rojeski, M.; Vold, T.; Devaty, R.

    1976-01-01

    In a zero magnetic field, the electrical resistivity of highly oriented pyrolytic (polycrystalline) graphite drops smoothly with decreasing temperature, becoming constant below 4 K. However, in a fixed applied magnetic field, the resistivity goes through a maximum as a function of temperature, with a larger maximum for a larger field intensity. The temperature of the maximum increases with field intensity, but saturates to a constant value near 25 K (the exact temperature depends on the sample) at high intensity. In single-crystal graphite, a maximum in resistivity as a function of temperature is also present, but has the effects of Landau level quantization superimposed. Several possible explanations for the resistivity maximum are proposed, but a complete explanation awaits detailed calculations involving the energy band structure of graphite, and the particular scattering mechanisms involved.

  12. Magnetic field generated resistivity maximum in graphite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wollam, J. A.; Kreps, L. W.; Rojeski, M.; Vold, T.; Devaty, R.

    1976-01-01

    In zero magnetic field, B, the electrical resistivity, rho(O,T) of highly oriented pyrolytic (polycrystalline) graphite drops smoothly with decreasing T, becoming constant below 4 K. However, in a fixed applied magnetic field B, the resistivity rho(B,T) goes through a maximum as a function of T, with larger maximum for larger B. The temperature of the maximum increases with B, but saturates to a constant value near 25 K (exact T depends on sample) at high B. In single crystal graphite a maximum in rho(B,T) as a function of T is also present, but has the effects of Landau level quantization superimposed. Several possible explanations for the rho(B,T) maximum are proposed, but a complete explanation awaits detailed calculations involving the energy band structure of graphite, and the particular scattering mechanisms involved.

  13. Large-mode-area single-mode-output Neodymium-doped silicate glass all-solid photonic crystal fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wentao; Chen, Danping; Qinling, Zhou; Hu, Lili

    2015-07-01

    We have demonstrated a 45??m core diameter Neodymium-doped all-solid silicate glass photonic crystal fiber laser with a single mode laser output. The structure parameters and modes information of the fiber are both demonstrated by theoretical calculations using Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method and experimental measurements. Maximum 0.8?W output power limited by launched pump power has been generated in 1064?nm with laser beam quality factor M2 1.18.

  14. Large-mode-area single-mode-output Neodymium-doped silicate glass all-solid photonic crystal fiber.

    PubMed

    Li, Wentao; Chen, Danping; Qinling, Zhou; Hu, Lili

    2015-01-01

    We have demonstrated a 45??m core diameter Neodymium-doped all-solid silicate glass photonic crystal fiber laser with a single mode laser output. The structure parameters and modes information of the fiber are both demonstrated by theoretical calculations using Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method and experimental measurements. Maximum 0.8?W output power limited by launched pump power has been generated in 1064?nm with laser beam quality factor M(2) 1.18. PMID:26205850

  15. Characterizing output bottlenecks in a supercomputer

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Bing; Chase, Jeffrey; Dillow, David A; Drokin, Oleg; Klasky, Scott A; Oral, H Sarp; Podhorszki, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    Supercomputer I/O loads are often dominated by writes. HPC (High Performance Computing) file systems are designed to absorb these bursty outputs at high bandwidth through massive parallelism. However, the delivered write bandwidth often falls well below the peak. This paper characterizes the data absorption behavior of a center-wide shared Lustre parallel file system on the Jaguar supercomputer. We use a statistical methodology to address the challenges of accurately measuring a shared machine under production load and to obtain the distribution of bandwidth across samples of compute nodes, storage targets, and time intervals. We observe and quantify limitations from competing traffic, contention on storage servers and I/O routers, concurrency limitations in the client compute node operating systems, and the impact of variance (stragglers) on coupled output such as striping. We then examine the implications of our results for application performance and the design of I/O middleware systems on shared supercomputers.

  16. Low cardiac output syndrome: identification and management.

    PubMed

    Mass, Linda; Antonacci, Marie

    2005-12-01

    Low cardiac output syndrome (LCOS) is a clinical condition that is caused by a transient decrease in systemic perfusion secondary to myocardial dysfunction. The outcome is an imbalance between oxygen delivery and oxygen consumption at the cellular level which leads to metabolic acidosis. Although LCOS is observed most commonly in patients after cardiac surgery, it may present in various disease processes resulting in cardiac dysfunction. This article provides an overview of the determinants involved in oxygen transport, the physiologic factors influencing cardiovascular function, the assessment of hemodynamic variables, the etiology of LCOS, and management strategies, including a brief review of some pharmacologic agents that are used in the treatment of low cardiac output. PMID:16344207

  17. Spacelab output processing system architectural study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Two different system architectures are presented. The two architectures are derived from two different data flows within the Spacelab Output Processing System. The major differences between these system architectures are in the position of the decommutation function (the first architecture performs decommutation in the latter half of the system and the second architecture performs that function in the front end of the system). In order to be examined, the system was divided into five stand-alone subsystems; Work Assembler, Mass Storage System, Output Processor, Peripheral Pool, and Resource Monitor. The work load of each subsystem was estimated independent of the specific devices to be used. The candidate devices were surveyed from a wide sampling of off-the-shelf devices. Analytical expressions were developed to quantify the projected workload in conjunction with typical devices which would adequately handle the subsystem tasks. All of the study efforts were then directed toward preparing performance and cost curves for each architecture subsystem.

  18. Speech processing using conditional observable maximum likelihood continuity mapping

    DOEpatents

    Hogden, John; Nix, David

    2004-01-13

    A computer implemented method enables the recognition of speech and speech characteristics. Parameters are initialized of first probability density functions that map between the symbols in the vocabulary of one or more sequences of speech codes that represent speech sounds and a continuity map. Parameters are also initialized of second probability density functions that map between the elements in the vocabulary of one or more desired sequences of speech transcription symbols and the continuity map. The parameters of the probability density functions are then trained to maximize the probabilities of the desired sequences of speech-transcription symbols. A new sequence of speech codes is then input to the continuity map having the trained first and second probability function parameters. A smooth path is identified on the continuity map that has the maximum probability for the new sequence of speech codes. The probability of each speech transcription symbol for each input speech code can then be output.

  19. Tunable, continuous-wave single-resonant optical parametric oscillator with output coupling for resonant wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong-Hua, Zheng; Bao-Fu, Zhang; Zhong-Xing, Jiao; Biao, Wang

    2016-01-01

    We present a continuous-wave singly-resonant optical parametric oscillator with 1.5% output coupling of the resonant signal wave, based on an angle-polished MgO-doped periodically poled lithium niobate (MgO:PPLN), pumped by a commercial Nd:YVO4 laser at 1064 nm. The output-coupled optical parametric oscillator delivers a maximum total output power of 4.19 W with 42.8% extraction efficiency, across a tuning range of 1717 nm in the near- and mid-infrared region. This indicates improvements of 1.87 W in output power, 19.1% in extraction efficiency and 213 nm in tuning range extension in comparison with the optical parametric oscillator with no output coupling, while at the expense of increasing the oscillation threshold by a factor of ∼ 2. Moreover, it is confirmed that the finite output coupling also contributes to the reduction of the thermal effects in crystal. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61308056, 11204044, 11232015, and 11072271), the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant Nos. 20120171110005 and 20130171130003), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China (Grant No. 14lgpy07), and the Opening Project of Science and Technology on Reliability Physics and Application Technology of Electronic Component Laboratory, China (Grant No. ZHD201203).

  20. A Radiometric Study of Factors Affecting Drug Output of Jet Nebulizers

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, G.; Kumar, N.; Rawat, H.; Chopra, M. K.; Bhatnagar, A.

    2010-01-01

    Jet nebulizers show an unreasonable variation in drug output and nebulization rates that leads to clinical and regulatory problems. Current evaluation methods appear inadequate for the purpose. Our objective was to evaluate Technetium-99m radiometry to study nebulizer parameters and the factors influencing it quantitatively. Drug output, output rate and residual mass and the effect of excipient, temperature, surface tension, air-jet speed, and equipment brand and aging were studied. Though nebulization of radiolabeled drugs followed first-order kinetics, the rates were significantly different; the heaviest drug (Tc-99m colloid) and Tc-99m salbutamol had the least nebulization. Nebulization rate for the first minute was invariably higher than the mean rate signifying the concentration effect of the solute. Drug residue was 35-75%. Drug output of different nebulizer chamber and air compressor brands was different to the extent of 270% and 180% respectively. Aging of fluid chamber, cold drug fluid and obstruction in air-jet resulted in significant reduction in output, while addition of 2% saline as excipient did not change the output rate. Addition of ethyl alcohol resulted in a maximum of 260% enhancement (with Tc-99m salbutamol), while further reduction in surface tension was counterproductive irrespective of the drug used. We conclude that radiometry can provide valuable parametric information on the performance of different jet nebulizers. PMID:20582187

  1. Brief Report: Role of Thymic Reconstitution in the Outcome of AIDS-Related PML.

    PubMed

    Chalkias, Spyridon G; Gheuens, Sarah; Bord, Evelyn; Batson, Stephanie; Koralnik, Igor J

    2015-12-01

    Implications of thymopoiesis in AIDS-related opportunistic infections remain unexplored. We used progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), caused by JC virus (JCV), as an opportunistic infection model, and we simultaneously investigated thymic output and T-cell responses against JCV in 22 patients with PML treated with combined antiretroviral therapy. Thymic output was significantly associated with JCV-specific CD4? and CD8? T-cell responses and improved survival. Our data suggest that patients with AIDS-related PML and impaired thymopoiesis are less likely to develop a robust JCV-specific cellular immune response and consequently are at an increased risk for a poor clinical outcome. PMID:26181821

  2. Push-Pull Control of Motor Output

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Michael D.; Hyngstrom, Allison S.; Manuel, Marin; Heckman, C.J.

    2012-01-01

    Inhibition usually decreases input-output excitability of neurons. If, however, inhibition is coupled to excitation in a push-pull fashion, where inhibition decreases as excitation increases, neuron excitability can be increased. Although the presence of push-pull organization has been demonstrated in single cells, its functional impact on neural processing depends on its effect on the system level. We studied push-pull in the motor output stage of the feline spinal cord, a system which hallows in dependent control of inhibitory and excitatory components. Push-pull organization was clearly present in ankle extensor motoneurons, producing increased peak to peak modulation of synaptic currents. The effect at the system level was equally strong. Independent control of the inhibitory component showed that the stronger the background of inhibition, the greater the peak force production. This illustrates the paradox at the heart of push-pull organization: increased force output can be achieved by increasing background inhibition to provide greater disinhibition. PMID:22457505

  3. The output mode cleaner of GEO 600

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prijatelj, M.; Degallaix, J.; Grote, H.; Leong, J.; Affeldt, C.; Hild, S.; Lck, H.; Slutsky, J.; Wittel, H.; Strain, K.; Danzmann, K.

    2012-03-01

    The German-British interferometric gravitational wave detector GEO 600 is currently undergoing upgrades within the GEO-HF upgrade program. The goal of this program is to enhance the sensitivity of GEO 600, in particular at frequencies above 500 Hz. At these frequencies, the detector is limited by shot noise. An important element of the upgrade is the implementation of an output mode cleaner (OMC). This filtering cavity suppresses higher order spatial and temporal modes in the interferometers output beam, thereby reducing the shot noise and enhancing sensitivity. Fully automated lock acquisition for the OMC was developed in order to ensure a high duty cycle of GEO 600. To maintain optimum sensitivity, the resonance condition of the OMC must be matched to the output beam from the interferometer. This requires continuous control of the resonance frequency of the OMC to the light, and alignment of the beam to the OMC. We describe the design and implementation of the OMC with special attention to the control techniques employed. We present results from the experience gained during the S6/VSR3 science run. Furthermore, we describe an upper limit measurement of the internal displacement noise of a piezoelectric actuator.

  4. Characterizing detonator output using dynamic witness plates

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Michael John; Adrian, Ronald J

    2009-01-01

    A sub-microsecond, time-resolved micro-particle-image velocimetry (PIV) system is developed to investigate the output of explosive detonators. Detonator output is directed into a transparent solid that serves as a dynamic witness plate and instantaneous shock and material velocities are measured in a two-dimensional plane cutting through the shock wave as it propagates through the solid. For the case of unloaded initiators (e.g. exploding bridge wires, exploding foil initiators, etc.) the witness plate serves as a surrogate for the explosive material that would normally be detonated. The velocity-field measurements quantify the velocity of the shocked material and visualize the geometry of the shocked region. Furthermore, the time-evolution of the velocity-field can be measured at intervals as small as 10 ns using the PIV system. Current experimental results of unloaded exploding bridge wire output in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) witness plates demonstrate 20 MHz velocity-field sampling just 300 ns after initiation of the wire.

  5. Predicting Maximum Lake Depth from Surrounding Topography

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lake volume aids understanding of the physical and ecological dynamics of lakes, yet is often not readily available. The data needed to calculate lake volume (i.e. bathymetry) are usually only collected on a lake by lake basis and are difficult to obtain across broad regions. ...

  6. Study Guide for First Aid Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thygerson, Alton L.

    This study guide is designed to accompany the American National Red Cross texts ADVANCED FIRST AID AND EMERGENCY CARE and STANDARD FIRST AID AND PERSONAL SAFETY. Part one serves as an introduction to first aid. The legal aspects of first aid are discussed along with a list of suggested first aid kit contents, and information on first aid books is

  7. Alternative (Complementary) Therapies for HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePLUS

    ... HIV/AIDS » Alternative (Complementary) Therapies for HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS Menu Menu HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS Home ... Enter ZIP code here Alternative (Complementary) Therapies for HIV/AIDS for Veterans and the Public Alternative (Complementary) ...

  8. Water-aided colonoscopy.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Joseph C

    2015-04-01

    The successful intubation of the cecum during screening or surveillance colonoscopy is vital to ensure complete mucosal inspection of the colon on withdrawal. Even when performed by an experienced endoscopist, colonoscope insertion can sometimes be challenging. Water-aided colonoscopy can be used to assist the endoscopist in navigating colons with anatomies that may be challenging owing to severe angulation or redundancy. Water-assisted colonoscopy involves the infusion of water without air and subsequent suctioning during insertion (exchange) or withdrawal (immersion or infusion). This review discusses the technique, effectiveness, safety of water-assisted colonoscopy as well as the application in sedationless endscopy. PMID:25839683

  9. Migration and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Decosas, J; Kane, F; Anarfi, J K; Sodji, K D; Wagner, H U

    1995-09-23

    A successful short-term solution to transmission of AIDS in Western Africa by migrants involves provision of accessible and acceptable basic health and social services to migrants at their destination. The aim is to establish a sense of security and community, which is a health requirement. When migrants are excluded from community life or victimized as carriers of HIV infections, they will be driven by basic survival needs and dysfunctional social organization, which results in the rapid spread of HIV. Closing borders and mass deportation may not be an option. The long-term solution is population policy, environmental protection, and economic development. The focus on mapping the spread of AIDS must shift to a consideration of the migrant social conditions that make them vulnerable to AIDS. The issue of migration and AIDS will be addressed at the First European Conference on Tropical Medicine in October 1995 in Hamburg, Germany. In Uganda, HIV seroprevalence rates ranged from 5.5% among the stable population to 12.4% among internal migrants moving between villages to 16.3% among migrants from other areas. A World Bank project is operating in Western Africa, which traces seasonal male migration from the Cameroon to Liberia, Senegal to Nigeria, and from the Sahel to the coast during dry seasons. National border rules may influence the routes but not the extent of migration. A major destination place is Cote d' Ivoire, which has 25% of total population comprised of migrants from other countries and one of the highest HIV prevalence rates in Western Africa. On plantations prostitutes are brought in. Each prostitute serves about 25 workers. The pattern of sexual mixing contributes to the high HIV rates. Female migration is smaller and usually concentrated in prostitution at place of destination. Illiteracy and poverty drive women migrants into the trade. Their frequent health problems are malaria, pelvic pain, menstrual irregularity, vaginal discharge, and genital sores. Drugs are bought on the streets or from friends and may be of questionable efficacy. Health services may be sought upon return to the home country. PMID:7674750

  10. Should Aid Reward Performance?

    PubMed Central

    Olken, Benjamin A.; Onishi, Junko; Wong, Susan

    2014-01-01

    We report an experiment in 3,000 villages that tested whether incentives improve aid efficacy. Villages received block grants for maternal and child health and education that incorporated relative performance incentives. Subdistricts were randomized into incentives, an otherwise identical program without incentives, or control. Incentives initially improved preventative health indicators, particularly in underdeveloped areas, and spending efficiency increased. While school enrollments improved overall, incentives had no differential impact on education, and incentive health effects diminished over time. Reductions in neonatal mortality in non-incentivized areas did not persist with incentives. We find no systematic scoring manipulation nor funding reallocation toward richer areas. PMID:25485039

  11. Extreme inputs/outputs for multiple input multiple output linear systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Smallwood, David Ora

    2005-09-01

    A linear structure is excited at multiple points with a stationary normal random process. The response of the structure is measured at multiple outputs. If the auto spectral densities of the inputs are specified, the phase relationships between the inputs are derived that will minimize or maximize the trace of the auto spectral density matrix of the outputs. If the autospectral densities of the outputs are specified, the phase relationships between the outputs that will minimize or maximize the trace of the input auto spectral density matrix are derived. It is shown that other phase relationships and ordinary coherence less than one will result in a trace intermediate between these extremes. Least favorable response and some classes of critical response are special cases of the development. It is shown that the derivation for stationary random waveforms can also be applied to nonstationary random, transients, and deterministic waveforms.

  12. Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) Linear Systems Extreme Inputs/Outputs

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Smallwood, David O.

    2007-01-01

    A linear structure is excited at multiple points with a stationary normal random process. The response of the structure is measured at multiple outputs. If the autospectral densities of the inputs are specified, the phase relationships between the inputs are derived that will minimize or maximize the trace of the autospectral density matrix of the outputs. If the autospectral densities of the outputs are specified, the phase relationships between the outputs that will minimize or maximize the trace of the input autospectral density matrix are derived. It is shown that other phase relationships and ordinary coherence less than one willmore » result in a trace intermediate between these extremes. Least favorable response and some classes of critical response are special cases of the development. It is shown that the derivation for stationary random waveforms can also be applied to nonstationary random, transients, and deterministic waveforms.« less

  13. Comparison of CAISO-run Plexos output with LLNL-run Plexos output

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, A; Meyers, C; Smith, S

    2011-12-20

    In this report we compare the output of the California Independent System Operator (CAISO) 33% RPS Plexos model when run on various computing systems. Specifically, we compare the output resulting from running the model on CAISO's computers (Windows) and LLNL's computers (both Windows and Linux). We conclude that the differences between the three results are negligible in the context of the entire system and likely attributed to minor differences in Plexos version numbers as well as the MIP solver used in each case.

  14. High performance monolithic power management system with dynamic maximum power point tracking for microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Erbay, Celal; Carreon-Bautista, Salvador; Sanchez-Sinencio, Edgar; Han, Arum

    2014-12-01

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) that can directly generate electricity from organic waste or biomass is a promising renewable and clean technology. However, low power and low voltage output of MFCs typically do not allow directly operating most electrical applications, whether it is supplementing electricity to wastewater treatment plants or for powering autonomous wireless sensor networks. Power management systems (PMSs) can overcome this limitation by boosting the MFC output voltage and managing the power for maximum efficiency. We present a monolithic low-power-consuming PMS integrated circuit (IC) chip capable of dynamic maximum power point tracking (MPPT) to maximize the extracted power from MFCs, regardless of the power and voltage fluctuations from MFCs over time. The proposed PMS continuously detects the maximum power point (MPP) of the MFC and matches the load impedance of the PMS for maximum efficiency. The system also operates autonomously by directly drawing power from the MFC itself without any external power. The overall system efficiency, defined as the ratio between input energy from the MFC and output energy stored into the supercapacitor of the PMS, was 30%. As a demonstration, the PMS connected to a 240 mL two-chamber MFC (generating 0.4 V and 512 ?W at MPP) successfully powered a wireless temperature sensor that requires a voltage of 2.5 V and consumes power of 85 mW each time it transmit the sensor data, and successfully transmitted a sensor reading every 7.5 min. The PMS also efficiently managed the power output of a lower-power producing MFC, demonstrating that the PMS works efficiently at various MFC power output level. PMID:25365216

  15. AIDS-related myopathy.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, Rafiq A.; Yasmeen, Shagufta; Munn, Robert; Ruebner, Boris H.; Ellis, William G.

    1999-09-01

    Infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is often associated with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and wasting is one of the defining clinical features of AIDS. Muscular weakness due to myopathy may develop at any stage of HIV infection. We report two illustrative cases of HIV-associated myopathies. One was due to inflammatory myosits most likely directly related to the HIV infection, and the other was most likely the result of mitochondrial damage due to zidovudine, a nucleoside analogue commonly used in treating HIV infection. Biopsies from both patients showed alterations of myofiber structures, of varying severity, culminating in necrosis, lipid droplets, and lymphoplasmocytic inflammatory response. The zidovudine-treated patient also showed distinctive mitochondrial changes, predominantly enlargement, variation in shape and size, and disorganization of the cristae. These two types of HIV-associated inflammatory myopathies are reviewed, along with other HIV-associated myopathies, including HIV wasting syndrome, nemaline rod myopathy, pyomyositis, rhabdomyolysis, cardiomyopathy, and other miscellaneous myopathies associated with HIV infection. PMID:11810429

  16. On Weyl channels being covariant with respect to the maximum commutative group of unitaries

    SciTech Connect

    Amosov, Grigori G.

    2007-01-15

    We investigate the Weyl channels being covariant with respect to the maximum commutative group of unitary operators. This class includes the quantum depolarizing channel and the 'two-Pauli' channel as well. Then, we show that our estimation of the output entropy for a tensor product of the phase damping channel and the identity channel based upon the decreasing property of the relative entropy allows to prove the additivity conjecture for the minimal output entropy for the quantum depolarizing channel in any prime dimension and for the two-Pauli channel in the qubit case.

  17. Maximum surface charge density for triboelectric nanogenerators achieved by ionized-air injection: methodology and theoretical understanding.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sihong; Xie, Yannan; Niu, Simiao; Lin, Long; Liu, Chang; Zhou, Yu Sheng; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2014-10-22

    For the maximization of the surface charge density in triboelectric nanogenerators, a new method of injecting single-polarity ions onto surfaces is introduced for the generation of surface charges. The triboelectric nanogenerator's output power gets greatly enhanced and its maximum surface charge density is systematically studied, which shows a huge room for the improvement of the output of triboelectric nanogenerators by surface modification. PMID:25146891

  18. Enhanced power output of an electrospun PVDF/MWCNTs-based nanogenerator by tuning its conductivity.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hao; Huang, Tao; Lu, Mingxia; Mao, Mengye; Zhang, Qinghong; Wang, Hongzhi

    2013-10-11

    PVDF nanofibre-based piezoelectric nanogenerators are directly prepared via electrospinning without any post-poling treatment. The effect of the addition of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on the fibre diameter, mechanical properties, β-phase composition, surface and volume conductivities, output voltage and output power are investigated. Increased surface conductivity of the poly-vinylidene fluoride (PVDF) nanofibre mats, which plays an important role in the enhancement of output power, is first found by the addition of an appropriate amount of MWCNTs. The maximum generated piezo-voltage exhibited by PVDF nanofibre mats in the presence of 5 wt% MWCNTs is as high as 6 V, while the average capacitor charging power is 81.8 nW, increases of 200% and 44.8%, respectively, compared with bare PVDF nanofibre mats. PMID:24029779

  19. Enhanced power output of an electrospun PVDF/MWCNTs-based nanogenerator by tuning its conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hao; Huang, Tao; Lu, Mingxia; Mao, Mengye; Zhang, Qinghong; Wang, Hongzhi

    2013-10-01

    PVDF nanofibre-based piezoelectric nanogenerators are directly prepared via electrospinning without any post-poling treatment. The effect of the addition of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on the fibre diameter, mechanical properties, β-phase composition, surface and volume conductivities, output voltage and output power are investigated. Increased surface conductivity of the poly-vinylidene fluoride (PVDF) nanofibre mats, which plays an important role in the enhancement of output power, is first found by the addition of an appropriate amount of MWCNTs. The maximum generated piezo-voltage exhibited by PVDF nanofibre mats in the presence of 5 wt% MWCNTs is as high as 6 V, while the average capacitor charging power is 81.8 nW, increases of 200% and 44.8%, respectively, compared with bare PVDF nanofibre mats.

  20. Measurement of output characteristics of Tm:YAG laser at 25-300 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jianguo; Yan, Tao; Liang, Jingtao; Cai, Jinghui

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, output characteristics of a laser diode end-pumped Tm:YAG laser in a wide temperature range were investigated. In this laser system, a Tm:YAG crystal was cooled in a cryostat with liquid helium or liquid nitrogen as coolant. At the temperature of 88 K, a maximum output power of 4.68 W is achieved when the incident pump power is 8.9 W, and the optical-optical conversion efficiency is 52.6%, with a slope efficiency of 56.1%. The dependence of the output characteristics of Tm:YAG on temperature was experimentally studied in the temperature range of 25-300 K.

  1. Frequency-Shift Hearing Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, Leonard M.

    1994-01-01

    Proposed hearing aid maps spectrum of speech into band of lower frequencies at which ear remains sensitive. By redirecting normal speech frequencies into frequency band from 100 to 1,500 Hz, hearing aid allows people to understand normal conversation, including telephone calls. Principle operation of hearing aid adapted to other uses such as, clearing up noisy telephone or radio communication. In addition, loud-speakers more easily understood in presence of high background noise.

  2. A dual method for maximum entropy restoration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, C. B.

    1979-01-01

    A simple iterative dual algorithm for maximum entropy image restoration is presented. The dual algorithm involves fewer parameters than conventional minimization in the image space. Minicomputer test results for Fourier synthesis with inadequate phantom data are given.

  3. 14 CFR 65.47 - Maximum hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Air Traffic Control Tower Operators 65.47 Maximum hours. Except in an emergency, a certificated air traffic control tower operator must be relieved of all...

  4. 14 CFR 65.47 - Maximum hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Air Traffic Control Tower Operators 65.47 Maximum hours. Except in an emergency, a certificated air traffic control tower operator must be relieved of all...

  5. 14 CFR 65.47 - Maximum hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Air Traffic Control Tower Operators 65.47 Maximum hours. Except in an emergency, a certificated air traffic control tower operator must be relieved of all...

  6. 14 CFR 65.47 - Maximum hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Air Traffic Control Tower Operators 65.47 Maximum hours. Except in an emergency, a certificated air traffic control tower operator must be relieved of all...

  7. Maximum-Likelihood Detection Of Noncoherent CPM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Simon, Marvin K.

    1993-01-01

    Simplified detectors proposed for use in maximum-likelihood-sequence detection of symbols in alphabet of size M transmitted by uncoded, full-response continuous phase modulation over radio channel with additive white Gaussian noise. Structures of receivers derived from particular interpretation of maximum-likelihood metrics. Receivers include front ends, structures of which depends only on M, analogous to those in receivers of coherent CPM. Parts of receivers following front ends have structures, complexity of which would depend on N.

  8. Maximum confidence measurements via probabilistic quantum cloning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wen-Hai; Yu, Long-Bao; Cao, Zhuo-Liang; Ye, Liu

    2013-03-01

    Probabilistic quantum cloning (PQC) cannot copy a set of linearly dependent quantum states. In this paper, we show that if incorrect copies are allowed to be produced, linearly dependent quantum states may also be cloned by the PQC. By exploiting this kind of PQC to clone a special set of three linearly dependent quantum states, we derive the upper bound of the maximum confidence measure of a set. An explicit transformation of the maximum confidence measure is presented.

  9. Utility Function from Maximum Entropy Principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darooneh, Amir H.

    2006-03-01

    Recently we used the maximum entropy principle for finding the price density in a multi agent insurance market. The result is similar to what the Buhlmann had obtained by maximizing the utility function. Here we begin with the price density that is derived by applying the maximum entropy principle to a conservative economic system (exchange market), then reverse the Buhlmann calculation to find the utility function and the risk aversion of agents with respect to this density.

  10. Combining Multiple Gyroscope Outputs for Increased Accuracy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayard, David S.

    2003-01-01

    A proposed method of processing the outputs of multiple gyroscopes to increase the accuracy of rate (that is, angular-velocity) readings has been developed theoretically and demonstrated by computer simulation. Although the method is applicable, in principle, to any gyroscopes, it is intended especially for application to gyroscopes that are parts of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). The method is based on the concept that the collective performance of multiple, relatively inexpensive, nominally identical devices can be better than that of one of the devices considered by itself. The method would make it possible to synthesize the readings of a single, more accurate gyroscope (a virtual gyroscope) from the outputs of a large number of microscopic gyroscopes fabricated together on a single MEMS chip. The big advantage would be that the combination of the MEMS gyroscope array and the processing circuitry needed to implement the method would be smaller, lighter in weight, and less power-hungry, relative to a conventional gyroscope of equal accuracy. The method (see figure) is one of combining and filtering the digitized outputs of multiple gyroscopes to obtain minimum-variance estimates of rate. In the combining-and-filtering operations, measurement data from the gyroscopes would be weighted and smoothed with respect to each other according to the gain matrix of a minimum- variance filter. According to Kalman-filter theory, the gain matrix of the minimum-variance filter is uniquely specified by the filter covariance, which propagates according to a matrix Riccati equation. The present method incorporates an exact analytical solution of this equation.

  11. The measurement of maximum cylinder pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicks, Chester W

    1929-01-01

    The work presented in this report was undertaken at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics to determine a suitable method for measuring the maximum pressures occurring in aircraft engine cylinders. The study and development of instruments for the measurement of maximum cylinder pressures has been conducted in connection with carburetor and oil engine investigations on a single cylinder aircraft-type engine. Five maximum cylinder-pressure devices have been designed, and tested, in addition to the testing of three commercial indicators. Values of maximum cylinder pressures are given as obtained with various indicators for the same pressures and for various kinds and values of maximum cylinder pressures, produced chiefly by variation of the injection advance angle in high-speed oil engine. The investigations indicate that the greatest accuracy in determining maximum cylinder pressures can be obtained with an electric, balanced-pressure, diaphragm or disk-type indicator so constructed as to have a diaphragm or disk of relatively large area and minimum seat width and mass.

  12. Example of input-output analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The thirty sectors included in the ECASTAR energy input-output model were listed. Five of these belong to energy producing sectors, fifteen to manufacturing industries, two to residential and commercial sectors, and eight to service industries. The model is capable of tracing impacts of an action in three dimensions: dollars, BTU's of energy, and labor. Four conservation actions considered were listed and then discussed separately, dealing with the following areas: increase in fuel efficiency, reduction in fuel used by the transportation and warehousing group, manufacturing of smaller automobiles, and a communications/transportation trade-off.

  13. Uncertainties in predicting solar panel power output

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anspaugh, B.

    1974-01-01

    The problem of calculating solar panel power output at launch and during a space mission is considered. The major sources of uncertainty and error in predicting the post launch electrical performance of the panel are considered. A general discussion of error analysis is given. Examples of uncertainty calculations are included. A general method of calculating the effect on the panel of various degrading environments is presented, with references supplied for specific methods. A technique for sizing a solar panel for a required mission power profile is developed.

  14. Inductive Output Tubes -- Status and Future Direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohlen, Heinz

    2002-08-01

    Invented in 1938, at the same time as the klystron, it took the Inductive Output Tube (IOT) more than 40 years to surface as a useful device. Its progress after that event was rapid. Though plagued by teething problems in the beginning, it has since replaced the klystron as a TV amplifier in UHF, and it holds its own against the solid-state competition in that application. The IOT also shows much promise as a high-power amplifier, but early developments in this direction have remained solitary events so far. The paper discusses the causes and the potential of the device for future high-power applications.

  15. Off-set stabilizer for comparator output

    DOEpatents

    Lunsford, James S. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1991-01-01

    A stabilized off-set voltage is input as the reference voltage to a comparator. In application to a time-interval meter, the comparator output generates a timing interval which is independent of drift in the initial voltage across the timing capacitor. A precision resistor and operational amplifier charge a capacitor to a voltage which is precisely offset from the initial voltage. The capacitance of the reference capacitor is selected so that substantially no voltage drop is obtained in the reference voltage applied to the comparator during the interval to be measured.

  16. HCN laser with an adaptive output mirror

    SciTech Connect

    Kamenev, Yu E; Masalov, S A; Filimonova, A A

    2006-09-30

    A device for optimal coupling between a laser resonator and the external medium, having the form of one-dimensional wire grating conjugated with a plane mirror with an aperture, is proposed, developed and tested experimentally. The dependences of the output laser power on the separation between the grating and the mirror, diameter of the aperture in the plane mirror, and the grating period, are studied. The obtained results not only confirm the possibility of using such a coupling device, but also point towards the ways and principles of its application. (lasers)

  17. 8.5 W VECSEL output at 1270 nm with conversion efficiency of 59%.

    PubMed

    Keller, S T; Sirbu, A; Iakovlev, V; Caliman, A; Mereuta, A; Kapon, E

    2015-06-29

    We report on 1270 nm vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VECSELs) with up to 59% conversion efficiency and maximum output power of 8.5 W (pump limited), at 5C heat sink temperature. These VECSELs comprised wafer-fused gain mirrors in the flip-chip (thin-disk) heat dissipation scheme. The reflected pump light from the gain mirror surface was found to depend considerably on temperature and pump power. PMID:26191752

  18. New observations of scintillation climatology from the Scintillation Network Decision Aid (SCINDA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Y.; Caton, R. G.; Wiens, K.; Groves, K. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Scintillation Network Decision Aid (SCINDA) was established with three ground sites in the mid-1990's by the Air Force Research Laboratory and has continued to grow into a global scintillation observation network. This system consists of an array of VHF and GPS receivers which continually measure scintillation in the equatorial region. In the past few years, the extended network of ground stations has expanded into the African sector. Initial results from yearly scintillation data obtained from two VHF receivers in Narobi, Kenya and Bahir Dar, Ethiopia in 2011 indicate the presence of scintillation activity throughout the June-July -August (northern summer) season which is inconsistent with current state-of-the-art ionospheric climatology models. It is well known that seasonal equatorial scintillation patterns vary with longitude based on geographical location. For example, the scintillation activity at VHF frequencies are absent in the Pacific sector during the months of November to February while observations from South America show nearly continuous scintillation during this same time period. With little to no ground-based observations, the scintillation climatology over the African region has not been well understood. In the paper, we will present S4 measurements various longitudinal sectors, including the first look at solar maximum type conditions over the African sector, and provide comparisons with output from a global climatology model.

  19. Almost One Bit Violation for the Additivity of the Minimum Output Entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belinschi, Serban T.; Collins, Benoît; Nechita, Ion

    2016-02-01

    In a previous paper, we proved that, in the appropriate asymptotic regime, the limit of the collection of possible eigenvalues of output states of a random quantum channel is a deterministic, compact set K k, t . We also showed that the set K k, t is obtained, up to an intersection, as the unit ball of the dual of a free compression norm. In this paper, we identify the maximum of {ℓ^p} norms on the set K k, t and prove that the maximum is attained on a vector of shape ( a, b, . . . , b) where a > b. In particular, we compute the precise limit value of the minimum output entropy of a single random quantum channel. As a corollary, we show that for any {\\varepsilon > 0}, it is possible to obtain a violation for the additivity of the minimum output entropy for an output dimension as low as 183, and that for appropriate choice of parameters, the violation can be as large as {log 2 -\\varepsilon}. Conversely, our result implies that, with probability one in the limit, one does not obtain a violation of additivity using conjugate random quantum channels and the Bell state, in dimension 182 and less.

  20. Laser safety evaluation and output measurements for the VITAL -2 Variable Intensity Tactical Aiming Light (laser) used with the Proforce M-4 system in force-on-force exercises.

    SciTech Connect

    Augustoni, Arnold L.

    2004-02-01

    A laser safety hazard evaluation and pertinent output measurements were performed (June 2003 through August 2003) on several VITAL-2 Variable Intensity Tactical Aiming Light--infrared laser, associated with the Proforce M-4 system used in force-on-force exercises. The VITAL-2 contains two diode lasers presenting 'Extended Source' viewing out to a range on the order of 1.3 meters before reverting to a 'Small Source' viewing hazard. Laser hazard evaluation was performed in concert with the ANSI Std. Z136.1-2000 for the safe use of lasers and the ANSI Std. Z136.6-2000 for the safe use of lasers outdoors. The results of the laser hazard analysis for the VITAL-2, indicates that this Tactical Aiming IR laser presents a Class 1 laser hazard to personnel in the area of use. Field measurements performed on 71 units confirmed that the radiant outputs were at all times below the Allowable Emission Limit and that the irradiance of the laser spot was at all locations below the Maximum Exposure Limit. This system is eye-safe and it may be used under current SNL policy in force-on-force exercises. The VITAL-2 Variable Intensity Tactical Aiming Light does not present a laser hazard greater than Class 1, to aided viewing with binoculars.

  1. Sizing centrifugal pumps for maximum energy savings

    SciTech Connect

    Doolin, J.H.

    1982-06-01

    In the search for energy savings every aspect of pump is analyzed and reviewed. The system design is looked into, the system requirements are reduced to the minimum, and attention is given to most efficient pump selection for the system. As the obvious choice for heat, ventilation and air conditioning (HVSC) is a centrifugal pump, many variables are considered and evaluated by looking at the effect of each on pump efficiency. A pump selection nomograph is furnished as a design aid.

  2. Who Gets Student Aid? Variations in Access to Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grubb, W. Norton; Tuma, John

    1991-01-01

    National data reveal postsecondary students in proprietary schools and vocational education are much more likely than others to receive financial aid, and community college students are much less likely. Because of community college student sensitivity to costs and because evidence indicates aid is effective in two-year colleges, the pattern is

  3. Aids and Infectious Diseases (aid) Pmp 2013 Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buonaguro, Franco M.

    2014-07-01

    The AIDS and Infectious Diseases (AID) PMP of the WFS contributed this year with a session on August 22nd to the Plenary Sessions of the International Seminars on Planetary Emergencies and Associated Meetings--46th Session: The Role of Science in the Third Millennium (Erice, 19-24 August 2013). Furthermore a workshop on August 24th was organized...

  4. Learning to aid learning.

    PubMed

    Richards, Jacqui

    2016-01-01

    The National Health Service (NHS) is one of the largest employers in the world and, with 1.3 million staff, the biggest employer in Europe. With over three hundred different careers on offer (NHS 2015), the acquisition of skills and qualifications, through academic and clinical training, is an integral part of day-to-day life in the health service. As such, mentoring has become a significant feature in the preparation of healthcare professionals, to support students and ensure learning needs and experiences are appropriate to competency. This article examines the mentor's role, in relation to a teaching innovation designed to address students' identified learning needs to meet the requirements of the multi-professional learning and assessment in practice course NM6156. The effectiveness of the aids to learning will be assessed through an online quiz, and its usefulness will be analysed with reference to educational theories of learning and development. PMID:26975128

  5. The range scheduling aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halbfinger, Eliezer M.; Smith, Barry D.

    1991-01-01

    The Air Force Space Command schedules telemetry, tracking and control activities across the Air Force Satellite Control network. The Range Scheduling Aid (RSA) is a rapid prototype combining a user-friendly, portable, graphical interface with a sophisticated object-oriented database. The RSA has been a rapid prototyping effort whose purpose is to elucidate and define suitable technology for enhancing the performance of the range schedulers. Designing a system to assist schedulers in their task and using their current techniques as well as enhancements enabled by an electronic environment, has created a continuously developing model that will serve as a standard for future range scheduling systems. The RSA system is easy to use, easily ported between platforms, fast, and provides a set of tools for the scheduler that substantially increases his productivity.

  6. Statistical challenges of AIDS.

    PubMed

    Becker, N G

    1992-08-01

    "This paper considers questions concerning the incubation period [of HIV infections], the effects of treatments, prediction of AIDS cases, the choice of surrogate end points for the assessment of treatments and design of strategies for screening blood samples. These issues give rise to a broad range of intriguing problems for statisticians. We describe some of these problems, how they have been tackled so far and what remains to be done. The discussion touches on topical statistical methods such as smoothing, bootstrapping, interval censoring and the ill-posed inverse problem, as well as asking fundamental questions for frequentist statistics." The geographical scope is worldwide, with some data for selected developed countries used to illustrate the models. PMID:12285674

  7. Maximum likelihood estimation of two-level latent variable models with mixed continuous and polytomous data.

    PubMed

    Lee, S Y; Shi, J Q

    2001-09-01

    Two-level data with hierarchical structure and mixed continuous and polytomous data are very common in biomedical research. In this article, we propose a maximum likelihood approach for analyzing a latent variable model with these data. The maximum likelihood estimates are obtained by a Monte Carlo EM algorithm that involves the Gibbs sampler for approximating the E-step and the M-step and the bridge sampling for monitoring the convergence. The approach is illustrated by a two-level data set concerning the development and preliminary findings from an AIDS preventative intervention for Filipina commercial sex workers where the relationship between some latent quantities is investigated. PMID:11550929

  8. Approximate maximum likelihood estimation of scanning observer templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbey, Craig K.; Samuelson, Frank W.; Wunderlich, Adam; Popescu, Lucretiu M.; Eckstein, Miguel P.; Boone, John M.

    2015-03-01

    In localization tasks, an observer is asked to give the location of some target or feature of interest in an image. Scanning linear observer models incorporate the search implicit in this task through convolution of an observer template with the image being evaluated. Such models are becoming increasingly popular as predictors of human performance for validating medical imaging methodology. In addition to convolution, scanning models may utilize internal noise components to model inconsistencies in human observer responses. In this work, we build a probabilistic mathematical model of this process and show how it can, in principle, be used to obtain estimates of the observer template using maximum likelihood methods. The main difficulty of this approach is that a closed form probability distribution for a maximal location response is not generally available in the presence of internal noise. However, for a given image we can generate an empirical distribution of maximal locations using Monte-Carlo sampling. We show that this probability is well approximated by applying an exponential function to the scanning template output. We also evaluate log-likelihood functions on the basis of this approximate distribution. Using 1,000 trials of simulated data as a validation test set, we find that a plot of the approximate log-likelihood function along a single parameter related to the template profile achieves its maximum value near the true value used in the simulation. This finding holds regardless of whether the trials are correctly localized or not. In a second validation study evaluating a parameter related to the relative magnitude of internal noise, only the incorrect localization images produces a maximum in the approximate log-likelihood function that is near the true value of the parameter.

  9. Magnetron with axial output of radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuks, M.

    2005-10-01

    As the limiting case of a magnetron with diffraction output [1], we consider a magnetron with axial extraction of electromagnetic energy through a cylindrical waveguide joined to the resonant system. A short length of waveguide with small cross section (less than cut off for the radiated wave) is placed between the resonant system and the output waveguide to obtain the optimal Q-factor. This magnetron is very compact due to its symmetrical design, even when the magnetic system is included. Importantly, any synchronous mode can be used as the operating mode because of identical loads for all the cavities. Computer simulations of the well-known A6 magnetron geometry, using the 3D fully relativistic particle-in-cell code MAGIC, demonstrate stable operation for the 2?-type of oscillations, with radiation power of about 0.7 GW and radiation frequency of 3 GHz. Electron efficiency is about 15% when and the applied voltage is 350 kV. Application of a cathode [2] that consists of several individual longitudinal emitting strips arranged in a cylindrical geometry, provides fast start of oscillations. [1] M. Fuks and N. Kovalev, Program and abstracts of XI Int. Conf. On High Power Electromagnetics, Tel-Aviv, 1998, 23. [2] M. Fuks and E. Schamiloglu, Papers of USA-Japan Meeting on Plasma Science, Hawaii, 2004, 71-76.

  10. Electronic filters, signal conversion apparatus, hearing aids and methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morley, Jr., Robert E. (Inventor); Engebretson, A. Maynard (Inventor); Engel, George L. (Inventor); Sullivan, Thomas J. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An electronic filter for filtering an electrical signal. Signal processing circuitry therein includes a logarithmic filter having a series of filter stages with inputs and outputs in cascade and respective circuits associated with the filter stages for storing electrical representations of filter parameters. The filter stages include circuits for respectively adding the electrical representations of the filter parameters to the electrical signal to be filtered thereby producing a set of filter sum signals. At least one of the filter stages includes circuitry for producing a filter signal in substantially logarithmic form at its output by combining a filter sum signal for that filter stage with a signal from an output of another filter stage. The signal processing circuitry produces an intermediate output signal, and a multiplexer connected to the signal processing circuit multiplexes the intermediate output signal with the electrical signal to be filtered so that the logarithmic filter operates as both a logarithmic prefilter and a logarithmic postfilter. Other electronic filters, signal conversion apparatus, electroacoustic systems, hearing aids and methods are also disclosed.

  11. Maximum magnitude earthquakes induced by fluid injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGarr, A.

    2014-02-01

    Analysis of numerous case histories of earthquake sequences induced by fluid injection at depth reveals that the maximum magnitude appears to be limited according to the total volume of fluid injected. Similarly, the maximum seismic moment seems to have an upper bound proportional to the total volume of injected fluid. Activities involving fluid injection include (1) hydraulic fracturing of shale formations or coal seams to extract gas and oil, (2) disposal of wastewater from these gas and oil activities by injection into deep aquifers, and (3) the development of enhanced geothermal systems by injecting water into hot, low-permeability rock. Of these three operations, wastewater disposal is observed to be associated with the largest earthquakes, with maximum magnitudes sometimes exceeding 5. To estimate the maximum earthquake that could be induced by a given fluid injection project, the rock mass is assumed to be fully saturated, brittle, to respond to injection with a sequence of earthquakes localized to the region weakened by the pore pressure increase of the injection operation and to have a Gutenberg-Richter magnitude distribution with a b value of 1. If these assumptions correctly describe the circumstances of the largest earthquake, then the maximum seismic moment is limited to the volume of injected liquid times the modulus of rigidity. Observations from the available case histories of earthquakes induced by fluid injection are consistent with this bound on seismic moment. In view of the uncertainties in this analysis, however, this should not be regarded as an absolute physical limit.

  12. Maximum permissible voltage of YBCO coated conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, J.; Lin, B.; Sheng, J.; Xu, J.; Jin, Z.; Hong, Z.; Wang, D.; Zhou, H.; Shen, X.; Shen, C.

    2014-06-01

    Superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) could reduce short circuit currents in electrical power system. One of the most important thing in developing SFCL is to find out the maximum permissible voltage of each limiting element. The maximum permissible voltage is defined as the maximum voltage per unit length at which the YBCO coated conductors (CC) do not suffer from critical current (Ic) degradation or burnout. In this research, the time of quenching process is changed and voltage is raised until the Ic degradation or burnout happens. YBCO coated conductors test in the experiment are from American superconductor (AMSC) and Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU). Along with the quenching duration increasing, the maximum permissible voltage of CC decreases. When quenching duration is 100 ms, the maximum permissible of SJTU CC, 12 mm AMSC CC and 4 mm AMSC CC are 0.72 V/cm, 0.52 V/cm and 1.2 V/cm respectively. Based on the results of samples, the whole length of CCs used in the design of a SFCL can be determined.

  13. Cell Development obeys Maximum Fisher Information

    PubMed Central

    Frieden, B. Roy; Gatenby, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Eukaryotic cell development has been optimized by natural selection to obey maximal intracellular flux of messenger proteins. This, in turn, implies maximum Fisher information on angular position about a target nuclear pore complex (NPR). The cell is simply modeled as spherical, with cell membrane (CM) diameter 10?m and concentric nuclear membrane (NM) diameter 6?m. The NM contains ? 3000 nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). Development requires messenger ligands to travel from the CM-NPC-DNA target binding sites. Ligands acquire negative charge by phosphorylation, passing through the cytoplasm over Newtonian trajectories toward positively charged NPCs (utilizing positive nuclear localization sequences). The CM-NPC channel obeys maximized mean protein flux F and Fisher information I at the NPC, with first-order ?I = 0 and approximate 2nd-order ?2I ? 0 stability to environmental perturbations. Many of its predictions are confirmed, including the dominance of protein pathways of from 14 proteins, a 4nm size for the EGFR protein and the flux value F ?1016 proteins/m2-s. After entering the nucleus, each protein ultimately delivers its ligand information to a DNA target site with maximum probability, i.e. maximum Kullback-Liebler entropy HKL. In a smoothness limit HKL ? IDNA/2, so that the total CM-NPC-DNA channel obeys maximum Fisher I. Thus maximum information ? non-equilibrium, one condition for life. PMID:23747917

  14. AIDS and the Older Adult.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allers, Christopher T.

    1990-01-01

    Older adults are finding themselves the neighbors of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) patients as well as the primary caregivers of infected adult children. Focuses on roles, issues, and conflicts older adults face in dealing with relatives or neighbors with AIDS. Case management and educational intervention strategies are also offered.

  15. AIDS: Preschool and School Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Jeffrey L.

    1986-01-01

    The epidemiological, clinical, and public health aspects of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in children is reviewed. Evidence establishing modes of transmission is emphasized. Guidelines are presented to assist school staff in the educational management of children infected with the AIDS virus. (Author/MT)

  16. First Aid in Emergency Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parcel, Guy S.

    This book is written for advanced courses in first aid. The content of the book is the combined work of contributing authors including health educators, an emergency medical technician, nurses, physicians, a lawyer, a community organizer, a social worker, and a sociologist. There are five major sections: (1) parameters for administering first aid

  17. Aids and the nervous system

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenblum, M.L. ); Levy, R.M. ); Bredesen, D.E. )

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 19 chapters. Some of the titles are: Neuroradiology of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; The AIDS dementia complex; primary infection with human immunodeficiency virus; The biology of the human immunodeficiency virus and its role in neurological disease; and Algorithms for the treatment of AIDS patients with neurological disease.

  18. Translation: Aids, Robots, and Automation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreyewsky, Alexander

    1981-01-01

    Examines electronic aids to translation both as ways to automate it and as an approach to solve problems resulting from shortage of qualified translators. Describes the limitations of robotic MT (Machine Translation) systems, viewing MAT (Machine-Aided Translation) as the only practical solution and the best vehicle for further automation. (MES)

  19. Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).

    PubMed

    1987-02-01

    The International Planned Parenthood Medical Advisory Panel has developed recommendations to assist family planning associations in playing a more active role in the prevention and control of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Of primary importance is an effective program of information and education aimed at communicating the following facts: AIDS is a fatal disease for which there is no cure; AIDS is spread by sexual intercourse, contaminated blood, and contaminated needles; an infected woman can transmit AIDS to her fetus during pregnancy; a monogamous sexual relationship is the surest way to avoid AIDS infection; condom use is good protection; an infected person can look and feel well, yet still be able to transmit the AIDS virus; and AIDS is not spread by ordinary contact with an infected person. Family planning associations should include information on AIDS in all existing IEC projects, as well as develop new materials. Among the target audiences for IEC activities are family planning workers, family planning clients, and the general public including youth, teachers, parents, employers, and national leaders. Special attention should be given to high-risk groups such as homosexual and bisexual men, hemophiliacs, male and female prostitutes, clients of sexually transmitted disease clinics, people with many sexual partners, illegal users of intravenous drugs, and the sexual partners of those in any of these groups. Wide promotion of condom use is a priority activity for family planning organizations. PMID:12340977

  20. Teaching Aids at Low Cost.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Felicity Savage

    1985-01-01

    Describes the activities of Teaching Aids at Low Cost (TALC), a nonprofit component of the Institute of Child Health in London. TALC develops and distributes books, sets of slides, flannelgraphs, and other teaching aids to developing nations for use in teaching health workers--nurses, auxiliary medical workers, medical students, and doctors. (MBR)

  1. Certification of Financial Aid Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Stacey A.

    2011-01-01

    The certification of financial aid administrators has been debated for over 37 years. A job satisfaction survey conducted by the National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NASFAA, 2008a) revealed that college and university administrators' perceptions of the efficiency, effectiveness, and quality of the services provided by the

  2. Education Divided by AIDS Equals?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strouse, Joan

    A questionnaire was sent to all 256 public school districts in the State of Oregon, requesting information on policies towards students or personnel with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). The survey was designed to see if districts had either a written or unwritten policy specifically designed to deal with AIDS. Responses indicated that

  3. Hearing Aid Fitting in Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Brenda M.

    2000-01-01

    This article examines the latest technological advances in hearing aids and explores the available research to help families and professionals make informed decisions when fitting amplification devices on infants and young children. Diagnostic procedures, evaluation techniques, hearing aid selection, circuit and advanced technology options, and

  4. AIDS Resource Manual for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Sara A., Ed.; And Others

    This manual presents, for educators, known facts about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), how it is transmitted, and how it can be prevented. Answers to common questions about AIDS are listed and a summary sheet is provided. A resource list is included that contains names, addresses, and phone numbers of organizations that produce or

  5. Moral Character and Student Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flint, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    Thirty years after the creation of federal student financial aid programs through the Higher Education Act of 1965, the link between moral character and student financial aid programs is once again influencing the public policy debate. A careful look at the debate, though, shows that the nature of concerns has shifted. In the past, the question…

  6. [Methods of improving hearing aids].

    PubMed

    Lisovski?, V A; Rudberg, Iu E

    1980-01-01

    Further advancement in the technology of hearing aids requires solution of several questions. They are associated with determination of optimal parameters and plotting the corresponding electro-acoustical routes (channels) within apparatus, providing necessary level of comfort during their use, metrologic provision for apparatus design and production, and with development of an assessment method for integral quality index of hearing aids. PMID:7392872

  7. Basic HIV/AIDS Statistics

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Abroad Treatment Basic Statistics Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Statistics Center . How many people are diagnosed with HIV each year in the United States? In 2014, ...

  8. HIV/AIDS and Pregnancy

    MedlinePLUS

    If you have HIV/AIDS and find out you are pregnant or think you may be pregnant, you should let your health care provider know as soon as possible. Some HIV/AIDS medicines may harm your baby. Your health ...

  9. Bone Anchored Hearing Aid

    PubMed Central

    2002-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The objective of this health technology policy assessment was to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of bone-anchored hearing aid (BAHA) in improving the hearing of people with conduction or mixed hearing loss. The Technology The (BAHA) is a bone conduction hearing device that includes a titanium fixture permanently implanted into the mastoid bone of the skull and an external percutaneous sound processor. The sound processor is attached to the fixture by means of a skin penetrating abutment. Because the device bypasses the middle ear and directly stimulates the cochlea, it has been recommended for individuals with conduction hearing loss or discharging middle ear infection. The titanium implant is expected to last a lifetime while the external sound processor is expected to last 5 years. The total initial device cost is approximately $5,300 and the external sound processor costs approximately $3,500. Review of BAHA by the Medical Advisory Secretariat The Medical Advisory Secretariat’s review is a descriptive synthesis of findings from 36 research articles published between January 1990 and May 2002. Summary of Findings No randomized controlled studies were found. The evidence was derived from level 4 case series with relative small sample sizes (ranging from 30-188). The majority of the studies have follow-up periods of eight years or longer. All except one study were based on monaural BAHA implant on the side with the best bone conduction threshold. Safety Level 4 evidence showed that BAHA has been be implanted safely in adults and children with success rates of 90% or higher in most studies. No mortality or life threatening morbidity has been reported. Revision rates for tissue reduction or resiting were generally under 10% for adults but have been reported to be as high as 25% in pediatric studies. Adverse skin reaction around the skin penetration site was the most common complication reported. Most of these conditions were successfully treated with antibiotics, and only 1% to 2% required surgical revision. Less than 1% required removal of the fixture. Other complications included failure to osseointegrate and loss of fixture and/or abutment due to trauma or infection. Effectiveness Studies showed that BAHAs were implanted in people who have conduction or mixed hearing loss, congenital atresia or suppurative otitis media who were not candidates for surgical repair, and who cannot use conventional bone conduction hearing aids. The need for BAHA is not age- related. Objective audiometric measures and subjective patient satisfaction surveys showed that BAHA significantly improved the unaided and aided free field and sound field thresholds as well as speech discrimination in quiet and in noise for former users of conventional bone conduction hearing aids. The outcomes were ambiguous for former users of air conduction hearing aids. BAHA has been shown to reduce the frequency of ear infection and reduce the discharge particularly among patients with suppurative otitis media. Patients have reported that BAHA improved their quality of life. Reported benefits were improved speech intelligibility, better sound comfort, less pressure on the head, less skin irritation, greater cosmetic acceptance and increase in confidence. Main reported shortcomings were wind noise, feedback and difficulty in using the telephone. Experts and the BAHA manufacturer recommended that recipients of a BAHA implant be at least 5 years old. Challenges associated with the implantation of BAHA in pediatric patients include thin bone, soft bone, higher rates of fixture loss due to trauma, psychological problems, and higher revision rates due to rapid bone growth. The overall outcomes are comparable to adult BAHA. The benefits of pediatric BAHA (e.g. on speech development) appear to outweigh the disadvantages. Screening according to strict eligibility criteria, preoperative counselling, close monitoring by a physician with BAHA expertise and on-going follow-up were identified as critical factors for long-term implant survival. Examples of eligibility criteria were provided. Cost-effectiveness No literature on cost-effectiveness of BAHA was found. PMID:23074440

  10. ALGEBRA: a computer program that algebraically manipulates finite element output data. [In extended FORTRAN for CDC 7600 or CYBER 76 only

    SciTech Connect

    Richgels, M A; Biffle, J H

    1980-09-01

    ALGEBRA is a program that allows the user to process output data from finite-element analysis codes before they are sent to plotting routines. These data take the form of variable values (stress, strain, and velocity components, etc.) on a tape that is both the output tape from the analyses code and the input tape to ALGEBRA. The ALGEBRA code evaluates functions of these data and writes the function values on an output tape that can be used as input to plotting routines. Convenient input format and error detection capabilities aid the user in providing ALGEBRA with the functions to be evaluated. 1 figure.

  11. Non-Causal Final Impulse Response Filters for the Maximum Return from Capital Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyka, A.

    2006-11-01

    In this paper we consider a trading strategy, which consists in buying or selling a financial instrument when the smoothing, non-causal FIR (Final Impulse Response) filter output attains a local minimum or maximum, respectively. Upon this assumption the goal of this paper is to determine the ``best'' non-causal smoothing FIR filters, which provide maximum value of the return from market. The assumed non-causality is obtained by advancing the output signal to compensate for the delay introduced by the {ITALIC a priori} known filter. The best results were obtained for the impulse response given by the Pascal triangle and the family of symmetric power triangles, both for the case of trading with, and without the transaction fee. It was found that the transaction fee dramatically reduces a possible net return, and therefore should not be omitted in market analyzes.

  12. The Maximum Mass of Rotating Strange Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szkudlarek, M.; Gondek-Rosiń; ska, D.; Villain, L.; Ansorg, M.

    2012-12-01

    Strange quark stars are considered as a possible alternative to neutron stars as compact objects (e.g. Weber 2003). A hot compact star (a proto-neutron star or a strange star) born in a supernova explosion or a remnant of neutron stars binary merger are expected to rotate differentially and be important sources of gravitational waves. We present results of the first relativistic calculations of differentially rotating strange quark stars for broad ranges of degree of differential rotation and maximum densities. Using a highly accurate, relativistic code we show that rotation may cause a significant increase of maximum allowed mass of strange stars, much larger than in the case of neutron stars with the same degree of differential rotation. Depending on the maximum allowed mass a massive neutron star (strange star) can be temporarily stabilized by differential rotation or collapse to a black hole.

  13. Maximum interlabial pressures in normal speakers.

    PubMed

    Hinton, V A; Arokiasamy, W M

    1997-04-01

    It has been hypothesized that typical speech movements do not involve large muscular forces and that normal speakers use less than 20% of the maximum orofacial muscle contractile forces that are available (e.g., Amerman, 1993; Barlow & Abbs, 1984; Barlow & Netsell, 1986; DePaul & Brooks, 1993). However, no direct evidence for this hypothesis has been provided. This study investigated the percentage of maximum interlabial contact pressures (force per unit area) typically used during speech production. The primary conclusion of this study is that normal speakers typically use less than 20% of the available interlabial contact pressure, whether or not the jaw contributes to bilabial closure. Production of the phone [p] at conversational rate and intensity generated an average of 10.56% of maximum available interlabial pressure (MILP) when jaw movement was not restricted and 14.62% when jaw movement was eliminated. PMID:9130207

  14. Attitudes towards and Knowledge of AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Andrew; Hiday, Virginia Aldige'

    Most research on Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has been medical and most social science research on AIDS has been concerned with social factors in its spread and with social-psychological effects of contracting AIDS. This study was conducted to examine public attitudes toward, and public knowledge about AIDS. Knowledge about AIDS was

  15. High average output power passively Q-switched LD side-pumped laser by using Nd:YAG/Cr:YAG/YAG composite crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Wei; Zhu, Siqi; Li, Zhen; Yin, Hao; Li, Anming; Liu, Yumeng; Chen, Yihong; Chen, Zhenqiang

    2015-08-01

    By using Nd:YAG/Cr:YAG/YAG composite crystal as gain media, a passively Q-switched LD side-pumped laser with high average output power, working at 1064 nm, is set up. The 1064 nm laser output power increases linearly with the pumping light power and the maximum average output power of 83.68 W is observed. With the help of a KTP nonlinear crystal, 532 nm laser pulses with the corresponding pulse width of 210 ns and the repetition rate of 21.2 kHz are obtained under the maximum LD pumping light of 187.5 W. The average output power of 532 nm laser is 27.2 W. The singlepulse energy is 1.28 mJ and the peak power is 6.1 kW. The optical-to-optical conversion efficiency of LD pumping light to 532 nm output light is 14.72%.

  16. Density estimation by maximum quantum entropy

    SciTech Connect

    Silver, R.N.; Wallstrom, T.; Martz, H.F.

    1993-11-01

    A new Bayesian method for non-parametric density estimation is proposed, based on a mathematical analogy to quantum statistical physics. The mathematical procedure is related to maximum entropy methods for inverse problems and image reconstruction. The information divergence enforces global smoothing toward default models, convexity, positivity, extensivity and normalization. The novel feature is the replacement of classical entropy by quantum entropy, so that local smoothing is enforced by constraints on differential operators. The linear response of the estimate is proportional to the covariance. The hyperparameters are estimated by type-II maximum likelihood (evidence). The method is demonstrated on textbook data sets.

  17. Estimating Maximum Discharge of Geothermal Wells

    SciTech Connect

    James, Russell

    1980-12-16

    We cannot tell how 'good' a well is unless we can estimate the maximum flow possible under such ideal conditions as complete permeability a t the production horizon and boiling point throughout the depth of the reservoir. Calculated Lip pressures for vertical wide-open discharge under these conditions are surprisingly independent of the kind of fluid tapped by the well, whether dry saturated steam or saturated hot water. The status of an actual well can be established by comparing the measured Lip pressure with the calculated theoretical maximum. Discharges are simply determined from the values of Lip pressure and supply fluid enthalpy.

  18. Maximum predictive power and the superposition principle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summhammer, Johann

    1994-01-01

    In quantum physics the direct observables are probabilities of events. We ask how observed probabilities must be combined to achieve what we call maximum predictive power. According to this concept the accuracy of a prediction must only depend on the number of runs whose data serve as input for the prediction. We transform each probability to an associated variable whose uncertainty interval depends only on the amount of data and strictly decreases with it. We find that for a probability which is a function of two other probabilities maximum predictive power is achieved when linearly summing their associated variables and transforming back to a probability. This recovers the quantum mechanical superposition principle.

  19. Maximum likelihood clustering with dependent feature trees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chittineni, C. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The decomposition of mixture density of the data into its normal component densities is considered. The densities are approximated with first order dependent feature trees using criteria of mutual information and distance measures. Expressions are presented for the criteria when the densities are Gaussian. By defining different typs of nodes in a general dependent feature tree, maximum likelihood equations are developed for the estimation of parameters using fixed point iterations. The field structure of the data is also taken into account in developing maximum likelihood equations. Experimental results from the processing of remotely sensed multispectral scanner imagery data are included.

  20. Hijacking Cortical Motor Output with Repetitive Microstimulation

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, D.M.; Hudson, H.M.; Belhaj-Sa?f, A.; Cheney, P.D.

    2011-01-01

    High frequency repetitive microstimulation has been widely used as a method of investigating the properties of cortical motor output. Despite its widespread use, few studies have investigated how activity evoked by high frequency stimulation may interact with the existing activity of cortical cells resulting from natural synaptic inputs. A reasonable assumption might be that the stimulus-evoked activity sums with the existing natural activity. However, another possibility is that the stimulus-evoked firing of cortical neurons might block and replace the natural activity. We refer to this latter possibility as neural hijacking. Evidence from analysis of EMG activity evoked by repetitive microstimulation (200 Hz, 500 ms) of primary motor cortex in two rhesus monkeys during performance of a reach-to-grasp task strongly supports the neural hijacking hypothesis. PMID:21917792

  1. Design of laser diode stable output system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bo; Cao, Rui-ming

    2008-03-01

    High-stability output's system of laser diode is introduced in this paper. The system which is based on the MCU of MSP430 has been designed light power feedback loop and coller of TEC. It includes stable current, protecting circuit, light power feedback loop, temperature controlling, power display and so on. It is also able to control and show the power at the real time. The power could be set by botton too. The software of slow start up, slow close and the protecting relay are adopted by MCU. DRV592 is introduced as PWM driver to control the current of TEC. The duty cycle is generate by MCU. In order to control temperature, it is changed to influence the current of TEC. The power that is sampled by photodiode which is integrated in the laser diode is controlled by the micro-processing. The laser is monitored by voltage control circuit and current control circuit at the real time.

  2. On source radiation. [power output computation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, H.

    1980-01-01

    The power output from given sources is usually ascertained via an energy flux integral over the normal directions to a remote (farfield) surface; an alternative procedure, which utilizes an integral that specifies the direct rate of working by the source on the resultant field, is described and illustrated for both point and continuous source distributions. A comparison between the respective procedures is made in the analysis of sound radiated from a periodic dipole source whose axis rotates in a plane, on a full or partial angular range, with prescribed frequency. Thus, adopting a conventional approach, Sretenskii (1956) characterizes the rotating dipole in terms of an infinite number of stationary ones along a pair of orthogonal directions in the plane and, through the farfield representation of the latter, arrives at a series development for the instantaneous radiated power, whereas the local manner of power calculation dispenses with the equivalent infinite aggregate of sources and yields a compact analytical result.

  3. TRANSIMS simulation output subsystem for IOC-1

    SciTech Connect

    Kerkbigler, K.P.; Bush, B.W.

    1997-04-02

    The output subsystem collects data from a running microsimulation, stores the data for future use, and manages the subsequent retrieval of the data. It forms a layer separating the other subsystems from the actual data files so that the other subsystems do not need to access the data files at the physical level or deal with the physical location and organization of the files. This subsystem also allows the user to specify what data is collected and retrieved, and to filter it by space and time. The collection occurs in a distributed manner such that the subsystem`s impact on the microsimulation performance is minimized; the retrieval provides a unified view of the distributed data.

  4. Turbulent Output-Based Anisotropic Adaptation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Michael A.; Carlson, Jan-Renee

    2010-01-01

    Controlling discretization error is a remaining challenge for computational fluid dynamics simulation. Grid adaptation is applied to reduce estimated discretization error in drag or pressure integral output functions. To enable application to high O(10(exp 7)) Reynolds number turbulent flows, a hybrid approach is utilized that freezes the near-wall boundary layer grids and adapts the grid away from the no slip boundaries. The hybrid approach is not applicable to problems with under resolved initial boundary layer grids, but is a powerful technique for problems with important off-body anisotropic features. Supersonic nozzle plume, turbulent flat plate, and shock-boundary layer interaction examples are presented with comparisons to experimental measurements of pressure and velocity. Adapted grids are produced that resolve off-body features in locations that are not known a priori.

  5. Models of power plants that generate minimum entropy while operating at maximum power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bejan, Adrian

    1996-08-01

    Chambadal, Novikov, Curzon and Ahlborn have shown that the efficiency of an irreversible heat engine at maximum power output is 1-(TL/TH)1/2. This article describes several heat engine models in which the same efficiency formula can be derived by minimizing the rate of entropy generation. Included in the entropy generation is the usually overlooked contribution made by the components that provide a freely varying heat input to the power cycle.

  6. SCI Identification (SCIDNT) program user's guide. [maximum likelihood method for linear rotorcraft models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The computer program Linear SCIDNT which evaluates rotorcraft stability and control coefficients from flight or wind tunnel test data is described. It implements the maximum likelihood method to maximize the likelihood function of the parameters based on measured input/output time histories. Linear SCIDNT may be applied to systems modeled by linear constant-coefficient differential equations. This restriction in scope allows the application of several analytical results which simplify the computation and improve its efficiency over the general nonlinear case.

  7. Accomplishments, Administrative Structure, and Activities of the Sensory Aids Evaluation and Development Center. Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge. Sensory Aids Evaluation and Development Center.

    The report lists the staff and states the activities of the Sensory Aids Evaluation and Development Center (SAEDC). Work accomplished is reviewed, including work on the following; compiled speech output for the DOTSYS Information System; monotype reader; braille embosser; folding canes; pathsounder; Perkins brailler; evaluation of braille; speeded

  8. Continuous monitoring of cardiac output from TCG signals.

    PubMed

    Keenan, D B

    2004-01-01

    Continuous measurement of cardiac output (CO) is an important and difficult measure to obtain in an ambulatory environment. A novel ambulatory monitoring system (LifeShirt, VivoMetrics, Inc., Ventura, CA, USA) with three Inductive Plethysmographic (IP) sensors embedded in a garment, enables continuous monitoring of respiration from the ribcage and abdomen areas, and captures thoracocardiograph (TCG) signals from the thorax at the level of the left ventricle. This TCG signal provides a non-invasive measure of the volumetric contractions of the heart. The raw TCG signal must undergo extensive signal processing and digital filtering to extract a volume curve similar to the ventricular volume curve obtained through echocardiography. Typically the respiratory component has an amplitude of over twenty times that of the stroke volume curve. This investigation compares various signal processing algorithms such as spectral subtraction and adaptive filtering to separate these 2 components, which can occupy the same frequency band. These algorithms make use of the ribcage and abdominal signals to predict the respiratory component within the TCG signal. A dual axis accelerometer that measures posture and levels of activity aids filtering movement artifact. With the addition of a single lead ECG, ensemble averaging is used to smooth artifact in the signal, and CO may be obtained by including a heart rate measure. Additional measures can be derived including left ventricular systolic time intervals such as Pre-ejection period, Peak ejection rate and time to peak ejection rate. The results show that increases and decreases in SV and CO can be measured over time. PMID:15133982

  9. Handling Input and Output for COAMPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzpatrick, Patrick; Tran, Nam; Li, Yongzuo; Anantharaj, Valentine

    2007-01-01

    Two suites of software have been developed to handle the input and output of the Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Prediction System (COAMPS), which is a regional atmospheric model developed by the Navy for simulating and predicting weather. Typically, the initial and boundary conditions for COAMPS are provided by a flat-file representation of the Navy s global model. Additional algorithms are needed for running the COAMPS software using global models. One of the present suites satisfies this need for running COAMPS using the Global Forecast System (GFS) model of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The first step in running COAMPS downloading of GFS data from an Internet file-transfer-protocol (FTP) server computer of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) is performed by one of the programs (SSC-00273) in this suite. The GFS data, which are in gridded binary (GRIB) format, are then changed to a COAMPS-compatible format by another program in the suite (SSC-00278). Once a forecast is complete, still another program in the suite (SSC-00274) sends the output data to a different server computer. The second suite of software (SSC- 00275) addresses the need to ingest up-to-date land-use-and-land-cover (LULC) data into COAMPS for use in specifying typical climatological values of such surface parameters as albedo, aerodynamic roughness, and ground wetness. This suite includes (1) a program to process LULC data derived from observations by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments aboard NASA s Terra and Aqua satellites, (2) programs to derive new climatological parameters for the 17-land-use-category MODIS data; and (3) a modified version of a FORTRAN subroutine to be used by COAMPS. The MODIS data files are processed to reformat them into a compressed American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) format used by COAMPS for efficient processing.

  10. Servicing aid tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pullen, John L.; Keksz, William O.; Manson, Thomas J.; Martin, David; Werneth, Russel

    1992-11-01

    The servicing aid tool (SAT) is a teleoperated manipulation system designed for use on the NSTS Orbiter. The system will assist EVA servicing of spacecraft such as the Hubble Space Telescope and Explorer platform. SAT components are spaceflight adaptations of existing ground-based designs from Robotics Research and Schilling Development. Fairchild Space is providing the control electronics, safety system, and flight integration. The manipulator consists of a 6-DOF slave arm mounted on a 1-DOF positioning link in the payload bay. The slave arm is controlled via a highly similar, 6-DOF, force-reflecting master arm. Each slave arm joint receives position commands from the corresponding master arm joint; torque commands are reflected to each master joint based on the current state of the slave joint and the master/slave relationship. Scaled and indexed control will be accommodated, as will various features to ensure safe operation. The paper focuses on the development of the safety system, and operations for the demonstration and servicing missions.

  11. Peircean Decision Aid

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2008-08-14

    The Peircean decision aid (PDA) is a decision support architecture and embedded functionality that supports a decision maker in very complex environments dealing with massive amounts of disparate data, information and knowledge. The solution generated is a hybrid system solution employing a number of technologies that are based on Peircean reasoning, modal logic, and formal concept analysis. The system convolves data/information with knowledge to create a virtual belief state that is passed to a decisionmore » maker for consideration. The system can capture categorized knowledge or it can inductively learn or acquire new knowledge from suites of observations. Captured knowledge is used to abductively generate hypotheses that are potential explanations to observations or collected data. The zero order modal logic architecture is designed to augment knowledge update and belief revision and can be extended to include disjunctive screening of collected data. While intended to be a library for integration into a decision support architecture it possesses a basic stand-alone GUI for use as an analysis support tool.« less

  12. Peircean Decision Aid

    SciTech Connect

    2008-08-14

    The Peircean decision aid (PDA) is a decision support architecture and embedded functionality that supports a decision maker in very complex environments dealing with massive amounts of disparate data, information and knowledge. The solution generated is a hybrid system solution employing a number of technologies that are based on Peircean reasoning, modal logic, and formal concept analysis. The system convolves data/information with knowledge to create a virtual belief state that is passed to a decision maker for consideration. The system can capture categorized knowledge or it can inductively learn or acquire new knowledge from suites of observations. Captured knowledge is used to abductively generate hypotheses that are potential explanations to observations or collected data. The zero order modal logic architecture is designed to augment knowledge update and belief revision and can be extended to include disjunctive screening of collected data. While intended to be a library for integration into a decision support architecture it possesses a basic stand-alone GUI for use as an analysis support tool.

  13. 33 CFR 183.37 - Maximum weight capacity: Boats rated for manual propulsion and boats rated for outboard motors of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and... the weight of the volume of water displaced by the boat at its maximum level immersion in calm water without water coming aboard. For the purpose of this paragraph, a boat is level when it is...

  14. 33 CFR 183.37 - Maximum weight capacity: Boats rated for manual propulsion and boats rated for outboard motors of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and... the weight of the volume of water displaced by the boat at its maximum level immersion in calm water without water coming aboard. For the purpose of this paragraph, a boat is level when it is...

  15. 33 CFR 183.37 - Maximum weight capacity: Boats rated for manual propulsion and boats rated for outboard motors of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and... the weight of the volume of water displaced by the boat at its maximum level immersion in calm water without water coming aboard. For the purpose of this paragraph, a boat is level when it is...

  16. 33 CFR 183.37 - Maximum weight capacity: Boats rated for manual propulsion and boats rated for outboard motors of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maximum weight capacity: Boats rated for manual propulsion and boats rated for outboard motors of 2 horsepower or less. 183.37...

  17. Prediction of the maximum annual mean sunspot number in the coming solar maximum epoch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kane, R. P.

    1987-09-01

    Using an earlier correlation analysis between the annual sunspot numbers at sunspot maximum epochs and the minimum annual aa index in the immediately preceding years (Kane, 1978), the minimum annual aa index during 1985-86 is determined. The value obtained (21.6) implies a maximum annual sunspot number of aobut 190 + or - 40 in the coming solar maximum epoch, in about 1988-89.

  18. Maximum Sunspot Numbers and Active Days

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Heon-Young

    2013-09-01

    Parameters associated with solar minimum have been studied to relate them to solar activity at solar maximum so that one could possibly predict behaviors of an upcoming solar cycle. The number of active days has been known as a reliable indicator of solar activity around solar minimum. Active days are days with sunspots reported on the solar disk. In this work, we have explored the relationship between the sunspot numbers at solar maximum and the characteristics of the monthly number of active days. Specifically, we have statistically examined how the maximum monthly sunspot number of a given solar cycle is correlated with the slope of the linear relationship between monthly sunspot numbers and the monthly number of active days for the corresponding solar cycle. We have calculated the linear correlation coefficient r and the Spearman rank-order correlation coefficient rs for data sets prepared under various conditions. Even though marginal correlations are found, they turn out to be insufficiently significant (r ~ 0.3). Nonetheless, we have confirmed that the slope of the linear relationship between monthly sunspot numbers and the monthly number of active days is less steep when solar cycles belonging to the "Modern Maximum" are considered compared with rests of solar cycles. We conclude, therefore, that the slope of the linear relationship between monthly sunspot numbers and the monthly number of active days is indeed dependent on the solar activity at its maxima, but that this simple relationship should be insufficient as a valid method to predict the following solar activity amplitude.

  19. 5 CFR 9701.312 - Maximum rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Overview of Pay System § 9701.312 Maximum rates. (a) DHS may...

  20. Maximum rotation frequency of strange stars

    SciTech Connect

    Zdunik, J.L.; Haensel, P. )

    1990-07-15

    Using the MIT bag model of strange-quark matter, we calculate the maximum angular frequency of the uniform rotation of strange stars. After studying a broad range of the MIT bag-model parameters, we obtain an upper bound of 12.3 kHz.

  1. Menu Plans: Maximum Nutrition for Minimum Cost.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Child Care, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Suggests that menu planning is the key to getting maximum nutrition in day care meals and snacks for minimum cost. Explores United States Department of Agriculture food pyramid guidelines for children and tips for planning menus and grocery shopping. Includes suggested meal patterns and portion sizes. (HTH)

  2. Maximum Possible Transverse Velocity in Special Relativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medhekar, Sarang

    1991-01-01

    Using a physical picture, an expression for the maximum possible transverse velocity and orientation required for that by a linear emitter in special theory of relativity has been derived. A differential calculus method is also used to derive the expression. (Author/KR)

  3. 20 CFR 229.48 - Family maximum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... total wages (see 20 CFR 404.203(m)) for the second year before the individual dies or becomes eligible... Minimum PIA. The divorced spouse overall minimum is never reduced because of the family maximum. (b... Minimum PIA, and no more than 150 percent of the employee's Overall Minimum PIA. (d) Reduction for...

  4. 20 CFR 229.48 - Family maximum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... total wages (see 20 CFR 404.203(m)) for the second year before the individual dies or becomes eligible... Minimum PIA. The divorced spouse overall minimum is never reduced because of the family maximum. (b... Minimum PIA, and no more than 150 percent of the employee's Overall Minimum PIA. (d) Reduction for...

  5. Weak scale from the maximum entropy principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamada, Yuta; Kawai, Hikaru; Kawana, Kiyoharu

    2015-03-01

    The theory of the multiverse and wormholes suggests that the parameters of the Standard Model (SM) are fixed in such a way that the radiation of the S3 universe at the final stage S_rad becomes maximum, which we call the maximum entropy principle. Although it is difficult to confirm this principle generally, for a few parameters of the SM, we can check whether S_rad actually becomes maximum at the observed values. In this paper, we regard S_rad at the final stage as a function of the weak scale (the Higgs expectation value) vh, and show that it becomes maximum around vh = {{O}} (300 GeV) when the dimensionless couplings in the SM, i.e., the Higgs self-coupling, the gauge couplings, and the Yukawa couplings are fixed. Roughly speaking, we find that the weak scale is given by vh ˜ T_{BBN}2 / (M_{pl}ye5), where ye is the Yukawa coupling of electron, T_BBN is the temperature at which the Big Bang nucleosynthesis starts, and M_pl is the Planck mass.

  6. 5 CFR 9701.312 - Maximum rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Overview of Pay System 9701.312 Maximum rates. (a) DHS may...

  7. 49 CFR 107.329 - Maximum penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... them to be transported or shipped is liable for a civil penalty of not more than $75,000 for each violation, except the maximum civil penalty is $175,000 if the violation results in death, serious illness... civil penalty is $175,000 if the violation results in death, serious illness or severe injury to...

  8. 49 CFR 107.329 - Maximum penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... them to be transported or shipped is liable for a civil penalty of not more than $75,000 for each violation, except the maximum civil penalty is $175,000 if the violation results in death, serious illness... civil penalty is $175,000 if the violation results in death, serious illness or severe injury to...

  9. Integrating Correlated Bayesian Networks Using Maximum Entropy

    SciTech Connect

    Jarman, Kenneth D.; Whitney, Paul D.

    2011-08-30

    We consider the problem of generating a joint distribution for a pair of Bayesian networks that preserves the multivariate marginal distribution of each network and satisfies prescribed correlation between pairs of nodes taken from both networks. We derive the maximum entropy distribution for any pair of multivariate random vectors and prescribed correlations and demonstrate numerical results for an example integration of Bayesian networks.

  10. 7 CFR 1778.11 - Maximum grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... quantity of potable water, or an anticipated acute shortage or significant decline, cannot exceed $150,000... (CONTINUED) EMERGENCY AND IMMINENT COMMUNITY WATER ASSISTANCE GRANTS 1778.11 Maximum grants. (a) Grants not to exceed $500,000 may be made to alleviate a significant decline in quantity or quality of...

  11. Comparing maximum pressures in internal combustion engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sparrow, Stanwood W; Lee, Stephen M

    1922-01-01

    Thin metal diaphragms form a satisfactory means for comparing maximum pressures in internal combustion engines. The diaphragm is clamped between two metal washers in a spark plug shell and its thickness is chosen such that, when subjected to explosion pressure, the exposed portion will be sheared from the rim in a short time.

  12. 5 CFR 9701.312 - Maximum rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Overview of Pay System 9701.312 Maximum rates. (a) DHS may...

  13. 5 CFR 9701.312 - Maximum rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maximum rates. 9701.312 Section 9701.312 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN...

  14. Maximum entropy analysis of hydraulic pipe networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldrip, Steven H.; Niven, Robert K.; Abel, Markus; Schlegel, Michael

    2014-12-01

    A Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) method is developed to infer mean external and internal flow rates and mean pressure gradients (potential differences) in hydraulic pipe networks, without or with sufficient constraints to render the system deterministic. The proposed method substantially extends existing methods for the analysis of flow networks (e.g. Hardy-Cross), applicable only to deterministic networks.

  15. Maximum entropy analysis of flow networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niven, Robert K.; Abel, Markus; Schlegel, Michael; Waldrip, Steven H.

    2014-12-01

    This study examines a generalised maximum entropy (MaxEnt) analysis of a flow network, involving flow rates and potential differences on the network, connected by resistance functions. The analysis gives a generic derivation based on an explicit form of the resistance functions. Accounting for the constraints also leads to an extended form of Gibbs' phase rule, applicable to flow networks.

  16. Who accepts first aid training?

    PubMed

    Pearn, J; Dawson, B; Leditschke, F; Petrie, G; Nixon, J

    1980-09-01

    The percentage of individuals trained in first aid skills in the general community is inadequate. We report here a study to investigate factors which influence motivation to accept voluntary training in first aid. A group of 700 randomly selected owners of inground swimming pools (a parental high-risk group) was offered a course of formal first aid instruction. Nine per cent attended the offered training course. The time commitment involved in traditional courses (eight training nights spread over four weeks) is not a deterrent, the same percentage accepting such courses as that who accept a course of one night's instruction. Cost is an important deterrent factor, consumer resistance rising over 15 cost units (one cost unit = the price of a loaf of bread). The level of competent first aid training within the community can be raised by (a) keeping to traditional course content, but (b) by ensuring a higher acceptance rate of first aid courses by a new approach to publicity campaigns, to convince prospective students of the real worth of first aid training. Questions concerning who should be taught first aid, and factors influencing motivation, are discussed. PMID:7213253

  17. Maximum wind energy extraction strategies using power electronic converters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Quincy Qing

    2003-10-01

    This thesis focuses on maximum wind energy extraction strategies for achieving the highest energy output of variable speed wind turbine power generation systems. Power electronic converters and controls provide the basic platform to accomplish the research of this thesis in both hardware and software aspects. In order to send wind energy to a utility grid, a variable speed wind turbine requires a power electronic converter to convert a variable voltage variable frequency source into a fixed voltage fixed frequency supply. Generic single-phase and three-phase converter topologies, converter control methods for wind power generation, as well as the developed direct drive generator, are introduced in the thesis for establishing variable-speed wind energy conversion systems. Variable speed wind power generation system modeling and simulation are essential methods both for understanding the system behavior and for developing advanced system control strategies. Wind generation system components, including wind turbine, 1-phase IGBT inverter, 3-phase IGBT inverter, synchronous generator, and rectifier, are modeled in this thesis using MATLAB/SIMULINK. The simulation results have been verified by a commercial simulation software package, PSIM, and confirmed by field test results. Since the dynamic time constants for these individual models are much different, a creative approach has also been developed in this thesis to combine these models for entire wind power generation system simulation. An advanced maximum wind energy extraction strategy relies not only on proper system hardware design, but also on sophisticated software control algorithms. Based on literature review and computer simulation on wind turbine control algorithms, an intelligent maximum wind energy extraction control algorithm is proposed in this thesis. This algorithm has a unique on-line adaptation and optimization capability, which is able to achieve maximum wind energy conversion efficiency through continuously improving the performance of wind power generation systems. This algorithm is independent of wind power generation system characteristics, and does not need wind speed and turbine speed measurements. Therefore, it can be easily implemented into various wind energy generation systems with different turbine inertia and diverse system hardware environments. In addition to the detailed description of the proposed algorithm, computer simulation results are presented in the thesis to demonstrate the advantage of this algorithm. As a final confirmation of the algorithm feasibility, the algorithm has been implemented inside a single-phase IGBT inverter, and tested with a wind simulator system in research laboratory. Test results were found consistent with the simulation results. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  18. New Mexico AIDS InfoNet

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Hindi, Manipuri, Oriya, Tamil , and Telugu About the AIDS InfoNet The AIDS InfoNet is a project of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care (IAPAC) . The InfoNet was founded by Bob ...

  19. HIV/AIDS and the Flu

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters HIV/AIDS and the Flu Questions & Answers Language: English ... to people with HIV/AIDS. Should people with HIV/AIDS receive the inactivated influenza vaccine? People with ...

  20. Reprieve for Thailand's AIDS campaign.

    PubMed

    Clements, A

    1992-07-25

    A promilitary coalition began to govern Thailand in March 1992. It reduced the budget for the original proposed national AIDS awareness campaign from 30 million British pounds to almost 15 million British pounds. The Ministry of Health professed that the campaign had exaggerated the problem of AIDS in Thailand and had damaged tourism. Yet prodemocracy demonstrations in Bangkok in which troops killed many protesters restored the politicians who started the AIDS campaign to power in May 1992. There were to remain in power until new elections in September 1992. In July, the Minister of Health, Mechai Viravaidya, said he would step down if the government did not completely restore the 30 million British pounds for the AIDS campaign. It then increased the budget to almost that amount. Mr. Viravaidya initiated Thailand's open policy on the AIDS crisis and was known as Mr. Condom. He claimed that at the present HIV prevalence rate, Thailand may have between 2-4 million HIV infected people by 2000. If the country would take on anti-AIDS efforts now, however, they could cut the spread of HIV by 75%. As of mid-1992, about 400,000 people living in Thailand were HIV positive. The AIDS campaign planned to sue the mass media to inform people about AIDS especially those in universities and schools and high risk occupational groups. The increasing number of construction workers in Bangkok and existing sex workers were a high risk occupational group. At the 2nd national seminar of AIDS, the Minister of Health reproached tourists who come to Thailand for its sex industry. He said that Thailand does not need the 1 billion British pounds they bring to Thailand annually, and Thais do not want their homeland to be referred to as the sex capital. PMID:1392821