McKinney, Lyle; Roberts, Toya
Financial aid counselors are a primary source of information that many students rely upon to understand financial aid and how to pay for college. However, little is known about financial aid counselors at America's community colleges and their interactions with the students they serve. Using original survey data, this study examined the role these…
Abraham, Michael; Varghese, Valsamma; Tang, Hui
Stereochemistry is an important topic in organic chemistry. It is also a difficult topic for students to learn. This study investigated the relative effectiveness on students' understanding of three kinds of molecular representations of stereochemistry concepts. Instructional activities compared the use of either: (i) computer-based molecular…
Mutonyi, Harriet; Nashon, Samson; Nielsen, Wendy S.
In Uganda, curbing the spread of HIV/AIDS has largely depended on public and private media messages about the disease. Media campaigns based on Uganda’s cultural norms of communication are metaphorical, analogical and simile-like. The topic of HIV/AIDS has been introduced into the Senior Three (Grade 11) biology curriculum in Uganda. To what extent do students’ pre-conceptions of the disease, based on these media messages influence students’ development of conceptual understanding of the disease, its transmission and prevention? Of significant importance is the impact the conceptions students have developed from the indirect media messages on classroom instruction on HIV/AIDS. The study is based in a theoretical framework of conceptual change in science learning. An interpretive case study to determine the impact of Ugandan students’ conceptions or perceptions on classroom instruction about HIV/AIDS, involving 160 students aged 15-17, was conducted in four different Ugandan high schools: girls boarding, boys boarding, mixed boarding, and mixed day. Using questionnaires, focus group discussions, recorded biology lessons and informal interviews, students’ preconceptions of HIV/AIDS and how these impact lessons on HIV/AIDS were discerned. These preconceptions fall into four main categories: religious, political, conspiracy and traditional African worldviews. Results of data analysis suggest that students’ prior knowledge is persistent even after biology instructions. This has implications for current teaching approaches, which are mostly teacher-centred in Ugandan schools. A rethinking of the curriculum with the intent of offering science education programs that promote understanding of the science of HIV/AIDS as opposed to what is happening now—insensitivity to misconceptions about the disease—is needed.
Ziskin, Mary; Fischer, Mary Ann; Torres, Vasti; Pellicciotti, Beth; Player-Sanders, Jacquelyn
Based on 22 focus groups conducted at institutions located in a Midwestern metropolitan region, this study explores working, commuting and adult-learner college students' implicit theories about financial aid policy and seeks to understand how students make sense of their own experiences in paying for college. The institutions participating…
Merrill, J M; Laux, L; Thornby, J I
When recently polled, one half of 4,100 physicians believed they had the right not to treat patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and 15% said they would actually refuse to care for them. To assure medical care for the 365,000 AIDS patients projected for the US by 1992, it is imperative to know whether there is something unique about AIDS patients that produces aversion among physicians. We hypothesized that the desire to avoid AIDS patients derived from three fears: fear of contagion, homophobia, and a desire to avoid dying patients. To identify the extent to which these three fears affect the attitudes that students hold toward AIDS patients, we conducted three studies. In our first study, we discovered that students' views about a patient with a terminal illness are the same whether the illness is leukemia or AIDS. In the second study, we found that the patient's sexual preference was not the major reason students would avoid an AIDS patients. In a third study, we confirmed that fear of contagion is the principal cause of students' desire to avoid an AIDS patient. In the course of these studies, we found important differences between the attitudes of male and female students. Female students scored lower on the homophobic scale than male students, and they had less antipathy toward AIDS patients. Helping health care professionals understand their fears toward patients with AIDS will in the long run improve medical care. Since the origins of these fears are for the most part well hidden in our unconscious, dissemination of facts alone will not do the job. Interventions are needed to help health care professionals acknowledge and overcome their negative feelings about AIDS. PMID:2705068
Mutonyi, Harriet; Nashon, Samson; Nielsen, Wendy S.
In Uganda, curbing the spread of HIV/AIDS has largely depended on public and private media messages about the disease. Media campaigns based on Uganda's cultural norms of communication are metaphorical, analogical and simile-like. The topic of HIV/AIDS has been introduced into the Senior Three (Grade 11) biology curriculum in Uganda. To what…
College Board, Washington, DC. Washington Office.
This report presents annual data on the amount of financial assistance available to postsecondary students in the form of grants, loans, and work-study. The data cover virtually all federal aid and most state and institutional assistance; not included in the study is financial aid in the form of indirect subsidies, students' wages, employer-paid…
Combining the study of archetypal patterns and literature study with assignments based on archetypal schema engages students intellectually as they relate their personal experiences to texts outside of themselves. This approach is grounded in the theory that engagement in a topic, whether reading or writing, is essential for the learner to make…
Me´ndez, Eduardo; Cerda´, María F.
Students of physical chemistry in biochemical disciplines need biochemical examples to capture the need, not always understood, of a difficult area in their studies. The use of thermodynamic data in the chemical reference state may lead to incorrect interpretations in the analysis of biochemical examples when the analysis does not include relevant…
Nevin, Jeanne, Ed.
The principles, practices, responsibilities, and controls in student financial aid are described in this manual. It traces the flow of funds, management activities, and legal issues as they occur in the process. The emphasis is on sound management principles of a general and permanent nature rather than on specific government requirements that may…
Eads, Janet M.
The definition of independent student that is used in determining eligibility for federal student financial aid is examined, along with potential compliance problems for independent students and differential treatment of independent and dependent students. Major factors for defining independence for students receiving federal financial aid are:…
Marchetti-Mercer, Maria C.; Cleaver, Glenda
Describes a specific training method developed in a family therapy course at the University of Pretoria in South Africa, where genograms and family sculpting were used to improve cross-cultural understanding among psychology masters students. Discusses the theoretical implications of the group training process for the training of psychologists in…
Concerns about cuts in federal student loan and grant programs are outlined, and ways in which institutions can act to influence policy are examined. Basic facts about potential cuts, their effects, federal spending on student aid, aid recipients, public opinion, and aid policy's effects on tuition are discussed. (MSE)
College Entrance Examination Board, Washington, DC.
Information on federal student aid recipients by income, undergraduate and graduate level, and financial dependency status is presented for Pell Grants, campus-based programs, and Guaranteed Student Loans (GSL). Income data are reported for all aid recipients and for financially dependent and independent students for 1983-1984 and for 1976-1977,…
Reports the findings of research into students' understanding of tides. Students from secondary school and pre-service primary school teacher trainees were chosen as subjects and their understanding was assessed by questionnaire. (Author/CCM)
Flint, Thomas A.
Thirty years after the creation of federal student financial aid programs through the Higher Education Act of 1965, the link between moral character and student financial aid programs is once again influencing the public policy debate. A careful look at the debate, though, shows that the nature of concerns has shifted. In the past, the question…
This paper discusses U.S. foreign aid to and international trade with developing countries. It also briefly discusses the need for social studies to infuse global education in its curriculum and presents a model to involve students in world problems. The first part of the paper describes the purposes of foreign aid to developing countries and…
Diamond, Abigail; Vorley, Tim; Roberts, Jennifer; Jones, Stephen
The Higher Education Academy (HEA), in partnership with the National Union of Students (NUS), commissioned CFE and The University of Sheffield to undertake research to explore behavioural approaches to understanding student choice. Within the research, the authors' applied insights from behavioural economics to help aid understanding of student…
Despite the central role of risk assessment in analyzing and making decisions about many environmental issues, most people are poorly equipped to understand key concepts about risk or apply them successfully. I present three class activities in which students develop a better appreciation for the magnitude of a one in a million increased risk of…
Niemeier, Brandi S.; Chapp, Christopher B.; Henley, Whitney B.
Objective: Tobacco-control policy proposals are usually met with opposition on college campuses. Research to understand students' viewpoints about health-related policy proposals and messaging strategies, however, does not exist. This study investigated students' perceptions about a smoke-free policy proposal to help understand their…
American Council on Education, Washington, DC. HEATH Resource Center.
This resource guide provides an overview of student financial aid for students with disabilities. It also discusses the roles and responsibilities of those who play a significant part in the process of providing aid to students with disabilities. It addresses the financial aid application procedure, explains key terminology, and suggests timelines…
Fuller, Matthew B.
Colleges, universities, and the communities they serve have always been concerned about students' abilities to pay and the systems of aid to support students' learning. This article reviews the history of aiding student in higher education. Early student- and institutionally-led programs are discussed along with initial philanthropic and…
Department of Education, Washington, DC.
This booklet explains problems posed by prior drug convictions to college-bound students seeking federal financial aid. Under a new law which takes effect on July 1, 2000, some students who have drug convictions may be ineligible for federal student aid. For possession of illegal drugs, students are ineligible from the date of conviction for one…
Texas Coll. and Univ. System, Austin. Coordinating Board.
Data on student financial aid in Texas are presented. Tables cover financial aid resources for students in Texas postsecondary institutions by program for 1982-1983, 1984-1985 and 1985-1986. For 17 state aid programs and 6 federal programs, the amount of funding is indicated for the state as a whole and for the following categories of colleges:…
Day, Andrew; Nakata, Vicky; Nakata, Martin; Martin, Gregory
The need to address the substantial inequities that exist between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians in higher education is widely recognised. Those factors that affect the performance of Indigenous students in tertiary education have been reasonably well documented across different institutions, disciplines, and programme levels but there…
Rutter, Thomas; Braxton, Larry
The interactions of student financial aid offices with other campus offices, government agencies, and private groups are described. Campus groups that interact with the financial aid office include the following: campus veterans affairs office, student affairs office/dean of students, recruitment staff, campus registrar, chief executive officer,…
US Department of Education, 2010
This paper presents the Federal Student Aid Annual Report for 2010. Federal Student Aid experienced an extraordinary year in 2010. The passage and enactment of the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 ushered in sweeping reforms to the federal student financial assistance programs, resulting in tens of billions of dollars in…
The impact of student aid policies on women is assessed. Patterns of enrollment and economic profiles differ for male and female students. Women, for example, far surpass men as adult, part-time, independent, and unclassified students, the categories most likely to present barriers to participating in most financial aid programs. Gender issues in…
Dorko, Allison; Speer, Natasha M.
Researchers have documented difficulties that elementary school students have in understanding volume. Despite its importance in higher mathematics, we know little about college students' understanding of volume. This study investigated calculus students' understanding of volume. Clinical interview transcripts and written responses to volume…
Maintains that the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) issue presents two opportunities for feminist educators: providing basic information on AIDS and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), and analyzing societal responses to AIDS in terms of a feminist perspective. Provides three classroom exercises designed to explore student attitudes…
Wolfinger, Raymond; And Others
The financing of higher education opportunities in California and the impact of current financial aid programs upon the formal structure of higher education and upon students is addressed. The issue of how Californians see student financial aid with particular emphasis on the extent of their understanding and the degree of their support is…
Perna, Laura W.
Working is now a fundamental responsibility for many undergraduates. But understanding how employment affects students' educational experiences is complicated by why students work. Many students must work to pay the costs of attending college. Some traditional-age students may use employment as a way to explore career options or earn spending…
To force students--at the very beginning of the writing process--to be aware of audience and to gain insight into their own writing, in-class writing and sharing exercises can be invaluable. For example, students can present to the class their subject for an upcoming paper, with the class responding on paper to such questions as: (1) What do you…
Walsh, Tanja; Petrie, Helen
The aim of our research is to understand the lived experience of people with mobility aids: How do people use their mobility aids and what is their lived experience with them? What problems do mobility aid users have outside the clinic? Our goal is to further study the needs of mobility aid users, mainly wheelchair, walker and prosthesis users, and furthermore, develop a technology platform and an application that supports more independent life for mobility aid users. In our study we interviewed five individuals about their experiences of using mobility aids. The aim was to recognize the main stages of the lived experience with mobility aids in order to understand how technology could help mobility aid users outside the clinic. The stages found in the lived experience with mobility aids are 1) Expectations 2) Getting the mobility aid 3) Using and living with the aid and 4) Change/Abandonment of the aid. In each of these stages we found important issues concerning the lived experience with mobility aids such as the importance of training to use mobility aids, the meaning of peer support, finding information online, what makes a mobility aid good, what kind of issues other people's perceptions may cause and how the built environment poses challenges for people with mobility aids. PMID:27534353
Discusses how in addition to federal regulations, student financial aid officers must understand state regulations concerning distance and Internet learning. A state challenge to the right of the institution to enroll distance learning students could deprive those students of access to Title IV benefits; if the issue is ignored, the challenge…
López, Jonathan; Robles, Izraim; Martínez-Planell, Rafael
Action-Process-Object-Schema theory (APOS) was applied to study student understanding of quadratic equations in one variable. This required proposing a detailed conjecture (called a genetic decomposition) of mental constructions students may do to understand quadratic equations. The genetic decomposition which was proposed can contribute to help…
Contemporary theories of academic motivation seek to explain students' behaviours in academic settings. While each theory seems to possess its own constructs and unique explanations, these theories are actually closely tied together. In this theoretical study of motivation, several theories of motivation were described and an underlying theme of…
Davis, Jerry Sheehan, Ed.
This manual contains nine articles intended to assist student financial aid professionals in conducting research. Initial chapters provide basic information for those starting to do such research while later chapters deal with more complex issues. Some chapters include appendices that provide examples of the techniques under consideration. from…
López, Jonathan; Robles, Izraim; Martínez-Planell, Rafael
Action-Process-Object-Schema theory (APOS) was applied to study student understanding of quadratic equations in one variable. This required proposing a detailed conjecture (called a genetic decomposition) of mental constructions students may do to understand quadratic equations. The genetic decomposition which was proposed can contribute to help students achieve an understanding of quadratic equations with improved interrelation of ideas and more flexible application of solution methods. Semi-structured interviews with eight beginning undergraduate students explored which of the mental constructions conjectured in the genetic decomposition students could do, and which they had difficulty doing. Two of the mental constructions that form part of the genetic decomposition are highlighted and corresponding further data were obtained from the written work of 121 undergraduate science and engineering students taking a multivariable calculus course. The results suggest the importance of explicitly considering these two highlighted mental constructions.
McPherson, Michael S.; Schapiro, Morton Owen
Recent research indicates a trend toward increases in the share of all institution-based student aid funds going to merit aid and in merit scholarship competition among institutions. This paper presents findings of a study that surveyed 379 nonprofit bachelors'-degree-granting institutions in 1983-84 and 1991-92. Findings indicate that the less…
Mulugetta, Yuko; Saleh, Donald A.; Mulugetta, Abraham
The private sector in higher education faces unique challenges related to financial aid, including tuition discounting, the precipitous rise in reliance on student loans, and recycling tuition dollars. An example illustrates the importance of institutional research on financial aid issues in this context of rapid change, and the value of…
Bailey, Roger C.; And Others
Evaluated college students' (N=60) perceptions of victims of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) based on how the victim contracted the disease. Found in nondeterioration condition victims contracting AIDS via sexual encounters or illicit drug injection were perceived as less trustworthy, less moral, and less desirable as a prospective…
In this article students' understanding of trigonometric functions in the context of two college trigonometry courses is investigated. The first course was taught by a professor unaffiliated with the study in a lecture-based course, while the second was taught using an experimental instruction paradigm based on Gray and Tall's (1994) notion of procept and current process-object theories of learning. Via interviews and a paper-and-pencil test, I examined students' understanding of trigonometric functions for both classes. The results indicate that the students who were taught in the lecture-based course developed a very limited understanding of these functions. Students who received the experimental instruction developed a deep understanding of trigonometric functions.
Coble, Kimberly A.; Cochran, G.; Larrieu, D.; Bailey, J.; Sanchez, R.; Cominsky, L.; McLin, K.
Recently, powerful new observations and advances in computation and visualization have led to a revolution in our understanding of the origin, evolution and structure of the universe. These gains have been vast, but their impact on education has been limited. At Chicago State (CSU), we are implementing new inquiry-based instructional materials in our astronomy lab course. We are researching the effectiveness of these materials, focusing on student understanding of cosmology. As part of a collaborative effort with the University of Nevada Las Vegas and Sonoma State (SSU) to develop a cosmological subject inventory, we administered an open-ended survey prior to instruction and conducted student interviews using the survey. Students taking the CSU course were also required to write a guided essay on their beliefs about cosmology. We have collected open-ended post-test data through student exams. Preliminary results regarding student misconceptions in cosmology and student attitudes toward inquiry will be presented.
Wangle, Jayleen Lillian
Continuity is a central concept in calculus. Yet very few students seem to understand the nature of continuity. The research described was conducted in two stages. Students were asked questions in multiple choice and true/false format regarding function, limit and continuity. These results were used to identify participants as strong, weak or…
Tate, John L.
Students who have their National Direct Student Loans or Guaranteed Student Loans discharged under federal bankruptcy law may encounter difficulty obtaining college transcripts, and should be counseled on these problems. Available from University of Louisville, 2301 Third St., Louisville, KY 40208; $4.00. (MSE)
Among all the uncertainty colleges face in this recession, they are sure of one thing: Families are feeling less than confident about their ability to pay for higher education. In response, colleges are creating more student-aid programs or expanding existing ones. Others are offering students additional counseling or a grace period for paying…
Wolanin, Thomas R.
This article describes some of the special financial aid needs of students with disabilities and the policy implications of those needs. It focuses on the financial burdens of having a disability, the time demands faced by those with disabilities, the multiple and complex sources from which students with disabilities derive support, and the…
A self-administered anonymous questionnaire on knowledge about acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) was administered to 2,614 Leaving Certificate students in 50 Galway second-level schools. Levels of knowledge regarding routes of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission and non-transmission were assessed together with student opinion on related lifestyle issues and awareness of local services. Although 91% had heard of HIV infection only 61% knew that there is a difference between this and AIDS. Over 95% of respondants were aware of the epidemiologically proven means of transmission and between 73% and 98% understood that no transmission risk existed in a range of ordinary social contact situations. Fifty-one per cent of students believed in a HIV transmission risk from receiving blood transfusions in Ireland and 24% doubted the safety of blood donation. Seventy-four per cent of students indicated the media as their main information source on AIDS. Preference for further AIDS information were Health Education sources (30%) and teachers (20%). Only 22% and 23% of respondants respectively were aware of the local Sexually Transmitted Diseases Clinic and AIDS telephone information service. These data indicate areas in which information on AIDS should be improved by education in the school setting. PMID:2361831
Baum, Sandy; Little, Kathleen; Ma, Jennifer; Sturtevant, Anne
Like the federal Pell Grant program, need-based state grant programs are designed to increase access to higher education among low- and moderate-income students. A growing body of research indicates that adequate funding is a necessary but not sufficient condition for successfully achieving this goal. Aid programs that are easy to understand and…
Walters, Andrew S.
Examined extent to which college students (n=180) change their sexual behavior in response to understanding of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Results suggest students have an understanding of AIDS. For this sample, some high-risk behaviors did decrease, presumably as a result of this knowledge, but there was much behavior that still…
This article looks at the importance of student-generated analogies, metaphors, and similes as an entry point into their understandings of HIV/AIDS. In addition, it argues that analogies, metaphors, and similes are good tools for eliciting students' prior understandings of HIV/AIDS, especially matters relating to sexuality that are often…
The federal government plays an indispensable role in helping community college students pay for their education. It is hard to imagine today's community college campuses without needs-based federal student aid, such as the Pell Grant program and subsidized loans. There are, however, significant differences between community college students and…
Federal Student Aid, US Department of Education, 2011
This publication is intended for financial aid administrators and counselors who help students begin the aid process--filing the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA), verifying information, and making corrections and other changes to the information reported on the FAFSA. The Federal Student Aid Handbook consists of the Application and…
Fenske, Robert H.; And Others
The full range of topics relevant to student financial aid are covered in this book by a variety of experts in financial aid administration and scholarship. The volume details how to organize, implement and assess a financial aid program--including how to determine student need, deal with student bankruptcy and aid termination, and improve…
Hadenfeldt, Jan Christoph; Neumann, Knut; Bernholt, Sascha; Liu, Xiufeng; Parchmann, Ilka
This study presents our attempt to elicit students' progression in understanding the matter concept. Past work has identified the big ideas about matter students need to understand, the many everyday understandings students hold about these ideas, and levels of understanding through which students progress in developing understanding of the big…
In this article students' understanding of trigonometric functions in the context of two college trigonometry courses is investigated. The first course was taught by a professor unaffiliated with the study in a lecture-based course, while the second was taught using an experimental instruction paradigm based on Gray and Tall's (1994) notion of…
College Entrance Examination Board, New York, NY.
Presentations include: the origins of student aid in the United States (Frederick Rudolph); measuring the economic effects of education (Burton A. Weisbrod); the social and political arguments for extending the reach of education (Robert J. Havighurst); our worldwide stake in developing talent (Dael Wolfe); what part the states should play in…
Arizona State Industrial School, Ft. Grant. Dept. of Vocational Education.
This document consists of vocational education teaching aids that originated in a special needs summer workshop at Arizona State Industrial School; the units are aimed at the potential dropout/special needs type of student (rather than the handicapped) who because of cultural, psychological, or aptitudinal reasons is not able to operate on a…
American Hospital Association, Chicago, IL.
Developed for students receiving on-the-job training as nursing aides, this illustrated manual contains these chapters: (1) Orientation, (2) Introduction to the Patient, (3) Your Working Environment, (4) The Patient's Unit: Making the Unoccupied Bed, (5) Lifting, Moving, and Transporting Patients: Making the Occupied Bed, (6) Personal Care of the…
Leigh, Rachel A.
The purpose of this descriptive case study was to trace the policy production process of a state agency, the Iowa College Student Aid Commission (Commission), to its function today. This case study relied on a review of federal and state statutes, a news article search, biennium reports of the Commission, and information obtained from the…
Colleges and universities have adjusted the packaging and targeting of student aid that may be more effective in reaching an institution's objectives in lean times, including increasing parent contributions, reducing the unmet need percentage, changing pricing policies, using quotas, revising capital campaigns, tapping alumni, and capitalizing on…
Office of Student Financial Assistance (ED), Washington, DC.
Information is provided on the Student Aid Report (SAR), which is used to determine student eligibility for Pell Grants. Four to six weeks after a student submits a 1986-87 "Application for Federal Student Aid" or one of the non-federal applications, the student will receive the SAR. The student's eligibility status determines which of the three…
Federal benefit programs, including federal student aid, are designed to aid targeted populations. Behavioral responses to these programs may alter the incidence of their benefits, a possibility that receives less attention in the literature compared to tax incidence. I demonstrate the importance of benefit incidence analysis by showing that the…
Taylor, M; Dlamini, S B; Kagoro, H; Jinabhai, C C; de Vries, H
Of 901 rural learners (X age 16.1, SD = 2.4) at 10 randomly selected high schools in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, those living with a parent were less likely to drink alcohol (P < 0.0001) or use drugs (P = 0.006). Thirty percent (95% CI 26.9, 33.1) were sexually active, and 53.1% used a condom in the past 30 days. The odds of males being sexually active was 7.27 the likelihood of females (95% CI 5.2, 10.1). Only one-third of male respondents always used condoms. Of sexually active respondents, 46.5% had experienced coercive sex. More males (14.1%) than females (3.6%) smoked cigarettes (P < 0.0001). The odds of males drinking alcohol was 4.5 times that of females (P < 0.0001). Smoking, (OR 2.42, 95% CI 1.32, 4.44) and drinking, (OR 2.67, 95% CI 1.71, 4.19) among learners increased the likelihood of sexual activity. With youth at increasing risk of HIV/AIDS in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, interventions to reduce learners' risk behaviors are required. PMID:12677727
Creusere, Marlena; Fletcher, Carla; Klepfer, Kasey; Norman, Patricia
TG provides critical support to schools, students, and borrowers at every stage of the federal student aid process--from providing information on how to pay for a higher education including financial aid options, to facilitating successful loan repayment after graduation. This issue of "State of Student Aid and Higher Education in Texas"…
Curtis, William C.
A preliminary draft of a "Teacher Training Aid to Help Teachers Understand the Processes of Science" has been prepared on the basis of a careful analysis of the current practice of science. This manuscript attempts to formulate guidelines for an explanation of communicative processes of scientific inquiry to students without rigorous background…
Fee, E; Krieger, N
The popular and scientific understanding of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in the United States has been shaped by successive historical constructions or paradigms of disease. In the first paradigm, AIDS was conceived of as a "gay plague," by analogy with the sudden, devastating epidemics of the past. In the second, AIDS was normalized as a chronic disease to be managed medically over the long term. By examining and extending critiques of both paradigms, it is possible to discern the emergence of an alternative paradigm of AIDS as a collective chronic infectious disease and persistent pandemic. Each of these constructions of AIDS incorporates distinct views of the etiology, prevention, pathology, and treatment of disease; each tacitly promotes different conceptions of the proper allocation of individual and social responsibility for AIDS. This paper focuses on individualistic vs collective, and biomedical vs social and historical, understandings of disease. It analyzes the use of individualism as methodology and as ideology, criticizes some basic assumptions of the biomedical model, and discusses alternative strategies for scientific research, health policy, and disease prevention. Images p1478-a p1480-a p1482-a PMID:8214245
Maritime Provinces Higher Education Commission, Fredericton (New Brunswick).
A research report on financial aid to maritime student (those in the Maritime Provinces) enrolled in postsecondary education in Canada is presented in English and French versions. The study was designed to: (1) prepare a historical perspective of and rationale for programs of financial assistance to students; (2) review and compare existing…
Jacobs, Randy; McCain, Thomas
The purpose of this study was to describe college students' AIDS communication and explore the relationships between AIDS communication, involvement, and sexual behavior. A non-random sample of 334 college students was surveyed. AIDS message discrimination and multiple indicators of involvement were tested for associations with sexual behavior…
Freimuth, Vicki S.; And Others
Reports on a study designed to provide insight on college students' perception about acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Focuses on students knowledge about AIDS, their perceptions about their own risk, and any change in behavior they have made in response to the AIDS risk. (TW)
National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NJ1), 2013
As the student aid programs rapidly approach reauthorization in 2014, they continue to face severe funding and efficiency problems. With grant assistance from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation through their "Reimagining Aid Design and Delivery" (RADD) project, the National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NASFAA) examined…
Schmidt, Hans-Jurgen; Kaufmann, Birgit; Treagust, David F.
In introductory chemistry courses students are presented with the model that matter is composed of particles, and that weak forces of attraction exist between them. This model is used to interpret phenomena such as solubility and melting points, and aids in understanding the changes in states of matter as opposed to chemical reactions. We…
Lopez, Julia I.
In California, public financial aid aimed at low-income students is not reaching some of the poorest students enrolled in community colleges. Outreach efforts to students are important, but high schools and community colleges must also make financial aid receipt a priority.
Onyewadume, Mary Adeola
This research investigated the incidence of HIV/AIDS anxiety among students in Botswana. The sample comprised 240 randomly selected students from six schools in three districts in Botswana, with data collected via a questionnaire. Percentages and Chi-square were used to analyze the extent to which the students were anxious about HIV/AIDS and if…
In 1997, the Financial Aid Office Staff at Johnson County Community College (JCCC) in Kansas conducted a survey to gauge student satisfaction with the Student Financial Aid Office. Surveys mailed to 3,026 current and prospective JCCC students resulted in 299 usable responses. This report combines results for applicants for two types of financial…
Johnson, Jane Louise
The student financial aid mechanism has been considered the form of subsidy more likely to provide both access and choice since it can target aid to students most in need of it and lets student choose the college of their choice. The Tuition Assistance Program in New York is discussed. (MLW)
Hyman, J.M.; Stanley, E.A.
The most urgent public health problem today is to devise effective strategies to minimize the destruction caused by the AIDS epidemic. This complex problem will involve medical advances and new public health and education initiatives. Mathematical models based on the underlying transmission mechanisms of the AIDS virus can help the medical/scientific community understand and anticipate its spread in different populations and evaluate the potential effectiveness of different approaches for bringing the epidemic under control. Before we can use models to predict the future, we must carefully test them against the past spread of the infection and for sensitivity to parameter changes. The long and extremely variable incubation period and the low probability of transmitting the AIDS virus in a single contact imply that population structure and variations in infectivity both play an important role in its spread. This structure occurs because of differences between people in numbers of sexual partners and the use of intravenous drugs and because of the way in which people mix among age, ethnic, and social groups. We use a simplified approach to investigate the effects of variation in incubation periods and infectivity specific to the AIDS virus and we compare a model of random partner choices with a model in which partners both come from similar behavior groups. 60 refs., 15 figs.
In this study, high school and first-year undergraduate students were asked about their understanding of stars. The hypothesis guiding this research posits that high school students who have taken a semester-long astronomy course will have an understanding of stars most related to scientific knowledge, compared with high school students enrolled…
Keener, Sally; Leaman, David R.
Conscientious educators grapple with the challenge of teaching all students, including emotionally troubled, high risk students. The general expectation is that teachers should know how to reach and teach every student--even the most irritating and obstinate child. To do that, teachers must be able to identify basic psychological factors of…
Ware, Michelle; Weissman, Evan; McDermott, Drew
Aid Like A Paycheck is based on a simple idea that is gaining national attention: after tuition and fees have been paid to a college, disburse the remaining financial aid to students evenly throughout the term--like a paycheck. The goals of the program are to help students achieve a good balance between time in work and school, and think about…
Tasci, Sultan; Baser, Muruvvet; Mucuk, Salime; Bayat, Meral; Zincir, Handan; Sungur, Gonul
The authors' goal in this study was to assess differences in knowledge about AIDS between students of natural science (NS) and social science (SS). The authors surveyed 542 students at Erciyes University in Kayseri, Turkey, regarding their knowledge of AIDS. Some differences in knowledge about AIDS (eg, regarding the virus that causes AIDS, the…
Case, Karl E.; McPherson, Michael S.
The question of whether the availability of need-based student financial aid reduces the applicant families' incentives to save and work was assessed. Changes in the need-based aid system are also suggested. Need-based aid systems compute a family's ability to pay for college from information on the family's income and assets at the time a student…
Kinnucan, Henry W.; Zheng, Yuqing; Brehmer, Gerald
Using a supply-demand framework, a six-equation model is specified to generate hypotheses about the relationship between state aid and student performance. Theory predicts that an increase in state or federal aid provides an incentive to decrease local funding, but that the disincentive associated with increased state aid is moderated when federal…
Larson, Joanne; Gatto, Lynn Astarita
This article describes one urban classroom and the language and literacy practices jointly constructed by a veteran urban teacher, Lynn Gatto, and her 3rd grade students. Drawing from two ethnographic studies of Gattos 2nd-4th grade looped classroom, we argue that Gatto and her students use the interplay between strategies and tactics (De Certeau,…
Betts, Kristen; Welsh, Bill; Pruitt, Cheryl; Hermann, Kelly; Dietrich, Gaeir; Trevino, Jorge G.; Watson, Terry L.; Brooks, Michael L.; Cohen, Alex H.; Coombs, Norman
Online learning has been growing at an exponential rate over the past decade, providing new opportunities for students seeking quality courses and programs offered through flexible formats. However, as higher education continues to expand online offerings, services must be expanded simultaneously to support all students. This article focuses on…
Baum, Sandy; Payea, Kathleen
Trends in Student Aid, an annual College Board publication since 1983, is a compendium of detailed, up-to-date information on the funding that is available to help students pay for college. This report documents grant aid from federal and state governments, colleges and universities, employers, and other private sources, as well as loans, tax…
... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Scholarships and student aid costs. 200.466 Section 200.466 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements... Cost § 200.466 Scholarships and student aid costs. (a) Costs of scholarships, fellowships, and...
Student financial aid analysts are suggesting the federal government establish a government-run loan bank or trust fund to eliminate the need for lender involvement in the Guaranteed Student Loan Program, but congressional aides think that dismantling the existing program is unlikely. (MSE)
In this paper I evaluate the effect of student aid on the success of academic studies. I focus on two dimensions, the duration of study and the probability of actually graduating with a degree. To determine the impact of financial student aid, I estimate a discrete-time duration model allowing for competing risks to account for different exit…
Selective colleges are undergoing intense scrutiny these days when it comes to student aid. The decisions of the University of Pennsylvania, Harvard University, and other private institutions to expand their aid packages for students from less-affluent families have drawn both high praise and heavy fire: high praise for making themselves more…
US Department of Education, 2004
This document provides useful information to help high school and TRIO counselors advise students about financial aid for postsecondary education. This document focuses on the federal student aid programs administered by the U.S. Department of Education. It includes general information about postsecondary opportunities, and the application process…
National Action Council for Minorities in Engineering, Inc., New York, NY.
Created to assist minority engineering students in locating adequate funding to finance a college education, this publication contains information students need to file for federal and state financial aid, to obtain and submit applications to college financial aid offices, to become aware of specific opportunities that exist for minorities and…
US Department of Education, 2006
There are many factors to be considered when reviewing a student's application for aid from the FSA programs, such as whether the student is a U.S. citizen or permanent resident, whether the student is making satisfactory academic progress, and whether the student has a defaulted FSA loan. This volume of the Federal Student Aid Handbook discusses…
Department of Education, Washington, DC. Student Financial Assistance.
This Spanish-language publication explains what federal student financial aid is and what types of student aid are available. The introductory section, "Student Aid at a Glance," presents information about what student aid is, who gets it, and how to get it. The second section discusses "Finding out about Student Aid." The next section provides…
... Notice of Proposed Information Collection Requests; Federal Student Aid; 2013-2014 Federal Student Aid... individuals applying for federal student aid including the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA) and the Student Aid Report (SAR). DATES: Interested persons are invited to submit comments on...
Kennamer, Michael A.; Katsinas, Stephen G.; Schumacker, Randall E.
This article reviews recent literature on student financial aid as a retention tool at community colleges. Enrollment and tuition data from the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS), and federal direct grant student aid data from the IPEDS Student Financial Aid Survey are used to…
Castillo, A. J.; Marshall, J.; Cardenas, M. B.
Our objective is to characterize and assess upper division and graduate student thinking by developing and testing an assessment tool for a physical hydrology class. The class' learning goals are: (1) Quantitative process-based understanding of hydrologic processes, (2) Experience with different methods in hydrology, (3) Learning, problem solving, communication skills. These goals were translated into two measurable tasks asked of students in a questionnaire: (1) Describe the significant processes in the hydrological cycle and (2) Describe laws governing these processes. A third question below assessed the students' ability to apply their knowledge: You have been hired as a consultant by __ to (1) assess how urbanization and the current drought have affected a local spring and (2) predict what the effects will be in the future if the drought continues. What information would you need to gather? What measurements would you make? What analyses would you perform? Student and expert responses to the questions were then used to develop a rubric to score responses. Using the rubric, 3 researchers independently blind-coded the full set of pre and post artifacts, resulting in 89% inter-rater agreement on the pre-tests and 83% agreement on the post-tests. We present student scores to illustrate the use of the rubric and to characterize student thinking prior to and following a traditional course. Most students interpreted Q1 in terms of physical processes affecting the water cycle, the primary organizing framework for hydrology, as intended. On the pre-test, one student scored 0, indicating no response, on this question. Twenty students scored 1, indicating rudimentary understanding, 2 students scored a 2, indicating a basic understanding, and no student scored a 3. Student scores on this question improved on the post-test. On the 22 post-tests that were blind scored, 11 students demonstrated some recognition of concepts, 9 students showed a basic understanding, and 2
Hossler, Don; Hu, Shouping; Schmit, Jack
This study focuses on predictors of student sensitivity to college tuition and financial aid in their college choice process. Data were drawn from a longitudinal study on the postsecondary education choices of high school students in the state of Indiana. The variables student and family background, student academic characteristics, student…
Howard, Kristen E.; Brown, Shane A.; Chung, Serena H.; Jobson, B. Thomas; VanReken, Timothy M.
Research has shown that high school and college students have a lack of conceptual understanding of global warming, ozone, and the greenhouse effect. Most research in this area used survey methodologies and did not include concepts of atmospheric chemistry and ozone formation. This study investigates college students' understandings of atmospheric…
Hunter, Roberta; Anthony, Glenda
Informed by theory and research in inquiry-based classrooms, this paper examines how classroom practices support students' understanding of decimals. Data from a six-month teaching experiment, based on the work of Moss and Case's (1999) use of percentages and metric measure as visible representations for students' emerging understanding of…
Barrow, Lloyd H.
The study of shadows is a common elementary science topic that facilitates students' development of understanding about light and associated waves. All elementary students have observed numerous shadows, but need assistance in developing understanding. Previous research studies about shadows were utilized in organizing aspects associated with…
Zahorik, John A.
In productive constructionism, a teacher's job is to fuse students' knowledge with what experts know, not to favor one over the other. Teachers do not promote understanding by permitting students' constructions to stand even though they clash with experts' constructions. Student engagement in problem-solving tasks is crucial, but so is…
Adaptive tools and techniques for lecture instruction were developed for a blind student in a nonmajors college chemistry course. These adaptive instructional aids assisted the student in writing and balancing chemical reactions, calculating unit conversions and concentrations, drawing Lewis dot structures, understanding structural representations…
Jones, Kevin C.
In this research report the author details a phenomenological study documenting identity development in student veterans making the transition from active military service to higher education. This study took place at a doctoral granting proprietary university with a significant veteran population and consisted of in-depth interviews. This…
Wisconsin Univ. System, Madison. Office of Policy Analysis and Research.
This memorandum provides information about students granted financial aid in the University of Wisconsin (UW) system in 2001-2002 and earlier years. The total financial aid provided to UW students was $550.0 million, up $52.2 million from 2000-2001. Total loan dollars for UW students totaled $371.2 million, up $30.9 million from 2000-2001. UW…
Gross, Jacob P. K.
Using event history modeling, this study explored to what extent loans, grants, institutional aid, and work-study affect timing to first departure for Latino college students. The goal is to understand more about how aid promotes or perturbs success for Latino students as well as how those effects vary over time. Federal grants and targeted loans…
Dawson, Vaille; Schibeci, Renato
Are science educators providing secondary school students with the background to understand the science behind recent controversies such as the recently introduced compulsory labelling of genetically modified foods? Research from the UK suggests that many secondary school students do not understand the processes or implications of modern biotechnology. The situation in Australia is unclear. In this study, 1116 15-year-old students from eleven Western Australian schools were surveyed to determine their understanding of, and attitude towards, recent advances in modern biotechnology. The results indicate that approximately one third of students have little or no understanding of biotechnology. Many students over-estimate the use of biotechnology in our society by confusing current uses with possible future applications. The results provide a rationale for the inclusion of biotechnology, a cutting edge science, in the school science curriculum
Students at a college or university who receive need-based financial aid, receive a tremendous financial resource compared to those students who do not receive need based financial aid. A sample of 100 students from various backgrounds and skills were surveyed. The survey asked questions of the two student groups: received need based financial aid…
Rianasari, Veronika Fitri; Budayasa, I Ketut; Patahuddin, Sitti Maesuri
Many researches revealed that pupils often find difficulties to understand percentage although they are able to recite percent as per hundred and carry out the computations correctly. This might happen due to the way in which the learning percentage has been taught that tends to focus on procedures and recall instead of getting a real…
Gupta, Pratibha; Anjum, Fatima; Bhardwaj, Pankaj; Srivastav, JP; Zaidi, Zeashan Haider
Background: HIV/AIDS has emerged as the single most formidable challenge to public health. School children of today are exposed to the risk of HIV/AIDS. Aims: The study was conducted to determine the knowledge among secondary school students regarding HIV/AIDS and provide suggestions for HIV/AIDS education in schools. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among students of tenth to twelfth standard in the intermediate schools of Lucknow, India, from July to October 2011. A total of 215 students, both boys and girls, were enrolled in the study. Results: In this study, for majority of the students (85%), the source of information about HIV/AIDS was the television. Regarding knowledge about modes of transmission of HIV/AIDS among girl students, 95.1% of them told that it is through unprotected sex. A total of 75.8% students said that it was transmitted from mother to child. Conclusion: It was observed that the knowledge of the school students was quite satisfactory for most of the variables like modes of transmission, including mother-to-child transmission of the disease. However, schools should come forward to design awareness campaigns for the benefit of the students. PMID:23641373
A top aide to Vice President Gore has been chosen to lead the U.S. Department of Education's effort to modernize delivery of financial aid to students and colleges. His office is the first federal government entity to be run as a "performance-based organization." Some fear he may politicize the office that lawmakers specified be led by a…
Frick Cardelle, Rachel A.
Low- and middle-income students at public, two-year institutions too often do not apply for college financial aid (Advisory Committee on Student Financial Assistance, 2008; Kantrowitz, 2009a, 2011). This research first examines national data to identify what the risk factors are for not applying and compares those risk factors for students at…
The Student Library Aide Program provides real-world work experience to students in a safe learning environment. Students who are interested in working in the library complete an application form similar to a real job application listing their classroom teachers as references, telling why they want to work in the library, and any experience they…
Department of Education, Washington, DC. Student Financial Assistance.
This CD-ROM contains a simulated conversation between a counselor at the Department of Education's Federal Student Aid Information Center and a student inquiring about financial assistance. Following an introductory track providing contents information, each track contains a section answering a different question about federal student loans. The…
Yarber, William L.
These materials include both the student book and the instructor's guide for a curriculum designed to provide upper elementary/middle school level students with information about how Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is transmitted and how HIV infection is prevented. The Student Book covers: reasons for learning about AIDS; pre- and post-study…
Baime, David S.; Mullin, Christopher M.
In recent months, some legislators, government agency officials, segments of the media, and campus administrators have called attention to perceived and proven instances of abuse of the federal student financial assistance programs. Concerns have focused on students enrolling in courses primarily to secure student financial aid funds rather than…
Poh-Ai Cheong, Irene; Treagust, David; Kyeleve, Iorhemen J.; Oh, Peck-Yoke
In this study, a two-tier diagnostic test for understanding malaria was developed and administered to 314 Bruneian students in Year 12 and in a nursing diploma course. The validity, reliability, difficulty level, discriminant indices, and reading ability of the test were examined and found to be acceptable in terms of measuring students' understanding and identifying alternative conceptions with respect to malaria. Results showed that students' understanding of malaria was high for content, low for reasons, and limited and superficial for both content and reasons. The instrument revealed several common alternative conceptual understandings students' hold about malaria. The MalariaTT2 instrument developed could be used in classroom lessons for challenging alternative conceptions and enhancing conceptions of malaria.
US Department of Education, 2005
This student guide provides financial aid information for high school seniors and college students. The first few pages of this guide are a quick reference to federal student aid programs and how to apply. Most student financial aid comes from the federal government programs, which the U.S. Department of Education's Federal Student Aid (FSA)…
Tavoosi, Anahita; Zaferani, Azadeh; Enzevaei, Anahita; Tajik, Parvin; Ahmadinezhad, Zahra
Background Young people are of particular importance in state policies against Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). We intended to assess the knowledge and attitude of high school students regarding AIDS in Iran. Methods Through a cluster-sampling, 4641 students from 52 high schools in Tehran were assessed by anonymous questionnaires in February 2002. Results The students identified television as their most important source of information about AIDS. Only a few students answered all the knowledge questions correctly, and there were many misconceptions about the routes of transmission. Mosquito bites (33%), public swimming pools (21%), and public toilets (20%) were incorrectly identified as routes of transmission. 46% believed that Human Immunodeficiency Virus positive (HIV positive) students should not attend ordinary schools. Most of the students wanted to know more about AIDS. In this study knowledge level was associated with students' attitudes and discipline (p < 0.001). Conclusion Although the knowledge level seems to be moderately high, misconceptions about the routes of transmission were common. There was a substantial intolerant attitude towards AIDS and HIV positive patients. We recommend that strategies for AIDS risk reduction in adolescents be developed in Iranian high schools. PMID:15157281
Background: This study has aimed to evaluate the level of knowledge about the first aid process among the university students in Jordan. Methods: The study population consisted of students of the 14 scientific and unscientific faculties at Yarmouk University, Jordan. Data were obtained via questionnaires from 883 students. Results: The majority of participants were females (65.9%) with mean age (standard deviation) of 19.9 (2.6) years. Only 29.2% of students had previous first aid experience. When asked, only 11% of students knew the normal respiration rate of an adult in 1 min. Results revealed that female students, having previous first aid experience, and being a student of the health sciences and scientific colleges were the only factors had significant statistical associations with better level of first aid knowledge. Conclusions: The students’ knowledge about first aid is not at an adequate level. It would be advisable that first aid course be handled as a separate and practical course at secondary school level. PMID:26941925
Hamed, Kastro Mohamad
This study investigated students' understanding of surface phenomena. The main purpose for conducting this research endeavor was to understand how students think about a complex topic about which they have little direct or formal instruction. The motivation for focusing on surface phenomena stemmed from an interest in integrating research and education. Despite the importance of surfaces and interfaces in research laboratories, in technological applications, and in everyday experiences, no previous systematic effort was done on pedagogy related to surface phenomena. The design of this research project was qualitative, exploratory, based on a Piagetian semi-structured clinical piloted interview, focused on obtaining a longitudinal view of the intended sample. The sampling was purposeful and the sample consisted of forty-four undergraduate students at Kansas State University. The student participants were enrolled in physics classes that spanned a wide academic spectrum. The data were analyzed qualitatively. The main themes that emerged from the analysis were: (a) students used analogies when confronted with novel situations, (b) students mixed descriptions and explanations, (c) students used the same explanation for several phenomena, (d) students manifested difficulties transferring the meaning of vocabulary across discipline boundaries, (e) in addition to the introductory chemistry classes, students used everyday experiences and job-related experiences as sources of knowledge, and (f) students' inquisitiveness and eagerness to investigate and discuss novel phenomena seemed to peak about the time students were enrolled in second year physics classes.
Jones, Steven R.
Researchers are currently investigating how calculus students understand the basic concepts of first-year calculus, including the integral. However, much is still unknown regarding the "cognitive resources" (i.e., stable cognitive units that can be accessed by an individual) that students hold and draw on when thinking about the integral. This…
Naah, Basil M.; Sanger, Michael J.
In a previous study, the authors identified several student misconceptions regarding the process of dissolving ionic compounds in water. The present study used multiple-choice questions whose distractors were derived from these misconceptions to assess students' understanding of the dissolving process at the symbolic and particulate levels. The…
Sturts, Jill R.; Mowatt, Rasul A.
Pedagogically, the term "bottleneck" refers to a moment when students may face barriers to understanding content in the process of learning. As instructors identify "bottlenecks" within their courses, they are faced with the challenge of how to best assist students in overcoming them. Further, most instructors want to know what selected teaching…
In this paper, we describe instruction designed to teach students about exponents and logarithms and report a pilot study to test the effectiveness of this instruction. Based on the theoretical work of Dubinsky and Sfard, we postulate a set of mental constructions that a student could make to understand the concepts of exponents and logarithms. We…
Wiesman, Jeff L.
Students enrolled in a middle school prealgebra or algebra course often struggle to conceptualize and understand the meaning of radical notation when it is introduced. For example, although it is important for students to approximate the decimal value of a number such as [square root of] 30 and estimate the value of a square root in the form of…
Dawson, Vaille; Schibeci, Renato
Surveys (n=1116) 15-year-old students from 11 Western Australian schools to determine their understanding of and attitude towards recent advances in modern biotechnology. Discusses reasons for students' over-estimation of the use of biotechnology in society. Provides a rationale for the inclusion of biotechnology, a cutting edge science, in the…
Zhu Guangtian; Singh, Chandralekha
We describe the difficulties advanced undergraduate and graduate students have with quantum measurement. To reduce these difficulties, we have developed research-based learning tools such as the Quantum Interactive Learning Tutorial (QuILT) and peer instruction tools. A preliminary evaluation shows that these learning tools are effective in improving students' understanding of concepts related to quantum measurement.
Weidman, John C.; DeAngelo, Linda; Bethea, Kathryn A.
This chapter describes the contribution of current research using the Weidman model of undergraduate socialization to understanding student identity development in college. It illustrates ways in which the framework can be used flexibly and adapted for studying impacts of multiple aspects of the college experience on diverse groups of students.
Hopkins, Robert, II; Alberts, Halley
This activity is designed as a primer to teaching population dispersion analysis. The aim is to help improve students' spatial thinking and their understanding of how spatial statistic equations work. Students use simulated data to develop their own statistic and apply that equation to experimental behavioral data for Gambusia affinis (western…
MacKinnon, Gregory R.
The study of chemistry includes many abstract concepts that students may find difficult to understand. A fundamental yet troublesome part of introductory chemistry courses is the topic of electron configuration and specifically quantum-mechanical orbitals. In an effort to examine the way students internalize the concept of atomic orbitals and how…
Rowntree, Rebecca V.
The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics [NCTM] requires students in grades nine through 12 to be able to explain inequalities using mathematical relational symbols and be able to understand the meaning of inequalities and their solutions (NCTM, 2000). Studies have shown that not only middle and high school students have difficulties with…
Presents a problem on solubility equilibrium which involves macroscopic, microscopic, and symbolic levels of representation as a resource for the evaluation of students, and allows for assessment as to whether students have acquired an adequate conceptual understanding of the phenomenon. Also diagnoses difficulties with regard to previous…
Phuket, Pimpisa Rattanadilok Na; Othman, Normah Binti
Writing is the most difficult skill in English, so most EFL students tend to make errors in writing. In assisting the learners to successfully acquire writing skill, the analysis of errors and the understanding of their sources are necessary. This study attempts to explore the major sources of errors occurred in the writing of EFL students. It…
Chandras, Kananur V.
Asian American students who encounter personal problems may hesitate to utilize counseling and mental health facilities on campuses, being fearful that family, friends and/or relatives may consider them emotionally unstable. Counselors and mental health workers may lack understanding of language and cultural background of Asian-American students,…
Lamis, Dorian A.; Lester, David
Suicide is currently the second leading cause of death among college students in the United States. This complex issue on college campuses is often overlooked, and this book combines the efforts from several leaders in the field of suicidology in an attempt to grasp a better understanding of college student suicide. The book is divided into four…
Cheong, Irene Poh-Ai; Treagust, David; Kyeleve, Iorhemen J.; Oh, Peck-Yoke
In this study, a two-tier diagnostic test for understanding malaria was developed and administered to 314 Bruneian students in Year 12 and in a nursing diploma course. The validity, reliability, difficulty level, discriminant indices, and reading ability of the test were examined and found to be acceptable in terms of measuring students'…
Smith, Trevor I.; Mountcastle, Donald B.; Thompson, John R.
We present results of our investigation into student understanding of the physical significance and utility of the Boltzmann factor in several simple models. We identify various justifications, both correct and incorrect, that students use when answering written questions that require application of the Boltzmann factor. Results from written data…
Grossman, Herschel I.
Discusses how competition for black college students among the nation's most prestigious institutions could become more intense if these universities abandon their agreement to set financial aid based on merit as well as on need. It argues that by enforcing limitations on financial aid, Congress is protecting Ivy League schools and is sanctioning…
Haring, Joen Iannucci; Lind, Laura J.
At Ohio State University, 81 dental hygiene students' attitudes toward homosexual and heterosexual patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) or leukemia were assessed using ratings of prejudice, social interaction, and interpersonal interaction. Negative bias toward individuals with AIDS and unwillingness to engage in everyday…
Burd, Stephen; Carey, Kevin; Delisle, Jason; Fishman, Rachel; Holt, Alex; Laitinen, Amy; McCann, Clare
The federal financial aid system is no longer up to today's demands. Built in a different era, its haphazard evolution over the decades has made it inefficient, poorly targeted, and overly complicated. With the need for higher education never greater and college growing increasingly unaffordable, students deserve a streamlined aid system that is…
Colson, Steven E.; Carlson, Judith K.
This article discusses human immune deficiency disease, the role of education as a prevention tool, a rationale for the inclusion of students with special needs in Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) education, a scope and sequence of skills related to AIDS, suggestions for implementing objectives across curricular areas, and multimedia…
Hauptman, Arthur M.; Krop, Cathy S.
A debate has raged over the effect of federal student aid on tuition growth. Former Secretary of Education, William Bennett claimed that colleges and universities explicitly take federal aid into account in setting tuition and other charges, thereby stimulating tuition increases that are higher than the rate of inflation. An alternative view is…
McCoy, Leah P.; Calvin, Richmond E.
The Surgeon General's information material on the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), which was mailed to every household in the United States, was used to develop an AIDS Awareness Inventory. The inventory was designed for administration to 182 high school students enrolled in schools in three districts, which have adopted an AIDS…
Kelly, Fred J.; McNeely, John H.
The Federal student aid program is the first instance in American history in which the National Government has assisted needy youth to work their way through college. Inaugurated by the Federal Emergency Relief Administration (F.E.R.A.) the plan provides financial aid to qualified young men and women who lack sufficient funds to attend college.…
Reimherr, Patrick; Harmon, Tim; Strawn, Julie; Choitz, Vickie
Any reform of federal student aid must address the twin challenges of college affordability and completion, which are inextricably linked. Here, CLASP has proposed ways to redirect existing federal student aid spending toward the low- and modest income families who need it most. These are the students for whom federal aid makes a difference in…
Waltz, Micah J.
Students are leaving undergraduate science programs without the knowledge and skills they are expected to have. This is apparent in professional programs, such as medical and veterinary school, where students do not possess the critical thinking skills necessary to be successful. Physiology is a required discipline for these professional programs and often before, as a pre-requisite. Physiology classrooms are an excellent place to teach critical thinking skills because the content consists of integrated processes. Therefore, in one study, it was investigated whether focusing on physiological concepts improved student understanding of physiology in both a non-physiological science course, Invertebrate Zoology, and in an undergraduate physiology course. An educational intervention was used in Invertebrate Zoology, where students were exposed to human physiology concepts that were similar to comparative physiology concepts they had learned during the semester. A pre-/post-test was used to assess learning gains. In a second study, the use of multimedia file usage was correlated to student exam scores in a physiology course. This was done to see if providing additional study materials that focused on specific concepts improved student understanding, as assessed using exam scores. Overall these studies indicate that encouraging assimilation of new concepts that expand upon material from lecture may help students gain a more complete understanding of a concept. The integration of these concepts into pre-existing conceptual frameworks may serve to teach students valuable critical thinking skills such as evaluation of new ideas within their current understanding and synthesizing the new content with the existing information. Focusing on this type of conceptual learning may enable students to apply content knowledge and think through problems. Additionally, focusing on concepts may enable students to improve their understanding of material without being overwhelmed by
Hamid Albujeer, Ammar N.; Shamshiri, Ahmad Reza; Taher, Abbas
Objectives: The present study investigated the awareness of HIV/AIDS among medical and dental students in four provinces of Iraq, a country with low HIV/AIDS frequency. Materials and Methods: In the present study, the target population was all Iraqi medical and dental students who were in 3rd and 4th year of their education. Out of 15 medicine and 10 dentistry faculties in Iraq, 4 medical and dental faculties were randomly selected. All the students under them were invited to participate in the study (600 students) and 526 responses were received from them. We distributed the questionnaires to students during their obligatory lectures in the academic year 2012–2013. Data collection was done with a self-administered questionnaire containing knowledge and attitude questions (11 questions for each part) in addition to some demographic questions. Results: A total of 526 questionnaires were received (from 319 medical students and 207 dental students). Knowledge of about half of the medical students (54%) was at an intermediate level and of 27.1% students was at a good level; more than half of the dental students (68.2%) had an intermediate level and 10.5% had a good level of knowledge. The level of attitude of medical students was 14.7% at an intermediate level and of dentistry students was 21.4% at an intermediate level. Attitude of none of the students was at good level. Knowledge and attitude scores were not significantly associated with age, gender, or marital status. However, medical students had better knowledge and attitude toward HIV/AIDS, compared to dental students. Conclusions: Some coefficients exist in knowledge and attitude of Iraqi medical and dental students toward HIV/AIDS. Results indicate that more emphasis should be placed on educating dental and medical students about HIV and other blood-borne infections. PMID:26539388
Learning physics is challenging at all levels. Students' difficulties in the introductory level physics courses have been widely studied and many instructional strategies have been developed to help students learn introductory physics. However, research shows that there is a large diversity in students' preparation and skills in the upper-level physics courses and it is necessary to provide scaffolding support to help students learn advanced physics. This thesis explores issues related to students' common difficulties in learning upper-level undergraduate quantum mechanics and how these difficulties can be reduced by research-based learning tutorials and peer instruction tools. We investigated students' difficulties in learning quantum mechanics by administering written tests and surveys to many classes and conducting individual interviews with a subset of students. Based on these investigations, we developed Quantum Interactive Learning Tutorials (QuILTs) and peer instruction tools to help students build a hierarchical knowledge structure of quantum mechanics through a guided approach. Preliminary assessments indicate that students' understanding of quantum mechanics is improved after using the research-based learning tools in the junior-senior level quantum mechanics courses. We also designed a standardized conceptual survey that can help instructors better probe students' understanding of quantum mechanics concepts in one spatial dimension. The validity and reliability of this quantum mechanics survey is discussed.
Saglam, Murat; Millar, Robin
Although electromagnetism is an important component of upper secondary school physics syllabuses in many countries, there has been relatively little research on students' understanding of the topic. A written test consisting of 16 diagnostic questions was developed and used to survey the understanding of electromagnetism of upper secondary school…
Saricayir, Hakan; Ay, Selahattin; Comek, Arif; Cansiz, Gokhan; Uce, Musa
Science students find heat, temperature, enthalpy and energy in chemical reactions to be some of the most difficult subjects. It is crucial to define their conceptual understanding level in these subjects so that educators can build upon this knowledge and introduce new thermodynamics concepts. This paper reports conceptual understanding levels of…
Hayes, Virginia; Coble, K.; Nickerson, M.; Cochran, G.; Camarillo, C. T.; Bailey, J. M.; McLin, K. M.; Cominsky, L. R.
Chicago State University (CSU) offers an introductory astronomy course that services students from a variety of majors including pre-service teachers. At CSU, we have been investigating methods and tools that will improve student conceptual understanding in astronomy for this diverse group of students. We have analyzed pre-course surveys, pre-course essays, exams, and interviews in an effort to better understand the ideas and difficulties in understanding that students have in regards to the structure of the universe. Analysis of written essays has revealed that our students do have some knowledge of the objects in the universe, but interviews inform us that their understanding of the structure of the universe is superficial. This project is a part of a larger study; also see our posters on student ideas about dark matter, the age and expansion of the universe, and perceptions of astronomical sizes and distances. This work was supported by NASA ROSES E/PO Grant #NNXlOAC89G, as well as by the Illinois Space Grant Consortium and National Science Foundation CCLI Grant #0632563 at Chicago State University and the Fermi E/PO program at Sonoma State University.
Lawson, Ronald Aaron
This dissertation reports the findings of an investigation of student understanding of the concept of force, the connection between force and motion, and the work-energy and impulse -momentum relations. The operational criterion for understanding used in this investigation was the ability of a student to apply a concept to the analysis of a simple observed motion. About one hundred physics students enrolled at the University of Washington participated in the study. Included were students from the first quarter of the non-calculus physics sequence and students from both regular and honors sections of the first quarter of the calculus-based physics sequence. The study also included a group of inservice middle and high school science teachers and students from a special preparatory physics course for minority students aspiring to careers in the health sciences, engineering and other science-related fields. Individual demonstration interviews were the primary data source in the study. During these interviews, students observed, described, and analyzed motions of one or more frictionless pucks that moved on a smooth level surface. The students were asked to modify the motion of the pucks through the use of a device which applied a force that could be varied in both magnitude and direction. The data obtained in this study suggest that students have difficulty applying their knowledge of physics to the analysis of simple observed motions. Students revealed a variety of conceptions of force and a number of beliefs about the connection between force and motion that are at variance with the Law of Inertia and the Second Law of Motion. Students who had recently studied the work -energy and impulse-momentum relations had considerable difficulty applying these relations to the analysis of a simple observed motion.
Sileo, Nancy M.; Sileo, Thomas W.; Prater, Mary Anne
HIV/AIDS continues to spread among children, youth, and young adults across all racial, ethnic, and cultural populations, including those with disabilities. This article considers information on HIV/AIDS such as individuals' health-risk behaviors, environmental circumstances, and perceptions that may contribute to HIV-infection; how disability…
Harris, Lois Ruth; Davidson, Christina Ruth; Aprile, Kerry Therese
While teacher aides often provide individual and group reading instruction for at-risk readers, research suggests these interventions may not always bring about reading gains. This Australian study investigated upper primary school teacher aides' definitions of reading, drawing on semi-structured interview responses and written definitions…
... Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Student Aid Internet Gateway (SAIG) Enrollment... notice will be considered public records. Title of Collection: Student Aid Internet Gateway (SAIG...: Enrollment in the Federal Student Aid (FSA) Student Aid Internet Gateway (SAIG) allows eligible entities...
Westat, Inc., Rockville, MD.
To establish a comprehensive national database on postsecondary student financial aid, the National Center for Education Statistics conducted the 1987 National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS). Objectives were to: (1) determine the costs of postsecondary education for aided and non-aided students; (2) evaluate how students finance their…
Office of Student Financial Assistance (ED), Washington, DC.
This handbook explains the policies and procedures required for institutions of higher education to properly administer federally funded student financial assistance programs. Three major sections cover student eligibility, institutional eligibility and participation, and state grant programs. The student eligibility section includes chapters on…
Department of Education, Washington, DC. Student Financial Assistance.
This CD-ROM, also available in audiotape format, contains a simulated telephone conversation between a counselor at the Department of Education's Federal Student Aid Information Center and a student inquiring about financial assistance for the visually impaired. Following an introduction containing information about the contents, each track or…
Office of Federal Student Aid (ED), Washington, DC.
This CD-ROM contains a simulated conversation between a counselor at the Department of Education's Federal Student Aid Information Center and a student inquiring about financial assistance. The information pertains to the year from July 2003 through June 2004. Following an introductory track containing information about the contents of the CD,…
Hardy, David E.; Katsinas, Stephen G.
This article uses the 2005 Basic Classifications of the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching as a framing device through which to examine patterns of student financial aid at America's rural community colleges, which represent 64% of all U.S. community colleges. Rural community colleges serve more first-time, full-time students than…
Heller, Joseph R.
This paper presents a psychology professor's account of his experiences teaching a course on Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome/Human Immunodeficiency Virus (AIDS/HIV) to college students. The first section discusses how to introduce and market the course on campus, and anticipate students' and colleagues' questions about one's motivations for…
Sabo, Hannah C.; Goodhew, Lisa M.; Robertson, Amy D.
We report some of the common, prevalent conceptual resources that students used to reason about energy, based on our analysis of written responses to questions given to 807 introductory physics students. These resources include, for example, associating forms of energy with indicators, relating forces and energy, and representing energy quantitatively. This research responds to a need for large-scale, resources-oriented research on students' conceptual understanding and has the potential to support the development of an underexplored dimension of pedagogical content knowledge-knowledge of student resources for understanding energy. Our aim is to promote instructor take-up of the resources theory of knowledge, and we suggest a number of ways in which instructors might capitalize on the resources we report.
Smith, Trevor I.; Mountcastle, Donald B.; Thompson, John R.
[This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Upper Division Physics Courses.] We present results of our investigation into student understanding of the physical significance and utility of the Boltzmann factor in several simple models. We identify various justifications, both correct and incorrect, that students use when answering written questions that require application of the Boltzmann factor. Results from written data as well as teaching interviews suggest that many students can neither recognize situations in which the Boltzmann factor is applicable nor articulate the physical significance of the Boltzmann factor as an expression for multiplicity, a fundamental quantity of statistical mechanics. The specific student difficulties seen in the written data led us to develop a guided-inquiry tutorial activity, centered around the derivation of the Boltzmann factor, for use in undergraduate statistical mechanics courses. We report on the development process of our tutorial, including data from teaching interviews and classroom observations of student discussions about the Boltzmann factor and its derivation during the tutorial development process. This additional information informed modifications that improved students' abilities to complete the tutorial during the allowed class time without sacrificing the effectiveness as we have measured it. These data also show an increase in students' appreciation of the origin and significance of the Boltzmann factor during the student discussions. Our findings provide evidence that working in groups to better understand the physical origins of the canonical probability distribution helps students gain a better understanding of when the Boltzmann factor is applicable and how to use it appropriately in answering relevant questions.
Zhu Guangtian; Singh, Chandralekha
The Stern Gerlach experiment has played a central role in the discovery of spin angular momentum and it has also played a pivotal role in elucidating foundational issues in quantum mechanics. Here, we discuss investigation of students' difficulties related to the Stern Gerlach experiment by giving written tests and interviewing advanced undergraduate and graduate students in quantum mechanics. We also discuss preliminary data that suggest that the Quantum Interactive Learning Tutorial (QuILT) related to the Stern Gerlach experiment is helpful in improving students' understanding of these concepts.
Sileo, Nancy M.; Sileo, Thomas W.
Manuscript considers results of a research study that assesses American Indian university students' factual knowledge, understanding, and perceptions of susceptibility to HIV/AIDS, and relationships between their attitudes and decisions to engage in HIV-risk behaviors. Participants responded to a 57-item scaled survey and several demographic…
Cronin, Joseph M.
Loans have become an important, even essential, ingredient of college financial aid and family financial planning. The World Bank and other international groups, such as the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, regularly review the experiences of many countries in financing education. Their findings are discussed. (MLW)
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Notice of Proposed Information Collection Requests; Federal Student Aid; Student Assistance General... institutions to disclose the employment and placement rate, retention rate of first-time,...
Beer, Laura E; Hutchinson, Susan R; Skala-Cordes, Kristine K
The increase of dementia in older adults is changing how medical care is delivered. Recognizing symptoms of pain, managing behaviors, and providing quality of life for people who have advanced dementia requires a new skill set for caregivers. Researchers in this study targeted nurse aide students to test an educational module's effect on students' perceptions of dementia and their ability to care for patients with dementia. The results indicated the training was effective regarding nurse aides' understanding of residual cognitive abilities and need for meaningful contact among patients with advanced dementia; however, the training was not successful in terms of nurse aides' comfort level or perceived skills in working with this population of patients. The findings suggest a need to transform how caregivers are trained in communication techniques. Incorporating this training into nurse aide education has the potential to increase quality of life for people with dementia. PMID:23095223
Eureka Project, Sacramento, CA.
The history of student aid policies in California is reviewed by the Eureka Project to help guide policy formation and review developments that have accounted for past consensus about the state's role in providing student aid. Attention is directed to: the demographic facts that have made student aid important to California; the evolution of…
Federal Student Aid, US Department of Education, 2015
The Teacher Education Assistance for College and Higher Education (TEACH) Grant Program provides grants of up to $4,000 per year to students who agree to teach for four years at an elementary school, secondary school, or educational service agency that serves students from low-income families and to meet other requirements. This brief report…
Cronin, Joseph M.
Student loans have become an essential ingredient of financial planning for college. The Guaranteed Student Loan Program's default rate is over 10 percent. World Bank and other international data suggest three solutions: longer repayment terms, graduated repayment schedules, and forgiveness for individuals choosing public service. (8 references)…
Huelsman, Mark; Engle, Jennifer
Student parents face many challenges to accessing, persisting, and completing postsecondary education. While some of these challenges are unique to student parents--such as finding quality child care during class and work hours and juggling studying and academic assignments with parenting duties--others are typical of low-income and underserved…
National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NJ1), 2012
From 2000-2001 to 2010-2011, the total amount of federal financial aid awarded to students under Title IV of the Higher Education Act (HEA) jumped from $64.0 billion to an estimated $169.1 billion, a 10-year increase of 164%. For 2010-2011, the Title IV programs accounted for 72% of the $235 billion in total financial aid received by college…
Cook-Cottone, Catherine P.; Dutt-Doner, Karen; Schoen, David
This study evaluates the use of full-text databases amongst 425 undergraduate and graduate students in western New York. A review of literature implicated convenience, time issues, article retrieval option knowledge, and the appreciation and understanding of research article quality as potential predictors of full-text reliance. These variables…
The software industry needs well-trained software designers and one important aspect of software design is the ability to model software designs visually and understand what visual models represent. However, previous research indicates that software design is a difficult task to many students. This article reports empirical findings from a…
Tan, Kim-Chwee Daniel; Treagust, David F.
Outlines problems students have with understanding the abstract concept of chemical bonding as revealed in previous research. Describes the development of a two-tier multiple-choice diagnostic instrument for assessing alternative conceptions about chemical bonding held by 14-16 year olds. Discusses the instrument and its findings for a group of…
Guisasola, Jenaro; Almudi, Jose M.; Zuza, Kristina
This study examined engineering and physical science students' understanding of the electromagnetic induction (EMI) phenomena. It is assumed that significant knowledge of the EMI theory is a basic prerequisite when students have to think about electromagnetic phenomena. To analyse students' conceptions, we have taken into account the fact that individuals build mental representations to help them understand how a physical system works. Individuals use these representations to explain reality, depending on the context and the contents involved. Therefore, we have designed a questionnaire with an emphasis on explanations and an interview, so as to analyse students' reasoning. We found that most of the students failed to distinguish between macroscopic levels described in terms of fields and microscopic levels described in terms of the actions of fields. It is concluded that although the questionnaire and interviews involved a limited range of phenomena, the identified explanations fall into three main categories that can provide information for curriculum development by identifying the strengths and weaknesses of students' conceptions.
Office of Federal Student Aid (ED), Washington, DC.
This volume of the Federal Student Aid (FSA) Handbook discusses the eligibility requirements for students and parent borrowers and the responsibilities of institutions in checking to be sure that recipients qualify for their aid awards. The guide also describes recent changes to FSA requirements and procedures. The biggest change for this year is…
Hansen, Janet S.; Gladieux, Lawrence E.
Two programs being considered by Congress to aid middle-income college students in coping with ever increasing college costs are examined. Expansion of existing student aid programs to reach families higher on the income scale; or a new program of federal income tax credits for the expenses of higher education. The background of present policy…
This study analyzed 586 students from nine vocational high schools in three provinces in China. It found a substantial gap between the demand for and the supply of government financial aid. Moreover, correct student aid information and aid application was not equally distributed among various student groups. A financial aid application made a…
The impact of student aid policies on women is assessed. Differences in the conditions affecting men's and women's need for aid are identified, along with actions that could improve women's participation in student aid programs. Gender issues in student aid policy include: loan burden, default, and bankruptcy; the award of merit scholarships;…
Vacik, H W; Nagy, M C; Jessee, P O
The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of graduate students in the fields of nursing, social work, child life, and counseling education regarding children's understanding of illness concepts. Students were assessed as to their knowledge of children's perceptions of illness as described from a Piagetian developmental viewpoint. Eighty-five graduate students from a southern university in the fields of nursing, social work, child development/child life, and counseling categorized statements made by children regarding their understanding of illness concepts. A data-gathering instrument, developed by Perrin & Perrin (1983), was used to assess the graduate students' ability to assign a developmental age to children's responses to illness-concept questions. Additionally, the students were evaluated on their knowledge of how children perceive illness identification, causality, prevention, treatment, and use of medication. The students correctly categorized by age, children's statements regarding illness concepts only 38% of the time and correctly identified knowledge statements 50% of the time. No remarkable differences were found among the areas of specialization. Without a knowledge base of developmental theories that can be applied directly to clinical practice, nurses are at a disadvantage when working with children and their families. A better understanding of children's communication needs can ultimately lead to improved coping abilities on the part of the child and appropriate interventions on the part of the nurse. The relatively low number of correct responses suggests a need for additional training opportunities that would incorporate cognitive developmental theory into clinical practice for nurses and other health care professionals who plan to work with children. PMID:11740790
The software industry needs well-trained software designers and one important aspect of software design is the ability to model software designs visually and understand what visual models represent. However, previous research indicates that software design is a difficult task to many students. This article reports empirical findings from a phenomenographic investigation on how students understand class diagrams, Unified Modeling Language (UML) symbols, and relations to object-oriented (OO) concepts. The informants were 20 Computer Science students from four different universities in Sweden. The results show qualitatively different ways to understand and describe UML class diagrams and the "diamond symbols" representing aggregation and composition. The purpose of class diagrams was understood in a varied way, from describing it as a documentation to a more advanced view related to communication. The descriptions of class diagrams varied from seeing them as a specification of classes to a more advanced view, where they were described to show hierarchic structures of classes and relations. The diamond symbols were seen as "relations" and a more advanced way was seeing the white and the black diamonds as different symbols for aggregation and composition. As a consequence of the results, it is recommended that UML should be adopted in courses. It is briefly indicated how the phenomenographic results in combination with variation theory can be used by teachers to enhance students' possibilities to reach advanced understanding of phenomena related to UML class diagrams. Moreover, it is recommended that teachers should put more effort in assessing skills in proper usage of the basic symbols and models and students should be provided with opportunities to practise collaborative design, e.g. using whiteboards.
This paper reviews the incidence, pathogenetic mechanisms and management strategies of diabetes mellitus in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). It classifies patients based on the aetiopathogenetic mechanisms, and proposes rational methods of management of the condition, based on aetiopathogenesis and concomitant pharmacotherapy. PMID:21232158
Griffin, Frank; Townsend, Greg
A widely accepted measure of student understanding of Newton's Laws is the Hestenes Force Concept Inventory. In the past several years we have made several modifications in both lecture methods, labs and requirements on homework in an attempt to get a larger fraction of the students to assimilate a Newtonian model of the universe. Although FCI scores of 70% are achieved in most classes now, for those questions involving the second law, scores are closer to the 50% range, a substantial improvement over traditional instruction for these large lecture groups but still quite disappointing. A description of recent modifications in the lecture and homework will be presented along with plans for future changes.
American Association of State Colleges and Universities, Washington, DC.
Data from several sources, including annual surveys by the College Board, show that the robust economy of recent years relieved pressure on institutions to increase their tuition and fees, but current budget constraints may result in increased tuition and fees for students. The rate of increase in tuition and fees at public four-year institutions…
Hartwein, Jon; Dunham, John
This manual can be used independently by students in secondary health occupations programs or by persons receiving on-the-job training in a radiology department. The manual includes an instructor's key that provides answers to the activity sheets and unit evaluations. The manual consists of the following five units: (1) orientation to radiology;…
US Department of Education, 2010
Student aid is money provided by the federal government or another entity, such as a school or a state government, to help students pay for college or trade school. The U.S. Department of Education's federal student aid programs deliver billions of dollars to students each year, representing a substantial federal commitment to provide financial…
Wagner, D. J.; Rivera, J. J.; Mateycik, Fran; Jennings, Sybillyn
This paper reports on methods used to probe student understandings of optical fibers and total internal reflection (TIR). The study was conducted as part of the expansion and improvement of web-based materials for an innovative introductory physics course. Initially, we conducted face-to-face Piaget-style interviews with a convenience sample. Our next step was to interview students taking the course at Rensselaer. Physical limitations necessitated that this be done from a distance, so we conducted "e-interviews" using a Chat Room. In this paper we focus on the e-interview experience, discussing similarities to and differences from the traditional face-to-face approach. In the process, we address how each method informs us about students' activation of prior experiences in making sense of unfamiliar phenomena (e.g., "transfer of learning").
US Department of Education, 2010
Federal student aid is a financial help for eligible students to pay for educational expenses at an eligible postsecondary school (e.g., college, vocational school, graduate school). There are three categories of federal student aid: grants, workstudy, and loans. Federal student aid covers expenses such as tuition and fees, room and board, books…
Dodick, Jeff; Orion, Nir
There have been few discoveries in geology more important than deep time - the understanding that the universe has existed for countless millennia, such that man's existence is confined to the last milliseconds of the metaphorical geological clock. The influence of deep time is felt in a variety of sciences including geology, cosmology, and evolutionary biology. Thus, any student that wants to master these subjects must have a good understanding of geological time. Despite its critical importance, there has been very little attention given to geological time by science education researchers. Of the work that has been done, much of it ignores the cognitive basis for students' understanding of geological time. This work addresses this gap by presenting a validation study for a new instrument - the GeoTAT (Geological Time Aptitude Test). Consisting of a series of open puzzles, the GeoTAT tested the subjects' ability to reconstruct and represent the transformation in time of a series of geological structures. Montagnero (1992, 1996) terms this ability diachronic thinking. This instrument was distributed to a population of 285 junior and senior high school students with no background in geology, as well as 58 high school students majoring in geology. A comparison of the high school (grades 11-12) geology and non-geology majors indicated that the former group held a significant advantage over the latter in solving problems involving diachronic thinking. This relationship was especially strengthened by the second year of geological study (grade 12), with the key factor in this improvement being exposure to fieldwork. Fieldwork both improved the subjects' ability in understanding the 3-D factors influencing temporal organization, as well as providing them with experience in learning about the types of evidence that are critical in reconstructing a transformational sequence.
Olivas, Michael A.
A surprising amount of litigation and legislation has erupted over undocumented college students. Victims at the federal level are the DREAM Act and immigration reform. Financial aid raises technical issues for undocumented college applicants and for the citizen children of undocumented parents. Generally, the undocumented are ineligible for…
Putnam, A. R.; Duelm, Brian
This presentation outlines guidelines for developing and implementing an introductory course in computer-aided drafting (CAD) that is geared toward secondary-level students. The first section of the paper, which deals with content identification and selection, includes lists of mechanical drawing and CAD competencies and a list of rationales for…
America's moral compass guiding student aid policy is being co-opted by short-sighted, budget-cutting and deficit-reduction policies. This moral compass was threatened, but had "not altogether disappeared" by 1996, according to an article written that year by Thomas A. Flint, then-vice president for financial services at Robert Morris College…
Colleges may frequently be overspending by offering students larger financial-aid offers than are actually necessary to entice them to enroll, according to a working paper released in May by three economists. In a detailed examination of the admissions practices of two selective private colleges, the economists found that the colleges generally…
Miles, William F. S.
This article illustrates the profound learning that occurs--for students and instructor alike--when a class on third-world development attempts to undertake foreign aid. With undergraduate, graduate, and departmental money, I purchased bulls and carts for farmers, and goats for widows, in two West African villages. Such experiential learning…
.../index.html . On May 26, 2009, the Department published a notice in the Federal Register (74 FR 24728... a second notice in the Federal Register (74 FR 46399) listing the topics the committees were likely... Education 34 CFR Parts 600, 668, and 682 Foreign Institutions--Federal Student Aid Programs; Proposed...
... on July 20, 2011 (75 FR 67170). Under 34 CFR 600.55(d), a foreign graduate medical school must submit... Foreign Institutions--Federal Student Aid Programs AGENCY: Office of Postsecondary Education, Department... USMLE and the citizenship rate information. The first submission of MCAT and residency placement...
American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2006
For the second consecutive year, the economy and state fiscal conditions continued to improve, offering some relief in student charges and financial aid at public colleges and universities in 2005-2006. Tuition increases have shrunk to single-digits, but concern is still high regarding enrollment growth, employee compensation and benefits and…
US Department of Education, 2008
Many students are unaware that they might be eligible for financial aid to attend college or trade school. High school, TRIO, and GEAR UP (Gaining Early Awareness and Readiness for Undergraduate Programs) counselors are an important source of information about financial aid from private, school, state, and federal student aid programs. This…
Washington Consulting Group, Inc., Washington, DC.
The 17th module in the 17-module self-instructional course on student financial aid administration discusses the evaluation of student aid management in terms of self-evaluation, audit, and program review. The full course offers a systematic introduction to the management of federal financial aid programs authorized by Title IV of the Higher…
Herndon, Charles Frederick
As a basis for the establishment of meaningful training programs for community college financial aid administrators, presidents, financial aid administrators, and student aid recipients at 45 California community colleges were surveyed in regard to the attributes and competencies deemed essential for this position. The survey instrument contained…
Kumar, A; Lal, P; Ingle, G K; Gulati, N
Students from a nursing school of Delhi were surveyed anonymously using a self-administered questionnaire to explore various AIDS-related apprehensions and their possible reasons. The observations revealed that, majority of the students and their families/friends feared that these students were at risk of contracting HIV infection while providing routine patient care. A large number of students also opined that they would feel uncomfortable while talking, hugging, shaking hands, and sharing a room with an HIV positive person. The main reasons for their apprehensions were unsatisfactory anti-AIDS campaigning by the government, non-availability of sufficient protective measures in the health care settings, inadequate professional education related to prevention of HIV infection, and increase in HIV transmission following false sense of security due to excessive condom promotion. Findings of the study imply imparting factual knowledge addressing the concerns and removing misconceptions which influence attitudes and willingness of the nursing students to provide care to the HIV positives/AIDS patients, facts regarding efficacy of various preventive measures, and provision of counselling services in the event of exposure. PMID:10937297
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Notice of Submission for OMB Review; Federal Student Aid; Student Assistance General Provisions--Student Right-to-Know SUMMARY: Section 485 of the Higher Education Act of 1965, as amended (HEA) authorizes...
The research findings have made it clear that Chinese college student aid policy has several characteristics. Generally speaking, student financial aid is increasing up to some extent. The government financial aids focus mostly on improving equality of educational opportunity in higher education. However, aids from the government are inadequate,…
Naah, Basil M.; Sanger, Michael J.
In a previous study, the authors identified several student misconceptions regarding the process of dissolving ionic compounds in water. The present study used multiple-choice questions whose distractors were derived from these misconceptions to assess students' understanding of the dissolving process at the symbolic and particulate levels. The symbolic-level questions were based on balanced equations, and the particulate-level questions used multiple-choice questions involving dynamic animations or static pictures. This paper analyzes students' responses to these questions to look for associations among four variables—Answer (the correct answer and three misconceptions), Representation (symbolic or particulate question), Visualization (static or animated pictures), and Representation Order (symbolic questions before or after the particulate questions). The results indicate that the correct answer and the acid-base misconception were more popular than the ion-pair or subscript error misconceptions, the ion-pair misconception was more popular for the particulate questions than the symbolic questions, and that participants were more likely to select the correct answer when viewing static particulate questions compared to animated particulate questions, especially if the particulate questions are seen first. These results suggest that the animated motion of dissolving these compounds in water may be distracting for students.
Mansour, Nasser; Fisher, Ros
Objectives The aim of this research was to explore the transition of medical students to an international branch campus of a medical university established in Bahrain. Methods In order to gain insights into this transition, we explored two culturally diverse systems of learning of the university and the local schools in Bahrain, using Communities of Practice as a lens for understanding transitions. Focus groups were conducted with secondary school teachers and first year medical students. Additionally, semi-structured interviews were conducted with university lecturers. Results The findings suggest that, while Communities of Practice have been influential in contextualising transitions to university, this model does not seem to help us to fully understand intercultural transitions to the case-study university. Conclusions The research emphasises that more attention should be given to learner individual agency within this theory as a framework for understanding transitions. It also challenges approaches within medical education that attempt to standardise systems of learning through acquisition of established practices. PMID:25725207
Marzán-Rodríguez, Melissa; Varas-Díaz, Nelson; Neilands, Torsten
Specialized training for healthcare professionals (HCP) in order to reduce HIV/AIDS related stigma must be part of a public health model for HIV/AIDS. Tested interventions to reduce HIV/AIDS related stigma among HCP have been mostly absent from these efforts. A qualitative approach was used to assess stigma reduction within a traditional randomized controlled design in order to better understand how our current stigma intervention worked and was understood by 2nd year medical students. After conducting a quantitative follow up survey one-year post intervention we conducted 20 in-depth qualitative interviews with a subsample of our intervention group participants as part of the overall evaluation process. Once the interviews were finished, we transcribed them and used NVivo (v.8) to organized the qualitative data. In the process of analyzing the qualitative data we identified core intervention areas participants described as useful for their training and development: (1) acquiring more HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, (2) increased skills for management of high stigma situations, and (3) the ability to identify socio-structural factors that foster HIV infection among clients. The gathered information is important in order to have a deep understanding of how attitudinal change happens as part of our intervention strategies. Keywords: HIV/AIDS, Stigma, Randomized Controlled Trial, Qualitative Evaluation, Medical Students, Puerto Rico PMID:26855975
Paulsen, Michael B.
This digest summarizes in a question and answer format a full length report of the same title. It addresses trends in college student enrollment patterns with an emphasis on behavior underlying student choice of college. Demographic changes and cuts in important sources of student financial aid brought significant enrollment declines to higher…
This paper reports the results obtained with a group of 24 14-year-old students when presented with a set of algebra tasks by the Leeds Modelling System (LMS). These same students were given a comparable paper-and-pencil test and detailed interviews some 4 months later. The latter studies uncovered several kinds of student misunderstanding that…
US Government Accountability Office, 2009
Federal student aid is intended to play an integral part in fulfilling the promise of greater academic access and success for less affluent students. However, many experts have expressed concern about the length and complexity of the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA) and the statutory need analysis formula used to determine aid…
Radwin, David; Wine, Jennifer; Siegel, Peter; Bryan, Michael
This brief report presents selected findings about student financial aid during the 2011-12 academic year. These findings are based on data from the 2011-12 National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS:12), a nationally representative sample survey of undergraduate and graduate students enrolled any time between July 1, 2011, and June 30, 2012,…
US Department of Education, 2011
Every student, who meets some basic eligibility requirements, can get some type of financial aid regardless of age or family income. Federal student aid is a financial aid from the federal government to help a student pay for education expenses at an eligible college, technical school, vocational school, or graduate school. There are three…
US Department of Education, 2005
This annual report summarizes Federal Student Aid's Fiscal Year (FY) 2005 performance activities and achievements. Federal Student Aid's annual performance initiatives are based on two strategic planning documents, the "Five-Year Plan" and the "Annual Performance Plan." Federal Student Aid's "Five-Year Plan," issued in annual editions, is a…
Trends in financial aid to students in Maryland colleges and universities are reported. Attention is directed to the distribution of different types of aid to undergraduate and graduate students, and financial aid awarded by type of institution. Characteristics of recipients of Guaranteed Student Loans, General State Scholarships, and Senatorial…
Sağlam, Murat; Millar, Robin
Although electromagnetism is an important component of upper secondary school physics syllabuses in many countries, there has been relatively little research on students’ understanding of the topic. A written test consisting of 16 diagnostic questions was developed and used to survey the understanding of electromagnetism of upper secondary school students in Turkey (n = 120) and England (n = 152). A separate test consisting of 10 questions on the visualization of spatial rotation was used to investigate the hypothesis that students’ ability to visualize three-dimensional situations from two-dimensional representations might influence learning of electromagnetism. Many students’ responses showed misunderstandings and inconsistencies that suggested they did not have a coherent framework of ideas about electromagnetism. Common errors included confusing electric and magnetic field effects, seeing field lines as indicating a “flow”, using cause effect reasoning in situations where it does not apply, and dealing with effects associated with the rate of change of a variable. Performance on the spatial rotation test was, however, only weakly correlated with performance on the electromagnetism questions. The findings suggest the need to develop teaching strategies that help students to visualize magnetic field patterns and effects, and assist them in integrating ideas into a more coherent framework.
Olbrecht, Alexandre M.; Romano, Christopher; Teigen, Jeremy
In this paper, we leverage detailed, individual-level student data to understand the relationships between family finances, merit-based aid, and first-year student retention. With three cohorts of student data that comprise family financial status, institutional merit scholarships, and many of the other known correlates of student retention, we…
Andruska, Emily A.; Hogarth, Jeanne M.; Fletcher, Cynthia Needles; Forbes, Gregory R.; Wohlgemuth, Darin R.
Using a data set that augments a student survey with administrative data from the Iowa State University Office of Financial Aid, the authors posed two questions: Do students know whether they have student loans? Do students know how much they owe on outstanding student loans? We used logistic and ordered logit regressions to answer these…
Sarma, Nittala S.
Recognition of word roots and the pattern of evolution of scientific terms can be helpful in understanding chemistry concepts (gaining knowledge of new concepts represented by related terms). The meaning and significance of various etymological roots, occurring as prefixes and suffixes in technical terms particularly of organic chemistry, are explained in a unified manner in order to show the connection of various concepts vis à vis the terms in currency. The meanings of some special words and many examples are provided. The interesting aspects of history and culture often involved in the evolution of terms will help sustain an abiding engagement in the study of chemistry.
Sormunen, Kari; Köksal, Mustafa Serdar
Majority of NOS studies comprise of determination or assessment studies conducted with ordinary students. In order to gain further understanding on variation in NOS understandings among the students, there should be different research attempts focusing on unconventional students such as academically advanced students. The purpose of this study is…
Gennaro, Eugene D.
Three density questions were administered to 290 ninth-grade students to assess their understanding of this concept. Found two-thirds of students understand displacement and/or density concepts. Three solubility questions were administered to 385 ninth-graders to assess understandings of solubility. Found students have difficulty with some aspects…
College Board Advocacy & Policy Center, 2010
Paying for college is a challenge for many Americans and navigating the financial aid process can be very difficult, especially for low-income and first-generation college students. The College Board commissioned research to learn more about students' and parents' knowledge, beliefs and attitudes about the importance of a college education and how…
Schroeder, Charles C.
This issue highlights the undergraduate experience and the increasingly important role of student affairs professionals in creating educational environments that enhance student success. It compares college students in the 1960s to today's students, noting that attitudes and behaviors of today's students are different from those of previous…
Department of Education, Washington, DC.
The final report of the Third Student-Commissioner Conference on Financial Aid and Access to Postsecondary Education is presented. The focus was the U.S. Office of Education's television, radio, and printed information and counseling programs about postsecondary opportunities, and how these strategies affect many kinds of prospective students.…
Horan, Sean M.; Chory, Rebecca M.; Goodboy, Alan K.
The purpose of this study was threefold: to (a) identify students' experiences of distributive, procedural, and interactional injustice; (b) to examine students' emotional responses to these unjust experiences; and (c) to investigate students' behavioral reactions to perceived injustice. Participants were 138 undergraduate students who provided…
Givvin, Karen B.; And Others
This study investigated the nature and validity of teacher judgments about student motivation as part of a project related to the teaching of mathematics. The study examined: (1) the degree of correlation between teachers' and students' assessments of students' motivation regarding mathematical topics; (2) the stability of teachers' and students'…
Alodail, Abdullah Kholifh
Hearing aid devices are worn within people's ears to help them hear the sounds around them. Teachers have to accept the use of hearing aids in the classroom as a device to assist students with hearing loss (Plumley, 2008). Further study is helpful to hearing aid research because it demonstrates the importance of hearing aid benefit awareness in…
Bureau of Postsecondary Education (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC.
The council's recommendations for 1977 for college-based financial aid programs and for the guaranteed student loan program are both summarized and explained, and the progress of financial aid programs in 1976-77 is reviewed. The latter review includes the training of aid administrators, aid application simplification, regulations and guidelines,…
National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NJ1), 2013
As the student aid programs rapidly approach reauthorization in 2014, they continue to face severe funding and efficiency problems. With grant assistance from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation through their "Reimagining Aid Design and Delivery" (RADD) project, the National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NASFAA) examined…
Office of Student Financial Assistance (ED), Washington, DC.
This guide, written in Spanish, describes federal student aid programs for postsecondary education and how to apply for them. It begins by outlining sources for learning about student aid, such as school financial aid administrators, state higher education agencies, foundations, organizations related to particular fields of interest and toll-free…
Cochrane, Debbie Frankle
This report sheds light on what happens to federal financial aid applicants after they submit the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA). Using 2007-08 financial aid data from 13 California community colleges, the Institute found that one in three likely Pell-eligible applicants did not receive a Pell Grant. Also, while few students'…
US Department of Education, 2007
Federal Student Aid's core mission is to ensure that all eligible Americans benefit from federal financial assistance--grants, loans and work-study programs--for education beyond high school. The programs administered comprise the nation's largest source of student aid: during the 2007-08 school year alone, approximately $83 billion in new aid was…
US Department of Education, 2006
Federal Student Aid's core mission is to ensure that all eligible Americans benefit from federal financial assistance--grants, loans and work-study programs--for education beyond high school. The programs administered comprise the nation's largest source of student aid: during the 2005-06 school year alone, approximately $78 billion in new aid was…
US Department of Education, 2010
This paper discusses what federal student aid is and how to apply for it. It also provides a list of federal student aid programs for 2011-12. Federal student aid comes from the federal government--specifically, the U.S. Department of Education. It's money that helps a student pay for education expenses at a postsecondary school (e.g., college,…
Sigelman, Carol; And Others
Asked 9, 11, and 13 year olds and college students about risk factors for AIDS, colds, and cancer. Found that knowledge of risk factors became more accurate with age; knowledge of risk factors was largely independent of knowledge of nonrisk factors; and knowledge about 1 disease was largely independent of knowledge about another. (MDM)
The aims of this cross-grade study were (1) to determine the level of understanding of energy concepts of students at different academic grades and the differences in understanding between these grades and (2) to analyse the conceptual development of these students. Two hundred and forty-three students at 3 different levels (high school,…
Rashkovits, Rami; Lavy, Ilana
This study examines how Information Systems Engineering School students on the verge of their graduation understand the mechanism of exception handling. The main contributions of this paper are as follows: we construct a questionnaire aimed at examining students' level of understanding concerning exceptions; we classify and analyse the students'…
Reiss, Michael J.; Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale
Discusses students' understandings of their own internal structure. Analysis shows the extent to which student understanding increases with age and the degree to which students know more about some organs and organ systems than others. Gender differences in the drawings were generally not large and there were some intriguing differences in the…
Dawson, Vaille; Carson, Katherine
This study investigated 438 Year 10 students (15 and 16 years old) from Western Australian schools, on their understanding of the greenhouse effect and climate change, and the sources of their information. Results showed that most students have an understanding of how the greenhouse effect works, however, many students merge the processes of the…
Kilic, Kerem; Sungur, Semra; Cakiroglu, Jale; Tekkaya, Ceren
The purpose of this study was to investigate the 9th-grade students' understandings of the nature of scientific knowledge. The study also aimed to investigate the differences in students' understanding of the nature of scientific knowledge by gender, and school types. A total of 575 ninth grade students from four different school types (General…
This article describes a developmental sequence for students' understandings about conductivity. From written responses, a number of levels of understanding were identified and holistic descriptions of the increasingly complex way students explain conductivity are presented. Identifying distinct differences in student work samples is consistent…
Sawatzky, Jo-Ann V.
The Adaptation Nursing Model suggests that nursing students' level of adaptation to stress is influenced by their hardiness and use of social resources. Faculty can use the information to facilitate students' coping. (SK)
Field, James C.; Olafson, Lori J.
Describes an ongoing study of students becoming resistant in middle school. The study aims to identify conditions that give rise to student resistance, uncover how resistance develops, describe kinds and forms of resistance, and find out what resistance means from the viewpoints of students, teachers, and parents. (SLD)
Cutri, Ramona Maile; Rogers, P. Clint; Montero, Fidel
This book presents a holistic approach to multicultural educational issues by viewing them in terms of the student as a physical, psychosocial, cognitive, ethical, and spiritual being. Conversely, these levels of a student's being cannot be seen apart from the student's cultural identities. This unique book demonstrates that, in a pluralistic…
Oliver, Rhonda; Rochecouste, Judith; Bennell, Debra; Anderson, Roz; Cooper, Inala; Forrest, Simon; Exell, Mike
Drawing from a study of the experiences of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander university students, this paper presents an overview of the specific needs of these students as they enter and progress through their tertiary education. Extracts from a set of case studies developed from both staff and student interviews and an online…
Garcia-Retamero, Rocio; Galesic, Mirta
Many people have difficulties grasping numerical concepts that are prerequisites for understanding treatment risk reduction. Visual aids have been proposed as a promising method for enhancing comprehension. In a survey of probabilistic, nationally representative samples in two different countries (United States and Germany), we compared the effectiveness of adding different types of visual aids (icon arrays and bar graphs representing either affected individuals only or the entire population at risk) to the numerical information in either an absolute or a relative risk reduction format. We also analyzed whether people's numeracy and graphical literacy skills affected the efficacy of the visual aids. Our results showed large improvements in accuracy both when icon arrays and when bar graphs were added to numerical information. Highest increases were achieved when the visual aids depicted the entire population at risk. Importantly, visual aids were most useful for the participants who had low numeracy but relatively high graphical literacy skills. Building on previous research showing that problems with understanding numerical information often do not reside in people's minds, but in the representation of the problem, our results show that visual aids help to modify incorrect expectations about treatment risk reduction. Our results have important implications for medical practice. PMID:20116159
Wirt, Lesley G.; Jaeger, Audrey J.
One fundamental aspect of engagement in higher education is faculty-student interaction (FSI). FSI has been associated with student success and persistence in both four- and two-year institutions. Due to limited research concerning diverse students, understanding student engagement in higher education is based on White, traditional-age students…
Yigit Koyunkaya, Melike
This study describes mathematics education graduate students' understanding of relationships between sine and cosine of two base angles in a right triangle. To explore students' understanding of these relationships, an elaboration of Skemp's views of instrumental and relational understanding using Tall and Vinner's concept image and concept…