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Sample records for ain shams university

  1. Air quality in Ain Shams University Surgery Hospital.

    PubMed

    El Awady, M Y; El Rahman, A T Abd; Al Bagoury, L S; Mossad, I M

    2014-12-01

    Through air sampling, it was possible to evaluate microbial contamination in environments at high risk of infection, and to check the efficiency of ventilation system and the medical team's hygiene procedures. This study measured the concentration of particulate matter (PM) 2.5 or less microns and microbiological organisms in operating rooms (OR), intensive care units (ICU) and emergency rooms (ER) in Ain Shams University Surgery Hospital, and to assess ventilation characteristics in operating rooms in the hospital. The passive air sampling was done from ICUs, ORs, and ERs in Ain Shams University Surgery Hospital. Also for each operating room, an observational checklist was done to record other factors that may affect air quality in the room. The evaluated air quality indices were: suspended (PM) 2.5 micrometer or less, culture media and microbial identification of bacteria and fungi, and temperature and relative humidity. The results showed that the highest mean found for bacterial (105.70±30.49) and fungi concentration (7.50±5.30) was in ER. The three settings did not differ statistically as regard levels of PM 2.5, temperature, and relative humidity. A positive correlation exits between bacteria and fungi concentration on one hand and relative humidity on the other. Diphteroid, CONS, MRSA, S. aureus, and Anthracoid were the most frequent isolated bacterial types, while Penicillium and Asperigillus fumigatus were the most frequent isolated fungi. In operating rooms, the percent of unmasked persons present and the temperature positively influence the bacterial count, while ventilation condition is negatively influencing fungi count, and the number of persons present in the operating room positively affects the PM level. PMID:25643516

  2. Epidemiology of childhood burns in the burn unit of Ain Shams University in Cairo, Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Badawy, A; Mabrouk, A R

    1998-12-01

    Childhood burns in Egypt are a significant problem, especially in families of low socioeconomic status. These families live in overcrowded flats, which lack proper hygiene and tend to use kerosene stoves, which lack any safety measures. Three hundred and five burned children presented to the burn unit of Ain Shams University over a 20 month period. Proportionately more boys than girls were injured. There was an increase in the incidence between the ages of 4 to 6 years. Scalds formed 56.7% of the cause of burns, while 38.6% were due to flame. In 3 and 1.6% the cause of burn was electrical and chemical, respectively. 20 patients were victims of industrial accidents showing a major problem of entrance of children between 8-15 years of lower socioeconomic class into the labor force. 87.2% of the patients had minor burns while 13 children (4.3%) died of the consequences of burns during the period of the study. PMID:9915673

  3. Awareness of breast cancer among female students at Ain Shams University, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Boulos, Dina Nabih Kamel; Ghali, Ramy R

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine knowledge of breast cancer risk factors, symptoms and early detection methods and to identify knowledge and practice of breast self-examination among Ain Shams University female students. This is a descriptive cross sectional study.Most study participants had low level of knowledge of breast cancer risk factors. The most widely known risk factors by the students were smoking 66.9%, followed by radiation to the chest 63.7% and genetic factors 63.7%. Most of the students (81.6%) identified breast lump as a symptom for breast cancer. However, non lump symptoms were less known and less than half were aware of other warning signs. Mass media such as TV and/or radio were identified as the main source of information on breast cancer by 89.1% of students followed by relatives 39.2%. Only 8.8% of students identified correctly the appropriate time to perform breast self examination and 1.3% reported performing it regularly every month. The most common reasons for not practicing BSE were" did not know how to perform it" (47.7%) and lack of interest (35%). The findings of this study showed that there is low level of knowledge on breast cancer risk factors, early warning signs and BSE among female university students and that only few students practice BSE monthly. Health care workers should develop effective breast health programs targeting youth to help females to gain healthy habits starting very early during their formative years. PMID:24373275

  4. Road risk-perception and pedestrian injuries among students at Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Jehan M.; Day, Hannah; Hirshon, Jon Mark; El-Setouhy, Maged

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Road traffic injuries (RTIs) constitute 45% of injury mortality in Egypt; 75% of these injuries are pedestrians related. Traditionally, research on road traffic safety has focused on the traffic environment and the vehicles. However, little attention has been given to road risky behaviors and perceptions of road safety by pedestrians as risk factors associated with high pedestrian injury rates. This study aimed to examine the relationship between road risk- perception, specific road behaviors, and self-reported pedestrian injuries among university students in Cairo, Egypt. Methods: A cross sectional survey was conducted among university students aged 18 to 24 years old at Ain Shams University in Cairo. Questions covered socio-demographic variables, injury episodes, road behaviors, road risk-perceptions, attitudes towards injury prevention, and road safety education. Results: The survey was completed by 1,324 students. Two hundred ninety (21.9%) of the participants suffered from pedestrian injury during the past 6 months; of these, 28.9% were admitted to hospital or clinic as a result of the injury, 39.3% were unable to go to university or leave home because of the injury for a period ranging from one day up to one week. Participants were more likely to suffer from pedestrian injury when they did not always "look both ways to cross the road", whereas always "waiting for a green light" was protective. Students who "perceived it safe to cross the road from any point" or "did not perceive it to be safer to cross at a zebra crossing" were less likely to "look both ways" before crossing the road. Similarly, there was a positive association between road safety education and participants’ road crossing behaviors. Conclusion: Inappropriate youths' road behaviors were significantly associated with pedestrian injury. There was also a positive association between road risk perception and road behaviors. This suggests that a behavioral approach together

  5. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of health-care personnel towards waste disposal management at Ain Shams University Hospitals, Cairo.

    PubMed

    Hakim, S A; Mohsen, A; Bakr, I

    2014-05-01

    This study assessed knowledge, attitudes and practices of health-care providers towards waste management at Ain Shams University Hospitals, Cairo, Egypt. In this cross-sectional study 110 physicians, 151 nurses and 89 housekeepers were interviewed using a pre-designed questionnaire. Housekeepers were significantly more knowledgeable than physicians or nurses about hospital policies and systems for waste disposal, but less so about specific details of disposal. Housekeepers also had the highest overall scores for attitudes to waste disposal among the 3 groups. Significantly more nurses had satisfactory practice scores (84.0%) than did physicians (67.3%) (housekeepers were not assessed). Training and duration of work experience were not significantly associated with knowledge, attitude and practice scores, except for nurses with longer work experience, who were more likely to have satisfactory knowledge about waste disposal than less experienced nurses. PMID:24952293

  6. Assessment of knowledge, attitude and practice of hand washing among health care workers in Ain Shams University hospitals in Cairo.

    PubMed

    Abd Elaziz, K M; Bakr, I M

    2009-03-01

    Most nosocomial infections are thought to be transmitted by the hands of health care workers. The aim of this work was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of hand washing among health care workers (HCW) in Ain-Shams University hospitals and to investigate the presence of the necessary facilities and supplies required for hand washing (HW) in ten wards. A cross-sectional descriptive and observational study was conducted for six months from June till November 2006. Observation of the HCW for hand washing practice was done at any opportunity of contact with the patients in the different wards by members of the infection control team. Knowledge & attitude of HCW towards hand hygiene was done through self-administered questionnaire to HCW in 10 different departments. The total opportunities observed were 2189 opportunities. Doctors showed a significantly higher compliance (37.5%) than other groups of HCW (P = 0.000), however only 11.6% of the opportunities observed for doctors were done appropriately. The most common type of HW practiced among HCW was the routine HW (64.2%) and the least was the antiseptic HW (3.9%). Having a short contact time and improper drying (23.2%) were the most common errors that lead to inappropriate HW. Most of the wards had available sinks (80%) but none of them had available paper towels. The mean knowledge score was higher in nurses compared to doctors (42.6 +/- 1.7 versus 39.1 +/- 10.5). Most of the nurses (97.3%) believe that administrative orders and continuous observation can improve hand washing practices. Implementation of multifaceted interventional behavioral hand hygiene program with continuous monitoring and performance feedback, increasing the supplies necessary for HW and institutional support are important for improving the compliance of hand hygiene guidelines. PMID:19771756

  7. Deformation history of the Neoproterozoic basement complex, Ain Shams area, Western Arabian Shield, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Fakharani, Abdelhamid; Hamimi, Zakaria

    2013-04-01

    Ain Shams area, Western Arabian Shield, Saudi Arabia, is occupied by four main rock units; gneisses, metavolcanics, metasediments and syn- to post-tectonic granitoids. Field and structural studies reveal that the area was subjected to at least three phases of deformation (D1, D2 and D3). The structural features of the D1 are represented by tight to isoclinal and intrafolial folds (F1), axial plane foliation (S1) and stretching lineations (L1). This phase is believed to be resulted from an early NW-SE contractional phase due to the amalgamation between Asir and Jeddah tectonic terranes. D2 deformation phase progressively overprinted D1 structures and was dominated by thrusts, minor and major F2 thrust-related overturned folds. These structures indicate a top-to-the-NW movement direction and compressional regime during the D2 phase. Emplacement of the syn-tectonic granitoids is likely to have occurred during this phase. D3 structures are manifested F3 folds, which are open with steep to subvertical axial planes and axes moderately to steeply plunging towards the E, ENE and ESE directions, L3 is represented by crenulation lineations and kink bands. These structures attest NE-SW contractional phase, concurrent with the accretion of the Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS) to the Saharan Metacraton (SM) and the final assembly between the continental blocks of East and West Gondwana.

  8. Education and Modernization in Egypt. Selections from Seminars Organized by Ain Shams University, Cairo for the American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education (1972 and 1973).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salah El-Din Kotb, Yusef, Ed.

    This book presents selections from seminars whose purpose was to provide American teacher educators and faculty from related disciplines with a first-hand exposure to the modernization process in the Arab Republic of Egypt. The analysis of this topic focuses on three major areas affected in the modernization process: education, culture, and…

  9. It "Ain't" Always So: Sixth Graders' Interpretations of Hispanic-American Stories with Universal Themes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Peggy S.

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the responses of eight sixth grade students discussing four realistic fiction Hispanic-American multicultural stories with universal themes by Gary Soto in peer-led literature discussion groups. The results indicate the importance of a reader's sociocultural frame--class, race, and gender, on their interpretation of…

  10. Craniotomy: True Sham for Traumatic Brain Injury, or a Sham of a Sham?

    PubMed Central

    Yarnell, Angela; Kean, William S.; Gold, Eric; Lewis, Bobbi; Ren, Ming; McMullen, David C.; Jacobowitz, David M.; Pollard, Harvey B.; O'Neill, J. Timothy; Grunberg, Neil E.; Dalgard, Clifton L.; Frank, Joseph A.; Watson, William D.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Neurological dysfunction after traumatic brain injury (TBI) is caused by both the primary injury and a secondary cascade of biochemical and metabolic events. Since TBI can be caused by a variety of mechanisms, numerous models have been developed to facilitate its study. The most prevalent models are controlled cortical impact and fluid percussion injury. Both typically use “sham” (craniotomy alone) animals as controls. However, the sham operation is objectively damaging, and we hypothesized that the craniotomy itself may cause a unique brain injury distinct from the impact injury. To test this hypothesis, 38 adult female rats were assigned to one of three groups: control (anesthesia only); craniotomy performed by manual trephine; or craniotomy performed by electric dental drill. The rats were then subjected to behavioral testing, imaging analysis, and quantification of cortical concentrations of cytokines. Both craniotomy methods generate visible MRI lesions that persist for 14 days. The initial lesion generated by the drill technique is significantly larger than that generated by the trephine. Behavioral data mirrored lesion volume. For example, drill rats have significantly impaired sensory and motor responses compared to trephine or naïve rats. Finally, of the seven tested cytokines, KC-GRO and IFN-γ showed significant increases in both craniotomy models compared to naïve rats. We conclude that the traditional sham operation as a control confers profound proinflammatory, morphological, and behavioral damage, which confounds interpretation of conventional experimental brain injury models. Any experimental design incorporating “sham” procedures should distinguish among sham, experimentally injured, and healthy/naïve animals, to help reduce confounding factors. PMID:21190398

  11. Exact Kohn-Sham potential of strongly correlated finite systems

    SciTech Connect

    Helbig, N.; Rubio, A.

    2009-12-14

    The dissociation of molecules, even the most simple hydrogen molecule, cannot be described accurately within density functional theory because none of the currently available functionals accounts for strong on-site correlation. This problem led to a discussion of properties that the local Kohn-Sham potential has to satisfy in order to correctly describe strongly correlated systems. We derive an analytic expression for the nontrivial form of the Kohn-Sham potential in between the two fragments for the dissociation of a single bond. We show that the numerical calculations for a one-dimensional two-electron model system indeed approach and reach this limit. It is shown that the functional form of the potential is universal, i.e., independent of the details of the two fragments.

  12. Sham surgery trial controls: perspectives of patients and their relatives.

    PubMed

    Swift, Teresa L

    2012-07-01

    This study reports on qualitative research conducted in the UK with people with Parkinson's Disease and their relatives on the subject of "sham surgery." It explores attitudes toward sham surgery and reasoning about hypothetical participation in a sham-controlled trial. Results showed that attitudes toward sham surgery may not necessarily predict trial participation behavior. A small majority of interviewees deemed sham surgery ethically acceptable with certain provisos, but hypothetical participation was driven primarily by disease severity and a lack of standard treatment options, with a preference for receiving the real surgery over sham. Ethical implications for patient equipoise and the autonomy of patients' research participation decisions are discussed. PMID:22850140

  13. Are Kohn-Sham conductances accurate?

    PubMed

    Mera, H; Niquet, Y M

    2010-11-19

    We use Fermi-liquid relations to address the accuracy of conductances calculated from the single-particle states of exact Kohn-Sham (KS) density functional theory. We demonstrate a systematic failure of this procedure for the calculation of the conductance, and show how it originates from the lack of renormalization in the KS spectral function. In certain limits this failure can lead to a large overestimation of the true conductance. We also show, however, that the KS conductances can be accurate for single-channel molecular junctions and systems where direct Coulomb interactions are strongly dominant. PMID:21231333

  14. Fabrication of AIN Nano-Structures Using Polarity Control by High Temperature Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition.

    PubMed

    Eom, Daeyong; Kim, Jinwan; Lee, Kyungjae; Jeon, Minhwan; Heo, Cheon; Pyeon, Jaedo; Nam, Okhyun

    2015-07-01

    This study investigates the crystallographic polarity transition of AIN layers grown by high temperature metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (HT-MOCVD), with varying trimethylaluminum (TMAI) pre-flow rates. AIN layers grown without TMAI pre-flow had a mixed polarity, consisting of Al- and N-polarity, and exhibited a rough surface. With an increasing rate of TMAI pre-flow, the AIN layer was changed to an Al-polarity, with a smooth surface morphology. Finally, AIN nano-pillars and nano-rods of Al-polarity were fabricated by etching a mixed polarity AIN layer using an aqueous KOH solution. PMID:26373093

  15. Sham Surgery Trial Controls: Perspectives of Patients and Their Relatives

    PubMed Central

    Swift, Teresa L.

    2012-01-01

    THIS STUDY REPORTS ON QUALITATIVE research conducted in the UK with people with Parkinson’s Disease and their relatives on the subject of “sham surgery.” It explores attitudes toward sham surgery and reasoning about hypothetical participation in a sham-controlled trial. Results showed that attitudes toward sham surgery may not necessarily predict trial participation behavior. A small majority of interviewees deemed sham surgery ethically acceptable with certain provisos, but hypothetical participation was driven primarily by disease severity and a lack of standard treatment options, with a preference for receiving the real surgery over sham. Ethical implications for patient equipoise and the autonomy of patients’ research participation decisions are discussed. PMID:22850140

  16. Validating a new non-penetrating sham acupuncture device: two randomised controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Park, Jongbae; White, Adrian; Stevinson, Clare; Ernst, Edzard; James, Martin

    2002-12-01

    For clinical trials of acupuncture, it would be desirable to have a sham procedure that is indistinguishable from the real treatment, yet inactive. A sham needle has been designed which telescopes instead of penetrating the skin. The Park Sham Device involves an improved method of supporting the sham needle and requires validation. The objective of these studies was to test whether the sham procedure using the new device was 1) indistinguishable from the same procedure using real needles in acupuncture naïve subjects, and 2) inactive, where the specific needle sensation (de qi) is taken as a surrogate measure of activity. The studies were designed as subject and assessor blind, randomised controlled trials. Study 1) included 58 patients enrolled in a clinical trial of acupuncture for acute stroke. Study 2) included 63 healthy, acupuncture naïve, adult volunteers. The interventions used were real or sham acupuncture using the Park Sham Device. Study 1) was set in a district general hospital, and study 2) in a university laboratory. The outcome measure in study 1) was the form of treatment that patients believed they had received. In study 2) the outcome measure was experience of de qi, as judged by three acupuncture experts. No patient in either group(study 1) believed he or she had been treated with the sham needle. In 40 volunteers (study 2) for whom experts achieved consensus, the relative risk of experiencing de qi with real acupuncture to that with sham acupuncture was 15.38 (95% CI 2.26 to 104.86). The inter-rater reliability of all 13 experts (study 2), calculated from their judgements on 10 subjects selected by randomisation, was 0.52 (95% CI 0.19 to 0.61). In conclusion, the results suggest that the procedure using the new device is indistinguishable from the same procedure using real needles in acupuncture naïve subjects, and is inactive, where the specific needle sensation (de qi) is taken as a surrogate measure of activity. It is therefore a valid

  17. Defects in AIN/GaN Superlattice: First Principle Calculations.

    PubMed

    Rao, Xue; Wang, Ru-Zhi; Cao, Juexian; Yan, Hui

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the atomic configurations, electronic structure and formation energies of native point defects, (such as vacancies and self-interstitials), in an AIN/GaN superlattice (SL) constructed on a wurtzite structure along a [0001] growth direction. Comprehensive first-principle calculations based on the density functional theory (DFT) are used. Cation and anion vacancies in the neutral charge state are calculated. For the native defects, the results showed that the most favorable configurations are the cation vacancies at the interface of the SL, or the anion vacancies in the GaN wells. Considering the formation energies of different vacancies, the results show that the nitrogen vacancy has the lowest formation energy, indicating that they are significantly the most stable configuration, and thus should be expected to be the major defect in a AIN/GaN superlattice. PMID:27398499

  18. Time-dependent Kohn-Sham approach to quantum electrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Ruggenthaler, M.; Mackenroth, F.; Bauer, D.

    2011-10-15

    We prove a generalization of the van Leeuwen theorem toward quantum electrodynamics, providing the formal foundations of a time-dependent Kohn-Sham construction for coupled quantized matter and electromagnetic fields. We circumvent the symmetry-causality problems associated with the action-functional approach to Kohn-Sham systems. We show that the effective external four-potential and four-current of the Kohn-Sham system are uniquely defined and that the effective four-current takes a very simple form. Further we rederive the Runge-Gross theorem for quantum electrodynamics.

  19. Further research at the Oldowan site of Ain Hanech, North-eastern Algeria.

    PubMed

    Sahnouni, Mohamed; Hadjouis, Djillali; van der Made, Jan; Derradji, Abd El-Kader; Canals, Antoni; Medig, Mohamed; Belahrech, Hocine; Harichane, Zoheir; Rabhi, Merouane

    2002-12-01

    Further investigations were carried out at Ain Hanech, Algeria in 1998 and 1999 to explore its potential for investigating early hominid behavioral patterns and adaptation. Research concentrated on the stratigraphy and dating, identifying new archaeological deposits, and excavating the Ain Hanech and El-Kherba localities. To enhance the chronological control within a biostratigraphic framework, the Ain Boucherit fossil-bearing stratum, yielding a Plio-Pleistocene fauna, is correlated with the regional stratigraphy. In the stratigraphic sequence, the Ain Boucherit stratum, located 13m below the Ain Hanech Oldowan occurrences, is found in Unit Q of the Ain Hanech Formation. Unit Q shows a paleomagnetically reversed polarity, which may be correlated with an age earlier than the Olduvai normal subchron (1.95-1.77Ma). Based on test trenches and stratigraphic analyses, additional Oldowan deposits A, B, and C are identified at Ain Hanech. All three deposits and the El-Kherba site contain Mode I technology artefacts associated with an Early Pleistocene fauna. El-Kherba is stratigraphically equivalent to Ain Hanech. These two archaeological sites are estimated to be dated to about 1.8Ma. PMID:12473489

  20. Is sham laser a valid control for acupuncture trials?

    PubMed

    Irnich, Dominik; Salih, Norbert; Offenbächer, Martin; Fleckenstein, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    Methodological problems of acupuncture trials focus on adequate placebo controls. In this trial we evaluated the use of sham laser acupuncture as a control procedure. Thirty-four healthy volunteers received verum laser (invisible infrared laser emission and red light, 45 s and 1 J per point) and sham laser (red light) treatment at three acupuncture points (LI4, LU7 and LR3) in a randomized, double-blinded, cross-over design. The main outcome measure was the ratio of correct to incorrect ratings of treatment immediately after each session. The secondary outcome measure was the occurrence of deqi-like sensations at the acupuncture points and their intensity on a 10-fold visual analog scale (VAS; 10 being the strongest sensible sensation). We pooled the results of three former trials to evaluate the credibility of sham laser acupuncture when compared to needle acupuncture. Fifteen out of 34 (44%) healthy volunteers (age: 28 ± 10.7 years) identified the used laser device after the first session and 14 (41%) after the second session. Hence, both treatments were undistinguishable (P = .26). Deqi-like sensations occurred in 46% of active laser (2.34 VAS) and in 49.0% of sham laser beams (2.49 VAS). The credibility of sham laser was not different from needle acupuncture. Sham laser acupuncture can serve as a valid placebo control in laser acupuncture studies. Due to similar credibility and the lack of sensory input on the peripheral nervous system, sham laser acupuncture can also serve as a sham control for acupuncture trials, in order to evaluate needling effects per se. PMID:21772922

  1. Is Sham Laser a Valid Control for Acupuncture Trials?

    PubMed Central

    Irnich, Dominik; Salih, Norbert; Offenbächer, Martin; Fleckenstein, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    Methodological problems of acupuncture trials focus on adequate placebo controls. In this trial we evaluated the use of sham laser acupuncture as a control procedure. Thirty-four healthy volunteers received verum laser (invisible infrared laser emission and red light, 45 s and 1 J per point) and sham laser (red light) treatment at three acupuncture points (LI4, LU7 and LR3) in a randomized, double-blinded, cross-over design. The main outcome measure was the ratio of correct to incorrect ratings of treatment immediately after each session. The secondary outcome measure was the occurrence of deqi-like sensations at the acupuncture points and their intensity on a 10-fold visual analog scale (VAS; 10 being the strongest sensible sensation). We pooled the results of three former trials to evaluate the credibility of sham laser acupuncture when compared to needle acupuncture. Fifteen out of 34 (44%) healthy volunteers (age: 28 ± 10.7 years) identified the used laser device after the first session and 14 (41%) after the second session. Hence, both treatments were undistinguishable (P = .26). Deqi-like sensations occurred in 46% of active laser (2.34 VAS) and in 49.0% of sham laser beams (2.49 VAS). The credibility of sham laser was not different from needle acupuncture. Sham laser acupuncture can serve as a valid placebo control in laser acupuncture studies. Due to similar credibility and the lack of sensory input on the peripheral nervous system, sham laser acupuncture can also serve as a sham control for acupuncture trials, in order to evaluate needling effects per se. PMID:21772922

  2. Electronically Switchable Sham Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) System

    PubMed Central

    Hoeft, Fumiko; Wu, Daw-An; Hernandez, Arvel; Glover, Gary H.; Shimojo, Shinsuke

    2008-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is increasingly being used to demonstrate the causal links between brain and behavior in humans. Further, extensive clinical trials are being conducted to investigate the therapeutic role of TMS in disorders such as depression. Because TMS causes strong peripheral effects such as auditory clicks and muscle twitches, experimental artifacts such as subject bias and placebo effect are clear concerns. Several sham TMS methods have been developed, but none of the techniques allows one to intermix real and sham TMS on a trial-by-trial basis in a double-blind manner. We have developed an attachment that allows fast, automated switching between Standard TMS and two types of control TMS (Sham and Reverse) without movement of the coil or reconfiguration of the setup. We validate the setup by performing mathematical modeling, search-coil and physiological measurements. To see if the stimulus conditions can be blinded, we conduct perceptual discrimination and sensory perception studies. We verify that the physical properties of the stimulus are appropriate, and that successive stimuli do not contaminate each other. We find that the threshold for motor activation is significantly higher for Reversed than for Standard stimulation, and that Sham stimulation entirely fails to activate muscle potentials. Subjects and experimenters perform poorly at discriminating between Sham and Standard TMS with a figure-of-eight coil, and between Reverse and Standard TMS with a circular coil. Our results raise the possibility of utilizing this technique for a wide range of applications. PMID:18398456

  3. NiAl-Base Composite Containing High Volume Fraction of AIN Particulate for Advanced Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hebsur, Mohan G.; Whittenberger, J. D.; Lowell, C. E.; Garg, A.

    1995-01-01

    Cryomilling of prealloyed NiAl containing 53 at. % AJ was carried out to achieve high nitrogen levels. The consolidation of cryomilled powder by extrusion or hot pressing/ hot isostatic pressing resulted in a fully dense NiAl-base composite containing 30 vol. % of inhomogeneously distributed, nanosized AIN particulate. The NiAl-30AIN composite exhibited the highest compression yield strengths at all temperatures between 300 and 1300 K as compared with other compositions of NiAl-AIN composite. The NiAl-30AIN specimens tested under compressive creep loading between 1300 and 1500 K also exhibited the highest creep resistance with very little surface oxidation indicating also their superior elevated temperature oxidation resistance. In the high stress exponent regime, the strength is proportional to the square root of the AIN content and in the low stress exponent regime, the influence of AIN content on strength appears to be less dramatic. The specific creep strength of this material at 1300 K is superior to a first generation Ni-base single crystal superalloy. The improvements in elevated temperature creep strength and oxidation resistance have been achieved without sacrificing the room temperature fracture toughness of the NiAl-base material. Based on its attractive combination of properties, the NiAl-30AIN composite is a potential candidate for advanced engine applications,

  4. The sham ECT literature: implications for consent to ECT.

    PubMed

    Ross, Colin A

    2006-01-01

    The author reviewed the placebo-controlled literature on electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) for depression. No study demonstrated a significant difference between real and placebo (sham) ECT at 1 month posttreatment. Many studies failed to find a difference between real and sham ECT even during the period of treatment. Claims in textbooks and review articles that ECT is effective are not consistent with the published data. A large, properly designed study of real versus sham ECT should be undertaken. In the absence of such a study, consent forms for ECT should include statements that there is no controlled evidence demonstrating any benefit from ECT at 1 month posttreatment. Consent forms should also state that real ECT is only marginally more effective than placebo. PMID:16856307

  5. Sham-feeding decreases cardiac output in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Andersen, H B; Jensen, E W; Madsbad, S; Nielsen, S L; Burcharth, F; Christensen, N J

    1992-07-01

    The cardiovascular effect of sham-feeding was measured in seven healthy non-obese human subjects by the Fick principle using the carbon dioxide rebreathing method. The subjects were resting in the sitting position and were exposed to the sight and smell but not the taste of a breakfast meal. Cardiac output decreased significantly from a mean value of 4.0 1 min-1 to 3.5 1 min-1 during sham-feeding (Friedman, P = 0.004). The cardiac output returned to basal values in all seven subjects when the sensory stimulus was removed. The decrease in cardiac output was due to a decreased stroke volume, whereas heart rate and blood pressure did not change. The mechanism of the decrease in cardiac output during sham-feeding remains to be established. PMID:1505165

  6. Must Kohn-Sham oscillator strengths be accurate at threshold?

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Zenghui; Burke, Kieron; Faassen, Meta van

    2009-09-21

    The exact ground-state Kohn-Sham (KS) potential for the helium atom is known from accurate wave function calculations of the ground-state density. The threshold for photoabsorption from this potential matches the physical system exactly. By carefully studying its absorption spectrum, we show the answer to the title question is no. To address this problem in detail, we generate a highly accurate simple fit of a two-electron spectrum near the threshold, and apply the method to both the experimental spectrum and that of the exact ground-state Kohn-Sham potential.

  7. Second-order kinetic Kohn-Sham lattice model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solórzano, S.; Mendoza, M.; Herrmann, H. J.

    2016-06-01

    In this work, we introduce a semi-implicit second-order correction scheme to the kinetic Kohn-Sham lattice model. This approach is validated by performing realistic exchange-correlation energy calculations of atoms and dimers of the first two rows of the Periodic Table, finding good agreement with the expected values. Additionally, we simulate the ethane molecule, where we recover the bond lengths and compare the results with standard methods. Finally, we discuss the current applicability of pseudopotentials within the lattice kinetic Kohn-Sham approach.

  8. The paradox of sham therapy and placebo effect in osteopathy

    PubMed Central

    Cerritelli, Francesco; Verzella, Marco; Cicchitti, Luca; D’Alessandro, Giandomenico; Vanacore, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Placebo, defined as “false treatment,” is a common gold-standard method to assess the validity of a therapy both in pharmacological trials and manual medicine research where placebo is also referred to as “sham therapy.” In the medical literature, guidelines have been proposed on how to conduct robust placebo-controlled trials, but mainly in a drug-based scenario. In contrast, there are not precise guidelines on how to conduct a placebo-controlled in manual medicine trials (particularly osteopathy). The aim of the present systematic review was to report how and what type of sham methods, dosage, operator characteristics, and patient types were used in osteopathic clinical trials and, eventually, assess sham clinical effectiveness. Methods: A systematic Cochrane-based review was conducted by analyzing the osteopathic trials that used both manual and nonmanual placebo control. Searches were conducted on 8 databases from journal inception to December 2015 using a pragmatic literature search approach. Two independent reviewers conducted the study selection and data extraction for each study. The risk of bias was evaluated according to the Cochrane methods. Results: A total of 64 studies were eligible for analysis collecting a total of 5024 participants. More than half (43 studies) used a manual placebo; 9 studies used a nonmanual placebo; and 12 studies used both manual and nonmanual placebo. Data showed lack of reporting sham therapy information across studies. Risk of bias analysis demonstrated a high risk of bias for allocation, blinding of personnel and participants, selective, and other bias. To explore the clinical effects of sham therapies used, a quantitative analysis was planned. However, due to the high heterogeneity of sham approaches used no further analyses were performed. Conclusion: High heterogeneity regarding placebo used between studies, lack of reporting information on placebo methods and within-study variability between

  9. A hydrologic and archeologic study of climate change in Al Ain, United Arab Emirates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorgensen, Donald G.; Yasin al-Tikiriti, Walid

    2003-01-01

    Aridity trends established for Al Ain, United Arab Emirates, for the past 4500 years correlate with the trends of increased well depths and declining groundwater levels. Depth of wells found at archeologic sites at Hili near Al Ain were correlated to groundwater levels. Trends of declining groundwater levels were related to trends of increasing aridity (climate change). The increasing aridity had a pronounced affect on man's development in Al Ain area as well. For example, nonirrigation farming could not be successfully sustained at the end of the Bronze Age. This thwarted the economic development until the falaj (a water conveyance structure) was introduced in the Iron Age. The aridity trends in Al Ain correspond to contemporaneous aridity trends noted in Mesopotamia and the Dead Sea area, as well as the Middle East, Mediterranean, and northern Africa, in general. Other global climatic changes that are contemporaneous with climate change at Al Ain have been noted. The increased aridity (desertification) trends at Al Ain are contemporaneous with increased atmospheric CO 2 trends as reported by Indermuhle et al. [Nature (398) 121].

  10. Kohn-Sham potentials for fullerenes and spherical molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlyukh, Y.; Berakdar, J.

    2010-04-15

    We present a procedure for the construction of accurate Kohn-Sham potentials of quasispherical molecules starting from the first-principles valence densities. The method is demonstrated for the case of icosahedral C{sub 20}{sup 2+} and C{sub 60} molecules. Provided the density is N representable the Hohenberg-Kohn theorem guarantees the uniqueness of the obtained potentials. The potential is iteratively built following the suggestion of R. van Leeuwen and E. J. Baerends [Phys. Rev. A 49, 2421 (1994)]. The high symmetry of the molecules allows a parametrization of the angular dependence of the densities and the potentials using a small number of symmetry-adapted spherical harmonics. The radial behavior of these quantities is represented on a grid and the density is reconstructed from the approximate potential by numerically solving the coupled-channel Kohn-Sham equations. Subsequently, the potential is updated and the procedure is continued until convergence is achieved.

  11. A new relativistic scheme in Dirac Kohn Sham theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Takahito; Suzumura, Toshihisa; Hirao, Kimihiko

    1999-04-01

    The relativistic scheme by the elimination of small components (RESC) of the four-component Dirac equation proposed previously has been incorporated into density functional theory (DFT). RESC-DFT results in a computationally efficient and numerically stable two-component Kohn-Sham formalism, suited for molecular applications. Illustrative calculations for AgH, AuH, AgCl, and AuCl have been performed employing various exchange-correlation functionals. A good agreement with experiment is obtained.

  12. Characterization of the Ain Khemouda halloysite (western Tunisia) for ceramic industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben M'barek Jemaï, Moufida; Sdiri, Ali; Errais, Emna; Duplay, Joelle; Ben Saleh, Imed; Zagrarni, Mohamed Faouzi; Bouaziz, Samir

    2015-11-01

    White clays of Ain Khemouda (Western Tunisia), filling the post-Miocene palaeokarsts cavities dug in the intermediate limestones bed of the Douleb formation (Senonian system), were used as raw materials for the preparation of ceramic bodies. Natural clay samples, collected from the Ain Khemouda palaekarsts to the North of Jebel Semmama (Kasserine, Tunisia), were characterized by different techniques. Chemical and mineralogical analyses were carried out by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. Thermal analysis was also performed by thermogravimetry (TG-DTA), dilatometry and Bigot's curve. Chemical analysis indicated that the studied clay was composed of silica and alumina as major elements with the ratio SiO2/(Al2O3 + Fe2O3) close to 2. Significant amounts of zinc and iron oxides subordinated the main alumino-silicates minerals. Mineralogical analysis showed that Ain Khemouda white clay consisted of halloysite and meta-halloysite mixture. Characteristic peaks of halloysite occurred near 10 Å and 7 Å. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images showed rolled wafers, characterizing the tubular shape of halloysite. From these results, it could be concluded that Ain Khemouda clay was Zn-aluminous hydrated halloysite (10 Å). In addition, cation exchange capacity (CEC) was relatively low (18 mEq/100 g), indicating insufficient edge valences. Industrial ceramic tests performed at the laboratory scale indicated that the Ain Khemouda clays have the required technical specifications to be used as raw materials for ceramic tiles and refractory ceramic manufacturing.

  13. Asymptotic form of the Kohn-Sham correlation potential

    SciTech Connect

    Joubert, D. P.

    2007-07-15

    The density-functional correlation potential of a finite system is shown to asymptotically approach a nonzero constant along a nodal surface of the energetically highest occupied orbital and zero everywhere else. This nonuniform asymptotic form of the correlation potential exactly cancels the nonuniform asymptotic behavior of the exact exchange potential discussed by Della Sala and Goerling [Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 33003 (2002)]. The sum of the exchange and correlation potentials therefore asymptotically tends to -1/r everywhere, consistent with the asymptotic form of the Kohn-Sham potential as analyzed by Almbladh and von Barth [Phys. Rev. B 31, 3231 (1985)].

  14. Kohn-Sham Theory for Ground-State Ensembles

    SciTech Connect

    Ullrich, C. A.; Kohn, W.

    2001-08-27

    An electron density distribution n(r) which can be represented by that of a single-determinant ground state of noninteracting electrons in an external potential v(r) is called pure-state v -representable (P-VR). Most physical electronic systems are P-VR. Systems which require a weighted sum of several such determinants to represent their density are called ensemble v -representable (E-VR). This paper develops formal Kohn-Sham equations for E-VR physical systems, using the appropriate coupling constant integration. It also derives local density- and generalized gradient approximations, and conditions and corrections specific to ensembles.

  15. Element orbitals for Kohn-Sham density functional theory

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Lin; Ying, Lexing

    2012-05-08

    We present a method to discretize the Kohn-Sham Hamiltonian matrix in the pseudopotential framework by a small set of basis functions automatically contracted from a uniform basis set such as planewaves. Each basis function is localized around an element, which is a small part of the global domain containing multiple atoms. We demonstrate that the resulting basis set achieves meV accuracy for 3D densely packed systems with a small number of basis functions per atom. The procedure is applicable to insulating and metallic systems.

  16. Infant-feeding practices in Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Osman, N A; el-Sabban, F F

    1999-01-01

    A survey was conducted to study the practices of infant-feeding and the influencing factors in Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates. It involved 375 mothers of different nationalities and backgrounds and 300 healthy infants. The mothers were interviewed at four primary health care clinics in Al-Ain. Results showed that 46% of infants were breastfed for 4-6 months. The mother's nationality and her educational status were significant influences on the mother's decision to exclusively breast-feed the infant, for how long and when to introduce supplementary food. Fresh cow and goat milk were the most common supplements. Inclusion of baby formula as a supplement generally occurred early, perhaps because of advertising and the affluence in Al-Ain. PMID:10793786

  17. An integrated water resources management strategy for Al-Ain City, United Arab Emirates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, M. M.

    2014-09-01

    Al-Ain is the second largest city in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi and the third in the UAE. Currently, desalination plants are the only source of drinking water in the city with an average daily supply of 170 MIG. Recently, Abu Dhabi Urban Planning Council (UPC) released Al-Ain 2030 Plan. Projects suggested in this plan, over and above the expected natural population growth, will certainly put additional stress on the water resources in the city. Therefore, Al-Ain city seems to be in urgent need for an integrated water resources management strategy towards achieving sustainable development. This strategy will contain three main components; namely, a Water Demand Forecasting Model (WDFM), a Water Budget Model (WBM), and a Water Resources Optimization Model (WROM). The main aim of this paper is to present the WBM that estimates all inflows and outflows to assess water resources sustainability in the city.

  18. Validation of a novel sham cervical manipulation procedure

    PubMed Central

    Vernon, Howard; Triano, John J.; Ross, Kim; Tran, Steven; Soave, David; Dinulos, Maricelle

    2012-01-01

    Background Context No clinical trial of spinal manipulation for chronic neck pain, either for single or multiple intervention session(s), has employed an effective sham-manipulation control group. Purpose Validate a practical sham cervical high velocity, low amplitude (HVLA) spinal manipulation. Study design/Setting Randomized, experimental validation study in an institutional clinical research laboratory Patient Sample Eligible subjects were males and females, 18–60 years of age with mechanical neck pain (as defined by the International Association for the Study of Pain Classification) of at least 3 months duration. Subjects with arm pain, any pathologic cause of neck pain or any contra-indication to spinal manipulation were excluded. Outcome Measures The primary outcome was the patient’s self-report or “registration” of group allocation following treatment. Secondary outcomes were NRS-101 for neck pain, range of motion (by goniometer), tenderness (by pressure algometry). Methods Eligible subjects were randomly allocated to one of two groups: “real” or sham cervical manipulation (RM or SM). All subjects were given two procedures in sequence, either RM+SM or SM+SM. Immediately following the two procedures, subjects were asked to register any pain experienced during the procedures and to identify their treatment group allocation. Force-time profiles were recorded during all procedures. Secondary clinical outcome measures were obtained at baseline, 5 and 15 minutes after the intervention including range of motion, self-report of pain and local spinous process tenderness. Data for each variable were summarized and tested for normality in distribution. Summary statistics were obtained for each variable and statistically tested. Funding for this study was obtained from the National Institutes of Health (NCCAM: R21 AT004396-01A1) and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (BMT91926). No conflicts of interest exist in this study. Results Sixty

  19. Systematic identification of miRISC proteins, miRNAs, and their mRNA targets in C. elegans by their interactions with GW182 family proteins AIN-1 and AIN-2

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liang; Ding, Lei; Cheung, Tom H.; Dong, Meng-Qiu; Chen, Jun; Sewell, Aileen K.; Liu, Xuedong; Yates, John R.; Han, Min

    2007-01-01

    Summary MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression for diverse functions, but only a limited number of mRNA targets have been experimentally identified. We show that GW182 family proteins AIN-1 and AIN-2 act redundantly to regulate the expression of miRNA targets, but not miRNA biogenesis. Immunoprecipitation (IP) and mass spectrometry indicate that AIN-1 and AIN-2 interact only with miRNA-specific Argonaute proteins ALG-1 and ALG-2 and with components of the core translational initiation complex. Known miRNA targets are enriched in AIN-2 complexes, correlating with the expression of corresponding miRNAs. Combining IP with pyrosequencing and microarray analysis of RNAs associated with AIN-1/AIN-2, we identified 106 previously annotated miRNAs plus 9 new candidate miRNAs, but nearly no siRNAs, and more than 3500 potential miRNA targets including nearly all known ones. Our results demonstrate an effective biochemical approach to systematically identify miRNA targets and provide valuable insights regarding the properties of miRNA effector complexes. PMID:18042455

  20. Pregastric esterase in milk sham fed to adult jersey steers.

    PubMed

    Leidy, R B; Russell, R W; Wise, G H

    1975-04-01

    Pregastric esterase activity was detected in reconstituted nonfat milk sham fed from a nipple pail to two 4-yr-old rumen-fistualted steers. Lipolytic activity, determined in a medium containing 5% tri-n-butyrin, averaged 8.6 plus or minus .4 lipase units. Further assays, in which activitiy was measured by free fatty acids released from a condensed milk substrate, averaged 166.9 plus or minus 9.2 mumol. These values are higher than those noted for young calves, indicating that secretion of pregastric esterase may persist in cattle beyond calfhood. Esterase activity in one of the steers fed whole milk until he was 2 yr of age showed no marked residual effect of earlier intake of milk fat. PMID:1127162

  1. The Scientific Method Ain't What It Used to Be

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman

    2010-01-01

    Remember the time when all you had to do was memorize these five steps: ask a question, formulate a hypothesis, perform experiment, collect data, and draw conclusions? And you received full credit for defining the scientific method. Well, those days are gone. This article discusses why the "scientific method ain't what it used to be." (Contains 2…

  2. Performance Variables: Some Versions of Dylan's "It Ain't Me, Babe."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poague, Leland A.

    1979-01-01

    Using Bob Dylan's three somewhat different versions of "It Ain't Me, Babe," the author investigates the variables of Dylan's performances and how they alter the meanings of his songs, and suggests that the more we know about popular song the more we will understand the songs we subsequently encounter. (KC)

  3. Ain't Gonna Study War No More? Explorations of War through Picture Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Patricia A.; Roberts, Sherron Killingsworth

    2009-01-01

    At the height of the Vietnam War, Down by the Riverside was transformed from a traditional folk song to a popular anti-war anthem. The raucous and repetitive chorus, "I ain't gonna study war no more ...," became a rallying cry for those who wanted nothing to do with the war and the pain and controversy that surrounded it. Although it seems…

  4. Different effects of L-arginine on morphine tolerance in sham and ovariectomized female mice*

    PubMed Central

    Karami, Reza; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Khodabandehloo, Fatimeh; Khatami, Leila; Taiarani, Zahra

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The roles of gonadal hormones and nitric oxide (NO) on the analgesic effects of morphine, tolerance to morphine, and their interactions have been widely investigated. In the present study, the effect of L-arginine (an NO precursor) on morphine tolerance in sham and ovariectomized (OVX) female mice was investigated. Methods: Forty mice were divided into sham and OVX groups. On the first day, a hot plate test ((55±0.2) °C; cut-off 30 s) was carried out as a base record 15 min before injection of morphine (10 mg/kg, subcutaneously (s.c.)) and was repeated every 15 min after injection. The sham group was then divided into two subgroups: sham-tolerance-L-arginine (Sham-Tol-LA) and sham-tolerance-saline (Sham-Tol-Sal) which received either L-arginine 50 mg/kg (intraperitoneally (i.p.)) or saline 10 ml/kg (i.p.), respectively, three times in a day for three consecutive days. Morphine tolerance was induced in animals by injecting 30 mg/kg morphine (s.c.) three times/day for three days. This treatment was also used for OVX subgroups. On the fifth day, the hot plate test was repeated. The analgesic effect of morphine was calculated as the maximal percent effect (MPE). The results were compared using repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results: There was no significant difference in MPE between the OVX and sham groups. The MPEs in both the Sham-Tol-Sal and OVX-Tol-Sal groups were lower than those in both the sham and OVX groups (P<0.01). The MPE in the OVX-Tol-Sal group was greater than that in the Sham-Tol-Sal group (P<0.01). The MPE in the Sham-Tol-LA group was higher than that in the Sham-Tol-Sal group (P<0.01). However, there was no significant difference between the Sham-Tol-LA and sham groups or between the OVX-Tol-LA and OVX-Tol-Sal groups. Conclusions: The results of the present study showed that repeated administration of morphine causes tolerance to the analgesic effect of morphine. L-Arginine could prevent tolerance to morphine but its

  5. Early human settlements in Northern Africa: paleomagnetic evidence from the Ain Hanech Formation (northeastern Algeria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parés, J. M.; Sahnouni, M.; Van der Made, J.; Pérez-González, A.; Harichane, Z.; Derradji, A.; Medig, M.

    2014-09-01

    The question of the earliest hominid settlements in northern Africa has been under debate for a number of years due to the lack of precise chronologies. Here we present new paleomagnetic data that supports an Olduvai Subchron age for the archaeological sites at Ain Hanech and El-Kherba, in northern Algeria. Our study is based on a 22 m-thick magnetostratigraphy of the Ain Hanech Formation, which includes contextualized Oldowan and Acheulian lithic tools. Characteristic remanent magnetization directions were obtained from both thermal and alternating field demagnetization procedures of specimens from twenty five sampled horizons. Our results reveal the presence of the Olduvai Subchron in the upper part of the stratigraphic section, constraining the age of these important archaeological sites in northern Africa.

  6. COxSwAIN: Compressive Sensing for Advanced Imaging and Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurwitz, Richard; Pulley, Marina; LaFerney, Nathan; Munoz, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The COxSwAIN project focuses on building an image and video compression scheme that can be implemented in a small or low-power satellite. To do this, we used Compressive Sensing, where the compression is performed by matrix multiplications on the satellite and reconstructed on the ground. Our paper explains our methodology and demonstrates the results of the scheme, being able to achieve high quality image compression that is robust to noise and corruption.

  7. The effect of customised and sham foot orthoses on plantar pressures

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The effectiveness of foot orthoses has been evaluated in many clinical trials with sham foot orthoses used as the control intervention in at least 10 clinical trials. However, the mechanical effects and credibility of sham orthoses has been rarely quantified. This study aimed to: (i) compare the effects on plantar pressures of three sham foot orthoses to a customised foot orthosis, and (ii) establish the perceived credibility and the expected benefit of each orthotic condition. Methods Thirty adults aged between 18 and 51 participated in this study. At 0 and 4 weeks, plantar pressure data were collected for the heel, midfoot and forefoot using the pedar®-X in-shoe system for the following five randomly assigned conditions: (i) shoe alone, (ii) customised foot orthosis, (iii) contoured polyethylene sham foot orthosis, (iv) contoured EVA sham foot orthosis, and (v) flat EVA sham foot orthosis. At the initial data collection session, each participant completed a Credibility/Expectancy Questionnaire (CEQ) to determine the credibility and expected benefit of each orthotic condition. Results Compared to the shoe alone at week 0, the contoured polyethylene sham orthosis was the only condition to not significantly effect peak pressure at any region of the foot. In contrast, the contoured EVA sham orthosis, the flat EVA sham orthosis and the customised orthosis significantly reduced peak pressure at the heel. At the medial midfoot, all sham orthoses provided the same effect as the shoe alone, which corresponded to effects that were significantly different to the customised orthosis. There were no differences in peak pressure between conditions at the other mask regions, the lateral midfoot and forefoot. When the conditions were compared at week 4, the differences between the conditions were generally similar to the findings observed at week 0. With respect to credibility and expected benefit, all orthotic conditions were considered the same with the exception

  8. Sham Acupressure Controls Used in Randomized Controlled Trials: A Systematic Review and Critique

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Jing-Yu; Suen, Lorna K. P.; Wang, Tao; Molassiotis, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To explore the commonly utilized sham acupressure procedures in existing acupressure trials, and to assess whether different types of sham interventions yield different therapeutic outcomes, and, as far as possible, to identify directions for the future development of an adequate sham acupressure method. Methods Randomized controlled trials comparing true acupressure with sham interventions were included. Thirteen electronic databases were adopted to locate relevant studies from inception to July 3, 2014. Meanwhile, eight Chinese journals on complementary and alternative medicine were manually searched to locate eligible articles. In addition, eligible studies listed in the reference lists of the included papers and other related systematic reviews on acupressure were also screened to further search any potentially eligible trials. Methodological quality of the included studies was evaluated using the risk of bias assessment tool developed by the Cochrane Back Review Group. Descriptive analysis was adopted to summarize the therapeutic outcomes. Results Sixty-six studies with 7265 participants were included. Methodological quality of the included trials was generally satisfactory. Six types of sham acupressure approaches were identified and “non-acupoint” stimulation was the most frequently utilized sham point while an acupressure device was the most commonly used approach for administering sham treatments. Acupressure therapy was a beneficial approach in managing a variety of health problems and the therapeutic effect was found to be more effective in the true acupressure groups than that in the sham comparative groups. No clear association could be identified between different sham acupressure modalities and the reported treatment outcomes. Conclusions A great diversity of sham acupressure controls have been used in clinical practice and research. A solid conclusion whether different sham alternatives are related to different treatment outcomes

  9. ["Sham Needle"--Design and Application of A Double-blind Placebo Needle Assembly].

    PubMed

    Yan, Liu; Ma, Li-hong

    2016-02-01

    The blind study design, particularly the double-blind study design is a very important method for diminishing placebo effect and reducing bias in clinical medical trial. Enlightened by Streitberger's and Park's sham needle design, the authors of the present paper introduce a newly designed sham needle device (Yan's sham-needle) for controlled double-blind trials of acupuncture. This sham needle device consists of needle, tube and base. The bottom of the tube is completely sealed and it can never arouse any invasive stimulation on the subject's skin when the sham needle is downward pressed on the body surface. Meanwhile, this sham device is filled with sponge which is able to simulate soft tissues of the acupoint area. By combining words suggestions or hints before trials and the same shape as verum device, this sham-needle device reduces the risk of blind-breaking and makes it possible to conduct controlled double-blind trials. Primary practice showed that this device may provide a new and practical tool for researching the placebo effect of acupuncture therapy. PMID:27141628

  10. Salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM) inhibition of the DIC-pump in unicellular algae

    SciTech Connect

    Goyal, A.; Tolbert, N.E. )

    1989-04-01

    SHAM at 1 or 2 mM inhibits dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentrating mechanisms in unicellular green algae as measured by photosynthetic oxygen evolution or by {sup 14}C-inorganic carbon uptake (using silicone oil centrifugation techniques). This inhibition was reversed by high levels of DIC whereby the cells do not require the concentrating mechanism. SHAM inhibited the DIC-pump, which uses external CO{sub 2}, in three species of algae, Dunaliella tertiolecta, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and Scenedesmus obliquus when adapted to low CO{sub 2} and assayed around neutral pH. Scenedesmus adapted to air at pH 9.0 to use external HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} were not affected by SHAM. It is important to establish low optimum concentrations of SHAM, which varied with the algal species. The mechanism of SHAM inhibition of the CO{sub 2} concentrating process is unknown. SHAM inhibits alternative respiration in these algae, but SHAM may also inhibit other reactions involving H{sup +} gradients or transporters associated with the DIC-pump.

  11. Effectiveness of Traditional Chinese Acupuncture versus Sham Acupuncture: a Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Carlos, Luís; da Cruz, Lóris Aparecida Prado; Leopoldo, Vanessa Cristina; de Campos, Fabrício Ribeiro; de Almeida, Ana Maria; Silveira, Renata Cristina de Campos Pereira

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to identify and synthesize the evidence from randomized clinical trials that tested the effectiveness of traditional Chinese acupuncture in relation to sham acupuncture for the treatment of hot flashes in menopausal women with breast cancer. Method: systematic review guided by the recommendations of the Cochrane Collaboration. Citations were searched in the following databases: MEDLINE via PubMed, Web of Science, CENTRAL, CINAHL, and LILACS. A combination of the following keywords was used: breast neoplasm, acupuncture, acupuncture therapy, acupuncture points, placebos, sham treatment, hot flashes, hot flushes, menopause, climacteric, and vasomotor symptoms. Results: a total of 272 studies were identified, five of which were selected and analyzed. Slight superiority of traditional acupuncture compared with sham acupuncture was observed; however, there were no strong statistical associations. Conclusions: the evidence gathered was not sufficient to affirm the effectiveness of traditional acupuncture compared with sham acupuncture. PMID:27533271

  12. Validation of a sham comparator for thoracic spinal manipulation in patients with shoulder pain

    PubMed Central

    Michener, Lori A.; Kardouni, Joseph R.; Sousa, Catarina O.; Ely, Jacqueline M.

    2014-01-01

    The evidence to guide use of spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) for patients with shoulder pain is limited. A validated sham comparator is needed to ascertain the unique effects of SMT. We investigated the plausibility of a thoracic sham-SMT comparator for SMT in patients with shoulder pain. Participants (n = 56) with subacromial impingement syndrome were randomized to thoracic SMT or a sham-SMT. An examiner blinded to group assignment took measures pre- and post-treatment of shoulder active range of motion (AROM) and perceived effects of the assigned intervention. Treatment consisted of six upper, middle and lower thoracic SMT or sham-SMT. The sham-SMT was identical to the SMT, except no thrust was applied. Believability as an active treatment was measured post-treatment. Believability as an active treatment was not different between groups (χ2 = 2.19; p = 0.15). Perceptions of effects were not different between groups at pre-treatment (t = 0.12; p = 0.90) or post-treatment (t = 0.40; p = 0.69), and demonstrated equivalency with 95% confidence between groups at pre- and post-treatment. There was no significant change in shoulder flexion in either group over time, or in the sham-SMT for internal rotation (p > 0.05). The SMT group had an increase of 6.49° in internal rotation over time (p = 0.04). The thoracic sham-SMT of this study is a plausible comparator for SMT in patients with shoulder pain. The sham-SMT was believable as an active treatment, perceived as having equal beneficial effects both when verbally described and after familiarization with the treatment, and has an inert effect on shoulder AROM. This comparator can be considered for used in clinical trials investigating thoracic SMT. IRB number HM 13182. PMID:25261090

  13. Velocity form of the Kohn-Sham frequency-dependent polarizability equations

    SciTech Connect

    Bartolotti, L.J.

    1987-11-01

    A single equation is derived for the determination of the first-order correction to the frequency-dependent density, due to the perturbation of a time-varying electric field. This new expression for the first-order correction to the frequency-dependent Kohn-Sham amplitudes depends explicitly upon the velocity form of the dipole-moment operator and the square of the Kohn-Sham Hamiltonian.

  14. Corynebacterium parvum augments antibody production in splenectomized mice and mice with sham operations.

    PubMed Central

    Hebert, J C; Ershler, W B; Gamelli, R L

    1985-01-01

    The antibody response to a variety of antigens, including pneumococcal polysaccharides, is diminished in splenectomized (splx) mice. We investigated the capacity for the biological response modifier Corynebacterium parvum to augment antibody production in splx and sham-splx mice inoculated with pneumococcal polysaccharides and tetanus toxoid. As expected, antibody response to tetanus toxoid was similar in both splx mice and sham-splx mice. C. parvum augmented anti-tetanus toxoid antibody in both sham-splx (P less than 0.05) and splx mice (P less than 0.05). Antibody against pneumococcal type 3 polysaccharides was decreased in splx mice compared with sham-splx mice (P less than 0.05). Both groups treated coincidently with C. parvum and pneumococcal type 3 polysaccharides demonstrated a biphasic antibody response which was greater than that observed in saline-treated controls (sham-splx, P less than 0.001; splx, P less than 0.05). Whereas the secondary peak response to pneumococcal type 3 polysaccharides after treatments with C. parvum appears to be due to persistent elevations of immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M in sham-splx mice, it is primarily due to antibody of the immunoglobulin G class alone in the splx mice. PMID:3997248

  15. The F-actin bundler α-actinin Ain1 is tailored for ring assembly and constriction during cytokinesis in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Li, Yujie; Christensen, Jenna R; Homa, Kaitlin E; Hocky, Glen M; Fok, Alice; Sees, Jennifer A; Voth, Gregory A; Kovar, David R

    2016-06-01

    The actomyosin contractile ring is a network of cross-linked actin filaments that facilitates cytokinesis in dividing cells. Contractile ring formation has been well characterized in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, in which the cross-linking protein α-actinin SpAin1 bundles the actin filament network. However, the specific biochemical properties of SpAin1 and whether they are tailored for cytokinesis are not known. Therefore we purified SpAin1 and quantified its ability to dynamically bind and bundle actin filaments in vitro using a combination of bulk sedimentation assays and direct visualization by two-color total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. We found that, while SpAin1 bundles actin filaments of mixed polarity like other α-actinins, SpAin1 has lower bundling activity and is more dynamic than human α-actinin HsACTN4. To determine whether dynamic bundling is important for cytokinesis in fission yeast, we created the less dynamic bundling mutant SpAin1(R216E). We found that dynamic bundling is critical for cytokinesis, as cells expressing SpAin1(R216E) display disorganized ring material and delays in both ring formation and constriction. Furthermore, computer simulations of initial actin filament elongation and alignment revealed that an intermediate level of cross-linking best facilitates filament alignment. Together our results demonstrate that dynamic bundling by SpAin1 is important for proper contractile ring formation and constriction. PMID:27075176

  16. The F-actin bundler α-actinin Ain1 is tailored for ring assembly and constriction during cytokinesis in fission yeast

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yujie; Christensen, Jenna R.; Homa, Kaitlin E.; Hocky, Glen M.; Fok, Alice; Sees, Jennifer A.; Voth, Gregory A.; Kovar, David R.

    2016-01-01

    The actomyosin contractile ring is a network of cross-linked actin filaments that facilitates cytokinesis in dividing cells. Contractile ring formation has been well characterized in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, in which the cross-linking protein α-actinin SpAin1 bundles the actin filament network. However, the specific biochemical properties of SpAin1 and whether they are tailored for cytokinesis are not known. Therefore we purified SpAin1 and quantified its ability to dynamically bind and bundle actin filaments in vitro using a combination of bulk sedimentation assays and direct visualization by two-color total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. We found that, while SpAin1 bundles actin filaments of mixed polarity like other α-actinins, SpAin1 has lower bundling activity and is more dynamic than human α-actinin HsACTN4. To determine whether dynamic bundling is important for cytokinesis in fission yeast, we created the less dynamic bundling mutant SpAin1(R216E). We found that dynamic bundling is critical for cytokinesis, as cells expressing SpAin1(R216E) display disorganized ring material and delays in both ring formation and constriction. Furthermore, computer simulations of initial actin filament elongation and alignment revealed that an intermediate level of cross-linking best facilitates filament alignment. Together our results demonstrate that dynamic bundling by SpAin1 is important for proper contractile ring formation and constriction. PMID:27075176

  17. Analysis of Urban Expansion of the Resort City of Al Ain Using Remote Sensing and GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Issa, S.; Al Shuwaihi, A.

    2009-12-01

    The urban growth of AL Ain city has been investigated using remote sensing data for three different dates, 1972, 1990 and 2000. We used three Landsat images together with socio-economic data in a post-classification analysis to map the spatial dynamics of land use/cover changes and identify the urbanization process in Al Ain resort city, United Arab Emirates. Land use/cover statistics, extracted from Landsat Multi-spectral Scanner (MSS). Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM +) images for 1972. 1990 and 2000 respectively, revealed that the built-up area has expanded by about 170.53km2. The city was found to have a tendency for major expansion in four different directions: along the Abu Dhabi highway, along Dubai highway, Myziad direction and Hafeet recreational area. Expansion in any direction was found to be governed by the availability of road network, suitability for construction, utilities, economic activities, geographical constraints, and legal factors (boundary with Sultanate of Oman). The road network in particular has influenced the spatial patterns and structure of urban development, so that the expansion of the built-up areas has assumed an accretive as well as linear growth along the major roads. The research concludes that the development is based on conservation of agricultural areas (oases) and reclamation of the desert for farming and agricultural activities. The integration of remote sensing and GIS was found to be effective in monitoring LULC changes and providing valuable information necessary for planning and research.

  18. Tucker-tensor algorithm for large-scale Kohn-Sham density functional theory calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motamarri, Phani; Gavini, Vikram; Blesgen, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    In this work, we propose a systematic way of computing a low-rank globally adapted localized Tucker-tensor basis for solving the Kohn-Sham density functional theory (DFT) problem. In every iteration of the self-consistent field procedure of the Kohn-Sham DFT problem, we construct an additive separable approximation of the Kohn-Sham Hamiltonian. The Tucker-tensor basis is chosen such as to span the tensor product of the one-dimensional eigenspaces corresponding to each of the spatially separable Hamiltonians, and the localized Tucker-tensor basis is constructed from localized representations of these one-dimensional eigenspaces. This Tucker-tensor basis forms a complete basis, and is naturally adapted to the Kohn-Sham Hamiltonian. Further, the locality of this basis in real-space allows us to exploit reduced-order scaling algorithms for the solution of the discrete Kohn-Sham eigenvalue problem. In particular, we use Chebyshev filtering to compute the eigenspace of the Kohn-Sham Hamiltonian, and evaluate nonorthogonal localized wave functions spanning the Chebyshev filtered space, all represented in the Tucker-tensor basis. We thereby compute the electron-density and other quantities of interest, using a Fermi-operator expansion of the Hamiltonian projected onto the subspace spanned by the nonorthogonal localized wave functions. Numerical results on benchmark examples involving pseudopotential calculations suggest an exponential convergence of the ground-state energy with the Tucker rank. Interestingly, the rank of the Tucker-tensor basis required to obtain chemical accuracy is found to be only weakly dependent on the system size, which results in close to linear-scaling complexity for Kohn-Sham DFT calculations for both insulating and metallic systems. A comparative study has revealed significant computational efficiencies afforded by the proposed Tucker-tensor approach in comparison to a plane-wave basis.

  19. Is sham cTBS real cTBS? The effect on EEG dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Opitz, Alexander; Legon, Wynn; Mueller, Jerel; Barbour, Aaron; Paulus, Walter; Tyler, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing sensitivity of modern evaluation tools allows for the study of weaker electric stimulation effects on neural populations. In the current study we examined the effects of sham continuous theta burst (cTBS) transcranial magnetic stimulation to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) upon somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) and frontal-parietal phase coupling of alpha and beta bands. Sham TMS results in an induced electric field amplitude roughly 5% that of real TMS with a similar spatial extent in cortex. Both real and sham cTBS reduced the amplitude of the frontal P14-N30 SEP and increased local phase coupling in the alpha-beta frequency bands of left frontal cortex. In addition, both sham and real cTBS increased frontal-parietal phase coupling in the alpha-beta bands concomitant with an increase in amplitude of parietal P50-N70 complex. These data suggest that weak electric fields from sham cTBS can affect both local and downstream neuronal circuits, though in a different manner than high strength TMS. PMID:25620925

  20. THE ETHICS OF SHAM SURGERY IN PARKINSON'S DISEASE: BACK TO THE FUTURE?

    PubMed Central

    Swift, Teresa; Huxtable, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Despite intense academic debate in the recent past over the use of ‘sham surgery’ control groups in research, there has been a recent resurgence in their use in the field of neurodegenerative disease. Yet the primacy of ethical arguments in favour of sham surgery controls is not yet established. Preliminary empirical research shows an asymmetry between the views of neurosurgical researchers and patients on the subject, while different ethical guidelines and regulations support conflicting interpretations. Research ethics committees faced with a proposal involving sham surgery should be aware of its ethical complexities. An overview of recent and current placebo-controlled surgical trials in the field of Parkinson's Disease is provided here, followed by an analysis of the key ethical issues which such trials raise. PMID:22150772

  1. Orbital relaxation effects on Kohn–Sham frontier orbital energies in density functional theory

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, DaDi; Zheng, Xiao; Li, Chen; Yang, Weitao

    2015-04-21

    We explore effects of orbital relaxation on Kohn–Sham frontier orbital energies in density functional theory by using a nonempirical scaling correction approach developed in Zheng et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 138, 174105 (2013)]. Relaxation of Kohn–Sham orbitals upon addition/removal of a fractional number of electrons to/from a finite system is determined by a systematic perturbative treatment. The information of orbital relaxation is then used to improve the accuracy of predicted Kohn–Sham frontier orbital energies by Hartree–Fock, local density approximation, and generalized gradient approximation methods. The results clearly highlight the significance of capturing the orbital relaxation effects. Moreover, the proposed scaling correction approach provides a useful way of computing derivative gaps and Fukui quantities of N-electron finite systems (N is an integer), without the need to perform self-consistent-field calculations for (N ± 1)-electron systems.

  2. Is sham acupuncture as effective as traditional Chinese acupuncture? It's too early to say.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li-Li; Chu, Qin; Wang, Shu; Lai, Hilary; Xie, Bing-Bing

    2016-07-01

    Many clinical trials and experimental studies claim that sham acupuncture is as effective as traditional Chinese acupuncture. However, these studies have no standard sham acupuncture control and many other factors can affect the clinical effect. These factors include needle retention time, treatment frequency, and the total number of treatments needed for satisfactory results, and all can change the clinical effect. The majority of existing acupuncture treatment studies do not consider these factors and lack standard dosage criteria. Therefore, it is still too early to conclude that sham acupuncture is as effective as traditional Chinese acupuncture. This article investigates the factors that influence the curative effect of acupuncture as to help set a standard for acupuncture studies in the future. PMID:27081001

  3. Acupoint Stimulation on Weight Reduction for Obesity: A Randomized Sham-Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Mei-Ling; Chu, Nain-Feng; Hsu, Man-Ying F; Hsu, Chin-Che; Chung, Yu-Chu

    2015-12-01

    Auricular acupoint stimulation has become a popular weight loss method. However, its efficacy for obesity treatment has not been fully studied. This study aimed to investigate the effect of a 10-week intervention of auricular electrical stimulation combined with auricular acupressure on weight reduction in obese outpatients. In this single-blind randomized sham-controlled study, 134 participants were randomly assigned to an experimental group receiving stimulation at true acupoints, or a sham group receiving stimulation delivered in the same manner but at sham acupoints. Each participant received nutrition counseling by a nutritionist weekly. The results showed significant differences in body mass index, blood pressure, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and leptin or adiponectin over time within the group, but not between the groups. This study could not exclude the effect of placebo and dietary consultation. Further study that adds a control group receiving no treatment is therefore needed to confirm the effects of auricular acupressure. PMID:25183702

  4. Acupuncture versus Sham Acupuncture for Chronic Prostatitis/Chronic Pelvic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Shaun Wen Huey; Liong, Men Long; Yuen, Kah Hay; Leong, Wing Seng; Chee, Christopher; Cheah, Phaik Yeong; Choong, Weng Pho; Wu, Yue; Khan, Nurzalina; Choong, Wooi Long; Yap, Hin Wai; Krieger, John N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) afflicts 2–10% of adult men. Available therapies offer little or no proven benefit. Because acupuncture represents an attractive “natural” therapy, we compared the efficacy of acupuncture to sham acupuncture for CP/CPPS Methods Participants met US National Institutes of Health (NIH) consensus criteria for CP/CPPS, aged ≥ 20 years old, with total score ≥ 15 on the NIH-Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI) and symptoms for at least 3 of the preceding 6 months were randomized 1:1 to acupuncture or sham acupuncture. Treatment consisted of twice weekly 30-minute sessions for 10 weeks (20 sessions total), without needle stimulation, herbs or adjuvants. The primary response criterion was a six-point decrease from baseline to week 10 in NIH-CPSI total score (range 0–43). Results Thirty-two (73%) of 44 participants responded in the acupuncture group compared to 21 (47%) of 45 sham group participants (relative risk [RR] 1.81, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3–3.1, p=0.02,). Long-term responses 24 weeks after completing therapy without additional treatment occurred in 14 (32%) of 44 acupuncture group participants and in 6 (13%) of 45 sham group participants (RR 2.39, 95% CI, 1.0–5.6, p=0.04). Conclusion After 10 weeks of treatment, acupuncture proved almost twice as likely as sham to improve CP/CPPS symptoms. Participants receiving acupuncture were 2.4 fold more likely to experience long-term benefit than participants receiving sham acupuncture. PMID:18187077

  5. Alternative to the Kohn-Sham equations: The Pauli potential differential equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levämäki, H.; Nagy, Á.; Kokko, K.; Vitos, L.

    2015-12-01

    A recently developed theoretical framework of performing self-consistent orbital-free (OF) density functional theory (DFT) calculations at Kohn-Sham DFT level accuracy is tested in practice. The framework is valid for spherically symmetric systems. Numerical results for the Beryllium atom are presented and compared to accurate Kohn-Sham data. These calculations make use of a differential equation that we have developed for the so called Pauli potential, a key quantity in OF-DFT. The Pauli potential differential equation and the OF Euler equation form a system of two coupled differential equations, which have to be solved simultaneously within the DFT self-consistent loop.

  6. Kohn–Sham exchange-correlation potentials from second-order reduced density matrices

    SciTech Connect

    Cuevas-Saavedra, Rogelio; Staroverov, Viktor N.; Ayers, Paul W.

    2015-12-28

    We describe a practical algorithm for constructing the Kohn–Sham exchange-correlation potential corresponding to a given second-order reduced density matrix. Unlike conventional Kohn–Sham inversion methods in which such potentials are extracted from ground-state electron densities, the proposed technique delivers unambiguous results in finite basis sets. The approach can also be used to separate approximately the exchange and correlation potentials for a many-electron system for which the reduced density matrix is known. The algorithm is implemented for configuration-interaction wave functions and its performance is illustrated with numerical examples.

  7. Prevalence and correlates of childhood fears in Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, N A; Eapen, V; Bener, A

    2001-05-01

    The prevalence of fear was explored in 340 adolescents in Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates. More than 50% reported feeling extremely frightened of 6 out of 60 fear items surveyed. These items were: someone dying in the family (66.5%), parents getting divorced (65.3%), the devil (63.8%), breaking a religious law (61.5%), being kidnapped (53.2%) and being adopted (49.9%). The level of fear showed a significant positive correlation with female gender, parental death/divorce, living with a single parent/relatives, living in low income families and an adverse home environment. Nearly half of the children reported that the fear caused considerable distress and interfered with daily activities. PMID:12690762

  8. Breastfeeding and supplemental feeding for neonates in Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    al-Mazroui, M J; Oyejide, C O; Bener, A; Cheema, M Y

    1997-10-01

    A prospective cohort study was carried out to determine the factors affecting initiation of breastfeeding, and describe patterns of breastfeeding and supplemental feeding in the multiethnically and culturally diverse population of Al Ain, UAE. Two-hundred-and-twenty-one infants completed the 4 weeks of follow up. None of the mothers opted not to breastfeed, but only 4 per cent of them practiced exclusive breastfeeding during the first month of the infants' life; 51 per cent of them initiated breastfeeding on the first day of life. Factors associated with delayed initiation of breastfeeding beyond the first day of life included low birth weight, complicated delivery, ignorance of the advantages of colostrum, and young maternal age. Non-milk supplements fed to babies included water, tea, juice, yansun, and babunj (local herbal drinks). The preferred method of feeding the supplements was the feeding bottle. There were significant associations between the use of these supplements and the mother's nationality and education. PMID:9364130

  9. Acupuncture treatment for ischaemic stroke in young adults: protocol for a randomised, sham-controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lifang; Fang, Jianqiao; Jin, Xiaoming; Keeler, Crystal Lynn; Gao, Hong; Fang, Zhen; Chen, Qin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Stroke in young adults is not uncommon. Although the overall incidence of stroke has been recently declining, the incidence of stroke in young adults is increasing. Traditional vascular risk factors are the main cause of young ischaemic stroke. Acupuncture has been shown to benefit stroke rehabilitation and ameliorate the risk factors for stroke. The aims of this study were to determine whether acupuncture treatment will be effective in improving the activities of daily living (ADL), motor function and quality of life (QOL) in patients of young ischaemic stroke, and in preventing stroke recurrence by controlling blood pressure, lipids and body weight. Methods and analysis In this randomised, sham-controlled, participant-blinded and assessor-blinded clinical trial, 120 patients between 18 and 45 years of age with a recent (within 1 month) ischaemic stroke will be randomised for an 8-week acupuncture or sham acupuncture treatment. The primary outcome will be the Barthel Index for ADL. The secondary outcomes will include the Fugl-Meyer Assessment for motor function; the World Health Organization Quality of Life BREF (WHOQOL-BREF) for QOL; and risk factors that are measured by ambulatory blood pressure, the fasting serum lipid, body mass index and waist circumference. Incidence of adverse events and long-term mortality and recurrence rate during a 10-year and 30-year follow-up will also be investigated. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval was obtained from the Ethics Committee of The Third Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang Chinese Medical University. Protocol V.3 was approved in June 2013. The results will be disseminated in a peer-reviewed journal and presented at international congresses. The results will also be disseminated to patients by telephone during follow-up calls enquiring on the patient's post-study health status. Trial registration number ChiCTR-TRC- 13003317; Pre-results. PMID:26739742

  10. Time-dependent density functional theory beyond Kohn-Sham Slater determinants.

    PubMed

    Fuks, Johanna I; Nielsen, Søren E B; Ruggenthaler, Michael; Maitra, Neepa T

    2016-08-01

    When running time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations for real-time simulations of non-equilibrium dynamics, the user has a choice of initial Kohn-Sham state, and typically a Slater determinant is used. We explore the impact of this choice on the exchange-correlation potential when the physical system begins in a 50 : 50 superposition of the ground and first-excited state of the system. We investigate the possibility of judiciously choosing a Kohn-Sham initial state that minimizes errors when adiabatic functionals are used. We find that if the Kohn-Sham state is chosen to have a configuration matching the one that dominates the interacting state, this can be achieved for a finite time duration for some but not all such choices. When the Kohn-Sham system does not begin in a Slater determinant, we further argue that the conventional splitting of the exchange-correlation potential into exchange and correlation parts has limited value, and instead propose a decomposition into a "single-particle" contribution that we denote v, and a remainder. The single-particle contribution can be readily computed as an explicit orbital-functional, reduces to exchange in the Slater determinant case, and offers an alternative to the adiabatic approximation as a starting point for TDDFT approximations. PMID:27010732

  11. Light-Emitting Diode Versus Sham in the Treatment of Plantar Fasciitis: A Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Paul E.; Hews, Katherine; Windon, Lowell; Chasse, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this preliminary study was to compare the application of the light emitting diode (LED) to sham LED in the treatment of plantar fasciitis. Methods Eighteen subjects met the inclusion criteria and were randomly assigned into 2 groups: light emitting diode or sham LED. The subjects received either the LED at 12 J/cm2 or sham LED along 2 points of the plantar fascia. Subjects in both groups received a 10 minute transverse friction massage and participated in 4 plantar fascia stretching exercises. All subjects received a total of 6 treatments over 3 weeks. Progress was assessed using the lower extremity functional and analog pain scale. Results No significant difference was found between treatment groups (P = .845). There was a significant difference in pain and outcome scores over time within both groups (P < .35). Conclusion Among patients with plantar fasciitis, the use of LED did not result in greater improvement in function or pain compared with sham treatment. The findings suggest that manual intervention and passive stretching activities may have provided significant pain relief and improvement in functional outcome scores. PMID:26644784

  12. EEG Neurofeedback for ADHD: Double-Blind Sham-Controlled Randomized Pilot Feasibility Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, L. Eugene; Lofthouse, Nicholas; Hersch, Sarah; Pan, Xueliang; Hurt, Elizabeth; Bates, Bethany; Kassouf, Kathleen; Moone, Stacey; Grantier, Cara

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Preparing for a definitive randomized clinical trial (RCT) of neurofeedback (NF) for ADHD, this pilot trial explored feasibility of a double-blind, sham-controlled design and adherence/palatability/relative effect of two versus three treatments/week. Method: Unmedicated 6- to 12-year-olds with "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of…

  13. Inhibition of sham feeding-stimulated acid secretion in dogs by immunoneutralization of gastrin.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, T O; Lloyd, K C; Lawson, D C; Pappas, T N; Walsh, J H

    1997-08-01

    A monoclonal antibody to gastrin was used to study the role of circulating gastrin in mediating acid secretion stimulated by sham feeding in dogs. On separate days, four conscious, fasted, adult mongrel dogs with esophageal and gastric fistulae were pretreated intravenously with either 7 mg of gastrin monoclonal antibody (MAb 28.2), 7 mg of keyhole limpet hemocyanin monoclonal antibody as control, or 12.5 micrograms/kg atropine sulfate. Thirty minutes later, acid secretion was stimulated first by sham feeding for 5 min, then, 60 min later, by an intravenous infusion of a maximum stimulatory dose of histamine (40 micrograms/kg) for 60 min, and after returning to basal, by intravenous infusion of a submaximal stimulatory dose of gastrin (200 pmol.kg-1.h-1) for 60 min. Acid output from secretions collected every 15 min by gravity drainage was determined by titration to pH 7.0 with 0.2 N NaOH. Sham feeding-stimulated acid output (17.7 +/- 5.5 mmol/h) was significantly inhibited by administration of either MAb 28.2 (0 mmol/h) or atropine (1.7 +/- 1.1 mmol/h). Histamine-stimulated acid output (19.6 +/- 3.4 mmol/h) was not reduced by either pretreatment. Gastrin-stimulated acid output (3.9 +/- 0.6 mmol/h) was significantly reduced only by pretreatment with MAb 28.2 (0.1 +/- 0.1 mmol/h) and not by atropine (2.2 +/- 1.4 mmol/h). A background intravenous infusion of pentagastrin (0.5 microgram.kg-1.h-1) restored sham feeding-stimulated acid output blocked by administration of MAb 28.2, although the intrinsic acid response to sham feeding could not be seen with the background pentagastrin infusion. Furthermore, the plasma gastrin response to sham feeding was not blocked by atropine pretreatment. Because immunoneutralization of both gastrin and cholinergic blockade significantly inhibited acid output during sham feeding, circulating gastrin and cholinergic pathways are involved in mediating the cephalic phase of gastric acid secretion in dogs. PMID:9277419

  14. [Electrogastrography: responses to food and sham feeding and relationships with gastric emptying of solids in men].

    PubMed

    Bruley des Varannes, S; Bury, A; Lartigue, S; Bizais, Y; Galmiche, J P

    1993-01-01

    Cutaneous electrogastrography is a non invasive method to study gastric electromechanical activity. The aim of this work was to determine the amplitude of electrogastrographic (EGG) activity a) during fasting, b) after a meal, c) following vagal stimulation by sham feeding, and to determine the relationship between gastric emptying of solids and EGG activity. EGG activity was recorded in eight healthy subjects in various experimental conditions, twice after sham feeding, twice after a meal, and once during the simultaneous scintigraphic assessment of gastric emptying of the solid component of a meal. During one of the sham feeding tests, subjects were intubated and acid secretion was measured. The EGG signal amplitude was continuously monitored and an intercorrelation function (IF) was calculated using the Fast Fourier Transforms of electrical activity recorded by 2 cutaneous electrodes placed on the epigastric area. During fasting, IF was usually of low amplitude with occasional short increases of amplitude. Sham feeding without intubation rarely induced an early and brief increase in IF amplitude (2 of 8 subjects). Sham feeding-induced acid secretion was negatively correlated with IF amplitude (r = 0.78, P = 0.02) suggesting a motor inhibition associated with vagally stimulated acid secretion. When given orally, meals induced an increase in IF amplitude, but there was major intra- and interindividual variations. There was no significant correlation between the IF increase and the half emptying time for solids (r = 0.62, P = 0.10). This study shows that the high variability of EGG activity during fasting considerably hampers the analysis of changes induced by any stimulus.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8500697

  15. High pressure sintering of non-oxide materials. [hot pressing AIN, TiC, and alpha-Si3N4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimado, M.; Ogawa, N.; Koizumi, M.

    1979-01-01

    Pure materials of AIN, alpha-Si3N4 and TiC, without additives were sintered at 800 C to 1400 C under the pressures of 30 kbar and 50 kbar for 0.5 hours. The maximum density of sintered bodies for the cited materials was nearly 100% for AIN, 98% for TiC and 96% for alpha-Si3N4.

  16. Collective mode formulation of the response algorithm for solving Kohn-Sham equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auer, J.; Krotscheck, E.

    2003-04-01

    We have developed a "collective mode" version of the response-iteration algorithm for solving the nonlinear Kohn-Sham equations. The algorithm utilizes approximation methods for the density-density response function that are known from microscopic many-body theories of strongly interacting Fermi systems. The major advantage over our previously proposed algorithm (J. Auer and E. Krotscheck, Comput. Phys. Comm. 118 (1999) 139-144) is that the new method needs the computation of occupied states only. Using spherical jellium clusters with up to 2000 electrons as an example, we show that the approximations implicit to our new algorithms do not deteriorate the convergence rate. An even simpler version approximates the density-density response function by that of a charged bose gas with the same density. This algorithm converges somewhat more slowly, but still provides a viable method for solving Kohn-Sham equations for small clusters.

  17. Determination of Kohn-Sham effective potentials from electron densities using the differential virial theorem.

    PubMed

    Ryabinkin, Ilya G; Staroverov, Viktor N

    2012-10-28

    We present an accurate method for constructing the Kohn-Sham effective potential corresponding to a given electron density in one-dimensional and spherically symmetric systems. The method is based on the differential virial theorem--an exact relation between the effective potential, the electron density, and the kinetic energy density. A distinctive feature of the proposed technique is that it employs a size-consistent bosonic reference potential to ensure the correct asymptotic behavior of the resulting Kohn-Sham potential. We describe a practical implementation of our method and use it to obtain high-quality exchange-correlation and correlation potentials of the neon and argon atoms from ab initio densities generated in large Slater- and Gaussian-type basis sets. PMID:23126701

  18. Acupuncture inhibits vagal gastric acid secretion stimulated by sham feeding in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Lux, G; Hagel, J; Bäcker, P; Bäcker, G; Vogl, R; Ruppin, H; Domschke, S; Domschke, W

    1994-08-01

    In a prospective randomised study, the effect of acupuncture on sham feeding stimulated gastric acid secretion was investigated. In eight healthy volunteers (five men, three women, mean (SEM) age 26.3 (4.7) years) various methods of acupuncture were performed. Apart from the sham procedure, the acupuncture was performed at the classic acupuncture points. Electroacupuncture reduced gastric acid secretion expressed as median (range) significantly during the first 30 minute period to 1.6 (0-5.2) mmol compared with 3.8 (2.3-14.5) mmol (p < 0.05) during control period (sham feeding without acupuncture). Inhibition of gastric acid secretion by electroacupuncture was also significant during the second 30 minute period (0.2 (0-5.6) v 3.6 (0.3-9.1) mmol; p < 0.05) and for peak acid output (0.8 (0.2-5.1) v 7.6 (3.4-12.1) mmol; p < 0.05). Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation also resulted in significant reduction of gastric acid secretion during the first 30 minute period (1.0 (0-3.6) mmol v 3.8 (2.3-14.5) mmol; p < 0.05), and peak acid output (3.6 (1.2-12.0) v 7.6 (3.4-12.1) mmol; p < 0.05). The classic needle acupuncture, laser acupuncture, and sham acupuncture had no significant effect on gastric acid secretion. This study shows firstly that in healthy volunteers, only the versions of acupuncture using more pronounced stimulation (electroacupuncture, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation), but not those with only mild stimulation of the nerves (classic needle acupuncture, laser acupuncture), and secondly only acupuncture performed at defined points lead to significant reduction in gastric acid secretion. PMID:7926899

  19. Acupuncture inhibits vagal gastric acid secretion stimulated by sham feeding in healthy subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Lux, G; Hagel, J; Bäcker, P; Bäcker, G; Vogl, R; Ruppin, H; Domschke, S; Domschke, W

    1994-01-01

    In a prospective randomised study, the effect of acupuncture on sham feeding stimulated gastric acid secretion was investigated. In eight healthy volunteers (five men, three women, mean (SEM) age 26.3 (4.7) years) various methods of acupuncture were performed. Apart from the sham procedure, the acupuncture was performed at the classic acupuncture points. Electroacupuncture reduced gastric acid secretion expressed as median (range) significantly during the first 30 minute period to 1.6 (0-5.2) mmol compared with 3.8 (2.3-14.5) mmol (p < 0.05) during control period (sham feeding without acupuncture). Inhibition of gastric acid secretion by electroacupuncture was also significant during the second 30 minute period (0.2 (0-5.6) v 3.6 (0.3-9.1) mmol; p < 0.05) and for peak acid output (0.8 (0.2-5.1) v 7.6 (3.4-12.1) mmol; p < 0.05). Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation also resulted in significant reduction of gastric acid secretion during the first 30 minute period (1.0 (0-3.6) mmol v 3.8 (2.3-14.5) mmol; p < 0.05), and peak acid output (3.6 (1.2-12.0) v 7.6 (3.4-12.1) mmol; p < 0.05). The classic needle acupuncture, laser acupuncture, and sham acupuncture had no significant effect on gastric acid secretion. This study shows firstly that in healthy volunteers, only the versions of acupuncture using more pronounced stimulation (electroacupuncture, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation), but not those with only mild stimulation of the nerves (classic needle acupuncture, laser acupuncture), and secondly only acupuncture performed at defined points lead to significant reduction in gastric acid secretion. PMID:7926899

  20. Expression of Fos during sham sucrose intake in rats with central gustatory lesions

    PubMed Central

    Mungarndee, Suriyaphun S.; Lundy, Robert F.; Norgren, Ralph

    2008-01-01

    For humans and rodents, ingesting sucrose is rewarding. This experiment tested the prediction that the neural activity produced by sapid sucrose reaches reward systems via projections from the pons through the limbic system. Gastric cannulas drained ingested fluid before absorption. For 10 days, the rats alternated an hour of this sham ingestion between sucrose and water. On the final test day, half of them sham drank water and the other half 0.6 M sucrose. Thirty minutes later, the rats were killed and their brains immunohistochemically stained for Fos. The groups consisted of controls and rats with excitotoxic lesions in the gustatory thalamus (TTA), the medial (gustatory) parabrachial nucleus (PBN), or the lateral (visceral afferent) parabrachial nucleus. In controls, compared with water, sham ingesting sucrose produced significantly more Fos-positive neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract, PBN, TTA, and gustatory cortex (GC). In the ventral forebrain, sucrose sham licking increased Fos in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, central nucleus of amygdala, and the shell of nucleus accumbens. Thalamic lesions blocked the sucrose effect in GC but not in the ventral forebrain. After lateral PBN lesions, the Fos distributions produced by distilled H2O or sucrose intake did not differ from controls. Bilateral medial PBN damage, however, eliminated the sucrose-induced Fos increase not only in the TTA and GC but also in the ventral forebrain. Thus ventral forebrain areas associated with affective responses appear to be activated directly by PBN gustatory neurons rather than via the thalamocortical taste system. PMID:18635449

  1. Expression of Fos during sham sucrose intake in rats with central gustatory lesions.

    PubMed

    Mungarndee, Suriyaphun S; Lundy, Robert F; Norgren, Ralph

    2008-09-01

    For humans and rodents, ingesting sucrose is rewarding. This experiment tested the prediction that the neural activity produced by sapid sucrose reaches reward systems via projections from the pons through the limbic system. Gastric cannulas drained ingested fluid before absorption. For 10 days, the rats alternated an hour of this sham ingestion between sucrose and water. On the final test day, half of them sham drank water and the other half 0.6 M sucrose. Thirty minutes later, the rats were killed and their brains immunohistochemically stained for Fos. The groups consisted of controls and rats with excitotoxic lesions in the gustatory thalamus (TTA), the medial (gustatory) parabrachial nucleus (PBN), or the lateral (visceral afferent) parabrachial nucleus. In controls, compared with water, sham ingesting sucrose produced significantly more Fos-positive neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract, PBN, TTA, and gustatory cortex (GC). In the ventral forebrain, sucrose sham licking increased Fos in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, central nucleus of amygdala, and the shell of nucleus accumbens. Thalamic lesions blocked the sucrose effect in GC but not in the ventral forebrain. After lateral PBN lesions, the Fos distributions produced by distilled H(2)O or sucrose intake did not differ from controls. Bilateral medial PBN damage, however, eliminated the sucrose-induced Fos increase not only in the TTA and GC but also in the ventral forebrain. Thus ventral forebrain areas associated with affective responses appear to be activated directly by PBN gustatory neurons rather than via the thalamocortical taste system. PMID:18635449

  2. ACKS2: Atom-condensed Kohn-Sham DFT approximated to second order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verstraelen, T.; Ayers, P. W.; Van Speybroeck, V.; Waroquier, M.

    2013-02-01

    A new polarizable force field (PFF), namely atom-condensed Kohn-Sham density functional theory approximated to second order (ACKS2), is proposed for the efficient computation of atomic charges and linear response properties of extended molecular systems. It is derived from Kohn-Sham density functional theory (KS-DFT), making use of two novel ingredients in the context of PFFs: (i) constrained atomic populations and (ii) the Legendre transform of the Kohn-Sham kinetic energy. ACKS2 is essentially an extension of the Electronegativity Equalization Method (EEM) [W. J. Mortier, S. K. Ghosh, and S. Shankar, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 108, 4315 (1986)], 10.1021/ja00275a013 in which two major EEM shortcomings are fixed: ACKS2 predicts a linear size-dependence of the dipole polarizability in the macroscopic limit and correctly describes the charge distribution when a molecule dissociates. All ACKS2 parameters are defined as atoms-in-molecules expectation values. The implementation of ACKS2 is very similar to that of EEM, with only a small increase in computational cost.

  3. A spectral scheme for Kohn-Sham density functional theory of clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Amartya S.; Elliott, Ryan S.; James, Richard D.

    2015-04-01

    Starting from the observation that one of the most successful methods for solving the Kohn-Sham equations for periodic systems - the plane-wave method - is a spectral method based on eigenfunction expansion, we formulate a spectral method designed towards solving the Kohn-Sham equations for clusters. This allows for efficient calculation of the electronic structure of clusters (and molecules) with high accuracy and systematic convergence properties without the need for any artificial periodicity. The basis functions in this method form a complete orthonormal set and are expressible in terms of spherical harmonics and spherical Bessel functions. Computation of the occupied eigenstates of the discretized Kohn-Sham Hamiltonian is carried out using a combination of preconditioned block eigensolvers and Chebyshev polynomial filter accelerated subspace iterations. Several algorithmic and computational aspects of the method, including computation of the electrostatics terms and parallelization are discussed. We have implemented these methods and algorithms into an efficient and reliable package called ClusterES (Cluster Electronic Structure). A variety of benchmark calculations employing local and non-local pseudopotentials are carried out using our package and the results are compared to the literature. Convergence properties of the basis set are discussed through numerical examples. Computations involving large systems that contain thousands of electrons are demonstrated to highlight the efficacy of our methodology. The use of our method to study clusters with arbitrary point group symmetries is briefly discussed.

  4. A spectral scheme for Kohn–Sham density functional theory of clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, Amartya S. Elliott, Ryan S. James, Richard D.

    2015-04-15

    Starting from the observation that one of the most successful methods for solving the Kohn–Sham equations for periodic systems – the plane-wave method – is a spectral method based on eigenfunction expansion, we formulate a spectral method designed towards solving the Kohn–Sham equations for clusters. This allows for efficient calculation of the electronic structure of clusters (and molecules) with high accuracy and systematic convergence properties without the need for any artificial periodicity. The basis functions in this method form a complete orthonormal set and are expressible in terms of spherical harmonics and spherical Bessel functions. Computation of the occupied eigenstates of the discretized Kohn–Sham Hamiltonian is carried out using a combination of preconditioned block eigensolvers and Chebyshev polynomial filter accelerated subspace iterations. Several algorithmic and computational aspects of the method, including computation of the electrostatics terms and parallelization are discussed. We have implemented these methods and algorithms into an efficient and reliable package called ClusterES (Cluster Electronic Structure). A variety of benchmark calculations employing local and non-local pseudopotentials are carried out using our package and the results are compared to the literature. Convergence properties of the basis set are discussed through numerical examples. Computations involving large systems that contain thousands of electrons are demonstrated to highlight the efficacy of our methodology. The use of our method to study clusters with arbitrary point group symmetries is briefly discussed.

  5. Sham feeding is inhibited by dietary-induced obesity in rats.

    PubMed

    Vanderweele, D A; Van Itallie, T B

    1983-10-01

    A group of six female, albino rats were maintained on a cafeteria diet of cookies, milk, and elevated-fat (shortening), rat-chow mixture and rat chow while a similar group received only rat chow ad lib for 17 weeks. When the groups differed significantly in mean body weight (obese-387.5 g, controls-287.2 g; p less than 0.001), gastric fistulas were implanted in each animal. After recovery, the rats were adapted to a liquid diet and assessed for sham feeding. Control-fed, normal-body-weight subjects showed substantial sham feeding when ingesting the Vivonex with the fistulas open compared to fistula-closed intake; meal frequency, meal size (apart from the initial meal) and total food intake were significantly increased while the satiety ratios following each meal were significantly decreased. Obese animals showed no significant increased feeding and satiety ratios were unreliably altered; while normal-body-weight controls increased 4-hr food intakes by 93% and halved their mean satiety ratios the obese animals showed an 8% increase in 4-hr food intake and only a 22% decrease in mean satiety ratios. We offer the hypothesis that, when animals are induced to become obese by palatable and varied diets which are then terminated, the anorexia produced is independent of gastrointestinal interactions inasmuch as that anorexia extends to sham feeding. PMID:6361815

  6. Pediatric and Youth Traffic-Collision Injuries in Al Ain, United Arab Emirates: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Grivna, Michal; Eid, Hani O.; Abu-Zidan, Fikri M.

    2013-01-01

    Aim To study the mechanism of road traffic collisions (RTC), use of safety devices, and outcome of hospitalized pediatric and youth RTC injured patients so as to give recommendations regarding prevention of pediatric RTC injuries. Methods All RTC injured children and youth (0–19-year-olds) who were admitted to Al Ain City’s two major trauma centers or who died after arrival to these centers were prospectively studied from April 2006 to October 2007. Demography of patients, road-user and vehicle types, crash mechanism, usage of safety devices, injured body regions, injury severity, Revised Trauma Score, Glasgow Coma Scale, intensive care unit admissions, hospital stay and mortality were analyzed. Results 245 patients were studied, 69% were vehicle occupants, 15% pedestrians, 9% motorcyclists and 5% bicyclists. 79% were males and 67% UAE citizens. The most common mechanism of RTC was rollover of vehicle (37%) followed by front impact collision (32%). 32 (13%) of vehicle occupants were ejected from car. 63% of ejected occupants and 70% of motorcyclists sustained head injuries. Only 2% (3/170) vehicle passengers used seatbelts and 13% (3/23) motorcyclists a helmet. Conclusions Male drivers and UAE nationals were at high risk of RTC as drivers and as motorcyclists. Ejection rate was high because safety restraint use was extremely low in our community. More education and law enforcement focusing especially on car/booster seat use is needed. PMID:23861931

  7. Water-rock interaction and geochemistry of groundwater from the Ain Azel aquifer, Algeria.

    PubMed

    Belkhiri, Lazhar; Mouni, Lotfi; Tiri, Ammar

    2012-02-01

    Hydrochemical, multivariate statistical, and inverse geochemical modeling techniques were used to investigate the hydrochemical evolution within the Ain Azel aquifer, Algeria. Cluster analysis based on major ion contents defined 3 main chemical water types, reflecting different hydrochemical processes. The first group water, group 1, has low salinity (mean EC = 735 μS/cm). The second group waters are classified as Cl-HCO(3)-alkaline earth type. The third group is made up of water samples, the cation composition of which is dominated by Ca and Mg with anion composition varying from dominantly Cl to dominantly HCO(3) plus SO(4). The varifactors obtained from R-mode FA indicate that the parameters responsible for groundwater quality variations are mainly related to the presence and dissolution of some carbonate, silicate, and evaporite minerals in the aquifer. Inverse geochemical modeling along groundwater flow paths indicates the dominant processes are the consumption of CO(2), the dissolution of dolomite, gypsum, and halite, along with the precipitation of calcite, Ca-montmorillonite, illite, kaolinite, and quartz. PMID:21336647

  8. Sorption behavior of cesium on Ain Oussera soil under different physicochemical conditions.

    PubMed

    Bouzidi, A; Souahi, F; Hanini, S

    2010-12-15

    In the present study, the sorption behavior of cesium was investigated in Ain Oussera soil around the Es-Salam reactor facility. This study was conducted using batch method under different physicochemical conditions including contact time, ionic strength, pH, solid/liquid ratio and temperature. The results showed that sorption followed pseudo-second-order kinetics with a good regression coefficients (R(2)=0.999). The activation energies were 11.26 and 15.21 kJ mol(-1) which correspond to ion-exchange-type sorption mechanism. The adsorption was favored at low temperature and it was exothermic (ΔH(0)<0, with average value of -1.97 kJ mol(-1)) and spontaneous (ΔG(0)<0, with average value of -11.97 kJ mol(-1) at 23°C and -13.2 kJ mol(-1) at 60°C). The presence of competing cations such as K(+) and Ca(2+) ions in groundwater can significantly reduce the Cs adsorption onto soil. Desorption reaction was also investigated using three reagents with different ionic strengths (deionized water, groundwater and 0.1M KCl solution). The results showed that Cs ions were preferentially distributed onto high affinity sorption sites. PMID:20869168

  9. Vitamin D deficiency among healthy adolescents in Al Ain, United Arab Emirates

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although vitamin D deficiency has been studied in various adult populations, there are few data on the prevalence of this nutritional deficiency among healthy adolescents in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and to examine its correlates in adolescents aged 15 to 18 years. Methods This was a cross-sectional study in urban schools. Healthy adolescents (N=315) from a sample of 8 schools were randomly selected from the 142 schools in Al Ain, Abu Dhabi Emirate. Outcomes measured included serum concentrations of 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25OHD), plasma lipids, blood sugar, blood pressure and anthropometric data, nutrition and lifestyle variables. Results Fourty-one participants (19.7%) were vitamin D deficient (serum 25OHD level ≤15 ng/mL [≤37.5 nmol/L]. Using a cutoff level of 25(OH) D of ≤20 ng/ml [≤50 nmol/l] 143 participants (45.4%) were vitamin D insufficient. Overall 65.1% of study participants were either vitamin D deficient or insufficient. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency varied between boys (10%) and girls (28%). In a final multivariate model, serum 25(OH) D concentrations were inversely correlated with female gender, consumption of fast food per week, and body mass index and positively correlated with physical activity scores after adjustment for age. Conclusions Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency were highly prevalent in adolescents, and more common in girls. PMID:23311702

  10. Higher-order adaptive finite-element methods for Kohn–Sham density functional theory

    SciTech Connect

    Motamarri, P.; Nowak, M.R.; Leiter, K.; Knap, J.; Gavini, V.

    2013-11-15

    We present an efficient computational approach to perform real-space electronic structure calculations using an adaptive higher-order finite-element discretization of Kohn–Sham density-functional theory (DFT). To this end, we develop an a priori mesh-adaption technique to construct a close to optimal finite-element discretization of the problem. We further propose an efficient solution strategy for solving the discrete eigenvalue problem by using spectral finite-elements in conjunction with Gauss–Lobatto quadrature, and a Chebyshev acceleration technique for computing the occupied eigenspace. The proposed approach has been observed to provide a staggering 100–200-fold computational advantage over the solution of a generalized eigenvalue problem. Using the proposed solution procedure, we investigate the computational efficiency afforded by higher-order finite-element discretizations of the Kohn–Sham DFT problem. Our studies suggest that staggering computational savings—of the order of 1000-fold—relative to linear finite-elements can be realized, for both all-electron and local pseudopotential calculations, by using higher-order finite-element discretizations. On all the benchmark systems studied, we observe diminishing returns in computational savings beyond the sixth-order for accuracies commensurate with chemical accuracy, suggesting that the hexic spectral-element may be an optimal choice for the finite-element discretization of the Kohn–Sham DFT problem. A comparative study of the computational efficiency of the proposed higher-order finite-element discretizations suggests that the performance of finite-element basis is competing with the plane-wave discretization for non-periodic local pseudopotential calculations, and compares to the Gaussian basis for all-electron calculations to within an order of magnitude. Further, we demonstrate the capability of the proposed approach to compute the electronic structure of a metallic system containing 1688

  11. High-altitude headache: the effects of real vs sham oxygen administration.

    PubMed

    Benedetti, Fabrizio; Durando, Jennifer; Giudetti, Lucia; Pampallona, Alan; Vighetti, Sergio

    2015-11-01

    High-altitude, or hypobaric hypoxia, headache has recently emerged as an interesting model to study placebo and nocebo responses, and particularly their peripheral mechanisms. In this study, we analyze the response of this type of headache to either real or sham (placebo) oxygen (O(2)) administration at an altitude of 3500 m, where blood oxygen saturation (SO(2)) drops from the normal value of about 98% to about 85%. In a trial in which a double-blind administration of either 100% O(2) or sham O(2) was administered, we tested pre- and post-exercise headache, along with fatigue, heart rate (HR) responses, and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) salivary concentration. Although real O(2) breathing increased SO(2) along with a decrease in pre- and post-exercise headache, fatigue, HR, and PGE(2), placebo O(2) changed neither pre-/post-exercise headache nor SO(2)/HR/PGE(2), but it decreased fatigue. However, in another group of subjects, when sham O(2) was delivered after 2 previous exposures to O(2) (O(2) preconditioning), it decreased fatigue, post-exercise headache, HR, and PGE(2), yet without any increase in SO(2). Three main findings emerge from these data. First, placebo O(2) is effective in reducing post-exercise headache, along with HR and PGE(2) decrease, only after O(2) preconditioning. Second, pre-exercise (at rest) headache is not affected by placebo O(2), which emphasizes the limits of a placebo treatment at high altitude. Third, fatigue is affected by placebo O(2) even without prior O(2) conditioning, which suggests the higher placebo sensitivity of fatigue compared with headache pain at high altitude. PMID:26164587

  12. Higher-order adaptive finite-element methods for Kohn-Sham density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motamarri, P.; Nowak, M. R.; Leiter, K.; Knap, J.; Gavini, V.

    2013-11-01

    We present an efficient computational approach to perform real-space electronic structure calculations using an adaptive higher-order finite-element discretization of Kohn-Sham density-functional theory (DFT). To this end, we develop an a priori mesh-adaption technique to construct a close to optimal finite-element discretization of the problem. We further propose an efficient solution strategy for solving the discrete eigenvalue problem by using spectral finite-elements in conjunction with Gauss-Lobatto quadrature, and a Chebyshev acceleration technique for computing the occupied eigenspace. The proposed approach has been observed to provide a staggering 100-200-fold computational advantage over the solution of a generalized eigenvalue problem. Using the proposed solution procedure, we investigate the computational efficiency afforded by higher-order finite-element discretizations of the Kohn-Sham DFT problem. Our studies suggest that staggering computational savings-of the order of 1000-fold-relative to linear finite-elements can be realized, for both all-electron and local pseudopotential calculations, by using higher-order finite-element discretizations. On all the benchmark systems studied, we observe diminishing returns in computational savings beyond the sixth-order for accuracies commensurate with chemical accuracy, suggesting that the hexic spectral-element may be an optimal choice for the finite-element discretization of the Kohn-Sham DFT problem. A comparative study of the computational efficiency of the proposed higher-order finite-element discretizations suggests that the performance of finite-element basis is competing with the plane-wave discretization for non-periodic local pseudopotential calculations, and compares to the Gaussian basis for all-electron calculations to within an order of magnitude. Further, we demonstrate the capability of the proposed approach to compute the electronic structure of a metallic system containing 1688 atoms using

  13. Numerical Methods for a Kohn-Sham Density Functional Model Based on Optimal Transport.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huajie; Friesecke, Gero; Mendl, Christian B

    2014-10-14

    In this paper, we study numerical discretizations to solve density functional models in the "strictly correlated electrons" (SCE) framework. Unlike previous studies, our work is not restricted to radially symmetric densities. In the SCE framework, the exchange-correlation functional encodes the effects of the strong correlation regime by minimizing the pairwise Coulomb repulsion, resulting in an optimal transport problem. We give a mathematical derivation of the self-consistent Kohn-Sham-SCE equations, construct an efficient numerical discretization for this type of problem for N = 2 electrons, and apply it to the H2 molecule in its dissociating limit. PMID:26588133

  14. Existence of minimizers for Kohn-Sham within the local spin density approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gontier, David

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to extend the work by Anantharaman and Cancès (2009 Ann. Inst. Henri Poincaré (C) 26 2425-55) and prove the existence of minimizers for the spin-polarized Kohn-Sham model in the presence of a magnetic field within the local spin density approximation. We show that for any magnetic field that vanishes at infinity, the existence of minimizers is ensured for neutral or positively charged systems. The proof relies on classical concentration-compactness techniques.

  15. A Variational Framework for Spectral Approximations of Kohn-Sham Density Functional Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin-Cindy; Blesgen, Thomas; Bhattacharya, Kaushik; Ortiz, Michael

    2016-08-01

    We reformulate the Kohn-Sham density functional theory (KSDFT) as a nested variational problem in the one-particle density operator, the electrostatic potential and a field dual to the electron density. The corresponding functional is linear in the density operator and thus amenable to spectral representation. Based on this reformulation, we introduce a new approximation scheme, termed spectral binning, which does not require smoothing of the occupancy function and thus applies at arbitrarily low temperatures. We prove convergence of the approximate solutions with respect to spectral binning and with respect to an additional spatial discretization of the domain.

  16. Locally Refined Multigrid Solution of the All-Electron Kohn-Sham Equation.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Or; Kronik, Leeor; Brandt, Achi

    2013-11-12

    We present a fully numerical multigrid approach for solving the all-electron Kohn-Sham equation in molecules. The equation is represented on a hierarchy of Cartesian grids, from coarse ones that span the entire molecule to very fine ones that describe only a small volume around each atom. This approach is adaptable to any type of geometry. We demonstrate it for a variety of small molecules and obtain high accuracy agreement with results obtained previously for diatomic molecules using a prolate-spheroidal grid. We provide a detailed presentation of the numerical methodology and discuss possible extensions of this approach. PMID:26583393

  17. Second-order Kohn-Sham perturbation theory: correlation potential for atoms in a cavity.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hong; Engel, Eberhard

    2005-12-01

    Second-order perturbation theory based on the Kohn-Sham Hamiltonian leads to an implicit density functional for the correlation energy E(c) (MP2), which is explicitly dependent on both occupied and unoccupied Kohn-Sham single-particle orbitals and energies. The corresponding correlation potential v(c) (MP2), which has to be evaluated by the optimized potential method, was found to be divergent in the asymptotic region of atoms, if positive-energy continuum states are included in the calculation [Facco Bonetti et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 2241 (2001)]. On the other hand, Niquet et al., [J. Chem. Phys. 118, 9504 (2003)] showed that v(c) (MP2) has the same asymptotic -alpha(2r(4)) behavior as the exact correlation potential, if the system under study has a discrete spectrum only. In this work we study v(c) (MP2) for atoms in a spherical cavity within a basis-set-free finite differences approach, ensuring a completely discrete spectrum by requiring hard-wall boundary conditions at the cavity radius. Choosing this radius sufficiently large, one can devise a numerical continuation procedure which allows to normalize v(c) (MP2) consistent with the standard choice v(c)(r-->infinity)=0 for free atoms, without modifying the potential in the chemically relevant region. An important prerequisite for the success of this scheme is the inclusion of very high-energy virtual states. Using this technique, we have calculated v(c) (MP2) for all closed-shell and spherical open-shell atoms up to argon. One finds that v(c) (MP2) reproduces the shell structure of the exact correlation potential very well but consistently overestimates the corresponding shell oscillations. In the case of spin-polarized atoms one observes a strong interrelation between the correlation potentials of the two spin channels, which is completely absent for standard density functionals. However, our results also demonstrate that E(c) (MP2) can only serve as a first step towards the construction of a suitable

  18. A cerebral functional imaging study by positron emission tomography in healthy volunteers receiving true or sham acupuncture needling.

    PubMed

    Lai, Xinsheng; Zhang, Guifeng; Huang, Yong; Tang, Chunzhi; Yang, Junjun; Wang, Shuxia; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2009-03-13

    Our recent studies have demonstrated that needling in Baihui, Shuigou and Shenmen enhances glucose metabolism in the frontal lobes, thalamus, temporal lobe, and the lentiform nucleus in vascular dementia. This study examined the effect of true, sham and overt needling in Waiguan (TE5) on cerebral changes by positron emission tomography (PET) technique. Eighteen healthy volunteers were randomized to receive overt control, true or sham needling therapy. To manipulate true needling, a needle was inserted into 15+/-2mm into Waiguan and "deqi" was achieved by proper needle manipulation. For sham needling, needles with a blunt tip were pushed against the skin as the shaft moved into the handle, giving an illusion of insertion. For overt placebo, blunt needles were used and subjects did not receive any needling penetration. The tracer used was (18)fluoride-deoxygluocse. PET images obtained were processed and analyzed by the SPM2 software. Compared with overt needling, brain areas BA7, 13, 18, 19, 21, 22, 27, 38, 40, 42 and 45 in Waiguan true needling group were significantly activated and areas BA4, 6, 7, 19, 22 and 41 in sham needling group showed obvious activation. Compared to sham needling group, marked activation points were found in the areas of BA13 and 42 and left cerebellum in true needling group. Our study revealed a marked difference in brain metabolic changes between true and sham needling in Waiguan. Further studies are needed to explore the cerebral changes in patients with acupuncture and the pathological implications. PMID:19383438

  19. Generalization of the Kohn-Sham system that can represent arbitrary one-electron density matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dam, Hubertus J. J.

    2016-05-01

    Density functional theory is currently the most widely applied method in electronic structure theory. The Kohn-Sham method, based on a fictitious system of noninteracting particles, is the workhorse of the theory. The particular form of the Kohn-Sham wave function admits only idempotent one-electron density matrices whereas wave functions of correlated electrons in post-Hartree-Fock methods invariably have fractional occupation numbers. Here we show that by generalizing the orbital concept and introducing a suitable dot product as well as a probability density, a noninteracting system can be chosen that can represent the one-electron density matrix of any system, even one with fractional occupation numbers. This fictitious system ensures that the exact electron density is accessible within density functional theory. It can also serve as the basis for reduced density matrix functional theory. Moreover, to aid the analysis of the results the orbitals may be assigned energies from a mean-field Hamiltonian. This produces energy levels that are akin to Hartree-Fock orbital energies such that conventional analyses based on Koopmans' theorem are available. Finally, this system is convenient in formalisms that depend on creation and annihilation operators as they are trivially applied to single-determinant wave functions.

  20. Efficient iterative method for solving the Dirac-Kohn-Sham density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Lin; Shao, Sihong; E, Weinan

    2013-07-01

    We present for the first time an efficient iterative method to directly solve the four-component Dirac-Kohn-Sham (DKS) density functional theory. Due to the existence of the negative energy continuum in the DKS operator, the existing iterative techniques for solving the Kohn-Sham systems cannot be efficiently applied to solve the DKS systems. The key component of our method is a novel filtering step (F) which acts as a preconditioner in the framework of the locally optimal block preconditioned conjugate gradient (LOBPCG) method. The resulting method, dubbed the LOBPCG-F method, is able to compute the desired eigenvalues and eigenvectors in the positive energy band without computing any state in the negative energy band. The LOBPCG-F method introduces mild extra cost compared to the standard LOBPCG method and can be easily implemented. We demonstrate our method in the pseudopotential framework with a planewave basis set which naturally satisfies the kinetic balance prescription. Numerical results for Pt2, Au2, TlF, and Bi2Se3 indicate that the LOBPCG-F method is a robust and efficient method for investigating the relativistic effect in systems containing heavy elements.

  1. Generalization of the Kohn-Sham system that can represent arbitrary one-electron density matrices

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hubertus J. J. van Dam

    2016-05-23

    Density functional theory is currently the most widely applied method in electronic structure theory. The Kohn-Sham method, based on a fictitious system of noninteracting particles, is the workhorse of the theory. The particular form of the Kohn-Sham wave function admits only idempotent one-electron density matrices whereas wave functions of correlated electrons in post-Hartree-Fock methods invariably have fractional occupation numbers. Here we show that by generalizing the orbital concept and introducing a suitable dot product as well as a probability density, a noninteracting system can be chosen that can represent the one-electron density matrix of any system, even one with fractionalmore » occupation numbers. This fictitious system ensures that the exact electron density is accessible within density functional theory. It can also serve as the basis for reduced density matrix functional theory. Moreover, to aid the analysis of the results the orbitals may be assigned energies from a mean-field Hamiltonian. This produces energy levels that are akin to Hartree-Fock orbital energies such that conventional analyses based on Koopmans' theorem are available. Lastly, this system is convenient in formalisms that depend on creation and annihilation operators as they are trivially applied to single-determinant wave functions.« less

  2. Sham versus transurethral microwave thermotherapy in patients with symptoms of benign prostatic bladder outflow obstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Ogden, C.W.; Reddy, P.; Johnson, H.; Ramsay, J.W.; Carter, S.C. . Dept. of Urology)

    1993-01-02

    Transurethral microwave thermotherapy (TUMT) is a single-session, minimally invasive outpatient treatment for patients with symptoms of benign prostatic bladder outflow obstruction. The authors designed a prospective randomized trial to identify any placebo response. Patients with a Madsen symptom score over 8 for at least 6 months were eligible for study. Patients with renal dysfunction, upper urinary tract disease, co-existing bladder disease and malignant prostatic change were excluded. 43 patients were studied: 21 were randomized to receive a sham treatment and 22 to thermotherapy. The thermotherapy group showed a 70% decrease in the mean Madsen score, a 53% increase in flow-rate, and 92% decrease in residual urine volume. No Significant change was seen in these mean indices in the sham group. There was no difference in the main complication of transient hematuria between the two groups. However, there was a 22% frequency of acute retention in the TUMT group. The results show a little significant placebo component to the subjective and objective improvement that occurs in patients who have received TUMT.

  3. Efficient iterative method for solving the Dirac-Kohn-Sham density functional theory

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Lin; Shao, Sihong; E, Weinan

    2012-11-06

    We present for the first time an efficient iterative method to directly solve the four-component Dirac-Kohn-Sham (DKS) density functional theory. Due to the existence of the negative energy continuum in the DKS operator, the existing iterative techniques for solving the Kohn-Sham systems cannot be efficiently applied to solve the DKS systems. The key component of our method is a novel filtering step (F) which acts as a preconditioner in the framework of the locally optimal block preconditioned conjugate gradient (LOBPCG) method. The resulting method, dubbed the LOBPCG-F method, is able to compute the desired eigenvalues and eigenvectors in the positive energy band without computing any state in the negative energy band. The LOBPCG-F method introduces mild extra cost compared to the standard LOBPCG method and can be easily implemented. We demonstrate our method in the pseudopotential framework with a planewave basis set which naturally satisfies the kinetic balance prescription. Numerical results for Pt$_{2}$, Au$_{2}$, TlF, and Bi$_{2}$Se$_{3}$ indicate that the LOBPCG-F method is a robust and efficient method for investigating the relativistic effect in systems containing heavy elements.

  4. Cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation in children with dystonia: a sham-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Young, Scott J; Bertucco, Matteo; Sanger, Terence D

    2014-02-01

    Increased motor cortex excitability is a common finding in dystonia, and transcranial direct current stimulation can reduce motor cortex excitability. In an earlier study, we found that cathodal direct-current stimulation decreased motor overflow for some children with dystonia. To investigate this observation further, we performed a sham-controlled, double-blind, crossover study of 14 children with dystonia. We found a significant reduction in overflow following real stimulation, when participants performed the experimental task with the hand contralateral to the cathode. While these results suggest that cathodal stimulation may help some children to reduce involuntary overflow, the size of the effect is small. Further research will need to investigate ways to increase the magnitude of the effect of cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation. PMID:23760989

  5. Lcao-Gáspár-Kohn-Sham energy bands of trans-polyacetylene-chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Boehm, J.; Kuivalainen, P.; Calais, J.-L.

    1983-12-01

    The band structure of the dimerised trans-polyacetylene-chain ( d CC = 1.35 Å, d CC = 1.46 Å, ∡ CCC = 120° , d CH = 1.09 Å) is calculated with the (parameter-free, non-self-consistent) linear-combination-of-atomic-orbitals method using the Gáspár-Kohn-Sham (GKS) potential for the exchange and correlation. The calculated dimerisation gap of 1.6 eV agrees closely with experiment and also with other GKS calculations when the degree of dimerisation is taken into account. The calculated density of states agrees closely with the X-ray photoemission spectrum of Brundle.

  6. The QTP family of consistent functionals and potentials in Kohn-Sham density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yifan; Bartlett, Rodney J

    2016-07-21

    This manuscript presents the second, consistent density functional in the QTP (Quantum Theory Project) family, that is, the CAM-QTP(01). It is a new range-separated exchange-correlation functional in which the non-local exchange contribution is 100% at large separation. It follows the same basic principles of this family that the Kohn-Sham eigenvalues of the occupied orbitals approximately equal the vertical ionization energies, which is not fulfilled by most of the traditional density functional methods. This new CAM-QTP(01) functional significantly improves the accuracy of the vertical excitation energies especially for the Rydberg states in the test set. It also reproduces many other properties such as geometries, reaction barrier heights, and atomization energies. PMID:27448874

  7. Solving the Self-Interaction Problem in Kohn-Sham Density Functional Theory. Application to Atoms

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Daene, M.; Gonis, A.; Nicholson, D. M.; Stocks, G. M.

    2014-10-14

    Previously, we proposed a computational methodology that addresses the elimination of the self-interaction error from the Kohn–Sham formulation of the density functional theory. We demonstrated how the exchange potential can be obtained, and presented results of calculations for atomic systems up to Kr carried out within a Cartesian coordinate system. In our paper, we provide complete details of this self-interaction free method formulated in spherical coordinates based on the explicit equidensity basis ansatz. We also prove analytically that derivatives obtained using this method satisfy the Virial theorem for spherical orbitals, where the problem can be reduced to one dimension. Wemore » present the results of calculations of ground-state energies of atomic systems throughout the periodic table carried out within the exchange-only mode.« less

  8. Solving the Self-Interaction Problem in Kohn-Sham Density Functional Theory. Application to Atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Daene, M.; Gonis, A.; Nicholson, D. M.; Stocks, G. M.

    2014-10-14

    Previously, we proposed a computational methodology that addresses the elimination of the self-interaction error from the Kohn–Sham formulation of the density functional theory. We demonstrated how the exchange potential can be obtained, and presented results of calculations for atomic systems up to Kr carried out within a Cartesian coordinate system. In our paper, we provide complete details of this self-interaction free method formulated in spherical coordinates based on the explicit equidensity basis ansatz. We also prove analytically that derivatives obtained using this method satisfy the Virial theorem for spherical orbitals, where the problem can be reduced to one dimension. We present the results of calculations of ground-state energies of atomic systems throughout the periodic table carried out within the exchange-only mode.

  9. Salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM) inhibition of the dissolved inorganic carbon concentrating process in unicellular green algae

    SciTech Connect

    Goyal, A.; Tolbert, N.E. )

    1990-03-01

    Rates of photosynthetic O{sub 2} evolution, for measuring K{sub 0.5}(CO{sub 2} + HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}) at pH 7, upon addition of 50 micromolar HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} to air-adapted Chlamydomonas, Dunaliella, or Scenedesmus cells, were inhibited up to 90% by the addition of 1.5 to 4.0 millimolar salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM) to the aqueous medium. The apparent K{sub i}(SHAM) for Chlamydomonas cells was about 2.5 millimolar, but due to low solubility in water effective concentrations would be lower. Salicylhydroxamic acid did not inhibit oxygen evolution or accumulation of bicarbonate by Scenedesmus cells between pH 8 to 11 or by isolated intact chloroplasts from Dunaliella. Thus, salicylhydroxamic acid appears to inhibit CO{sub 2} uptake, whereas previous results indicate that vanadate inhibits bicarbonate uptake. These conclusions were confirmed by three test procedures with three air-adapted algae at pH 7. Salicylhydroxamic acid inhibited the cellular accumulation of dissolved inorganic carbon, the rate of photosynthetic O{sub 2} evolution dependent on low levels of dissolved inorganic carbon (50 micromolar NaHCO{sub 3}), and the rate of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} fixation with 100 micromolar ({sup 14}C)HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}. Salicylhydroxamic acid inhibition of O{sub 2} evolution and {sup 14}CO{sub 2}-fixation was reversed by higher levels of NaHCO{sub 3}. Thus, salicylhydroxamic acid inhibition was apparently not affecting steps of photosynthesis other than CO{sub 2} accumulation. Although salicylhydroxamic acid is an inhibitor of alternative respiration in algae, it is not known whether the two processes are related.

  10. Sustained Weight Loss with Vagal Nerve Blockade but Not with Sham: 18-Month Results of the ReCharge Trial

    PubMed Central

    Shikora, Scott A.; Wolfe, Bruce M.; Apovian, Caroline M.; Anvari, Mehran; Sarwer, David B.; Gibbons, Robert D.; Ikramuddin, Sayeed; Miller, Christopher J.; Knudson, Mark B.; Tweden, Katherine S.; Sarr, Michael G.; Billington, Charles J.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives. Vagal block therapy (vBloc) is effective for moderate to severe obesity at one year. Subjects/Methods. The ReCharge trial is a double-blind, randomized controlled clinical trial of 239 participants with body mass index (BMI) of 40 to 45 kg/m or 35 to 40 kg/m with one or more obesity-related conditions. Interventions were implantation of either vBloc or Sham devices and weight management counseling. Mixed models assessed percent excess weight loss (%EWL) and total weight loss (%TWL) in intent-to-treat analyses. At 18 months, 142 (88%) vBloc and 64 (83%) Sham patients remained enrolled in the study. Results. 18-month weight loss was 23% EWL (8.8% TWL) for vBloc and 10% EWL (3.8% TWL) for Sham (P < 0.0001). vBloc patients largely maintained 12-month weight loss of 26% EWL (9.7% TWL). Sham regained over 40% of the 17% EWL (6.4% TWL) by 18 months. Most weight regain preceded unblinding. Common adverse events of vBloc through 18 months were heartburn/dyspepsia and abdominal pain; 98% of events were reported as mild or moderate and 79% had resolved. Conclusions. Weight loss with vBloc was sustained through 18 months, while Sham regained weight between 12 and 18 months. vBloc is effective with a low rate of serious complications. PMID:26246907

  11. Are acupoints specific for diseases? A systematic review of the randomized controlled trials with sham acupuncture controls

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The results of many clinical trials and experimental studies regarding acupoint specificity are contradictory. This review aims to investigate whether a difference in efficacy exists between ordinary acupuncture on specific acupoints and sham acupuncture controls on non-acupoints or on irrelevant acupoints. Methods Databases including Medline, Embase, AMED and Chinese Biomedical Database were searched to identify randomized controlled trials published between 1998 and 2009 that compared traditional body acupuncture on acupoints with sham acupuncture controls on irrelevant acupoints or non-acupoints with the same needling depth. The Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing risk of bias was employed to address the quality of the included trials. Results Twelve acupuncture clinical trials with sham acupuncture controls were identified and included in the review. The conditions treated varied. Half of the included trials had positive results on the primary outcomes and demonstrated acupoint specificity. However, among those six trials (total sample size: 985) with low risk of bias, five trials (sample size: 940) showed no statistically significant difference between proper and sham acupuncture treatments. Conclusion This review did not demonstrate the existence of acupoint specificity. Further clinical trials with larger sample sizes, optimal acupuncture treatment protocols and appropriate sham acupuncture controls are required to resolve this important issue. PMID:20145733

  12. Pure-state noninteracting v-representability of electron densities from Kohn-Sham calculations with finite basis sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Silva, Piotr; Wesolowski, Tomasz A.

    2012-03-01

    Within the linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO) approximation, one can distinguish two different Kohn-Sham potentials. One is the potential available numerically in calculations, and the other is the exact potential corresponding to the LCAO density. The latter is usually not available, but can be obtained from the total density by a numerical inversion procedure or, as is done here, analytically using only one LCAO Kohn-Sham orbital. In the complete basis-set limit, the lowest-lying Kohn-Sham orbital suffices to perform the analytical inversion, and the two potentials differ by no more than a constant. The relation between these two potentials is investigated here for diatomic molecules and several atomic basis sets of increasing size and quality. The differences between the two potentials are usually qualitative (wrong behavior at nuclear cusps and far from the molecule even if Slater-type orbitals are used) and δ-like features at nodal planes of the lowest-lying LCAO Kohn-Sham orbital. Such nodes occur frequently in LCAO calculations and are not physical. Whereas the behavior of the potential can be systematically improved locally by the increase of the basis sets, the occurrence of nodes is not correlated with the size of the basis set. The presence of nodes in the lowest-lying LCAO orbital can be used to monitor whether the effective potential in LCAO Kohn-Sham equations can be interpreted as the potential needed for pure-state noninteracting v-representability of the LCAO density. Squares of such node-containing lowest-lying LCAO Kohn-Sham orbitals are nontrivial examples of two-electron densities which are not pure-state noninteracting v-representable.

  13. Temperature Dependent Thermal Conductivity and Elastic Properties of a-InGaZnO4 and a-In2Ga2ZnO7 Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, W. D.; White, B. E.

    2016-06-01

    Amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O is an important oxide semiconductor in advanced display technologies. Despite its importance, little has been reported on the thermal and elastic properties of this material. Here, the temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity, shear modulus, and internal friction of a-InGaZnO4 and a-In2Ga2ZnO7 films are presented. The thermal conductivity of a-In2Ga2ZnO7, measured from 100 K to room temperature, was found to be larger than that of a-InGaZnO4 over the entire temperature range. At room temperature the thermal conductivities were 1.9 W/m K and 1.4 W/m K for the a-In2Ga2ZnO7 and a-InGaZnO4 films, respectively. The shear modulus and internal friction of these films were measured in the temperature range of 340 mK to 65 K. At 4.2 K the shear modulus of the a-InGaZnO4 and a-In2 Ga2ZnO7 films was 44 GPa and 42 GPa, respectively. The internal friction of thin films at each composition exhibited a temperature dependence and magnitude that is in agreement with that observed in all amorphous solids. As the self-heating effect is of concern in the development of amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O based thin film transistors on low thermal conductivity substrates, a thermal model of such a device utilizing a-In2Ga2ZnO7 or a-InGaZnO4 as the active layer was explored. It was found that the temperature increase of the thin film transistor channel is essentially independent of the thermal conductivity of the active layer.

  14. New Particle Formation Events During 2013 in Hada Al Sham, Saudi-Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neitola, K.; Hyvärinen, A.; Lihavainen, H.; Alghamdi, M.; Hussein, T.; Khodeir, M.; Shehata, A.; Laaksonen, A. J.; Kulmala, M. T.

    2014-12-01

    New particle formation (NPF) is the dominant source of aerosol particles in the atmosphere and plays an important role in the global climate (Kulmala et al., 2013). NPF events has been observed in various places around the world (Kulmala et al., 2007). Arabian Peninsula has one of the highest aerosol burdens due to dust storms, local petroleum industry, traffic and advection from southern Asia. Here we present results of new particle formation event analysis from the first full year of measurements in the new measurement station in Hada Al Sham, Saudi-Arabia. The background station in Hada Al Sham (21.802° North, 39.729° East, 254 m a.s.l.) was founded at the end of 2012 on an agricultural test field 60 km to southeast from the city of Jeddah. The terrain around the station is arid desert with very scarce yearly precipitation. There are no local pollution sources. Main instrumentation include: PM2.5 and PM10, number size distribution (7 nm - 10 μm) and total concentration, absorption and scattering coefficients, and the basic weather parameters. We analysed the twin DMPS data from year 2013 classifying new particle formation events by visual day-to-day method. The days were classified following the principal presented in Dal Maso et al., (2005). The data coverage was 264 days (72.3 %) of the year. 210 Days (79.5 %) were classified as NPF event (Class I and II) days, 37 days (14.0 %) as undefined and 17 days (6.4 %) as non-event days. The analysis of the NPF event days was considered again as the freshly formed particles was observed shrinking after the original growth in most of the NPF event days. Typical event day DMPS data with a shrinking mode of particles is presented in Fig.1. Some of the days involved simultaneous shrinking and growth of the particles. Table 1 summarizes the frequency of each type of event day. Events G S G + S unclear 210 25 102 33 50 Days 100 11.9 48.6 15.7 23.8 (%) Table 1. Reclassification of the event days (classes I and II). G is

  15. Physician user satisfaction with an electronic medical records system in primary healthcare centres in Al Ain: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Al Alawi, Shamma; Al Dhaheri, Aysha; Al Baloushi, Durra; Al Dhaheri, Mouza; Prinsloo, Engela A M

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To explore physician satisfaction with an electronic medical records (EMR) system, to identify and explore the main limitations of the system and finally to submit recommendations to address these limitations. Design A descriptive qualitative study that entailed three focus group interviews was performed among physicians using open-ended questions. The interviews were audiotaped, documented and transcribed verbatim. The themes were explored and analysed in different categories. Setting The study was conducted in primary healthcare centres (PHC) in Al Ain, United Arab Emirates (UAE). Participants A total of 23 physicians, all using the same EMR system, attended one of three focus groups held in PHC in Al Ain Medical District. Each focus group consisted of 7–9 physicians working in PHC as family medicine specialists, residents or general practitioners. Primary outcome measure Physician satisfaction with the EMR system. Results Key themes emerged and were categorised as physician-dependent, patient-related and system-related factors. In general, physicians were satisfied with the EMR system in spite of initial difficulties with implementation. Most participants identified that the long time required to do the documentation affected their practice and patient communication. Many physicians expressed satisfaction with the orders and results of laboratory and radiology functions and they emphasised that this was the strongest point in the EMR. They were also satisfied with the electronic prescription function, stating that it reduced errors and saved time. Conclusions Physicians are satisfied with the EMR and have a positive perception regarding the application of the system. Several themes emerged during this study that need to be considered to enhance the EMR system. Further studies need to be conducted among other healthcare practitioners and patients to explore their attitude and perception about the EMR. PMID:25377010

  16. Self-Averaging Stochastic Kohn-Sham Density-Functional Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baer, Roi; Neuhauser, Daniel; Rabani, Eran

    2013-09-01

    We formulate the Kohn-Sham density functional theory (KS-DFT) as a statistical theory in which the electron density is determined from an average of correlated stochastic densities in a trace formula. The key idea is that it is sufficient to converge the total energy per electron to within a predefined statistical error in order to obtain reliable estimates of the electronic band structure, the forces on nuclei, the density and its moments, etc. The fluctuations in the total energy per electron are guaranteed to decay to zero as the system size increases. This facilitates “self-averaging” which leads to the first ever report of sublinear scaling KS-DFT electronic structure. The approach sidesteps calculation of the density matrix and thus, is insensitive to its evasive sparseness, as demonstrated here for silicon nanocrystals. The formalism is not only appealing in terms of its promise to far push the limits of application of KS-DFT, but also represents a cognitive change in the way we think of electronic structure calculations as this stochastic theory seamlessly converges to the thermodynamic limit.

  17. All-electron Kohn–Sham density functional theory on hierarchic finite element spaces

    SciTech Connect

    Schauer, Volker; Linder, Christian

    2013-10-01

    In this work, a real space formulation of the Kohn–Sham equations is developed, making use of the hierarchy of finite element spaces from different polynomial order. The focus is laid on all-electron calculations, having the highest requirement onto the basis set, which must be able to represent the orthogonal eigenfunctions as well as the electrostatic potential. A careful numerical analysis is performed, which points out the numerical intricacies originating from the singularity of the nuclei and the necessity for approximations in the numerical setting, with the ambition to enable solutions within a predefined accuracy. In this context the influence of counter-charges in the Poisson equation, the requirement of a finite domain size, numerical quadratures and the mesh refinement are examined as well as the representation of the electrostatic potential in a high order finite element space. The performance and accuracy of the method is demonstrated in computations on noble gases. In addition the finite element basis proves its flexibility in the calculation of the bond-length as well as the dipole moment of the carbon monoxide molecule.

  18. Kohn-Sham approach to Fermi gas superfluidity: The bilayer of fermionic polar molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ancilotto, Francesco

    2016-05-01

    By using a well-established "ab initio" theoretical approach developed in the past to quantitatively study the superconductivity of condensed matter systems, based on the Kohn-Sham density functional theory, I study the superfluid properties and the BCS-BEC crossover of two parallel bi-dimensional layers of fermionic dipolar molecules, where the pairing mechanism leading to superfluidity is provided by the interlayer coupling between dipoles. The finite temperature superfluid properties of both the homogeneous system and one where the fermions in each layer are confined by a square optical lattice are studied at half filling conditions, and for different values of the strength of the confining optical potential. The T = 0 results for the homogeneous system are found to be in excellent agreement with diffusion Monte Carlo results. The superfluid transition temperature in the BCS region is found to increase, for a given interlayer coupling, with the strength of the confining optical potential. A transition occurs at sufficiently small interlayer distances, where the fermions becomes localized within the optical lattice sites in a square geometry with an increased effective lattice constant, forming a system of localized composite bosons. This transition should be signaled by a sudden drop in the superfluid fraction of the system.

  19. Comment on ``Asymptotic form of the Kohn-Sham correlation potential''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holas, A.

    2008-02-01

    For finite systems that have the energetically highest-occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) with an asymptotic nodal surface, Joubert demonstrated recently [Phys. Rev. A 76, 012501 (2007)] strongly anisotropic behavior (in the asymptotic large- r region) of the exact correlation potential of density-functional theory. As is shown by us, this result is a direct and simple consequence of the strong anisotropy of the exact exchange potential obtained by Della Sala and Görling [Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 033003 (2002); Della Sala and GörlingJ. Chem. Phys. 116, 5374 (2002)] and the assumption about the asymptotic isotropy of the Kohn-Sham (KS) potential (based on the investigation of Almbladh and von Barth [Phys. Rev. B 31, 3231 (1985)] for atoms). Joubert’s result remains a hypothesis only, because the last assumption is in contradiction with the asymptotic strong anisotropy of the KS potential for systems with asymptotic nodal surface of the HOMO, demonstrated by Wu, Ayers, and Yang [J. Chem. Phys. 119, 2978 (2003)]. The correlation potential in the asymptotic region, stemming from their results, is given.

  20. Full Parallel Implementation of an All-Electron Four-Component Dirac-Kohn-Sham Program.

    PubMed

    Rampino, Sergio; Belpassi, Leonardo; Tarantelli, Francesco; Storchi, Loriano

    2014-09-01

    A full distributed-memory implementation of the Dirac-Kohn-Sham (DKS) module of the program BERTHA (Belpassi et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2011, 13, 12368-12394) is presented, where the self-consistent field (SCF) procedure is replicated on all the parallel processes, each process working on subsets of the global matrices. The key feature of the implementation is an efficient procedure for switching between two matrix distribution schemes, one (integral-driven) optimal for the parallel computation of the matrix elements and another (block-cyclic) optimal for the parallel linear algebra operations. This approach, making both CPU-time and memory scalable with the number of processors used, virtually overcomes at once both time and memory barriers associated with DKS calculations. Performance, portability, and numerical stability of the code are illustrated on the basis of test calculations on three gold clusters of increasing size, an organometallic compound, and a perovskite model. The calculations are performed on a Beowulf and a BlueGene/Q system. PMID:26588521

  1. The nature of innate and adaptive interleukin-17A responses in sham or bacterial inoculation.

    PubMed

    Chong, Deborah L W; Ingram, Rebecca J; Lowther, Daniel E; Muir, Roshell; Sriskandan, Shiranee; Altmann, Daniel M

    2012-07-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes is the causative agent of numerous diseases ranging from benign infections (pharyngitis and impetigo) to severe infections associated with high mortality (necrotizing fasciitis and bacterial sepsis). As with other bacterial infections, there is considerable interest in characterizing the contribution of interleukin-17A (IL-17A) responses to protective immunity. We here show significant il17a up-regulation by quantitative real-time PCR in secondary lymphoid organs, correlating with increased protein levels in the serum within a short time of S. pyogenes infection. However, our data offer an important caveat to studies of IL-17A responsiveness following antigen inoculation, because enhanced levels of IL-17A were also detected in the serum of sham-infected mice, indicating that inoculation trauma alone can stimulate the production of this cytokine. This highlights the potency and speed of innate IL-17A immune responses after inoculation and the importance of proper and appropriate controls in comparative analysis of immune responses observed during microbial infection. PMID:22384827

  2. Stationary state Kohn-Sham Theory: Modern algorithms breathe new life into an old theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunceler, Deniz; Sundararaman, Ravishankar; Arias, T. A.

    2014-03-01

    In this talk, we will discuss stationary-state Kohn-Sham theory, an old (Phys. Rev. B 31, 6264-6272) but largely ignored idea that is recently undergoing revival. It is based on an in-principle exact scheme in which excited states are computed as the stationary states of the Hohenberg-Kohn functional. We will discuss the objections of Gaudoin and Burke (Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 17), and also describe the computational difficulties which prevented this theory from becoming popular in the past, and present new algorithms for computing the predictions of this theory. The resulting technique has inherent computational advantages over TDDFT and GW, and results using semilocal functionals show great promise for molecules. However, the method as implemented exhibits large errors for solids. In this talk, we shall show that the origin of this behaviour is related to the fact that different errors dominate the solid and molecular cases, and we shall discuss prospects for improvement of the theory in the future.

  3. SHAM: High-level seismic tests of piping at the HDR

    SciTech Connect

    Kot, C.A.; Srinivasan, M.G.; Hsieh, B.J.; Malcher, L.; Schrammel, D.; Steinhilber, H.; Costello, J.F.

    1988-01-01

    As part of the second phase of vibrational/earthquake investigations at the HDR (Heissdampfreaktor) Test Facility in Kahl/Main, FRG, high-level simulated seismic tests (SHAM) were performed during April--May 1988 on the VKL (Versuchskreislauf) in-plant piping system with two servohydraulic actuators, each capable of generating 40 tons of force. The purpose of these experiments was to study the behavior of piping subjected to seismic excitation levels that exceed design levels manifold and may result in failure/plastification of pipe supports and pipe elements, and to establish seismic margins for piping and pipe supports. The performance of six different dynamic pipe support systems was compared in these tests and the response, operability, and fragility of dynamic supports and of a typical US gate valve were investigated. Data obtained in the tests are used to validate analysis methods. Very preliminary evaluations lead to the observation that, in general, failures of dynamic supports (in particular snubbers) occur only at load levels that substantially exceed the design capacity. Pipe strains at load levels exceeding the design level threefold are quite small, and even when exceeding the design level eightfold are quite tolerable. Hence, under seismic loading, even at extreme levels and in spite of multiple support failures, pipe failure is unlikely. 5 refs., 16 figs.

  4. Effect of ensemble generalization on the highest-occupied Kohn-Sham eigenvalue

    SciTech Connect

    Kraisler, Eli; Kronik, Leeor; Schmidt, Tobias; Kümmel, Stephan

    2015-09-14

    There are several approximations to the exchange-correlation functional in density-functional theory, which accurately predict total energy-related properties of many-electron systems, such as binding energies, bond lengths, and crystal structures. Other approximations are designed to describe potential-related processes, such as charge transfer and photoemission. However, the development of a functional which can serve the two purposes simultaneously is a long-standing challenge. Trying to address it, we employ in the current work the ensemble generalization procedure proposed by Kraisler and Kronik [Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 126403 (2013)]. Focusing on the prediction of the ionization potential via the highest occupied Kohn-Sham eigenvalue, we examine a variety of exchange-correlation approximations: the local spin-density approximation, semi-local generalized gradient approximations, and global and local hybrid functionals. Results for a test set of 26 diatomic molecules and single atoms are presented. We find that the aforementioned ensemble generalization systematically improves the prediction of the ionization potential, for various systems and exchange-correlation functionals, without compromising the accuracy of total energy-related properties. We specifically examine hybrid functionals. These depend on a parameter controlling the ratio of semi-local to non-local functional components. The ionization potential obtained with ensemble-generalized functionals is found to depend only weakly on the parameter value, contrary to common experience with non-generalized hybrids, thus eliminating one aspect of the so-called “parameter dilemma” of hybrid functionals.

  5. Orbitals from local RDMFT: Are they Kohn-Sham or natural orbitals?

    SciTech Connect

    Theophilou, Iris; Helbig, Nicole; Lathiotakis, Nektarios N.; Gidopoulos, Nikitas I.; Rubio, Angel

    2015-08-07

    Recently, an approximate theoretical framework was introduced, called local reduced density matrix functional theory (local-RDMFT), where functionals of the one-body reduced density matrix (1-RDM) are minimized under the additional condition that the optimal orbitals satisfy a single electron Schrödinger equation with a local potential. In the present work, we focus on the character of these optimal orbitals. In particular, we compare orbitals obtained by local-RDMFT with those obtained with the full minimization (without the extra condition) by contrasting them against the exact NOs and orbitals from a density functional calculation using the local density approximation (LDA). We find that the orbitals from local-RMDFT are very close to LDA orbitals, contrary to those of the full minimization that resemble the exact NOs. Since local RDMFT preserves the good quality of the description of strong static correlation, this finding opens the way to a mixed density/density matrix scheme, where Kohn-Sham orbitals obtain fractional occupations from a minimization of the occupation numbers using 1-RDM functionals. This will allow for a description of strong correlation at a cost only minimally higher than a density functional calculation.

  6. Accurate Energies and Orbital Description in Semi-Local Kohn-Sham DFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindmaa, Alexander; Kuemmel, Stephan; Armiento, Rickard

    2015-03-01

    We present our progress on a scheme in semi-local Kohn-Sham density-functional theory (KS-DFT) for improving the orbital description while still retaining the level of accuracy of the usual semi-local exchange-correlation (xc) functionals. DFT is a widely used tool for first-principles calculations of properties of materials. A given task normally requires a balance of accuracy and computational cost, which is well achieved with semi-local DFT. However, commonly used semi-local xc functionals have important shortcomings which often can be attributed to features of the corresponding xc potential. One shortcoming is an overly delocalized representation of localized orbitals. Recently a semi-local GGA-type xc functional was constructed to address these issues, however, it has the trade-off of lower accuracy of the total energy. We discuss the source of this error in terms of a surplus energy contribution in the functional that needs to be accounted for, and offer a remedy for this issue which formally stays within KS-DFT, and, which does not harshly increase the computational effort. The end result is a scheme that combines accurate total energies (e.g., relaxed geometries) with an improved orbital description (e.g., improved band structure).

  7. The Kohn-Sham kinetic energy density as indicator of the electron localization: atomic shell structure.

    PubMed

    Navarrete-López, Alejandra M; Garza, Jorge; Vargas, Rubicelia

    2008-03-14

    In this report, it is shown that the Kohn-Sham (KS) kinetic energy density (KED) contains the average local electrostatic potential (ALEP) and the average local ionization energy (ALIE); the shell structure in atomic systems is presented as one application of the KS-KED. By writing the KS-KED from the KS equations, this quantity was divided in three contributions: orbital, Coulomb, and exchange correlation. By studying several closed and open shell atoms, the shell structure was established by the maxima presented by the Coulomb contribution and the minima in the orbital contribution of the KS-KED. The exchange-correlation contribution to the KS-KED does not show maxima or minima, but this quantity shows bumps where the division between shells is expected. The results obtained in this work were compared with other shell structure indicators such as the electron localization function, the ALEP, the ALIE, and the radial distribution function. The most important result in this work is related to the fact that even when the ALEP and the ALIE functions were built with different arguments to each other, they are contained in the KS-KED. In this way, the KS-KED shows its importance to reveal the electron localization in atomic systems. PMID:18345880

  8. Tight-binding density functional theory: an approximate Kohn-Sham DFT scheme.

    PubMed

    Seifert, G

    2007-07-01

    The DFTB method is an approximate KS-DFT scheme with an LCAO representation of the KS orbitals, which can be derived within a variational treatment of an approximate KS energy functional. But it may also be related to cellular Wigner-Seitz methods and to the Harris functional. It is an approximate method, but it avoids any empirical parametrization by calculating the Hamiltonian and overlap matrices out of DFT-derived local orbitals (atomic orbitals, AO's). The method includes ab initio concepts in relating the Kohn-Sham orbitals of the atomic configuration to a minimal basis of the localized atomic valence orbitals of the atoms. Consistent with this approximation, the Hamiltonian matrix elements can strictly be restricted to a two-center representation. Taking advantage of the compensation of the so-called "double counting terms" and the nuclear repulsion energy in the DFT total energy expression, the energy may be approximated as a sum of the occupied KS single-particle energies and a repulsive energy, which can be obtained from DFT calculations in properly chosen reference systems. This relates the method to common standard "tight-binding" (TB) schemes, as they are well-known in solid-state physics. This approach defines the density-functional tight-binding (DFTB) method in its original (non-self-consistent) version. PMID:17439198

  9. Kohn-Sham density functional theory prediction of fracture in silicon carbide under mixed mode loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, K. W. K.; Pan, Z. L.; Warner, D. H.

    2016-03-01

    The utility of silicon carbide (SiC) for high temperature structural application has been limited by its brittleness. To improve its ductility, it is paramount to develop a sound understanding of the mechanisms controlling crack propagation. In this manuscript, we present direct ab initio predictions of fracture in SiC under pure mode I and mixed mode loading, utilizing a Kohn-Sham Density Functional Theory (KSDFT) framework. Our results show that in both loading cases, cleavage occurs at a stress intensity factor (SIF) only slightly higher than the Griffith toughness, focusing on a (1 1 1) [1 \\bar{1} 0] crack in the 3C-SiC crystal structure. This lattice trapping effect is shown to decrease with mode mixity, due to the formation of a temporary surface bond that forms during decohesion under shear. Comparing the critical mode I SIF to the value obtained in experiments suggests that some plasticity may occur near a crack tip in SiC even at low temperatures. Ultimately, these findings provide a solid foundation upon which to study the influence of impurities on brittleness, and upon which to develop empirical potentials capable of realistically simulating fracture in SiC.

  10. Calculation of nonadiabatic couplings with restricted open-shell Kohn-Sham density-functional theory.

    PubMed

    Billeter, Salomon R; Egli, Daniel

    2006-12-14

    This paper generalizes the recently proposed approaches for calculating the derivative couplings between adiabatic states in density-functional theory (DFT) based on a Slater transition-state density to transitions such as singlet-singlet excitations, where a single-determinant ansatz is insufficient. The proposed approach is based on restricted open-shell Frank et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 108, 4060 (1998)] theory used to describe a spin-adapted Slater transition state. To treat the dependence of electron-electron interactions on the nuclear positions, variational linear-response density-functional perturbation theory is generalized to reference states with an orbital-dependent Kohn-Sham Hamiltonian and nontrivial occupation patterns. The methods proposed in this paper are not limited to the calculation of derivative coupling vectors, but can also be used for the calculation of other transition matrix elements. Moreover, they can be used to calculate the linear response of open-shell systems to arbitrary external perturbations in DFT. PMID:17176130

  11. Vibrational experiments at the HDR (Heissdampfreaktor): SHAG results and planning for SHAM

    SciTech Connect

    Kot, C.A.; Malcher, L.; Steinhilber, H.

    1987-01-01

    As part of the second phase of vibrational/earthquake investigations at the HDR (Heissdampfreaktor) Test Facility in Kahl/Main, FRG, high-level shaker tests (SHAG) were performed during June and July 1986 using a coast-down shaker capable of generating 1000 tons of force. The purpose of these experiments was to investigate full-scale structural response, soil/structure interaction, and piping and equipment response under strong excitation conditions. While global safety considerations imposed load limitations, the HDR soil/structure system was nevertheless tested to incipient failure. The performance of pipe support systems in as many as seven different multiple support pipe hanger configurations, ranging from flexible to stiff systems, was evaluated in the tests. Data obtained in the tests are used to validate analysis methods. The vibrational/earthquake investigations at the HDR are continuing with the SHAM experiments, planned for the spring of 1988. In these experiments the VKL piping loop will be subjected to direct multiple-point excitation at extremely high levels. The objective is to investigate different pipe support configurations at extreme loading, to establish seismic margins for piping, and to investigate possible failure/plastification modes in an in situ piping system.

  12. Dynamics of fat absorption and impact of sham feeding on postprandial lipema

    PubMed Central

    Jauregui, Rosa Chavez; Mattes, Richard D.; Parks, Elizabeth J.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Given the importance of postprandial hyperlipidemia to increase risk for atherosclerosis, in the present study, stable isotope-labeled meals were fed to healthy subjects (7 males and 3 females) to investigate the kinetics chylomicron synthesis and the impact of sensory exposure to lipid on metabolism. Methods Subjects performed 2, 24-hr inpatient studies which entailed consumption of a liquid formula evening meal containing 30g of oil (+13C2 triolein) on day 1. Breakfast (day 2) consisted of TAG fed as capsules (30g oil + 13C7 triolein) to avoid activation of mouth taste receptors. Next, modified sham feeding of cream cheese occurred over 2 hrs. In the 2 trials, the stimulus was higher-fat (HF) and lower-fat (LF) cream cheese. A liquid meal was consumed at lunch. Blood sampling occurred intermittently and chylomicron particles Sf >400-TAG, were analyzed by GC/MS. Results 13C2-Label was found in fasting-state lipoproteins and individuals with higher body fat percentages demonstrated greater dilution of meal-TAG from endogenous sources. For both trials, 13 ± 4% of lipoprotein-TAG oleic acid was derived from the previous evening meal. Incremental AUC for TAG during HF was ~2½ times higher than after LF exposure (46 ±15 vs 17 ± 5 μmol/l × hr, P=0.04). The greater HF morning lipemia occurred with elevated glucose, insulin and NEFA peaks following lunch. Conclusions These data support a connection between enteral lipid metabolism and oral fat exposure, resulting in elevated postprandial lipemia. The results suggest that the intestine may participate in a mechanism coordinating oral fat signaling with control of subsequent macronutrient disposal in the body. PMID:20493191

  13. Modified Sham Feeding of Sweet Solutions in Women with Anorexia Nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Klein, DA; Schebendach, JE; Gershkovich, M; Smith, GP; Walsh, BT

    2010-01-01

    Anorexia Nervosa (AN) is a disorder of self-starvation characterized by decreased meal size and food intake. While it is possible that reduced food intake in AN reflects an excess of inhibitory factors, e.g., cognitive inhibition related to fear of weight gain or abnormal postingestive negative feedback, it is also possible that decreased intake reflects diminished orosensory stimulation of food intake. This has been difficult to test directly because the amount of food ingested during a test meal by patients with AN reflects an integration of orosensory excitatory, and cognitive, learned, and postingestive inhibitory controls of eating. To begin to dissociate these controls, we adapted the modified sham feeding technique (MSF) to measure the intake of a series of sweetened solutions in the absence of postingestive stimulation. Subjects with AN (n=24) and normal controls (NC, n=10) were randomly presented with cherry Kool Aid® solutions sweetened with five concentrations of aspartame (0, 0.01, 0.03, 0.08 and 0.28%) in a closed opaque container fitted with a straw. They were instructed to sip as much as they wanted of the solution during 15 1-minute trials and to spit the fluid out into another opaque container. Subjects with AN sipped less unsweetened solution than NC (p<0.05). Because this difference appeared to account completely for the smaller intakes of sweetened solutions by AN, responsiveness of intake to sweet taste per se was not different in AN and NC. Since MSF eliminated postingestive and presumably cognitive inhibitory controls, and the orosensory response to sweet taste was not different in AN than NC, we conclude that decreased intake by AN subjects under these conditions reflects the increased inhibition characteristic of this disorder that is presumably learned, with a possible contribution of decreased potency of orosensory stimulation by the sipped solutions. PMID:20438741

  14. The Use of Trust Regions in Kohn-Sham Total EnergyMinimization

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Chao; Meza, Juan C.; Wang, Lin-wang

    2006-05-30

    The Self Consistent Field (SCF) iteration, widely used forcomputing the ground state energy and the corresponding single particlewave functions associated with a many-electronatomistic system, is viewedin this paper as an optimization procedure that minimizes the Kohn-Shamtotal energy indirectly by minimizing a sequence of quadratic surrogatefunctions. We point out the similarity and difference between the totalenergy and the surrogate, and show how the SCF iteration can fail whenthe minimizer of the surrogate produces an increase in the KS totalenergy. A trust region technique is introduced as a way to restrict theupdate of the wave functions within a small neighborhood of anapproximate solution at which the gradient of the total energy agreeswith that of the surrogate. The use of trust region in SCF is not new.However, it has been observed that directly applying a trust region basedSCF(TRSCF) to the Kohn-Sham total energy often leads to slowconvergence.We propose to use TRSCF within a direct constrainedminimization(DCM) algorithm we developed in \\cite dcm. The keyingredients of theDCM algorithm involve projecting the total energyfunction into a sequence of subspaces of small dimensions and seeking theminimizerof the total energy function within each subspace. Theminimizer of a subspace energy function, which is computed by TRSCF, notonly provides a search direction along which the KS total energy functiondecreases but also gives an optimal "step-length" that yields asufficient decrease in total energy. A numerical example is provided todemonstrate that the combination of TRSCF and DCM is more efficient thanSCF.

  15. Orbital-free extension to Kohn-Sham density functional theory equation of state calculations: Application to silicon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Sjostrom, Travis; Crockett, Scott

    2015-09-02

    The liquid regime equation of state of silicon dioxide SiO2 is calculated via quantum molecular dynamics in the density range of 5 to 15 g/cc and with temperatures from 0.5 to 100 eV, including the α-quartz and stishovite phase Hugoniot curves. Below 8 eV calculations are based on Kohn-Sham density functional theory (DFT), and above 8 eV a new orbital-free DFT formulation, presented here, based on matching Kohn-Sham DFT calculations is employed. Recent experimental shock data are found to be in very good agreement with the current results. Finally both experimental and simulation data are used in constructing a new liquid regime equation of state table for SiO2.

  16. Orbital-free extension to Kohn-Sham density functional theory equation of state calculations: Application to silicon dioxide

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sjostrom, Travis; Crockett, Scott

    2015-09-02

    The liquid regime equation of state of silicon dioxide SiO2 is calculated via quantum molecular dynamics in the density range of 5 to 15 g/cc and with temperatures from 0.5 to 100 eV, including the α-quartz and stishovite phase Hugoniot curves. Below 8 eV calculations are based on Kohn-Sham density functional theory (DFT), and above 8 eV a new orbital-free DFT formulation, presented here, based on matching Kohn-Sham DFT calculations is employed. Recent experimental shock data are found to be in very good agreement with the current results. Finally both experimental and simulation data are used in constructing a newmore » liquid regime equation of state table for SiO2.« less

  17. Delocalization error and "functional tuning" in Kohn-Sham calculations of molecular properties.

    PubMed

    Autschbach, Jochen; Srebro, Monika

    2014-08-19

    Kohn-Sham theory (KST) is the "workhorse" of numerical quantum chemistry. This is particularly true for first-principles calculations of ground- and excited-state properties for larger systems, including electronic spectra, electronic dynamic and static linear and higher order response properties (including nonlinear optical (NLO) properties), conformational or dynamic averaging of spectra and response properties, or properties that are affected by the coupling of electron and nuclear motion. This Account explores the sometimes dramatic impact of the delocalization error (DE) and possible benefits from the use of long-range corrections (LC) and "tuning" of functionals in KST calculations of molecular ground-state and response properties. Tuning refers to a nonempirical molecule-specific determination of adjustable parameters in functionals to satisfy known exact conditions, for instance, that the energy of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) should be equal to the negative vertical ionization potential (IP) or that the energy as a function of fractional electron numbers should afford straight-line segments. The presentation is given from the viewpoint of a chemist interested in computations of a variety of molecular optical and spectroscopic properties and of a theoretician developing methods for computing such properties with KST. In recent years, the use of LC functionals, functional tuning, and quantifying the DE explicitly have provided valuable insight regarding the performance of KST for molecular properties. We discuss a number of different molecular properties, with examples from recent studies from our laboratory and related literature. The selected properties probe different aspects of molecular electronic structure. Electric field gradients and hyperfine coupling constants can be exquisitely sensitive to the DE because it affects the ground-state electron density and spin density distributions. For π-conjugated molecules, it is shown how the

  18. Traditional Chinese Acupuncture and Placebo (Sham) Acupuncture Are Differentiated by Their Effects on μ-Opioid Receptors (MORs)

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Richard E.; Zubieta, Jon-Kar; Scott, David J.; Napadow, Vitaly; Gracely, Richard H.; Clauw, Daniel J.

    2009-01-01

    Controversy remains regarding the mechanisms of acupuncture analgesia. A prevailing theory, largely unproven in humans, is that it involves the activation of endogenous opioid antinociceptive systems and μ-opioid receptors (MORs). This is also a neurotransmitter system that mediates the effects of placebo-induced analgesia. This overlap in potential mechanisms may explain the lack of differentiation between traditional acupuncture and either non-traditional or sham acupuncture in multiple controlled clinical trials. We compared both short- and long-term effects of traditional Chinese acupuncture (TA) versus sham acupuncture (SA) treatment on in vivo MOR binding availability in chronic pain patients diagnosed with fibromyalgia (FM). Patients were randomized to receive either TA or SA treatment over the course of four weeks. Positron emission tomography (PET) with 11C-carfentanil was performed once during the first treatment session and then repeated a month later following the eighth treatment. Acupuncture therapy evoked short-term increases in MOR binding potential, in multiple pain and sensory processing regions including the cingulate (dorsal and subgenual), insula, caudate, thalamus, and amygdala. Acupuncture therapy also evoked long-term increases in MOR binding potential in some of the same structures including the cingulate (dorsal and perigenual), caudate, and amygdala. These short- and long-term effects were absent in the sham group where small reductions were observed, an effect more consistent with previous placebo PET studies. Long-term increases in MOR BP following TA were also associated with greater reductions in clinical pain. These findings suggest that divergent MOR processes may mediate clinically relevant analgesic effects for acupuncture and sham acupuncture. PMID:19501658

  19. Randomized sham controlled double-blind trial of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for adults with severe Tourette syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Landeros-Weisenberger, Angeli; Mantovani, Antonio; Motlagh, Maria; de Alvarenga, Pedro Gomes; Katsovich, Liliya; Leckman, James F.; Lisanby, Sarah H.

    2014-01-01

    Background A small proportion of individuals with Tourette syndrome (TS) have a lifelong course of illness that fails to respond to conventional treatments. Open label studies have suggested that low frequency (1-Hz) repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) targeting the supplementary motor area (SMA) may be effective in reducing tic severity. Objective/Hypothesis To examine the efficacy of rTMS over the SMA for TS in a randomized double-blind sham-controlled trial (RCT). Methods We conducted a two-site RCT-rTMS with 20 adults with severe TS for 3 weeks. Treatment consisted of 15 sessions (1-Hz; 30 min; 1,800 pulses per day) of active or sham rTMS at 110% of the motor threshold over the SMA. A subsequent 3 week course of active rTMS treatment was offered. Results Of the 20 patients (16 males; mean age of 33.7 ± 12.2 years), 9 received active and 11 received sham rTMS. After 3 weeks, patients receiving active rTMS showed on average a 17.3% reduction in the YGTSS total tic score compared to a 13.2% reduction in those receiving sham rTMS, resulting in no statistically significant reduction in tic severity (p=0.27). An additional 3 week open label active treatment for those patients (n = 7) initially randomized to active rTMS resulted in a significant overall 29.7% reduction in tic severity compared to baseline (p=0.04). Conclusion This RCT did not demonstrate efficacy of 3-week SMA-targeted low frequency rTMS in the treatment of severe adult TS. Further studies using longer or alternative stimulation protocols are warranted. PMID:25912296

  20. Inhibitory theta burst stimulation of affected hemisphere in chronic stroke: a proof of principle, sham-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo; Rothwell, John C; Talelli, Penelope; Capone, Fioravante; Ranieri, Federico; Wallace, Amanda C; Musumeci, Gabriella; Dileone, Michele

    2013-10-11

    Non-invasive brain stimulation is presently being tested as a potential therapeutic intervention for stroke rehabilitation. Following a model of competitive interactions between the hemispheres, these interventions aim to increase the plasticity of stroke hemisphere by applying either excitatory protocols to the damaged hemisphere or inhibitory protocols to the non-stroke hemisphere. Here we test the safety and feasibility of using an inhibitory protocol on the stroke hemisphere to improve the response to conventional therapy via a homeostatic increase in learning capacity. Twelve chronic stroke patients received TBS to stroke hemisphere (6 patients inhibitory TBS and 6 sham TBS) followed by physical therapy daily for 10 working days. Patients and therapists were blinded to the type of TBS. Action Research Arm Test (ARAT), Nine-Hole Pegboard Test (NHPT) and Jebsen-Taylor Test (JTT) were the primary outcome measures, grip and pinch-grip dynamometry were the secondary outcome measures. All patients improved ARAT and JTT scores for up to 3 months post-treatment. ARAT scores improved significantly in both real and sham groups, but only patients receiving real TBS significantly improved on the JTT: 3 months post-treatment mean execution time was reduced compared to baseline by 141 s for real group and by 65s for the sham group. This small exploratory study suggests that ipsilesional inhibitory TBS is safe and that it has the potential to be used in a larger trial to enhance the gain from a late rehabilitation program in chronic stroke patients. PMID:23978513

  1. A randomized, sham-controlled study of high frequency rTMS for auditory hallucination in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Hiroshi; Kanahara, Nobuhisa; Takase, Masayuki; Yoshida, Taisuke; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Iyo, Masaomi

    2016-07-30

    Chronic auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) in patients with schizophrenia are sometimes resistant to standard pharmacotherapy. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) may be a promising treatment modality for AVHs, but the best protocol has yet to be identified. We used a double-blind randomized sham-controlled design aimed at 30 patients (active group N=16 vs. sham group N=14) with chronic AVHs that persisted regardless of adequate pharmacotherapy. The protocol was a total of four sessions of high-frequency (20-Hz) rTMS targeting the left temporoparietal cortex over 2 days (total 10,400 stimulations) administered to each patient. After the rTMS session the patients were followed for 4 weeks and evaluated with the Auditory Hallucination Rating Scale (AHRS). The mean changes of AHRS score were 22.9 (baseline) to 18.4 (4th week) in the Active group and 24.2 (baseline) to 21.8 (4th week) in the Sham group, indicating no significant difference by mix model analysis. As regards other secondary end points (each subscore of AHRS, BPRS, GAF and CGI-S), none of these parameters showed a significant between-group difference. The present study's rTMS protocol was ineffective for our patients. However, several previous studies demonstrated that high-frequency rTMS is a possible strategy to ameliorate pharmacotherapy-resistant AVH. It is important to establish a high-frequency rTMS protocol with more reliability. PMID:27179693

  2. Sequential extraction of Cs and Sr from Ain Oussera soils around Es-Salam research reactor facility.

    PubMed

    Bouzidi, Abdelkader; Ararem, Abderrahmane; Imessaoudene, Djillali; Yabrir, Benalia

    2015-10-01

    Four types of undisturbed soil in Ain Oussera region around the Es-Salam reactor facility, located in the south of Algiers, Algeria, at about 200km, were artificially contaminated for one year with stable CsCl and SrCl2 in order to simulate an accidental release of these elements. This study was performed using sequential extraction procedure based on Shultz method and containing six fractions. The selectivity of the extraction protocol was confirmed by analyzing some elements (Ca, C, Fe, Mn, Si and Al) designed as indicators of the targeted phases. The obtained results showed an acceptable reproducibility, in view of the coefficients of variation that were in most cases less than 15%. The results revealed a clear proportional correlation between the extracted Cs and Sr in fractions for each soil and some of soils physicochemical properties. Organic matter appears to play an important role in the soil retention, particularly for Cs where the extracted percentage exceeds to 30% in whole soils. In contrast, strontium expresses a remarkable affinity for the fraction bound to carbonates. The obtained data also indicate that the availability of Cs in the four soils is less important compared to Sr availability. This is illustrated by the higher value of extracted Sr in the easily extractible phase, including the water-soluble and the exchangeable fraction. PMID:26456618

  3. Mindfulness Meditation-Based Pain Relief Employs Different Neural Mechanisms Than Placebo and Sham Mindfulness Meditation-Induced Analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Emerson, Nichole M.; Farris, Suzan R.; Ray, Jenna N.; Jung, Youngkyoo; McHaffie, John G.; Coghill, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    Mindfulness meditation reduces pain in experimental and clinical settings. However, it remains unknown whether mindfulness meditation engages pain-relieving mechanisms other than those associated with the placebo effect (e.g., conditioning, psychosocial context, beliefs). To determine whether the analgesic mechanisms of mindfulness meditation are different from placebo, we randomly assigned 75 healthy, human volunteers to 4 d of the following: (1) mindfulness meditation, (2) placebo conditioning, (3) sham mindfulness meditation, or (4) book-listening control intervention. We assessed intervention efficacy using psychophysical evaluation of experimental pain and functional neuroimaging. Importantly, all cognitive manipulations (i.e., mindfulness meditation, placebo conditioning, sham mindfulness meditation) significantly attenuated pain intensity and unpleasantness ratings when compared to rest and the control condition (p < 0.05). Mindfulness meditation reduced pain intensity (p = 0.032) and pain unpleasantness (p < 0.001) ratings more than placebo analgesia. Mindfulness meditation also reduced pain intensity (p = 0.030) and pain unpleasantness (p = 0.043) ratings more than sham mindfulness meditation. Mindfulness-meditation-related pain relief was associated with greater activation in brain regions associated with the cognitive modulation of pain, including the orbitofrontal, subgenual anterior cingulate, and anterior insular cortex. In contrast, placebo analgesia was associated with activation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and deactivation of sensory processing regions (secondary somatosensory cortex). Sham mindfulness meditation-induced analgesia was not correlated with significant neural activity, but rather by greater reductions in respiration rate. This study is the first to demonstrate that mindfulness-related pain relief is mechanistically distinct from placebo analgesia. The elucidation of this distinction confirms the existence of multiple

  4. Is manipulative therapy more effective than sham manipulation in adults?: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Manipulative therapy is widely used in the treatment of spinal disorders. Manipulative techniques are under debate because of the possibility of adverse events. To date, the efficacy of manipulations compared to sham manipulations is unclear. The purpose of the study is: to assess the efficacy of manipulative therapy compared to sham in adults with a variety of complaints. Study design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods Bibliographic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, PEDro, Central) along with a hand search of selected bibliographies were searched from inception up to April 2012. Two reviewers independently selected randomized clinical trials (RCTs) that evaluated manipulative therapy compared to sham manipulative therapy in adults, assessed risk of bias and extracted data concerning participants, intervention, kind of sham, outcome measures, duration of follow-up, profession, data on efficacy and adverse events. Pooled (standardized) mean differences or risk differences were calculated were possible using a random effects model. The primary outcomes were pain, disability, and perceived recovery. The overall quality of the body of evidence was evaluated using GRADE. Results In total 965 references were screened for eligibility and 19 RCTs (n = 1080) met the selection criteria. Eight studies were considered of low risk of bias. There is moderate level of evidence that manipulative therapy has a significant effect in adults on pain relief immediately after treatment (standardized mean difference [SMD] - 0.68, 95% confidence interval (-1.06 to -0.31). There is low level of evidence that manipulative therapy has a significant effect in adults on pain relief (SMD - 0.37, -0.69 to -0.04) at short- term follow-up. In patients with musculoskeletal disorders, we found moderate level of evidence for pain relief (SMD - 0.73, -1.21 to -0.25) immediate after treatment and low level of evidence for pain relief (SMD - 0.52, -0.87 to -0.17) at short term

  5. Oscillating square wave Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) delivered during slow wave sleep does not improve declarative memory more than sham: A randomized sham controlled crossover study

    PubMed Central

    Sahlem, Gregory L.; Badran, Bashar W.; Halford, Jonathan J.; Williams, Nolan R.; Korte, Jeffrey E.; Leslie, Kimberly; Strachan, Martha; Breedlove, Jesse L.; Runion, Jennifer; Bachman, David L.; Uhde, Thomas W.; Borckardt, Jeffery J.; George, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    Background A 2006 trial in healthy medical students found that anodal slow oscillating tDCS delivered bi-frontally during slow wave sleep had an enhancing effect in declarative, but not procedural memory. Although there have been supporting animal studies, and similar findings in pathological groups, this study has not been replicated, or refuted, in the intervening years. We therefore tested these earlier results for replication using similar methods with the exception of current wave form (square in our study, nearly sinusoidal in the original). Objective/Hypothesis Our objective was to test the findings of a 2006 trial suggesting bi-frontal anodal tDCS during slow wave sleep enhances declarative memory. Methods Twelve students (mean age 25, 9 women) free of medical problems underwent two testing conditions (active, sham) in a randomized counterbalanced fashion. Active stimulation consisted of oscillating square wave tDCS delivered during early Non-Rapid Eye Movement (NREM) sleep. The sham condition consisted of setting-up the tDCS device and electrodes, but not turning it on during sleep. tDCS was delivered bi-frontally with anodes placed at F3/F4, and cathodes placed at mastoids. Current density was 0.517mA/CM2, and oscillated between zero and maximal current at a frequency of 0.75Hz. Stimulation occurred during five-five minute blocks with one-minute inter-block intervals (25 minutes total stimulation). The primary outcomes were both declarative memory consolidation measured by a paired word association test (PWA), and non-declarative memory, measured by a non-dominant finger-tapping test (FTT). We also recorded and analyzed sleep EEG. Results There was no difference in the number of paired word associations remembered before compared to after sleep [(active = 3.1±3.0SD more associations) (sham = 3.8±3.1S.D more associations)]. Finger tapping improved, (non-significantly) following active stimulation [(3.6±2.7 S.D. correctly typed sequences) compared to

  6. Haemophilia A and cardiovascular morbidity in a female SHAM syndrome carrier due to skewed X chromosome inactivation.

    PubMed

    Janczar, Szymon; Kosinska, Joanna; Ploski, Rafal; Pastorczak, Agata; Wegner, Olga; Zalewska-Szewczyk, Beata; Paige, Adam J W; Borowiec, Maciej; Mlynarski, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    We have recently described a severe haemophilia A and moyamoya (SHAM) syndrome caused by Xq28 deletions encompassing F8 and the BRCC3 familial moyamoya gene. The phenotype includes haemophilia A, moyamoya angiopathy, dysmorphia and hypertension. The genetic analysis of the family of our SHAM patient demonstrated carrier state in proband's mother and sister. The patient's mother is apparently well, whereas his currently 18-years-old sister presents with mild haemophilia A, coarctation of the aorta, hypertension, and ventricular arrhythmia. We performed X chromosome inactivation assay based on HpaII methylation analysis of a polymorphic short tandem repeat (STR) in the X linked AR (androgen receptor) gene and used quantitative real-time RT PCR to measure the expression of genes from the deleted region in proband's family members. We found an extremely skewed X chromosome inactivation pattern in the female members of the family leading to preferential inactivation of the X chromosome without Xq28 deletion in patient's sister. We demonstrated differential expression of the genes from the deleted region in four members of the family, that tightly correlates with the clinical features. In conclusion, we show that the haematologic and cardiovascular morbidity and the discrepancy between patient's sister and mother despite the same genetic lesion are due to skewed X chromosome inactivation leading to clinically relevant differential expression of SHAM syndrome genes. This report highlights the role for BRCC3 in cardiovascular physiology and disease, and demonstrates that in some complex hereditary syndromes full diagnostics may require the examination of both genetic and epigenetic events. PMID:26691666

  7. Platelet Activation in Ovines Undergoing Sham Surgery or Implant of the Second Generation PediaFlow™ Pediatric Ventricular Assist Device

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Carl A.; Wearden, Peter D.; Kocyildirim, Ergin; Maul, Timothy M.; Woolley, Joshua R.; Ye, Sang-Ho; Strickler, Elise M.; Borovetz, Harvey S.; Wagner, William R.

    2011-01-01

    The PediaFlow™ pediatric ventricular assist device (VAD) is a magnetically levitated turbodynamic pump under development for circulatory support of small children with a targeted flow rate range of 0.3 - 1.5 L/min. As the design of this device is refined, ensuring high levels of blood biocompatibility is essential. In this study we characterized platelet activation during the implantation and operation of a second generation prototype of the PediaFlow VAD (PF2) and also performed a series of surgical sham studies to examine purely surgical effects on platelet activation. In addition, a newly available monoclonal antibody was characterized and shown to be capable of quantifying ovine platelet activation. The PF2 was implanted in 3 chronic ovine experiments of 16, 30, and 70 days, while surgical sham procedures were performed in 5 ovines with 30 d monitoring. Blood biocompatibility in terms of circulating activated platelets was measured by flow cytometric assays with and without exogenous agonist stimulation. Platelet activation following sham surgery returned to baseline in approximately 2 weeks. Platelets in PF2 implanted ovines returned to baseline activation levels in all three animals, and showed an ability to respond to agonist stimulation. Late term platelet activation was observed in one animal corresponding with unexpected pump stoppages related to a manufacturing defect in the percutaneous cable. The results demonstrated encouraging platelet biocompatibility for the PF2 in that basal platelet activation was achieved early in the pump implant period. Furthermore, this first characterization of the effect of a major cardiothoracic procedure on temporal ovine platelet activation provides comparative data for future cardiovascular device evaluation in the ovine model. PMID:21463346

  8. Thirty-Five Years of Care of Child Language in Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotby, M. Nasser; El-Sady, Safaa; Hegazi, Mona

    2010-01-01

    The team of the Unit of Phoniatrics and Logopedics of the Ain Shams University Clinic in Cairo, Egypt, has worked for three and half decades to spread awareness of child language disorders. This involved publications to inform the public, as well as health care professionals, about the needs of children with delayed language, through description…

  9. Packaging Comprehension Materials: Towards Effective Language Instruction in Difficult Circumstances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gary, Norman; Gary, Judith O.

    1982-01-01

    Describes research findings from a three-year curriculum research and development project involving developing English language materials for science education students at Ains Shams University in Cairo, Egypt. Materials concentrate on comprehension skills of listening and reading and are taught by a cassette tape player in conjunction with…

  10. A single gene, AIN, in Medicago truncatula mediates a hypersensitive response to both bluegreen aphid and pea aphid, but confers resistance only to bluegreen aphid

    PubMed Central

    Klingler, John P.; Nair, Ramakrishnan M.; Edwards, Owain R.; Singh, Karam B.

    2009-01-01

    Biotic stress in plants frequently induces a hypersensitive response (HR). This distinctive reaction has been studied intensively in several pathosystems and has shed light on the biology of defence signalling. Compared with microbial pathogens, relatively little is known about the role of the HR in defence against insects. Reference genotype A17 of Medicago truncatula Gaertn., a model legume, responds to aphids of the genus Acyrthosiphon with necrotic lesions resembling a HR. In this study, the biochemical nature of this response, its mode of inheritance, and its relationship with defence against aphids were investigated. The necrotic lesion phenotype and resistance to the bluegreen aphid (BGA, Acyrthosiphon kondoi Shinji) and the pea aphid (PA, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris)) were analysed using reference genotypes A17 and A20, their F2 progeny and recombinant inbred lines. BGA-induced necrotic lesions co-localized with the production of H2O2, consistent with an oxidative burst widely associated with hypersensitivity. This HR correlated with stronger resistance to BGA in A17 than in A20; these phenotypes cosegregated as a semi-dominant gene, AIN (Acyrthosiphon-induced necrosis). In contrast to BGA, stronger resistance to PA in A17, compared with A20, did not cosegregate with a PA-induced HR. The AIN locus resides in a cluster of sequences predicted to encode the CC-NBS-LRR subfamily of resistance proteins. AIN-mediated resistance presents a novel opportunity to use a model plant and model aphid to study the role of the HR in defence responses to phloem-feeding insects. PMID:19690018

  11. Verum and sham acupuncture exert distinct cerebral activation in pain processing areas: a crossover fMRI investigation in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Usichenko, Taras I; Wesolowski, Toni; Lotze, Martin

    2015-06-01

    Although acupuncture is effective for treating pain, its site-specificity is questioned. The aim was to compare the cerebral responses of needling applied to an acupuncture point to the needling of a sham point, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Twenty-one healthy male volunteers were enrolled. Manual stimulation of the acupuncture (ST44) and sham points on the dorsum of the left foot was applied during fMRI in a crossover manner. fMRI data analysis was performed contrasting the ST44 and the sham conditions. Stimulation intensity, subjective discrimination of the needling site and the incidence of "Qi" sensation were additionally recorded. Stimulation of ST44 acupoint, in comparison to the sham procedure, was associated with an increased fMRI-activation in the primary somatosensory, the inferior parietal and the prefrontal cortex and the posterior insula. Sham needling was associated with increased activation in the anterior cingulate cortex and the anterior insula. Verum acupuncture increased the activity of discriminative somatosensory and cognitive pain processing areas of the brain, whereas sham needling activated the areas responsible for affective processing of pain. This may explain favorable effects of verum acupuncture in clinical studies about treatment of chronic pain patients. PMID:24728839

  12. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation to Supplementary Motor Area in Refractory Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Treatment: a Sham-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Harika-Germaneau, Ghina; Rachid, Fady; Gaudeau-Bosma, Christian; Tanguy, Marie-Laure; BenAdhira, Rene; Bouaziz, Noomane; Popa, Traian; Wassouf, Issa; Saba, Ghassen; Januel, Dominique; Jaafari, Nematollah

    2016-01-01

    Background: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation has been explored in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder, but with negative or conflicting results. This randomized double-blind study was designed to assess the efficacy of 1-Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over the presupplementary area. Methods: Forty medication-resistant patients were assigned to 4 weeks of either active or sham repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation targeting the presupplementary area with the help of a neuronavigation system. Results: According to the Yale-Brown obsessive-compulsive scale, the baseline-week 4 evolution showed no significant differences between groups. Responder rates at week 4 were not different between groups (repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation 10.5% vs sham 20%; P=.63). Conclusion: Low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation applied to the presupplementary area seems ineffective for the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder patients, at least in severe and drug-refractory cases such as those included in this study. Further research is required to determine profiles of responder patients and appropriate repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation parameters for obsessive-compulsive disorder. PMID:27207923

  13. The Effects of Positive or Neutral Communication during Acupuncture for Relaxing Effects: A Sham-Controlled Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Rosén, Annelie; Lekander, Mats; Jensen, Karin; Sachs, Lisbeth; Petrovic, Predrag; Ingvar, Martin; Enblom, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. The link between patient-clinician communication and its effect on clinical outcomes is an important clinical issue that is yet to be elucidated. Objective. Investigating if communication type (positive or neutral) about the expected treatment outcome affected (i) participants' expectations and (ii) short-term relaxation effects in response to genuine or sham acupuncture and investigating if expectations were related to outcome. Methods. Healthy volunteers (n = 243, mean age of 42) were randomized to one treatment with genuine or sham acupuncture. Within groups, participants were randomized to positive or neutral communication, regarding expected treatment effects. Visual Analogue Scales (0–100 millimeters) were used to measure treatment expectations and relaxation, directly before and after treatment. Results. Participants in the positive communication group reported higher treatment expectancy, compared to the neutral communication group (md 12 versus 6 mm, p = 0.002). There was no difference in relaxation effects between acupuncture groups or between communication groups. Participants with high baseline expectancy perceived greater improvement in relaxation, compared to participants with low baseline levels (md 27 versus 15 mm, p = 0.022). Conclusion. Our data highlights the importance of expectations for treatment outcome and demonstrates that expectations can be effectively manipulated using a standardized protocol that in future research may be implemented in clinical trials. PMID:26981138

  14. Acupuncture-induced changes of vagal function in patients with depression: A preliminary sham-controlled study with press needles.

    PubMed

    Noda, Yoshihiro; Izuno, Takuji; Tsuchiya, Yoshie; Hayasaka, Shunsuke; Matsumoto, Kiiko; Murakami, Hirohiko; Ito, Arata; Shinse, Yukari; Suzuki, Aya; Nakamura, Motoaki

    2015-08-01

    To study the biological effects of acupuncture on depression, we hypothesized that acupuncture will exert its antidepressant effect through a bottom-up neuromodulation of the autonomic dysfunction in depression. The participants received press needle (PN) acupuncture for 72 h continuously in a sham-controlled design. Psychological assessments and Holter electrocardiography were performed before and after PN acupuncture. We evaluated their autonomic functions through the heart rate variability (HRV). As a result, following PN acupuncture participants showed significant improvement in the Beck's Depression Inventory scores (P = 0.031), systolic/diastolic blood pressures (P = 0.002/P = 0.011), and coefficient of variation of the R-R interval (P < 0.0001), compared to sham PN. The present findings showed PN acupuncture induced alterations in vagal function, blood pressure, and Beck's Depression Inventory scores. It was suggested that vagal stabilization effect by acupuncture may be associated with the therapeutic mechanism in depression. PMID:26256139

  15. Acupuncture for musculoskeletal pain: A meta-analysis and meta-regression of sham-controlled randomized clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Qi-Ling; Wang, Peng; Liu, Liang; Sun, Fu; Cai, Yong-Song; Wu, Wen-Tao; Ye, Mao-Lin; Ma, Jiang-Tao; Xu, Bang-Bang; Zhang, Yin-Gang

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this systematic review were to study the analgesic effect of real acupuncture and to explore whether sham acupuncture (SA) type is related to the estimated effect of real acupuncture for musculoskeletal pain. Five databases were searched. The outcome was pain or disability immediately (≤1 week) following an intervention. Standardized mean differences (SMDs) with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Meta-regression was used to explore possible sources of heterogeneity. Sixty-three studies (6382 individuals) were included. Eight condition types were included. The pooled effect size was moderate for pain relief (59 trials, 4980 individuals, SMD -0.61, 95% CI -0.76 to -0.47; P < 0.001) and large for disability improvement (31 trials, 4876 individuals, -0.77, -1.05 to -0.49; P < 0.001). In a univariate meta-regression model, sham needle location and/or depth could explain most or all heterogeneities for some conditions (e.g., shoulder pain, low back pain, osteoarthritis, myofascial pain, and fibromyalgia); however, the interactions between subgroups via these covariates were not significant (P < 0.05). Our review provided low-quality evidence that real acupuncture has a moderate effect (approximate 12-point reduction on the 100-mm visual analogue scale) on musculoskeletal pain. SA type did not appear to be related to the estimated effect of real acupuncture. PMID:27471137

  16. Efficacy of Electrical Stimulators for Bone Healing: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Sham-Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Aleem, Ilyas S.; Aleem, Idris; Evaniew, Nathan; Busse, Jason W.; Yaszemski, Michael; Agarwal, Arnav; Einhorn, Thomas; Bhandari, Mohit

    2016-01-01

    Electrical stimulation is a common adjunct used to promote bone healing; its efficacy, however, remains uncertain. We conducted a meta-analysis of randomized sham-controlled trials to establish the efficacy of electrical stimulation for bone healing. We identified all trials randomizing patients to electrical or sham stimulation for bone healing. Outcomes were pain relief, functional improvement, and radiographic nonunion. Two reviewers assessed eligibility and risk of bias, performed data extraction, and rated the quality of the evidence. Fifteen trials met our inclusion criteria. Moderate quality evidence from 4 trials found that stimulation produced a significant improvement in pain (mean difference (MD) on 100-millimeter visual analogue scale = −7.7 mm; 95% CI −13.92 to −1.43; p = 0.02). Two trials found no difference in functional outcome (MD = −0.88; 95% CI −6.63 to 4.87; p = 0.76). Moderate quality evidence from 15 trials found that stimulation reduced radiographic nonunion rates by 35% (95% CI 19% to 47%; number needed to treat = 7; p < 0.01). Patients treated with electrical stimulation as an adjunct for bone healing have less pain and are at reduced risk for radiographic nonunion; functional outcome data are limited and requires increased focus in future trials. PMID:27539550

  17. Kohn–Sham approach to quantum electrodynamical density-functional theory: Exact time-dependent effective potentials in real space

    PubMed Central

    Flick, Johannes; Ruggenthaler, Michael; Appel, Heiko; Rubio, Angel

    2015-01-01

    The density-functional approach to quantum electrodynamics extends traditional density-functional theory and opens the possibility to describe electron–photon interactions in terms of effective Kohn–Sham potentials. In this work, we numerically construct the exact electron–photon Kohn–Sham potentials for a prototype system that consists of a trapped electron coupled to a quantized electromagnetic mode in an optical high-Q cavity. Although the effective current that acts on the photons is known explicitly, the exact effective potential that describes the forces exerted by the photons on the electrons is obtained from a fixed-point inversion scheme. This procedure allows us to uncover important beyond-mean-field features of the effective potential that mark the breakdown of classical light–matter interactions. We observe peak and step structures in the effective potentials, which can be attributed solely to the quantum nature of light; i.e., they are real-space signatures of the photons. Our findings show how the ubiquitous dipole interaction with a classical electromagnetic field has to be modified in real space to take the quantum nature of the electromagnetic field fully into account. PMID:26627715

  18. Kohn-Sham approach to quantum electrodynamical density-functional theory: Exact time-dependent effective potentials in real space.

    PubMed

    Flick, Johannes; Ruggenthaler, Michael; Appel, Heiko; Rubio, Angel

    2015-12-15

    The density-functional approach to quantum electrodynamics extends traditional density-functional theory and opens the possibility to describe electron-photon interactions in terms of effective Kohn-Sham potentials. In this work, we numerically construct the exact electron-photon Kohn-Sham potentials for a prototype system that consists of a trapped electron coupled to a quantized electromagnetic mode in an optical high-Q cavity. Although the effective current that acts on the photons is known explicitly, the exact effective potential that describes the forces exerted by the photons on the electrons is obtained from a fixed-point inversion scheme. This procedure allows us to uncover important beyond-mean-field features of the effective potential that mark the breakdown of classical light-matter interactions. We observe peak and step structures in the effective potentials, which can be attributed solely to the quantum nature of light; i.e., they are real-space signatures of the photons. Our findings show how the ubiquitous dipole interaction with a classical electromagnetic field has to be modified in real space to take the quantum nature of the electromagnetic field fully into account. PMID:26627715

  19. Acupuncture for musculoskeletal pain: A meta-analysis and meta-regression of sham-controlled randomized clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Qi-ling; Wang, Peng; Liu, Liang; Sun, Fu; Cai, Yong-song; Wu, Wen-tao; Ye, Mao-lin; Ma, Jiang-tao; Xu, Bang-bang; Zhang, Yin-gang

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this systematic review were to study the analgesic effect of real acupuncture and to explore whether sham acupuncture (SA) type is related to the estimated effect of real acupuncture for musculoskeletal pain. Five databases were searched. The outcome was pain or disability immediately (≤1 week) following an intervention. Standardized mean differences (SMDs) with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Meta-regression was used to explore possible sources of heterogeneity. Sixty-three studies (6382 individuals) were included. Eight condition types were included. The pooled effect size was moderate for pain relief (59 trials, 4980 individuals, SMD −0.61, 95% CI −0.76 to −0.47; P < 0.001) and large for disability improvement (31 trials, 4876 individuals, −0.77, −1.05 to −0.49; P < 0.001). In a univariate meta-regression model, sham needle location and/or depth could explain most or all heterogeneities for some conditions (e.g., shoulder pain, low back pain, osteoarthritis, myofascial pain, and fibromyalgia); however, the interactions between subgroups via these covariates were not significant (P < 0.05). Our review provided low-quality evidence that real acupuncture has a moderate effect (approximate 12-point reduction on the 100-mm visual analogue scale) on musculoskeletal pain. SA type did not appear to be related to the estimated effect of real acupuncture. PMID:27471137

  20. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct-current stimulation in neuropathic pain due to radiculopathy: a randomized sham-controlled comparative study.

    PubMed

    Attal, Nadine; Ayache, Samar S; Ciampi De Andrade, Daniel; Mhalla, Alaa; Baudic, Sophie; Jazat, Frédérique; Ahdab, Rechdi; Neves, Danusa O; Sorel, Marc; Lefaucheur, Jean-Pascal; Bouhassira, Didier

    2016-06-01

    No study has directly compared the effectiveness of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) in neuropathic pain (NP). In this 2-centre randomised double-blind sham-controlled study, we compared the efficacy of 10-Hz rTMS and anodal 2-mA tDCS of the motor cortex and sham stimulation contralateral to the painful area (3 daily sessions) in patients with NP due to lumbosacral radiculopathy. Average pain intensity (primary outcome) was evaluated after each session and 5 days later. Secondary outcomes included neuropathic symptoms and thermal pain thresholds for the upper limbs. We used an innovative design that minimised bias by randomly assigning patients to 1 of 2 groups: active rTMS and tDCS or sham rTMS and tDCS. For each treatment group (active or sham), the order of the sessions was again randomised according to a crossover design. In total, 51 patients were screened and 35 (51% women) were randomized. Active rTMS was superior to tDCS and sham in pain intensity (F = 2.89 and P = 0.023). Transcranial direct-current stimulation was not superior to sham, but its analgesic effects were correlated to that of rTMS (P = 0.046), suggesting common mechanisms of action. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation lowered cold pain thresholds (P = 0.04) and its effect on cold pain was correlated with its analgesic efficacy (P = 0.006). However, rTMS had no impact on individual neuropathic symptoms. Thus, rTMS is more effective than tDCS and sham in patients with NP due to lumbosacral radiculopathy and may modulate the sensory and affective dimensions of pain. PMID:26845524

  1. MN15-L and MN-15: New Kohn-Sham Density Functionals with Board Accuracy for Main-Group and Transition Metal Chemistry and Noncovalent Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Haoyu; He, Xiao; Truhlar, Donald G.; Donald G. Truhlar Team

    The accuracy of Kohn-Sham density functional theory depends on the exchange-correlation functional. Local functionals depending on only the density (ρ) , density gradient (grad), and possibly kinetic energy density (τ) have been popular because of their low cost and simplicity, but the most successful functionals for chemistry have involved nonlocal Hartree-Fock exchange (hybrid functionals). We have designed a new meta gradient approximation called MN15-L and a new hybrid meta gradient approximation called MN15 and tested them systematically for 17 absolute atomic energies, 51 noncovalent interaction energies, 56 data on transition metal atoms and molecules, and for 298 other atomic and molecular energetic data, including main-group and transition metal bond energies, ionization potentials, proton affinities, reaction barrier heights, hydrocarbon thermochemistry, excitation energies, and isomerization energies. When compared with 84 previous density MN15 and MN15-L give respectively the smallest and second smallest mean unsigned errors (MUEs, in kcal/mol) on all 422 data with errors for the 4 subsets above being: MN15: 6, 0.26, 4.4, 1.6; MN15-L: 7, 0.45, 4.3, 2.0. Third best: M06: 4, 0.35, 7.7, 2.2. Best previous local functional: M06-L: 7, 0.42, 6.0, 3.5. Other popular functionals: B3LYP: 18, 0.82, 8.2, 4.3; HSE06: 33, 0.58, 8.8, 3.6; TPSS: 18, 0.89, 7.25, 5.0; PBE, 47, 0.88, 9.1, 6.0. MN15-L also performs well for solid-state cohesive energies. This research is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy and inorganic catalyst design center from university of Minnesota.

  2. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and insulin-like immunoreactivity in saliva following sham-fed and swallowed meals.

    PubMed

    Messenger, B; Clifford, M N; Morgan, L M

    2003-06-01

    Gastrointestinal peptides, including insulin, glucagon and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) have previously been reported in salivary glands. Recent evidence has suggested they might influence postprandial macronutrient metabolism. This study therefore investigated and compared postprandial hormone concentrations in saliva and plasma to determine whether their secretion was influenced by oral food stimuli. In a within-subject randomised cross-over comparison of hormone concentrations in plasma and saliva following a mixed meal, 12 subjects were given two 1708 kJ mixed meals. On one occasion the meal was chewed and swallowed (swallowed meal), on the other it was chewed and expectorated (sham-fed meal). Salivary and plasma levels of immunoreactive insulin, GIP and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), total protein, alpha-amylase, glucose and non-esterified fatty acid were measured before and for 90 min following the meals. Saliva total protein and alpha-amylase rose following both meals, indicating that the stimulus for salivary protein release is related to the presence of food in the mouth. GLP-1 was not detected in saliva. Fasting salivary insulin levels were lower in saliva than plasma (28+/-6 vs 40+/-25 pmol/l respectively). Both increased following the swallowed meal but the rise in saliva was slower and less marked than in plasma (peak levels 96+/-18 and 270+/-66 pmol/l for saliva and plasma respectively, P<0.01). Both were unchanged following the sham-fed meal. GIP was detected in saliva. Fasting GIP levels were significantly higher in saliva than plasma (183+/-23 compared with 20+/-7 pmol/l, P<0.01). They decreased in saliva following both swallowed and sham-fed meals to nadirs of 117+/-17 and 71+/-12 pmol/l respectively, but rose following the swallowed meal to peak levels of 268+/-66 pmol/l. These findings are consistent with insulin in saliva being an ultrafiltrate of that circulating in blood, but GIP in saliva being the product of local

  3. Self-Administered Domiciliary tDCS Treatment for Tinnitus: A Double-Blind Sham-Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Mäkitie, Antti; Aarnisalo, Antti A.

    2016-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has shown potential for providing tinnitus relief, although positive effects have usually been observed only during a short time period after treatment. In recent studies the focus has turned from one-session experiments towards multi-session treatment studies investigating long-term outcomes with double-blinded and sham-controlled study designs. Traditionally, tDCS has been administered in a clinical setting by a healthcare professional but in studies involving multiple treatment sessions, often a trade-off has to be made between sample size and the amount of labor needed to run the trial. Also, as the number of required visits to the clinic increases, the dropout rate is likely to rise proportionally.The aim of the current study was to find out if tDCS treatment for tinnitus could be patient-administered in a domiciliary setting and whether the results would be comparable to those from in-hospital treatment studies. Forty-three patients with chronic (> 6 months) tinnitus were involved in the study, and data on 35 out of these patients were included in final analysis. Patients received 20 minutes of left temporal area anodal (LTA) or bifrontal tDCS stimulation (2 mA) or sham stimulation (0.3 mA) for ten consecutive days. An overall reduction in the main outcome measure, Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI), was found (mean change −5.0 points, p < 0.05), but there was no significant difference between active and sham treatment outcomes. Patients found the tDCS treatment easy to administer and they all tolerated it well. In conclusion, self-administered domiciliary tDCS treatment for tinnitus was found safe and feasible and gave outcome results similar to recent randomized controlled long-term treatment trials. The results suggest better overall treatment response—as measured by THI—with domiciliary treatment than with in-hospital treatment, but this advantage is not related to the tDCS variant. The study protocol

  4. A perturbation-method-based post-processing for the planewave discretization of Kohn-Sham models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cancès, Eric; Dusson, Geneviève; Maday, Yvon; Stamm, Benjamin; Vohralík, Martin

    2016-02-01

    In this article, we propose a post-processing of the planewave solution of the Kohn-Sham LDA model with pseudopotentials. This post-processing is based upon the fact that the exact solution can be interpreted as a perturbation of the approximate solution, allowing us to compute corrections for both the eigenfunctions and the eigenvalues of the problem in order to increase the accuracy. Indeed, this post-processing only requires the computation of the residual of the solution on a finer grid so that the additional computational cost is negligible compared to the initial cost of the planewave-based method needed to compute the approximate solution. Theoretical estimates certify an increased convergence rate in the asymptotic convergence range. Numerical results confirm the low computational cost of the post-processing and show that this procedure improves the energy accuracy of the solution even in the pre-asymptotic regime which comprises the target accuracy of practitioners.

  5. Accurate Kohn-Sham ionization potentials from scaled-opposite-spin second-order optimized effective potential methods.

    PubMed

    Śmiga, Szymon; Della Sala, Fabio; Buksztel, Adam; Grabowski, Ireneusz; Fabiano, Eduardo

    2016-08-15

    One important property of Kohn-Sham (KS) density functional theory is the exact equality of the energy of the highest occupied KS orbital (HOMO) with the negative ionization potential of the system. This exact feature is out of reach for standard density-dependent semilocal functionals. Conversely, accurate results can be obtained using orbital-dependent functionals in the optimized effective potential (OEP) approach. In this article, we investigate the performance, in this context, of some advanced OEP methods, with special emphasis on the recently proposed scaled-opposite-spin OEP functional. Moreover, we analyze the impact of the so-called HOMO condition on the final quality of the HOMO energy. Results are compared to reference data obtained at the CCSD(T) level of theory. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27357413

  6. Elliptic Preconditioner for Accelerating the Self-Consistent Field Iteration in Kohn--Sham Density Functional Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Lin; Yang, Chao

    2013-10-28

    We discuss techniques for accelerating the self consistent field (SCF) iteration for solving the Kohn-Sham equations. These techniques are all based on constructing approximations to the inverse of the Jacobian associated with a fixed point map satisfied by the total potential. They can be viewed as preconditioners for a fixed point iteration. We point out different requirements for constructing preconditioners for insulating and metallic systems respectively, and discuss how to construct preconditioners to keep the convergence rate of the fixed point iteration independent of the size of the atomistic system. We propose a new preconditioner that can treat insulating and metallic system in a unified way. The new preconditioner, which we call an elliptic preconditioner, is constructed by solving an elliptic partial differential equation. The elliptic preconditioner is shown to be more effective in accelerating the convergence of a fixed point iteration than the existing approaches for large inhomogeneous systems at low temperature.

  7. Expectancy, self-efficacy, and placebo effect of a sham supplement for weight loss in obese subjects

    PubMed Central

    Tippens, Kimberly M; Purnell, Jonathan Q; Gregory, William L; Connelly, Erin; Hanes, Douglas; Oken, Barry; Calabrese, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the role of expectancy in the placebo effect of a sham dietary supplement for weight loss in 114 obese adults. All participants received lifestyle education and were randomized to one of three conditions: 1) a daily placebo capsule and told that they were taking an active weight loss supplement; 2) daily placebo and told they had a 50% random chance of receiving either the active or placebo; or 3) no capsules. At 12 weeks, weight loss and metabolic outcomes were similar among the three groups. Participants in both groups that took capsules showed decreased weight loss self-efficacy and increased expectations of benefit from dietary supplements. Participants not taking capsules showed the opposite. Adverse events were more frequently reported in groups taking capsules than those who were not. These findings suggest that supplements without weight loss effects may have nocebo effects through diminished self-efficacy. PMID:24695007

  8. How the vestibular system interacts with somatosensory perception: a sham-controlled study with galvanic vestibular stimulation.

    PubMed

    Ferrè, Elisa R; Day, Brian L; Bottini, Gabriella; Haggard, Patrick

    2013-08-29

    The vestibular system has widespread interactions with other sensory modalities. Here we investigate whether vestibular stimulation modulates somatosensory function, by assessing the ability to detect faint tactile stimuli to the fingertips of the left and right hand with or without galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS). We found that left anodal and right cathodal GVS, significantly enhanced sensitivity to mild shocks on either hand, without affecting response bias. There was no such effect with either right anodal and left cathodal GVS or sham stimulation. Further, the enhancement of somatosensory sensitivity following GVS does not strongly depend on the duration of GVS, or the interval between GVS and tactile stimulation. Vestibular inputs reach the somatosensory cortex, increasing the sensitivity of perceptual circuitry. PMID:23827220

  9. A Novel Magnetic Stimulator Increases Experimental Pain Tolerance in Healthy Volunteers - A Double-Blind Sham-Controlled Crossover Study

    PubMed Central

    Kortekaas, Rudie; Konopka, Karl-Heinz; Harbers, Marten; van der Hoeven, Johannes H.; van Wijhe, Marten; Aleman, André; Maurits, Natasha M.

    2013-01-01

    The ‘complex neural pulse’TM (CNP) is a neuromodulation protocol employing weak pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF). A pioneering paper reported an analgesic effect in healthy humans after 30 minutes of CNP-stimulation using three nested whole head coils. We aimed to devise and validate a stimulator with a novel design entailing a multitude of small coils at known anatomical positions on a head cap, to improve applicability. The main hypothesis was that CNP delivery with this novel device would also increase heat pain thresholds. Twenty healthy volunteers were enrolled in this double-blind, sham-controlled, crossover study. Thirty minutes of PEMF (CNP) or sham was applied to the head. After one week the other treatment was given. Before and after each treatment, primary and secondary outcomes were measured. Primary outcome was heat pain threshold (HPT) measured with thermal quantitative sensory testing. Other outcomes were warmth detection threshold, and aspects of cognition, emotion and motor performance. As hypothesized heat pain threshold was significantly increased after the PEMF stimulation. All other outcomes were unaltered by the PEMF but there was a trend level reduction of cognitive performance after PEMF stimulation as measured by the digit-symbol substitution task. Results from this pilot study suggest that our device is able to stimulate the brain and to modulate its function. This is in agreement with previous studies that used similar magnetic field strengths to stimulate the brain. Specifically, pain control may be achieved with PEMF and for this analgesic effect, coil design does not appear to play a dominant role. In addition, the flexible configuration with small coils on a head cap improves clinical applicability. Trial Registration Dutch Cochrane Centre NTR1093 PMID:23620795

  10. Ain't Misbehavin'

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poliniak, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Maintaining order in the classroom is a concern that ranks near the top of "every" teacher's list, no matter the subject taught. Successful classroom management will not only make the teaching--and learning--process easier, but it also will benefit the teacher's energy level and sanity. Recent studies suggest that controlling students' behavior…

  11. A Microstructural Comparison of the Initial Growth of AIN and GaN Layers on Basal Plane Sapphire and SiC Substrates by Low Pressure Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Depositon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, T.; Pike, W. T.; Khan, M. A.; Kuznia, J. N.; Chang-Chien, P.

    1994-01-01

    The initial growth by low pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition and subsequent thermal annealing of AIN and GaN epitaxial layers on SiC and sapphire substrates is examined using high resolution transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy.

  12. Renal denervation in treatment-resistant essential hypertension. A randomized, SHAM-controlled, double-blinded 24-h blood pressure-based trial

    PubMed Central

    Mathiassen, Ole N.; Vase, Henrik; Bech, Jesper N.; Christensen, Kent L.; Buus, Niels H.; Schroeder, Anne P.; Lederballe, Ole; Rickers, Hans; Kampmann, Ulla; Poulsen, Per L.; Hansen, Klavs W.; B⊘tker, Hans E.; Peters, Christian D.; Engholm, Morten; Bertelsen, Jannik B.; Lassen, Jens F.; Langfeldt, Sten; Andersen, Gratien; Pedersen, Erling B.; Kaltoft, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Background: Renal denervation (RDN), treating resistant hypertension, has, in open trial design, been shown to lower blood pressure (BP) dramatically, but this was primarily with respect to office BP. Method: We conducted a SHAM-controlled, double-blind, randomized, single-center trial to establish efficacy data based on 24-h ambulatory BP measurements (ABPM). Inclusion criteria were daytime systolic ABPM at least 145 mmHg following 1 month of stable medication and 2 weeks of compliance registration. All RDN procedures were carried out by an experienced operator using the unipolar Medtronic Flex catheter (Medtronic, Santa Rosa, California, USA). Results: We randomized 69 patients with treatment-resistant hypertension to RDN (n = 36) or SHAM (n = 33). Groups were well balanced at baseline. Mean baseline daytime systolic ABPM was 159 ± 12 mmHg (RDN) and 159 ± 14 mmHg (SHAM). Groups had similar reductions in daytime systolic ABPM compared with baseline at 3 months [−6.2 ± 18.8 mmHg (RDN) vs. −6.0 ± 13.5 mmHg (SHAM)] and at 6 months [−6.1 ± 18.9 mmHg (RDN) vs. −4.3 ± 15.1 mmHg (SHAM)]. Mean usage of antihypertensive medication (daily defined doses) at 3 months was equal [6.8 ± 2.7 (RDN) vs. 7.0 ± 2.5 (SHAM)]. RDN performed at a single center and by a high-volume operator reduced ABPM to the same level as SHAM treatment and thus confirms the result of the HTN3 trial. Conclusion: Further, clinical use of RDN for treatment of resistant hypertension should await positive results from double-blinded, SHAM-controlled trials with multipolar ablation catheters or novel denervation techniques. PMID:27228432

  13. Detecting the environmental impact of off-road vehicles on Rawdat Al Shams in central Saudi Arabia by remote sensing.

    PubMed

    Dewidar, K; Thomas, J; Bayoumi, S

    2016-07-01

    Off-road vehicles can have a devastating impact on vegetation and soil. Here, we sought to quantify, through a combination of field vegetation, bulk soil, and image analyses, the impact of off-road vehicles on the vegetation and soils of Rawdat Al Shams, which is located in central Saudi Arabia. Soil compaction density was measured in the field, and 27 soil samples were collected for bulk density analysis in the lab to quantify the impacts of off-road vehicles. High spatial resolution images, such as those obtained by the satellites GeoEye-1 and IKONOS-2, were used for surveying the damage to vegetation cover and soil compaction caused by these vehicles. Vegetation cover was mapped using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) technique based on high-resolution images taken at different times of the year. Vehicle trails were derived from satellite data via visual analysis. All damaged areas were determined from high-resolution image data. In this study, we conducted quantitative analyses of vegetation cover change, the impacts of vehicle trails (hereafter "trail impacts"), and a bulk soil analysis. Image data showed that both vegetation cover and trail impacts increased from 2008 to 2015, with the average percentage of trail impacts nearly equal to that of the percentage of vegetation cover during this period. Forty-six species of plants were found to be present in the study area, consisting of all types of life forms, yet trees were represented by a single species, Acacia gerrardii. Herbs composed the largest share of plant life, with 29 species, followed by perennial herbs (12 species), grasses (5 species), and shrubs (3 species). Analysis of soil bulk density for Rawdat Al Shams showed that off-road driving greatly impacts soil density. Twenty-two plant species were observed on the trails, the majority of which were ephemerals. Notoceras bicorne was the most common, with a frequency rate of 93.33 %, an abundance value of 78.47 %, and a density of 0

  14. Study of Mental Activity and Regular Training (SMART) in at risk individuals: A randomised double blind, sham controlled, longitudinal trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The extent to which mental and physical exercise may slow cognitive decline in adults with early signs of cognitive impairment is unknown. This article provides the rationale and methodology of the first trial to investigate the isolated and combined effects of cognitive training (CT) and progressive resistance training (PRT) on general cognitive function and functional independence in older adults with early cognitive impairment: Study of Mental and Regular Training (SMART). Our secondary aim is to quantify the differential adaptations to these interventions in terms of brain morphology and function, cardiovascular and metabolic function, exercise capacity, psychological state and body composition, to identify the potential mechanisms of benefit and broader health status effects. Methods SMART is a double-blind randomized, double sham-controlled trial. One hundred and thirty-two community-dwelling volunteers will be recruited. Primary inclusion criteria are: at risk for cognitive decline as defined by neuropsychology assessment, low physical activity levels, stable disease, and age over 55 years. The two active interventions are computerized CT and whole body, high intensity PRT. The two sham interventions are educational videos and seated calisthenics. Participants are randomized into 1 of 4 supervised training groups (2 d/wk × 6 mo) in a fully factorial design. Primary outcomes measured at baseline, 6, and 18 months are the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS-Cog), neuropsychological test scores, and Bayer Informant Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (B-IADLs). Secondary outcomes are psychological well-being, quality of life, cardiovascular and musculoskeletal function, body composition, insulin resistance, systemic inflammation and anabolic/neurotrophic hormones, and brain morphology and function via Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Spectroscopy (fMRS). Discussion SMART will provide a novel evaluation of the immediate and long term

  15. Evaluation of the impact of water harvesting techniques on the evolution of piezometric head of Ain El Bidha groundwater in Kairouan at the Central part of Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mechergui, M. Mohamed; Henda Saoudi, Mme

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to assess the impact of water harvesting constructed hydraulic structures (big and small dams, terraces, seuils for recharge…) on the evolution of piezometric head of Ain El Beidha groundwater table. The measurements of depth of water table, taken at the end of rain season and at the end of irrigation season, in many piezometers and monitoring wells, for a long period of observation before and after implementation of all the hydraulic structures, were used with the cumulative rain to the highest water table to diagnostic the effect of natural recharge and constructed hydraulic structures. According to the analysis of curves illustrating the evolution of piezometric head and rainfall over time, it was shown that despite the fact that the same amount of rain fall on the total area in the limits of Ain El Beidha groundwater table, the piezometers respond differently. This is because there are many sources of recharge and many factors affecting the recharge. First of all, the aquifer is divided in four compartments (the calcareous formation of Djebel El Houyareb, the plio-quaternary formation, the Miocene formation: Baglia and Saouaf). All those respond differently to the recharge by their capacity of infiltration and their hydrodynamic characteristics. The recharge of the groundwater table was increased by the implementation of small soil and water conservation structures, artificial lakes, El Haouareb Dam, run off in the natural Oued bads and seuils for recharge installed in the bads of oueds. The different piezometric drown maps were used to determine the flow direction and hydraulic gradient in order to identify the recharge areas, while tracking maps for three equal piezometric heads 210 m 300 m and 370 m established over different years made it possible to assess the impact of hydraulic structures, namely the effect of SWC and Ben Zitoun Lake. To illustrate the impact of El Houareb dam on the groundwater, the piezometric maps and local values

  16. Hydrochemical processes and metal composition of Ain Umm-Sabah natural spring in Al-Hassa Oasis Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Naeem, Ahmed A

    2008-01-15

    This study was carried out to determine the hydro-chemical processes and the metal concentration of spring water to evaluate its suitability for irrigation and other purposes. A total of 10 water samples were collected from Ain Umm Sabah at different times and from different locations from the spring basin. EC (dS m(-1)), pH, temperature, total cations (Na, Ca, Mg, K) and anions [Cl, CO3, HCO3, SO4, NO3, Fluoride (F)] were determined. Some trace and heavy metals (Al, As, Ba, B, Br, Mo, Ni, Si, Cd, Cu, V, Fe, I, Pb, Mn, Zn, Sr, Se, Sb, La and Se were determined. The Spring water is classified as C4S2 (high salinity with medium sodicity problem water). Chloride (Cl) and nitrate (NO3) concentrations were higher than the permissible limits according to World Health Organization Standards. The Ain Umm Sabah water is Na-Cl dominant water and can create soil sodicity problems and cause Na and Cl ion toxicity to plants if used for irrigation of sensitive crops. The spring water is under-saturated (negative SI) with respect to calcite, dolomite, gypsum, anhydrite, halite, fluorite and aragonite and oversaturated (positive SI) with respect to goethite, siderite and hematite minerals. The concentration of all the estimated trace metals was within the permissible limits for its use as drinking water and other purposes according to WHO. Since the spring water contains high concentration of NO3, hence can not be used for drinking purposes without prior treatment. The study findings suggest careful use and pumping of water from the spring. Further studies are required on regular basis to monitor the depletion in the spring water level and the temporal change in water salinity. PMID:18817197

  17. Mineralogy and fluid inclusions study of carbonate-hosted Mississippi valley-type Ain Allega Pb-Zn-Sr-Ba ore deposit, Northern Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abidi, R.; Slim-Shimi, N.; Somarin, A.; Henchiri, M.

    2010-05-01

    The Ain Allega Pb-Zn-Sr-Ba ore deposit is located in the flysch zone on the Eastern edge of the Triassic diapir of Jebel Hamra. It is part of the extrusive Triassic evaporate formation along the Ghardimaou-Cape Serrat faults. The ore body consists of argilic-dolomite breccias surrounded by argilo-gypsum Triassic formation, which forms the hanging wall of the deposit, and rimmed by the Paleocene marls. The ore minerals show a cap-rock type mineralization with different styles particularly impregnation in dolomite, cement of breccias, replacement ore and open space filling in the dissolution cavities and fractures. Ore minerals include sphalerite, galena, marcasite and pyrite. Principal gangue minerals are composed of barite, celestite, calcite, dolomite and quartz. The ore minerals are hosted by the Triassic carbonate rocks which show hydrothermal alteration, dissolution and brecciation. X-ray - crystallographic study of barite-celestite mineral series shows that pure barite and celestite are the abundant species, whereas strontianiferous barite (85-96.5% BaSO 4) and barian-celestite (95% SrSO 4) are minor. Primary and secondary mono-phase (liquid only) fluid inclusions are common in celestite. Microthermometric analyses in two-phases (liquid and vapour) fluid inclusions suggest that gangue and ore minerals were precipitated by a low-temperature (180 °C) saline (16.37 wt.% NaCl equivalent) solution originated possibly from a basinal brine with some input from magmatic or metamorphic fluid. Based on geology, mineralogy, texture and fluid characteristics, the Ain Allega deposit is classified as a carbonate-hosted Mississippi valley-type deposit.

  18. Stimulating somatosensory psychophysics: a double-blind, sham-controlled study of the neurobiological mechanisms of tDCS

    PubMed Central

    Hanley, Claire J.; Tommerdahl, Mark; McGonigle, David J.

    2015-01-01

    The neuromodulation technique transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is thought to produce its effects on behavior by altering cortical excitability. Although the mechanisms underlying the observed effects are thought to rely on the balance of excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission, the physiological principles of the technique are not completely understood. In this study, we examine the influence of tDCS on vibrotactile adaptation, using a simple amplitude discrimination paradigm that has been shown to exhibit modifications in performance due to changes in inhibitory neurotransmission. Double-blind tDCS (Anodal/Sham) of 1 mA was delivered for 600 s to electrodes positioned in a somatosensory/contralateral orbit montage. Stimulation was applied as part of a pre/post design, between blocks of the behavioral tasks. In accordance with previous work, results obtained before the application of tDCS indicated that amplitude discrimination thresholds were significantly worsened during adaptation trials, compared to those achieved at baseline. However, tDCS failed to modify amplitude discrimination performance. Using a Bayesian approach, this finding was revealed to constitute substantial evidence for the null hypothesis. The failure of DC stimulation to alter vibrotactile adaptation thresholds is discussed in the context of several factors that may have confounded the induction of changes in cortical plasticity. PMID:26500499

  19. SHAMS: Combining chemical modification of RNA with mass spectrometry to examine polypurine tract-containing RNA/DNA hybrids

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Kevin B.; Yi-Brunozzi, Hye Young; Brinson, Robert G.; Marino, John P.; Fabris, Daniele; Le Grice, Stuart F.J.

    2009-01-01

    Selective 2′-hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension (SHAPE) has gained popularity as a facile method of examining RNA structure both in vitro and in vivo, exploiting accessibility of the ribose 2′-OH to acylation by N-methylisatoic anhydride (NMIA) in unpaired or flexible configurations. Subsequent primer extension terminates at the site of chemical modification, and these products are fractionated by high-resolution gel electrophoresis. When applying SHAPE to investigate structural features associated with the wild-type and analog-substituted polypurine tract (PPT)–containing RNA/DNA hybrids, their size (20–25 base pairs) rendered primer extension impractical. As an alternative method of detection, we reasoned that chemical modification could be combined with tandem mass spectrometry, relying on the mass increment of RNA fragments containing the NMIA adduct (Mr = 133 Da). Using this approach, we demonstrate both specific modification of the HIV-1 PPT RNA primer and variations in its acylation pattern induced by replacing template nucleotides with a non-hydrogen-bonding thymine isostere. Our selective 2′-hydroxyl acylation analyzed by mass spectrometry strategy (SHAMS) should find utility when examining the structure of small RNA fragments or RNA/DNA hybrids where primer extension cannot be performed. PMID:19535461

  20. Is Skin-Touch Sham Needle Not Placebo? A Double-Blind Crossover Study on Pain Alleviation

    PubMed Central

    Homma, Ikuo; Izumizaki, Masahiko

    2015-01-01

    It remains an open question whether placebo/sham acupuncture, in which the needle tip presses the skin, can be used as a placebo device for research on pain. We compare the analgesic effect of the skin-touch placebo needle with that of the no-touch placebo needle, in which the needle tip does not touch the skin, in a double-blind crossover manner including no-treatment control in 23 healthy volunteers. The subjects received painful electrical stimulation in the forearm before and during needle retention to the LI 4 acupoint and after the removal of the needle and rated pain intensity using a visual analogue scale. We found no significant difference in analgesic effects among the skin-touch placebo needle, no-touch placebo needle, and no-treatment control at every point before, during, and after the treatments (p > 0.05). The results indicate that the skin-touch placebo needle can be used as a placebo device in clinical studies on pain. PMID:26064153

  1. Chebyshev-filtered subspace iteration method free of sparse diagonalization for solving the Kohn–Sham equation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Yunkai; Chelikowsky, James R.; Saad, Yousef

    2014-10-01

    First-principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations for the electronic structure problem require a solution of the Kohn–Sham equation, which requires one to solve a nonlinear eigenvalue problem. Solving the eigenvalue problem is usually the most expensive part in DFT calculations. Sparse iterative diagonalization methods that compute explicit eigenvectors can quickly become prohibitive for large scale problems. The Chebyshev-filtered subspace iteration (CheFSI) method avoids most of the explicit computation of eigenvectors and results in a significant speedup over iterative diagonalization methods for the DFT self-consistent field (SCF) calculations. However, the original formulation of the CheFSI method utilizes a sparse iterative diagonalization at the first SCF step to provide initial vectors for subspace filtering at latter SCF steps. This diagonalization is expensive for large scale problems. We develop a new initial filtering step to avoid completely this diagonalization, thus making the CheFSI method free of sparse iterative diagonalizations at all SCF steps. Our new approach saves memory usage and can be two to three times faster than the original CheFSI method.

  2. Efficient Parallel All-Electron Four-Component Dirac-Kohn-Sham Program Using a Distributed Matrix Approach II.

    PubMed

    Storchi, Loriano; Rampino, Sergio; Belpassi, Leonardo; Tarantelli, Francesco; Quiney, Harry M

    2013-12-10

    We propose a new complete memory-distributed algorithm, which significantly improves the parallel implementation of the all-electron four-component Dirac-Kohn-Sham (DKS) module of BERTHA (J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2010, 6, 384). We devised an original procedure for mapping the DKS matrix between an efficient integral-driven distribution, guided by the structure of specific G-spinor basis sets and by density fitting algorithms, and the two-dimensional block-cyclic distribution scheme required by the ScaLAPACK library employed for the linear algebra operations. This implementation, because of the efficiency in the memory distribution, represents a leap forward in the applicability of the DKS procedure to arbitrarily large molecular systems and its porting on last-generation massively parallel systems. The performance of the code is illustrated by some test calculations on several gold clusters of increasing size. The DKS self-consistent procedure has been explicitly converged for two representative clusters, namely Au20 and Au34, for which the density of electronic states is reported and discussed. The largest gold cluster uses more than 39k basis functions and DKS matrices of the order of 23 GB. PMID:26592273

  3. More realistic band gaps from meta-generalized gradient approximations: Only in a generalized Kohn-Sham scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zeng-hui; Peng, Haowei; Sun, Jianwei; Perdew, John P.

    2016-05-01

    Unlike the local density approximation (LDA) and the generalized gradient approximation (GGA), calculations with meta-generalized gradient approximations (meta-GGA) are usually done according to the generalized Kohn-Sham (gKS) formalism. The exchange-correlation potential of the gKS equation is nonmultiplicative, which prevents systematic comparison of meta-GGA band structures to those of the LDA and the GGA. We implement the optimized effective potential (OEP) of the meta-GGA for periodic systems, which allows us to carry out meta-GGA calculations in the same KS manner as for the LDA and the GGA. We apply the OEP to several meta-GGAs, including the new SCAN functional [Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 036402 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.036402]. We find that the KS gaps and KS band structures of meta-GGAs are close to those of GGAs. They are smaller than the more realistic gKS gaps of meta-GGAs, but probably close to the less-realistic gaps in the band structure of the exact KS potential, as can be seen by comparing with the gaps of the EXX+RPA OEP potential. The well-known grid sensitivity of meta-GGAs is much more severe in OEP calculations.

  4. Kohn-Sham Band Structure Benchmark Including Spin-Orbit Coupling for 2D and 3D Solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huhn, William; Blum, Volker

    2015-03-01

    Accurate electronic band structures serve as a primary indicator of the suitability of a material for a given application, e.g., as electronic or catalytic materials. Computed band structures, however, are subject to a host of approximations, some of which are more obvious (e.g., the treatment of the exchange-correlation of self-energy) and others less obvious (e.g., the treatment of core, semicore, or valence electrons, handling of relativistic effects, or the accuracy of the underlying basis set used). We here provide a set of accurate Kohn-Sham band structure benchmarks, using the numeric atom-centered all-electron electronic structure code FHI-aims combined with the ``traditional'' PBE functional and the hybrid HSE functional, to calculate core, valence, and low-lying conduction bands of a set of 2D and 3D materials. Benchmarks are provided with and without effects of spin-orbit coupling, using quasi-degenerate perturbation theory to predict spin-orbit splittings. This work is funded by Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft.

  5. Piping system response during high-level simulated seismic tests at the Heissdampfreaktor Facility: (SHAM Test Facility)

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, R. Jr.; Nitzel, M.E.

    1992-07-01

    The SHAM seismic research program studied the effects of increasing levels of seismic excitation on a full-scale, in situ nuclear piping system containing a naturally aged United States (US) 8-in. motor-operated gate valve. The program was conducted by Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe at the Heissdampfreaktor near Frankfurt, Germany. Participants included the United States, Germany, and England. Fifty-one experiments were conducted, with the piping supported by six different piping support systems, including a typical stiff US piping support system of snubbers and rigid struts. This report specifically addresses the tests conducted with the US system. The piping system withstood large displacements caused by overload snubber failures and local piping strains. Although some limit switch chatter was observed, the motor operator and valve functioned smoothly throughout the tests. The results indicate that sufficient safety margins exist when commonly accepted design methods are applied and that piping systems will likely maintain their pressure boundary in the presence of severe loading and the loss of multiple supports.

  6. Excitation Energies from Real-Time Propagation of the Four-Component Dirac-Kohn-Sham Equation.

    PubMed

    Repisky, Michal; Konecny, Lukas; Kadek, Marius; Komorovsky, Stanislav; Malkin, Olga L; Malkin, Vladimir G; Ruud, Kenneth

    2015-03-10

    We report the first implementation of real-time time-dependent density functional theory (RT-TDDFT) at the relativistic four-component level of theory. In contrast to the perturbative linear-response TDDFT approach (LR-TDDFT), the RT-TDDFT approach performs an explicit time propagation of the Dirac-Kohn-Sham density matrix, offering the possibility to simulate molecular spectroscopies involving strong electromagnetic fields while, at the same time, treating relativistic scalar and spin-orbit corrections variationally. The implementation is based on the matrix representation of the Dirac-Coulomb Hamiltonian in the basis of restricted kinetically balanced Gaussian-type functions, exploiting the noncollinear Kramers unrestricted formalism implemented in the program ReSpect. We also present an analytic form for the delta-type impulse commonly used in RT-TDDFT calculations, as well as a dipole-weighted transition matrix analysis, facilitating the interpretation of spectral transitions in terms of ground-state molecular orbitals. The possibilities offered by the methodology are illustrated by investigating vertical excitation energies and oscillator strengths for ground-state to excited-state transitions in the Group 12 atoms and in heavy-element hydrides. The accuracy of the method is assessed by comparing the excitation energies obtained with earlier relativistic linear response TDDFT results and available experimental data. PMID:26579752

  7. Combining Kohn-Sham and orbital-free density-functional theory for Hugoniot calculations to extreme pressures.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, Daniel; Kress, Joel D; Crockett, Scott; Collins, Lee A; Desjarlais, Michael P

    2014-12-01

    The shock Hugoniot for lithium 6 deuteride ((6)LiD) was calculated via first principles using Kohn-Sham density-functional theory molecular dynamics (KSMD) for temperatures of 0.5-25 eV. The upper limit of 25 eV represents a practical limit where KSMD is no longer computationally feasible due to the number of electronic bands which are required to be populated. To push the Hugoniot calculations to higher temperatures we make use of orbital-free density-functional theory molecular dynamics (OFMD). Thomas-Fermi-Dirac-based OFMD gives a poor description of the electronic structure at low temperatures so the initial state is not well defined. We propose a method of bootstrapping the Hugoniot from OFMD to the Hugoniot from KSMD between 10 and 20 eV, where the two methods are in agreement. The combination of KSMD and OFMD allows construction of a first-principles Hugoniot from the initial state to 1000 eV. Theoretical shock-compression results are in good agreement with available experimental data and exhibit the appropriate high-temperature limits. We show that a unified KSMD-OFMD Hugoniot can be used to assess the quality of the existing equation-of-state (EOS) models and inform better EOS models based on justifiable physics. PMID:25615229

  8. Linear interpolation method in ensemble Kohn-Sham and range-separated density-functional approximations for excited states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senjean, Bruno; Knecht, Stefan; Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aa.; Fromager, Emmanuel

    2015-07-01

    Gross-Oliveira-Kohn density-functional theory (GOK-DFT) for ensembles is, in principle, very attractive but has been hard to use in practice. A practical model based on GOK-DFT for the calculation of electronic excitation energies is discussed. The model relies on two modifications of GOK-DFT: use of range separation and use of the slope of the linearly interpolated ensemble energy, rather than orbital energies. The range-separated approach is appealing, as it enables the rigorous formulation of a multideterminant state-averaged DFT method. In the exact theory, the short-range density functional, which complements the long-range wave-function-based ensemble energy contribution, should vary with the ensemble weights even when the density is held fixed. This weight dependence ensures that the range-separated ensemble energy varies linearly with the ensemble weights. When the (weight-independent) ground-state short-range exchange-correlation functional is used in this context, curvature appears, thus leading to an approximate weight-dependent excitation energy. In order to obtain unambiguous approximate excitation energies, we propose to interpolate linearly the ensemble energy between equiensembles. It is shown that such a linear interpolation method (LIM) can be rationalized and that it effectively introduces weight dependence effects. As proof of principle, the LIM has been applied to He, Be, and H2 in both equilibrium and stretched geometries as well as the stretched HeH+ molecule. Very promising results have been obtained for both single (including charge transfer) and double excitations with spin-independent short-range local and semilocal functionals. Even at the Kohn-Sham ensemble DFT level, which is recovered when the range-separation parameter is set to 0, LIM performs better than standard time-dependent DFT.

  9. To what extent are surgery and invasive procedures effective beyond a placebo response? A systematic review with meta-analysis of randomised, sham controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Jonas, Wayne B; Crawford, Cindy; Colloca, Luana; Kaptchuk, Ted J; Moseley, Bruce; Miller, Franklin G; Kriston, Levente; Linde, Klaus; Meissner, Karin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess the quantity and quality of randomised, sham-controlled studies of surgery and invasive procedures and estimate the treatment-specific and non-specific effects of those procedures. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources We searched PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, CENTRAL (Cochrane Library), PILOTS, PsycInfo, DoD Biomedical Research, clinicaltrials.gov, NLM catalog and NIH Grantee Publications Database from their inception through January 2015. Study selection We included randomised controlled trials of surgery and invasive procedures that penetrated the skin or an orifice and had a parallel sham procedure for comparison. Data extraction and analysis Three authors independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias. Studies reporting continuous outcomes were pooled and the standardised mean difference (SMD) with 95% CIs was calculated using a random effects model for difference between true and sham groups. Results 55 studies (3574 patients) were identified meeting inclusion criteria; 39 provided sufficient data for inclusion in the main analysis (2902 patients). The overall SMD of the continuous primary outcome between treatment/sham-control groups was 0.34 (95% CI 0.20 to 0.49; p<0.00001; I2=67%). The SMD for surgery versus sham surgery was non-significant for pain-related conditions (n=15, SMD=0.13, p=0.08), marginally significant for studies on weight loss (n=10, SMD=0.52, p=0.05) and significant for gastroesophageal reflux disorder (GERD) studies (n=5, SMD=0.65, p<0.001) and for other conditions (n=8, SMD=0.44, p=0.004). Mean improvement in sham groups relative to active treatment was larger in pain-related conditions (78%) and obesity (71%) than in GERD (57%) and other conditions (57%), and was smaller in classical-surgery trials (21%) than in endoscopic trials (73%) and those using percutaneous procedures (64%). Conclusions The non-specific effects of surgery and other invasive procedures are generally large. Particularly in

  10. Plane-wave pseudopotential implementation of explicit integrators for time-dependent Kohn-Sham equations in large-scale simulations.

    PubMed

    Schleife, André; Draeger, Erik W; Kanai, Yosuke; Correa, Alfredo A

    2012-12-14

    Explicit integrators for real-time propagation of time-dependent Kohn-Sham equations are compared regarding their suitability for performing large-scale simulations. Four algorithms are implemented and assessed for both stability and accuracy within a plane-wave pseudopotential framework, employing the adiabatic approximation to the exchange-correlation functional. Simulation results for a single sodium atom and a sodium atom embedded in bulk magnesium oxide are discussed. While the first-order Euler scheme and the second-order finite-difference scheme are unstable, the fourth-order Runge-Kutta scheme is found to be conditionally stable and accurate within this framework. Excellent parallel scalability of the algorithm up to more than a thousand processors is demonstrated for a system containing hundreds of electrons, evidencing the suitability for large-scale simulations based on real-time propagation of time-dependent Kohn-Sham equations. PMID:23249083

  11. Validation and application of auxiliary density perturbation theory and non-iterative approximation to coupled-perturbed Kohn-Sham approach for calculation of dipole-quadrupole polarizability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shedge, Sapana V.; Pal, Sourav; Köster, Andreas M.

    2011-07-01

    Recently, two non-iterative approaches have been proposed to calculate response properties within density functional theory (DFT). These approaches are auxiliary density perturbation theory (ADPT) and the non-iterative approach to the coupled-perturbed Kohn-Sham (NIA-CPKS) method. Though both methods are non-iterative, they use different techniques to obtain the perturbed Kohn-Sham matrix. In this Letter, for the first time, both of these two independent methods have been used for the calculation of dipole-quadrupole polarizabilities. To validate these methods, three tetrahedral molecules viz., P4,CH4 and adamantane (C10H16) have been used as examples. The comparison with MP2 and CCSD proves the reliability of the methodology.

  12. Extended application of Kohn-Sham first-principles molecular dynamics method with plane wave approximation at high energy—From cold materials to hot dense plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shen; Wang, Hongwei; Kang, Wei; Zhang, Ping; He, X. T.

    2016-04-01

    An extended first-principles molecular dynamics (FPMD) method based on Kohn-Sham scheme is proposed to elevate the temperature limit of the FPMD method in the calculation of dense plasmas. The extended method treats the wave functions of high energy electrons as plane waves analytically and thus expands the application of the FPMD method to the region of hot dense plasmas without suffering from the formidable computational costs. In addition, the extended method inherits the high accuracy of the Kohn-Sham scheme and keeps the information of electronic structures. This gives an edge to the extended method in the calculation of mixtures of plasmas composed of heterogeneous ions, high-Z dense plasmas, lowering of ionization potentials, X-ray absorption/emission spectra, and opacities, which are of particular interest to astrophysics, inertial confinement fusion engineering, and laboratory astrophysics.

  13. The static response function in Kohn-Sham theory: An appropriate basis for its matrix representation in case of finite AO basis sets

    SciTech Connect

    Kollmar, Christian Neese, Frank

    2014-10-07

    The role of the static Kohn-Sham (KS) response function describing the response of the electron density to a change of the local KS potential is discussed in both the theory of the optimized effective potential (OEP) and the so-called inverse Kohn-Sham problem involving the task to find the local KS potential for a given electron density. In a general discussion of the integral equation to be solved in both cases, it is argued that a unique solution of this equation can be found even in case of finite atomic orbital basis sets. It is shown how a matrix representation of the response function can be obtained if the exchange-correlation potential is expanded in terms of a Schmidt-orthogonalized basis comprising orbitals products of occupied and virtual orbitals. The viability of this approach in both OEP theory and the inverse KS problem is illustrated by numerical examples.

  14. Resolution of identity Dirac-Kohn-Sham method using the large component only: Calculations of g-tensor and hyperfine tensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komorovský, Stanislav; Repiský, Michal; Malkina, Olga L.; Malkin, Vladimir G.; Malkin, Irina; Kaupp, Martin

    2006-02-01

    A new relativistic two-component density functional approach, based on the Dirac-Kohn-Sham method and an extensive use of the technique of resolution of identity (RI), has been developed and is termed the DKS2-RI method. It has been applied to relativistic calculations of g and hyperfine tensors of coinage-metal atoms and some mercury complexes. The DKS2-RI method solves the Dirac-Kohn-Sham equations in a two-component framework using explicitly a basis for the large component only, but it retains all contributions coming from the small component. The DKS2-RI results converge to those of the four-component Dirac-Kohn-Sham with an increasing basis set since the error associated with the use of RI will approach zero. The RI approximation provides a basis for a very efficient implementation by avoiding problems associated with complicated integrals otherwise arising from the elimination of the small component. The approach has been implemented in an unrestricted noncollinear two-component density functional framework. DKS2-RI is related to Dyall's [J. Chem. Phys. 106, 9618 (1997)] unnormalized elimination of the small component method (which was formulated at the Hartree-Fock level and applied to one-electron systems only), but it takes advantage of the local Kohn-Sham exchange-correlation operators (as, e.g., arising from local or gradient-corrected functionals). The DKS2-RI method provides an attractive alternative to existing approximate two-component methods with transformed Hamiltonians (such as Douglas-Kroll-Hess [Ann. Phys. 82, 89 (1974); Phys. Rev. A 33, 3742 (1986)] method, zero-order regular approximation, or related approaches) for relativistic calculations of the structure and properties of heavy-atom systems. In particular, no picture-change effects arise in the property calculations.

  15. In Vivo MRI Measurement of Spinal Cord Displacement in the Thoracolumbar Region of Asymptomatic Subjects with Unilateral and Sham Straight Leg Raise Tests

    PubMed Central

    Rade, M.; Könönen, M.; Marttila, J.; Shacklock, M.; Vanninen, R.; Kankaanpää, M.; Airaksinen, O.

    2016-01-01

    Background Normal displacement of the conus medullaris with unilateral and bilateral SLR has been quantified and the "principle of linear dependence" has been described. Purpose Explore whether previously recorded movements of conus medullaris with SLRs are i) primarily due to transmission of tensile forces transmitted through the neural tissues during SLR or ii) the result of reciprocal movements between vertebrae and nerves. Study design Controlled radiologic study. Methods Ten asymptomatic volunteers were scanned with a 1.5T magnetic resonance (MR) scanner using T2 weighted spc 3D scanning sequences and a device that permits greater ranges of SLR. Displacement of the conus medullaris during the unilateral and sham SLR was quantified reliably with a randomized procedure. Conus displacement in response to unilateral and sham SLRs was quantified and the results compared. Results The conus displaced caudally in the spinal canal by 3.54±0.87 mm (mean±SD) with unilateral (p≤.001) and proximally by 0.32±1.6 mm with sham SLR (p≤.542). Pearson correlations were higher than 0.99 for both intra- and inter-observer reliability and the observed power was 1 for unilateral SLRs and 0.054 and 0.149 for left and right sham SLR respectively. Conclusions Four relevant points emerge from the presented data: i) reciprocal movements between the spinal cord and the surrounding vertebrae are likely to occur during SLR in asymptomatic subjects, ii) conus medullaris displacement in the vertebral canal with SLR is primarily due to transmission of tensile forces through the neural tissues, iii) when tensile forces are transmitted through the neural system as in the clinical SLR, the magnitude of conus medullaris displacement prevails over the amount of bone adjustment. PMID:27253708

  16. Stability conditions for exact-exchange Kohn-Sham methods and their relation to correlation energies from the adiabatic-connection fluctuation-dissipation theorem

    SciTech Connect

    Bleiziffer, Patrick Schmidtel, Daniel; Görling, Andreas

    2014-11-28

    The occurrence of instabilities, in particular singlet-triplet and singlet-singlet instabilities, in the exact-exchange (EXX) Kohn-Sham method is investigated. Hessian matrices of the EXX electronic energy with respect to the expansion coefficients of the EXX effective Kohn-Sham potential in an auxiliary basis set are derived. The eigenvalues of these Hessian matrices determine whether or not instabilities are present. Similar as in the corresponding Hartree-Fock case instabilities in the EXX method are related to symmetry breaking of the Hamiltonian operator for the EXX orbitals. In the EXX methods symmetry breaking can easily be visualized by displaying the local multiplicative exchange potential. Examples (N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, and the polyyne C{sub 10}H{sub 2}) for instabilities and symmetry breaking are discussed. The relation of the stability conditions for EXX methods to approaches calculating the Kohn-Sham correlation energy via the adiabatic-connection fluctuation-dissipation (ACFD) theorem is discussed. The existence or nonexistence of singlet-singlet instabilities in an EXX calculation is shown to indicate whether or not the frequency-integration in the evaluation of the correlation energy is singular in the EXX-ACFD method. This method calculates the Kohn-Sham correlation energy through the ACFD theorem theorem employing besides the Coulomb kernel also the full frequency-dependent exchange kernel and yields highly accurate electronic energies. For the case of singular frequency-integrands in the EXX-ACFD method a regularization is suggested. Finally, we present examples of molecular systems for which the self-consistent field procedure of the EXX as well as the Hartree-Fock method can converge to more than one local minimum depending on the initial conditions.

  17. Correlation between the Effects of Acupuncture at Taichong (LR3) and Functional Brain Areas: A Resting-State Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study Using True versus Sham Acupuncture.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chunxiao; Qu, Shanshan; Zhang, Jiping; Chen, Junqi; Zhang, Shaoqun; Li, Zhipeng; Chen, Jiarong; Ouyang, Huailiang; Huang, Yong; Tang, Chunzhi

    2014-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been shown to detect the specificity of acupuncture points, as proved by numerous studies. In this study, resting-state fMRI was used to observe brain areas activated by acupuncture at the Taichong (LR3) acupoint. A total of 15 healthy subjects received brain resting-state fMRI before acupuncture and after sham and true acupuncture, respectively, at LR3. Image data processing was performed using Data Processing Assistant for Resting-State fMRI and REST software. The combination of amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) and regional homogeneity (ReHo) was used to analyze the changes in brain function during sham and true acupuncture. Acupuncture at LR3 can specifically activate or deactivate brain areas related to vision, movement, sensation, emotion, and analgesia. The specific alterations in the anterior cingulate gyrus, thalamus, and cerebellar posterior lobe have a crucial effect and provide a valuable reference. Sham acupuncture has a certain effect on psychological processes and does not affect brain areas related to function. PMID:24963329

  18. Neural correlates associated with symptom provocation in pediatric obsessive compulsive disorder after a single session of sham-controlled repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Pedapati, Ernest; DiFrancesco, Mark; Wu, Steve; Giovanetti, Cathy; Nash, Tiffany; Mantovani, Antonio; Ammerman, Robert; Harris, Elana

    2015-09-30

    Treatments for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) could be enhanced if the physiological changes engendered by treatment were known. This study examined neural correlates of a provocation task in youth with OCD, before and after sham-controlled repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). We hypothesized that rTMS to the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex would inhibit activity in cortico-striato-thalamic (CST) circuits associated with OCD to a greater extent than sham rTMS. After baseline (Time 1) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a provocation task, subjects received one session of either fMRI-guided sham (SG; n=8) or active (AG; n=10) 1-Hz rTMS over the rDLPFC for 30min. During rTMS, subjects were presented with personalized images that evoked OCD-related anxiety. Following stimulation, fMRI and the provocation task were repeated (Time 2). Contrary to our prediction for the provocation task, the AG was associated with no changes in BOLD response from Times 1 to 2. In contrast, the SG had a significant increase at Time 2 in BOLD response in the right inferior frontal gyrus and right putamen, which persisted after adjusting for age, gender, and time to scanner as covariates. This study provides an initial framework for TMS interrogation of the CST circuit in pediatric OCD. PMID:26228567

  19. Your tooth it ain't so purty but it's gen-u-ine: Cole Porter's comic song "Snagtooth Gertie".

    PubMed

    Christen, Arden G; Christen, Joan A

    2010-01-01

    Cole Porter (1891-1964), an American musical icon, has been internationally acknowledged as one of the most cosmopolitan, sophisticated, elegant and influential composer-lyricists of the 20th century. Born in Indiana and raised in wealth and privilege, he attended both Yale and Harvard universities where he honed his song-writing skills. In his 800 tunes, many of which became smash hits, he blended fresh, witty, urbane and colloquial lyrics with catchy, singable melodies. He composed musical scores for both Broadway stage and Hollywood movies, but focused on the former. While Porter enjoyed penning comic songs, he rarely had them published. In 1946, Cole wrote the music and lyrics for a Broadway show entitled Around the World in Eighty Days. Deemed a failure, it closed after only 75 performances. One light-hearted ditty, "Snagtooth Gertie", which he composed for the show, was never used. The lyrics are presented for the first time in this paper. PMID:21329237

  20. Prefrontal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation for Treatment of Schizophrenia With Predominant Negative Symptoms: A Double-Blind, Sham-Controlled Proof-of-Concept Study.

    PubMed

    Palm, Ulrich; Keeser, Daniel; Hasan, Alkomiet; Kupka, Michael J; Blautzik, Janusch; Sarubin, Nina; Kaymakanova, Filipa; Unger, Ina; Falkai, Peter; Meindl, Thomas; Ertl-Wagner, Birgit; Padberg, Frank

    2016-09-01

    Negative symptoms are highly relevant in the long-term course of schizophrenia and are an important target domain for the development of novel interventions. Recently, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the prefrontal cortex has been investigated as a treatment option in schizophrenia. In this proof-of-concept study, 20 schizophrenia patients with predominantly negative symptoms were randomized to either 10 sessions of add-on active (2 mA, 20min) or sham tDCS (anode: left DLPFC/F3; cathode: right supraorbital/F4). Primary outcome measure was the change in the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) sum score; secondary outcomes included reduction in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) scores and improvement of depressive symptoms, cognitive processing speed, and executive functioning. Sixteen patients underwent 4 functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI) scans (pre and post 1st and pre and post 10th tDCS) to investigate changes in resting state network connectivity after tDCS. Per-protocol analysis showed a significantly greater decrease in SANS score after active (-36.1%) than after sham tDCS (-0.7%). PANSS sum scores decreased significantly more with active (-23.4%) than with sham stimulation (-2.2%). Explorative analysis of fcMRI data indicated changes in subgenual cortex and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) connectivity within frontal-thalamic-temporo-parietal networks. The results of this first proof-of-concept study indicate that prefrontal tDCS may be a promising intervention for treatment of schizophrenia with predominant negative symptoms. Large-scale randomized controlled studies are needed to further establish prefrontal tDCS as novel treatment for negative symptoms in schizophrenia. PMID:27098066

  1. A randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled study of static electric field therapy by high voltage alternating current for active rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Naito, Yuji; Yamaguchi, Shinnichi; Mori, Yasuhiro; Nakajima, Kouji; Hashimoto, Sanshiro; Tomaru, Masakazu; Satoh, Yoshihiko; Hitomi, Yuji; Karita, Masakazu; Hiwatashi, Tomoaki; Kawahito, Yutaka; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu

    2013-07-01

    Static electric field therapy by high voltage alternating current (EF-HVAC) is a traditional complementary Japanese medicine used for headache, shoulder stiffness, chronic constipation and insomnia. Open-label studies and clinical experience in Japan have suggested that this electric field therapy is safe and effective in treating chronic arthritis. We evaluated the efficacy of EF-HVAC therapy in a randomized, double-blinded, sham-controlled trial in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in community-based general physician centers. Thirty patients fulfilling American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria for RA were treated with EF-HVAC therapy with the LEGACIS PLUS System (COCOROCA Corp., Tokyo, Japan) or sham therapy for 12 weeks and followed for 4 weeks without treatment. The disease activity score 28 (DAS28-CRP), visual analogue scale for pain (VAS), modified health assessment questionnaire (MHAQ), and inflammatory parameters were used as the outcome variable. Twenty four patients (n = 12 in each group) were analyzed by a per protocol analysis. Although a significant reduction in DAS28-CRP was observed in EF-HVAC group at 8 and 12 weeks compared to before treatment, there were no significant differences in DAS28-CRP scores during treatment between two groups. The scale of VAS was also significantly decreased by the treatment with EF-HVAC compared to before treatment, in addition, the scale of VAS in EF-HVAC group was significantly lower than sham group at 8 and 12 weeks. Changes in another parameters including MHAQ were not significant between before and after treatment, or by all comparative study between two groups. There were no adverse events related the treatment. In conclusion, the EF-HVAC therapy has a beneficial effect on the improvement to subjective pain of RA. PMID:23874073

  2. Randomized, Sham-Controlled, Feasibility Trial of Hyperbaric Oxygen for Service Members With Postconcussion Syndrome: Cognitive and Psychomotor Outcomes 1 Week Postintervention.

    PubMed

    Walker, William C; Franke, Laura Manning; Cifu, David X; Hart, Brett B

    2013-12-26

    Background. Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and residual postconcussion syndrome (PCS) are common among combatants of the recent military conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) is a proposed treatment but has not been rigorously studied for this condition. Objectives. In a secondary analysis, examine for possible effects on psychomotor (balance and fine motor) and cognitive performance 1 week after an HBO2 intervention in service members with PCS after mTBI. Methods. A randomized, double-blind, sham control, feasibility trial comparing pretreatment and posttreatment was conducted in 60 male active-duty marines with combat-related mTBI and PCS persisting for 3 to 36 months. Participants were randomized to 1 of 3 preassigned oxygen fractions (10.5%, 75%, or 100%) at 2.0 atmospheres absolute (ATA), resulting in respective groups with an oxygen exposure equivalent to (1) breathing surface air (Sham Air), (2) 100% oxygen at 1.5 ATA (1.5 ATAO2), and (3) 100% oxygen at 2.0 ATA (2.0 ATAO2). Over a 10-week period, participants received 40 hyperbaric chamber sessions of 60 minutes each. Outcome measures, including computerized posturography (balance), grooved pegboard (fine motor speed/dexterity), and multiple neuropsychological tests of cognitive performance, were collected preintervention and 1-week postintervention. Results. Despite the multiple sensitive cognitive and psychomotor measures analyzed at an unadjusted 5% significance level, this study demonstrated no immediate postintervention beneficial effect of exposure to either 1.5 ATAO2 or 2.0 ATAO2 compared with the Sham Air intervention. Conclusions. These results do not support the use of HBO2 to treat cognitive, balance, or fine motor deficits associated with mTBI and PCS. PMID:24370568

  3. Cognitive Effects of High-Frequency rTMS in Schizophrenia Patients With Predominant Negative Symptoms: Results From a Multicenter Randomized Sham-Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Alkomiet; Guse, Birgit; Cordes, Joachim; Wölwer, Wolfgang; Winterer, Georg; Gaebel, Wolfgang; Langguth, Berthold; Landgrebe, Michael; Eichhammer, Peter; Frank, Elmar; Hajak, Göran; Ohmann, Christian; Verde, Pablo E; Rietschel, Marcella; Ahmed, Raees; Honer, William G; Malchow, Berend; Karch, Susanne; Schneider-Axmann, Thomas; Falkai, Peter; Wobrock, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Cognitive impairments are one of the main contributors to disability and poor long-term outcome in schizophrenia. Proof-of-concept trials indicate that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) applied to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) has the potential to improve cognitive functioning. We analyzed the effects of 10-Hz rTMS to the left DLPFC on cognitive deficits in schizophrenia in a large-scale and multicenter, sham-controlled study. A total of 156 schizophrenia patients with predominant negative symptoms were randomly assigned to a 3-week intervention (10-Hz rTMS, 15 sessions, 1000 stimuli per session) with either active or sham rTMS. The Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Trail Making Test A and B, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Digit Span Test, and the Regensburg Word Fluency Test were administered before intervention and at day 21, 45, and 105 follow-up. From the test results, a neuropsychological composite score was computed. Both groups showed no differences in any of the outcome variables before and after intervention. Both groups improved markedly over time, but effect sizes indicate a numeric, but nonsignificant superiority of active rTMS in certain cognitive tests. Active 10-Hz rTMS applied to the left DLPFC for 3 weeks was not superior to sham rTMS in the improvement of various cognitive domains in schizophrenia patients with predominant negative symptoms. This is in contrast to previous preliminary proof-of-concept trials, but highlights the need for more multicenter randomized controlled trials in the field of noninvasive brain stimulation. PMID:26433217

  4. Longitudinal Use of Micro-computed Tomography Does Not Alter Microarchitecture of the Proximal Tibia in Sham or Ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley Rats.

    PubMed

    Longo, Amanda B; Sacco, Sandra M; Salmon, Phil L; Ward, Wendy E

    2016-06-01

    In vivo micro-computed tomography (μCT) provides the ability to measure longitudinal changes to tibia microarchitecture, but the effect of this radiation is not well understood. The right proximal tibia of Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 12/group) randomized to Sham-control (Sham) or ovariectomy (OVX) surgery at 12 weeks of age was scanned using μCT at 13, 17, 21, and 25 weeks of age, at a resolution of 18 μm and a radiation dose of 603 mGy. The left proximal tibia was scanned only at 25 weeks of age to serve as an internal non-irradiated control. Repeated irradiation did not affect tibia microarchitecture in Sham or OVX groups, although there was an increase in cortical eccentricity (P < 0.05). All trabecular outcomes and cortical BMD were different (P < 0.05) between groups after only 1 week post-surgery and differences persisted to study endpoint. Characteristic changes to trabecular bone were observed in OVX rats over time. Interactions of time and hormone status were found for cortical BMD (P < 0.001), Ps. Pm., and Ec. Pm. (P < 0.05). Repeated irradiation of the tibia at 13, 17, 21, and 25 weeks does not cause adverse effects to microarchitecture, regardless of hormone status. This radiation dose can be applied over a typical 3-month study period to comprehensively understand how an intervention alters tibia microarchitecture without confounding effects of radiation. PMID:26860853

  5. No effects of 20 Hz-rTMS of the primary motor cortex in vegetative state: A randomised, sham-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Cincotta, Massimo; Giovannelli, Fabio; Chiaramonti, Roberta; Bianco, Giovanni; Godone, Marco; Battista, Donato; Cardinali, Consuelo; Borgheresi, Alessandra; Sighinolfi, Antonella; D'Avanzo, Anna Maria; Breschi, Marco; Dine, Ylli; Lino, Mario; Zaccara, Gaetano; Viggiano, Maria Pia; Rossi, Simone

    2015-10-01

    We assessed the effects of a non-invasive neuromodulatory intervention with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the motor cortex in patients with vegetative state (VS) by a randomised, sham-controlled study with a cross-over design. Eleven patients classified as being in VS (9 post-anoxic, 2 post-traumatic, time elapsed from the injury 9-85 months) were included in the study. Real or sham 20 Hz rTMS were applied to the left primary motor cortex (M1) for 5 consecutive days. Primary outcome measures were changes in the JFK Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R) scale total score and Clinical Global Impression Improvement (CGI-I) scale. Additional measures were EEG changes and impression of the patients' relatives using the CGI-I scale. Evaluations were blindly performed at baseline, after the first day of treatment, immediately after the end of the 5-days treatment, 1 week and 1 month later. Slight changes observed in the CRS-R and CGI-I scores did not significantly differ between real or sham stimulation conditions. EEG was not significantly changed on average, although spots of brain reactivity were occasionally found underneath the stimulation point. Findings did not provide evidence of therapeutic effect of 20 Hz rTMS of the M1 in chronic VS, at least with conventional coils and current safety parameters. Therefore, they might be useful to better allocate human and financial resources in future trials. PMID:26301875

  6. Kohn-Sham-like approach toward a classical density-functional theory of inhomogeneous polar molecular liquids: an application to liquid hydrogen chloride.

    PubMed

    Lischner, Johannes; Arias, T A

    2008-11-21

    The Gordian knot of density-functional theories for classical molecular liquids remains finding an accurate free-energy functional in terms of the densities of the atomic sites of the molecules. Following Kohn and Sham, we show how to solve this problem by considering noninteracting molecules in a set of effective potentials. This shift in perspective leads to an accurate and computationally tractable description in terms of simple three-dimensional functions. We also treat both the linear- and saturation- dielectric responses of polar systems, presenting liquid hydrogen chloride as a case study. PMID:19113431

  7. X-ray absorption resonances near L2,3-edges from real-time propagation of the Dirac-Kohn-Sham density matrix.

    PubMed

    Kadek, Marius; Konecny, Lukas; Gao, Bin; Repisky, Michal; Ruud, Kenneth

    2015-09-21

    The solution of the Liouville-von Neumann equation in the relativistic Dirac-Kohn-Sham density matrix formalism is presented and used to calculate X-ray absorption cross sections. Both dynamical relaxation effects and spin-orbit corrections are included, as demonstrated by calculations of the X-ray absorption of SF6 near the sulfur L2,3-edges. We also propose an analysis facilitating the interpretation of spectral transitions from real-time simulations, and a selective perturbation that eliminates nonphysical excitations that are artifacts of the finite basis representation. PMID:26268195

  8. Virial theorem in the Kohn-Sham density-functional theory formalism: accurate calculation of the atomic quantum theory of atoms in molecules energies.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Juan I; Ayers, Paul W; Götz, Andreas W; Castillo-Alvarado, F L

    2009-07-14

    A new approach for computing the atom-in-molecule [quantum theory of atoms in molecule (QTAIM)] energies in Kohn-Sham density-functional theory is presented and tested by computing QTAIM energies for a set of representative molecules. In the new approach, the contribution for the correlation-kinetic energy (T(c)) is computed using the density-functional theory virial relation. Based on our calculations, it is shown that the conventional approach where atomic energies are computed using only the noninteracting part of the kinetic energy might be in error by hundreds of kJ/mol. PMID:19603962

  9. Jebel Hafit and the Al Ain oases (Eastern Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates): an integrative approach of a cultural landscape through the scope of geodiversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giusti, Christian; Louchet, André; Beuzen-Waller, Tara; Ragala, Rachid; Pavlopoulos, Kosmas; Fouache, Éric; Cohen, Marianne; Desruelles, Stéphane; Gramond, Delphine

    2015-04-01

    human settlements and occupation, it is possible to characterize a threefold transition: first, the former transition between the pre-Islamic prehistoric societies and the development of Muslim societies; second, the more recent transition between the traditional historical society (farmers) and the contemporary society, characterized by the growth of urbanization, the creation of modern transport infrastructure and the concomitant growth of tourist flows; third, the current transition between the yesterday and tomorrow Al Ain City, due to the transformation of a local town centred on national economics all along the second half of the twentieth century, into an international town more open to the wider world with the management of a possible increased 20 % of tourist flow because of the inscription of Cultural Sites of Al Ain on the UNESCO's World Heritage List. It is not possible to completely ignore the fact that the Jebel Hafit and its foothills are partly crossed by an international boundary. In case of political tensions, this may cause some difficulties for the management of this territory, with contradictory requirements between security, tourism, traditional land use, and scientific research.

  10. Caractérisation et préconcentration granulométrique de la matière feldspathique d'Ain-Barbar, Algérie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djouama, M. C.; Bounouala, M.; Ain-Souya, A.; Ghers, M.

    2005-05-01

    Les feldspaths sont répandus dans l'écorce terrestre mais seuls les feldspaths potassiques et sodiques sont très recherchés dans l'industrie céramique et verrière. Pour qu'ils soient utilisables, ces matériaux doivent contenir très peu d'impuretés nocives de fer et surtout de silice. La carrière d'Ain-Barbar exploite la matière feldspathique de teneurs moyennes respectives 74,5% SiO{2}, 9,5% 12,75% Al{2}O{3}, 1,30% Fe{2}O{3} et 9,5 K{2}O (0,90% Na{2}O). Toutefois, on constate un taux très élevé en quartz ce qui diminue la valeur du produit marchand et une teneur élevée en fer ce qui donne au produit fabriqué, des aspects de coloration le rendant impropre à la commercialisation. A cet effet, une caractérisation minéralogique et chimique a été réalisée sur une série d'échantillons prélevés du site d'extraction de la substance utile. Des essais de préconcentration granulométrique ont montré qu'un classement dimensionnel peut offrir une qualité de produits acceptables par les céramistes.

  11. Sorption and mineralization of S-metolachlor and its ionic metabolites in soils and vadose zone solids: Consequences on groundwater quality in an alluvial aquifer (Ain Plain, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baran, Nicole; Gourcy, Laurence

    2013-11-01

    This study characterizes the transfer of S-metolachlor (SMOC) and its metabolites, metolachlor ethane sulfonic acid (MESA) and metolachlor oxanilic acid (MOXA) to the alluvial aquifer. Sorption and mineralization of SMOC and its two ionic metabolites were characterized for cultivated soils and solids from the vadose (unsaturated) zone in the Ain Plain (France). Under sterile soil conditions, the absence of mineralization confirms the importance of biotic processes in SMOC degradation. There is some adsorption and mineralization of the parent molecule and its metabolites in the unsaturated zone, though less than in soils. For soils, the MESA adsorption constant is statistically higher than that of MOXA and the sorption constants of the two metabolites are significantly lower than that of SMOC. After 246 days, for soils, maximums of 26% of the SMOC, 30% of the MESA and 38% of the MOXA were mineralized. This partly explains the presence of these metabolites in the groundwater at concentrations generally higher than those of the parent molecule for MESA, although there is no statistical difference in the mineralization of the 3 molecules. The laboratory results make it possible to explain the field observations made during 27 months of groundwater quality monitoring (monthly sampling frequency). The evolution of both metabolite concentrations in the groundwater is directly related to recharge dynamics; there is a positive correlation between concentrations and the groundwater level. The observed lag of several months between the signals of the parent molecule and those of the metabolites is probably due to greater sorption of the parent molecule than of its metabolites and/or to degradation kinetics.

  12. Low-frequency, Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for the Treatment of Patients with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: a Double-blind, Sham-controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Dong-Hyun; Pae, Chi-Un

    2013-01-01

    Objective Several studies have suggested that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the right prefrontal cortex may be useful in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The aim of this study was to compare the effect of rTMS on the right prefrontal cortex with that of sham stimulation among patients with PTSD. Methods In total, 18 patients with PTSD were randomly assigned to the 1-Hz low-frequency rTMS group or the sham group for 3 weeks. Primary efficacy measures were the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) and its subscales, assessed at baseline and at 2, 4, and 8 weeks. Results All CAPS scores improved significantly over the study period. We found significant differences in the re-experiencing scores (F=7.47, p=0.004) and total scores (F=6.45, p=0.008) on the CAPS. The CAPS avoidance scores showed a trend toward significance (F=2.74, p=0.055), but no significant differences in the CAPS hyperarousal scores were observed. Conclusion The present study showed low-frequency rTMS to be an effective and tolerable option for the treatment of PTSD. Trials using variable indices of rTMS to the right prefrontal cortex and explorations of the differences in the effects on specific symptom clusters may be promising avenues of research regarding the use of rTMS for PTSD. PMID:24023554

  13. Nuclear magnetic resonance chemical shifts with the statistical average of orbital-dependent model potentials in Kohn-Sham density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poater, Jordi; van Lenthe, Erik; Baerends, Evert Jan

    2003-05-01

    In this paper, an orbital-dependent Kohn-Sham exchange-correlation potential, the so-called statistical average of (model) orbital potentials, is applied to the calculation of nuclear magnetic resonance chemical shifts of a series of simple molecules containing H, C, N, O, and F. It is shown that the use of this model potential leads to isotropic chemical shifts which are substantially improved over both local and gradient-corrected functionals, especially for nitrogen and oxygen atoms. This improvement in the chemical shift calculations can be attributed to the increase in the gap between highest occupied and lowest unoccupied orbitals, thus correcting the excessively large paramagnetic contributions, which have been identified to give deficient chemical shifts with both the local-density approximation and with gradient-corrected functionals. This is in keeping with the improvement by the statitical average of orbital model potentials for response properties in general and for excitation energies in particular. The present results are comparable in accuracy to those previously reported with self-interaction corrected functionals by Patchovskii et al., but still inferior to those obtained with accurate Kohn-Sham potentials by Wilson and Tozer. However, the present approach is computationally expedient and routinely applicable to all systems, requiring virtually the same computational effort as local-density and generalized-gradient calculations.

  14. Effectiveness of mirror therapy on lower extremity motor recovery, balance and mobility in patients with acute stroke: A randomized sham-controlled pilot trial

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Uthra; babu, S. Karthik; Kumar, K. Vijay; Suresh, B. V.; Misri, Z. K.; Chakrapani, M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of mirror therapy on lower extremity motor recovery, balance and mobility in patients with acute stroke. Design: A randomized, sham-controlled, assessor blinded, pilot trial. Setting: Inpatient stroke rehabilitation unit. Subjects: First time onset of stroke with mean post-stroke duration of 6.41 days, able to respond to verbal instructions, and Brunnstrom recovery stage 2 and above were enrolled. Intervention: Mirror therapy group performed 30 minutes of functional synergy movements of non-paretic lower extremity, whereas control group underwent sham therapy with similar duration. In addition, both groups were administered with conventional stroke rehabilitation regime. Altogether 90 minutes therapy session per day, six days a week, for two weeks duration was administered to both groups. Outcome Measures: Lower extremity motor subscale of Fugl Meyer Assessment (FMA), Brunnel Balance Assessment (BBA) and Functional Ambulation Categories (FAC). Results: Amongst the 22 patients included, equal number of patients participated in mirror group (N = 11) and control group (N = 11). Baseline variables were similar in both groups, except for Brunnstrom recovery stage. There was no statistical difference between groups, except for FAC. (FMA: P = 0.894; BBA: P = 0.358; FAC: P = 0.02). Significance was set at P < 0.05. Conclusion: Administration of mirror therapy early after stroke is not superior to conventional treatment in improving lower limb motor recovery and balance, except for improvement in mobility. PMID:24339596

  15. Variations of high frequency parameter of heart rate variability following osteopathic manipulative treatment in healthy subjects compared to control group and sham therapy: randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Ruffini, Nuria; D'Alessandro, Giandomenico; Mariani, Nicolò; Pollastrelli, Alberto; Cardinali, Lucia; Cerritelli, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Context: Heart Rate Variability (HRV) indicates how heart rate changes in response to inner and external stimuli. HRV is linked to health status and it is an indirect marker of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) function. Objective: To investigate the influence of osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) on cardiac autonomic modulation in healthy subjects, compared with sham therapy and control group. Methods: Sixty-six healthy subjects, both male and female, were included in the present 3-armed randomized placebo controlled within subject cross-over single blinded study. Participants were asymptomatic adults (26.7 ± 8.4 y, 51% male, BMI 18.5 ± 4.8), both smokers and non-smokers and not on medications. At enrollment subjects were randomized in three groups: A, B, C. Standardized structural evaluation followed by a patient need-based osteopathic treatment was performed in the first session of group A and in the second session of group B. Standardized evaluation followed by a protocoled sham treatment was provided in the second session of group A and in the first session of group B. No intervention was performed in the two sessions of group C, acting as a time-control. The trial was registered on clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01908920. Main Outcomes Measures: HRV was calculated from electrocardiography before, during and after the intervention, for a total amount time of 25 min and considering frequency domain as well as linear and non-linear methods as outcome measures. Results: OMT engendered a statistically significant increase of parasympathetic activity, as shown by High Frequency power (p < 0.001), expressed in normalized and absolute unit, and possibly decrease of sympathetic activity, as revealed by Low Frequency power (p < 0.01); results also showed a reduction of Low Frequency/High Frequency ratio (p < 0.001) and Detrended fluctuation scaling exponent (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Findings suggested that OMT can influence ANS activity increasing

  16. Should HFE p.C282Y homozygotes with moderately elevated serum ferritin be treated? A randomised controlled trial comparing iron reduction with sham treatment (Mi-iron)

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Sim Yee; Dolling, Lara; Dixon, Jeannette L; Nicoll, Amanda J; Gurrin, Lyle C; Wolthuizen, Michelle; Wood, Erica M; Anderson, Greg J; Ramm, Grant A; Allen, Katrina J; Olynyk, John K; Crawford, Darrell; Kava, Jennifer; Ramm, Louise E; Gow, Paul; Durrant, Simon; Powell, Lawrie W; Delatycki, Martin B

    2015-01-01

    Introduction HFE p.C282Y homozygosity is the most common cause of hereditary haemochromatosis. There is currently insufficient evidence to assess whether non-specific symptoms or hepatic injury in homozygotes with moderately elevated iron defined as a serum ferritin (SF) of 300–1000 µg/L are related to iron overload. As such the evidence for intervention in this group is lacking. We present here methods for a study that aims to evaluate whether non-specific symptoms and hepatic fibrosis markers improve with short-term normalisation of SF in p.C282Y homozygotes with moderate elevation of SF. Methods and analysis Mi-iron is a prospective, multicentre, randomised patient-blinded trial conducted in three centres in Victoria and Queensland, Australia. Participants who are HFE p.C282Y homozygotes with SF levels between 300 and 1000 μg/L are recruited and randomised to either the treatment group or to the sham treatment group. Those in the treatment group have normalisation of SF by 3-weekly erythrocytapheresis while those in the sham treatment group have 3-weekly plasmapheresis and thus do not have normalisation of SF. Patients are blinded to all procedures. All outcome measures are administered prior to and following the course of treatment/sham treatment. Patient reported outcome measures are the Modified Fatigue Impact Scale (MFIS-primary outcome), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Medical Outcomes Study 36-item short form V.2 (SF36v2) and Arthritis Impact Measurement Scale 2 short form (AIMS2-SF). Liver injury and hepatic fibrosis are assessed with transient elastography (TE), Fibrometer and Hepascore, while oxidative stress is assessed by measurement of urine and serum F2-isoprostanes. Ethics and dissemination This study has been approved by the Human Research Ethics Committees of Austin Health, Royal Melbourne Hospital and Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital. Study findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications and conference

  17. Advances in pulsed-laser-deposited AIN thin films for high-temperature capping, device passivation, and piezoelectric-based RF MEMS/NEMS resonator applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hullavarad, S. S.; Vispute, R. D.; Nagaraj, B.; Kulkarni, V. N.; Dhar, S.; Venkatesan, T.; Jones, K. A.; Derenge, M.; Zheleva, T.; Ervin, M. H.; Lelis, A.; Scozzie, C. J.; Habersat, D.; Wickenden, A. E.; Currano, L. J.; Dubey, M.

    2006-04-01

    In this paper we report recent advances in pulsed-laser-deposited AIN thin films for high-temperature capping of SiC, passivation of SiC-based devices, and fabrication of a piezoelectric MEMS/NEMS resonator on Pt-metallized SiO2/Si. The AlN films grown using the reactive laser ablation technique were found to be highly stoichiometric, dense with an optical band gap of 6.2 eV, and with a surface smoothness of less than 1 nm. A low-temperature buffer-layer approach was used to reduce the lattice and thermal mismatch strains. The dependence of the quality of AlN thin films and its characteristics as a function of processing parameters are discussed. Due to high crystallinity, near-perfect stoichiometry, and high packing density, pulsed-laser-deposited AlN thin films show a tendency to withstand high temperatures up to 1600°C, and which enables it to be used as an anneal capping layer for SiC wafers for removing ion-implantation damage and dopant activation. The laser-deposited AlN thin films show conformal coverage on SiC-based devices and exhibit an electrical break-down strength of 1.66 MV/cm up to 350°C when used as an insulator in Ni/AlN/SiC metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) devices. Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) AlN films grown on Pt/SiO2/Si (100) substrates for radio-frequency microelectrical and mechanical systems and nanoelectrical and mechanical systems (MEMS and NEMS) demonstrated resonators having high Q values ranging from 8,000 to 17,000 in the frequency range of 2.5-0.45 MHz. AlN thin films were characterized by x-ray diffraction, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (in normal and oxygen resonance mode), atomic force microscopy, ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Applications exploiting characteristics of high bandgap, high bond strength, excellent piezoelectric characteristics, extremely high chemical inertness, high electrical resistivity, high breakdown strength, and high thermal stability of the pulsed

  18. Kohn-Sham kinetic energy density in the nuclear and asymptotic regions: Deviations from the von Weizsäcker behavior and applications to density functionals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Della Sala, Fabio; Fabiano, Eduardo; Constantin, Lucian A.

    2015-01-01

    We show that the Kohn-Sham positive-definite kinetic energy (KE) density significantly differs from the von Weizsäcker (VW) one at the nuclear cusp as well as in the asymptotic region. At the nuclear cusp, the VW functional is shown to be linear, and the contribution of p -type orbitals to the KE density is theoretically derived and numerically demonstrated in the limit of infinite nuclear charge as well in the semiclassical limit of neutral large atoms. In the latter case, it reaches 12% of the KE density. In the asymptotic region we find new exact constraints for meta-generalized gradient approximation (meta-GGA) exchange functionals: with an exchange enhancement factor proportional to √{α }, where α is the common meta-GGA ingredient, both the exchange energy density and the potential are proportional to the exact ones. In addition, this describes exactly the large-gradient limit of quasi-two-dimensional systems.

  19. Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation for Intensive Care Unit–Acquired Weakness: Protocol and Methodological Implications for a Randomized, Sham-Controlled, Phase II Trial

    PubMed Central

    Truong, Alexander D.; Brower, Roy G.; Palmer, Jeffrey B.; Fan, Eddy; Zanni, Jennifer M.; Ciesla, Nancy D.; Feldman, Dorianne R.; Korupolu, Radha; Needham, Dale M.

    2012-01-01

    Background As the population ages and critical care advances, a growing number of survivors of critical illness will be at risk for intensive care unit (ICU)–acquired weakness. Bed rest, which is common in the ICU, causes adverse effects, including muscle weakness. Consequently, patients need ICU-based interventions focused on the muscular system. Although emerging evidence supports the benefits of early rehabilitation during mechanical ventilation, additional therapies may be beneficial. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES), which can provide some muscular activity even very early during critical illness, is a promising modality for patients in the ICU. Objective The objectives of this article are to discuss the implications of bed rest for patients with critical illness, summarize recent studies of early rehabilitation and NMES in the ICU, and describe a protocol for a randomized, phase II pilot study of NMES in patients receiving mechanical ventilation. Design The study was a randomized, sham-controlled, concealed, phase II pilot study with caregivers and outcome assessors blinded to the treatment allocation. Setting The study setting will be a medical ICU. Participants The study participants will be patients who are receiving mechanical ventilation for 1 day or more, who are expected to stay in the ICU for an additional 2 days or more, and who meet no exclusion criteria. Intervention The intervention will be NMES (versus a sham [control] intervention) applied to the quadriceps, tibialis anterior, and gastrocnemius muscles for 60 minutes per day. Measurements Lower-extremity muscle strength at hospital discharge will be the primary outcome measure. Limitations Muscle strength is a surrogate measure, not a patient-centered outcome. The assessments will not include laboratory, genetic, or histological measures aimed at a mechanistic understanding of NMES. The optimal duration or dose of NMES is unclear. Conclusions If NMES is beneficial, the results of

  20. Efficacy of Adjunctive High Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation of Right Prefrontal Cortex in Adolescent Mania: A Randomized Sham-Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Vijay; Sinha, Vinod Kumar; Praharaj, Samir Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the efficacy of adjunctive right prefrontal high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) treatment in adolescent mania patients as compared to sham stimulation. Methods Twenty six right handed patients aged 12–17 years diagnosed with bipolar mania were randomized to receive daily sessions of active or sham rTMS (20 Hz, 110% of motor threshold, 20 trains, 10 s intertrain interval) over the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex for 10 days. Mania was rated using Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) and Clinical Global Impression (CGI) at baseline, and after 5th and 10th rTMS. Results For YMRS scores, repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed a significant main effect (F=44.49, degree of freedom [df]=1.2/29.29, p<0.001, Greenhouse-Geisser corrected, effect size η2=0.65), but the interaction effect was not significant (F=0.03, df=1.2/29.29, p=0.912, Greenhouse-Geisser corrected). For CGI-Severity, repeated measures ANOVA showed a significant main effect (F=24.49, df=1.42/34.21, p<0.001, Greenhouse-Geisser corrected, effect size η2=0.51), but the interaction effect was not significant (F=0.06, df=1.2/29.29, p=0.881, Greenhouse-Geisser corrected). Conclusion High-frequency right prefrontal rTMS was found to be ineffective as add-on to standard pharmacotherapy in adolescent mania. PMID:26598581

  1. The Pharmacopsychometric Triangle to Illustrate the Effectiveness of T-PEMF Concomitant with Antidepressants in Treatment Resistant Patients: A Double-Blind, Randomised, Sham-Controlled Trial Revisited with Focus on the Patient-Reported Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Bech, P.; Gefke, M.; Lunde, M.; Lauritzen, L.; Martiny, K.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Our T-PEMF trial has been revisited with focus on the pharmacopsychometric triangle in which effect size is used when comparing wanted versus unwanted clinical effects and quality of life as outcomes. In this analysis, we have especially focused on the self-reported HAM-D6. Methods. The antidepressive medication which the patients were resistant to was kept unchanged during the five weeks of active versus sham T-PEMF. Results. In total 21, patients received active T-PEMF, and 19 patients received sham T-PEMF. The effect size was 1.02 and 0.90, respectively, on HAM-D6 and HAM-D6-S. Concerning side effects, the active T-PEMF reduced the baseline score on concentration problems with an effect size of 0.44 while inducing more autonomic symptoms than sham T-PEMF with an effect size of −0.41. The advantage of active over sham T-PEMF obtained an effect size of 0.48. Conclusion. Active T-PEMF was found superior to sham T-PEMF within the pharmacopsychometric triangle with a clinically significant effect size level above 0.40. PMID:21738869

  2. Hyperbaric oxygen for patients with chronic bowel dysfunction after pelvic radiotherapy (HOT2): a randomised, double-blind, sham-controlled phase 3 trial

    PubMed Central

    Glover, Mark; Smerdon, Gary R; Andreyev, H Jervoise; Benton, Barbara E; Bothma, Pieter; Firth, Oliver; Gothard, Lone; Harrison, John; Ignatescu, Mihaela; Laden, Gerard; Martin, Sue; Maynard, Lauren; McCann, Des; Penny, Christine E L; Phillips, Spencer; Sharp, Grace; Yarnold, John

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Hyperbaric oxygen has been used as a therapy for patients experiencing chronic intestinal syndromes after pelvic radiotherapy for decades, yet the evidence to support the use of this therapy is based almost exclusively on non-randomised studies. We aimed to provide conclusive results for the clinical benefits of hyperbaric oxygen in patients with chronic bowel dysfunction after radiotherapy for pelvic malignancies. Methods HOT2 was a double-blind, sham-controlled, phase 3 randomised study of patients (≥18 years) with chronic gastrointestinal symptoms for 12 months or more after radiotherapy and which persisted despite at least 3 months of optimal medical therapy and no evidence of cancer recurrence. Participants were stratified by participating hyperbaric centre and randomly assigned (2:1) by a computer-generated list (block size nine or 12) to receive treatment with hyperbaric oxygen therapy or sham. Participants in the active treatment group breathed 100% oxygen at 2·4 atmospheres of absolute pressure (ATA) and the control group breathed 21% oxygen at 1·3 ATA; both treatment groups received 90-min air pressure exposures once daily for 5 days per week for a total of 8 weeks (total of 40 exposures). Staff at the participating hyperbaric medicine facilities knew the allocated treatment, but patients, clinicians, nurse practitioners, and other health-care professionals associated with patients' care were masked to treatment allocation. Primary endpoints were changes in the bowel component of the modified Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire (IBDQ) score and the IBDQ rectal bleeding score 12 months after start of treatment relative to baseline. The primary outcome was analysed in a modified intention-to-treat population, excluding patients who did not provide IBDQ scores within a predetermined time-frame. All patients have completed 12 months of follow-up and the final analysis is complete. The trial is registered with the ISRCTN registry

  3. Innovative Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barsi, Louis M.; Kaebnick, Gweneth W.

    1989-01-01

    The phenomenon of innovation within the university is examined, noting the possibility of innovation as a key to college vitality. A study was conducted using a group of institutions that demonstrated recent innovative spirit. Members of the American Association of State Colleges and Universities (AASCU), each has been recognized in an annual…

  4. University Futures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Recent radical changes to university education in England have been discussed largely in terms of the arrangements for transferring funding from the state to the student as consumer, with little discussion of what universities are for. It is important, while challenging the economic rationale for the new system, to resist talking about higher…

  5. Overseas Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inter-University Council for Higher Education Overseas, London (England).

    The following articles and reports are presented in this publication of "Overseas Universities:""Appropriate Technology and University Education," by John Twidell; "The Training of Engineering Staff for Higher Education Institutions in Developing Countries," by D. W. Daniel, C. A. Leal, J. H. Maynes and T. Wilmore; "A Case Study of an Academic…

  6. University Architecture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Brian

    This book explores how universities relate their built environment to academic discourse, asserting that the character of universities is often a charming dialogue between order and disarray. It contains numerous photographs and building plans for example campuses throughout the world. In part 1, "The Campus," chapters are: (1) "Academic Mission…

  7. Challenged Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillis, Malcolm

    1995-01-01

    Pricing and financial aid issues affecting research universities, particularly private universities, are examined, including underpricing of services, decentralization, and diversification of higher education in the United States. The growth of federal regulation is also considered, especially the State Postsecondary Review Entities (SPREs)…

  8. Universal Expansion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArdle, Heather K.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a week-long activity for general to honors-level students that addresses Hubble's law and the universal expansion theory. Uses a discrepant event-type activity to lead up to the abstract principles of the universal expansion theory. (JRH)

  9. Our Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Alan

    2001-03-01

    The Universe in which we live is unimaginably vast and ancient, with countless star systems, galaxies, and extraordinary phenomena such as black holes, dark matter, and gamma ray bursts. What phenomena remain mysteries, even to seasoned scientists? Our Universe is a fascinating collection of essays by some of the world's foremost astrophysicists. Some are theorists, some computational modelers, some observers, but all offer their insights into the most cutting-edge, difficult, and curious aspects of astrophysics. Compiled, the essays describe more than the latest techniques and findings. Each of the ten contributors offers a more personal perspective on their work, revealing what motivates them and how their careers and lives have been shaped by their desire to understand our universe. S. Alan Stern is Director of the Department of Space Studies at Southwest Research Institute in Boulder, Colorado. He is a planetary scientist and astrophysicist with both observational and theoretical interests. Stern is an avid pilot and a principal investigator in NASA's planetary research program, and he was selected to be a NASA space shuttle mission specialist finalist. He is the author of more than 100 papers and popular articles. His most recent book is Pluto & Charon (Wiley, 1997). Contributors: Dr. John Huchra, Harvard University Dr. Esther Hu, University of Hawaii, Honolulu Dr. John Mather, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Dr. Nick Gnedin, University of Colorado, Boulder Dr. Doug Richstone, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor Dr. Bohdan Paczynski, Princeton University, NJ Dr. Megan Donahue, Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD Dr. Jerry Ostriker, Princeton University, New Jersey G. Bothun, University of Oregon, Eugene

  10. Egyptian women in physics: Progress and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohsen, M.; Hosni, Hala; Mohamed, Hadeer; Gadalla, Afaf; Kahil, Heba; Hashem, Hassan

    2015-12-01

    The present study shows a progressive increase in the number of female physicists as undergraduates and postgraduates in several governmental universities. For instance, in Ain Shams University, the percentage of women who selected physics as a major course of study increased from 7.2% in 2012 to 10.8% in 2013 and 15.7% in 2014. The study also provides the current gender distribution in the various positions among the teaching staff in seven governmental universities. The data supports the fact that female teaching assistants are increasing in these universities.

  11. Universe Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankatsing Nava, Tibisay; Russo, Pedro

    2015-08-01

    Universe Awareness (UNAWE) is an educational programme coordinated by Leiden University that uses the beauty and grandeur of the Universe to encourage young children, particularly those from an underprivileged background, to have an interest in science and technology and foster their sense of global citizenship from the earliest age.UNAWE's twofold vision uses our Universe to inspire and motivate very young children: the excitement of the Universe provides an exciting introduction to science and technology, while the vastness and beauty of the Universe helps broaden the mind and stimulate a sense of global citizenship and tolerance. UNAWE's goals are accomplished through four main activities: the coordination of a global network of more than 1000 astronomers, teachers and educators from more than 60 countries, development of educational resources, teacher training activities and evaluation of educational activities.Between 2011 and 2013, EU-UNAWE, the European branch of UNAWE, was funded by the European Commission to implement a project in 5 EU countries and South Africa. This project has been concluded successfully. Since then, the global project Universe Awareness has continued to grow with an expanding international network, new educational resources and teacher trainings and a planned International Workshop in collaboration with ESA in October 2015, among other activities.

  12. Plasma universe

    SciTech Connect

    Alfven, H.

    1986-09-01

    A model based on the emissions and behavior of the most prevalent material in the universe leads one to view the world as an active and rapidly changing place, and helps one analyze the development of its components.

  13. Universal Truths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horgan, John

    1990-01-01

    Described is a symposium of Nobel laureates held in the summer of 1990 to discuss cosmology. Different views on the structure and evolution of the universe are presented. Evidence for different theories of cosmology is discussed. (CW)

  14. Einstein's Universe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Eric; Wald, Robert

    1979-01-01

    Presents a guide to be used by students and teachers in conjunction with a television program about Einstein. Provides general information about special and general relativity, and the universe. Includes questions for discussion after each section and a bibliography. (MA)

  15. Symmetry-adapted perturbation theory with Kohn-Sham orbitals using non-empirically tuned, long-range-corrected density functionals

    SciTech Connect

    Lao, Ka Un; Herbert, John M.

    2014-01-28

    The performance of second-order symmetry-adapted perturbation theory (SAPT) calculations using Kohn-Sham (KS) orbitals is evaluated against benchmark results for intermolecular interactions. Unlike previous studies of this “SAPT(KS)” methodology, the present study uses non-empirically tuned long-range corrected (LRC) functionals for the monomers. The proper v{sub xc} (r)→0 asymptotic limit is achieved by tuning the range separation parameter in order to satisfy the condition that the highest occupied KS energy level equals minus the molecule's ionization energy, for each monomer unit. Tests for He{sub 2}, Ne{sub 2}, and the S22 and S66 data sets reveal that this condition is important for accurate prediction of the non-dispersion components of the energy, although errors in SAPT(KS) dispersion energies remain unacceptably large. In conjunction with an empirical dispersion potential, however, the SAPT(KS) method affords good results for S22 and S66, and also accurately predicts the whole potential energy curve for the sandwich isomer of the benzene dimer. Tuned LRC functionals represent an attractive alternative to other asymptotic corrections that have been employed in density-functional-based SAPT calculations, and we recommend the use of tuned LRC functionals in both coupled-perturbed SAPT(DFT) calculations and dispersion-corrected SAPT(KS) calculations.

  16. Aplication of Kohn-Sham Theory for Orbital Dependent (Self-Interaction-Corrected) Exchange-Correlation Energy Functionals to First Row Homonuclear Diatomic Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jiqiang; Krieger, J. B.; Iafrate, G. J.

    1996-03-01

    We have attempted to employ the LSD approximation with orbital self-interaction-correction (LSDSIC) for the exchange-correlation energy functional in the calculation of the ground state properties of first row homonuclear diatomic molecules. As a higher symmetry is involved in these systems, a different LSDSIC approach has to be taken in order to obtain an appropriate self-interaction correction.( M. R. Pederson, R. A. Heaton, and C. C. Lin, J. Chem. Phys. \\underline82), 2688 (1985) Two methods of employing LSDSIC are considered: Localizing all the "paired" orbitals from an LSD calculation at the experimental bond length, and then calculating LSDSIC total energy and dissociation energy; (2)Employing SIC only to electrons in the outer-shell with the inner-shell electrons treated in the LSD, and then obtaining the Kohn-Sham molecular orbitals by fully numerical solution in the KLI approximation. We find that the total energies are much improved with method (1), but this does not always lead to improved dissociation energies; Method (2) results in better highest occupied orbital energies, and better dissociation energies for most molecules, but the bond length is less accurately given and the vibration frequency is significantly in error.

  17. Aplication of Kohn-Sham Theory for Orbital Dependent (Self-Interaction-Corrected) Exchange-Correlation Energy Functionals to First Row Heteropolar Diatomic Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krieger, J. B.; Chen, Jiqiang; Iafrate, G. J.

    1996-03-01

    We have employed the local-spin-density approximation with orbital self-interaction-correction (LSDSIC) for the exchange-correlation energy functional in the calculation of the ground state properties of first row heteropolar diatomic molecules. The Kohn-Sham molecular orbitals are obtained by fully numerical solution of a Schrodinger equation including the Optimized Effective Potential in the KLIfootnote J. B. Krieger, Y. Li and G. J Iafrate in "Density Functional Theory" eds. E. K. U. Gross and R. M. Dreizler, NATO ASI SERIES, Plenum, New York (1995) approximation. We find that in the exchange-only case, our results closely approximate those of non-local Hartree-Fock calculations. Results for the bond length, total energy, dissociation energy, single particle energy eigenvalue, ɛ _m, for the highest lying occupied state, and vibration frequency obtained by employing the LSDSIC for exchange and correlation will be presented. These results will be compared to experimental values as well as to the results obtained by employing the LSD exchange-correlation energy functional. We find that the total energy, dissociation energy and ɛ m are given with greater accuracy than the corresponding LSD results. However, the bond length is less accurately given and the vibration frequency is significantly in error.

  18. From correlation-consistent to polarization-consistent basis sets estimation of NMR spin spin coupling constant in the B3LYP Kohn Sham basis set limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kupka, Teobald

    2008-08-01

    Based on B3LYP spin-spin coupling constants (SSCC) of several molecules calculated with cc-pV xZ, cc-pCV xZ, cc-pCV xZ-sd and cc-pCV xZ-sd+ t basis sets, a reasonably fit, using the two-parameter formula, to the Kohn-Sham complete basis set limit (CBS) is shown. Improvement in the CBS values going from cc-pV xZ to the most elaborated cc-pCV xZ-sd+ t basis set family is observed: standard deviation for all data drops from 33.7 to 23.1, and from 6.0 to 4.8 Hz after excluding problematic 1J(F,H) and 1J(F,C). Calculation of water's 1J(OH) using B3LYP/cc-pCV xZ and B3LYP/pcJ- n significantly improved the FC term convergence.

  19. Computation of the Kohn-Sham orbital kinetic energy density in the full-potential linearized augmented plane-wave method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Lin-Hui

    2015-02-01

    The Kohn-Sham orbital kinetic energy density τσ(r ) =∑iwi σ|∇ψi σ(r ) | 2 is one fundamental quantity for constructing metageneralized gradient approximations (meta-GGAs) for use by density functional theory. We present a computational scheme of τσ(r ) for the full-potential linearized augmented plane-wave (FLAPW) method. Our scheme is highly accurate and efficient and easy to implement with existing computer codes. To illustrate its performance, we construct the Becke-Johnson meta-GGA exchange potentials for Be, Ne, Mg, Ar, Ca, Zn, Kr, and Cd atoms, which are in very good agreement with the original results. For bulk solids, we construct the Tran-Blaha modified Becke-Johnson potential (mBJ) and confirm its capability to calculate band gaps with the reported bad convergence of the mBJ potential being substantially improved. The present computational scheme of τσ(r ) should also be valuable for developing other meta-GGAs in the FLAPW as well as in similar methods utilizing atom centered basis functions.

  20. How amino and nitro substituents direct electrophilic aromatic substitution in benzene: an explanation with Kohn-Sham molecular orbital theory and Voronoi deformation density analysis.

    PubMed

    Stasyuk, O A; Szatylowicz, H; Krygowski, T M; Fonseca Guerra, C

    2016-04-28

    The substituent effect of the amino and nitro groups on the electronic system of benzene has been investigated quantum chemically using quantitative Kohn-Sham molecular orbital theory and a corresponding energy decomposition analysis (EDA). The directionality of electrophilic substitution in aniline can accurately be explained with the amount of contribution of the 2pz orbitals on the unsubstituted carbon atoms to the highest occupied π orbital. For nitrobenzene, the molecular π orbitals cannot explain the regioselectivity of electrophilic substitution as there are two almost degenerate π orbitals with nearly the same 2pz contributions on the unsubstituted carbon atoms. The Voronoi deformation density analysis has been applied to aniline and nitrobenzene to obtain an insight into the charge rearrangements due to the substituent. This analysis method identified the orbitals involved in the C-N bond formation of the π system as the cause for the π charge accumulation at the ortho and para positions in the case of the NH2 group and the largest charge depletion at these same positions for the NO2 substituent. Furthermore, we showed that it is the repulsive interaction between the πHOMO of the phenyl radical and the πHOMO of the NH2 radical that is responsible for pushing up the πHOMO of aniline and therefore activating this π orbital of the phenyl ring towards electrophilic substitution. PMID:26800159

  1. Prediction of Excited-State Energies and Singlet-Triplet Gaps of Charge-Transfer States Using a Restricted Open-Shell Kohn-Sham Approach.

    PubMed

    Hait, Diptarka; Zhu, Tianyu; McMahon, David P; Van Voorhis, Troy

    2016-07-12

    Organic molecules with charge-transfer (CT) excited states are widely used in industry and are especially attractive as candidates for fabrication of energy efficient OLEDs, as they can harvest energy from nonradiative triplets by means of thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF). It is therefore useful to have computational protocols for accurate estimation of their electronic spectra in order to screen candidate molecules for OLED applications. However, it is difficult to predict the photophysical properties of TADF molecules with LR-TDDFT, as semilocal LR-TDDFT is incapable of accurately modeling CT states. Herein, we study absorption energies, emission energies, zero-zero transition energies, and singlet-triplet gaps of TADF molecules using a restricted open-shell Kohn-Sham (ROKS) approach instead and discover that ROKS calculations with semilocal hybrid functionals are in good agreement with experiments-unlike TDDFT, which significantly underestimates energy gaps. We also propose a cheap computational protocol for studying excited states with large CT character that is found to give good agreement with experimental results without having to perform any excited-state geometry optimizations. PMID:27267803

  2. Band-structure calculations of noble-gas and alkali halide solids using accurate Kohn-Sham potentials with self-interaction correction

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.; Krieger, J.B. ); Norman, M.R. ); Iafrate, G.J. )

    1991-11-15

    The optimized-effective-potential (OEP) method and a method developed recently by Krieger, Li, and Iafrate (KLI) are applied to the band-structure calculations of noble-gas and alkali halide solids employing the self-interaction-corrected (SIC) local-spin-density (LSD) approximation for the exchange-correlation energy functional. The resulting band gaps from both calculations are found to be in fair agreement with the experimental values. The discrepancies are typically within a few percent with results that are nearly the same as those of previously published orbital-dependent multipotential SIC calculations, whereas the LSD results underestimate the band gaps by as much as 40%. As in the LSD---and it is believed to be the case even for the exact Kohn-Sham potential---both the OEP and KLI predict valence-band widths which are narrower than those of experiment. In all cases, the KLI method yields essentially the same results as the OEP.

  3. Eternal Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wetterich, C.

    2014-08-01

    We discuss cosmological models for an eternal Universe. Physical observables show no singularity from the infinite past to the infinite future. While the Universe is evolving, there is no beginning and no end—the Universe exists forever. The early state of inflation is described in two different, but equivalent pictures. In the freeze frame the Universe emerges from an almost static state with flat geometry. After entropy production it shrinks and "thaws" slowly from a "freeze state" with extremely low temperature. The field transformation to the second "big bang picture" (Einstein frame) is singular. This "field singularity" is responsible for an apparent singularity of the big bang. Furthermore, we argue that past-incomplete geodesics do not necessarily indicate a singularity or beginning of the Universe. Proper time ceases to be a useful concept for physical time if particles become massless. We propose to define physical time by counting the number of zeros of a component of the wave function. This counting is independent of the choice of coordinates and frames, and applies to massive and massless particles alike.

  4. Plasma universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alfven, H.

    1986-01-01

    Traditionally the views on the cosmic environent have been based on observations in the visual octave of the electromagnetic spectrum, during the last half-century supplemented by infrared and radio observations. Space research has opened the full spectrum. Of special importance are the X-ray-gamma-ray regions, in which a number of unexpected phenomena have been discovered. Radiations in these regions are likely to originate mainly from magnetised cosmic plasmas. Such a medium may also emit synchrotron radiation which is observable in the radio region. If a model of the universe is based on the plasma phenomena mentioned it is found that the plasma universe is drastically different from the traditional visual universe. Information about the plasma universe can also be obtained by extrapolation of laboratory experiments and magnetospheric in situ measurements of plasmas. This approach is possible because it is likely that the basic properties of plasmas are the same everywhere. In order to test the usefulness of the plasma universe model it is applied to cosmogony. Such an approach seems to be rather successful. For example, the complicated structure of the Saturnian C ring can be accounted for. It is possible to reconstruct certain phenomena 4 to 5 billions of years ago with an accuracy of better than 1%.

  5. University Citizenship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinsasser, Audrey M.

    2002-01-01

    When called to serve on committees and take on other assignments outside their job descriptions, many educators run in the other direction. How can this work be reframed so educators can play a positive and active role as university citizens? This kind of involvement must be nurtured by all those on campus who play a leadership role. (Author)

  6. Universal Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rydeen, James E.

    1999-01-01

    Examines universal school design that is both user-friendly for all students and compliant with the Americans with Disabilities Act. This approach provides the basic functional design issues for easy traffic control, as well as orientation and classrooms that are adaptable to future curricular changes. Discusses new standards that impact design…

  7. New Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgett, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    The public-private alliance signals a future in which self-serving agreements could become the coin of the realm. Such a future would be a betrayal of the historical promise of public universities to innovate in ways that expand access to higher education. Given the rise of market-based models in educational policy circles, the threat of the…

  8. University Builders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Martin

    This publication explores a diverse collection of new university buildings. Ranging from the design of vast new campuses, such as that by Wilford and Stirling at Temasek, Singapore, through to the relatively modest yet strategically important, such as the intervention by Allies and Morrison at Southampton, this book examines the new higher…

  9. Widener University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valesey, Brigitte; Allen, Jo

    2009-01-01

    Founded in 1821, Widener University is a two-state (Pennsylvania and Delaware), four-campus, eight-college private institution serving approximately 6,700 students. Following arrival of the new senior vice president and provost in 2004 and subsequent reorganization of vice presidential responsibilities, Student Affairs is now led by a dean of…

  10. Universities 2035

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thrift, Nigel

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the future of Western higher education. Situated midway between an analysis and a polemic, it concerns itself with how we might begin to actively design the universities of the future. That will require a productionist account of higher education which is so far sadly lacking. But there are signs that such an account might be…

  11. Gold-superheavy-element interaction in diatomics and cluster adducts: A combined four-component Dirac-Kohn-Sham/charge-displacement study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rampino, Sergio; Storchi, Loriano; Belpassi, Leonardo

    2015-07-01

    The chemistry of superheavy elements (Z ≥ 104) is actively investigated in atom-at-a-time experiments of volatility through adsorption on gold surfaces. In this context, common guidelines for interpretation based on group trends in the periodic table should be used cautiously, because relativistic effects play a central role and may cause predictions to fall short. In this paper, we present an all-electron four-component Dirac-Kohn-Sham comparative study of the interaction of gold with Cn (Z = 112), Fl (Z = 114), and Uuo (Z = 118) versus their lighter homologues of the 6th period, Hg, Pb, and Rn plus the noble gas Xe. Calculations were carried out for Au-E (E = Hg, Cn, Pb, Fl, Xe, Rn, Uuo), Au7- and Au20-E (E = Hg, Cn, Pb, Fl, Rn) complexes, where Au7 (planar) and Au20 (pyramidal) are experimentally determined clusters having structures of increasing complexity. Results are analysed both in terms of the energetics of the complexes and of the electron charge rearrangement accompanying their formation. In line with the available experimental data, Cn and more markedly Fl are found to be less reactive than their lighter homologues. On the contrary, Uuo is found to be more reactive than Rn and Xe. Cn forms the weakest bond with the gold atom, compared to Fl and Uuo. The reactivity of Fl decreases with increasing gold-fragment size more rapidly than that of Cn and, as a consequence, the order of the reactivity of these two elements is inverted upon reaching the Au20-cluster adduct. Density difference maps between adducts and fragments reveal similarities in the behaviour of Cn and Xe, and in that of Uuo and the more reactive species Hg and Pb. These findings are given a quantitative ground via charge-displacement analysis.

  12. Different analgesic effects of manual and electrical acupuncture stimulation of real and sham auricular points: a blind controlled study with rats.

    PubMed

    Ceccherelli, F; Gagliardi, G; Seda, R; Corradin, M; Giron, G

    1999-01-01

    Stimulation of the auricle is considered to be an effective analgesic technique. The aim of the present study is to establish whether there is a correspondence between somatic inflammation and the appearance of lower resistance points, and moreover, whether the stimulation of such points has an analgesic effect. The study has been conducted on 57 male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing between 120-140 g; 7 of them have been used to determine whether inflammation in the paw leads to the formation of lower resistance points on the auricle. The 50 remaining animals have been divided into 5 groups: Group 1 [12 animals], control were subjected to all manipulations with the exception of the auricle stimulation; Group 2 [12] was stimulated with manual acupuncture in the area corresponding to that observed in the above-mentioned first group of 7 animals; Group 3 [12] was stimulated with 5 Hz and 5 mA; electroacupuncture (EAP) Group 4 [8] and group 5 [6] were treated with acupuncture and with EAP respectively on points believed to be inactive in areas diametrically opposite to the ones observed in the first group. After acupuncture, 100 microg capsaicin in 50 microL of physiological solution were injected subcutis in the dorsal surface of the paw. Edema response was monitored for two hours, with measurement taken every 5 minutes. The results show a reduction in the edema response, only in the group treated with EAP on the appropriate points compared to the control group; no variation was observed in the sham groups. To conclude, the hypothesis of a somatotopic division would seem to be probable, and it would seem that the stimulation of the appropriate areas and the use of an appropriate intensity constitute the two main variables influencing the result. PMID:10768414

  13. Pharmacokinetic Comparison of Scutellarin and Paeoniflorin in Sham-Operated and Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion Ischemia and Reperfusion Injury Rats after Intravenous Administration of Xin-Shao Formula.

    PubMed

    Li, Yueting; Lu, Yuan; Hu, Jianchun; Gong, Zipeng; Yang, Wu; Wang, Aimin; Zheng, Jiang; Liu, Ting; Chen, Tingting; Hu, Jie; Mi, Ling; Li, Yongjun; Lan, Yanyu; Wang, Yonglin

    2016-01-01

    Xin-Shao formula is a folk remedy widely used in China to prevent and cure stroke. Cerebral ischemic reperfusion (I/R) injury often takes place during the treatment of stroke. Information about the pharmacokinetic behavior of the remedy under cerebral I/R injury conditions is lacking. The present study aimed to compare the pharmacokinetic properties of scutellarin and paeoniflorin, two major bioactive components of Xin-Shao formula, under physiological state in cerebral I/R injury rats. Neurobehavioral dysfunction was evaluated and cerebral infarcted volume was measured in middle cerebral artery occlusion I/R injury (MCAO) rats. Plasma samples were collected at various time points after a single dose (intravenous, i.v.) of Xin-Shao formula. The levels of plasma scutellarin and paeoniflorin at the designed time points were determined by a UPLC-MS/MS method, and drug concentration versus time plots were constructed to estimate pharmacokinetic parameters. Increase in terminal elimination half-life (t1/2z) and mean residence time (MRT(0-t)) of scutellarin as well as elevation in area under the plasma drug concentration-time curve from 0 h to the terminal time point (AUC(0-t)) and maximum plasma drug concentration (Cmax) of paeoniflorin, along with decreased clearance of paeoniflorin and scutellarin as well as reduced apparent volume of distribution (Vz) of paeoniflorin, were observed in MCAO rats, compared with those in sham-operated animals. The elimination of scutellarin and paeoniflorin were reduced in cerebral I/R injury reduced rats. PMID:27617986

  14. Evolution of Premotor Cortical Excitability after Cathodal Inhibition of the Primary Motor Cortex: A Sham-Controlled Serial Navigated TMS Study

    PubMed Central

    Bathe-Peters, Rouven; Irlbacher, Kerstin; Brandt, Stephan A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Premotor cortical regions (PMC) play an important role in the orchestration of motor function, yet their role in compensatory mechanisms in a disturbed motor system is largely unclear. Previous studies are consistent in describing pronounced anatomical and functional connectivity between the PMC and the primary motor cortex (M1). Lesion studies consistently show compensatory adaptive changes in PMC neural activity following an M1 lesion. Non-invasive brain modification of PMC neural activity has shown compensatory neurophysiological aftereffects in M1. These studies have contributed to our understanding of how M1 responds to changes in PMC neural activity. Yet, the way in which the PMC responds to artificial inhibition of M1 neural activity is unclear. Here we investigate the neurophysiological consequences in the PMC and the behavioral consequences for motor performance of stimulation mediated M1 inhibition by cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). Purpose The primary goal was to determine how electrophysiological measures of PMC excitability change in order to compensate for inhibited M1 neural excitability and attenuated motor performance. Hypothesis Cathodal inhibition of M1 excitability leads to a compensatory increase of ipsilateral PMC excitability. Methods We enrolled 16 healthy participants in this randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled, crossover design study. All participants underwent navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) to identify PMC and M1 corticospinal projections as well as to evaluate electrophysiological measures of cortical, intracortical and interhemispheric excitability. Cortical M1 excitability was inhibited using cathodal tDCS. Finger-tapping speeds were used to examine motor function. Results Cathodal tDCS successfully reduced M1 excitability and motor performance speed. PMC excitability was increased for longer and was the only significant predictor of motor performance. Conclusion The PMC

  15. Gold–superheavy-element interaction in diatomics and cluster adducts: A combined four-component Dirac-Kohn-Sham/charge-displacement study

    SciTech Connect

    Rampino, Sergio Belpassi, Leonardo

    2015-07-14

    The chemistry of superheavy elements (Z ≥ 104) is actively investigated in atom-at-a-time experiments of volatility through adsorption on gold surfaces. In this context, common guidelines for interpretation based on group trends in the periodic table should be used cautiously, because relativistic effects play a central role and may cause predictions to fall short. In this paper, we present an all-electron four-component Dirac-Kohn-Sham comparative study of the interaction of gold with Cn (Z = 112), Fl (Z = 114), and Uuo (Z = 118) versus their lighter homologues of the 6th period, Hg, Pb, and Rn plus the noble gas Xe. Calculations were carried out for Au–E (E = Hg, Cn, Pb, Fl, Xe, Rn, Uuo), Au{sub 7}– and Au{sub 20}–E (E = Hg, Cn, Pb, Fl, Rn) complexes, where Au{sub 7} (planar) and Au{sub 20} (pyramidal) are experimentally determined clusters having structures of increasing complexity. Results are analysed both in terms of the energetics of the complexes and of the electron charge rearrangement accompanying their formation. In line with the available experimental data, Cn and more markedly Fl are found to be less reactive than their lighter homologues. On the contrary, Uuo is found to be more reactive than Rn and Xe. Cn forms the weakest bond with the gold atom, compared to Fl and Uuo. The reactivity of Fl decreases with increasing gold-fragment size more rapidly than that of Cn and, as a consequence, the order of the reactivity of these two elements is inverted upon reaching the Au{sub 20}-cluster adduct. Density difference maps between adducts and fragments reveal similarities in the behaviour of Cn and Xe, and in that of Uuo and the more reactive species Hg and Pb. These findings are given a quantitative ground via charge-displacement analysis.

  16. Gold-superheavy-element interaction in diatomics and cluster adducts: A combined four-component Dirac-Kohn-Sham/charge-displacement study.

    PubMed

    Rampino, Sergio; Storchi, Loriano; Belpassi, Leonardo

    2015-07-14

    The chemistry of superheavy elements (Z ≥ 104) is actively investigated in atom-at-a-time experiments of volatility through adsorption on gold surfaces. In this context, common guidelines for interpretation based on group trends in the periodic table should be used cautiously, because relativistic effects play a central role and may cause predictions to fall short. In this paper, we present an all-electron four-component Dirac-Kohn-Sham comparative study of the interaction of gold with Cn (Z = 112), Fl (Z = 114), and Uuo (Z = 118) versus their lighter homologues of the 6th period, Hg, Pb, and Rn plus the noble gas Xe. Calculations were carried out for Au-E (E = Hg, Cn, Pb, Fl, Xe, Rn, Uuo), Au7- and Au20-E (E = Hg, Cn, Pb, Fl, Rn) complexes, where Au7 (planar) and Au20 (pyramidal) are experimentally determined clusters having structures of increasing complexity. Results are analysed both in terms of the energetics of the complexes and of the electron charge rearrangement accompanying their formation. In line with the available experimental data, Cn and more markedly Fl are found to be less reactive than their lighter homologues. On the contrary, Uuo is found to be more reactive than Rn and Xe. Cn forms the weakest bond with the gold atom, compared to Fl and Uuo. The reactivity of Fl decreases with increasing gold-fragment size more rapidly than that of Cn and, as a consequence, the order of the reactivity of these two elements is inverted upon reaching the Au20-cluster adduct. Density difference maps between adducts and fragments reveal similarities in the behaviour of Cn and Xe, and in that of Uuo and the more reactive species Hg and Pb. These findings are given a quantitative ground via charge-displacement analysis. PMID:26178105

  17. Neuroplastic Effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on Painful Symptoms Reduction in Chronic Hepatitis C: A Phase II Randomized, Double Blind, Sham Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Brietzke, Aline P.; Rozisky, Joanna R.; Dussan-Sarria, Jairo A.; Deitos, Alicia; Laste, Gabriela; Hoppe, Priscila F. T.; Muller, Suzana; Torres, Iraci L. S.; Alvares-da-Silva, Mário R.; de Amorim, Rivadavio F. B.; Fregni, Felipe; Caumo, Wolnei

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Pegylated Interferon Alpha (Peg-IFN) in combination with other drugs is the standard treatment for chronic hepatitis C infection (HCV) and is related to severe painful symptoms. The aim of this study was access the efficacy of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in controlling the painful symptoms related to Peg-IFN side effects. Materials and Methods: In this phase II double-blind trial, twenty eight (n = 28) HCV subjects were randomized to receive either 5 consecutive days of active tDCS (n = 14) or sham (n = 14) during 5 consecutive days with anodal stimulation over the primary motor cortex region using 2 mA for 20 min. The primary outcomes were visual analogue scale (VAS) pain and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) serum levels. Secondary outcomes were the pressure-pain threshold (PPT), the Brazilian Profile of Chronic Pain: Screen (B-PCP:S), and drug analgesics use. Results: tDCS reduced the VAS scores (P < 0.003), with a mean pain drop of 56% (p < 0.001). Furthermore, tDCS was able to enhance BDNF levels (p < 0.01). The mean increase was 37.48% in the active group. Finally, tDCS raised PPT (p < 0.001) and reduced the B-PCP:S scores and analgesic use (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Five sessions of tDCS were effective in reducing the painful symptoms in HCV patients undergoing Peg-IFN treatment. These findings support the efficacy of tDCS as a promising therapeutic tool to improve the tolerance of the side effects related to the use of Peg-IFN. Future larger studies (phase III and IV trials) are needed to confirm the clinical use of the therapeutic effects of tDCS in such condition. Trial registration: Brazilian Human Health Regulator for Research with the approval number CAAE 07802012.0.0000.5327. PMID:26793047

  18. MN15-L: A New Local Exchange-Correlation Functional for Kohn-Sham Density Functional Theory with Broad Accuracy for Atoms, Molecules, and Solids.

    PubMed

    Yu, Haoyu S; He, Xiao; Truhlar, Donald G

    2016-03-01

    Kohn-Sham density functional theory is widely used for applications of electronic structure theory in chemistry, materials science, and condensed-matter physics, but the accuracy depends on the quality of the exchange-correlation functional. Here, we present a new local exchange-correlation functional called MN15-L that predicts accurate results for a broad range of molecular and solid-state properties including main-group bond energies, transition metal bond energies, reaction barrier heights, noncovalent interactions, atomic excitation energies, ionization potentials, electron affinities, total atomic energies, hydrocarbon thermochemistry, and lattice constants of solids. The MN15-L functional has the same mathematical form as a previous meta-nonseparable gradient approximation exchange-correlation functional, MN12-L, but it is improved because we optimized it against a larger database, designated 2015A, and included smoothness restraints; the optimization has a much better representation of transition metals. The mean unsigned error on 422 chemical energies is 2.32 kcal/mol, which is the best among all tested functionals, with or without nonlocal exchange. The MN15-L functional also provides good results for test sets that are outside the training set. A key issue is that the functional is local (no nonlocal exchange or nonlocal correlation), which makes it relatively economical for treating large and complex systems and solids. Another key advantage is that medium-range correlation energy is built in so that one does not need to add damped dispersion by molecular mechanics in order to predict accurate noncovalent binding energies. We believe that the MN15-L functional should be useful for a wide variety of applications in chemistry, physics, materials science, and molecular biology. PMID:26722866

  19. Does trans-spinal direct current stimulation alter phrenic motoneurons and respiratory neuromechanical outputs in humans? A double-blind, sham-controlled, randomized, crossover study.

    PubMed

    Niérat, Marie-Cécile; Similowski, Thomas; Lamy, Jean-Charles

    2014-10-22

    Although compelling evidence has demonstrated considerable neuroplasticity in the respiratory control system, few studies have explored the possibility of altering descending projections to phrenic motoneurons (PMNs) using noninvasive stimulation protocols. The present study was designed to investigate the immediate and long-lasting effects of a single session of transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation (tsDCS), a promising technique for modulating spinal cord functions, on descending ventilatory commands in healthy humans. Using a double-blind, controlled, randomized, crossover approach, we examined the effects of anodal, cathodal, and sham tsDCS delivered to the C3-C5 level on (1) diaphragm motor-evoked potentials (DiMEPs) elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation and (2) spontaneous ventilation, as measured by respiratory inductance plethysmography. Both anodal and cathodal tsDCS induced a progressive increase in DiMEP amplitude during stimulation that persisted for at least 15 min after current offset. Interestingly, cathodal, but not anodal, tsDCS induced a persistent increase in tidal volume. In addition, (1) short-interval intracortical inhibition, (2) nonlinear complexity of the tidal volume signal (related to medullary ventilatory command), (3) autonomic function, and (4) compound muscle action potentials evoked by cervical magnetic stimulation were unaffected by tsDCS. This suggests that tsDCS-induced aftereffects did not occur at brainstem or cortical levels and were likely not attributable to direct polarization of cranial nerves or ventral roots. Instead, we argue that tsDCS could induce sustained changes in PMN output. Increased tidal volume after cathodal tsDCS opens up the perspective of harnessing respiratory neuroplasticity as a therapeutic tool for the management of several respiratory disorders. PMID:25339753

  20. Expanding Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrödinger, E.

    2011-02-01

    Preface; Part I. The de Sitter Universe: 1. Synthetic construction; 2. The reduced model: geodesics; 3. The elliptic interpretation; 4. The static frame; 5. The determination of parallaxes; 6. The Lemaître-Robertson frame; Part II. The Theory of Geodesics: 7. On null geodesics; i. Determination of the parameter for null lines in special cases; ii. Frequency shift; 8. Free particles and light rays in general expanding spaces, flat or hyperspherical; i. Flat spaces; ii. Spherical spaces; iii. The red shift for spherical spaces; Part III. Waves in General Riemannian Space-Time: 9. The nature of our approximation; 10. The Hamilton-Jacobi theory in a gravitational field; 11. Procuring approximate solutions of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation from wave theory; Part IV. Waves in an Expanding Universe: 12. General considerations; 13. Proper vibrations and wave parcels; Bibliography.

  1. University lobbying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    In the past year, an increasing number of individual academic institutions have lobbied in Congress for new science facilities funds thus circumventing the traditional peer review process of evaluating the merits of such facilities. As an attempt to stem this rising tide, the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) governing council and the Association of American Universities (AAU) recently and independently issued strong statements condemning lobbying by individual universities and enthusiastically supporting the peer review system.“Informed peer judgments on the scientific merits of specific proposals, in open competition, should be a central element in the awarding of all federal funds for science,” the NAS resolution stated. AAU, meanwhile, implored “scientists, leaders of America's universities, and members of Congress” to “refrain from actions that would make scientific decisions a test of political influence rather than a judgment on the quality of the work to be done.” Roughly 50 research institutions constitute AAU; the two AAU Canadian members did not vote on the consortium's statement.

  2. "I Ain't No Cowboy, I Just Found This Hat": Confessions of an Administrator in an Organization of Self-Managing Teams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubans, John

    1996-01-01

    Explain's Duke University Library's change from a hierarchical management structure to one of self-managing teams developed within a total quality management (TQM) framework. Emphasizes the personal views and experiences of a manager responsible for implementing and guiding the process of change. (JKP)

  3. It Ain't Just What You Do and the Way That You Do It: Why Discourse Matters in Higher Education Communities of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Juliana

    2015-01-01

    A number of Australian universities have established and sponsored interdisciplinary communities of practice (CoPs) to develop teaching and learning. CoPs are popularly defined as groups of people who share a passion for something and, together, learn how to do it better. Without further specification, this definition is of limited use in…

  4. Evaluation of the Safety and Pharmacokinetic Profile of a New, Pasteurized, Human Tetanus Immunoglobulin Administered as Sham, Postexposure Prophylaxis of Tetanus

    PubMed Central

    Forrat, Rémi; Dumas, Rafaele; Seiberling, Michael; Merz, Michael; Lutsch, Charles; Lang, Jean

    1998-01-01

    In a monocentric, double-blind, randomized trial, we examined the safety and pharmacokinetic profile of a new, pasteurized, human tetanus immunoglobulin (P-HTIG). As part of the purification process, P-HTIG has undergone a heat treatment step (10 h at 60°C) and the removal of Merthiolate. Forty-eight adults with a history of tetanus vaccination were randomized into four groups (n = 12 per group) to receive one of two different batches of this P-HTIG simultaneously with either tetanus-diphtheria (Td) vaccine (sham, postexposure prophylaxis of tetanus) or placebo. Local reactions at the injection site were followed for the first 3 days after injection, and systemic reactions were followed during the entire study period, i.e., up to 42 days posttreatment. Blood samples for tetanus antibody titer determination (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method) were drawn prior to treatment on day 0 and on days 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42. A normalization of tetanus antibody titers (subtraction of the day 0 value for each subject at each time period) was performed to assess the additive effect of P-HTIG on tetanus antibody titers. The pharmacokinetic parameters were determined by both a compartmental analysis (modelization) and a noncompartmental analysis. No severe adverse reactions were reported. The rate of local reactions at the P-HTIG injection site was 27%. All local reactions were mild and resolved within 2 days. In contrast, local reactions at the vaccine injection site were seen in 79% of the subjects. The rate of systemic reactions was similar in the P-HTIG plus Td vaccine group (33%) and in the P-HTIG plus placebo group (21%), and all these reactions were mild. In the P-HTIG plus placebo group, tetanus antibody titers rose to a maximum of 0.313 ± 2.49 IU/ml after 4.4 days; in the P-HTIG plus Td vaccine group, a maximum concentration of 15.2 ± 2.42 IU/ml was reached 19 days postinjection. In both groups, 100% of the patients had seroprotective levels of

  5. Self-consistent Kohn-Sham method based on the adiabatic-connection fluctuation-dissipation theorem and the exact-exchange kernel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleiziffer, Patrick; Krug, Marcel; Görling, Andreas

    2015-06-01

    A self-consistent Kohn-Sham method based on the adiabatic-connection fluctuation-dissipation (ACFD) theorem, employing the frequency-dependent exact exchange kernel fx is presented. The resulting SC-exact-exchange-only (EXX)-ACFD method leads to even more accurate correlation potentials than those obtained within the direct random phase approximation (dRPA). In contrast to dRPA methods, not only the Coulomb kernel but also the exact exchange kernel fx is taken into account in the EXX-ACFD correlation which results in a method that, unlike dRPA methods, is free of self-correlations, i.e., a method that treats exactly all one-electron systems, like, e.g., the hydrogen atom. The self-consistent evaluation of EXX-ACFD total energies improves the accuracy compared to EXX-ACFD total energies evaluated non-self-consistently with EXX or dRPA orbitals and eigenvalues. Reaction energies of a set of small molecules, for which highly accurate experimental reference data are available, are calculated and compared to quantum chemistry methods like Møller-Plesset perturbation theory of second order (MP2) or coupled cluster methods [CCSD, coupled cluster singles, doubles, and perturbative triples (CCSD(T))]. Moreover, we compare our methods to other ACFD variants like dRPA combined with perturbative corrections such as the second order screened exchange corrections or a renormalized singles correction. Similarly, the performance of our EXX-ACFD methods is investigated for the non-covalently bonded dimers of the S22 reference set and for potential energy curves of noble gas, water, and benzene dimers. The computational effort of the SC-EXX-ACFD method exhibits the same scaling of N5 with respect to the system size N as the non-self-consistent evaluation of only the EXX-ACFD correlation energy; however, the prefactor increases significantly. Reaction energies from the SC-EXX-ACFD method deviate quite little from EXX-ACFD energies obtained non-self-consistently with dRPA orbitals

  6. Recapturing the Universal in the University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Ronald

    2005-01-01

    The idea of "the university" has stood for universal themes--of knowing, of truthfulness, of learning, of human development, and of critical reason. Through its affirming and sustaining of such themes, the university came itself to stand for universality in at least two senses: the university was neither partial (in its truth criteria) nor local…

  7. Open University

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-04-25

    Michel Pentz est née en Afrique du Sud et venu au Cern en 1957 comme physicien et président de l'associaion du personnel. Il est également fondateur du mouvement Antiapartheid de Genève et a participé à la fondation de l'Open University en Grande-Bretagne. Il nous parle des contextes pédagogiques, culturels et nationaux dans lesquels la méthode peut s'appliquer.

  8. If It Ain't Broke, Why Fix It? Framework and Processes for Engaging in Constructive Institutional Development and Renewal in the Context of Increasing Standards, Assessments, and Accountability for University-Based Teacher Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lit, Ira; Nager, Nancy; Snyder, Jon David

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors offer a descriptive essay outlining the framework and processes of a five-year institutional renewal effort at Bank Street College of Education. Extended the opportunity to participate in the "Teachers for a New Era" (TNE) initiative, a multi-year, multi-million dollar effort to enhance and "radically reshape" teacher…

  9. Purdue University

    SciTech Connect

    Daly, P.; Grabowski, Z.; Mayer, R.H.

    1995-08-01

    The Purdue University group, including several thesis students, is working on a measurement of high-spin nuclear states at ATLAS. They use in-beam gamma-ray techniques to investigate several aspects of nuclear structure at high spin, testing the validity of shell-model calculations for high-spin-yrast states near Z = 50. The nuclei are produced via deep inelastic reactions, rather than with the more conventional fusion reactions. This technique allows the study of neutron-rich nuclei that cannot be studied by other means. The group is studying proton-rich nuclei with N{approximately}82 using the FMA and an electron spectrometer. Furthermore, D. Nisius is a Ph.D. student, resident at ANL, performing his thesis work under the supervision of R.V.F. Janssens.

  10. Syntheses, structural variants and characterization of AInM‧S4 (A=alkali metals, Tl; M‧ = Ge, Sn) compounds; facile ion-exchange reactions of layered NaInSnS4 and KInSnS4 compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yohannan, Jinu P.; Vidyasagar, Kanamaluru

    2016-06-01

    Ten AInM‧S4 (A=alkali metals, Tl; M‧= Ge, Sn) compounds with diverse structure types have been synthesized and characterized by single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction and a variety of spectroscopic methods. They are wide band gap semiconductors. KInGeS4(1-β), RbInGeS4(2), CsInGeS4(3-β), TlInGeS4(4-β), RbInSnS4(8-β) and CsInSnS4(9) compounds with three-dimensional BaGa2S4 structure and CsInGeS4(3-α) and TlInGeS4(4-α) compounds with a layered TlInSiS4 structure have tetrahedral [InM‧S4]- frameworks. On the other hand, LiInSnS4(5) with spinel structure and NaInSnS4(6), KInSnS4(7), RbInSnS4(8-α) and TlInSnS4(10) compounds with layered structure have octahedral [InM‧S4]- frameworks. NaInSnS4(6) and KInSnS4(7) compounds undergo facile topotactic ion-exchange, at room temperature, with various mono-, di- and tri-valent cations in aqueous medium to give rise to metastable layered phases.

  11. The first evidence of cut marks and usewear traces from the Plio-Pleistocene locality of El-Kherba (Ain Hanech), Algeria: implications for early hominin subsistence activities circa 1.8 Ma.

    PubMed

    Sahnouni, Mohamed; Rosell, Jordi; van der Made, Jan; Vergès, Josep María; Ollé, Andreu; Kandi, Nadia; Harichane, Zoheir; Derradji, Abdelkader; Medig, Mohamed

    2013-02-01

    The current archaeological data on early hominin subsistence activities in Africa are derived chiefly from Sub-Saharan Plio-Pleistocene sites. The recent studies at El-Kherba (Ain Hanech) in northeastern Algeria expand the geographic range of evidence of hominin subsistence patterns to include the earliest known archaeological sites documented in North Africa. Dated to 1.78 million years ago (Ma), excavations from El-Kherba yielded an Oldowan industry associated with a savanna-like fauna contained in floodplain deposits. The faunal assemblage is dominated by large and medium-sized animals (mainly adults), especially equids, which are represented by at least 11 individuals. The mammalian archaeofauna preserves numerous cut-marked and hammerstone-percussed bones. Made of primarily limestone and flint, the stone assemblage consists of core forms, débitage, and retouched pieces. Evidence of usewear traces is found on several of the flint artifacts, indicating meat processing by early hominins. Overall, our subsistence analysis indicates that early hominins were largely responsible for bone modification at the site, which is also corroborated by other relevant taphonomic evidence. Moreover, at 1.78 Ma, the cutmarked bones recovered from El-Kherba represent the earliest known evidence for ancestral hominin butchery activities and large animal foraging capabilities in northern Africa. PMID:23305779

  12. Production of biosurfactant on crude date syrup under saline conditions by entrapped cells of Natrialba sp. strain E21, an extremely halophilic bacterium isolated from a solar saltern (Ain Salah, Algeria).

    PubMed

    Kebbouche-Gana, Salima; Gana, Mohamed Lamine; Ferrioune, Imen; Khemili, Souad; Lenchi, Nesrine; Akmouci-Toumi, Sihem; Bouanane-Darenfed, Nabila Amel; Djelali, Nacer-Eddine

    2013-11-01

    A bacterial strain E21 was isolated from a sample of water collected in the salt lake located close to Ain Salah, Algeria. The analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequence had indicated that the strain had 93 % sequence similarity with the genus Natrialba sp. strain E21 (GenBank, FR750525.1) and was considered extremely halophilic. Production of biosurfactant by the strain E21 with free and entrapped cells was investigated using soluble starch in the saline conditions. Biosurfactant synthesis was followed by measuring the surface tension and emulsifying index 9 days under optimal conditions (40 °C, pH 7). Some diffusional limitations in alginate and agar beads affected the kinetics of biosurfactant production when compared to that obtained with free cells culture. The minimum values of surface tension were 27 and 30 mN m(-1) achieved after 9 days with free and immobilized cells, respectively, while the corresponding maximum E24 values were 65.3 and 62.3 %, respectively. The re-use of bacterial cells along with the limited cell losses provided by the immobilized system might lead to significant reduction of the biosurfactant production cost. PMID:24061687

  13. Self-consistent Kohn-Sham method based on the adiabatic-connection fluctuation-dissipation theorem and the exact-exchange kernel.

    PubMed

    Bleiziffer, Patrick; Krug, Marcel; Görling, Andreas

    2015-06-28

    A self-consistent Kohn-Sham method based on the adiabatic-connection fluctuation-dissipation (ACFD) theorem, employing the frequency-dependent exact exchange kernel fx is presented. The resulting SC-exact-exchange-only (EXX)-ACFD method leads to even more accurate correlation potentials than those obtained within the direct random phase approximation (dRPA). In contrast to dRPA methods, not only the Coulomb kernel but also the exact exchange kernel fx is taken into account in the EXX-ACFD correlation which results in a method that, unlike dRPA methods, is free of self-correlations, i.e., a method that treats exactly all one-electron systems, like, e.g., the hydrogen atom. The self-consistent evaluation of EXX-ACFD total energies improves the accuracy compared to EXX-ACFD total energies evaluated non-self-consistently with EXX or dRPA orbitals and eigenvalues. Reaction energies of a set of small molecules, for which highly accurate experimental reference data are available, are calculated and compared to quantum chemistry methods like Møller-Plesset perturbation theory of second order (MP2) or coupled cluster methods [CCSD, coupled cluster singles, doubles, and perturbative triples (CCSD(T))]. Moreover, we compare our methods to other ACFD variants like dRPA combined with perturbative corrections such as the second order screened exchange corrections or a renormalized singles correction. Similarly, the performance of our EXX-ACFD methods is investigated for the non-covalently bonded dimers of the S22 reference set and for potential energy curves of noble gas, water, and benzene dimers. The computational effort of the SC-EXX-ACFD method exhibits the same scaling of N(5) with respect to the system size N as the non-self-consistent evaluation of only the EXX-ACFD correlation energy; however, the prefactor increases significantly. Reaction energies from the SC-EXX-ACFD method deviate quite little from EXX-ACFD energies obtained non-self-consistently with dRPA orbitals

  14. Self-consistent Kohn-Sham method based on the adiabatic-connection fluctuation-dissipation theorem and the exact-exchange kernel

    SciTech Connect

    Bleiziffer, Patrick Krug, Marcel; Görling, Andreas

    2015-06-28

    A self-consistent Kohn-Sham method based on the adiabatic-connection fluctuation-dissipation (ACFD) theorem, employing the frequency-dependent exact exchange kernel f{sub x} is presented. The resulting SC-exact-exchange-only (EXX)-ACFD method leads to even more accurate correlation potentials than those obtained within the direct random phase approximation (dRPA). In contrast to dRPA methods, not only the Coulomb kernel but also the exact exchange kernel f{sub x} is taken into account in the EXX-ACFD correlation which results in a method that, unlike dRPA methods, is free of self-correlations, i.e., a method that treats exactly all one-electron systems, like, e.g., the hydrogen atom. The self-consistent evaluation of EXX-ACFD total energies improves the accuracy compared to EXX-ACFD total energies evaluated non-self-consistently with EXX or dRPA orbitals and eigenvalues. Reaction energies of a set of small molecules, for which highly accurate experimental reference data are available, are calculated and compared to quantum chemistry methods like Møller-Plesset perturbation theory of second order (MP2) or coupled cluster methods [CCSD, coupled cluster singles, doubles, and perturbative triples (CCSD(T))]. Moreover, we compare our methods to other ACFD variants like dRPA combined with perturbative corrections such as the second order screened exchange corrections or a renormalized singles correction. Similarly, the performance of our EXX-ACFD methods is investigated for the non-covalently bonded dimers of the S22 reference set and for potential energy curves of noble gas, water, and benzene dimers. The computational effort of the SC-EXX-ACFD method exhibits the same scaling of N{sup 5} with respect to the system size N as the non-self-consistent evaluation of only the EXX-ACFD correlation energy; however, the prefactor increases significantly. Reaction energies from the SC-EXX-ACFD method deviate quite little from EXX-ACFD energies obtained non

  15. Role of Auriculotherapy in the Treatment of Temporomandibular Disorders with Anxiety in University Students.

    PubMed

    Iunes, Denise Hollanda; Chaves, Érika de Cássia Lopes; Moura, Caroline de Castro; Côrrea, Bruna; Carvalho, Leonardo César; Silva, Andreia Maria; de Carvalho, Emília Campos

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of auriculotherapy with mustard seeds in the treatment of temporomandibular disorders (TMDs), anxiety, and electromyographic (EMG) activity in university students. Methodology. The State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC) for TMDs (RDC/TMDs), and electromyography were used in this study of 44 college students with high levels of anxiety and TMDs. The subjects were divided into two groups: an auriculotherapy (AA) group (n = 31) and an AA sham group (n = 13). The mustard seeds were applied to the shenmen, rim, sympathetic, brain stem, and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) points in the AA group and to sham points in the external ear and wrist in the AA sham group. The treatment protocol was 10 sessions (two treatments per week). Results. Anxiety (p < 0.01) was significantly reduced in the AA group. This group also showed a decrease in tender points in the mandibular posterior region (p = 0.04) and in the right side of the submandibular region (p = 0.02). Complaints of bilateral pain were reduced in the temporal tendon (p ≤ 0.01) and in the left side of the ATM (p < 0.01). In addition, electromyographic (EMG) activity was reduced during temporal muscle contraction (p = 0.03).  Conclusion. Auriculotherapy was effective in the treatment of students with anxiety and TMDs. PMID:26495012

  16. Role of Auriculotherapy in the Treatment of Temporomandibular Disorders with Anxiety in University Students

    PubMed Central

    Iunes, Denise Hollanda; Chaves, Érika de Cássia Lopes; Moura, Caroline de Castro; Côrrea, Bruna; Carvalho, Leonardo César; Silva, Andreia Maria; de Carvalho, Emília Campos

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of auriculotherapy with mustard seeds in the treatment of temporomandibular disorders (TMDs), anxiety, and electromyographic (EMG) activity in university students. Methodology. The State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC) for TMDs (RDC/TMDs), and electromyography were used in this study of 44 college students with high levels of anxiety and TMDs. The subjects were divided into two groups: an auriculotherapy (AA) group (n = 31) and an AA sham group (n = 13). The mustard seeds were applied to the shenmen, rim, sympathetic, brain stem, and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) points in the AA group and to sham points in the external ear and wrist in the AA sham group. The treatment protocol was 10 sessions (two treatments per week). Results. Anxiety (p < 0.01) was significantly reduced in the AA group. This group also showed a decrease in tender points in the mandibular posterior region (p = 0.04) and in the right side of the submandibular region (p = 0.02). Complaints of bilateral pain were reduced in the temporal tendon (p ≤ 0.01) and in the left side of the ATM (p < 0.01). In addition, electromyographic (EMG) activity was reduced during temporal muscle contraction (p = 0.03).  Conclusion. Auriculotherapy was effective in the treatment of students with anxiety and TMDs. PMID:26495012

  17. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Over the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex for Treating Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: An Exploratory Meta-Analysis of Randomized, Double-Blind and Sham-Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Berlim, Marcelo T; Van den Eynde, Frederique

    2014-01-01

    Objective Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) applied to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) has yielded promising results as a treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, to date, no quantitative review of its clinical utility has been published. Method: We searched for randomized and sham-controlled trials from 1995 to March 2013 using MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CENTRAL, and SCOPUS. We then performed an exploratory random effects meta-analysis. Results: Studies on rTMS applied to the right DLPFC included 64 adults with PTSD. The pooled Hedges g effect size for pre and post changes in clinician-rated and self-reported PTSD symptoms were, respectively, 1.65 (P < 0.001) and 1.91 (P < 0.001), indicating significant and large-sized differences in outcome favouring active rTMS. Also, there were significant pre and post decreases with active rTMS in overall anxiety (Hedges g = 1.24; P = 0.02) and depressive (Hedges g = 0.85; P < 0.001) symptoms. Dropout rates at study end did not differ between active and sham rTMS groups. Regarding rTMS applied to the left DLPFC, there is only one study published to date (using a high frequency protocol), and its results showed that active rTMS seems to be superior overall to sham rTMS. Conclusions: Our exploratory meta-analysis shows that active rTMS applied to the DLPFC seems to be effective and acceptable for treating PTSD. However, the small number of subjects included in the analyses limits the generalizability of these findings. Future studies should include larger samples and deliver optimized stimulation parameters. PMID:25565694

  18. Coupling multiscale X-ray physics and micromechanics for bone tissue composition and elasticity determination from micro-CT data, by example of femora from OVX and sham rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasslinger, Patricia; Vass, Viktoria; Dejaco, Alexander; Blanchard, Romane; Örlygsson, Gissur; Gargiulo, Paolo; Hellmich, Christian

    2016-05-01

    Due to its high resolution, micro-CT (Computed Tomograph) scanning is the key to assess bone quality of sham and OVX (ovariectomized) rats. Combination of basic X-ray physics, such as the energy- and chemistry-dependence of attenuation coefficients, with results from ashing tests on rat bones, delivers mineral, organic, and water volume fractions within the voxels. Additional use of a microelastic model for bone provides voxel-specific elastic properties. The new method delivers realistic bone mass densities, and reveals that OVX protocols may indeed induce some bone mass loss, while the average composition of the bone tissue remains largely unaltered.

  19. Use of existing data for public health planning: a study of the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen and core antibody in Al Ain Medical District, United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed Central

    al-Owais, A.; al-Suwaidi, K.; Amiri, N.; Carter, A. O.; Hossain, M. M.; Sheek-Hussein, M. M.

    2000-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Hepatitis B is of major public health importance. Accurate information on its occurrence, with particular reference to the prevalence of immunity and chronic infection (marked by the presence of hepatitis B core antibody and surface antigen, respectively, in serum), is essential for planning public health programmes for the control of the disease. The generation of marker prevalence data through serological surveys is costly and time-consuming. The present study in Al Ain Medical District, United Arab Emirates, investigated the possibility of obtaining sufficiently accurate marker prevalence estimates from existing data to plan public health programmes. METHODS: Two antenatal screening databases, one student serological survey database, one immunization programme database and one pre-marriage screening database containing information on marker prevalence were identified. Epidemiological data were abstracted from these databases and analysed. RESULTS: The data showed that the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen and the prevalence of core antibody in young citizens in 1998 were approximately 2% and 14% respectively, that any immunization campaign aimed at citizens of the United Arab Emirates should target teenagers as they had the highest risk of acquiring the disease, and that pre-immunization screening of young adults would be wasteful. However, the data did not yield information on the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen and core antibody in other population subgroups of public health significance. DISCUSSION: While data generated by the study are sufficient to support a hepatitis B immunization programme targeted at teenaged citizens, more accurate data, generated by a well-designed serological survey, would be essential for optimal public health planning. PMID:11143192

  20. Short-Term Effects of Kinesio Taping and Cross Taping Application in the Treatment of Latent Upper Trapezius Trigger Points: A Prospective, Single-Blind, Randomized, Sham-Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Halski, Tomasz; Ptaszkowski, Kuba; Słupska, Lucyna; Paprocka-Borowicz, Małgorzata; Dymarek, Robert; Taradaj, Jakub; Bidzińska, Gabriela; Marczyński, Daniel; Cynarska, Aleksandra; Rosińczuk, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Kinesio taping (KT) may be a new treatment in patients with myofascial trigger points (MTrPs). A new method available for taping practitioners is cross taping (CT). The main objective was to determine how CT, KT, and medical adhesive tape (sham group) affect the subjective assessment of resting bioelectrical activity and pain of the upper trapezius muscle (UT) in patients with MTrPs. 105 volunteers were recruited to participate. The primary outcome was resting bioelectrical activity of UT muscle as assessed by surface electromyography (sEMG) in each group and pain intensity on a visual analog scale (VAS). Assessments were collected before and after intervention and after the 24-hours follow-up. No significant differences were observed in bioelectrical activity of UT between pre-, post-, and follow-up results. In three groups patients had significantly lower pain VAS score after the intervention (CT-p < 0.001, KT-p < 0.001, and sham-p < 0.01). The Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA showed no significant differences in almost all measurements between groups. The application of all three types of tapes does not influence the resting bioelectrical activity of UT muscle and may not lead to a reduction in muscle tone in the case of MTrPs. PMID:26491458

  1. University School at the University of Tulsa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollingsworth, Patricia

    2004-01-01

    This article features the University School at The University of Tulsa, which was established in 1982 as a private, full-school program for gifted students from age 3 through 8th grade. The mission of the University School is to serve as a local and national model of excellence in gifted education. The goal is for students to maximize their…

  2. University Handbook. University of Wisconsin, Whitewater.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Univ., Whitewater.

    The University of Wisconsin-Whitewater's handbook is divided into major sections dealing with: the university; business services; university services; student matters; curricular matters; and personnel matters. Various topics are covered, including: tuition for senior citizens, medical insurance, risk management, degree requirements, student…

  3. Educational outcomes associated with providing a comprehensive guidelines program about nursing care of preterm neonates receiving total parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Al-Rafay, Safy S; Al-Sharkawy, Sabah S

    2012-05-01

    Poor understanding or practice of Total Parenteral Nutrition (TPN) causes devastating complications. Therefore, good Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) nursing care for preterm neonates and close monitoring of complications is essential for successful TPN therapy. The study was conducted in NICU at Ain Shams University Hospital in Cairo, Egypt, using a quasi-experimental research design with prepost intervention assessments. Data was collected using a self-administered questionnaire sheet and an observation checklist (prepost format) and developed a comprehensive guidelines program about nursing care of TPN of preterm neonates. Results revealed that the program had a significant positive impact on nurses' knowledge and practice outcomes. PMID:21828243

  4. Perceived Comfort and Blinding Efficacy in Randomised Sham-Controlled Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) Trials at 2 mA in Young and Older Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Nicholas R.; Paulmann, Silke; Fitzgerald, Paul B.

    2016-01-01

    Background tDCS studies typically find that: lowest levels of comfort occur at stimulation-onset; young adult participants experience less comfort than older participants; and participants’ blinding seems effective at low current strengths. At 2 mA conflicting results have been reported, questioning the effectiveness of blinding in sham-controlled paradigms using higher current strengths. Investigator blinding is rarely reported. Objective Using a protocol with 30 min of 2 mA stimulation we sought to: (a) investigate the level of perceived comfort in young and older adults, ranging in age from 19 to 29 years and 63 to 76 years, respectively; (b) test investigator and participant blinding; (c) assess comfort over a longer stimulation duration; (d) add to the literature on protocols using 2 mA current strength. Methods A two-session experiment was conducted where sham and active stimulation were administered to the frontal cortex at the F8/FP1 sites in a within-subjects manner. Levels of perceived comfort were measured, using a visual analogue scale, at the start and end of stimulation in young and older adults. Post-stimulation, participants and investigators judged whether or not active stimulation was used. Results Comfort scores were lower at stimulation onset in both age groups. Older adults reported: (i) more comfort than young participants overall; (ii) comparable levels of comfort in sham and active stimulation; (iii) significantly more comfort than the young participants during active stimulation. Stimulation mode was correctly identified above chance in the second of the two sessions; 65% of all participants correctly identified the stimulation mode, resulting in a statistical trend. Similarly, the experimenter correctly identified stimulation mode significantly above chance, with 62% of all investigator judgements correct across 120 judgements. Conclusions Using 2 mA current strength over 30 minutes, tDCS stimulation comfort is lower at stimulation onset

  5. Universities as Management Arenas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Donald E.

    1973-01-01

    The process of university leadership is examined in terms of (1) the development of more sophisticated models of the kind of organization a university is, and (2) the development of more precise delineations of the nature of the multiple leadership tasks that must be performed in a university setting. The university is viewed as an "organized…

  6. California State University, Sacramento

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varlotta, Lori E.

    2009-01-01

    California State University, Sacramento, commonly referred to as "Sacramento State," is a booming metropolitan university located on 300 acres in the state capital of California. The university, the seventh largest in the California State University system, enrolls a multicultural student body of approximately 29,000 students. At Sacramento State,…

  7. Adult Learners in Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Janette, Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Theories on adult development and learning and some of the Ontario universities' programs and services for the adult learner are examined, and Athabasca University, Alberta's answer to the British Open University, is described. Peter O'Donnell discusses adult learners' needs and explains how Athabasca University serves this specific type of…

  8. Motivating University Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendriks, Paul; Sousa, Celio

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical investigation into how universities approach the need and means for motivating university researchers through their management practices. The role of work motivation for this group deserves attention because pressures from outside and within the universities are said to have made university research less of a…

  9. The Global University Press

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    The modern world's understanding of American university press has long been shaped by university-press books. American university-press books are good international advertisements for the universities whose logos grace their spines. The growth of transnational scholarship and the expansion of digital communications networks are converging in ways…

  10. When Collective Bargaining Fails: The Boston University, Temple University, University of Bridgeport, and Yeshiva University Cases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuechle, David

    This paper highlights some of the similarities and differences in the labor-management experiences of Boston University (Massachusetts), Temple University (Pennsylvania), the University of Bridgeport (Connecticut), and Yeshiva University (New York) to determine which may represent failures and which do not. In comparing the Yeshiva and Boston…

  11. Masks of the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Edward

    2011-11-01

    Preface; Introducing the masks; Part I. Worlds in the Making: 1. The magic Universe; 2. The mythic Universe; 3. The geometric Universe; 4. The medieval Universe; 5. The infinite Universe; 6. The mechanistic Universe; Part II. The Heart Divine: 7. Dance of the atoms and waves; 8. Fabric of space and time; 9. Nearer to the heart's desire; 10. The cosmic tide; 11. Do dreams ever come true?; Part III. The Cloud of Unknowing: 12. The witch universe; 13. The spear of Archytas; 14. All that is made; 15. The cloud of unknowing; 16. Learned ignorance.

  12. A phase II, sham-controlled, double-blinded study testing the safety and efficacy of the coronary sinus reducer in patients with refractory angina: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A growing population of patients lives with severe coronary artery disease not amenable to coronary revascularization and with refractory angina despite optimal medical therapy. Percutaneous reduction of the coronary sinus is an emerging treatment for myocardial ischemia that increases coronary sinus pressure to promote a transcollateral redistribution of coronary artery in-flow from nonischemic to ischemic subendocardial territories. A first-in-man study has demonstrated that the percutaneous reduction of the coronary sinus can be performed safely in such patients. The COSIRA trial seeks to assess whether a percutaneous reduction of the coronary sinus can improve the symptoms of refractory angina in patients with limited revascularization options. Methods/Design The COSIRA trial is a phase II double-blind, sham-controlled, randomized parallel trial comparing the percutaneously implanted coronary sinus Reducer (Neovasc Inc, Richmond, BC, Canada) to a sham implantation in 124 patients enrolled in Canada, Belgium, England, Scotland, Sweden and Denmark. All patients need to have stable Canadian Cardiovascular Society (CCS) class III or IV angina despite optimal medical therapy, with evidence of reversible ischemia related to disease in the left coronary artery, and a left ventricular ejection fraction >25%. Participants experiencing an improvement in their angina ≥2 CCS classes six months after the randomization will meet the primary efficacy endpoint. The secondary objective of this trial is to test whether coronary sinus Reducer implantation will improve left ventricular ischemia, as measured by the improvement in dobutamine echocardiogram wall motion score index and in time to 1 mm ST-segment depression from baseline to six-month post-implantation. Discussion Based on previous observations, the COSIRA is expected to provide a significant positive result or an informative null result upon which rational development decisions can be based. Patient safety

  13. University settles discrimination case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2011-02-01

    A settlement has been reached in a case brought against the University of Kentucky by astrophysicist Martin Gaskell over his claim that the university illegally denied him a staff position on the basis of his evangelical Christian faith.

  14. Metaphor and Universal Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blown, Eric; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Attempts to identify elements of universal language and probes the limitations of the communication metaphor. Universal language is discussed in terms of the theory of quantum nonlocality and the implications of this theory for communication with extraterrestrial beings. (PCB)

  15. Towards a Living Universe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raine, Kathleen

    1981-01-01

    There is a growing realization that the premises of materialism are applicable within certain limits only. The mystical writings of Blake teach that man's body is a mental body, and his universe a mental universe. (JN)

  16. Gambling with the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawking, Stephen

    2002-05-01

    This is an excerpt from Stephen Hawking's book The Universe in a Nutshell. Roger Penrose and Stephen Hawking, Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge, were able to show that Einstein's General Theory of Relativity implied that the universe and time itself must have had a beginning in a tremendous explosion. The discovery of the expansion of the universe is one of the great intellectual revolutions of the twentieth century.

  17. Situated University, Situated Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Ann M.

    2009-01-01

    This article argues that teaching as a situated, civic activity must be a core intellectual activity in the engaged metropolitan university. Situated writing provides the key pedagogy for the Chicago Civic Leadership Certificate Program at the University of Illinois at Chicago, an engaged public research university. The role of writing, or…

  18. British Universities: Visitor's Jurisdiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Anwar N.

    1993-01-01

    The office and functions of the university visitor in Britain have deep-seated origins in the common law. The visitorial jurisdiction is exclusive in domestic and internal matters. Despite cases brought by disgruntled members of universities, the office of the university visitor was not abolished, and its powers were not eliminated. Analyzes these…

  19. John Carroll University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Kathleen Lis; Rombalski, Patrick; O'Dell, Kyle

    2009-01-01

    John Carroll University (JCU) is a Jesuit Catholic institution located in University Heights, approximately 10 miles east of Cleveland, Ohio. Founded in 1888, the university has a population of 3,400 undergraduates and 800 graduate students. The Division of Student Affairs at JCU comprises 11 units. The mission of the division is the same as that…

  20. Our Listless Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Allan

    1983-01-01

    Students in the best universities do not believe in anything, and those universities are doing nothing about it. The great questions--God, freedom, and immortality--hardly touch the young. The universities have no vision, no view of what a human being must know in order to be considered educated. (MLW)

  1. Program Budgeting: Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Board of Regents, Columbus. Management Improvement Program.

    This manual recognizes there is a wide spectrum of budgeting practices in today's colleges and universities. In particular, universities in Ohio are at different stages in their utilization of program budgeting principles and also have different needs. Thus, this program budgeting manual was written to meet the specific needs of universities in…

  2. The Moral University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berube, Maurice R.; Berube, Clair T.

    2010-01-01

    The Moral University examines the ways that universities act morally toward students, faculty, their communities and the nation. It considers the effectiveness of moral reasoning courses in the curriculum and the growth of leadership courses. The book deals with the myriad ways in which universities act positively toward their communities. It also…

  3. The University Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simplicio, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    In this article the author discusses the role university culture can play on a campus and how it can impact policy and practice. The article explores how a university's history, values, and vision form its culture and how this culture in turn affects its stability and continuity. The article discusses how newcomers within the university are…

  4. Internationalising the University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Suzy

    2008-01-01

    "International" and "internationalisation" are two terms frequently used today in association with the university. In this paper I consider the way in which the notion of internationalisation connects to the contemporary university, which I have termed "Neo-liberal". I begin by outlining the main characteristics of the contemporary university and…

  5. Regulation of University Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindblom-Ylanne, Sari; Nevgi, Anne; Trigwell, Keith

    2011-01-01

    The aims of the present study are twofold: firstly, to explore dimensions in the regulation of teaching in a multidisciplinary sample of university teachers, and secondly, to analyse factors related to the regulation of university teaching. Seventy-three university teachers representing several disciplines participated in the study. These teachers…

  6. Universities That Litigate Patents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rooksby, Jacob H.

    2012-01-01

    American research universities frequently obtain and license patents to their faculty members' inventions. While university licensing is carefully tracked and thoroughly studied, little is known about university decisions to assertively litigate their patents through filing patent infringement lawsuits in federal court. Which universities…

  7. Virtual Universe & Its Interface to Physical Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asija, Pal

    2005-04-01

    This paper postulates a virtual universe and compares and contrasts its properties to that of our known physical universe. A particular attention is paid to the interface between the two and challenges for transition from one to the other. Also discussed is the relationship of the virtual universe to such entities and concepts as dark matter, black holes, time travel, speed of light, mass, gravity just to name just a few. The paper also discusses interface between us physical beings and temporary virtual beings and eventually ultra beings. It also tangentially discusses relationship between body, brain, mind of physical beings with that of virtual and ultra beings. The paper also discusses why virtual beings do not have the same limitations and capabilities as we do. The past, present, elsewhere and potential of physical and virtual universes is compared. Finally possible pathways to discovery of TOE (Theory of Everything) is hypothesized.

  8. Adjunctive treatment with high frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for the behavioral and psychological symptoms of patients with Alzheimer's disease: a randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    WU, Yue; XU, Wenwei; LIU, Xiaowei; XU, Qing; TANG, Li; WU, Shuyan

    2015-01-01

    Background Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) occur in 70-90% of patients at different stages of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD), but the available methods for managing these problems are of limited effectiveness. Aim Assess the effects of high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), applied over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), on BPSD and cognitive function in persons with AD. Methods Fifty-four patients with AD and accompanying BPSD were randomly divided into an intervention group (n=27) and a control group (n=27). In addition to standard antipsychotic treatment, the intervention group was treated with 20Hz rTMS five days a week for four weeks, while the control group was treated with sham rTMS.The Behavioral Pathology in Alzheimer's Disease Rating Scale (BEHAVE-AD), the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive (ADAS-Cog), and the Treatment Emergent Symptom Scale (TESS) were administered by raters who were blind to the group assignment of patients before and after four weeks of treatment. Results Twenty-six subjects from each group completed the study. After four weeks of antipsychotic treatment with adjunctive real or sham rTMS treatment, the mean (sd) total BEHAVE-AD scores and mean total ADAS-Cog scores of both groups significantly decreased from baseline. After adjusting for baseline values, the intervention group had significantly lower scores (i.e., greater improvement) than the control group on the BEHAVE-AD total score, on five of the seven BEHAVE-AD factor scores (activity disturbances, diurnal rhythm, aggressiveness, affective disturbances, anxieties and phobias), on the ADAS-Cog total score, and on all four ADAS-Cog factor scores (memory, language, constructional praxis, and attention). The proportion of individuals whose behavioral symptoms met a predetermined level of improvement (i.e., a drop in BEHAVE-AD total score of > 30% from baseline) in the intervention group was greater than that

  9. Discovering the Expanding Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nussbaumer, Harry; Bieri, Lydia; Sandage, Foreword by Allan

    2009-03-01

    Acknowledgments; Foreword; 1. Introduction; 2. Cosmological concepts at the end of the Middle Ages; 3. Nebulae as a new astronomical phenomenon; 4. On the construction of the Heavens; 5. Island universes turn into astronomical facts: a universe of galaxies; 6. The early cosmology of Einstein and de Sitter; 7. The dynamical universe of Friedmann; 8. Redshifts: how to reconcile Slipher and de Sitter?; 9. Lemaître discovers the expanding universe; 10. Hubble's contribution of 1929; 11. The breakthrough for the expanding universe; 12. Hubble's anger about de Sitter; 13. Robertson and Tolman join the game; 14. The Einstein-de Sitter universe; 15. Are Sun and Earth older than the universe?; 16. In search of alternative tracks; 17. The seed for the Big Bang; 18. Summary and Postscript; Appendix; References; Index.

  10. The extent of drug use among Egyptian male university students.

    PubMed

    Soueif, M I; Darweesh, Z A; Hannourah, M A; el-Sayfd, A M; Yunis, F A; Taha, H S

    1986-12-01

    The main aim of the present study was to provide factual information regarding the extent of non-medical use of substances among university students. A subsidiary purpose was to shed light on the aetiology of such use. A standardized questionnaire was administered to a representative sample of male students at Cairo and Ein-Shams Universities (N = 2711) both situated in Greater Cairo. Demographic and drug use related data are discussed. Among the interesting results are the following: ages of onset for using any drug are delayed, compared with corresponding ages among secondary school pupils; the percentage of young men who tried stimulants was much bigger than the respective percentage among secondary school boys; the proportions who reported continuing with drug abuse until time of interviewing ranged between about 10% and 31% of those who 'ever tried' drugs; highly significant association between exposure to elements of a 'drug culture' and drug abuse is underlined; meaningful association between drug use and beliefs about effects of such use is established. PMID:3493127

  11. Universities Scale Like Cities

    PubMed Central

    van Raan, Anthony F. J.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies of urban scaling show that important socioeconomic city characteristics such as wealth and innovation capacity exhibit a nonlinear, particularly a power law scaling with population size. These nonlinear effects are common to all cities, with similar power law exponents. These findings mean that the larger the city, the more disproportionally they are places of wealth and innovation. Local properties of cities cause a deviation from the expected behavior as predicted by the power law scaling. In this paper we demonstrate that universities show a similar behavior as cities in the distribution of the ‘gross university income’ in terms of total number of citations over ‘size’ in terms of total number of publications. Moreover, the power law exponents for university scaling are comparable to those for urban scaling. We find that deviations from the expected behavior can indeed be explained by specific local properties of universities, particularly the field-specific composition of a university, and its quality in terms of field-normalized citation impact. By studying both the set of the 500 largest universities worldwide and a specific subset of these 500 universities -the top-100 European universities- we are also able to distinguish between properties of universities with as well as without selection of one specific local property, the quality of a university in terms of its average field-normalized citation impact. It also reveals an interesting observation concerning the working of a crucial property in networked systems, preferential attachment. PMID:23544062

  12. Strong correlation in Kohn-Sham DFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malet Giralt, Francesc; Mirtschink, André; Cremon, Jonas; Mendl, Christian; Giesbertz, Klaas; Reimann, Stephanie; Gori-Giorgi, Paola; Mathematical Physics, Lund University Collaboration; Mathematics Department, Technische Universität München Collaboration

    2014-03-01

    The knowledge on the strong-interacting limit of density functional theory can be used to construct exchange- correlation functionals able to address strongly-correlated systems without introducing any symmetry breaking. We report calculations on semiconductor nanostructures and one-dimensional models for chemical systems, showing that this approach yields quantitatively good results in both the weakly- and the strongly-correlated regimes, with a numerical cost much lower than the traditional wavefunction methods. This work has been supported by a VIDI grant of the NWO and a Marie Curie grant within the FP7 programme.

  13. Probiotics in dentistry: A boon or sham

    PubMed Central

    Chopra, Rahul; Mathur, Shivani

    2013-01-01

    Probiotics are dietary supplements, which have been advocated for the prevention and the treatment of a wide range of diseases. These products consist of beneficial micro-organisms, which stimulate health promoting flora thus, suppressing the pathologic colonization and disease spread. Since, probiotics are now widely used in both medical (such as cancer risk reduction, gastrointestinal tract health, and urinary tract health) and dental specialties (reduction in caries development, in achieving periodontal health, reducing oral malodor, etc.), a thorough understanding of their risks and benefits are essential. This review focuses on the recent trends in use of probiotics in dentistry as well as the potential risks associated with them. PMID:24019796

  14. Evaluation of the Immediate Effect of Auricular Acupuncture on Pain and Electromyographic Activity of the Upper Trapezius Muscle in Patients with Nonspecific Neck Pain: A Randomized, Single-Blinded, Sham-Controlled, Crossover Study

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Andréia Cristina de Oliveira; Biasotto-Gonzalez, Daniela Aparecida; dos Santos, Douglas Meira; Melo, Nivea Cristina De; Gomes, Cid André Fidelis de Paula; Amorim, César Ferreira; Politti, Fabiano

    2015-01-01

    Background. The aim of the present study was to assess the immediate effects of auricular acupuncture (AA) on the electromyographic (EMG) activity of the upper trapezius muscle and pain in nonspecific neck pain (NS-NP) patients. Twelve patients with NS-NP (NS-NP group) and 12 healthy subjects (HS Group) were enrolled in a randomized, single-blinded, crossover study. Each subject received a single session of AA and sham AA (SAA). Surface EMG activity was measured in the upper trapezius muscle at different “step contractions” of isometric shoulder elevation (15%, 20%, 25%, and 30% MVC). The outcome measure in patients with NS-NP was based on the numerical pain rating scale (NRS). AA treatment led to a significant decrease in EMG activity in both groups (NS-NP group: p = 0.0001; HS group: p < 0.0001—ANOVA test). This was not the case for the SAA treatment (NS-NP group: p = 0.71; HS group: p < 0.54). Significant decreases (p < 0.001) in the NRS were found for both treatments (AA and SAA). This study demonstrated the immediate effect of auricular acupuncture on the electromyographic activity of the upper trapezius muscle but the effect of this intervention on pain symptoms in patients with nonspecific neck pain was inconclusive. PMID:26451155

  15. Kohn-Sham calculations of NMR shifts for paramagnetic 3d metal complexes: protocols, delocalization error, and the curious amide proton shifts of a high-spin iron(ii) macrocycle complex.

    PubMed

    Martin, Bob; Autschbach, Jochen

    2016-08-01

    A theory for the nuclear chemical shifts of molecules in arbitrary spin states is applied to a set of paramagnetic organometallic complexes of 3d metals. Ligand chemical shifts are calculated and analyzed using Kohn-Sham (KS) density functional theory with and without relativistic corrections. The roles of the KS delocalization error, Gaussian-type versus Slater-type basis sets, relativistic effects (scalar and spin-orbit), and zero field splitting (ZFS) are investigated. A strong functional dependence of the chemical shifts is apparent and correlated with the delocalization error. The functional dependence is between one and two orders of magnitude larger than variations of the NMR shifts due the other influences that are investigated. ZFS effects are negligible in the determination of the NMR chemical shifts of the complexes except at very low temperatures. The DFT calculated shifts agree reasonably well with experiment. A 73 ppm difference in the NMR shifts of the two protons in the amide groups of a high-spin Fe(ii) macrocycle complex arises from selective O → Fe dative bonding that only involves the transfer of β spin density, along with orbital delocalization throughout the ligand bonding framework which electronically couples the coordinating oxygen lone pair orbitals directly to the amide trans proton. PMID:26952694

  16. Short-Term Effects of Kinesio Taping and Cross Taping Application in the Treatment of Latent Upper Trapezius Trigger Points: A Prospective, Single-Blind, Randomized, Sham-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Halski, Tomasz; Ptaszkowski, Kuba; Słupska, Lucyna; Paprocka-Borowicz, Małgorzata; Dymarek, Robert; Taradaj, Jakub; Bidzińska, Gabriela; Marczyński, Daniel; Cynarska, Aleksandra; Rosińczuk, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Kinesio taping (KT) may be a new treatment in patients with myofascial trigger points (MTrPs). A new method available for taping practitioners is cross taping (CT). The main objective was to determine how CT, KT, and medical adhesive tape (sham group) affect the subjective assessment of resting bioelectrical activity and pain of the upper trapezius muscle (UT) in patients with MTrPs. 105 volunteers were recruited to participate. The primary outcome was resting bioelectrical activity of UT muscle as assessed by surface electromyography (sEMG) in each group and pain intensity on a visual analog scale (VAS). Assessments were collected before and after intervention and after the 24-hours follow-up. No significant differences were observed in bioelectrical activity of UT between pre-, post-, and follow-up results. In three groups patients had significantly lower pain VAS score after the intervention (CT—p < 0.001, KT—p < 0.001, and sham—p < 0.01). The Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA showed no significant differences in almost all measurements between groups. The application of all three types of tapes does not influence the resting bioelectrical activity of UT muscle and may not lead to a reduction in muscle tone in the case of MTrPs. PMID:26491458

  17. Selling University Reform: The University of Melbourne and the Press

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potts, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Since the advent of the "Times Higher Education Supplement World University Rankings" and the "Academic Rankings of World Universities" by Shanghai Jiao Tong University, some Australian universities have become especially concerned with being ranked among the 100 leading universities. The University of Melbourne, Australia's second oldest…

  18. On universal knot polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mironov, A.; Mkrtchyan, R.; Morozov, A.

    2016-02-01

    We present a universal knot polynomials for 2- and 3-strand torus knots in adjoint representation, by universalization of appropriate Rosso-Jones formula. According to universality, these polynomials coincide with adjoined colored HOMFLY and Kauffman polynomials at SL and SO/Sp lines on Vogel's plane, respectively and give their exceptional group's counterparts on exceptional line. We demonstrate that [m,n]=[n,m] topological invariance, when applicable, take place on the entire Vogel's plane. We also suggest the universal form of invariant of figure eight knot in adjoint representation, and suggest existence of such universalization for any knot in adjoint and its descendant representations. Properties of universal polynomials and applications of these results are discussed.

  19. The Chinese Television University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, R.

    1980-01-01

    Presents an overview of China's Beijing Broadcasting and Television University: background, establishment, administration and structure, students, courses, teaching package, and course production. (JD)

  20. Typical universal entanglers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Feng; Luo, MingXing; Chen, XiuBo; Yang, YiXian; Wang, XiaoJun

    2014-10-01

    A universal entangler is a very powerful fault-tolerant entangling device for generating quantum entanglements from any joint states. Our paper aims to address the construction of universal entanglers. We prove that universal entanglers may be obtained from random unitary gates according to the Harr measure. The success probability is close to 1 for large system spaces. This result represents the typical density of entanglement subspaces in large state spaces. It also partially solves an open problem of universal bipartite entanglers and is explained by some experiment simulations.

  1. Rice University: College and University Systems Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CAUSE/EFFECT, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Computing began at Rice University with the first computer project on campus about 1958. In 1960 a computer center was formed. Today's Institute for Computer Services and Applications serves Rice administration, departments, faculty, and students by writing systems, maintaining files, entering data, retrieving information, etc. (MLW)

  2. University Funding Changes and University Efficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mace, John

    1993-01-01

    A discussion of the current economics of the United Kingdom's higher education system outlines conceptual models used by economists for evaluating a system's efficiency and applies them to assess the effect of recent funding changes. It is concluded that increased emphasis on research is adversely affecting university teaching quality. (MSE)

  3. Universal Symbols and Cartography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modley, Rudolf

    The broad use of maps by non-cartographers imposes on the cartographer the burden to make maps not only accurate, but to use symbols which make map-reading easier for the public. The latter requirement implies a need for universal symbols. Although there are no universal symbols today (letters, words, and figures, to a lesser extent, are dependent…

  4. For Free Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainley, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    This article is a shortened version of an inaugural professorial lecture given at the University of Greenwich on 19 January 2005 as an intervention in the debate at that time within that university and other English further and higher education institutions over the appropriate level of fees to charge in 2006. It anticipates the likely effects…

  5. Faculty Handbook, Stanford University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA.

    University policies, regulations, and procedures that apply to faculty members directly or indirectly, as well as the university's organization and governance, are described in the 1975 handbook. A brief history of Stanford's academic development and a bibliography to other information sources related to academic affairs are also provided.…

  6. Arizona State University. Exemplars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wegner, Gregory R.

    This report discusses how the Arizona Board of Regents, which has governing authority over the state's three public universities, dealt with the inability of the universities to respond to new societal needs in a timely manner; a major impediment was felt to be tenure. After a series of meetings of administrators and faculty leaders, the Board…

  7. Marketing University Outreach Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Ralph S., Jr., Ed.; And Others

    A collection of 12 essays and model program descriptions addresses issues in the marketing of university extension, outreach, and distance education programs. They include: (1) "Marketing and University Outreach: Parallel Processes" (William I. Sauser, Jr. and others); (2) "Segmenting and Targeting the Organizational Market" (Vaughan C. Judd); (3)…

  8. Tutors for a University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Styler, W. E.

    The pamphlet describes the system developed at Hull University for providing tutors for adult education, and analyzes the use of full-time and part-time tutors. These tutors are responsible for teaching courses, generally shorter in duration than a standard academic course, and geared for adults not in school rather than for university students.…

  9. Universal Semantics in Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Zhenying

    2009-01-01

    What and how we translate are questions often argued about. No matter what kind of answers one may give, priority in translation should be granted to meaning, especially those meanings that exist in all concerned languages. In this paper the author defines them as universal sememes, and the study of them as universal semantics, of which…

  10. Family Bonding with Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meer, Jonathan; Rosen, Harvey S.

    2010-01-01

    One justification offered for legacy admissions policies at universities is that that they bind entire families to the university. Proponents maintain that these policies have a number of benefits, including increased donations from members of these families. We use a rich set of data from an anonymous selective research institution to investigate…

  11. Talent Management for Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Andrew P.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores human resource management practices in the university sector with a specific focus on talent pools and talent management more generally. The paper defines talent management in the context of the university sector and then explores its interdependence with organisational strategy, the metrics used to measure academic performance…

  12. UNIVERSAL HIGHER EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCGRATH, EARL J.

    THIS DOCUMENT IS A REPORT ON A GROUP INQUIRY INTO THE SUBSTANCE AND IMPLICATIONS OF UNIVERSAL HIGHER EDUCATION. ELEVEN CHAPTERS ARE PAPERS PRESENTED AT A CONFERENCE HELD UNDER THE AUSPICES OF THE INSTITUTE OF HIGHER EDUCATION, TEACHERS COLLEGE, COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY, IN PUERTO RICO, NOVEMBER 15-21, 1964, FORECASTING THE FORM AND MISSION OF AMERICAN…

  13. Slippery Rock University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnhold, Robert W.

    2008-01-01

    Slippery Rock University (SRU), located in western Pennsylvania, is one of 14 state-owned institutions of higher education in Pennsylvania. The university has a rich tradition of providing professional preparation programs in special education, therapeutic recreation, physical education, and physical therapy for individuals with disabilities.…

  14. Universal Design Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Mary C.

    2004-01-01

    Universal design is made up of four elements: accessibility, adaptability, aesthetics, and affordability. This article addresses the concept of universal design problem solving through experiential learning for an interior design studio course in postsecondary education. Students' experiences with clients over age 55 promoted an understanding of…

  15. Asian Open Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, John

    1983-01-01

    The appearance of open universities in Asia is of interest to Australian educators, particularly since the Asian institutions differ in some respects from the British model which combined open entry to all and extensively employed the electronic media. The Asian Open Universities have provided access to higher education for many. (SSH)

  16. Reeducation at Heidelberg University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, Geoffrey J.

    1997-01-01

    Utilizes German archival records to illuminate crucial post-war events at Heidelberg University. The university became the focal point of attempts to define the theoretical and practical meaning of "geistige Umerziehung" (spiritual reeducation). Discusses the conflict between U.S. authorities and such esteemed German scholars as Karl Jaspers and…

  17. The universal propagator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klauder, John R.

    1993-01-01

    For a general Hamiltonian appropriate to a single canonical degree of freedom, a universal propagator with the property that it correctly evolves the coherent-state Hilbert space representatives for an arbitrary fiducial vector is characterized and defined. The universal propagator is explicitly constructed for the harmonic oscillator, with a result that differs from the conventional propagators for this system.

  18. Managing Tomorrow's University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michalak, Craig L., Ed.

    The issues addressed in this conference report concern budgeting, the resourceful manager, extramural funding, employer-employee interaction, management information systems, and management of the university in the future. Contents include: the keynote address by F. E. Balderston; "University Budgeting in an Era of Scarce Resources," by F. M. Bowen…

  19. Understanding University Technology Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of American Universities, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Federal government agencies provide about $33 billion a year to universities to conduct scientific research. That continuing investment expands human knowledge and helps educate the next generation of science and technology leaders. New discoveries from university research also form the basis for many new products and processes that benefit the…

  20. University, Research, Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laroui, Abdallah

    1991-01-01

    Describes personal experiences with university research and development. Criticizes university research as ineffective and inwardly focused, resulting in a concept of scientific research that negates the notion of economic development. Complains that the focus of study no longer contributes to an increase in consumable wealth. Urges that…

  1. Modelling University Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trakman, Leon

    2008-01-01

    Twentieth century governance models used in public universities are subject to increasing doubt across the English-speaking world. Governments question if public universities are being efficiently governed; if their boards of trustees are adequately fulfilling their trust obligations towards multiple stakeholders; and if collegial models of…

  2. [The University in Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abram, Morris B.

    The university reflects the revolution in the world. Large numbers of "find out" students are not goal oriented and are affected by malaise; many approve of the use of violence in certain situations. Part of the revolution must be accepted and part rejected. The university is extremely vulnerable to violence and, unless it is contained, American…

  3. Dynamics of Anisotropic Universes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, Jérôme

    2006-11-01

    We present a general study of the dynamical properties of Anisotropic Bianchi Universes in the context of Einstein General Relativity. Integrability results using Kovalevskaya exponents are reported and connected to general knowledge about Bianchi dynamics. Finally, dynamics toward singularity in Bianchi type VIII and IX universes are showed to be equivalent in some precise sence.

  4. University Patent Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latker, Norman J.

    The relationship between university research and public need is discussed from both a historical and contemporary perspective. Examples are cited of European experiences in which there has been obvious industrial motivation for research performed by the universities. The author notes that there are no difficulties with the level of government…

  5. The United Nations University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salam, Abdus

    1973-01-01

    Reports the progress already made toward the establishment of a postgraduate international university under United Nations auspices. The resolution adopted by the U.N. General Assembly provides a concise statement of the nature and aims of the United Nations University, which is likely to start operating in 1974. (JR)

  6. Miami University Information Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miami Univ., Oxford, OH.

    The 1975 information manual is designed to provide current data on policies, procedures, services, facilities, organization and governance of Miami University and, through the extensive index, quick access to this information. The manual is complementary to the university catalog and directory. Information relating to students is in the Student…

  7. University-industry interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hastings, Daniel E.

    1990-01-01

    It is posited that university industry interaction is highly desirable from the viewpoint of the long term economic development of the country as well as being desirable for the Space Grant Programs. The present and future possible interactions are reviewed for the three university levels namely, undergraduate, graduate, and faculty research.

  8. The Pennsylvania State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burlingame, Philip J.; Dowhower, Andrea L.

    2009-01-01

    Founded in 1855 as the Farmer's High School, the Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) began as a small college in Centre County providing agricultural education to young men from regional farm families. Penn State became a land-grant university in 1863 following passage of the Morrill Act. Today, Penn State enrolls more than 83,000 students…

  9. University Freedom in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolasir, Semiyha

    2006-01-01

    Freedom means the right of the universities to do their scientific activities and to regulate and do the higher education through their organs. The three feet that make up the university freedom are scientific freedom, administrative freedom and financial freedom. Scientific freedom is realized by the freedom of the faculty and teaching staff and…

  10. The Fully Functioning University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourner, Tom

    2008-01-01

    This article offers an answer to the question: What goals have persisted across all the stages of the development of the Western university? The main conclusion is that the following three goals have been the common threads: the higher education of students, the advancement of knowledge, and service to those outside the walls of the university.…

  11. New Openings in University-Industry Cooperation: Aalto University as the Forerunner of European University Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markkula, Markku; Lappalainen, Pia

    2009-01-01

    The Innovation University (IU)--to be called the Aalto University after Alvav Aalto, a famous Finnish architect and MIT professor--is a new university which will be created through a merger of three existing universities: the Helsinki University of Technology (TKK), the Helsinki School of Economics (HSE) and the University of Art and Design…

  12. Comparisons of the efficacy of a Jak1/2 inhibitor (AZD1480) with a VEGF signaling inhibitor (cediranib) and sham treatments in mouse tumors using DCE-MRI, DW-MRI, and histology.

    PubMed

    Loveless, Mary E; Lawson, Deborah; Collins, Michael; Nadella, Murali V Prasad; Reimer, Corinne; Huszar, Dennis; Halliday, Jane; Waterton, John C; Gore, John C; Yankeelov, Thomas E

    2012-01-01

    Jak1/2 inhibition suppresses STAT3 phosphorylation that is characteristic of many cancers. Activated STAT3 promotes the transcription of factors that enhance tumor growth, survival, and angiogenesis. AZD1480 is a novel small molecule inhibitor of Jak1/2, which is a key mediator of STAT3 activation. This study examined the use of diffusion-weighted (DW) and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) biomarkers in assessing early tumor response to AZD1480. Cediranib (AZD2171), a vascular endothelial growth factor signaling inhibitor, was used as a comparator. Thirty mice were injected with Calu-6 lung cancer cells and randomized into the three treatment groups: AZD1480, cediranib, and sham. DW-MRI and DCE-MRI protocols were performed at baseline and at days 3 and 5 after treatment. The percent change from baseline measurements for K(trans), ADC, and v(e) were calculated and compared with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), CD31, cParp, and Ki-67 histology data. Decreases in K(trans) of 29% (P < .05) and 53% (P < .05) were observed at days 3 and 5, respectively, for the cediranib group. No significant changes in K(trans) occurred for the AZD1480 group, but a significant increase in ADC was demonstrated at days 3 (63%, P < .05) and 5 (49%, P < .05). CD31 staining indicated diminished vasculature in the cediranib group, whereas significantly increased cParp staining for apoptotic activity and extracellular space by image analysis of H&E were present in the AZD1480 group. These imaging biomarker changes, and corresponding histopathology, support the use of ADC, but not K(trans), as a pharmacodynamic biomarker of response to AZD1480 at these time points. PMID:22355274

  13. The Transient Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shappee, Benjamin John

    When one looks at the night sky, one usually gets the impression of a static and constant universe. Quite apart from appearances, the sky is teeming with violent, variable, and transient events that shape our universe. These capricious objects are not only penetrating probes into physical conditions too extreme for earthbound laboratories, but they are also useful tools to measure the universe. In this dissertation, I investigate the observational and theoretical properties of three classes of transient/variable objects: thermonuclear supernovae, Cepheid variable stars, and active galactic nuclei.

  14. Imagine the Universe. 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Nicholas

    1999-01-01

    This CD-ROM contains compilations of three NASA Website pages from the Laboratory for High Energy Astrophysics at the Goddard Space Flight Center. The three sites on the CD-ROM are: (1) the Imagine the Universe!, (for ages 14 on up), which is dedicated to discussion of the Universe, what we know, how it is evolving and the kinds of objects and phenomena it contains; (2) StarChild: A learning center for young astronomers, (for ages 4-14), contains information about the Solar System, the Universe and space explorations; and (3) the Astronomy picture of the day, which offers a new astronomical image and caption for each calendar day.

  15. Type II universal spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hervik, S.; Málek, T.; Pravda, V.; Pravdová, A.

    2015-12-01

    We study type II universal metrics of the Lorentzian signature. These metrics simultaneously solve vacuum field equations of all theories of gravitation with the Lagrangian being a polynomial curvature invariant constructed from the metric, the Riemann tensor and its covariant derivatives of an arbitrary order. We provide examples of type II universal metrics for all composite number dimensions. On the other hand, we have no examples for prime number dimensions and we prove the non-existence of type II universal spacetimes in five dimensions. We also present type II vacuum solutions of selected classes of gravitational theories, such as Lovelock, quadratic and L({{Riemann}}) gravities.

  16. Profiting from University Research: Tapping into University Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aaron, Elizabeth

    1988-01-01

    Indicates that industry sponsored research in the university environment is increasing. Lists reasons for companies to use university research. Notes 1980 Baigh-Dole Bill which allows the university first rights to technologies they develop. (MVL)

  17. University of Florida Campus, Plaza of the Americas, University of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    University of Florida Campus, Plaza of the Americas, University of Florida Campus Quad Bounded by West University Avenue, US 441/Southwest 13th Street, Stadium Road, and North-South Drive, Gainesville, Alachua County, FL

  18. Universal router concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pesch, W. A.

    1970-01-01

    Portable universal router can cut holes of large diameter and irregular shapes, machine recesses, and drill holes with certain edge-distance limitations. Rectangular and round holes may be cut without a template.

  19. Berkeley College, Yale University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, James S.

    2000-01-01

    Examines the controversial architectural technique of combining contemporary features with traditional designs at Yale University's Berkeley College, and discusses whether there is a place for this type of juxtaposition in architectural design. Photos and diagrams are included. (GR)

  20. California's "Free" Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cudhea, David

    1974-01-01

    Heliotrope, Orpheus, and Communiversity, San Francisco's three free universities, offer curricula with combinations of alchemy, magic, Volkswagen repairs, options in education, dance, conversational Mandarin, basic plumbing, and brain wave experiences. (Author/PG)

  1. The hidden universe

    SciTech Connect

    Disney, M.

    1985-01-01

    Astronomer Disney has followed a somewhat different tack than that of most popular books on cosmology by concentrating on the notion of hidden (as in not directly observable by its own radiation) matter in the universe.

  2. The universal path integral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, Seth; Dreyer, Olaf

    2016-02-01

    Path integrals calculate probabilities by summing over classical configurations of variables such as fields, assigning each configuration a phase equal to the action of that configuration. This paper defines a universal path integral, which sums over all computable structures. This path integral contains as sub-integrals all possible computable path integrals, including those of field theory, the standard model of elementary particles, discrete models of quantum gravity, string theory, etc. The universal path integral possesses a well-defined measure that guarantees its finiteness. The probabilities for events corresponding to sub-integrals can be calculated using the method of decoherent histories. The universal path integral supports a quantum theory of the universe in which the world that we see around us arises out of the interference between all computable structures.

  3. The Endless Universe

    SciTech Connect

    Steinhardt, Paul

    2003-09-24

    This talk will introduce the Cyclic Model of the Universe, a radical alternative to standard big bang/inflationary cosmology in which space and time exist indefinitely, high energy inflation is avoided, dark energy is given a prominent role, and the universe undergoes periodic epochs of expansion and cooling. The model, which is motivated by recent ideas in superstring theory, seems capable of reproducing all of the successes of the standard picture and leads to distinctive predictions.

  4. Physics of the universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachs, Mendel

    ch. 1. Physics of the universe. Introduction. Is Newton's theory an explanation of gravity? The expanding universe. The oscillating universe cosmology. The theory of general relativity. The role of space and time. Geometry and matter. Generalization of Einstein's field equations. A unified field theory -- ch. 2. A language of cosmology: the mathematical basis of general relativity. Introduction. Einstein's tensor formulation. The Riemann curvature tensor. The geodesic equation. The vacuum equation. The crucial tests of general relativity. The logic of the spacetime language -- ch. 3. A unified field theory in general relativity: extension from the tensor to the quaternion language. Introduction. Factorization of Einstein's tensor field equations. The Riemann curvature tensor in quaternion form. The quaternion metrical field equations. A symmetric tensor-antisymmetric tensor representation of general relativity - gravity and electromagnetism. The Einstein field equations from the symmetric tensor part. The Maxwell field equations from the antisymmetric tensor part. Conclusions -- ch. 4. An oscillating, spiral universe cosmology. introduction. Dynamics of the expansion and contraction of the universe. Dynamics of the oscillating universe cosmology. Derivation of the Hubble law as an approximation. The spiral structure of the universe. Concluding remarks -- ch. 5. Dark matter. Introduction. The field equations and the ground state solution for the bound particle-antiparticle pair. Olber's paradox -- ch. 6. Concluding remarks. Black holes. Pulsars. On the human race and cosmology -- ch. 7. Philosophical considerations. On truth. Positivism versus realism, subjectivity versus objectivity. On Mach's influence in physics and cosmology. References and notes -- Postscript. Physics in the 21st century. Holism. The universe. The Mach principle and the origin of inertia from general relativity.

  5. The Low Temperature Universe

    SciTech Connect

    Blandford, Roger; Simeon, Paul

    2009-12-16

    We are used to thinking of the universe as a hot place, full of bright stars, quasars, gamma ray bursts, and so on, emanating from a giant explosion - the Big Bang. However, the universe can also be a surprisingly cool place. It is permeated by a background radiation with a temperature close to that of liquid helium. This paper is based on a public lecture aimed at non-specialists.

  6. The Runaway Universe

    SciTech Connect

    Blanford, Roger

    2004-10-26

    The Universe appears to be flat, accelerating and lightweight. In this talk, I will explain what these terms mean, how we developed this view and its implications. I will also discuss the connection between cosmology and particle physics experiments being conducted at accelerators and in underground laboratories. I will conclude with a description of some proposed telescopes that will help us understand much more about the geometry, expansion and contents of our Universe.

  7. University contracts summary book

    SciTech Connect

    1980-08-01

    The principal objectives of the Fossil Energy Program are to seek new ideas, new data, fundamental knowledge that will support the ongoing programs, and new processes to better utilize the nation's fossil energy resources with greater efficiency and environmental acceptability. Toward this end, the Department of Energy supports research projects conducted by universities and colleges to: Ensure a foundation for innovative technology through the use of the capabilities and talents in our academic institutions; provide an effective, two-way channel of communication between the Department of Energy and the academic community; and ensure that trained technical manpower is developed to carry out basic and applied research in support of DOE's mission. Fossil Energy's university activities emphasize the type of research that universities can do best - research to explore the potential of novel process concepts, develop innovative methods and materials for improving existing processes, and obtain fundamental information on the structure of coal and mechanisms of reactions of coal, shale oil, and other fossil energy sources. University programs are managed by different Fossil Energy technical groups; the individual projects are described in greater detail in this book. It is clear that a number of research areas related to the DOE Fossil Energy Program have been appropriate for university involvement, and that, with support from DOE, university scientific and technical expertise can be expected to continue to play a significant role in the advancement of fossil energy technology in the years to come.

  8. The University-Industry Relations of an Entrepreneurial University: The Case of the University of Twente.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schutte, Frits

    1999-01-01

    Describes the development of the University of Twente from a regional teaching university to a national research university, the "entrepreneurial university" of the Netherlands. Focuses on spinoffs from the university, an incubator in a business and science park and the generation of venture capital. Estimates the regional impact of such…

  9. Do Practical Standard Coupled Cluster Calculations Agree Better than Kohn–Sham Calculations with Currently Available Functionals When Compared to the Best Available Experimental Data for Dissociation Energies of Bonds to 3d Transition Metals?

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Xuefei; Zhang, Wenjing; Tang, Mingsheng; Truhlar, Donald G.

    2015-05-12

    Coupled-cluster (CC) methods have been extensively used as the high-level approach in quantum electronic structure theory to predict various properties of molecules when experimental results are unavailable. It is often assumed that CC methods, if they include at least up to connected-triple-excitation quasiperturbative corrections to a full treatment of single and double excitations (in particular, CCSD(T)), and a very large basis set, are more accurate than Kohn–Sham (KS) density functional theory (DFT). In the present work, we tested and compared the performance of standard CC and KS methods on bond energy calculations of 20 3d transition metal-containing diatomic molecules against the most reliable experimental data available, as collected in a database called 3dMLBE20. It is found that, although the CCSD(T) and higher levels CC methods have mean unsigned deviations from experiment that are smaller than most exchange-correlation functionals for metal–ligand bond energies of transition metals, the improvement is less than one standard deviation of the mean unsigned deviation. Furthermore, on average, almost half of the 42 exchange-correlation functionals that we tested are closer to experiment than CCSD(T) with the same extended basis set for the same molecule. The results show that, when both relativistic and core–valence correlation effects are considered, even the very high-level (expensive) CC method with single, double, triple, and perturbative quadruple cluster operators, namely, CCSDT(2)Q, averaged over 20 bond energies, gives a mean unsigned deviation (MUD(20) = 4.7 kcal/mol when one correlates only valence, 3p, and 3s electrons of transition metals and only valence electrons of ligands, or 4.6 kcal/mol when one correlates all core electrons except for 1s shells of transition metals, S, and Cl); and that is similar to some good xc functionals (e.g., B97-1 (MUD(20) = 4.5 kcal/mol) and PW6B95 (MUD(20) = 4.9 kcal/mol)) when the same basis set is used

  10. Calculation of longitudinal polarizability and second hyperpolarizability of polyacetylene with the coupled perturbed Hartree-Fock/Kohn-Sham scheme: where it is shown how finite oligomer chains tend to the infinite periodic polymer.

    PubMed

    Lacivita, Valentina; Rèrat, Michel; Orlando, Roberto; Ferrero, Mauro; Dovesi, Roberto

    2012-03-21

    The longitudinal polarizability, α(xx), and second hyperpolarizability, γ(xxxx), of polyacetylene are evaluated by using the coupled perturbed Hartree-Fock/Kohn-Sham (HF/KS) scheme as implemented in the periodic CRYSTAL code and a split valence type basis set. Four different density functionals, namely local density approximation (LDA) (pure local), Perdew-Becke-Ernzerhof (PBE) (gradient corrected), PBE0, and B3LYP (hybrid), and the Hartree-Fock Hamiltonian are compared. It is shown that very tight computational conditions must be used to obtain well converged results, especially for γ(xxxx), that is, very sensitive to the number of k(->) points in reciprocal space when the band gap is small (as for LDA and PBE), and to the extension of summations of the exact exchange series (HF and hybrids). The band gap in LDA is only 0.01 eV: at least 300 k(->) points are required to obtain well converged total energy and equilibrium geometry, and 1200 for well converged optical properties. Also, the exchange series convergence is related to the band gap. The PBE0 band gap is as small as 1.4 eV and the exchange summation must extend to about 130 Å from the origin cell. Total energy, band gap, equilibrium geometry, polarizability, and second hyperpolarizability of oligomers -(C(2)H(2))(m)-, with m up to 50 (202 atoms), and of the polymer have been compared. It turns out that oligomers of that length provide an extremely poor representation of the infinite chain polarizability and hyperpolarizability when the gap is smaller than 0.2 eV (that is, for LDA and PBE). Huge differences are observed on α(xx) and γ(xxxx) of the polymer when different functionals are used, that is in connection to the well-known density functional theory (DFT) overshoot, reported in the literature about short oligomers: for the infinite model the ratio between LDA (or PBE) and HF becomes even more dramatic (about 500 for α(xx) and 10(10) for γ(xxxx)). On the basis of previous systematic

  11. Calculation of longitudinal polarizability and second hyperpolarizability of polyacetylene with the coupled perturbed Hartree-Fock/Kohn-Sham scheme: Where it is shown how finite oligomer chains tend to the infinite periodic polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacivita, Valentina; Rèrat, Michel; Orlando, Roberto; Ferrero, Mauro; Dovesi, Roberto

    2012-03-01

    The longitudinal polarizability, αxx, and second hyperpolarizability, γxxxx, of polyacetylene are evaluated by using the coupled perturbed Hartree-Fock/Kohn-Sham (HF/KS) scheme as implemented in the periodic CRYSTAL code and a split valence type basis set. Four different density functionals, namely local density approximation (LDA) (pure local), Perdew-Becke-Ernzerhof (PBE) (gradient corrected), PBE0, and B3LYP (hybrid), and the Hartree-Fock Hamiltonian are compared. It is shown that very tight computational conditions must be used to obtain well converged results, especially for γxxxx, that is, very sensitive to the number of k points in reciprocal space when the band gap is small (as for LDA and PBE), and to the extension of summations of the exact exchange series (HF and hybrids). The band gap in LDA is only 0.01 eV: at least 300 k points are required to obtain well converged total energy and equilibrium geometry, and 1200 for well converged optical properties. Also, the exchange series convergence is related to the band gap. The PBE0 band gap is as small as 1.4 eV and the exchange summation must extend to about 130 Å from the origin cell. Total energy, band gap, equilibrium geometry, polarizability, and second hyperpolarizability of oligomers -(C2H2)m-, with m up to 50 (202 atoms), and of the polymer have been compared. It turns out that oligomers of that length provide an extremely poor representation of the infinite chain polarizability and hyperpolarizability when the gap is smaller than 0.2 eV (that is, for LDA and PBE). Huge differences are observed on αxx and γxxxx of the polymer when different functionals are used, that is in connection to the well-known density functional theory (DFT) overshoot, reported in the literature about short oligomers: for the infinite model the ratio between LDA (or PBE) and HF becomes even more dramatic (about 500 for αxx and 1010 for γxxxx). On the basis of previous systematic comparisons of results obtained with

  12. The Universe Revealed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spence, Pam

    1998-10-01

    The Universe is a bewildering place to the uninitiated. The concepts and theories that govern space seem complex and often contradictory. The Universe Revealed provides the keys to unlocking the wonders of the cosmos. Elegantly written and lavishly illustrated, it begins with the Sun and stretches through our solar system into deepest space. Lucid prose, written by many of the people who have shaped our current thinking on space, and spectacular photographs make the physics of the Universe accessible and provide a solid background for understanding the most recent astronomical discoveries. Covering the most intriguing features of the cosmos, the topics discussed range from the Earth and global warming to cosmic collisions and the size of the Universe. Major sections examine the Solar System, stars, galaxies, cosmology, and the observational techniques used by astronomers, both amateur and professional. The Universe Revealed represents the collaboration of internationally renowned experts in astronomy and cosmology, with contributions from authors including David Malin, F. Duccio Macchetto, Iain Nicholson, Neil Bone, Ian Ridpath, Seth Shostak, Mike Lancaster, Steve Miller, Ken Croswell, Geoff McNamara, and Steven Young. This extraordinary blend of astronomy, astrophysics, and cosmology, will appeal to amateur and armchair astronomers alike.

  13. University Reactor Instrumentation Program

    SciTech Connect

    Vernetson, W.G.

    1992-11-01

    Recognizing that the University Reactor Instrumentation Program was developed in response to widespread needs in the academic community for modernization and improvement of research and training reactors at institutions such as the University of Florida, the items proposed to be supported by this grant over its two year period have been selected as those most likely to reduce foreed outages, to meet regulatory concerns that had been expressed in recent years by Nuclear Regulatory Commission inspectors or to correct other facility problems and limitations. Department of Energy Grant Number DE-FG07-90ER129969 was provided to the University of Florida Training Reactor(UFTR) facility through the US Department of Energy's University Reactor Instrumentation Program. The original proposal submitted in February, 1990 requested support for UFTR facility instrumentation and equipment upgrades for seven items in the amount of $107,530 with $13,800 of this amount to be the subject of cost sharing by the University of Florida and $93,730 requested as support from the Department of Energy. A breakdown of the items requested and total cost for the proposed UFTR facility instrumentation and equipment improvements is presented.

  14. University-Community Engagement: Case Study of University Social Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chile, Love M.; Black, Xavier M.

    2015-01-01

    Corporatisation of universities has drawn parallels between contemporary universities and business corporations, and extended analysis of corporate social responsibility to universities. This article reports on a case study of university-community engagement with schools and school communities through youth engagement programmes to enhance…

  15. The apparent Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binétruy, P.; Helou, A.

    2015-10-01

    We exploit the parallel between dynamical black holes and cosmological spacetimes to describe the evolution of Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker universes from the point of view of an observer in terms of the dynamics of the apparent horizon. Using the Hayward-Kodama formalism of dynamical black holes, we clarify the role of the Clausius relation to derive the Friedmann equations for a Universe, in the spirit of Jacobson’s work on the thermodynamics of spacetime. We also show how dynamics at the horizon naturally leads to the quantum-mechanical process of Hawking radiation. We comment on the connection of this work with recent ideas to consider our observable Universe as a Bose-Einstein condensate and on the corresponding role of vacuum energy.

  16. A Non Singular Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawking, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    The last chapter of my PhD thesis, contained my first singularity theorem. This showed that under certain reasonable conditions, any cosmological solution of the field equations, would have a big bang singularity. At this singularity, classical general relativity would break down, so one could not use it to predict how the universe began. It was therefore necessary to develop a quantum theory of gravity, in order to understand the origin of the universe. In this talk, I explore if the origin of the universe can be semi classical, and non singular. This is possible despite the singularity theorems, because like so many other no go theorems, they have a get out clause. In this case, the get out is the strong energy condition.

  17. Music of the Universe

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-01

    Scientists are quite familiar with what a supernova looks like — when these stars are destroyed in the most massive explosions in the universe, they leave their mark as one of the brightest objects in space, at least for several weeks. While the supernova can be seen, it cant be heard, as sound waves cannot travel through space. But what if the light waves emitted by the exploding star and other cosmological phenomena could be translated into sound? Thats the idea behind a Rhythms of the Universe, a musical project to sonify the universe by Grateful Dead percussionist and Grammy award-winning artist Mickey Hart that caught the attention of Nobel Prize-winning astrophysicist George Smoot of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Sounds courtesy of Keith Jackson. Images courtesy of NASA

  18. The Classification of Universes

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorken, J.D.

    2004-02-18

    We define a universe as the contents of a spacetime box with comoving walls, large enough to contain measurable phenomena, but not much larger. This allows the construction of a local ensemble of such universes, given modest extrapolations of the observed properties of the cosmos. We then assume that further out similar universes can be constructed, but with different standard model parameters, strongly correlated with the size in a definite way, where by size is meant the Hubble scale at late times. This allows an estimate of the range of sizes supporting life as we know it. The result allows some understanding of the hierarchy problems of particle physics. Other possible implications of the assumptions made will be discussed, including a possible connection between the QCD vacuum structure and cosmological horizon structure. In all cases, our approach is as bottoms-up and as phenomenological as possible, suggesting that theories of the multiverse may eventually lay some claim of being scientific.

  19. The anamorphic universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ijjas, Anna; Steinhardt, Paul J.

    2015-10-01

    We introduce ``anamorphic'' cosmology, an approach for explaining the smoothness and flatness of the universe on large scales and the generation of a nearly scale-invariant spectrum of adiabatic density perturbations. The defining feature is a smoothing phase that acts like a contracting universe based on some Weyl frame-invariant criteria and an expanding universe based on other frame-invariant criteria. An advantage of the contracting aspects is that it is possible to avoid the multiverse and measure problems that arise in inflationary models. Unlike ekpyrotic models, anamorphic models can be constructed using only a single field and can generate a nearly scale-invariant spectrum of tensor perturbations. Anamorphic models also differ from pre-big bang and matter bounce models that do not explain the smoothness. We present some examples of cosmological models that incorporate an anamorphic smoothing phase.

  20. The Biological Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, Steven J.

    1999-12-01

    Throughout the twentieth century, from the furor over Percival Lowell's claim of canals on Mars to the sophisticated Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, otherworldly life has often intrigued and occasionally consumed science and the public. The Biological Universe provides a rich and colorful history of the attempts during the twentieth century to answer questions such as whether "biological law" reigns throughout the universe and whether there are other histories, religions, and philosophies outside those on Earth. Covering a broad range of topics, including the search for life in the solar system, the origins of life, UFOs, and aliens in science fiction, Steven J. Dick shows how the concept of extraterrestrial intelligence is a world view of its own, a "biophysical cosmology" that seeks confirmation no less than physical views of the universe. This book will fascinate astronomers, historians of science, biochemists, and science fiction readers.

  1. Phonology without universal grammar

    PubMed Central

    Archangeli, Diana; Pulleyblank, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    The question of identifying the properties of language that are specific human linguistic abilities, i.e., Universal Grammar, lies at the center of linguistic research. This paper argues for a largely Emergent Grammar in phonology, taking as the starting point that memory, categorization, attention to frequency, and the creation of symbolic systems are all nonlinguistic characteristics of the human mind. The articulation patterns of American English rhotics illustrate categorization and systems; the distribution of vowels in Bantu vowel harmony uses frequencies of particular sequences to argue against Universal Grammar and in favor of Emergent Grammar; prefix allomorphy in Esimbi illustrates the Emergent symbolic system integrating phonological and morphological generalizations. The Esimbi case has been treated as an example of phonological opacity in a Universal Grammar account; the Emergent analysis resolves the pattern without opacity concerns. PMID:26388791

  2. Phonology without universal grammar.

    PubMed

    Archangeli, Diana; Pulleyblank, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    The question of identifying the properties of language that are specific human linguistic abilities, i.e., Universal Grammar, lies at the center of linguistic research. This paper argues for a largely Emergent Grammar in phonology, taking as the starting point that memory, categorization, attention to frequency, and the creation of symbolic systems are all nonlinguistic characteristics of the human mind. The articulation patterns of American English rhotics illustrate categorization and systems; the distribution of vowels in Bantu vowel harmony uses frequencies of particular sequences to argue against Universal Grammar and in favor of Emergent Grammar; prefix allomorphy in Esimbi illustrates the Emergent symbolic system integrating phonological and morphological generalizations. The Esimbi case has been treated as an example of phonological opacity in a Universal Grammar account; the Emergent analysis resolves the pattern without opacity concerns. PMID:26388791

  3. Did the universe recombine?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, James G.; Stebbins, Albert

    1991-01-01

    The Zel'dovich-Sunyaev model-independent arguments for the existence of a neutral hydrogen phase is reviewed in light of new limits on the Compton y parameter from COBE. It is concluded that with baryon densities compatible with standard cosmological nucleosynthesis, the universe could have remained fully ionized throughout its history without producing a detectable spectral distortion. It is argued that it is unlikely that spectral observations of the cosmic microwave background will ever require the universe to have recombined for flat cosmologies.

  4. Understanding the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenstein, George

    2013-04-01

    Part I. Steps to Astronomy: 1. The sky; 2. The origins of astronomy; 3. Gravity and orbits; 4. Light; 5. The astronomers' tools: telescopes and space probes; Part II. The Solar System: 6. Introducing the Solar System; 7. The inner Solar System; 8. The outer Solar System; 9. Smaller bodies in the Solar System; 10. Planets beyond the Solar System; Part III. Stars: 11. Our Sun; 12. A census of stars; 13. The formation of stars and planets; 14. Stellar structure; 15. Stellar evolution and death; Part IV. Galaxies and the Universe: 16. The Milky Way galaxy; 17. Galaxies; 18. Cosmology; 19. Life in the Universe; Index.

  5. Universal cause for celebration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gething, Phillip

    2008-11-01

    The universal law of ageing applies to human beings, animals, plants and inanimate objects. All ages increase by exactly one day per 24 hours, and Hubble's constant gets a tiny bit smaller each day, because it is not really constant at all but varies in time. If we suppose that our universe originated in a Big Bang about 13.7 billion years ago, it too has a birthday each year, but we do not know the actual date. Was it on (say) a wet Wednesday in May or a sunny Saturday in November? It would be nice to know, so that we could have a yearly celebration to mark the event.

  6. Universality in ant behaviour.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Kim; Papavassiliou, Dario; de Figueiredo, Alexandre; Franks, Nigel R; Sendova-Franks, Ana B

    2015-01-01

    Prediction for social systems is a major challenge. Universality at the social level has inspired a unified theory for urban living but individual variation makes predicting relationships within societies difficult. Here, we show that in ant societies individual average speed is higher when event duration is longer. Expressed as a single scaling function, this relationship is universal because for any event duration an ant, on average, moves at the corresponding average speed except for a short acceleration and deceleration at the beginning and end. This establishes cause and effect within a social system and may inform engineering and control of artificial ones. PMID:25411406

  7. The Biological Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, Steven J.

    2000-03-01

    Introduction; 1. From the physical world to the biological universe: Democritus to Lowell; 2. Plurality of worlds and the decline of anthropocentrism; 3. The solar system: the limits of observation; 4. Solar systems beyond: the limits of theory; 5. Extraterrestrials in literature and the arts: the role of imagination; 6. The UFO controversy: on perception and deception; 7. The origin and evolution of life in the extraterrestrial context; 8. SETI: the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence; 9. The convergence of disciplines: birth of a new science; 10. The meaning of life; Summary and conclusion: the biological universe and the limits of science.

  8. The Biological Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, Steven J.

    1996-09-01

    Introduction; 1. From the physical world to the biological universe: Democritus to Lowell; 2. Plurality of worlds and the decline of anthropocentrism; 3. The solar system: the limits of observation; 4. Solar systems beyond: the limits of theory; 5. Extraterrestrials in literature and the arts: the role of imagination; 6. The UFO controversy: on perception and deception; 7. The origin and evolution of life in the extraterrestrial context; 8. SETI: the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence; 9. The convergence of disciplines: birth of a new science; 10. The meaning of life; Summary and conclusion: the biological universe and the limits of science.

  9. Imaging the early universe

    SciTech Connect

    Krupa, Tyler J.

    2000-07-01

    An international team of cosmologists has released the first detailed images of the universe in its infancy. The images reveal the structure that existed when the universe was a tiny fraction of its current age and 1,000 times smaller and hotter than it is today. Research carried out as part of this project is shedding light on some of cosmology's long-standing mysteries, such as the nature of the matter and energy that dominate intergalactic space and whether space is ''curved'' or ''flat.''(c) 2000 Optical Society of America.

  10. UTM: Universal Transit Modeller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deeg, Hans J.

    2014-12-01

    The Universal Transit Modeller (UTM) is a light-curve simulator for all kinds of transiting or eclipsing configurations between arbitrary numbers of several types of objects, which may be stars, planets, planetary moons, and planetary rings. A separate fitting program, UFIT (Universal Fitter) is part of the UTM distribution and may be used to derive best fits to light-curves for any set of continuously variable parameters. UTM/UFIT is written in IDL code and its source is released in the public domain under the GNU General Public License.

  11. A universal functional object

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, J. P.

    1972-01-01

    A scheme is presented for realizing any function, combinational or sequential, in a single universal function scheme, termed the universal function object UF. This scheme is addressed to the problem of the proliferation of the number of parts (cards, chips) necessary for conventional implementation in an LSI technology of a computer system. The UF implementation will use about ten times more circuits than a conventional implementation regardless of the size of the design. The UF approach also includes general-purpose spares for failing circuits. The procedure could be used both at manufacture to increase yields, as well as to achieve automatic repair.

  12. An Early Cyclic Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duhe, William; Biswas, Tirthibir

    2014-03-01

    We provide a comprehensive numerical study of the Emergent Cyclic Inflation scenario. This is a scenario where instead of traditional monotonic slow roll inflation, the universe expands over numerous short asymmetric cycles due to the production of entropy via interactions among different species. This is one of the very few scenarios of inflation which provides a nonsingular geodesically complete space-time and does not require any ``reheating'' mechanism. A special thanks to Loyola University for an excellent community to help this project grow.

  13. The Expanding Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heacox, William D.

    2015-11-01

    Introducing the Universe; Part I. Conceptual Foundations: 1. Newtonian cosmology; 2. General relativity; 3. Relativistic cosmology; Part II. General Relativity: 4. General covariance; 5. Equivalence principle; 6. Space-time curvature; 7. Einstein field equations of gravitation; Part III. Universal Expansion: 8. Cosmological field equations; 9. Cosmography; 10. Expansion dynamics; Part IV. Expansion Models: 11. Radiation; 12. Matter; 13. Dark energy; 14. Observational constraints; 15. Concordance cosmological model; Part V. Expansion History: 16. Particle era; 17. Plasma era; 18. Galaxy era; 19. Afterword: the new modern cosmology; Part VI: Appendices; Bibliography; Index.

  14. [Traditions of university studies at Kaunas University of Medicine].

    PubMed

    Bruneviciūte, Raimonda; Brazdzionyte, Julija

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this article is to highlight the dimensions of the traditions of the idea of the university that are relevant in our today's world--the autonomy of the university, education of a free and creative personality, and belonging to the unified space of studies--and to review the experience of Kaunas University of Medicine in the development of the traditions of university studies. The research object was university studies, and the methods applied in this research were analysis of literature and analysis of documents. The article consists of the introduction, two parts, and generalization. The first part discusses the autonomy of the university, the importance of liberal studies, and the influence of the European higher education and provides a generalized survey of the historical tradition of university studies in Lithuania. The second part of the article reviews the predominant factors that condition the development of university studies at Kaunas University of Medicine: organization of studies and implementation of liberal studies realized through general university education subjects into the modern content of university studies. The generalization of the results of the performed analysis allows for stating that the contents and the organization of curricula and the ongoing reforms at Kaunas University of Medicine expand the continuity of the traditions of the European university education, highlight the idea of the university, and realize university studies that reflect modern global tendencies. PMID:17090986

  15. Southern Universities: Are They Rising?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, John S.

    1986-01-01

    This essay reviews four recent works on Southern universities: (1) "The University of Georgia: A Bicentennial History" (Dyer, 1985); (2) "A Pictorial History of the University of Georgia" (Boney, 1984); (3) To Foster Knowledge: A History of the University of Tennessee 1794-1970" (Montgomery, et al., 1984); and (4) "Gone with the Ivy: A Biography…

  16. Universals in the World's Musics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Steven; Jordania, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Many decades of skepticism have prevented the field of musicology from embracing the importance of musical universals. When universals "have" been discussed, it has generally been in the form of meta-critiques about the concept of universals, rather than in positive proposals about actual universals. We present here a typology of four categories…

  17. Universities Venture into Venture Capitalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desruisseaux, Paul

    2000-01-01

    Reports that some universities are starting their own venture-capital funds to develop campus companies, or are investing endowment funds with established venture-capital firms inclined to finance potential spinoffs from campus research. Examples cited are from the University of Alabama, Vanderbilt University (Tennessee), University of…

  18. State University System of Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Board of Governors, State University System of Florida, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents some information about the State University System of Florida. The following are presented in this paper: (1) University Work Plans and Annual Reports; (2) State University System 2009 Annual Report; (3) Quick Facts: Planned New Degree Programs--2010 to 2013; (4) State University System Tuition Differential Summary, FY…

  19. Student Perceptions of University Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleemann, Gary L.; Richardson, Richard C., Jr.

    Student perceptions of the effectiveness of three state universities was studied: Arizona State University, University of Arizona, and Northern Arizona University. An operational definition of effectiveness was proposed based on the literature, and a list of organizational activities was validated by administrators, faculty, community…

  20. Universal Design for Academic Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmen, John P. S.

    2011-01-01

    Universal design (UD) can play a role in many aspects of academic life and is often thought of in the context of learning. However, this chapter focuses on the impact of UD on the design of facilities in a university or campus setting. Universal design has the potential for transforming universities into truly egalitarian institutions that…

  1. Universal Teller Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuPage Area Vocational Education Authority, Addison, IL.

    This curriculum guide has been designed to provide the teacher with a basis for planning a comprehensive program in the career field of universal teller, and to allow the teacher and learner maximum flexibility. The teaching or instruction, in both educational and financial institutions, can be accomplished through large formal groups, small…

  2. Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracken, Bruce A.; McCallum, R. Steve

    This kit presents all components of the Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test (UNIT), a newly developed instrument designed to measure the general intelligence and cognitive abilities of children and adolescents (ages 5 through 17) who may be disadvantaged by traditional verbal and language-loaded measures such as children with speech, language,…

  3. A Universe of Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeldovich, Yakov

    1992-01-01

    Reprinted from the original Russian manuscript of Yakov Zeldovich, this article chronicles his studies of the universe and his attempts to construct a theory of its evolution. He provides the high school student with compelling cosmological discussions about uniformity, galactic clusters, radiation, evolution, the big bang, and gravitational…

  4. Organizing University Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Thomas E.

    During a period of projected declining enrollments some years ago, colleges and universities began looking to business and industry for models and methods to achieve stability and exhibit accountability. Zero-based budgeting, computerized record keeping, and planned-programmed-budgeting systems found their way to college campuses. A trend to…

  5. PARKING PROGRAMS FOR UNIVERSITIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KINNE, W.S., JR.

    PARKING FACILITIES WERE SURVEYED AT 83 REPRESENTATIVE UNIVERSITIES AND COLLEGES, AND THE METHODS USED IN ADMINISTERING, CONTROLLING AND FINANCING WERE EVALUTED. GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS WERE MADE CONCERNING (1) THE LOCATION AND DESIGN OF PARKING LOTS AND GARAGES, (2) THE PRACTICE OF CURB PARKING ON CAMPUS, AND (3) THE FINANCING OF PARKING…

  6. Radiation in the universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuhlinger, Ernst; Truemper, Joachim; Weisskopf, Martin

    1992-01-01

    When Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen discovered radiation one hundred years ago, it seemed that what was discovered was one of the rarest and most volatile members of the family of the basic modules of our natural world. Today cosmologists report that a substantial part of the universe's radiation energy consists of X-rays, which travel through cosmic space with the speed of light.

  7. Colorado State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKelfresh, David A.; Bender, Kim K.

    2009-01-01

    Colorado State University (CSU) is located in Fort Collins, which is a midsize city of 134,000 situated in Northern Colorado at the western edge of the Great Plains and at the base of the Rocky Mountains. CSU's total enrollment is approximately 25,000 students. The Division of Student Affairs comprises 30 departments organized into programmatic…

  8. University Study in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada, Ottawa (Ontario). International Programmes Div.

    These notes for overseas students intending to attend university in Canada contain information on admission requirements and application and registration procedures. A sample budget for a 1967-68 undergraduate as well as a discussion of medical and other insurance are included in the summary of possible financial expenditures. Although there are…

  9. Mapping the Universe.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landy, S. D.

    1999-06-01

    Galaxies congregate into clusters, clusters amass into superclusters and so on - at every observed scale, as astronomers build maps of the sky, they find matter organized into clumps. Yet taken as a whole, the texture of the universe is smooth, in keeping with theory. A new "music of the spheres" may explain how ordered structures emerged from the original smooth chaos.

  10. Mathematics: The Universal Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffert, Sharon B.

    2009-01-01

    Mathematics is considered the universal language, but students who speak languages other than English have difficulty doing mathematics in English. For instance, because of a lack of familiarity with the problem's context, many have trouble understanding exactly what operations to perform. In the United States, approximately one in seven students…

  11. A Universal Phylogenetic Tree.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Offner, Susan

    2001-01-01

    Presents a universal phylogenetic tree suitable for use in high school and college-level biology classrooms. Illustrates the antiquity of life and that all life is related, even if it dates back 3.5 billion years. Reflects important evolutionary relationships and provides an exciting way to learn about the history of life. (SAH)

  12. University Libraries in Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyatt, James A.

    1986-01-01

    College and university libraries are experiencing change in the ways they provide services and in their responses to rising costs and reduced financial support. These conditions result from three major phenomena: the information explosion, the technology revolution, and escalating library costs. (MLW)

  13. Should Universities Promote Employability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCowan, Tristan

    2015-01-01

    Employability is becoming increasingly central to the mission and functioning of universities, spurred on by national and supranational agencies, and the demands of marketisation. This article provides a response to the normative dimensions of the question, progressing through four stages: first, there is a brief consideration of the meaning and…

  14. Langston University. A History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Zella J. Black; Wert, Lynette L.

    Oklahoma's Langston University, a land-grant college founded under the Morrill Act of 1890, is described. Its founding and growth in the Oklahoma Territory was intertwined with that of black settlers--new arrivals in the territory, some of them former slaves who gathered to establish a farming community and built a higher education institution for…

  15. The Changing University?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuller, Tom, Ed.

    This collection of papers investigates change and compares university education experiences worldwide, looking at it from the perspective of numbers of students, range of institutions, funding, institutional functions, boundaries, and directions, orientation of students and staff, and institutional change. After an introduction by Tom Schuler,…

  16. Homecoming at Atwater University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Sarah M.; Van Pelt, Scott; Kingsak, Phoebe; Williams, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Atwater University (AU) administration is struggling with an increased number of student alcohol-related problems. In particular, during the annual homecoming parade, students are extremely intoxicated and belligerent toward alumni. The new dean of students is appalled by the condoned student behavior. He also received two complaint letters from…

  17. Community University Research Agreement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Settee, Priscilla; Thomas-Prokop, Shelley

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the process of engaging the extended Indigenous community within Saskatoon and the surrounding First Nations communities in what would be a first major research project between Indigenous communities and the University of Saskatchewan. A management committee was established comprised of all the major Saskatoon/Saskatchewan…

  18. Student and University Governance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoben, Edward Joseph, Jr.

    It is necessary to provide organizational and political bases from which genuine student influence can be exercised if we assume that (1) extensive and meaningful participation by students in university governance is likely to be a permanent feature of academic life; (2) participation legitimately represents serious student concerns and provides a…

  19. A Polarized Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wanjek, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    The CMB polarization was produced as light scattered off a primordial cloud of protons and electrons nearly 14 billion years ago, about 400,000 years after the Big Bang. This marks the moment of recombination, when the universe finally cooled enough to allow electrons to join protons. The CMB is the light that broke through the fog.

  20. West Texas State University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Ed D.

    1988-01-01

    Threats in the external environment, the arrival of a planning-oriented new president, and new regional reaccreditation criteria prompted West Texas State University to undertake a successful strategic planning venture. Leadership must focus strategic planning in a manner that recognizes the decentralized and collegial elements present in higher…

  1. University of Nevada, Reno

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library Journal, 2004

    2004-01-01

    A $10 million gift will help the University of Nevada, Reno (UNR), begin construction next year on a new $66 million "Knowledge Center." The donation comes in $5 million gifts from Reno-based International Game Technology (IGT), a slot machine manufacturer, and from former IGT chair Chuck Mathewson and his wife, Ann. UNR's current library was…

  2. Universal voice processor development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The development of a universal voice processor is discussed. The device is based on several circuit configurations using hybrid techniques to satisfy the electrical specifications. The steps taken during the design process are described. Circuit diagrams of the final design are presented. Mathematical models are included to support the theoretical aspects.

  3. NRC Targets University Reactors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Eliot

    1984-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) wants universities to convert to low-grade fuel in their research reactions. Researchers claim the conversion, which will bring U.S. reactors in line with a policy the NRC is trying to impress on foreigners, could be financially and scientifically costly. Impact of the policy is considered. (JN)

  4. Islamist Movement Challenges Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsey, Ursula

    2013-01-01

    In Tunisian and Egyptian universities, scholars face a growing Islamist resolve to remake their countries on the basis of religious principles. Both Tunisia and Egypt face questions that could affect higher education across the Middle East and North Africa: Can their new Islamist governments spread conservative religious values and also create…

  5. University City Core Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philadelphia City Planning Commission, PA.

    A redevelopment plan for an urban core area of about 300 acres was warranted by--(1) unsuitable building conditions, (2) undesirable land usage, and (3) faulty traffic circulation. The plan includes expansion of two universities and creation of a regional science center, high school, and medical center. Guidelines for proposed land use and zoning…

  6. Revisiting the University Front

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lock, Grahame; Lorenz, Chris

    2007-01-01

    The article argues that the most important trends in the recent metamorphosis of higher education, especially of university teaching and research, cannot be understood without placing them in the context of general developments in political life. Both processes reveal alarming features and there is a link between them. In recent decades a religion…

  7. The Universe as Calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Wakely, Scott P.

    2006-10-27

    The maturation of very high energy astrophysics has enabled many novel physics applications. Among these is the investigation of extragalactic photon fields, which in some cases encode specific calorimetric information about such things as the formation of large-scale structure and the total high-energy luminosity of the universe. The origins of these backgrounds, and techniques for probing them will be discussed.

  8. Universities under Scrutiny.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, William

    This report is intended to stimulate discussion among and within the 18 countries comprising the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) about recent, current and future changes in the role and functions of their universities. Of particular concern are difficulties associated with preparing, legislating, and implementing…

  9. Universities in Their Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Fred

    2012-01-01

    Universities often seem to be far more concerned about their international connections than their local relationships. The local context seems not to matter much either to their jetsetting vice-chancellors or to their lecturers and researchers under pressure to get papers published in obscure journals. That is how it may seem, but it is not…

  10. Antimatter in the universe

    SciTech Connect

    Dolgov, A. D.

    2011-03-15

    The models leading to a high abundance of antimatter in the universe are discussed. Special attention is payed to the model of antimatter creation in the form of compact stellar-like objects. Such objects can contribute significantly to the cosmological dark matter. Observational signatures of antimatter in the Galaxy are discussed.

  11. Oregon State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, Rebecca A.; Ketcham, Patricia L.

    2009-01-01

    Oregon State University (OSU) is located in Corvallis, a community of 53,000 people situated in the heart of the Willamette Valley between Portland and Eugene. Approximately 15,700 undergraduate and 3,400 graduate students, including 2,600 U.S. students of color and 950 international students, are currently enrolled at OSU across 11 academic…

  12. Personnel Management. Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Board of Regents, Columbus. Management Improvement Program.

    This manual is one of 10 completed in the Ohio Management Improvement Program (MIP) during the 1971-73 biennium. In this project, Ohio's 34 public universities and colleges, in an effort directed and staffed by the Ohio Board of Regents, have developed manuals of management practices, in this case, concerning personnel management. Emphasis in this…

  13. The University and Freedom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Benno

    1992-01-01

    The president of Yale University examines the tension between the values of community and harmony and of intellectual freedom on college campuses. He notes incidents at various campuses opposing expressions deemed offensive to some groups. He opposes suppression of unpopular voices (even if seemingly bigoted) and supports freedom of thought and…

  14. Evolution of the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Primack, Joel

    2006-04-01

    Cosmology is in the midst of a scientific revolution that is establishing its lasting foundations. The good agreement between many different sorts of observations and the predictions of the now-standard Lambda Cold Dark Matter (LCDM) theory gives us hope that this is humanity's first picture of the history of the universe as a whole that might actually be true. An unexpected feature of this new picture is that we humans appear to be central or special in many ways -- for example, we are made of the rarest stuff in the universe (stardust); we are intermediate in size between the smallest possible size (the Planck length) and the largest size (the cosmic horizon); and we are living at a pivotal time: the period in the history of the universe when its expansion began to accelerate rather than slow down, and in the middle of the ten-billion-year lifetime of our solar system and of the billion year most habitable period of our planet, and at what must be the end of the exponential growth of human impact on the earth. This talk will review key observations that support modern cosmology, describe some symbolic ways of understanding the modern cosmos, and discuss some possible implications of a cosmic perspective for our 21st century worldview. Based on a new book, The View from the Center of the Universe: Discovering Our Extraordinary Place in the Cosmos, by Joel R. Primack and Nancy Ellen Abrams (Riverhead Books, April 2006).

  15. University Student Online Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yu-mei

    2008-01-01

    This article reports a study investigating university student online plagiarism. The following questions are investigated: (a) What is the incidence of student online plagiarism? (b) What are student perceptions regarding online plagiarism? (c) Are there any differences in terms of student perceptions of online plagiarism and print plagiarism? (d)…

  16. Universality of particle multiplicities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goulianos, K.

    1994-09-01

    We discuss the scaling properties and universality aspects of the rapidity and multiplicity distributions of particles produced in high energy hadronic and e(+)e(-) interactions. This paper is based on material presented in three lectures on pomeron phenomenology, which included a review of traditional soft pomeron physics and selected topics on hard diffraction processes probing the structure function of the pomeron.

  17. Life in the Universe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowman, Paul D., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    The belief that life exists in the universe is an optimism shared by many. With several manned missions expected to be carried out in the future, the possibility of discovering life in outer space will revolutionize the field of astrobiology. In this article, the author presents a summary of recent developments and discoveries made in the search…

  18. Entrepreneurial Planning: Tufts University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, John A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper focuses on key strategic decisions taken at Tufts University (Massachusetts) under President Jean Mayer noting the role of formal planning and institutional research. Initiatives in the following areas are described: the School of Veterinary Medicine, nutrition, environmental management, entrepreneurial liberation, fund raising, and a…

  19. The Classification of Universes

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorken, J

    2004-04-09

    We define a universe as the contents of a spacetime box with comoving walls, large enough to contain essentially all phenomena that can be conceivably measured. The initial time is taken as the epoch when the lowest CMB modes undergo horizon crossing, and the final time taken when the wavelengths of CMB photons are comparable with the Hubble scale, i.e. with the nominal size of the universe. This allows the definition of a local ensemble of similarly constructed universes, using only modest extrapolations of the observed behavior of the cosmos. We then assume that further out in spacetime, similar universes can be constructed but containing different standard model parameters. Within this multiverse ensemble, it is assumed that the standard model parameters are strongly correlated with size, i.e. with the value of the inverse Hubble parameter at the final time, in a manner as previously suggested. This allows an estimate of the range of sizes which allow life as we know it, and invites a speculation regarding the most natural distribution of sizes. If small sizes are favored, this in turn allows some understanding of the hierarchy problems of particle physics. Subsequent sections of the paper explore other possible implications. In all cases, the approach is as bottoms up and as phenomenological as possible, and suggests that theories of the multiverse so constructed may in fact lay some claim of being scientific.

  20. Communities in University Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biza, Irene; Jaworski, Barbara; Hemmi, Kirsti

    2014-01-01

    This paper concerns communities of learners and teachers that are formed, develop and interact in university mathematics environments through the theoretical lens of "Communities of Practice." From this perspective, learning is described as a process of participation and reification in a community in which individuals belong and form…

  1. University Reactor Instrumentation Grant

    SciTech Connect

    S. M. Bajorek

    2000-02-01

    A noble gas air monitoring system was purchased through the University Reactor Instrumentation Grant Program. This monitor was installed in the Kansas State TRIGA reactor bay at a location near the top surface of the reactor pool according to recommendation by the supplier. This system is now functional and has been incorporated into the facility license.

  2. Reform in Canadian Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    A survey of 67 Canadian university vice presidents and 66 deans concerning reform in recent years found that the many changes reported were modest and reactive rather than bold and proactive. Most common changes involved strategic planning, retrenchment, curriculum expansion, response to enrollment changes, administrative restructuring, and more…

  3. Teaching Geomorphology at University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugden, David; Hamilton, Patrick

    1978-01-01

    Geomorphology courses in British universities emphasize the main landform/process systems rather than more abstract concepts. Recommends a more theoretical focus on fundamental geomorphic processes and methodological problems. Available from: Faculty of Modern Studies, Oxford Polytechnic, Headington, Oxford OX3 OBP, England. (Author/AV)

  4. Discovering the Invisible Universe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Herbert

    1991-01-01

    The discovery of radio waves, infrared, and x-rays and their importance in describing the universe and its origins is discussed. Topics include radio waves from space, the radio pioneers of World War II, radio telescopes, infrared radiation, satellites, space missions, and x-ray telescopes. (KR)

  5. Understanding University Undergraduate Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molinero, Cecilio Mar

    1990-01-01

    Much marketing information can be obtained for admissions policy formation and forecasting from existing data sources, including course perceptions, the nature of the competition, and the admissions policies of the competition. The British university application system would benefit by exploiting computer applications of this concept. (MSE)

  6. The University as Microcosm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaldis, Byron

    2009-01-01

    This paper puts forward the model of "microcosm-macrocosm" isomorphism encapsulated in certain philosophical views on the form of university education. The human being as a "microcosm" should reflect internally the external "macrocosm". Higher Education is a socially instituted attempt to guide human beings into forming themselves as microcosms of…

  7. Entropy of the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Humitaka

    2010-06-01

    Charles Darwin's calculation of a life of Earth had ignited Kelvin's insight on a life of Sun, which had eventually inherited to the physical study of stellar structure and energy source. Nuclear energy had secured a longevity of the universe and the goal of the cosmic evolution has been secured by the entropy of black holes.

  8. The Universal Access System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Neil G.

    This final report discusses the outcomes of a project that created a Universal Access System (UAS), a system that gives students with disabilities access to the same computers as their classmates. The project developed a new approach in which the needs of the individual with disabilities are handled separately from the computers and other devices…

  9. The University Needs "You"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Allen

    2009-01-01

    Colleges and universities need English education professors who know what it is to teach five classes a day, accommodate IEPs, and still take on extracurricular activities. They need English education professors who not only present at NCTE Annual Conventions, but who also want to be in schools talking to teachers on a regular basis. They need…

  10. Universal nonlinear entanglement witnesses

    SciTech Connect

    Kotowski, Marcin; Kotowski, Michal

    2010-06-15

    We give a universal recipe for constructing nonlinear entanglement witnesses able to detect nonclassical correlations in arbitrary systems of distinguishable and/or identical particles for an arbitrary number of constituents. The constructed witnesses are expressed in terms of expectation values of observables. As such, they are, at least in principle, measurable in experiments.

  11. Explorers of the Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvarez, Marino C.; Busby, Michael R.; Sotoohi, Goli; Rodriguez, William J.; Hennig, Lee Ann; Berenty, Jerry; King, Terry; Grener, Doreen; Kruzan, John

    1998-01-01

    The Explorers of the Universe is a multifaceted scientific/literacy project that involves teachers and their students with problem oriented situations using authentic materials. This paper presents examples of self-directed cases researched by high school students and the met acognitive tools they use in the planning, carrying out, and finalizing their reports.

  12. The Universal Trap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Paul

    The compulsory system of education is criticized on the grounds that it has become a regimented "universal trap" antithetical to democracy. In contrast to the Jeffersonian concept of education in the service of citizen initiative for the preservation of freedom, current compulsory education is a tool of industrialism and of a rigidly stratified…

  13. Images of the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stott, Carole

    1991-11-01

    Images of the Universe is a special collection of essays written to celebrate astronomy and the inauguration of the British Astronomical Association. Colin Ronan opens the book with a fascinating account of developments over the past hundred years. Next, the solar system is explored by Richard Baum, John Rogers, Richard McKim, and Patrick Moore. Comets and meteors are explained by David Hughes. The stars, birthplace of the elements, are examined by Jacqueline Mitton and John Isles. Paul Murdin gives an account of the brightest supernova to be seen from Earth since 1604. Iain Nicolson explores G2, the single dwarf called the Sun. Heather Couper and Nigel Henbest look at the Milky Way, the hazy band of light that is the edge on view of our galaxy. Malcolm Longair looks beyond our own galaxy into the deep sky. Paul Davies gives an account of the first one second of the existence of our expanding Universe. How did it all happen? Martin Rees, the cosmologist, speculates on the origin of the Universe. The ensuing narrative by many famous astronomers and science writers is written at a general level and will be accessible to anyone with a passing interest in the astronomical wonders of our universe. Carole Stott is the author of The Greenwich Guide to Stargazing (1990), and The Greenwich Guide to Astronomy in Action (1990).

  14. Creating Adaptable Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spanier, Graham B.

    2010-01-01

    Shifting demographics, rising costs of operations, a changing competitive landscape, reductions in state appropriations, pressures for accountability, and a widespread economic decline characterize the environment in which today's colleges and universities operate. This article examines some of the current responses to these challenges and…

  15. Howard University Bookstore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxon, Hazel Carter; Negron, Jaime

    1977-01-01

    Two full-time university bookstores, with three satellites helping during rush period, serve the Howard students and faculty. Solutions to problems of space, acquiring used books, and communications with faculty members are discussed, and the successful retailing of black studies books is described. (LBH)

  16. Toward the Multicultural University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowser, Benjamin P., Ed.; And Others

    This book is about the growing need for a more inclusive curriculum and university. The debate about multicultural education is moved from an ideological debate to the realm of the practical in these selections. The first part of the book outlines the demographic and historic realities that make multiculturalism imperative. The second part gives…

  17. Universal Design for Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, David

    2001-01-01

    This article presents testimony before the Senate Appropriation Committee on the future of educational technology. Assistive technologies for students with disabilities are explained, and the need for Congress to support continued development of assistive devices, digital curricula, and universal design for learning technologies is stressed. (CR)

  18. University for Masses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Motilal

    Education, a basic need, is the foundation of developing countries such as Bangladesh. Ignorance and illiteracy are obstacles to growth and technological progress. Formal schooling must be supplemented with nonformal education, distance education, and out-of-school education for workers who want to continue their studies. Universities must develop…

  19. University Scientists as Entrepreneurs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richter, Maurice N. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The formation of business firms by academic scientists is an example of the deteriorating boundary between the academic and business world. The conditions and routes contributing to this phenomenon are explored. This challenge to establish academic and scientific values and norms is resulting in enhanced autonomy for university scientists. (ETS)

  20. The Universe's First Fireworks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Poster VersionFigure 1Figure 2

    This is an image from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope of stars and galaxies in the Ursa Major constellation. This infrared image covers a region of space so large that light would take up to 100 million years to travel across it. Figure 1 is the same image after stars, galaxies and other sources were masked out. The remaining background light is from a period of time when the universe was less than one billion years old, and most likely originated from the universe's very first groups of objects -- either huge stars or voracious black holes. Darker shades in the image on the left correspond to dimmer parts of the background glow, while yellow and white show the brightest light.

    Brief History of the Universe In figure 2, the artist's timeline chronicles the history of the universe, from its explosive beginning to its mature, present-day state.

    Our universe began in a tremendous explosion known as the Big Bang about 13.7 billion years ago (left side of strip). Observations by NASA's Cosmic Background Explorer and Wilkinson Anisotropy Microwave Probe revealed microwave light from this very early epoch, about 400,000 years after the Big Bang, providing strong evidence that our universe did blast into existence. Results from the Cosmic Background Explorer were honored with the 2006 Nobel Prize for Physics.

    A period of darkness ensued, until about a few hundred million years later, when the first objects flooded the universe with light. This first light is believed to have been captured in data from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope. The light detected by Spitzer would have originated as visible and ultraviolet light, then stretched, or redshifted, to lower-energy infrared wavelengths during its long voyage to reach us across expanding space. The light detected by the

  1. The Artful Universe Expanded

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrow, John D.

    2005-07-01

    Our love of art, writes John Barrow, is the end product of millions of years of evolution. How we react to a beautiful painting or symphony draws upon instincts laid down long before humans existed. Now, in this enhanced edition of the highly popular The Artful Universe , Barrow further explores the close ties between our aesthetic appreciation and the basic nature of the Universe. Barrow argues that the laws of the Universe have imprinted themselves upon our thoughts and actions in subtle and unexpected ways. Why do we like certain types of art or music? What games and puzzles do we find challenging? Why do so many myths and legends have common elements? In this eclectic and entertaining survey, Barrow answers these questions and more as he explains how the landscape of the Universe has influenced the development of philosophy and mythology, and how millions of years of evolutionary history have fashioned our attraction to certain patterns of sound and color. Barrow casts the story of human creativity and thought in a fascinating light, considering such diverse topics as our instinct for language, the origins and uses of color in nature, why we divide time into intervals as we do, the sources of our appreciation of landscape painting, and whether computer-generated fractal art is really art. Drawing on a wide variety of examples, from the theological questions raised by St. Augustine and C.S. Lewis to the relationship between the pure math of Pythagoras and the music of the Beatles, The Artful Universe Expanded covers new ground and enters a wide-ranging debate about the meaning and significance of the links between art and science.

  2. Universe or Multiverse?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Bernard

    2009-08-01

    Part I. Overviews: 1. Introduction and overview Bernard Carr; 2. Living in the multiverse Steven Weinberg; 3. Enlightenment, knowledge, ignorance, temptation Frank Wilczek; Part II. Cosmology and Astrophysics: 4. Cosmology and the multiverse Martin J. Rees; 5. The anthropic principle revisited Bernard Carr; 6. Cosmology from the top down Stephen Hawking; 7. The multiverse hierarchy Max Tegmark; 8. The inflationary universe Andrei Linde; 9. A model of anthropic reasoning: the dark to ordinary matter ratio Frank Wilczek; 10. Anthropic predictions: the case of the cosmological constant Alexander Vilenkin; 11. The definition and classification of universes James D. Bjorken; 12. M/string theory and anthropic reasoning Renata Kallosh; 13. The anthropic principle, dark energy and the LHC Savas Dimopoulos and Scott Thomas; Part III. Particle Physics and Quantum Theory: 14. Quarks, electrons and atoms in closely related universes Craig J. Hogan; 15. The fine-tuning problems of particle physics and anthropic mechanisms John F. Donoghue; 16. The anthropic landscape of string theory Leonard Susskind; 17. Cosmology and the many worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics Viatcheslav Mukhanov; 18. Anthropic reasoning and quantum cosmology James B. Hartle; 19. Micro-anthropic principle for quantum theory Brandon Carter; Part IV. More General Philosophical Issues: 20. Scientific alternatives to the anthropic principle Lee Smolin; 21. Making predictions in a multiverse: conundrums, dangers, coincidences Anthony Aguirre; 22. Multiverses: description, uniqueness and testing George Ellis; 23. Predictions and tests of multiverse theories Don N. Page; 24. Observation selection theory and cosmological fine-tuning Nick Bostrom; 25. Are anthropic arguments, involving multiverses and beyond, legitimate? William R. Stoeger; 26. The multiverse hypothesis: a theistic perspective Robin Collins; 27. Living in a simulated universe John D. Barrow; 28. Universes galore: where will it all end? Paul

  3. The Dark Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livio, Mario

    2010-04-01

    1. A brief history of dark matter Vera Rubin; 2. Microlensing towards the Magellanic Clouds Kailash Sahu; 3. Searching for galactic dark matter Harvey Richer; 4. Hot gas in clusters of galaxies and Omega Megan Donahue; 5. Tracking the Baryon density from the Big Bang to the present Gary Steigman; 6. Modified Newtonian dynamics and its implications Bob Sanders; 7. Cosmological parameters and quintessence from radio galaxies Ruth Daly and Eric Guerra; 8. The mass density of the Universe Neta Bahcall; 9. Growth of structure in the Universe John Peacock; 10. Cosmological implications of the most distant supernova (known) Adam Riess; 11. Dynamical probes of the Halo mass function Chris Kochanek; 12. Detection of gravitational waves from inflation Marc Kamionkowski and Andrew Jaffe; 13. Cosmological constant problems and their solution Alex Vilenkin; 14. Dark Matter and dark energy: a physicist's perspective Michael Dine.

  4. The Dark Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livio, Mario

    2004-02-01

    1. A brief history of dark matter Vera Rubin; 2. Microlensing towards the Magellanic Clouds Kailash Sahu; 3. Searching for galactic dark matter Harvey Richer; 4. Hot gas in clusters of galaxies and Omega Megan Donahue; 5. Tracking the Baryon density from the Big Bang to the present Gary Steigman; 6. Modified Newtonian dynamics and its implications Bob Sanders; 7. Cosmological parameters and quintessence from radio galaxies Ruth Daly and Eric Guerra; 8. The mass density of the Universe Neta Bahcall; 9. Growth of structure in the Universe John Peacock; 10. Cosmological implications of the most distant supernova (known) Adam Riess; 11. Dynamical probes of the Halo mass function Chris Kochanek; 12. Detection of gravitational waves from inflation Marc Kamionkowski and Andrew Jaffe; 13. Cosmological constant problems and their solution Alex Vilenkin; 14. Dark Matter and dark energy: a physicist's perspective Michael Dine.

  5. Universal Test Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laughery, Mike

    A universal test facility (UTF) for Space Station Freedom is developed. In this context, universal means that the experimental rack design must be: automated, highly marketable, and able to perform diverse microgravity experiments according to NASA space station requirements. In order to fulfill these broad objectives, the facility's customers, and their respective requirements, are first defined. From these definitions, specific design goals and the scope of the first phase of this project are determined. An examination is first made into what types of research are most likely to make the UTF marketable. Based on our findings, the experiments for which the UTF would most likely be used included: protein crystal growth, hydroponics food growth, gas combustion, gallium arsenide crystal growth, microorganism development, and cell encapsulation. Therefore, the UTF is designed to fulfill all of the major requirements for the experiments listed above. The versatility of the design is achieved by taking advantage of the many overlapping requirements presented by these experiments.

  6. Universality classes of inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Roest, Diederik

    2014-01-01

    We investigate all single-field, slow-roll inflationary models whose slow-roll parameters scale as 1/N in the limit of a large number of e-folds N. We proof that all such models belong to two universality classes, characterised by a single parameter. One class contains small field models like hilltop inflation, while the other class consists of large field models like chaotic inflation. We give the leading expressions for the spectral index and tensor-to-scalar ratio r, which are universal for each class, plus subleading corrections for a number of models. This predicts r either to be unobservably small, r < 0.01, or close to the present observational limit, r ≈ 0.07.

  7. Universal Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laughery, Mike

    1994-01-01

    A universal test facility (UTF) for Space Station Freedom is developed. In this context, universal means that the experimental rack design must be: automated, highly marketable, and able to perform diverse microgravity experiments according to NASA space station requirements. In order to fulfill these broad objectives, the facility's customers, and their respective requirements, are first defined. From these definitions, specific design goals and the scope of the first phase of this project are determined. An examination is first made into what types of research are most likely to make the UTF marketable. Based on our findings, the experiments for which the UTF would most likely be used included: protein crystal growth, hydroponics food growth, gas combustion, gallium arsenide crystal growth, microorganism development, and cell encapsulation. Therefore, the UTF is designed to fulfill all of the major requirements for the experiments listed above. The versatility of the design is achieved by taking advantage of the many overlapping requirements presented by these experiments.

  8. Life in the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-10-01

    Live Webcast from Europe's Leading Research Organisations Summary Is there life elsewhere in the Universe? Are we alone? These questions have always fascinated humanity and for more than 50 years, physicists, biologists, chemists, cosmologists, astronomers and other scientists have worked tirelessly to answer these fundamental questions. And now this November via webcast, all the world will have the opportunity to see and hear the latest news on extraterrestrial life from the most prestigious research centers and how for the past three months, European students have had the chance to jump into the scientists' shoes and explore these questions for themselves. The event is being sponsored by the European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN) , the European Space Agency (ESA) and the European Southern Observatory (ESO) , in cooperation with the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL) and the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) and the European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE). "Life in the Universe" is being mounted in collaboration with the Research Directorate-General of the European Commission for the European Week of Science and Technology in November 2001 . "Life in the Universe" competitions are already underway in 23 European countries to find the best projects from school students between 14 and 18. Two winning teams from each country will be invited to a final event at CERN in Geneva on 8-11 November 2001 to present their projects and discuss them with a panel of International Experts at a special three-day event. They will also compete for the "Super Prize" - a free visit to ESA's and ESO's research and technology facilities at Kourou and Paranal in South America. Students participating in the programme are encouraged to present their views on extraterrestrial life creatively. The only requirement is that the views be based upon scientific evidence. Many projects are being submitted just now - among them are scientific essays

  9. Kansas State University

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, T.; Carnes, K.; Needham, V.

    1995-08-01

    Argonne has fabricated the niobium resonators and some other linac components required for the superconducting accel/decel linac now in operation at Kansas State University. Several staff members from KSU spent a substantial period of time at ANL during FY 1985 in order to learn the technology, and they return occasionally to assemble and test the resonators. There is a continuing interchange of technical information between ANL and KSU related to linac operations, tuning, and resonator maintenance.

  10. Inflation in the universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, M. S.

    1987-05-01

    The big bang cosmology is a highly successful model, providing a reliable and tested accounting of the Universe from 0.01 sec after the bang until today, some 15 Gyr later. However, very special initial data seem to be required in order to account for the observed smoothness and flatness of our Hubble volume and for the existence of the small primeval density inhomogeneities required for the formation of structure in the Universe. Inflation offers a means of accounting for these special initial data, which is based on physics at sub-planck energy scales (much less than mpl approx. = 10 to the 19th power GeV) and is motivated by contemporary ideas in particle theory. Here the status of the Inflationary Paradigm is reviewed. At present essentially all inflationary models involve a very weakly-coupled (quantified by the presence of a dimensionless parameter of order 10 to the -12 or so) scalar field which is displaced from the minimum of its potential. Regions of the Universe where the scalar field is initially displaced from its minimum undergo inflation as the scalar field relaxes, resulting in a Universe today which resembles ours in regions much larger than our present Hubble volume (approx. = 10 to the 28 cm), may be highly irregular. The most conspicuous blemish on the paradigm is the lack of a compelling particle physics model to implement it. Also reviewed are some other unresolved issues, and the all important confrontation between inflation and observational data is fully discussed. Finally, the possibility that inflation leads to large-scale, primeval magnetic fields of sufficient strength to be of astrophysical interest is covered.

  11. Dark matter universe.

    PubMed

    Bahcall, Neta A

    2015-10-01

    Most of the mass in the universe is in the form of dark matter--a new type of nonbaryonic particle not yet detected in the laboratory or in other detection experiments. The evidence for the existence of dark matter through its gravitational impact is clear in astronomical observations--from the early observations of the large motions of galaxies in clusters and the motions of stars and gas in galaxies, to observations of the large-scale structure in the universe, gravitational lensing, and the cosmic microwave background. The extensive data consistently show the dominance of dark matter and quantify its amount and distribution, assuming general relativity is valid. The data inform us that the dark matter is nonbaryonic, is "cold" (i.e., moves nonrelativistically in the early universe), and interacts only weakly with matter other than by gravity. The current Lambda cold dark matter cosmology--a simple (but strange) flat cold dark matter model dominated by a cosmological constant Lambda, with only six basic parameters (including the density of matter and of baryons, the initial mass fluctuations amplitude and its scale dependence, and the age of the universe and of the first stars)--fits remarkably well all the accumulated data. However, what is the dark matter? This is one of the most fundamental open questions in cosmology and particle physics. Its existence requires an extension of our current understanding of particle physics or otherwise point to a modification of gravity on cosmological scales. The exploration and ultimate detection of dark matter are led by experiments for direct and indirect detection of this yet mysterious particle. PMID:26417091

  12. Inflation in the universe

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, M.S.

    1987-05-01

    The hot big bang cosmology, or the standard cosmology as it is appropriately known, is a highly successful model, providing a reliable and tested accounting of the Universe from 0.01 sec after the bang until today, some 15 Gyr later. However, very special initial data seem to be required in order to account for the observed smoothness and flatness of our Hubble volume and for the existence of the small primeval density inhomogeneities required for the formation of structure in the Universe. Inflation offers a means of accounting for these special initial data, which is based upon physics at sub-planck energy scales (<< m/sub pl/ approx. = 10/sup 19/ GeV) and is motivated by contemporary ideas in particle theory. Here I review the status of the 'Inflationary Paradigm'. At present essentially all inflationary models involve a very weakly-coupled (quantified by the presence of a dimensionless parameter of order 10/sup -12/ or so) scalar field which is displaced from the minimum of its potential. Regions of the Universe where the scalar field is initially displaced from its minimum undergo inflation as the scalar field relaxes, resulting in a Universe today which resembles ours in regions much larger than our present Hubble volume (approx. = 10/sup 28/ cm), but which on very large scales (>> 10/sup 28/ cm) may be highly irregular. The most conspicuous blemish on the paradigm is the lack of a compelling particle physics model to implement it. I also review some other unresolved issues, and discuss in detail the all important confrontation between inflation and observational data. Finally, I discuss the possibility that inflation leads to large-scale, primeval magnetic fields of sufficient strength to be of astrophysical interest. 123 refs., 4 figs.

  13. A Universal Syntax Checker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leahy, John Francis, III

    A universal syntax checker was constructed to be utilized with a text editor in a time-sharing environment. This syntax checker is a top-down, left-right, slow-back parser that will provide, when supplied the syntax of any language in the Backus-normal form, a syntax check for any string written in a language described. The procedure is capable of…

  14. On separate universes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Liang; Pajer, Enrico; Schmidt, Fabian

    2015-10-01

    The separate universe conjecture states that in General Relativity a density perturbation behaves locally (i.e. on scales much smaller than the wavelength of the mode) as a separate universe with different background density and curvature. We prove this conjecture for a spherical compensated tophat density perturbation of arbitrary amplitude and radius in ΛCDM. We then use Conformal Fermi Coordinates to generalize this result to scalar perturbations of arbitrary configuration and scale in a general cosmology with a mixture of fluids, but to linear order in perturbations. In this case, the separate universe conjecture holds for the isotropic part of the perturbations. The anisotropic part on the other hand is exactly captured by a tidal field in the Newtonian form. We show that the separate universe picture is restricted to scales larger than the sound horizons of all fluid components. We then derive an expression for the locally measured matter bispectrum induced by a long-wavelength mode of arbitrary wavelength, a new result which in standard perturbation theory is equivalent to a relativistic second-order calculation. We show that nonlinear gravitational dynamics does not generate observable contributions that scale like local-type non-Gaussianity flocNL, and hence does not contribute to a scale-dependent galaxy bias Δ b propto k-2 on large scales; rather, the locally measurable long-short mode coupling assumes a form essentially identical to subhorizon perturbation theory results, once the long-mode density perturbation is replaced by the synchronous-comoving gauge density perturbation. Apparent flocNL-type contributions arise through projection effects on photon propagation, which depend on the specific large-scale structure tracer and observable considered, and are in principle distinguishable from the local mode coupling induced by gravity. We conclude that any observation of flocNL beyond these projection effects signals a departure from standard single

  15. Astronomy in Romanian universities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosu, Mihail

    In this work we present characteristics of the Romanian higher education related to the study of Astronomy. In spite of Romanian economic problems, opportunities for Bachelor's degree, Master's degree (at "Babes-Bolyai" University of Cluj-Napoca) and Ph.D. degree are provided for students enrolled at the faculties of Mathematics or Physics. General regulations, description of courses, research resources and job opportunities are also described and discussed in this paper.

  16. Dark matter universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahcall, Neta A.

    2015-10-01

    Most of the mass in the universe is in the form of dark matter-a new type of nonbaryonic particle not yet detected in the laboratory or in other detection experiments. The evidence for the existence of dark matter through its gravitational impact is clear in astronomical observations-from the early observations of the large motions of galaxies in clusters and the motions of stars and gas in galaxies, to observations of the large-scale structure in the universe, gravitational lensing, and the cosmic microwave background. The extensive data consistently show the dominance of dark matter and quantify its amount and distribution, assuming general relativity is valid. The data inform us that the dark matter is nonbaryonic, is "cold" (i.e., moves nonrelativistically in the early universe), and interacts only weakly with matter other than by gravity. The current Lambda cold dark matter cosmology-a simple (but strange) flat cold dark matter model dominated by a cosmological constant Lambda, with only six basic parameters (including the density of matter and of baryons, the initial mass fluctuations amplitude and its scale dependence, and the age of the universe and of the first stars)-fits remarkably well all the accumulated data. However, what is the dark matter? This is one of the most fundamental open questions in cosmology and particle physics. Its existence requires an extension of our current understanding of particle physics or otherwise point to a modification of gravity on cosmological scales. The exploration and ultimate detection of dark matter are led by experiments for direct and indirect detection of this yet mysterious particle.

  17. Universality of particle multiplicities

    SciTech Connect

    Goulianos, K. |

    1994-09-01

    We discuss the scaling properties and universality aspects of the rapidity and multiplicity distributions of particles produced in high energy hadronic and e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} interactions. This paper is based on material presented in three lectures on pomeron phenomenology, which included a review of traditional soft pomeron physics and selected topics on hard diffraction processes probing the structure function of the pomeron.

  18. Imagine the Universe!

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Welcome to Imagine the Universe! Contained on this CD-ROM you will find three astronomy and space science learning centers, individually captured from the World Wide Web in December of 2000. Each site contains its own learning adventure full of facts, fun, beautiful images, movies, and excitement. (1) Imagine The Universe: this site is dedicated to a discussion about our Universe... what we know about it, how it is evolving, and the kinds of objects and phenomena it contains. Emphasizing the X-ray and gamma-ray parts of the electromagnetic spectrum, it also discusses how scientists know what they know, what mysteries remain, and how the answers to remaining mysteries may one day be found. Lots of movies, quizzes, and a special section for educators. Geared for ages 14 and up. This site can be viewed on-line at http://imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov/. (2) StarChild- a learning center for young astronomers: the 1998 Webby Award Winner for Best Education Website, StarChild is aimed at ages 4-14. It contains easy-to-understand information about our Solar System, the Universe, and space exploration. There are also activities, songs, movies, and puzzles. This site can be viewed on-line at http://starchild.gsfc.nasa.gov/. (3) Astronomy Picture of the Day: APOD offers a new astronomical image and caption each calendar day. We have captured the year 2000 entries of this award-winning site and included them on the disk. The images and information provide a wonderful resource for all ages. This site can be viewed on-line at http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/astropix.html.

  19. Dark matter universe

    PubMed Central

    Bahcall, Neta A.

    2015-01-01

    Most of the mass in the universe is in the form of dark matter—a new type of nonbaryonic particle not yet detected in the laboratory or in other detection experiments. The evidence for the existence of dark matter through its gravitational impact is clear in astronomical observations—from the early observations of the large motions of galaxies in clusters and the motions of stars and gas in galaxies, to observations of the large-scale structure in the universe, gravitational lensing, and the cosmic microwave background. The extensive data consistently show the dominance of dark matter and quantify its amount and distribution, assuming general relativity is valid. The data inform us that the dark matter is nonbaryonic, is “cold” (i.e., moves nonrelativistically in the early universe), and interacts only weakly with matter other than by gravity. The current Lambda cold dark matter cosmology—a simple (but strange) flat cold dark matter model dominated by a cosmological constant Lambda, with only six basic parameters (including the density of matter and of baryons, the initial mass fluctuations amplitude and its scale dependence, and the age of the universe and of the first stars)—fits remarkably well all the accumulated data. However, what is the dark matter? This is one of the most fundamental open questions in cosmology and particle physics. Its existence requires an extension of our current understanding of particle physics or otherwise point to a modification of gravity on cosmological scales. The exploration and ultimate detection of dark matter are led by experiments for direct and indirect detection of this yet mysterious particle. PMID:26417091

  20. Universal Stoppers Are Rupert

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerrard, Richard P.; Wetzel, John E.

    2008-01-01

    A stopper is called "universal" if it can be used to plug pipes whose cross-sections are a circle, a square, and an isosceles triangle, with the diameter of the circle, the side of the square, and the base and altitude of the triangle all equal. Echoing the well-known result for equal cubes that is attributed to Prince Rupert, we show that it is…

  1. Universality and string theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachlechner, Thomas Christian

    The first run at the Large Hadron Collider has deeply challenged conventional notions of naturalness, and CMB polarization experiments are about to open a new window to early universe cosmology. As a compelling candidate for the ultraviolet completion of the standard model, string theory provides a prime opportunity to study both early universe cosmology and particle physics. However, relating low energy observations to ultraviolet physics requires knowledge of the metastable states of string theory through the study of vacua. While it is difficult to directly obtain infrared data from explicit string theory constructions, string theory imposes constraints on low energy physics. The study of ensembles of low energy theories consistent with ultra-violet constraints provides insight on generic features we might expect to occur in string compactifications. In this thesis we present a statistical treatment of vacuum stability and vacuum properties in the context of random supergravity theories motivated by string theory. Early universe cosmology provides another avenue to high energy physics. From the low energy perspective large field inflation is typically considered highly unnatural: the scale relevant for the diameter of flat regions in moduli space is sub-Planckian in regions of perturbative control. To approach this problem, we consider generic Calabi-Yau compactifications of string theory and find that super-Planckian diameters of axion fundamental domains in fact arise generically. We further demonstrate that such super-Planckian flat regions are plausibly consistent with theWeak Gravity Conjecture.

  2. Averaging the inhomogeneous universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paranjape, Aseem

    2012-03-01

    A basic assumption of modern cosmology is that the universe is homogeneous and isotropic on the largest observable scales. This greatly simplifies Einstein's general relativistic field equations applied at these large scales, and allows a straightforward comparison between theoretical models and observed data. However, Einstein's equations should ideally be imposed at length scales comparable to, say, the solar system, since this is where these equations have been tested. We know that at these scales the universe is highly inhomogeneous. It is therefore essential to perform an explicit averaging of the field equations in order to apply them at large scales. It has long been known that due to the nonlinear nature of Einstein's equations, any explicit averaging scheme will necessarily lead to corrections in the equations applied at large scales. Estimating the magnitude and behavior of these corrections is a challenging task, due to difficulties associated with defining averages in the context of general relativity (GR). It has recently become possible to estimate these effects in a rigorous manner, and we will review some of the averaging schemes that have been proposed in the literature. A tantalizing possibility explored by several authors is that the corrections due to averaging may in fact account for the apparent acceleration of the expansion of the universe. We will explore this idea, reviewing some of the work done in the literature to date. We will argue however, that this rather attractive idea is in fact not viable as a solution of the dark energy problem, when confronted with observational constraints.

  3. The universal ancestor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woese, C.

    1998-01-01

    A genetic annealing model for the universal ancestor of all extant life is presented; the name of the model derives from its resemblance to physical annealing. The scenario pictured starts when "genetic temperatures" were very high, cellular entities (progenotes) were very simple, and information processing systems were inaccurate. Initially, both mutation rate and lateral gene transfer levels were elevated. The latter was pandemic and pervasive to the extent that it, not vertical inheritance, defined the evolutionary dynamic. As increasingly complex and precise biological structures and processes evolved, both the mutation rate and the scope and level of lateral gene transfer, i.e., evolutionary temperature, dropped, and the evolutionary dynamic gradually became that characteristic of modern cells. The various subsystems of the cell "crystallized," i.e., became refractory to lateral gene transfer, at different stages of "cooling," with the translation apparatus probably crystallizing first. Organismal lineages, and so organisms as we know them, did not exist at these early stages. The universal phylogenetic tree, therefore, is not an organismal tree at its base but gradually becomes one as its peripheral branchings emerge. The universal ancestor is not a discrete entity. It is, rather, a diverse community of cells that survives and evolves as a biological unit. This communal ancestor has a physical history but not a genealogical one. Over time, this ancestor refined into a smaller number of increasingly complex cell types with the ancestors of the three primary groupings of organisms arising as a result.

  4. The Flying University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friesen, Catherine

    The Flying University is solo theater performance framed as an academic lecture about Marie Curie and her discovery of radium, delivered to a group of women who have gathered in secret to further their education. As the lecture proceeds, the professor brings in her own research based on a study of Esther Horsch (1905-1991) who lived on a farm in central Illinois. She introduces data from Esther's journals, personal memories, and dreams about Esther's life. The professor's investigation of radium plays at the intersections of magical and mundane, decay and the transformation of life, and the place of ambition in these two women's lives. The intention of this piece is to explore these themes, which are full of mystery, through the traces of the daily lives of Mme. Curie and Esther. Their words and photos are used as roots from which to imagine the things that echo beyond their familiar work; elemental and also fantastically radiant. The Flying University was written and performed by Catherine Friesen April 27-29, 2012 in the Center for Performance Experiment at Hamilton College as part of the University of South Carolina MFA Acting Class of 2013 showcase, Pieces of Eight.

  5. Unfolding our Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolson, Iain

    1999-10-01

    The beauty of the stars, the planets, and other faraway objects of wonder is readily apparent, while the reason for their splendor is not. Now, there exists a source of expert advice that amateur astronomers and interested stargazers can actually understand: Unfolding Our Universe. Popular science writer and award winning author Iain Nicolson opens the world of astronomy to a wide audience. He takes readers into the heart of the Universe, clearly detailing the facts, concepts, methods, and current findings of astronomical science. This unique book strikes a perfect balance between the fundamentals of the subject and cutting-edge research. Step by step, the volume leads to a complete understanding of astronomy. Readers can access the material without referring to any mathematical principles or formulas. The well-designed text allows more ambitious readers to easily delve more deeply into key points and consult basic mathematics found within self-contained boxes. More than 100 full-color photographs beautifully and clearly illustrate all concepts. The wealth of color illustrations and very readable chapters make this book a delight for the casual reader to browse, while the clear and concise explanations will appeal to anyone with an interest in the science of astronomy. Iain Nicolson is the author or co-author of some 17 books, including The Universe (with Patrick Moore) and Heavenly Bodies. In 1995, he received the Eric Zucker Award from the Federation of Astronomical Societies (UK) for his work in popularizing the subject.

  6. [Universal electrogustometer EG-2].

    PubMed

    Wałkanis, Andrzej; Czesak, Michał; Pleskacz, Witold A

    2011-01-01

    Electrogustometry is a method for taste diagnosis and measurement. The EG-2 project is being developed in cooperation between Warsaw University of Technology and Military institute of Medicine in Warsaw. The device is an evolution of the recent universal electrogustometer EG-1 prototype. Due to considerations and experiences acquired during prototype usage, many enhancements have been incorporated into device. The aim was to create an easy-to-use, portable, battery powered device, enabled for fast measurements. Developed electrogustometer is using innovative, low-power microprocessor system, which control whole device. User interface is based on 5.7" graphical LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) and touchscreen. It can be directly operated by finger or with optional stylus. Dedicated GUI (Graphical User Interface) offers simple, predefined measurements and advance settings of signal parameters. It is also possible to store measurements results and patients data in an internal memory. User interface is multilanguage. Signals for patients examinations, supplied with bipolar electrode, are generated by an on-board circuit using DDS (Direct-Digital Synthesis) and DAC (Digital-to-Analog Converter). Electrogustometer is able to generate DC, sinus, triangle or rectangle signals with current amplitude from 0 to 500 pA and frequency form 0 to 500 Hz. Device is designed for manual and automeasurement modes. By using USB (Universal Serial Bus) port it is possible to retrieve data stored in internal memory and charging of built-in Li-lon battery as a source of power. PMID:21735666

  7. The Universal Ancestor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woese, Carl

    1998-06-01

    A genetic annealing model for the universal ancestor of all extant life is presented; the name of the model derives from its resemblance to physical annealing. The scenario pictured starts when ``genetic temperatures'' were very high, cellular entities (progenotes) were very simple, and information processing systems were inaccurate. Initially, both mutation rate and lateral gene transfer levels were elevated. The latter was pandemic and pervasive to the extent that it, not vertical inheritance, defined the evolutionary dynamic. As increasingly complex and precise biological structures and processes evolved, both the mutation rate and the scope and level of lateral gene transfer, i.e., evolutionary temperature, dropped, and the evolutionary dynamic gradually became that characteristic of modern cells. The various subsystems of the cell ``crystallized,'' i.e., became refractory to lateral gene transfer, at different stages of ``cooling,'' with the translation apparatus probably crystallizing first. Organismal lineages, and so organisms as we know them, did not exist at these early stages. The universal phylogenetic tree, therefore, is not an organismal tree at its base but gradually becomes one as its peripheral branchings emerge. The universal ancestor is not a discrete entity. It is, rather, a diverse community of cells that survives and evolves as a biological unit. This communal ancestor has a physical history but not a genealogical one. Over time, this ancestor refined into a smaller number of increasingly complex cell types with the ancestors of the three primary groupings of organisms arising as a result.

  8. Green University Initiatives in China: A Case of Tsinghua University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Wanxia; Zou, Yonghua

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine green university initiatives in the context of China, using Tsinghua University, which is China's green university pioneer, as a case study. Design/methodology/approach: The research method used for this paper is a case study based on participant observation and document analysis. The approach to…

  9. Who Should Go to University? Justice in University Admissions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotzee, Ben; Martin, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Current debates regarding justice in university admissions most often approach the question of access to university from a technical, policy-focussed perspective. Despite the attention that access to university receives in the press and policy literature, ethical discussion tends to focus on technical matters such as who should pay for university…

  10. Research on Universal Combinatorial Coding

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jun; Zhang, Zhuo; Mo, Juan

    2014-01-01

    The conception of universal combinatorial coding is proposed. Relations exist more or less in many coding methods. It means that a kind of universal coding method is objectively existent. It can be a bridge connecting many coding methods. Universal combinatorial coding is lossless and it is based on the combinatorics theory. The combinational and exhaustive property make it closely related with the existing code methods. Universal combinatorial coding does not depend on the probability statistic characteristic of information source, and it has the characteristics across three coding branches. It has analyzed the relationship between the universal combinatorial coding and the variety of coding method and has researched many applications technologies of this coding method. In addition, the efficiency of universal combinatorial coding is analyzed theoretically. The multicharacteristic and multiapplication of universal combinatorial coding are unique in the existing coding methods. Universal combinatorial coding has theoretical research and practical application value. PMID:24772019

  11. Research on universal combinatorial coding.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jun; Zhang, Zhuo; Mo, Juan

    2014-01-01

    The conception of universal combinatorial coding is proposed. Relations exist more or less in many coding methods. It means that a kind of universal coding method is objectively existent. It can be a bridge connecting many coding methods. Universal combinatorial coding is lossless and it is based on the combinatorics theory. The combinational and exhaustive property make it closely related with the existing code methods. Universal combinatorial coding does not depend on the probability statistic characteristic of information source, and it has the characteristics across three coding branches. It has analyzed the relationship between the universal combinatorial coding and the variety of coding method and has researched many applications technologies of this coding method. In addition, the efficiency of universal combinatorial coding is analyzed theoretically. The multicharacteristic and multiapplication of universal combinatorial coding are unique in the existing coding methods. Universal combinatorial coding has theoretical research and practical application value. PMID:24772019

  12. [Patients' University, illness and learning].

    PubMed

    Tourette-Turgis, Catherine

    2015-10-01

    The Patients' University, a pilot project at the Université Pierre et Marie Curie, in Paris, enables patients-experts to follow a degree program in patient therapeutic education (University Diploma and Master). Recently, graduate patients and patients directly concerned proposed to co-create a new university certificate for treatment pathway coordinators for breast cancer, rounding out the 120-hour university certificate program on healthcare democracy and meeting the recommendations of the new cancer plan. PMID:26455618

  13. Ontario Universities - 1998: Resource Document.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Ontario Universities, Toronto.

    This report on the financial status of Ontario (Canada) universities notes that Ontario's universities continue to receive less than universities in any other Canadian province in per capita funding and have had the largest two-year decline in public funding of any jurisdiction in Canada or the United States. It notes that although total operating…

  14. How to Run a University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, G. R.

    2006-01-01

    The Lambert Review of Business-University Collaboration proposed a business model for universities in 2003. Pressure to change university governance to make it match the business model remains strong, and it is being most actively applied to Oxford and Cambridge. The Oxford and Cambridge governance debates (which began in the 1990s) open up the…

  15. Symbiosis: University/School Partnerships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skeele, Rosemary W.; Daly, James K.

    1999-01-01

    Describes technology integration at Seton Hall. Discusses new teaching roles and methods; technology and popular culture; technological equity; and school and university needs. Focuses on several technology-based partnerships between the university and schools, including summer programs; technology training; connecting university faculty and…

  16. Reflections on Commercializing University Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hum, Derek

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the extent of commercialization of research in Canadian universities, explains why copyright enforcement is difficult, and discusses the benefits and disadvantages of licensing an innovation versus creating a spinoff company to exploit university discoveries. Explores issues related to sharing benefits of university discoveries. (SLD)

  17. University Relations: The HP Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, W. C.

    2003-01-01

    Hewlett-Packard benefited from one of the earliest examples of knowledge transfer in a strategic relationship, with the investment by Stanford University professor Frederick Terman in the work of former students Dave Packard and Bill Hewlett. Today, HP University Relations (UR) works with university partners to create similar valuable synergy. UR…

  18. Education in a Research University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arrow, Kenneth J. Ed.; And Others

    This collection of 30 essays on the character, administration, and management of research universities research university emphasizes the perspective of statistics and operations research: The essays are: "A Robust Faculty Planning Model" (Frederick Biedenweg); "Looking Back at Computer Models Employed in the Stanford University Administration"…

  19. A Look at the Universe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nature Scope, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Provides: (1) background information on what makes up the universe, ways astronomers study the universe, and theories about how the universe began; (2) six activities; and (3) four read-to-duplicate pages. Activities include objective(s), recommended age level(s), subject area(s), list of materials needed, and procedures. (JN)

  20. Do Universities Have "Successful" Brands?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapleo, Chris

    2005-01-01

    Branding in universities is a topical issue, but arguably few UK universities have fully developed "successful" brands in the manner of commercial organizations. This qualitative paper explores the opinions of 40 opinion formers on which UK universities have successful brands and the associations these brands have. Current literature on what…