In comparing shamanistic healing with Western psychotherapy, the principal distinctions advanced by psychiatrists and psychologists have been: (1) that the shaman's patients receive 'remission without insight' while Western psychotherapy provides patients with a learning experience; and (2) that Western psychotherapy is based upon rational theory, whereas psychotherapeutic elements in shamanistic rituals are by-products of irrational magical activity. Anthropologists, on the other hand, have demonstrated the logic behind the shaman's seance, and its uses as a projective system which locates the patient's problems in external entities rather than within his own psyche. An investigation of the Malay shamanistic ritual (Main Peteri) expands the scope of discussion, since it reveals that embedded within this exorcistic spirit-raising seance is a nonprojective indigenous theory of psychic functioning, employing symbols internal to the patient, which is comparable to, and no more nor less rational than, mainstream Western theories. PMID:3227379
Shirobokov, V P; Evtushenko, A I; Lapchik, V F; Shirobokova, D N; Suptel', E A
The antiviral properties of the juice of 11 species of the orpine family were studied. 8 of them belonged to the genera Kalanchoe, i. e. Kalanchoe diagremontiona R. Hamet, K. pinnata (Zam.) Persoon, K. Peteri Werd., K. prolifera (Bovie) R. Hamet, K. marnierriana (Mann. et Boit) Jacobs; K. blossfeldiana v. Poelln, K. beharensis Drake del Gastillo, K. waldheimii R. Hamet et Perr and 3 belonged to the Sedum genera, i. e. Sedum telephium L., S. spectabile Boreau, S. acre L. A high virus neutralizing activity of the juice from 4 species of Kalanchoe, i. e. K. blossfeldiana, K. waldheimii, K. pinnata and K. beharensis was shown. Inhibition of the virus infecting activity was observed at the juice dilutions from 1-2 to 1-8000 and higher. The viricidal factor of Kalanchoe is stable. It is not destroyed by ether, alcohol and potassium periodate. It is not absorbed by bentonite at the acid pH values. Addition of cattle serum or purified proteins to the juice resulted in their precipitation which suppressed the viricidal activity of the juice. PMID:7198890
Andrén, Thomas; Norbäck Ivarsson, Lena; Andrén, Elinor
The Baltic Sea coastal zone contains over 20 % of all identified hypoxic sites worldwide and shows an increasing trend since 1950 (Conley et al. 2011). In the open Baltic Sea, hypoxia events are recorded during three time periods: about 8000-4000, 2000-800 cal. yr. BP, and from AD 1800 up to present, but in the coastal zone data on long-term trends are lacking (Zillén et al. 2008). Different views have been proposed of what caused the oscillation in the oxygen content at sea bottoms in the open Baltic Sea e.g. changes in agricultural practice, fluctuations in human population density and climate change. The role of humans and climate in driving the eutrophication and hypoxia in the Baltic Sea needs to be understood and there is an urgent need for increased knowledge of the historical extent of hypoxia and the driving forces for formation in the coastal zone. This project aims to disentangle the role of human induced and natural climate-driven processes that have resulted in times of eutrophication and hypoxia in the Baltic Sea during the last 2000 years. Research focus is put on the coastal zone and carefully selected estuaries along the Swedish east coast, where responses to changed human land-use can be expected to be first recorded. Eight sites, from the Stockholm archipelago to Bråviken, have been cored and sediments lithologically described and dated by radiocarbon using preferably terrestrial macrofossils. Preliminary results of age models, sedimentation rates, and lithologies will be presented. Lithological descriptions using laminated sediments as a proxy for hypoxic bottom water conditions will significantly increase the knowledge on the distribution of hypoxia and the extension of areas of laminated sediments in time and space in the coastal area. References: Conley, D.J., Carstensen, J., Aigars, J., Axe, P., Bonsdorff, E., Eremina, T., Haahti, B.-M., Humborg, C., Jonsson, P., Kotta, J., Lännegren, C., Larsson, U., Maximov, A., Rodriguez Medina, M
Lauerwald, R.; Jansen, N.; Hartmann, J.; Dürr, H. H.; Loos, S.; Kempe, S.; Middelkoop, H.
Sea: Journal of Marine Systems, v. 73, p. 263-283. Humborg, C., Pastuszak, M., Aigars, J., Siegmund, H., Morth, C.M., and Ittekkot, V., 2006, Decreased silica land-sea fluxes through damming in the Baltic Sea catchment - significance of particle trapping and hydrological alterations: Biogeochemistry, v. 77, p. 265-281. Jansen, N., Lauerwald, R., Hartmann, J., Dürr, H. H., Loos, S., Kempe, S. and Middelkoop, H. ,submitted, A continental scale model for dissolved silica mobilization for North America. (submitted to this session)