These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Speech Intelligibility of Two Voice Output Communication Aids.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The intelligibility of two voice-output communication aids ("Personal Communicator" and "SpeechPAC'") was evaluated by presenting synthesized words and sentences to 20 listeners. Analysis of listener transcriptions revealed significantly higher intelligibility scores for the "Personal Communicator" compared to the "SpeechPAC" and higher scores for…

Kannenberg, Patricia; And Others

1988-01-01

2

Maximum efficiency and output of class-F power amplifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A class-F power amplifier (PA) improves efficiency and power-output capability (over that of class A) by using selected harmonics to shape its drain-voltage and drain-current waveforms. Typically, one waveform (e.g., voltage) approximates a square wave, while the other (e.g., current) approximates a half sine wave. The output power and efficiency of an ideal class-F PA can be related to the

Frederick H. Raab

2001-01-01

3

Efficiencies of two-level weak dissipation quantum Carnot engines at the maximum power output  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A weak-dissipation cycle model of two-level quantum Carnot engines is proposed by adopting a generic energy spectrum and the superposition effect of quantum systems. Expressions for the power output and efficiency of the cycle are derived. The optimal relation between the power output and the efficiency is obtained and the optimally operating region of the cycle is determined. Moreover, analytical expression for the efficiency of the cycle at the maximum power output is deduced and the lower and upper bounds of the efficiency at the maximum power output are given. The results obtained are general and can be directly used to discuss the optimal performance characteristics of several types of two-level quantum Carnot engines.

Guo, Juncheng; Wang, Junyi; Wang, Yuan; Chen, Jincan

2013-04-01

4

Diagrammatic representation of the optimal performance of an endoreversible Carnot engine at maximum power output  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is shown that for three different arrangements of heat resistances the standard optimum performance criteria of endoreversible Carnot engines at maximum power output can be conveniently expressed by two simple diagrams. It is also pointed out that such diagrams should rightfully be referred to as Bejan diagrams.

Chen, Jincan; Andresen, Bjarne

1999-01-01

5

A new approach to rowing ergometry: establishing exercise intensity relative to maximum force output  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The present experiment evaluated a new approach to establish exercise intensity during hydraulic rowing ergometry. In contrast to the traditional approach where exercise intensity is augmented by systematically increasing workload, the new procedure increments the intensity of exercise while maintaining a constant percentage of maximum force output. Ten college females exercised on a hydraulic rower that allowed for control of

Randall L. Jensen; Frank I. Katch

1991-01-01

6

Program Aids In Printing FORTRAN-Coded Output  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

FORPRINT computer program prints FORTRAN-coded output files on most non-Postscript printers with such extra features as control of fonts for Epson and Hewlett Packard printers. Rewrites data to printer and inserts correct printer-control codes. Alternative uses include ability to separate data or ASCII file during printing by use of editing software to insert "1" in first column of data line that starts new page. Written in FORTRAN 77.

Akian, Richard A.

1993-01-01

7

Efficiency at Maximum Power Output of a Quantum-Mechanical Brayton Cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The performance in finite time of a quantum-mechanical Brayton engine cycle is discussed, without introduction of temperature. The engine model consists of two quantum isoenergetic and two quantum isobaric processes, and works with a single particle in a harmonic trap. Directly employing the finite-time thermodynamics, the efficiency at maximum power output is determined. Extending the harmonic trap to a power-law trap, we find that the efficiency at maximum power is independent of any parameter involved in the model, but depends on the confinement of the trapping potential.

Yuan, Yuan; He, Ji-Zhou; Gao, Yong; Wang, Jian-Hui

2014-03-01

8

Efficiency at maximum power output of linear irreversible Carnot-like heat engines.  

PubMed

The efficiency at maximum power output of linear irreversible Carnot-like heat engines is investigated based on the assumption that the rate of irreversible entropy production of the working substance in each "isothermal" process is a quadratic form of the heat exchange rate between the working substance and the reservoir. It is found that the maximum power output corresponds to minimizing the irreversible entropy production in two isothermal processes of the Carnot-like cycle, and that the efficiency at maximum power output has the form ?(mP)=?(C)/(2-??(C)), where ?(C) is the Carnot efficiency, while ? depends on the heat transfer coefficients between the working substance and two reservoirs. The value of ?(mP) is bounded between ?(-)??(C)/2 and ?(+)??(C)/(2-?(C)). These results are consistent with those obtained by Chen and Yan [J. Chem. Phys. 90, 3740 (1989)] based on the endoreversible assumption, those obtained by Esposito et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 150603 (2010)] based on the low-dissipation assumption, and those obtained by Schmiedl and Seifert [Europhys. Lett. 81, 20003 (2008)] for stochastic heat engines which in fact also satisfy the low-dissipation assumption. Additionally, we find that the endoreversible assumption happens to hold for Carnot-like heat engines operating at the maximum power output based on our fundamental assumption, and that the Carnot-like heat engines that we focused on do not strictly satisfy the low-dissipation assumption, which implies that the low-dissipation assumption or our fundamental assumption is a sufficient but non-necessary condition for the validity of ?(mP)=?(C)/(2-??(C)) as well as the existence of two bounds, ?(-)??(C)/2 and ?(+)??(C)/(2-?(C)). PMID:22400532

Wang, Yang; Tu, Z C

2012-01-01

9

Six-port receiver local oscillator power selection for maximum output SNR  

Microsoft Academic Search

With an ideal model of a six-port communications receiver in mind, the optimal local oscillator (LO) power at the diode mixers for maximum signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) at the baseband outputs is determined by simulations. The simulation setup contains the equivalent circuit for a diode mixer that has been used in a six-port communications receiver demonstrator [1]. By means of noise analysis

Sebastian M. Winter; Henning J. Ehm; Alexander Koelpin; Robert Weigel

2008-01-01

10

The High Output Maximum Efficiency Resonator (HOMER) Developed for Long Life, Space-Based Altimetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—We report on the status of the High Output Maximum Efficiency Resonator (HOMER), a prototype space-flight Nd:YAG, diode pumped, unstable resonator. HOMER, the 3 , generation of this design based on the High Efficiency Laser Transmitter, is a stand-alone oscillator that has achieved ~ 2 billion 10 ns q-switched pulses at 17-15 mJ. In this configuration HOMER achieves an excellent

D. Barry Coyle; Paul R. Stysley

2005-01-01

11

The high output maximum efficiency resonator (HOMER) developed for long life, space-based altimetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on the status of the high output maximum efficiency resonator (HOMER), a prototype space-flight Nd:YAG, diode pumped, unstable resonator. HOMER, the 3rd generation of this design based on the high efficiency laser transmitter, is a stand-alone oscillator that has achieved ~2 billion 10 ns q-switched pulses at 17-15 mJ. In this configuration HOMER achieves an excellent optical efficiency

D. Barry Coyle; Paul R. Stysley

2006-01-01

12

The Effect of Valve Cooling upon Maximum Permissible Engine Output as Limited by Knock  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Wright GR-1820-G200 cylinder was tested over a wide range of fuel-air ratios at maximum permissible power output as limited by knock with three different degrees of valve cooling. The valves used were stock valves (solid inlet valve and hollow sodium-cooled exhaust valve), hollow valves with no coolant, and hollow valves with flowing water as a coolant. Curves showing the variation in maximum permissible values of inlet-air pressure, indicated mean effective pressure, cylinder charge, and indicated specific fuel consumption with change in fuel-air ratio and valve cooling are shown. The use of valves cooled by a stream of water passing through their hollow interiors permitted indicated mean effective pressures 10 percent higher than the mean effective pressures permissible with stock valves when the engine was operated with fuel-air ratios from 0.055 to 0.065. Operation of the engine with lean mixtures with uncooled hollow valves resulted in power output below the output obtained with the stock valves. The data show an increase in maximum permissible indicated mean effective pressure due to cooling the valves, which averages only 2.1 percent with fuel-air ratios from 0.075 to 0.105.

Munger, Maurice; Wilsted, H D; Mulcahy, B A

1942-01-01

13

SHORT COMMUNICATION MAXIMUM LOAD-LIFTING AND INDUCED POWER OUTPUT OF HARRIS' HAWKS ARE GENERAL FUNCTIONS OF FLIGHT MUSCLE MASS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measuring the rate of gain of potential energy (which is presumably equal to maximum induced power output in level flight) is highly advantageous, since it uses empirical observations of the rate of work and involves considerably fewer assumptions than do previous estimates of maximum induced power output. However, Pennycuick et al. (1989) neglected to relate their results to previous measurements

JAMES H. MARDEN

1990-01-01

14

Voice Output Communication Aid Application for Personal Digital Assistant for Autistic Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let's Talk! is a new VOCA (Voice Output Communication Aid) application for PDA for autistic children. This application has many advantages comparing to existing VOCA. We especially focused on an easy and simple manipulation. By tapping a symbol on a screen of a PDA with this application, a user can show his\\/her thoughts with pictures and sounds to others easily.

Ippei Torii; Kaoruko Ohtani; Nahoko Shirahama; Takahito Niwa; Naohiro Ishii

2012-01-01

15

Efficiency at maximum power output of an irreversible Carnot-like cycle with internally dissipative friction.  

PubMed

We investigate the efficiency at the maximum power output (EMP) of an irreversible Carnot engine performing finite-time cycles between two reservoirs at constant temperatures T(h) and T(c) (

Wang, Jianhui; He, Jizhou

2012-11-01

16

Optimal expansion of a heated working fluid for maximum work output with generalized radiative heat transfer law  

Microsoft Academic Search

The optimal configuration of the expansion process of a heated working fluid inside a cylinder for maximum work output with a movable piston and generalized radiative heat transfer law q˙~Delta(T n) is determined. The optimal process that maximizes the work output of the working fluid with fixed initial energy, initial volume, and final volume is obtained using optimal control theory.

Hanjiang Song; Lingen Chen; Fengrui Sun

2007-01-01

17

Work Output and Efficiency at Maximum Power of Linear Irreversible Heat Engines Operating with a Finite-Sized Heat Source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We formulate the work output and efficiency for linear irreversible heat engines working between a finite-sized hot heat source and an infinite-sized cold heat reservoir until the total system reaches the final thermal equilibrium state with a uniform temperature. We prove that when the heat engines operate at the maximum power under the tight-coupling condition without heat leakage the work output is just half of the exergy, which is known as the maximum available work extracted from a heat source. As a consequence, the corresponding efficiency is also half of its quasistatic counterpart.

Izumida, Yuki; Okuda, Koji

2014-05-01

18

A Framework for Determining the Maximum Theoretical Power Output for a Given Vibration Energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper outlines a mathematical framework to determine the upper bound on extractable power as a function of the forcing vibrations. In addition to determining the upper bound on power output, the method described provides insight into the dynamic transducer forces required to attain the upper bound. This relationship, between input vibration parameters and transducer force gives a critical first step in determining the optimal transducer architecture for a given vibration input. The method developed is applied to two specific vibration inputs; a single sinusoid, and the sum of two sinusoids. For the single sinusoidal case, the optimal transducer force is found to be that produced by a linear spring, resonant with the input frequency, and a linear viscous damper, with matched impedance to the mechanical damper. The solution to this first case was previously known, but has been used here to validate the methodology. The resulting transducer force for the input described by a sum of two sinusoids is found to be inherently time dependent. This time dependency shows that an active system can outperform a passive system. Furthermore, the upper bound on power output is shown to be twice that obtainable from a linear harvester centred at the lower of the two frequencies.

Heit, J.; Roundy, S.

2014-11-01

19

Abstract-This paper proposes a neural network based approach to estimating the maximum possible output power of a solar photovoltaic  

E-print Network

output power of a solar photovoltaic array under the non-uniform shadow conditions at a given geographic as inputs, a multilayer feed-forward neural network estimates the output power of the solar photovoltaic output power of the solar PV arrays accurately. Further, the network is able to estimate the maximum

Lehman, Brad

20

Heart mass and the maximum cardiac output of birds and mammals: implications for estimating the maximum aerobic power input of flying animals  

PubMed Central

Empirical studies of cardiovascular variables suggest that relative heart muscle mass (relative Mh) is a good indicator of the degree of adaptive specialization for prolonged locomotor activities, for both birds and mammals. Reasonable predictions for the maximum oxygen consumption of birds during flight can be obtained by assuming that avian heart muscle has the same maximum physiological and biomechanical performance as that of terrestrial mammals. Thus, data on Mh can be used to provide quantitative estimates for the maximum aerobic power input (aerobic Pi,max) available to animals during intense levels of locomotor activity. The maximum cardiac output of birds and mammals is calculated to scale with respect to Mh (g) as 213 Mh0.88+-0.04 (ml min-1), while aerobic Pi,max is estimated to scale approximately as 11 Mh0.88+-0.09 (W). In general, estimated inter-species aerobic Pi,max, based on Mh for all bird species (excluding hummingbirds), is calculated to scale with respect to body mass (Mb in kg) as 81 Mb0.82+-0.11 (W). Comparison of family means for Mh indicate that there is considerable diversity in aerobic capacity among birds and mammals, for example, among the medium to large species of birds the Tinamidae have the smallest relative Mh (0.25 per cent) while the Otidae have unusually large relative Mh (1.6 per cent). Hummingbirds have extremely large relative Mh (2.28 per cent), but exhibit significant sexual dimorphism in their scaling of Mh and flight muscle mass, so that when considering hummingbird flight performance it may be useful to control for sexual differences in morphology. The estimated scaling of aerobic Pi,max (based on Mh and Mb in g) for male and female hummingbirds is 0.51 Mb0.83 +/-0.07 and 0.44 Mb0.85+- 0.11 (W), respectively. Locomotory muscles are dynamic structures and it might be anticipated that where additional energetic 'costs' occur seasonally (e.g. due to migratory fattening or the development of large secondary sexual characteristics) then the relevant cardiac and locomotor musculature might also be regulated seasonally. This is an important consideration, both due to the intrinsic interest of studying muscular adaptation to changes in energy demand, but also as a confounding variable in the practical use of heart rate to estimate the energetics of animals. Haemoglobin concentration (or haematocrit) may also be a confounding variable. Thus, it is concluded that data on the cardiovascular and flight muscle morphology of animals provides essential information regarding the behavioural, ecological and physiological significance of the flight performance of animals.

Bishop, C. M.

1997-01-01

21

On the implementation of an automated acoustic output optimization algorithm for subharmonic aided pressure estimation  

PubMed Central

Incident acoustic output (IAO) dependent subharmonic signal amplitudes from ultrasound contrast agents can be categorized into occurrence, growth or saturation stages. Subharmonic aided pressure estimation (SHAPE) is a technique that utilizes growth stage subharmonic signal amplitudes for hydrostatic pressure estimation. In this study, we developed an automated IAO optimization algorithm to identify the IAO level eliciting growth stage subharmonic signals and also studied the effect of pulse length on SHAPE. This approach may help eliminate the problems of acquiring and analyzing the data offline at all IAO levels as was done in previous studies and thus, pave the way for real-time clinical pressure monitoring applications. The IAO optimization algorithm was implemented on a Logiq 9 (GE Healthcare, Milwaukee, WI) scanner interfaced with a computer. The optimization algorithm stepped the ultrasound scanner from 0 to 100 % IAO. A logistic equation fitting function was applied with the criterion of minimum least squared error between the fitted subharmonic amplitudes and the measured subharmonic amplitudes as a function of the IAO levels and the optimum IAO level was chosen corresponding to the inflection point calculated from the fitted data. The efficacy of the optimum IAO level was investigated for in vivo SHAPE to monitor portal vein (PV) pressures in 5 canines and was compared with the performance of IAO levels, below and above the optimum IAO level, for 4, 8 and 16 transmit cycles. The canines received a continuous infusion of Sonazoid microbubbles (1.5 ?l/kg/min; GE Healthcare, Oslo, Norway). PV pressures were obtained using a surgically introduced pressure catheter (Millar Instruments, Inc., Houston, TX) and were recorded before and after increasing PV pressures. The experiments showed that optimum IAO levels for SHAPE in the canines ranged from 6 to 40 %. The best correlation between changes in PV pressures and in subharmonic amplitudes (r = -0.76; p = 0.24), and between the absolute PV pressures and the subharmonic amplitudes (r = -0.89; p < 0.01) were obtained for the optimized IAO and 4 transmit cycles. Only for the optimized IAO and 4 transmit cycles did the subharmonic amplitudes differ significantly (p < 0.01) before and after increasing PV pressures. A new algorithm to identify optimum IAO levels for SHAPE has been developed and validated with the best results being obtained for 4 transmit cycles. The work presented in this study may pave the way for real-time clinical applications of estimating pressures using the subharmonic signals from ultrasound contrast agents. PMID:23347593

Dave, J. K.; Halldorsdottir, V. G.; Eisenbrey, J. R.; Merton, D. A.; Liu, J. B.; Machado, P.; Zhao, H.; Park, S.; Dianis, S.; Chalek, C. L.; Thomenius, K. E.; Brown, D. B.; Forsberg, F.

2013-01-01

22

Compairing Picture Exchange and Voice Output Communication Aids in Young Children with Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Center for Disease Control estimates that one in 88 births result in a diagnosis of autism (CDC, 2012). Of those individuals diagnosed with autism approximately 25-61% fail to develop vocal output capabilities (Weitxz, Dexter, & Moore, 1997). The use of Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) systems, such as Picture Exchange (PE)…

Lorah, Elizabeth R.

2012-01-01

23

Similarity in loudness and distortion product otoacoustic emission input/output functions: Implications for an objective hearing aid adjustment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of the present study was to compare distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) to loudness with regard to the potentiality of DPOAEs to determine characteristic quantities of the cochlear-impaired ear and to derive objective hearing aid parameters. Recently, Neely et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 114, 1499-1507 (2003)] compared DPOAE input/output functions to the Fletcher and Munson [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 5, 82-108 (1933)] loudness function finding a close resemblance in the slope characteristics of both measures. The present study extended their work by performing both loudness and DPOAE measurements in the same subject sample, and by developing a method for the estimation of gain needed to compensate for loss of cochlear sensitivity and compression. DPOAEs and loudness exhibited similar behavior when plotted on a logarithmic scale and slope increased with increasing hearing loss, confirming the findings of Neely et al. To compensate for undesired nonpathological impacts on the magnitude of DPOAE level, normalization of DPOAE data was implemented. A close resemblance between gain functions based on loudness and normalized DPOAE data was achieved. These findings suggest that DPOAEs are able to quantify the loss of cochlear sensitivity and compression and thus might provide parameters for a noncooperative hearing aid adjustment.

Müller, Jörg; Janssen, Thomas

2004-06-01

24

Focusing National Institutes of Health HIV/AIDS Research for Maximum Population Impact.  

PubMed

Progress in advancing research on the pathophysiology, prevention, treatment, and impact of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is threatened by the decaying purchasing power of National Institutes of Health (NIH) dollars. A working group of the NIH Office of AIDS Research Advisory Council was charged by the NIH Director with developing a focused and concise blueprint to guide the use of limited funding over the next few years. Science priorities outlined by the working group and reported here are intended to maximally address individuals, groups, and settings most affected by the epidemic, and to redress shortcomings in realizing population-level HIV prevention, treatment, and eradication goals. Optimizing these priorities requires that traditional silos-defined by topic focus and by scientific discipline-be dissolved and that structural issues affecting the pipeline of new investigators and the ability of the Office of AIDS Research to fulfill its role of steward of the NIH HIV/AIDS research program be directly addressed. PMID:25422391

Walensky, Rochelle P; Auerbach, Judith D

2015-03-15

25

The Design of a Micro Power Management System for Applications Using Photovoltaic Cells With the Maximum Output Power Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

An inductor-less on-chip micro power management system for light energy harvesting applications is presented. We target at wide variety of applications that operate at different lighting environments ranging from strong sunlight to dim indoor lighting where the output voltage from the photovoltaic cells is low. A step-up charge pump is used to directly operate the circuit or to charge a

Hui Shao; Chi-Ying Tsui; Wing-Hung Ki

2009-01-01

26

Automatic Circumference Measurement for Aiding in the Estimation of Maximum Voluntary  

E-print Network

), Acousticmyography (AMG), Circumference, Maximum Volun- tary Contraction (MVC), Bionics, Auto Calibration. 1 Introduction Bionic muscle interfaces such as electromyography(EMG),which measure the electrical properties arm- band already in development [4]. The majority of EMG systems are stuck in laboratories, when

Hu, Huosheng

27

Hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell and Thermoelectric Generator for Maximum Power Output in Micro-CHP Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most obvious early market applications for thermoelectric generators (TEG) is decentralized micro combined heat and power (CHP) installations of 0.5 kWe to 5 kWe based on fuel cell technology. Through the use of TEG technology for waste heat recovery it is possible to increase the electricity production in micro-CHP systems by more than 15%, corresponding to system electrical efficiency increases of some 4 to 5 percentage points. This will make fuel cell-based micro-CHP systems very competitive and profitable and will also open opportunities in a number of other potential business and market segments which are not yet quantified. This paper quantifies a micro-CHP system based on a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and a high-performance TE generator. Based on a 3 kW fuel input, the hybrid SOFC implementation boosts electrical output from 945 W to 1085 W, with 1794 W available for heating purposes.

Rosendahl, L. A.; Mortensen, Paw V.; Enkeshafi, Ali A.

2011-05-01

28

Maximum output at minimum cost  

E-print Network

brake for emergencies is mounted on the gearbox high speed shaft. Lightning protection The Gamesa G90 -2.0 MW wind turbine generator uses the "total lightning protection" system, in accordance with standard power 2.0 MW Voltage 690 V ac Frequency 50 Hz / 60 Hz Protection class IP 54 Number of poles 4

Firestone, Jeremy

29

Optimal expansion of a heated working fluid for maximum work output with time-dependent heat conductance and generalized radiative heat transfer law  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The optimal configuration of the expansion process of a heated working fluid inside a cylinder for maximum work output with a movable piston and time-dependent heat conductance is determined in this paper using finite-time thermodynamics. The heat transfer between the working fluid and the external heat bath is assumed to obey the generalized radiative heat transfer law (q ? ?(Tn )). The heat conductance (product of heat transfer coefficient and heat transfer surface area) of cylinder walls is assumed to depend on the time-dependent heat transfer surface area of the walls in contact with gas. Euler-Lagrange formalism is applied to obtain the optimal process that maximizes the work output of the working fluid with fixed initial energy, initial volume, final volume, and total time allowed for the expansion. The optimal initial value of internal energy of the Euler-Lagrange arc is determined by numerical techniques. Numerical examples for the optimal configurations with time-dependent heat conductance for the cases of five special heat transfer laws (n = -1, 1, 2, 3, and 4) are provided, and the obtained results are compared with those obtained for the cases of constant heat conductance. The optimal configurations with time-dependent heat conductance for the cases of five special heat transfer laws are also compared with each other. The optimization problems with the generalized radiative heat transfer law are helpful for the further understanding of the effect of heat transfer law on the general performance and the inherent character of thermodynamic processes and cycles. The results presented herein can provide the basis for both determining optimal operating conditions and designing real systems operating with the generalized radiative heat transfer law.

Chen, Lingen; Ma, Kang; Sun, Fengrui

2011-06-01

30

Ranking Hearing Aid Input-Output Functions for Understanding Low-, Conversational-, and High-Level Speech in Multitalker Babble  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To determine the rankings of 6 input-output functions for understanding low-level, conversational, and high-level speech in multitalker babble without manipulating volume control for listeners with normal hearing, flat sensorineural hearing loss, and mildly sloping sensorineural hearing loss. Method: Peak clipping, compression limiting,…

Chung, King; Killion, Mead C.; Christensen, Laurel A.

2007-01-01

31

CONTROL OF LASER RADIATION PARAMETERS: Optimisation of waveguide parameters of laser InGaAs/AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructures for obtaining the maximum beam width in the resonator and the maximum output power  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The waveguide design of a laser heterostructure is optimised to expand the laser beam in the vertical direction at the output mirror of a laser diode (up to 1.5 ?m at the half intensity for the zero mode). Experimental samples of such diodes operated in the cw transverse single-mode lasing regime up to the output power of 0.5 W. The radiation divergence was 11°—12° and 4°—7° in the vertical and horizontal directions, respectively.

Bogatov, A. P.; Gushchik, T. I.; Drakin, A. E.; Nekrasov, A. P.; Popovichev, V. V.

2008-10-01

32

Accessing, Visualizing, and Preparing Weather and Climate Model Output Data using the NCDC Weather and Climate Toolkit to Aid Decision Makers in Assessing  

E-print Network

Scientist National Climatic Data Center The National Weather Service (NWS), as an integral decision weather and climate information to decision makers. Many NWS products and services are made availableAccessing, Visualizing, and Preparing Weather and Climate Model Output Data using the NCDC Weather

Miami, University of

33

System for Memorizing Maximum Values  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The invention discloses a system capable of memorizing maximum sensed values. The system includes conditioning circuitry which receives the analog output signal from a sensor transducer. The conditioning circuitry rectifies and filters the analog signal and provides an input signal to a digital driver, which may be either liner or logarithmic. The driver converts the analog signal to discrete digital values, which in turn triggers an output signal on one of a plurality of driver output lines n. The particular output lines selected is dependent on the converted digital value. A microfuse memory device connects across the driver output lines, with n segments. Each segment is associated with one driver output line, and includes a microfuse that is blown when a signal appears on the associated driver output line.

Bozeman, Richard J., Jr. (Inventor)

1996-01-01

34

Hearing Aids  

MedlinePLUS

Hearing Aids On this page: What is a hearing aid? How can hearing aids help? How can I find ... ear through a speaker. Top How can hearing aids help? Hearing aids are primarily useful in improving ...

35

Research outputs in respiratory medicine  

PubMed Central

Background: There is currently little information regarding how much the distribution of research activity in respiratory medicine reflects the interests of its clinicians and scientists, the disease burden in any country, or the availability of funding. Methods: A total of 81 419 respiratory medicine publications identified in the Science Citation Index for the years 1996–2001 were assigned to 14 subject areas (mainly based on title words) and to 15 OECD countries. Outputs were compared with a nation's disease burdens and, for the UK, the sources of research funding were investigated. Results and conclusions: Overall, Finland, Canada, Spain and the UK had the greatest relative commitment to respiratory medicine research expressed as a ratio of their share of world biomedical research. The largest subject areas were asthma, lung cancer, and paediatric lung disease, each with over 1400 papers published per year. Australia and Canada led in relative commitment to sleep research and Sweden and Finland led in research on asthma. Australia and the UK produced significant numbers of publications on cystic fibrosis (CF) but Finland produced few. The Netherlands has a strong output on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), France and the UK on diffuse parenchymal lung disease (DPLD), and Finland dominated occupational lung disease research but had few publications on HIV/AIDS where Spain proportionately produced most. Finland and Australia had strong outputs in paediatric lung disease research. For most subject areas the research output of a country correlated poorly with disease burden. In the UK, lung cancer research appeared unduly low in relation to the number of deaths and COPD outputs were low compared with those for asthma. However, correlations were positive for the burden of CF and pulmonary complications of HIV/AIDS which explains, for example, the low outputs in these subject areas from Finland. The strong performance in CF research in the UK is likely to reflect significant charitable funding, while sleep research, pulmonary circulatory disease, and DPLD had little stated external funding or sponsorship. PMID:15618586

Rippon, I; Lewison, G; Partridge, M

2005-01-01

36

Hearing Aids  

MedlinePLUS

... with certain types of hearing loss. How Hearing Aids Help So you went to the audiologist and ... aid is turned on. Continue Types of Hearing Aids There are several hearing aid styles. Some are ...

37

Music and hearing aids.  

PubMed

The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems. PMID:25361601

Madsen, Sara M K; Moore, Brian C J

2014-01-01

38

Music and Hearing Aids  

PubMed Central

The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems. PMID:25361601

Moore, Brian C. J.

2014-01-01

39

Maximum Likelihood  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This material introduces the basic theory of maximum likelihood estimation by discussing the likelihood function, the log likelihood function, and maximizing these functions using calculus. Several exercises ask students to derive certain estimators, while others have students compare the behavior of those estimators with other possibilities through the use of various JAVA applets. The applets use the same control features: the sliders set the parameter values, the Â?Stop #Â? drop down menu sets the number of samples taken, the Â?Update #Â? drop down menu sets how often the graph and tables update during the experiment, the single arrow takes one sample, the double arrow runs the full experiment, the square stops the experiment, and the back arrow resets the applet. This page is one lesson from the Virtual Laboratories in Statistics.

Siegrist, Kyle

40

HIV / AIDS  

MedlinePLUS

... on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. HIV/AIDS Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area ... are being affected by HIV/AIDS. Understanding HIV/AIDS Overview Cause Transmission Symptoms Testing and Diagnosis Treatment ...

41

Multiple Output Sensory Trainer (MOST). Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This final report describes the design, development, and testing of the Multiple Output Sensory Trainer (MOST), a computer-based system which enables the evaluation of students with visual impairments to determine the optimal combination of sensory adaptive aids to meet their needs. The system uses multimedia devices in conjunction with customized…

Automated Functions, Inc., Arlington, VA.

42

High output cardiac failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Congestive heart failure describes a syndrome with complex and variable symptoms and signs, including dyspnea, increased fatigability,\\u000a tachypnea, tachycardia, pulmonary rales, and peripheral edema. Although this syndrome usually is associated with low cardiac\\u000a output, it may occur in a number of so-called high output states, when the cardiac output is normal or greater than normal.\\u000a A high output state

Inder S. Anand; Viorel G. Florea

2001-01-01

43

Pointing at Maximum Power for PV  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Student teams measure voltage and current in order to determine the power output of a photovoltaic (PV) panel. They vary the resistance in a simple circuit connected to the panel to demonstrate the effects on voltage, current, and power output. After collecting data, they calculate power for each resistance setting, creating a graph of current vs. voltage, and indentifying the maximum power point.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

44

Output power evaluation of a dry geothermal field plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The output power of a simple irreversible dry geothermal field power plant is analyzed. The plant uses a secondary vapour Rankine cycle coupled to the dry geothermal field heating fluid (heat source) and a cooling fluid (heat sink) by heat transfer. A mathematical expression is derived for the power output of the irreversible geothermal heat engine. The maximum power output

Chih Wu

1988-01-01

45

FINANCIAL AID Undergraduate Financial Aid  

E-print Network

FINANCIAL AID Undergraduate Financial Aid Director: James H. Stevenson Education for leadership cost, many students and families are not able to meet the cost with their own resources. Financial aid are invited to contact the Financial Aid Office, which at Rensselaer is part of the Office of Student Records

Varela, Carlos

46

1 Financial Aid FINANCIAL AID  

E-print Network

1 Financial Aid FINANCIAL AID GW offers a comprehensive program of student financial assistance for students. Undergraduate aid consists of two basic types: awards for academic achievement or talent without based on both academic achievement and demonstrated financial need. All undergraduate gift aid

Vertes, Akos

47

Aid allocation and poverty reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper derives a poverty-efficient allocation of aid and compares it with actual aid allocations. The allocation of aid that has the maximum effect on poverty depends on the level of poverty and the quality of policies. Using the headcount, poverty-gap, and squared poverty gap measures of poverty, alternatively, all yield similar poverty-efficient allocations. Finally, we find that the actual

Paul Collier; David Dollar

2002-01-01

48

Standardized multiple output power supply  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A comprehensive program to develop a prototype model of a standardized multiple output power supply for use in space flight applications is described. The prototype unit was tested and evaluated to assure that the design would provide near optimum performance for the planned application. The prototype design used a dc-to-dc converter incorporating reqenerative current feedback with a time-ratio controlled duty cycle to achieve high efficiency over a wide variation of input voltage and output loads. The packaging concept uses a mainframe capable of accommodating up to four inverter/regulator modules with one common input filter and housekeeping module. Each inverter/regulator module provides a maximum of 100 watts or 10 amperes. Each module is adaptable to operate at any voltage between 4.0 volts and 108 volts. The prototype unit contains +5, + or - 15 and +28 volt modules.

Ragusa, E. V.

1975-01-01

49

Binaural noise reduction algorithms for hearing aids that preserve interaural time delay cues  

E-print Network

Binaural noise reduction algorithms for hearing aids that preserve interaural time delay cues Abstract-- Binaural hearing aids use microphone inputs from both the left and right hearing aid to generate an output for each ear. On the other hand, a monaural hearing aid generates an output by processing only its

50

Hearing Aids  

MedlinePLUS

... more in both quiet and noisy situations. Hearing aids help people who have hearing loss from damage ... your doctor. There are different kinds of hearing aids. They differ by size, their placement on or ...

51

Determination of cardiac output by Doppler echocardiography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiac output determined by Doppler echocardiography was compared with that determined by thermodilution at rest and during dobutamine infusion in 10 patients (group A) and by the Fick method at rest in 11 patients (group B). All patients had angina pectoris without valvular heart disease. Maximum spatial blood velocity and cross sectional aortic area were estimated by the Doppler technique

H Ihlen; J P Amlie; J Dale; K Forfang; S Nitter-Hauge; J E Otterstad; S Simonsen; E Myhre

1984-01-01

52

Research and simulation on photovoltaic power system maximum power control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photovoltaic power generation system implements an effective utilization of solar energy, but generally has very low conversion efficiency. Maximum power point tracker (MPPT) control is essential to ensure the output of photovoltaic power generation system at the maximum power output as possible. Photovoltaic cells model of photovoltaic power generation system and basic control algorithm is discussed in this paper. MPPT

Ling Lu; Ping Liu

2011-01-01

53

Visualization of Model Output  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Visualization of output from mathematical or statistical models is one of the best ways to introduce introductory geoscience students to the results and behavior of sophisticated models. Example of good sites ...

54

Types of Hearing Aids  

MedlinePLUS

... Devices Consumer Products Hearing Aids Types of Hearing Aids What are hearing aids? What are the different ... some features for hearing aids? What are hearing aids? Hearing aids are sound-amplifying devices designed to ...

55

Financial Aid.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This workbook assists college and vocational school bound American Indian students in determining their financial needs and in locating sources of financial aid. A checklist helps students assess the state of their knowledge of financial programs; a glossary defines terms pertinent to the realm of financial aid (i.e., graduate study programs,…

Graves, Mary A.

56

State Aid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report, published by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), will most likely be used by financial aid professionals and researchers. The report, offered in .pdf format, is a statistical analysis of the differences among students attending institutions in states that provide different levels of financial aid.

57

Aiding robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aiding robot 'Melkong' and a mobility-aiding unit were developed in the Mechanical Engineering Laboratory (MITI), Japan, and by affiliated enterprises in Japan, respectively. Melkong was used for lifting a patient from a hospital bed and transporting him or her in a semi-automatic way. A computer control system making the robot manoeuvre more efficiently has also been developed. Its manipulator

Satoshi Hashino

1992-01-01

58

Linear output nitinol engine  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a linear output nitinol engine consisting of a number of integrated communicating parts. The engine has an external support framework which is described in detail. The patent further describes a wire transport mechanism, a pair of linkage levers with a loom secured to them, a number of nitinol wires strung between the looms, and a power takeoff block secured to the linkage levers. A pulley positioned in a flip-flop supporting bracket and a power takeoff modality including a tension member connected to a power output cable in order to provide linear power output transmission is described. A method for biasing the timing and the mechanism for timing the synchronization of the throw over arms and the flip-flop of the pulley are also described.

Banks, R.M.

1986-01-14

59

Solar maximum: Solar array degradation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 5-year in-orbit power degradation of the silicon solar array aboard the Solar Maximum Satellite was evaluated. This was the first spacecraft to use Teflon R FEP as a coverglass adhesive, thus avoiding the necessity of an ultraviolet filter. The peak power tracking mode of the power regulator unit was employed to ensure consistent maximum power comparisons. Telemetry was normalized to account for the effects of illumination intensity, charged particle irradiation dosage, and solar array temperature. Reference conditions of 1.0 solar constant at air mass zero and 301 K (28 C) were used as a basis for normalization. Beginning-of-life array power was 2230 watts. Currently, the array output is 1830 watts. This corresponds to a 16 percent loss in array performance over 5 years. Comparison of Solar Maximum Telemetry and predicted power levels indicate that array output is 2 percent less than predictions based on an annual 1.0 MeV equivalent election fluence of 2.34 x ten to the 13th power square centimeters space environment.

Miller, T.

1985-01-01

60

Input\\/output norms in general linear systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Upper bounds on the induced norm of the input\\/output operators in linear systems with L2 input and output signals, are provided. The main idea is to transform the original problem into a parametized set of indefinite LQ optimization problems. Using the classical maximum principle, the existence of solutions to the latter is equivalent to the solvability of a boundary value

GILEAD TADMOR

1990-01-01

61

Diodes stabilize LED output  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Small-signal diodes are placed in series with light-emitting diodes (LED's) to stabilize LED output against temperature fluctuations. Simple inexpensive method compensates for thermal fluctuations over a broad temperature range. Requiring few components, technique is particularly useful where circuit-board space is limited.

Deters, R. A.

1977-01-01

62

AN INTEGRATEDMICROELECTROMECHANICALRESONANT OUTPUT GYROSCOPE -  

E-print Network

AN INTEGRATEDMICROELECTROMECHANICALRESONANT OUTPUT GYROSCOPE - Ashwin A. Seshia*,Roger T. Howe vibratory rate gyroscope based on resonant sensing of the Coriolis force. The new design has several advantages over rate gyroscopes that utilize open-loop displacement sensing for rotation rate measurement

Tang, William C

63

Optimization of perturb and observe maximum power point tracking method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) techniques are used in photovoltaic (PV) systems to maximize the PV array output power by tracking continuously the maximum power point (MPP) which depends on panels temperature and on irradiance conditions. The issue of MPPT has been addressed in different ways in the literature but, especially for low-cost implementations, the perturb and observe (P&O) maximum

Nicola Femia; Giovanni Petrone; Giovanni Spagnuolo; Massimo Vitelli

2005-01-01

64

Financial Aid Services Financial Aid Services  

E-print Network

Financial Aid Services Financial Aid Services University of Massachusetts Amherst #12;2Financial Aid Services Agenda Definition of financial aid How to apply Definition of financial need Descriptions of major financial aid programs Where to look for information about private sources of aid, including how

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

65

Principles of Optimizing Photovoltaic Cell Power Output  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is adapted from PSU's GREATT lesson, "Solar Power: The History, Chemistry, and Application of Photovoltaics." In this lesson, students will investigate how to optimize the power output of a photovoltaic cell using a home-made gnomon stand. Data collected from students' investigations will be used to create current-voltage and power-voltage curves to determine the "maximum power point" at which their photovoltaic cell operates.

66

Multiple target tracking using maximum likelihood principle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proposes a method (tracking algorithm (TAL)) based on the maximum likelihood (ML) principle for multiple target tracking in near-field using outputs from a large uniform linear array of passive sensors. The targets are assumed to be narrowband signals and modeled as sample functions of a Gaussian stochastic process. The phase delays of these signals are expressed as functions of both

A. Satish; Rangasami L. Kashyap

1995-01-01

67

Most Efficient Quantum Thermoelectric at Finite Power Output  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Machines are only Carnot efficient if they are reversible, but then their power output is vanishingly small. Here we ask, what is the maximum efficiency of an irreversible device with finite power output? We use a nonlinear scattering theory to answer this question for thermoelectric quantum systems, heat engines or refrigerators consisting of nanostructures or molecules that exhibit a Peltier effect. We find that quantum mechanics places an upper bound on both power output and on the efficiency at any finite power. The upper bound on efficiency equals Carnot efficiency at zero power output but decays with increasing power output. It is intrinsically quantum (wavelength dependent), unlike Carnot efficiency. This maximum efficiency occurs when the system lets through all particles in a certain energy window, but none at other energies. A physical implementation of this is discussed, as is the suppression of efficiency by a phonon heat flow.

Whitney, Robert S.

2014-04-01

68

Design considerations for a contactless electromagnetic transducer for implantable hearing aids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Totally or partially implantable hearing aids may overcome many drawbacks of current conventional hearing aids. The expected advantages of these implantable aids include higher sound fidelity, reduced feedback, and better cosmetic appearance. The output transducer is the single most important component of an implantable hearing aid. In this work, an electromagnetic transducer design consisting of a permanent magnet and a

Martin Kompis; Christof Kuhn; M. Affolter; Urs Brugger; Rudolf Hausler

1998-01-01

69

Last Glacial Maximum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Short lecture on CLIMAP project (see PowerPoint) 20 minutes Powerpoint (PowerPoint 444kB Nov7 10) Group activity - Reading for CLIMAP study assumptions, 20 minutes to read, 20 minutes for discussion Student Handout (Microsoft Word 50kB Nov7 10) Students break into groups (4 per group is good division of work) with 2 students per paper. Split the assumptions between students. Each group skims the CLIMAP papers for the assumptions (modern and/or LGM) used in the CLIMAP model-based reconstruction of the LGM. In the groups, students compare the assumptions between papers. Resources: CLIMAP (1976), The surface of the ice-age earth, Science, 191(4232), 1131-1137 and CLIMAP (1984), The last interglacial ocean, Quaternary Research, 21(2), 123. Class Discussion - Summarize assumptions used in CLIMAP studies. Group activity Exploring CLIMAP LGM Reconstructions, 40 minutes for model data, 20 minutes for discussion (Could be modified with as a "jigsaw" activity with a larger class). Learn more about the jigsaw teaching method. Students work on this activity in pairs; one person will create LGM maps, the other modern. Students should sit together with their computer monitors close together to compare. The students will use the IRI/LDEO Climate Data Library to access the CLIMAP reconstruction and produce maps using the tools available on this web site. In a web browser, go to http://iridl.ldeo.columbia.edu/SOURCES/.CLIMAP/ This is the main page for the CLIMAP Model output for the LGM 18,000 BP. In the middle of the page is the label "Datasets and variables" with two data sets below http://iridl.ldeo.columbia.edu/SOURCES/.CLIMAP/.LGM/ and http://iridl.ldeo.columbia.edu/SOURCES/.CLIMAP/.MOD/. Each student clicks on the link they are assigned to. There are several data sets listed for each period and the students will examine each data set and compare the LGM and Modern. As a class, go through each data set allowing pairs to compare the maps then summarize the results as a class. The worksheet has a table for the students and the PowerPoint has table for summarizing. Class Discussion - Summarize differences between modern and LGM in the CLIMAP model output. Discuss how the assumptions of the CLIMAP model studies may have influenced the results. Extra activities The students can explore the data further using the data selection and filters in the IRI/LDEO Climate Data Library. For the two SST data sets, click on "Data Selection" and narrow the data to the just the tropics (23.5º N-S). Click on "Filters" then select XY next to "Average over." The next window gives you the average over the tropics close to the top of the page. In the next class, the students repeat the Readings exercise by reading the COHMAP and MARGO papers to see how the scientific knowledge has progressed since the original CLIMAP studies. COHMAP Members, (1988), Climatic Changes of the Last 18,000 Years: Observations and Model Simulations, Science, 241(4869), 1043-1052. MARGO (2009), Constraints on the magnitude and patterns of ocean cooling at the Last Glacial Maximum, Nature Geoscience, 2(2), 127-132.

Kristine DeLong

70

Classroom Aids  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes 6 aids for science instruction, including (1) the use of fudge to represent lava; (2) the "Living by Chemistry" program, designed to make high school chemistry more accessible to a diverse pool of students without sacrificing content; (3) NOAA and NSTA's online coral reef teaching tool, a new web-based "science toolbox" for…

Science Activities: Classroom Projects and Curriculum Ideas, 2007

2007-01-01

71

Floriculture Aide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for use in a self-paced, open-entry/open-exit vocational training program for a floriculture aide, this program guide is one of six for teachers of adult women offenders from a correctional institution. Module topic outlines and sample lesson plans are presented on eleven topics: occupational opportunities in the retail florist industry;…

Martin, Joyce; Looney, Era

72

AIDS interfering with development progress.  

PubMed

There is an high level of awareness about AIDS among the population of Uganda. Even so, the AIDS epidemic in the country continues to grow worse. From urban professionals to rural farmers, Ugandans in their most productive years are falling ill and dying from AIDS. These losses are being felt at the national and household levels. In a country where acquiring education and technical expertise come at a premium, the loss of professionals will have serious adverse effects upon economic and social gains thus far achieved. For many rural households, current levels of agricultural production may be threatened given the labor-intensive nature of such production. Coffee production by small-holders, accounting for more than 90% of the country's export earnings, will therefore be affected. This reduction in output will cause more economic strain. AIDS and its related secondary infections such as tuberculosis are placing heavy burdens upon Uganda's already overextended medical services. AIDS mortality now and in the future will also result in the creation of thousands of orphans for whom care will have to be provided. A multisectoral strategy has been adopted in the country to control HIV/AIDS. While control measures were once centered in the health sector, they have now expanded to the communication, rehabilitation, education, community services, defense, and economic planning sectors. PMID:12346133

1994-01-01

73

POWER OUTPUT AND THE FREQUENCY OF OSCILLATORY WORK IN MAMMALIAN DIAPHRAGM MUSCLE: THE EFFECTS OF ANIMAL SIZE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Bundles of muscle fibres were isolated from the diaphragm of mouse, rat and rabbit. Mean oscillatory power output was determined during phasic stimulation and imposed sinusoidal length changes. Maximum power output was measured over a range of cycle frequencies. The cycle frequency for maximum power output (\\/opt) decreased with increasing body mass and was described by the equation, fopt=4A2M~

JOHN D. ALTRINGHAM; IAIN S. YOUNG

1991-01-01

74

Effects of Synthetic Speech Output and Orthographic Feedback on Spelling in a Student with Autism: A Preliminary Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of speech output and orthographic feedback on spelling performance were evaluated in this preliminary study. A nonspeaking student with autism was taught to spell words under three feedback conditions using a voice output communication aid. In the auditory-visual condition, the participant received speech output and orthographic feedback. In the visual condition, the participant received only the orthographic feedback.

Ralf W. Schlosser; Doreen M. Blischak; Phillip J. Belfiore; Clair Bartley; Nanette Barnett

1998-01-01

75

Financial Aid General Information  

E-print Network

Financial Aid General Information INCLUDED IN THIS BROCHURE: · How to apply for financial aid · Priority deadlines · Types of financial aid · Scholarship information · Web resources · Contact information.................................................3 Mission Statement....................................3 How do I apply for aid

Long, Nicholas

76

HIV/AIDS Basics  

MedlinePLUS

... About CDC.gov . Act Against AIDS Share Compartir HIV/AIDS Basics Before we can stop any epidemic, ... before, AIDS is still a significant health issue. HIV 101 HIV/AIDS Basic Statistics Transmission Testing Prevention ...

77

Maximum modular graphs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modularity has been explored as an important quantitative metric for community and cluster detection in networks. Finding the maximum modularity of a given graph has been proven to be NP-complete and therefore, several heuristic algorithms have been proposed. We investigate the problem of finding the maximum modularity of classes of graphs that have the same number of links and/or nodes and determine analytical upper bounds. Moreover, from the set of all connected graphs with a fixed number of links and/or number of nodes, we construct graphs that can attain maximum modularity, named maximum modular graphs. The maximum modularity is shown to depend on the residue obtained when the number of links is divided by the number of communities. Two applications in transportation networks and data-centers design that can benefit of maximum modular partitioning are proposed.

Trajanovski, S.; Wang, H.; Van Mieghem, P.

2012-07-01

78

AIDS fraud.  

PubMed

Throughout history, epidemics have been accompanied by unscrupulous people selling so-called cures, and the AIDS epidemic is no exception. Increased barriers to health care and growing mistrust of the medical community have encouraged many to take desperate measures to manage this serious and incurable disease. Unfortunately, not only are many of these products ineffective, many may actually be dangerous. Consumers are urged to verify claims that a drug is approved, to be suspicious of anything that is said to cure or prevent cancer, and to question anything that is marketed largely through personal success stories and testimonials. Contact information for each of the ten states which have AIDS fraud task forces is listed. PMID:11363319

Bowers, M

1996-03-01

79

Comparison of Onset and Steady-State Responses of Hearing Aids: Implications for Use of the Auditory Brainstem Response in the Selection of Hearing Aids.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Input-output (I/O) functions of hearing aids were measured in response to a 2000 Hz tone burst, having 0.5 ms rise/fall time and 10 ms duration. Findings indicated that the steady-state output limitation characteristics of hearing aids cannot be estimated from their onset responses. (Author/DB)

Gorga, Michael P.; And Others

1987-01-01

80

Increasing Photocathode Charge Output  

SciTech Connect

A fundamental concern in the operation of electron accelerators is the generation of intense beams with high polarization. The time structure of the electron beam determines whether the limiting factor in emission is laser power or surface charge buildup. The presence of excess surface charge comes about due to the photon absorption that excites electrons from the valence to the conduction band. Some fraction of the electrons can be trapped near the surface which induces a rise in the electron affinity through the increased electrostatic potential. The higher affinity causes a lower emission probability and thus less emitted charge at later times. The electron affinity can recover to the zero charge limit after electron-hole recombination. As an example, the Next Linear Collider requires 95 micropulses having 2 x 10{sup 10} electrons per pulse in 0.7 ns with an interpulse spacing of 2.8 ns. Experience at SLAC has shown it is possible to generate 16 x 10{sup 10} electrons in 2 ns pulses with the requisite polarization. However, subsequent pulses may experience strong intensity damping. Several parameters can be varied to enhance the net charge output of the later pulses. Among these are increasing either the electric field at the photocathode surface or the surface charge dissipation rate by raising the carrier concentration or shunting the trapped charge. We present a series of measurements and a phenomenological model to characterize the range of these influences.

Mulhollan, Gregory A

1999-10-19

81

Financial Aid 2011 -2012  

E-print Network

UNCG Financial Aid Handbook 2011 - 2012 #12;UNCG Financial Aid Office 2 Websites and Abbreviations 3 Financial Aid Checklist 4 Interaction with the Financial Aid Office 5 UNCGenie 5 The Application Aid and your bill 10 Return of Funds policy 11 Financial Aid Programs Federal, State and Institutional

Saidak, Filip

82

Hex Inverter Outputs Source/Sink 24 mA  

E-print Network

5-1 FACT DATA Hex Inverter · Outputs Source/Sink 24 mA · ACT04 Has TTL Compatible Inputs 1314 12 11 Voltage (Referenced to GND) ­0.5 to VCC +0.5 V Iin DC Input Current, per Pin ±20 mA Iout DC Output Sink/Source 10 9 8 21 3 4 5 6 7 GND VCC MAXIMUM RATINGS* Symbol Parameter Value Unit VCC DC Supply Voltage

Berns, Hans-Gerd

83

Lightweight multiple output converter development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A high frequency, multiple output power conditioner was developed and breadboarded using an eight-stage capacitor diode voltage multiplier to provide +1200 Vdc, and a three-stage for -350 Vdc. In addition, two rectifier bridges were capacitively coupled to the eight-stage multiplier to obtain 0.5 and 0.65 a dc constant current outputs referenced to +1200 Vdc. Total power was 120 watts, with an overall efficiency of 85 percent at the 80 kHz operating frequency. All outputs were regulated to three percent or better, with complete short circuit protection. The power conditioner component weight and efficiency were compared to the equivalent four outputs of the 10 kHz conditioner for the 8 cm ion engine. Weight reduction for the four outputs was 557 grams; extrapolated in the same ratio to all nine outputs, it would be 1100 to 1400 grams.

Kisch, J. J.; Martinelli, R. M.

1978-01-01

84

Serial Input Output  

SciTech Connect

Serial Input/Output (SIO) is designed to be a long term storage format of a sophistication somewhere between simple ASCII files and the techniques provided by inter alia Objectivity and Root. The former tend to be low density, information lossy (floating point numbers lose precision) and inflexible. The latter require abstract descriptions of the data with all that that implies in terms of extra complexity. The basic building blocks of SIO are streams, records and blocks. Streams provide the connections between the program and files. The user can define an arbitrary list of streams as required. A given stream must be opened for either reading or writing. SIO does not support read/write streams. If a stream is closed during the execution of a program, it can be reopened in either read or write mode to the same or a different file. Records represent a coherent grouping of data. Records consist of a collection of blocks (see next paragraph). The user can define a variety of records (headers, events, error logs, etc.) and request that any of them be written to any stream. When SIO reads a file, it first decodes the record name and if that record has been defined and unpacking has been requested for it, SIO proceeds to unpack the blocks. Blocks are user provided objects which do the real work of reading/writing the data. The user is responsible for writing the code for these blocks and for identifying these blocks to SIO at run time. To write a collection of blocks, the user must first connect them to a record. The record can then be written to a stream as described above. Note that the same block can be connected to many different records. When SIO reads a record, it scans through the blocks written and calls the corresponding block object (if it has been defined) to decode it. Undefined blocks are skipped. Each of these categories (streams, records and blocks) have some characteristics in common. Every stream, record and block has a name with the condition that each stream, record or block name must be unique in its category (i.e. all streams must have different names, but a stream can have the same name as a record). Each category is an arbitrary length list which is handled by a 'manager' and there is one manager for each category.

Waite, Anthony; /SLAC

2011-09-07

85

A single-inductor dual-output buck converter with voltage mode pulse-train control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Voltage mode pulse-train (PT) control technique for single-inductor dual-output (SIDO) dc-dc converters operating in discontinuous-conduction mode (DCM) is investigated in this paper. By using time-multiplexing(TM) scheme, each output of converter is regulated in its corresponding time slot to avoid cross-regulation. The control time of each output is set according to the maximum power of corresponding output, thus the utilization rate

Xueshan Liu; Jianping Xu; Zhifei Lu; Jinping Wang

2010-01-01

86

The Last Glacial Maximum  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used 5704 14C, 10Be, and 3He ages that span the interval from 10,000 to 50,000 years ago (10 to 50 ka) to constrain the timing of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in terms of global ice-sheet and mountain-glacier extent. Growth of the ice sheets to their maximum positions occurred between 33.0 and 26.5 ka in response to climate forcing

Peter U. Clark; Arthur S. Dyke; Jeremy D. Shakun; Anders E. Carlson; Jorie Clark; Barbara Wohlfarth; Jerry X. Mitrovica; Steven W. Hostetler; A. Marshall McCabe

2009-01-01

87

Aid type and its relationship with human well being  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the effects of foreign aid type on human well being. Cross-country regressions revealed aid for education and water to be positively correlated with human well being in low-income countries while aid for education and health are positively correlated with human well being in lower-middle-income countries. The results also confirm growth in output and gross domestic investment to

Azmat Gani; Michael D. Clemes

2003-01-01

88

Electronic filters, hearing aids and methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An electronic filter for an electroacoustic system. The system has a microphone for generating an electrical output from external sounds and an electrically driven transducer for emitting sound. Some of the sound emitted by the transducer returns to the microphone means to add a feedback contribution to its electical output. The electronic filter includes a first circuit for electronic processing of the electrical output of the microphone to produce a filtered signal. An adaptive filter, interconnected with the first circuit, performs electronic processing of the filtered signal to produce an adaptive output to the first circuit to substantially offset the feedback contribution in the electrical output of the microphone, and the adaptive filter includes means for adapting only in response to polarities of signals supplied to and from the first circuit. Other electronic filters for hearing aids, public address systems and other electroacoustic systems, as well as such systems, and methods of operating them are also disclosed.

Engebretson, A. Maynard (Inventor); O'Connell, Michael P. (Inventor); Zheng, Baohua (Inventor)

1991-01-01

89

Electronic filters, hearing aids and methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An electronic filter for an electroacoustic system. The system has a microphone for generating an electrical output from external sounds and an electrically driven transducer for emitting sound. Some of the sound emitted by the transducer returns to the microphone means to add a feedback contribution to its electrical output. The electronic filter includes a first circuit for electronic processing of the electrical output of the microphone to produce a first signal. An adaptive filter, interconnected with the first circuit, performs electronic processing of the first signal to produce an adaptive output to the first circuit to substantially offset the feedback contribution in the electrical output of the microphone, and the adaptive filter includes means for adapting only in response to polarities of signals supplied to and from the first circuit. Other electronic filters for hearing aids, public address systems and other electroacoustic systems, as well as such systems and methods of operating them are also disclosed.

Engebretson, A. Maynard (Inventor)

1995-01-01

90

Enhanced performance CCD output amplifier  

DOEpatents

A low-noise FET amplifier is connected to amplify output charge from a che coupled device (CCD). The FET has its gate connected to the CCD in common source configuration for receiving the output charge signal from the CCD and output an intermediate signal at a drain of the FET. An intermediate amplifier is connected to the drain of the FET for receiving the intermediate signal and outputting a low-noise signal functionally related to the output charge signal from the CCD. The amplifier is preferably connected as a virtual ground to the FET drain. The inherent shunt capacitance of the FET is selected to be at least equal to the sum of the remaining capacitances.

Dunham, Mark E. (Los Alamos, NM); Morley, David W. (Santa Fe, NM)

1996-01-01

91

Financial Aid Disbursement and  

E-print Network

Financial Aid Disbursement and Bill Payment: What EvEry StudEnt Should KnoW Financial aid programs vary in disbursement requirements. Financial aid disbursement usually begins 1 week prior to the start. Financial Aid Checklist Accept/decline aid by logging onto STAR at www.mix.wvu.edu 1) Click on the STAR tab

Mohaghegh, Shahab

92

Neurological Complications of AIDS  

MedlinePLUS

Neurological Complications of AIDS Fact Sheet Feature Federal domestic HIV/AIDS information and resources can be found at www.AIDS.gov See a ... Where can I get more information? What is AIDS? AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is a condition ...

93

Challenges of overcurrent protection devices in photovoltaic arrays brought by maximum power point tracker  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the challenges of overcurrent protection devices (OCPD) brought by the maximum power point tracker (MPPT) of the centralized grid-connected inverter in a photovoltaic (PV) array. Since PV arrays have non-linear output characteristics, MPPT algorithms of PV inverters are often used to harvest the maximum output power from PV arrays. Most MPPTs are designed to respond to unexpected

Ye Zhao; Brad Lehman; Jean-Francois de Palma; Jerry Mosesian; Robert Lyons

2011-01-01

94

First Aid: Animal Bites  

MedlinePLUS

... Pregnancy Precautions Checkups: What to Expect First Aid: Animal Bites KidsHealth > Parents > First Aid & Safety > Printable Safety Guides > First Aid: Animal Bites Print A A A Text Size What's ...

95

Heart attack first aid  

MedlinePLUS

First aid - heart attack; First aid - cardiopulmonary arrest; First aid - cardiac arrest ... A heart attack occurs when the blood flow that carries oxygen to the heart is blocked. The heart muscle ...

96

Hearing Aids for Children  

MedlinePLUS

Hearing Aids for Children What do I need to know about hearing aids for my child? To achieve the best results ... it. It is important to understand how hearing aids work and how to select, operate, and care ...

97

Maximum Entropy Image Reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two-dimensional digital image reconstruction is an important imaging process in many of the physical sciences. If the data are insufficient to specify a unique reconstruction, an additional criterion must be introduced, either implicitly or explicitly before the best estimate can be computed. Here we use a principle of maximum entropy, which has proven useful in other contexts, to design a

Stephen J. Wernecke; Larry R. D'addario

1977-01-01

98

Maximum Power Point  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn how to find the maximum power point (MPP) of a photovoltaic (PV) panel in order to optimize its efficiency at creating solar power. They also learn about real-world applications and technologies that use this technique, as well as Ohm's law and the power equation, which govern a PV panel's ability to produce power.

2014-09-18

99

Benchmarking for maximum value.  

PubMed

Speaking at the most recent Healthcare Estates conference, Ed Baldwin, of international built asset consultancy EC Harris LLP, examined the role of benchmarking and market-testing--two of the key methods used to evaluate the quality and cost-effectiveness of hard and soft FM services provided under PFI healthcare schemes to ensure they are offering maximum value for money. PMID:19344004

Baldwin, Ed

2009-03-01

100

Maximum likelihood pitch estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for estimating the pitch period of voiced speech sounds is developed based on a maximum likelihood (ML) formulation. It is capable of resolution finer than one sampling period and is shown to perform better in the presence of noise than the cepstrum method.

J. Wise; J. Caprio; T. Parks

1976-01-01

101

Measuring Air-Ionizer Output  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Test apparatus checks ion content of airstream from commercial air ionizer. Apparatus ensures ion output is sufficient to neutralize static charges in electronic assembly areas and concentrations of positive and negative ions are balanced.

Lonborg, J. O.

1985-01-01

102

Output trends, characteristics, and measurements of three mega-voltage radiotherapy linear accelerators  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study is to characterize and understand the long term behavior of the output from megavoltage radiotherapy linear accelerators. Output trends of nine beams from three linear accelerators over a period of more than three years are reported and analyzed. Output taken during daily warm-up forms the basis of this study. The output is measured using devices having ion-chambers. These are not calibrated by accredited dosimetry laboratory but are baseline compared against monthly output which are measured using calibrated ion-chambers. We consider the output from the daily check devices as it is and sometimes normalized them by the actual output measured during the monthly calibration of the Linacs. The data shows noisy quasi-periodic behavior. The output variation if normalized by monthly measured “real’ output, is bounded between ±3%. Beams of different energies from the same Linac are correlated with a correlation coefficient as high as 0.97 for one particular Linac and as low as 0.44 for another. These maximum and minimum correlations drop to 0.78 and 0.25 when daily output is normalized by the monthly measurements. These results suggest that the origin of these correlations are both the Linacs and the daily output check devices. Beams from different Linacs, independent of their energies, have lower correlation coefficient with a maximum of about 0.50 and a minimum of almost zero. The maximum correlation drops to almost zero if the output is normalized by the monthly measured output. Some scatter plots of pairs of beam-output from the same Linac show band-like structures. These structures are blurred when the output is normalized by the monthly calibrated output. Fourier decomposition of the quasi periodic output is consistent with a 1/f power law. The output variation appears to come from a distorted normal distribution with a mean of slightly greater than unity. The quasi-periodic behavior is manifested in the seasonally averaged output showing annual variability with negative variations in the winter and positive in the summer. This trend is weakened when the daily output is normalized by the monthly calibrated output indicating that the variation of the periodic component may be intrinsic to both the Linacs and the daily measurement devices. Actual Linac output was measured monthly. It is needed to be adjusted once every 3-6 months for our tolerance and action levels. If these adjustments are artificially removed then there is an increase in output of about 2-4% per year. PMID:25207404

Hossain, Murshed

2015-01-01

103

Crawling Aid  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Institute for the Achievement of Human Potential developed a device known as the Vehicle for Initial Crawling (VIC); the acronym is a tribute to the crawler's inventor, Hubert "Vic" Vykukal; is an effective crawling aid. The VIC is used by brain injured children who are unable to crawl due to the problems of weight-bearing and friction, caused by gravity. It is a rounded plywood frame large enough to support the child's torso, leaving arms and legs free to move. On its underside are three aluminum discs through which air is pumped to create an air-bearing surface that has less friction than a film of oil. Upper side contains the connection to the air supply and a pair of straps which restrain the child and cause the device to move with him. VIC is used with the intent to recreate the normal neurological connection between brain and muscles. Over repetitive use of the device the child develops his arm and leg muscles as well as coordination. Children are given alternating therapy, with and without the VIC until eventually the device is no longer needed.

1982-01-01

104

Maximum Confidence Quantum Measurements  

E-print Network

We consider the problem of discriminating between states of a specified set with maximum confidence. For a set of linearly independent states unambiguous discrimination is possible if we allow for the possibility of an inconclusive result. For linearly dependent sets an analogous measurement is one which allows us to be as confident as possible that when a given state is identified on the basis of the measurement result, it is indeed the correct state.

Sarah Croke; Erika Andersson; Stephen M. Barnett; Claire R. Gilson; John Jeffers

2006-04-05

105

HIV/AIDS  

MedlinePLUS

... prevention, diagnosis, treatment and care for key populations Global health sector strategy on HIV/AIDS 2011-2015 More about HIV/AIDS 15 facts on HIV treatment scale-up and the new WHO ARV guidelines 2013 WHO's work on HIV/AIDS More about HIV/AIDS: topical overview

106

understanding your financial aid  

E-print Network

understanding your financial aid award notice 2010-2011 SYracUSe UniVerSitY #12;How was my award determined? financial aid awards are based on information submitted on the cSS/financial aid Profile and the free application for federal Student aid (fafSa). the information is analyzed through a standardized

McConnell, Terry

107

Aid and growth regressions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the relationship between foreign aid and growth in real GDP per capita as it emerges from simple augmentations of popular cross-country growth specifications. It is shown that aid in all likelihood increases the growth rate, and this result is not conditional on ‘good’ policy. There are, however, decreasing returns to aid, and the estimated effectiveness of aid

Henrik Hansen; Finn Tarp

2001-01-01

108

FINANCIAL AID INFORMATION  

E-print Network

STUDENT FINANCIAL AID INFORMATION 2014 - 2015 ORIENTATION PROVIDED BY THE OFFICE OF STUDENT FINANCIAL AID (OSFA) AT THE UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA UPDATED: 5/27/14 #12;APPLICATION PROCESS ­ FEDERAL FINANCIAL AID "Free Application for Federal Student Aid" · MUST be renewed each academic year · Calculates

Arnold, Jonathan

109

The Master Hearing Aid  

PubMed Central

As early as the 1930s the term Master Hearing Aid (MHA) described a device used in the fitting of hearing aids. In their original form, the MHA was a desktop system that allowed for simulated or actual adjustment of hearing aid components that resulted in a changed hearing aid response. Over the years the MHA saw many embodiments and contributed to a number of rationales for the fitting of hearing aids. During these same years, the MHA was viewed by many as an inappropriate means of demonstrating hearing aids; the audio quality of the desktop systems was often superior to the hearing aids themselves. These opinions and the evolution of the MHA have molded the modern perception of hearing aids and the techniques used in the fitting of hearing aids. This article reports on a history of the MHA and its influence on the fitting of hearing aids. PMID:23686682

Curran, James R.

2013-01-01

110

Maximum aposteriori joint source/channel coding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A maximum aposteriori probability (MAP) approach to joint source/channel coder design is presented in this paper. This method attempts to explore a technique for designing joint source/channel codes, rather than ways of distributing bits between source coders and channel coders. For a nonideal source coder, MAP arguments are used to design a decoder which takes advantage of redundancy in the source coder output to perform error correction. Once the decoder is obtained, it is analyzed with the purpose of obtaining 'desirable properties' of the channel input sequence for improving overall system performance. Finally, an encoder design which incorporates these properties is proposed.

Sayood, Khalid; Gibson, Jerry D.

1991-01-01

111

The last glacial maximum  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We used 5704 14C, 10Be, and 3He ages that span the interval from 10,000 to 50,000 years ago (10 to 50 ka) to constrain the timing of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in terms of global ice-sheet and mountain-glacier extent. Growth of the ice sheets to their maximum positions occurred between 33.0 and 26.5 ka in response to climate forcing from decreases in northern summer insolation, tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures, and atmospheric CO2. Nearly all ice sheets were at their LGM positions from 26.5 ka to 19 to 20 ka, corresponding to minima in these forcings. The onset of Northern Hemisphere deglaciation 19 to 20 ka was induced by an increase in northern summer insolation, providing the source for an abrupt rise in sea level. The onset of deglaciation of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet occurred between 14 and 15 ka, consistent with evidence that this was the primary source for an abrupt rise in sea level ???14.5 ka.

Clark, P.U.; Dyke, A.S.; Shakun, J.D.; Carlson, A.E.; Clark, J.; Wohlfarth, B.; Mitrovica, J.X.; Hostetler, S.W.; McCabe, A.M.

2009-01-01

112

The Last Glacial Maximum.  

PubMed

We used 5704 14C, 10Be, and 3He ages that span the interval from 10,000 to 50,000 years ago (10 to 50 ka) to constrain the timing of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in terms of global ice-sheet and mountain-glacier extent. Growth of the ice sheets to their maximum positions occurred between 33.0 and 26.5 ka in response to climate forcing from decreases in northern summer insolation, tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures, and atmospheric CO2. Nearly all ice sheets were at their LGM positions from 26.5 ka to 19 to 20 ka, corresponding to minima in these forcings. The onset of Northern Hemisphere deglaciation 19 to 20 ka was induced by an increase in northern summer insolation, providing the source for an abrupt rise in sea level. The onset of deglaciation of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet occurred between 14 and 15 ka, consistent with evidence that this was the primary source for an abrupt rise in sea level approximately 14.5 ka. PMID:19661421

Clark, Peter U; Dyke, Arthur S; Shakun, Jeremy D; Carlson, Anders E; Clark, Jorie; Wohlfarth, Barbara; Mitrovica, Jerry X; Hostetler, Steven W; McCabe, A Marshall

2009-08-01

113

Predicting Maximum Lake Depth from Surrounding Topography  

PubMed Central

Information about lake morphometry (e.g., depth, volume, size, etc.) aids understanding of the physical and ecological dynamics of lakes, yet is often not readily available. The data needed to calculate measures of lake morphometry, particularly lake depth, are usually collected on a lake-by-lake basis and are difficult to obtain across broad regions. To span the gap between studies of individual lakes where detailed data exist and regional studies where access to useful data on lake depth is unavailable, we developed a method to predict maximum lake depth from the slope of the topography surrounding a lake. We use the National Elevation Dataset and the National Hydrography Dataset – Plus to estimate the percent slope of surrounding lakes and use this information to predict maximum lake depth. We also use field measured maximum lake depths from the US EPA's National Lakes Assessment to empirically adjust and cross-validate our predictions. We were able to predict maximum depth for ?28,000 lakes in the Northeastern United States with an average cross-validated RMSE of 5.95 m and 5.09 m and average correlation of 0.82 and 0.69 for Hydrological Unit Code Regions 01 and 02, respectively. The depth predictions and the scripts are openly available as supplements to this manuscript. PMID:21984945

Hollister, Jeffrey W.; Milstead, W. Bryan; Urrutia, M. Andrea

2011-01-01

114

The Outputs of Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a review of efforts over the last several decades to assess the outputs of higher education, including economic and noneconomic, and public and private benefits. Recommends resisting the viewing of higher education merely in terms of its quantifiable economic returns because that line of reasoning diminishes its substantial intangible…

Breneman, David W.

2001-01-01

115

The Determinants of Cardiac Output  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part of the Gross Physiology of the Cardiovascular System site, this 22-minute video presentation explains fundamental but often misunderstood concepts about the determinants of cardiac output, using Dr. Anderson's hydraulic model of the cardiovascular system. It is a useful summary and overview of the concepts presented in greater detail in the online text. A transcript of the video presentation is available.

Anderson, Robert M.

116

Acoustic feedback cancellation in hearing aids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors describe a maximum phase cancellation scheme for hearing aids that prevents acoustic oscillations. In this scheme, the open-loop phase delay in the primary audio frequency region is cancelled to the largest extent possible. At the same time, the magnitude response of the new open-loop transfer function outside the primary audio frequency region is suppressed by using negative feedback.

Rongtai Wang; Ramesh Harjani

1993-01-01

117

Method for optimizing the mechanical output of a fluid pressure free piston engine  

SciTech Connect

The method is described for minimizing rotational speed variations of a centrifugal piston expander engine comprising the steps of: (1) supplying a pressured gas to a centrifugal piston expander engine having a rotatable output element and a discharge conduit for cooled exhaust gas; (2) expanding and cooling the pressured gas in the centrifugal piston expander engine to produce cyclically varying oppositely directed, positive and negative torques on the rotatable output shaft; (3) driving a rotary load in the positive torque direction by the rotatable output element through one rotatable element of a unidirectional clutch having two rotating elements relatively movable in only the negative torque direction; and (4) connecting a battery operated motor-generator unit to the rotatable output shaft to supplement the rotary speed of the output shaft during periods of negative torque output by the centrifugal piston expander engine and to recharge the battery during periods of maximum positive torque output of the centrifugal expander engine.

Dibrell, E.W.; Schaich, W.A.

1988-07-05

118

Effect of power output on muscle coordination during rowing.  

PubMed

The present study was designed to quantify the effect of power output on muscle coordination during rowing. Surface electromyographic (EMG) activity of 23 muscles and mechanical variables were recorded in eight untrained subjects and seven experienced rowers. Each subject was asked to perform three 2-min constant-load exercises performed at 60, 90 and 120% of the mean power output over a maximal 2,000-m event (denoted as P60, P90, and P120, respectively). A decomposition algorithm (nonnegative matrix factorization) was used to extract the muscle synergies that represent the global temporal and spatial organization of the motor output. The results showed a main effect of power output for 22 of 23 muscles (p values ranged from <0.0001 to 0.004) indicating a significant increase in EMG activity level with power output for both untrained and experienced subjects. However, for the two populations, no dramatic modification in the shape of individual EMG patterns (mean r (max) value = 0.93 ± 0.09) or in their timing of activation (maximum lag time = -4.3 ± 3.8% of the rowing cycle) was found. The results also showed a large consistency of the three extracted muscle synergies, for both synergy activation coefficients (mean r (max) values range from 0.87 to 0.97) and muscle synergy vectors (mean r values range from 0.70 to 0.76) across the three power outputs. In conclusion, despite significant changes in the level of muscle activity, the global temporal and spatial organization of the motor output is very little affected by power output on a rowing ergometer. PMID:21451939

Turpin, Nicolas A; Guével, Arnaud; Durand, Sylvain; Hug, François

2011-12-01

119

Infomax and maximum likelihood for blind source separation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Algorithms for the blind separation of sources can be derived from several different principles. This article shows that the infomax (information-maximization) principle is equivalent to the maximum likelihood. The application of the infomax principle to source separation consists of maximizing an output entropy

Jean-Francois Cardoso

1997-01-01

120

Maximum-likelihood parameter estimation of bilinear systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the problem of estimating the parameters in a multivariable bilinear model on the basis of observed input-output data. The main contribution is to develop, analyze, and empirically study new techniques for computing a maximum-likelihood based solution. In particular, the emphasis here is on developing practical methods that are illustrated to be numerically reliable, robust to choice of

Stuart Gibson; Adrian Wills; Brett Ninness

2005-01-01

121

Maximum wind energy extraction strategies using power electronic converters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis focuses on maximum wind energy extraction strategies for achieving the highest energy output of variable speed wind turbine power generation systems. Power electronic converters and controls provide the basic platform to accomplish the research of this thesis in both hardware and software aspects. In order to send wind energy to a utility grid, a variable speed wind turbine

Quincy Qing Wang

2003-01-01

122

Computer aided flexible envelope designs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computer aided design methods are presented for the design and construction of strong, lightweight structures which require complex and precise geometric definition. The first, flexible structures, is a unique system of modeling folded plate structures and space frames. It is possible to continuously vary the geometry of a space frame to produce large, clear spans with curvature. The second method deals with developable surfaces, where both folding and bending are explored with the observed constraint of available building materials, and what minimal distortion result in maximum design capability. Alternative inexpensive fabrication techniques are being developed to achieve computer defined enclosures which are extremely lightweight and mathematically highly precise.

Resch, R. D.

1975-01-01

123

Achieving Maximum Power from Thermoelectric Generators with Maximum-Power-Point-Tracking Circuits Composed of a Boost-Cascaded-with-Buck Converter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a way of achieving maximum power and power-transfer efficiency from thermoelectric generators by optimized selection of maximum-power-point-tracking (MPPT) circuits composed of a boost-cascaded-with-buck converter. We investigated the effect of switch resistance on the MPPT performance of thermoelectric generators. The on-resistances of the switches affect the decrease in the conversion gain and reduce the maximum output power obtainable. Although the incremental values of the switch resistances are small, the resulting difference in the maximum duty ratio between the input and output powers is significant. For an MPPT controller composed of a boost converter with a practical nonideal switch, we need to monitor the output power instead of the input power to track the maximum power point of the thermoelectric generator. We provide a design strategy for MPPT controllers by considering the compromise in which a decrease in switch resistance causes an increase in the parasitic capacitance of the switch.

Park, Hyunbin; Sim, Minseob; Kim, Shiho

2015-01-01

124

First Aid Kit  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

This is a first aid kit used in fieldwork in the west. The kit is likely an army surplus item. The kit includes first aid materials for snake bites as well as more common ailments. Object ID: USGS-000057...

125

MICROFICHE AIDS DATA  

EPA Science Inventory

This data set contains counts of AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) cases reported to state and local health departments, by demographics; case-definition; HIV exposure group (risk factors for AIDS); Half-year of diagnosis, report, and death....

126

Jellyfish Stings, First Aid  

MedlinePLUS

newsletter | contact Share | Jellyfish Stings, First Aid A A A The rash caused by a jellyfish sting is often red and swollen, and it may even bleed. First Aid Guide Jellyfish are aquatic invertebrates that can sting people who ...

127

AIDS Myths and Misunderstandings  

MedlinePLUS

... 21, 2014 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 158 AIDS Myths and Misunderstandings WHY ARE THERE SO MANY ... support this belief. Myth: Current medications can cure AIDS. It’s no big deal if you get infected. ...

128

HIV and AIDS  

MedlinePLUS

... Teens > Sexual Health > STDs & Other Infections > HIV and AIDS Print A A A Text Size What's in ... in human history. HIV causes a condition called acquired immunodeficiency syndrome — better known as AIDS . HIV destroys a type ...

129

HIV/AIDS  

MedlinePLUS

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes HIV infection and AIDS. The virus attacks the immune system. As the ... high-risk behaviors, are HIV-positive, or have AIDS People who received blood transfusions or clotting products ...

130

HIV and AIDS  

MedlinePLUS

... actually the virus that causes the disease AIDS. HIV Hurts the Immune System People who are HIV ... a serious infection. Continue How Many People Have HIV/AIDS? Since the discovery of the virus almost ...

131

Neurological Complications of AIDS  

MedlinePLUS

... National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS). Health Disparities Planning Panel on NeuroAIDS in Minority Populations Report of the Health Disparities Planning Panel on NeuroAIDS in Minority Populations meeting ...

132

Running title: Maximum discrimination HMMs Maximum Discrimination Hidden Markov Models  

E-print Network

Running title: Maximum discrimination HMMs Maximum Discrimination Hidden Markov Models of Sequence for building hidden Markov models (HMMs) of protein or nucleic acid primary sequence consensus. The method. Keywords: hidden Markov model, database searching, sequence consensus, sequence weighting #12; Introduction

Eddy, Sean

133

Microgyroscope with closed loop output  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A micro-gyroscope (10) having closed loop operation by a control voltage (V.sub.TY), that is demodulated by an output signal of the sense electrodes (S1, S2), providing Coriolis torque rebalance to prevent displacement of the micro-gyroscope (10) on the output axis (y-axis). The present invention provides wide-band, closed-loop operation for a micro-gyroscope (10) and allows the drive frequency to be closely tuned to a high Q sense axis resonance. A differential sense signal (S1-S2) is compensated and fed back by differentially changing the voltage on the drive electrodes to rebalance Coriolis torque. The feedback signal is demodulated in phase with the drive axis signal (K.sub..omega..crclbar..sub.x) to produce a measure of the Coriolis force.

Challoner, A. Dorian (Inventor); Gutierrez, Roman C. (Inventor); Tang, Tony K. (Inventor); Cargille, Donald R. (Inventor)

2002-01-01

134

UFO - The Universal FEYNRULES Output  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new model format for automatized matrix-element generators, the so-called Universal FEYNRULES Output (UFO). The format is universal in the sense that it features compatibility with more than one single generator and is designed to be flexible, modular and agnostic of any assumption such as the number of particles or the color and Lorentz structures appearing in the interaction vertices. Unlike other model formats where text files need to be parsed, the information on the model is encoded into a PYTHON module that can easily be linked to other computer codes. We then describe an interface for the MATHEMATICA package FEYNRULES that allows for an automatic output of models in the UFO format.

Degrande, Céline; Duhr, Claude; Fuks, Benjamin; Grellscheid, David; Mattelaer, Olivier; Reiter, Thomas

2012-06-01

135

High Precision HalfWave Rectifier Circuit In Dual Phase Output Mode  

E-print Network

This paper present high precision halfwave rectifier circuit in dual phase output mode by 0.5 micrometer CMOS technology, plus or minus 1.5 V low voltage, it has received input signal and sent output current signal, respond in high frequency. The main structure compound with CMOS inverter circuit, common source circuit, and current mirror circuit. Simulation and confirmation quality of working by PSpice program, then it able to operating at maximum frequency about 100 MHz, maximum input current range about 400 \\mu Ap p, high precision output signal, low power dissipation, and uses a little transistor.

Jamjaem, Theerayut

2010-01-01

136

Output Effects of Government Purchases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theoretical analysis focuses on the distinction between temporary and permanent movements in government purchases. Under plausible conditions, the temporary case involves an output response that is positive, less than one-to-one with the change in government purchases, and larger than that generated by an equal-sized, but permanent, shift in purchases. The equilibrium real rate of return rises in the temporary

Robert J. Barro

1981-01-01

137

Generalized Maximum Entropy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A long standing mystery in using Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) is how to deal with constraints whose values are uncertain. This situation arises when constraint values are estimated from data, because of finite sample sizes. One approach to this problem, advocated by E.T. Jaynes [1], is to ignore this uncertainty, and treat the empirically observed values as exact. We refer to this as the classic MaxEnt approach. Classic MaxEnt gives point probabilities (subject to the given constraints), rather than probability densities. We develop an alternative approach that assumes that the uncertain constraint values are represented by a probability density {e.g: a Gaussian), and this uncertainty yields a MaxEnt posterior probability density. That is, the classic MaxEnt point probabilities are regarded as a multidimensional function of the given constraint values, and uncertainty on these values is transmitted through the MaxEnt function to give uncertainty over the MaXEnt probabilities. We illustrate this approach by explicitly calculating the generalized MaxEnt density for a simple but common case, then show how this can be extended numerically to the general case. This paper expands the generalized MaxEnt concept introduced in a previous paper [3].

Cheeseman, Peter; Stutz, John

2005-01-01

138

FINANCIAL AID AT WESLEYAN  

E-print Network

xi FINANCIAL AID AT WESLEYAN A G U I D E TO F I N A N C I A L A I D P RO G R A M S F O R A P P L I Applying for Financial Aid 1 The Financial Aid Award Letter 1 Verification of Information 1 Additional Required Documents for Disbursement of Aid 1 The Student Expense Budget 2 The Family Contribution 2

Devoto, Stephen H.

139

FINANCIAL AID AT WESLEYAN  

E-print Network

xi FINANCIAL AID AT WESLEYAN A G U I D E TO F I N A N C I A L A I D P RO G R A M S F O R A P P L I Applying for Financial Aid 1 The Financial Aid Award Letter 1 Verification of Information 1 Additional Required Documents for Disbursement of Aid 2 The Student Expense Budget 2 The Family Contribution 2

Royer, Dana

140

Improved output performance of high-power VCSELs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intention of this paper is to report on state-of-the-art high-power vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser diodes (VCSELs), single devices as well as two-dimensional (2-D) arrays. Both approaches are studied in terms of electrooptical characteristics, beam performance, and scaling behavior. The maximum continuous wave (CW) output power at room temperature of large-area bottom-emitting devices with active diameters up to 320 ?m is

Michael Miller; Martin Grabherr; Roger King; Roland Jäger; Rainer Michalzik; Karl Joachim Ebeling

2001-01-01

141

Creating Motivating Job Aids.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains how to create job aids that employees will be motivated to use, based on a review of pertinent literature and interviews with professionals. Topics addressed include linking motivation with job aids; Keller's ARCS (Attention, Relevance, Confidence, Satisfaction) model of motivation; and design strategies for job aids based on Keller's…

Tilaro, Angie; Rossett, Allison

1993-01-01

142

UNDERSTANDING FINANCIAL AID  

E-print Network

2013-2014 GUIDE TO UNDERSTANDING FINANCIAL AID for UndergradUate Students ContinUing & ProfeSSional edUCation Students gradUate Students FINANCIAL AID SERVICE ACADEMIC AFFAIRS #12;MESSAGE FROM ThE DIRECTOR FINANCIAL AID SERVICES UNIVERSITY OF MASSAChUSETTS AMhERST Dear UMass Amherst Student and Family

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

143

Designing State Aid Formulas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper designs a new equalization-aid formula based on fiscal gaps of local communities. When states are in transition to a new local aid formula, the issue of whether and how to hold existing aid harmless poses a challenge. The authors show that some previous studies and the formulas derived from them give differential weights to existing and…

Zhao, Bo; Bradbury, Katharine

2009-01-01

144

Aid, Policies, and Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses a new database on foreign aid to examine the relationships among foreign aid, economic policies, and growth per capita GDP. We find that aid has a positive impact on growth in developing countries with good fiscal, monetary, and trade policies but has little effect in the presence of poor policies. Good policies are ones that are themselves

Craig Burnside; David Dollar

2000-01-01

145

Finding the quantum thermoelectric with maximal efficiency and minimal entropy production at given power output  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the nonlinear scattering theory for quantum systems with strong Seebeck and Peltier effects, and consider their use as heat engines and refrigerators with finite power outputs. This paper gives detailed derivations of the results summarized in a previous paper [R. S. Whitney, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 130601 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.130601]. It shows how to use the scattering theory to find (i) the quantum thermoelectric with maximum possible power output, and (ii) the quantum thermoelectric with maximum efficiency at given power output. The latter corresponds to a minimal entropy production at that power output. These quantities are of quantum origin since they depend on system size over electronic wavelength, and so have no analog in classical thermodynamics. The maximal efficiency coincides with Carnot efficiency at zero power output, but decreases with increasing power output. This gives a fundamental lower bound on entropy production, which means that reversibility (in the thermodynamic sense) is impossible for finite power output. The suppression of efficiency by (nonlinear) phonon and photon effects is addressed in detail; when these effects are strong, maximum efficiency coincides with maximum power. Finally, we show in particular limits (typically without magnetic fields) that relaxation within the quantum system does not allow the system to exceed the bounds derived for relaxation-free systems, however, a general proof of this remains elusive.

Whitney, Robert S.

2015-03-01

146

FEDERAL FINANCIAL AID QUICK FACTS What is Federal Financial Aid?  

E-print Network

FEDERAL FINANCIAL AID QUICK FACTS What is Federal Financial Aid? Federal financial aid at Louisiana Students (PLUS) How do I apply for federal financial aid? The Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA) is the correct form to apply for federal aid. In addition, Louisiana Tech University requires

Selmic, Sandra

147

Financial Aid Basics // 1 Special Aid Categories // 34  

E-print Network

2013-14 Financial Aid Basics // 1 Special Aid Categories // 34 Additional Info // 28 Receiving your aid // 23 Financial Aid Programs // 10 How to Apply // 5 G TOR A DAI UF Handbook of Financial Aid legislation, as well as unintended error. All financial aid awards are contingent upon availability of funds

Slatton, Clint

148

HIV, AIDS, and the Future  

MedlinePLUS

... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV, AIDS, and the Future Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table ... and your loved ones from HIV/AIDS. The AIDS Memorial Quilt In 1987, a total of 1, ...

149

Maximum of oil output of a treadle-powered peanut oil press  

E-print Network

The manual processing of food products has become a substantial part of the daily routine of a typical household in the developing world. Consumption of oil is an essential part of an individual's diet and thus, the ...

Patel, Ravi M. (Ravi Mahendra)

2007-01-01

150

Space Derived Health Aids (AID, Heart Monitor)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

CPI's spinoff from miniaturized pace circuitry is the new heart-assist device, the AID implantable automatic pulse generator. AID pulse generator monitors the heart continuously, recognizes onset of fibrillation, then administers a corrective electrical shock. A mini- computer, a power source, and two electrodes which sense heart activity are included in the unit. An associated system was also developed. It includes an external recorder to be worn by AID patients and a physician's console to display the data stored by the recorder. System provides a record of fibrillation occurrences and the ensuing defibrillation.

1981-01-01

151

The output of budesonide from spacer devices assessed under simulated breathing conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Spacer devices are increasingly used to aid inhalational therapy, and many different devices are available. Patient and spacer size and spacer static charge may affect drug delivery, but the optimum spacer size and method of reducing static charge is not certain. Objective: We sought to determine the output of budesonide from 3 different spacer devices when assessed by using

Peter W. Barry; Chris O’Callaghan

1999-01-01

152

Hearing Aid Assembly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress in hearing aids has come a long way. Yet despite such progress hearing aids are not the perfect answer to many hearing problems. Some adult ears cannot accommodate tightly fitting hearing aids. Mouth movements such as chewing, talking, and athletic or other active endeavors also lead to loosely fitting ear molds. It is well accepted that loosely fitting hearing aids are the cause of feedback noise. Since feedback noise is the most common complaint of hearing aid wearers it has been the subject of various patents. Herein a hearing aid assembly is provided eliminating feedback noise. The assembly includes the combination of a hearing aid with a headset developed to constrict feedback noise.

Grugel, Richard N. (Inventor)

2002-01-01

153

Correctional Officers' Attitudes Toward AIDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined correctional officers' views and attitudes about working with inmates with AIDS. At three prisons in Texas, 153 correctional officers were administered the AIDS in Prison Scale, the AIDS Attitude Scale, an AIDS\\/HIV Knowledge Test, and a Homophobia Scale. Correctional officers who had more positive attitudes about people with AIDS, who were more knowledgeable about AIDS\\/HIV, and who

KATHERINE J. MAHAFFEY; DAVID K. MARCUS

1995-01-01

154

Financial Aid Important Next Steps  

E-print Network

Financial Aid Important Next Steps Estimate Your Bill Estimate your bill payment on MyUCSC https://my.ucsc.edu UC Santa Cruz Financial Aid and Scholarship Office Search for UCSC Financial Aid 1156 High St 205 accepted financial aid as "Anticipated Aid". Reduce the amount you owe by the total anticipated aid

California at Santa Cruz, University of

155

When to Develop Aids for On-The-Job Use and When to Provide Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To decide between job aids and instruction, it is essential to analyze desired mastery performance: its inputs, outputs, criteria, and underlying skills and knowledge. A decision table is included. (Author/STS)

Lineberry, Claude S., Jr.

1977-01-01

156

Overload protection circuit for output driver  

DOEpatents

A protection circuit for preventing excessive power dissipation in an output transistor whose conduction path is connected between a power terminal and an output terminal. The protection circuit includes means for sensing the application of a turn on signal to the output transistor and the voltage at the output terminal. When the turn on signal is maintained for a period of time greater than a given period without the voltage at the output terminal reaching a predetermined value, the protection circuit decreases the turn on signal to, and the current conduction through, the output transistor.

Stewart, Roger G. (Neshanic Station, NJ)

1982-05-11

157

[An implantable piezoelectric hearing aid transducer for inner ear hearing loss. I: Development of a prototype].  

PubMed

Implantable hearing aids can form the basis of new surgical techniques for dealing with hearing problems originating in the inner ear, provided they are fully implantable. Accordingly, a comprehensive, interdisciplinary, combined project was initiated at the ENT clinic of the University of Tübingen which was to conclude with operations to improve hearing via fully implantable hearing aids. A novel electromechanical transducer for implantable hearing aids based on the piezoelectric principle is described. Unlike the piezoelectric transducers reported so far, this transducer does not rely on the bimorphic principle but on a circle-shaped, heteromorphic combination system consisting of a piezoceramic disc and metal membrane. The transducer can be hermetically sealed and is designed for implantation into the mastoid. Transfer of mechanical oscillations to an ossicle in the middle ear is effected by a directly fixed coupling rod or via suitable coupling elements. The transducer is highly tuned with a resonance frequency at the upper end of the spectral transfer range (greater than 10 kHz). Below this resonance and down to low frequencies, the frequency response of elongation is smooth with amplitudes of around 20 nm. At low and middle frequencies of up to 1 kHz, these vibration amplitudes correspond to sound-pressure levels of around 90 dB SPL. At higher frequencies of up to 10 kHz, the output level increases to about 130 dB SPL. Nonlinear distortions are also very small at the highest levels (less than 0.1%) throughout the whole transfer range. Electric power consumption at maximum levels is in the range of a few microwatts and is therefore significantly lower than that of electromagnetic systems. Particularly, this makes it possible to use the transducer in fully implantable hearing aids for rehabilitation of sensorineural hearing loss. PMID:9445852

Leysieffer, H; Baumann, J W; Müller, G; Zenner, H P

1997-10-01

158

An ESS maximum principle for matrix games.  

PubMed

Previous work has demonstrated that for games defined by differential or difference equations with a continuum of strategies, there exists a G-function, related to individual fitness, that must take on a maximum with respect to a virtual variable v whenever v is one of the vectors in the coalition of vectors which make up the evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS). This result, called the ESS maximum principle, is quite useful in determining candidates for an ESS. This principle is reformulated here, so that it may be conveniently applied to matrix games. In particular, we define a matrix game to be one in which fitness is expressed in terms of strategy frequencies and a matrix of expected payoffs. It is shown that the G-function in the matrix game setting must again take on a maximum value at all the strategies which make up the ESS coalition vector. The reformulated maximum principle is applicable to both bilinear and nonlinear matrix games. One advantage in employing this principle to solve the traditional bilinear matrix game is that the same G-function is used to find both pure and mixed strategy solutions by simply specifying an appropriate strategy space. Furthermore we show how the theory may be used to solve matrix games which are not in the usual bilinear form. We examine in detail two nonlinear matrix games: the game between relatives and the sex ratio game. In both of these games an ESS solution is determined. These examples not only illustrate the usefulness of this approach to finding solutions to an expanded class of matrix games, but aids in understanding the nature of the ESS as well. PMID:11120647

Vincent, T L; Cressman, R

2000-11-01

159

Aid and the growth of income in aid-favoured developing countries: policy issues.  

PubMed

This paper opens by expressing disappointment in the disparities between published estimations of the effectiveness of foreign aid to developing countries and effectiveness data which arise from the application of complex econometric methods. The new dilemmas for aid policy include the fact that aid increasingly devoted to human development at the expense of productive activity is unlikely to create the material development which will allow maintenance of human development targets. The second part of the paper presents comparative statistics on gross national product, official development assistance, and savings growth which paint a disturbing picture because the growth of domestic savings has been negative in the period 1967-87 in nine of the 11 less developed countries with data available. Section 3 covers the shortcomings of econometric experiments which neither confirm nor deny the findings of other studies on the effectiveness of aid. The fourth section describes constraints to the growth of income imposed by the foreign exchange, the rate of return on investment, and the growth of labor productivity and presents statistical evidence supporting aid policy which would 1) take advantage of opportunities to rehabilitate output growth in traditional industries without the addition of a great deal of capital, 2) direct attention to increasing the absolute gross national product (GNP) to raise the growth of per capital income, and 3) strategically reorient the structure of aid to increase the absolute GNP faster to accelerate reversal of the negative savings pattern and speed the reduction of fertility. Section 5 considers suggested shifts in aid policy orientation dealing with 1) population growth, income level, and food security; 2) reconstruction and structural adjustment; 3) rationalizing aid for social, institutional, and human development and technical assistance. The concluding section notes that the suggested strategic reorientation of the structure of aid should result in reduced population growth. PMID:12291834

Brewster, H; Yeboah, D

1994-04-01

160

The Network Structure of Economic Output  

E-print Network

Much of the analysis of economic growth has focused on the study of aggregate output. Here, we deviate from this tradition and look instead at the structure of output embodied in the network connecting countries to the ...

Hidalgo, Cesar A.

161

AIDS: acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.  

PubMed Central

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or AIDS, is a new illness that occurs in previously healthy individuals. It is characterized by immunodeficiency, opportunistic infections and unusual malignant diseases. Life-threatening single or multiple infections with viruses, mycobacteria, fungi or protozoa are common. A rare neoplasm, Kaposi's sarcoma, has developed in approximately one third of patients with AIDS. More than 800 cases of AIDS have been reported in North America, over 24 of them in Canada. The majority of patients are male homosexuals, although AIDS has also developed in abusers of intravenously administered drugs, Haitian immigrants, individuals with hemophilia, recipients of blood transfusions, prostitutes, and infants, spouses and partners of patients with AIDS. The cause of AIDS is unknown, but the features are consistent with an infectious process. Early diagnosis can be difficult owing to the nonspecific symptoms and signs of the infections and malignant diseases. Therefore, vigilance by physicians is of utmost importance. PMID:6342737

Gilmore, N. J.; Beaulieu, R.; Steben, M.; Laverdière, M.

1983-01-01

162

Optimal output-transitions for linear systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article addresses the optimal (minimum-input-energy) output-transition problem for linear systems. The goal is to transfer the output from an initial value y(t )= y (for all time t 6 ti) to a \\/nal output value y(t )= 0 y (for all time t ¿ tf ). Previous methods solve this output-transition problem by transforming it into a state-transition problem;

Hector Perez; Santosh Devasia

2003-01-01

163

Command system output bit verification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An automatic test was developed to test the ability of the deep space station (DSS) command subsystem and exciter to generate and radiate, from the exciter, the correct idle bit sequence for a given flight project or to store and radiate received command data elements and files without alteration. This test, called the command system output bit verification test, is an extension of the command system performance test (SPT) and can be selected as an SPT option. The test compares the bit stream radiated from the DSS exciter with reference sequences generated by the SPT software program. The command subsystem and exciter are verified when the bit stream and reference sequences are identical. It is a key element of the acceptance testing conducted on the command processor assembly (CPA) operational program (DMC-0584-OP-G) prior to its transfer from development to operations.

Odd, C. W.; Abbate, S. F.

1981-01-01

164

Digital plus analog output encoder  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The disclosed encoder is adapted to produce both digital and analog output signals corresponding to the angular position of a rotary shaft, or the position of any other movable member. The digital signals comprise a series of binary signals constituting a multidigit code word which defines the angular position of the shaft with a degree of resolution which depends upon the number of digits in the code word. The basic binary signals are produced by photocells actuated by a series of binary tracks on a code disc or member. The analog signals are in the form of a series of ramp signals which are related in length to the least significant bit of the digital code word. The analog signals are derived from sine and cosine tracks on the code disc.

Hafle, R. S. (inventor)

1976-01-01

165

Mathematics and the Heart: Understanding Cardiac Output  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper illustrates a biological application of the concepts of relative change and area under a curve, from mathematics. We study two biological measures "relative change in cardiac output" and "cardiac output", which are predictors of heart blockages and other related ailments. Cardiac output refers to the quantity of…

Champanerkar, Jyoti

2013-01-01

166

Pomics: A Computer-aided Storytelling System with Automatic Picture-to-Comics Composition  

E-print Network

Pomics: A Computer-aided Storytelling System with Automatic Picture-to-Comics Composition Ming for comic-based computer-aided storytelling systems to help users become comic storytellers. Such systems take users' photos as the input and output comic strips that tell the story behind the photos. We see

Chen, Sheng-Wei

167

Output power analyses for the thermodynamic cycles of thermal power plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal power plant is one of the important thermodynamic devices, which is very common in all kinds of power generation systems. In this paper, we use a new concept, entransy loss, as well as exergy destruction, to analyze the single reheating Rankine cycle unit and the single stage steam extraction regenerative Rankine cycle unit in power plants. This is the first time that the concept of entransy loss is applied to the analysis of the power plant Rankine cycles with reheating and steam extraction regeneration. In order to obtain the maximum output power, the operating conditions under variant vapor mass flow rates are optimized numerically, as well as the combustion temperatures and the off-design flow rates of the flue gas. The relationship between the output power and the exergy destruction rate and that between the output power and the entransy loss rate are discussed. It is found that both the minimum exergy destruction rate and the maximum entransy loss rate lead to the maximum output power when the combustion temperature and heat capacity flow rate of the flue gas are prescribed. Unlike the minimum exergy destruction rate, the maximum entransy loss rate is related to the maximum output power when the highest temperature and heat capacity flow rate of the flue gas are not prescribed.

Sun, Chen; Cheng, Xue-Tao; Liang, Xin-Gang

2014-05-01

168

Financial Aid at HMS Bob Coughlin, Director of Financial Aid  

E-print Network

Financial Aid at HMS Bob Coughlin, Director of Financial Aid Victor Anciano Granadillo, HMS '15 The Financial Aid Process The Award Package What Else to Expect Appeal Process Other Options/Resources Available Aid Process Two Pathways to Financial Aid Option I Applying for unit loan and grants Parent

Chou, James

169

Financial Aid Office 2011-2012 FINANCIAL AID TIMELINE  

E-print Network

Financial Aid Office 2011-2012 FINANCIAL AID TIMELINE To explore your financial aid options before December, go to www.FAFSA4caster.ed.gov. December 2010 ! 2011-2012 Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA) paper applications arrive at high schools and colleges. ! Apply for your Federal Student Aid PIN

Mohaghegh, Shahab

170

Financial Aid Office 2012-2013 FINANCIAL AID TIMELINE  

E-print Network

Financial Aid Office 2012-2013 FINANCIAL AID TIMELINE WVU's Net Price Calculator at www financial aid options and anticipated educational costs. These websites provide estimates only; in order to officially apply for financial aid you must file the 2012-13 Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA

Mohaghegh, Shahab

171

Financial Aid Office 2010-2011 FINANCIAL AID TIMELINE  

E-print Network

Financial Aid Office 2010-2011 FINANCIAL AID TIMELINE To explore your financial aid options before December, go to www.FAFSA4caster.ed.gov. December 2009 2010-2011 Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA) paper applications arrive at high schools and colleges. Apply for your Federal Student Aid PIN

Mohaghegh, Shahab

172

AFB's Computerized Travel Aid: Two Years of Research and Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Progress on the computerized travel aid, an electronic device, using elements of the Polaroid Sonar Camera and a microprocessor, for visually handicapped persons is reviewed, and research on the effectiveness of various models noted. Recommended modifications touch on aspects of mounting, beam shape, and audible outputs. (CL)

Uslan, Mark M.; And Others

1983-01-01

173

Computer-aided diagnosis in radiology: potential and pitfalls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) may be defined as a diagnosis made by a physician who takes into account the computer output as a second opinion. The purpose of CAD is to improve the diagnostic accuracy and the consistency of the radiologists’ image interpretation. This article is to provide a brief overview of some of CAD schemes for detection and differential diagnosis

Kunio Doi; Heber MacMahon; Shigehiko Katsuragawa; Robert M Nishikawa; Yulei Jiang

1999-01-01

174

A Maximum Likelihood Stereo Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

A stereo algorithm is presented that optimizes a maximum likelihood cost function. The maximum likelihood cost function assumes that corresponding features in the left and right images are normally distributed about a common true value and consists of a weighted squared error term if two features are matched or a (fixed) cost if a feature is determined to be occluded.

Ingemar J. Cox; Sunita L. Hingorani; Satish B. Rao; Bruce M. Maggs

1996-01-01

175

Some Facts About Financial Aid  

E-print Network

2012­13 Some Facts About Financial Aid #12;What is Financial Aid? Financial aid is money available from federal, state, university, and private sources to help students meet college costs. Financial aid and their families can afford to pay. Two types or categories of financial aid are available. Scholarships and grants

California at Santa Cruz, University of

176

Different Styles of Hearing Aids  

MedlinePLUS

Different Styles of Hearing Aids In-the-Canal (ITC) and Completely-in-the-Canal (CIC) Aids These aids are contained in a tiny case that ... Click for larger image In-the-Ear (ITE) Aids All parts of the aid are contained in ...

177

Some Facts About Financial Aid  

E-print Network

2013­14 Some Facts About Financial Aid #12;What is Financial Aid? Financial aid is money available from federal, state, university, and private sources to help students meet college costs. Financial aid can afford to pay. Two types or categories of financial aid are available. Scholarships and grants

California at Santa Cruz, University of

178

Hearing Aid Device  

MedlinePLUS

... Other Products and Devices to Improve Hearing Links Animation: Hearing Aid Device This is an animation showing how the hearing aid works. First, the ... off button, battery compartment, and volume control. The animation next shows what you would see if you ...

179

The New Merit Aid  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Merit aid, a discount to college costs contingent upon academic performance, is nothing new. Colleges and private organizations have long rewarded high-achieving, college-bound high school students with scholarships. While merit aid has a long history in the private sector, it has not played a major role in the public sector. At the state level,…

Dynarski, Susan

2004-01-01

180

BIBLIOGRAPHY OF TRAINING AIDS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS COMPILATION OF INSTRUCTIONAL AIDS FOR USE IN AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION TRAINING PROGRAMS CONTAINS LISTS OF VISUAL AND AUDIOVISUAL TRAINING AIDS AND GUEST LECTURERS AVAILABLE FROM MEMBER COMPANIES OF THE AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION INSTITUTE AS AN INDUSTRY SERVICE TO SCHOOL OFFICIALS INTERESTED IN CONDUCTING SUCH PROGRAMS. THE…

MCKEONE, CHARLES J.

181

AIDS and Chemical Dependency.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After defining HIV and the AIDS disease and outlining symptoms and means of infection, this fact sheet lists the ways alcohol and drugs are involved with the AIDS epidemic, noting that needle-sharing transmits the virus; that alcohol or mood-altering drugs like crack cocaine cause disinhibition, increase sex drive, encourage sex for drugs, and…

Pohl, Melvin I.

182

Unconsciousness, First Aid  

MedlinePLUS

... keep the airway clear while awaiting medical care. First Aid Guide If you find an unconscious person, try to determine what caused the loss of ... determine what caused the loss of consciousness, give first aid for general ... services if the person does not revive promptly (ie, within a couple ...

183

Aids for visual impairment.  

PubMed Central

This article provides only a flavour of the type and range of aids available to the visually impaired person. Many other aids for leisure, learning, and daily living are illustrated in the RNIB equipment and games catalogue. Images FIG 1 FIG 3 FIG 4 FIG 5 FIG 6 FIG 7 FIG 8 FIG 9 FIG 10 PMID:2252929

Dudley, N J

1990-01-01

184

AIDS: Children Too.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This journal issue is devoted to the many problems faced by children with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) who live in both developing and developed countries. Section 1 provides general information on the pandemic, defining AIDS and exploring the social aspects of the disease. It also addresses child health, child mortality, moral and…

Lejeune, Genevieve, Ed.

1994-01-01

185

Federal Aid to Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The nature of the shared responsibility for education is examined in this paper in which federal funds for education are viewed as an aid to the states and local communities. A brief review of the history of federal aid to education is given to place the topic in perspective. The central question examined is, Whose objectives are to be satisfied…

Hooker, Clifford P.

186

International Aid to Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent evidence highlights several worrisome trends regarding aid pledges and disbursements, which have been exacerbated by the global financial crisis. First, while overall development assistance rose in 2008, after 2 years of decline, the share of all sector aid going to the education sector has remained virtually unchanged at about 12 percent…

Benavot, Aaron

2010-01-01

187

AIDS Epidemiological models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this paper is to present mathematical modelling of the spread of infection in the context of the transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). These models are based in part on the models suggested in the field of th AIDS mathematical modelling as reported by ISHAM [6].

Rahmani, Fouad Lazhar

2010-11-01

188

AIDS PUBLIC INFORMATION DATABASE  

EPA Science Inventory

The AIDS Public Information Data Set is computer software designed to run on a Microsoft Windows microcomputer, and contains information abstracted from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) cases reported in the United States. The data set is created by the Division of HIV/A...

189

Detecting Student Aid Fraud.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the varied kinds of student aid fraud found to be occurring within and outside colleges and universities, and examines implications for public policy on student aid programs. Discusses specific fraud cases and their outcomes, and makes suggestions for institutional action if student fraud is suspected. (MSE)

Sheppard, Jeffrey

1998-01-01

190

Nosebleed, First Aid  

MedlinePLUS

... vessel(s) with electric current, silver nitrate, or a laser on the inside of the nose that are causing the problem. References/Trusted Links References Handal KA; American Red Cross. Part 2: first aid. In: The American Red Cross First Aid and Safety Handbook . 1st ed. Boston, MA: Little, Brown and ...

191

Non-Causal Final Impulse Response Filters for the Maximum Return from Capital Markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we consider a trading strategy, which consists in buying or selling a financial instrument when the smoothing, non-causal FIR (Final Impulse Response) filter output attains a local minimum or maximum, respectively. Upon this assumption the goal of this paper is to determine the ``best'' non-causal smoothing FIR filters, which provide maximum value of the return from market.

A. Dyka

2006-01-01

192

Implementation of a Solar Power Battery Energy Storage System with Maximum Power Point Tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work implements a solar power battery energy storage system (BESS) with maximum power point tracking (MPPT) under substantial variation in temperature and intensity of illumination. A tracker is also designed based on the perturbation and observation method to track rapidly the maximum power point of the energy output of the solar cells. The power generation data are then transmitted

Yu-Lung Ke; Ying-Chun Chuang; Yuan-Kang Wu; Bo-Tsung Jou

2010-01-01

193

A Seamless Mode Transfer Maximum Power Point Tracking Controller for Thermoelectric Generator Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A boost-cascaded-with-buck converter based power conditioning system employing a seamless mode transfer maximum power point tracking controller is proposed to maximize energy production of a thermoelectric generator while balancing the vehicle battery charging, alternator output power, and vehicle load. When a maximum power point exceeds a load demand, the proposed controller switches to a power matching mode seamlessly by a

Rae-Young Kim; Jih-Sheng Lai

2007-01-01

194

High output power Erbium-Ytterbium doped cladding pumped fiber amplifier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The performance of a high output power Erbium-Ytterbium doped fiber amplifier (EYDFA) pumped by a 927 nm laser diode are proposed and experimentally investigated. The EYDFA provides a flat gain and output power higher than 23 dBm in the wavelength region from 1545 to 1566 nm using a double-pass configuration. A broadband fiber Bragg grating is used in the double-pass EYDFA to allow a double-propagation of the test signal in the gain medium and thus improves the gain and output power characteristics of the amplifier. The maximum output power of 390 mW is obtained at the maximum 927 nm pump power of 4.1 W which translates to a power conversion efficiency of about 10%.

Harun, S. W.; Moghaddam, M. R. A.; Ahmad, H.

2010-10-01

195

Efficiency at maximum power of thermally coupled heat engines.  

PubMed

We study the efficiency at maximum power of two coupled heat engines, using thermoelectric generators (TEGs) as engines. Assuming that the heat and electric charge fluxes in the TEGs are strongly coupled, we simulate numerically the dependence of the behavior of the global system on the electrical load resistance of each generator in order to obtain the working condition that permits maximization of the output power. It turns out that this condition is not unique. We derive a simple analytic expression giving the relation between the electrical load resistance of each generator permitting output power maximization. We then focus on the efficiency at maximum power (EMP) of the whole system to demonstrate that the Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency may not always be recovered: The EMP varies with the specific working conditions of each generator but remains in the range predicted by irreversible thermodynamics theory. We discuss our results in light of nonideal Carnot engine behavior. PMID:22680454

Apertet, Y; Ouerdane, H; Goupil, C; Lecoeur, Ph

2012-04-01

196

Characteristic analysis of a polarization output coupling Porro prism resonator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An Electro-optical Q-switched Nd:YAG slab laser with a crossed misalignment Porro prism resonator for space applications has been theoretically and experimentally investigated. The phase shift induced by the combination of different wave plates and Porro prism azimuth angles have been studied for creating high loss condition prior to Q-switching. The relationship of the effective output coupling reflectivity and the employed Q-switch driving voltage is explored by using Jones matrix optics. In the experiment, the maximum output pulse energy of 93 mJ with 14-ns pulse duration is obtained at the repetition rate of 20 Hz and the optical-to-optical conversion efficiency is 16.8%. The beam quality factors are M 2 x = 2.5 and M 2y = 2.2, respectively.

Yang, Hailong; Meng, Junqing; Chen, Weibiao

2015-02-01

197

Basic HIV/AIDS Statistics  

MedlinePLUS

... you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | Subscribe ... Get Email Updates on HIV Anonymous Feedback HIV/AIDS Media Infographics Syndicated Content Podcasts Slide Sets HIV/ ...

198

American Foundation for AIDS Research  

MedlinePLUS

... the Press Corporate Support amfAR, The Foundation for AIDS Research Research Overview Research Grants Research Accomplishments Scientific ... Archive TREAT Asia TREAT Asia About TREAT Asia AIDS in Asia Research and Treatment Education and AIDS ...

199

Hearing Aids and Cell Phones  

MedlinePLUS

... and Consumer Devices Consumer Products Hearing Aids Hearing Aids and Cell Phones What is that buzzing noise ... in my cell phone? People who wear hearing aids or have implanted hearing devices may experience some ...

200

Research Report: HIV/AIDS  

MedlinePLUS

... Home » HIV/AIDS » Letter from the Director HIV/AIDS Email Facebook Twitter Letter from the Director Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) — the virus that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) — has been with us for three decades now. ...

201

HIV/AIDS and Alcohol  

MedlinePLUS

... Psychiatric Disorders Other Substance Abuse HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) targets the body’s immune ... and often leads to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Each year in the United States, between 55, ...

202

HIV/AIDS and Vaccines  

MedlinePLUS

... Day. Prevention Research Vaccines Microbicides Related Topics on AIDS.gov Clinical Trials Immune System 101 HIV Vaccine ... Be the Generation Last revised: 05/12/2014 AIDS.gov HIV/AIDS Basics • Federal Resources • Using New ...

203

How to Get Hearing Aids  

MedlinePLUS

... fit a hearing aid(s) to the person's individual communication needs. To find out if an audiologist or hearing aid dispenser is licensed, check with your local Better Business Bureau, consumer protection agency, State Attorney General’s office, ...

204

HIV/AIDS Clinical Trials  

MedlinePLUS

... safe and effective in people. What is an HIV/AIDS clinical trial? HIV/AIDS clinical trials help ... related to HIV Can anyone participate in an HIV/AIDS clinical trial? It depends on the study. ...

205

PREVIMER : Meteorological inputs and outputs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PREVIMER is a pre-operational system aiming to provide a wide range of users, from private individuals to professionals, with short-term forecasts about the coastal environment along the French coastlines bordering the English Channel, the Atlantic Ocean, and the Mediterranean Sea. Observation data and digital modelling tools first provide 48-hour (probably 96-hour by summer 2009) forecasts of sea states, currents, sea water levels and temperatures. The follow-up of an increasing number of biological parameters will, in time, complete this overview of coastal environment. Working in partnership with the French Naval Hydrographic and Oceanographic Service (Service Hydrographique et Océanographique de la Marine, SHOM), the French National Weather Service (Météo-France), the French public science and technology research institute (Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, IRD), the European Institute of Marine Studies (Institut Universitaire Européen de la Mer, IUEM) and many others, IFREMER (the French public institute fo marine research) is supplying the technologies needed to ensure this pertinent information, available daily on Internet at http://www.previmer.org, and stored at the Operational Coastal Oceanographic Data Centre. Since 2006, PREVIMER publishes the results of demonstrators assigned to limited geographic areas and to specific applications. This system remains experimental. The following topics are covered : Hydrodynamic circulation, sea states, follow-up of passive tracers, conservative or non-conservative (specifically of microbiological origin), biogeochemical state, primary production. Lastly, PREVIMER provides researchers and R&D departments with modelling tools and access to the database, in which the observation data and the modelling results are stored, to undertake environmental studies on new sites. The communication will focus on meteorological inputs to and outputs from PREVIMER. It will draw the lessons from almost 3 years during which the system has been operational almost everyday and propose perspectives in terms of technical improvements and possible business models.

Ravenel, H.; Lecornu, F.; Kerléguer, L.

2009-09-01

206

Maximum Error Modeling for Fault-Tolerant Computation using Maximum a posteriori (MAP) Hypothesis  

E-print Network

The application of current generation computing machines in safety-centric applications like implantable biomedical chips and automobile safety has immensely increased the need for reviewing the worst-case error behavior of computing devices for fault-tolerant computation. In this work, we propose an exact probabilistic error model that can compute the maximum error over all possible input space in a circuit specific manner and can handle various types of structural dependencies in the circuit. We also provide the worst-case input vector, which has the highest probability to generate an erroneous output, for any given logic circuit. We also present a study of circuit-specific error bounds for fault-tolerant computation in heterogeneous circuits using the maximum error computed for each circuit. We model the error estimation problem as a maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimate, over the joint error probability function of the entire circuit, calculated efficiently through an intelligent search of the entire input space using probabilistic traversal of a binary join tree using Shenoy-Shafer algorithm. We demonstrate this model using MCNC and ISCAS benchmark circuits and validate it using an equivalent HSpice model. Both results yield the same worst-case input vectors and the highest % difference of our error model over HSpice is just 1.23%. We observe that the maximum error probabilities are significantly larger than the average error probabilities, and provides a much tighter error bounds for fault-tolerant computation. We also find that the error estimates depend on the specific circuit structure and the maximum error probabilities are sensitive to the individual gate failure probabilities.

Karthikeyan Lingasubramanian; Syed M. Alam; Sanjukta Bhanja

2009-10-27

207

AIDS and the community.  

PubMed

HIV/AIDS is transmitted in developing countries mainly through heterosexual sexual intercourse, and from mothers to babies. While the AIDS pandemic could actually reverse population growth in developing countries, it remains to be seen what future population growth trends will emerge. There are, however, current economic and personal costs to both countries and communities. HIV/AIDS has most severely affected the young, economically productive generations, and decimated some village populations in countries heavily dependent upon agriculture. 85% of Papua New Guinea's population lives in villages and depends upon their own labor for food. Other direct effects of HIV/AIDS upon communities are discussed, including the vertical transmission of HIV and the association of HIV/AIDS with other sexually transmitted diseases and tuberculosis. Fear and ignorance are discussed with regard to how communities have responded to HIV/AIDS, followed by consideration of strategies communities may use to deal with HIV/AIDS, the challenge to survive, and the interdependence of community and the individual. PMID:9795566

Farmer, E

1996-09-01

208

Computer-aided diagnosis in thoracic CT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) provides a computer output as a "second opinion" in order to assist radiologists in the diagnosis of various diseases on medical images. Currently, a hot topic in CAD is the development of computerized schemes for detection of lung abnormalities, such as lung nodule and interstitial lung disease, in computed tomography (CT) images. The author describes in this article the current status of the CAD schemes for the detection of lung nodules and interstitial lung disease in CT developed by the author and his colleagues at the University of Chicago and Duke University.

Li, Qiang

2009-10-01

209

Inaccurate calculation of drug output from nebulisers.  

PubMed

A multistage liquid impinger was used to collect the nebulised cloud from three separate nebulisers. The output of sodium cromoglycate collected was determined by a spectrophotometric assay. Estimating drug output purely from weight loss during nebulisation resulted in a considerable overestimate compared with direct assay of the drug output from the nebulised cloud. During nebulisation, weight loss from the nebuliser occurs in the form of particle formation and also by evaporation. By only weighing the nebuliser chamber before and after nebulisation, weight loss due to evaporation is not taken into account and this is the cause of the overestimation of drug output by this method. PMID:2493380

O'Callaghan, C; Clarke, A R; Milner, A D

1989-02-01

210

Financial Aid Handbook Office of Financial Aid and Scholarships  

E-print Network

2013-2014 Financial Aid Handbook Office of Financial Aid and Scholarships #12;2 The purpose of this Handbook is to help you understand financial aid processes, options for paying your college costs, and your rights and responsibilities as a student receiving financial aid at Washington State University

Collins, Gary S.

211

Financial Aid and Admission: Tuition Discounting, Merit Aid  

E-print Network

Financial Aid and Admission: Tuition Discounting, Merit Aid and Need-aware Admission 2008 NACAC (800) 822-6285 (703) 243-9375 fax www.nacacnet.org #12;Financial Aid and Admission: Tuition Discounting, Merit Aid and Need-aware Admission September 2008 Donald E. Heller Professor of Education and Senior

Heller, Don

212

Financial Aid Information for Eating Club Members Undergraduate Financial Aid  

E-print Network

Financial Aid Information for Eating Club Members Undergraduate Financial Aid Princeton University@princeton.edu Policy: The financial aid budget for all juniors and seniors includes an increased board allowance it easier to afford a club meal plan. Keep in mind that this does not mean that financial aid will pay

213

Robot-Aided Neurorehabilitation  

PubMed Central

Our goal is to apply robotics and automation technology to assist, enhance, quantify, and document neurorehabilitation. This paper reviews a clinical trial involving 20 stroke patients with a prototype robot-aided rehabilitation facility developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, (MIT) and tested at Burke Rehabilitation Hospital, White Plains, NY. It also presents our approach to analyze kinematic data collected in the robot-aided assessment procedure. In particular, we present evidence 1) that robot-aided therapy does not have adverse effects, 2) that patients tolerate the procedure, and 3) that peripheral manipulation of the impaired limb may influence brain recovery. These results are based on standard clinical assessment procedures. We also present one approach using kinematic data in a robot-aided assessment procedure. PMID:9535526

Krebs, Hermano Igo; Hogan, Neville; Aisen, Mindy L.; Volpe, Bruce T.

2009-01-01

214

First aid kit  

MedlinePLUS

... at a pharmacy or supermarket. Bandages and dressings: Adhesive bandages (Band-Aid or similar brand); assorted sizes ... to reduce contamination risk Sterile gauze pads and adhesive tape Triangular bandage for wrapping injuries and making ...

215

Tick Bites, First Aid  

MedlinePLUS

... tick paralysis). First Aid Guide To remove an embedded tick: Wash your hands. Clean tweezers by boiling ... motion. Be careful not to leave the head embedded in the skin, and make sure all parts ...

216

First Aid: Rashes  

MedlinePLUS

... MORE ON THIS TOPIC First Aid: Skin Infections Hives (Urticaria) Erythema Multiforme Pityriasis Rosea Eczema A to Z ... Ivy Flash Interactive: Body Basics: Skin and Hair Hives (Urticaria) Pityriasis Rosea Eczema Ringworm Molluscum Contagiosum Erythema ...

217

House OK's Russian aid  

SciTech Connect

This article discusses the 2.5 Billion dollar aid package to Russia which House Appropriations Foreign Operations Subcommittee Chairman David Obey successfully defended on the House floor last June. Arizona Republican Jon Kyl offered an admendment that would cut 700 million from the package and was defeated with a 118 to 140 vote. The bill is currently in the hands of the Senate. The controversy over the bill and details concerning the aid package are discussed. The aid deal includes 250 million dollars for nuclear reactor safety and energy as well as environmental technical assistance, 655 million dollars to aid private sector development, and 704 million dollars for additional technical and economic assistance.

Rothstein, L.

1993-09-01

218

Harvest Aids in Sorghum  

E-print Network

Growers can obtain higher prices and increased profits for their grain sorghum by applying harvest aids, which are chemicals that bring the grain to a more uniform percentage of moisture at harvest. This publication explains what causes uneven...

Stichler, Charles; Livingston, Stephen

2003-03-11

219

HIV/AIDS  

MedlinePLUS

HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. It kills or damages the body's immune system cells. AIDS stands ... is the most advanced stage of infection with HIV. HIV most often spreads through unprotected sex with ...

220

AID in antibody perfection  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  Expressed immunoglobulin (Ig) genes undergo alterations in sequence and genomic structure in order to optimize antibody function.\\u000a A single B cellspecific factor, activation-induced deaminase (AID), initiates these changes by deamination of cytosine to\\u000a uracil. Uracil in DNA is encountered commonly, and conserved pathways are responsible for its faithful repair. However, at\\u000a the Ig loci of B cells, AID-initiated damage is

A. C. Vallur; M. Yabuki; E. D. Larson; N. Maizels

2007-01-01

221

AIDS: the hidden enemy.  

PubMed

This article discusses the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic an its effect on developing countries, with emphasis on Africa. The AIDS death toll will be high in the US: 180,000 by 1991, but it will be in the millions in developing countries. In Africa, AIDS is mainly transmitted heterosexually, is as prevalent among women as among men, and is taking a serious toll among professional classes and young wage earners. The social costs of funerals has increased, and company clinics and sick pay funds have been overwhelmed. In Uganda, the epidemic adds to the state of psychological shock people have sufferred because of the civil war. Medical professionals have been hard-pressed to acquire equipment for testing blood for the virus, although there have been efforts to protect blood supplies through exhaustive testing. Endemic tuberculosis becomes an even more serious problem in developing countries, since AIDS lowers resistance to it. AIDS also effects many developing country children, usually through infected mothers, who can transmit AIDS through breast milk or during pregnancy of birth. This poses a dilemma for promoters of breastfeeding. It is also feared that innoculation of immunosuppressed children may be dangerous. The global picture suggests that Africa is hardest hit: seropositivity prevalence ranges from 0.7% of Congo blood donors to 33% of male donors in Lusaka Zambia. Brazil's cases are mainly homosexual, and in Asia the prevalence is mostly low, although there is a great potential danger in countries where prostitution and heroin addiction are prevalent. The only effective weapon against AIDS is education and blood testing to prevent spread. Despite good education programs in some countries, e.g. Rwanda, there is still widespread ignorance of how AIDS is spread. PMID:12314457

Tinker, J; Sabatier, R

1987-01-01

222

AIDS and economic disruption.  

PubMed

Child and adult mortality increases in Cameroon due to AIDS will cause life expectancy to fall by as many as 8 years, from just over 50 to just over 40 years. The social consequences of AIDS include grieving, stigmatizing, and the large-scale disruption of family and community structures. Widows and widowers due to AIDS mortality are affected differently from each other, with the widows of men who have died from AIDS facing potential sociocultural and economic hardship. The economic consequences of AIDS in Bamenda and elsewhere in Cameroon will occur mainly through the epidemic's impact upon the size and quality of the labor force. By killing a significant number of male and female workers aged 15-60 years, AIDS will reduce the size and growth rate of the labor force. Despite, rapid population growth, labor is a relatively scarce factor of agricultural production in Cameroon. The spread of HIV in rural areas, combined with the intensity and scarcity of agricultural labor, suggests that AIDS will have an impact upon production and per capita incomes, and increase the already high rates of hunger and absolute poverty. In the context of HIV/AIDS, young people must be empowered to make informed decisions about sex. Adolescents are most at risk because they tend to experiment more than married couples and have many sex partners. Sexual activity begins as early as age 8 years and penetrative sex at age 13 or earlier. The author considers the factors which encourage adolescents to engage in sexual activities. PMID:12293251

Johnson, G S

1996-10-01

223

AIDS: credible messengers.  

PubMed

Evidence suggest that AIDS prevention messages are not getting through and that people continue to deny the threat of AIDS, developments that underscore the importance of credible messengers. Evidence suggests that myths and misconceptions about AIDS remain common around the world. Even in the US, a 1/3 of the population continues to believe that the virus can be transmitted through casual contact. Although complicated and contradictory messages are partly to blame for the confusion, denial remains one of the greatest obstacles to AIDS prevention. Many people -- especially young people -- simply believe that AIDS cannot affect them. In order to overcome this barrier, effective messengers are needed, and 2 of the most effective ones are people with AIDS (PWAs) and "insider" messengers. As Richard Rector, a 34-year-old Californian with AIDS, explains, PWAs have learned to live with the disease, and some have been able to transcend it. Thus, they are able to help people overcome their fear. PWAs humanize the education process. Programs that involve PWAs have been used to educate young people in many countries, including the US, Brazil, Kenya, and Zambia. Another effective messenger is the insider, himself or herself a member of the target group. The use of an insider is particularly effective when the target group in question faces stigma or harassment, groups such as prostitutes and drug users. In Ghana, an AIDS education campaign recruited female prostitutes to serve as educators and to distribute condoms. 3 months into the project, condom use among prostitutes had increased from 13% to 94%. The effectiveness of both strategies is that the education process is not didactic but participatory. PMID:12317217

1991-01-01

224

AID and the law  

PubMed Central

The present state of the law is unsatisfactory. The exact effect on the marriage of the parties has not been decided although in English law if artificial insemination by donor (AID) takes place without consent that would appear to be a ground for divorce since 1969. The law regards a child born as a result of AID as illegitimate and draws no distinction between the case where the husband consents and where he does not. Theoretically, an offence is committed if the birth entry is falsified, presumably in cases where the husband consents. The AID child, like any other illegitimate child, has rights against the natural parents, but he is in a worse position than most illegitimate children, in that he may not have any information about his father. It is now possible to freeze sperm and so preserve it over longer periods. All the problems associated with AID are present also when sperm is preserved in banks, but if the law is in an unsatisfactory state in relation to AID this is even more true in relation to sperm banks. The main criticism of the Feversham Report (1960) could be that it recommended, broadly speaking, the `status quo' but scientific progress has now overtaken and left the Feversham findings well behind. What, therefore, is required is a full consideration of the subject of AID and, on the basis of that, some statutory code regulating all its aspects. PMID:1165575

Cusine, D J

1975-01-01

225

Study the Output Characteristics of a 90 kJ Filippove-Type Plasma Focus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The output characteristics of a Filippove-Type plasma focus “Dena” (288 ?F, 25 kV, 90 kJ) is numerically investigated by considering\\u000a the voltage, current, current derivative, and maximum current as a function of capacitor bank energy in the constant Argon gas pressure and compared to the experiment. It is shown that increase on the bank energy leads to the increment on the maximum\\u000a current

S. M. Sadat Kiai; A. Talaei; S. Adlparvar; A. Zirak; M. Elahi; A. Safarian; S. Farhangi; S. Alhooie; A. A. Dabirzadeh; M. M. Khalaj; M. S. Mahlooji; M. Talaei; S. KaKaei; S. Sheibani; A. Kashani; F. Zahedi

2010-01-01

226

Design of hydraulic output Stirling engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hydraulic output system for the RE-1000 free piston stirling engine (FPSE) was designed. The hydraulic output system can be readily integrated with the existing hot section of RE-1000 FPSE. The system has two simply supported diaphragms which separate the engine gas from the hydraulic fluid, a dynamic balance mechanism, and a novel, null center band hydraulic pump. The diaphragms

W. M. Toscano; A. C. Harvey; K. Lee

1983-01-01

227

Silicon carbide diode for increased light output  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Transition metals improve the overall light output and the output in particular regions of the electroluminescent of a silicon carbide semiconductor device. These metals /impurities/ introduce levels that can be pumped electrically and affect the efficiency of the recombination process involved in emission of radiation.

Griffiths, L. B.; Mlavsky, A. I.

1969-01-01

228

REFORMAT: Stata module to reformat regression output  

Microsoft Academic Search

The output from the last regression command is re-displayed in a more readable format using variable and value labels for clarity. The columns to be displayed can be controlled by the user and extra options to show the number of observations or likelihood ratio P-value associated with each covariate is provided. The command is particularly suited to regression output containing

Tony Brady

2002-01-01

229

Atom Laser with a cw Output Coupler  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate a continuous output coupler for magnetically trapped atoms. Over a period of up to 100 ms, a collimated and monoenergetic beam of atoms is continuously extracted from a Bose-Einstein condensate. The intensity and kinetic energy of the output beam of this atom laser are controlled by a weak rf field that induces spin flips between trapped and untrapped

Immanuel Bloch; Theodor W. Hänsch; Tilman Esslinger

1999-01-01

230

Input-Output Analysis in Public Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores some techniques that could assist education managers in their attempt to arrive at more optimal input and output mixes. The first part (Chapters 1-4) provides an overview of the input-output concept in relation to its employment in the educational setting, along with a review of the literature on the educational production…

Cohn, Elchanan; And Others

231

The Student Guide: Financial Aid.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication explains what federal student financial aid is and what types of student aid are available. Two introductory sections present: federal student aid at-a-glance (what it is, who gets it, and how to get it) and finding out about student aid. The first section presents general information on the following subjects: student…

Department of Education, Washington, DC. Student Financial Assistance.

232

Answering Your Questions about AIDS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book focuses on AIDS education and answers 350 commonly asked questions about Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) taken from questions addressed to two major urban AIDS hotlines (Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and Houston, Texas). Chapter 1, "HIV - The Virus That Causes AIDS," discusses: the HIV virus; the…

Kalichman, Seth C.

233

Financial Aid SUMMER TERM 2014  

E-print Network

Financial Aid SUMMER TERM 2014 FINANCIAL AID To be eligible for Office of Student Finance (OSF) summer term financial aid you must be officially admitted to a U of M Twin Cities degree program semester 2014) are not eligible for summer 2014 financial aid. Non-admitted or visiting students

Amin, S. Massoud

234

First Aid at Work Introduction  

E-print Network

First Aid at Work Introduction 1. The Forestry Commission has updated its First Aid at Work policy will need to: Assess your first aid provision and requirements, with the help of this document. Put that we have first aid provision in place so that we can give them immediate attention and call

235

Multilateral development aid for Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inequities and inefficiencies in development aid arise from donor–recipient motivational conflicts, agency problems, and institutional deficiencies. Recent thinking on reforming official aid recommends technocratic solutions including recipient ownership, selectivity, budgetary grants, and multilateralization of aid management. Locating persistent policy failure in Africa primarily in its political institutions, this paper explores three alternative models of multilateral aid for reconciling need and

Berhanu Abegaz

2005-01-01

236

Toward high output-power nanogenerator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the factors that determine the power output of a piezoelectric nanowire (NW) nanogenerator (NG) have been analyzed. The output current is the sum of those contributed by all of the NWs while the output voltage is determined by the voltage generated by a single NW, the capacitance of the NW array and the system, and the contact resistance. By growing uniform ZnO NWs with diameters of ˜100nm and lengths of ˜5?m, the output current density and output voltage of the NG was improved to ˜8.3?A/cm2 and 10mV, respectively, which are 20-30 times higher than that we previously reported. A power generation density of ˜83nW/cm2 is achieved by using a single layer NW NG.

Liu, Jin; Fei, Peng; Zhou, Jun; Tummala, Rao; Wang, Zhong Lin

2008-04-01

237

Optimal Output Trajectory Redesign for Invertible Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Given a desired output trajectory, inversion-based techniques find input-state trajectories required to exactly track the output. These inversion-based techniques have been successfully applied to the endpoint tracking control of multi-joint flexible manipulators and to aircraft control. The specified output trajectory uniquely determines the required input and state trajectories that are found through inversion. These input-state trajectories exactly track the desired output; however, they might not meet acceptable performance requirements. For example, during slewing maneuvers of flexible structures, the structural deformations, which depend on the required state trajectories, may be unacceptably large. Further, the required inputs might cause actuator saturation during an exact tracking maneuver for example, in the flight control of conventional takeoff and landing aircraft. In such situations, a compromise is desired between the tracking requirement and other goals such as reduction of internal vibrations and prevention of actuator saturation; the desired output trajectory needs to be redesigned.

Devasia, Santosh

1996-01-01

238

Nonlinearities in Magnetostrictive Transducer Dynamic Output  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have designed a magnetostrictive transducer for use in characterizing material properties of 11.5 cm long by 1.27 cm diameter cylindrical samples of the magnetostrictive material Terfenol-D. The material studied is a commercially available Terfenol-D, made using a modified Brigman manufacturing process. Output displacements in the stiffness controlled portion of the transducer's dynamic range (as loaded, up to 1000 Hz) were measured using a LVDT. Trends in output were observed as controlled changes in operating conditions were made. Excitation frequency, amplitude of magnetic excitation, and prestress were varied independently as other operating conditions (including temperature, mass load, and magnetic bias) were held fixed. Data are presented demonstrating distinct nonlinearities associated with a monotonic decrease in output with increased excitation frequency, a monotonic increase in output with increased excitation amplitude, and an initial increase followed by a decrease in output with increased prestress.

Flatau, Alison; Faidley, L. E.; Calkins, F. T.; Dapino, M. J.

1997-03-01

239

Water resources and environmental input-output analysis and its key study issues: a review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Used to study the material and energy flow in socioeconomic system, Input-Output Analysis(IOA) had been an effective analysis tool since its appearance. The research fields of Input-Output Analysis were increasingly expanded and studied in depth with the development of fundamental theory. In this paper, starting with introduction of theory development, the water resources input-output analysis and environmental input-output analysis had been specifically reviewed, and two key study issues mentioned as well. Input-Occupancy-Output Analysis and Grey Input-Output Analysis whose proposal and development were introduced firstly could be regard as the effective complements of traditional IOA theory. Because of the hypotheses of homogeneity, stability and proportionality, Input-Occupancy-Output Analysis and Grey Input-Output Analysis always had been restricted in practical application inevitably. In the applied study aspect, with investigation of abundant literatures, research of water resources input-output analysis and environmental input-output analysis had been comprehensively reviewed and analyzed. The regional water resources flow between different economic sectors had been systematically analyzed and stated, and several types of environmental input-output analysis models combined with other effective analysis tools concluded. In two perspectives in terms of external and inland aspect, the development of water resources and environmental input-output analysis model had been explained, and several typical study cases in recent years listed respectively. By the aid of sufficient literature analysis, the internal development tendency and study hotspot had also been summarized. In recent years, Chinese literatures reporting water resources consumption analysis and virtue water study had occupied a large share. Water resources consumption analysis had always been the emphasis of inland water resources IOA. Virtue water study had been considered as the new hotspot of inland water resources IOA. Recent internal study references related to environmental input-output table, pollution discharge analysis and environmental impact assessment had taken the leading position. Pollution discharge analysis mainly aiming at CO2 discharge had been regard as a new hotspot of environmental IOA. Environmental impact assessment was an important direction of inland environmental IOA in recent years. Key study issues including Domestic Technology Assumption(DTA) and Sectoral Aggregation(SA) had been mentioned remarkably. It was pointed out that multiply multi-region input-output analysis(MIOA) may be helpful to solve DTA. Because there was little study using effective analysis tools to quantify the bias of SA and the exploration of the appropriate sectoral aggregation degree was scarce, research dedicating to explore and solve these two key issues was deemed to be urgently needed. According to the study status, several points of outlook were proposed in the end.

YANG, Z.; Xu, X.

2013-12-01

240

Aide-ing in the Classroom: A Handbook for Teacher Aides.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook, which is designed to promote cooperation between classroom teachers and teacher aides, discusses the role of the aide, aides' understanding of children, communication and learning, the classroom environment, and evaluation of job performance. The section on the role of the teacher aide includes an organizational chart of the school…

North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Communication Skills.

241

Original article Approximate restricted maximum  

E-print Network

, the estimation of a genetic (co-)variance component involves the trace of the product of the inverse variances. Several examples are presented to illustrate the method. variance and covariance components de Maximum de Vraisemblance Restreint (REML), l'estimation des composantes de (co)variance génétique

Boyer, Edmond

242

Original article Restricted maximum likelihood  

E-print Network

to transform the constrained optimisation problem imposed in estimating covariance components-free algorithm. restricted maximum likelihood / derivative / algorithm / variance component esti- mation Résumé'optimisation avec contrainte que soulève l'estimation des composantes de variance en un problème sans contrainte, ce

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

243

Maximum entropy beam diagnostic tomography  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews the formalism of maximum entropy beam diagnostic tomography as applied to the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) prototype accelerator. The same formalism has also been used with streak camera data to produce an ultrahigh speed movie of the beam profile of the Experimental Test Accelerator (ETA) at Livermore.

Mottershead, C.T.

1985-10-01

244

Maximum entropy beam diagnostic tomography  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews the formalism of maximum entropy beam diagnostic tomography as applied to the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) prototype accelerator. The same formalism has also been used with streak camera data to produce an ultrahigh speed movie of the beam profile of the Experimental Test Accelerator (ETA) at Livermore. 11 refs., 4 figs.

Mottershead, C.T.

1985-01-01

245

TMDLs (Total Maximum Daily Loads)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Water Quality Information Center at the National Agricultural Library (USDA) offers this excellent resource on TMDLs (Total Maximum Daily Loads), with links to dozens of relevant and current publications. From basic questions and answers to current policies regarding TMDLs, this collection of resources is well worth browsing.

246

Maximum Margin Clustering Made Practical  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivated by the success of large margin methods in supervised learning, maximum margin clustering (MMC) is a recent approach that aims at extending large margin methods to unsupervised learning. However, its optimization problem is nonconvex and existing MMC methods all rely on reformulating and relaxing the nonconvex optimization problem as semidefinite programs (SDP). Though SDP is convex and standard solvers

Kai Zhang; Ivor W. Tsang; James T. Kwok

2009-01-01

247

High output piezo/triboelectric hybrid generator.  

PubMed

Recently, piezoelectric and triboelectric energy harvesting devices have been developed to convert mechanical energy into electrical energy. Especially, it is well known that triboelectric nanogenerators have a simple structure and a high output voltage. However, whereas nanostructures improve the output of triboelectric generators, its fabrication process is still complicated and unfavorable in term of the large scale and long-time durability of the device. Here, we demonstrate a hybrid generator which does not use nanostructure but generates much higher output power by a small mechanical force and integrates piezoelectric generator into triboelectric generator, derived from the simultaneous use of piezoelectric and triboelectric mechanisms in one press-and-release cycle. This hybrid generator combines high piezoelectric output current and triboelectric output voltage, which produces peak output voltage of ~370?V, current density of ~12??A·cm(-2), and average power density of ~4.44?mW·cm(-2). The output power successfully lit up 600 LED bulbs by the application of a 0.2 N mechanical force and it charged a 10??F capacitor to 10?V in 25?s. Beyond energy harvesting, this work will provide new opportunities for developing a small, built-in power source in self-powered electronics such as mobile electronics. PMID:25791299

Jung, Woo-Suk; Kang, Min-Gyu; Moon, Hi Gyu; Baek, Seung-Hyub; Yoon, Seok-Jin; Wang, Zhong-Lin; Kim, Sang-Woo; Kang, Chong-Yun

2015-01-01

248

High Output Piezo/Triboelectric Hybrid Generator  

PubMed Central

Recently, piezoelectric and triboelectric energy harvesting devices have been developed to convert mechanical energy into electrical energy. Especially, it is well known that triboelectric nanogenerators have a simple structure and a high output voltage. However, whereas nanostructures improve the output of triboelectric generators, its fabrication process is still complicated and unfavorable in term of the large scale and long-time durability of the device. Here, we demonstrate a hybrid generator which does not use nanostructure but generates much higher output power by a small mechanical force and integrates piezoelectric generator into triboelectric generator, derived from the simultaneous use of piezoelectric and triboelectric mechanisms in one press-and-release cycle. This hybrid generator combines high piezoelectric output current and triboelectric output voltage, which produces peak output voltage of ~370?V, current density of ~12??A·cm?2, and average power density of ~4.44?mW·cm?2. The output power successfully lit up 600 LED bulbs by the application of a 0.2 N mechanical force and it charged a 10??F capacitor to 10?V in 25?s. Beyond energy harvesting, this work will provide new opportunities for developing a small, built-in power source in self-powered electronics such as mobile electronics. PMID:25791299

Jung, Woo-Suk; Kang, Min-Gyu; Moon, Hi Gyu; Baek, Seung-Hyub; Yoon, Seok-Jin; Wang, Zhong-Lin; Kim, Sang-Woo; Kang, Chong-Yun

2015-01-01

249

Space traveling wave tube amplifiers with on-orbit flexible saturated output power  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes several approaches to achieving adjustable power output from a traveling wave tube amplifier. It can be adjusted in flight for maximum flexibility in matching the amplifier capability to the applicationpsilas need. The efficiency can be maximized without changing the hardware.

Thomas K. Phelps; John D. McDowell; William L. Menninger

2008-01-01

250

A note on the power of money-output causality testsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study suggests that some empirical findings against money-output causality can be the consequence of ignoring autoregressive conditional heteroskedastic (ARCH) errors. Monte Carlo results confirm that ARCH effects drastically reduce the power of the standard causality test. The maximum likelihood approach allowing for ARCH effects, on the other hand, provides a good power performance. Using different specifications and sample periods,

Yin-Wong Cheung; Eiji Fujii

2001-01-01

251

Output-Isolation And Protection Circuit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Output-isolation circuit couples precise analog signals (-10 to +10 V, 0 to 20 kHz) from computer or from other electronic equipment to external electronic equipment that may be at different ground potential. Circuit functions in presence of common-mode voltages up to 2,500 Vac or 3,500 Vdc. To prevent damage from accidental connection of output leads to powerlines or other sources of high voltage, circuit includes features that protect input and output signal lines against normal-mode overvoltages up to 120 V ac or dc.

Wagner, Charles A.; Kellogg, Gary V.

1989-01-01

252

High Energy Output Marx Generator Design  

SciTech Connect

High Energy Output Marx Generator Design a design of a six stage Marx generator that has a unipolar pulse waveform of 200 kA in a 50×500 microsecond waveform is presented. The difficulties encountered in designing the components to withstand the temperatures and pressures generated during the output pulse are discussed. The unique methods and materials used to successfully overcome these problems are given. The steps necessary to increase the current output of this Marx generator design to the meg-ampere region or higher are specified.

Monty Lehmann

2011-07-01

253

Design of hydraulic output Stirling engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A hydraulic output system for the RE-1000 free piston stirling engine (FPSE) was designed. The hydraulic output system can be readily integrated with the existing hot section of RE-1000 FPSE. The system has two simply supported diaphragms which separate the engine gas from the hydraulic fluid, a dynamic balance mechanism, and a novel, null center band hydraulic pump. The diaphragms are designed to endure more than 10 billion cycles, and to withstand the differential pressure load as high as 14 MPa. The projected thermodynamic performance of the hydraulic output version of RE-1000 FPSE is 1.87 kW at 29/7 percent brake efficiency.

Toscano, W. M.; Harvey, A. C.; Lee, K.

1983-01-01

254

Visual Speech-Training Aid for the Deaf  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Teaching deaf to speak aided by electronic system provides striking colored, pictorial representation of sound; energy at different frequencies as function of time. Other modalities, such as nasality, intra-oral pressure, and lip-muscle contraction, pictorialized simultaneously. Use of standard components, including personal microcomputer, helps reduce cost below prior voice-training systems. Speech-training system, microphone output separated by filters into narrow frequency bands, changed into digital signals, formatted by computer, and displayed on television screen. Output from other sensors displayed simultaneously or screen split to allow sound produced by student to be compared with that of teacher.

Miller, Robert J.

1987-01-01

255

[Urologic manifestations of AIDS].  

PubMed

The frequency of urological manifestations of AIDS appears to be increasing at the present time: between 1985 and 1988, 38 HIV1 seropositive patients were examined in the Urology department. In seven cases, the positive serology was discovered during investigation of a urogenital infection and 21 patients suffered from declared AIDS. The reasons for admission to hospital were: urogenital infection: 14 cases, dominated by epididymitis (7) and prostatitis (5), characterized by their frequent progression towards abscess formation; tumours: 6 cases, including 5 Kaposi sarcomas of the penis; and, lastly, neurological manifestations, chronic renal failure and urological diseases unrelated to AIDS. This study indicates that serology should be performed routinely in cases with a known risk factor and/or with an atypical urogenital condition, particularly infectious. The adoption of aseptic techniques and rigorous protection of the entire surgical team is now absolutely necessary. PMID:2742345

Boccon-Gibod, L; Delmas, V; Baron, J C

1989-01-01

256

AIDS--legal issues.  

PubMed

Legal issues worldwide prompted by the AIDS epidemic are discussed, in a general way, since legal systems vary widely in different countries and localities. WHO publishes a tabulation of legal instruments dealing with AIDS and HIV infection. Criminal laws intended to protect people from harm from HIV infection have been enacted, such as a penalty for unprotected sexual intercourse by infected persons, in some Australian states. Knowing spread of HIV already amounts to a crime in many systems. The U.S. Supreme Court has already ruled that states do not violate the constitution for punishing homosexuals for consensual sodomy, nor the Army for discharging homosexuals. Quarantine law is a civil matter, but may provide penalties stricter than criminal penalties, without as much protection. No quarantines against AIDS have been enacted, although some countries require screening of immigrants. Legal issues regarding screening, liability of suppliers of blood products, and tracing of sexual partners are much discussed. Stigmatization of minority and alienated groups such as homosexuals, prostitutes, migrants, drug users and prisoners is a tricky legal problem. The apparent failure of the criminalization of drug users and how to contain the spread of AIDS into the drug free population may prompt drastic new solutions. Other legal issues drawing attention include regulation of health insurance, changes in family law, pre-marriage HIV tests, screening for HIV ostensibly to detect HIV-associated dementia, liability protection for developers and testers of vaccines, and euthanasia and the treatment of the deceased. The legal system tends to lag behind medicine. In the case of AIDS, it cannot afford to delay, therefore effective legal strategies will include effective media presentation of AIDS information to the general public; ready and cheap supply of condoms; and a new approach to illegal drugs. PMID:3147672

Kirby, M

1988-01-01

257

A constitution for AIDS.  

PubMed

The Indian Health Organization projected the number of deaths per day due to AIDS by the year 2000 at 10,000. An interdisciplinary international conference was held in New Delhi to draft an international law governing the issues related to AIDS. Human freedom and public health policies are the most affected by this disease. In the absence of an international AIDS law, judicial verdicts set precedents and could have serious ramifications. A participant from the John Marshall Law School, Chicago, suggested that instead of making new laws, the existing ones from the colonial past should be repealed. This includes Section 377 of the Indian Penal Code, which provides criminal sanctions against those who indulge in unnatural relations with man, woman, or animal. Penalizing homosexuality will only perpetuate clandestine relations and spread the virus into their families. Another participant seconded this motion stating that even a sex worker must be protected from abuse and indignity. The National AIDS Control Organization responded to the criticism that the government had not utilized all the World Bank funds allocated for anti-AIDS projects. The trends of the epidemic were the most important indicators not just the numbers. In Manipur and Mizoram, infection was almost entirely due to injecting drug use. The Saheli project undertaken in the red-light areas of Bombay encompassed brothel owners and prostitutes, which could be replicated in other areas. Because existing government policies were focusing on prevention, there was no protection of an HIV-infected individual's privacy, one participant from Madras stated. The confidentiality issue was also echoed by a US participant. The New Delhi Declaration and Action Plan on HIV/AIDS was also discussed. It forbids discrimination in employment, education, housing, health care, social security, travel, and marital and reproductive rights. Providing sterile needles and ensuring the safety of the blood supply were other concerns mentioned. PMID:12179199

Koshy, L M

1996-01-15

258

Prognostic markers for AIDS.  

PubMed

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection causes a number of clinical syndromes and many laboratory abnormalities, often heralding the development of the life-threatening opportunistic infections or malignancies that are known as the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Drawing heavily on the results of prospective cohort studies, particularly those that my colleagues at the National Cancer Institute and I have conducted, this paper reviews the relationship of AIDS to clinical signs and symptoms, immunologic measures, and viral assays. The risk of AIDS in the next 3 years is at least 25 to 50% for HIV-infected subjects who have oral candidiasis, unexplained fever, unexplained weight loss, a CD4+ lymphocyte count below 200 cells/microliter, or combinations of these. Elevated serum levels of beta 2 microglobulin and neopterin also appear to be strong predictive markers of AIDS, but further work is needed in diverse HIV-infected populations, such as intravenous drug users and persons in pattern II countries, such as Haiti and central Africa. Elevated levels of interferon or HIV-p24 antigen in the serum are insensitive but highly specific AIDS markers that may have predictive value independent of CD4 lymphocyte levels. Several potentially valuable immunologic (immunoglobulin levels, tumor necrosis factor, soluble interleukin 2) and virologic (HIV viremia) assays remain to be thoroughly evaluated or technically simplified. Data from prospective cohort studies have provided clinical and laboratory markers of AIDS risk that have proved essential for therapeutic trials and other clinical decisions. As effective treatments for HIV infection and its complications begin to emerge, these marker data will also prove invaluable for mathematic modeling of the scope, course, and public health response to the epidemic. PMID:1669494

Goedert, J J

1990-12-01

259

Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood Neural Networks  

E-print Network

'' for two­layer feedforward neural network: Y = [tanh ([X 1] V) 1] W (1) ffl X: Input as a datamatrix ffl Y : : : NEURAL NETWORK Modelling the regression output: y is the output of the neural network --- hopefully the ``truth''. ffl is additive noise. t is the target, i.e. the empirical output: t = y + ffl (2) Gaussian

Nielsen, Finn Årup

260

Memory-based parallel data output controller  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A memory-based parallel data output controller employs associative memories and memory mapping to decommutate multiple channels of telemetry data. The output controller contains a random access memory (RAM) which has at least as many address locations as there are channels. A word counter addresses the RAM which provides as it outputs an encoded peripheral device number and a MSB/LSB-first flag. The encoded device number and a bit counter address a second RAM which contains START and STOP flags to pick out the required bits from the specified word number. The LSB/MSB, START and STOP flags, along with the serial input digital data go to a control block which selectively fills a shift register used to drive the parallel data output bus.

Stattel, R. J.; Niswander, J. K. (inventors)

1984-01-01

261

Modified univibrator compensates for output timing errors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One-stage, delay compensation amplifier, added to conventional univibrator circuitry time-synchronizes the trailing edge of the output pulse with the origin of the input pulse. The trailing edge is independent of the amplitude of the input pulse.

Strauss, M. G.

1967-01-01

262

BGIM : Maximum Likelihood Estimation Primer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Shaun Purcell of the Social, Genetic and Development Pyschiatry Research Centre, this set of pages is an introduction to the maximum likelihood estimation. It discusses the likelihood and log-likelihood functions and the process of optimizing. The author breaks the page down in this way: introduction, model-fitting, MLE in practice, likelihood ratio test, MLE analysis of twin data and MLE analysis of linkage data. The author offers further reading for extra study of this statistical method.

Purcell, Shaun

263

AIDS Researcher Gives Retrospective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nearly 30 years ago, renowned immunologist James E.K. Hildreth, M.D., Ph.D., was compelled to start researching the virus that causes AIDS. He marveled at its enigma and was pressed into action by its ability to cut lives short and devastate communities. The disease set him on a course of medical inquiry that has included biomedical breakthroughs…

Hawkins, B. Denise

2011-01-01

264

Management of Student Aid.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The principles, practices, responsibilities, and controls in student financial aid are described in this manual. It traces the flow of funds, management activities, and legal issues as they occur in the process. The emphasis is on sound management principles of a general and permanent nature rather than on specific government requirements that may…

Nevin, Jeanne, Ed.

265

Impact Aid Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Impact Aid is a federal formula grant program designed to assist local school districts that have lost property tax revenue due to the presence of tax-exempt federal property or that have experienced increased expenditures due to the enrollment of federally connected children. Federally connected children are those whose parents pay minimal or no…

Office of Elementary and Secondary Education (ED), Washington, DC.

266

Women and AIDS prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many women are unaware of their potential risk of becoming infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the virus presumed to cause AIDS. Other women are confused about what prophylactic measures to adopt to lower their susceptibility to infection. Moreover, the needs of women who do not inject drugs have been largely ignored in media and public information campaigns. Rising

Joanne E. Mantell; Steven P. Schinke; Sheila H. Akabas

1988-01-01

267

Newspaper Lesson Aids.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides photocopy-ready lesson aids on story ideas, interviewing, inverted pyramid writing style, newswriting, sports/scavenger hunt, finding feature material, identifying feature leads, feature lead selection, evaluating feature leads, compiling survey material, cutlines, headlines, paste-up rules, advertising, final semester project, newspaper…

Communication: Journalism Education Today (C:JET), 1986

1986-01-01

268

Machine Aids to Translation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the TEAM Program System of the Siemens Language Services Department, particularly the main features of its terminology data bank. Discusses criteria to which stored terminology must conform and methods of data bank utilization. Concludes by summarizing the consequences that machine-aided translation development has had for the…

Brinkmann, Karl-Heinz

1981-01-01

269

Circulation Aide Training Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This training manual provides instruction on shelving and other duties for student assistants in the learning resources center at the College of Dupage, located in Illinois. It is noted that prospective student circulation aides are required to read the manual and pass a written test on policies and procedures before they are allowed to shelve…

Bergeson, Alan O.

270

Kool-Aid Chromatography  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers guidelines and suggests activities that can introduce middle school students to the process and principles of chromatography in an inexpensive and safe manner. Proposes that experiences with Kool-aid and food coloring chromatography can provide insights into how scientists think, work, and communicate. (ML)

Jenkins, Christie L.

1986-01-01

271

AIDS, a development challenge.  

PubMed

During the Joint Conference of African Ministers of Planning and Finance, hosted by the UN Economic Commission for Africa in Addis Ababa on May 6-8, 1999, HIV/AIDS was highlighted as one of the major agendas for development planning. AIDS was considered to have a major impact on the household economy, the private sector, and at the macroeconomic level. Aside from the emotional impact of losing a loved one, the families of deceased HIV-infected individuals suffer an almost 50% reduction of income. This would consequently lead to cutting down on educational expenditures. On the other hand, national economies and private sectors suffer from a decreased purchasing power and loss of competitiveness in the global economy due to illiteracy. Furthermore, 50% of the national budget would be allocated for AIDS treatment, while private companies would experience a 7-20% decrease in profits as a result of high cost of medical treatment. In addition, the reduced pool of skilled labor and high expense of training would eventually bring about a decrease in high quality foreign investment. At the macroeconomic level, AIDS would result in a 1% reduction of gross domestic product growth per capita annually. It was suggested that strong political support, broad institutional participation and carefully selected program intervention, as well as openness about the disease and information dissemination on its cause and spread are deemed effective in the plan of eliminating the spread of the disease. PMID:12349447

1999-01-01

272

AIDS: Implications for Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews facts about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and its epidemiology. Discusses implications for families (social stigma and isolation, fears of contagion, infection and abandonment, guilt, anger, grief, and economic hardship) and for human service professionals (public education, voluntary, anonymous testing with counseling, and…

Macklin, Eleanor D.

1988-01-01

273

AIDS and the Client \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

This constructivist account of psychotherapy with a sexually promiscuous client comes from a program funded to develop and evaluate psychotherapeutic interventions for people who are HIV-infected or have developed AIDS. Its focus is on narrative construction and reconstruction. The client is shown to tell himself a number of stories which enable him to maintain his often selfdefeating behavior which is

Linda Viney; Lynne Bousfield

1992-01-01

274

More than First Aid  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The school nurse is an important member of the school team since school health services keep students in school, in the classroom, and ready to learn. Although school nurses are often seen as the people who deliver first aid at school, their role is much deeper and has such breadth that only a registered, professional nurse has the skill set to…

Schoessler, Sally

2011-01-01

275

Food aid and governance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arguing that food security management belongs to the core of government tasks and has been since Biblical times, we assess current practices in this domain and their effect on local governance, with special reference to the food aid operations of the World Food Program. Within the food security management task, we distinguish three basic elements: (i) entitlement: to provide income

Michiel A. Keyzer; Lia van Wesenbeeck

276

Robot-aided neurorehabilitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors' goal is to apply robotics and automation technology to assist, enhance, quantify, and document neurorehabilitation. This paper reviews a clinical trial involving 20 stroke patients with a prototype robot-aided rehabilitation facility developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, (MIT) and tested at Burke Rehabilitation Hospital, White Plains, NY. It also presents the authors' approach to analyze kinematic

Hermano Igo Krebs; Neville Hogan; Mindy L. Aisen; Bruce T. Volpe

1998-01-01

277

Parent Hearing Aid Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study addresses parent experiences in obtaining and managing hearing aids for their young child. The purpose was to identify challenges parents encounter to determine what state agencies can do to improve parent access to amplification. Data were collected July through September of 2010; 40 parents of children ages birth to 3 years old…

Munoz, Karen; Roberts, Mallory; Mullings, Day; Harward, Richard

2012-01-01

278

Muscular outputs during dynamic bench press under stable versus unstable conditions.  

PubMed

Previous studies have suggested that resistance training exercise under unstable conditions decreases the isometric force output, yet little is known about its influence on muscular outputs during dynamic movement. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of an unstable condition on power, force, and velocity outputs during the bench press. Twenty male collegiate athletes (mean age, 21.3 +/- 1.5 years; mean height, 167.7 +/- 7.7 cm; mean weight, 75.9 +/- 17.5 kg) participated in this study. Each subject attempted 3 sets of single bench presses with 50% of 1 repetition maximum (1RM) under a stable condition with a flat bench and an unstable condition with a Swiss ball. Acceleration data were obtained with an accelerometer attached to the center of a barbell shaft, and peak outputs of power, force, and velocity were computed. Although significant loss of the peak outputs was found under the unstable condition (p < 0.017), their reduction rates remained relatively low, approximately 6% for force and 10% for power and velocity outputs, compared with previous findings. Such small reduction rates of muscular outputs may not compromise the training effect. Prospective studies are necessary to confirm whether the resistance training under an unstable condition permits the improvement of dynamic performance and trunk stability. PMID:18714228

Koshida, Sentaro; Urabe, Yukio; Miyashita, Koji; Iwai, Kanzunori; Kagimori, Aya

2008-09-01

279

Antiresonant ring output-coupled continuous-wave optical parametric oscillator.  

PubMed

We demonstrate the successful deployment of an antiresonant ring (ARR) interferometer for the attainment of optimum output coupling in a continuous-wave (cw) optical parametric oscillator (OPO). The cw OPO, configured as a singly-resonant oscillator (SRO), is based on a 50-mm-long MgO:PPLN crystal and pumped by cw Ytterbium-fiber laser at 1064 nm, with the ARR interferometer integrated into one arm of the standing-wave cavity. By fine adjustment of the ARR transmission, a continuously variable signal output coupling from 0.8% to 7.3% has been achieved, providing optimum output coupling for signal and optimum power extraction for the idler, at different input pumping levels. The experimental results are compared with theoretical calculations for conventional output-coupled cw SRO, and the study shows that by reducing the insertion loss of the ARR elements, the performance of the ARR-coupled cw SRO can be further enhanced. We also show that the use of the ARR does not lead to any degradation in the cw SRO output beam quality. The proof-of-principle demonstration confirms the effectiveness of the technique for continuous, in situ, and fine control of output coupling in cw OPOs to achieve maximum output power at any arbitrary pumping level above threshold. PMID:23038573

Devi, Kavita; Kumar, S Chaitanya; Esteban-Martin, A; Ebrahim-Zadeh, M

2012-08-13

280

HIV/AIDS and Pediatric AIDS. The Arc Q & A.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This fact sheet uses a question-and-answer format to summarize what is known about HIV/AIDS (Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) and pediatric AIDS and applies this information to children in school settings. Questions and answers address the following topics: what the AIDS disease and HIV infection are; estimates…

Kowalski, Jo Anne T.

281

Food Aid’s Intended and Unintended Consequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper surveys the existing empirical evidence on the unintended consequences of food aid. Micro-level evidence is presented on the impacts of food aid deliveries on household labour supply, production incentives, consumption patterns and natural resource use. At the meso-level, evidence on the impact of food aid on market development, market prices, informal insurance arrangements, and the behavior of implementing

Christopher B. Barrett

2006-01-01

282

Body size and countermovement depth confound relationship between muscle power output and jumping performance  

PubMed Central

A number of studies based on maximum vertical jumps have presumed that the maximum jump height reveals the maximum power of lower limb muscles, as well as the tested muscle power output predicts the jumping performance. The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that both the body size and countermovement depth confound the relationship between the muscle power output and performance of maximum vertical jumps. Sixty young and physically active males were tested on the maximum countermovement (CMJ) and squat jumps (SJ). The jumping performance (Hmax), peak (Ppeak) and the average power output (Pavg) during the concentric phase, countermovement depth (only in CMJ) and body mass as an index of body size were assessed. To assess the power-performance relationship, the correlations between Hmax with both Ppeak and Pavg were calculated without and with controlling for the effects of body mass, as well as for the countermovement depth. The results revealed moderate power-performance relationships (range 0.55output with the performance of maximum vertical jumps. Regarding routine assessments of muscle power from jumping performance and vice versa, the use of CMJ is recommended, while Ppeak, rather than Pavg, should be the variable of choice. PMID:24280557

Markovic, Srdjan; Dragan, Mirkov; Nedeljkovic, Aleksandar; Jaric, Slobodan

2013-01-01

283

[Will AIDS overtake them?].  

PubMed

UNICEF estimates that the streets are now the home of some 5 million African children aged 7-15 who are victims of rapid population growth and urbanization as well as the disintegration of traditional family structure. These children, deprived of a home and of all parental control, are potentially very vulnerable to the threat of AIDS. Prostitution, which is almost institutionalized in the most impoverished urban areas, represents for young girls the most immediate means of survival and occasionally even of helping their families. Male prostitution is highly tabu and marginal in sub-Saharan Africa, and is only slightly developed around the tourist hotels. Homeless children are somewhat protected against contamination through the blood by their lack of access to health care. Intravenous drugs are rare in Africa, and drug use is at most an indirect risk factor for AIDS to the extent that in increases the need for money and weakens the immune system. The frequency of sexually transmitted diseases, deplorable hygienic conditions, and poor general health of homeless children increase their risk of contracting the virus. Many homeless children do not even know of the existence of condoms and in any event condoms are usually inaccessible or too costly for them. Homeless children, like the general population, have false ideas about AIDS that discourage self-protective behaviors. In addition they are cut off from the activities of existing prevention programs. In a context of permanent daily insecurity, AIDS appears as just 1 more menace among others. According to an anthropologist working with the UNESCO program to help homeless children, the only way of making such children aware of the threat of AIDS in the large African cities will be to increase the number of prevention programs targeted at them. At the same time, the children need to be educated and taught an income-generating skill; in short, they need to be given a reason to believe in the future. PMID:12316939

Boukhari, S

284

Financial Aid for Eye Care  

MedlinePLUS

... Programs Training and Jobs Financial Aid for Eye Care Listen Financial Aid for Eye Care PDF* Many state and national resources regularly provide ... research, does not help individuals pay for eye care. However, if you are in need of financial ...

285

Depression and HIV/AIDS  

MedlinePLUS

... see the NIMH booklet on Depression . What is HIV/AIDS? Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus ... they can function normally. How are depression and HIV/AIDS linked? Studies show that people who are ...

286

Maximum life spur gear design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Optimization procedures allow one to design a spur gear reduction for maximum life and other end use criteria. A modified feasible directions search algorithm permits a wide variety of inequality constraints and exact design requirements to be met with low sensitivity to initial guess values. The optimization algorithm is described, and the models for gear life and performance are presented. The algorithm is compact and has been programmed for execution on a desk top computer. Two examples are presented to illustrate the method and its application.

Savage, M.; Mackulin, M. J.; Coe, H. H.; Coy, J. J.

1991-01-01

287

Acoustical feedback associated with the use of post aural hearing aids for profoundly deaf children.  

PubMed

The feedback properties of 29 ears fitted with post aural hearing aids and hard acrylic earmoulds, have been investigated for a group of profoundly deaf children. Complex loop gain has been measured, and maximum hearing aid gain before instability has been calculated from the measurement results. Guidelines for prediction of maximum hearing loss, which can be managed, are stated, and a suitable hearing aid frequency response for profoundly deaf children is proposed. This response ensures that acoustical feedback above approximately 1 kHz does not limit the low frequency gain, which is assumed to be very important for the speech recognition. PMID:2609102

Dyrlund, O

1989-01-01

288

Decorrelation of cortical inputs and motoneuron output.  

PubMed

Oscillations in the primary motor cortex are transmitted through the corticospinal tract to the motoneuron pool. This pathway is believed to produce an effective and direct command from the motor cortex to the spinal motoneurons for the modulation of the force output. In this study, we used a computational model of a population of motoneurons to investigate the factors that can influence the transmission of the cortical input to the output of motoneurons, since it can be quantified by coherence analysis. The simulations demonstrated that, despite the nonlinearity of the motoneurons, oscillations present in the cortical input are transmitted to the output of the motoneuron pool at the same frequency. However, the interference introduced by the nonlinearity of the system increases the variability of the oscillations in output, introducing spectral lines whose frequency depends on the input frequencies and the motoneuron discharge rates. Moreover, an additional source of synaptic input common to all motoneurons but independent from the corticospinal component decorrelates the cortical input and motoneuron output and, thus, decreases the magnitude of the estimated coherence, even if the effective cortical drive does not change. These results indicate that the corticospinal input can effectively be sampled by a small population of motoneurons. However, the transmission of a corticospinal drive to the motoneuron pool is influenced by the nonlinearity of the spiking processes of the active motoneurons and by synaptic inputs common to the motoneuron population but independent from the cortical input. PMID:21795617

Negro, Francesco; Farina, Dario

2011-11-01

289

Manual for Student Financial Aids.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual was designed to provide structural guidelines for financial aid program operations and administration at the Community College of Baltimore. Topics discussed include: the philosophy of student aid at an open door college; the objectives of the student financial aid office; staff development and administrative improvement; organization,…

MacDonald, Douglas S.

290

Pharmacotherapeutics for the AIDS Patient.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Anticipated shifts in the demographics of the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) epidemic are examined, current state-of-the-art AIDS patient management is summarized, and some unique facets of drug therapy in the AIDS patient are discussed, including adverse reactions, complex drug interactions, use of investigational drugs, and…

Fife, Kenneth H.

1991-01-01

291

AIDS Knowledge and Sexual Responsibility.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines knowledge about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and sexual behavior among 221 midwestern high school and 153 college students. Findings for the 187 males and 187 females studied show that females were more knowledgeable about AIDS and more sexually responsible than males, and AIDS knowledge and level of sexual activity were…

Lamport, Lynda L.; Andre, Thomas

1993-01-01

292

Nurse's Aides in Nursing Homes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nurse's aides provide the majority of care to resi- dents in nursing homes. Few researchers have studied the percep- tions of aides and attempted to understand their attitudes towihd their work and interactions with residents, families, and staff. This qualitative, pilot study i s a report of intensive interviews with 27 aides in 3 nursing homes. The purposes of the

Susan O. Mercer; Patricia Heacock; Cornelia K Beck

1994-01-01

293

Teachers' Aides: Tasks and Concerns  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Addresses three questions: (1) What tasks do aides perform? (2) Does training make a difference in the type of tasks aides perform? (3) What are the concerns of aides? (Available from the Department of Educational Administration, The University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2G5; $0.50, single copy.) (Author/IRT)

Balderson, James H.; Nixon, Mary

1976-01-01

294

Guide to Understanding Financial Aid  

E-print Network

1 Guide to Understanding Financial Aid for Undergraduate Continuing & Professional Education Graduate Students Financial Aid Services Academic Affairs 2014-2015 #12;2 MessAGe FroM the Director Financial Aid Services University of Massachusetts Amherst Dear UMass Amherst Student and Family, UMass

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

295

FINANCIAL AID FOR LAW SCHOOL  

E-print Network

FINANCIAL AID FOR LAW SCHOOL: A PRELIMINARY GUIDE LSAC.org #12;INTRODUCTION Legal education education is the financial aid office (or the website) of any LSAC-member law school. LSAC.org provides links to many law schools as well as several good sources of financial aid information. The cost

Kaminsky, Werner

296

HIV and AIDS: Oral Effects  

MedlinePLUS

HIV and AIDS Oral Effects At the Dentist Oral Effects The oral effects of HIV and AIDS occur because of your weakened immune system and ... of medicines that you may take for HIV/AIDS. Dry mouth can make you more prone to ...

297

Your Guide to Financial aid  

E-print Network

2011­12 Your Guide to Financial aid In this publication we summarize important information about financial aid programs at the University of California, Santa Cruz. We encourage you to familiarize yourself with the contents, as you will find answers to many questions. Welcome! #12;Table of Contents What is financial aid

California at Santa Cruz, University of

298

What Is HIV/AIDS?  

MedlinePLUS

... HIV/AIDS? Translate Text Size Print What Is HIV/AIDS? What Is HIV? â??HIVâ? stands for Human Immunodeficiency Virus. To ... Should I Do if I Think I Have HIV? Find HIV/AIDS Prevention & Service Providers Enter your ...

299

Non-Causal Fir Filters for the Maximum Return from Capital Markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we consider a trading strategy, which consists in buying or\\u000aselling a financial instrument when the smoothing, non-causal FIR (Final\\u000aImpulse Response) filter output attains a local minimum or maximum,\\u000arespectively. Upon tis assumption the goal of this paper is to determine the\\u000a'best' non-causal smoothing FIR filters, which provide maximum value of the\\u000areturn from the

Andrzej Dyka

2006-01-01

300

EGRAM- ECHELLE SPECTROGRAPH DESIGN AID  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

EGRAM aids in the design of spectrographic systems that utilize an echelle-first order cross disperser combination. This optical combination causes a two dimensional echellogram to fall on a detector. EGRAM describes the echellogram with enough detail to allow the user to effectively judge the feasibility of the spectrograph's design. By iteratively altering system parameters, the desired echellogram can be achieved without making a physical model. EGRAM calculates system parameters which are accurate to the first order and compare favorably to results from ray tracing techniques. The spectrographic system modelled by EGRAM consists of an entrance aperture, collimator, echelle, cross dispersion grating, focusing options, and a detector. The system is assumed to be free of aberrations and the echelle, cross disperser, and detector should be planar. The EGRAM program is menu driven and has a HELP facility. The user is prompted for information such as minimum and maximum wavelengths, slit dimensions, ruling frequencies, detector geometry, and angle of incidence. EGRAM calculates the resolving power and range of order numbers covered by the echellogram. A numerical map is also produced. This tabulates the order number, slit bandpass, and high/middle/low wavelengths. EGRAM can also compute the centroid coordinates of a specific wavelength and order (or vice versa). EGRAM is written for interactive execution and is written in Microsoft BASIC A. It has been implemented on an IBM PC series computer operating under DOS. EGRAM was developed in 1985.

Dantzler, A. A.

1994-01-01

301

New Mexico AIDS InfoNet  

MedlinePLUS

... Hindi, Manipuri, Oriya, Tamil , and Telugu About the AIDS InfoNet The AIDS InfoNet is a project of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care (IAPAC) and the New Mexico AIDS Education ...

302

A Search for Mental Health Output Measures  

PubMed Central

This paper is a summary of our initial efforts to identify mental health output measures: (1) for estimating change in mental health status (incidence and prevalence) in a given population, (2) for use in monitoring, planning, evaluating and/or assessing quality of programs; and (3) possibly for use in controlling mental health costs. This preliminary work is centered on the concept that routinely generated operational data can be used to develop output measures of mental health service programs and thereby provide a basis for controlling programs through output monitoring. A conceptual framework, study design and methodology are discussed. Patient analysis includes: (1) patterns and trends over time, (2) population at risk and (3) patient outcome. The study concludes that routinely generated data can provide much needed information for managers in these turbulent times. Also, the author's suggested areas that need further study.

Black, Gordon C.; Saveanu, Traian I.

1980-01-01

303

PV output smoothing with energy storage.  

SciTech Connect

This report describes an algorithm, implemented in Matlab/Simulink, designed to reduce the variability of photovoltaic (PV) power output by using a battery. The purpose of the battery is to add power to the PV output (or subtract) to smooth out the high frequency components of the PV power that that occur during periods with transient cloud shadows on the PV array. The control system is challenged with the task of reducing short-term PV output variability while avoiding overworking the battery both in terms of capacity and ramp capability. The algorithm proposed by Sandia is purposely very simple to facilitate implementation in a real-time controller. The control structure has two additional inputs to which the battery can respond. For example, the battery could respond to PV variability, load variability or area control error (ACE) or a combination of the three.

Ellis, Abraham; Schoenwald, David Alan

2012-03-01

304

World AIDs Day Map  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Lex Talkington Design, Inc. this visually stimulating and engaging website takes visitors into the AIDS pandemic and how it has affected children throughout the developing world. After a brief introduction, visitors will be presented with a rotating series of images that profile different children from Thailand, India, Kenya, and a host of other places. Upon clicking each icon, visitors can then read short narratives about young people like Fred in Uganda, who at age eight became the primary caregiver for his younger brother after his parents both succumbed to AIDS. All told, the site contains over two dozen profiles that offer unique, albeit troubling, portraits of the struggles faced by young people who are coping with the increasingly widespread effects of this disease.

305

Financial Aid Administrators' Views on Simplifying Financial Aid: NASFAA's 2008 Financial Aid Simplification Survey Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite a decade of simplification efforts, students and families are often still baffled by the student aid process and cringe at the sight of financial aid application forms. Contrary to its purpose of helping students to access college, the student aid application process causes families frustration and confusion that has been cited as an…

National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NJ1), 2008

2008-01-01

306

Application of artificial neural networks in computer-aided diagnosis.  

PubMed

Computer-aided diagnosis is a diagnostic procedure in which a radiologist uses the outputs of computer analysis of medical images as a second opinion in the interpretation of medical images, either to help with lesion detection or to help determine if the lesion is benign or malignant. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are usually employed to formulate the statistical models for computer analysis. Receiver operating characteristic curves are used to evaluate the performance of the ANN alone, as well as the diagnostic performance of radiologists who take into account the ANN output as a second opinion. In this chapter, we use mammograms to illustrate how an ANN model is trained, tested, and evaluated, and how a radiologist should use the ANN output as a second opinion in CAD. PMID:25502383

Liu, Bei

2015-01-01

307

Maximum performance tests of speech production.  

PubMed

The maximum performance tests of speech production are those tests that examine the upper limits of performance for selected speech tasks. Among the most commonly used maximum performance tests are the following: maximum duration of phonation, maximum fricative duration, maximum phonation volume, maximum expiratory pressure, fundamental frequency range, maximum sound pressure level, maximum occluding force of the articulators, and diadochokinetic (maximum repetition) rate. Many clinicians use at least some of these tasks as part of an assessment protocol. These tests are analogous to strength, range, or speed tests in clinical neurology. Given the widespread use of these tests and a rather scattered literature on normative values obtained for them, a survey of the data base seemed in order. This paper summarizes the published normative data, discusses the adequacy of these data for clinical application, and recommends interpretive guidelines to enhance the usefulness of maximum performance tests. PMID:3312817

Kent, R D; Kent, J F; Rosenbek, J C

1987-11-01

308

Computer aided inbetweening  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of inbetweens is a tedious task for animators and a complicated one for algorithms. In this paper, an algorithm for computer aided inbetweening and its integration in a pen-based graphical user interface are presented.The algorithm is layer-based, assuming an invariant layering order. It is applicable to animations in a style similar to paper cut out, in which the

Alexander Kort

2002-01-01

309

AIDS in Thailand.  

PubMed

The reasons for the rapid spread of AIDS in Thailand, and the impact of the unique non-governmental agency Population and Community Development Association (PDA) directed by the charismatic Dr. Mechai are described. The rapid spread of AIDS in Thailand is due to presence of all possible factors facilitating HIV transmission, a large population of injecting drug addicts, an extensive mobile domestic and tourist sex industry, and an active gay community. The number of HIV-positive persons rose from 179 in 1988 to 16,359 in 1989, and is now estimated at 100,000. 1% of the Thai population works in prostitution, and from 16% of the high-income to 72% of the low-income prostitutes are infected, with their infection rates rising 10% per month. 75% of Thai men use cheap prostitutes. While the government was ignoring the AIDS threat in the early '80s, Dr. Mechai, whose name translated as "condom," was organizing the grass-roots community-based condom distribution system PDA, said to be responsible for the fall in annual population growth from 3.4% in 1968 to 1.5% in 1990. His organization now distributes contraceptives to 16,000 villages by 12,000 volunteers. He uses booklets, cards, cassettes, slide shows, videos and appearances with condom-inflating contests and costumes to de-mystify condoms with humor. Now AIDS messages are heard in taxis, on military TV and radio, and in remote villages. Converting knowledge into practice is more difficult, requiring tactful convincing of brothel operators and finding some way to reach their clients, who exert economic control over young female prostitutes. PMID:1867668

Ryan, M P

1991-02-18

310

Aids-related malignancies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cancer remains a significant burden for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. Most cancers that are associated with HIV infection are driven by oncogenic viruses, such as Epstein–Barr virus, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus and human papillomavirus. Gaining insight into the epidemiology and mechanisms that underlie AIDS-related cancers has provided us with a better understanding of cancer immunity and viral oncogenesis.

Robin Weiss; Chris Boshoff

2002-01-01

311

Directional Hearing Aid  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hearing-aid device indicates visually whether sound is coming from left, right, back, or front. Device intended to assist individuals who are deaf in at least one ear and unable to discern naturally directions to sources of sound. Device promotes safety in street traffic, on loading docks, and in presence of sirens, alarms, and other warning sounds. Quadraphonic version of device built into pair of eyeglasses and binaural version built into visor.

Jhabvala, M.; Lin, H. C.

1989-01-01

312

Muscle power output during escape responses in an Antarctic fish  

PubMed

Escape responses (C-shaped fast-starts) were filmed at 500 frames s-1 in the Antarctic rock cod (Notothenia coriiceps) at 0 °C. The activation and strain patterns of the superficial fast myotomal muscle were measured simultaneously using electromyography and sonomicrometry respectively. In order to bend the body into the initial C-shape, the muscle fibres in the rostral myotomes (at 0.35L, where L is total length) shortened by up to 13 % of their resting length at a maximum velocity of 1.68 fibre lengths s-1. During the contralateral contraction, muscle fibres were stretched (by 5 % and 7 % at 0.35L and 0.65L, respectively) and were activated prior to the end of lengthening, before shortening by up to 12 % of resting fibre length (peak-to-peak strain). Representative strain records were digitised to create cyclical events corresponding to the C-bend and contralateral contraction. Isolated fibres were subjected to the abstracted strain cycles and stimulated at the same point and for the same duration as occurs in vivo. During the early phase of shortening, muscle shortening velocity (V) increased dramatically whilst the load was relatively constant and represented a substantial fraction of the maximum isometric stress. Pre-stretch of active muscle was associated with significant force enhancement. For the contralateral contraction, V exceeded that predicted by the steady-state force­velocity relationship for considerable periods during each tailbeat, contributing to relatively high maximum instantaneous power outputs of up to 290 W kg-1 wet muscle mass. In vitro experiments, involving adjusting strain, cycle duration and stimulation parameters, indicated that in vivo muscle fibres produce close to their maximum power. During escape responses, the maximum velocity and acceleration recorded from the centre of gravity of the fish were 0.71±0.03 m s-1 and 17.1±1.4 m s-2, respectively (mean ± s.e.m., N=7 fish). Muscle performance was sufficient to produce maximum velocities and accelerations that were within the lower end of the range reported for temperate-zone fish. PMID:9318455

Franklin; Johnston

1997-01-01

313

HIV and AIDS  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Science Inside: HIV and AIDSThis booklet helps to explain what doctors and scientists know about the HIV and AIDS epidemic. It summarizes what HIV and AIDS are and what happens when HIV becomes AIDS, including the health problems that can result. The e-book explains how the diseases are spread, what groups suffer most from them, how they may be prevented, how they are treated, and what the latest research reveals.The Science Inside e-book series is intended to be a bridge between the consumer health brochure and the scientific paper, the booklets in this series focus on the science that is inside of, or behind, the disease its cause, its possible cure, its treatment, promising research, and so on. These booklets are designed to appeal to people who have not had the opportunity to study the science and to understand why they may have been given some of the advice that they have been given through some of the more consumer-oriented materials.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (; )

2004-01-01

314

Thulium channel waveguide laser with 1.6 W of output power and ?80% slope efficiency.  

PubMed

Laser experiments were performed on buried, ridge-type channel waveguides in 8 at.% thulium-doped, yttrium-gadolinium-lutetium co-doped potassium double tungstate. By pumping with a Ti:sapphire laser at 794 nm, 1.6 W of output power at 1.84 ?m with a maximum slope efficiency of ?80% was obtained in a laser resonator with a high output-coupling degree of 89%. To the best of our knowledge, this result represents the most efficient 2-?m channel waveguide laser to date. PMID:25078182

van Dalfsen, K; Aravazhi, S; Grivas, C; García-Blanco, S M; Pollnau, M

2014-08-01

315

A primer on financial aid.  

PubMed

It is apparent that financial aid is a complicated, ever-changing business. The information provided in this article is only the tip of the financial aid iceberg. As student debt levels continue to increase, I encourage deans to work cooperatively with their financial aid officers. Invite your financial aid officers to participate in orientation and other pre- and post-admission activities, help facilitate effective entrance and exist interviews, and encourage financial aid officers to meet and work with your students on a frequent basis. I also strongly encourage you to support their participation in national meetings such as the Professional Development Conference (PDC) for Health Professionals (which AADS cosponsors with the AAMC) and the National Association of Student Financial Aid Officers (NASFAA). Participation in annual conferences is an important way for financial aid officers to network with other officers and to learn about important new legislation. PMID:9655075

Wells, A

1998-05-01

316

High output programmable signal current source for low output impedance applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present invention relates to a high output programmable current source. Complementary output stages are connected between appropriate power supply polarities for driving a low impedance load which is connected to circuit ground. An operational amplifier is connected between the input and emitter of each of the complementary stages providing negative feedback for virtually eliminating in the input offset voltage

D. G. Jablonski; R. W. Watkins

1985-01-01

317

Design and analysis of a microelectromagnetic vibration transducer used as an implantable middle ear hearing aid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present the design and analysis of a microelectromagnetic vibration transducer for an implantable middle ear hearing aid, characterized by small size, high efficiency and selective frequency bandwidth. The electromagnetic vibration transducer is used to convert electrical energy, which is obtained from sound signals generated externally, into mechanical vibration energy, which is a means of amplifying acoustic sound for patients with sensory neural hearing loss. The electromagnetic vibration transducer can be partially implanted at a sound bridge of bone which is composed of the ossicular chain that couples the eardrum to the cochlea. For use as an implantable middle ear hearing aid, this vibration transducer must consider design parameters, such as transducer size, vibration force and frequency. The vibration transducer should have the critical size to be partially implanted at the ossicular chain in the middle ear space. The maximum vibration force of the transducer requires more than 9.6 dyne, which is according to 100 dB SPL to be compensated sound pressure level. The vibration frequency of the transducer is in the speech signal frequency range of about 100 Hz to 5 kHz. To do this, we present a new type of electromagnetic vibration transducer that is composed of a wound coil, permanent magnet and a four-beam cross silicon elastic body. In this paper we show the techniques for optimizing the electromagnetic driving part and the four-beam silicon elastic body to obtain large vibration force output and selective frequency bandwidth by using theoretical analysis and finite element analysis simulation.

Park, Sekwang; Lee, Ki-Chan

2002-09-01

318

Active Sampling for Multiple Output Identification  

E-print Network

value is a monomial. 1 Introduction Active sampling is much about "hitting" low probability events examples of those low probability events. Example of such application areas include hard- ware and software) A characterization for the case of binary output value in a transductive setting. (3) An analysis of active sampling

Mansour, Yishay

319

Leontief Input-Output Model Manhas Narra  

E-print Network

produces goods or services except for 2 #12;To Wool Sweaters From Wool A B From Sweater C D Total Output E. Figure 2 shows a small market where only wool and sweaters are exchanged. Here's a summary of the table: · A units of wool products used in the production of wool products · B units of wool were used

Marzuola, Jeremy

320

Multiple output timing and trigger generator  

SciTech Connect

In support of the development of a multiple stage pulse modulator at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, we have developed a first generation, multiple output timing and trigger generator. Exploiting Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) Micro Controller Units (MCU's), the timing and trigger generator provides 32 independent outputs with a timing resolution of about 500 ns. The timing and trigger generator system is comprised of two MCU boards and a single PC. One of the MCU boards performs the functions of the timing and signal generation (the timing controller) while the second MCU board accepts commands from the PC and provides the timing instructions to the timing controller. The PC provides the user interface for adjusting the on and off timing for each of the output signals. This system provides 32 output or timing signals which can be pre-programmed to be in an on or off state for each of 64 time steps. The width or duration of each of the 64 time steps is programmable from 2 {micro}s to 2.5 ms with a minimum time resolution of 500 ns. The repetition rate of the programmed pulse train is only limited by the time duration of the programmed event. This paper describes the design and function of the timing and trigger generator system and software including test results and measurements.

Wheat, Robert M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dale, Gregory E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

321

Solar cell system having alternating current output  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A monolithic multijunction solar cell was modified by fabricating an integrated circuit inverter on the back of the cell to produce a device capable of generating an alternating current output. In another embodiment, integrated curcuit power conditioning electronics was incorporated in a module containing a solar cell power supply.

Evans, J. C., Jr. (inventor)

1980-01-01

322

DC\\/DC Converter Output Capacitor Benchmark  

Microsoft Academic Search

Switching power supplies (SMPS) are commonly found in many electronic systems. Important SMPS requirements are a stable output voltage with load current, good temperature stability, low ripple voltage and high overall efficiency. If the electronic system in question is to be portable, small size and light weight are also important considerations. One key component in switching power systems is the

R. Faltus; Z. Flegr; R. Šponar; M. Ján?; T. Zední?ek

323

Benchmarking Academic Research Output in Australia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of faculty published research output in Australia's university system in 1991 resulted in national benchmarks of faculty publications productivity (number of publications per 10 equivalent academic staff members), for each of 13 publication types, for the highest performing institution, and the highest performing units within any…

Murphy, Penelope S.

1995-01-01

324

RAM-Based parallel-output controller  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Selected bit strings in serial-data link are extracted for processing. Controller is programmable interface between serial-data link and peripherals that accept parallel data. It can be used to drive displays, printers, plotters, digital-to-analog converters, and parallel-output ports.

Niswander, J. K.; Stattel, R. J.

1980-01-01

325

Optimal Output Trajectory Redesign for Invertible Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Given a desired output trajectory, inversion-based techniques find input-state trajectories required to exactly track the output. These inversion-based techniques have been successfully applied to the endpoint tracking control of multijoint flexible manipulators and to aircraft control. The specified output trajectory uniquely determines the required input and state trajectories that are found through inversion. These input-state trajectories exactly track the desired output; however, they might not meet acceptable performance requirements. For example, during slewing maneuvers of flexible structures, the structural deformations, which depend on the required state trajectories, may be unacceptably large. Further, the required inputs might cause actuator saturation during an exact tracking maneuver, for example, in the flight control of conventional takeoff and landing aircraft. In such situations, a compromise is desired between the tracking requirement and other goals such as reduction of internal vibrations and prevention of actuator saturation; the desired output trajectory needs to redesigned. Here, we pose the trajectory redesign problem as an optimization of a general quadratic cost function and solve it in the context of linear systems. The solution is obtained as an off-line prefilter of the desired output trajectory. An advantage of our technique is that the prefilter is independent of the particular trajectory. The prefilter can therefore be precomputed, which is a major advantage over other optimization approaches. Previous works have addressed the issue of preshaping inputs to minimize residual and in-maneuver vibrations for flexible structures; Since the command preshaping is computed off-line. Further minimization of optimal quadratic cost functions has also been previously use to preshape command inputs for disturbance rejection. All of these approaches are applicable when the inputs to the system are known a priori. Typically, outputs (not inputs) are specified in tracking problems, and hence the input trajectories have to be computed. The inputs to the system are however, difficult to determine for non-minimum phase systems like flexible structures. One approach to solve this problem is to (1) choose a tracking controller (the desired output trajectory is now an input to the closed-loop system and (2) redesign this input to the closed-loop system. Thus we effectively perform output redesign. These redesigns are however, dependent on the choice of the tracking controllers. Thus the controller optimization and trajectory redesign problems become coupled; this coupled optimization is still an open problem. In contrast, we decouple the trajectory redesign problem from the choice of feedback-based tracking controller. It is noted that our approach remains valid when a particular tracking controller is chosen. In addition, the formulation of our problem not only allows for the minimization of residual vibration as in available techniques but also allows for the optimal reduction fo vibrations during the maneuver, e.g., the altitude control of flexible spacecraft. We begin by formulating the optimal output trajectory redesign problem and then solve it in the context of general linear systems. This theory is then applied to an example flexible structure, and simulation results are provided.

Devasia, S.

1996-01-01

326

RELATING ERROR BOUNDS FOR MAXIMUM CONCENTRATION ESTIMATES TO DIFFUSION METEOROLOGY UNCERTAINTY (JOURNAL VERSION)  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper relates the magnitude of the error bounds of data, used as inputs to a Gaussian dispersion model, to the magnitude of the error bounds of the model output. The research addresses the uncertainty in estimating the maximum concentrations from elevated buoyant sources duri...

327

Optimality of the maximum average correlation height filter for detection of targets in noise  

Microsoft Academic Search

A statistical analysis is provided for the properties of the recently developed maximum average correlation height (MACH) filter (Mahalanobis et al. 1994). It is shown that the MACH filter can be interpreted as an optimum filter for the detection of targets in additive noise. A rationale is given for using a popular peak-to-sidelobe ratio metric to characterize the output of

Abhijit Mahalanobis; B. V. K. Vijaya Kumar

1997-01-01

328

Neural network based estimation of maximum power generation from PV module using environmental information  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an application of an artificial neural network for the estimation of maximum power generation from PV module. The output power from a PV module depends on environmental factors such as irradiation and cell temperature. For the operation planning of power systems, the prediction of the power generation is inevitable for PV systems. For this purpose, irradiation, temperature

Takashi Hiyama; Ken Kitabayashi

1997-01-01

329

Bounds on maximum throughput for digital communications with finite-precision and amplitude constraints  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of finding the maximum achievable data rate over a linear time-invariant channel is considered under constraints different from those typically assumed. The limiting factor is taken to be the accuracy with which the receiver can measure the channel output. More precisely, the following problem is considered. Given a channel with known impulse response h(t), a transmitter with an

Michael L. Honig; Kenneth Steiglitz; B. Gopinath; Stephen P. Boyd

1990-01-01

330

Maximum SINR design and performance analysis of MIMO communication systems with tapped delay line structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents a simple method of the maximum SINR (signal to interference plus noise ratio) design of MIMO (multiple input multiple output) communication systems using a TDL (tapped delay line) structure. The transmitter and receiver weights are determined alternately, optimizing one side by fixing the other, and this operation is repeated until the SINR converges. The performance of MIMO

Tetsuki Taniguchi; H. H. Hoang; Xuan Nam Tran; Yoshio Karasawa

2004-01-01

331

Plasticity of the prolactin (PRL) axis: mechanisms underlying regulation of output in female mice.  

PubMed

The output of prolactin (PRL) is highly dynamic with dramatic changes in its secretion from the anterior pituitary gland depending on prevailing physiological status. In adult female mice, there are three distinct phases of output and each of these is related to the functions of PRL at specific stages of reproduction. Recent studies of the changes in the regulation of PRL during its period of maximum output, lactation, have shown alterations at both the level of the anterior pituitary and hypothalamus. The PRL-secreting cells of the anterior pituitary are organised into a homotypic network in virgin animals, facilitating coordinated bouts of activity between interconnected PRL cells. During lactation, coordinated activity increases due to the changes in structural connectivity, and this drives large elevations in PRL secretion. Surprisingly, these changes in connectivity are maintained after weaning, despite reversion of PRL output to that of virgin animals, and result in an augmented output of hormone during a second lactation. At the level of the hypothalamus, tuberoinfundibular dopamine (TIDA) neurons, the major inhibitors of PRL secretion, have unexpectedly been shown to remain responsive to PRL during lactation. However, there is an uncoupling between TIDA neuron firing and dopamine secretion, with a potential switch to enkephalin release. Such a process may reinforce hormone secretion through dual disinhibition and stimulation of PRL cell activity. Thus, integration of signalling along the hypothalamo-pituitary axis is responsible for increased secretory output of PRL cells during lactation, as well as allowing the system to anticipate future demands. PMID:25472537

Le Tissier, P R; Hodson, D J; Martin, A O; Romanò, N; Mollard, P

2015-01-01

332

Laser safety evaluation and output measurements for the VITAL -2 Variable Intensity Tactical Aiming Light (laser) used with the Proforce M-4 system in force-on-force exercises.  

SciTech Connect

A laser safety hazard evaluation and pertinent output measurements were performed (June 2003 through August 2003) on several VITAL-2 Variable Intensity Tactical Aiming Light--infrared laser, associated with the Proforce M-4 system used in force-on-force exercises. The VITAL-2 contains two diode lasers presenting 'Extended Source' viewing out to a range on the order of 1.3 meters before reverting to a 'Small Source' viewing hazard. Laser hazard evaluation was performed in concert with the ANSI Std. Z136.1-2000 for the safe use of lasers and the ANSI Std. Z136.6-2000 for the safe use of lasers outdoors. The results of the laser hazard analysis for the VITAL-2, indicates that this Tactical Aiming IR laser presents a Class 1 laser hazard to personnel in the area of use. Field measurements performed on 71 units confirmed that the radiant outputs were at all times below the Allowable Emission Limit and that the irradiance of the laser spot was at all locations below the Maximum Exposure Limit. This system is eye-safe and it may be used under current SNL policy in force-on-force exercises. The VITAL-2 Variable Intensity Tactical Aiming Light does not present a laser hazard greater than Class 1, to aided viewing with binoculars.

Augustoni, Arnold L.

2004-02-01

333

Validation of RetroPath, a computer-aided design tool for metabolic pathway engineering.  

PubMed

Metabolic engineering has succeeded in biosynthesis of numerous commodity or high value compounds. However, the choice of pathways and enzymes used for production was many times made ad hoc, or required expert knowledge of the specific biochemical reactions. In order to rationalize the process of engineering producer strains, we developed the computer-aided design (CAD) tool RetroPath that explores and enumerates metabolic pathways connecting the endogenous metabolites of a chassis cell to the target compound. To experimentally validate our tool, we constructed 12 top-ranked enzyme combinations producing the flavonoid pinocembrin, four of which displayed significant yields. Namely, our tool queried the enzymes found in metabolic databases based on their annotated and predicted activities. Next, it ranked pathways based on the predicted efficiency of the available enzymes, the toxicity of the intermediate metabolites and the calculated maximum product flux. To implement the top-ranking pathway, our procedure narrowed down a list of nine million possible enzyme combinations to 12, a number easily assembled and tested. One round of metabolic network optimization based on RetroPath output further increased pinocembrin titers 17-fold. In total, 12 out of the 13 enzymes tested in this work displayed a relative performance that was in accordance with its predicted score. These results validate the ranking function of our CAD tool, and open the way to its utilization in the biosynthesis of novel compounds. PMID:25224453

Fehér, Tamás; Planson, Anne-Gaëlle; Carbonell, Pablo; Fernández-Castané, Alfred; Grigoras, Ioana; Dariy, Ekaterina; Perret, Alain; Faulon, Jean-Loup

2014-11-01

334

Maximum entropy production in daisyworld  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Daisyworld was first introduced in 1983 by Watson and Lovelock as a model that illustrates how life can influence a planet's climate. These models typically involve modeling a planetary surface on which black and white daisies can grow thus influencing the local surface albedo and therefore also the temperature distribution. Since then, variations of daisyworld have been applied to study problems ranging from ecological systems to global climate. Much of the interest in daisyworld models is due to the fact that they enable one to study self-regulating systems. These models are nonlinear, and as such they exhibit sensitive dependence on initial conditions, and depending on the specifics of the model they can also exhibit feedback loops, oscillations, and chaotic behavior. Many daisyworld models are thermodynamic in nature in that they rely on heat flux and temperature gradients. However, what is not well-known is whether, or even why, a daisyworld model might settle into a maximum entropy production (MEP) state. With the aim to better understand these systems, this paper will discuss what is known about the role of MEP in daisyworld models.

Maunu, Haley A.; Knuth, Kevin H.

2012-05-01

335

Jet and ultrasonic nebuliser output: use of a new method for direct measurement of aerosol output.  

PubMed Central

Output from jet nebulisers is calibrated traditionally by weighing them before and after nebulisation, but the assumption that the weight difference is a close measure of aerosol generation could be invalidated by the concomitant process of evaporation. A method has been developed for measuring aerosol output directly by using a solute (fluoride) tracer and aerosol impaction, and this has been compared with the traditional weight loss method for two Wright, six Turbo, and four Micro-Cirrus jet nebulisers and two Microinhaler ultrasonic nebulisers. The weight loss method overestimated true aerosol output for all jet nebulisers. The mean aerosol content, expressed as a percentage of the total weight loss, varied from as little as 15% for the Wright jet nebulisers to 54% (range 45-61%) for the Turbo and Micro-Cirrus jet nebulisers under the operating conditions used. In contrast, there was no discrepancy between weight loss and aerosol output for the ultrasonic nebulisers. These findings, along with evidence of both concentrating and cooling effects from jet nebulisation, confirm that total output from jet nebulisers contains two distinct fractions, vapour and aerosol. The vapour fraction, but not the aerosol fraction, was greatly influenced by reservoir temperature within the nebuliser; so the ratio of aerosol output to total weight loss varied considerably with temperature. It is concluded that weight loss is an inappropriate method of calibrating jet nebuliser aerosol output, and that this should be measured directly. PMID:2247862

Dennis, J H; Stenton, S C; Beach, J R; Avery, A J; Walters, E H; Hendrick, D J

1990-01-01

336

[No remedy for AIDS?].  

PubMed

Vila Mimosa, a site of street prostitution in Rio de Janeiro since the 1930s, is the place of work for over 2000 prostitution who charge an average of $3-4 per client. Several years ago the Association of Prostitutes of Rio de Janeiro (APRJ) was founded by Eunice Coelho Reis. APRJ membership has increased steadily and its list of accomplishments is impressive. A state hospital performs free medical examinations of APRJ members, and the Brazilian family planning association BEMFAM provides 180,000 condoms each month. AIDS control projects have also been successful, and no APRJ members have contracted HIV infection. In the country with the 4th highest rate of infection, the rigid norm of condom use adopted by the prostitutes of Vila Mimosa has led to effective prevention of sexually transmitted diseases. The prostitutes report however that a large proportion of their clients resist condom use, sometimes violently. The proportion of seropositive individuals who are women has been rising steadily. Family Health International estimates that the proportion of new cases among women has risen from 25% in 1990 to 40% at present. AIDS prevention campaigns are attempting to persuade women to "negotiate" condom use during sex. But power relations between the sexes place women at a disadvantage. Men often make the sexual decisions. Socialization patterns of females in Latin America are oriented to maternity. Passive sexual behavior has become a primary obstacle to adoption of safer sex practices. The World Health Organization estimates that currently 9-11 million persons are latent carriers of the HIV virus. Prostitution originating in poverty and unemployment, the vulnerability of adolescents who begin their sexual lives with little knowledge of contraception or sexually transmitted diseases, and the lack of sex education that transcends the biological to consider interpersonal relations are all factors that hinder AIDS prevention. PMID:12178192

Ramirez, M M

1993-01-01

337

Measurement of hearing aid internal noise.  

PubMed

Hearing aid equivalent input noise (EIN) measures assume the primary source of internal noise to be located prior to amplification and to be constant regardless of input level. EIN will underestimate internal noise in the case that noise is generated following amplification. The present study investigated the internal noise levels of six hearing aids (HAs). Concurrent with HA processing of a speech-like stimulus with both adaptive features (acoustic feedback cancellation, digital noise reduction, microphone directionality) enabled and disabled, internal noise was quantified for various stimulus levels as the variance across repeated trials. Changes in noise level as a function of stimulus level demonstrated that (1) generation of internal noise is not isolated to the microphone, (2) noise may be dependent on input level, and (3) certain adaptive features may contribute to internal noise. Quantifying internal noise as the variance of the output measures allows for noise to be measured under real-world processing conditions, accounts for all sources of noise, and is predictive of internal noise audibility. PMID:20370034

Lewis, James D; Goodman, Shawn S; Bentler, Ruth A

2010-04-01

338

Should Aid Reward Performance?  

PubMed Central

We report an experiment in 3,000 villages that tested whether incentives improve aid efficacy. Villages received block grants for maternal and child health and education that incorporated relative performance incentives. Subdistricts were randomized into incentives, an otherwise identical program without incentives, or control. Incentives initially improved preventative health indicators, particularly in underdeveloped areas, and spending efficiency increased. While school enrollments improved overall, incentives had no differential impact on education, and incentive health effects diminished over time. Reductions in neonatal mortality in non-incentivized areas did not persist with incentives. We find no systematic scoring manipulation nor funding reallocation toward richer areas. PMID:25485039

Olken, Benjamin A.; Onishi, Junko; Wong, Susan

2014-01-01

339

Basic First Aid  

E-print Network

awake? Breathing? Bleeding? ? Administer first aid if needed. Here are some actions to take for various injuries, emergencies or medical conditions: Choking ? Keep the person calm. ? Allow the person to cough. Don?t pound on his or her back.... ? Apply a bandage to the wound. ? Wash your hands again. If the bleeding doesn?t stop: ? Have the person sit down. ? Put pressure on the wound with the palm of your hand and a clean cloth. ? Put on a clean bandage after the bleeding has stopped...

Schoessow, Courtney

2005-09-30

340

World AIDS Day  

E-print Network

Author's Note: The fanzine you hold in your hands represents a departure for me. For the first time ever I have written a story about the work I have engaged in for the past 14 years, HIV / AIDS counseling and testing and case management. I have always...'s not the kind of sex, it's who's having sex with who ... This is ridiculous, Blair told himself. A totally hypothetical conversation going on in my head. It's not the first time I've ever had such a conversation of course, but this one might be weirder than...

Valentine, A.

2000-01-01

341

HIV/AIDS eradication  

PubMed Central

Antiretroviral therapy can inhibit HIV replication in patients and prevent progression to AIDS. However, it is not curative. Here we provide an overview of what antiretroviral drugs do and how the virus persists during therapy in rare reservoirs, such as latently infected CD4+ T cells. We also outline several innovative methods that are currently under development to eradicate HIV from infected individuals. These strategies include gene therapy approaches intended to create an HIV-resistant immune system, and activation/elimination approaches directed towards flushing out latent virus. This latter approach could involve the use of novel chemically synthesized analogs of natural activating agents. PMID:23735743

Marsden, Matthew D.; Zack, Jerome A.

2013-01-01

342

Maximum entropy principal for transportation  

SciTech Connect

In this work we deal with modeling of the transportation phenomenon for use in the transportation planning process and policy-impact studies. The model developed is based on the dependence concept, i.e., the notion that the probability of a trip starting at origin i is dependent on the probability of a trip ending at destination j given that the factors (such as travel time, cost, etc.) which affect travel between origin i and destination j assume some specific values. The derivation of the solution of the model employs the maximum entropy principle combining a priori multinomial distribution with a trip utility concept. This model is utilized to forecast trip distributions under a variety of policy changes and scenarios. The dependence coefficients are obtained from a regression equation where the functional form is derived based on conditional probability and perception of factors from experimental psychology. The dependence coefficients encode all the information that was previously encoded in the form of constraints. In addition, the dependence coefficients encode information that cannot be expressed in the form of constraints for practical reasons, namely, computational tractability. The equivalence between the standard formulation (i.e., objective function with constraints) and the dependence formulation (i.e., without constraints) is demonstrated. The parameters of the dependence-based trip-distribution model are estimated, and the model is also validated using commercial air travel data in the U.S. In addition, policy impact analyses (such as allowance of supersonic flights inside the U.S. and user surcharge at noise-impacted airports) on air travel are performed.

Bilich, F. [University of Brasilia (Brazil); Da Silva, R. [National Research Council (Brazil)

2008-11-06

343

Maximum Entropy Principle for Transportation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we deal with modeling of the transportation phenomenon for use in the transportation planning process and policy-impact studies. The model developed is based on the dependence concept, i.e., the notion that the probability of a trip starting at origin i is dependent on the probability of a trip ending at destination j given that the factors (such as travel time, cost, etc.) which affect travel between origin i and destination j assume some specific values. The derivation of the solution of the model employs the maximum entropy principle combining a priori multinomial distribution with a trip utility concept. This model is utilized to forecast trip distributions under a variety of policy changes and scenarios. The dependence coefficients are obtained from a regression equation where the functional form is derived based on conditional probability and perception of factors from experimental psychology. The dependence coefficients encode all the information that was previously encoded in the form of constraints. In addition, the dependence coefficients encode information that cannot be expressed in the form of constraints for practical reasons, namely, computational tractability. The equivalence between the standard formulation (i.e., objective function with constraints) and the dependence formulation (i.e., without constraints) is demonstrated. The parameters of the dependence-based trip-distribution model are estimated, and the model is also validated using commercial air travel data in the U.S. In addition, policy impact analyses (such as allowance of supersonic flights inside the U.S. and user surcharge at noise-impacted airports) on air travel are performed.

Bilich, F.; DaSilva, R.

2008-11-01

344

Wind noise in hearing aids with directional and omnidirectional microphones: polar characteristics of behind-the-ear hearing aids.  

PubMed

Wind noise can be a significant problem for hearing instrument users. This study examined the polar characteristics of flow noise at outputs of two behind-the-ear digital hearing aids, and a microphone mounted on the surface of a cylinder at flow velocities ranging from a gentle breeze (4.5 m/s) to a strong gale (22.5 m/s) . The hearing aids were programed in an anechoic chamber, and tested in a quiet wind tunnel for flow noise recordings. Flow noise levels were estimated by normalizing the overall gain of the hearing aids to 0 dB. The results indicated that the two hearing aids had similar flow noise characteristics: The noise level was generally the lowest when the microphone faced upstream, higher when the microphone faced downstream, and the highest for frontal and rearward incidence angles. Directional microphones often generated higher flow noise level than omnidirectional microphones but they could reduce far-field background noise, resulting in a lower ambient noise level than omnidirectional microphones. Data for the academic microphone- on-cylinder configuration suggested that both turbulence and flow impingement might have contributed to the generation of flow noise in the hearing aids. Clinical and engineering design applications are discussed. PMID:19354400

Chung, King; Mongeau, Luc; McKibben, Nicholas

2009-04-01

345

Enhanced power output of an electrospun PVDF/MWCNTs-based nanogenerator by tuning its conductivity.  

PubMed

PVDF nanofibre-based piezoelectric nanogenerators are directly prepared via electrospinning without any post-poling treatment. The effect of the addition of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on the fibre diameter, mechanical properties, ?-phase composition, surface and volume conductivities, output voltage and output power are investigated. Increased surface conductivity of the poly-vinylidene fluoride (PVDF) nanofibre mats, which plays an important role in the enhancement of output power, is first found by the addition of an appropriate amount of MWCNTs. The maximum generated piezo-voltage exhibited by PVDF nanofibre mats in the presence of 5 wt% MWCNTs is as high as 6 V, while the average capacitor charging power is 81.8 nW, increases of 200% and 44.8%, respectively, compared with bare PVDF nanofibre mats. PMID:24029779

Yu, Hao; Huang, Tao; Lu, Mingxia; Mao, Mengye; Zhang, Qinghong; Wang, Hongzhi

2013-10-11

346

UFO - The Universal FeynRules Output  

E-print Network

We present a new model format for automatized matrix-element generators, the so- called Universal FeynRules Output (UFO). The format is universal in the sense that it features compatibility with more than one single generator and is designed to be flexible, modular and agnostic of any assumption such as the number of particles or the color and Lorentz structures appearing in the interaction vertices. Unlike other model formats where text files need to be parsed, the information on the model is encoded into a Python module that can easily be linked to other computer codes. We then describe an interface for the Mathematica package FeynRules that allows for an automatic output of models in the UFO format.

Degrande, Céline; Fuks, Benjamin; Grellscheid, David; Mattelaer, Olivier; Reiter, Thomas

2011-01-01

347

UFO - The Universal FeynRules Output  

E-print Network

We present a new model format for automatized matrix-element generators, the so- called Universal FeynRules Output (UFO). The format is universal in the sense that it features compatibility with more than one single generator and is designed to be flexible, modular and agnostic of any assumption such as the number of particles or the color and Lorentz structures appearing in the interaction vertices. Unlike other model formats where text files need to be parsed, the information on the model is encoded into a Python module that can easily be linked to other computer codes. We then describe an interface for the Mathematica package FeynRules that allows for an automatic output of models in the UFO format.

Céline Degrande; Claude Duhr; Benjamin Fuks; David Grellscheid; Olivier Mattelaer; Thomas Reiter

2012-07-31

348

Spacelab output processing system architectural study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two different system architectures are presented. The two architectures are derived from two different data flows within the Spacelab Output Processing System. The major differences between these system architectures are in the position of the decommutation function (the first architecture performs decommutation in the latter half of the system and the second architecture performs that function in the front end of the system). In order to be examined, the system was divided into five stand-alone subsystems; Work Assembler, Mass Storage System, Output Processor, Peripheral Pool, and Resource Monitor. The work load of each subsystem was estimated independent of the specific devices to be used. The candidate devices were surveyed from a wide sampling of off-the-shelf devices. Analytical expressions were developed to quantify the projected workload in conjunction with typical devices which would adequately handle the subsystem tasks. All of the study efforts were then directed toward preparing performance and cost curves for each architecture subsystem.

1977-01-01

349

Computer-Aided Implant Dentistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Computer-aided implant dentistry (CAID), the direct translation of preoperative prosthetic planning to the operating theater\\u000a by means of image guidance technologies, is a novel application of computer aided surgery (CAS). This work deals with the\\u000a application of a modular software system for computer-aided interventions to CAID. The system is based on AVW-2.5, a software\\u000a library dedicated to biomedical image processing,

Wolfgang Birkfellner; Peter Solar; André Gahleitner; Klaus Huber; Franz Kainberger; Joachim Kettenbach; Peter Homolka; Markus Diemling; Georg Watzek; Helmar Bergmann

350

Frequency-Shift Hearing Aid  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed hearing aid maps spectrum of speech into band of lower frequencies at which ear remains sensitive. By redirecting normal speech frequencies into frequency band from 100 to 1,500 Hz, hearing aid allows people to understand normal conversation, including telephone calls. Principle operation of hearing aid adapted to other uses such as, clearing up noisy telephone or radio communication. In addition, loud-speakers more easily understood in presence of high background noise.

Weinstein, Leonard M.

1994-01-01

351

Theory and experimental results on output regulation for nonlinear systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Output regulation is the problem of finding a control law by which the output of the system we are interested in can asymptotically track another output generated by an exosystem and, simultaneously, reject undesired disturbances. The control law must also asymptotically stabilize the system whenever the exosignal is absent. Without loss of generality, both the exo-output and the disturbances can

P. Sanposht; T. J. Tarn; D. Cheng

2002-01-01

352

Averaging Sampled Sensor Outputs To Detect Failures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fluctuating signals smoothed by taking consecutive averages. Sampling-and-averaging technique processes noisy or otherwise erratic signals from number of sensors to obtain indications of failures in complicated system containing sensors. Used under both transient and steady-state conditions. Useful in monitoring automotive engines, chemical-processing plants, powerplants, and other systems in which outputs of sensors contain noise or other fluctuations in measured quantities.

Panossian, Hagop V.

1990-01-01

353

Dielectric materials for gyrotron output windows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dielectric parameters of materials for gyrotron output windows measured in the range 65-300 GHz are given. The special attention is paid to the spread of values of the refractive index and loss tangent of dielectrics produced by different firms. the refractive index and loss tangent are measured for sapphire at the cryogenic temperatures and for boron nitride and silica glass at the temperatures 300-1000K.

Parshin, V. V.

1994-02-01

354

Cardiac output changes during hyperbaric hyperoxia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Increased ambient pressure and oxygen partial pressure (pO2) influence cardiovascular regulation during diving and caisson work. We measured the cardiac output (Q?) in subjects who practiced moderate work at a usual diving depth of 30?m. Methods: In 23 healthy male Navy divers who performed steady state bicycle exercises (100?W workload) in a hyperbaric chamber Q? was measured by a

Birger Neubauer; Kay Tetzlaff; Carl-Michael Staschen; Eyke Bettinghausen

2001-01-01

355

Microchip laser with active output mirror  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presented is an operator model of a microchip laser with an active output mirror based on Fabry-Perot interferometer. Considered are apodizing properties of a mirror-interferometer composed of two spherical, semi-transparent reflectors with variable gap between those. Proposed is an operator model describing the mirror under diffraction approximation. Results of numerical simulation of the micro-chip laser with variable thermal lens and

V. V. Kiyko; V. I. Kislov; E. N. Ofitserov

2010-01-01

356

Generalized Input-Output Inequality Systems  

SciTech Connect

In this paper two types of generalized Leontief input-output inequality systems are introduced. The minimax properties for a class of functions associated with the inequalities are studied. Sufficient and necessary conditions for the inequality systems to have solutions are obtained in terms of the minimax value. Stability analysis for the solution set is provided in terms of upper semi-continuity and hemi-continuity of set-valued maps.

Liu Yingfan [Department of Mathematics, Nanjing University of Post and Telecommunications, Nanjing 210009 (China)], E-mail: yingfanliu@hotmail.com; Zhang Qinghong [Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Northern Michigan University, Marquette, MI 49855 (United States)], E-mail: qzhang@nmu.edu

2006-09-15

357

Fuel dispenser aid  

SciTech Connect

A fuel dispenser aid is described for holding a trigger-like valve operating lever relative to a pistol grip-like handle portion of a valving device for dispensing gasoline or other fuels through a nozzle of the valving device, said fuel dispenser aid comprising: a mounting member formed of a material having a resilient, shape retaining character and configured for mounting over the pistol grip-like handle portion of the valving device, a flexible strap secured at a first end thereof to the mounting member and extending freely therefrom such that when the mounting member is mounted over the pistol grip-like handle portion of the valving device the free portion of the strap can he looped under the trigger-like valve operating lever and up to the mounting member, and fastening means for releasably and adjustably fastening the free portion of the strap to the mounting member after the free portion of the strap has been looped under the valve operating lever and up to the mounting member whereby the valve operating lever can be held in a desired set position relative to the handle portion of the valving device for dispensing fuel without requiring that the operating lever of the valving device continuously be manually held in said set position.

Bobst, J.M.

1993-08-31

358

Cryptococcosis in AIDS  

PubMed Central

A total of 87 patients (17 female, 70 male) were admitted to Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand, from January 1996 to December 1997, with a diagnosis of cryptococcal meningitis and underlying AIDS. The age range was 14-70 years, mean 32.1. Six females (35%) and thirty-one males (44%) died, while the others were discharged home after clinical improvement. The mean duration of admission of those who died was 14.5 days, which was shorter than that of the patients who survived (25.7 days). Cerebral cryptococcosis was diagnosed using culture (100%), India ink preparation (91%), latex agglutination test (100%), and polymerase chain reaction (86%). Polymerase chain reaction fingerprinting of Cryptococcus neoformans revealed 99% serotype A and 1% serotype B. The mean minimum inhibitory concentrations of amphotericin B, flucytosine, fluconazole and itraconazole against 87 isolates of C neoformans were 0.55 µg/ml (0.25-1, SD = 0.22), 9.5 µg/ml (2-20, SD = 4.91), 6.9 µg/ml (1-16, SD = 4.42) and 0.36 µg/ml (0.125-1.0, SD = 0.23), respectively. These findings showed that the cryptococcal infections were sensitive to these antifungal agents.???Keywords: Cryptococcus neoformans; AIDS; polymerase chain reaction fingerprinting; antifungal agents PMID:10644384

Imwidthaya, P; Poungvarin, N

2000-01-01

359

AIDS and the Duesberg Phenomenon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Renowned virologist and member of the prestigious National Academy of Science, Peter Duesberg has argued that AIDS is not caused by HIV, but is the result of recreational and anti-HIV drugs.  In this PBL case, students read Duesberg’s 1999 article in Science magazine titled “HIV is Not the Cause of AIDS” as well as a response to it titled “HIV Causes AIDS” by medical researchers Dr. William A. Blattner and colleagues.  Students work in groups to identify the issues as well as any terms or concepts they don’t understand, then research these out of class to pool their information as they learn about AIDS and HIV.

Clyde Freeman Herreid

1999-01-01

360

Realistic power output modeling of CPV modules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we introduce a new model called YieldOpt, which calculates the power output of CPV modules. It uses SMARTS2 to model the spectral irradiance, a ray tracing program to model the optics and SPICE network simulation to model the electrical characteristic of triple-junction (3J) cells. The calculated power output is compared to data measured of five CPV modules operating in Freiburg, Germany during a period from October 2011 to March 2012. Four of the modules use lattice-matched 3J cells; one of these modules has also reflective secondary optics. In one of the five modules novel metamorphic 3J cells are used. The agreement of the predicted power output calculated by YieldOpt with the measured data is quantified using the normalized root mean square error. A good agreement between simulation and measurement is achieved. Moreover, the predicted energy yield derived from the new model is compared with the measured energy yield. A good agreement between the measured data and simulated data is achieved. In addition, a high accuracy in predicting the energy yield of different CPV modules is demonstrated. Finally, the new model is compared with three empirical models.

Steiner, Marc; Siefer, Gerald; Bösch, Armin; Hornung, Thorsten; Bett, Andreas W.

2012-10-01

361

Characterizing detonator output using dynamic witness plates  

SciTech Connect

A sub-microsecond, time-resolved micro-particle-image velocimetry (PIV) system is developed to investigate the output of explosive detonators. Detonator output is directed into a transparent solid that serves as a dynamic witness plate and instantaneous shock and material velocities are measured in a two-dimensional plane cutting through the shock wave as it propagates through the solid. For the case of unloaded initiators (e.g. exploding bridge wires, exploding foil initiators, etc.) the witness plate serves as a surrogate for the explosive material that would normally be detonated. The velocity-field measurements quantify the velocity of the shocked material and visualize the geometry of the shocked region. Furthermore, the time-evolution of the velocity-field can be measured at intervals as small as 10 ns using the PIV system. Current experimental results of unloaded exploding bridge wire output in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) witness plates demonstrate 20 MHz velocity-field sampling just 300 ns after initiation of the wire.

Murphy, Michael John [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Adrian, Ronald J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

362

Extreme inputs/outputs for multiple input multiple output linear systems.  

SciTech Connect

A linear structure is excited at multiple points with a stationary normal random process. The response of the structure is measured at multiple outputs. If the auto spectral densities of the inputs are specified, the phase relationships between the inputs are derived that will minimize or maximize the trace of the auto spectral density matrix of the outputs. If the autospectral densities of the outputs are specified, the phase relationships between the outputs that will minimize or maximize the trace of the input auto spectral density matrix are derived. It is shown that other phase relationships and ordinary coherence less than one will result in a trace intermediate between these extremes. Least favorable response and some classes of critical response are special cases of the development. It is shown that the derivation for stationary random waveforms can also be applied to nonstationary random, transients, and deterministic waveforms.

Smallwood, David Ora

2005-09-01

363

Computer aided drill emulator  

E-print Network

REG[ON ~ GO 110K OUTPUT MUST BE PRINTED 8 LINES/INCH WITH 8 LINES/INCH C4RRIAGE TAPE AUTOMATIC PAGE EJECT MUST BE DISABLED /SLINGS/PAGE 0 M[TH THE 0 IN COL 16 WILL D[548LE THE PAGE EJECT UNDER HASP AT TEXAS AGH THE CHARACTERS '&' ANO ~ &' HOST... OP C SINULTANEOUSLY ACTIVB COMMANDS. IF (CHD(I 50) HE Ak) Go I'0 40 30 CONTINUE Cuuu IP LOOP NOT TEAHINATED AFTER 15TN COH!IAND THEN ERROR COMDITI Cuuu IP TOO t}ANY COIIHANDS GIVE DIAGNOSTIC AMD ABORT BUN. NRITE(6, 1110) 11100FOENAT(181 T25...

Galvin, Daniel Lisenbee

1972-01-01

364

20 CFR 229.48 - Family maximum.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...maximum. (a) Family maximum...limited amount is called the family...more than one child's benefit), be entitled to a child's annuity...of $0.10, it will be rounded...1.00, if it is not already a multiple of...maximum. If a child is eligible...

2014-04-01

365

20 CFR 229.48 - Family maximum.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...maximum. (a) Family maximum...limited amount is called the family...more than one child's benefit), be entitled to a child's annuity...of $0.10, it will be rounded...1.00, if it is not already a multiple of...maximum. If a child is eligible...

2013-04-01

366

20 CFR 229.48 - Family maximum.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...maximum. (a) Family maximum...limited amount is called the family...more than one child's benefit), be entitled to a child's annuity...of $0.10, it will be rounded...1.00, if it is not already a multiple of...maximum. If a child is eligible...

2011-04-01

367

20 CFR 229.48 - Family maximum.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...maximum. (a) Family maximum...limited amount is called the family...more than one child's benefit), be entitled to a child's annuity...of $0.10, it will be rounded...1.00, if it is not already a multiple of...maximum. If a child is eligible...

2010-04-01

368

20 CFR 229.48 - Family maximum.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...maximum. (a) Family maximum...limited amount is called the family...more than one child's benefit), be entitled to a child's annuity...of $0.10, it will be rounded...1.00, if it is not already a multiple of...maximum. If a child is eligible...

2012-04-01

369

Maximum Likelihood Estimation in Generalized Rasch Models.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maximum likelihood procedures are presented for a general model to unify the various models and techniques that have been proposed for item analysis. Unconditional maximum likelihood estimation, proposed by Wright and Haberman, and conditional maximum likelihood estimation, proposed by Rasch and Andersen, are shown as important special cases. (JAZ)

de Leeuw, Jan; Verhelst, Norman

1986-01-01

370

Electronic filters, signal conversion apparatus, hearing aids and methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An electronic filter for filtering an electrical signal. Signal processing circuitry therein includes a logarithmic filter having a series of filter stages with inputs and outputs in cascade and respective circuits associated with the filter stages for storing electrical representations of filter parameters. The filter stages include circuits for respectively adding the electrical representations of the filter parameters to the electrical signal to be filtered thereby producing a set of filter sum signals. At least one of the filter stages includes circuitry for producing a filter signal in substantially logarithmic form at its output by combining a filter sum signal for that filter stage with a signal from an output of another filter stage. The signal processing circuitry produces an intermediate output signal, and a multiplexer connected to the signal processing circuit multiplexes the intermediate output signal with the electrical signal to be filtered so that the logarithmic filter operates as both a logarithmic prefilter and a logarithmic postfilter. Other electronic filters, signal conversion apparatus, electroacoustic systems, hearing aids and methods are also disclosed.

Morley, Jr., Robert E. (Inventor); Engebretson, A. Maynard (Inventor); Engel, George L. (Inventor); Sullivan, Thomas J. (Inventor)

1994-01-01

371

Comparison of CAISO-run Plexos output with LLNL-run Plexos output  

SciTech Connect

In this report we compare the output of the California Independent System Operator (CAISO) 33% RPS Plexos model when run on various computing systems. Specifically, we compare the output resulting from running the model on CAISO's computers (Windows) and LLNL's computers (both Windows and Linux). We conclude that the differences between the three results are negligible in the context of the entire system and likely attributed to minor differences in Plexos version numbers as well as the MIP solver used in each case.

Schmidt, A; Meyers, C; Smith, S

2011-12-20

372

Lifetest of the High Output Maximum Efficiency Resonator (HOMER) Laser for the SAFFIRE Instrument on NASA's DESDynI Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We update the status of a diode-pumped, Nd:YAG oscillator that is the prototype laser for NASA's DESDynI mission. After completing TRL-6 testing, this laser has fired over 5.5 billion shots in lifetesting.

Stysley, Paul R.; Coyle, D. Barry; Kay, Richard B.; Frederickson, Robert; Poulios, Demetrios; Blair, Bryan; Scott, Stan; Arnold, Ed

2011-01-01

373

Long term performance of the High Output Maximum Efficiency Resonator (HOMER) laser for NASA's Global Ecosystem Dynamics Investigation (GEDI) lidar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the results of a 2 year, continuous operational life test of the diode pumped, solid state HOMER laser; a flight-quality prototype, producing over 16 billion, 15 mJ, 10 ns Q-switched laser pulses with an acceptable measured decay rate.

Stysley, Paul R.; Coyle, D. Barry; Kay, Richard B.; Frederickson, Robert; Poulios, Demetrios; Cory, Ken; Clarke, Greg

2015-05-01

374

Abstract--This paper presents an approach and associated circuitry for harvesting near maximum output from low power  

E-print Network

. Experimental results are presented for harvesting energy from miniature RF and wind power sources operating (PPT) and are commonly used in high power photovoltaic and wind power systems [4-5]. Existing RF and wind power sources operating over a 10:1 input power range from 500 µW to 50 µW. The results

375

Computer-aided diagnosis in medical imaging: Historical review, current status and future potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) has become one of the major research subjects in medical imaging and diagnostic radiology. In this article, the motivation and philosophy for early development of CAD schemes are presented together with the current status and future potential of CAD in a PACS environment. With CAD, radiologists use the computer output as a \\

Kunio Doi

2007-01-01

376

Computer-aided calibration of X-probes using a look-up table  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple method for the computer-aided calibration of an X-probe is described. This method requires the X-probe to be pitched in the free-stream at several velocities. From the corresponding output voltages, a calibration look-up table can be generated. The technique requires fewer assumptions than traditional methods based on King's law.

R. M. Lueptow; K. S. Breuer; J. H. Haritonidis

2004-01-01

377

PICTURE: an interactive tool for creating visual aids. Reference manual, version 2. 0  

Microsoft Academic Search

The PICTURE utility generates user defined pictures with black-and-white or color output, suitable for viewgraphs, slides, report diagrams - in general, any application requiring visual aids. The interactive menu-driven system allows a user to create a picture consisting of text, straight lines, graphs, and assortment of markers, splines and drawings, all in a variety of colors. Commands for manipulating the

B. Springmeyer; S. Bly

1984-01-01

378

Hearing aids with external receivers: Can they offer power and cosmetics?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of hearing solutions for people with moderate to severe hearing loss (HL) traditionally encounters the trade- off between form and function, appearance and performance. That is, patients typically must sacrifice cosmetics and\\/or ease of use to obtain devices that can provide them with ade- quate gain and output. Conversely, larger hearing aid (HA) styles may provide sufficient gain,

Michael Hoen; David Fabry

2007-01-01

379

Aids and Infectious Diseases (aid) Pmp 2013 Report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The AIDS and Infectious Diseases (AID) PMP of the WFS contributed this year with a session on August 22nd to the Plenary Sessions of the International Seminars on Planetary Emergencies and Associated Meetings--46th Session: The Role of Science in the Third Millennium (Erice, 19-24 August 2013). Furthermore a workshop on August 24th was organized...

Buonaguro, Franco M.

2014-07-01

380

Financial Aid ServicesFinancial Aid ServicesFinancial Aid ServicesFinancial Aid Services Lender/Loan Program Name Interest Rate  

E-print Network

Financial Aid ServicesFinancial Aid ServicesFinancial Aid ServicesFinancial Aid Services Lender Citizens Bank TRUEFIT STUDENT LOAN Variable Rate: LIBOR + 2.50- 9.25% Fixed Rate: LIBOR +5.75- 11.75% www.citizensbank.com/truefitstudentloan 1-800-708-6684 Certificate Program $1,000/Cost of attendance minus financial aid 6 months after

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

381

Financial Aid ServicesFinancial Aid ServicesFinancial Aid ServicesFinancial Aid Services Lender/Loan Program Interest Rate Ranges/Fees  

E-print Network

Financial Aid ServicesFinancial Aid ServicesFinancial Aid ServicesFinancial Aid Services Lender) Required Minimum Enrollment Lifetime Aggregate Payment of Prior Balance Citizens Bank TRUEFIT STUDENT LOAN.citizensbank.com/truefitstudentloan 1-800-708-6684 $1,000/Cost of attendance minus financial aid 6 months after graduation Up to 15

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

382

Financial Aid View HOLDS and TO DO's  

E-print Network

1 of 7 Financial Aid View HOLDS and TO DO's View Financial Aid Accept/Decline Aid Scholarships Financial Aid HOLDS and TO DO's 1. At least once a week, check both the Holds and the To Do List for any financial aid TO DO's. Click on the details arrows at the bottom of each section for more information. Back

Barrash, Warren

383

FINANCIAL AID RECIPIENTS CLASS OF 2018 INFORMATION FOR FINANCIAL AID RECIPIENTS CLASS IAL AID RECIPIENTS CLASS OF 2018 INFORMATION FOR FINANCIAL AID RECIPIENTS CLASS OF 2018  

E-print Network

FINANCIAL AID RECIPIENTS CLASS OF 2018 INFORMATION FOR FINANCIAL AID RECIPIENTS CLASS IAL AID RECIPIENTS CLASS OF 2018 INFORMATION FOR FINANCIAL AID RECIPIENTS CLASS OF 2018 `` Benjamin Franklin An investment in knowledge always pays the best interest. Information for Financial Aid Recipients www

Plotkin, Joshua B.

384

Some FactS about Financial aid  

E-print Network

Some FactS about Financial aid 2014/15 #12;Some FactS about Financial aid What is Financial aid? Financial aid is money available from federal, state, university, and private sources to help students meet college costs. Financial aid helps fill the gap between the cost of attending college and the amount

Wilmers, Chris

385

AIDS and sex tourism.  

PubMed

Tourists traveling internationally lower their inhibitions and take greater risks than they would typically in their home cultures. Loneliness, boredom, and a sense of freedom contribute to this behavioral change. Some tourists travel internationally in search of sexual gratification. This motivation may be actively conscious or subconscious to the traveler. Billed as romantic with great natural beauty, Thailand, the Philippines, Brazil, the Dominican Republic, and Kenya are popular destinations of tourists seeking sex. The Netherlands and countries in eastern Europe are also popular. With most initial cases of HIV infection in Europe having histories of international travel, mass tourism is a major factor in the international transmission of AIDS. While abroad, tourists have sex with casual partners, sex workers, and/or other tourists. Far from all tourists, however, carry and consistently use condoms with these partners. One study found female and non white travelers to be less likely than Whites and males to carry condoms. The risk of HIV infection increases in circumstances where condoms are not readily available in the host country and/or are of poor quality. Regarding actual condom use, a study found only 34% of sex tourists from Switzerland to consistently use condoms while abroad. 28% of men in an STD clinic in Melbourne, Australia, reported consistent condom use in sexual relations while traveling in Asia; STDs were identified in 73% of men examined. The few studies of tourists suggest that a significant proportion engage in risky behavior while traveling. HIV prevalence is rapidly increasing in countries known as destinations for sex tourism. High infection rates are especially evident among teenage sex workers in Thailand. Simply documenting the prevalence of risky behavior among sex tourists will not suffice. More research is needed on travelers and AIDS with particular attention upon the motivating factors supporting persistent high-risk behavior. PMID:12286016

Herold, E S; Van Kerkwijk, C

1992-01-01

386

Pet First Aid Supplies Checklist  

MedlinePLUS

... Resources | Emergency Care Print Share This! Your Veterinarian Pet Care Emergency Care Currently selected Animal Welfare Veterinary Careers ... remember that any first aid administered to your pet should be followed by immediate veterinary care. First aid care is not a substitute for ...

387

FABULOUS FEATURE Online Job Aids  

E-print Network

FABULOUS FEATURE Online Job Aids Job aids are performance support tools that complement learning the skills and strategies you need to manage your own change effectively. The course also shows you how a normal part of most people's careers. But, how do you find the time to perform the duties and obligations

Duchowski, Andrew T.

388

Ethical Issues in AIDS Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a need for carefully controlled and scientifically rigorous research studies of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The morbidity and mortality associated with AIDS patients and the public health concerns for control of this epidemic have distorted the usual process of research. The Institutional Review Board at Boston City Hospital is suggested as an appropriate mechanism for clarifying the

Michael A. Grodin; Paula V. Kaminow; Raphael Sassower

1988-01-01

389

OXYGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANE (OTM) AIDED  

E-print Network

OXYGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANE (OTM) AIDED OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION Prepared For: California Energy-2005-088 #12;#12;ENERGY INNOVATIONS SMALL GRANT (EISG) PROGRAM INDEPENDENT ASSESSMENT REPORT (IAR) OXYGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANE (OTM) AIDED OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION EISG AWARDEE University of Southern California

390

Translation: Aids, Robots, and Automation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines electronic aids to translation both as ways to automate it and as an approach to solve problems resulting from shortage of qualified translators. Describes the limitations of robotic MT (Machine Translation) systems, viewing MAT (Machine-Aided Translation) as the only practical solution and the best vehicle for further automation. (MES)

Andreyewsky, Alexander

1981-01-01

391

Teachers' Aides: A Project Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluation findings of a teacher aide project implemented in grades 4 to 12 of a small rural school via the SEARCH (Selection of Educational Alternatives for Rural Change) program during the second semester of the 1969-70 school term are given. The project--carried out in the County of Lacombe in Alberta, Canada--made 2 aides available to all…

Cleveland, Albert Allan

392

AIDS Information and Opinion Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In spring 1989, a study was conducted at Catonsville Community College to assess the attitudes and knowledge of students, faculty, and staff regarding Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and to determine whether further education regarding AIDS was needed at the college. A survey was administered to all faculty and staff and to students in…

Apple Library Users Group, Cupertino, CA.

393

Aids and the nervous system  

SciTech Connect

This book contains 19 chapters. Some of the titles are: Neuroradiology of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; The AIDS dementia complex; primary infection with human immunodeficiency virus; The biology of the human immunodeficiency virus and its role in neurological disease; and Algorithms for the treatment of AIDS patients with neurological disease.

Rosenblum, M.L. (Univ. of California School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA (US)); Levy, R.M. (Northwestern Univ. Medical School, Chicago, IL (US)); Bredesen, D.E. (Univ. of California School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA (US))

1988-01-01

394

AIDS as a development issue.  

PubMed

While scientists demonstrated that they have pushed ahead in developing treatment and a vaccine for AIDS, comparatively little was voiced regarding AIDS as a development issue at the 7th Conference on AIDS. In the context of socioeconomic development, President Museveni of Uganda and others spoke on AIDS, recognizing the need for behavioral change in preventing HIV infection. The family was also recognized as a basic unit of caring, important in fostering global solidarity. Topics discussed included the fusion of technology and human response in the fight against AIDS, NGO-government integration, community home care, and the need for an difficulty of measuring behavior change. In research, evidence was presented attesting to the cost-effectiveness of home care, while other types of research interventions, the effectiveness of audiovisual media in message dissemination, evaluation methods, and ethnographic methods for program design and evaluation were also explored. Where participants addressed psychosocial factors in development, little was presented on training. Informal discussions were robust, and covered the need for academic research, the process of an international conference, program principle transferability, and counseling. There was, however, an overall realization at the conference that progress is slow, AIDS challenges human nature, and coordinated international efforts may be incapable of effecting more rapid positive change. Even though sweeping solutions to AIDS did not emerge from this conference, more appropriate programs and conferences may develop in the future, with this conference opening AIDS in the arenas of community, development, hope and science. PMID:1786272

Campbell, I D; Rader, A D

1991-01-01

395

HIV, AIDS, and Older People  

MedlinePLUS

... cure, HAART is greatly reducing the number of deaths from AIDS in this country. Remember, there are things you can do to keep from getting HIV/AIDS. Practice the steps below to lower your risk: If you are having sex, make sure your partner has been tested and ...

396

Certification of Financial Aid Administrators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The certification of financial aid administrators has been debated for over 37 years. A job satisfaction survey conducted by the National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NASFAA, 2008a) revealed that college and university administrators' perceptions of the efficiency, effectiveness, and quality of the services provided by the…

Peterson, Stacey A.

2011-01-01

397

Moral Character and Student Aid  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Thirty years after the creation of federal student financial aid programs through the Higher Education Act of 1965, the link between moral character and student financial aid programs is once again influencing the public policy debate. A careful look at the debate, though, shows that the nature of concerns has shifted. In the past, the question…

Flint, Thomas A.

2012-01-01

398

HIV/AIDS and Pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

If you have HIV/AIDS and find out you are pregnant or think you may be pregnant, you should let your health care provider know as soon as possible. Some HIV/AIDS medicines may harm your baby. Your health ...

399

Optimal loading range for the development of peak power output in the hexagonal barbell jump squat.  

PubMed

Recent studies indicate that the utilization of the hexagonal barbell jump squat (HBJS) compared to the traditional barbell jump squat may offer a superior method of developing peak power. The notion that a single optimal load may be prescribed in training programmes aiming to develop peak power is subject to debate. The purpose of this study was to identify the optimal load corresponding with peak power output during the HBJS in professional rugby union players. Seventeen professional rugby union players participated in this study. Participants performed 3 unloaded countermovement jumps on a force-plate, as well as 3 HBJS at each of the following randomized loads: 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% of box-squat 1 repetition maximum (1RM). Peak power output was the dependent variable of interest. A one-way repeated measures ANOVA was conducted to compare peak power output across each load. A significant main effect for load was observed [Wilk's Lambda = 0.11, F (4, 13) = 18.07, p < 0.01, partial eta squared = 0.88]. Results of the Bonferroni adjusted pairwise comparisons indicated that peak power output in the HBJS is optimized at a load range between 10-20% of box squat 1RM. The results of this study indicate that the use of the HBJS with a training load between 10-20% of box squat 1RM optimizes peak power output in professional rugby union players. PMID:25486301

Turner, Thomas S; Tobin, Daniel P; Delahunt, Eamonn

2014-12-01

400

Combining Multiple Gyroscope Outputs for Increased Accuracy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A proposed method of processing the outputs of multiple gyroscopes to increase the accuracy of rate (that is, angular-velocity) readings has been developed theoretically and demonstrated by computer simulation. Although the method is applicable, in principle, to any gyroscopes, it is intended especially for application to gyroscopes that are parts of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). The method is based on the concept that the collective performance of multiple, relatively inexpensive, nominally identical devices can be better than that of one of the devices considered by itself. The method would make it possible to synthesize the readings of a single, more accurate gyroscope (a virtual gyroscope) from the outputs of a large number of microscopic gyroscopes fabricated together on a single MEMS chip. The big advantage would be that the combination of the MEMS gyroscope array and the processing circuitry needed to implement the method would be smaller, lighter in weight, and less power-hungry, relative to a conventional gyroscope of equal accuracy. The method (see figure) is one of combining and filtering the digitized outputs of multiple gyroscopes to obtain minimum-variance estimates of rate. In the combining-and-filtering operations, measurement data from the gyroscopes would be weighted and smoothed with respect to each other according to the gain matrix of a minimum- variance filter. According to Kalman-filter theory, the gain matrix of the minimum-variance filter is uniquely specified by the filter covariance, which propagates according to a matrix Riccati equation. The present method incorporates an exact analytical solution of this equation.

Bayard, David S.

2003-01-01

401

Are planners ignoring AIDS epidemic?  

PubMed

Some studies estimate that 40 million children across several countries will lose one or both parents to AIDS by 2010. However, neither developing countries nor donor agencies are seriously looking at how AIDS will affect the future. Anthony Barnett and colleagues, of the School of Development Studies at the University of East Anglia in the U.K., have held workshops for nearly a decade that are devoted to planning for the AIDS epidemic. Many of the recommendations coming from the workshops are simple, such as hiring extra workers in case vital workers are incapacitated by AIDS-related illnesses. Problems that may stem from the AIDS epidemic include a shortage of places to house orphaned children and a low supply of mechanics and skilled tradespeople to run plants in areas where the working population is at high risk. PMID:11366067

1998-12-01

402

Global HIV / AIDS & STD Surveillance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, provided by the United Nations World Health Organization and the UNAIDS Joint Programme on HIV/AIDS, contains Report on the global HIV/AIDS epidemic - June 1998, along with Adobe Acrobat (.pdf) fact sheets for 167 countries. Users can also access report annex data on "estimated and reported global AIDS cases" in Microsoft Excel and .dif format. Among the report's findings: 5.8 million people were infected with HIV in 1997; 30.6 million people are living with HIV/AIDS; 2.3 million died of AIDS in 1997; 11.7 million have died since the beginning of the epidemic; and 8.2 million children have been orphaned since the beginning of the epidemic. The report and tables are available in English, French, and Spanish (the latter two versions are available in .pdf format only).

403

High performance monolithic power management system with dynamic maximum power point tracking for microbial fuel cells.  

PubMed

Microbial fuel cell (MFC) that can directly generate electricity from organic waste or biomass is a promising renewable and clean technology. However, low power and low voltage output of MFCs typically do not allow directly operating most electrical applications, whether it is supplementing electricity to wastewater treatment plants or for powering autonomous wireless sensor networks. Power management systems (PMSs) can overcome this limitation by boosting the MFC output voltage and managing the power for maximum efficiency. We present a monolithic low-power-consuming PMS integrated circuit (IC) chip capable of dynamic maximum power point tracking (MPPT) to maximize the extracted power from MFCs, regardless of the power and voltage fluctuations from MFCs over time. The proposed PMS continuously detects the maximum power point (MPP) of the MFC and matches the load impedance of the PMS for maximum efficiency. The system also operates autonomously by directly drawing power from the MFC itself without any external power. The overall system efficiency, defined as the ratio between input energy from the MFC and output energy stored into the supercapacitor of the PMS, was 30%. As a demonstration, the PMS connected to a 240 mL two-chamber MFC (generating 0.4 V and 512 ?W at MPP) successfully powered a wireless temperature sensor that requires a voltage of 2.5 V and consumes power of 85 mW each time it transmit the sensor data, and successfully transmitted a sensor reading every 7.5 min. The PMS also efficiently managed the power output of a lower-power producing MFC, demonstrating that the PMS works efficiently at various MFC power output level. PMID:25365216

Erbay, Celal; Carreon-Bautista, Salvador; Sanchez-Sinencio, Edgar; Han, Arum

2014-12-01

404

Off-set stabilizer for comparator output  

DOEpatents

A stabilized off-set voltage is input as the reference voltage to a comparator. In application to a time-interval meter, the comparator output generates a timing interval which is independent of drift in the initial voltage across the timing capacitor. A precision resistor and operational amplifier charge a capacitor to a voltage which is precisely offset from the initial voltage. The capacitance of the reference capacitor is selected so that substantially no voltage drop is obtained in the reference voltage applied to the comparator during the interval to be measured.

Lunsford, James S. (Los Alamos, NM)

1991-01-01

405

Uncertainties in predicting solar panel power output  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problem of calculating solar panel power output at launch and during a space mission is considered. The major sources of uncertainty and error in predicting the post launch electrical performance of the panel are considered. A general discussion of error analysis is given. Examples of uncertainty calculations are included. A general method of calculating the effect on the panel of various degrading environments is presented, with references supplied for specific methods. A technique for sizing a solar panel for a required mission power profile is developed.

Anspaugh, B.

1974-01-01

406

Speed estimation using single loop detector outputs  

E-print Network

since this method is not applicable when there is not a double loop detector presented in the vicinity of each single loop detector station. 2.4.6 Catastrophe Theory Method The Catastrophe Theory was originated by French mathematician Rene Thom..., in addition to outputs of vehicle count and occupancy 14 data, individual vehicle speeds can be trapped through the dividend of the distance between those two single loops by the elapsed time (Nihan et al., 2002). Dual-loop detectors can also be used...

Ye, Zhirui

2008-10-10

407

Speed estimation using single loop detector outputs  

E-print Network

since this method is not applicable when there is not a double loop detector presented in the vicinity of each single loop detector station. 2.4.6 Catastrophe Theory Method The Catastrophe Theory was originated by French mathematician Rene Thom..., in addition to outputs of vehicle count and occupancy 14 data, individual vehicle speeds can be trapped through the dividend of the distance between those two single loops by the elapsed time (Nihan et al., 2002). Dual-loop detectors can also be used...

Ye, Zhirui

2009-05-15

408

Maximum surface charge density for triboelectric nanogenerators achieved by ionized-air injection: methodology and theoretical understanding.  

PubMed

For the maximization of the surface charge density in triboelectric nanogenerators, a new method of injecting single-polarity ions onto surfaces is introduced for the generation of surface charges. The triboelectric nanogenerator's output power gets greatly enhanced and its maximum surface charge density is systematically studied, which shows a huge room for the improvement of the output of triboelectric nanogenerators by surface modification. PMID:25146891

Wang, Sihong; Xie, Yannan; Niu, Simiao; Lin, Long; Liu, Chang; Zhou, Yu Sheng; Wang, Zhong Lin

2014-10-22

409

50 Financial Aid Hawai`i Community College 2013-2014 Financial Aid  

E-print Network

50 Financial Aid Hawai`i Community College 2013-2014 Financial Aid Office of Financial Aid Hawai`i Community College FinancialAid Office admin isters a variety of federal, state, and institutional financial aid programs.These financial aid programs are intended to assist students and their families pay

Olsen, Stephen L.

410

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access AIDS and non-AIDS severe morbidity associated  

E-print Network

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access AIDS and non-AIDS severe morbidity associated with hospitalizations from predominantly AIDS-related to non-AIDS-related conditions. In the context of universal access morbid events (AIDS- and non-AIDS-related) were defined as all clinical diagnoses associated

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

411

Web Sites Related to HIV/Aids Web Sites Related to HIV/Aids  

E-print Network

Web Sites Related to HIV/Aids Web Sites Related to HIV/Aids "Surviving AIDS" http://gbgm-umc.org/cam/ Gay Men's Health Crisis http://www.thebody.com/gmhc/gmhcpage.html Global HIV/AIDS and STD Surveillance http://www.who.int/emc-hiv/ HIV and AIDS Activities http://www.fda.gov/oashi/aids/hiv.html HIV

de Lijser, Peter

412

USCOM (Ultrasonic Cardiac Output Monitors) lacks agreement with thermodilution cardiac output and transoesophageal echocardiography valve measurements.  

PubMed

The USCOM (Ultrasonic Cardiac Output Monitors) device is a non-invasive cardiac output monitor, which utilises transaortic or transpulmonary Doppler flow tracing and valve area estimated using patient height to determine cardiac output. We evaluated USCOM against thermodilution cardiac outputs and transoesophageal echocardiography valve area measurements in 22 ASA PS4 cardiac surgical patients. Data collection commenced following pulmonary artery catheter insertion, with cardiac output measurements repeated after sternotomy closure. Failure to obtain transaortic Doppler readings using USCOM occurred in 5% of planned measurements. USCOM transaortic analysis was not planned for 11 patients with known aortic disease. Bias at the aortic window (n = 20) was -0.79 l/min with limits of agreement from -3.66 to 2.08 l/min. At the pulmonary window, failure to obtain Doppler readings occurred in 24% of planned measurements. Bias at the pulmonary window (n = 36) was -0.17 l/min with limits of agreement from -3.30 to 2.97 l/min. The USCOM estimates of valve area based on height showed poor correlation with the echocardiographic measurements of aortic and pulmonary valves (r = 0.57 and r = 0.17, respectively). It was concluded that USCOM showed poor agreement with thermodilution. The estimated valve area was identified as one source of error. PMID:18084981

Van den Oever, H L A; Murphy, E J; Christie-Taylor, G A

2007-12-01

413

HIV research productivity and structural factors associated with HIV research output in European Union countries: a bibliometric analysis  

PubMed Central

Objectives To assess HIV/AIDS research productivity in the 27 countries of the European Union (EU), and the structural level factors associated with levels of HIV/AIDS research productivity. Methods A bibliometric analysis was conducted with systematic search methods used to locate HIV/AIDS research publications (period of 1 January 2002 to 31 December 2011; search databases: MEDLINE (Ovid, PubMed), EMBASE, ISI-Thomson Web of Science; no language restrictions). The publication rate (number of HIV/AIDS research publications per million population in 10?years) and the rate of articles published in HIV/AIDS journals and selected journals with moderate to very high (IF ?3) 5-year impact factors were used as markers for HIV research productivity. A negative binomial regression model was fitted to assess the impact of structural level factors (sociodemographic, health, HIV prevalence and research/development indicators) associated with the variation in HIV research productivity. Results The total numbers of HIV/AIDS research publications in 2002–2011 by country ranged from 7 to 9128 (median 319). The median publication rate (per million population in 10?years) was 45 (range 5–150) for all publications. Across all countries, 16% of the HIV/AIDS research was published in HIV/AIDS journals and 7% in selected journals with IF ?3. Indicators describing economic (gross domestic product), demographic (size of the population) and epidemiological (HIV prevalence) conditions as well as overall scientific activity (total research output) in a country were positively associated with HIV research productivity. Conclusions HIV research productivity varies noticeably across EU countries, and this variation is associated with recognisable structural factors. PMID:25649212

Uusküla, A; Toompere, K; Laisaar, K T; Rosenthal, M; Pürjer, M L; Knellwolf, A; Läärä, E; Des Jarlais, D C

2015-01-01

414

29 CFR 1926.1416 - Operational aids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-07-01 false Operational aids. 1926.1416 Section 1926.1416...Construction § 1926.1416 Operational aids. (a) The devices listed in this section (“listed operational aids”) are required on all equipment...

2014-07-01

415

29 CFR 1926.1416 - Operational aids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 false Operational aids. 1926.1416 Section 1926.1416...Construction § 1926.1416 Operational aids. (a) The devices listed in this section (“listed operational aids”) are required on all equipment...

2012-07-01

416

Treatment Options for AIDS-Related Lymphoma  

MedlinePLUS

... Dictionary Search for Clinical Trials NCI Publications Español AIDS-Related Lymphoma Treatment (PDQ®) Treatment Options for AIDS-Related Lymphoma AIDS-Related Peripheral/Systemic Lymphoma There ...

417

7 CFR 15b.37 - Auxiliary aids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Auxiliary aids. 15b.37 Section 15b.37 Agriculture...RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Other Aid, Benefits, or Services § 15b.37 Auxiliary aids. (a) A recipient to which this...

2013-01-01

418

29 CFR 1926.1416 - Operational aids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Operational aids. 1926.1416 Section 1926.1416...Construction § 1926.1416 Operational aids. (a) The devices listed in this section (“listed operational aids”) are required on all equipment...

2013-07-01

419

29 CFR 1926.1416 - Operational aids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 false Operational aids. 1926.1416 Section 1926.1416...Construction § 1926.1416 Operational aids. (a) The devices listed in this section (“listed operational aids”) are required on all equipment...

2011-07-01

420

30 CFR 75.1913 - Starting aids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Starting aids. 75.1913 Section 75.1913 Mineral Resources...Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1913 Starting aids. (a) Volatile fuel starting aids shall be used in accordance with...

2013-07-01

421

Stages of AIDS-Related Lymphoma  

MedlinePLUS

... follows: Peripheral/systemic lymphoma Primary CNS lymphoma After AIDS-related lymphoma has been diagnosed, tests are done ... to other parts of the body. Stages of AIDS-related lymphoma may include E and S. AIDS-related ...

422

30 CFR 75.1913 - Starting aids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Starting aids. 75.1913 Section 75.1913 Mineral Resources...Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1913 Starting aids. (a) Volatile fuel starting aids shall be used in accordance with...

2014-07-01

423

30 CFR 75.1913 - Starting aids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Starting aids. 75.1913 Section 75.1913 Mineral Resources...Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1913 Starting aids. (a) Volatile fuel starting aids shall be used in accordance with...

2011-07-01

424

30 CFR 75.1913 - Starting aids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Starting aids. 75.1913 Section 75.1913 Mineral Resources...Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1913 Starting aids. (a) Volatile fuel starting aids shall be used in accordance with...

2010-07-01

425

7 CFR 15b.37 - Auxiliary aids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Auxiliary aids. 15b.37 Section 15b.37 Agriculture...RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Other Aid, Benefits, or Services § 15b.37 Auxiliary aids. (a) A recipient to which this...

2012-01-01

426

7 CFR 15b.37 - Auxiliary aids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Auxiliary aids. 15b.37 Section 15b.37 Agriculture...RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Other Aid, Benefits, or Services § 15b.37 Auxiliary aids. (a) A recipient to which this...

2011-01-01

427

7 CFR 15b.37 - Auxiliary aids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Auxiliary aids. 15b.37 Section 15b.37 Agriculture...RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Other Aid, Benefits, or Services § 15b.37 Auxiliary aids. (a) A recipient to which this...

2010-01-01

428

7 CFR 15b.37 - Auxiliary aids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Auxiliary aids. 15b.37 Section 15b.37 Agriculture...RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Other Aid, Benefits, or Services § 15b.37 Auxiliary aids. (a) A recipient to which this...

2014-01-01

429

30 CFR 75.1913 - Starting aids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Starting aids. 75.1913 Section 75.1913 Mineral Resources...Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1913 Starting aids. (a) Volatile fuel starting aids shall be used in accordance with...

2012-07-01

430

75 FR 49432 - Impact Aid Programs  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...ED-2010-OESE-0013] RIN 1810-AB11 Impact Aid Programs AGENCY: Office of Elementary and...amend the regulations governing the Impact Aid Discretionary Construction Program, which...educational agencies (LEAs) that receive Impact Aid formula funds. The proposed...

2010-08-13

431

AIDS: A Training Program for School Counselors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) training program for school counselors which covers these aspects of AIDS: general facts, medical issues, prevention and education, psychological issues, and working with AIDS-infected persons. (ABL)

Holder, Jim R.

1989-01-01

432

The Science of HIV/AIDS  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Science of HIV/AIDS contains student activities and essays that help students understand the virus that causes AIDS, how infectious agents multiply in organisms, and the worldwide spread of HIV/AIDS.

Baylor College of Medicine (Baylor College of Medicine Human Genome Sequencing Center)

2010-01-01

433

On Weyl channels being covariant with respect to the maximum commutative group of unitaries  

E-print Network

We investigate the Weyl channels being covariant with respect to the maximum commutative group of unitary operators. This class includes the quantum depolarizing channel and the "two-Pauli" channel as well. Then, we show that our estimation of the output entropy for a tensor product of the phase damping channel and the identity channel based upon the decreasing property of the relative entropy allows to prove the additivity conjecture for the minimal output entropy for the quantum depolarizing channel in any prime dimesnsion and for the "two Pauli" channel in the qubit case.

G. G. Amosov

2006-08-10

434

Magnetron with axial output of radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the limiting case of a magnetron with diffraction output [1], we consider a magnetron with axial extraction of electromagnetic energy through a cylindrical waveguide joined to the resonant system. A short length of waveguide with small cross section (less than cut off for the radiated wave) is placed between the resonant system and the output waveguide to obtain the optimal Q-factor. This magnetron is very compact due to its symmetrical design, even when the magnetic system is included. Importantly, any synchronous mode can be used as the operating mode because of identical loads for all the cavities. Computer simulations of the well-known A6 magnetron geometry, using the 3D fully relativistic particle-in-cell code MAGIC, demonstrate stable operation for the 2?-type of oscillations, with radiation power of about 0.7 GW and radiation frequency of 3 GHz. Electron efficiency is about 15% when and the applied voltage is 350 kV. Application of a cathode [2] that consists of several individual longitudinal emitting strips arranged in a cylindrical geometry, provides fast start of oscillations. [1] M. Fuks and N. Kovalev, Program and abstracts of XI Int. Conf. On High Power Electromagnetics, Tel-Aviv, 1998, 23. [2] M. Fuks and E. Schamiloglu, Papers of USA-Japan Meeting on Plasma Science, Hawaii, 2004, 71-76.

Fuks, M.

2005-10-01

435

An alternative high output tissue microarray technique  

PubMed Central

Background Tissue microarray (TMA) is a high throughput research tool, which has greatly facilitated and accelerated in situ tissue analyses. However, its productivity has been restricted due to the confined thickness of traditional donor block. Here, we introduce an improved high output TMA method that is applicable to a broader range of tissue samples. Methods In this method, a 3.6 cm long and 2.7 cm wide recipient block with 88 square lattices (3 mm in width) was first prepared using several commercial instruments. A 2 mm wide and 6 mm long tissue rod was then prepared using a self-made blade-shaped knife from each paraffin embedded donor block of gastrointestinal stromal tumors. These rods were manually arrayed one by one into the corresponding lattices of the 60°C pre-softened recipient block with the guide of holes drilled with a steel needle. A 70-rod TMA was made to testify this method. Results The prepared TMA had well defined array configurations, good tissue morphology and fully preserved proteins and DNA. A total of 500–1000 TMA sections could be easily obtained from a TMA block. Conclusion This low-cost and time-saving method provides an alternative sampling tool for high output TMA. Virtual Slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1979605867857990 PMID:23336116

2013-01-01

436

Speech processing using conditional observable maximum likelihood continuity mapping  

DOEpatents

A computer implemented method enables the recognition of speech and speech characteristics. Parameters are initialized of first probability density functions that map between the symbols in the vocabulary of one or more sequences of speech codes that represent speech sounds and a continuity map. Parameters are also initialized of second probability density functions that map between the elements in the vocabulary of one or more desired sequences of speech transcription symbols and the continuity map. The parameters of the probability density functions are then trained to maximize the probabilities of the desired sequences of speech-transcription symbols. A new sequence of speech codes is then input to the continuity map having the trained first and second probability function parameters. A smooth path is identified on the continuity map that has the maximum probability for the new sequence of speech codes. The probability of each speech transcription symbol for each input speech code can then be output.

Hogden, John; Nix, David

2004-01-13

437

Older people's views on what they need to successfully adjust to life with a hearing aid  

PubMed Central

This article reports a study exploring what older people believe would enable them to adjust to and gain maximum benefit from wearing a hearing aid. A mixed methods approach was employed during 2006 involving interviews with key stakeholders, a survey across three Scottish health board areas and focus groups. Nine key stakeholders from six national and local organisations were interviewed about the needs of older people being fitted with hearing aids. In total, 240 older people belonging to three different types of hearing impaired older people were surveyed: long-term users of hearing aids, new hearing aid users, and those on a waiting list from urban and rural areas (response rate = 24%). A series of eight follow-up focus groups with 31 audiology patients was held. Health professionals appeared to neglect appropriate provision of information and overly rely on technological interventions. Of 154 older people already fitted with hearing aids, only 52% of hearing aid users reported receiving enough practical help post fitting and only 41% reported receiving enough support. Approximately 40% reported not feeling confident in the use of their aids or their controls. Older people wanted more information than they received both before and after hearing aid fitting. Information provision and attention to the psychosocial aspects of care are key to enabling older people to adjust and optimise hearing aid benefit. PMID:23373520

Kelly, Timothy B; Tolson, Debbie; Day, Tracy; McColgan, Gillian; Kroll, Thilo; Maclaren, William

2013-01-01

438

HIV / AIDS and the law.  

PubMed

Since HIV is sexually transmitted, people living with AIDS and HIV (PWA/PHA) risk being stigmatized as immoral and promiscuous and they are often discriminated against in society. To this effect, the South African AIDS Law Project and Lawyers for Human Rights have developed a comprehensive resource manual detailing human rights with a special emphasis on issues relevant to PWA/PHA. The concept of the manual aimed to look at the legal and human rights questions that have been raised by the HIV/AIDS epidemic; inform people living with HIV/AIDS about their rights and the law; provide people working in businesses, trade unions, and nongovernmental organization with information about correct and incorrect responses to HIV/AIDS; and give victims of discrimination ideas on how to fight back. This manual initially introduces basic facts about HIV and AIDS and then describes the legal system and the Bill of Rights within the new South African Constitution. The main areas of focus in the manual include: 1) patient's medical rights, 2) employment rights, 3) women's rights, 4) the rights of lesbians and gay men, 5) the rights of youth and children, 6) the rights of prisoners, 7) social support for PWA, 8) HIV/AIDS and insurance law, 9) power of attorney and making wills, 10) criminal law, and 11) legal remedies, such as using the law to protect one's rights. PMID:12222382

1997-09-01

439

AIDS: is race an issue?  

PubMed

Africans have encountered degrees of discrimination internationally--in Belgium, India, and the Soviet Union, for example--which reflect fears of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The fact that the most prominent scientific hypothesis for the origins of the AIDS virus traces its start to the African green monkey has unfortunately contributed to the tendency of some groups to blame Africa, Africans and blacks for the AIDS epidemic. Africans, on the other hand, frequently blame white foreigners. Efforts to find who should be blamed have too often substituted for effective action to prevent the spread of the virus. WHO has argued aganist AIDS-related travel restrictions, adopted so far by at least 6 governments, on the grounds that they do little to retard the entry of the virus and misuse resources which could be devoted to prevention. Because of the disproportionate number of blacks and Hispanics among AIDS victims in the US, there is anxiety that AIDS could become a racial issue adversely affecting the civil rights progress of past decades. In France, spokesmen for the Front National, an extremist right-wing party, have attempted to link AIDS fears with ant-immigration sentiments. PMID:12280817

Sabatier, R

1988-01-01

440

Highly efficient Er,Yb-doped fiber laser with 188W free-running and 100W tunable output power  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Efficient high-power operation of an erbium-ytterbium co-doped fiber laser cladding-pumped by two spatially-multiplexed and polarization combined 975 nm diode-stacks is reported. Up to 188 W of continuous-wave output at 1.57 µm was generated with a beam-quality factor (M^2) of 1.9 and an overall slope efficiency with respect to launched pump power of 41% (and 43% for output powers <120W). Tunable operation was demonstrated by use of an external cavity containing a diffraction grating and a maximum output power of 108 W at 1538 nm was generated for a launched pump power of ~ 336 W. The operating wavelength was tunable from 1531 to 1571 nm, with >100W output power over a tuning range of 36 nm from 1532 nm to 1568 nm.

Shen, D. Y.; Sahu, J. K.; Clarkson, W. A.

2005-06-01

441

[Output characteristics of non-point phosphorus from a typical small watershed in Yimeng mountainous area under the special rainfall].  

PubMed

The relationships between pollutant concentrations and precipitation-runoff combined with the first and maximum intensity natural rainfall events were monitored at the outlets of the Menglianggu watershed in 2010. The results showed that dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP), dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP), total dissolved phosphorus (DP), total particle phosphorus (PP) and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations in the first rainfall were higher than those in the maximum intensity rainfall which was the largest average rainfall intensity, but the output of phosphorusin the first rainfall was all higher than that in the maximum intensity rainfall except dissolved organic phosphorus. The DOP, DIP, DP, PP and TP in two special rainfall events contributed 48%, 81%, 70%, 87% and 81% of the total output of rainy season. DP and TP were mainly composed by DIP and PP respectively. The two special rainfalls have the first flush effect and the maximum intensity rainfall was stronger than the first rainfall, so the analysis of M (V) curve showed that the priority should be given to the interception of corresponding phosphorus under special events. The regression analysis results showed that a linear relation existed between runoff and nutrient output, but there were some differences which the slope of the linear equation of the first rainfall was higher than that of the maximum intensity rainfall. Reducing agricultural practices such as tillage and fertilization during special rainfall period and building canals, ponds are effective ways for mitigating agricultural non-point source pollution. PMID:22720559

Li, Zhen-Wei; Yu, Xing-Xiu; Liu, Qian-Jin; Jing, Guang-Hu

2012-04-01

442

High-output paraffin linear motors: utilization in adaptive systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High output paraffin (HOP) thermal actuators are used as linear motors in spacecraft mechanical systems. Heat energy to drive the devices is provided by either environmental temperature changes or electrically powered resistance heaters. Mechanical work is obtained from the 15% expansion of paraffin that occurs during the solid-to-liquid phase change. This paper describes the design and characterization of an HOP positioning actuator prototype (HPAP); an HOP actuator configured to provide accurate, high force positioning for adaptive systems such as space structures and optics. The HPAP provides a maximum 150 lbf over a displacement of 0.1 in. when powered with 20 W at 28 V ac or dc. Parameters critical to use in adaptive systems are characterized including dynamic response vs. load and power input, set-point accuracy, and accuracy vs. actuator velocity. With 10 watts of cooling available through conduction, calculated HPAP response time against a 100 lbf load is 7.9, 21, and 150 seconds for step changes of 10, 100, and 1000 micrometers respectively. Measurement of the set- point accuracy was limited by the accuracy of the position measuring equipment (+/- .03 micrometers ). Test results indicate that HOP thermal actuators are appropriate for utilization in adaptive systems requiring high displacement, accurate positioning within a control bandwidth of 0.5 Hz or less.

Tibbitts, Scott

1992-01-01

443

AIDS epidemic update: December 1998  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This new update from the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and the World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that by the end of the year 33.4 million people will be infected with HIV, ten percent more than one year ago. Almost every country in the world has seen new infections in 1998, but new cases have been concentrated in the developing world, home of 95% of all HIV-infected people and 95% of AIDS fatalities. As this report reveals, AIDS and its repercussions, such as declining life expectancy, increased orphanhood, and overburdened health care systems, now pose one of the most serious threats to development.

1998-01-01

444

36 CFR 1193.43 - Output, display, and control functions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...cutoff. Where a product delivers audio output through an external speaker, provide an industry standard connector for headphones...output by an audio transducer which is normally held up to the ear, provide a means for effective wireless coupling to...

2013-07-01

445

36 CFR 1193.43 - Output, display, and control functions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...cutoff. Where a product delivers audio output through an external speaker, provide an industry standard connector for headphones...output by an audio transducer which is normally held up to the ear, provide a means for effective wireless coupling to...

2011-07-01

446

Improved system measures output energy of pyrotechnic devices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

System for measuring the output energy of pyrotechnic devices discharges the reaction products into a test chamber. It measures the radiant heat output from a pinhole aperture as well as internal pressure changes on a common time base.

Shortly, E. M.

1966-01-01

447

Second Evidence Aid Conference: prioritizing evidence in disaster aid.  

PubMed

The Second Evidence Aid Conference took place in Brussels, Belgium, in October 2012, jointly organized by Evidence Aid and the Belgian Red Cross-Flanders. It provided an opportunity to build on the discussions from the 2011 First Evidence Aid Conference in Oxford, England, and prioritize the future work of Evidence Aid. Within the plenary presentations, discussions, and small work groups, the more than 80 international participants addressed issues regarding the need, use, and prioritization of evidence. Three parallel workshops focused on the prioritization of research, systematic reviews, and data to be collected during disasters, leading to a suggested prioritization framework and a commitment to identify key areas for evidence in disasters. Working with a wide variety of people and organizations from the disaster and humanitarian sectors, Evidence Aid will take this framework and develop a list of top priority questions in need of research and systematic reviews. Although Evidence Aid will not be able to address all of the research questions that will be identified in this process, it will collect them for sharing with relevant agencies. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2013;7:593-596). PMID:24444132

Vandekerckhove, Philippe; Clarke, Michael J; De Buck, Emmy; Allen, Claire; Kayabu, Bonnix

2013-12-01

448

Output testing of small-arms primers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The performance of two standard primers for initiating small-caliber ammunition are compared to that of a primer for initiating aircraft escape-system components. Three testing methods are employed including: (1) firing the primer to measure total energy delivered; (2) monitoring output in terms of gaseous product-mass flow rate and pressure as a function of time; and (3) firing the primer onto ignition material to study gas pressure produced during ignition and burning as a function of time. The results of the test demonstrate differences in the ignitability factors of the standard primers and time peak pressures of less than 100 microseconds. One unexpected result is that two percussion primers (the FA-41 and the M42C1) developed for different applications have the same ignitability. The ignitability test method is shown to yield the most useful data and can be used to specify percussion primers and optimize their performance.

Bement, Laurence J.; Doris, Thomas A.; Schimmel, Morry L.

1991-01-01

449

Newer methods of cardiac output monitoring.  

PubMed

Cardiac output (CO) is the volume of blood ejected by each ventricle per minute and is the product of stroke volume and heart rate. CO can thus be manipulated by alteration in heart rate or rhythm, preload, contractility and afterload. Moreover it gives important information about tissue perfusion and oxygen delivery. CO can be measured by various methods and thermodilution method using pulmonary artery catheter (PAC) is till date considered as gold standard method. Complications associated with PAC led to development of newer methods which are minimally or non-invasive. Newer methods fulfil other properties like continuous and reproducible reading, cost effective, reliable during various physiological states and have fast response time. These methods are validated against the gold standard with good level agreement. In this review we have discussed various newer methods of CO monitoring and their effectiveness in clinical use. PMID:25276302

Mehta, Yatin; Arora, Dheeraj

2014-09-26

450

Hijacking Cortical Motor Output with Repetitive Microstimulation  

PubMed Central

High frequency repetitive microstimulation has been widely used as a method of investigating the properties of cortical motor output. Despite its widespread use, few studies have investigated how activity evoked by high frequency stimulation may interact with the existing activity of cortical cells resulting from natural synaptic inputs. A reasonable assumption might be that the stimulus-evoked activity sums with the existing natural activity. However, another possibility is that the stimulus-evoked firing of cortical neurons might block and replace the natural activity. We refer to this latter possibility as “neural hijacking.” Evidence from analysis of EMG activity evoked by repetitive microstimulation (200 Hz, 500 ms) of primary motor cortex in two rhesus monkeys during performance of a reach-to-grasp task strongly supports the neural hijacking hypothesis. PMID:21917792

Griffin, D.M.; Hudson, H.M.; Belhaj-Sa?f, A.; Cheney, P.D.

2011-01-01

451

Turbulent Output-Based Anisotropic Adaptation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Controlling discretization error is a remaining challenge for computational fluid dynamics simulation. Grid adaptation is applied to reduce estimated discretization error in drag or pressure integral output functions. To enable application to high O(10(exp 7)) Reynolds number turbulent flows, a hybrid approach is utilized that freezes the near-wall boundary layer grids and adapts the grid away from the no slip boundaries. The hybrid approach is not applicable to problems with under resolved initial boundary layer grids, but is a powerful technique for problems with important off-body anisotropic features. Supersonic nozzle plume, turbulent flat plate, and shock-boundary layer interaction examples are presented with comparisons to experimental measurements of pressure and velocity. Adapted grids are produced that resolve off-body features in locations that are not known a priori.

Park, Michael A.; Carlson, Jan-Renee

2010-01-01

452

Newer methods of cardiac output monitoring  

PubMed Central

Cardiac output (CO) is the volume of blood ejected by each ventricle per minute and is the product of stroke volume and heart rate. CO can thus be manipulated by alteration in heart rate or rhythm, preload, contractility and afterload. Moreover it gives important information about tissue perfusion and oxygen delivery. CO can be measured by various methods and thermodilution method using pulmonary artery catheter (PAC) is till date considered as gold standard method. Complications associated with PAC led to development of newer methods which are minimally or non-invasive. Newer methods fulfil other properties like continuous and reproducible reading, cost effective, reliable during various physiological states and have fast response time. These methods are validated against the gold standard with good level agreement. In this review we have discussed various newer methods of CO monitoring and their effectiveness in clinical use. PMID:25276302

Mehta, Yatin; Arora, Dheeraj

2014-01-01

453

Handling Input and Output for COAMPS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two suites of software have been developed to handle the input and output of the Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Prediction System (COAMPS), which is a regional atmospheric model developed by the Navy for simulating and predicting weather. Typically, the initial and boundary conditions for COAMPS are provided by a flat-file representation of the Navy s global model. Additional algorithms are needed for running the COAMPS software using global models. One of the present suites satisfies this need for running COAMPS using the Global Forecast System (GFS) model of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The first step in running COAMPS downloading of GFS data from an Internet file-transfer-protocol (FTP) server computer of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) is performed by one of the programs (SSC-00273) in this suite. The GFS data, which are in gridded binary (GRIB) format, are then changed to a COAMPS-compatible format by another program in the suite (SSC-00278). Once a forecast is complete, still another program in the suite (SSC-00274) sends the output data to a different server computer. The second suite of software (SSC- 00275) addresses the need to ingest up-to-date land-use-and-land-cover (LULC) data into COAMPS for use in specifying typical climatological values of such surface parameters as albedo, aerodynamic roughness, and ground wetness. This suite includes (1) a program to process LULC data derived from observations by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments aboard NASA s Terra and Aqua satellites, (2) programs to derive new climatological parameters for the 17-land-use-category MODIS data; and (3) a modified version of a FORTRAN subroutine to be used by COAMPS. The MODIS data files are processed to reformat them into a compressed American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) format used by COAMPS for efficient processing.

Fitzpatrick, Patrick; Tran, Nam; Li, Yongzuo; Anantharaj, Valentine

2007-01-01

454

Maximum Likelihood Estimates of Age Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative merits of maxinmm likeli- hood estimates of age factors were ex- amined with 24,636 lactations from regis- tered Holsteins in Iowa Dairy Herd Im- provement Association herds. A table con- taining maximum-likellhood estimates of age effects on milk and fat yield was pre- sented. Maximum likelihood (ML) factors were compared to gross and paired com- parison factors. Gross

R. H. Miller; W. R. Harvey; K. A. Tabler; B. T. McDaniel; E. L. Corley

1966-01-01

455

Maximum likelihood training of probabilistic neural networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A maximum likelihood method is presented for training probabilistic neural networks (PNN's) using a Gaussian kernel, or Parzen window. The proposed training algorithm enables general nonlinear discrimination and is a generalization of Fisher's method for linear discrimination. Important features of maximum likelihood training for PNN's are: 1) it economizes the well known Parzen window estimator while preserving feedforward NN architecture,

Roy L. Streit; Tod E. Luginbuhl

1994-01-01

456

20 CFR 228.14 - Family maximum.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Family maximum. (a) Family maximum...limited amount is called the family...attains age 62, has a period of disability...to more than one child's benefit), be entitled to a child's annuity on...attains age 62, has a period of disability...multiple of $0.10, it will be...

2010-04-01

457

49 CFR 107.329 - Maximum penalties.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the maximum civil penalty is $175,000 if the violation results in death, serious illness...no minimum civil penalty, except for a minimum...the maximum civil penalty is $175,000 if the violation results in death, serious...

2013-10-01

458

49 CFR 107.329 - Maximum penalties.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...the maximum civil penalty is $110,000 if the violation results in death, serious illness...minimum $495 civil penalty applies to a violation...the maximum civil penalty is $110,000 if the violation results in death, serious...

2011-10-01

459

49 CFR 107.329 - Maximum penalties.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...the maximum civil penalty is $175,000 if the violation results in death, serious illness...no minimum civil penalty, except for a minimum...the maximum civil penalty is $175,000 if the violation results in death, serious...

2014-10-01

460

49 CFR 107.329 - Maximum penalties.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...the maximum civil penalty is $110,000 if the violation results in death, serious illness...minimum $495 civil penalty applies to a violation...the maximum civil penalty is $110,000 if the violation results in death, serious...

2012-10-01

461

49 CFR 107.329 - Maximum penalties.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the maximum civil penalty is $110,000 if the violation results in death, serious illness...minimum $495 civil penalty applies to a violation...the maximum civil penalty is $110,000 if the violation results in death, serious...

2010-10-01

462

Maximum Margin Discriminant Analysis based Face Recognition  

E-print Network

Maximum Margin Discriminant Analysis based Face Recognition Korn´el Kov´acs1 , Andr´as Kocsor1 Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Kende u. 13-17, 1111 Budapest, Hungary Abstract: Face ­ Maximum Margin Discriminant Analysis (MMDA) ­ to solve face recog- nition problems. MMDA is a feature

Szepesvari, Csaba

463

Preventing Portfolio Losses by Hedging Maximum Drawdown  

E-print Network

possible market timing, meaning buying the asset at its local maximum and selling it at a subsequent local Introduction Market drops are traditionally protected by buying put or lookback options. The payoff of a put asset increases, and thus it is desirable to buy them when the market reaches its maximum. This leads

Vecer, Jan

464

Preventing Portfolio Losses by Hedging Maximum Drawdown  

E-print Network

possible market timing, meaning buying the asset at its local maximum and selling it at a subsequent local Introduction Market drops are traditionally protected by buying put or lookback options. The payo# of a put asset increases, and thus it is desirable to buy them when the market reaches its maximum. This leads

Vecer, Jan

465

The GFDL Data Portal: a Doorway to Sharing Model Outputs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to increasing community interest in the output of models run at GFDL, we have embarked upon the design of a data portal for sharing numerical model output. Effective sharing of model output requires software standards and tools and then utilizing those tools to build data portals. Among the tools that the GFDL data portal will utilize is the

K. M. Obrien; S. Hankin; J. Callahan; V. Balaji; R. Schweitzer; J. McLean; Y. Wei; A. Manke

2004-01-01

466

Multiple-Winding Output Inductors for Power Converters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Design procedure developed for dc-to-dc power converters with multiple outputs having inductors wound on common core. With common core, minimum load current consistent with good output regulation is lower, output regulation is improved, and total inductor size and weight is reduced.

Mclyman, W. T.

1986-01-01

467

Constellation Shaping for Communication Channels with Quantized Outputs  

E-print Network

Constellation Shaping for Communication Channels with Quantized Outputs Chandana Nannapaneni signal constellation and the output is quantized by a uniform scalar quantizer. The goal is to jointly constellation and outputs that must be quantized prior to decoding (e.g. by passing the received signal through

Valenti, Matthew C.

468

MAXIMUM-LIKELIHOOD DECOMPOSITION OF OVERLAPPING AND TOUCHING M-FISH CHROMOSOMES USING GEOMETRY, SIZE AND COLOR INFORMATION  

E-print Network

MAXIMUM-LIKELIHOOD DECOMPOSITION OF OVERLAPPING AND TOUCHING M-FISH CHROMOSOMES USING GEOMETRY Since the birth of chromosome analysis by the aid of computers, building a fully automated chromosome analysis system has been the ultimate goal. Along with many other challenges, automating chromosome

Texas at Austin, University of

469

: Computer Aided Learning in Computer  

E-print Network

CAL2 : Computer Aided Learning in Computer Architecture Laboratory JOVAN DJORDJEVIC,1 BOSKO NIKOLIC,1 TANJA BOROZAN,1 ALEKSANDAR MILENKOVIC´ 2 1 Computer Engineering Department, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia 2 Electrical and Computer Engineering Department

Milenkovi, Aleksandar

470

Financial Aid for Nursing Students  

MedlinePLUS

... Nursing Students Resources for Undergraduate Nursing Students General Scholarship and Financial Aid Resources Loan Repayment or Forgiveness Programs AACN Resources AACN Student Scholarship Programs Funding Resources for Future Nurse Educators AACN ...

471

How Do People Get AIDS?  

MedlinePLUS

... Plan Dealing With Anger How Do People Get AIDS? KidsHealth > Teens > Sexual Health > STDs & Other Infections > How ... and other serious infections to another person. Also, newborn babies are at risk of getting the HIV ...

472

HIV/AIDS in Women  

MedlinePLUS

HIV, the human immunodeficiency virus, kills or damages cells of the body's immune system. The most advanced stage of infection with HIV is AIDS, which stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. ...

473

Medicare and HIV/AIDS  

MedlinePLUS

... research and analysis on health issues. February 2009 Medicare and HIV/AIDS Medicare, the federal health insurance ... it began to pay for prescription drugs. 3 Medicare Beneficiaries with HIV Most people with HIV on ...

474

Predicting Maximum Lake Depth from Surrounding Topography  

EPA Science Inventory

Lake volume aids understanding of the physical and ecological dynamics of lakes, yet is often not readily available. The data needed to calculate lake volume (i.e. bathymetry) are usually only collected on a lake by lake basis and are difficult to obtain across broad regions. ...

475

Library-Media Aide Orientation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Please follow this self-paced introduction to the library and the Dewey Decimal System to help you prepare to be a great library aide! 1. Review alphabetizing. This is an elementary website, but alphabetizing is an important skill for every library aide. Alphabetizing 2. Review putting decimal numbers in order. Decimal Numbers 3. Using the website below you will learn about Melville Dewey, how the fiction and non-fiction sections of the library are arranged, and ...

Albion Middle School Library--Mrs. Bates

2010-01-15

476

Opportunity Egress Aid Contacts Soil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image from the navigation camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows the rover's egress aid touching the martian soil at Meridiani Planum, Mars. The image was taken after the rear lander petal hyperextended in a manuever to tilt the lander forward. The maneuver pushed the front edge lower, placing the tips of the egress aids in the soil. The rover will drive straight ahead to exit the lander.

2004-01-01

477

Non-Causal Fir Filters for the Maximum Return from Capital Markets  

E-print Network

In this paper we consider a trading strategy, which consists in buying or selling a financial instrument when the smoothing, non-causal FIR (Final Impulse Response) filter output attains a local minimum or maximum, respectively. Upon tis assumption the goal of this paper is to determine the 'best' non-causal smoothing FIR filters, which provide maximum value of the return from the market. The assumed non-causality is obtained by advancing the output signal to compensate for the delay introduced by the a priori known filter. The best result were obtained for the impulse response given by the Pascal triangle and the family of symmetric power triangles, both for the case of trading with, and without the transaction fee. It was found that the transaction fee dramatically reduces a possible net return from the market, and therefore should not be omitted in market analyzes.

Dyka, A

2006-01-01

478

Non-Causal Final Impulse Response Filters for the Maximum Return from Capital Markets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we consider a trading strategy, which consists in buying or selling a financial instrument when the smoothing, non-causal FIR (Final Impulse Response) filter output attains a local minimum or maximum, respectively. Upon this assumption the goal of this paper is to determine the ``best'' non-causal smoothing FIR filters, which provide maximum value of the return from market. The assumed non-causality is obtained by advancing the output signal to compensate for the delay introduced by the {ITALIC a priori} known filter. The best results were obtained for the impulse response given by the Pascal triangle and the family of symmetric power triangles, both for the case of trading with, and without the transaction fee. It was found that the transaction fee dramatically reduces a possible net return, and therefore should not be omitted in market analyzes.

Dyka, A.

2006-11-01

479

The history of AIDS exceptionalism  

PubMed Central

In the history of public health, HIV/AIDS is unique; it has widespread and long-lasting demographic, social, economic and political impacts. The global response has been unprecedented. AIDS exceptionalism - the idea that the disease requires a response above and beyond "normal" health interventions - began as a Western response to the originally terrifying and lethal nature of the virus. More recently, AIDS exceptionalism came to refer to the disease-specific global response and the resources dedicated to addressing the epidemic. There has been a backlash against this exceptionalism, with critics claiming that HIV/AIDS receives a disproportionate amount of international aid and health funding. This paper situations this debate in historical perspective. By reviewing histories of the disease, policy developments and funding patterns, it charts how the meaning of AIDS exceptionalism has shifted over three decades. It argues that while the connotation of the term has changed, the epidemic has maintained its course, and therefore some of the justifications for exceptionalism remain. PMID:21129197

2010-01-01

480

Non-invasive cardiac output trending during exercise recovery on a bathroom-scale-based ballistocardiograph.  

PubMed

Cardiac ejection of blood into the aorta generates a reaction force on the body that can be measured externally via the ballistocardiogram (BCG). In this study, a commercial bathroom scale was modified to measure the BCGs of nine healthy subjects recovering from treadmill exercise. During the recovery, Doppler echocardiogram signals were obtained simultaneously from the left ventricular outflow tract of the heart. The percentage changes in root-mean-square (RMS) power of the BCG were strongly correlated with the percentage changes in cardiac output measured by Doppler echocardiography (R(2) = 0.85, n = 275 data points). The correlation coefficients for individually analyzed data ranged from 0.79 to 0.96. Using Bland-Altman methods for assessing agreement, the mean bias was found to be -0.5% (+/-24%) in estimating the percentage changes in cardiac output. In contrast to other non-invasive methods for trending cardiac output, the unobtrusive procedure presented here uses inexpensive equipment and could be performed without the aid of a medical professional. PMID:19202234

Inan, O T; Etemadi, M; Paloma, A; Giovangrandi, L; Kovacs, G T A

2009-03-01

481

MCNP output data analysis with ROOT (MODAR)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MCNP Output Data Analysis with ROOT (MODAR) is a tool based on CERN's ROOT software. MODAR has been designed to handle time-energy data issued by MCNP simulations of neutron inspection devices using the associated particle technique. MODAR exploits ROOT's Graphical User Interface and functionalities to visualize and process MCNP simulation results in a fast and user-friendly way. MODAR allows to take into account the detection system time resolution (which is not possible with MCNP) as well as detectors energy response function and counting statistics in a straightforward way. New version program summaryProgram title: MODAR Catalogue identifier: AEGA_v1_1 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEGA_v1_1.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 150 927 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 4 981 633 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++ Computer: Most Unix workstations and PCs Operating system: Most Unix systems, Linux and windows, provided the ROOT package has been installed. Examples where tested under Suse Linux and Windows XP. RAM: Depends on the size of the MCNP output file. The example presented in the article, which involves three two dimensional 139×740 bins histograms, allocates about 60 MB. These data are running under ROOT and include consumption by ROOT itself. Classification: 17.6 Catalogue identifier of previous version: AEGA_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 181 (2010) 1161 External routines: ROOT version 5.24.00 ( http://root.cern.ch/drupal/) Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes Nature of problem: The output of a MCNP simulation is an ascii file. The data processing is usually performed by copying and pasting the relevant parts of the ascii file into Microsoft Excel. Such an approach is satisfactory when the quantity of data is small but is not efficient when the size of the simulated data is large, for example when time-energy correlations are studied in detail such as in problems involving the associated particle technique. In addition, since the finite time resolution of the simulated detector cannot be modeled with MCNP, systems in which time-energy correlation is crucial cannot be described in a satisfactory way. Finally, realistic particle energy deposit in detectors is calculated with MCNP in a two step process involving type-5 then type-8 tallies. In the first step, the photon flux energy spectrum associated to a time region is selected and serves as a source energy distribution for the second step. Thus, several files must be manipulated before getting the result, which can be time consuming if one needs to study several time regions or different detectors performances. In the same way, modeling counting statistics obtained in a limited acquisition time requires several steps and can also be time consuming. Solution method: In order to overcome the previous limitations, the MODAR C++ code has been written to make use of CERN's ROOT data analysis software. MCNP output data are read from the MCNP output file with dedicated routines. Two dimensional histograms are filled and can be handled efficiently within the ROOT framework. To keep a user friendly analysis tool, all processing and data display can be done by means of ROOT Graphical User Interface. Specific routines have been written to include detectors finite time resolution and energy response function as well as counting statistics in a straightforward way. Reasons for new version: For applications involving the Associate Particle Technique, a large number of gamma rays are produced by the fast neutrons interactions. To study the energy spectra, it is useful to identify the gamma-ray energy peaks in a straightforward way. Therefore, the possibility to show gamma rays corresponding to specific reactions has been added in MODAR. Summary of

Carasco, C.

2010-12-01

482

Multiple high voltage output DC-to-DC power converter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Disclosed is a multiple output DC-to-DC converter. The DC input power is filtered and passed through a chopper preregulator. The chopper output is then passed through a current source inverter controlled by a squarewave generator. The resultant AC is passed through the primary winding of a transformer, with high voltages induced in a plurality of secondary windings. The high voltage secondary outputs are each solid-state rectified for passage to individual output loads. Multiple feedback loops control the operation of the chopper preregulator, one being responsive to the current through the primary winding and another responsive to the DC voltage level at a selected output.

Cronin, Donald L. (Inventor); Farber, Bertrand F. (Inventor); Gehm, Hartmut K. (Inventor); Goldin, Daniel S. (Inventor)

1977-01-01

483

State Student Financial Aid. Report and Recommendations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents the results of a review of all state student financial aid programs in Florida and presents recommendations concerning program consolidation. The review was designed to address a variety of aid-related issues, including unexpended financial aid resources, program consolidation, budget request and aid distribution procedures,…

Florida State Postsecondary Education Planning Commission, Tallahassee.

484

The Implications of Horizontal Inequality for Aid  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper argues that the reduction of horizontal inequalities (HIs) or inequalities between culturally defined groups should inform aid policy in heterogeneous countries with severe HIs. It shows how this would change aid allocation across countries, leading to more aid to heterogeneous countries relative to homogeneous ones, the opposite of the existing bias in aid distribution. It explores how adopting

Graham Brown; Frances Stewart; Arnim Langer

2007-01-01

485

Training Aids for Online Instruction: An Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a number of different types of training aids currently employed in online training: non-interactive audiovisual presentations; interactive computer-based aids; partially interactive aids based on recorded searches; print-based materials; and kits. The advantages and disadvantages of each type of aid are noted, and a table…

Guy, Robin Frederick

486

Financial Aid Checklist We can help!  

E-print Network

Financial Aid Checklist We can help! Dial the help line experts at the Bronco Express Service to finaid-info@wmich.edu. See your financial aid award and payment information on GoWMU! Welcome to Financial Aid Financial Aid Application Process First-time applicants: Request a Personal Identification

de Doncker, Elise

487

Financial Aid www.uta.edu/fao  

E-print Network

Financial Aid www.uta.edu/fao Many sources of student financial aid exist at The University and funding availability can vary from one year to the next. Financial aid is generally limited to U and the maintenance of satisfactory academic progress are required to participate in most aid programs. Students

Texas at Arlington, University of

488

Politics and the effectiveness of foreign aid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Critics of foreign aid programs have long argued that poverty reflects government failure. In this paper I test predictions for aid effectiveness based on an analytical framework that relates aid effectiveness to political regimes. I find that aid does not significantly increase investment, nor benefit the poor as measured by improvements in human development indicators, but it does increase the

Peter Boone

1996-01-01

489

A Microphone Array for Hearing Aids  

E-print Network

26 A Microphone Array for Hearing Aids A Microphone Array for Hearing Aids 1531-636X/06/$10.00©2001IEEE by Bernard Widrow 0.00©31-636X/06 #12;27 Microphone Array for Hearing Aids There is a big speech when given sufficient amplification from their hearing aids. In many cases, however

Widrow, Bernard

490

Check Aid Status & Loans on ISIS  

E-print Network

Check Aid Status & Loans on ISIS As a University of Florida (UF) financial aid applicant, you can business using ISIS (the UF Integrated Student Information System): www.isis.ufl.edu 1.CheCk Aid StAtuS/AwArdS on iSiS You are responsible for keeping track of your financial aid file and awards, including

Fang, Yuguang "Michael"

491

HIV, AIDS and Integrated Development Planning  

E-print Network

HIV, AIDS and Integrated Development Planning: A Reality Check December 2004 Cécile Ambert HIV the scene: HIV and AIDS impacts on local development 12 2.4. HIV and AIDS impact on the municipality .....................................................................................................................34 3.1. Nature and extent of coverage of HIV and AIDS impacts in situation analysis

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

492

HARVARD MEDICAL SCHOOL FINANCIAL AID GUIDEBOOK  

E-print Network

's Responsibilities 4 Fraud 4 U.S. Income Tax Liability 5 The Financial Aid Application Process 5 ApplicationHARVARD MEDICAL SCHOOL 2012-2013 FINANCIAL AID GUIDEBOOK Harvard Medical School Financial Aid: (617) 432-4308 email: financial_aid@hms.harvard.edu #12;Harvard Medical School is accredited

Bar, Moshe

493

HARVARD MEDICAL SCHOOL FINANCIAL AID GUIDEBOOK  

E-print Network

Student's Rights 4 Student's Responsibilities 4 Fraud 4 U.S. Income Tax Liability 5 The Financial AidHARVARD MEDICAL SCHOOL 2014-2015 FINANCIAL AID GUIDEBOOK Harvard Medical School Financial Aid: (617) 432-4308 email: financial_aid@hms.harvard.edu #12;Harvard Medical School is accredited

Chou, James

494

HARVARD MEDICAL SCHOOL FINANCIAL AID GUIDEBOOK  

E-print Network

Student's Rights 4 Student's Responsibilities 4 Fraud 4 U.S. Income Tax Liability 5 The Financial AidHARVARD MEDICAL SCHOOL 2013-2014 FINANCIAL AID GUIDEBOOK Harvard Medical School Financial Aid: (617) 432-4308 email: financial_aid@hms.harvard.edu #12;Harvard Medical School is accredited

Goodrich, Lisa V.

495

Estimating the seasonal maximum light use efficiency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Light use efficiency (LUE) is a key parameter in estimating gross primary production (GPP) based on global Earth-observation satellite data and model calculations. In current LUE-based GPP estimation models, the maximum LUE is treated as a constant for each biome type. However, the maximum LUE varies seasonally. In this study, seasonal maximum LUE values were estimated from the maximum incident LUE versus the incident photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and the fraction of absorbed PAR. First, an algorithm to estimate maximum incident LUE was developed to estimate GPP capacity using a light response curve. One of the parameters required for the light response curve was estimated from the linear relationship of the chlorophyll index and the GPP capacity at a high PAR level of 2000 (µmolm-2s-1), and was referred to as" the maximum GPP capacity at 2000". The relationship was determined for six plant functional types: needleleaf deciduous trees, broadleaf deciduous trees, needleleaf evergreen trees, broadleaf evergreen trees, C3 grass, and crops. The maximum LUE values estimated in this study displayed seasonal variation, especially those for deciduous broadleaf forest, but also those for evergreen needleleaf forest.

Muramatsu, Kanako; Furumi, Shinobu; Soyama, Noriko; Daigo, Motomasa

2014-11-01

496

Genetic Algorithm-Based Maximum-Likelihood Analysis for Molecular Phylogeny  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   A heuristic approach to search for the maximum-likelihood (ML) phylogenetic tree based on a genetic algorithm (GA) has been\\u000a developed. It outputs the best tree as well as multiple alternative trees that are not significantly worse than the best one\\u000a on the basis of the likelihood criterion. These near-optimum trees are subjected to further statistical tests. This approach\\u000a enables

Kazutaka Katoh; Kei-ichi Kuma; Takashi Miyata

2001-01-01

497

A novel maximum power point tracking technique for solar panels using a SEPIC or Cuk converter  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel technique for efficiently extracting the maximum output power from a solar panel under varying meteorological conditions is presented. The methodology is based on connecting a pulse-width-modulated (PWM) DC\\/DC SEPIC or Cuk converter between a solar panel and a load or battery bus. The converter operates in discontinuous capacitor voltage mode whilst its input current is continuous. By modulating

Henry Shu-Hung Chung; K. K. Tse; S. Y. Ron Hui; C. M. Mok; M. T. Ho

2003-01-01

498

Soft quasi-maximum-likelihood detection for multiple-antenna wireless channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper addresses soft maximum-likelihood (ML) detection for multiple-antenna wireless communication channels. We propose a soft quasi-ML detector that maximizes the log-likelihood function by deploying a semi-definite relaxation (SDR). Given perfect channel state information at the receiver, the quasi-ML SDR detector closely approximates the performance of the optimal ML detector in both coded and uncoded multiple-input, multiple-output (MIMO) channels with

Baldur Steingrimsson; Zhi-Quan Luo; Kon Max Wong

2003-01-01

499

Maximum power point tracking for variable speed grid connected small wind turbine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a method for harmonic mitigation and maximum power point tracking (MPPT) for a variable speed-grid connected 20 kW wind turbine. The wind energy conversion systems consist of permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) driven by variable-speed 20 kW wind turbine. The output of the PMSG is connected to a single switch three-phase boost rectifier to generate DC voltage

Mazen Abdel-Salam; Adel Ahmed; Mohamed Abdel-Sater

2010-01-01

500

A Seamless Mode Transfer Maximum Power Point Tracking Controller For Thermoelectric Generator Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A boost-cascaded-with-buck converter-based power conditioning system employing a seamless mode transfer maximum power point tracking controller is proposed to maximize energy production of a thermoelectric generator while balancing a vehicle battery, alternator output power, and vehicle load. When a vehicle battery is fully charged, the proposed controller switches to a power matching mode seamlessly by a dual loop control system,

Rae-Young Kim; Jih-Sheng Lai

2008-01-01