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1

A regression model to determine load for maximum power output.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were to create a regression model of the relationship between load and muscle power output and to determine an optimal load for maximum power output during a countermovement squat and a bench press. 55 males and 48 females performed power testing at 0, 10, 30, 50, 70, 90, and 100% of their individual one-repetition maximum (1-RM) in the countermovement squat and bench press exercises. Values for the maximum dynamic strength and load for each lift were used to develop a regression model in which the ratio of power was predicted from the ratio of the load for each type of lift. By optimizing the regression model, we predicted the optimal load for maximum muscle power. For the bench press and the countermovement squat, the mean optimal loads for maximum muscle output ranged from 50 to 70% of maximum dynamic strength. Optimal load in the acceleration phase of the upward movement of the two exercises appeared to be more important than over the full range of the movement. This model allows for specific determination of the optimal load for a pre-determined power output. PMID:18972885

Jandacka, Daniel; Vaverka, Frantisek

2008-09-01

2

Laboratory measurement of human power output during maximum intensity exercise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The power output of an athlete decreases rapidly with time. The author describes different ways of measuring power output, including a unique method developed at Loughborough University for measuring the power developed by a sprint runner.

Lakomy, Henryk K. A.

1993-11-01

3

Maximum efficiency of a conventional klystron output cavity  

SciTech Connect

By using a photocathode instead of a thermionic cathode in a klystron, the possibility exists to make very short low energy spread bunches of high efficiency. However, there is a fundamental limit to the efficiency of a conventional output cavity, such as the one used in the SLAC XK-5 klystron. The fringing electric field in the drift tube acts on the beam as it leaves the output cavity and results in a net acceleration. All electrons which eventually reach the collector emerge from the drift tube with a substantial kinetic energy and as a result, the highest practical efficiency is about 80% for a 400 kV single output cavity tube. The behavior of these very short low energy spread bunches was calculated using MASK, a 2D field and particle program as well a much simpler 1D program. Using multiple output cavities, it may be possible to extract energy from the electrons more efficiently.

Welch, J.J.

1986-05-01

4

Maximum Real-Ear Gain of in-the-Ear Hearing Aids.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three hearing aid manufacturers provided custom full-shell in-the-ear hearing aids designed for maximum acoustic gain for each of three hearing-impaired adults. Full-on coupler gain curves were similar across all nine hearing aids, with individual differences producing substantial variance in insertion gain across hearing aids. (Author/DB)

Erickson, Faye N.; Van Tasell, Dianne J.

1991-01-01

5

The Microcomputer as an Efficient and Versatile Speech-Output Communication Aid.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of microcomputers as communication aids for physically handicapped children and adults is described. Characteristics of stationary speech output communication aids addressed include encoding by single switch users, an easy to change vocabulary through the use of an "editor," capability to speak via synthesized speech in addition to…

Rushakoff, G. Evan

6

The Effect of Valve Cooling upon Maximum Permissible Engine Output as Limited by Knock  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Wright GR-1820-G200 cylinder was tested over a wide range of fuel-air ratios at maximum permissible power output as limited by knock with three different degrees of valve cooling. The valves used were stock valves (solid inlet valve and hollow sodium-cooled exhaust valve), hollow valves with no coolant, and hollow valves with flowing water as a coolant. Curves showing the variation in maximum permissible values of inlet-air pressure, indicated mean effective pressure, cylinder charge, and indicated specific fuel consumption with change in fuel-air ratio and valve cooling are shown. The use of valves cooled by a stream of water passing through their hollow interiors permitted indicated mean effective pressures 10 percent higher than the mean effective pressures permissible with stock valves when the engine was operated with fuel-air ratios from 0.055 to 0.065. Operation of the engine with lean mixtures with uncooled hollow valves resulted in power output below the output obtained with the stock valves. The data show an increase in maximum permissible indicated mean effective pressure due to cooling the valves, which averages only 2.1 percent with fuel-air ratios from 0.075 to 0.105.

Munger, Maurice; Wilsted, H D; Mulcahy, B A

1942-01-01

7

Automatic Circumference Measurement for Aiding in the Estimation of Maximum Voluntary  

E-print Network

Automatic Circumference Measurement for Aiding in the Estimation of Maximum Voluntary Contraction circumference measurement for estimating MVC thereby reducing the need for training and calibration. A prelimi- nary implementation of a circumference measuring armband is presented to demonstrate the feasibility

Hu, Huosheng

8

Acoustic versus electronic modifications of hearing aid low-frequency output.  

PubMed

The rated quality and intelligibility of speech processed by hearing aids in which the low-frequency output had been reduced by either electronic modification (low-cut tone controls) or acoustic modification (vented or open earmolds) was investigated. Fifteen subjects with high-frequency hearing loss provided data for nine commercial hearing aids and both high and low background noise levels. Results for both background noise levels indicated that for hearing aids with a low-frequency cut off at or above 750 Hz (as measured in this investigation), the use of a vented or open earmold significantly improved both quality and intelligibility even when it had essentially no effect on the hearing aid's low-frequency output. The implication of the outcome is that for an individual with essentially normal low-frequency sensitivity and a high-frequency hearing loss, an earmold incorporating an opening should be used whenever possible, even though it may not be used for the purpose of controlling low-frequency amplification. PMID:6618038

Cox, R M; Alexander, G C

1983-01-01

9

Optimum outlet temperature of solar collector for maximum work output for an Otto air-standard cycle with ideal regeneration  

SciTech Connect

The optimum solar collector outlet temperature for maximizing the work output for an Otto air-standard cycle with ideal regeneration is investigated. A mathematical model for the energy balance on the solar collector along with the useful work output and the thermal efficiency of the Otto air-standard cycle with ideal regeneration is developed. The optimum solar collector outlet temperature for maximum work output is determined. The effect of radiative and convective heat losses from the solar collector, on the optimum outlet temperature is presented. The results reveal that the highest solar collector outlet temperature and, therefore, greatest Otto cycle efficiency and work output can be attained with the lowest values of radiative and convective heat losses. Moreover, high cycle work output (as a fraction of absorbed solar energy) and high efficiency of an Otto heat engine with ideal regeneration, driven by a solar collector system, can be attained with low compression ratio.

Eldighidy, S.M. (Sultan Qaboos Univ., Al-Khod (Oman))

1993-09-01

10

Simplified thermal model for calculating the maximum output power from a 1. 3-. mu. m buried heterostructure laser  

SciTech Connect

A one-dimensional thermal model is presented for calculating the maximum output power from InGaAsP/InP (lambda = 1.3 ..mu..m) buried heterostructure lasers, whose output power is limited by thermal considerations. The effect of Auger recombination and ohmic resistance, which play significant roles in these lasers at high temperatures, is included. We have also incorporated the temperature dependence of efficiency from first principles using experimentally available data for Auger and radiative recombination coefficients. Calculations made on InGaAsP/InP lasers show that a maximum cw power of 57 mW/facet (diamond heat sink) and a maximum operating temperature of up to 132 /sup 0/C for a geometry similar to the double-channel buried heterostructure laser can be achieved. In addition, the model has been used to determine the maximum achievable power as a function of device geometry (active layer thickness, width, and length of the device). We find that by increasing the length of the laser from 300 to 700 ..mu..m we can increase the output power of the laser by 79%. The results obtained agree reasonably well with experiment.

Arvind, M.; Hsing, H.; Figueroa, L.

1988-02-15

11

Toward Functional Augmentative and Alternative Communication for Students with Autism: Manual Signs, Graphic Symbols, and Voice Output Communication Aids.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article summarizes research regarding the delivery of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) supports to students with autism. Focus is on: (1) what AAC modality is preferable to use (manual signs or graphic symbols); and (2) what is known about the use of voice output communication aids with people with autism. (Author/DB)

Mirenda, Pat

2003-01-01

12

A Framework for Determining the Maximum Theoretical Power Output for a Given Vibration Energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper outlines a mathematical framework to determine the upper bound on extractable power as a function of the forcing vibrations. In addition to determining the upper bound on power output, the method described provides insight into the dynamic transducer forces required to attain the upper bound. This relationship, between input vibration parameters and transducer force gives a critical first step in determining the optimal transducer architecture for a given vibration input. The method developed is applied to two specific vibration inputs; a single sinusoid, and the sum of two sinusoids. For the single sinusoidal case, the optimal transducer force is found to be that produced by a linear spring, resonant with the input frequency, and a linear viscous damper, with matched impedance to the mechanical damper. The solution to this first case was previously known, but has been used here to validate the methodology. The resulting transducer force for the input described by a sum of two sinusoids is found to be inherently time dependent. This time dependency shows that an active system can outperform a passive system. Furthermore, the upper bound on power output is shown to be twice that obtainable from a linear harvester centred at the lower of the two frequencies.

Heit, J.; Roundy, S.

2014-11-01

13

Stapes vibration produced by the output transducer of an implantable hearing aid. Experimental study.  

PubMed

The function of the output transducer of an implantable hearing aid was assessed by applying it to the stapes head in seven fresh human cadaver temporal bones while observing vibration of the stapes under a microscope with the use of a stroboscope and a video measuring system. The transducer was a 5 X 1.2 X 0.6-mm piezoelectric ceramic bimorph with attached metal holder. Transmission changed with the amount of force holding the transducer tip on the head of the stapes. An optimal connection between the vibrator and stapes produced better transmission than a tight or loose connection. Gluing the connection with cyanoacrylate cement decreased transmission in the optimal connection, produced no change in the tight connection, and improved transmission in the loose connection. Comparison of stapes displacement produced by the vibrator at 1 kHz with that produced by normal middle-ear sound transmission revealed that the vibrator-induced stapes displacement for a 1 V peak-to-peak input was equivalent to that produced by a sound stimulus of 90-dB sound pressure level at the tympanic membrane. PMID:3620129

Gyo, K; Goode, R L; Miller, C

1987-10-01

14

The Effects of Enhanced Milieu Teaching and a Voice Output Communication Aid on the Requesting of Three Children with Autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of enhanced milieu teaching when combined with a voice output communication\\u000a aid on the requesting skills of three children with autism. The research design was a multiple probe across participants.\\u000a All sessions were conducted during 5-min play sessions in the child’s classroom. All three children learned to use the voice

Melissa L. Olive; Berenice de la Cruz; Tonya N. Davis; Jeffrey M. Chan; Russell B. Lang; Mark F. O’Reilly; Sarah M. Dickson

2007-01-01

15

Heart mass and the maximum cardiac output of birds and mammals: implications for estimating the maximum aerobic power input of flying animals  

PubMed Central

Empirical studies of cardiovascular variables suggest that relative heart muscle mass (relative Mh) is a good indicator of the degree of adaptive specialization for prolonged locomotor activities, for both birds and mammals. Reasonable predictions for the maximum oxygen consumption of birds during flight can be obtained by assuming that avian heart muscle has the same maximum physiological and biomechanical performance as that of terrestrial mammals. Thus, data on Mh can be used to provide quantitative estimates for the maximum aerobic power input (aerobic Pi,max) available to animals during intense levels of locomotor activity. The maximum cardiac output of birds and mammals is calculated to scale with respect to Mh (g) as 213 Mh0.88+-0.04 (ml min-1), while aerobic Pi,max is estimated to scale approximately as 11 Mh0.88+-0.09 (W). In general, estimated inter-species aerobic Pi,max, based on Mh for all bird species (excluding hummingbirds), is calculated to scale with respect to body mass (Mb in kg) as 81 Mb0.82+-0.11 (W). Comparison of family means for Mh indicate that there is considerable diversity in aerobic capacity among birds and mammals, for example, among the medium to large species of birds the Tinamidae have the smallest relative Mh (0.25 per cent) while the Otidae have unusually large relative Mh (1.6 per cent). Hummingbirds have extremely large relative Mh (2.28 per cent), but exhibit significant sexual dimorphism in their scaling of Mh and flight muscle mass, so that when considering hummingbird flight performance it may be useful to control for sexual differences in morphology. The estimated scaling of aerobic Pi,max (based on Mh and Mb in g) for male and female hummingbirds is 0.51 Mb0.83 +/-0.07 and 0.44 Mb0.85+- 0.11 (W), respectively. Locomotory muscles are dynamic structures and it might be anticipated that where additional energetic 'costs' occur seasonally (e.g. due to migratory fattening or the development of large secondary sexual characteristics) then the relevant cardiac and locomotor musculature might also be regulated seasonally. This is an important consideration, both due to the intrinsic interest of studying muscular adaptation to changes in energy demand, but also as a confounding variable in the practical use of heart rate to estimate the energetics of animals. Haemoglobin concentration (or haematocrit) may also be a confounding variable. Thus, it is concluded that data on the cardiovascular and flight muscle morphology of animals provides essential information regarding the behavioural, ecological and physiological significance of the flight performance of animals.

Bishop, C. M.

1997-01-01

16

Compairing Picture Exchange and Voice Output Communication Aids in Young Children with Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Center for Disease Control estimates that one in 88 births result in a diagnosis of autism (CDC, 2012). Of those individuals diagnosed with autism approximately 25-61% fail to develop vocal output capabilities (Weitxz, Dexter, & Moore, 1997). The use of Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) systems, such as Picture Exchange (PE)…

Lorah, Elizabeth R.

2012-01-01

17

Similarity in loudness and distortion product otoacoustic emission input/output functions: Implications for an objective hearing aid adjustment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of the present study was to compare distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) to loudness with regard to the potentiality of DPOAEs to determine characteristic quantities of the cochlear-impaired ear and to derive objective hearing aid parameters. Recently, Neely et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 114, 1499-1507 (2003)] compared DPOAE input/output functions to the Fletcher and Munson [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 5, 82-108 (1933)] loudness function finding a close resemblance in the slope characteristics of both measures. The present study extended their work by performing both loudness and DPOAE measurements in the same subject sample, and by developing a method for the estimation of gain needed to compensate for loss of cochlear sensitivity and compression. DPOAEs and loudness exhibited similar behavior when plotted on a logarithmic scale and slope increased with increasing hearing loss, confirming the findings of Neely et al. To compensate for undesired nonpathological impacts on the magnitude of DPOAE level, normalization of DPOAE data was implemented. A close resemblance between gain functions based on loudness and normalized DPOAE data was achieved. These findings suggest that DPOAEs are able to quantify the loss of cochlear sensitivity and compression and thus might provide parameters for a noncooperative hearing aid adjustment.

Müller, Jörg; Janssen, Thomas

2004-06-01

18

Output measurement metrics in an object-oriented computer aided software engineering (CASE) environment: critique, evaluation and proposal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Output measurement metrics for the software development process need to be re-examined to determine their performance in the new, radically changed CASE development environment. The paper critiques and empirically evaluates several approaches to the measurement of outputs from the CASE process. The primary metric evaluated is the function points method developed by Albrecht. A second metric tested is a short-form

Rajiv D. Banker; Robert J. Kauffman; Rachna Kumar

1991-01-01

19

Maximum output at minimum cost  

E-print Network

mast and the electrical substation. This innovative modular design based on TCP/IP architecture has. ®® Aerodynamic design and Gamesa NRS® control system to minimize noise emissions. ®® Gamesa WindNet® : Remote Tower Generator 2.0 MW Mechanical design Drive train with main shaft supported by two spherical bearings

Firestone, Jeremy

20

Ranking Hearing Aid Input-Output Functions for Understanding Low-, Conversational-, and High-Level Speech in Multitalker Babble  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To determine the rankings of 6 input-output functions for understanding low-level, conversational, and high-level speech in multitalker babble without manipulating volume control for listeners with normal hearing, flat sensorineural hearing loss, and mildly sloping sensorineural hearing loss. Method: Peak clipping, compression limiting,…

Chung, King; Killion, Mead C.; Christensen, Laurel A.

2007-01-01

21

Robust Maximum Torque per Ampere (MTPA) control of Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous motor drives using Adaptive Input-Output Feedback Linearization approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM) drives are getting more popular in many applications such as electrical vehicles. In order to achieve maximum torque per ampere (MTPA), knowledge of the motor parameters is necessary. Due to the saturation effect, variation of the motor parameters such as inductances is not avoidable. The main contribution of this paper is to use

S. M. Fazeli; H. W. Ping; H. Abootorabi Zarchi; J. Soltani

2009-01-01

22

Comparing HMM, maximum entropy, and conditional random fields for disfluency detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatic detection of disfluencies in spoken language is im - portant for making speech recognition output more readable, and for aiding downstream language processing modules. We compare a generative hidden Markov model (HMM)-based ap- proach and two conditional models — a maximum entropy (Maxent) model and a conditional random field (CRF) — for detecting disfluencies in speech. The conditional modeling

Yang Liu; Elizabeth Shriberg; Andreas Stolcke; Mary P. Harper

2005-01-01

23

Implantable digital hearing aid  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hearing aid converts analog output of microphone into digital pulses in about 10 channels of audiofrequencies. Each pulse band could be directly connected to portion of auditory nerve most sensitive to that range.

Kissiah, A. M., Jr.

1979-01-01

24

A memory-mapped output interface: Omega navigation output data from the JOLT (TM) microcomputer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A hardware interface which allows both digital and analog data output from the JOLT microcomputer is described in the context of a software-based Omega Navigation receiver. The interface hardware described is designed for output of six (or eight with simple extensions) bits of binary output in response to a memory store command from the microcomputer. The interface was produced in breadboard form and is operational as an evaluation aid for the software Omega receiver.

Lilley, R. W.

1976-01-01

25

Music and Hearing Aids  

PubMed Central

The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems. PMID:25361601

Moore, Brian C. J.

2014-01-01

26

Music and hearing aids.  

PubMed

The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems. PMID:25361601

Madsen, Sara M K; Moore, Brian C J

2014-01-01

27

Maximum Likelihood  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This material introduces the basic theory of maximum likelihood estimation by discussing the likelihood function, the log likelihood function, and maximizing these functions using calculus. Several exercises ask students to derive certain estimators, while others have students compare the behavior of those estimators with other possibilities through the use of various JAVA applets. The applets use the same control features: the sliders set the parameter values, the Â?Stop #Â? drop down menu sets the number of samples taken, the Â?Update #Â? drop down menu sets how often the graph and tables update during the experiment, the single arrow takes one sample, the double arrow runs the full experiment, the square stops the experiment, and the back arrow resets the applet. This page is one lesson from the Virtual Laboratories in Statistics.

Siegrist, Kyle

28

FINANCIAL AID Undergraduate Financial Aid  

E-print Network

FINANCIAL AID Undergraduate Financial Aid Director: James H. Stevenson Education for leadership cost, many students and families are not able to meet the cost with their own resources. Financial aid are invited to contact the Financial Aid Office, which at Rensselaer is part of the Office of Student Records

Varela, Carlos

29

1 Financial Aid FINANCIAL AID  

E-print Network

1 Financial Aid FINANCIAL AID GW offers a comprehensive program of student financial assistance for students. Undergraduate aid consists of two basic types: awards for academic achievement or talent without based on both academic achievement and demonstrated financial need. All undergraduate gift aid

Vertes, Akos

30

Aid allocation and poverty reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper derives a poverty-efficient allocation of aid and compares it with actual aid allocations. The allocation of aid that has the maximum effect on poverty depends on the level of poverty and the quality of policies. Using the headcount, poverty-gap, and squared poverty gap measures of poverty, alternatively, all yield similar poverty-efficient allocations. Finally, we find that the actual

Paul Collier; David Dollar

2002-01-01

31

Pointing at Maximum Power for PV  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Student teams measure voltage and current in order to determine the power output of a photovoltaic (PV) panel. They vary the resistance in a simple circuit connected to the panel to demonstrate the effects on voltage, current, and power output. After collecting data, they calculate power for each resistance setting, creating a graph of current vs. voltage, and indentifying the maximum power point.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

32

Binaural noise reduction algorithms for hearing aids that preserve interaural time delay cues  

E-print Network

Binaural noise reduction algorithms for hearing aids that preserve interaural time delay cues Abstract-- Binaural hearing aids use microphone inputs from both the left and right hearing aid to generate an output for each ear. On the other hand, a monaural hearing aid generates an output by processing only its

33

Hearing Aids  

MedlinePLUS

... more in both quiet and noisy situations. Hearing aids help people who have hearing loss from damage ... your doctor. There are different kinds of hearing aids. They differ by size, their placement on or ...

34

FINANCIAL AID & SCHOLARSHIP INFORMATION  

E-print Network

FINANCIAL AID & SCHOLARSHIP INFORMATION APPLICATION MATERIALS 2012-2013 Financial Aid Applying for Aid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 After the Application Is Received . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Awarding of Aid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Disbursing Aid

Provancher, William

35

Teaching AIDS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents a curriculum to educate students about the risk of AIDS and HIV infection. The opening chapters of the book presents a discussion of: how teachers can create an environment of support for an AIDS education program; the political and educational implications of winning principal, district, and parental support for an AIDS

Tonks, Douglas

36

Hearing Aids  

MedlinePLUS

... provide a more natural signal to the brain. Hearing in both ears also will help you understand speech and locate ... hearing aids away from heat and moisture. Clean hearing aids as instructed. Earwax and ear drainage can damage a hearing aid. Avoid using ...

37

Hearing aid malfunction detection system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A malfunction detection system for detecting malfunctions in electrical signal processing circuits is disclosed. Malfunctions of a hearing aid in the form of frequency distortion and/or inadequate amplification by the hearing aid amplifier, as well as weakening of the hearing aid power supply are detectable. A test signal is generated and a timed switching circuit periodically applies the test signal to the input of the hearing aid amplifier in place of the input signal from the microphone. The resulting amplifier output is compared with the input test signal used as a reference signal. The hearing aid battery voltage is also periodically compared to a reference voltage. Deviations from the references beyond preset limits cause a warning system to operate.

Kessinger, R. L. (inventor)

1977-01-01

38

Visualization of Model Output  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Visualization of output from mathematical or statistical models is one of the best ways to introduce introductory geoscience students to the results and behavior of sophisticated models. Example of good sites ...

39

State Aid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report, published by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), will most likely be used by financial aid professionals and researchers. The report, offered in .pdf format, is a statistical analysis of the differences among students attending institutions in states that provide different levels of financial aid.

40

FINANCIAL AID & SCHOLARSHIP INFORMATION  

E-print Network

FINANCIAL AID & SCHOLARSHIP INFORMATION APPLICATION MATERIALS 2013-2014 Financial Aid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Applying for Aid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 After the Application and Deadlines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Awarding of Aid

Tipple, Brett

41

Linear output nitinol engine  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a linear output nitinol engine consisting of a number of integrated communicating parts. The engine has an external support framework which is described in detail. The patent further describes a wire transport mechanism, a pair of linkage levers with a loom secured to them, a number of nitinol wires strung between the looms, and a power takeoff block secured to the linkage levers. A pulley positioned in a flip-flop supporting bracket and a power takeoff modality including a tension member connected to a power output cable in order to provide linear power output transmission is described. A method for biasing the timing and the mechanism for timing the synchronization of the throw over arms and the flip-flop of the pulley are also described.

Banks, R.M.

1986-01-14

42

Diodes stabilize LED output  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Small-signal diodes are placed in series with light-emitting diodes (LED's) to stabilize LED output against temperature fluctuations. Simple inexpensive method compensates for thermal fluctuations over a broad temperature range. Requiring few components, technique is particularly useful where circuit-board space is limited.

Deters, R. A.

1977-01-01

43

AN INTEGRATEDMICROELECTROMECHANICALRESONANT OUTPUT GYROSCOPE -  

E-print Network

AN INTEGRATEDMICROELECTROMECHANICALRESONANT OUTPUT GYROSCOPE - Ashwin A. Seshia*,Roger T. Howe vibratory rate gyroscope based on resonant sensing of the Coriolis force. The new design has several advantages over rate gyroscopes that utilize open-loop displacement sensing for rotation rate measurement

Tang, William C

44

HIV / AIDS  

MedlinePLUS

... major worldwide epidemic. AIDS is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus, or HIV. By killing or damaging cells of the body's immune system, HIV progressively destroys the body's ability to fight ...

45

Financial Aid Services Financial Aid Services  

E-print Network

Financial Aid Services Financial Aid Services University of Massachusetts Amherst #12;2Financial Aid Services Agenda Definition of financial aid How to apply Definition of financial need Descriptions of major financial aid programs Where to look for information about private sources of aid, including how

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

46

Keyboard With Voice Output  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Voice synthesizer tells what key is about to be depressed. Verbal feedback useful for blind operators or where dim light prevents sighted operator from seeing keyboard. Also used where operator is busy observing other things while keying data into control system. Used as training aid for touch typing, and to train blind operators to use both standard and braille keyboards. Concept adapted to such equipment as typewriters, computers, calculators, telephones, cash registers, and on/off controls.

Huber, W. C.

1986-01-01

47

AIDED CORTICAL AUDITORY EVOKED POTENTIALS IN RESPONSE TO CHANGES IN HEARING AID GAIN  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE There is interest in using cortical auditory evoked potentials (CAEPs) to evaluate hearing aid fittings and experience-related plasticity associated with amplification; however, little is known about hearing aid signal processing effects on these responses. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of clinically relevant hearing aid gain settings, and the resulting in-the-canal signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs), on the latency and amplitude of P1, N1, and P2 waves. DESIGN & SAMPLE Evoked potentials and in-the-canal acoustic measures were recorded in nine normal-hearing adults in unaided and aided conditions. In the aided condition, a 40-dB signal was delivered to a hearing aid programmed to provide four levels of gain (0, 10, 20, and 30 dB). As a control, unaided stimulus levels were matched to aided condition outputs (i.e., 40, 50, 60, and 70 dB) for comparison purposes. RESULTS When signal levels are defined in terms of output level, aided CAEPs were surprisingly smaller and delayed relative to unaided CAEPs, likely resulting from increases to noise levels caused by the hearing aid. DISCUSSION These results reinforce the notion that hearing aids modify stimulus characteristics such as SNR, which in turn affects the CAEP in a way that does not reliably reflect hearing aid gain. PMID:21486122

Billings, Curtis J.; Tremblay, Kelly L.; Miller, Christi W.

2011-01-01

48

Principles of Optimizing Photovoltaic Cell Power Output  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is adapted from PSU's GREATT lesson, "Solar Power: The History, Chemistry, and Application of Photovoltaics." In this lesson, students will investigate how to optimize the power output of a photovoltaic cell using a home-made gnomon stand. Data collected from students' investigations will be used to create current-voltage and power-voltage curves to determine the "maximum power point" at which their photovoltaic cell operates.

49

Physiologists have long been interested in which intrinsic factors of organisms affect their maximum speed of  

E-print Network

play a central role in limiting maximum speed, but testing this hypothesis is challenging (Farley, 1997 output covaries with some other mechanical variable. If this were the case, then the decline in speed power output could shed light on the general issue of whether power output limits maximum speed. Here

Irschick, Duncan J.

50

Electromechanical coupling and output efficiency of piezoelectric bending actuators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electromechanical coupling mechanisms in piezoelectric bending actuators are discussed in this paper based on the constitutive equations of cantilever bimorph and unimorph actuators. Three actuator characteristic parameters, (e.g., electromechanical coupling coefficient, maximum energy transmission coefficient, and maximum mechanical output energy) are discussed for cantilever bimorph and unimorph actuators. In the case of the bimorph actuator, if the effect of the

Qing-Ming Wang; Xiao-Hong Du; Baomin Xu; L. E. Cross

1999-01-01

51

Most Efficient Quantum Thermoelectric at Finite Power Output  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Machines are only Carnot efficient if they are reversible, but then their power output is vanishingly small. Here we ask, what is the maximum efficiency of an irreversible device with finite power output? We use a nonlinear scattering theory to answer this question for thermoelectric quantum systems, heat engines or refrigerators consisting of nanostructures or molecules that exhibit a Peltier effect. We find that quantum mechanics places an upper bound on both power output and on the efficiency at any finite power. The upper bound on efficiency equals Carnot efficiency at zero power output but decays with increasing power output. It is intrinsically quantum (wavelength dependent), unlike Carnot efficiency. This maximum efficiency occurs when the system lets through all particles in a certain energy window, but none at other energies. A physical implementation of this is discussed, as is the suppression of efficiency by a phonon heat flow.

Whitney, Robert S.

2014-04-01

52

Most efficient quantum thermoelectric at finite power output.  

PubMed

Machines are only Carnot efficient if they are reversible, but then their power output is vanishingly small. Here we ask, what is the maximum efficiency of an irreversible device with finite power output? We use a nonlinear scattering theory to answer this question for thermoelectric quantum systems, heat engines or refrigerators consisting of nanostructures or molecules that exhibit a Peltier effect. We find that quantum mechanics places an upper bound on both power output and on the efficiency at any finite power. The upper bound on efficiency equals Carnot efficiency at zero power output but decays with increasing power output. It is intrinsically quantum (wavelength dependent), unlike Carnot efficiency. This maximum efficiency occurs when the system lets through all particles in a certain energy window, but none at other energies. A physical implementation of this is discussed, as is the suppression of efficiency by a phonon heat flow. PMID:24745399

Whitney, Robert S

2014-04-01

53

Last Glacial Maximum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Short lecture on CLIMAP project (see PowerPoint) 20 minutes Powerpoint (PowerPoint 444kB Nov7 10) Group activity - Reading for CLIMAP study assumptions, 20 minutes to read, 20 minutes for discussion Student Handout (Microsoft Word 50kB Nov7 10) Students break into groups (4 per group is good division of work) with 2 students per paper. Split the assumptions between students. Each group skims the CLIMAP papers for the assumptions (modern and/or LGM) used in the CLIMAP model-based reconstruction of the LGM. In the groups, students compare the assumptions between papers. Resources: CLIMAP (1976), The surface of the ice-age earth, Science, 191(4232), 1131-1137 and CLIMAP (1984), The last interglacial ocean, Quaternary Research, 21(2), 123. Class Discussion - Summarize assumptions used in CLIMAP studies. Group activity Exploring CLIMAP LGM Reconstructions, 40 minutes for model data, 20 minutes for discussion (Could be modified with as a "jigsaw" activity with a larger class). Learn more about the jigsaw teaching method. Students work on this activity in pairs; one person will create LGM maps, the other modern. Students should sit together with their computer monitors close together to compare. The students will use the IRI/LDEO Climate Data Library to access the CLIMAP reconstruction and produce maps using the tools available on this web site. In a web browser, go to http://iridl.ldeo.columbia.edu/SOURCES/.CLIMAP/ This is the main page for the CLIMAP Model output for the LGM 18,000 BP. In the middle of the page is the label "Datasets and variables" with two data sets below http://iridl.ldeo.columbia.edu/SOURCES/.CLIMAP/.LGM/ and http://iridl.ldeo.columbia.edu/SOURCES/.CLIMAP/.MOD/. Each student clicks on the link they are assigned to. There are several data sets listed for each period and the students will examine each data set and compare the LGM and Modern. As a class, go through each data set allowing pairs to compare the maps then summarize the results as a class. The worksheet has a table for the students and the PowerPoint has table for summarizing. Class Discussion - Summarize differences between modern and LGM in the CLIMAP model output. Discuss how the assumptions of the CLIMAP model studies may have influenced the results. Extra activities The students can explore the data further using the data selection and filters in the IRI/LDEO Climate Data Library. For the two SST data sets, click on "Data Selection" and narrow the data to the just the tropics (23.5º N-S). Click on "Filters" then select XY next to "Average over." The next window gives you the average over the tropics close to the top of the page. In the next class, the students repeat the Readings exercise by reading the COHMAP and MARGO papers to see how the scientific knowledge has progressed since the original CLIMAP studies. COHMAP Members, (1988), Climatic Changes of the Last 18,000 Years: Observations and Model Simulations, Science, 241(4869), 1043-1052. MARGO (2009), Constraints on the magnitude and patterns of ocean cooling at the Last Glacial Maximum, Nature Geoscience, 2(2), 127-132.

Kristine DeLong

54

Hearing Aids  

MedlinePLUS

... a kind of permanent hearing loss called sensorineural hearing loss . The inner ear is made up of a snail-shaped chamber ... ear or in the ear. Most people with hearing loss in both ears (called bilateral hearing loss) wear two hearing aids. ...

55

AIDS interfering with development progress.  

PubMed

There is an high level of awareness about AIDS among the population of Uganda. Even so, the AIDS epidemic in the country continues to grow worse. From urban professionals to rural farmers, Ugandans in their most productive years are falling ill and dying from AIDS. These losses are being felt at the national and household levels. In a country where acquiring education and technical expertise come at a premium, the loss of professionals will have serious adverse effects upon economic and social gains thus far achieved. For many rural households, current levels of agricultural production may be threatened given the labor-intensive nature of such production. Coffee production by small-holders, accounting for more than 90% of the country's export earnings, will therefore be affected. This reduction in output will cause more economic strain. AIDS and its related secondary infections such as tuberculosis are placing heavy burdens upon Uganda's already overextended medical services. AIDS mortality now and in the future will also result in the creation of thousands of orphans for whom care will have to be provided. A multisectoral strategy has been adopted in the country to control HIV/AIDS. While control measures were once centered in the health sector, they have now expanded to the communication, rehabilitation, education, community services, defense, and economic planning sectors. PMID:12346133

1994-01-01

56

Aids for Handicapped Readers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The reference circular provides information on approximately 50 reading and writing aids intended for physically or visually handicapped individuals. Described are low vision aids, aids for holding a book or turning pages, aids for reading in bed, handwriting aids, typewriters and accessories, braille writing equipment, sound reproducers, and aids

Library of Congress, Washington, DC. Div. for the Blind and Physically Handicapped.

57

Financial Aid 2011 -2012  

E-print Network

UNCG Financial Aid Handbook 2011 - 2012 #12;UNCG Financial Aid Office 2 Websites and Abbreviations 3 Financial Aid Checklist 4 Interaction with the Financial Aid Office 5 UNCGenie 5 The Application Aid and your bill 10 Return of Funds policy 11 Financial Aid Programs Federal, State and Institutional

Saidak, Filip

58

Towards structured output prediction of enzyme function  

PubMed Central

Background In this paper we describe work in progress in developing kernel methods for enzyme function prediction. Our focus is in developing so called structured output prediction methods, where the enzymatic reaction is the combinatorial target object for prediction. We compared two structured output prediction methods, the Hierarchical Max-Margin Markov algorithm (HM3) and the Maximum Margin Regression algorithm (MMR) in hierarchical classification of enzyme function. As sequence features we use various string kernels and the GTG feature set derived from the global alignment trace graph of protein sequences. Results In our experiments, in predicting enzyme EC classification we obtain over 85% accuracy (predicting the four digit EC code) and over 91% microlabel F1 score (predicting individual EC digits). In predicting the Gold Standard enzyme families, we obtain over 79% accuracy (predicting family correctly) and over 89% microlabel F1 score (predicting superfamilies and families). In the latter case, structured output methods are significantly more accurate than nearest neighbor classifier. A polynomial kernel over the GTG feature set turned out to be a prerequisite for accurate function prediction. Combining GTG with string kernels boosted accuracy slightly in the case of EC class prediction. Conclusion Structured output prediction with GTG features is shown to be computationally feasible and to have accuracy on par with state-of-the-art approaches in enzyme function prediction. PMID:19091049

Astikainen, Katja; Holm, Liisa; Pitkänen, Esa; Szedmak, Sandor; Rousu, Juho

2008-01-01

59

Roles of Speech Output in Augmentative and Alternative Communication: Narrative Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Speech output from speech-generating devices (SGD) and SGD software, such as talking word processors, has changed the landscape of options for aided communication. The purpose of this paper is to review and critique research into the roles of speech output for communication partners, learners, and learner-partner dyads. Research on partner - oriented roles is reviewed in terms of attitudes and

RALF W. SCHLOSSER

2003-01-01

60

Lightweight multiple output converter development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A high frequency, multiple output power conditioner was developed and breadboarded using an eight-stage capacitor diode voltage multiplier to provide +1200 Vdc, and a three-stage for -350 Vdc. In addition, two rectifier bridges were capacitively coupled to the eight-stage multiplier to obtain 0.5 and 0.65 a dc constant current outputs referenced to +1200 Vdc. Total power was 120 watts, with an overall efficiency of 85 percent at the 80 kHz operating frequency. All outputs were regulated to three percent or better, with complete short circuit protection. The power conditioner component weight and efficiency were compared to the equivalent four outputs of the 10 kHz conditioner for the 8 cm ion engine. Weight reduction for the four outputs was 557 grams; extrapolated in the same ratio to all nine outputs, it would be 1100 to 1400 grams.

Kisch, J. J.; Martinelli, R. M.

1978-01-01

61

Serial Input Output  

SciTech Connect

Serial Input/Output (SIO) is designed to be a long term storage format of a sophistication somewhere between simple ASCII files and the techniques provided by inter alia Objectivity and Root. The former tend to be low density, information lossy (floating point numbers lose precision) and inflexible. The latter require abstract descriptions of the data with all that that implies in terms of extra complexity. The basic building blocks of SIO are streams, records and blocks. Streams provide the connections between the program and files. The user can define an arbitrary list of streams as required. A given stream must be opened for either reading or writing. SIO does not support read/write streams. If a stream is closed during the execution of a program, it can be reopened in either read or write mode to the same or a different file. Records represent a coherent grouping of data. Records consist of a collection of blocks (see next paragraph). The user can define a variety of records (headers, events, error logs, etc.) and request that any of them be written to any stream. When SIO reads a file, it first decodes the record name and if that record has been defined and unpacking has been requested for it, SIO proceeds to unpack the blocks. Blocks are user provided objects which do the real work of reading/writing the data. The user is responsible for writing the code for these blocks and for identifying these blocks to SIO at run time. To write a collection of blocks, the user must first connect them to a record. The record can then be written to a stream as described above. Note that the same block can be connected to many different records. When SIO reads a record, it scans through the blocks written and calls the corresponding block object (if it has been defined) to decode it. Undefined blocks are skipped. Each of these categories (streams, records and blocks) have some characteristics in common. Every stream, record and block has a name with the condition that each stream, record or block name must be unique in its category (i.e. all streams must have different names, but a stream can have the same name as a record). Each category is an arbitrary length list which is handled by a 'manager' and there is one manager for each category.

Waite, Anthony; /SLAC

2011-09-07

62

Electronic filters, hearing aids and methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An electronic filter for an electroacoustic system. The system has a microphone for generating an electrical output from external sounds and an electrically driven transducer for emitting sound. Some of the sound emitted by the transducer returns to the microphone means to add a feedback contribution to its electrical output. The electronic filter includes a first circuit for electronic processing of the electrical output of the microphone to produce a first signal. An adaptive filter, interconnected with the first circuit, performs electronic processing of the first signal to produce an adaptive output to the first circuit to substantially offset the feedback contribution in the electrical output of the microphone, and the adaptive filter includes means for adapting only in response to polarities of signals supplied to and from the first circuit. Other electronic filters for hearing aids, public address systems and other electroacoustic systems, as well as such systems and methods of operating them are also disclosed.

Engebretson, A. Maynard (Inventor)

1995-01-01

63

Electronic filters, hearing aids and methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An electronic filter for an electroacoustic system. The system has a microphone for generating an electrical output from external sounds and an electrically driven transducer for emitting sound. Some of the sound emitted by the transducer returns to the microphone means to add a feedback contribution to its electical output. The electronic filter includes a first circuit for electronic processing of the electrical output of the microphone to produce a filtered signal. An adaptive filter, interconnected with the first circuit, performs electronic processing of the filtered signal to produce an adaptive output to the first circuit to substantially offset the feedback contribution in the electrical output of the microphone, and the adaptive filter includes means for adapting only in response to polarities of signals supplied to and from the first circuit. Other electronic filters for hearing aids, public address systems and other electroacoustic systems, as well as such systems, and methods of operating them are also disclosed.

Engebretson, A. Maynard (Inventor); O'Connell, Michael P. (Inventor); Zheng, Baohua (Inventor)

1991-01-01

64

Institutional causes of output volatility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors investigate the relationship between the quality of institutions and output volatility. Using instrumental variable regressions, they address whether higher entry barriers and lower property rights protection lead to higher volatility. They find that a 1-standard-deviation increase in entry costs increases the standard deviation of output growth by roughly 40 percent of its average value in the sample. In

Levon Barseghyan; Riccardo DiCecio

2010-01-01

65

Enhanced performance CCD output amplifier  

DOEpatents

A low-noise FET amplifier is connected to amplify output charge from a che coupled device (CCD). The FET has its gate connected to the CCD in common source configuration for receiving the output charge signal from the CCD and output an intermediate signal at a drain of the FET. An intermediate amplifier is connected to the drain of the FET for receiving the intermediate signal and outputting a low-noise signal functionally related to the output charge signal from the CCD. The amplifier is preferably connected as a virtual ground to the FET drain. The inherent shunt capacitance of the FET is selected to be at least equal to the sum of the remaining capacitances.

Dunham, Mark E. (Los Alamos, NM); Morley, David W. (Santa Fe, NM)

1996-01-01

66

Robust maximum torque per amp (MTPA) control of PM-assisted synchronous reluctance motor  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a practical maximum torque per ampere control scheme along with a simple parameter estimator for PMa-SynRM is introduced. In this method, MTPA condition is achieved by calculation of the output torque and perturbing one variable while seeking the maximum output torque at the particular operating point. The maximization of the electromagnetic torque might be sensitive to the

Peyman Niazi; Hamid A. Toliyat

2006-01-01

67

Modelling power output in photovoltaic modules for outdoor operating conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A methodology to estimate PV electrical production from outdoor testing data is presented. It is based on the adjustment of a well known I–V model curve slightly modified and a new maximum power output expression. The method is developed to provide PV module performance parameters for all operating conditions encountered by typical photovoltaic systems. The method, theoretically based, is reasonably

J. I. Rosell; M. Ibáñez

2006-01-01

68

Maximum Power Point  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn how to find the maximum power point (MPP) of a photovoltaic (PV) panel in order to optimize its efficiency at creating solar power. They also learn about real-world applications and technologies that use this technique, as well as Ohm's law and the power equation, which govern a PV panel's ability to produce power.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

69

Maximum Tolerated Dose Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three-stage maximum repeatable dose (MRD) protocol is described in which the MRD is established by dose incrementation, followed by administration of this dose for at least seven days, with the final stage being single dose administration of the doses anticipated for the one-month studies. The toxicokinetic measurements which are made in support of this protocol are illustrated with data

P. F. Carey; N. W. Spurling

1994-01-01

70

Output trends, characteristics, and measurements of three megavoltage radiotherapy linear accelerators.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to characterize and understand the long-term behavior of the output from megavoltage radiotherapy linear accelerators. Output trends of nine beams from three linear accelerators over a period of more than three years are reported and analyzed. Output, taken during daily warm-up, forms the basis of this study. The output is measured using devices having ion chambers. These are not calibrated by accredited dosimetry laboratory, but are baseline-compared against monthly output which is measured using calibrated ion chambers. We consider the output from the daily check devices as it is, and sometimes normalized it by the actual output measured during the monthly calibration of the linacs. The data show noisy quasi-periodic behavior. The output variation, if normalized by monthly measured "real' output, is bounded between ± 3%. Beams of different energies from the same linac are correlated with a correlation coefficient as high as 0.97, for one particular linac, and as low as 0.44 for another. These maximum and minimum correlations drop to 0.78 and 0.25 when daily output is normalized by the monthly measurements. These results suggest that the origin of these correlations is both the linacs and the daily output check devices. Beams from different linacs, independent of their energies, have lower correlation coefficient, with a maximum of about 0.50 and a minimum of almost zero. The maximum correlation drops to almost zero if the output is normalized by the monthly measured output. Some scatter plots of pairs of beam output from the same linac show band-like structures. These structures are blurred when the output is normalized by the monthly calibrated output. Fourier decomposition of the quasi-periodic output is consistent with a 1/f power law. The output variation appears to come from a distorted normal distribution with a mean of slightly greater than unity. The quasi-periodic behavior is manifested in the seasonally averaged output, showing annual variability with negative variations in the winter and positive in the summer. This trend is weakened when the daily output is normalized by the monthly calibrated output, indicating that the variation of the periodic component may be intrinsic to both the linacs and the daily measurement devices. Actual linac output was measured monthly. It needs to be adjusted once every three to six months for our tolerance and action levels. If these adjustments are artificially removed, then there is an increase in output of about 2%-4% per year. PMID:25207404

Hossain, Murshed

2014-01-01

71

Hearing Aids for Children  

MedlinePLUS

... How do hearing aids work? All behind-the-ear hearing aids have a microphone, amplifiers and processors, a ... aid. There are several ways to secure the hearing aids to your child’s ears. Some ideas include two-sided toupee tape, Huggie ...

72

Aid and growth regressions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the relationship between foreign aid and growth in real GDP per capita as it emerges from simple augmentations of popular cross-country growth specifications. It is shown that aid in all likelihood increases the growth rate, and this result is not conditional on ‘good’ policy. There are, however, decreasing returns to aid, and the estimated effectiveness of aid

Henrik Hansen; Finn Tarp

2001-01-01

73

Financial Aid General Information  

E-print Network

Financial Aid General Information INCLUDED IN THIS BROCHURE: · How to apply for financial aid · Priority deadlines · Types of financial aid · Scholarship information · Web resources · Contact information.................................................3 Mission Statement....................................3 How do I apply for aid

Long, Nicholas

74

FINANCIAL AID INFORMATION  

E-print Network

STUDENT FINANCIAL AID INFORMATION 2014 - 2015 ORIENTATION PROVIDED BY THE OFFICE OF STUDENT FINANCIAL AID (OSFA) AT THE UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA UPDATED: 5/27/14 #12;APPLICATION PROCESS ­ FEDERAL FINANCIAL AID "Free Application for Federal Student Aid" · MUST be renewed each academic year · Calculates

Arnold, Jonathan

75

understanding your financial aid  

E-print Network

understanding your financial aid award notice 2010-2011 SYracUSe UniVerSitY #12;How was my award determined? financial aid awards are based on information submitted on the cSS/financial aid Profile and the free application for federal Student aid (fafSa). the information is analyzed through a standardized

McConnell, Terry

76

AIDS: Education's New Dilemma.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is an incurable, fatal disease that is caused by a virus that eventually destroys the body's immune system. While AIDS is contagious, the risk of contracting AIDS through casual contact is said to be negligible. A review of the court cases involving students with AIDS reveals that the precedent has…

Freeland, D. Kay; Faber, Charles F.

77

AIDS at Work: The SEIU AIDS Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

[Excerpt] In the early stages of the AIDS epidemic, AIDS was primarily an urban phenomenon, appearing first among gay men, intravenous (I.V.) drug users and their sexual partners.\\u000aService workers in San Francisco, Los Angeles, New York, Newark and Miami were among the first to confront this mysterious and frightening disease. As the number of AIDS patients grew, attention and

John Mehring

1990-01-01

78

Maximum profit performance of an absorption refrigerator  

SciTech Connect

The operation of an absorption refrigerator is viewed as a production process with exergy as its output. The relations between the optimal profit and COP (coefficient of performance), and the COP bound at the maximum profit of the refrigerator are derived based on a general heat transfer law. The results provide a theoretical basis for developing and utilizing a variety of absorption refrigerators. The focus of this paper is to search the compromise optimization between economics (profit) and the utilization factor (COP) for finite-time endoreversible thermodynamic cycles.

Chen, L.; Sun, F. [Naval Academy of Engineering, Wuhan (China)] [Naval Academy of Engineering, Wuhan (China); Wu, C. [Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD (United States). Mechanical Engineering Dept.] [Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD (United States). Mechanical Engineering Dept.

1996-12-01

79

x1 OUTPUT OUTPUT ROUTINES * 1. Output routines. This is the file that contains all the output routines fo*  

E-print Network

) and their corresponding images coordinates. With the image, * *to get the coordinates the picture must be inverted, so routines. This is the file that contains all the output routines fo* *r the pictures `X' envirom- ment. So all the functions that print the mathematical pictures and skew diagra* *ms are coded

van Leeuwen, Marc

80

The Determinants of Cardiac Output  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part of the Gross Physiology of the Cardiovascular System site, this 22-minute video presentation explains fundamental but often misunderstood concepts about the determinants of cardiac output, using Dr. Anderson's hydraulic model of the cardiovascular system. It is a useful summary and overview of the concepts presented in greater detail in the online text. A transcript of the video presentation is available.

Anderson, Robert M.

81

Multi-Output Battery Cells  

E-print Network

+ + + _ _ _ Fig.2 Multi-output SC (MoSC) based power management system. Intermediate bus Battery cells LDO loads power management system. A LOW-VOLUME POWER MANAGEMENT MODULE FOR PORTABLE APPLICATIONS BASED ON A MULTI,prodic}@ele.utoronto.ca Abstract-- This paper introduces a 2-stage power management architecture for battery powered portable

Prodiæ, Aleksandar

82

Soft-input soft-output lattice sphere decoder for linear channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soft output detection for signals transmitted on linear channels is investigated. A particular emphasis is made for signal detection on multiple antenna channels. The a posteriori information at the detector output is evaluated from a shifted spherical list of point candidates. The spherical list is centered on the maximum likelihood point, which has the great advantage of stabilizing the list

Joseph Boutros; Nicolas Gresset; L. Brunel; Marc Fossorier

2003-01-01

83

A multi-port dc-dc converter with independent outputs for vehicular applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multi-port multiple-output topology is presented to efficiently interface independent dc loads with diverse dc sources in electric vehicles. The main characteristics of this new circuit topology are, namely, ability to convert power from any number of energy resources to any number of loads, to supply output voltages that are greater than maximum input voltage or lower than minimum input

Hamid Behjati; Ali Davoudi

2011-01-01

84

Evolution-aided software development (EASD)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In software development, finding a higher-level programming technique or paradigm is an ongoing problem. Here we present a proof-of-concept for Evolution-aided software development (EASD), a technique that splits the act of programming up into higher-level architecting, and the automatic program induction of lower-level code from input and desired output example pairs. We show how this is a natural extension to

Larry Diehl; Ivan Garibay; Alex Aved

85

Maximum gravitational recoil.  

PubMed

Recent calculations of gravitational radiation recoil generated during black-hole binary mergers have reopened the possibility that a merged binary can be ejected even from the nucleus of a massive host galaxy. Here we report the first systematic study of gravitational recoil of equal-mass binaries with equal, but counteraligned, spins parallel to the orbital plane. Such an orientation of the spins is expected to maximize the recoil. We find that recoil velocity (which is perpendicular to the orbital plane) varies sinusoidally with the angle that the initial spin directions make with the initial linear momenta of each hole and scales up to a maximum of approximately 4000 km s-1 for maximally rotating holes. Our results show that the amplitude of the recoil velocity can depend sensitively on spin orientations of the black holes prior to merger. PMID:17677894

Campanelli, Manuela; Lousto, Carlos O; Zlochower, Yosef; Merritt, David

2007-06-01

86

The lack of public health research output from India  

PubMed Central

Background Systematic assessment of recent health research output from India, and its relation with the estimated disease burden, is not available. This information would help understand the areas in health research that need improvement in India to enhance the health of India's population. Methods The health research output from India during 2002, which was accessible in the public domain, was assessed by searching PubMed and other internet health literature databases, and was related to the disease burden suggested by the Global Burden of Disease Study. The main outcome measures were number of health papers with abstracts in basic, clinical and public health sciences; quality-adjusted research output based on the impact factors of journals in which the papers were published; classification of papers in disease/condition categories and comparison of research output with the estimated disease burden in each category. Comparison of the health papers from India during 2002 included in PubMed was done with those from Australia during one quarter of 2002. Results Of the 4876 health papers from India in 2002 in PubMed, 48.4%, 47.1% and 4.4% were in basic, clinical and public health sciences, respectively. Of the 4495 papers based on original research, only 3.3% were in public health. Quality-adjusted original research output was highest for non-communicable diseases (62% of total). Of the total quality-adjusted original research output, the proportions in injuries (0.7%), cardiovascular diseases (3.6%), respiratory infections (0.2%), diarrhoeal diseases (1.9%), perinatal conditions (0.4%), childhood cluster diseases (0.5%), unipolar major depression (0%), and HIV/AIDS (1.5%) were substantially lower than their proportional contribution to the disease burden in India. Human resources, health policy, health economics, and impact assessment of interventions were particularly poorly represented in public health research. The Australia-India ratio for quality-adjusted health research output per unit gross domestic product was 20 and for public health research output was 31. Conclusions Good-quality public health research output from India is grossly inadequate, and strategic planning to improve it is necessary if substantial enhancement of population health were to be made possible. There is inordinately low relative research output in several diseases/conditions that cause major disease burden in India. PMID:15563377

Dandona, Lalit; Sivan, Yegnanarayana S; Jyothi, Mukkamala N; Bhaskar, VS Udaya; Dandona, Rakhi

2004-01-01

87

Unconsciousness - first aid  

MedlinePLUS

Loss of consciousness - first aid; Coma - first aid; Mental status change; Altered mental status ... person is unconscious and: Does not return to consciousness quickly (within a minute) Has fallen down or ...

88

First Aid: Influenza (Flu)  

MedlinePLUS

... Expect Ebola: What to Know First Aid: The Flu KidsHealth > Parents > First Aid & Safety > Printable Safety Guides > ... tiredness What to Do If Your Child Has Flu Symptoms: Call your doctor. Encourage rest. Keep your ...

89

Students with AIDS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Addresses the law as it pertains to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in public elementary and secondary schools. Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 has been used successfully in the majority of the AIDS cases discussed. (MLF)

Broadwell, Cathy Allen; Strope, John L., Jr.

1989-01-01

90

Hearing Aid Device  

MedlinePLUS

... view of the ear with an In-the-ear hearing aid placed in the ear canal. The final ... from the air to the amplifier of the hearing aid in the ear. The sound wave stimulates the malleus, incus, and ...

91

MICROFICHE AIDS DATA  

EPA Science Inventory

This data set contains counts of AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) cases reported to state and local health departments, by demographics; case-definition; HIV exposure group (risk factors for AIDS); Half-year of diagnosis, report, and death....

92

HIV and AIDS  

MedlinePLUS

... Teens > Sexual Health > STDs & Other Infections > HIV and AIDS Print A A A Text Size What's in ... in human history. HIV causes a condition called acquired immunodeficiency syndrome — better known as AIDS . HIV destroys a type ...

93

Jellyfish Stings, First Aid  

MedlinePLUS

newsletter | contact Share | Jellyfish Stings, First Aid A A A The rash caused by a jellyfish sting is often red and swollen, and it may even bleed. First Aid Guide Jellyfish are aquatic invertebrates that can sting people who ...

94

First Aid Kit  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

This is a first aid kit used in fieldwork in the west. The kit is likely an army surplus item. The kit includes first aid materials for snake bites as well as more common ailments. Object ID: USGS-000057...

2009-07-22

95

Computer aided flexible envelope designs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computer aided design methods are presented for the design and construction of strong, lightweight structures which require complex and precise geometric definition. The first, flexible structures, is a unique system of modeling folded plate structures and space frames. It is possible to continuously vary the geometry of a space frame to produce large, clear spans with curvature. The second method deals with developable surfaces, where both folding and bending are explored with the observed constraint of available building materials, and what minimal distortion result in maximum design capability. Alternative inexpensive fabrication techniques are being developed to achieve computer defined enclosures which are extremely lightweight and mathematically highly precise.

Resch, R. D.

1975-01-01

96

Computer-aided synthesis and design of monolithic microwave GaAs MESFET amplifiers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The computer-aided procedures for systematic design of lumped and distributed element even-order amplifier matching networks are extended to include odd-order networks. The gain-bandwidth performance of general odd-order networks as well as that of several specific odd-order topologies of special interest are discussed. Practical monolithic input, output, and interstage matching network topologies using both lumped and distributed elements are shown, and the potential for reducing required chip area by using networks of 3rd order in lieu of 4th order is shown for both low-noise and power amplifier examples. Analytical techniques are presented for computing the maximum realizable value of the denominator polynomial constant of odd-order gain functions in both the lumped and distributed element cases for 3rd order networks of arbitrary ripple, bandwidth, minimum insertion loss, and gain slope.

Dijak, J. T.

1983-08-01

97

FINANCIAL AID AT WESLEYAN  

E-print Network

xi FINANCIAL AID AT WESLEYAN A G U I D E TO F I N A N C I A L A I D P RO G R A M S F O R A P P L I Applying for Financial Aid 1 The Financial Aid Award Letter 1 Verification of Information 1 Additional Required Documents for Disbursement of Aid 2 The Student Expense Budget 2 The Family Contribution 2

Devoto, Stephen H.

98

FINANCIAL AID AT WESLEYAN  

E-print Network

xi FINANCIAL AID AT WESLEYAN A G U I D E TO F I N A N C I A L A I D P RO G R A M S F O R A P P L I Applying for Financial Aid 1 The Financial Aid Award Letter 1 Verification of Information 1 Additional Required Documents for Disbursement of Aid 1 The Student Expense Budget 2 The Family Contribution 2

Devoto, Stephen H.

99

NORTHWESTERNNORTHWESTERN FINANCIAL AID  

E-print Network

NORTHWESTERNNORTHWESTERN FINANCIAL AID #12;b Northwestern prides itself on the personal attention it provides to each financial aid applicant. Using federal guidelines and University policies and procedures, Northwestern's financial aid staff reviews each family's situation carefully. The cases that follow help

Shahriar, Selim

100

UNDERSTANDING FINANCIAL AID  

E-print Network

2013-2014 GUIDE TO UNDERSTANDING FINANCIAL AID for UndergradUate Students ContinUing & ProfeSSional edUCation Students gradUate Students FINANCIAL AID SERVICE ACADEMIC AFFAIRS #12;MESSAGE FROM ThE DIRECTOR FINANCIAL AID SERVICES UNIVERSITY OF MASSAChUSETTS AMhERST Dear UMass Amherst Student and Family

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

101

Aid, Policies, and Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses a new database on foreign aid to examine the relationships among foreign aid, economic policies, and growth per capita GDP. We find that aid has a positive impact on growth in developing countries with good fiscal, monetary, and trade policies but has little effect in the presence of poor policies. Good policies are ones that are themselves

Craig Burnside; David Dollar

2000-01-01

102

Designing State Aid Formulas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper designs a new equalization-aid formula based on fiscal gaps of local communities. When states are in transition to a new local aid formula, the issue of whether and how to hold existing aid harmless poses a challenge. The authors show that some previous studies and the formulas derived from them give differential weights to existing and…

Zhao, Bo; Bradbury, Katharine

2009-01-01

103

Acoustic saturation and output regulation.  

PubMed

Acoustic saturation pressures are predicted for ultrasonic beams of a range of frequencies and focal depths. Using reasonable approximations, saturation values for mechanical index (MI) and derated spatial-peak, time-average and pulse-average intensities are calculated. These are compared with thresholds set for regulatory purposes by the U. S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). It is concluded that there are many conditions for which acoustic saturation in water prevents the values of MI and regulated intensities from exceeding thresholds set by the FDA. These conditions are particularly associated with higher frequencies and deeper focal lengths. The thresholds for action set by IEC 61157 are sufficiently low that similar problems do not arise. It is concluded that present regulations are not fully effective in limiting the output from diagnostic ultrasound equipment, and that some conditions exist that are not subject to output control. PMID:10461731

Duck, F A

1999-07-01

104

Microgyroscope with closed loop output  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A micro-gyroscope (10) having closed loop operation by a control voltage (V.sub.TY), that is demodulated by an output signal of the sense electrodes (S1, S2), providing Coriolis torque rebalance to prevent displacement of the micro-gyroscope (10) on the output axis (y-axis). The present invention provides wide-band, closed-loop operation for a micro-gyroscope (10) and allows the drive frequency to be closely tuned to a high Q sense axis resonance. A differential sense signal (S1-S2) is compensated and fed back by differentially changing the voltage on the drive electrodes to rebalance Coriolis torque. The feedback signal is demodulated in phase with the drive axis signal (K.sub..omega..crclbar..sub.x) to produce a measure of the Coriolis force.

Challoner, A. Dorian (Inventor); Gutierrez, Roman C. (Inventor); Tang, Tony K. (Inventor); Cargille, Donald R. (Inventor)

2002-01-01

105

UFO - The Universal FEYNRULES Output  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new model format for automatized matrix-element generators, the so-called Universal FEYNRULES Output (UFO). The format is universal in the sense that it features compatibility with more than one single generator and is designed to be flexible, modular and agnostic of any assumption such as the number of particles or the color and Lorentz structures appearing in the interaction vertices. Unlike other model formats where text files need to be parsed, the information on the model is encoded into a PYTHON module that can easily be linked to other computer codes. We then describe an interface for the MATHEMATICA package FEYNRULES that allows for an automatic output of models in the UFO format.

Degrande, Céline; Duhr, Claude; Fuks, Benjamin; Grellscheid, David; Mattelaer, Olivier; Reiter, Thomas

2012-06-01

106

Differentially Private Search Log Sanitization with Optimal Output Utility  

E-print Network

Web search logs contain extremely sensitive data, as evidenced by the recent AOL incident. However, storing and analyzing search logs can be very useful for many purposes (i.e. investigating human behavior). Thus, an important research question is how to privately sanitize search logs. Although several search log anonymization techniques have been proposed with concrete privacy models, the output utility of most techniques is merely evaluated but not necessarily maximized. Indeed, when applying any privacy standard to the search log anonymization, the optimal (maximum utility) output can be derived according to the inter-relation between privacy and utility. In this paper, we take a first step towards tackling this problem by formulating utility-maximizing optimization problems based on the rigorous privacy standard of differential privacy. Specifically, we utilize optimization models to maximize the output utility of the sanitization for different applications, while ensuring that the production process sati...

Hong, Yuan; Lu, Haibing; Wu, Mingrui

2011-01-01

107

Hearing aid electromagnetic interference from digital wireless telephones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several in-the-ear (ITE) and behind-the-ear (BTE) hearing aids were tested for audible interference at various distances from five types of digital wireless telephones. The interference which takes the form of a buzzing and a static sound was quantified using a calibrated system including a frequency analyzer and a pressure field microphone. The output of the each hearing aid was coupled

Marlene Skopec

1998-01-01

108

Output Effects of Government Purchases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theoretical analysis focuses on the distinction between temporary and permanent movements in government purchases. Under plausible conditions, the temporary case involves an output response that is positive, less than one-to-one with the change in government purchases, and larger than that generated by an equal-sized, but permanent, shift in purchases. The equilibrium real rate of return rises in the temporary

Robert J. Barro

1981-01-01

109

Financial Aid Basics // 1 Special Aid Categories // 34  

E-print Network

2013-14 Financial Aid Basics // 1 Special Aid Categories // 34 Additional Info // 28 Receiving your aid // 23 Financial Aid Programs // 10 How to Apply // 5 G TOR A DAI UF Handbook of Financial Aid legislation, as well as unintended error. All financial aid awards are contingent upon availability of funds

Slatton, Clint

110

FEDERAL FINANCIAL AID QUICK FACTS What is Federal Financial Aid?  

E-print Network

FEDERAL FINANCIAL AID QUICK FACTS What is Federal Financial Aid? Federal financial aid at Louisiana Students (PLUS) How do I apply for federal financial aid? The Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA) is the correct form to apply for federal aid. In addition, Louisiana Tech University requires

Selmic, Sandra

111

HIV, AIDS, and the Future  

MedlinePLUS

... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV, AIDS, and the Future Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table ... and your loved ones from HIV/AIDS. The AIDS Memorial Quilt In 1987, a total of 1, ...

112

Achieving Maximum Power from Thermoelectric Generators with Maximum-Power-Point-Tracking Circuits Composed of a Boost-Cascaded-with-Buck Converter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a way of achieving maximum power and power-transfer efficiency from thermoelectric generators by optimized selection of maximum-power-point-tracking (MPPT) circuits composed of a boost-cascaded-with-buck converter. We investigated the effect of switch resistance on the MPPT performance of thermoelectric generators. The on-resistances of the switches affect the decrease in the conversion gain and reduce the maximum output power obtainable. Although the incremental values of the switch resistances are small, the resulting difference in the maximum duty ratio between the input and output powers is significant. For an MPPT controller composed of a boost converter with a practical nonideal switch, we need to monitor the output power instead of the input power to track the maximum power point of the thermoelectric generator. We provide a design strategy for MPPT controllers by considering the compromise in which a decrease in switch resistance causes an increase in the parasitic capacitance of the switch.

Park, Hyunbin; Sim, Minseob; Kim, Shiho

2015-01-01

113

Space Derived Health Aids (AID, Heart Monitor)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

CPI's spinoff from miniaturized pace circuitry is the new heart-assist device, the AID implantable automatic pulse generator. AID pulse generator monitors the heart continuously, recognizes onset of fibrillation, then administers a corrective electrical shock. A mini- computer, a power source, and two electrodes which sense heart activity are included in the unit. An associated system was also developed. It includes an external recorder to be worn by AID patients and a physician's console to display the data stored by the recorder. System provides a record of fibrillation occurrences and the ensuing defibrillation.

1981-01-01

114

Finding the quantum thermoelectric with maximal efficiency and minimal entropy production at given power output  

E-print Network

We investigate the nonlinear Landauer-Buttiker scattering theory for quantum systems with strong Seebeck and Peltier effects, and their use as heat-engines and refrigerators with finite power outputs. This article gives detailed derivations of the results summarized in Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 130601 (2014). It shows how to use the scattering theory to find (i) the quantum thermoelectric with maximum possible power output, and (ii) the quantum thermoelectric with maximum efficiency at given power output. The latter corresponds to a minimal entropy production at that power output. These quantities are of quantum origin since they depend on system size over electronic wavelength, and so have no analogue in classical thermodynamics. The maximal efficiency coincides with Carnot efficiency at zero power output, but decreases with increasing power output. This gives a fundamental lower bound on entropy production, which means that reversibility (in the thermodynamic sense) is impossible for finite power output. The suppression of efficiency by (nonlinear) phonon and photon effects is addressed in detail; when these effects are strong, maximum efficiency coincides with maximum power. Finally, we show that relaxation within the quantum system does not appear to allow it to exceed the bounds derived for relaxation-free systems.

Robert S. Whitney

2014-08-14

115

Hearing Aid Assembly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress in hearing aids has come a long way. Yet despite such progress hearing aids are not the perfect answer to many hearing problems. Some adult ears cannot accommodate tightly fitting hearing aids. Mouth movements such as chewing, talking, and athletic or other active endeavors also lead to loosely fitting ear molds. It is well accepted that loosely fitting hearing aids are the cause of feedback noise. Since feedback noise is the most common complaint of hearing aid wearers it has been the subject of various patents. Herein a hearing aid assembly is provided eliminating feedback noise. The assembly includes the combination of a hearing aid with a headset developed to constrict feedback noise.

Grugel, Richard N. (Inventor)

2002-01-01

116

Phosphorus utilization by rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss): estimation of dissolved phosphorus waste output  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphorus (P) waste output, notably in the dissolved form (DWP), is a major concern for many fish culture operations. Fish are believed to excrete DWP via the urine but this aspect has never been examined in detail. A better understanding of P utilization and renal P handling of fish could aid development of nutritional strategies for the management and reduction

D. p. Bureau; C. y. Cho

1999-01-01

117

Maximum of oil output of a treadle-powered peanut oil press  

E-print Network

The manual processing of food products has become a substantial part of the daily routine of a typical household in the developing world. Consumption of oil is an essential part of an individual's diet and thus, the ...

Patel, Ravi M. (Ravi Mahendra)

2007-01-01

118

Optimization of output power in a fiber optical parametric oscillator.  

PubMed

Fiber optical parametric oscillators (FOPOs) are coherent sources that can provide ultra-broadband tunability and high output power levels and are been considered for applications such as medical imaging and sensing. While most recent literature has focused on advancing the performance of these devices experimentally, theoretical studies are still scarce. In contrast, ordinary laser theory is very mature, has been thoroughly studied and is now well understood from the point of view of fundamental physics. In this work, we present a theoretical study of OPOs and in particular we theoretically discuss the process of gain saturation in optical parametric amplifiers. In order to emphasize the significant difference between the two coherent sources, we compare the optimized coupling ratios for maximum output powers of the ordinary laser and the optical parametric oscillator and demonstrate that in contrast to ordinary lasers, highest output powers in optical parametric oscillators are achieved with output coupling ratios close to 1. We confirm experimentally our theoretical studies by building a narrowband fiber optical parametric oscillator at 1450nm with multi-watt output power. We show that the device is robust to intracavity losses and achieve peak power as high as 2.4W. PMID:24104150

Jin, Lei; Martinez, Amos; Yamashita, Shinji

2013-09-23

119

Output-Sensitive Autocompletion Search  

E-print Network

the following autocompletion search scenario: imagine a user of a search engine typing a query; then with everyOutput-Sensitive Autocompletion Search Holger Bast Christian W. Mortensen Ingmar Weber MPI­I­2006£'8¦7PS§©sbYd H 1¨78'(1¥)§©¨y8¦(tIP1§1¨7¡#0©§©§©18¦(1¥¤y¡)Au7P1§ Xva 7P H dYFq¡¤78¦91F ¡¤( H 7¨78¦(1¥w

120

Aid and the growth of income in aid-favoured developing countries: policy issues.  

PubMed

This paper opens by expressing disappointment in the disparities between published estimations of the effectiveness of foreign aid to developing countries and effectiveness data which arise from the application of complex econometric methods. The new dilemmas for aid policy include the fact that aid increasingly devoted to human development at the expense of productive activity is unlikely to create the material development which will allow maintenance of human development targets. The second part of the paper presents comparative statistics on gross national product, official development assistance, and savings growth which paint a disturbing picture because the growth of domestic savings has been negative in the period 1967-87 in nine of the 11 less developed countries with data available. Section 3 covers the shortcomings of econometric experiments which neither confirm nor deny the findings of other studies on the effectiveness of aid. The fourth section describes constraints to the growth of income imposed by the foreign exchange, the rate of return on investment, and the growth of labor productivity and presents statistical evidence supporting aid policy which would 1) take advantage of opportunities to rehabilitate output growth in traditional industries without the addition of a great deal of capital, 2) direct attention to increasing the absolute gross national product (GNP) to raise the growth of per capital income, and 3) strategically reorient the structure of aid to increase the absolute GNP faster to accelerate reversal of the negative savings pattern and speed the reduction of fertility. Section 5 considers suggested shifts in aid policy orientation dealing with 1) population growth, income level, and food security; 2) reconstruction and structural adjustment; 3) rationalizing aid for social, institutional, and human development and technical assistance. The concluding section notes that the suggested strategic reorientation of the structure of aid should result in reduced population growth. PMID:12291834

Brewster, H; Yeboah, D

1994-04-01

121

Maximal Cardiac Output Determines 6 Minutes Walking Distance in Pulmonary Hypertension  

PubMed Central

Purpose The 6 minutes walk test (6MWT) is often shown to be the best predictor of mortality in pulmonary hypertension (PH) probably because it challenges the failing heart to deliver adequate cardiac output. We hypothesised that the 6MWT elicits maximal cardiac output as measured during a maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). Methods 18 patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (n?=?12) or pulmonary arterial hypertension (n?=?6) and 10 healthy subjects performed a 6MWT and CPET with measurements of cardiac output (non invasive rebreathing device) before and directly after exercise. Heart rate was measured during 6MWT with a cardiofrequence meter. Results Cardiac output and heart rate measured at the end of the 6MWT were linearly related to 6MW distance (mean±SD: 490±87 m). Patients with a high NT-pro-BNP achieve a maximum cardiac output during the 6MWT, while in normal subjects and in patients with a low-normal NT-proBNP, cardiac output at the end of a 6MWT was lower than achieved at maximum exercise during a CPET. In both cases, heart rate is the major determinant of exercise-induced increase in cardiac output. However, stroke volume increased during CPET in healthy subjects, not in PH patients. Conclusion Maximal cardiac output is elicited by 6MWT in PH patients with failing right ventricle. Cardiac output increase is dependent on chronotropic response in patients with PH. PMID:24647561

Deboeck, Gaël; Taboada, Dolores; Hagan, Guy; Treacy, Carmen; Page, Kathy; Sheares, Karen; Naeije, Robert; Pepke-Zaba, Joanna

2014-01-01

122

Coupler-related real ear gain. Interaction between subject and hearing aid type.  

PubMed

In order to select hearing aids with a highly predictable real ear gain, in situ gain and compliance through the individual ear mould were measured on 8 normal-hearing subjects. The latter were chosen in order to reduce gain variation caused by various pathological conditions of the ear. All behind-the-ear aids commonly used in Sweden and one in-the-ear aid were studied. One sample of each hearing aid type was tested and the subjects had identical ear moulds. Hence, the variables were hearing aid type and subject. The study showed wide intra-subject coupler-related real ear gain variation (30 dB). Most of the aids showed a distinct correlation between coupler-related overall gain, and mould compliance. Some of the aids gave more uniform real ear gain, i.e. low interaction between subject and frequency-dependent gain. These results are elucidated by measuring the aid's acoustic output impedance. PMID:1585125

Berninger, E; Ovegård, A; Svärd, I

1992-01-01

123

Electroacoustic Evaluation of Frequency-Modulated Receivers Interfaced with Personal Hearing Aids  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the electroacoustic outputs of frequency-modulated (FM) systems coupled to hearing aids. Method: Electroacoustic performance of FM systems coupled to hearing aids was determined for 3 FM receivers: body-worn with neck loop, ear-level nonprogrammable, and ear-level programmable. Systems were…

Schafer, Erin C.; Thibodeau, Linda M.; Whalen, Holly S.; Overson, Gary J.

2007-01-01

124

AIDS and civil disobedience.  

PubMed

Members of groups such as ACT UP (AIDS Coalition to Unleash Power) risk arrest and criminal charges to protest laws and policies they view as unjust to persons with AIDS. Spiers, a founding member of ACT UP, discusses the rationale behind the tactics of civil disobedience employed by AIDS activists. He argues that civil disobedience is justified by American political and legal traditions, and by the federal government's lack of response to the needs of its citizens. Spiers warns that while AIDS protests have been nonviolent and characterized by conscientious planning and execution, violence cannot be ruled out as a "political act born of desperation." PMID:2606659

Spiers, H R

1989-01-01

125

Financial Aid Office 2010-2011 FINANCIAL AID TIMELINE  

E-print Network

Financial Aid Office 2010-2011 FINANCIAL AID TIMELINE To explore your financial aid options before December, go to www.FAFSA4caster.ed.gov. December 2009 2010-2011 Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA) paper applications arrive at high schools and colleges. Apply for your Federal Student Aid PIN

Mohaghegh, Shahab

126

Financial Aid at HMS Bob Coughlin, Director of Financial Aid  

E-print Network

Financial Aid at HMS Bob Coughlin, Director of Financial Aid Victor Anciano Granadillo, HMS '15 The Financial Aid Process The Award Package What Else to Expect Appeal Process Other Options/Resources Available Aid Process Two Pathways to Financial Aid Option I Applying for unit loan and grants Parent

Chou, James

127

Hybrid optoelectronic device with multiple bistable outputs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optoelectronic circuits which exhibit optical and electrical bistability with hysteresis behavior are proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The systems are based on semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOA), bipolar junction transistors (BJT), PIN photodiodes (PD) and laser diodes externally modulated with integrated electro-absorption modulators (LD-EAM). The device operates based on two independent phenomena leading to both electrical bistability and optical bistability. The electrical bistability is due to the series connection of two p-i-n structures (SOA, BJT, PD or LD) in reverse bias. The optical bistability is consequence of the quantum confined Stark effect (QCSE) in the multi-quantum well (MQW) structure in the intrinsic region of the device. This effect produces the optical modulation of the transmitted light through the SOA (or reflected from the PD). Finally, because the optical transmission of the SOA (in reverse bias) and the reflected light from the PD are so small, a LD-EAM modulated by the voltage across these devices are employed to obtain a higher output optical power. Experiments show that the maximum switching frequency is in MHz range and the rise/fall times lower than 1 us. The temporal response is mainly limited by the electrical capacitance of the devices and the parasitic inductances of the connecting wires. The effects of these components can be reduced in current integration technologies.

Costazo-Caso, Pablo A.; Jin, Yiye; Gelh, Michael; Granieri, Sergio; Siahmakoun, Azad

2011-01-01

128

Output feedback pole-assignment procedure  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new algorithm based on pole-assignment considerations for linear time-invariant m-input p-output systems by means of static output feedback is presented for the case in which the number of inputs m and the number of outputs p are less than the order of the system n. This algorithm determines the output-feedback matrix required to assign max (p, m) - 1

CHIEH-LI CHEN; TAI-CHENG YANG; NEIL MUNRO

1988-01-01

129

Digital plus analog output encoder  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The disclosed encoder is adapted to produce both digital and analog output signals corresponding to the angular position of a rotary shaft, or the position of any other movable member. The digital signals comprise a series of binary signals constituting a multidigit code word which defines the angular position of the shaft with a degree of resolution which depends upon the number of digits in the code word. The basic binary signals are produced by photocells actuated by a series of binary tracks on a code disc or member. The analog signals are in the form of a series of ramp signals which are related in length to the least significant bit of the digital code word. The analog signals are derived from sine and cosine tracks on the code disc.

Hafle, R. S. (inventor)

1976-01-01

130

AFB's Computerized Travel Aid: Two Years of Research and Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Progress on the computerized travel aid, an electronic device, using elements of the Polaroid Sonar Camera and a microprocessor, for visually handicapped persons is reviewed, and research on the effectiveness of various models noted. Recommended modifications touch on aspects of mounting, beam shape, and audible outputs. (CL)

Uslan, Mark M.; And Others

1983-01-01

131

Computer-aided diagnosis in radiology: potential and pitfalls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) may be defined as a diagnosis made by a physician who takes into account the computer output as a second opinion. The purpose of CAD is to improve the diagnostic accuracy and the consistency of the radiologists’ image interpretation. This article is to provide a brief overview of some of CAD schemes for detection and differential diagnosis

Kunio Doi; Heber MacMahon; Shigehiko Katsuragawa; Robert M Nishikawa; Yulei Jiang

1999-01-01

132

Mathematics and the Heart: Understanding Cardiac Output  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper illustrates a biological application of the concepts of relative change and area under a curve, from mathematics. We study two biological measures "relative change in cardiac output" and "cardiac output", which are predictors of heart blockages and other related ailments. Cardiac output refers to the quantity of…

Champanerkar, Jyoti

2013-01-01

133

Some Facts About Financial Aid  

E-print Network

2012­13 Some Facts About Financial Aid #12;What is Financial Aid? Financial aid is money available from federal, state, university, and private sources to help students meet college costs. Financial aid and their families can afford to pay. Two types or categories of financial aid are available. Scholarships and grants

California at Santa Cruz, University of

134

Some Facts About Financial Aid  

E-print Network

2013­14 Some Facts About Financial Aid #12;What is Financial Aid? Financial aid is money available from federal, state, university, and private sources to help students meet college costs. Financial aid can afford to pay. Two types or categories of financial aid are available. Scholarships and grants

California at Santa Cruz, University of

135

Designing an Adaptive Fuzzy Controller for Maximum Wind Energy Extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wind power production spreading, also aided by the transition from constant to variable speed operation, involves the development of efficient control systems to improve the effectiveness of power production systems. This paper presents a data-driven design methodology able to generate a Takagi-Sugeno-Kang (TSK) fuzzy model for maximum energy extraction from variable speed wind turbines. In order to obtain the

Vincenzo Galdi; Antonio Piccolo; Pierluigi Siano

2008-01-01

136

Solar Forcing of Greenland Climate during the Last Glacial Maximum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of solar forcing in climate changes is a matter of continuous debate. Challenges arise from the short period of direct observations of total solar irradiance (TSI), which indicate minor TSI variations of approximately 1 ‰ over an 11-year cycle, and the limited understanding of possible feedback mechanisms. Opposed to this, there is evidence from paleoclimate records for a tight coupling of solar activity and regional climate (e.g., Bond et al. 2001, Martin-Puertas et al. 2012). One proposed mechanism to amplify the Sun's influence on climate involves the relatively large modulation of the solar UV output (Haigh et al. 2010). This alters the radiative balance in the stratosphere via ozone feedback processes and eventually propagates downwards causing changes in the tropospheric circulation (Inesson et al. 2011). The regional response to this forcing may, however, also depend on orbital forcing of the mean state of the atmosphere (Dietrich et al. 2012). Prior to direct observations cosmogenic radionuclides such as 10Be and 14C are the most reliable proxies of solar activity. Their atmospheric production rates depend on the flux of galactic cosmic rays into the atmosphere which in turn is modulated by the strength of the Earth's and the solar magnetic fields. However, archives of 10Be and 14C are additionally affected by changes of their respective geochemical environment. Owing to their fundamentally different geochemistry, a combined analysis of 10Be and 14C records can aid to isolate production rate variations more reliably and thus, lead to improved reconstructions of solar variability. Due to the absence of high-quality high-resolution data this approach has so far been limited to the Holocene. We will present the first solar activity reconstruction for the end of the last glacial (22.5 - 10 ka BP) based on the cosmogenic radionuclides 10Be and 14C. We will compare glacial solar activity variations to Holocene features through combined interpretation of new 10Be data from the GRIP ice core and published 14C records (Reimer et al. 2013, Southon et al. 2012). We will present evidence for solar forcing of sub-millennial climate changes during the last glacial maximum and will discuss potential mechanisms involved.

Adolphi, Florian; Muscheler, Raimund; Svensson, Anders; Aldahan, Ala; Possnert, Göran; Beer, Juerg; Sjolte, Jesper; Björck, Svante

2014-05-01

137

Aids for visual impairment.  

PubMed Central

This article provides only a flavour of the type and range of aids available to the visually impaired person. Many other aids for leisure, learning, and daily living are illustrated in the RNIB equipment and games catalogue. Images FIG 1 FIG 3 FIG 4 FIG 5 FIG 6 FIG 7 FIG 8 FIG 9 FIG 10 PMID:2252929

Dudley, N J

1990-01-01

138

What about AIDS?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the nature of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Suggests ways in which camp directors can establish procedures for making appropriate decisions about accepting campers/staff workers with AIDS. Reviews aspects of environmental sanitation, physical health, confidentiality, camper/staff drug use and sexual behavior, medical…

Dreyfuss, Katharine R.

1987-01-01

139

BIBLIOGRAPHY OF TRAINING AIDS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS COMPILATION OF INSTRUCTIONAL AIDS FOR USE IN AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION TRAINING PROGRAMS CONTAINS LISTS OF VISUAL AND AUDIOVISUAL TRAINING AIDS AND GUEST LECTURERS AVAILABLE FROM MEMBER COMPANIES OF THE AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION INSTITUTE AS AN INDUSTRY SERVICE TO SCHOOL OFFICIALS INTERESTED IN CONDUCTING SUCH PROGRAMS. THE…

MCKEONE, CHARLES J.

140

Teachers with AIDS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the application of Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 as a legal theory available to an employee of a public school system who faces isolation, transfer, suspension, or termination because of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Addresses AIDS in the workplace and the law. (MLF)

Strope, John L., Jr.

1988-01-01

141

Heat Cramps, First Aid  

MedlinePLUS

newsletter | contact Share | Heat Cramps, First Aid A A A Heat cramp signs and symptoms can include heavy perspiration, muscle cramps (often in ... and back), and weakness/lightheadedness. First Aid Guide Heat cramps are a form of heat illness. Heat ...

142

International Aid to Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent evidence highlights several worrisome trends regarding aid pledges and disbursements, which have been exacerbated by the global financial crisis. First, while overall development assistance rose in 2008, after 2 years of decline, the share of all sector aid going to the education sector has remained virtually unchanged at about 12 percent…

Benavot, Aaron

2010-01-01

143

AIDS Epidemiological models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this paper is to present mathematical modelling of the spread of infection in the context of the transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). These models are based in part on the models suggested in the field of th AIDS mathematical modelling as reported by ISHAM [6].

Rahmani, Fouad Lazhar

2010-11-01

144

Health Aides Serve...  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The student health aide program of the University of Nebraska at Lincoln is a paid, auxiliary, trained health position in dorms, co-ops, and Greek houses, with personnel evaluated on the assistance provided for any physical, personal, social, or environmental health concerns students may have in accordance with the aide's training. (MB)

Huscher, John

1976-01-01

145

AIDS and the mycoses.  

PubMed

Profoundly immunoincompetent, patients with AIDS are vulnerable to myriad opportunistic bacterial, viral, protozoal, and fungal pathogens. Opportunistic infections in patients with AIDS are often severe, persistent, and relapsing despite appropriate therapy. Some infections are virtually untreatable. This article describes the mycotic complications in these patients. PMID:3062089

Macher, A M; De Vinatea, M L; Tuur, S M; Angritt, P

1988-12-01

146

Research Report: HIV/AIDS  

MedlinePLUS

... Home » HIV/AIDS » Letter from the Director HIV/AIDS Email Facebook Twitter Letter from the Director Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) — the virus that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) — has been with us for three decades now. ...

147

Increase of ventricular output inducing ventricular afterpotential sensing and ventricular safety pacing in a biventricular implanted cardioverter defibrillator.  

PubMed

Programming maximum right ventricular output in a patient with a biventricular implanted cardioverter defibrillator resulted in ventricular oversensing and ventricular safety pacing in the same cardiac cycle. PMID:19801565

van Elsäcker, André; Nikolic, Tanja; Scheffer, Mike G; van Gelder, Berry M

2010-01-01

148

PREVIMER : Meteorological inputs and outputs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PREVIMER is a pre-operational system aiming to provide a wide range of users, from private individuals to professionals, with short-term forecasts about the coastal environment along the French coastlines bordering the English Channel, the Atlantic Ocean, and the Mediterranean Sea. Observation data and digital modelling tools first provide 48-hour (probably 96-hour by summer 2009) forecasts of sea states, currents, sea water levels and temperatures. The follow-up of an increasing number of biological parameters will, in time, complete this overview of coastal environment. Working in partnership with the French Naval Hydrographic and Oceanographic Service (Service Hydrographique et Océanographique de la Marine, SHOM), the French National Weather Service (Météo-France), the French public science and technology research institute (Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, IRD), the European Institute of Marine Studies (Institut Universitaire Européen de la Mer, IUEM) and many others, IFREMER (the French public institute fo marine research) is supplying the technologies needed to ensure this pertinent information, available daily on Internet at http://www.previmer.org, and stored at the Operational Coastal Oceanographic Data Centre. Since 2006, PREVIMER publishes the results of demonstrators assigned to limited geographic areas and to specific applications. This system remains experimental. The following topics are covered : Hydrodynamic circulation, sea states, follow-up of passive tracers, conservative or non-conservative (specifically of microbiological origin), biogeochemical state, primary production. Lastly, PREVIMER provides researchers and R&D departments with modelling tools and access to the database, in which the observation data and the modelling results are stored, to undertake environmental studies on new sites. The communication will focus on meteorological inputs to and outputs from PREVIMER. It will draw the lessons from almost 3 years during which the system has been operational almost everyday and propose perspectives in terms of technical improvements and possible business models.

Ravenel, H.; Lecornu, F.; Kerléguer, L.

2009-09-01

149

World AIDS Day  

E-print Network

Dedication: To all the men and women, singles and couples, gay and straight, young and old, black and white, positive and negative I have ever counseled. Warnings: Angst, m/m sex, possible disease diagnosis. This is not a death story. Rating: NC-17 JIB... I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I December 1, 1998 WORLD AIDS DAY by April Valentine "World AIDS Day. Another World AIDS Day. The epidemic began 18 years ago. And it isn't over. We're going to be taking this disease with us...

Valentine, A.

2000-01-01

150

Sensor Aided Authentication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sharing of sensor data globally becomes possible by the development of wireless sensor network, cloud computing, and other related technologies. These new trends can also benefit information security. In this paper, the sensor data is involved in the authentication procedure which is one main component of security systems. Sensor aided password is proposed. In addition, the architecture for sensor aided authentication corresponding to the simple authentication scenario is also designed. Sensor data aided password generation and utilization bring convenience to users without weakening the password strength.

Huang, Xin; Jiang, Yang; Gao, Xiong; Fu, Rong; Zhang, Tingting

151

The impact of linac output variations on dose distributions in helical tomotherapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been suggested for quality assurance purposes that linac output variations for helical tomotherapy (HT) be within ±2% of the long-term average. Due to cancellation of systematic uncertainty and averaging of random uncertainty over multiple beam directions, relative uncertainties in the dose distribution can be significantly lower than those in linac output. The sensitivity of four HT cases with respect to linac output uncertainties was assessed by scaling both modeled and measured systematic and random linac output uncertainties until a dose uncertainty acceptance criterion failed. The dose uncertainty acceptance criterion required the delivered dose to have at least a 95% chance of being within 2% of the planned dose in all of the voxels in the treatment volume. For a random linac output uncertainty of 5% of the long-term mean, the maximum acceptable amplitude of the modeled, sinusoidal, systematic component of the linac output uncertainty for the four cases was 1.8%. Although the measured linac output variations represented values that were outside of the ±2% tolerance, the acceptance criterion did not fail for any of the four cases until the measured linac output variations were scaled by a factor of almost three. Thus, the ±2% tolerance in linac output variations for HT is a more conservative tolerance than necessary.

Flynn, R. T.; Kissick, M. W.; Mehta, M. P.; Olivera, G. H.; Jeraj, R.; Mackie, T. R.

2008-01-01

152

Maximum Error Modeling for Fault-Tolerant Computation using Maximum a posteriori (MAP) Hypothesis  

E-print Network

The application of current generation computing machines in safety-centric applications like implantable biomedical chips and automobile safety has immensely increased the need for reviewing the worst-case error behavior of computing devices for fault-tolerant computation. In this work, we propose an exact probabilistic error model that can compute the maximum error over all possible input space in a circuit specific manner and can handle various types of structural dependencies in the circuit. We also provide the worst-case input vector, which has the highest probability to generate an erroneous output, for any given logic circuit. We also present a study of circuit-specific error bounds for fault-tolerant computation in heterogeneous circuits using the maximum error computed for each circuit. We model the error estimation problem as a maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimate, over the joint error probability function of the entire circuit, calculated efficiently through an intelligent search of the entire input space using probabilistic traversal of a binary join tree using Shenoy-Shafer algorithm. We demonstrate this model using MCNC and ISCAS benchmark circuits and validate it using an equivalent HSpice model. Both results yield the same worst-case input vectors and the highest % difference of our error model over HSpice is just 1.23%. We observe that the maximum error probabilities are significantly larger than the average error probabilities, and provides a much tighter error bounds for fault-tolerant computation. We also find that the error estimates depend on the specific circuit structure and the maximum error probabilities are sensitive to the individual gate failure probabilities.

Karthikeyan Lingasubramanian; Syed M. Alam; Sanjukta Bhanja

2009-06-17

153

Output Control Using Feedforward And Cascade Controllers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report presents theoretical study of open-loop control elements in single-input, single-output linear system. Focus on output-control (servomechanism) problem, in which objective is to find control scheme that causes output to track certain command inputs and to reject certain disturbance inputs in steady state. Report closes with brief discussion of characteristics and relative merits of feedforward, cascade, and feedback controllers and combinations thereof.

Seraji, Homayoun

1990-01-01

154

Pulmonary complications of AIDS: radiologic features. [AIDS  

SciTech Connect

Fifty-two patients with pulmonary complications of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were studied over a 3-year period. The vast majority of the patients were homosexual; however, a significant number were intravenous drug abusers. Thirteen different organisms were noted, of which Pneumocystis carinii was by far the most common. Five patients had neoplasia. Most patients had initial abnormal chest films; however, eight patients subsequently shown to have Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia had normal chest films. A significant overlap in chest radiographic findings was noted among patients with different or multiple organisms. Lung biopsy should be an early consideration for all patients with a clinical history consistent with the pulmonary complications of AIDS. Of the 52 patients, 41 had died by the time this report was completed.

Cohen, B.A.; Pomeranz, S.; Rabinowitz, J.G.; Rosen, M.J.; Train, J.S.; Norton, K.I.; Mendelson, D.S.

1984-07-01

155

Financial Aid Information for Eating Club Members Undergraduate Financial Aid  

E-print Network

Financial Aid Information for Eating Club Members Undergraduate Financial Aid Princeton University@princeton.edu Policy: The financial aid budget for all juniors and seniors includes an increased board allowance it easier to afford a club meal plan. Keep in mind that this does not mean that financial aid will pay

156

Financial Aid Handbook Office of Financial Aid and Scholarships  

E-print Network

2013-2014 Financial Aid Handbook Office of Financial Aid and Scholarships #12;2 The purpose of this Handbook is to help you understand financial aid processes, options for paying your college costs, and your rights and responsibilities as a student receiving financial aid at Washington State University

Collins, Gary S.

157

Cointegration of output, capital, labor, and energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cointegration analysis is applied to the linear combinations of the time series of (the logarithms of) output, capital, labor, and energy for Germany, Japan, and the USA since 1960. The computed cointegration vectors represent the output elasticities of the aggregate energy-dependent Cobb-Douglas function. The output elasticities give the economic weights of the production factors capital, labor, and energy. We find that they are for labor much smaller and for energy much larger than the cost shares of these factors. In standard economic theory output elasticities equal cost shares. Our heterodox findings support results obtained with LINEX production functions.

Stresing, R.; Lindenberger, D.; Kã¼mmel, R.

2008-11-01

158

Design criteria for multistage microwave amplifiers with match requirements at input and output  

SciTech Connect

An approach to the design of multistage microwave amplifiers in a prescribed frequency band with requirements about the transducer gain flatness and the maximum magnitude of the reflection coefficient at input and output is presented. The interstage equalizers are designed by imposing a suitable constraint on the maximum transducer gain, obtainable directly from the specifications; the input and output equalizer are obtained by imposing only the matching requirement. The method proposed allows a separate design of each network, which can be performed either through direct optimization or by means of a numerical synthesis.

Macchiarella, G.; Raggi, A.; Lorenzo, E. Di (Politecnico di Milano (Italy). Dipt. di Elettronica)

1993-08-01

159

Basic First Aid  

E-print Network

awake? Breathing? Bleeding? ? Administer first aid if needed. Here are some actions to take for various injuries, emergencies or medical conditions: Choking ? Keep the person calm. ? Allow the person to cough. Don?t pound on his or her back...

Schoessow, Courtney

2005-09-30

160

Unconsciousness, First Aid  

MedlinePLUS

... try to determine what caused the loss of consciousness. Check to see if he/she is wearing ... you can determine what caused the loss of consciousness, call emergency medical services and give first aid ...

161

Heat Exhaustion, First Aid  

MedlinePLUS

newsletter | contact Share | Heat Exhaustion, First Aid A A A Heat exhaustion signs and symptoms can include heavy perspiration; nausea; lightheadedness; severe thirst; dilated pupils; and red or pale, ...

162

Heatstroke, First Aid  

MedlinePLUS

... cloth, and position a fan toward him/her. Evaporation of water on the skin aids in cooling. ... may use different cooling techniques that involve immersion, evaporation, or invasive means. Medication may be given to ...

163

HIV and AIDS  

MedlinePLUS

... that causes the disease AIDS. HIV Hurts the Immune System People who are HIV positive have been tested ... to everyone in the world. When the person's immune system has weakened and more of the blood's T ...

164

First aid kit  

MedlinePLUS

... at a pharmacy or supermarket. Bandages and dressings: Adhesive bandages (Band-Aid or similar brand); assorted sizes ... to reduce contamination risk Sterile gauze pads and adhesive tape Triangular bandage for wrapping injuries and making ...

165

Computer Aided Creativity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the conceptual components of a computer program designed to enhance creative thinking and reviews software that aims to stimulate creative thinking. Discusses BRAIN and ORACLE, programs intended to aid in creative problem solving. (JOW)

Proctor, Tony

1988-01-01

166

HIV/AIDS  

MedlinePLUS

HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. It kills or damages the body's immune system cells. AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. It is the most advanced stage of infection with HIV. HIV most ...

167

HIV/AIDS  

MedlinePLUS

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes HIV infection and AIDS. The virus attacks the immune system. As the immune system weakens, the body is at risk of getting life-threatening infections and cancers. Once a person has the virus, ...

168

First Aid and Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... what to do in an emergency, how to stock a first-aid kit, where to call for ... to Choose & Use Sunscreen Playground Safety Preventing Children's Sports Injuries Safety Tips: Baseball Safety Tips: Basketball Safety ...

169

Ultrasonic output measurements of multiple-mode diagnostic ultrasound systems.  

PubMed

Electronic control has brought unprecedented flexibility and complexity in the variety of ultrasonic signals and beams available from a single modern multiple-mode ultrasonic imaging system. The process of measuring the ultrasonic output of these systems is started with the identification of relevant system parameters. Because the combinations of control settings for these parameters can number in the tens of thousands for some of the newer systems, a rational methodology for finding the highest global intensity or pressure values was necessary. To aid in the search, a linear simulation model was developed to predict those control settings that produce the highest relative intensity and pressure levels and their peak locations. This information became the starting point for actual measurements. An equipment setup suitable for multimode measurements is described. Experimental mapping procedures were used to find actual global maxima by varying a smaller subset of control parameters. Data were checked by formulae derived specifically for multimode measurements. PMID:18290148

Szabo, T L; Melton, H R; Hempstead, P S

1988-01-01

170

Answering Your Questions about AIDS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book focuses on AIDS education and answers 350 commonly asked questions about Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) taken from questions addressed to two major urban AIDS hotlines (Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and Houston, Texas). Chapter 1, "HIV - The Virus That Causes AIDS," discusses: the HIV virus; the…

Kalichman, Seth C.

171

Mommy, Daddy--What's AIDS?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brochure is designed to help parents answer the questions that their children may ask them about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and the Human Immuno Deficiency Virus (HIV), the virus that causes AIDS. It provides basic information about AIDS and HIV, as well as sources for further information, such as the National AIDS Hotline. It…

National Association of Pediatric Nurse Associates and Practitioners, Cherry Hill, NJ.

172

Guide to Understanding Financial Aid  

E-print Network

Guide to Understanding Graduate Financial Aid FINANCIAL AID SERVICES ACADEMIC AFFAIRS 2012-2013 #12;MESSAGE FROM THE DIRECTOR FINANCIAL AID SERVICES UNIVERSITY OF MASSACHUSETS AMHERST Dear UMass Amherst Graduate Student, UMass Amherst Graduate Financial Aid Services is committed to working with students

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

173

Financial Aid SUMMER TERM 2014  

E-print Network

Financial Aid SUMMER TERM 2014 FINANCIAL AID To be eligible for Office of Student Finance (OSF) summer term financial aid you must be officially admitted to a U of M Twin Cities degree program semester 2014) are not eligible for summer 2014 financial aid. Non-admitted or visiting students

Amin, S. Massoud

174

First Aid at Work Introduction  

E-print Network

First Aid at Work Introduction 1. The Forestry Commission has updated its First Aid at Work policy will need to: Assess your first aid provision and requirements, with the help of this document. Put that we have first aid provision in place so that we can give them immediate attention and call

175

The First Aid Training Picture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the history of first aid training provisions in the United Kingdom with respect to the outdoor industry, what to look for in a first aid training provider, an experiential model of first aid training, and the current National Governing Body requirements for first aid training for various types of coaches and instructors. (TD)

Moore, Ian

2000-01-01

176

Gradient matrices for output feedback systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gradient matrices are formulated for the linear multivariable system with output feedback. The incremental motion of the poles and zeros and the coefficients of the numerator and denominator transfer function polynomials is determined as a function of the elements of an output feedback gain matrix. Also considered is the incremental movement of zeros and the coefficients of the numerator transfer

LOUIS F. GODBOUTJ; DAVID JORDAN

1980-01-01

177

Reinvestigating the Noticing Function of Output  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A conceptual replication of Izumi and Bigelow's research, this study used multiple measures to investigate second language (L2) learners' processes in output-input-output sequences. Specifically, it examined whether producing the target language impacts learners' attention to L2 structures in subsequent input. Thirty learners of English as a…

Uggen, Maren S.

2012-01-01

178

VF CWEB OUTPUT 1 The Voting Farm  

E-print Network

VF CWEB OUTPUT 1 The Voting Farm A Distributed Class for Software Voting V1.5 by Vincenzo De Florio Katholieke Universiteit Leuven Departement Elektrotechniek Afdeling ESAT/ACCA #12;2 CWEB OUTPUT VF 1. VotingFarm module connected to one user module and to a farm of fellow voters arranged into a cliqu´e. User Module

179

Multi-input multi-output fading channel tracking and equalization using Kalman estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the problem of channel tracking and equalization for multi-input multi-output (MIMO) time-varying frequency-selective channels. These channels model the effects of inter-symbol interference (ISI), co-channel interference (CCI), and noise. A low-order autoregressive model approximates the MIMO channel variation and facilitates tracking via a Kalman filter. Hard decisions to aid Kalman tracking come from a MIMO finite-length minimum-mean-squared-error decision-feedback

Christos Komninakis; Christina Fragouli; Ali H. Sayed; Richard D. Wesel

2002-01-01

180

47 CFR 2.1046 - Measurements required: RF power output.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Measurements required: RF power output. 2.1046 Section...GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Equipment Authorization Procedures Certification...1046 Measurements required: RF power output. (a) For...output shall be measured at the RF output terminals when...

2010-10-01

181

47 CFR 2.1046 - Measurements required: RF power output.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Measurements required: RF power output. 2.1046 Section...GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Equipment Authorization Procedures Certification...1046 Measurements required: RF power output. (a) For...output shall be measured at the RF output terminals when...

2011-10-01

182

Global output feedback tracking for nonlinear systems in generalized output-feedback canonical form  

Microsoft Academic Search

A global output feedback dynamic compensator is proposed for stabilization and tracking of a class of systems that are globally diffeomorphic into systems which are in generalized output-feedback canonical form. This form includes as special cases the standard output-feedback canonical form and various other forms considered previously in the literature. Output-dependent nonlinearities are allowed to enter both additively and multiplicatively.

P. Krishnamurthy; F. Khorrami; Z. P. Jiang

2002-01-01

183

Mucosal AIDS vaccines.  

PubMed

Debates are still being waged over what is the best strategy for developing a potent AIDS vaccine. All the obvious approaches to making AIDS vaccines have been tried in the past two decades without much success. It is clear that new thinking and a revision of prevailing dogmas needs to be in place if we really want a vaccine. Conventional envelope-based antibody-inducing vaccines do not appear to hold promise, and broadly-neutralizing antibodies are now being searched as an alternative to the failed approach with subunit vaccines. The current consensus is that cellular immune responses, especially those mediated by CD8 cytotoxic/suppressor (CTL) and CD4 helper T lymphocytes, are needed to control HIV. Vaccines capable of inducing cell-mediated responses are, therefore, considered critical for controlling the spread of HIV. DNA-based vaccines triggering CTL reaction are currently thought to be an answer, but will they fulfill the promise? In the following paragraphs, a critical assessment of the state of the art will be provided in an attempt to analyze what we know and still don't know. The focus of this review is primarily on mucosal vaccines-a relatively new area in AIDS research. The update on V-1 Immunitor, the first mucosal AIDS vaccine available commercially, is provided within this context. Some of the reviewed concepts may be disputable, but without departure from the uninspiring consensus no substantial progress in the AIDS vaccine field can be envisioned. PMID:14733732

Bourinbaiar, Aldar S; Metadilogkul, Orapun; Jirathitikal, Vichai

2003-01-01

184

A Comparative Performance Analysis and Optimization of the Irreversible Atkinson Cycle Under Maximum Power Density and Maximum Power Conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article reports the thermodynamic optimization based on the maximum power (MP) and maximum power density (MPD) criteria for an irreversible Atkinson heat-engine model which includes internal irreversibility resulting from the adiabatic processes. The power density, power output, and thermal efficiency are obtained by introducing the isentropic temperature ratio of the compression process, cycle temperature ratio, and the compression and expansion efficiencies. Optimal performance and design parameters of the Atkinson cycle are obtained analytically for the MP conditions and numerically for the MPD conditions. The results at MPD conditions are compared with those results obtained by using the MP and maximum thermal efficiency criteria. The effects of the cycle temperature ratio and irreversibilities on the general and optimal performances are investigated. It is shown that for the Atkinson cycle, a design based on the MPD conditions is more advantageous from the point of view of engine sizes and thermal efficiency.

Ust, Yasin

2009-06-01

185

Visual Speech-Training Aid for the Deaf  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Teaching deaf to speak aided by electronic system provides striking colored, pictorial representation of sound; energy at different frequencies as function of time. Other modalities, such as nasality, intra-oral pressure, and lip-muscle contraction, pictorialized simultaneously. Use of standard components, including personal microcomputer, helps reduce cost below prior voice-training systems. Speech-training system, microphone output separated by filters into narrow frequency bands, changed into digital signals, formatted by computer, and displayed on television screen. Output from other sensors displayed simultaneously or screen split to allow sound produced by student to be compared with that of teacher.

Miller, Robert J.

1987-01-01

186

Graphs with maximum connectivity index  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let G be a graph and dv the degree (=number of first neighbors) of its vertex v. The connectivity index of G is ?=?(dudv)?1\\/2, with the summation ranging over all pairs of adjacent vertices of G. In a previous paper (Comput. Chem. 23 (1999) 469), by applying a heuristic combinatorial optimization algorithm, the structure of chemical trees possessing extremal (maximum

Gilles Caporossi; Ivan Gutman; Pierre Hansen; Ljiljana Pavlovic

2003-01-01

187

Common Sense and Maximum Entropy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper concerns the question of how to draw inferences common sensically from uncertain knowledge. Since the early work of Shore and Johnson, [10], Paris and Vencovsk a, [6], and Csiszár, [1], it has been known that the Maximum Entropy Inference Process is the only inference process which obeys certain common sense principles of uncertain reasoning. In this paper we

Jeff Paris

2000-01-01

188

Maximum throughput of clandestine relay  

Microsoft Academic Search

The maximum throughput of relaying information flows while concealing their presence is studied. The concealment is achieved by embedding transmissions of information flows into truly independent transmission schedules that resemble the normal transmission behaviors without any flow. Such embedding may reduce the throughput for delay-sensitive flows, and the paper provides a quantitative characterization of the level of reduction. Under a

Ting He; Lang Tong; Ananthram Swami

2009-01-01

189

Sodium phosphate as an ergogenic aid.  

PubMed

Legal nutritional ergogenic aids can offer athletes an additional avenue to enhance their performance beyond what they can achieve through training. Consequently, the investigation of new nutritional ergogenic aids is constantly being undertaken. One emerging nutritional supplement that has shown some positive benefits for sporting performance is sodium phosphate. For ergogenic purposes, sodium phosphate is supplemented orally in capsule form, at a dose of 3-5 g/day for a period of between 3 and 6 days. A number of exercise performance-enhancing alterations have been reported to occur with sodium phosphate supplementation, which include an increased aerobic capacity, increased peak power output, increased anaerobic threshold and improved myocardial and cardiovascular responses to exercise. A range of mechanisms have been posited to account for these ergogenic effects. These include enhancements in 2,3-Diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) concentrations, myocardial efficiency, buffering capacity and adenosine triphosphate/phosphocreatine synthesis. Whilst there is evidence to support the ergogenic benefits of sodium phosphate, many studies researching this substance differ in terms of the administered dose and dosing protocol, the washout period employed and the fitness level of the participants recruited. Additionally, the effect of gender has received very little attention in the literature. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to critically examine the use of sodium phosphate as an ergogenic aid, with a focus on identifying relevant further research. PMID:23568374

Buck, Christopher L; Wallman, Karen E; Dawson, Brian; Guelfi, Kym J

2013-06-01

190

High Energy Output Marx Generator Design  

SciTech Connect

High Energy Output Marx Generator Design a design of a six stage Marx generator that has a unipolar pulse waveform of 200 kA in a 50×500 microsecond waveform is presented. The difficulties encountered in designing the components to withstand the temperatures and pressures generated during the output pulse are discussed. The unique methods and materials used to successfully overcome these problems are given. The steps necessary to increase the current output of this Marx generator design to the meg-ampere region or higher are specified.

Monty Lehmann

2011-07-01

191

Parachute recovery location aids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents various types of location aid devices that may be used individually or in some combination to locate parachutes designed for the recovery of scientific data and instrumentation that have impacted on the earth's surface. Systems may be used on either recovery parachute systems or high altitude parachute systems. It is noted that all location aids are passive during the data gathering period of flight. Initial results of test data from two types of direction finder receivers are presented as well as their application and use with parachute borne and other location transmitters.

Silbert, M. N.; Moltedo, A. D.; Bedy, E. P., Sr.

1986-01-01

192

Revolutionising the AIDS response.  

PubMed

Individual behaviour change interventions and technological approaches to HIV prevention can only be effective over time if the broader social environment in which health-related decisions are made facilitate their uptake. People need to be not only willing but also able to take up and maintain preventive behaviours, seek testing, treatment and care for HIV. This paper presents findings and recommendations of the Social Drivers Working Group of the aids2031 initiative, which focus on how to ensure that efforts to address the root causes of HIV vulnerability are integrated into AIDS responses at the national level. Specific guidance is given on how to operationalise a structural approach. PMID:21970296

Ogden, Jessica; Gupta, Geeta Rao; Warner, Ann; Fisher, William F

2011-01-01

193

20 Years of AIDS  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

According to the Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC), May 31 marked the 20-year anniversary of the first discovery of AIDS. Perhaps not surprisingly, the Web has seen a corresponding flurry of activity devoted to the history and current status of research on the disease. The CDC has posted this site, which collects research findings from the Centers' Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, videos covering the epidemic's history and current status, and CDC bulletins and commentary. For further sites devoted to AIDS/HIV see the June 6, 2001 Scout Report for Science & Engineering).

2001-01-01

194

Selective effects of weight and inertia on maximum lifting.  

PubMed

A novel loading method (loading ranged from 20% to 80% of 1RM) was applied to explore the selective effects of externally added simulated weight (exerted by stretched rubber bands pulling downward), weight+inertia (external weights added), and inertia (covariation of the weights and the rubber bands pulling upward) on maximum bench press throws. 14 skilled participants revealed a load associated decrease in peak velocity that was the least associated with an increase in weight (42%) and the most associated with weight+inertia (66%). However, the peak lifting force increased markedly with an increase in both weight (151%) and weight+inertia (160%), but not with inertia (13%). As a consequence, the peak power output increased most with weight (59%), weight+inertia revealed a maximum at intermediate loads (23%), while inertia was associated with a gradual decrease in the peak power output (42%). The obtained findings could be of importance for our understanding of mechanical properties of human muscular system when acting against different types of external resistance. Regarding the possible application in standard athletic training and rehabilitation procedures, the results speak in favor of applying extended elastic bands which provide higher movement velocity and muscle power output than the usually applied weights. PMID:23041965

Leontijevic, B; Pazin, N; Kukolj, M; Ugarkovic, D; Jaric, S

2013-03-01

195

Space traveling wave tube amplifiers with on-orbit flexible saturated output power  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes several approaches to achieving adjustable power output from a traveling wave tube amplifier. It can be adjusted in flight for maximum flexibility in matching the amplifier capability to the applicationpsilas need. The efficiency can be maximized without changing the hardware.

Thomas K. Phelps; John D. McDowell; William L. Menninger

2008-01-01

196

Equal gain transmission in multiple-input multiple-output wireless systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) wireless systems are of interest due to their ability to provide substantial gains in capacity and quality. The paper proposes equal gain transmission (EGT) to provide diversity advantage in MIMO systems experiencing Rayleigh fading. The applications of EGT with selection diversity combining, equal gain combining, and maximum ratio combining are addressed. It is proven that systems using

David J. Love

2003-01-01

197

FinAid: The Financial Aid Information Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Maintained by Mark Kantrowitz and sponsored by the National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NASFAA), the Financial Aid Information Page is one of the finest online sources of free information and guidance on student financial aid. The site is divided into categories which address various aspects of finding and securing aid. The Assistance section includes an overview of financial aid, a glossary, a bibliography, and scam alerts. Under Tools users will find Kantrowitz's financial aid calculators, which help students and their parents better plan their financial futures. The core of the site is the collection of links to databases of aid sources, lists of lenders and loan guarantors, government information, and links to major scholarship and fellowship sources such as FastWEB, SRN Express, and ExPAN. FinAid is an excellent place for students at any level to begin their electronic search for funding.

Kantrowitz, Mark.

198

Output control using feedforward and cascade controllers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An open-loop solution to the output control problem in SISO (single-input, single-output) systems by means of feedforward and cascade controllers is investigated. A simple characterization of feedforward controllers, which achieve steady-state disturbance rejection, is given in a transfer-function setting. Cascade controllers which cause steady-state command tracking are characterized. Disturbance decoupling and command matching controllers are identified. Conditions for existence of feedforward and cascade controllers are given. For unstable systems, it is shown that a stabilizing feedback controller can be used without affecting the feedforward and cascade controllers used for output control; hence, the three controllers can be designed independently. Output control by a combination of feedforward and feedback is discussed.

Seraji, H.

1987-01-01

199

Modified univibrator compensates for output timing errors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One-stage, delay compensation amplifier, added to conventional univibrator circuitry time-synchronizes the trailing edge of the output pulse with the origin of the input pulse. The trailing edge is independent of the amplitude of the input pulse.

Strauss, M. G.

1967-01-01

200

Surface emitting lasers with combined output  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Surface emitting lasers are laterally aligned and coupled together and also have their light output signals combined. This results in greater phase and frequency coherency and narrower and reduced amplitude sidelobes. Preferably, not more than two lasers are longitudinally aligned along the same axis for still greater coherency compared with adding the light output signals of more than two longitudinally aligned lasers. The lasers can be of the DH-LOC type or of the QW type.

Carlin, Donald B. (Inventor)

1990-01-01

201

Periodic output feedback stabilization of neutral systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new feedback control technique called periodic output feedback is investigated in the context of infinite-dimensional linear systems modeled by neutral functional differential equations. In this method, discrete output samples are multiplied by a periodic gain function to generate a continuous feedback control. This work focuses on stabilization of neutral systems with delayed control modeled in the state space W2(1)

Tzyh-Jong Tarn; Tongzeng Yang; Xiaoming Zeng; Chuanfan Guo

1996-01-01

202

Anomalous light output from lightning dart leaders  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

About 5 percent of the multiple-stroke cloud-to-ground lightning discharges recorded at the NASA Kennedy Space Center during the summer of 1981 contained dart leaders that produced an unusually large light output. An analysis of these cases indicates that the average peak light output per unit length in the leader may be comparable to or even exceed that of the return stroke that follows.

Guo, C.; Krider, E. P.

1985-01-01

203

Total Maximum Daily Load Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) provides this informative resource on Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDL). A term used to discuss water quality, TMDL refers to "a calculation of the maximum amount of a pollutant that a water body can receive and still meet water quality standards." The TMDL Program Website offers background information on TMDLs (including FAQs), a National Overview of Impaired Waters in the US, and two standard presentations on TMDLs (HTML and Power Point). The heart of the site, however, is the interactive map of the US, which allows users access to each state's TMDL Program. Within each state, watershed names and maps, as well as source information (Water body, Parameter of Concern, Priority for TMDL Development), are provided.

204

Unstable resonator with reduced output coupling.  

PubMed

The properties of a laser beam coupled out of a standard unstable laser resonator are heavily dependent on the chosen resonator magnification. A higher magnification results in a higher output coupling and a better beam quality. But in some configurations, an unstable resonator with a low output coupling in combination with a good beam quality is desirable. In order to reduce the output coupling for a particular resonator, magnification fractions of the outcoupled radiation are reflected back into the cavity. In the confocal case, the output mirror consists of a spherical inner section with a high reflectivity and a flat outer section with a partial reflectivity coating. With the application of the unstable resonator with reduced output coupling (URROC), magnification and output coupling can be adjusted independently from each other and it is possible to get a good beam quality and a high power extraction for lasers with a large low gain medium. The feasibility of this resonator design is examined numerically and experimentally with the help of a chemical oxygen iodine laser. PMID:22722301

Pargmann, Carsten; Hall, Thomas; Duschek, Frank; Grünewald, Karin Maria; Handke, Jürgen

2012-06-20

205

AIDS Researcher Gives Retrospective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nearly 30 years ago, renowned immunologist James E.K. Hildreth, M.D., Ph.D., was compelled to start researching the virus that causes AIDS. He marveled at its enigma and was pressed into action by its ability to cut lives short and devastate communities. The disease set him on a course of medical inquiry that has included biomedical breakthroughs…

Hawkins, B. Denise

2011-01-01

206

Circulation Aide Training Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This training manual provides instruction on shelving and other duties for student assistants in the learning resources center at the College of Dupage, located in Illinois. It is noted that prospective student circulation aides are required to read the manual and pass a written test on policies and procedures before they are allowed to shelve…

Bergeson, Alan O.

207

Coil Welding Aid  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Positioner holds coil inside cylinder during tack welding. Welding aid spaces turns of coil inside cylinder and applies contact pressure while coil is tack-welded to cylinder. Device facilitates fabrication of heat exchangers and other structures by eliminating hand-positioning and clamping of individual coil turns.

Wiesenbach, W. T.; Clark, M. C.

1983-01-01

208

Machine Aids to Translation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the TEAM Program System of the Siemens Language Services Department, particularly the main features of its terminology data bank. Discusses criteria to which stored terminology must conform and methods of data bank utilization. Concludes by summarizing the consequences that machine-aided translation development has had for the…

Brinkmann, Karl-Heinz

1981-01-01

209

Newspaper Lesson Aids.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides photocopy-ready lesson aids on story ideas, interviewing, inverted pyramid writing style, newswriting, sports/scavenger hunt, finding feature material, identifying feature leads, feature lead selection, evaluating feature leads, compiling survey material, cutlines, headlines, paste-up rules, advertising, final semester project, newspaper…

Communication: Journalism Education Today (C:JET), 1986

1986-01-01

210

Esophageal candidiasis in AIDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe the results of oral therapy of esophageal candidiasis with clotrimazole vaginal tablets in 25 homosexual men with AIDS, of whom 19 had oral candidiasis and 16 had esophageal symptoms. Therapy with clotrimazole vaginal tablets, 100 mg, taken by mouth cleared the esophageal symptoms, oral candidiasis, and esophageal lesions completely in all 25 men. Clotrimazole vaginal

Eoin Lalor; Linda Rabeneck

1991-01-01

211

Computer Aided Art Major.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Computer Aided Art program offered at Northern State State University (Aberdeen, South Dakota), is coordinated with the traditional art major. The program is designed to familiarize students with a wide range of art-related computer hardware and software and their applications and to prepare students for problem-solving with unfamiliar…

Gibson, Jim

212

Buying a Hearing Aid  

MedlinePLUS

... hearing loss. Only a small portion of adult hearing problems, like ear infections and middle ear diseases, are medically or ... for your condition. For example, if you have hearing loss in both ears, two hearing aids may be recommended because two ...

213

Buying a Hearing Aid  

MedlinePLUS

... benefit for some patients. Will I need a hearing aid for each ear? Usually, if you have hearing loss in both ... quiet and in noise, and for improvement in hearing tones. Real ear measurements may also be done, which determine how ...

214

AIDS: A Selective Bibliography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended for use primarily by the general adult public, this pathfinder lists selected information sources on the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) that are in the collections of the State University of New York (SUNY) at Buffalo Health Sciences Library, the Central Library-Buffalo, and the Erie County Public Library. A broad range of…

Candaras, Barbara J.

215

Computer Aided Lecturing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveyed students taking a natural resource conservation course to determine the effects of computer software that provides tools for creating and managing visual presentations to students. Results indicated that 94% of the respondents believed computer-aided lectures helped them and recommended their continued use; note taking was more effective,…

Van Meter, Donald E.

1994-01-01

216

Parent Hearing Aid Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study addresses parent experiences in obtaining and managing hearing aids for their young child. The purpose was to identify challenges parents encounter to determine what state agencies can do to improve parent access to amplification. Data were collected July through September of 2010; 40 parents of children ages birth to 3 years old…

Munoz, Karen; Roberts, Mallory; Mullings, Day; Harward, Richard

2012-01-01

217

Robot-aided neurorehabilitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors' goal is to apply robotics and automation technology to assist, enhance, quantify, and document neurorehabilitation. This paper reviews a clinical trial involving 20 stroke patients with a prototype robot-aided rehabilitation facility developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, (MIT) and tested at Burke Rehabilitation Hospital, White Plains, NY. It also presents the authors' approach to analyze kinematic

Hermano Igo Krebs; Neville Hogan; Mindy L. Aisen; Bruce T. Volpe

1998-01-01

218

Leishmaniasis and AIDS coinfection.  

PubMed

Cutaneous leishmaniasis and HIV coinfection has been reported in Brazil since the initial description of AIDS in the country. We report an HIV-positive patient under antiretroviral treatment who presented with cutaneous leishmaniasis which was successfully treated with meglumine antimoniate. PMID:24474115

Hozannah, Adriana; Santos, Monica; Chrusciak-Talhari, Anette; Talhari, Carolina

2013-01-01

219

More than First Aid  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The school nurse is an important member of the school team since school health services keep students in school, in the classroom, and ready to learn. Although school nurses are often seen as the people who deliver first aid at school, their role is much deeper and has such breadth that only a registered, professional nurse has the skill set to…

Schoessler, Sally

2011-01-01

220

Good Teaching Aids.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This set of teaching aids consists of 14 Audubon Nature Bulletins with these titles: Schoolyard Laboratories, How to Lead a Field Trip, Natural Resources in the City, Mysteries of Bird Migration, Rock Stories and How to Read Them, The Ground Water Table, The Terrarium, Some Adventures With Wild Plants Outdoors and Indoors, Plant Propagation in the…

National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

221

First Aid Instruction Course.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prepared by the Department of the Interior, this teaching guide is for the instructors' use in teaching a first aid course. Six fundamental areas include: (1) Artificial Respiration, (2) Control of Bleeding, (3) Physical Shock, (4) Open Wounds, Closed Wounds, and Burns, (5) Fractures and Dislocations, and (6) Transportation. A complete…

Bureau of Mines (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

222

First Aid Challenge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a challenge wherein students will be asked to design a portable first aid kit that is normally carried in a recreational vehicle (RV), but can also be hand-carried or backpacked off road for distances of approximately 1-2 miles. This can be a very practical challenge for the students because it touches everyone. Everybody…

Roman, Harry T.

2011-01-01

223

How HIV Causes AIDS  

MedlinePLUS

... site to work incorrectly. Please visit your browser settings and turn JavaScript on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. ... HIV Causes AIDS HIV destroys CD4 positive (CD4+) T cells, which are white blood cells crucial to maintaining ...

224

HIV/AIDS Clinical Trials  

MedlinePLUS

... aren’t infected with HIV. What is a clinical trial? A clinical trial is a research study done ... effective in people. What is an HIV/AIDS clinical trial? HIV/AIDS clinical trials help researchers find better ...

225

Hearing Aids and Cell Phones  

MedlinePLUS

... Products and Devices to Improve Hearing Links Hearing Aids and Cell Phones What is that buzzing noise ... in my cell phone? People who wear hearing aids or have implanted hearing devices may experience some ...

226

Financial Aid for Eye Care  

MedlinePLUS

... Programs Training and Jobs Financial Aid for Eye Care Listen Financial Aid for Eye Care PDF* Many state and national resources regularly provide ... research, does not help individuals pay for eye care. However, if you are in need of financial ...

227

Scaffolding Strategies during Repeated Storybook Reading: An Extension Using a Voice Output Communication Aid  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adult scaffolding during repeated storybook reading was developed for children who use speech as their primary expressive modality, but through the use of augmentative and alternative communication, it has been extended to children who do not have functional, intelligible speech. Scaffolding strategies during repeated storybook reading and during…

Bellon-Harn, Monica L.; Harn, William E.

2008-01-01

228

Antiresonant ring output-coupled continuous-wave optical parametric oscillator.  

PubMed

We demonstrate the successful deployment of an antiresonant ring (ARR) interferometer for the attainment of optimum output coupling in a continuous-wave (cw) optical parametric oscillator (OPO). The cw OPO, configured as a singly-resonant oscillator (SRO), is based on a 50-mm-long MgO:PPLN crystal and pumped by cw Ytterbium-fiber laser at 1064 nm, with the ARR interferometer integrated into one arm of the standing-wave cavity. By fine adjustment of the ARR transmission, a continuously variable signal output coupling from 0.8% to 7.3% has been achieved, providing optimum output coupling for signal and optimum power extraction for the idler, at different input pumping levels. The experimental results are compared with theoretical calculations for conventional output-coupled cw SRO, and the study shows that by reducing the insertion loss of the ARR elements, the performance of the ARR-coupled cw SRO can be further enhanced. We also show that the use of the ARR does not lead to any degradation in the cw SRO output beam quality. The proof-of-principle demonstration confirms the effectiveness of the technique for continuous, in situ, and fine control of output coupling in cw OPOs to achieve maximum output power at any arbitrary pumping level above threshold. PMID:23038573

Devi, Kavita; Kumar, S Chaitanya; Esteban-Martin, A; Ebrahim-Zadeh, M

2012-08-13

229

Pharmacotherapeutics for the AIDS Patient.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Anticipated shifts in the demographics of the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) epidemic are examined, current state-of-the-art AIDS patient management is summarized, and some unique facets of drug therapy in the AIDS patient are discussed, including adverse reactions, complex drug interactions, use of investigational drugs, and…

Fife, Kenneth H.

1991-01-01

230

Guide to Understanding Financial Aid  

E-print Network

1 Guide to Understanding Financial Aid for Undergraduate Continuing & Professional Education Graduate Students Financial Aid Services Academic Affairs 2014-2015 #12;2 MessAGe FroM the Director Financial Aid Services University of Massachusetts Amherst Dear UMass Amherst Student and Family, UMass

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

231

Your Guide to Financial aid  

E-print Network

2011­12 Your Guide to Financial aid In this publication we summarize important information about financial aid programs at the University of California, Santa Cruz. We encourage you to familiarize yourself with the contents, as you will find answers to many questions. Welcome! #12;Table of Contents What is financial aid

California at Santa Cruz, University of

232

FINANCIAL AID FOR LAW SCHOOL  

E-print Network

FINANCIAL AID FOR LAW SCHOOL: A PRELIMINARY GUIDE LSAC.org #12;INTRODUCTION Legal education education is the financial aid office (or the website) of any LSAC-member law school. LSAC.org provides links to many law schools as well as several good sources of financial aid information. The cost

Kaminsky, Werner

233

Adaptive output feedback control of nonlinear systems represented by input-output models  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider a single-input-single-output nonlinear system which can be represented globally by an input-output model. The system is input-output linearizable by feedback and is required to satisfy a minimum phase condition. The nonlinearities are not required to satisfy any global growth condition. The model depends linearly on unknown parameters which belong to a known compact convex set. We design a

Hassan K. Khalil

1996-01-01

234

EGRAM- ECHELLE SPECTROGRAPH DESIGN AID  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

EGRAM aids in the design of spectrographic systems that utilize an echelle-first order cross disperser combination. This optical combination causes a two dimensional echellogram to fall on a detector. EGRAM describes the echellogram with enough detail to allow the user to effectively judge the feasibility of the spectrograph's design. By iteratively altering system parameters, the desired echellogram can be achieved without making a physical model. EGRAM calculates system parameters which are accurate to the first order and compare favorably to results from ray tracing techniques. The spectrographic system modelled by EGRAM consists of an entrance aperture, collimator, echelle, cross dispersion grating, focusing options, and a detector. The system is assumed to be free of aberrations and the echelle, cross disperser, and detector should be planar. The EGRAM program is menu driven and has a HELP facility. The user is prompted for information such as minimum and maximum wavelengths, slit dimensions, ruling frequencies, detector geometry, and angle of incidence. EGRAM calculates the resolving power and range of order numbers covered by the echellogram. A numerical map is also produced. This tabulates the order number, slit bandpass, and high/middle/low wavelengths. EGRAM can also compute the centroid coordinates of a specific wavelength and order (or vice versa). EGRAM is written for interactive execution and is written in Microsoft BASIC A. It has been implemented on an IBM PC series computer operating under DOS. EGRAM was developed in 1985.

Dantzler, A. A.

1994-01-01

235

Maximum life spur gear design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Optimization procedures allow one to design a spur gear reduction for maximum life and other end use criteria. A modified feasible directions search algorithm permits a wide variety of inequality constraints and exact design requirements to be met with low sensitivity to initial guess values. The optimization algorithm is described, and the models for gear life and performance are presented. The algorithm is compact and has been programmed for execution on a desk top computer. Two examples are presented to illustrate the method and its application.

Savage, M.; Mackulin, B. J.; Coe, H. H.; Coy, J. J.

1991-01-01

236

Magnetostrictive torque sensor and its output characteristics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A magnetostrictive torque sensor which can be installed in an automobile transmission to measure torque has been developed. The sensor shaft consists of two grooved sections. An ac bridge circuit formed by two coils surrounding the grooved sections and two fixed resistors is used to detect torque. The shaft material is a newly developed Cr-Mo steel. The sensitivity of the sensor is stable over a wide temperature range. However, the zero point of the sensor output drifted as much as 10% of the full scale of the sensor when the temperature was uniformly raised by 50 °C. To solve the temperature drift problem, the output characteristics of the bridge circuit were examined. It was found that the output signal (sinusoidal wave) from an initially balanced bridge consisted of torque and temperature components. Each component showed a constant phase angle. The torque phase angle was a fixed value whereas that of the temperature was controllable. A method was devised for separating the temperature phase angle from the torque one by about 90° and then eliminating the temperature component from the output signal. The resulting temperature drift of the sensor was less than 1% of the full measurement scale per 50 °C. This paper describes the shaft material, magnetostrictive properties of the shaft, torque and temperature dependence of coil impedances and output characteristics of the bridge circuit.

Shimada, Munekatsu

1993-05-01

237

The output amplitude prediction of crystal oscillator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Crystal oscillator is an important component of the microwave and RF devices. One of the most important characteristics of crystal oscillators is phase noise spectrum. Phase noise within the half-bandwidth of the loop is closely related to the loaded quality factor QL. According to our research about Pierce oscillator circuit, we can derive that phase noise improves with increasing QL and an appropriate increase in the value of collector-to-ground capacitance C1 can improve QL. However, to change the value of C1 also affects the output amplitude of oscillation circuit. In the paper, the method of predicting output amplitude is presented and a prototype 50 MHz AT-cut 3rd overtone Pierce low phase noise crystal oscillator is designed. The output amplitude variation versus the value of C1 can be obtained with MATLAB. On the premise of specific value of C1, the values of other circuit parameters are changed to make sure that output amplitude is maintained in the required value range. A design of the prototype 50MHz Pierce crystal oscillator is presented and the experiments are carried out. The measurement phase noise results are -126 dBc/Hz@100Hz and -151 dBc/Hz@1KHz. Experimental result shows it is necessary to predict the output amplitude of crystal oscillators.

Wang, Yan; Huang, Xianhe

2013-03-01

238

World AIDs Day Map  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Lex Talkington Design, Inc. this visually stimulating and engaging website takes visitors into the AIDS pandemic and how it has affected children throughout the developing world. After a brief introduction, visitors will be presented with a rotating series of images that profile different children from Thailand, India, Kenya, and a host of other places. Upon clicking each icon, visitors can then read short narratives about young people like Fred in Uganda, who at age eight became the primary caregiver for his younger brother after his parents both succumbed to AIDS. All told, the site contains over two dozen profiles that offer unique, albeit troubling, portraits of the struggles faced by young people who are coping with the increasingly widespread effects of this disease.

239

Financial Aid Administrators' Views on Simplifying Financial Aid: NASFAA's 2008 Financial Aid Simplification Survey Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite a decade of simplification efforts, students and families are often still baffled by the student aid process and cringe at the sight of financial aid application forms. Contrary to its purpose of helping students to access college, the student aid application process causes families frustration and confusion that has been cited as an…

National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NJ1), 2008

2008-01-01

240

Localized maximum entropy shape modelling.  

PubMed

A core part of many medical image segmentation techniques is the point distribution model, i.e., the landmark-based statistical shape model which describes the type of shapes under consideration. To build a proper model, that is flexible and generalizes well, one typically needs a large amount of landmarked training data, which can be hard to obtain. This problem becomes worse with increasing shape complexity and dimensionality. This work presents a novel methodology applicable to principal component-based shape model building and similar techniques. The main idea of the method is to make regular PCA shape modelling more flexible by using merely covariances between neighboring landmarks. The remaining unknown second order moments are determined using the maximum entropy principle based on which the full covariance matrix--as employed in the PCA--is determined using matrix completion. The method presented can be applied in a variety of situations and in conjunction with other technique facilitating model building. The experiments on point distributions demonstrate that improved shape models can be obtained using this localized maximum entropy modelling. PMID:17633734

Loog, Marco

2007-01-01

241

Application of artificial neural networks in computer-aided diagnosis.  

PubMed

Computer-aided diagnosis is a diagnostic procedure in which a radiologist uses the outputs of computer analysis of medical images as a second opinion in the interpretation of medical images, either to help with lesion detection or to help determine if the lesion is benign or malignant. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are usually employed to formulate the statistical models for computer analysis. Receiver operating characteristic curves are used to evaluate the performance of the ANN alone, as well as the diagnostic performance of radiologists who take into account the ANN output as a second opinion. In this chapter, we use mammograms to illustrate how an ANN model is trained, tested, and evaluated, and how a radiologist should use the ANN output as a second opinion in CAD. PMID:25502383

Liu, Bei

2015-01-01

242

Laser -Aided Spherometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser-aided spherometer is a novel designation for a flexible and high performance instrument to the measurement of curvature radii of spherical surfaces. Combining the well established technique of Laser interferometer for linear displacement measurement with the principle of a classical spherometer frame, an accuracy of one order of a magnitude better than current type of precision interferometers is reached. This stays as the first mark on the development of an all-optical high precision spherometer.

Soares, Oliverio D. D.; Fernandez, Jose F.

1989-01-01

243

Directional Hearing Aid  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hearing-aid device indicates visually whether sound is coming from left, right, back, or front. Device intended to assist individuals who are deaf in at least one ear and unable to discern naturally directions to sources of sound. Device promotes safety in street traffic, on loading docks, and in presence of sirens, alarms, and other warning sounds. Quadraphonic version of device built into pair of eyeglasses and binaural version built into visor.

Jhabvala, M.; Lin, H. C.

1989-01-01

244

Output radiation from a degenerate parametric oscillator  

E-print Network

We study the squeezing as well as the statistical properties of the output radiation from a degenerate parametric oscillator coupled to a squeezed vacuum reservoir employing the stochastic differential equations associated with the normal ordering. It is found that the degree of squeezing of the output radiation is less than the corresponding cavity radiation. However, for output radiation the correlation of the quadrature operators evaluated at different times also exhibits squeezing, which is the reason for quenching of the overall noise in one of the quadrature components of the squeezing spectrum even when the oscillator is coupled to a vacuum reservoir. Moreover, coupling the oscillator to the squeezed vacuum reservoir enhances the squeezing exponentially and it also increases the mean photon number.

Sintayehu Tesfa

2007-02-12

245

Regulating glottal airflow in phonation: Application of the maximum power transfer theorem to a low dimensional phonation model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two competing views of regulating glottal airflow for maximum vocal output are investigated theoretically. The maximum power transfer theorem is used as a guide. A wide epilarynx tube (laryngeal vestibule) matches well with low glottal resistance (believed to correspond to the ``yawn-sigh'' approach in voice therapy), whereas a narrow epilarynx tube matches well with a higher glottal resistance (believed to

Ingo R. Titze

2002-01-01

246

Noncoherent Combination Of Optical-Heterodyne Outputs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In proposed scheme for reception of amplitude- or frequency-modulated signals transmitted optically through atmosphere, main receiver aperture divided into subapertures equipped with receivers, and outputs of receivers combined noncoherently. Multiple subaperture receivers used instead of attempting to focus all light from single large aperture onto one receiver. Outputs of receivers combined after demodulation. System will not perform as well as fully coherent system, but surpasses single-large-aperture system in presence of atmospheric turbulence. Offers superior performance in presence of distorted wavefront and/or imperfect receiver optics.

Chen, Chien-Chung; Lesh, James R.

1990-01-01

247

[AIDS prevention in Germany].  

PubMed

In 1987 the national AIDS prevention campaign "Gib AIDS keine Chance" (Don't give AIDS a chance) was started in Germany. After a very difficult and controversial political debate about a probably successful response to AIDS, in the end a political decision was made in favour of the implementation of a long term "social learning strategy". Thus, since then the Bundeszentrale für gesundheitliche Aufklärung (Federal Centre for Health Education, BZgA) has been running the campaign on behalf of the Federal Ministry of Health. The result of this prevention program is a low rate of infections. In Germany there were 2600 newly diagnosed infections in 2005: 59 % in homosexual men, 16 % by heterosexual contacts, 17 % in people from high prevalence countries and 7 % in i.v. drug users. In comparison to the international situation Germany has a relatively low HIV-prevalence even nowadays. However, Germany has also been confronted with an increasing number of newly diagnosed infections in the last few years. When the prevention program was started it was very important to build new structures for a successful implementation of the campaign. That meant for instance to build up an effective infrastructure for cooperation between the governmental and the nongovernmental sector, including organising the coordinated action among the partners at the federal, regional and local levels. Likewise, international networking was of great importance. A key element, relevant for the success of the campaign was the close cooperation at the federal level between the BZgA and the Deutsche AIDS Hilfe (German AIDS Help, DAH), to combine the highreach intervention in low-prevalence populations with intensive interventions for high prevalence groups. An effective national AIDS prevention campaign must reach the whole population; inform the public about the main risks of infection, about methods of protection and about what is not infectious. Moreover groups with a higher level of risk of infection must be addressed and motivated to adopt protective behaviour more intensely. The campaign thus must comprise closely related and mutually reinforcing elements: mass communication and individual communication measures, aimed at the public at large and at individual subgroups, national and international cooperation, especially the cooperation and task sharing with the DAH aimed at prevention in the epidemiologically most significant target groups, evaluation and quality assurance. The key element in this respect is the BZgA's annual representative survey of information levels, attitudes, motivation and behaviour in the more than 16- year-old population. In addition to the model of the special partnership between the BZgA and the DAH, a range of public-public partnerships, due to the German federalistic system, and public-private partnerships, which support public efforts, are necessary. It is shown that an increasing number of private partners are necessary to reinforce the program in a situation where Germany has to face new challenges. The new challenges are for instance high mobility in a globalizing society. In a world wide spreading epidemic no country will be excluded from the international development; the increase of other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs); a tendency to decreasing protective behaviour caused by the optimism that a definitive cure may soon be available. The conception of evaluation of the campaign comprises an annual monitoring of knowledge, attitude and behaviour in the whole population and in specific target groups. It includes pretests of specific prevention instruments and evaluation of different activities. An indicator system is developed to measure the results of the campaign. By continuous feedback of the evaluation results into the further development of the campaign the steering of the campaign at a high level of quality is ensured. PMID:17387442

Pott, E

2007-04-01

248

Computer-aided diagnosis in thoracic CT.  

PubMed

Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) provides a computerized diagnostic result as a "second opinion" to assist radiologists in the diagnosis of various diseases by use of medical images. CAD has become a practical clinical approach in diagnostic radiology, although, at present, primarily in the area of detection of breast cancer in mammograms. Currently, a large research effort has been devoted to the detection and classification of various lung diseases in thoracic computed tomography (CT) images. We describe in this article the current status of the development of CAD schemes in thoracic CT, including nodule detection, distinction between benign and malignant nodules, and detection, characterization, and differential diagnosis of diffuse lung disease. Observer performance studies indicate that these CAD schemes would be useful in clinical practice by providing radiologists with computer output as a "second opinion." PMID:16274004

Li, Qiang; Li, Feng; Suzuki, Kenji; Shiraishi, Junji; Abe, Hiroyuki; Engelmann, Roger; Nie, Yongkang; MacMahon, Heber; Doi, Kunio

2005-10-01

249

Exact emulation of an output queueing switch by a combined input output queueing switch  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combined input-output queueing switches (CIOQ) have better scaling properties than output queueing (OQ) switches. However, a CIOQ switch may have lower switch throughput and, more importantly, it is difficult to control delay in a CIOQ switch due to the existence of multiple queueing points. In this paper, we study the following problem: can a CIOQ switch be designed to behave

Ion Stoica; Hui Zhang

1998-01-01

250

Porous radiant burners having increased radiant output  

DOEpatents

Means and methods for enhancing the output of radiant energy from a porous radiant burner by minimizing the scattering and increasing the adsorption, and thus emission of such energy by the use of randomly dispersed ceramic fibers of sub-micron diameter in the fabrication of ceramic fiber matrix burners and for use therein.

Tong, Timothy W. (Tempe, AZ); Sathe, Sanjeev B. (Tempe, AZ); Peck, Robert E. (Tempe, AZ)

1990-01-01

251

Contemporary Mathematics Nonlinear Input-Output Equilibrium  

E-print Network

and study Nonlinear Input-Output Equilibrium (NIOE). The main difference between NIOE and the classical of productive sectors of an economy. Since WW2 the IO model has been widely used for analysis of economic. The applications of IO range from a branch of a single economy to the World economy. The main contributor to IO

Polyak, Roman A.

252

Input-output, expandable-parity network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Large-scale integrated circuit generates and checks parity of four eight-bit registers. In addition, circuit will indicate by output signal whether parity error exists. Circuit can also generate or check parity of words up to 32 bits. This is done by making appropriate internal wiring connections on the large-scale integrated chip.

Mckevitt, J. F., III

1974-01-01

253

BIBO Output Feedback Stabilization With Saturated Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the problem of stabilization of mildly nonlinear systems with saturatedcontrol, a simple and computationally attractive method of designing astabilizing gain scheduled output feedback is proposed. The resultingcontroller is characterized by an efficient use of the actuator capacity("agressive" control), and is supplied with rigorously proven input\\/outputperformance bounds. In particular, for the case of stabilization of a lineartime invariant system without

A. Megretski

1996-01-01

254

Emulating Multivariate Output with Derivative Information  

E-print Network

Emulating Multivariate Output with Derivative Information Gemma Stephenson, James Gattiker with a computationally expensive model. Hence an emulator, which is a statistical approximator to the simulator, can model and the emulator is built based on data collected from running the simulator at a specified, small

Oakley, Jeremy

255

A Large Scale Computer Terminal Output Controller.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the design and implementation of a large scale computer terminal output controller which supervises the transfer of information from a Control Data 6400 Computer to a PLATO IV data network. It discusses the cost considerations leading to the selection of educational television channels rather than telephone lines for…

Tucker, Paul Thomas

256

Kernel Support Vector Regression with imprecise output  

E-print Network

Jan 27, 2008 ... ?-Support Vector Regression approach is given, where two hyperplanes need to ... the simplest version of possibilistic regression analysis, introduced by Tanaka et al. (see ... Function networks which identify the upper and lower sides of the output. ..... conditions must be satisfied (see Section 4.3 in [1]),.

2008-01-27

257

H ESTIMATION OF SYSTEMS WITH IMPLICIT OUTPUTS  

E-print Network

H ESTIMATION OF SYSTEMS WITH IMPLICIT OUTPUTS An application to Pose Estimation of Autonomous and attitude of an autonomous vehicle with respect to a desired coordinate system defined by visual landmarks not be complete. In this way, we can deal with usual problems in vision systems such as noise as well as latency

Hespanha, João Pedro

258

Better sensors = better imagery = better outputs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The photogrammetric workflow has traditionally relied upon the use of high quality metric cameras that enable the acquisition of good quality imagery, from which outputs with a well constrained geometry can be obtained. However with the proliferation of low altitude aerial photography from a range of platforms, the quality of sensor itself has largely become of secondary importance in order to reduce weight and minimise cost. These instruments are often "off-the-shelf" consumer digital cameras, not designed for either aerial photography or photogrammetry. This imposes limitations upon the quality of imagery that can be collected and outputs subsequently produced. Photogrammetric techniques such as a self-calibrating bundle adjustment or Structure from Motion allow the use of "less stable" imagery. Yet at the simplest level, the better the sensor, the better the imagery, the better the output. Where analysis and the validity of scientific conclusions are dependent upon the quality of outputs it is critical that consideration is given to the choice of sensor - the wide availability and application of UAVs across disciplines means that users may not be aware of such choices and their implications. This presentation is designed to stimulate discussion around the use of consumer cameras with a focus upon the exposure triangle of ISO-aperture-shutter speed and how this is related to dynamic range and the signal-to-noise ratio. A further important factor is understanding the ground resolution element in terms of resolution, focal length, sensor size (crop factor) and height.

Smith, Michael

2014-05-01

259

Improving Purchase Prices on Agricultural Output  

Microsoft Academic Search

The further improvement of purchase prices on agricultural output is one of the most important prerequisites for the successful implementation of the economic reform, strengthening the principles of cost accounting, strengthening economic incentives for raising agricultural production, and increasing its effectiveness. As we know, economically substantiated purchase prices should compensate socially necessary expenditures on the production of agricultural products and

A. Bazlova

1973-01-01

260

Characterizing Detonator Output Using Dynamic Witness Plates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A sub-microsecond, time-resolved micro-particle-image velocimetry (PIV) system is developed to investigate the output of explosive detonators. Detonator output is directed into a transparent solid that serves as a dynamic witness plate and instantaneous shock and material velocities are measured in a two-dimensional plane cutting through the shock wave as it propagates through the solid. For the case of unloaded initiators (e.g. exploding bridge wires, exploding foil initiators, etc.) the witness plate serves as a surrogate for the explosive material that would normally be detonated. The velocity-field measurements quantify the velocity of the shocked material and visualize the geometry of the shocked region. Furthermore, the time-evolution of the velocity-field can be measured at intervals as small as 10 ns using the PIV system. Current experimental results of unloaded exploding bridge wire output in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) witness plates demonstrate 20 MHz velocity-field sampling just 300 ns after initiation of the wire. Successful application of the PIV system to full-up explosive detonator output is also demonstrated.

Murphy, Michael; Adrian, Ronald

2009-06-01

261

Epigenetic regulation of HIV, AIDS, and AIDS-related malignancies.  

PubMed

Although epigenetics is not a new field, its implications for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) research have not been explored fully. To develop therapeutic and preventive approaches against the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and AIDS, it is essential to understand the mechanisms of interaction between the virus and the host, involvement of genetic and epigenetic mechanisms, characterization of viral reservoirs, and factors influencing the latency of the virus. Both methylation of viral genes and histone modifications contribute to initiating and maintaining latency and, depending on the context, triggering viral gene repression or expression. This chapter discusses progress made at the National Institutes of Health (NIH), recommendations from the International AIDS Society Scientific Working Group on HIV Cure, and underlying epigenetic regulation. A number of epigenetic inhibitors have shown potential in treating AIDS-related malignancies. Epigenetic drugs approved by the US Food and Drug Administration and their implications for the eradication of HIV/AIDS and AIDS-related malignancies also are discussed.Past and current progress in developing treatments and understanding the molecular mechanisms of AIDS and HIV infection has greatly improved patient survival. However, increased survival has been coupled with the development of cancer at higher rates than those observed among the HIV/AIDS-negative population. During the early days of the AIDS epidemic, the most frequent AIDS-defining malignancies were Kaposi's sarcoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Now, with increased survival as the result of widespread use in the developed world of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), non-AIDS defining cancers (i.e., anal, skin, and lung cancers, and Hodgkin disease) are on the increase in HIV-infected populations. The current status of AIDS-related malignancies also is discussed. PMID:25421672

Verma, Mukesh

2015-01-01

262

A Radiometric Study of Factors Affecting Drug Output of Jet Nebulizers  

PubMed Central

Jet nebulizers show an unreasonable variation in drug output and nebulization rates that leads to clinical and regulatory problems. Current evaluation methods appear inadequate for the purpose. Our objective was to evaluate Technetium-99m radiometry to study nebulizer parameters and the factors influencing it quantitatively. Drug output, output rate and residual mass and the effect of excipient, temperature, surface tension, air-jet speed, and equipment brand and aging were studied. Though nebulization of radiolabeled drugs followed first-order kinetics, the rates were significantly different; the heaviest drug (Tc-99m colloid) and Tc-99m salbutamol had the least nebulization. Nebulization rate for the first minute was invariably higher than the mean rate signifying the concentration effect of the solute. Drug residue was 35-75%. Drug output of different nebulizer chamber and air compressor brands was different to the extent of 270% and 180% respectively. ‘Aging’ of fluid chamber, cold drug fluid and obstruction in air-jet resulted in significant reduction in output, while addition of 2% saline as excipient did not change the output rate. Addition of ethyl alcohol resulted in a maximum of 260% enhancement (with Tc-99m salbutamol), while further reduction in surface tension was counterproductive irrespective of the drug used. We conclude that radiometry can provide valuable parametric information on the performance of different jet nebulizers. PMID:20582187

Mittal, G.; Kumar, N.; Rawat, H.; Chopra, M. K.; Bhatnagar, A.

2010-01-01

263

Plasticity of the prolactin (PRL) axis: mechanisms underlying regulation of output in female mice.  

PubMed

The output of prolactin (PRL) is highly dynamic with dramatic changes in its secretion from the anterior pituitary gland depending on prevailing physiological status. In adult female mice, there are three distinct phases of output and each of these is related to the functions of PRL at specific stages of reproduction. Recent studies of the changes in the regulation of PRL during its period of maximum output, lactation, have shown alterations at both the level of the anterior pituitary and hypothalamus. The PRL-secreting cells of the anterior pituitary are organised into a homotypic network in virgin animals, facilitating coordinated bouts of activity between interconnected PRL cells. During lactation, coordinated activity increases due to the changes in structural connectivity, and this drives large elevations in PRL secretion. Surprisingly, these changes in connectivity are maintained after weaning, despite reversion of PRL output to that of virgin animals, and result in an augmented output of hormone during a second lactation. At the level of the hypothalamus, tuberoinfundibular dopamine (TIDA) neurons, the major inhibitors of PRL secretion, have unexpectedly been shown to remain responsive to PRL during lactation. However, there is an uncoupling between TIDA neuron firing and dopamine secretion, with a potential switch to enkephalin release. Such a process may reinforce hormone secretion through dual disinhibition and stimulation of PRL cell activity. Thus, integration of signalling along the hypothalamo-pituitary axis is responsible for increased secretory output of PRL cells during lactation, as well as allowing the system to anticipate future demands. PMID:25472537

Le Tissier, P R; Hodson, D J; Martin, A O; Romanò, N; Mollard, P

2015-01-01

264

Wind speed sensorless maximum power point tracking control of variable speed wind energy conversion systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A maximum power point tracking (MPPT) controller for variable speed wind energy conversion system (WECS) is proposed. The proposed method, without requiring the knowledge of wind speed, air density or turbine parameters, generates at its output the optimum speed command for speed control loop of rotor flux oriented vector controlled machine side converter control system using only the instantaneous active

J. S. Thongam; P. Bouchard; H. Ezzaidi; M. Ouhrouche

2009-01-01

265

Neural network based estimation of maximum power generation from PV module using environmental information  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an application of an artificial neural network for the estimation of maximum power generation from PV module. The output power from a PV module depends on environmental factors such as irradiation and cell temperature. For the operation planning of power systems, the prediction of the power generation is inevitable for PV systems. For this purpose, irradiation, temperature

Takashi Hiyama; Ken Kitabayashi

1997-01-01

266

Multiple Early Eocene Thermal Maximums  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Periodic dissolution horizons signifying abrupt shoaling of the lysocline and CCD are characteristic features of deep-sea sections and often attributed to Milankovitch forcing via their diagnostic frequencies. Prominent dissolution horizons also correspond to abrupt climate events, such as the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM), as a result of input of significant CH4 - CO2 into the ocean-atmosphere system. The question arises whether other significant dissolution horizons identified in sediments of late Paleocene and early Eocene age similar to the recently identified ELMO (Lourens et al., 2004) were formed as a result of greenhouse gas input, or whether they were related to cumulative effects of periodic changes in ocean chemistry and circulation. Here we report the discovery of a 3rd thermal maximum in early Eocene (about 52 Ma) sediments recovered from the South Atlantic during ODP Leg 208. The prominent clay layer was named the "X" event and was identified within planktonic foraminifer zone P7 and calcareous nannofossil zone CP10 at four Walvis Ridge Transect sites with a water depth range of 2000 m (Sites 1262 to 1267). Benthics assemblages are composed of small individuals, have low diversity and high dominance. Dominant taxa are Nuttallides truempyi and various abyssaminids, resembling the post PETM extinction assemblages. High-resolution bulk carbonate \\delta13C measurements of one of the more shallow Sites 1265 reveal a rapid about 0.6 per mill drop in \\delta13C and \\delta18O followed by an exponential recovery to pre-excursion \\delta13C values well known for the PETM and also observed for the ELMO. The planktonic foraminiferal \\delta13C records of Morozovella subbotina and Acaranina soldadoensis in the deepest Site 1262 show a 0.8 to 0.9 per mill drop, whereas the \\delta13C drop of benthic foraminifera Nuttallides truempyi is slightly larger (about 1 per mill). We are evaluating mechanisms for the widespread change in deep-water chemistry, its connection to the surface-water response, and the relationship of the event, as well as the PETM and ELMO, with current astronomical solutions (Laskar et al., 2004; Varadi et al., 2003). References 1. Lourens, L.J., Sluijs, A., Kroon, D., Zachos, J.C., Thomas, E., Roehl, U., and the ODP Leg 208 Shipboard Scientific Party, 2004. An early Eocene transient warming (~53 Ma): Implications for astronomically-paced early Eocene hyperthermal events.- Abstract, 8th International Conference on Paleoceanography (ICP), 5-10 September 2004, Biarritz, France. 2. F. Varadi, B. Bunnegar, M. Ghil, Astrophysical J. 592, 620-630 (2003). 3. J. Laskar et al., Astronomy and Astrophysics (2004).

Roehl, U.; Zachos, J. C.; Thomas, E.; Kelly, D. C.; Donner, B.; Westerhold, T.

2004-12-01

267

Harvest Aids in Sorghum  

E-print Network

for stalk degradation from diseases such as charcoal rot, which will cause premature lodging during natural dry down or after harvest aids are applied (Figure 2). To check the plants before treatment, split the stalk lengthwise and look for a hollow stem... or black rot just above the root crown. If the stalk is unhealthy, it will generally fall, whether or not it has been treated. Figures 3 and 4 show what to look for in finding charcoal rot and what to expect if an application is made without assessing...

Stichler, Charles; Livingston, Stephen

2003-03-11

268

Should Aid Reward Performance?  

PubMed Central

We report an experiment in 3,000 villages that tested whether incentives improve aid efficacy. Villages received block grants for maternal and child health and education that incorporated relative performance incentives. Subdistricts were randomized into incentives, an otherwise identical program without incentives, or control. Incentives initially improved preventative health indicators, particularly in underdeveloped areas, and spending efficiency increased. While school enrollments improved overall, incentives had no differential impact on education, and incentive health effects diminished over time. Reductions in neonatal mortality in non-incentivized areas did not persist with incentives. We find no systematic scoring manipulation nor funding reallocation toward richer areas. PMID:25485039

Olken, Benjamin A.; Onishi, Junko; Wong, Susan

2014-01-01

269

Jet and ultrasonic nebuliser output: use of a new method for direct measurement of aerosol output.  

PubMed Central

Output from jet nebulisers is calibrated traditionally by weighing them before and after nebulisation, but the assumption that the weight difference is a close measure of aerosol generation could be invalidated by the concomitant process of evaporation. A method has been developed for measuring aerosol output directly by using a solute (fluoride) tracer and aerosol impaction, and this has been compared with the traditional weight loss method for two Wright, six Turbo, and four Micro-Cirrus jet nebulisers and two Microinhaler ultrasonic nebulisers. The weight loss method overestimated true aerosol output for all jet nebulisers. The mean aerosol content, expressed as a percentage of the total weight loss, varied from as little as 15% for the Wright jet nebulisers to 54% (range 45-61%) for the Turbo and Micro-Cirrus jet nebulisers under the operating conditions used. In contrast, there was no discrepancy between weight loss and aerosol output for the ultrasonic nebulisers. These findings, along with evidence of both concentrating and cooling effects from jet nebulisation, confirm that total output from jet nebulisers contains two distinct fractions, vapour and aerosol. The vapour fraction, but not the aerosol fraction, was greatly influenced by reservoir temperature within the nebuliser; so the ratio of aerosol output to total weight loss varied considerably with temperature. It is concluded that weight loss is an inappropriate method of calibrating jet nebuliser aerosol output, and that this should be measured directly. PMID:2247862

Dennis, J H; Stenton, S C; Beach, J R; Avery, A J; Walters, E H; Hendrick, D J

1990-01-01

270

The maximum drag reduction asymptote  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Addition of a small amount of long chain polymers to a Newtonian solvent can lead to a dramatic drag reduction in turbulent flows. This effect has been extensively studied since its discovery in the late 1940's. The drag reduction at first is proportional to the polymer concentration (Weisenberg number) but then saturates to the maximum drag reduction (MDR) asymptote. It is commonly believed that drag reduction results from an adjustment of the turbulent flow structure due to the action of the polymers. We here present experimental results of turbulent pipe flows using dilute polyacrylamid solutions at relatively large Weisenberg numbers (˜10). Our results show that for relatively low polymer concentrations transition to turbulence is postponed to higher Reynolds numbers. However when the Weisenberg number is increased further we find that the subcritical transition to turbulence, typical for Newtonian pipe flow disappears. Instead a supercritical instability is found at much lower Reynolds numbers which gives rise to a disordered flow. The observed drag of this disordered flow is identical to the well known MDR asymptote.

Hof, Björn; Samanta, Devranjan; Wagner, Christian

2011-11-01

271

Aide au logement et emploi  

Microsoft Academic Search

[fre] Parmi les allocataires du RMI sans conjoint ni enfant, ceux qui bénéficient d’une aide au logement reprennent plus souvent que les autres une activité. Ce résultat peut surprendre. En effet, les bénéficiaires d’une aide disposent d’un revenu global supérieur. De plus, l’aide au logement est fortement redistributive, et les gains retirés de la reprise d’un emploi se trouvent réduits

Cédric Afsa

2001-01-01

272

Frequency-Shift Hearing Aid  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed hearing aid maps spectrum of speech into band of lower frequencies at which ear remains sensitive. By redirecting normal speech frequencies into frequency band from 100 to 1,500 Hz, hearing aid allows people to understand normal conversation, including telephone calls. Principle operation of hearing aid adapted to other uses such as, clearing up noisy telephone or radio communication. In addition, loud-speakers more easily understood in presence of high background noise.

Weinstein, Leonard M.

1994-01-01

273

Fuel dispenser aid  

SciTech Connect

A fuel dispenser aid is described for holding a trigger-like valve operating lever relative to a pistol grip-like handle portion of a valving device for dispensing gasoline or other fuels through a nozzle of the valving device, said fuel dispenser aid comprising: a mounting member formed of a material having a resilient, shape retaining character and configured for mounting over the pistol grip-like handle portion of the valving device, a flexible strap secured at a first end thereof to the mounting member and extending freely therefrom such that when the mounting member is mounted over the pistol grip-like handle portion of the valving device the free portion of the strap can he looped under the trigger-like valve operating lever and up to the mounting member, and fastening means for releasably and adjustably fastening the free portion of the strap to the mounting member after the free portion of the strap has been looped under the valve operating lever and up to the mounting member whereby the valve operating lever can be held in a desired set position relative to the handle portion of the valving device for dispensing fuel without requiring that the operating lever of the valving device continuously be manually held in said set position.

Bobst, J.M.

1993-08-31

274

Foreign Aid and Domestic Politics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The links between,foreign aid and,policies in developing,countries have,been,at the forefront of the policy debate,for decades.,An emerging,consensus,touts aid selectivity as the solution to the failures of conditionality. In recent years, many recipients have implemented,political reforms,resulting in more democratic,regimes. I show,that donor influence depends,on the aid budget,being large enough,relative to the recipient. I also demonstrate that if aid influences policies, the

Rune Jansen Hagen

275

Electronic filters, signal conversion apparatus, hearing aids and methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An electronic filter for filtering an electrical signal. Signal processing circuitry therein includes a logarithmic filter having a series of filter stages with inputs and outputs in cascade and respective circuits associated with the filter stages for storing electrical representations of filter parameters. The filter stages include circuits for respectively adding the electrical representations of the filter parameters to the electrical signal to be filtered thereby producing a set of filter sum signals. At least one of the filter stages includes circuitry for producing a filter signal in substantially logarithmic form at its output by combining a filter sum signal for that filter stage with a signal from an output of another filter stage. The signal processing circuitry produces an intermediate output signal, and a multiplexer connected to the signal processing circuit multiplexes the intermediate output signal with the electrical signal to be filtered so that the logarithmic filter operates as both a logarithmic prefilter and a logarithmic postfilter. Other electronic filters, signal conversion apparatus, electroacoustic systems, hearing aids and methods are also disclosed.

Morley, Jr., Robert E. (Inventor); Engebretson, A. Maynard (Inventor); Engel, George L. (Inventor); Sullivan, Thomas J. (Inventor)

1994-01-01

276

Maximum entropy principal for transportation  

SciTech Connect

In this work we deal with modeling of the transportation phenomenon for use in the transportation planning process and policy-impact studies. The model developed is based on the dependence concept, i.e., the notion that the probability of a trip starting at origin i is dependent on the probability of a trip ending at destination j given that the factors (such as travel time, cost, etc.) which affect travel between origin i and destination j assume some specific values. The derivation of the solution of the model employs the maximum entropy principle combining a priori multinomial distribution with a trip utility concept. This model is utilized to forecast trip distributions under a variety of policy changes and scenarios. The dependence coefficients are obtained from a regression equation where the functional form is derived based on conditional probability and perception of factors from experimental psychology. The dependence coefficients encode all the information that was previously encoded in the form of constraints. In addition, the dependence coefficients encode information that cannot be expressed in the form of constraints for practical reasons, namely, computational tractability. The equivalence between the standard formulation (i.e., objective function with constraints) and the dependence formulation (i.e., without constraints) is demonstrated. The parameters of the dependence-based trip-distribution model are estimated, and the model is also validated using commercial air travel data in the U.S. In addition, policy impact analyses (such as allowance of supersonic flights inside the U.S. and user surcharge at noise-impacted airports) on air travel are performed.

Bilich, F. [University of Brasilia (Brazil); Da Silva, R. [National Research Council (Brazil)

2008-11-06

277

The Sherpa Maximum Likelihood Estimator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A primary goal for the second release of the Chandra Source Catalog (CSC) is to include X-ray sources with as few as 5 photon counts detected in stacked observations of the same field, while maintaining acceptable detection efficiency and false source rates. Aggressive source detection methods will result in detection of many false positive source candidates. Candidate detections will then be sent to a new tool, the Maximum Likelihood Estimator (MLE), to evaluate the likelihood that a detection is a real source. MLE uses the Sherpa modeling and fitting engine to fit a model of a background and source to multiple overlapping candidate source regions. A background model is calculated by simultaneously fitting the observed photon flux in multiple background regions. This model is used to determine the quality of the fit statistic for a background-only hypothesis in the potential source region. The statistic for a background-plus-source hypothesis is calculated by adding a Gaussian source model convolved with the appropriate Chandra point spread function (PSF) and simultaneously fitting the observed photon flux in each observation in the stack. Since a candidate source may be located anywhere in the field of view of each stacked observation, a different PSF must be used for each observation because of the strong spatial dependence of the Chandra PSF. The likelihood of a valid source being detected is a function of the two statistics (for background alone, and for background-plus-source). The MLE tool is an extensible Python module with potential for use by the general Chandra user.

Nguyen, D.; Doe, S.; Evans, I.; Hain, R.; Primini, F.

2011-07-01

278

UFO - The Universal FeynRules Output  

E-print Network

We present a new model format for automatized matrix-element generators, the so- called Universal FeynRules Output (UFO). The format is universal in the sense that it features compatibility with more than one single generator and is designed to be flexible, modular and agnostic of any assumption such as the number of particles or the color and Lorentz structures appearing in the interaction vertices. Unlike other model formats where text files need to be parsed, the information on the model is encoded into a Python module that can easily be linked to other computer codes. We then describe an interface for the Mathematica package FeynRules that allows for an automatic output of models in the UFO format.

Degrande, Céline; Fuks, Benjamin; Grellscheid, David; Mattelaer, Olivier; Reiter, Thomas

2011-01-01

279

UFO - The Universal FeynRules Output  

E-print Network

We present a new model format for automatized matrix-element generators, the so- called Universal FeynRules Output (UFO). The format is universal in the sense that it features compatibility with more than one single generator and is designed to be flexible, modular and agnostic of any assumption such as the number of particles or the color and Lorentz structures appearing in the interaction vertices. Unlike other model formats where text files need to be parsed, the information on the model is encoded into a Python module that can easily be linked to other computer codes. We then describe an interface for the Mathematica package FeynRules that allows for an automatic output of models in the UFO format.

Céline Degrande; Claude Duhr; Benjamin Fuks; David Grellscheid; Olivier Mattelaer; Thomas Reiter

2012-07-31

280

Spacelab output processing system architectural study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two different system architectures are presented. The two architectures are derived from two different data flows within the Spacelab Output Processing System. The major differences between these system architectures are in the position of the decommutation function (the first architecture performs decommutation in the latter half of the system and the second architecture performs that function in the front end of the system). In order to be examined, the system was divided into five stand-alone subsystems; Work Assembler, Mass Storage System, Output Processor, Peripheral Pool, and Resource Monitor. The work load of each subsystem was estimated independent of the specific devices to be used. The candidate devices were surveyed from a wide sampling of off-the-shelf devices. Analytical expressions were developed to quantify the projected workload in conjunction with typical devices which would adequately handle the subsystem tasks. All of the study efforts were then directed toward preparing performance and cost curves for each architecture subsystem.

1977-01-01

281

Measurement of output characteristics of Tm:YAG laser at 25-300 K  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, output characteristics of a laser diode end-pumped Tm:YAG laser in a wide temperature range were investigated. In this laser system, a Tm:YAG crystal was cooled in a cryostat with liquid helium or liquid nitrogen as coolant. At the temperature of 88 K, a maximum output power of 4.68 W is achieved when the incident pump power is 8.9 W, and the optical-optical conversion efficiency is 52.6%, with a slope efficiency of 56.1%. The dependence of the output characteristics of Tm:YAG on temperature was experimentally studied in the temperature range of 25-300 K.

Li, Jianguo; Yan, Tao; Liang, Jingtao; Cai, Jinghui

2015-01-01

282

Aids and Infectious Diseases (aid) Pmp 2013 Report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The AIDS and Infectious Diseases (AID) PMP of the WFS contributed this year with a session on August 22nd to the Plenary Sessions of the International Seminars on Planetary Emergencies and Associated Meetings--46th Session: The Role of Science in the Third Millennium (Erice, 19-24 August 2013). Furthermore a workshop on August 24th was organized...

Buonaguro, Franco M.

2014-07-01

283

Urinary output of urodiolenone in essential hypertension.  

PubMed

Increased amounts of urodiolenone, an isomer of a phytoalexin, were found in the urine of 34% of patients with essential hypertension. Urodiolenone was also excreted in 70% of patients with neurocirculatory asthenia (hyperkinetic syndrome) and labile hypertension; very small quantities were found in normal subjects. When grapefruit juice, which is rich in urodiolenone, was offered to hypertensive subjects, urodiolenone excretion was much higher than the amount ingested, indicating that output was not due to precursors present in the diet. PMID:2757801

Rosenthal, T; Grossman, E; Goldberg, S; Peleg, E; Chayen, R

1989-06-01

284

Reducing RFQ output emittance by external bunching  

SciTech Connect

RFQ accelerators normally incorporate adiabatic bunchers in the accelerator proper. This produces high accelerator acceptance but less-than-optimum longitudinal emittance as a result of severe filamentation of the longitudinal phase space. The use of discrete bunchers both internal and external to the RFQ, along with new approaches in accelerator-only (no adiabatic buncher) RFQ beam dynamics designs produce significantly lower longitudinal output emittance with high acceptance.

Staples, J. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

1994-05-01

285

Equation error versus output error methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the identification of linear processes on the basis of ARX-models, equation error least squares (EELS) (often indicated as the one step ahead prediction error method) is frequently used rather than output error least squares (OELS). This is mainly because the minimum of the convex EE-criterion can easily be found, in contrast to the OE-criterion, which often displays multiple local

YUTAKA TOMITA; AD A. H. DAMEN; PAUL M. J. VAN DEN HOF

1992-01-01

286

Extreme inputs/outputs for multiple input multiple output linear systems.  

SciTech Connect

A linear structure is excited at multiple points with a stationary normal random process. The response of the structure is measured at multiple outputs. If the auto spectral densities of the inputs are specified, the phase relationships between the inputs are derived that will minimize or maximize the trace of the auto spectral density matrix of the outputs. If the autospectral densities of the outputs are specified, the phase relationships between the outputs that will minimize or maximize the trace of the input auto spectral density matrix are derived. It is shown that other phase relationships and ordinary coherence less than one will result in a trace intermediate between these extremes. Least favorable response and some classes of critical response are special cases of the development. It is shown that the derivation for stationary random waveforms can also be applied to nonstationary random, transients, and deterministic waveforms.

Smallwood, David Ora

2005-09-01

287

Realistic power output modeling of CPV modules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we introduce a new model called YieldOpt, which calculates the power output of CPV modules. It uses SMARTS2 to model the spectral irradiance, a ray tracing program to model the optics and SPICE network simulation to model the electrical characteristic of triple-junction (3J) cells. The calculated power output is compared to data measured of five CPV modules operating in Freiburg, Germany during a period from October 2011 to March 2012. Four of the modules use lattice-matched 3J cells; one of these modules has also reflective secondary optics. In one of the five modules novel metamorphic 3J cells are used. The agreement of the predicted power output calculated by YieldOpt with the measured data is quantified using the normalized root mean square error. A good agreement between simulation and measurement is achieved. Moreover, the predicted energy yield derived from the new model is compared with the measured energy yield. A good agreement between the measured data and simulated data is achieved. In addition, a high accuracy in predicting the energy yield of different CPV modules is demonstrated. Finally, the new model is compared with three empirical models.

Steiner, Marc; Siefer, Gerald; Bösch, Armin; Hornung, Thorsten; Bett, Andreas W.

2012-10-01

288

Characterizing Detonator Output Using Dynamic Witness Plates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A sub-microsecond, time-resolved micro-particle-image velocimetry (PIV) system is developed to investigate the output of explosive detonators. Detonator output is directed into a transparent solid that serves as a dynamic witness plate and instantaneous shock and material velocities are measured in a two-dimensional plane cutting through the shock wave as it propagates through the solid. For the case of unloaded initiators (e.g. exploding bridge wires, exploding foil initiators, etc.) the witness plate serves as a surrogate for the explosive material that would normally be detonated. The velocity-field measurements quantify the velocity of the shocked material and visualize the geometry of the shocked region. Furthermore, the time-evolution of the velocity-field can be measured at intervals as small as 10 ns using the PIV system. Current experimental results of unloaded exploding bridge wire output in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) witness plates demonstrate 20 MHz velocity-field sampling just 300 ns after initiation of the wire.

Murphy, Michael J.; Adrian, Ronald J.

2009-12-01

289

Push-Pull Control of Motor Output  

PubMed Central

Inhibition usually decreases input-output excitability of neurons. If, however, inhibition is coupled to excitation in a push-pull fashion, where inhibition decreases as excitation increases, neuron excitability can be increased. Although the presence of push-pull organization has been demonstrated in single cells, its functional impact on neural processing depends on its effect on the system level. We studied push-pull in the motor output stage of the feline spinal cord, a system which hallows in dependent control of inhibitory and excitatory components. Push-pull organization was clearly present in ankle extensor motoneurons, producing increased peak to peak modulation of synaptic currents. The effect at the system level was equally strong. Independent control of the inhibitory component showed that the stronger the background of inhibition, the greater the peak force production. This illustrates the paradox at the heart of push-pull organization: increased force output can be achieved by increasing background inhibition to provide greater disinhibition. PMID:22457505

Johnson, Michael D.; Hyngstrom, Allison S.; Manuel, Marin; Heckman, C.J.

2012-01-01

290

Rf pumped SQUID with large output signal  

SciTech Connect

The dc SQUID had been presented for use in the rf SQUID instead of a weak link. The new device, referred to as double SQUID, possesses a large output signal (hundreds of microvolts) in operating in a hysteretic mode. For making an operating mode a double SQUID is coupled to a circuit traditional for rf SQUIDs containing a tank circuit and an rf current pumping generator. The magnetic flux being measured is recognized by the dc height of the flat part of the tank circuit I-V characteristics coupled to a double SQUID is modulated. It is this modulation that is the SQUID output signal. The experimental investigations of the double SQUID showed the validity of the assumptions under consideration. Output signals up to 690 {mu}V, noise spectral density {approx} 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} {phi}{sub 0}/Hz{sup 1/2} ({phi}{sub 0} is the flux quantum) and energy resolution {approx} 1.4 {times} 10{sup {minus}29}/Hz have been obtained.

Krivoy, G.S.; Komashko, V.A. (Omsk Polytechnical Inst., Mir Prospect 11, 644050 (SU))

1991-01-10

291

ALGEBRA: a computer program that algebraically manipulates finite element output data. [In extended FORTRAN for CDC 7600 or CYBER 76 only  

SciTech Connect

ALGEBRA is a program that allows the user to process output data from finite-element analysis codes before they are sent to plotting routines. These data take the form of variable values (stress, strain, and velocity components, etc.) on a tape that is both the output tape from the analyses code and the input tape to ALGEBRA. The ALGEBRA code evaluates functions of these data and writes the function values on an output tape that can be used as input to plotting routines. Convenient input format and error detection capabilities aid the user in providing ALGEBRA with the functions to be evaluated. 1 figure.

Richgels, M A; Biffle, J H

1980-09-01

292

2-µm high-brilliance micro-cavity VECSEL with >2W output power  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents recent advances of 2-?m GaSb-based vertical external cavity surface emitting laser (VECSEL) with special emphasis on quantum deficit reduction and miniaturization. Operating the VECSEL in a 5-cm long cavity, we could demonstrate an increase in maximum cw output power from 4.2 W to 7.2 W at room temperature when barrier pumping a 2.0-?m emitting VECSEL at a pump wavelength of 1.5 ?m instead of 980 nm. Furthermore, miniaturized VECSELs were realized by depositing a high-reflectivity (~97 %) coating on top of a 375-?m thick SiC heat spreader, which acts as output coupler of the micro cavity (?C) formed. This planar cavity is rendered stable by thermal lensing induced by the absorption of pump light. At the same time, thermal lensing influences the beam quality. We will report a detailed study of the influence of the thermal lens on the stability and beam diameter of the ?C-VECSEL by using two different VECSEL structures optimized for 980 nm and 1.5 ?m barrier pumping, respectively. Using different pump photon energies results in different amounts of heat generated at a given pump photon flux, and thus thermal lenses with different focal lengths. Using the low-quantum deficit pumping scheme we could achieve a factor-7 increase in output power in TEM00 emission from the ?C-VECSEL compared to the 980 nm pumped device, as well as a maximum output power of 2.2 W. This 2-?m ?C-VECSEL exhibits 110-nm tunable single-frequency emission at a 7-MHz linewidth at an output power of up to 90 mW. The linewidth of the ?C-VECSEL is comparable to that of VCSELs, which typically emit output powers in the milli-Watt range.

Kaspar, Sebastian; Rattunde, Marcel; Holl, Peter; Adler, Steffen; Schilling, Christian; Bächle, Andreas; Manz, Christian; Aidam, Rolf; Köhler, Klaus; Wagner, Joachim

2014-03-01

293

2012 Summer Financial Aid Application Name: ___________________________________________________________ ID: ___________________________  

E-print Network

2012 Summer Financial Aid Application Name before you are awarded Summer Financial Aid You must have a valid 2011-2012 FAFSA on file and comply of Spring 2012 to be eligible for Summer Aid. Types of Financial Aid Available Available aid includes

Massachusetts at Lowell, University of

294

MEDICAL SCHOOL Office of Financial Aid  

E-print Network

FINANCING MEDICAL SCHOOL Office of Financial Aid 7021 Remsen, Room 305A Hanover, NH 03755-3833 E-mail: Geisel.Financial.Aid@Dartmouth.edu http://geiselmed.dartmouth.edu/admin/fin_aid/ Telephone: (603) 650 Process & Financial Aid Eligibility...........................Page 3 Financial Aid Policy

Myers, Lawrence C.

295

West Virginia University 1 Financial Aid  

E-print Network

West Virginia University 1 Financial Aid In this section: APPLY FOR AID: · Application Process · Aid Offer Notification · Employment Opportunities POLICIES: · Satisfactory Academic Progress APPLY FOR AID In this section: · Application Process · Aid Offer Notification · Employment Opportunities

Mohaghegh, Shahab

296

Financial Aid Office Policy and Procedures Manual  

E-print Network

Financial Aid Office Policy and Procedures Manual Revised: May 2013 School of Nursing Financial Aid Office Staff: Chloe Hayim Financial Aid Counselor, Students A-L 1013 CLIPP Susie Watson Financial Aid Counselor, Students M-Z 1012 CLIPP Jill Cordell Financial Aid Director 1014 CLIPP Duke School of Nursing

Reif, John H.

297

Some FactS about Financial aid  

E-print Network

Some FactS about Financial aid 2014/15 #12;Some FactS about Financial aid What is Financial aid? Financial aid is money available from federal, state, university, and private sources to help students meet college costs. Financial aid helps fill the gap between the cost of attending college and the amount

Wilmers, Chris

298

FINANCIAL AID RECIPIENTS CLASS OF 2018 INFORMATION FOR FINANCIAL AID RECIPIENTS CLASS IAL AID RECIPIENTS CLASS OF 2018 INFORMATION FOR FINANCIAL AID RECIPIENTS CLASS OF 2018  

E-print Network

FINANCIAL AID RECIPIENTS CLASS OF 2018 INFORMATION FOR FINANCIAL AID RECIPIENTS CLASS IAL AID RECIPIENTS CLASS OF 2018 INFORMATION FOR FINANCIAL AID RECIPIENTS CLASS OF 2018 `` Benjamin Franklin An investment in knowledge always pays the best interest. Information for Financial Aid Recipients www

Plotkin, Joshua B.

299

Financial Aid View HOLDS and TO DO's  

E-print Network

1 of 7 Financial Aid View HOLDS and TO DO's View Financial Aid Accept/Decline Aid Scholarships Financial Aid HOLDS and TO DO's 1. At least once a week, check both the Holds and the To Do List for any financial aid TO DO's. Click on the details arrows at the bottom of each section for more information. Back

Barrash, Warren

300

Attitudes towards and Knowledge of AIDS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most research on Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has been medical and most social science research on AIDS has been concerned with social factors in its spread and with social-psychological effects of contracting AIDS. This study was conducted to examine public attitudes toward, and public knowledge about AIDS. Knowledge about AIDS was…

Edwards, Andrew; Hiday, Virginia Aldige'

301

Grassmannian beamforming for multiple-input multiple-output wireless systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transmit beamforming and receive combining are simple methods for exploiting the significant diversity that is available in multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) wireless systems. Unfortunately, optimal performance requires either complete channel knowledge or knowledge of the optimal beam- forming vector which are not always realizable in practice. In this correspondence, a quantized maximum signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) beamforming technique is proposed where

David James Love; Robert W. Heath Jr.; Thomas Strohmer

2003-01-01

302

Output ripple analysis of multiphase DC-DC converters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an output ripple analysis of multiphase DC-DC power converters having an output LC filter. Analytical expressions for the output voltage ripple of two- and three-phase DC-DC power converters are derived. Influence of the coupling coefficient of the output filter inductor on the output ripple is investigated. Because the unique parameters of the LC filter cannot be determined

Pekik A. Dahono; Slamet Riyadi; Ahmad Mudawari; Yanuarsyah Haroen

1999-01-01

303

Lifetest of the High Output Maximum Efficiency Resonator (HOMER) Laser for the SAFFIRE Instrument on NASA's DESDynI Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We update the status of a diode-pumped, Nd:YAG oscillator that is the prototype laser for NASA's DESDynI mission. After completing TRL-6 testing, this laser has fired over 5.5 billion shots in lifetesting.

Stysley, Paul R.; Coyle, D. Barry; Kay, Richard B.; Frederickson, Robert; Poulios, Demetrios; Blair, Bryan; Scott, Stan; Arnold, Ed

2011-01-01

304

HYDROMETEOROLOGICAL REPORT NO. 39 PROBABLE MAXIMUM PRECIPITATION"  

E-print Network

HYDROMETEOROLOGICAL REPORT NO. 39 PROBABLE MAXIMUM PRECIPITATION" IN THE HAWAllAN ISLANDS LOAN COPY (Nos. 6-22 Numbered Retroactively) *No: 1. Maximum possible precipitation over the Ompompanoos~c Basin above Union Villag~, Vt. 1943. *No. 2. Maximum possible precipitation over'the Ohio River-Basin above

305

Parameterized Algorithms for Directed Maximum Leaf Problems  

E-print Network

Parameterized Algorithms for Directed Maximum Leaf Problems Noga Alon 1 , Fedor V. Fomin 2 spanning tree, then D contains one with at least (n/2) 1/5 - 1 leaves. 1 Introduction The Maximum Leaf a digraph D, the Directed Maximum Leaf Out­Branching problem is the problem of finding an out­branching in D

Krivelevich, Michael

306

Neisseria spp. and AIDS.  

PubMed Central

Neisseria meningitidis from various serogroups and two commensal neisseriae (N. sicca and N. perflava) were isolated from 15 patients at various stages of human immunodeficiency virus infection in this clinical and bacteriological study. The cases were grouped into the following three classes: (i) infections with an N. meningitidis strain of a serogroup known to be pathogenic (A, B, or C) and apparently independent of the human immunodeficiency virus infection, (ii) infections with a N. meningitidis strain of a serogroup which is normally either commensal or poorly pathogenic (serogroups Y, X, Z, and Z,29E), (iii) pulmonary and disseminated infections occurring in the course of the clinical evolutionary stage of AIDS, in two cases of which commensal neisseriae (N. sicca and N. perflava) were isolated from blood cultures. PMID:1400993

Morla, N; Guibourdenche, M; Riou, J Y

1992-01-01

307

The range scheduling aid  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Air Force Space Command schedules telemetry, tracking and control activities across the Air Force Satellite Control network. The Range Scheduling Aid (RSA) is a rapid prototype combining a user-friendly, portable, graphical interface with a sophisticated object-oriented database. The RSA has been a rapid prototyping effort whose purpose is to elucidate and define suitable technology for enhancing the performance of the range schedulers. Designing a system to assist schedulers in their task and using their current techniques as well as enhancements enabled by an electronic environment, has created a continuously developing model that will serve as a standard for future range scheduling systems. The RSA system is easy to use, easily ported between platforms, fast, and provides a set of tools for the scheduler that substantially increases his productivity.

Halbfinger, Eliezer M.; Smith, Barry D.

1991-01-01

308

Teachers' Aides: A Project Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluation findings of a teacher aide project implemented in grades 4 to 12 of a small rural school via the SEARCH (Selection of Educational Alternatives for Rural Change) program during the second semester of the 1969-70 school term are given. The project--carried out in the County of Lacombe in Alberta, Canada--made 2 aides available to all…

Cleveland, Albert Allan

309

EPDA Institute for Teacher Aides.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pasadena City College's Institute for Teacher Aides is a New Careers project to upgrade indigenous nonprofessionals in antipoverty agencies for career-ladder employment as bilingual aides in inner-city/ghetto schools of Greater Los Angeles. Its operating grant, under the Education Professions Development Act, is for two sessions (summer and fall…

Macfarlane, Ruth

310

Moral Character and Student Aid  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Thirty years after the creation of federal student financial aid programs through the Higher Education Act of 1965, the link between moral character and student financial aid programs is once again influencing the public policy debate. A careful look at the debate, though, shows that the nature of concerns has shifted. In the past, the question…

Flint, Thomas A.

2012-01-01

311

Certification of Financial Aid Administrators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The certification of financial aid administrators has been debated for over 37 years. A job satisfaction survey conducted by the National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NASFAA, 2008a) revealed that college and university administrators' perceptions of the efficiency, effectiveness, and quality of the services provided by the…

Peterson, Stacey A.

2011-01-01

312

AIDS Resource Manual for Educators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual presents, for educators, known facts about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), how it is transmitted, and how it can be prevented. Answers to common questions about AIDS are listed and a summary sheet is provided. A resource list is included that contains names, addresses, and phone numbers of organizations that produce or…

Edwards, Sara A., Ed.; And Others

313

Aids and the nervous system  

SciTech Connect

This book contains 19 chapters. Some of the titles are: Neuroradiology of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; The AIDS dementia complex; primary infection with human immunodeficiency virus; The biology of the human immunodeficiency virus and its role in neurological disease; and Algorithms for the treatment of AIDS patients with neurological disease.

Rosenblum, M.L. (Univ. of California School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA (US)); Levy, R.M. (Northwestern Univ. Medical School, Chicago, IL (US)); Bredesen, D.E. (Univ. of California School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA (US))

1988-01-01

314

HIV, AIDS, and Older People  

MedlinePLUS

... time, they also may be coping with other diseases common to aging such as high blood pressure, diabetes, or heart problems. As the HIV/AIDS gets worse, many will need help getting around and caring for themselves. Older people with HIV/AIDS need ...

315

Novel maximum-margin training algorithms for supervised neural networks.  

PubMed

This paper proposes three novel training methods, two of them based on the backpropagation approach and a third one based on information theory for multilayer perceptron (MLP) binary classifiers. Both backpropagation methods are based on the maximal-margin (MM) principle. The first one, based on the gradient descent with adaptive learning rate algorithm (GDX) and named maximum-margin GDX (MMGDX), directly increases the margin of the MLP output-layer hyperplane. The proposed method jointly optimizes both MLP layers in a single process, backpropagating the gradient of an MM-based objective function, through the output and hidden layers, in order to create a hidden-layer space that enables a higher margin for the output-layer hyperplane, avoiding the testing of many arbitrary kernels, as occurs in case of support vector machine (SVM) training. The proposed MM-based objective function aims to stretch out the margin to its limit. An objective function based on Lp-norm is also proposed in order to take into account the idea of support vectors, however, overcoming the complexity involved in solving a constrained optimization problem, usually in SVM training. In fact, all the training methods proposed in this paper have time and space complexities O(N) while usual SVM training methods have time complexity O(N (3)) and space complexity O(N (2)) , where N is the training-data-set size. The second approach, named minimization of interclass interference (MICI), has an objective function inspired on the Fisher discriminant analysis. Such algorithm aims to create an MLP hidden output where the patterns have a desirable statistical distribution. In both training methods, the maximum area under ROC curve (AUC) is applied as stop criterion. The third approach offers a robust training framework able to take the best of each proposed training method. The main idea is to compose a neural model by using neurons extracted from three other neural networks, each one previously trained by MICI, MMGDX, and Levenberg-Marquard (LM), respectively. The resulting neural network was named assembled neural network (ASNN). Benchmark data sets of real-world problems have been used in experiments that enable a comparison with other state-of-the-art classifiers. The results provide evidence of the effectiveness of our methods regarding accuracy, AUC, and balanced error rate. PMID:20409990

Ludwig, Oswaldo; Nunes, Urbano

2010-06-01

316

50 Financial Aid Hawai`i Community College 2013-2014 Financial Aid  

E-print Network

50 Financial Aid Hawai`i Community College 2013-2014 Financial Aid Office of Financial Aid Hawai`i Community College FinancialAid Office admin isters a variety of federal, state, and institutional financial aid programs.These financial aid programs are intended to assist students and their families pay

Olsen, Stephen L.

317

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access AIDS and non-AIDS severe morbidity associated  

E-print Network

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access AIDS and non-AIDS severe morbidity associated with hospitalizations from predominantly AIDS-related to non-AIDS-related conditions. In the context of universal access morbid events (AIDS- and non-AIDS-related) were defined as all clinical diagnoses associated

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

318

Further results on the macroeconomic effects of AIDS: the dualistic, labor-surplus economy.  

PubMed

Analyses by Cuddington in 1993 and forthcoming work from Cuddington and Hancock model the macroeconomic effects of the AIDS epidemic using a modified Solow growth model. This single-sector framework rests upon the assumption that labor and capital are always efficiently allocated throughout the economy with neither market failures nor policy-induced distortions resulting in resource misallocation. Economies in low-income developing countries in sub-Saharan Africa, however, are not operating at capacity. Impact models based upon the potential growth path of economies will therefore significantly overstate the effect of an AIDS epidemic. The author thus incorporates the presence of underemployment and dual labor markets to redress the limitations of these earlier impact models. The dual-economy simulations of the economic impact of AIDS using Tanzanian data suggest that the macroeconomic consequences of the epidemic are of the same order of magnitude as those obtained using a single-sector, full-employment model: gross domestic product (GDP) is 15-25% smaller by 2010 than it would have been without AIDS, and per capita GDP is 0-10% smaller. Output lost from AIDS in the dual-economy framework is approximately the same as the output gain achievable through policies designed to increase labor market flexibility. Findings suggest that serious economic reform in economies fraught with AIDS may lessen the negative economic effects of the epidemic. PMID:12345580

Cuddington, J T

1993-09-01

319

78 FR 73075 - World AIDS Day, 2013  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Proclamation 9064--World AIDS Day, 2013 Presidential Documents...Proclamation 9064 of November 27, 2013 World AIDS Day, 2013 By the President of the...of America A Proclamation Each year on World AIDS Day, we come together as a...

2013-12-04

320

29 CFR 1926.1416 - Operational aids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 false Operational aids. 1926.1416 Section 1926.1416...Construction § 1926.1416 Operational aids. (a) The devices listed in this section (“listed operational aids”) are required on all equipment...

2012-07-01

321

29 CFR 1926.1416 - Operational aids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Operational aids. 1926.1416 Section 1926.1416...Construction § 1926.1416 Operational aids. (a) The devices listed in this section (“listed operational aids”) are required on all equipment...

2013-07-01

322

7 CFR 15b.37 - Auxiliary aids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Auxiliary aids. 15b.37 Section 15b.37 Agriculture...RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Other Aid, Benefits, or Services § 15b.37 Auxiliary aids. (a) A recipient to which this...

2013-01-01

323

30 CFR 75.1913 - Starting aids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Starting aids. 75.1913 Section 75.1913 Mineral Resources...Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1913 Starting aids. (a) Volatile fuel starting aids shall be used in accordance with...

2014-07-01

324

29 CFR 1926.1416 - Operational aids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 false Operational aids. 1926.1416 Section 1926.1416...Construction § 1926.1416 Operational aids. (a) The devices listed in this section (“listed operational aids”) are required on all equipment...

2011-07-01

325

30 CFR 75.1913 - Starting aids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Starting aids. 75.1913 Section 75.1913 Mineral Resources...Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1913 Starting aids. (a) Volatile fuel starting aids shall be used in accordance with...

2012-07-01

326

30 CFR 75.1913 - Starting aids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Starting aids. 75.1913 Section 75.1913 Mineral Resources...Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1913 Starting aids. (a) Volatile fuel starting aids shall be used in accordance with...

2013-07-01

327

30 CFR 75.1913 - Starting aids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Starting aids. 75.1913 Section 75.1913 Mineral Resources...Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1913 Starting aids. (a) Volatile fuel starting aids shall be used in accordance with...

2011-07-01

328

7 CFR 15b.37 - Auxiliary aids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Auxiliary aids. 15b.37 Section 15b.37 Agriculture...RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Other Aid, Benefits, or Services § 15b.37 Auxiliary aids. (a) A recipient to which this...

2010-01-01

329

75 FR 49432 - Impact Aid Programs  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...ED-2010-OESE-0013] RIN 1810-AB11 Impact Aid Programs AGENCY: Office of Elementary and...amend the regulations governing the Impact Aid Discretionary Construction Program, which...educational agencies (LEAs) that receive Impact Aid formula funds. The proposed...

2010-08-13

330

7 CFR 15b.37 - Auxiliary aids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Auxiliary aids. 15b.37 Section 15b.37 Agriculture...RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Other Aid, Benefits, or Services § 15b.37 Auxiliary aids. (a) A recipient to which this...

2011-01-01

331

HIV / AIDS: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment  

MedlinePLUS

... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV / AIDS: Symptoms , Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment Past Issues / Summer ... and have resulted in a dramatic decrease in AIDS deaths in the U.S. NIH Research to Results ...

332

7 CFR 15b.37 - Auxiliary aids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Auxiliary aids. 15b.37 Section 15b.37 Agriculture...RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Other Aid, Benefits, or Services § 15b.37 Auxiliary aids. (a) A recipient to which this...

2012-01-01

333

7 CFR 15b.37 - Auxiliary aids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Auxiliary aids. 15b.37 Section 15b.37 Agriculture...RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Other Aid, Benefits, or Services § 15b.37 Auxiliary aids. (a) A recipient to which this...

2014-01-01

334

30 CFR 75.1913 - Starting aids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Starting aids. 75.1913 Section 75.1913 Mineral Resources...Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1913 Starting aids. (a) Volatile fuel starting aids shall be used in accordance with...

2010-07-01

335

Optimal loading range for the development of peak power output in the hexagonal barbell jump squat.  

PubMed

Recent studies indicate that the utilization of the hexagonal barbell jump squat (HBJS) compared to the traditional barbell jump squat may offer a superior method of developing peak power. The notion that a single optimal load may be prescribed in training programmes aiming to develop peak power is subject to debate. The purpose of this study was to identify the optimal load corresponding with peak power output during the HBJS in professional rugby union players. Seventeen professional rugby union players participated in this study. Participants performed 3 unloaded countermovement jumps on a force-plate, as well as 3 HBJS at each of the following randomized loads: 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% of box-squat 1 repetition maximum (1RM). Peak power output was the dependent variable of interest. A one-way repeated measures ANOVA was conducted to compare peak power output across each load. A significant main effect for load was observed [Wilk's Lambda = 0.11, F (4, 13) = 18.07, p < 0.01, partial eta squared = 0.88]. Results of the Bonferroni adjusted pairwise comparisons indicated that peak power output in the HBJS is optimized at a load range between 10-20% of box squat 1RM. The results of this study indicate that the use of the HBJS with a training load between 10-20% of box squat 1RM optimizes peak power output in professional rugby union players. PMID:25486301

Turner, Thomas S; Tobin, Daniel P; Delahunt, Eamonn

2014-12-01

336

Combining Multiple Gyroscope Outputs for Increased Accuracy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A proposed method of processing the outputs of multiple gyroscopes to increase the accuracy of rate (that is, angular-velocity) readings has been developed theoretically and demonstrated by computer simulation. Although the method is applicable, in principle, to any gyroscopes, it is intended especially for application to gyroscopes that are parts of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). The method is based on the concept that the collective performance of multiple, relatively inexpensive, nominally identical devices can be better than that of one of the devices considered by itself. The method would make it possible to synthesize the readings of a single, more accurate gyroscope (a virtual gyroscope) from the outputs of a large number of microscopic gyroscopes fabricated together on a single MEMS chip. The big advantage would be that the combination of the MEMS gyroscope array and the processing circuitry needed to implement the method would be smaller, lighter in weight, and less power-hungry, relative to a conventional gyroscope of equal accuracy. The method (see figure) is one of combining and filtering the digitized outputs of multiple gyroscopes to obtain minimum-variance estimates of rate. In the combining-and-filtering operations, measurement data from the gyroscopes would be weighted and smoothed with respect to each other according to the gain matrix of a minimum- variance filter. According to Kalman-filter theory, the gain matrix of the minimum-variance filter is uniquely specified by the filter covariance, which propagates according to a matrix Riccati equation. The present method incorporates an exact analytical solution of this equation.

Bayard, David S.

2003-01-01

337

Input and output constraints affecting irrigation development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many of the developing countries the expansion of irrigated agriculture is used as a major development tool for bringing about increases in agricultural output, rural economic growth and income distribution. Apart from constraints imposed by water availability, the major limitations considered to any acceleration of such programs are usually thought to be those of costs and financial resources. However, as is shown on the basis of empirical data drawn from Mexico, in reality the feasibility and effectiveness of such development programs is even more constrained by the lack of specialized physical and human factors on the input and market limitations on the output side. On the input side, the limited availability of complementary factors such as, for example, truly functioning credit systems for small-scale farmers or effective agricultural extension services impose long-term constraints on development. On the output side the limited availability, high risk, and relatively slow growth of markets for high-value crops sharply reduce the usually hoped-for and projected profitable crop mix that would warrant the frequently high costs of irrigation investments. Three conclusions are drawn: (1) Factors in limited supply have to be shadow-priced to reflect their high opportunity costs in alternative uses. (2) Re-allocation of financial resources from immediate construction of projects to longer-term increase in the supply of scarce, highly-trained manpower resources are necessary in order to optimize development over time. (3) Inclusion of high-value, high-income producing crops in the benefit-cost analysis of new projects is inappropriate if these crops could potentially be grown in already existing projects.

Schramm, G.

1981-05-01

338

Off-set stabilizer for comparator output  

DOEpatents

A stabilized off-set voltage is input as the reference voltage to a comparator. In application to a time-interval meter, the comparator output generates a timing interval which is independent of drift in the initial voltage across the timing capacitor. A precision resistor and operational amplifier charge a capacitor to a voltage which is precisely offset from the initial voltage. The capacitance of the reference capacitor is selected so that substantially no voltage drop is obtained in the reference voltage applied to the comparator during the interval to be measured.

Lunsford, James S. (Los Alamos, NM)

1991-01-01

339

Uncertainties in predicting solar panel power output  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problem of calculating solar panel power output at launch and during a space mission is considered. The major sources of uncertainty and error in predicting the post launch electrical performance of the panel are considered. A general discussion of error analysis is given. Examples of uncertainty calculations are included. A general method of calculating the effect on the panel of various degrading environments is presented, with references supplied for specific methods. A technique for sizing a solar panel for a required mission power profile is developed.

Anspaugh, B.

1974-01-01

340

Thymic output: influence factors and molecular mechanism.  

PubMed

Thymus is a primary lymphoid organ, able to generate mature T cells that eventually colonize secondary lymphoid organs, and is therefore essential for peripheral T cell renewal. Recent data showed that normal thymocyte export can be altered by several influence factors including several chemokines, sphingosine1-phosphate (S1P), transcription factors such as Foxj1, Kruppel-like transcription factor 2 (KLF2) and antigen stimulation, etc. In this review, we summarized the recent reports about study strategies, influence factors and possible molecular mechanisms in thymic output. PMID:17092431

Jin, Rong; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Weifeng

2006-10-01

341

HIV research productivity and structural factors associated with HIV research output in European Union countries: a bibliometric analysis  

PubMed Central

Objectives To assess HIV/AIDS research productivity in the 27 countries of the European Union (EU), and the structural level factors associated with levels of HIV/AIDS research productivity. Methods A bibliometric analysis was conducted with systematic search methods used to locate HIV/AIDS research publications (period of 1 January 2002 to 31 December 2011; search databases: MEDLINE (Ovid, PubMed), EMBASE, ISI-Thomson Web of Science; no language restrictions). The publication rate (number of HIV/AIDS research publications per million population in 10?years) and the rate of articles published in HIV/AIDS journals and selected journals with moderate to very high (IF ?3) 5-year impact factors were used as markers for HIV research productivity. A negative binomial regression model was fitted to assess the impact of structural level factors (sociodemographic, health, HIV prevalence and research/development indicators) associated with the variation in HIV research productivity. Results The total numbers of HIV/AIDS research publications in 2002–2011 by country ranged from 7 to 9128 (median 319). The median publication rate (per million population in 10?years) was 45 (range 5–150) for all publications. Across all countries, 16% of the HIV/AIDS research was published in HIV/AIDS journals and 7% in selected journals with IF ?3. Indicators describing economic (gross domestic product), demographic (size of the population) and epidemiological (HIV prevalence) conditions as well as overall scientific activity (total research output) in a country were positively associated with HIV research productivity. Conclusions HIV research productivity varies noticeably across EU countries, and this variation is associated with recognisable structural factors. PMID:25649212

Uusküla, A; Toompere, K; Laisaar, K T; Rosenthal, M; Pürjer, M L; Knellwolf, A; Läärä, E; Des Jarlais, D C

2015-01-01

342

Comparison of general circulation model outputs and ensemble assessment of climate change using a Bayesian approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of general circulation models (GCMs) have been developed to project future global climate change. Unfortunately, projected results are different and it is not known which set of GCM outputs are more creditable than the others. The objective of this work is to present a Bayesian approach to compare GCM outputs and make an ensemble assessment of climate change. This method is applied to Cannonsville Reservoir watershed, New York, USA. The GCM outputs under the 20C3M scenario for a historical time period of 1981-2000 are used to calculate posterior probabilities, and the outputs under the scenarios (A1B, A2 and B1) for the future time period of 2084-2100 are then processed using the Bayesian modeling averaging (BMA) which is a statistical procedure that infers a consensus prediction by weighing individual predictions based on the posterior probabilities, with the better performing predictions receiving higher weights. The obtained results reveal that the posterior probabilities are slightly different for four variables including average, maximum and minimum temperatures, and shortwave radiation, implying that the GCM outputs are qualitatively different for these four variables, but the distributions of posterior probabilities are flat for precipitation and wind speed, suggesting that the GCM outputs are qualitatively similar for these two variables. The results also show that no one set of GCM data are the best for all six meteorological variables. Furthermore, the results indicate that the projected changes are for regional warming, but the changes in precipitation, wind speed, and shortwave radiation depend on the emission scenarios and seasons. The application of the method demonstrates that the Bayesian approach is useful for the comparison of GCM outputs and making ensemble assessments of climate change.

Huang, Yongtai

2014-11-01

343

Dynamic output feedback controller synthesis for piecewise-affine systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasing demands on performance for complex industrial engineering applications over wide operating regimes have caused control designers to move from linear to nonlinear controllers and to controllers that incorporate both discrete logic and continuous-time variables (such is the case of mode switching controllers). As a consequence, many of the currently developed control applications are logic-based and therefore incorporate both continuous-time and discrete-event state dynamics. However, traditional control theory has concentrated on analysis and control design for systems with either a continuous-time state or a discrete-event state. The new control applications have therefore resulted in the need to develop new analysis and synthesis methods. Based on the need expressed in the previous sentence, the objective of this work is to develop a new computer aided controller synthesis method for a class of complex dynamical systems. By complex we mean systems with multiple models, each model being valid in a given region of a certain space (e.g., the state space or some energy space), and systems involving mode switching between the different models. These systems have a state with hybrid nature that consists of both continuous-time physical variables and discrete-event logical variables. In that sense the complex systems considered in this work fall under the framework of hybrid systems. The work focuses mainly on an important subclass of hybrid systems: piecewise-affine systems (PWA). The thesis develops an approximate synthesis technique for both state and dynamic output feedback control of PWA systems. The synthesis method is only approximate in the sense that it is not guaranteed to work for all systems. However, when it works, the results are unambiguous and it yields a stabilizing feedback controller with exponential convergence rate guarantees.

Rodrigues, Luis Filipe

2002-01-01

344

Signal analysis using the maximum entropy method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The analysis of discrete series is explained using the maximum entropy method in order to solve data processing problems in the aeroelastic study of wind turbines. Discrete Fourier spectrum and maximum entropy spectrum are compared. This method searches for an autoregressive model for a series containing a maximum of information about entropy. The autoregressive model is outlined and the notions 'information' and 'entropy' in signal analysis are defined. Energy and phase spectrum construction, starting from an autoregressive model, is described, with examples. The maximum entropy method is valuable where Fourier transformation techniques hardly work or fail.

Kuik, W.

1981-03-01

345

Duality in a maximum generalized entropy model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses a possible generalization for the maximum entropy principle. A class of generalized entropy is introduced by that of generator functions, in which the maximum generalized distribution model is explicitly derived including q-Gaussian distributions, Wigner semicircle distributions and Pareto distributions. We define a totally geodesic subspace in the total space of all probability density functions in a framework of information geometry. The model of maximum generalized entropy distributions is shown to be totally geodesic. The duality of the model and the estimation in the maximum generalized principle is elucidated to give intrinsic understandings from the point of information geometry.

Eguchi, Shinto; Komori, Osamu; Ohara, Atsumi

2015-01-01

346

Output power variations in a plasma relativistic microwave amplifier during a 500-ns relativistic electron beam current pulse  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A relativistic plasma microwave amplifier with a gain of about 30 dB and an output power of about 60-100 MW in the frequency range from 2.4 to 3.2 GHz is studied experimentally. The total duration of the output microwave pulse is equal to the duration of the current pulse of the driving relativistic electron beam (500 ns); however, the maximum output power is observed only within 200 ns. It is shown that variations in the output microwave power during the current pulse of the annular relativistic electron beam are caused by variations in the beam radius and thickness. Analysis of the experimental data and results of numerical simulations show that the thickness of the electron beam is determined by the density of the cathode emission current.

Strelkov, P. S.; Tarakanov, V. P.; Ivanov, I. E.; Shumeiko, D. V.

2014-08-01

347

40 CFR 1065.210 - Work input and output sensors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Work input and output sensors. 1065.210 Section 1065.210 ...§ 1065.210 Work input and output sensors. (a) Application. Use instruments...engine operation. We recommend that you use sensors, transducers, and...

2012-07-01

348

40 CFR 1065.210 - Work input and output sensors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Work input and output sensors. 1065.210 Section 1065.210 ...§ 1065.210 Work input and output sensors. (a) Application. Use instruments...engine operation. We recommend that you use sensors, transducers, and...

2011-07-01

349

40 CFR 1065.210 - Work input and output sensors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Work input and output sensors. 1065.210 Section 1065.210 ...§ 1065.210 Work input and output sensors. (a) Application. Use instruments...engine operation. We recommend that you use sensors, transducers, and...

2013-07-01

350

40 CFR 1065.210 - Work input and output sensors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Work input and output sensors. 1065.210 Section 1065.210 ...§ 1065.210 Work input and output sensors. (a) Application. Use instruments...engine operation. We recommend that you use sensors, transducers, and...

2010-07-01

351

40 CFR 1065.210 - Work input and output sensors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Work input and output sensors. 1065.210 Section 1065.210 ...§ 1065.210 Work input and output sensors. (a) Application. Use instruments...engine operation. We recommend that you use sensors, transducers, and...

2014-07-01

352

ANALOG-DIGITAL INPUT OUTPUT SYSTEM FOR APPLE CO  

E-print Network

and Output and Analog Output Appendix 5 Manufacturers Data A. TTL IC Pin Layouts . B. Teledyne Phiibrick 4735 HI-506A. Multiplexer F. Sprague UHP -507 Relay Driver G. Teledyne Solid-State Relays H. Advanced

Groppi, Christopher

353

Find HIV/AIDS Care  

MedlinePLUS

... Favorites Del.icio.us Digg Facebook Google Bookmarks Find HIV/AIDS Care Were you recently diagnosed as ... to pay for health services. Where Can I Find Help? Find HIV Care and Services across the ...

354

Different Styles of Hearing Aids  

MedlinePLUS

... available and offer some cosmetic and listening advantages. Photo courtesy of Phonak Click for larger image In- ... may be easier to handle than smaller aids. Photo courtesy of Phonak Click for larger image Behind- ...

355

Computer-Aided Laboratory Instruction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This chapter introduces how computer-aided instruction may be used in the biology laboratory setting. Descriptions of programs, suggestions on how to find instructional software, and general guides and resources are included.

Catherine J. Schaap (University of Prince Edward Island; )

1989-06-06

356

HIV/AIDS Clinical Trials  

MedlinePLUS

... more information about the study. Search Advanced Search Search by Keyword × Search by keyword Performs a general search in all ... need to add the terms "HIV" or "AIDS." Search by Category × Search by category To make your ...

357

Basic HIV/AIDS Statistics  

MedlinePLUS

... Syndicated Content Podcasts Slide Sets HIV/AIDS Basic Statistics Language: English Español (Spanish) Share Compartir  HIV ... impact. Interested in learning more about CDC's HIV statistics? Terms, definitions, and calculations that CDC uses in ...

358

Women and HIV/AIDS  

MedlinePLUS

... America, Western/Central Europe Latin America Sub-Saharan Africa More... Government in action on HIV/AIDS National ... Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics Lisa Hirschhorn, M.D., M.P.H. Assistant ...

359

HIV/AIDS Statistics Overview  

MedlinePLUS

... HIV/AIDS HIV A-Z Topics Share Compartir Statistics Overview Unless otherwise noted, the following data are ... expenditure data from the Kaiser Family Foundation. International Statistics HIV disease continues to be a serious health ...

360

Electronic aids to conceptual design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Presented in viewgraph form are techniques to improve the conceptual design of complex systems. The paper discusses theory of design, flexible software tools for computer aided design, and methods for enhancing communication among design teams.

Bouchard, Eugene E.

1990-01-01

361

HIV/AIDS in Women  

MedlinePLUS

HIV, the human immunodeficiency virus, kills or damages cells of the body's immune system. The most advanced stage of infection with HIV is AIDS, which stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. HIV often ...

362

Global HIV/AIDS Epidemic  

MedlinePLUS

... over 5 years, primarily for bilateral programs and multilateral contributions to the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (The Global Fund) as well as UNAIDS. In 2008, PEPFAR was reauthorized for ...

363

AIDS Drug Assistance Programs (ADAPs)  

MedlinePLUS

... on national health issues… Trending on kff Ebola Marketplaces Consumer Resources AIDS Drug Assistance Programs (ADAPs) « » The ... ACA for people shopping within the health insurance Marketplace. Read More perspectives policy insights Medical Debt Among ...

364

[Output characteristics of non-point phosphorus from a typical small watershed in Yimeng mountainous area under the special rainfall].  

PubMed

The relationships between pollutant concentrations and precipitation-runoff combined with the first and maximum intensity natural rainfall events were monitored at the outlets of the Menglianggu watershed in 2010. The results showed that dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP), dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP), total dissolved phosphorus (DP), total particle phosphorus (PP) and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations in the first rainfall were higher than those in the maximum intensity rainfall which was the largest average rainfall intensity, but the output of phosphorusin the first rainfall was all higher than that in the maximum intensity rainfall except dissolved organic phosphorus. The DOP, DIP, DP, PP and TP in two special rainfall events contributed 48%, 81%, 70%, 87% and 81% of the total output of rainy season. DP and TP were mainly composed by DIP and PP respectively. The two special rainfalls have the first flush effect and the maximum intensity rainfall was stronger than the first rainfall, so the analysis of M (V) curve showed that the priority should be given to the interception of corresponding phosphorus under special events. The regression analysis results showed that a linear relation existed between runoff and nutrient output, but there were some differences which the slope of the linear equation of the first rainfall was higher than that of the maximum intensity rainfall. Reducing agricultural practices such as tillage and fertilization during special rainfall period and building canals, ponds are effective ways for mitigating agricultural non-point source pollution. PMID:22720559

Li, Zhen-Wei; Yu, Xing-Xiu; Liu, Qian-Jin; Jing, Guang-Hu

2012-04-01

365

Variable neural adaptive robust output feedback control of uncertain systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of an adaptive robust output feedback controller is presented for a class of multi-input multi-output uncertain systems. The proposed output feedback controller uses a variable-structure radial basis function (RBF) network to approximate unknown system dynamics. The output feedback implementation is realized employing a high-gain observer. The structure variation of the RBF network is taken into account in the

Jianming Lian; Wei Zhang; Jianghai Hu; S. H. Zak

2010-01-01

366

Pakistan combats hidden AIDS menace.  

PubMed

The conservative Islamic society in Pakistan associates human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) with prostitution, homosexuality, and drug abuse, activities which are prohibited in Pakistan. There are 1000 reported cases of HIV, 55 with advanced AIDS (53 have died) in Pakistan. Birjees Mazhar Kazi, head of the National AIDS Program, believes that, based on the computer model of the World Health Organization (WHO), the number of HIV cases in Pakistan can be 50,000 to 80,000. Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto's government has allocated $2 million for AIDS prevention. Although some officials argue that Islamic strictures and traditional social pressures discourage sexual license, the poor public health and education standards in Pakistan make it vulnerable to AIDS. Drug abuse has risen in the last 20 years; there are an estimated 1.5 million heroin users among an estimated 3 million addicts. According to Health Ministry Director General Naik Muhammad Shaikh, the government has established 30 HIV/AIDS screening centers and is sponsoring a law that would require all blood banks to provide only safe blood and blood products for transfusion. Marvi states that the reuse and poor disposal of needles, a common practice in Pakistan, could be responsible for most of the transmission there of AIDS and hepatitis C. Health experts acknowledge the obstacles placed in the way of AIDS awareness campaigns by sex taboos and religious sensitivities; condoms cannot be mentioned or displayed in shops, or used in electronic or print media campaigns. They can be mentioned in a recorded message on a 24-hr AIDS hotline. Community-based and nongovernmental organizations are being used to reach segments of society who cannot use the hotline. Eunuchs (hijras), who are much in demand as "female" entertainers at weddings, are particularly resistant to safe sex messages, according to Abid Atiq, head of the information and education section of the National AIDS Program. He says families conceal AIDS patients because of the stigma, and, although counseling services are provided, most are reluctant to contact the program. PMID:12320183

1996-05-20

367

Turbulent Output-Based Anisotropic Adaptation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Controlling discretization error is a remaining challenge for computational fluid dynamics simulation. Grid adaptation is applied to reduce estimated discretization error in drag or pressure integral output functions. To enable application to high O(10(exp 7)) Reynolds number turbulent flows, a hybrid approach is utilized that freezes the near-wall boundary layer grids and adapts the grid away from the no slip boundaries. The hybrid approach is not applicable to problems with under resolved initial boundary layer grids, but is a powerful technique for problems with important off-body anisotropic features. Supersonic nozzle plume, turbulent flat plate, and shock-boundary layer interaction examples are presented with comparisons to experimental measurements of pressure and velocity. Adapted grids are produced that resolve off-body features in locations that are not known a priori.

Park, Michael A.; Carlson, Jan-Renee

2010-01-01

368

Timber Product Output (TPO) Database Retrieval System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

First developed in 1997, the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) units of the USDA Forest Service provide the Timber Product Output (TPO) Database Retrieval System to track timber harvesting in the US. This national set of TPO data consists of "11 data variables that describe for each county the roundwood products harvested, the logging residues left behind, the timber otherwise removed, and the wood and bark residues generated by its primary wood-using mills." Data are provided at the regional, subregional, state, and county scales, with many updates listed for 1999. To access the data, read the detailed instructions and submit a query; data are given in table format, with multiple tables. Numerous color images showing 1996 county level TPO data supply additional information.

369

Hijacking Cortical Motor Output with Repetitive Microstimulation  

PubMed Central

High frequency repetitive microstimulation has been widely used as a method of investigating the properties of cortical motor output. Despite its widespread use, few studies have investigated how activity evoked by high frequency stimulation may interact with the existing activity of cortical cells resulting from natural synaptic inputs. A reasonable assumption might be that the stimulus-evoked activity sums with the existing natural activity. However, another possibility is that the stimulus-evoked firing of cortical neurons might block and replace the natural activity. We refer to this latter possibility as “neural hijacking.” Evidence from analysis of EMG activity evoked by repetitive microstimulation (200 Hz, 500 ms) of primary motor cortex in two rhesus monkeys during performance of a reach-to-grasp task strongly supports the neural hijacking hypothesis. PMID:21917792

Griffin, D.M.; Hudson, H.M.; Belhaj-Sa?f, A.; Cheney, P.D.

2011-01-01

370

Library-Media Aide Orientation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Please follow this self-paced introduction to the library and the Dewey Decimal System to help you prepare to be a great library aide! 1. Review alphabetizing. This is an elementary website, but alphabetizing is an important skill for every library aide. Alphabetizing 2. Review putting decimal numbers in order. Decimal Numbers 3. Using the website below you will learn about Melville Dewey, how the fiction and non-fiction sections of the library are arranged, and ...

Albion Middle School Library--Mrs. Bates

2010-01-15

371

HIV\\/AIDS Internet Resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

With so many options available for answering questions on the network, this guide is intended as a subject-specific tool for reference librarians to use when assisting patrons in retrieving AIDS-related information. It focuses on the major electronic sites, resources, listservs, online journals, and databases on HIV\\/AIDS that are available free of charge on the network, listed in alphabetical order. The

Jackie Mardikian

1996-01-01

372

Telerobotic workstation design aid  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Telerobot systems are being developed to support a number of space mission applications. In low earth orbit, telerobots and teleoperated manipulators will be used in shuttle operations and space station construction/maintenance. Free flying telerobotic service vehicles will be used at low and geosynchronous orbital operations. Rovers and autonomous vehicles will be equipped with telerobotic devices in planetary exploration. In all of these systems, human operators will interact with the robot system at varied levels during the scheduled operations. The human operators may be in either orbital or ground-based control systems. To assure integrated system development and maximum utility across these systems, designers must be sensitive to the constraints and capabilities that the human brings to system operation and must be assisted in applying these human factors to system development. The simulation and analysis system is intended to serve the needs of system analysis/designers as an integrated workstation in support of telerobotic design.

Corker, K.; Hudlicka, E.; Young, D.; Cramer, N.

1989-01-01

373

Support vector machine learning for interdependent and structured output spaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Learning general functional dependencies is one of the main goals in machine learning. Recent progress in kernel-based methods has focused on designing flexible and powerful input representations. This paper addresses the complementary issue of problems involving complex outputs such as multiple dependent output variables and structured output spaces. We propose to generalize multiclass Support Vector Machine learning in a formulation

Ioannis Tsochantaridis; Thomas Hofmann; Thorsten Joachims; Yasemin Altun

2004-01-01

374

Input-output passive framework for delay systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multivariable linear systems with several delays are considered. Delays are allowed in the state as well as in the input or the output. Passivity and dissipativity of such systems are considered both in the input-output and state space framework in connection with hyperstability. In the input-output framework necessary and sufficient conditions of passivity and hyperstability of delay systems are given

V. Rasvan; Silviu-Iulian Niculescu; Rogelio Lozano

2000-01-01

375

New Results on Nonsmooth Output Feedback Stabilization of Nonlinear Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a nonsmooth output feedback framework for local and\\/or global stabilization of a class of inherently nonlinear systems, which may not be achieved by any smooth feedback controller. A systematic design algorithm is presented for the construction of stabilizing, dynamic output compensators that are nonsmooth but Hölder continuous. A new ingredient of the proposed output feedback control scheme

Chunjiang Qian; Wei Lin

376

Macroeconomic Forecasting with Mixed Frequency Data: Forecasting US Output Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many macroeconomic series such as US real output growth are sampled quarterly, although potentially useful predictors are often observed at a higher frequency. We look at whether a mixed data-frequency sampling (MIDAS) approach can improve forecasts of output growth. The MIDAS approach is compared to other ways of making use of monthly data to predict quarterly output growth. The MIDAS

Michael P. Clements; Ana Beatriz Galvão

2007-01-01

377

Monitoring the Heat Output of a Wood-Burning Stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

To find a simple means for monitoring the heat output of a wood stove, general engineering models of heat transfer are used to develop a model that predicts the heat output of a stove from measurements of surface temperature. Using the surface area and the measured surface temperature as inputs, the model predicts the heat output of the stove by

M. P. MODERA

1986-01-01

378

Constellation Shaping for Communication Channels with Quantized Outputs  

E-print Network

Constellation Shaping for Communication Channels with Quantized Outputs Chandana Nannapaneni signal constellation and the output is quantized by a uniform scalar quantizer. The goal is to jointly constellation and outputs that must be quantized prior to decoding (e.g. by passing the received signal through

Valenti, Matthew C.

379

HIV & AIDS in older adults.  

PubMed

Many Americans mistakenly believe that older adults are not at risk for HIV/AIDS. Older people do not perceive themselves to be at risk for HIV infection, either. In reality, approximately 10% of AIDS cases are among people older than 50. Many health care providers lack an awareness of the risk of HIV/AIDS in the elderly population, and as a result, many older people with these conditions are misdiagnosed with other ailments. Major manifestations of HIV/AIDS in elderly adults include Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, herpes zoster, tuberculosis, cytomegalovirus, oral thrush, Mycobacterium avium complex, and HIV dementia. Elderly HIV-positive women have special health concerns, such as cervical cancer. Nurses and nurse practitioners can heighten their colleagues' awareness of the existence of HIV/AIDS in the elderly population and educate their older patients on HIV/AIDS. Furthermore, information about sexuality and sexual practices of older adults should be incorporated into all health science curricula. Additional research is needed to determine the extent of the problem and how health care providers can best serve their older patients' needs. PMID:10703354

Wooten-Bielski, K

1999-01-01

380

Predicting Maximum Lake Depth from Surrounding Topography  

EPA Science Inventory

Lake volume aids understanding of the physical and ecological dynamics of lakes, yet is often not readily available. The data needed to calculate lake volume (i.e. bathymetry) are usually only collected on a lake by lake basis and are difficult to obtain across broad regions. ...

381

49 CFR 107.329 - Maximum penalties.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...the maximum civil penalty is $110,000 if the violation results in death, serious illness...minimum $495 civil penalty applies to a violation...the maximum civil penalty is $110,000 if the violation results in death, serious...

2012-10-01

382

49 CFR 107.329 - Maximum penalties.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the maximum civil penalty is $110,000 if the violation results in death, serious illness...minimum $495 civil penalty applies to a violation...the maximum civil penalty is $110,000 if the violation results in death, serious...

2010-10-01

383

49 CFR 107.329 - Maximum penalties.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...the maximum civil penalty is $110,000 if the violation results in death, serious illness...minimum $495 civil penalty applies to a violation...the maximum civil penalty is $110,000 if the violation results in death, serious...

2011-10-01

384

49 CFR 107.329 - Maximum penalties.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the maximum civil penalty is $175,000 if the violation results in death, serious illness...no minimum civil penalty, except for a minimum...the maximum civil penalty is $175,000 if the violation results in death, serious...

2013-10-01

385

49 CFR 107.329 - Maximum penalties.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...the maximum civil penalty is $175,000 if the violation results in death, serious illness...no minimum civil penalty, except for a minimum...the maximum civil penalty is $175,000 if the violation results in death, serious...

2014-10-01

386

Maximum likelihood training of probabilistic neural networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A maximum likelihood method is presented for training probabilistic neural networks (PNN's) using a Gaussian kernel, or Parzen window. The proposed training algorithm enables general nonlinear discrimination and is a generalization of Fisher's method for linear discrimination. Important features of maximum likelihood training for PNN's are: 1) it economizes the well known Parzen window estimator while preserving feedforward NN architecture,

Roy L. Streit; Tod E. Luginbuhl

1994-01-01

387

DISCRETE MAXIMUM ENTROPY ESTIMATORS FOR SPATIAL INTERPOLATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study applies the maximum entropy principle to develop estimators for spatial interpolation. Rather than continuous probability distributions commonly applied in the literature, this study tries to develop the estimators based on discrete probabilities. The maximum entropy estimators established include those random fields assuming second-order stationary and intrinsic hypothesis. For further comparison, this study also investigates both the random fields

Yuh-Ming Lee

388

Psychological Impact of AIDS on Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are at least three aspects to the psychological impact of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) on children. First is the psychological response of the child with AIDS; second, the response of the child in a group at high risk for AIDS; and third, the psychological response of children in general to the perceived threat from AIDS.…

Belfer, Myron L.

389

Office of Student Services Financial Aid  

E-print Network

Office of Student Services Financial Aid The Hawaii Community College Financial Aid Office 200 W HAWAII COMMUNITY COLLEGE FINANCIAL AID TERMS OF AWARDS All awards have been "Automatically" accepted for you. In accepting an offer of financial aid, you acknowledge responsibility for understanding

Olsen, Stephen L.

390

BARNARD COLLEGE COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY FINANCIAL AID  

E-print Network

BARNARD COLLEGE COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY FINANCIAL AID 3009 BROADWAY NEW YORK, NY 10027 PHONE 212 for need-based financial aid? Yes No Please note that if the student applies for financial aid, a parent loan application may not be processed until the student's aid application has been evaluated. PARENT

391

Decision Aiding and Argumentation (preliminary draft)  

E-print Network

Decision Aiding and Argumentation (preliminary draft) Pavlos Moraïtis(+) and Alexis Tsoukiàs theory can be used in order to model the decision aiding process, besides being a formalism enabling in decision aiding methodology (how to revise the cognitive artifacts of a decision aiding process

Moraitis, Pavlos

392

West Virginia University 1 Financial Aid  

E-print Network

West Virginia University 1 Financial Aid In this section: Apply for Aid: · Application Process · Aid Offer Notification · Employment Opportunities Policies · Satisfactory Academic Progrsss · Consequences of Withdrawal In this section: · Application Process · Aid Offer Notification · Employment

Mohaghegh, Shahab

393

West Virginia University 1 Financial Aid  

E-print Network

West Virginia University 1 Financial Aid In this section: Apply for Aid: · Application Process · Aid Offer Notification · Employment Opportunities Policies: · Satisfactory Academic Progress and Assistantships In this section: · Application Process · Aid Offer Notification · Employment Opportunities Each

Mohaghegh, Shahab

394

Financial Aid Information for NSE Students  

E-print Network

Financial Aid Information for NSE Students Apply for Federal Financial Aid · Complete the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA) at www.fafsa.ed.gov. Use 011462 for your school code in order for UAA to receive the Student Aid Report generated from the FAFSA. The FAFSA must be completed every year

Pantaleone, Jim

395

Check Aid Status & Loans on ISIS  

E-print Network

Check Aid Status & Loans on ISIS As a University of Florida (UF) financial aid applicant, you can business using ISIS (the UF Integrated Student Information System): www.isis.ufl.edu 1.CheCk Aid StAtuS/AwArdS on iSiS You are responsible for keeping track of your financial aid file and awards, including

Fang, Yuguang "Michael"

396

A Microphone Array for Hearing Aids  

E-print Network

26 A Microphone Array for Hearing Aids A Microphone Array for Hearing Aids 1531-636X/06/$10.00©2001IEEE by Bernard Widrow 0.00©31-636X/06 #12;27 Microphone Array for Hearing Aids There is a big speech when given sufficient amplification from their hearing aids. In many cases, however

Widrow, Bernard

397

Financial Aid Checklist We can help!  

E-print Network

Financial Aid Checklist We can help! Dial the help line experts at the Bronco Express Service to finaid-info@wmich.edu. See your financial aid award and payment information on GoWMU! Welcome to Financial Aid Financial Aid Application Process First-time applicants: Request a Personal Identification

de Doncker, Elise

398

Financial Aid www.uta.edu/fao  

E-print Network

Financial Aid www.uta.edu/fao Many sources of student financial aid exist at The University and funding availability can vary from one year to the next. Financial aid is generally limited to U and the maintenance of satisfactory academic progress are required to participate in most aid programs. Students

Texas at Arlington, University of

399

Politics and the effectiveness of foreign aid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Critics of foreign aid programs have long argued that poverty reflects government failure. In this paper I test predictions for aid effectiveness based on an analytical framework that relates aid effectiveness to political regimes. I find that aid does not significantly increase investment, nor benefit the poor as measured by improvements in human development indicators, but it does increase the

Peter Boone

1996-01-01

400

Magnetic field generated resistivity maximum in graphite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In zero magnetic field, B, the electrical resistivity, rho(O,T) of highly oriented pyrolytic (polycrystalline) graphite drops smoothly with decreasing T, becoming constant below 4 K. However, in a fixed applied magnetic field B, the resistivity rho(B,T) goes through a maximum as a function of T, with larger maximum for larger B. The temperature of the maximum increases with B, but saturates to a constant value near 25 K (exact T depends on sample) at high B. In single crystal graphite a maximum in rho(B,T) as a function of T is also present, but has the effects of Landau level quantization superimposed. Several possible explanations for the rho(B,T) maximum are proposed, but a complete explanation awaits detailed calculations involving the energy band structure of graphite, and the particular scattering mechanisms involved.

Wollam, J. A.; Kreps, L. W.; Rojeski, M.; Vold, T.; Devaty, R.

1976-01-01

401

Commissioning of output factors for uniform scanning proton beams  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Current commercial treatment planning systems are not able to accurately predict output factors and calculate monitor units for proton fields. Patient-specific field output factors are thus determined by either measurements or empirical modeling based on commissioning data. The objective of this study is to commission output factors for uniform scanning beams utilized at the ProCure proton therapy centers. Methods: Using water phantoms and a plane parallel ionization chamber, the authors first measured output factors with a fixed 10 cm diameter aperture as a function of proton range and modulation width for clinically available proton beams with ranges between 4 and 31.5 cm and modulation widths between 2 and 15 cm. The authors then measured the output factor as a function of collimated field size at various calibration depths for proton beams of various ranges and modulation widths. The authors further examined the dependence of the output factor on the scanning area (i.e., uncollimated proton field), snout position, and phantom material. An empirical model was developed to calculate the output factor for patient-specific fields and the model-predicted output factors were compared to measurements. Results: The output factor increased with proton range and field size, and decreased with modulation width. The scanning area and snout position have a small but non-negligible effect on the output factors. The predicted output factors based on the empirical modeling agreed within 2% of measurements for all prostate treatment fields and within 3% for 98.5% of all treatment fields. Conclusions: Comprehensive measurements at a large subset of available beam conditions are needed to commission output factors for proton therapy beams. The empirical modeling agrees well with the measured output factor data. This investigation indicates that it is possible to accurately predict output factors and thus eliminate or reduce time-consuming patient-specific output measurements for proton treatments.

Zheng Yuanshui; Ramirez, Eric; Mascia, Anthony; Ding Xiaoning; Okoth, Benny; Zeidan, Omar; Hsi Wen; Harris, Ben; Schreuder, Andries N.; Keole, Sameer [ProCure Proton Therapy Center, 5901 West Memorial Road, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73142 (United States); ProCure Treatment Centers, 420 North Walnut Street, Bloomington, Indiana 47404 (United States); ProCure Proton Therapy Center, 5901 West Memorial Road, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73142 (United States)

2011-04-15

402

Estimating potential output and the output gap for the euro area: a model-based production function approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an analysis of multivariate unobserved components models for the estimation of potential output and the\\u000a output gap in the euro area. Bivariate models of output and inflation and multivariate model-based implementations of the\\u000a production function approach are considered; according to the latter potential output is derived from the permanent components\\u000a of the factors of production consistent with

Tommaso Proietti; Alberto Musso; Thomas Westermann

2007-01-01

403

The effect of ouabain on noradrenaline output from peripheral adrenergic neurones of isolated guinea-pig vas deferens  

PubMed Central

1. The effect of ouabain on the noradrenaline output from peripheral adrenergic neurones has been studied using isolated guinea-pig vasa deferentia. 2. Exposure to ouabain (10-4 M) causes a gradual increase in the noradrenaline output. The effect occurs after a delay of 20 min and reaches a maximum during the period from 40-60 min. 3. In the absence of external Ca, exposure to ouabain fails to produce an increase in the noradrenaline output. However, the reintroduction of Ca (2·5 mM) after a 1 hr exposure to ouabain in Ca-free media causes a rapid rise in noradrenaline output which reaches a maximum within the first 20 min. 4. After a 1 hr exposure to a low concentration of ouabain (10-5 M) the reintroduction of Ca is almost ineffective in increasing the noradrenaline output. When the concentration of ouabain is increased, the reintroduction of Ca becomes effective and causes a maximum effect with 10-4 M ouabain. In the presence of a constant amount of ouabain (10-4 M) the noradrenaline output induced by the reintroduction of Ca increases over the range 0·2-2·5 mM. 5. In the presence of ouabain (10-4 M) the Ca-induced noradrenaline output increases in a linear fashion with increasing Na concentrations from 25 to 143 mM, as long as NaCl is replaced with equimolar choline chloride or isotonic sucrose. 6. In the presence of the lowest effective concentration of sodium (25 mM) the noradrenaline output induced by the reintroduction of Ca after a 1 hr exposure to ouabain is potentiated by LiCl. However, in the complete absence of Na+ ions, there is no Li-dependent increase in the Ca-induced noradrenaline output. 7. It is suggested that ouabain may cause an increase in noradrenaline output by an effect on the Na-dependent Ca influx system. PMID:671328

Nakazato, Y.; Ohga, A.; Onoda, Y.

1978-01-01

404

Multiple high voltage output DC-to-DC power converter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Disclosed is a multiple output DC-to-DC converter. The DC input power is filtered and passed through a chopper preregulator. The chopper output is then passed through a current source inverter controlled by a squarewave generator. The resultant AC is passed through the primary winding of a transformer, with high voltages induced in a plurality of secondary windings. The high voltage secondary outputs are each solid-state rectified for passage to individual output loads. Multiple feedback loops control the operation of the chopper preregulator, one being responsive to the current through the primary winding and another responsive to the DC voltage level at a selected output.

Cronin, Donald L. (Inventor); Farber, Bertrand F. (Inventor); Gehm, Hartmut K. (Inventor); Goldin, Daniel S. (Inventor)

1977-01-01

405

MCNP Output Data Analysis with ROOT (MODAR)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MCNP Output Data Analysis with ROOT (MODAR) is a tool based on CERN's ROOT software. MODAR has been designed to handle time-energy data issued by MCNP simulations of neutron inspection devices using the associated particle technique. MODAR exploits ROOT's Graphical User Interface and functionalities to visualize and process MCNP simulation results in a fast and user-friendly way. MODAR allows to take into account the detection system time resolution (which is not possible with MCNP) as well as detectors energy response function and counting statistics in a straightforward way. Program summaryProgram title: MODAR Catalogue identifier: AEGA_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEGA_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 155 373 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 14 815 461 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++ Computer: Most Unix workstations and PC Operating system: Most Unix systems, Linux and windows, provided the ROOT package has been installed. Examples where tested under Suse Linux and Windows XP. RAM: Depends on the size of the MCNP output file. The example presented in the article, which involves three two-dimensional 139×740 bins histograms, allocates about 60 MB. These data are running under ROOT and include consumption by ROOT itself. Classification: 17.6 External routines: ROOT version 5.24.00 ( http://root.cern.ch/drupal/) Nature of problem: The output of an MCNP simulation is an ASCII file. The data processing is usually performed by copying and pasting the relevant parts of the ASCII file into Microsoft Excel. Such an approach is satisfactory when the quantity of data is small but is not efficient when the size of the simulated data is large, for example when time-energy correlations are studied in detail such as in problems involving the associated particle technique. In addition, since the finite time resolution of the simulated detector cannot be modeled with MCNP, systems in which time-energy correlation is crucial cannot be described in a satisfactory way. Finally, realistic particle energy deposit in detectors is calculated with MCNP in a two-step process involving type-5 then type-8 tallies. In the first step, the photon flux energy spectrum associated to a time region is selected and serves as a source energy distribution for the second step. Thus, several files must be manipulated before getting the result, which can be time consuming if one needs to study several time regions or different detectors performances. In the same way, modeling counting statistics obtained in a limited acquisition time requires several steps and can also be time consuming. Solution method: In order to overcome the previous limitations, the MODAR C++ code has been written to make use of CERN's ROOT data analysis software. MCNP output data are read from the MCNP output file with dedicated routines. Two-dimensional histograms are filled and can be handled efficiently within the ROOT framework. To keep a user friendly analysis tool, all processing and data display can be done by means of ROOT Graphical User Interface. Specific routines have been written to include detectors finite time resolution and energy response function as well as counting statistics in a straightforward way. Additional comments: The possibility of adding tallies has also been incorporated in MODAR in order to describe systems in which the signal from several detectors can be summed. Moreover, MODAR can be adapted to handle other problems involving two-dimensional data. Running time: The CPU time needed to smear a two-dimensional histogram depends on the size of the histogram. In the presented example, the time-energy smearing of one of the 139×740 two-dimensional histograms takes 3 minutes with a DELL computer equipped with INTEL Core 2.

Carasco, C.

2010-06-01

406

MCNP output data analysis with ROOT (MODAR)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MCNP Output Data Analysis with ROOT (MODAR) is a tool based on CERN's ROOT software. MODAR has been designed to handle time-energy data issued by MCNP simulations of neutron inspection devices using the associated particle technique. MODAR exploits ROOT's Graphical User Interface and functionalities to visualize and process MCNP simulation results in a fast and user-friendly way. MODAR allows to take into account the detection system time resolution (which is not possible with MCNP) as well as detectors energy response function and counting statistics in a straightforward way. New version program summaryProgram title: MODAR Catalogue identifier: AEGA_v1_1 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEGA_v1_1.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 150 927 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 4 981 633 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++ Computer: Most Unix workstations and PCs Operating system: Most Unix systems, Linux and windows, provided the ROOT package has been installed. Examples where tested under Suse Linux and Windows XP. RAM: Depends on the size of the MCNP output file. The example presented in the article, which involves three two dimensional 139×740 bins histograms, allocates about 60 MB. These data are running under ROOT and include consumption by ROOT itself. Classification: 17.6 Catalogue identifier of previous version: AEGA_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 181 (2010) 1161 External routines: ROOT version 5.24.00 ( http://root.cern.ch/drupal/) Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes Nature of problem: The output of a MCNP simulation is an ascii file. The data processing is usually performed by copying and pasting the relevant parts of the ascii file into Microsoft Excel. Such an approach is satisfactory when the quantity of data is small but is not efficient when the size of the simulated data is large, for example when time-energy correlations are studied in detail such as in problems involving the associated particle technique. In addition, since the finite time resolution of the simulated detector cannot be modeled with MCNP, systems in which time-energy correlation is crucial cannot be described in a satisfactory way. Finally, realistic particle energy deposit in detectors is calculated with MCNP in a two step process involving type-5 then type-8 tallies. In the first step, the photon flux energy spectrum associated to a time region is selected and serves as a source energy distribution for the second step. Thus, several files must be manipulated before getting the result, which can be time consuming if one needs to study several time regions or different detectors performances. In the same way, modeling counting statistics obtained in a limited acquisition time requires several steps and can also be time consuming. Solution method: In order to overcome the previous limitations, the MODAR C++ code has been written to make use of CERN's ROOT data analysis software. MCNP output data are read from the MCNP output file with dedicated routines. Two dimensional histograms are filled and can be handled efficiently within the ROOT framework. To keep a user friendly analysis tool, all processing and data display can be done by means of ROOT Graphical User Interface. Specific routines have been written to include detectors finite time resolution and energy response function as well as counting statistics in a straightforward way. Reasons for new version: For applications involving the Associate Particle Technique, a large number of gamma rays are produced by the fast neutrons interactions. To study the energy spectra, it is useful to identify the gamma-ray energy peaks in a straightforward way. Therefore, the possibility to show gamma rays corresponding to specific reactions has been added in MODAR. Summary of

Carasco, C.

2010-12-01

407

Short-current pulse-based maximum-power-point tracking method for multiple photovoltaic-and-converter module system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a novel maximum-power-point tracking (MPPT) method with a simple algorithm for photovoltaic (PV) power generation systems. The method is based on use of a short-current pulse of the PV to determine an optimum operating current where the maximum output power can be obtained and completely differs from conventional hill-climbing-based methods. In the proposed system, the optimum operating

Toshihiko Noguchi; Shigenori Togashi; Ryo Nakamoto

2002-01-01

408

University of Florida Financial Aid Application Guide 2 Gator Aid Application Guide  

E-print Network

, and their parents. Visit our lobby in S-107 Criser Hall if you need assistance with any part of the financial aidUniversity of Florida Financial Aid Application Guide 2014-15 Gator Aid #12;2 Gator Aid Application Guide How To Apply 3 Financial Aid Programs @ UF 4 Florida Bright Futures 5 Innovation Academy/ UF

Pilyugin, Sergei S.

409

Financial Aid White-Residential Life Yellow-Financial Aid Pink-Bursar Gold-Student  

E-print Network

Financial Aid White- Residential Life Yellow- Financial Aid Pink- Bursar Gold- Student 1/14/2014 ANTICIPATED FINANCIAL AID VERIFICATION FORM FOR THE NEW YORKER RESIDENCY Student Information (Please print: _______________________________ Date: _________________ Anticipated Financial Aid Information (To be completed by Financial Aid) Type

Rosen, Jay

410

Need-Based Aid & Scholarships For comprehensive information about our financial aid programs, visit  

E-print Network

Need-Based Aid & Scholarships For comprehensive information about our financial aid programs, visit-grant university. Most students qualify for some type of aid at CSU, and we offer a variety of programs to help you pay for college. Need-based financial aid Fill out the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA

411

Guide to Using UA Online to Check Your Financial Aid To check your financial aid  

E-print Network

1 Guide to Using UA Online to Check Your Financial Aid Status To check your financial aid status in for the first time) #12;4 To review your Financial Aid status click on "Student Services, Financial Aid & Account Information" #12;5 To view your status click "Financial Aid" #12;6 Click "My Overall Status

Hartman, Chris

412

Financial Aid Standards for SAP Page 1 Financial Aid Standards for  

E-print Network

Financial Aid Standards for SAP Page 1 Financial Aid Standards for Satisfactory Academic Progress Affects Your Financial Aid Eligibility Updated February 2012 #12;Financial Aid Standards for SAP Page 2 CONTENTS General Information How and When is Financial Aid and SAP Monitored? Qualitative and Quantitative

Leistikow, Bruce N.

413

Graduate Keys to Financial Aid 2013-2014 SCHOLARSHIPS & FINANCIAL AID  

E-print Network

Graduate Keys to Financial Aid 2013-2014 SCHOLARSHIPS & FINANCIAL AID #12;Financial Opportunities at Texas A&M Texas A&M disburses $534 million in financial aid annually. 19% in Scholarships 15 are receiving financial aid #12;Services We Provide Advising on student aid Scholarships Grants Student

414

Financial Aid White Financial Aid Yellow Student 4/24/2014  

E-print Network

Financial Aid White ­ Financial Aid Yellow ­ Student 4/24/2014 REQUEST FOR SUMMER FINANCIAL AID Students applying for Summer Financial Aid must have filed their FAFSA application before submitting view your financial aid via eFAP through the CUNY Portal (www.cuny.edu). Please note that your request

Rosen, Jay

415

AIDS . Author manuscript Non-AIDS-defining deaths and immunodeficiency in the era of combination  

E-print Network

AIDS . Author manuscript Page /1 12 Non-AIDS-defining deaths and immunodeficiency in the era immunodeficiency is associated with the most frequent non-AIDS-defining causes of death, in the era of combination (71,230 person-years follow-up), 597 died, 333 (55.7 ) from non-AIDS-defining causes. Non-AIDS

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

416

Analysis of recruitment and industrial human resources management for optimal productivity in the presence of the HIV/AIDS epidemic.  

PubMed

The aim of this paper is to analyze the recruitment effects of susceptible and infected individuals in order to assess the productivity of an organizational labor force in the presence of HIV/AIDS with preventive and HAART treatment measures in enhancing the workforce output. We consider constant controls as well as time-dependent controls. In the constant control case, we calculate the basic reproduction number and investigate the existence and stability of equilibria. The model is found to exhibit backward and Hopf bifurcations, implying that for the disease to be eradicated, the basic reproductive number must be below a critical value of less than one. We also investigate, by calculating sensitivity indices, the sensitivity of the basic reproductive number to the model's parameters. In the time-dependent control case, we use Pontryagin's maximum principle to derive necessary conditions for the optimal control of the disease. Finally, numerical simulations are performed to illustrate the analytical results. The cost-effectiveness analysis results show that optimal efforts on recruitment (HIV screening of applicants, etc.) is not the most cost-effective strategy to enhance productivity in the organizational labor force. Hence, to enhance employees' productivity, effective education programs and strict adherence to preventive measures should be promoted. PMID:23860836

Okosun, Kazeem O; Makinde, Oluwole D; Takaidza, Isaac

2013-01-01

417

Improved thermoelectric power output from multilayered polyethylenimine doped carbon nanotube based organic composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By appropriately selecting the carbon nanotube type and n-type dopant for the conduction layers in a multilayered carbon nanotube composite, the total device thermoelectric power output can be increased significantly. The particular materials chosen in this study were raw single walled carbon nanotubes for the p-type layers and polyethylenimine doped single walled carbon nanotubes for the n-type layers. The combination of these two conduction layers leads to a single thermocouple Seebeck coefficient of 96 ± 4 ?VK-1, which is 6.3 times higher than that previously reported. This improved Seebeck coefficient leads to a total power output of 14.7 nW per thermocouple at the maximum temperature difference of 50 K, which is 44 times the power output per thermocouple for the previously reported results. Ultimately, these thermoelectric power output improvements help to increase the potential use of these lightweight, flexible, and durable organic multilayered carbon nanotube based thermoelectric modules in low powered electronics applications, where waste heat is available.

Hewitt, Corey A.; Montgomery, David S.; Barbalace, Ryan L.; Carlson, Rowland D.; Carroll, David L.

2014-05-01

418

Continuous-wave intra-cavity singly resonant optical parametric oscillator with resonant wave output coupling.  

PubMed

We report herein the enhancement in both power and efficiency performance of a continuous-wave intra-cavity singly resonant optical parametric oscillator (ICSRO) by introducing finite resonant wave output coupling. While coupling out the resonant wave to useful output, the output coupling increases the SRO threshold properly thus suppresses the back-conversion under high pump power. Therefore, the down-conversion efficiency is maintained under high pump without having to raise the threshold by defocusing. With a T = 9.6% signal wave output coupler used, the SRO threshold is 2.46 W and the down-conversion efficiency is 72.9% under the maximum pump power of 21.4 W. 1.43 W idler power at 3.66 ?m and 5.03 W signal power at 1.5 ?m are obtained, corresponding to a total extraction efficiency of 30.2%. The resonant wave out coupling significantly levels up the upper limit for the power range where the ICSRO exhibits high efficiency, without impeding its advantage of low threshold. PMID:23262741

Sheng, Quan; Ding, Xin; Shang, Ce; Li, Bin; Fan, Chen; Zhang, Haiyong; Yu, Xuanyi; Wen, Wuqi; Ma, Yila; Yao, Jianquan

2012-12-01

419

Improved thermoelectric power output from multilayered polyethylenimine doped carbon nanotube based organic composites  

SciTech Connect

By appropriately selecting the carbon nanotube type and n-type dopant for the conduction layers in a multilayered carbon nanotube composite, the total device thermoelectric power output can be increased significantly. The particular materials chosen in this study were raw single walled carbon nanotubes for the p-type layers and polyethylenimine doped single walled carbon nanotubes for the n-type layers. The combination of these two conduction layers leads to a single thermocouple Seebeck coefficient of 96 ± 4??VK{sup ?1}, which is 6.3 times higher than that previously reported. This improved Seebeck coefficient leads to a total power output of 14.7 nW per thermocouple at the maximum temperature difference of 50?K, which is 44 times the power output per thermocouple for the previously reported results. Ultimately, these thermoelectric power output improvements help to increase the potential use of these lightweight, flexible, and durable organic multilayered carbon nanotube based thermoelectric modules in low powered electronics applications, where waste heat is available.

Hewitt, Corey A.; Montgomery, David S.; Barbalace, Ryan L.; Carlson, Rowland D.; Carroll, David L., E-mail: carroldl@wfu.edu [Center for Nanotechnology and Molecular Materials, Wake Forest University, 501 Deacon Blvd., Winston Salem, North Carolina 27105 (United States)

2014-05-14

420

Monte Carlo calculations of electron beam output factors for a medical linear accelerator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the application of the Monte Carlo technique to the calculation and analysis of output factors for electron beams used in radiotherapy. The code EGS4/BEAM was used to obtain phase-space files for 6, 12 and 20 MeV clinical electron beams from a scattering-foil linac (Varian Clinac 2100C) for a clinically representative range of applicator and square or rectangular insert combinations. The source-to-surface distance used was 100 cm. The field sizes ranged from to . These phase-space files were analysed to study the intrinsic beam characteristics and used as source input for relative dose and output factor computations in homogeneous water phantoms using the code EGS4/DOSXYZ. The calculated relative central-axis depth-dose and transverse dose profiles at various depths of clinical interest agreed with the corresponding measured dose profiles to within 2% of the maximum dose. Calculated output factors for the fields studied agreed with measured output factors to about 2%. This demonstrated that for the Varian Clinac 2100C linear accelerator, electron beam dose calculations in homogeneous water phantoms can be performed accurately at the 2% level using Monte Carlo simulations.

Kapur, Ajay; Ma, C.-M.; Mok, Ed C.; Findley, David O.; Boyer, Arthur L.

1998-12-01

421

Paleometeorology: Visualizing MidLatitude Dynamics at the Synoptic Level during the Last Glacial Maximum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synoptic-scale weather conditions of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) are simulated using the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Climate Model version 3 (CCM3.6) on a globally resolved T170 (~75 km) grid domain. Model outputs have been saved at hourly intervals in order to better resolve diurnal features. The simulation has been run in tandem with a lower temporally

Matthew Unterman; Thomas Crowley; Kevin Hodges; Seong-Joong Kim; David Erickson

2010-01-01

422

A novel maximum power point tracking technique for solar panels using a SEPIC or Cuk converter  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel technique for efficiently extracting the maximum output power from a solar panel under varying meteorological conditions is presented. The methodology is based on connecting a pulse-width-modulated (PWM) DC\\/DC SEPIC or Cuk converter between a solar panel and a load or battery bus. The converter operates in discontinuous capacitor voltage mode whilst its input current is continuous. By modulating

Henry Shu-Hung Chung; K. K. Tse; S. Y. Ron Hui; C. M. Mok; M. T. Ho

2003-01-01

423

Maximum-likelihood sequence estimation of digital sequences in the presence of intersymbol interference  

Microsoft Academic Search

A maximum-likelihood sequence estimator for a digital pulse-amplitude-modulated sequence in the presence of finite intersymbol interference and white Gaussian noise is developed, The structure comprises a sampled linear filter, called a whitened matched filter, and a recursive nonlinear processor, called the Viterbi algorithm. The outputs of the whitened matched filter, sampled once for each input symbol, are shown to form

1972-01-01

424

Maximum-Likeliho od Seauence Estimation of Digital Sequences i&he Presence of Intersymbol Interference  

Microsoft Academic Search

A maximum-likelihood sequence estimator for a digital pulse-amplitude-modulated sequence in the presence of finite intersymbol interference and white Gaussian noise is developed. The structure cbm- prises a sampled linear filter, called a whitened matched filter, and a recursive nonlinear processor, called the Viterbi algorithm. The outputs of the whitened matched filter, sampled once for each input symbol, are shown to

G. DAVID FORNEY

1972-01-01

425

Adaptive Maximum-Likelihood Receiver for Carrier-Modulated Data-Transmission Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new look is taken at maximum-likelihood sequence estimation in the presence of intersymbol interference. A uniform receiver structure for linear carrier-modulated data-transmission systems is derived which for decision making uses a modified version of the Viterbi algorithm. The algorithm operates directly on the output signal of a complex matched filter and, in contrast to the original algorithm, requires no

GOTTFRIED UNGERBOECK

1974-01-01

426

Estimating the seasonal maximum light use efficiency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Light use efficiency (LUE) is a key parameter in estimating gross primary production (GPP) based on global Earth-observation satellite data and model calculations. In current LUE-based GPP estimation models, the maximum LUE is treated as a constant for each biome type. However, the maximum LUE varies seasonally. In this study, seasonal maximum LUE values were estimated from the maximum incident LUE versus the incident photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and the fraction of absorbed PAR. First, an algorithm to estimate maximum incident LUE was developed to estimate GPP capacity using a light response curve. One of the parameters required for the light response curve was estimated from the linear relationship of the chlorophyll index and the GPP capacity at a high PAR level of 2000 (µmolm-2s-1), and was referred to as" the maximum GPP capacity at 2000". The relationship was determined for six plant functional types: needleleaf deciduous trees, broadleaf deciduous trees, needleleaf evergreen trees, broadleaf evergreen trees, C3 grass, and crops. The maximum LUE values estimated in this study displayed seasonal variation, especially those for deciduous broadleaf forest, but also those for evergreen needleleaf forest.

Muramatsu, Kanako; Furumi, Shinobu; Soyama, Noriko; Daigo, Motomasa

2014-11-01

427

Adaptive Beamforming with a Maximum Negentropy Criterion  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we address an adaptive beamforming application in realistic acoustic conditions. After the position of a speaker is estimated by a speaker tracking system, we construct a subband-domain beamformer in generalized sidelobe canceller (GSC) configuration. In contrast to conventional practice, we then optimize the active weight vectors of the GSC so as to obtain an output signal with

Kenichi Kumatani; John McDonough; Dietrich Klakow; Philip N. Garner; Weifeng Li

2008-01-01

428

Dependence of output coupling efficiency on detuning in surface grating output couplers.  

PubMed

The dependence of output coupling efficiency on the periodicity of a surface grating outcoupler was investigated. Horizontal cavity InGaAs/AlGaAs laser oscillators with two first-order surface gratings as feedback elements were integrated with detuned rectangular second-order gratings as surface output couplers by the use of electron-beam lithography and chemically assisted ion-beam etching. A high surface emission efficiency of more than 60% was achieved for grating periodicities detuned -2.5 nm to -15 nm and +2.5 nm from the resonance periodicity of 295 nm. For larger positive detuning, the surface emission efficiency is reduced because of the onset of secondorder diffraction into the substrate. PMID:19859127

Hagberg, M; Eriksson, N; Kjellberg, T; Larsson, A

1995-01-15

429

Methods and apparatus for determining cardiac output  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention provides methods and apparatus for determining a dynamical property of the systemic or pulmonary arterial tree using long time scale information, i.e., information obtained from measurements over time scales greater than a single cardiac cycle. In one aspect, the invention provides a method and apparatus for monitoring cardiac output (CO) from a single blood pressure signal measurement obtained at any site in the systemic or pulmonary arterial tree or from any related measurement including, for example, fingertip photoplethysmography.According to the method the time constant of the arterial tree, defined to be the product of the total peripheral resistance (TPR) and the nearly constant arterial compliance, is determined by analyzing the long time scale variations (greater than a single cardiac cycle) in any of these blood pressure signals. Then, according to Ohm's law, a value proportional to CO may be determined from the ratio of the blood pressure signal to the estimated time constant. The proportional CO values derived from this method may be calibrated to absolute CO, if desired, with a single, absolute measure of CO (e.g., thermodilution). The present invention may be applied to invasive radial arterial blood pressure or pulmonary arterial blood pressure signals which are routinely measured in intensive care units and surgical suites or to noninvasively measured peripheral arterial blood pressure signals or related noninvasively measured signals in order to facilitate the clinical monitoring of CO as well as TPR.

Cohen, Richard J. (Inventor); Mukkamala, Ramakrishna (Inventor); Sherman, Derin A. (Inventor)

2010-01-01

430

An AIDS campaign in Brazil.  

PubMed

The Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) distribution program in Brazil, spearheaded by the National Division of Sanitary Surveillance in Ports, Airports, and Borders, was part of the government's massive education campaign to prevent the transmission of HIV-AIDS in Brazil. Beginning in February 1987, the climate was sufficiently favorable to operate a coordinated information campaign during the Carnival celebration, and tourists arriving in the cities of Brazil for the annual Carnival celebration were handed an educational brochure in Portugese, Spanish, English, and French. Yet, beyond reaching the tourist populations, it is particularly important to reach large portions of the Brazilian population. Planners of the national AIDS campaign intend to use television, radio, and all major newspapers in their effort to cover the country. Initial television coverage is comprised of short informational messages directed at high-risk groups. There also are plans to use radio and the print media in order to reach a wider audience. It is estimated that US $6 million will be needed to adequately meet the costs of AIDS prevention and medical care, but due to extreme budget constraints, only $45,000 has been earmarked for ongoing AIDS activities at this time. PMID:12281284

Janoff, D

1987-01-01

431

HIV/AIDS and blindness.  

PubMed Central

Nearly 34 million people are currently living with HIV/AIDS: ocular complications are common, affecting 50% to 75% of all such patients at some point during the course of their illness. Cytomegalovirus retinitis is by far the most frequent cause of vision loss in patients with AIDS. Although the prevalence of cytomegalovirus retinitis is decreasing in industrialized countries because of the widespread availability of highly active antiretroviral therapy, between 10% and 20% of HIV-infected patients worldwide can be expected to lose vision in one or both eyes as a result of ocular cytomegalovirus infection. Less frequent but important causes of bilateral vision loss in patients with HIV/AIDS include varicella zoster virus and herpes simplex virus retinitis, HIV-related ischaemic microvasculopathy, ocular syphilis, ocular tuberculosis, cryptococcal meningitis, and ocular toxic or allergic drug reactions. At present, most patients with HIV/AIDS in developing countries who lose their vision have a very limited life expectancy. As antiretroviral therapy makes its way to these countries, however, both life expectancy and the prevalence of blindness related to HIV/AIDS can be expected to increase dramatically. PMID:11285664

Kestelyn, P. G.; Cunningham, E. T.

2001-01-01

432

Experimental investigation of a relativistic magnetron with diffraction output on a repetitive short pulse generator  

SciTech Connect

An experimental investigation of a relativistic Magnetron with Diffraction Output (MDO) on a short voltage pulse generator, which has maximum repetition rate of 100?Hz and plateau of 2.5?ns, is detailed in this paper. Compared to the conversional solid cathode, a direct Density Modulation Cathode is capable for desired microwave radiation. When applied voltage is 200?kV and axial magnetic field is ?0.12?T, the MDO radiates 120?MW of microwave with 2.3?GHz of central frequency. Power conversion efficiency reaches 22%. Pulse duration is 3?ns. At repetition rates of 50?Hz and 100?Hz, output microwave powers range from 90?MW to 120?MW. Life time is up to 10{sup 4} shots.

Li, Wei; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Zi-cheng; Sun, Xiao-liang; Liu, Yong-gui [College of Optoelectronic Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha, Hunan 410073 (China)] [College of Optoelectronic Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha, Hunan 410073 (China)

2014-04-15

433

Suppression of beam induced pulse shortening modes in high power RF generator TW output structures  

SciTech Connect

Several different style 11.4 GHz relativistic klystrons, operating with beam pulse widths of 50 ns and using large aperture, tapered phase-velocity TW structures,` have recently demonstrated output RF power levels in the range of 100 to 300 MW without breakdown or pulse shortening. To extend this performance into the long pulse regime (1 {mu}s) or to demonstrate a threefold increase in output power by using higher currents, the existing TW circuit designs must be modified (a) to reduce the cavity maximum surface E-fields by a factor of 2 to 3, and (b) to elevate the current threshold values of the beam induced higher order modes (HOM) to ensure avoidance of RF pulse shortening and associated instabilities. A technique for substantially elevating this threshold current is described, and microwave data and photographs are presented showing the degree of HOM damping achieved in a recently constructed 11.4 GHz TW structure.

Haimson, J.; Mecklenburg, B.

1992-12-31

434

High-efficiency tunable yellow-orange VECSEL with an output power of 20 W  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the development of a high-efficiency frequency doubled vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser with an output power of 20 W and emission spectrum centered at 588 nm. The MBE-grown gain chip incorporated 10 GaInAs quantum wells and emitted in the 1180 nm range. The frequency conversion was achieved using a lithium triborate nonlinear crystal in an intra-cavity configuration. In addition to the nonlinear crystal, the V-shaped cavity also included a birefringent filter and an etalon for linewidth narrowing and wavelength tuning. The maximum optical-to-optical conversion efficiency obtained was ~28 % for 16 W of output power and the VECSEL had a tuning bandwidth of ~26 nm ranging from about 576 to 602 nm. We were also able to generate yellow pulses down to 570 ns duration by directly modulating the VECSEL's pump laser.

Kantola, Emmi; Leinonen, Tomi; Ranta, Sanna; Tavast, Miki; Guina, Mircea

2014-03-01

435

14 CFR 65.47 - Maximum hours.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Air Traffic Control Tower Operators § 65.47 Maximum hours. Except in an emergency, a certificated air traffic control tower operator must be relieved of all duties...

2011-01-01

436

14 CFR 65.47 - Maximum hours.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Air Traffic Control Tower Operators § 65.47 Maximum hours. Except in an emergency, a certificated air traffic control tower operator must be relieved of all duties...

2014-01-01

437

14 CFR 65.47 - Maximum hours.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Air Traffic Control Tower Operators § 65.47 Maximum hours. Except in an emergency, a certificated air traffic control tower operator must be relieved of all duties...

2012-01-01

438

14 CFR 65.47 - Maximum hours.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Air Traffic Control Tower Operators § 65.47 Maximum hours. Except in an emergency, a certificated air traffic control tower operator must be relieved of all duties...

2013-01-01

439

14 CFR 65.47 - Maximum hours.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Air Traffic Control Tower Operators § 65.47 Maximum hours. Except in an emergency, a certificated air traffic control tower operator must be relieved of all duties...

2010-01-01

440

Raman self-focusing at maximum coherence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate a type of Raman self-focusing and -defocusing that is inherent in operation at maximum coherence. In this regime the two-photon detuning from the Raman resonance controls the refractive index of the medium.

Walker, D. R.; Yavuz, D. D.; Shverdin, M. Y.; Yin, G. Y.; Sokolov, A. V.; Harris, S. E.

2002-12-01

441

Maximum, Minimum, and Current Temperature Protocol  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this activity is to measure air (and optionally soil) temperature within one hour of solar noon and the maximum and minimum air temperatures for the previous 24 hours. Intended outcomes are that students will learn to read minimum, maximum, and current temperatures using a U-shaped thermometer, understand diurnal and annual temperature variations, and recognize factors that influence atmospheric temperatures. Supporting background materials for both student and teacher are included.

The GLOBE Program, UCAR (University Corporation for Atmospheric Research)

2003-08-01

442

Library of Congress Finding Aids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Encoded Archival Description Working Group at the Library of Congress has announced the first release of a search system for archival finding aids at the LOC. These finding aids are extremely useful to researchers because they offer more detailed information on primary source material than standard catalog records, often providing "information about a collection's provenance and the conditions under which it may be accessed or copied; biographical or organizational histories related to the collection; a note describing the scope and content of the collection; and progressively detailed descriptions of the parts or components of the collection together with the corresponding call numbers [or] container numbers." The aids have been encoded in SGML using Encoded Archival Description (EAD), and search returns are available in both HTML and SGML. Users can search by keyword or browse by subject, name, collection title, or collections by date.

443

Broad-area laser diode with stable single-mode output and wavelength stabilization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High power single-mode pump laser diodes operating around 980nm are key components for Erbium-doped devices. Much effort is still currently devoted to improve both their wavelength stability and their achievable output power, while maintaining a stable single-mode operation. Usually, the emission wavelength is stabilized by an external Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG). This configuration requires free-space optics between the laser diode output facet and the fiber or a lensed fiber to ensure an efficient coupling efficiency. This constraint increases fabrication costs, dimensions and mechanical instabilities. Moreover, the maximum achievable output power is limited because a high optical power density can damage the laser facets. To increase the achievable output power, a solution consists in using Broad-Area Laser Diodes (BALD), which are multimode emitters that are composed of large active ribbons with width of some hundreds of micrometers. The objective is then to improve the beam quality by locking the BALD emission on its transverse fundamental mode. We propose in this article to insert an integrated adiabatic transition between the multimode laser and a single-mode FBG. This taper, made by ion-exchange in glass, provides a coupling efficiency of -22.0dB from the multimode laser emission to the single-mode fiber. An optical feedback of -34dB demonstrates the stabilization of the BALD spectrum at the Bragg wavelength. The spectrum of the device is characterized by a maximum side-mode suppression ratio of 35dB, a RMS spectral width of (0.16 +/- 0.04) nm and a frequency shift with current of -12GHz/100mA.

Nappez, Thomas; Ghibaudo, Elise; Rondeau, Philippe; Schlotterbeck, Jean-Pierre; Broquin, Jean-Emmanuel

2012-01-01

444

A single-inductor dual-input dual-output buck regulator with enhanced power-delivery capability for portable battery management system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A single-inductor dual-input dual-output (SIDIDO) buck regulator is presented for simultaneously regulating a battery charging current and a output DC voltage in portable battery management system. The proposed SIDIDO converter operates in the continuous-conduction mode for relaxing the peak current stress and thus enables the converter to deliver a maximum load power of 2.2 W. Moreover, the cross regulation between

Mengmeng Du; Hoi Lee

2010-01-01

445

The Effect of Fungicide Applications on Seed Yield in Perennial Ryegrass, and Evaluation of the Rust Model Decision Aid  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Field trials were conducted at two locations to evaluate performance of the stem rust model and decision aid that is under development. Among several fungicide treatment programs at each location was one in which spray decisions were made based on the rust model outputs, derived by operating the pu...

446

User's manual: Computer-aided design programs for inductor-energy-storage dc-to-dc electronic power converters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Detailed instructions on the use of two computer-aided-design programs for designing the energy storage inductor for single winding and two winding dc to dc converters are provided. Step by step procedures are given to illustrate the formatting of user input data. The procedures are illustrated by eight sample design problems which include the user input and the computer program output.

Huffman, S.

1977-01-01

447

Computer Aided Grid Interface: An Interactive CFD Pre-Processor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA maintains an applications oriented computational fluid dynamics (CFD) efforts complementary to and in support of the aerodynamic-propulsion design and test activities. This is especially true at NASA/MSFC where the goal is to advance and optimize present and future liquid-fueled rocket engines. Numerical grid generation plays a significant role in the fluid flow simulations utilizing CFD. An overall goal of the current project was to develop a geometry-grid generation tool that will help engineers, scientists and CFD practitioners to analyze design problems involving complex geometries in a timely fashion. This goal is accomplished by developing the Computer Aided Grid Interface system (CAGI). The CAGI system is developed by integrating CAD/CAM (Computer Aided Design/Computer Aided Manufacturing) geometric system output and / or Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES) files (including all the NASA-IGES entities), geometry manipulations and generations associated with grid constructions, and robust grid generation methodologies. This report describes the development process of the CAGI system.

Soni, Bharat K.

1996-01-01

448

Computer Aided Grid Interface: An Interactive CFD Pre-Processor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA maintains an applications oriented computational fluid dynamics (CFD) efforts complementary to and in support of the aerodynamic-propulsion design and test activities. This is especially true at NASA/MSFC where the goal is to advance and optimize present and future liquid-fueled rocket engines. Numerical grid generation plays a significant role in the fluid flow simulations utilizing CFD. An overall goal of the current project was to develop a geometry-grid generation tool that will help engineers, scientists and CFD practitioners to analyze design problems involving complex geometries in a timely fashion. This goal is accomplished by developing the CAGI: Computer Aided Grid Interface system. The CAGI system is developed by integrating CAD/CAM (Computer Aided Design/Computer Aided Manufacturing) geometric system output and/or Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES) files (including all the NASA-IGES entities), geometry manipulations and generations associated with grid constructions, and robust grid generation methodologies. This report describes the development process of the CAGI system.

Soni, Bharat K.

1997-01-01

449

Failure mode and effects analysis outputs: are they valid?  

PubMed Central

Background Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) is a prospective risk assessment tool that has been widely used within the aerospace and automotive industries and has been utilised within healthcare since the early 1990s. The aim of this study was to explore the validity of FMEA outputs within a hospital setting in the United Kingdom. Methods Two multidisciplinary teams each conducted an FMEA for the use of vancomycin and gentamicin. Four different validity tests were conducted: · Face validity: by comparing the FMEA participants’ mapped processes with observational work. · Content validity: by presenting the FMEA findings to other healthcare professionals. · Criterion validity: by comparing the FMEA findings with data reported on the trust’s incident report database. · Construct validity: by exploring the relevant mathematical theories involved in calculating the FMEA risk priority number. Results Face validity was positive as the researcher documented the same processes of care as mapped by the FMEA participants. However, other healthcare professionals identified potential failures missed by the FMEA teams. Furthermore, the FMEA groups failed to include failures related to omitted doses; yet these were the failures most commonly reported in the trust’s incident database. Calculating the RPN by multiplying severity, probability and detectability scores was deemed invalid because it is based on calculations that breach the mathematical properties of the scales used. Conclusion There are significant methodological challenges in validating FMEA. It is a useful tool to aid multidisciplinary groups in mapping and understanding a process of care; however, the results of our study cast doubt on its validity. FMEA teams are likely to need different sources of information, besides their personal experience and knowledge, to identify potential failures. As for FMEA’s methodology for scoring failures, there were discrepancies between the teams’ estimates and similar incidents reported on the trust’s incident database. Furthermore, the concept of multiplying ordinal scales to prioritise failures is mathematically flawed. Until FMEA’s validity is further explored, healthcare organisations should not solely depend on their FMEA results to prioritise patient safety issues. PMID:22682433

2012-01-01

450

Caffeine supplementation and peak anaerobic power output.  

PubMed

Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of caffeine supplementation on peak anaerobic power output (Wmax). Using a counterbalanced, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled design, 14 well-trained men completed three trials of a protocol consisting of a series of 6-s cycle ergometer sprints, separated by 5-min passive recovery periods. Sprints were performed at progressively increasing torque factors to determine the peak power/torque relationship and Wmax. Apart from Trial 1 (familiarisation), participants ingested a capsule containing 5 mg·kg(-1) of caffeine or placebo, one hour before each trial. The effects of caffeine on blood lactate were investigated using capillary samples taken after each sprint. The torque factor which produced Wmax was not significantly different (p ? 0.05) between the caffeine (1.15 ± 0.08 N·m·kg(-1)) and placebo (1.13 ± 0.10 N·m·kg(-1)) trials. There was, however, a significant effect (p < 0.05) of supplementation on Wmax, with caffeine producing a higher value (1885 ± 303 W) than placebo (1835 ± 290 W). Analysis of the blood lactate data revealed a significant (p < 0.05) torque factor × supplement interaction with values being significantly higher from the sixth sprint (torque factor 1.0 N·m·kg(-1)) onwards following caffeine supplementation. The results of this study confirm previous reports that caffeine supplementation significantly increases blood lactate and Wmax. These findings may explain why the majority of previous studies, which have used fixed-torque factors of around 0.75 N·m·kg(-1) and thereby failing to elicit Wmax, have failed to find an effect of caffeine on sprinting performance. PMID:25275888

Glaister, Mark; Muniz-Pumares, Daniel; Patterson, Stephen D; Foley, Paul; McInnes, Gillian

2014-10-01

451

PBS Newshour Extra: AIDS Today  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

AIDS Today, a lesson plan for grades 9-12 form PBS Newshour Extra, "engages students in learning about the AIDS epidemic and focuses them on the importance of HIV prevention, at home and abroad." The lesson plan requires two 90-minute periods to complete and calls for nothing fancier than Internet access for materials. Links to PBS Newshour story transcripts are provided for use with the lesson plan, which consists primarily of questions for class discussion as well as small group and individual learning activities.

2002-01-01

452

Computer aided detection in breast imaging: more than perception AID  

Microsoft Academic Search

In breast cancer imaging many innovations continue to take place. This paper discusses computer aided detection (CAD) of breast cancer in mammograms, which is the first large scale application of independent computerized interpretation of radiological images. Thousands of systems have already been installed worldwide and use of CAD is rapidly expanding with the introduction of digital mammography. Despite this success,

Nico Karssemeijer

2010-01-01

453

Chapter 32. Hearing Aid Research Hearing Aid Research  

E-print Network

-band expansion to model the effects of cochlear hearing loss. Stimuli presented to listeners with real processing techniques that hold promise for increasing the effectiveness of hearing aids. Studies and Results of listeners with moderate-to-profound sensorineural hearing loss to understand speech in noise. Individual

454

Method and apparatus for varying accelerator beam output energy  

DOEpatents

A coupled cavity accelerator (CCA) accelerates a charged particle beam with rf energy from a rf source. An input accelerating cavity receives the charged particle beam and an output accelerating cavity outputs the charged particle beam at an increased energy. Intermediate accelerating cavities connect the input and the output accelerating cavities to accelerate the charged particle beam. A plurality of tunable coupling cavities are arranged so that each one of the tunable coupling cavities respectively connect an adjacent pair of the input, output, and intermediate accelerating cavities to transfer the rf energy along the accelerating cavities. An output tunable coupling cavity can be detuned to variably change the phase of the rf energy reflected from the output coupling cavity so that regions of the accelerator can be selectively turned off when one of the intermediate tunable coupling cavities is also detuned.

Young, Lloyd M. (Los Alamos, NM)

1998-01-01

455

Output data formatter for the Electronically Scanned Thinned Array Radiometer (ESTAR) instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A prototype Output Data Formatter (ODF) for the ESTAR (Electronically Scanned Thinned Array Radiometer) instrument has been designed and tested. It employs programmable logic devices to format and tag correlator data for transmission to Earth. After accepting 170 bits or correlator and error data in parallel, it appends an identification word and then serially passes the data to the Small Explorer Data System (SEDS) for transmission at a maximum rate of greater than 15 Mb/sec. Implemented with two reprogrammable field programmable gate arrays (FPGA's), each contained in a 132-pin plastic pin grid array (PGA) package, the design is cascadeable, fully testable, and low-power.

Chren, William A., Jr.

1993-01-01

456

Quantum superchemistry in an output coupler of coherent matter waves  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the quantum superchemistry or Bose-enhanced atom-molecule conversions in a coherent output coupler of matter waves, as a simple generalization of the two-color photoassociation. The stimulated effects of molecular output step and atomic revivals are exhibited by steering the rf output couplings. The quantum noise-induced molecular damping occurs near a total conversion in a levitation trap. This suggests a feasible two-trap scheme to make a stable coherent molecular beam.

Jing, H. [Department of Physics, University of Arizona, 1118 East 4th Street, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States); State Key Lab of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, CAS, Wuhan 430071 (China); Cheng, J. [Lab for Quantum Optics, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)

2006-12-15

457

PD Output Feedback Control Design for Industrial Robotic Manipulators  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an output feedback proportional-derivative (PD)-type controller for the trajec- tory tracking control of robotic manipulators. In the first part of the paper, we propose a PD-like output-feedback control law. The design comprises a PD term with nominal robot dynamics, where the unknown velocity signals are estimated from the output of the linear estimator. Using Lyapunov analysis, we

Shafiqul Islam; Peter X. Liu

2011-01-01

458

Development and qualification of computer-aided assessments (CAS). Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maximum utilization of computer-aided assessments (CAS) techniques and proper understanding of nuclear safety and reliability assessments can be achieved by the use of a program called GO . This document is a basic, yet substantive, qualification of the GO methodology and its computer software. Principal emphasis is placed on the event-tree concept upon which GO is based and on the

R. L. Williams; N. Zuck

1983-01-01

459

A comparison of pilot-aided channel estimation methods for OFDM systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the estimation of the channel impulse response (CIR) in orthogonal frequency division multiplexed (OFDM) systems. In particular, we focus on two pilot-aided schemes: the maximum likelihood estimator (MLE) and the Bayesian minimum mean square error estimator (MMSEE). The advantage of the former is that it is simpler to implement as it needs no information on the

Michele Morelli; Umberto Mengali

2001-01-01

460

Decreased Hering–Breuer Input-Output Entrainment in a Mouse Model of Rett Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Rett syndrome, a severe X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder caused by mutations in the gene encoding methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (Mecp2), is associated with a highly irregular respiratory pattern including severe upper-airway dysfunction. Recent work suggests that hyperexcitability of the Hering–Breuer reflex (HBR) pathway contributes to respiratory dysrhythmia in Mecp2 mutant mice. To assess how enhanced HBR input impacts respiratory entrainment by sensory afferents in closed-loop in vivo-like conditions, we investigated the input (vagal stimulus trains) – output (phrenic bursting) entrainment via the HBR in wild-type and MeCP2-deficient mice. Using the in situ perfused brainstem preparation, which maintains an intact pontomedullary axis capable of generating an in vivo-like respiratory rhythm in the absence of the HBR, we mimicked the HBR feedback input by stimulating the vagus nerve (at threshold current, 0.5?ms pulse duration, 75?Hz pulse frequency, 100?ms train duration) at an inter-burst frequency matching that of the intrinsic oscillation of the inspiratory motor output of each preparation. Using this approach, we observed significant input-output entrainment in wild-type mice as measured by the maximum of the cross-correlation function, the peak of the instantaneous relative phase distribution, and the mutual information of the instantaneous phases. This entrainment was associated with a reduction in inspiratory duration during feedback stimulation. In contrast, the strength of input-output entrainment was significantly weaker in Mecp2?/+ mice. However, Mecp2?/+ mice also had a reduced inspiratory duration during stimulation, indicating that reflex behavior in the HBR pathway was intact. Together, these observations suggest that the respiratory network compensates for enhanced sensitivity of HBR inputs by reducing HBR input-output entrainment. PMID:23565077

Dhingra, Rishi R.; Zhu, Yenan; Jacono, Frank J.; Katz, David M.; Galán, Roberto F.; Dick, Thomas E.

2013-01-01

461

Complementary power output characteristics of electromagnetic generators and triboelectric generators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, a triboelectric generator (TEG) has been invented to convert mechanical energy into electricity by a conjunction of triboelectrification and electrostatic induction. Compared to the traditional electromagnetic generator (EMG) that produces a high output current but low voltage, the TEG has different output characteristics of low output current but high output voltage. In this paper, we present a comparative study regarding the fundamentals of TEGs and EMGs. The power output performances of the EMG and the TEG have a special complementary relationship, with the EMG being a voltage source and the TEG a current source. Utilizing a power transformed and managed (PTM) system, the current output of a TEG can reach as high as ?3 mA, which can be coupled with the output signal of an EMG to enhance the output power. We also demonstrate a design to integrate a TEG and an EMG into a single device for simultaneously harvesting mechanical energy. In addition, the integrated NGs can independently output a high voltage and a high current to meet special needs.

Fan, Feng-Ru; Tang, Wei; Yao, Yan; Luo, Jianjun; Zhang, Chi; Wang, Zhong Lin

2014-04-01

462

The effects of output transformers on distortion in audio amplifiers  

E-print Network

in output of transformer 1 at f = SO cycles per second as a function of grid input voltage. . . . . . . . . 27 Per cent harmonic distortion in output of transformer 1 at f = 100 cycles per second as a function of grid input voltage. . . . . . . . . 2S... Per cent harmonic distortion in output of transformer 1 at f = 200 cycles per second as a function of grid input voltage. . . ~ . . . . . 29 12 Per cent harmonic distortion in output of transformer 1 at f = 1000 cycles per second as a function...

Lanier, Ross Edwin

2012-06-07

463

Compact waveguide power divider with multiple isolated outputs  

DOEpatents

A waveguide power divider (10) for splitting electromagnetic microwave power and directionally coupling the divided power includes an input waveguide (21) and reduced height output waveguides (23) interconnected by axial slots (22) and matched loads (25) and (26) positioned at the unused ends of input and output guides (21) and (23) respectively. The axial slots are of a length such that the wave in the input waveguide (21) is directionally coupled to the output waveguides (23). The widths of input guide (21) and output guides (23) are equal and the width of axial slots (22) is one half of the width of the input guide (21).

Moeller, Charles P. (Del Mar, CA)

1987-01-01

464

Complementary power output characteristics of electromagnetic generators and triboelectric generators.  

PubMed

Recently, a triboelectric generator (TEG) has been invented to convert mechanical energy into electricity by a conjunction of triboelectrification and electrostatic induction. Compared to the traditional electromagnetic generator (EMG) that produces a high output current but low voltage, the TEG has different output characteristics of low output current but high output voltage. In this paper, we present a comparative study regarding the fundamentals of TEGs and EMGs. The power output performances of the EMG and the TEG have a special complementary relationship, with the EMG being a voltage source and the TEG a current source. Utilizing a power transformed and managed (PTM) system, the current output of a TEG can reach as high as ?3 mA, which can be coupled with the output signal of an EMG to enhance the output power. We also demonstrate a design to integrate a TEG and an EMG into a single device for simultaneously harvesting mechanical energy. In addition, the integrated NGs can independently output a high voltage and a high current to meet special needs. PMID:24595200

Fan, Feng-Ru; Tang, Wei; Yao, Yan; Luo, Jianjun; Zhang, Chi; Wang, Zhong Lin

2014-04-01

465

Heat transfer characteristics of igniter output plumes  

SciTech Connect

Seven types of pyrotechnic igniters were each mounted at one end of a closed cylindrical bore hole representative of the center hole in a thermal battery. Measurements of local bore wall temperature, T/sub w/, using commercially available, fast response (10 /mu/sec) sheathed chromel-constantan thermocouples allowed calculation of local heat transfer rates, q, and wall heat flows, Q. The principal charge constituents of all these igniters were titanium and potassium perchlorate, while three types also contained barium styphnate as an ignition sensitizer. Igniter closure disc materials included glass-ceramic, glass, metal (plain, scored, with and without capture cone), and kapton/RTV. All igniters produced the lowest values of T/sub w/ and q at the beginning of the bore, and, except for the igniter with the kapton/RTV closure disc, these quantities increased with distance along the bore. For igniters containing only titanium/potassium perchlorate, the rates of increase of Q along the bore length, compared with those for T/sub w/ and q, were generally lower and more variable. The inclusion of barium styphnate produced rates of change in Q that were essentially constant to the end of the bore. The highest overall average wall temperatures were achieved by two igniter types with metal closure discs and no capture cone. No clear correlation was established between peak bore pressure and maximum wall temperature. 3 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

Evans, N.A.; Durand, N.A.

1989-01-01

466

Heat transfer characteristics of igniter output plumes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seven types of pyrotechnic igniters were each mounted at one end of a closed cylindrical bore hole representative of the center hole in a thermal battery. Measurements of local bore wall temperature, T(sub w), using commercially available, fast response (10 microsec) sheathed chromel-constantan thermocouples allowed calculation of local heat transfer rates, q, and wall heat flows, Q. The principal charge constituents of all these igniters were titanium and potassium perchlorate, while three types also contained barium styphnate as an ignition sensitizer. Igniter closure disc materials included glass-ceramic, glass, metal (plain, scored, with and without capture cone), and kapton/RTV. All igniters produced the lowest values of T(sub w) and q at the beginning of the bore, and, except for the igniter with the kapton/RTV closure disc, these quantities increased with distance along the bore. For igniters containing only titanium/potassium perchlorate, the rates of increase of Q along the bore length, compared with those for T(sub w) and q, were generally lower and more variable. The inclusion of barium styphnate produced rates of change in Q that were essentially constant to the end of the bore. The highest overall average wall temperatures were achieved by two igniter types with metal closure discs and no capture cone. No clear correlation was established between peak bore pressure and maximum wall temperature.

Evans, N. A.; Durand, N. A.

467

24 CFR 941.306 - Maximum project cost.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Maximum project cost. 941.306 Section 941.306 Housing...Application and Proposal § 941.306 Maximum project cost. (a) Calculation of maximum project cost. The maximum project cost...

2011-04-01

468

24 CFR 941.306 - Maximum project cost.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Maximum project cost. 941.306 Section 941.306 Housing...Application and Proposal § 941.306 Maximum project cost. (a) Calculation of maximum project cost. The maximum project cost...

2012-04-01

469

24 CFR 941.306 - Maximum project cost.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Maximum project cost. 941.306 Section 941.306 Housing...Application and Proposal § 941.306 Maximum project cost. (a) Calculation of maximum project cost. The maximum project cost...

2013-04-01

470

40 CFR 141.13 - Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity. 141.13 Section 141.13...DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Maximum Contaminant Levels § 141.13 Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity. The maximum...

2010-07-01

471

40 CFR 141.65 - Maximum residual disinfectant levels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Maximum residual disinfectant levels. 141.65 Section 141...Contaminant Levels and Maximum Residual Disinfectant Levels § 141.65 Maximum residual disinfectant levels. (a) Maximum residual...

2010-07-01

472

How Forgetting Aids Heuristic Inference  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some theorists, ranging from W. James (1890) to contemporary psychologists, have argued that forgetting is the key to proper functioning of memory. The authors elaborate on the notion of beneficial forgetting by proposing that loss of information aids inference heuristics that exploit mnemonic information. To this end, the authors bring together 2…

Schooler, Lael J.; Hertwig, Ralph

2005-01-01

473

Online Search Aids Petroleum Abstracts  

E-print Network

Online Search Aids User Guide Petroleum Abstracts® A Division of The University of Tulsa July 1, 2005 #12;Introduction The Petroleum Abstracts Dictionary is the taxonomy tool that supports the indexing and subsequent retrieval of the articles and patents processed by Petroleum Abstracts. Under

Reynolds, Albert C.

474

Computer-Aided Design (CAD).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the field of computer-aided design, which combines the skills and creativity of the architect, designer, drafter, and engineer with the power of the computer. Reports on job tasks, applications, background of the field, job outlook, and necessary training. (CH)

Burns, William E.

1986-01-01

475

Homemaker/Home Health Aide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide is intended to assist vocational instructors in preparing students for entry-level employment as homemakers/home health aides and getting them ready for advanced training in the workplace. The package contains a competency/skill and task list, an instructor's guide, and an annotated bibliography. The following competencies…

La Mothe, Dolores; And Others

476

Homemaker/Home Health Aide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide provides materials for a five-unit home health aide course. Each unit contains 4 to 36 lesson plans. Unit topics and representative lesson plan topics are as follows: (1) introduction (ethical and legal responsibilities, time management, reporting and recording); (2) communication (techniques, meeting the public, therapeutic…

Missouri Univ., Columbia. Instructional Materials Lab.

477

HIV/AIDS and Fertility  

E-print Network

This paper studies the response of fertility to the HIV/AIDS epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa. Standard models of fertility have ambiguous predictions in this context. Because childbirth requires unprotected sex (which increases the risk of contracting HIV), we might expect HIV/AIDS to reduce fertility through an infection avoidance motive. Adding to this decline, HIV infection may itself reduce fecundity among infected women. However, because HIV/AIDS affects the expected longevity of children, a quantity-quality model of childbearing would predict an increase in fertility. I use repeated cross-sections of the Demographic and Health Surveys for twelve countries in sub-Saharan Africa to examine this question empirically. Using individual birth histories from these data, I construct estimates of the regional total fertility rate over time. In a difference-in-differences approach, I compare regional HIV prevalence to changes in total fertility rates from the late 1980s to the present. My results suggest that HIV/AIDS had very little impact on fertility, both overall and in a sample of HIV-negative women.

Jane G. Fortson

2009-01-01

478

Student Financial Aid & Scholarships Scholarships  

E-print Network

Student Financial Aid & Scholarships Scholarships Complete Scholarship Name Application Deadline Date Contact Name Contact Phone Number Contact E-mail Address A. C. Flora Memorial Scholarship Awarded, all eligible persons will be considered N/A A. Joe Willis Scholarship Awarded to a junior or senior

Almor, Amit

479

Dietetic Aide. [Teacher's Copy]. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The curriculum guide, one of a series prepared to assist teacher-coordinators in promoting and teaching home economics cooperative education programs, provides a course of study for the dietetic aide occupation. In addition to a brief overview, job description, and job analysis of the occupation, the guide's four main sections are: instructional…

Texas Education Agency, Austin. Dept. of Occupational Education and Technology.

480

College Desegregation and Federal Aid.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The disproportionate flow of federal money to white institutions has added to inequities of state funding, and reduced federal appropriations now threaten further desegregation efforts. Past interaction between college desegregation and federal aid can provide clues to future legislative and judicial strategies for maximizing educational choice.…

Preer, Jean

1983-01-01

481

Teacher Aides; An Annotated Bibliography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This annotated bibliography lists 40 items, published between 1966 and 1971, that have to do with teacher aides. The listing is arranged alphabetically by author. In addition to the abstract and standard bibliographic information, addresses where the material can be purchased are often included. The items cited include handbooks, research studies,…

Marin County Public Schools, Corte Madera, CA.

482

Spanish Aid in Clinical Dietetics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to aid dietitians, nutritionists, and other health professionals to better serve the nutritional needs of Hispanics, this bilingual booklet describes the different cultural eating habits of Mexican, Cuban, and Puerto Rican Americans, with in-depth description of Mexican Americans. Written in Spanish and English, the booklet includes…

Bringas, Juliet G.; Chan, Teresa Y.

483

Latino women and AIDS risk.  

PubMed

This study describes risk behaviors among Puerto Rican women and identifies variables related to high-risk behavior, including sociodemographic status, knowledge about HIV and AIDS, religiosity, acculturation, and attitudes toward contraceptive use and homosexuality. Puerto Rican women (N = 121) were recruited through a community-based organization in Philadelphia. Respondents were an average of 30 years old; 21% were married and not separated, 79% were either single (50.9%), separated (14.3%), divorced (11.6%), or widowed (1.8%); 69% had 1-3 children. Most women (74%) were at moderate to high risk for AIDS. Results from logistic regression with a single independent variable yielded no statistical significance for the following variables: income, number of children, religiosity, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, AIDS knowledge, homophobia, Symptom Checklist-90-R, and Population Policy Questionnaire items. When the three acculturation variables consisting of a language score, an activity score, and a preference score were examined, however, the language score was highly statistically significant, with a p value of 0.0001. Its positive logistic regression coefficient indicates that AIDS risk increases as preference for English increases. Further research is needed of Latino women that studies other Latino subgroups, given that HIV prevalence varies across subgroups. PMID:8677238

Peragallo, N

1996-06-01

484

AIDE - Advanced Intrusion Detection Environment  

SciTech Connect

Would you like to know when someone has dropped an undesirable executable binary on our system? What about something less malicious such as a software installation by a user? What about the user who decides to install a newer version of mod_perl or PHP on your web server without letting you know beforehand? Or even something as simple as when an undocumented config file change is made by another member of the admin group? Do you even want to know about all the changes that happen on a daily basis on your server? The purpose of an intrusion detection system (IDS) is to detect unauthorized, possibly malicious activity. The purpose of a host-based IDS, or file integrity checker, is check for unauthorized changes to key system files, binaries, libraries, and directories on the system. AIDE is an Open Source file and directory integrity checker. AIDE will let you know when a file or directory has been added, deleted, modified. It is included with the Red Hat Enterprise 6. It is available for other Linux distros. This is a case study describing the process of configuring AIDE on an out of the box RHEL6 installation. Its goal is to illustrate the thinking and the process by which a useful AIDE configuration is built.

Smith, Cathy L.

2013-04-28

485

Program of Study Financial Aid  

E-print Network

in English. Applicants for whom English is a second language are also required to submit scores from the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL). We do not accept scores from the GMAT or LSAT. The Graduate SchoolENGLISH Program of Study Financial Aid Applying Correspondence The English Department offers the M

Thomas, Andrew

486

First Aid for Eating Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to develop first aid guidelines, based on expert consensus, that provide members of the community with information on how to assist someone who is thought to be developing or experiencing an eating disorder. An online Delphi study was carried out with expert panels consisting of 36 clinicians, 27 care-givers and 22 consumers. The panel

Laura M. Hart; Anthony F. Jorm; Susan J. Paxton; Claire M. Kelly; Betty A. Kitchener

2009-01-01

487

A Hearing Aid Primer 1  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This hearing aid primer is designed to define the differences among the three levels of hearing instrument technology: conventional analog circuit technology (most basic), digitally programmable/analog circuit technology (moderately advanced), and fully digital technology (most advanced). Both moderate and advanced technologies mean that hearing…

Yetter, Carol J.

2009-01-01

488

Looking toward Financial Aid's Future.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Principles underlying state, federal, institutional, and family policies and practices toward student financial aid in the United States and five adverse forces that work against these principles are considered by the president of the State University of New York, College at Buffalo. The principles concern: access to higher education, including…

Johnstone, D. Bruce

489

Teaching Young Children about AIDS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

AIDS is a genuine concern for young schoolchildren, as a significant number begin having unprotected sex before completing elementary school. The most effective sex-education programs stress delaying the age of first intercourse and adopting safe sexual practices. Principals' supportive behaviors and prevention education tips are discussed. (MLH)

Schonfeld, David J.; Quackenbush, Marcia

2000-01-01

490

Maximum permissible voltage of YBCO coated conductors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) could reduce short circuit currents in electrical power system. One of the most important thing in developing SFCL is to find out the maximum permissible voltage of each limiting element. The maximum permissible voltage is defined as the maximum voltage per unit length at which the YBCO coated conductors (CC) do not suffer from critical current (Ic) degradation or burnout. In this research, the time of quenching process is changed and voltage is raised until the Ic degradation or burnout happens. YBCO coated conductors test in the experiment are from American superconductor (AMSC) and Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU). Along with the quenching duration increasing, the maximum permissible voltage of CC decreases. When quenching duration is 100 ms, the maximum permissible of SJTU CC, 12 mm AMSC CC and 4 mm AMSC CC are 0.72 V/cm, 0.52 V/cm and 1.2 V/cm respectively. Based on the results of samples, the whole length of CCs used in the design of a SFCL can be determined.

Wen, J.; Lin, B.; Sheng, J.; Xu, J.; Jin, Z.; Hong, Z.; Wang, D.; Zhou, H.; Shen, X.; Shen, C.

2014-06-01

491

Cell development obeys maximum Fisher information  

E-print Network

Eukaryotic cell development has been optimized by natural selection to obey maximal intracellular flux of messenger proteins. This, in turn, implies maximum Fisher information on angular position about a target nuclear pore complex (NPR). The cell is simply modeled as spherical, with cell membrane (CM) diameter 10 micron and concentric nuclear membrane (NM) diameter 6 micron. The NM contains about 3000 nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). Development requires messenger ligands to travel from the CM-NPC-DNA target binding sites. Ligands acquire negative charge by phosphorylation, passing through the cytoplasm over Newtonian trajectories toward positively charged NPCs (utilizing positive nuclear localization sequences). The CM-NPC channel obeys maximized mean protein flux F and Fisher information I at the NPC, with first-order delta I = 0 and approximate 2nd-order delta I = 0 stability to environmental perturbations. Many of its predictions are confirmed, including the dominance of protein pathways of from 1-4 proteins, a 4nm size for the EGFR protein and the approximate flux value F =10^16 proteins/m2-s. After entering the nucleus, each protein ultimately delivers its ligand information to a DNA target site with maximum probability, i.e. maximum Kullback-Liebler entropy HKL. In a smoothness limit HKL approaches IDNA/2, so that the total CM-NPC-DNA channel obeys maximum Fisher I. Thus maximum information approaches non-equilibrium, one condition for life.

B. R. Frieden; R. A. Gatenby

2014-04-29

492

Maximum magnitude earthquakes induced by fluid injection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

of numerous case histories of earthquake sequences induced by fluid injection at depth reveals that the maximum magnitude appears to be limited according to the total volume of fluid injected. Similarly, the maximum seismic moment seems to have an upper bound proportional to the total volume of injected fluid. Activities involving fluid injection include (1) hydraulic fracturing of shale formations or coal seams to extract gas and oil, (2) disposal of wastewater from these gas and oil activities by injection into deep aquifers, and (3) the development of enhanced geothermal systems by injecting water into hot, low-permeability rock. Of these three operations, wastewater disposal is observed to be associated with the largest earthquakes, with maximum magnitudes sometimes exceeding 5. To estimate the maximum earthquake that could be induced by a given fluid injection project, the rock mass is assumed to be fully saturated, brittle, to respond to injection with a sequence of earthquakes localized to the region weakened by the pore pressure increase of the injection operation and to have a Gutenberg-Richter magnitude distribution with a b value of 1. If these assumptions correctly describe the circumstances of the largest earthquake, then the maximum seismic moment is limited to the volume of injected liquid times the modulus of rigidity. Observations from the available case histories of earthquakes induced by fluid injection are consistent with this bound on seismic moment. In view of the uncertainties in this analysis, however, this should not be regarded as an absolute physical limit.

McGarr, A.

2014-02-01

493

Maximum power entropy method for ecological data analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In ecology predictive models of the geographical distribution of certain species are widely used to capture the spatial diversity. Recently a method of Maxent based on Gibbs distribution is frequently employed to have reasonable accuracy of a target distribution of species at a site using environmental features such as temperature, precipitation, elevation and so on. It requires only presence data, which is a big advantage to the case where absence data is not available or unreliable. It also incorporates our limited knowledge into the model about the target distribution such that the expected values of environmental features are equal to the empirical average. Moreover, the visualization of the inhabiting probability of species is easily done with the aid of geographical coordination information from Global Biodiversity Inventory Facility (GBIF) in a statistical software R. However, the maximum entropy distribution in Maxent is derived from the Boltzmann-Gibbs-Shannon entropy, which causes unstable estimation of the parameters in the model when some outliers in the data are observed. To overcome the weak point and to have deep understandings of the relation among the total number of species, the Boltzmann-Gibbs-Shannon entropy and Simpson's index, we propose a maximum power entropy method based on beta-divergence, which is a special case of U-divergence. It includes the Boltzmann-Gibbs-Shannon entropy as a special case, so it could have better performance of estimation of the target distribution by appropriately choosing the value of the power index beta. We demonstrate the performance of the proposed method by simulation studies as well as publicly available real data.

Komori, Osamu; Eguchi, Shinto

2015-01-01

494

Does the pituitary somatotrope play a primary role in regulating GH output in metabolic extremes?  

PubMed Central

Circulating growth hormone (GH) levels rise in response to nutrient deprivation and fall in states of nutrient excess. Since GH regulates carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism, defining the mechanisms by which changes in metabolism alters GH secretion will aid in our understanding of the cause, progression and treatment of metabolic diseases. This review will summarize what is currently known regarding the impact of systemic metabolic signals on GH-axis function. In addition, ongoing studies using the Cre/loxP system to generate mouse models with selective somatotrope resistance to metabolic signals, will be discussed, where these models will serve to enhance our understanding of the specific role the somatotrope plays in sensing the metabolic environment and adjusting GH output in metabolic extremes. PMID:21388406

Luque, Raul M.; Gahete, Manuel; Cordoba-Chacon, Jose; Childs, Gwen V.; Kineman, Rhonda D.

2012-01-01

495

A tactile-output paging communication system for the deaf-blind  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A radio frequency paging communication system that has coded vibrotactile outputs suitable for use by deaf-blind people was developed. In concept, the system consists of a base station transmitting and receiving unit and many on-body transmitting and receiving units. The completed system has seven operating modes: fire alarm; time signal; repeated single character Morse code; manual Morse code; emergency aid request; operational status test; and message acknowledge. The on-body units can be addressed in three ways: all units; a group of units; or an individual unit. All the functions developed were integrated into a single package that can be worn on the user's wrist. The control portion of the on-body unit is implemented by a microcomputer. The microcomputer is packaged in a custom-designed hybrid circuit to reduce its physical size.

Baer, J. A.

1979-01-01

496

Measurement and analysis of force-time outputs of pyrotechnic nuts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The dynamic loadings produced by two standard pyrotechnic nuts were compared with loadings produced by four recently developed low-shock nuts. The nuts were manufactured by separate contractors. Each nut was given a number designation, the number having no special significance. The results show that the use of the Hopkinson bar to measure force-time outputs of the nuts at stud and housing sides aided greatly in understanding the events occurring in the nuts. Acceleration data appear to be dependable, for the most part, but of more limited value. The low-shock designs show considerable improvement over the standard designs above 4,000 Hz when the results are plotted in shock spectrum form. They involve some penalties with regard to weight and cost.

Neubert, V. H.

1973-01-01

497

Hybrid point/ring-defect photonic crystal VCSEL with high spectral purity and high output power  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A hybrid point/ring-defect photonic crystal vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) is presented. To analyze the possible lasing supermodes, the device is simplified to a 3 × 1 VCSEL array along any direction in plane due to the hybrid point/ring defects with approximately radial symmetry. Three supermodes are predicted based on the coupled-mode theory. In the experiment, only three supermodes appear at most over the entire current range, consistent with the theoretical predictions. The full width at half maximum of the lasing spectrum at rollover is less than 0.1 nm, and the maximum output power of the device reaches 4.3 mW.

Liu, A. J.; Chen, W.; Qu, H. W.; Zhou, W. J.; Zheng, W. H.

2011-02-01

498

Characterization of the electrical output of flat-plate photovoltaic arrays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The electric output of flat-plate photovoltaic arrays changes constantly, due primarily to changes in cell temperature and irradiance level. As a result, array loads such as direct-current to alternating-current power conditioners must be able to accommodate widely varying input levels, while maintaining operation at or near the array maximum power point.The results of an extensive computer simulation study that was used to define the parameters necessary for the systematic design of array/power-conditioner interfaces are presented as normalized ratios of power-conditioner parameters to array parameters, to make the results universally applicable to a wide variety of system sizes, sites, and operating modes. The advantages of maximum power tracking and a technique for computing average annual power-conditioner efficiency are discussed.

Gonzalez, C. C.; Hill, G. M.; Ross, R. G., Jr.

1982-01-01

499

Why did Japan suspend foreign aid to China? Japan's foreign aid decision-making and sources of aid sanction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Japanese government has suspended part of its foreign aid to China twice in the past 12 years: first in 1989 after the Tiananmen Square incident, and secondly in response to China's nuclear testing in 1995. These two foreign aid suspension cases illustrate that the Japanese government has established extension and suspension of its foreign aid as a multiple-use foreign

Saori N. KATADA

2001-01-01

500

Job Performance Aids as Tools for Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes within the context of the training of military technicians some of the major characteristics of nondeductive job performance aids and discusses in more detail one of the deductive aids, the state table. (Author/JD)

Porta, M. Michael

1979-01-01