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Sample records for aipl1 effective rescue

  1. AIPL1 implicated in the pathogenesis of two cases of autosomal recessive retinal degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Li, David; Jin, Chongfei; Jiao, Xiaodong; Li, Lin; Bushra, Tahmina; Naeem, Muhammad Asif; Butt, Nadeem H.; Husnain, Tayyab; Sieving, Paul A.; Riazuddin, Sheikh; Riazuddin, S. Amer

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To localize and identify the gene and mutations causing autosomal recessive retinal dystrophy in two consanguineous Pakistani families. Methods Consanguineous families from Pakistan were ascertained to be affected with autosomal recessive retinal degeneration. All affected individuals underwent thorough ophthalmologic examinations. Blood samples were collected, and genomic DNA was extracted using a salting out procedure. Genotyping was performed using microsatellite markers spaced at approximately 10 cM intervals. Two-point linkage analysis was performed with the lod score method. Direct DNA sequencing of amplified genomic DNA was performed for mutation screening of candidate genes. Results Genome-wide linkage scans yielded a lod score of 3.05 at θ=0 for D17S1832 and 3.82 at θ=0 for D17S938, localizing the disease gene to a 12.22 cM (6.64 Mb) region flanked by D17S1828 and D17S1852 for family 61032 and family 61227, which contains aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein-like 1 (AIPL1), a gene previously implicated in recessive Leber congenital amaurosis and autosomal dominant cone-rod dystrophy. Sequencing of AIPL1 showed a homozygous c.773G>C (p.Arg258Pro) sequence change in all affected individuals of family 61032 and a homozygous c.465G>T (p.(H93_Q155del)) change in all affected members of family 61227. Conclusions The results strongly suggest that the c.773G>C (p.R258P) and c.465G>T (p.(H93_Q155del)) mutations in AIPL1 cause autosomal recessive retinal degeneration in these consanguineous Pakistani families. PMID:24426771

  2. Rescue effects: irradiated cells helped by unirradiated bystander cells.

    PubMed

    Lam, R K K; Fung, Y K; Han, W; Yu, K N

    2015-01-01

    The rescue effect describes the phenomenon where irradiated cells or organisms derive benefits from the feedback signals sent from the bystander unirradiated cells or organisms. An example of the benefit is the mitigation of radiation-induced DNA damages in the irradiated cells. The rescue effect can compromise the efficacy of radioimmunotherapy (RIT) (and actually all radiotherapy). In this paper, the discovery and subsequent confirmation studies on the rescue effect were reviewed. The mechanisms and the chemical messengers responsible for the rescue effect studied to date were summarized. The rescue effect between irradiated and bystander unirradiated zebrafish embryos in vivo sharing the same medium was also described. In the discussion section, the mechanism proposed for the rescue effect involving activation of the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) pathway was scrutinized. This mechanism could explain the promotion of cellular survival and correct repair of DNA damage, dependence on cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and modulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in irradiated cells. Exploitation of the NF-κB pathway to improve the effectiveness of RIT was proposed. Finally, the possibility of using zebrafish embryos as the model to study the efficacy of RIT in treating solid tumors was also discussed. PMID:25625514

  3. Rescue Effects: Irradiated Cells Helped by Unirradiated Bystander Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lam, R. K. K.; Fung, Y. K.; Han, W.; Yu, K. N.

    2015-01-01

    The rescue effect describes the phenomenon where irradiated cells or organisms derive benefits from the feedback signals sent from the bystander unirradiated cells or organisms. An example of the benefit is the mitigation of radiation-induced DNA damages in the irradiated cells. The rescue effect can compromise the efficacy of radioimmunotherapy (RIT) (and actually all radiotherapy). In this paper, the discovery and subsequent confirmation studies on the rescue effect were reviewed. The mechanisms and the chemical messengers responsible for the rescue effect studied to date were summarized. The rescue effect between irradiated and bystander unirradiated zebrafish embryos in vivo sharing the same medium was also described. In the discussion section, the mechanism proposed for the rescue effect involving activation of the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) pathway was scrutinized. This mechanism could explain the promotion of cellular survival and correct repair of DNA damage, dependence on cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and modulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in irradiated cells. Exploitation of the NF-κB pathway to improve the effectiveness of RIT was proposed. Finally, the possibility of using zebrafish embryos as the model to study the efficacy of RIT in treating solid tumors was also discussed. PMID:25625514

  4. Persistence in epidemic metapopulations: quantifying the rescue effects for measles, mumps, rubella and whooping cough.

    PubMed

    Metcalf, C Jessica E; Hampson, Katie; Tatem, Andrew J; Grenfell, Bryan T; Bjørnstad, Ottar N

    2013-01-01

    Metapopulation rescue effects are thought to be key to the persistence of many acute immunizing infections. Yet the enhancement of persistence through spatial coupling has not been previously quantified. Here we estimate the metapopulation rescue effects for four childhood infections using global WHO reported incidence data by comparing persistence on island countries vs all other countries, while controlling for key variables such as vaccine cover, birth rates and economic development. The relative risk of extinction on islands is significantly higher, and approximately double the risk of extinction in mainland countries. Furthermore, as may be expected, infections with longer infectious periods tend to have the strongest metapopulation rescue effects. Our results quantitate the notion that demography and local community size controls disease persistence. PMID:24040325

  5. Persistence in Epidemic Metapopulations: Quantifying the Rescue Effects for Measles, Mumps, Rubella and Whooping Cough

    PubMed Central

    Metcalf, C. Jessica E.; Hampson, Katie; Tatem, Andrew J.; Grenfell, Bryan T.; Bjørnstad, Ottar N.

    2013-01-01

    Metapopulation rescue effects are thought to be key to the persistence of many acute immunizing infections. Yet the enhancement of persistence through spatial coupling has not been previously quantified. Here we estimate the metapopulation rescue effects for four childhood infections using global WHO reported incidence data by comparing persistence on island countries vs all other countries, while controlling for key variables such as vaccine cover, birth rates and economic development. The relative risk of extinction on islands is significantly higher, and approximately double the risk of extinction in mainland countries. Furthermore, as may be expected, infections with longer infectious periods tend to have the strongest metapopulation rescue effects. Our results quantitate the notion that demography and local community size controls disease persistence. PMID:24040325

  6. Rescuing the duty to rescue.

    PubMed

    Rulli, Tina; Millum, Joseph

    2016-04-01

    Clinicians and health researchers frequently encounter opportunities to rescue people. Rescue cases can generate a moral duty to aid those in peril. As such, bioethicists have leveraged a duty to rescue for a variety of purposes. Yet, despite its broad application, the duty to rescue is underanalysed. In this paper, we assess the state of theorising about the duty to rescue. There are large gaps in bioethicists' understanding of the force, scope and justification of the two most cited duties to rescue-the individual duty of easy rescue and the institutional rule of rescue. We argue that the duty of easy rescue faces unresolved challenges regarding its force and scope, and the rule of rescue is indefensible. If the duty to rescue is to help solve ethical problems, these theoretical gaps must be addressed. We identify two further conceptions of the duty to rescue that have received less attention-an institutional duty of easy rescue and the professional duty to rescue. Both provide guidance in addressing force and scope concerns and, thereby, traction in answering the outstanding problems with the duty to rescue. We conclude by proposing research priorities for developing accounts of duties to rescue in bioethics. PMID:24790055

  7. Thio Effects and an Unconventional Metal Ion Rescue in the Genomic HDV Ribozyme§

    PubMed Central

    Thaplyal, Pallavi; Ganguly, Abir; Golden, Barbara L.; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon; Bevilacqua, Philip C.

    2013-01-01

    Metal ion and nucleobase catalysis are important for ribozyme mechanism, but the extent to which they cooperate is unclear. A crystal structure of the hepatitis delta virus (HDV) ribozyme suggested that the pro-RP oxygen at the scissile phosphate directly coordinates a catalytic Mg2+ ion and is within hydrogen bonding distance of the amine of the general acid C75. Prior studies on the genomic HDV ribozyme, however, showed neither a thio effect nor metal ion rescue using Mn2+. Here, we combine experiment and theory to explore phosphorothioate substitutions at the scissile phosphate. We report significant thio effects at the scissile phosphate and metal ion rescue with Cd2+. Reaction profiles with an SP-phosphorothioate substitution are indistinguishable from those of the unmodified substrate in the presence of Mg2+ or Cd2+, supporting that the pro-SP oxygen does not coordinate metal ions. The RP-phosphorothioate substitution, however, exhibits biphasic kinetics, with the fast-reacting phase displaying a thio effect of up to 5-fold effect and the slow-reacting phase displaying a thio effect of ~1,000-fold. Moreover, the fast- and slow-reacting phases give metal ion rescues in Cd2+ of up to 10- and 330-fold, respectively. The metal ion rescues are unconventional in that they arise from Cd2+ inhibiting the oxo substrate but not the RP substrate. This metal ion rescue suggests a direct interaction of the catalytic metal ion with the pro-RP oxygen, in line with experiments on the antigenomic HDV ribozyme. Experiments without divalent ions, with mutants that interfere with Mg2+ binding, or with C75 deleted suggest that the pro-RP oxygen plays at most a redundant role in positioning C75. Quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) studies indicate that the metal ion contributes to catalysis by interacting with both the pro-RP oxygen and the nucleophilic 2’- hydroxyl, supporting the experimental findings. PMID:24001219

  8. Enhanced Rescue Lift Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.

    2007-01-01

    The evolving and ever-increasing demands of emergency response and disaster relief support provided by rotorcraft dictate, among other things, the development of enhanced rescue lift capability for these platforms. This preliminary analysis is first-order in nature but provides considerable insight into some of the challenges inherent in trying to effect rescue using a unique form of robotic rescue device deployed and operated from rotary-wing aerial platforms.

  9. Rescue Effects and Underlying Mechanisms of Intragland Shh Gene Delivery on Irradiation-Induced Hyposalivation.

    PubMed

    Hai, Bo; Zhao, Qingguo; Qin, Lizheng; Rangaraj, Dharanipathy; Gutti, Veera R; Liu, Fei

    2016-05-01

    Irreversible hypofunction of salivary glands is common in head and neck cancer survivors treated with radiotherapy and can only be temporarily relieved with current treatments. We found in an inducible sonic hedgehog (Shh) transgenic mouse model that transient activation of the Hedgehog pathway after irradiation rescued salivary gland function in males by preserving salivary stem/progenitor cells and parasympathetic innervation. To translate these findings into feasible clinical application, we evaluated the effects of Shh gene transfer to salivary glands of wild-type mice on irradiation-induced hyposalivation. Shh or control GFP gene was delivered by noninvasive retrograde ductal instillation of corresponding adenoviral vectors. In both male and female mice, Shh gene delivery efficiently activated Hedgehog/Gli signaling, and significantly improved stimulated saliva secretion and preserved saliva-producing acinar cells after irradiation. In addition to preserving parasympathetic innervation through induction of neurotrophic factors, Shh gene delivery also alleviated the irradiation damage of the microvasculature, likely via inducing angiogenic factors, but did not expand the progeny of cells responsive to Hedgehog/Gli signaling. These data indicate that transient activation of the Hedgehog pathway by gene delivery is promising to rescue salivary function after irradiation in both sexes, and the Hedgehog/Gli pathway may function mainly in cell nonautonomous manners to achieve the rescue effect. PMID:27021743

  10. Evaluation of the Effects of Standard Rescue Procedure on Severe Trauma Treatment in China

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Xiao-Feng; Wang, Tian-Bing; Zhang, Pei-Xun; Kou, Yu-Hui; Zhang, Dian-Ying; Yu, Kai; Lyu, De-Cheng; Liu, Mao-Zheng; Zhou, Dong-Sheng; Zhang, Peng; Jing, Jue-Hua; Ge, Wei-Wei; Cao, Li-Ying; Wang, Guo-Sheng; Deng, Shao-Jie; Liu, Weng-Hua; Zhang, Mao; Xu, Yong-An; Zhang, Kun; Li, Bing; Wang, Wei; Gao, Zhong-Li; Yi, Cheng-La; Jiang, Bao-Guo

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of standard rescue procedure (SRP) in improving severe trauma treatments in China. Methods: This study was conducted in 12 hospitals located in geographically and industrially different cities in China. A standard procedure on severe trauma rescue was established as a general rule for staff training and patient treatment. A regional network (system) efficiently integrating prehospital rescue, emergency room treatments, and hospital specialist treatments was built under the rule for information sharing and improving severe trauma treatments. Treatment outcomes were compared between before and 1 year after the implementation of the SRP. Results: The outcomes of a total of 74,615 and 12,051 trauma cases were collected from 12 hospitals before and after the implementation of the SRP. Implementation of the SRP led to efficient cooperation and information sharing of different treatment services. The emergency response time, prehospital transit time, emergency rescue time, consultation call time, and mortality rate of patients were 24.24 ± 4.32 min, 45.69 ± 3.89 min, 6.38 ± 1.05 min, 17.53 ± 0.72 min, and 33.82% ± 3.87% (n = 441), respectively, before the implementation of the standardization and significantly reduced to 10.11 ± 3.21 min, 22.39 ± 4.32 min, 3.26 ± 0.89 min, 3.45 ± 0.45 min, and 20.49% ± 3.11%, separately (n = 495, P < 0.05) after that. Conclusions: Staff training and SRP can significantly improve the efficiency of severe trauma treatments in China. PMID:25963348

  11. Synergistic but transient rescue effects of BDNF and GDNF on axotomized neonatal motoneurons.

    PubMed

    Vejsada, R; Tseng, J L; Lindsay, R M; Acheson, A; Aebischer, P; Kato, A C

    1998-05-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), members of distinct families of polypeptide growth factors, have been shown to support motoneurons under various in vitro and in vivo conditions. We used a model of motoneuron cell death induced by sciatic nerve section in newborn rats and compared the efficacy of BDNF and GDNF administered alone or simultaneously in order to determine whether combinations of neurotrophic proteins can produce more potent motoneuron rescue than individual factors. The factors were administered by different methods, including (i) a single dose on to the transected nerve, (ii) continuous delivery from implanted slow-release polymer rods (BDNF) or encapsulated cells (GDNF), and (iii) repeated systemic injections (BDNF). Irrespective of the method of administration, either factor alone produced rescue effects which dramatically declined at two weeks as compared to one week post-lesion. In contrast, this decrease was significantly reduced when BDNF and GDNF were used simultaneously provided that one factor was applied on to the nerve while the other was continuously released from the rods or capsules. Other combinations in which GDNF was replaced by ciliary neurotrophic factor or axokine-1 failed to reproduce such additive activity. Two conclusions can be made from these experiments. First, when BDNF and GDNF are administered simultaneously but by distinct routes of delivery, their survival-promoting effects on the injured developing motoneurons are potentiated; second, even continuous delivery of each of these trophic factors alone cannot completely abrogate the time-dependent decline in rescue effects in this model of motoneuron cell death. PMID:9522368

  12. Space Rescue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muratore, John F.

    2007-01-01

    Space Rescue has been a topic of speculation for a wide community of people for decades. Astronauts, aerospace engineers, diplomats, medical and rescue professionals, inventors and science fiction writers have all speculated on this problem. Martin Caidin's 1964 novel Marooned dealt with the problems of rescuing a crew stranded in low earth orbit. Legend at the Johnson Space Center says that Caidin's portrayal of a Russian attempt to save the American crew played a pivotal role in convincing the Russians to join the real joint Apollo-Soyuz mission. Space Rescue has been a staple in science fiction television and movies portrayed in programs such as Star Trek, Stargate-SG1 and Space 1999 and movies such as Mission To Mars and Red Planet. As dramatic and as difficult as rescue appears in fictional accounts, in the real world it has even greater drama and greater difficulty. Space rescue is still in its infancy as a discipline and the purpose of this chapter is to describe the issues associated with space rescue and the work done so far in this field. For the purposes of this chapter, the term space rescue will refer to any system which allows for rescue or escape of personnel from situations which endanger human life in a spaceflight operation. This will span the period from crew ingress prior to flight through crew egress postlanding. For the purposes of this chapter, the term primary system will refer to the spacecraft system that a crew is either attempting to escape from or from which an attempt is being made to rescue the crew.

  13. Risk of large-scale evacuation based on the effectiveness of rescue strategies under different crowd densities.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinghong; Lo, Siuming; Wang, Qingsong; Sun, Jinhua; Mu, Honglin

    2013-08-01

    Crowd density is a key factor that influences the moving characteristics of a large group of people during a large-scale evacuation. In this article, the macro features of crowd flow and subsequent rescue strategies were considered, and a series of characteristic crowd densities that affect large-scale people movement, as well as the maximum bearing density when the crowd is extremely congested, were analyzed. On the basis of characteristic crowd densities, the queuing theory was applied to simulate crowd movement. Accordingly, the moving characteristics of the crowd and the effects of typical crowd density-which is viewed as the representation of the crowd's arrival intensity in front of the evacuation passageways-on rescue strategies was studied. Furthermore, a "risk axle of crowd density" is proposed to determine the efficiency of rescue strategies in a large-scale evacuation, i.e., whether the rescue strategies are able to effectively maintain or improve evacuation efficiency. Finally, through some rational hypotheses for the value of evacuation risk, a three-dimensional distribution of the evacuation risk is established to illustrate the risk axle of crowd density. This work aims to make some macro, but original, analysis on the risk of large-scale crowd evacuation from the perspective of the efficiency of rescue strategies. PMID:23126453

  14. Development of a Search and Rescue Simulation to Study the Effects of Prolonged Isolation on Team Decision Making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Entin, Elliot E.; Kerrigan, Caroline; Serfaty, Daniel; Young, Philip

    1998-01-01

    The goals of this project were to identify and investigate aspects of team and individual decision-making and risk-taking behaviors hypothesized to be most affected by prolonged isolation. A key premise driving our research approach is that effects of stressors that impact individual and team cognitive processes in an isolated, confined, and hazardous environment will be projected onto the performance of a simulation task. To elicit and investigate these team behaviors we developed a search and rescue task concept as a scenario domain that would be relevant for isolated crews. We modified the Distributed Dynamic Decision-making (DDD) simulator, a platform that has been extensively used for empirical research in team processes and taskwork performance, to portray the features of a search and rescue scenario and present the task components incorporated into that scenario. The resulting software is called DD-Search and Rescue (Version 1.0). To support the use of the DDD-Search and Rescue simulator in isolated experiment settings, we wrote a player's manual for teaching team members to operate the simulator and play the scenario. We then developed a research design and experiment plan that would allow quantitative measures of individual and team decision making skills using the DDD-Search and Rescue simulator as the experiment platform. A description of these activities and the associated materials that were produced under this contract are contained in this report.

  15. ESTIMATES OF THE NUMBE R OF STRANDED PERSONS AND THE RESCUE WAITING TIME IN CASE OF LARGE-SCALE FLOODS WITH EFFECTIVENESS ANALYSIS OF THE MITIGATORY OPERATIONS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeuchi, Koji; Ochi, Shigeo; Yasuda, Goro; Okamura, Jiro; Aono, Masashi

    In order to enhance the emergency preparedness for large-scale floods of the Ara River, we conducted flooded water surface calculation for many possible levee failure points an d categorized the flood patterns. We also conducted hearing survey from the National Police Agency, the Fire and Disaster Management Agency and the Defense Ministry about the number and the capacity of the rescue boats available as well as the estimated cycle time of the rescue operations. Employing these data, we constructed rescue simulation model and estimated the number of the stranded persons and the rescue waiting time. The damage mitigation effectiveness analysis of rescue operations, drainage pumps operations, and evacuation rate improving measures was conducted. The results of the analysis showed the proper operations of rescue and drainage pumps as well as achieving higher evacua tion rate can substantially decrease the number of the stranded persons 3 days, which is an important reference time for stranded persons' health, after the flooding.

  16. Environmental enrichment rescues the effects of early life inflammation on markers of synaptic transmission and plasticity.

    PubMed

    Kentner, Amanda C; Khoury, Antoine; Lima Queiroz, Erika; MacRae, Molly

    2016-10-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) has been successful at rescuing the brain from a variety of early-life psychogenic stressors. However, its ability to reverse the behavioral and neural alterations induced by a prenatal maternal infection model of schizophrenia is less clear. Moreover, the specific interactions between the components (i.e. social enhancement, novelty, physical activity) of EE that lead to its success as a supportive intervention have not been adequately identified. In the current study, standard housed female Sprague-Dawley rats were administered either the inflammatory endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 100μg/kg) or pyrogen-free saline (equivolume) on gestational day 15. On postnatal day 50, offspring were randomized into one of three conditions: EE (group housed in a large multi-level cage with novel toys, tubes and ramps), Colony Nesting (CN; socially-housed in a larger style cage), or Standard Care (SC; pair-housed in standard cages). Six weeks later we scored social engagement and performance in the object-in-place task. Afterwards hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (n=7-9) were collected and evaluated for excitatory amino acid transporter (EAAT) 1-3, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and neurotrophic tyrosine kinase, receptor type 2 (TrkB) gene expression (normalized to GAPDH) using qPCR methods. Overall, we show that gestational inflammation downregulates genes critical to synaptic transmission and plasticity, which may underlie the pathogenesis of neurodevelopmental disorders such as schizophrenia and autism. Additionally, we observed disruptions in both social engagement and spatial discrimination. Importantly, behavioral and neurophysiological effects were rescued in an experience dependent manner. Given the evidence that schizophrenia and autism may be associated with infection during pregnancy, these data have compelling implications for the prevention and reversibility of the consequences that follow immune activation in early in

  17. Maternal caloric restriction partially rescues the deleterious effects of advanced maternal age on offspring.

    PubMed

    Gribble, Kristin E; Jarvis, George; Bock, Martha; Mark Welch, David B

    2014-08-01

    While many studies have focused on the detrimental effects of advanced maternal age and harmful prenatal environments on progeny, little is known about the role of beneficial non-Mendelian maternal inheritance on aging. Here, we report the effects of maternal age and maternal caloric restriction (CR) on the life span and health span of offspring for a clonal culture of the monogonont rotifer Brachionus manjavacas. Mothers on regimens of chronic CR (CCR) or intermittent fasting (IF) had increased life span compared with mothers fed ad libitum (AL). With increasing maternal age, life span and fecundity of female offspring of AL-fed mothers decreased significantly and life span of male offspring was unchanged, whereas body size of both male and female offspring increased. Maternal CR partially rescued these effects, increasing the mean life span of AL-fed female offspring but not male offspring and increasing the fecundity of AL-fed female offspring compared with offspring of mothers of the same age. Both maternal CR regimens decreased male offspring body size, but only maternal IF decreased body size of female offspring, whereas maternal CCR caused a slight increase. Understanding the genetic and biochemical basis of these different maternal effects on aging may guide effective interventions to improve health span and life span. PMID:24661622

  18. Rescuing lymphocytes from HLA-G immunosuppressive effects mediated by the tumor microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Danli; Kuiaste, Isere; Moreau, Philippe; Carosella, Edgardo; Yotnda, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that the antitumor activities of both T and natural killer (NK) effector populations are limited by the immunosuppressive strategies of tumors. In several malignant transformations, the expression of HLA-G by tumor cells rises dramatically, rendering them strongly immunosuppressive. In this study, we postulated that the absence of HLA-G receptors would prevent the immunosuppressive effects of both soluble and membrane-bound HLA-G. Thus, we investigated the therapeutic potential of effector NK cells genetically modified to downregulate the expression of ILT2 (HLA-G receptor) on their cell surfaces. We have shown that the proliferation of modified NK is still dependent on stimulation signals (no malignant transformation). ILT2− NK cells proliferate, migrate, and eliminate HLA-G negative targets cells to the same extent parental NK cells do. However, in the presence of HLA-G positive tumors, ILT2− NK cells exhibit superior proliferation, conjugate formation, degranulation, and killing activities compared to parent NK cells. We tested the effectiveness of ILT2− NK cells in vivo using a xenograft cancer model and found that silencing ILT2 rescued their anti-tumor activity. We believe that combining ILT2− NK cells with existing therapeutic strategies will strengthen the antitumor response in cancer patients. PMID:26460949

  19. Pharmacological Selectivity Within Class I Histone Deacetylases Predicts Effects on Synaptic Function and Memory Rescue.

    PubMed

    Rumbaugh, Gavin; Sillivan, Stephanie E; Ozkan, Emin D; Rojas, Camilo S; Hubbs, Christopher R; Aceti, Massimiliano; Kilgore, Mark; Kudugunti, Shashi; Puthanveettil, Sathyanarayanan V; Sweatt, J David; Rusche, James; Miller, Courtney A

    2015-09-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are promising therapeutic targets for neurological and psychiatric disorders that impact cognitive ability, but the relationship between various HDAC isoforms and cognitive improvement is poorly understood, particularly in mouse models of memory impairment. A goal shared by many is to develop HDAC inhibitors with increased isoform selectivity in order to reduce unwanted side effects, while retaining procognitive effects. However, studies addressing this tack at the molecular, cellular and behavioral level are limited. Therefore, we interrogated the biological effects of class I HDAC inhibitors with varying selectivity and assessed a subset of these compounds for their ability to regulate transcriptional activity, synaptic function and memory. The HDAC-1, -2, and -3 inhibitors, RGFP963 and RGFP968, were most effective at stimulating synaptogenesis, while the selective HDAC3 inhibitor, RGFP966, with known memory enhancing abilities, had minimal impact. Furthermore, RGFP963 increased hippocampal spine density, while HDAC3 inhibition was ineffective. Genome-wide gene expression analysis by RNA sequencing indicated that RGFP963 and RGFP966 induce largely distinct transcriptional profiles in the dorsal hippocampus of mature mice. The results of bioinformatic analyses were consistent with RGFP963 inducing a transcriptional program that enhances synaptic efficacy. Finally, RGFP963, but not RGFP966, rescued memory in a mouse model of Alzheimer's Disease. Together, these studies suggest that the specific memory promoting properties of class I HDAC inhibitors may depend on isoform selectivity and that certain pathological brain states may be more receptive to HDAC inhibitors that improve network function by enhancing synapse efficacy. PMID:25837283

  20. Rescue Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Lifeshear cutter, a rescue tool for freeing accident victims from wreckage, was developed under the Clinton Administration's Technology Reinvestment Program. Prior cutting equipment was cumbersome and expensive; the new cutter is 50 percent lighter and 70 percent cheaper. The cutter is pyrotechnically-actuated, using a miniature version of the power cartridges used for separation devices on the Space Shuttle and other NASA spacecraft. Hi-Shear Technology Corporation developed the cutter with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and input from the City of Torrance (California) Fire Department.

  1. Rescue Manual. Module 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This learner manual for rescuers covers the current techniques or practices required in the rescue service. The eighth of 10 modules contains 6 chapters: (1) trench rescue; (2) shoring and tunneling techniques; (3) farm accident rescue; (4) wilderness search and rescue; (5) aircraft rescue; and (6) helicopter information. Key points, an…

  2. Rescue Manual. Module 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This learner manual for rescuers covers the current techniques or practices required in the rescue service. The ninth of 10 modules contains 7 chapters: (1) ice characteristics; (2) river characteristics and tactics for rescue; (3) water rescue techniques; (4) water rescue/recovery operations; (5) dive operations; (6) water rescue equipment; and…

  3. How competition affects evolutionary rescue

    PubMed Central

    Osmond, Matthew Miles; de Mazancourt, Claire

    2013-01-01

    Populations facing novel environments can persist by adapting. In nature, the ability to adapt and persist will depend on interactions between coexisting individuals. Here we use an adaptive dynamic model to assess how the potential for evolutionary rescue is affected by intra- and interspecific competition. Intraspecific competition (negative density-dependence) lowers abundance, which decreases the supply rate of beneficial mutations, hindering evolutionary rescue. On the other hand, interspecific competition can aid evolutionary rescue when it speeds adaptation by increasing the strength of selection. Our results clarify this point and give an additional requirement: competition must increase selection pressure enough to overcome the negative effect of reduced abundance. We therefore expect evolutionary rescue to be most likely in communities which facilitate rapid niche displacement. Our model, which aligns to previous quantitative and population genetic models in the absence of competition, provides a first analysis of when competitors should help or hinder evolutionary rescue. PMID:23209167

  4. Lunar mission safety and rescue: Escape/rescue analysis and plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The results are presented of the technical analysis of escape/rescue/survival situations, crew survival techniques, alternate escape/rescue approaches and vehicles, and the advantages and disadvantages of each for advanced lunar exploration. Candidate escape/rescue guidelines are proposed and elements of a rescue plan developed. The areas of discussions include the following: lunar arrival/departure operations, lunar orbiter operations, lunar surface operations, lunar surface base escape/rescue analysis, lander tug location operations, portable airlock, emergency pressure suit, and the effects of no orbiting lunar station, no lunar surface base, and no foreign lunar orbit/surface operations on the escape/rescue plan.

  5. Electronic search and rescue aids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trudell, B. J.

    1980-01-01

    There are two elements to the basic electronic search and rescue problem: a means for immediately alerting potential rescuers and an effective method to guide the rescue forces to the scene of the emergency. An Emergency Locator Transmitter (ELT) used by aircraft or an Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon (EPIRB) used by maritime vessels has the capability of providing for both an immediate alert and a homing signal to assist rescue forces in locating the site of the distress. This paper describes the development of ELT/EPIRB systems. Emphasis is placed on the SARSAT project, the COSPAS/SARSAT project, and an experimental 406 MHz ELT/EPIRB system.

  6. Rescue Manual. Module 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This learner manual for rescuers covers the current techniques or practices required in the rescue service. The sixth of 10 modules contains 4 chapters: (1) industrial rescue; (2) rescue from a confined space; (3) extrication from heavy equipment; and (4) rescue operations involving elevators. Key points, an introduction, and conclusion accompany…

  7. Snyder-Robinson Syndrome: Rescuing the Disease-Causing Effect of G56S mutant by Small Molecule Binding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhe; Martiny, Virginie; Lagorce, David; Alexov, Emil; Miteva, Maria; Clemson University Team; Université Paris Diderot Team

    2013-03-01

    Snyder-Robinson Syndrome (SRS) is an X-linked mental retardation disorder, which is caused by defects in a particular gene coding for the spermine synthase (SMS) protein. Among the missense mutations known to be disease-causing is the G56S, which is positioned at the interface of the SMS homo-dimer. Previous computational and experimental investigations have shown that G56S mutation destabilizes the homo-dimer and thus greatly reduces the SMS enzymatic activity. In this study, we explore the possibility of mitigating the effect of G56S mutation by binding small molecules to suitable pockets around the mutation site. It is done by combined efforts of molecular dynamics simulations and in silico screening. The binding of selected molecules was calculated to fully compensate the effect of the mutation and rescue the wild type dimer affinity. This work was supported by NIH, NLM grant. No. 1R03LM009748

  8. Effect of advanced location methods on search and rescue duration for general aviation aircraft accidents in the contiguous United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Ryan J.

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of advanced search and rescue devices and techniques on search duration for general aviation aircraft crashes. The study assessed three categories of emergency locator transmitters, including 121.5 MHz, 406 MHz, and GPS-Assisted 406 MHz devices. The impact of the COSPAS-SARSAT organization ceasing satellite monitoring for 121.5 MHz ELTs in 2009 was factored into the study. Additionally, the effect of using radar forensic analysis and cellular phone forensic search methods were also assessed. The study's data was derived from an Air Force Rescue Coordination Center database and included 365 historical general aviation search and rescue missions conducted between 2006 and 2011. Highly skewed data was transformed to meet normality requirements for parametric testing. The significance of each ELT model was assessed using a combination of Brown-Forsythe Means Testing or Orthogonal Contrast Testing. ANOVA and Brown-Forsythe Means testing was used to evaluate cellular phone and radar forensic search methods. A Spearman's Rho test was used to determine if the use of multiple search methods produced an additive effect in search efficiency. Aircraft which utilized an Emergency Locator Transmitter resulted in a shorter search duration than those which did not use such devices. Aircraft utilizing GPS-Aided 406 MHz ELTs appeared to require less time to locate than if equipped with other ELT models, however, this assessment requires further study due to limited data. Aircraft equipped with 406 MHz ELTs required slightly less time to locate than aircraft equipped with older 121.5 MHz ELTs. The study found no substantial difference in the search durations for 121.5 MHz ELTs monitored by COSPAS-SARSAT verses those which were not. Significance testing revealed that the use of cellular phone forensic data and radar forensic data both resulted in substantially higher mission search durations. Some possible explanations for this

  9. Rescue Skills and Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (DOD), Washington, DC.

    The guide has been prepared for use as a textbook in rescue training courses at DCPA (Defense Civil Preparedness Agency) approved training schools and is to be used in rescue training programs of State and local governments. The document explains the various types of rescue missions, command structure, the personnel of the operating unit,…

  10. Rescue Manual. Module 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This learner manual for rescuers covers the current techniques or practices required in the rescue service. The fourth of 10 modules contains 8 chapters: (1) construction and characteristics of rescue rope; (2) knots, bends, and hitches; (3) critical angles; (4) raising systems; (5) rigging; (6) using the brake-bar rack for rope rescue; (7) rope…

  11. Highly specific ubiquitin-competing molecules effectively promote frataxin accumulation and partially rescue the aconitase defect in Friedreich ataxia cells

    PubMed Central

    Rufini, Alessandra; Cavallo, Francesca; Condò, Ivano; Fortuni, Silvia; De Martino, Gabriella; Incani, Ottaviano; Di Venere, Almerinda; Benini, Monica; Massaro, Damiano Sergio; Arcuri, Gaetano; Serio, Dario; Malisan, Florence; Testi, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Friedreich ataxia is an inherited neurodegenerative disease that leads to progressive disability. There is currently no effective treatment and patients die prematurely. The underlying genetic defect leads to reduced expression of the mitochondrial protein frataxin. Frataxin insufficiency causes mitochondrial dysfunction and ultimately cell death, particularly in peripheral sensory ganglia. There is an inverse correlation between the amount of residual frataxin and the severity of disease progression; therefore, therapeutic approaches aiming at increasing frataxin levels are expected to improve patients' conditions. We previously discovered that a significant amount of frataxin precursor is degraded by the ubiquitin/proteasome system before its functional mitochondrial maturation. We also provided evidence for the therapeutic potential of small molecules that increase frataxin levels by docking on the frataxin ubiquitination site, thus preventing frataxin ubiquitination and degradation. We called these compounds ubiquitin-competing molecules (UCM). By extending our search for effective UCM, we identified a set of new and more potent compounds that more efficiently promote frataxin accumulation. Here we show that these compounds directly interact with frataxin and prevent its ubiquitination. Interestingly, these UCM are not effective on the ubiquitin-resistant frataxin mutant, indicating their specific action on preventing frataxin ubiquitination. Most importantly, these compounds are able to promote frataxin accumulation and aconitase rescue in cells derived from patients, strongly supporting their therapeutic potential. PMID:25549872

  12. Rescue of heavy metal effects on cell physiology of the algal model system Micrasterias by divalent ions

    PubMed Central

    Volland, Stefanie; Bayer, Elisabeth; Baumgartner, Verena; Andosch, Ancuela; Lütz, Cornelius; Sima, Evelyn; Lütz-Meindl, Ursula

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that metals such as copper, zinc, aluminum, cadmium, chromium, iron and lead cause severe dose-dependent disturbances in growth, morphogenesis, photosynthetic and respiratory activity as well as on ultrastructure and function of organelles in the algal model system Micrasterias denticulata (Volland et al., 2011, 2012; Andosch et al., 2012). In the present investigation we focus on amelioration of these adverse effects of cadmium, chromium and lead by supplying the cells with different antioxidants and essential micronutrients to obtain insight into metal uptake mechanisms and subcellular metal targets. This seems particularly interesting as Micrasterias is adapted to extremely low-concentrated, oligotrophic conditions in its natural bog environment. The divalent ions of iron, zinc and calcium were able to diminish the effects of the metals cadmium, chromium and lead on Micrasterias. Iron showed most ameliorating effects on cadmium and chromium in short- and long-term treatments and improved cell morphogenesis, ultrastructure, cell division rates and photosynthesis. Analytical transmission electron microscopic (TEM) methods (electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and electron spectroscopic imaging (ESI)) revealed that chromium uptake was decreased when Micrasterias cells were pre-treated with iron, which resulted in no longer detectable intracellular chromium accumulations. Zinc rescued the detrimental effects of chromium on net-photosynthesis, respiration rates and electron transport in PS II. Calcium and gadolinium were able to almost completely compensate the inhibiting effects of lead and cadmium on cell morphogenesis after mitosis, respectively. These results indicate that cadmium is taken up by calcium and iron transporters, whereas chromium appears to enter the algae cells via iron and zinc carriers. It was shown that lead is not taken up into Micrasterias at all but exerts its adverse effects on cell growth by substituting cell

  13. Rescue of heavy metal effects on cell physiology of the algal model system Micrasterias by divalent ions.

    PubMed

    Volland, Stefanie; Bayer, Elisabeth; Baumgartner, Verena; Andosch, Ancuela; Lütz, Cornelius; Sima, Evelyn; Lütz-Meindl, Ursula

    2014-01-15

    Recent studies have shown that metals such as copper, zinc, aluminum, cadmium, chromium, iron and lead cause severe dose-dependent disturbances in growth, morphogenesis, photosynthetic and respiratory activity as well as on ultrastructure and function of organelles in the algal model system Micrasterias denticulata (Volland et al., 2011, 2012; Andosch et al., 2012). In the present investigation we focus on amelioration of these adverse effects of cadmium, chromium and lead by supplying the cells with different antioxidants and essential micronutrients to obtain insight into metal uptake mechanisms and subcellular metal targets. This seems particularly interesting as Micrasterias is adapted to extremely low-concentrated, oligotrophic conditions in its natural bog environment. The divalent ions of iron, zinc and calcium were able to diminish the effects of the metals cadmium, chromium and lead on Micrasterias. Iron showed most ameliorating effects on cadmium and chromium in short- and long-term treatments and improved cell morphogenesis, ultrastructure, cell division rates and photosynthesis. Analytical transmission electron microscopic (TEM) methods (electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and electron spectroscopic imaging (ESI)) revealed that chromium uptake was decreased when Micrasterias cells were pre-treated with iron, which resulted in no longer detectable intracellular chromium accumulations. Zinc rescued the detrimental effects of chromium on net-photosynthesis, respiration rates and electron transport in PS II. Calcium and gadolinium were able to almost completely compensate the inhibiting effects of lead and cadmium on cell morphogenesis after mitosis, respectively. These results indicate that cadmium is taken up by calcium and iron transporters, whereas chromium appears to enter the algae cells via iron and zinc carriers. It was shown that lead is not taken up into Micrasterias at all but exerts its adverse effects on cell growth by substituting cell

  14. Rescue Manual. Module 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This learner manual for rescuers covers the current techniques or practices required in the rescue service. The second of 10 modules contains 5 chapters: (1) patient care and handling techniques; (2) rescue carries and drags; (3) emergency vehicle operations; (4) self-contained breathing apparatus; and (5) protective clothing. Key points, an…

  15. Effect of edaravone on favorable outcome in patients with acute cerebral large vessel occlusion: subanalysis of RESCUE-Japan Registry.

    PubMed

    Miyaji, Yuki; Yoshimura, Shinichi; Sakai, Nobuyuki; Yamagami, Hiroshi; Egashira, Yusuke; Shirakawa, Manabu; Uchida, Kazutaka; Kageyama, Hirohito; Tomogane, Yusuke

    2015-01-01

    The data of the nationwide prospective registry of acute cerebral large vessel occlusion (LVO; RESCUE-Japan Registry) were analyzed to know the effect of edaravone, a free radical scavenger, on clinical outcome at 90 days after onset. In this registry, patients with acute cerebral LVO admitted within 24 h after onset were prospectively registered. The effect of various factors including endovascular treatment (EVT), intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (IV rt-PA), and other medication including edaravone on favorable outcome (modified Rankin scale 0-1) was analyzed. Of the 1,454 registered patients, 1,442 patients (99.2%) had the information of edaravone were analyzed. In total, edaravone group had more patients with favorable outcome compared to non-edaravone group (22.9% vs. 13.8%, p = 0.0006). Edaravone increased favorable outcome in patients treated with IV rt-PA (29.4% vs. 11.1%, p = 0.0107), but not with EVT (21.2% vs. 13.9%, p = 0.309). Logistic regression analysis revealed that higher National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score on admission [odds ratio (OR) 0.875, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.858-0.894] and advanced age (OR 0.963, 95%CI 0.952-0.975) were significantly related to unfavorable outcome. In contrast, IV rt-PA (OR 2.489, 95%CI 1.867-3.319), EVT (OR 1.375, 95%CI 1.013-1.865), and edaravone (OR 1.483, 95%CI 1.027-2.143) were significantly associated with favorable outcome. This analysis indicated that IV rt-PA, EVT, and edaravone were effective to obtain favorable outcome in patients with acute LVO. Combination IV rt-PA with edaravone was more effective. PMID:25739433

  16. A Space Station crew rescue and equipment retrieval system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adornato, Rudolph J.; Bo, Ronald A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper studies the possible use of a Space Station crew rescue and equipment retrieval system as a safeguard against the inadvertent separation of crew or equipment from the Space Station. The time to effect rescue and retrieval and the problem of crew separation are discussed. Alternate rescue/retrieval systems are evaluated. It is concluded that telerobotic vehicles provide the lowest cost rescue capability.

  17. The Argos contribution to the demonstration of the effectiveness of a satellite-based search and rescue system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolland, R.

    The use of the CNES/NASA/NOAA Argos environmental-research instrumentation on the Tiros-N series of satellites as a search and rescue location-finding system for trans-Atlantic yacht races during 1979-1982 is described. The transmission beacons, satellite equipment, data-processing center, and data distribution facilities of Argos are characterized and illustrated; the nine race rescue operations in which Argos was involved are listed and discussed; and the deficiencies of Argos are shown to be fully corrected in the 406-MHz location system developed for Sarsat.

  18. An oncolytic adenovirus enhances antiangiogenic and antitumoral effects of a replication-deficient adenovirus encoding endostatin by rescuing its selective replication in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Ran-yi; Zhou, Ling; Zhang, Yan-ling; Huang, Bi-jun; Ke, Miao-la; Chen, Jie-min; Li, Li-xia; Fu, Xiang; Wu, Jiang-xue; Huang, Wenlin

    2013-12-13

    Highlights: •H101 promotes endostatin expression by Ad-Endo via rescuing Ad-Endo replication. •H101 rescued Ad-Endo replication by supplying E1A and E1B19k proteins. •Ad-Endo enhanced the cytotoxicity of H101 in NPC cells. •Ad-Endo and oncolytic Ad H101 have synergistic antitumor effects on NPC. -- Abstract: A replication-deficient adenovirus (Ad) encoding secreted human endostatin (Ad-Endo) has been demonstrated to have promising antiangiogenic and antitumoral effects. The E1B55k-deleted Ad H101 can selectively lyse cancer cells. In this study, we explored the antitumor effects and cross-interactions of Ad-Endo and H101 on nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The results showed that H101 dramatically promoted endostatin expression by Ad-Endo via rescuing Ad-Endo replication in NPC cells, and the expressed endostatin proteins significantly inhibited the proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. E1A and E1B19k products are required for the rescuing of H101 to Ad-Endo replication in CNE-1 and CNE-2 cells, but not in C666-1 cells. On the other hand, Ad-Endo enhanced the cytotoxicity of H101 by enhancing Ad replication in NPC cells. The combination of H101 and Ad-Endo significantly inhibited CNE-2 xenografts growth through the increased endostatin expression and Ad replication. These findings indicate that the combination of Ad-Endo gene therapy and oncolytic Ad therapeutics could be promising in comprehensive treatment of NPC.

  19. A survey of the relationship between work schedule and its effect on the fatigue of rescue personnel in Isfahan with a standard method of CIS202

    PubMed Central

    Habibi, Ehsanollah; Soury, Shiva; Vardanjani, Hassan Rajabi; Khodarahmi, Behnam; Dehghan, Habibollah; Hosseini, Mohsen; Esmaeli, Hamid; Khademi, Abolfazl

    2015-01-01

    Context: Fatigue is a factor that can have negative effects on family life, social relationship and work. Work schedule is one of the affective factors on personnel's fatigue in different jobs. In this study, the work schedule and its effect on rescue personnel in Isfahan are explored. Aims: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between work schedules and fatigue among rescue personnel. Settings and Design: This study is periodical and has been conducted on 72 employees of rescue personnel in Isfahan. Materials and Methods: Random sampling was done and the primary data that was collected through fatigue assessment questionnaire after being conducted as a pilot study on 10% of samples were collected to confirm the validity of this study. Finally, the data was given to SPSS11.5 software and were analyzed by descriptive statistics and linear digression. Results: The results showed that from the statistical point of view some parts of work schedules like work hours satisfaction, resting time and work order on total fatigue are effective in linear and inverse way but the item “predictibility of work conditions” does not have a meaningful relationship with total fatigue. Furthermore, the results showed that there is a meaningful and inverse relationship with work hours, resting time and work order with mental fatigue and also the work schedule has a meaningful, linear and inverse relation with mental fatigue and total fatigue. Conclusions: By increasing the satisfaction of working hours, increasing resting time and also with an increase of work order the total fatigue of rescue personnel will decrease.

  20. Physiologic effects of a self-contained self-rescue apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Petsonk, E.L.; Hancock, J.; Boyles, C.

    1983-05-01

    Recently promulgated federal regulations mandate the provision of an emergency, self-contained, oxygen-supplying breathing device (self-contained self-rescuer, SCSR) to all underground coalminers. In order to assist in defining the potential limitations of this new device, we measured the responses of ten healthy coal mine inspectors to submaximal steady-state treadmill exercise with and without the SCSR. During the last minute of exercise, blood oxygen saturation averaged 98.3% and mouth pressure swing 15.6 cm H/sub 2/O with the device, compared to 94.8% and 10.4 cm H/sub 2/O without it. Mean respiratory rates were decreased to 25/min with the SCSR from 28/min without it. Blood pressure, core temperature and heart rate were unaffected. We conclude that in healthy individuals on submaximal exercise there is little evidence of a significant adverse effect of the new device.

  1. Effect of Advanced Location Methods on Search and Rescue Duration for General Aviation Aircraft Accidents in the Contiguous United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Ryan J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of advanced search and rescue devices and techniques on search duration for general aviation aircraft crashes. The study assessed three categories of emergency locator transmitters, including 121.5 MHz, 406 MHz, and GPS-Assisted 406 MHz devices. The impact of the COSPAS-SARSAT organization…

  2. Apoptosis blocks Beclin 1-dependent autophagosome synthesis – an effect rescued by Bcl-xL

    PubMed Central

    Luo, S; Rubinsztein, D C.

    2009-01-01

    Apoptotic cell death is mediated by caspase activation. Autophagy involves the sequestration of cytoplasmic contents into autophagosomes for traffic to lysosomes for degradation. While autophagy is antiapoptotic, increased numbers of autophagosomes have been associated with forms of non-apoptotic cell death. Apoptosis and autophagy may be co-regulated in the same directions, as the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL proteins negatively regulate autophagy by binding to Beclin 1 (mammalian Atg6), and pro-apoptotic BH3-only proteins may reverse this effect by displacing these interactions. Here we show that apoptosis can suppress autophagy. Apoptosis induced by the pro-apoptotic protein Bax reduced autophagy by enhancing caspase-mediated cleavage of Beclin 1 at D149. After cleavage, both N and C-terminal Beclin 1 fragments change their localisations and these fragments do not interact normally with Vps34, which is required for autophagy. The cleavage of Beclin 1 is a critical event whereby caspases inhibit autophagy, as a non-cleavable Beclin 1 mutant restored autophagy in cells overexpressing Bax. PMID:19713971

  3. Nrf2 the rescue: Effects of the antioxidative/electrophilic response on the liver

    SciTech Connect

    Klaassen, Curtis D.; Reisman, Scott A.

    2010-04-01

    Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that positively regulates the basal and inducible expression of a large battery of cytoprotective genes. These gene products include proteins that catalyze reduction reactions (NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1, Nqo1), conjugation reactions (glutathione-S-transferases, Gsts and UDP-glucuronosyltransferases, Ugts), as well as the efflux of potentially toxic xenobiotics and xenobiotic conjugates (multidrug resistance-associated proteins, Mrps). The significance of Nrf2 in the liver has been established, as livers of Nrf2-null mice are more susceptible to various oxidative/electrophilic stress-induced pathologies than wild-type mice. In contrast, both pharmacological and genetic models of hepatic Nrf2 activation are protective against oxidative/electrophilic stress. Furthermore, because certain Nrf2-target genes in the liver could affect the distribution, metabolism, and excretion of xenobiotics, the effects of Nrf2 on the kinetics of drugs and other xenobiotics should also be considered, with a special emphasis on metabolism and excretion. Therefore, this review highlights the research that has contributed to the understanding of the importance of Nrf2 in toxicodynamics and toxicokinetics, especially that which pertains to the liver.

  4. Endoscopic multiple metal stenting for the treatment of enteral leaks near the biliary orifice: A novel effective rescue procedure

    PubMed Central

    Mutignani, Massimiliano; Dioscoridi, Lorenzo; Dokas, Stefanos; Aseni, Paolo; Carnevali, Pietro; Forti, Edoardo; Manta, Raffaele; Sica, Mariano; Tringali, Alberto; Pugliese, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Between April 2013 and October 2015, 6 patients developed periampullary duodenal or jejunal/biliary leaks after major abdominal surgery. In all patients, percutaneous drainage of the collection or re-operation with primary surgical repair was attempted at first but failed. A fully covered enteral metal stent was placed in all patients to seal the leak. Subsequently, we cannulated the common bile duct and, in some cases, and the main pancreatic duct inserting hydrophilic guidewires through the stent after dilating the stent mesh with a dilatation balloon or breaking the meshes with Argon Plasma Beam. Finally, we inserted a fully covered biliary metal stent to drain the bile into the lumen of the enteral stent. In cases of normal proximal upper gastrointestinal anatomy, a pancreatic plastic stent was also inserted. Oral food intake was initiated when the abdominal drain outflow stopped completely. Stent removal was scheduled four to eight weeks later after a CT scan to confirm the complete healing of the fistula and the absence of any perilesional residual fluid collection. The leak resolved in five patients. One patient died two days after the procedure due to severe, pre-existing, sepsis. The stents were removed endoscopically in four weeks in four patients. In one patient we experienced stent migration causing small bowel obstruction. In this case, the stents were removed surgically. Four patients are still alive today. They are still under follow-up and doing well. Bilio-enteral fully covered metal stenting with or without pancreatic stenting was feasible, safe and effective in treating postoperative enteral leaks near the biliopancreatic orifice in our small series. This minimally invasive procedure can be implemented in selected patients as a rescue procedure to repair these challenging leaks. PMID:27606045

  5. [The compilation, contents and spread of Qing li Shan jiu Fang (Formulary for Effective Rescuing in the Qingli Reign].

    PubMed

    Han, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Qing li shan jiu fang (Formulary for Effective Rescuing in the Qingli Reign), compiled by Hanlin Academy of Medical Official in 1048 under the decree of the Emperor, is a medical formulary exclusively used to prevent and control poisonous parasite disease. It is composed of formulae provided by a medical scholar of Fuzhou, Lin Shiyuan, together with other formulae collected by the imperial physicians and so on. Unfortunately, it was lost about after the demise of the Southern Song Dynasty. However, in the Southern Song Dynasty, two books, Liang Kejia's Chun xi san shan zhi and Hong Mai's Yi jian zhi bu, do record the progress of its compilation, parts of its contents and the condition of its spread and application. Moreover, they also describe the kinds, the feature, the epidemic, prevention and cure of parasite poison. It is especially good that this book preserves three famous formulae, including Zhi gu du zheng fang (Orthodox Formula for Treating Parasitic Poisons) (called A Cathartic Formula with 8 Ingredients in the Yuan Dynasty), Jie du wan (Antidote Pills) and He qi tang san (Powder of Decoction for Harmonious Qi), which are of medical significance for the understanding of the property of Qing li shan jiu fang. The Song emperors, the central government and local officials all paid high attention to the spread and application of this book. They not only enacted it to the counties, and provinces, but also carved it on stone steles for popularizing the knowledge of preventing parasitic poisons to medical workers and common people. PMID:26268258

  6. Endoscopic multiple metal stenting for the treatment of enteral leaks near the biliary orifice: A novel effective rescue procedure.

    PubMed

    Mutignani, Massimiliano; Dioscoridi, Lorenzo; Dokas, Stefanos; Aseni, Paolo; Carnevali, Pietro; Forti, Edoardo; Manta, Raffaele; Sica, Mariano; Tringali, Alberto; Pugliese, Francesco

    2016-08-10

    Between April 2013 and October 2015, 6 patients developed periampullary duodenal or jejunal/biliary leaks after major abdominal surgery. In all patients, percutaneous drainage of the collection or re-operation with primary surgical repair was attempted at first but failed. A fully covered enteral metal stent was placed in all patients to seal the leak. Subsequently, we cannulated the common bile duct and, in some cases, and the main pancreatic duct inserting hydrophilic guidewires through the stent after dilating the stent mesh with a dilatation balloon or breaking the meshes with Argon Plasma Beam. Finally, we inserted a fully covered biliary metal stent to drain the bile into the lumen of the enteral stent. In cases of normal proximal upper gastrointestinal anatomy, a pancreatic plastic stent was also inserted. Oral food intake was initiated when the abdominal drain outflow stopped completely. Stent removal was scheduled four to eight weeks later after a CT scan to confirm the complete healing of the fistula and the absence of any perilesional residual fluid collection. The leak resolved in five patients. One patient died two days after the procedure due to severe, pre-existing, sepsis. The stents were removed endoscopically in four weeks in four patients. In one patient we experienced stent migration causing small bowel obstruction. In this case, the stents were removed surgically. Four patients are still alive today. They are still under follow-up and doing well. Bilio-enteral fully covered metal stenting with or without pancreatic stenting was feasible, safe and effective in treating postoperative enteral leaks near the biliopancreatic orifice in our small series. This minimally invasive procedure can be implemented in selected patients as a rescue procedure to repair these challenging leaks. PMID:27606045

  7. Constitutive MEK1 activation rescues anthrax lethal toxin-induced vascular effects in vivo.

    PubMed

    Bolcome, Robert E; Chan, Joanne

    2010-12-01

    Anthrax lethal toxin (LT) increases vascular leakage in a number of mammalian models and in human anthrax disease. Using a zebrafish model, we determined that vascular delivery of LT increased permeability, which was phenocopied by treatment with a selective chemical inhibitor of MEK1 and MEK2 (also known as mitogen-activated protein kinase [MAPK] kinase, MEK, or MKK). Here we investigate further the role of MEK1/phospho-ERK (pERK) in the action of LT. Overexpression of wild-type zebrafish MEK1 at high levels did not induce detrimental effects. However, a constitutively activated version, MEK1(S219D,S223D) (MEK1DD), induced early defects in embryonic development that correlated with increased ERK/MAPK phosphorylation. To bypass these early developmental defects and to provide a genetic tool for examining the action of lethal factor (LF), we generated inducible transgenic zebrafish lines expressing either wild-type or activated MEK1 under the control of a heat shock promoter. Remarkably, induction of MEK1DD transgene expression prior to LT delivery prevented vascular damage, while the wild-type MEK1 line did not. In the presence of both LT and MEK1DD transgene expression, cardiovascular development and function proceeded normally in most embryos. The resistance to microsphere leakage in transgenic animals demonstrated a protective role against LT-induced vascular permeability. A consistent increase in ERK phosphorylation among LT-resistant MEK1DD transgenic animals provided additional confirmation of transgene activation. These findings provide a novel genetic approach to examine mechanism of action of LT in vivo through one of its known targets. This approach may be generally applied to investigate additional pathogen-host interactions and to provide mechanistic insights into host signaling pathways affected by pathogen entry. PMID:20855511

  8. Over-the-scope clip placement is effective rescue therapy for severe acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Skinner, Matthew; Gutierrez, Juan P.; Neumann, Helmut; Wilcox, C. Mel; Burski, Chad; Mönkemüller, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Background and study aim: The novel over-the-scope clip (OTSC) allows for excellent apposition of tissue, potentially permitting hemostasis to be achieved in various types of gastrointestinal lesions. This study aimed to evaluate the usefulness and safety of OTSCs for endoscopic hemostasis in patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding in whom traditional endoscopic methods had failed. Patients and methods: A retrospective case series of all patients who underwent placement of an OTSC for severe recurrent upper gastrointestinal bleeding over a 14-month period was studied. Outcome data for the procedure included achievement of primary hemostasis, episodes of recurrent bleeding, and complications. Results: Twelve consecutive patients (67 % men; mean age 59, range 29 – 86) with ongoing upper gastrointestinal bleeding despite previous endoscopic management were included. They had a mean ASA score of 3 (range 2 – 4), a mean hemoglobin of 7.2 g/dL (range 5.2 – 9.1), and shock was present in 75 % of patients. They had all received packed red blood cells (mean 5.1 units, range 2 – 12). The etiology of bleeding was: duodenal ulcer (n = 6), gastric ulcer (n = 2) Dieulafoy lesion (n = 2), anastomotic ulceration (n = 1), Mallory – Weiss tear (n = 1). Hemostasis was achieved in all patients. Rebleeding occurred in two patients 1 day and 7 days after OTSC placement. There were no complications associated with OTSC application. Conclusions: OTSC use represents an effective, easily performed, and safe endoscopic therapy for various causes of severe acute gastrointestinal bleeding when conventional endoscopic techniques have failed. This therapy should be added to the armamentarium of therapeutic endoscopists. PMID:26134611

  9. Countries renew rescue agreement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, Susan M.

    To insure long-term continuity for the international satellite search and rescue system, COSPAS/SARSAT, an intergovernmental agreement binding the four sponsoring nations to cooperate was signed July 1 in Paris. According to Russell Vollmers of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the agreement is binding for 15 years, with an automatic extension.The system marked the fifth anniversary of its first rescue last year, when on September 10, 1982, three persons were rescued. Begun in the 1970s by NASA as an experiment, COSPAS/SARSAT (a Russian-English acronym) is now a cooperative project among the United States, Canada, France, and the Soviet Union. Its goal is to reduce the time required to rescue air and maritime distress victims and also to locate victims who otherwise may not be found, thus using the satellite system as a life-saving device.

  10. Airborne rescue system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haslim, Leonard A. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    The airborne rescue system includes a boom with telescoping members for extending a line and collar to a rescue victim. The boom extends beyond the tip of the helicopter rotor so that the victim may avoid the rotor downwash. The rescue line is played out and reeled in by winch. The line is temporarily retained under the boom. When the boom is extended, the rescue line passes through clips. When the victim dons the collar and the tension in the line reaches a predetermined level, the clips open and release the line from the boom. Then the rescue line can form a straight line between the victim and the winch, and the victim can be lifted to the helicopter. A translator is utilized to push out or pull in the telescoping members. The translator comprises a tape and a rope. Inside the telescoping members the tape is curled around the rope and the tape has a tube-like configuration. The tape and rope are provided from supply spools.

  11. Escape and rescue model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvord, D.; Nelson, H. E.

    The Escape and Rescue model is a discrete-event simulation program written in Simscript. It was developed to simulate the emergency movement involved in escape and/or rescue of people from a Board and Care Home housing a group of persons with varying degrees of physical or mental disabilities along with a small live-in staff. It may, however, be used in a much more general setting. It can reasonably handle a building with up to 100 residents and 100 rooms.

  12. SAFER Rescue System Tested

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Astronauts Carl J. Meade and Mark C. Lee (red strip on suit) test the new Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue (SAFER) system some 130 nautical miles above Earth. The pair was actually performing an in-space rehearsal or demonstration of a contingency rescue using never-before flown hardware. Meade, who here wears the small back-pack unit with its complementary chest-mounted control unit, and Lee anchored to the Space Shuttle Discovery's Remote Manipulator System (RMS) robot arm, took turns using the SAFER hardware during their shared space walk.

  13. Factors influencing mine rescue team behaviors.

    PubMed

    Jansky, Jacqueline H; Kowalski-Trakofler, K M; Brnich, M J; Vaught, C

    2016-01-01

    A focus group study of the first moments in an underground mine emergency response was conducted by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Office for Mine Safety and Health Research. Participants in the study included mine rescue team members, team trainers, mine officials, state mining personnel, and individual mine managers. A subset of the data consists of responses from participants with mine rescue backgrounds. These responses were noticeably different from those given by on-site emergency personnel who were at the mine and involved with decisions made during the first moments of an event. As a result, mine rescue team behavior data were separated in the analysis and are reported in this article. By considering the responses from mine rescue team members and trainers, it was possible to sort the data and identify seven key areas of importance to them. On the basis of the responses from the focus group participants with a mine rescue background, the authors concluded that accurate and complete information and a unity of purpose among all command center personnel are two of the key conditions needed for an effective mine rescue operation. PMID:26963229

  14. Operation Rescue. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, Neena; Crawford, Georgette

    The Operation Rescue project was designed to develop a classroom setting for the delivery of comprehensive educational services to "at risk" young adolescents. The classroom was established as part of the pre-existing Jonesboro Alternative School, and it utilized the basic academic and social program developed by this entity over 12 years of work…

  15. Close Call: Unwanted Rescue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Leadership, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Describes incident where group engaged in training exercise was almost "rescued" by Coast Guard, although Coast Guard had been alerted that training exercise would be taking place. On another occasion Coast Guard did not react to actual report, thinking it was training group. Group was studying grey seal breeding colonies in Pembrokeshire. (KS)

  16. Rescue Manual. Module 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This learner manual for rescuers covers the current techniques or practices required in the rescue service. The fifth of 10 modules contains information on hazardous materials. Key points, an introduction, and conclusion accompany substantive material in this module. In addition, the module contains a Department of Transportation guide chart on…

  17. Lightweight Boom For Rescue Helicopter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haslim, Leonard A.

    1993-01-01

    Telescoping boom and associated mechanisms attached to helicopter aid rescue operations by extending lifeline beyond sweep of main rotor. Pilot observes rescuee and control position of helicopter more effectively than if rescuee directly below and hidden from pilot's view. Rescuee outside downdraft of rotor, which is often powerful enough to blow away or submerge someone in water. Used for marine or land operations. Boom thin and lightweight because it need not support weight of rescuee. Lifeline pulls away from boom after secured around rescuee, who is lifted directly into cabin by winch. Potential application for in situ erection of telescopic space structures.

  18. Collectivizing rescue obligations in bioethics.

    PubMed

    Garrett, Jeremy R

    2015-01-01

    Bioethicists invoke a duty to rescue in a wide range of cases. Indeed, arguably, there exists an entire medical paradigm whereby vast numbers of medical encounters are treated as rescue cases. The intuitive power of the rescue paradigm is considerable, but much of this power stems from the problematic way that rescue cases are conceptualized-namely, as random, unanticipated, unavoidable, interpersonal events for which context is irrelevant and beneficence is the paramount value. In this article, I critique the basic assumptions of the rescue paradigm, reframe the ethical landscape in which rescue obligations are understood, and defend the necessity and value of a wider social and institutional view. Along the way, I move back and forth between ethical theory and a concrete case where the duty to rescue has been problematically applied: the purported duty to regularly return incidental findings and individual research results in genomic and genetic research. PMID:25674948

  19. Pyridoxamine and pyridoxal are more effective than pyridoxine in rescuing folding-defective variants of human alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase causing primary hyperoxaluria type I.

    PubMed

    Oppici, Elisa; Fargue, Sonia; Reid, Emma S; Mills, Philippa B; Clayton, Peter T; Danpure, Christopher J; Cellini, Barbara

    2015-10-01

    Vitamin B6 in the form of pyridoxine (PN) is one of the most widespread pharmacological therapies for inherited diseases involving pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzymes, including primary hyperoxaluria type I (PH1). PH1 is caused by a deficiency of liver-peroxisomal alanine: glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT), which allows glyoxylate oxidation to oxalate leading to the deposition of insoluble calcium oxalate in the kidney. Only a minority of PH1 patients, mostly bearing the F152I and G170R mutations, respond to PN, the only pharmacological treatment currently available. Moreover, excessive doses of PN reduce the specific activity of AGT in a PH1 cellular model. Nevertheless, the possible effect(s) of other B6 vitamers has not been investigated previously. Here, we compared the ability of PN in rescuing the effects of the F152I and G170R mutations with that of pyridoxamine (PM) and PL. We found that supplementation with PN raises the intracellular concentration of PN phosphate (PNP), which competes with PLP for apoenzyme binding leading to the formation of an inactive AGT-PNP complex. In contrast, PNP does not accumulate in the cell upon PM or PL supplementation, but higher levels of PLP and PM phosphate (PMP), the two active forms of the AGT coenzyme, are found. This leads to an increased ability of PM and PL to rescue the effects of the F152I and G170R mutations compared with PN. A similar effect was also observed for other folding-defective AGT variants. Thus, PM and PL should be investigated as matter of importance as therapeutics for PH1 patients bearing folding mutations. PMID:26199318

  20. Developing a new perspective to study the health of survivors of Sichuan earthquakes in China: a study on the effect of post-earthquake rescue policies on survivors’ health-related quality of life

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sichuan is a province in China with an extensive history of earthquakes. Recent earthquakes, including the Lushan earthquake in 2013, have resulted in thousands of people losing their homes and their families. However, there is a research gap on the efficiency of government support policies. Therefore, this study develops a new perspective to study the health of earthquake survivors, based on the effect of post-earthquake rescue policies on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of survivors of the Sichuan earthquake. Methods This study uses data from a survey conducted in five hard-hit counties (Wenchuan, Qingchuan, Mianzhu, Lushan, and Dujiangyan) in Sichuan in 2013. A total of 2,000 questionnaires were distributed, and 1,672 were returned; the response rate was 83.6%. Results Results of the rescue policies scale and Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (SF-36) scale passed the reliability test. The confirmatory factor analysis model showed that the physical component summary (PCS) directly affected the mental component summary (MCS). The results of structural equation model regarding the effects of rescue policies on HRQOL showed that the path coefficients of six policies (education, orphans, employment, poverty, legal, and social rescue policies) to the PCS of survivors were all positive and passed the test of significance. Finally, although only the path coefficient of the educational rescue policy to the MCS of survivors was positive and passed the test of significance, the other five policies affected the MCS indirectly through the PCS. Conclusions The general HRQOL of survivors is not ideal; the survivors showed a low satisfaction with the post-earthquake rescue policies. Further, the six post-earthquake rescue policies significantly improved the HRQOL of survivors and directly affected the promotion of the PCS of survivors. Aside from the educational rescue policy, all other policies affected the MCS indirectly through the PCS. This finding

  1. Rescuing neurons in prion disease.

    PubMed

    Verity, Nicholas C; Mallucci, Giovanna R

    2011-01-01

    One of the major current challenges to both medicine and neuroscience is the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, which pose an ever-increasing medical, social and economic burden in the developed world. These disorders, which include Alzheimer's, Huntington's and Parkinson's diseases, and the rarer prion diseases, are separate entities clinically but have common features, including aggregates of misfolded proteins and varying patterns of neurodegeneration. A key barrier to effective treatment is that patients present clinically with advanced, irreversible, neuronal loss. Critically, mechanisms of neurotoxicity are poorly understood. Prevention of neuronal loss, ideally by targeting underlying pathogenic mechanisms, must be the aim of therapy. The present review describes the rationale and experimental approaches that have allowed such prevention, rescuing neurons in mice with prion disease. This rescue cured animals of a rapidly fatal neurodegenerative condition, resulting in symptom-free survival for their natural lifespan. Early pathological changes were reversed; behavioural, cognitive and neurophysiological deficits were recovered; and there was no neuronal loss. This was achieved by targeting the central pathogenic process in prion disease rather than the presumed toxic species, first by proof-of-principle experiments in transgenic mice and then by treatment using RNA interference for gene knockdown. The results have been a new therapeutic target for prion disease, further insight into mechanisms of prion neurotoxicity and the discovery of a window of reversibility in neuronal damage. Furthermore, the work gives rise to new concepts for treatment strategies for other neurodegenerative disorders, and highlights the need for clinical detection of early neuronal dysfunction, so that similar early rescue can also be achieved for these disorders. PMID:21158739

  2. Hybridization facilitates evolutionary rescue

    PubMed Central

    Stelkens, Rike B; Brockhurst, Michael A; Hurst, Gregory D D; Greig, Duncan

    2014-01-01

    The resilience of populations to rapid environmental degradation is a major concern for biodiversity conservation. When environments deteriorate to lethal levels, species must evolve to adapt to the new conditions to avoid extinction. Here, we test the hypothesis that evolutionary rescue may be enabled by hybridization, because hybridization increases genetic variability. Using experimental evolution, we show that interspecific hybrid populations of Saccharomyces yeast adapt to grow in more highly degraded environments than intraspecific and parental crosses, resulting in survival rates far exceeding those of their ancestors. We conclude that hybridization can increase evolutionary responsiveness and that taxa able to exchange genes with distant relatives may better survive rapid environmental change. PMID:25558281

  3. Inflatable rescue device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swan, Scott A. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    This invention discloses, in one aspect, a personal rescue device for use in outer space which has an inflatable flexible tube with a shaper apparatus herein. Gas under pressure flows through the shaper apparatus and into the flexible tube. The flexible tube is mounted to the shaper so that as it inflates it expands and deploys lengthwise away from the shaper. In one embodiment a housing contains the shaper and the flexible tube and the housing is designed to facilitate movement of the expanding tube from the housing so the expanding tube does not bunch up in the housing.

  4. [Importance of helicopter rescue].

    PubMed

    Hofer, G; Voelckel, W G

    2014-03-01

    Helicopter emergency medical service (HEMS) have become a main part of prehospital emergency medical services over the last 40 years. Recently, an ongoing discussion about financial shortage and personal shortcomings question the role of cost-intensive air rescue. Thus, the value of HEMS must be examined and discussed appropriately. Since the number of physician-staffed ground ambulances may decrease due to the limited availability of qualified physicians, HEMS may fill the gap. In addition patient transfer to specialized hospitals will require an increasing number of air transports in order to minimize prehospital time. The higher risk ratio for HEMS missions when compared with ground rescue requires a rigorous quality management system. When it comes to missions in remote and exposed areas, the scope of medical treatment must be adjusted to the individual situation. Medical competence is key in order to balance guideline compliant or maximal care versus optimal care characterized as a mission-specific, individualized emergency care concept. Although, medical decision making and treatment is typically based on the best scientific evidence, personal skills, competence, and the mission scenario will determine the scope of interventions suitable to improve outcome. Thus, the profile of requirements for the HEMS medical crew is high. PMID:24618925

  5. Psychological Factors in Wilderness Rescue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogilvie, Bruce C.

    This presentation provides wilderness rescue workers with an overview of the psychological reactions of victims of accidents and natural disasters and suggested responses for rescuers and caregivers. A personal account of rescue and death in a drowning accident illustrates how the rescuer can also be traumatized by such an incident and may suffer…

  6. Locate and rescue system components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Two types of search and rescue systems not involving satellites are studied; one using a network radio communications link and the other a characteristic beacon signal. Line of slight limitation of VHF radio and beacon signals limit the range (approximately 25 miles) between the origin of the distress signal and the mobile rescue unit.

  7. Proteomic analysis of global protein expression changes in the endothelin-1 rat model for cerebral ischemia: rescue effect of mild hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Zgavc, Tine; Hu, Tjing-Tjing; Van de Plas, Babs; Vinken, Mathieu; Ceulemans, An-Gaëlle; Hachimi-Idrissi, Said; Sarre, Sophie; Michotte, Yvette; Arckens, Lutgarde

    2013-11-01

    Mild hypothermia is a promising neuroprotective therapy in stroke management. However, little is known about its effects on the global protein expression patterns in brain regions affected by ischemic stroke. We investigated protein expression changes associated with the neuroprotective effects of hypothermia via a functional proteomics approach through the analysis of the core (striatum) and the penumbra (cortex) after an ischemic insult in rats induced by endothelin-1 (Et-1). Functional outcome, infarct volume and related global protein expression changes were assessed 24h after the insult using two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis. Mild hypothermia, induced 20 min after endothelin-1 infusion, improved the neurological outcome, reflected by a 36% reduction in infarct volume and a significantly better neurological deficit score. Hypothermia was typically associated with opposite protein expression changes inthe cortex to those induced by stroke under normothermic conditions, but not in the striatum. The main cellular processes rescued by hypothermia and potentially involved in the protection of the cortex are cellular assembly and organization, followed by cell signaling, thereby confirming that hypothermia is neuroprotective through multiple molecular and cellular pathways. PMID:23927863

  8. Avalanche Survival After Rescue With the RECCO Rescue System: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Grasegger, Katharina; Strapazzon, Giacomo; Procter, Emily; Brugger, Hermann; Soteras, Inigo

    2016-06-01

    We report a case of survival of a completely buried avalanche victim after being located with the radar-based RECCO Rescue System. In the winter of 2015, 2 off-piste skiers were completely buried in an avalanche near the secured ski area in Baqueira Beret, Spain. The first victim was located with the RECCO Rescue System in less than 35 minutes and was alive and conscious at extrication. This system emits radio waves and requires a specific reflector. It is a portable device that is used by more than 600 rescue organizations worldwide, especially in secured ski areas. The device should be brought to the avalanche site together with electronic avalanche transceivers, a probing team, and avalanche dogs. In the hands of experienced professionals, the device may allow rapid location of victims not carrying an electronic avalanche transceiver. Although it is not the first successful extrication of a victim with the RECCO Rescue System, it is the first case published in the medical literature and is intended to encourage data collection and to increase our understanding of the effectiveness of this device in avalanche rescue. PMID:27116920

  9. Rescue of proinflammatory cytokine-inhibited chondrogenesis by the antiarthritic effect of melatonin in synovium mesenchymal stem cells via suppression of reactive oxygen species and matrix metalloproteinases.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaozhen; Xu, Yong; Chen, Sijin; Tan, Zifang; Xiong, Ke; Li, Yan; Ye, Yun; Luo, Zong-Ping; He, Fan; Gong, Yihong

    2014-03-01

    Cartilage repair by mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) often occurs in diseased joints in which the inflamed microenvironment impairs chondrogenic maturation and causes neocartilage degradation. In this environment, melatonin exerts an antioxidant effect by scavenging free radicals. This study aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory and chondroprotective effects of melatonin on human MSCs in a proinflammatory cytokine-induced arthritic environment. MSCs were induced toward chondrogenesis in the presence of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) or tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) with or without melatonin. Levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), hydrogen peroxide, antioxidant enzymes, and cell viability were then assessed. Deposition of glycosaminoglycans and collagens was also determined by histological analysis. Gene expression of chondrogenic markers and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) was assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. In addition, the involvement of the melatonin receptor and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in chondrogenesis was investigated using pharmacologic inhibitors. The results showed that melatonin significantly reduced ROS accumulation and increased SOD expression. Both IL-1β and TNF-α had an inhibitory effect on the chondrogenesis of MSCs, but melatonin successfully restored the low expression of cartilage matrix and chondrogenic genes. Melatonin prevented cartilage degradation by downregulating MMPs. The addition of luzindole and SOD inhibitors abrogated the protective effect of melatonin associated with increased levels of ROS and MMPs. These results demonstrated that proinflammatory cytokines impair the chondrogenesis of MSCs, which was rescued by melatonin treatment. This chondroprotective effect was potentially correlated to decreased ROS, preserved SOD, and suppressed levels of MMPs. Thus, melatonin provides a new strategy for promoting cell-based cartilage regeneration in diseased or injured joints. PMID:24374373

  10. Community rescue in experimental metacommunities

    PubMed Central

    Low-Décarie, Etienne; Kolber, Marcus; Homme, Paige; Lofano, Andrea; Dumbrell, Alex; Gonzalez, Andrew; Bell, Graham

    2015-01-01

    The conditions that allow biodiversity to recover following severe environmental degradation are poorly understood. We studied community rescue, the recovery of a viable community through the evolutionary rescue of many populations within an evolving community, in metacommunities of soil microbes adapting to a herbicide. The metacommunities occupied a landscape of crossed spatial gradients of the herbicide (Dalapon) and a resource (glucose), whereas their constituent communities were either isolated or connected by dispersal. The spread of adapted communities across the landscape and the persistence of communities when that landscape was degraded were strongly promoted by dispersal, and the capacity to adapt to lethal stress was also related to community size and initial diversity. After abrupt and lethal stress, community rescue was most frequent in communities that had previously experienced sublethal levels of stress and had been connected by dispersal. Community rescue occurred through the evolutionary rescue of both initially common taxa, which remained common, and of initially rare taxa, which grew to dominate the evolved community. Community rescue may allow productivity and biodiversity to recover from severe environmental degradation. PMID:26578777

  11. Community rescue in experimental metacommunities.

    PubMed

    Low-Décarie, Etienne; Kolber, Marcus; Homme, Paige; Lofano, Andrea; Dumbrell, Alex; Gonzalez, Andrew; Bell, Graham

    2015-11-17

    The conditions that allow biodiversity to recover following severe environmental degradation are poorly understood. We studied community rescue, the recovery of a viable community through the evolutionary rescue of many populations within an evolving community, in metacommunities of soil microbes adapting to a herbicide. The metacommunities occupied a landscape of crossed spatial gradients of the herbicide (Dalapon) and a resource (glucose), whereas their constituent communities were either isolated or connected by dispersal. The spread of adapted communities across the landscape and the persistence of communities when that landscape was degraded were strongly promoted by dispersal, and the capacity to adapt to lethal stress was also related to community size and initial diversity. After abrupt and lethal stress, community rescue was most frequent in communities that had previously experienced sublethal levels of stress and had been connected by dispersal. Community rescue occurred through the evolutionary rescue of both initially common taxa, which remained common, and of initially rare taxa, which grew to dominate the evolved community. Community rescue may allow productivity and biodiversity to recover from severe environmental degradation. PMID:26578777

  12. 46 CFR 180.210 - Rescue boats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Rescue boats. 180.210 Section 180.210 Shipping COAST...) LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Number and Type of Survival Craft § 180.210 Rescue boats. (a) A vessel... that the vessel itself cannot serve as an adequate rescue craft. (c) In general, a rescue boat must...

  13. 46 CFR 180.210 - Rescue boats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rescue boats. 180.210 Section 180.210 Shipping COAST...) LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Number and Type of Survival Craft § 180.210 Rescue boats. (a) A vessel... that the vessel itself cannot serve as an adequate rescue craft. (c) In general, a rescue boat must...

  14. 46 CFR 180.210 - Rescue boats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Rescue boats. 180.210 Section 180.210 Shipping COAST...) LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Number and Type of Survival Craft § 180.210 Rescue boats. (a) A vessel... that the vessel itself cannot serve as an adequate rescue craft. (c) In general, a rescue boat must...

  15. Rescuing effects of RXR agonist bexarotene on aging-related synapse loss depend on neuronal LRP1.

    PubMed

    Tachibana, Masaya; Shinohara, Mitsuru; Yamazaki, Yu; Liu, Chia-Chen; Rogers, Justin; Bu, Guojun; Kanekiyo, Takahisa

    2016-03-01

    Apolipoprotein E (apoE) plays a critical role in maintaining synaptic integrity by transporting cholesterol to neurons through the low-density lipoprotein receptor related protein-1 (LRP1). Bexarotene, a retinoid X receptor (RXR) agonist, has been reported to have potential beneficial effects on cognition by increasing brain apoE levels and lipidation. To investigate the effects of bexarotene on aging-related synapse loss and the contribution of neuronal LRP1 to the pathway, forebrain neuron-specific LRP1 knockout (nLrp1(-/-)) and littermate control mice were administered with bexarotene-formulated diet (100mg/kg/day) or control diet at the age of 20-24 months for 8 weeks. Upon bexarotene treatment, levels of brain apoE and ATP-binding cassette sub-family A member 1 (ABCA1) were significantly increased in both mice. While levels of PSD95, glutamate receptor 1 (GluR1), and N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor NR1 subunit (NR1), which are key postsynaptic proteins that regulate synaptic plasticity, were decreased with aging, they were restored by bexarotene treatment in the brains of control but not nLrp1(-/-) mice. These results indicate that the beneficial effects of bexarotene on synaptic integrity depend on the presence of neuronal LRP1. However, we also found that bexarotene treatment led to the activation of glial cells, weight loss and hepatomegaly, which are likely due to hepatic failure. Taken together, our results demonstrate that apoE-targeted treatment through the RXR pathway has a potential beneficial effect on synapses during aging; however, the therapeutic application of bexarotene requires extreme caution due to its toxic side effects. PMID:26688581

  16. The ghosts of selection past reduces the probability of plastic rescue but increases the likelihood of evolutionary rescue to novel stressors in experimental populations of wild yeast.

    PubMed

    Samani, Pedram; Bell, Graham

    2016-03-01

    Persistence by adaptation is called evolutionary rescue. Evolutionary rescue is more likely in populations that have been previously exposed to lower doses of the same stressor. Environmental fluctuations might also reduce the possibility of rescue, but little is known about the effect of evolutionary history on the likelihood of rescue. In this study, we hypothesised that the ubiquitous operation of generalised stress responses in many organisms increases the likelihood of rescue after exposure to other stressors. We tested this hypothesis with experimental populations that had been exposed to long-term starvation and were then selected on different, unrelated stressors. We found that prior adaptation to starvation imposes contrary effects on the plastic and evolutionary responses of populations to subsequent stressors. When first exposed to new stressors, such populations become extinct more often. If they survive the initial exposure to the new stressors, however, they are more likely to undergo evolutionary rescue. PMID:26777785

  17. Distinct phenotypes of new transmembrane-domain neuregulin 1 mutant mice and the rescue effects of valproate on the observed schizophrenia-related cognitive deficits

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Ju-Chun; Liu, Chih-Min; Lai, Wen-Sung

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that neuregulin 1 (NRG1) might be involved in the neurodevelopment, neural plasticity, GABAergic neurotransmission, and pathogenesis of schizophrenia. NRG1 is abundantly expressed in the hippocampus, and emerging studies have begun to reveal the link between NRG1 signaling and cognitive deficits in schizophrenic patients. Because the transmembrane domain of NRG1 is vital for both forward and reverse signaling cascades, new Nrg1-deficient mice that carry a truncation of the transmembrane domain of the Nrg1 gene were characterized and used in this study to test a NRG1 loss-of-function hypothesis for schizophrenia. Both male and female Nrg1 heterozygous mutant mice and their wild-type littermates were used in a series of 4 experiments to characterize the impact of Nrg1 on behavioral phenotypes and to determine the importance of Nrg1 in the regulation of hippocampal neuromorphology and local GABAergic interneurons. First, a comprehensive battery of behavioral tasks indicated that male Nrg1-deficient mice exhibited significant impairments in cognitive functions. Second, pharmacological challenges were conducted and revealed that Nrg1 haploinsufficiency altered GABAergic activity in males. Third, although no genotype-specific neuromorphological alterations were found in the hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons, significant reductions in the hippocampal expressions of GAD67 and parvalbumin were revealed in the Nrg1-deficient males. Fourth, chronic treatment with valproate rescued the observed behavioral deficits and hippocampal GAD67 reduction in Nrg1-deficient males. Collectively, these results indicate the potential therapeutic effect of valproate and the importance of Nrg1 in the regulation of cognitive functions and hippocampal GABAergic interneurons, especially in males. PMID:24782733

  18. Joseph Conrad's tormented Rescue (fantasy).

    PubMed

    Freedman, William

    2014-02-01

    Joseph Conrad was a notoriously tormented writer for whom the creative act was often a punishment severe enough to drive him into paralyzing depressions that delayed the completion of his novels, sometimes for years. By far the most agonizing of these projects was The Rescue, a novel he began in 1898, abandoned a year later, tried unsuccessfully to continue several times over the next two decades, but was only able to resume in 1918 and to complete, after another tortured two-year struggle, in 1920. An explanation for this incapacity, that is powerfully suggested by the novel's evocative title and perhaps unintentionally ironic subtitle (A Romance of the Shallows) has not yet been explored. Using Freud's 1910 essay on the rescue fantasy, "Contributions to the Psychology of Love: A Special Type of Choice of Object Made by Men," and Emanuel Berman's instructive revision and expansion of the concept in his 2003 American Imago essay, "Ferenczi, Rescue, and Utopia," I argue that a substantial explanation for Conrad's tormented history with The Rescue is ascribable to its quite remarkably faithful treatment of a rescue fantasy with deep and disabling resonance for its author. More specifically, the difficulty was compounded by the novel's dramatization of the soul-crushing conflict between two such fantasies: one in the service of the masculine ideal of unflinching dedication to a heroic purpose, the other promising satisfaction to the equally potent demands of emotional and sexual desire. Features of Conrad's narrative fit so tightly and consistently with the theory as Freud (and Abraham) proposed and as Berman elaborated it that The Rescue offers itself as one of those rare and reinforcing instances wherein the literary text seems to validate the psychoanalytic theory at least as persuasively as the theory "understands" the text. PMID:24555549

  19. Three types of rescue can avert extinction in a changing environment

    PubMed Central

    Hufbauer, Ruth A.; Szűcs, Marianna; Kasyon, Emily; Youngberg, Courtney; Koontz, Michael J.; Richards, Christopher; Tuff, Ty; Melbourne, Brett A.

    2015-01-01

    Setting aside high-quality large areas of habitat to protect threatened populations is becoming increasingly difficult as humans fragment and degrade the environment. Biologists and managers therefore must determine the best way to shepherd small populations through the dual challenges of reductions in both the number of individuals and genetic variability. By bringing in additional individuals, threatened populations can be increased in size (demographic rescue) or provided with variation to facilitate adaptation and reduce inbreeding (genetic rescue). The relative strengths of demographic and genetic rescue for reducing extinction and increasing growth of threatened populations are untested, and which type of rescue is effective may vary with population size. Using the flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) in a microcosm experiment, we disentangled the genetic and demographic components of rescue, and compared them with adaptation from standing genetic variation (evolutionary rescue in the strictest sense) using 244 experimental populations founded at either a smaller (50 individuals) or larger (150 individuals) size. Both types of rescue reduced extinction, and those effects were additive. Over the course of six generations, genetic rescue increased population sizes and intrinsic fitness substantially. Both large and small populations showed evidence of being able to adapt from standing genetic variation. Our results support the practice of genetic rescue in facilitating adaptation and reducing inbreeding depression, and suggest that demographic rescue alone may suffice in larger populations even if only moderately inbred individuals are available for addition. PMID:26240320

  20. Three types of rescue can avert extinction in a changing environment.

    PubMed

    Hufbauer, Ruth A; Szűcs, Marianna; Kasyon, Emily; Youngberg, Courtney; Koontz, Michael J; Richards, Christopher; Tuff, Ty; Melbourne, Brett A

    2015-08-18

    Setting aside high-quality large areas of habitat to protect threatened populations is becoming increasingly difficult as humans fragment and degrade the environment. Biologists and managers therefore must determine the best way to shepherd small populations through the dual challenges of reductions in both the number of individuals and genetic variability. By bringing in additional individuals, threatened populations can be increased in size (demographic rescue) or provided with variation to facilitate adaptation and reduce inbreeding (genetic rescue). The relative strengths of demographic and genetic rescue for reducing extinction and increasing growth of threatened populations are untested, and which type of rescue is effective may vary with population size. Using the flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) in a microcosm experiment, we disentangled the genetic and demographic components of rescue, and compared them with adaptation from standing genetic variation (evolutionary rescue in the strictest sense) using 244 experimental populations founded at either a smaller (50 individuals) or larger (150 individuals) size. Both types of rescue reduced extinction, and those effects were additive. Over the course of six generations, genetic rescue increased population sizes and intrinsic fitness substantially. Both large and small populations showed evidence of being able to adapt from standing genetic variation. Our results support the practice of genetic rescue in facilitating adaptation and reducing inbreeding depression, and suggest that demographic rescue alone may suffice in larger populations even if only moderately inbred individuals are available for addition. PMID:26240320

  1. Rotorcraft and Enabling Robotic Rescue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines some of the issues underlying potential robotic rescue devices (RRD) in the context where autonomous or manned rotorcraft deployment of such robotic systems is a crucial attribute for their success in supporting future disaster relief and emergency response (DRER) missions. As a part of this discussion, work related to proof-of-concept prototyping of two notional RRD systems is summarized.

  2. Rescues conducted by surfers on Australian beaches.

    PubMed

    Attard, Anna; Brander, Robert W; Shaw, Wendy S

    2015-09-01

    This study describes the demographics, occurrence, location, primary hazards and outcomes involved in rescues performed by surfers on Australian beaches. Conservative estimates suggest that the number of rescues conducted by Australian surfers each year is on par with the number conducted by volunteer surf lifesavers. Surfers perform a considerable number of serious rescues in both lifesaver/lifeguard patrolled (45%) and unpatrolled (53%) beach locations. Rip currents represent the major physical hazard leading to rescue (75%) and the dominant emotional response of people rescued is one of panic (85%). Most surfer rescue events occur during conditions of moderate waves and sunny, fine weather with the highest proportion of rescues occurring on quiet beaches with few people around (26%). Swimming is the activity associated with most rescue events (63%), followed by board riding (25%). Males aged 18-29 represent the largest demographic of people rescued. Surfers with prior water-safety training are more likely to perform a higher number of rescues, however ability to perform rescues is not associated with formal training, but rather number of years' experience surfing. Seventy-eight percent of surfers were happy to help, while 28% expressed feelings of annoyance or inconvenience, generally towards unwary swimmers. Results of this research suggest that 63% of surfers feel they have saved a life. This value may be enhanced through improved training of surfers in basic water safety rescue techniques. PMID:26056968

  3. Effect of bovine blastocyst size at embryo transfer on day 7 on conceptus length on day 14: can supplementary progesterone rescue small embryos?

    PubMed

    O'Hara, Lydia; Forde, Niamh; Kelly, Alan K; Lonergan, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    (P < 0.003). In the absence of supplemental P4, Day 14 conceptuses resulting from the transfer of small blastocysts (2.48 ± 0.54 mm) were smaller than those from large blastocysts (3.32 ± 0.52 mm). Administration of hCG on Day 2 approximately doubled conceptus length on Day 14 (4.94 ± 1.15 mm; P < 0.05), whereas insertion of a PRID from Days 3 to 5 increased conceptus length approximately fivefold (13.09 ± 2.11 mm; P < 0.05) compared with controls. In conclusion, results indicate that supplemental P4 is capable of "rescuing" poor-quality blastocysts, presumably via the now well-described actions on the endometrium and consequent effects on uterine lumen fluid composition. PMID:24582375

  4. Submarine rescue decompression procedure from hyperbaric exposures up to 6 bar of absolute pressure in man: effects on bubble formation and pulmonary function.

    PubMed

    Blatteau, Jean-Eric; Hugon, Julien; Castagna, Olivier; Meckler, Cédric; Vallée, Nicolas; Jammes, Yves; Hugon, Michel; Risberg, Jan; Pény, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in submarine rescue systems have allowed a transfer under pressure of crew members being rescued from a disabled submarine. The choice of a safe decompression procedure for pressurised rescuees has been previously discussed, but no schedule has been validated when the internal submarine pressure is significantly increased i.e. exceeding 2.8 bar absolute pressure. This study tested a saturation decompression procedure from hyperbaric exposures up to 6 bar, the maximum operating pressure of the NATO submarine rescue system. The objective was to investigate the incidence of decompression sickness (DCS) and clinical and spirometric indices of pulmonary oxygen toxicity. Two groups were exposed to a Nitrogen-Oxygen atmosphere (pO2 = 0.5 bar) at either 5 bar (N = 14) or 6 bar (N = 12) for 12 h followed by 56 h 40 min resp. 60 h of decompression. When chamber pressure reached 2.5 bar, the subjects breathed oxygen intermittently, otherwise compressed air. Repeated clinical examinations, ultrasound monitoring of venous gas embolism and spirometry were performed during decompression. During exposures to 5 bar, 3 subjects had minor subjective symptoms i.e. sensation of joint discomfort, regressing spontaneously, and after surfacing 2 subjects also experienced joint discomfort disappearing without treatment. Only 3 subjects had detectable intravascular bubbles during decompression (low grades). No bubbles were detected after surfacing. About 40% of subjects felt chest tightness when inspiring deeply during the initial phase of decompression. Precordial burning sensations were reported during oxygen periods. During decompression, vital capacity decreased by about 8% and forced expiratory flow rates decreased significantly. After surfacing, changes in the peripheral airways were still noticed; Lung Diffusion for carbon monoxide was slightly reduced by 1% while vital capacity was normalized. The procedure did not result in serious symptoms of DCS or

  5. Submarine Rescue Decompression Procedure from Hyperbaric Exposures up to 6 Bar of Absolute Pressure in Man: Effects on Bubble Formation and Pulmonary Function

    PubMed Central

    Blatteau, Jean-Eric; Hugon, Julien; Castagna, Olivier; Meckler, Cédric; Vallée, Nicolas; Jammes, Yves; Hugon, Michel; Risberg, Jan; Pény, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in submarine rescue systems have allowed a transfer under pressure of crew members being rescued from a disabled submarine. The choice of a safe decompression procedure for pressurised rescuees has been previously discussed, but no schedule has been validated when the internal submarine pressure is significantly increased i.e. exceeding 2.8 bar absolute pressure. This study tested a saturation decompression procedure from hyperbaric exposures up to 6 bar, the maximum operating pressure of the NATO submarine rescue system. The objective was to investigate the incidence of decompression sickness (DCS) and clinical and spirometric indices of pulmonary oxygen toxicity. Two groups were exposed to a Nitrogen-Oxygen atmosphere (pO2 = 0.5 bar) at either 5 bar (N = 14) or 6 bar (N = 12) for 12 h followed by 56 h 40 min resp. 60 h of decompression. When chamber pressure reached 2.5 bar, the subjects breathed oxygen intermittently, otherwise compressed air. Repeated clinical examinations, ultrasound monitoring of venous gas embolism and spirometry were performed during decompression. During exposures to 5 bar, 3 subjects had minor subjective symptoms i.e. sensation of joint discomfort, regressing spontaneously, and after surfacing 2 subjects also experienced joint discomfort disappearing without treatment. Only 3 subjects had detectable intravascular bubbles during decompression (low grades). No bubbles were detected after surfacing. About 40% of subjects felt chest tightness when inspiring deeply during the initial phase of decompression. Precordial burning sensations were reported during oxygen periods. During decompression, vital capacity decreased by about 8% and forced expiratory flow rates decreased significantly. After surfacing, changes in the peripheral airways were still noticed; Lung Diffusion for carbon monoxide was slightly reduced by 1% while vital capacity was normalized. The procedure did not result in serious symptoms of DCS or

  6. Rescue fantasies and the secret benefactor.

    PubMed

    Gillman, R D

    1992-01-01

    The concept of rescue fantasies is traced from Freud's earliest idea of the rescue of the mother as the fallen woman to later ideas of ambivalent rescue of the father, siblings, and children. Clinical vignettes from work with children and adults illustrate these points as well as reparative rescue fantasies in response to trauma and narcissistic hurt. The contemporary family romance myth of the secret benefactor as rescuer is described. An analytic case presentation explores the narcissistic-masochistic and the positive and negative oedipal meanings of the secret benefactor rescue fantasy. Application to countertransference enactments in the analyst is suggested. PMID:1289936

  7. Toward a behavioral ecology of rescue behavior.

    PubMed

    Hollis, Karen L; Nowbahari, Elise

    2013-01-01

    Although the study of helping behavior has revolutionized the field of behavioral ecology, scientific examination of rescue behavior remains extremely rare, except perhaps in ants, having been described as early as 1874. Nonetheless, recent work in our laboratories has revealed several new patterns of rescue behavior that appear to be much more complex than previously studied forms. This precisely-directed rescue behavior bears a remarkable resemblance to what has been labeled empathy in rats, and thus raises numerous philosophical and theoretical questions: How should rescue behavior (or empathy) be defined? What distinguishes rescue from other forms of altruism? In what ways is rescue behavior in ants different from, and similar to, rescue in other non-human animals? What selection pressures dictate its appearance? In this paper, we review our own experimental studies of rescue in both laboratory and field, which, taken together, begin to reveal some of the behavioral ecological conditions that likely have given rise to rescue behavior in ants. Against this background, we also address important theoretical questions involving rescue, including those outlined above. In this way, we hope not only to encourage further experimental analysis of rescue behavior, but also to highlight important similarities and differences in very distant taxa. PMID:23864298

  8. Hermes rescue strategies during launch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cledassou, Rodelphe

    Safety and rescue strategies during the launch of Hermes space plane by Ariane 5 are discussed. Before solid booster separation, the pilots must be ejected by seats which are later recovered. After solid booster separation it becomes possible to extract the plane, which can perform a reentry leading to an available landing site or to sea recovery. When there is no useful landing site, the plane can be injected on a downgraded orbit.

  9. Urban search and rescue medical teams: FEMA Task Force System.

    PubMed

    Barbera, J A; Lozano, M

    1993-01-01

    Recent national and international disasters involving collapsed structures and trapped casualties (Mexico City; Armenia; Iran; Philippines; Charleston, South Carolina; Loma Prieta, California; and others) have provoked a heightened national concern for the development of an adequate capability to respond quickly and effectively to this type of calamity. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) has responded to this need by developing an Urban Search and Rescue (US&R) Response System, a national system of multi-disciplinary task forces for rapid deployment to the site of a collapsed structure incident. Each 56-person task force includes a medical team capable of providing advanced emergency medical care both for task force members and for victims located and reached by the sophisticated search, rescue, and technical components of the task force. This paper reviews the background and development of urban search and rescue, and describes the make-up and function of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Task Force medical teams. PMID:10155479

  10. The evolving role of rescue therapy for acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Tadros, George M; Iliadis, Elias A; Wilson, Robert F; Henry, Timothy D

    2005-07-01

    Coronary reperfusion for acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction can be accomplished with fibrinolytic therapy or with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Primary PCI provides more effective and sustained early reperfusion than fibrinolytic therapy, but is only available in a minority of hospitals worldwide. There is a lack of a definite method for identification of patients who have inadequate reperfusion after fibrinolysis. Transfer of patients after fibrinolysis for diagnostic angiography and possible rescue therapy is safe and feasible. Rescue PCI with the use of stents and antiplatelet therapy decreases cardiovascular mortality and morbidity compared with conservative therapy. Increasing use of primary PCI and forming networks to transfer patients to centers that offer primary PCI may decrease the need for rescue therapy in the future. PMID:19804147

  11. [Air rescue missions at night: Data analysis of primary and secondary missions by the DRF air rescue service in 2014].

    PubMed

    Aschenbrenner, U; Neppl, S; Ahollinger, F; Schweigkofler, U; Weigt, J O; Frank, M; Zimmermann, M; Braun, J

    2015-06-01

    The advantages that are inherent to the air ambulance service are shown in a reduction in mortality of critically ill or injured patients. The air ambulance service ensures quick and efficient medical care to a patient as well as the immediate transport of patients to a suitable hospital. In addition, primary air rescue has proved to be effective as a support for the standard ground-based ambulance services in some regions of Germany during the night. Under certain conditions, such as the strict adherence to established, practiced and coordinated procedures, air rescue at night does not have a significantly higher risk compared to operations in daytime. Particular requirements should be imposed for air rescue operations at night: a strict indication system for alerting, 4-man helicopter crews solely during the night as well as pilots (and copilots) with the correct qualifications and experience in dealing with night vision devices on a regular basis. Moreover, the helicopters need to be suitable and approved for night flying including cabin upgrades and the appropriate medical technology equipment. To increase the benefits of air rescue for specific diseases and injuries, a nationwide review of the processes is needed to further develop the primary air rescue service. PMID:26013391

  12. Structures of oncogenic, suppressor and rescued p53 core-domain variants: mechanisms of mutant p53 rescue

    SciTech Connect

    Wallentine, Brad D.; Wang, Ying; Tretyachenko-Ladokhina, Vira; Tan, Martha; Senear, Donald F.; Luecke, Hartmut

    2013-10-01

    X-ray crystallographic structures of four p53 core-domain variants were determined in order to gain insights into the mechanisms by which certain second-site suppressor mutations rescue the function of a significant number of cancer mutations of the tumor suppressor protein p53. To gain insights into the mechanisms by which certain second-site suppressor mutations rescue the function of a significant number of cancer mutations of the tumor suppressor protein p53, X-ray crystallographic structures of four p53 core-domain variants were determined. These include an oncogenic mutant, V157F, two single-site suppressor mutants, N235K and N239Y, and the rescued cancer mutant V157F/N235K/N239Y. The V157F mutation substitutes a smaller hydrophobic valine with a larger hydrophobic phenylalanine within strand S4 of the hydrophobic core. The structure of this cancer mutant shows no gross structural changes in the overall fold of the p53 core domain, only minor rearrangements of side chains within the hydrophobic core of the protein. Based on biochemical analysis, these small local perturbations induce instability in the protein, increasing the free energy by 3.6 kcal mol{sup −1} (15.1 kJ mol{sup −1}). Further biochemical evidence shows that each suppressor mutation, N235K or N239Y, acts individually to restore thermodynamic stability to V157F and that both together are more effective than either alone. All rescued mutants were found to have wild-type DNA-binding activity when assessed at a permissive temperature, thus pointing to thermodynamic stability as the critical underlying variable. Interestingly, thermodynamic analysis shows that while N239Y demonstrates stabilization of the wild-type p53 core domain, N235K does not. These observations suggest distinct structural mechanisms of rescue. A new salt bridge between Lys235 and Glu198, found in both the N235K and rescued cancer mutant structures, suggests a rescue mechanism that relies on stabilizing the

  13. Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor-interacting Protein-like 1 Is an Obligate Chaperone of Phosphodiesterase 6 and Is Assisted by the γ-Subunit of Its Client.

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishna, Kota N; Boyd, Kimberly; Yadav, Ravi P; Artemyev, Nikolai O

    2016-07-29

    Phosphodiesterase 6 (PDE6) is the effector enzyme in the phototransduction cascade and is critical for the health of both rod and cone photoreceptors. Its dysfunction, caused by mutations in either the enzyme itself or AIPL1 (aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein-like 1), leads to retinal diseases culminating in blindness. Progress in research on PDE6 and AIPL1 has been severely hampered by failure to express functional PDE6 in a heterologous expression system. Here, we demonstrated that AIPL1 is an obligate chaperone of PDE6 and that it enables low yield functional folding of cone PDE6C in cultured cells. We further show that the AIPL1-mediated production of folded PDE6C is markedly elevated in the presence of the inhibitory Pγ-subunit of PDE6. As illustrated in this study, a simple and sensitive system in which AIPL1 and Pγ are co-expressed with PDE6 represents an effective tool for probing structure-function relationships of AIPL1 and reliably establishing the pathogenicity of its variants. PMID:27268253

  14. The Data Rescue @ Home Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stickler, A.; Allan, R.; Valente, M. A.; Tinz, B.; Brönnimann, S.

    2012-04-01

    Climate science as a whole as well as reanalyses as a special case can significantly profit from the recovery, imaging and digitisation of historical observations. The importance of this fact is reflected in large, global data rescue projects and initiatives such as the Atmospheric Circulation Reconstructions over the Earth (ACRE, www.met-acre.org) or the EU FP7 ERA-CLIM project (www.era-clim.eu). From the time before 1957, there are still large amounts of surface data e.g. from former colonies and from overseas territories of European countries )e.g. Portugal, France and Germany) that need to be rescued. Also in case of the very early upper-air observations before the 1930s, even Europe and North America still hold an important quantity of data to be recovered in digital form. Here, we present the web platform "Data Rescue @ Home" (www.data-rescue-at-home.org), which has been developed at ETH Zurich and Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research, and which has been designed to take advantage of the voluntary assistance of the thousands of people on the web who are interested in climate or old weather data. On the website, these volunteers can enter meteorological data shown on digital images into entry masks that resemble the original. By registering, the users get access to their personal digitisation statistics and help optimising the project. At the moment, 4 digitisation projects are online: One project is dealing with German upper-air data from the Second World War period. In a second project, station data from Tulagi (Solomon Islands) is being digitised. Finally, two collaborative projects have been included: One in cooperation with the Instituto Dom Luiz (Univ. Lisbon, Portugal), where Portuguese station data from Angra (Azores) is digitised, and a further one in cooperation with the German Meteorological Service (DWD), in which precipitation data from former German colonies is being digitised. On our poster, we will report on the status of the projects

  15. Drug storage temperatures in rescue vehicles.

    PubMed

    DuBois, W C

    2000-04-01

    This study was conducted to determine storage temperatures of drugs carried on rescue vehicles. Recording thermometers were placed inside drug boxes carried on rescue vehicles. Those temperatures were compared with ambient air temperatures, temperatures inside mechanically cooled compartments of the rescue vehicles, and USP-recommended drug storage temperatures. The results indicate that drug storage temperatures in some prehospital rescue vehicles exceed USP guidelines. Mechanical cooling of the storage compartment results in drug storage temperatures within the USP guidelines. Mechanical cooling of drug storage compartments on vehicles is technologically and financially possible. PMID:10729674

  16. Instructional Alternatives: Rescue Strategies for At-Risk Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wircenski, Jerry L.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    An instructional plan to rescue at-risk students must be based on a curriculum intended to serve all students. The creation of a functional curriculum, the promotion of employability skills, and an emphasis on improving study skills are instructional patterns that seem to be effective in reducing the number of student dropouts. Two alternatives…

  17. Search and Rescue. Auxiliary Operational Specialty Course. Student Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coast Guard, Washington, DC.

    This text, based on the National Search and Rescue (SAR) Plan, was prepared to provide a course of study on common procedures for SAR operations so that any basically qualified person in the U.S. Coast Guard Auxiliary can effectively accomplish a SAR mission and act as on-scene commander if required. There are 13 chapters: Introduction to Search…

  18. Teaching Holocaust Rescue: A Problematic Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindquist, David H.

    2008-01-01

    Determining how to teach about rescue during the Holocaust presents many dilemmas to teachers as they plan Holocaust curricula. Rescue is often overemphasized, and faulty perspectives about rescuers and their actions may cause students to develop distorted views about this aspect of Holocaust history. This article explores several factors that…

  19. Fire Service Training. Rescue Practices. (Revised).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Community Colleges, Raleigh.

    One of a set of fourteen instructional outlines for use in a course to train novice firemen, this guide covers the topic of rescue operations. Two types of rescue functions are recognized: the primary one consists of locating and saving trapped victims, and the secondary one of recovering bodies and making the area safe for other workers and…

  20. Rescue coronary stenting in acute myocardial infarction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbieri, Enrico; Meneghetti, Paolo; Molinari, Gionata; Zardini, Piero

    1996-01-01

    Failed rescue coronary angioplasty is a high risk situation because of high mortality. Coronary stent has given us the chance of improving and maintaining the patency of the artery. We report our preliminary experience of rescue stenting after unsuccessful coronary angioplasty.

  1. 46 CFR 169.517 - Rescue boat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rescue boat. 169.517 Section 169.517 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Lifesaving and Firefighting Equipment Primary Lifesaving Equipment § 169.517 Rescue boat. All vessels certificated for exposed or partially protected...

  2. Simplified Aid For Crew Rescue (SAFR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, H. Thomas

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs and discussion of a Crew Emergency Rescue System (CERS) are presented. Topics covered include: functional description; operational description; interfaces with other subsystems/elements; simplified aid for crew rescue (SACR) characteristics; potential resource requirements; logistics, repair, and resupply; potential performance improvements; and automation impact.

  3. Satellite search and rescue analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, J. T.

    The success of rescue operations in the case of the survivors of aircraft crashes depends crucially on the rapid detection of the aircraft location. Similar considerations apply in the case of marine distress. For this reason, the U.S. is currently participating in a program called Cospas/Sarsat, an international cooperative humanitarian effort designed to assist in saving the lives of aviators and mariners in distress. The other original participants in the program include France, Canada, and the Soviet Union. The program began as an experiment with the launch of the first spacecraft, Cospas I, in June 1982. The Cospas/Sarsat partners are engaged in work concerning a second experiment, involving a new generation distress beacon operating on a frequency of 406 MHz. Details regarding the Cospas/Sarsat constellation are discussed, and attention is given to the immediate and the long-term outlook.

  4. Hubble Space Telescope Crew Rescue Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamlin, Teri L.; Canga, Michael; Boyer, Roger; Thigpen, Eric

    2009-01-01

    In the aftermath of the 2003 Columbia accident NASA removed the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Servicing Mission 4 (SM4) from the Space Shuttle manifest. Reasons cited included concerns that the risk of flying the mission would be too high. There was at the time no viable technique to repair the orbiter s thermal protection system if it were to be damaged by debris during ascent. Furthermore in the event of damage, since the mission was not to the International Space Station, there was no safe haven for the crew to wait for an extended period of time for a rescue. The HST servicing mission was reconsidered because of improvements in the ascent debris environment, the development of techniques for the astronauts to perform on orbit repairs to damage thermal protection, and the development of a strategy to provide a crew rescue capability. However, leading up to the launch of servicing mission, the HST crew rescue capability was a recurring topic. For HST there was a limited amount of time available to perform a crew rescue because of the limited consumables available on the Orbiter. The success of crew rescue depends upon several factors including when a problem is identified, when and to what extent power down procedures are begun, and where the rescue vehicle is in its ground processing cycle. Severe power downs maximize crew rescue success but would eliminate the option for the orbiter servicing the HST to attempt a landing. Therefore, crew rescue success needed to be weighed against preserving the ability of the orbiter to have landing option in case there was a problem with the rescue vehicle. This paper focuses on quantification of the HST mission loss of crew rescue capability using Shuttle historical data and various power down capabilities. That work supported NASA s decision to proceed with the HST service mission, which was successfully completed on May 24th 2009.

  5. Synthetic aperture radar processing system for search and rescue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huxtable, Barton D.; Jackson, Christopher R.; Mansfield, Arthur W.; Rais, Houra

    1997-06-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is uniquely suited to help solve the search and rescue problem since it can be utilized either day or night and through both dense fog or thick cloud cover. This paper describes the search and rescue data processing system (SARDPS) developed at Goddard Space Flight Center. SARDPS was developed for the Search and Rescue Mission Office in order to conduct research, development, and technology demonstration of SAR to quickly locate small aircraft which have crashed in remote areas. In order to effectively apply SAR to the detection of crashed aircraft several technical challenges needed to be overcome. These include full resolution SAR image formation using low frequency radar appropriate for foliage penetration, the application of autofocusing for SAR motion compensation in the processing system, and the development of sophisticated candidate crash site detection algorithms. In addition, the need to dispatch rescue teams to specific locations requires precise SAR image georectification and map registration techniques. The final end-to-end processing system allows for raw SAR phase history data to be quickly converted to georeferenced map/image products with candidate crash site locations identified.

  6. Protective Effect of Sevoflurane Postconditioning against Cardiac Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury via Ameliorating Mitochondrial Impairment, Oxidative Stress and Rescuing Autophagic Clearance

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Shuchun; Luo, Zhenzhong; Hua, Fuzhou; Yuan, Linhui; Zhou, Zhidong; Liu, Qin; Du, Xiaohong; Chen, Sisi; Zhang, Lieliang; Xu, Guohai

    2015-01-01

    ameliorating mitochondrial impairment, oxidative stress and rescuing autophagic clearance. PMID:26263161

  7. Development of Space Shuttle Rescue and Recovery Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandler, Michael

    2011-01-01

    As the first Space Shuttle launch was still in our future, many from NASA, the Department of Defense (DoD) and NASA contractors were busy planning for not only a nominal launch and return, but contingency operations at the launch pad and landing sites. Prior to the first launch, detailed coordination, planning and simulations were conducted at all three locations and internal rescue procedures were taught at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). Later in the Program, the Transoceanic Abort Landing (TAL) sites were added in Europe and Africa. For the 51L mission a new TAL site was brought on line in Morocco. However, upon launch, the Shuttle Program experienced it's first lost. During the following months a complete review of all contingency operations (launch and landing) was completed. Many enhancements were made based on the reviews following. A Mode VIII water rescue was developed for NASA by the DoD before the STS-26 launch. Different concepts were explored and being debated by NASA. Training of the contingency forces was required before final decisions were made forcing the teaching of two different sets of procedures. To assist with training, a video was developed for the fire/crash/rescue personnel. This accompanied the detailed extraction procedures that were developed by a combination of KSC and DoD firemen. Training for the fire/crash/rescue personnel at Vandenberg AFB was also being planned before the accident happen. The fire/crash/rescue mockup that was being built at Chanute AFB was diverted to Edwards AFB. Educational Objectives: With the emphasis on Commercial Crew Programs for Space flight it is important that all involved understand what is required to prepare for contingencies. Cost effective means of being prepared for contingencies are needed. Questions: 1. When should planning for nominal and contingency operations begin? 2. What type of training aids are needed for contingency operations? 3. Who were the major contributors to Shuttle contingency

  8. A New Antibiotic to the Rescue?

    MedlinePlus

    ... to the Rescue? Experimental drug shows promise against MRSA superbug in animal trials To use the sharing ... treated animals infected with the so-called "superbug" MRSA -- methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus . The results are "important ...

  9. Fire and Rescue Technology. Resources in Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valesey, Brigitte G.

    1997-01-01

    Provides occupational information about fire and rescue operations personnel, such as fire science, fire protection engineering, emergency medical technicians, and firefighters. Provides information about organizations in these fields. (JOW)

  10. A New Antibiotic to the Rescue?

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159417.html A New Antibiotic to the Rescue? Experimental drug shows promise against ... THURSDAY, June 16, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- An experimental antibiotic has shown promise against a dangerous drug-resistant ...

  11. NASA's Search-and-Rescue Technology

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation depicts the next-generation search and rescue system, the DASS. Under this system, instruments used to relay emergency beacon signals will be installed on GPS satellites. When one em...

  12. [Model and enlightenment from rescue of August 2nd Kunshan explosion casualty].

    PubMed

    Tan, Q; Qiu, H B; Sun, B W; Shen, Y M; Nie, L J; Zhang, H W

    2016-01-01

    On August 2nd, 2014, a massive dust explosion occurred in a factory of Kunshan, resulting in a mass casualty involving 185 burn patients. They were transported to 20 medical institutions in Jiangsu province and Shanghai. More than one thousand of medical personnel of our country participated in this emergency rescue, and satisfactory results were achieved. In this paper, the characteristics of this accident were analyzed, the positive effects of interdisciplinary cooperation were affirmed, and the contingency plan, rescue process and pattern, and reserve, organization and management of talents during this rescue process were reviewed retrospectively. PMID:27426066

  13. Failure to rescue patients from early critical complications of oesophagogastric cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Weledji, Elroy P; Verla, Vincent

    2016-05-01

    'Failure to rescue' is a significant cause of mortality in gastrointestinal surgery. Differences in mortality between high and low-volume hospitals are not associated with large difference in complication rates but to the ability of the hospital to effectively rescue patients from the complications. We reviewed the critical complications following surgery for oesophageal and gastric cancer, their prevention and reasons for failure to rescue. Strategies focussing on perioperative optimization, the timely recognition and management of complications may be essential to improving outcome in low-volume hospitals. PMID:27054032

  14. Hubble Space Telescope Crew Rescue Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamlin, Teri L.; Canga, Michael A.; Cates, Grant R.

    2010-01-01

    In the aftermath of the 2003 Columbia accident, NASA removed the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Servicing Mission 4 (SM4) from the Space Shuttle manifest. Reasons cited included concerns that the risk of flying the mission would be too high. The HST SM4 was subsequently reinstated and flown as Space Transportation System (STS)-125 because of improvements in the ascent debris environment, the development of techniques for astronauts to perform on orbit repairs to damaged thermal protection, and the development of a strategy to provide a viable crew rescue capability. However, leading up to the launch of STS-125, the viability of the HST crew rescue capability was a recurring topic. For STS-125, there was a limited amount of time available to perform a crew rescue due to limited consumables (power, oxygen, etc.) available on the Orbiter. The success of crew rescue depended upon several factors, including when a problem was identified; when and what actions, such as powering down, were begun to conserve consumables; and where the Launch on Need (LON) vehicle was in its ground processing cycle. Crew rescue success also needed to be weighed against preserving the Orbiter s ability to have a landing option in case there was a problem with the LON vehicle. This paper focuses on quantifying the HST mission loss of crew rescue capability using Shuttle historical data and various power down strategies. Results from this effort supported NASA s decision to proceed with STS-125, which was successfully completed on May 24th 2009.

  15. 30 CFR 49.15 - Mine rescue station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mine rescue station. 49.15 Section 49.15 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.15 Mine rescue station. (a) Every...

  16. 30 CFR 49.5 - Mine rescue station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mine rescue station. 49.5 Section 49.5 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Metal and Nonmetal Mines § 49.5 Mine rescue station. (a)...

  17. 30 CFR 49.5 - Mine rescue station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mine rescue station. 49.5 Section 49.5 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Metal and Nonmetal Mines § 49.5 Mine rescue station. (a)...

  18. 30 CFR 49.15 - Mine rescue station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mine rescue station. 49.15 Section 49.15 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.15 Mine rescue station. (a) Every...

  19. 30 CFR 49.15 - Mine rescue station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mine rescue station. 49.15 Section 49.15 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.15 Mine rescue station. (a) Every...

  20. 30 CFR 49.15 - Mine rescue station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mine rescue station. 49.15 Section 49.15 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.15 Mine rescue station. (a) Every...

  1. 30 CFR 49.5 - Mine rescue station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mine rescue station. 49.5 Section 49.5 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Metal and Nonmetal Mines § 49.5 Mine rescue station. (a)...

  2. 30 CFR 49.15 - Mine rescue station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mine rescue station. 49.15 Section 49.15 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.15 Mine rescue station. (a) Every...

  3. Group Task Force on Satellite Rescue and Repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The Group Task Force was chartered by the Administrator of NASA to recommend 'a policy outlining the criteria, the design standards, and the pricing model to guide NASA in assessing the responsibilities for government and nongovernment Satellite Rescue and Repair Missions.' Criteria for accepting such missions, risks, and benefits to all sectors of our economy involved in satellite services, adequacy of planning and training, and the impact on NASA's primary mission were reviewed. The Group began by asking a more fundamental question; is satellite rescue and repair a logical element of NASA's mission? Factors considered were: (1) the probability of rescue or repair opportunities arising; (2) the economic justification for such attempts; (3) the benefits to NASA, both from such ad hoc learning experiences in space operations and the impact on the public perception of NASA; (4) the effect of such unanticipated missions on NASA's scheduled activities; (5) any potential effect on NASA's technical capability to work in space; and (6) any potential effect on U.S. economic competitiveness.

  4. Rescuing failed oral implants via Wnt activation

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Xing; Li, Jingtao; Chen, Tao; Mouraret, Sylvain; Dhamdhere, Girija; Brunski, John B.; Zou, Shujuan; Helms, Jill A.

    2016-01-01

    Aim Implant osseointegration is not always guaranteed and once fibrous encapsulation occurs clinicians have few options other than implant removal. Our goal was to test whether a WNT protein therapeutic could rescue such failed implants. Material and Methods Titanium implants were placed in over-sized murine oral osteotomies. A lack of primary stability was verified by mechanical testing. Interfacial strains were estimated by finite element modelling and histology coupled with histomorphometry confirmed the lack of peri-implant bone. After fibrous encapsulation was established peri-implant injections of a liposomal formulation of WNT3A protein (L-WNT3A) or liposomal PBS (L-PBS) were then initiated. Quantitative assays were employed to analyse the effects of L-WNT3A treatment. Results Implants in gap-type interfaces exhibited high interfacial strains and no primary stability. After verification of implant failure, L-WNT3A or L-PBS injections were initiated. L-WNT3A induced a rapid, significant increase in Wnt responsiveness in the peri-implant environment, cell proliferation and osteogenic protein expression. The amount of peri-implant bone and bone in contact with the implant were significantly higher in L-WNT3A cases. Conclusions These data demonstrate L-WNT3A can induce peri-implant bone formation even in cases where fibrous encapsulation predominates. PMID:26718012

  5. Equipment of medical backpacks in mountain rescue.

    PubMed

    Elsensohn, Fidel; Soteras, Inigo; Resiten, Oliver; Ellerton, John; Brugger, Hermann; Paal, Peter

    2011-01-01

    We conducted a survey of equipment in medical backpacks for mountain rescuers and mountain emergency physicians. The aim was to investigate whether there are standards for medical equipment in mountain rescue organizations associated with the International Commission for Mountain Emergency Medicine (ICAR MEDCOM). A questionnaire was completed by 18 member organizations from 14 countries. Backpacks for first responders are well equipped to manage trauma, but deficiencies in equipment to treat medical emergencies were found. Paramedic and physicians' backpacks were well equipped to provide advanced life support and contained suitable drugs. We recommend that medical backpacks should be equipped in accordance with national laws, the medical emergencies in a given region, and take into account the climate, geography, medical training of rescuers, and funding of the organization. Automated external defibrillator provision should be improved. The effects of temperature on the drugs and equipment should be considered. Standards for training in the use and maintenance of medical tools should be enforced. First responders and physicians should only use familiar tools and drugs. PMID:22206560

  6. Rescue Medicine for Epilepsy in Education Settings.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Adam L; Devore, Cynthia Di Laura; Doerrer, Sarah C

    2016-01-01

    Children and adolescents with epilepsy may experience prolonged seizures in school-associated settings (eg, during transportation, in the classroom, or during sports activities). Prolonged seizures may evolve into status epilepticus. Administering a seizure rescue medication can abort the seizure and may obviate the need for emergency medical services and subsequent care in an emergency department. In turn, this may save patients from the morbidity of more invasive interventions and the cost of escalated care. There are significant variations in prescribing practices for seizure rescue medications, partly because of inconsistencies between jurisdictions in legislation and professional practice guidelines among potential first responders (including school staff). There also are potential liability issues for prescribers, school districts, and unlicensed assistive personnel who might administer the seizure rescue medications. This clinical report highlights issues that providers may consider when prescribing seizure rescue medications and creating school medical orders and/or action plans for students with epilepsy. Collaboration among prescribing providers, families, and schools may be useful in developing plans for the use of seizure rescue medications. PMID:26712862

  7. Amorphous silicon bolometer for fire/rescue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francisco, Glenn L.

    2001-03-01

    Thermal imaging sensors have completely changed the way the world views fire and rescue applications. Recently, in the uncooled infrared camera and microbolometer detector areas, major strides have been made in manufacturing personal fire and rescue sensors. A family of new amorphous silicon microbolometers are being produced utilizing low cost, low weight, ultra low power, small size, high volume vacuum packaged silicon wafer-level focal plane array technologies. These bolometers contain no choppers or thermoelectric coolers, require no manual calibration and use readily available commercial off-the-shelf components. Manufacturing and packaging discoveries have allowed infrared sensitive silicon arrays to be produced with the same methods that have driven the rapidly advancing digital wireless telecommunications industries. Fire and rescue professionals are now able to conduct minimum time thermal imaging penetration, surveillance, detection, recognition, rescue and egress while maintaining situational awareness in a manner consistent with the modern technological applications. The purpose of this paper is to describe an uncooled micro bolometer infrared camera approach for meeting fire/rescue wants, needs and requirements, with application of recent technology advancements. This paper also details advances in bolometric focal plane arrays, optical and circuit card technologies, while providing a glimpse into the future of micro sensor growth. Technical barriers are addressed in light of constraints and lessons learned around this technology.

  8. Indirect evolutionary rescue: prey adapts, predator avoids extinction

    PubMed Central

    Yamamichi, Masato; Miner, Brooks E

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have increasingly recognized evolutionary rescue (adaptive evolution that prevents extinction following environmental change) as an important process in evolutionary biology and conservation science. Researchers have concentrated on single species living in isolation, but populations in nature exist within communities of interacting species, so evolutionary rescue should also be investigated in a multispecies context. We argue that the persistence or extinction of a focal species can be determined solely by evolutionary change in an interacting species. We demonstrate that prey adaptive evolution can prevent predator extinction in two-species predator–prey models, and we derive the conditions under which this indirect evolutionary interaction is essential to prevent extinction following environmental change. A nonevolving predator can be rescued from extinction by adaptive evolution of its prey due to a trade-off for the prey between defense against predation and population growth rate. As prey typically have larger populations and shorter generations than their predators, prey evolution can be rapid and have profound effects on predator population dynamics. We suggest that this process, which we term ‘indirect evolutionary rescue’, has the potential to be critically important to the ecological and evolutionary responses of populations and communities to dramatic environmental change. PMID:26366196

  9. [Air rescue: current significance and practical issues].

    PubMed

    Schellhaaß, A; Popp, E

    2014-12-01

    Germany has a nationwide and powerful helicopter emergency medical services system (HEMS), which executes primary rescue missions and interhospital transfer of intensive care patients. In recent years the range of HEMS missions has become modified due to demographic changes and structural changes in the healthcare system. Furthermore, the number of HEMS missions is steadily increasing. If reasonably used air rescue contributes to desired reductions in overall preclinical time. Moreover, it facilitates prompt transport of patients to a hospital suitable for definitive medical care and treatment can be initiated earlier which is a particular advantage for severely injured and critically ill patients. Because of complex challenges during air rescue missions the qualifications of the HEMS personnel have to be considerably higher in comparison with ground based emergency medical services. PMID:25430664

  10. RESCU: A real space electronic structure method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaud-Rioux, Vincent; Zhang, Lei; Guo, Hong

    2016-02-01

    In this work we present RESCU, a powerful MATLAB-based Kohn-Sham density functional theory (KS-DFT) solver. We demonstrate that RESCU can compute the electronic structure properties of systems comprising many thousands of atoms using modest computer resources, e.g. 16 to 256 cores. Its computational efficiency is achieved from exploiting four routes. First, we use numerical atomic orbital (NAO) techniques to efficiently generate a good quality initial subspace which is crucially required by Chebyshev filtering methods. Second, we exploit the fact that only a subspace spanning the occupied Kohn-Sham states is required, and solving accurately the KS equation using eigensolvers can generally be avoided. Third, by judiciously analyzing and optimizing various parts of the procedure in RESCU, we delay the O (N3) scaling to large N, and our tests show that RESCU scales consistently as O (N2.3) from a few hundred atoms to more than 5000 atoms when using a real space grid discretization. The scaling is better or comparable in a NAO basis up to the 14,000 atoms level. Fourth, we exploit various numerical algorithms and, in particular, we introduce a partial Rayleigh-Ritz algorithm to achieve efficiency gains for systems comprising more than 10,000 electrons. We demonstrate the power of RESCU in solving KS-DFT problems using many examples running on 16, 64 and/or 256 cores: a 5832 Si atoms supercell; a 8788 Al atoms supercell; a 5324 Cu atoms supercell and a small DNA molecule submerged in 1713 water molecules for a total 5399 atoms. The KS-DFT is entirely converged in a few hours in all cases. Our results suggest that the RESCU method has reached a milestone of solving thousands of atoms by KS-DFT on a modest computer cluster.

  11. Spatiotemporal rescue of memory dysfunction in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Sean E; Le, Phuong T; Osborn, Alexander J; Matsumoto, Kunihiro; Davis, Ronald L

    2003-12-01

    We have developed a method for temporal and regional gene expression targeting (TARGET) in Drosophila and show the simultaneous spatial and temporal rescue of a memory defect. The transient expression of the rutabaga-encoded adenylyl cyclase in the mushroom bodies of the adult brain was necessary and sufficient to rescue the rutabaga memory deficit, which rules out a developmental brain defect in the etiology of this deficit and demonstrates an acute role for rutabaga in memory formation in these neurons. The TARGET system offers general utility in simultaneously addressing issues of when and where gene products are required. PMID:14657498

  12. Dynamics of evolutionary rescue in changing environments and the emergence of antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yue; Saddler, Clare A; Valckenborgh, Frank; Tanaka, Mark M

    2014-01-01

    Populations can go extinct when their environments deteriorate, but evolutionary rescue occurs when a shrinking population adapts to the new environmental conditions. The emergence of resistance from a drug sensitive bacterial population under treatment can be regarded as an instance of evolutionary rescue. Understanding evolutionary rescue in a particular context such as drug resistance requires knowledge of how the environment changes and how selection coefficients change as a result. In this study, we propose a model for evolutionary rescue under three different scenarios of environmental change: abrupt change, periodic fluctuation and gradual decay. The model makes use of the notion of reaction norms to describe fitness values that depend on both genotype and environmental state. We find that although drug sensitive bacterial populations may be large, allowing them to generate resistant mutants frequently, a harsh abrupt change due to the drug usually drives them extinct. Evolutionary rescue occurs far more frequently under the milder forms of environmental change we investigated. Rescue is favoured when the absolute fitnesses of individuals remain sufficiently high over the range of environment qualities experienced by the population. The minimum environment quality, which is inversely related to drug dose in the antibiotic context, is thus an important factor. Interestingly, in the periodic fluctuation model, the inter-dose period is less influential in promoting rescue through resistance unless the minimum environment quality is in a particular range. We also investigated fitness trade-offs across environments including the case of a resistant allele not subject to any trade-off (a "superbug"). This fitness trade-off affects the probability of rescue in decaying environments, but surprisingly has only a weak effect in the periodic fluctuation scenario. Finally, we use the model to show how niche construction, whereby organisms are the source of environmental

  13. Recommendations for rescue of a submerged unresponsive compressed-gas diver.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, S J; Bennett, M H; Bird, N; Doolette, D J; Hobbs, G W; Kay, E; Moon, R E; Neuman, T S; Vann, R D; Walker, R; Wyatt, H A

    2012-01-01

    The Diving Committee of the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society has reviewed available evidence in relation to the medical aspects of rescuing a submerged unresponsive compressed-gas diver. The rescue process has been subdivided into three phases, and relevant questions have been addressed as follows. Phase 1, preparation for ascent: If the regulator is out of the mouth, should it be replaced? If the diver is in the tonic or clonic phase of a seizure, should the ascent be delayed until the clonic phase has subsided? Are there any special considerations for rescuing rebreather divers? Phase 2, retrieval to the surface: What is a "safe" ascent rate? If the rescuer has a decompression obligation, should they take the victim to the surface? If the regulator is in the mouth and the victim is breathing, does this change the ascent procedures? If the regulator is in the mouth, the victim is breathing, and the victim has a decompression obligation, does this change the ascent procedures? Is it necessary to hold the victim's head in a particular position? Is it necessary to press on the victim's chest to ensure exhalation? Are there any special considerations for rescuing rebreather divers? Phase 3, procedure at the surface: Is it possible to make an assessment of breathing in the water? Can effective rescue breaths be delivered in the water? What is the likelihood of persistent circulation after respiratory arrest? Does the recent advocacy for "compression-only resuscitation" suggest that rescue breaths should not be administered to a non-breathing diver? What rules should guide the relative priority of in-water rescue breaths over accessing surface support where definitive CPR can be started? A "best practice" decision tree for submerged diver rescue has been proposed. PMID:23342767

  14. The probability of evolutionary rescue: towards a quantitative comparison between theory and evolution experiments

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Guillaume; Aguilée, Robin; Ramsayer, Johan; Kaltz, Oliver; Ronce, Ophélie

    2013-01-01

    Evolutionary rescue occurs when a population genetically adapts to a new stressful environment that would otherwise cause its extinction. Forecasting the probability of persistence under stress, including emergence of drug resistance as a special case of interest, requires experimentally validated quantitative predictions. Here, we propose general analytical predictions, based on diffusion approximations, for the probability of evolutionary rescue. We assume a narrow genetic basis for adaptation to stress, as is often the case for drug resistance. First, we extend the rescue model of Orr & Unckless (Am. Nat. 2008 172, 160–169) to a broader demographic and genetic context, allowing the model to apply to empirical systems with variation among mutation effects on demography, overlapping generations and bottlenecks, all common features of microbial populations. Second, we confront our predictions of rescue probability with two datasets from experiments with Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast) and Pseudomonas fluorescens (bacterium). The tests show the qualitative agreement between the model and observed patterns, and illustrate how biologically relevant quantities, such as the per capita rate of rescue, can be estimated from fits of empirical data. Finally, we use the results of the model to suggest further, more quantitative, tests of evolutionary rescue theory. PMID:23209169

  15. Rescuing degrading aquifers in the Central Coastal Plain of North Carolina (USA): Just process, effective groundwater management policy, and sustainable aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manda, Alex K.; Klein, Wendy A.

    2014-07-01

    Strategic management of degrading coastal aquifers in eastern North Carolina (USA) became imperative after a severe imbalance occurred between withdrawal and recharge rates. To ameliorate this growing problem, an aggressive water policy was developed through public input by creating the Central Coastal Plain Capacity Use Area (CCPCUA) to maintain beneficial use of groundwater resources. Insights from social psychology, and socio-legal studies are used to evaluate how procedural justice and public participation played major roles to resolving groundwater resource management problems. A mixed methods approach uses archival data and interviews with various rule-making participants to assess the process of stakeholder involvement that led to creation of the policy. In addition, data analysis techniques are utilized to evaluate the effects of the policy on aquifer health (through water levels) over a ˜10 year period. Results suggest that not only did a stakeholder group participate in a process that was deemed fair, understandable, and relatively easy to administer for users and regulators, but public participation resulted in an effective plan that ensures the long-term sustainable use of groundwater. Declining groundwater withdrawals and recovering water levels suggest that the rule is achieving its intended goal of protecting the aquifers from depletion and degradation. This paper touches on global themes that are essential to water demand and consumption, water management techniques, and water resources protection.

  16. EMERGENCY VICTIM CARE AND RESCUE, INSTRUCTOR'S MANUAL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MORANDO, ROCCO V.; STOVER, WILBUR F.

    DEVELOPED AT THE STATE LEVEL BY SQUADMEN AND TRADE AND INDUSTRIAL PERSONNEL, THIS MANUAL IS FOR USE BY A QUALIFIED SQUADMAN IN TEACHING FULL-TIME AND VOLUNTEER EMERGENCY AND RESCUE WORKERS IN AN EMERGENCY SQUAD STATION OR TRAINING CENTER. TEACHING GUIDES ARE PROVIDED FOR A 30-HOUR COURSE ON EMERGENCY VICTIM CARE AND A 20-HOUR COURSE ON VICTIM…

  17. Emergency Medical Rescue in a Radiation Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Briesmeister, L.; Ellington, Y.; Hollis, R.; Kunzman, J.; McNaughton, M.; Ramsey, G.; Somers, B.; Turner, A.; Finn, J.

    1999-09-14

    Previous experience with emergency medical rescues in the presence of radiation or contamination indicates that the training provided to emergency responders is not always appropriate. A new course developed at Los Alamos includes specific procedures for emergency response in a variety of radiological conditions.

  18. 78 FR 39531 - Mine Rescue Teams

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-01

    ... July 1, 2013 Part V Department of Labor Mine Safety and Health Administration 30 CFR Part 49 Mine... and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Mine Safety and Health Administration 30 CFR Part 49 Mine... Miner Act Requirements for Underground Coal Mine Operators and Mine Rescue Teams Type of mine...

  19. Rescue Fantasies in Homicide-Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selkin, James

    1976-01-01

    Homicide-suicides (N=13), events in which an individual murders one or more persons and kills himself immediately afterward, were studied, The results are interpreted to suggest that persons who commit homicide-suicide are acting out a three-party rescue fantasy in an attempt to resolve unbearable stress. (Author)

  20. REM sleep rescues learning from interference.

    PubMed

    McDevitt, Elizabeth A; Duggan, Katherine A; Mednick, Sara C

    2015-07-01

    Classical human memory studies investigating the acquisition of temporally-linked events have found that the memories for two events will interfere with each other and cause forgetting (i.e., interference; Wixted, 2004). Importantly, sleep helps consolidate memories and protect them from subsequent interference (Ellenbogen, Hulbert, Stickgold, Dinges, & Thompson-Schill, 2006). We asked whether sleep can also repair memories that have already been damaged by interference. Using a perceptual learning paradigm, we induced interference either before or after a consolidation period. We varied brain states during consolidation by comparing active wake, quiet wake, and naps with either non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREM), or both NREM and REM sleep. When interference occurred after consolidation, sleep and wake both produced learning. However, interference prior to consolidation impaired memory, with retroactive interference showing more disruption than proactive interference. Sleep rescued learning damaged by interference. Critically, only naps that contained REM sleep were able to rescue learning that was highly disrupted by retroactive interference. Furthermore, the magnitude of rescued learning was correlated with the amount of REM sleep. We demonstrate the first evidence of a process by which the brain can rescue and consolidate memories damaged by interference, and that this process requires REM sleep. We explain these results within a theoretical model that considers how interference during encoding interacts with consolidation processes to predict which memories are retained or lost. PMID:25498222

  1. Summary of prior grain entrapment rescue strategies.

    PubMed

    Roberts, M J; Deboy, G R; Field, W E; Maier, D E

    2011-10-01

    Entrapment in flowable agricultural material continues to be a relevant problem facing both farmers and employees of commercial grain storage and handling operations. While considerable work has been done previously on the causes of entrapment in grain and possible preventative measures, there is little research on the efficacy of current first response or extrication techniques. With the recent introduction of new grain rescue equipment and training programs, it was determined that the need exists to document and summarize prior grain rescue strategies with a view to develop evidence-based recommendations that would enhance the efficacy of the techniques used and reduce the risks to both victims and first responders. Utilizing the Purdue University Agricultural Entrapment Database, all data were queried for information related to extrication of victims from grain entrapments documented over the period 1964-2006. Also analyzed were data from other sources, including public records related to entrapments and information from onsite investigations. Significant findings of this study include the following: (1) between 1964 and 2006, the number of entrapments averaged 16 per year, with the frequency increasing over the last decade; (2) of all cases documented, about 45% resulted in fatality; (3) no less than 44% of entrapments occurred in shelled corn; (4) fatality was the result in 82% of cases where victims were submerged beneath the grain surface, while fatality occurred in 10% of cases where victims were only partially engulfed; (5) the majority of rescues were reported to have been conducted by untrained personnel who were at the scene at the time of entrapment; and (6) in those cases where the rescue strategies were known, 56% involved cutting or punching holes in the side walls of the storage structure, 19% involved utilizing onsite fabricated grain retaining walls to extricate partially entrapped victims, and the use of grain vacuum machines as a rescue

  2. ISS Update: Orion Recovery and Rescue Lead Tom Walker

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Brandi Dean talks with Tom Walker, Orion Recovery and Rescue Lead, about how the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) is being used to train rescue and recovery personnel f...

  3. Rescuing Loading Induced Bone Formation at Senescence

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Sundar; Ausk, Brandon J.; Prasad, Jitendra; Threet, Dewayne; Bain, Steven D.; Richardson, Thomas S.; Gross, Ted S.

    2010-01-01

    The increasing incidence of osteoporosis worldwide requires anabolic treatments that are safe, effective, and, critically, inexpensive given the prevailing overburdened health care systems. While vigorous skeletal loading is anabolic and holds promise, deficits in mechanotransduction accrued with age markedly diminish the efficacy of readily complied, exercise-based strategies to combat osteoporosis in the elderly. Our approach to explore and counteract these age-related deficits was guided by cellular signaling patterns across hierarchical scales and by the insight that cell responses initiated during transient, rare events hold potential to exert high-fidelity control over temporally and spatially distant tissue adaptation. Here, we present an agent-based model of real-time Ca2+/NFAT signaling amongst bone cells that fully described periosteal bone formation induced by a wide variety of loading stimuli in young and aged animals. The model predicted age-related pathway alterations underlying the diminished bone formation at senescence, and hence identified critical deficits that were promising targets for therapy. Based upon model predictions, we implemented an in vivo intervention and show for the first time that supplementing mechanical stimuli with low-dose Cyclosporin A can completely rescue loading induced bone formation in the senescent skeleton. These pre-clinical data provide the rationale to consider this approved pharmaceutical alongside mild physical exercise as an inexpensive, yet potent therapy to augment bone mass in the elderly. Our analyses suggested that real-time cellular signaling strongly influences downstream bone adaptation to mechanical stimuli, and quantification of these otherwise inaccessible, transient events in silico yielded a novel intervention with clinical potential. PMID:20838577

  4. Point-of-care ultrasonography during rescue operations on board a Polish Medical Air Rescue helicopter.

    PubMed

    Darocha, Tomasz; Gałązkowski, Robert; Sobczyk, Dorota; Żyła, Zbigniew; Drwiła, Rafał

    2014-12-01

    Point-of-care ultrasound examination has been increasingly widely used in pre-hospital care. The use of ultrasound in rescue medicine allows for a quick differential diagnosis, identification of the most important medical emergencies and immediate introduction of targeted treatment. Performing and interpreting a pre-hospital ultrasound examination can improve the accuracy of diagnosis and thus reduce mortality. The authors' own experiences are presented in this paper, which consist in using a portable, hand-held ultrasound apparatus during rescue operations on board a Polish Medical Air Rescue helicopter. The possibility of using an ultrasound apparatus during helicopter rescue service allows for a full professional evaluation of the patient's health condition and enables the patient to be brought to a center with the most appropriate facilities for their condition. PMID:26674604

  5. Minimum-fuel rescue trajectories for the Extravehicular Excursion Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fowler, W. T.; Neff, J. M.

    1991-01-01

    The problem of determining minimum-fuel trajectories for rescuing astronauts or equipment which become separated from a Space Station is addressed. Using the Clohessy-Wiltshire equations of relative motion and assuming impulsive Delta-Vs, the minimum-fuel rescue problem is shown to be a parameter optimization problem. Minimum-fuel rescue trajectories are found for seventeen test cases using a recursive quadratic programming algorithm. The results are analyzed and general rules for astronaut rescue and equipment retrieval are developed.

  6. Resource Guide for Search and Rescue Training Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaValla, Patrick

    The bibliography about search and rescue training materials lists booklets, books, manuals, films, papers, periodicals, and pamphlets that treat many aspects of search and rescue situations: general, cave, disaster, and mountain rescues; strategy tactics; communications; knots and ropes; outdoor living; dogs; tracking; map and compass; survival;…

  7. 30 CFR 49.5 - Mine rescue station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mine rescue station. 49.5 Section 49.5 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS § 49.5 Mine rescue station. (a) Except where alternative compliance is permitted, every...

  8. 30 CFR 49.2 - Availability of mine rescue teams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Availability of mine rescue teams. 49.2 Section 49.2 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Metal and Nonmetal Mines § 49.2...

  9. 30 CFR 49.8 - Training for mine rescue teams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Training for mine rescue teams. 49.8 Section 49.8 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Metal and Nonmetal Mines § 49.8 Training...

  10. 30 CFR 49.8 - Training for mine rescue teams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Training for mine rescue teams. 49.8 Section 49.8 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Metal and Nonmetal Mines § 49.8 Training...

  11. 30 CFR 49.12 - Availability of mine rescue teams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Availability of mine rescue teams. 49.12 Section 49.12 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.12 Availability of mine...

  12. 30 CFR 49.8 - Training for mine rescue teams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Training for mine rescue teams. 49.8 Section 49.8 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS § 49.8 Training for mine rescue teams. (a) Prior to serving on a mine...

  13. 30 CFR 49.12 - Availability of mine rescue teams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Availability of mine rescue teams. 49.12 Section 49.12 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.12 Availability of mine...

  14. 30 CFR 49.18 - Training for mine rescue teams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Training for mine rescue teams. 49.18 Section 49.18 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.18 Training for mine...

  15. 30 CFR 49.18 - Training for mine rescue teams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Training for mine rescue teams. 49.18 Section 49.18 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.18 Training for mine...

  16. 30 CFR 49.18 - Training for mine rescue teams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Training for mine rescue teams. 49.18 Section 49.18 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.18 Training for mine...

  17. 30 CFR 49.8 - Training for mine rescue teams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Training for mine rescue teams. 49.8 Section 49.8 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS § 49.8 Training for mine rescue teams. (a) Prior to serving on a mine...

  18. 30 CFR 49.8 - Training for mine rescue teams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Training for mine rescue teams. 49.8 Section 49.8 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Metal and Nonmetal Mines § 49.8 Training...

  19. 30 CFR 49.18 - Training for mine rescue teams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Training for mine rescue teams. 49.18 Section 49.18 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.18 Training for mine...

  20. 30 CFR 49.2 - Availability of mine rescue teams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Availability of mine rescue teams. 49.2 Section 49.2 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS § 49.2 Availability of mine rescue teams. (a) Except where...

  1. 30 CFR 49.12 - Availability of mine rescue teams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Availability of mine rescue teams. 49.12 Section 49.12 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.12 Availability of mine...

  2. 30 CFR 49.12 - Availability of mine rescue teams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Availability of mine rescue teams. 49.12 Section 49.12 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.12 Availability of mine...

  3. 30 CFR 49.2 - Availability of mine rescue teams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Availability of mine rescue teams. 49.2 Section 49.2 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS § 49.2 Availability of mine rescue teams. (a) Except where...

  4. 30 CFR 49.5 - Mine rescue station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mine rescue station. 49.5 Section 49.5 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS § 49.5 Mine rescue station. (a) Except where alternative compliance is permitted, every...

  5. 30 CFR 49.2 - Availability of mine rescue teams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Availability of mine rescue teams. 49.2 Section 49.2 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Metal and Nonmetal Mines § 49.2...

  6. 30 CFR 49.2 - Availability of mine rescue teams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Availability of mine rescue teams. 49.2 Section 49.2 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Metal and Nonmetal Mines § 49.2...

  7. 30 CFR 49.12 - Availability of mine rescue teams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Availability of mine rescue teams. 49.12 Section 49.12 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.12 Availability of mine...

  8. 30 CFR 49.18 - Training for mine rescue teams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Training for mine rescue teams. 49.18 Section 49.18 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.18 Training for mine...

  9. Issues in intelligent robots for search and rescue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casper, Jennifer L.; Micire, Mark; Murphy, Robin R.

    2000-07-01

    Since the 1995 Oklahoma City bombing and Kobe, Japan, earthquake, robotics researchers have been considering search and rescue as a humanitarian research domain. The recent devastation in Turkey and Taiwan, compounded with the new Robocup Rescue and AAAI Urban Search and Rescue robot competition, may encourage more research. However, roboticists generally go not have access to domain experts: the emergency workers or first providers. This paper shares our understanding of urban search and rescue, based on our active research in this area and training sessions with rescue workers from the Hillsborough County (Florida) Fire Departments. The paper is intended to be a stepping stone for roboticists entering the field.

  10. Medical considerations in the use of helicopters in mountain rescue.

    PubMed

    Tomazin, Iztok; Kovacs, Tim

    2003-01-01

    The outcome of patient care can be dramatically improved by bringing rapid rescue and medical care to the mountain rescue scene and by rapid transport to a medical facility. The use of a helicopter for these purposes is common. It is necessary when it has clear advantages for victims in comparison with ground rescue and transport. Helicopters should work within the existing emergency medical system and must be staffed by appropriate mountain rescue and medically trained personnel. Activation time should be as short as possible. Activation of a helicopter for a mountain rescue should primarily include indication and assessment of flight and safety conditions. No other mediators or delaying factors should be permitted. The main safety criteria are appropriate mountain rescue and flight training, competence of air and ground crews, radio communication between the air and ground crews, and mission briefing before the rescue. Criteria for a helicopter used for mountain rescue are proper medical and rescue equipment, load capacity, adequate space, and others. There are two main groups of indications for use of a helicopter for mountain rescue: the patient's condition and the circumstances at the site of the accident. All persons responsible for the activation of the helicopter rescue operation should be aware of specific problems in the mountains or wilderness. PMID:14672551

  11. Lidar techniques for search and rescue

    SciTech Connect

    Cabral, W.L.

    1985-01-01

    Four techniques for using LIDAR in Search and Rescue Operations will be discussed. The topic will include laser retroreflection, laser-induced fluorescence in the visible, laser-induced fluorescence during daylight hours, and laser-induced fluorescence in the uv. These techniques use high-repetition rate lasers at a variety of frequencies to induce either fluorescence in dye markers or retroreflection from plastic corner cubes on life preservers and other emergency markers.

  12. Skylab rescue space vehicle flight readiness test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jevitt, S. J.

    1973-01-01

    A Skylab Rescue Space Vehicle flight readiness test is described which ensures that space vehicle systems are in a state of flight readiness and are compatible with associated ground support equipment. The functions of propellant loading, umbilical ejection, ignition, holddown arm release, liftoff, and service arm and tail service mast retraction are simulated. The test outline is presented along with a list of references, intercommunications information, operations interface control chart, and flight test.

  13. Monte Carlo simulations within avalanche rescue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiweger, Ingrid; Genswein, Manuel; Schweizer, Jürg

    2016-04-01

    Refining concepts for avalanche rescue involves calculating suitable settings for rescue strategies such as an adequate probing depth for probe line searches or an optimal time for performing resuscitation for a recovered avalanche victim in case of additional burials. In the latter case, treatment decisions have to be made in the context of triage. However, given the low number of incidents it is rarely possible to derive quantitative criteria based on historical statistics in the context of evidence-based medicine. For these rare, but complex rescue scenarios, most of the associated concepts, theories, and processes involve a number of unknown "random" parameters which have to be estimated in order to calculate anything quantitatively. An obvious approach for incorporating a number of random variables and their distributions into a calculation is to perform a Monte Carlo (MC) simulation. We here present Monte Carlo simulations for calculating the most suitable probing depth for probe line searches depending on search area and an optimal resuscitation time in case of multiple avalanche burials. The MC approach reveals, e.g., new optimized values for the duration of resuscitation that differ from previous, mainly case-based assumptions.

  14. Psychological Distress in Chimpanzees Rescued From Laboratories.

    PubMed

    Lopresti-Goodman, Stacy M; Bezner, Jocelyn; Ritter, Chelsea

    2015-01-01

    The United States is one of the last countries allowing invasive research on chimpanzees. Biomedical research on chimpanzees commonly involves maternal deprivation, social isolation, intensive confinement, and repetitive invasive procedures. These physically harmful and psychologically traumatic experiences cause many chimpanzees to develop symptoms of psychopathology that persist even after relocation from laboratories to sanctuaries. Through semistructured interviews with chimpanzee caregivers, direct behavioral observations, and consultation of laboratory records, we were interested in qualitatively analyzing symptoms of psychological distress in a sample of 253 chimpanzees rescued from biomedical research now residing at an accredited chimpanzee sanctuary. We present the results of this analysis and include an illustrative case study of one rescued chimpanzee who engages in self-injurious behaviors and meets modified Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder. We discuss our results in light of recent policy changes regarding the use of chimpanzees in biomedical research in the United States and their implications for those involved in the rescue and rehabilitation of chimpanzees from biomedical research. PMID:25893315

  15. Rescuing Ecosystems from Extinction Cascades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahasrabudhe, Sagar; Motter, Adilson

    2010-03-01

    Food web perturbations stemming from climate change, overexploitation, invasive species, and natural disasters often cause an initial loss of species that results in a cascade of secondary extinctions. Using a predictive modeling framework, here we will present a systematic network-based approach to reduce the number of secondary extinctions. We will show that the extinction of one species can often be compensated by the concurrent removal of a second specific species, which is a counter-intuitive effect not previously tested in complex food webs. These compensatory perturbations frequently involve long-range interactions that are not a priori evident from local predator-prey relationships. Strikingly, in numerous cases even the early removal of a species that would eventually be extinct by the cascade is found to significantly reduce the number of cascading extinctions. Other nondestructive interventions based on partial removals and growth suppression and/or mortality increase are shown to sometimes prevent all secondary extinctions.

  16. Genetic rescue and inbreeding depression in Mexican wolves.

    PubMed

    Fredrickson, Richard J; Siminski, Peter; Woolf, Melissa; Hedrick, Philip W

    2007-09-22

    Although inbreeding can reduce individual fitness and contribute to population extinction, gene flow between inbred but unrelated populations may overcome these effects. Among extant Mexican wolves (Canis lupus baileyi), inbreeding had reduced genetic diversity and potentially lowered fitness, and as a result, three unrelated captive wolf lineages were merged beginning in 1995. We examined the effect of inbreeding and the merging of the founding lineages on three fitness traits in the captive population and on litter size in the reintroduced population. We found little evidence of inbreeding depression among captive wolves of the founding lineages, but large fitness increases, genetic rescue, for all traits examined among F1 offspring of the founding lineages. In addition, we observed strong inbreeding depression among wolves descended from F1 wolves. These results suggest a high load of deleterious alleles in the McBride lineage, the largest of the founding lineages. In the wild, reintroduced population, there were large fitness differences between McBride wolves and wolves with ancestry from two or more lineages, again indicating a genetic rescue. The low litter and pack sizes observed in the wild population are consistent with this genetic load, but it appears that there is still potential to establish vigorous wild populations. PMID:17609180

  17. Efficient post-disaster patient transportation and transfer: experiences and lessons learned in emergency medical rescue in Aceh after the 2004 Asian tsunami.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang-Hui; Zheng, Jing-Chen

    2014-08-01

    This descriptive study aimed to present experiences and lessons learned in emergency medical rescue after the 2004 Asian tsunami in terms of transportation and transfer of patients and coordination of medical rescue forces. After the tsunami, numerous rescue institutions and international organizations rushed to Aceh province to aid in the rescue work. To coordinate various aspects of medical rescue efforts, an airport-based joint patient transfer center was developed. Within the framework of the joint transport center, rescue teams, militaries, and international institutions worked together to jointly triage, rapidly treat, and transfer patients. As members of the Chinese International Search and Rescue team, we were involved in the rescue efforts in the joint patient transfer center, and treated and transferred a total of 217 injured patients, the majority of whom were triaged as level II, followed by level III, and level I. The top three diseases were trauma/wound infection, respiratory system disease, and digestive system disease. The airport-based joint patient transfer center provided an efficient mechanism for successfully coordinating various aspects of the medical rescue efforts to transfer patients. Large-scale air transport, available health resources, and effective triage criteria also played an essential role in patient transportation and transfer. PMID:25102536

  18. Database Design and Implementation of Game Management System for Rescue Robot Contest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamauchi, Hitoshi; Kojima, Atsuhiro; Koeda, Masanao

    The Rescue Robot Contest is one of the robot contests concerning lifesaving in urban disasters. In this contest, loads of rescue dummies simulating disaster victims, and contest progression status are presented to audiences, and team members operating robots. This presentation is important for both robot activity evaluation and production effect. For these purposes, a game management system for Rescue Robot Contest is originally constructed and operated. In this system, a database system is employed as base system. And this system's role is for both recording all data and events, and real-time processing for the presentation. In this paper, design and implementation of the tables and built-in functions of the database which is foundation of this system are presented. For real-time processing, embedded functions and trigger functions are implemented. These functions generate unique latest records into specific tables which stores only latest data for quick access.

  19. Retrospective on the construction and practice of a state-level emergency medical rescue team.

    PubMed

    Lei, Zhang; Haitao, Guo; Xin, Wang; Yundou, Wang

    2014-10-01

    For the past few years, disasters like earthquakes, landslides, mudslides, tsunamis, and traffic accidents have occurred with an ever-growing frequency, coverage, and intensity greatly beyond the expectation of the public. In order to respond effectively to disasters and to reduce casualties and property damage, countries around the world have invested more efforts in the theoretical study of emergency medicine and the construction of emergency medical rescue forces. Consequently, emergency medical rescue teams of all scales and types have come into being and have played significant roles in disaster response work. As the only state-level emergency medical rescue force from the Chinese People's Armed Police Forces, the force described here has developed, through continuous learning and practice, a characteristic mode in terms of grouping methods, equipment system construction, and training. PMID:25397657

  20. Biobotic insect swarm based sensor networks for search and rescue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozkurt, Alper; Lobaton, Edgar; Sichitiu, Mihail; Hedrick, Tyson; Latif, Tahmid; Dirafzoon, Alireza; Whitmire, Eric; Verderber, Alexander; Marin, Juan; Xiong, Hong

    2014-06-01

    The potential benefits of distributed robotics systems in applications requiring situational awareness, such as search-and-rescue in emergency situations, are indisputable. The efficiency of such systems requires robotic agents capable of coping with uncertain and dynamic environmental conditions. For example, after an earthquake, a tremendous effort is spent for days to reach to surviving victims where robotic swarms or other distributed robotic systems might play a great role in achieving this faster. However, current technology falls short of offering centimeter scale mobile agents that can function effectively under such conditions. Insects, the inspiration of many robotic swarms, exhibit an unmatched ability to navigate through such environments while successfully maintaining control and stability. We have benefitted from recent developments in neural engineering and neuromuscular stimulation research to fuse the locomotory advantages of insects with the latest developments in wireless networking technologies to enable biobotic insect agents to function as search-and-rescue agents. Our research efforts towards this goal include development of biobot electronic backpack technologies, establishment of biobot tracking testbeds to evaluate locomotion control efficiency, investigation of biobotic control strategies with Gromphadorhina portentosa cockroaches and Manduca sexta moths, establishment of a localization and communication infrastructure, modeling and controlling collective motion by learning deterministic and stochastic motion models, topological motion modeling based on these models, and the development of a swarm robotic platform to be used as a testbed for our algorithms.

  1. GIS plays key role in NYC Rescue and Relief Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    New York City, Sept. 17—The posters of missing loved ones are pasted onto New York City walls and street signs six days after 2 hijacked commercial airlines destroyed the World Trade Center in lower Manhattan on September 11. Several miles uptown from “ground zero,” heightened security hovers around the city's Office of Emergency Management rescue and relief command center, an around-the-clock operation. Police, firefighters, military, officials with the Federal Emergency Management Agency, communications technicians, and a beehive of others work in controlled chaos in this cavernous, convention center-sized hall, lined with computers and adorned with several American flags.After the original command center at 7 World Trade Center collapsed to rubble as an after-effect of the plane strikes, city officials scrambled to recreate it. Alan Leidner, director of New York's citywide geographic information systems (GIS), and who is with the Department of Information Technology and Telecommunications, knew that maps would be an integral component of the rescue and relief efforts. Maps provide emergency workers and others with accurate and detailed scientific data in the form of visual aids upon which they can make informed decisions.

  2. Chloroquine rescues A549 cells from paraquat-induced death.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lingjie; Wang, Zhong

    2016-04-01

    Paraquat (PQ) is a widely used herbicide associated with a high mortality rate, yet, there are no effective treatments for PQ poisoning. PQ may damage alveolar type II cells leading to moderate to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The present study was undertaken to show that PQ causes alveolar type II (A549) cell death and to evaluate whether chloroquine (CQ) can protect A549 cells against PQ-induced cell death. The results showed that high concentrations of PQ resulted in toxicity, as indicated by a decrease in cell viability. More importantly, for the first time, CQ was found to improve cell viability of PQ treated A549 cells. Moreover, our data demonstrated that CQ increased lysosome-associated membrane protein-1, lysosome-associated membrane protein-2 and light chain-3 expressions, suggesting that the mechanism by which CQ rescues PQ-induced cytotoxicity may be through protection of the lysosomal membrane or up-regulation of autophagy. In conclusion, our study indicates that CQ may be used as a potential drug to rescue PQ-induced ARDS. PMID:26154125

  3. Failure to rescue patients from early critical complications of oesophagogastric cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    Weledji, Elroy P.; Verla, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    ‘Failure to rescue’ is a significant cause of mortality in gastrointestinal surgery. Differences in mortality between high and low-volume hospitals are not associated with large difference in complication rates but to the ability of the hospital to effectively rescue patients from the complications. We reviewed the critical complications following surgery for oesophageal and gastric cancer, their prevention and reasons for failure to rescue. Strategies focussing on perioperative optimization, the timely recognition and management of complications may be essential to improving outcome in low-volume hospitals. PMID:27054032

  4. Survey of space escape/rescue/survivability capabilities.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleisig, R.; Bolger, P. H.; Heath, G. W.

    1971-01-01

    Discussion of preventive or remedial systems to achieve safer space flight operations. Escape, rescue, and survival systems are defined by categories: on board, prepositioned aid, and earth-launched concepts. The survey considers separable escape or survival capsules; standby escape or rescue systems; and earth-launched manned and unmanned rescue systems. Reports covering such systems are listed, and the contents are classified as to scope of investigation, space mission, and design approach. Mission classes considered are earth orbit, lunar, and interplanetary. Results of the space escape, rescue, and survivability investigations are summarized in terms of system features and performance, including apparent voids or limitations in rescue capability. Recovery requirements and resources for space rescue are discussed.

  5. Structure-function relationships in the hammerhead ribozyme probed by base rescue.

    PubMed

    Peracchi, A; Matulic-Adamic, J; Wang, S; Beigelman, L; Herschlag, D

    1998-11-01

    We previously showed that the deleterious effects from introducing abasic nucleotides in the hammerhead ribozyme core can, in some instances, be relieved by exogenous addition of the ablated base and that the relative ability of different bases to rescue catalysis can be used to probe functional aspects of the ribozyme structure [Peracchi et al., Proc NatAcad Sci USA 93:11522]. Here we examine rescue at four additional positions, 3, 9, 12 and 13, to probe transition state interactions and to demonstrate the strengths and weaknesses of base rescue as a tool for structure-function studies. The results confirm functional roles for groups previously probed by mutagenesis, provide evidence that specific interactions observed in the ground-state X-ray structure are maintained in the transition state, and suggest formation in the transition state of other interactions that are absent in the ground state. In addition, the results suggest transition state roles for some groups that did not emerge as important in previous mutagenesis studies, presumably because base rescue has the ability to reveal interactions that are obscured by local structural redundancy in traditional mutagenesis. The base rescue results are complemented by comparing the effects of the abasic and phenyl nucleotide substitutions. The results together suggest that stacking of the bases at positions 9, 13 and 14 observed in the ground state is important for orienting other groups in the transition state. These findings add to our understanding of structure-function relationships in the hammerhead ribozyme and help delineate positions that may undergo rearrangements in the active hammerhead structure relative to the ground-state structure. Finally, the particularly efficient rescue by 2-methyladenine at position 13 relative to adenine and other bases suggests that natural base modifications may, in some instance, provide additional stability by taking advantage of hydrophobic interactions in folded RNAs

  6. Structure-function relationships in the hammerhead ribozyme probed by base rescue.

    PubMed Central

    Peracchi, A; Matulic-Adamic, J; Wang, S; Beigelman, L; Herschlag, D

    1998-01-01

    We previously showed that the deleterious effects from introducing abasic nucleotides in the hammerhead ribozyme core can, in some instances, be relieved by exogenous addition of the ablated base and that the relative ability of different bases to rescue catalysis can be used to probe functional aspects of the ribozyme structure [Peracchi et al., Proc NatAcad Sci USA 93:11522]. Here we examine rescue at four additional positions, 3, 9, 12 and 13, to probe transition state interactions and to demonstrate the strengths and weaknesses of base rescue as a tool for structure-function studies. The results confirm functional roles for groups previously probed by mutagenesis, provide evidence that specific interactions observed in the ground-state X-ray structure are maintained in the transition state, and suggest formation in the transition state of other interactions that are absent in the ground state. In addition, the results suggest transition state roles for some groups that did not emerge as important in previous mutagenesis studies, presumably because base rescue has the ability to reveal interactions that are obscured by local structural redundancy in traditional mutagenesis. The base rescue results are complemented by comparing the effects of the abasic and phenyl nucleotide substitutions. The results together suggest that stacking of the bases at positions 9, 13 and 14 observed in the ground state is important for orienting other groups in the transition state. These findings add to our understanding of structure-function relationships in the hammerhead ribozyme and help delineate positions that may undergo rearrangements in the active hammerhead structure relative to the ground-state structure. Finally, the particularly efficient rescue by 2-methyladenine at position 13 relative to adenine and other bases suggests that natural base modifications may, in some instance, provide additional stability by taking advantage of hydrophobic interactions in folded RNAs

  7. Lipid rescue in children: The prompt decision.

    PubMed

    Eizaga Rebollar, Ramón; García Palacios, María V; Morales Guerrero, Javier; Torres Morera, Luis M

    2016-08-01

    We report the case of a 17-month-old child who underwent laparotomy under general anesthesia and caudal block. Electrocardiogram ST-T changes were observed after local anesthetic injection. The prompt use of Intralipid 30% was successful in normalizing ECG alterations. Our experience is consistent with previous literature, mainly carried out in adults. Thereby, we conduct a brief review of the subject in pediatrics. As a major conclusion, we strongly recommend the "fast-track" lipid rescue as soon as this severe complication is detected. PMID:27290983

  8. Multiple Rescue Factors Within a Wolbachia Strain

    PubMed Central

    Zabalou, Sofia; Apostolaki, Angeliki; Pattas, Savvas; Veneti, Zoe; Paraskevopoulos, Charalampos; Livadaras, Ioannis; Markakis, George; Brissac, Terry; Merçot, Hervé; Bourtzis, Kostas

    2008-01-01

    Wolbachia-induced cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) is expressed when infected males are crossed with either uninfected females or females infected with Wolbachia of different CI specificity. In diploid insects, CI results in embryonic mortality, apparently due to the the loss of the paternal set of chromosomes, usually during the first mitotic division. The molecular basis of CI has not been determined yet; however, several lines of evidence suggest that Wolbachia exhibits two distinct sex-dependent functions: in males, Wolbachia somehow “imprints” the paternal chromosomes during spermatogenesis (mod function), whereas in females, the presence of the same Wolbachia strain(s) is able to restore embryonic viability (resc function). On the basis of the ability of Wolbachia to induce the modification and/or rescue functions in a given host, each bacterial strain can be classified as belonging in one of the four following categories: mod+ resc+, mod− resc+, mod− resc−, and mod+ resc−. A so-called “suicide” mod+ resc− strain has not been found in nature yet. Here, a combination of embryonic cytoplasmic injections and introgression experiments was used to transfer nine evolutionary, distantly related Wolbachia strains (wYak, wTei, wSan, wRi, wMel, wHa, wAu, wNo, and wMa) into the same host background, that of Drosophila simulans (STCP strain), a highly permissive host for CI expression. We initially characterized the modification and rescue properties of the Wolbachia strains wYak, wTei, and wSan, naturally present in the yakuba complex, upon their transfer into D. simulans. Confocal microscopy and multilocus sequencing typing (MLST) analysis were also employed for the evaluation of the CI properties. We also tested the compatibility relationships of wYak, wTei, and wSan with all other Wolbachia infections. So far, the cytoplasmic incompatibility properties of different Wolbachia variants are explained assuming a single pair of modification and rescue

  9. Post-disaster medical rescue strategy in tropical regions

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiang-hui; Hou, Shi-ke; Zheng, Jing-chen; Fan, Hao-jun; Song, Jian-qi

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Earthquakes, floods, droughts, storms, mudslides, landslides, and forest wild fires are serious threats to human lives and properties. The present study aimed to study the environmental characteristics and pathogenic traits, recapitulate experiences, and augment applications of medical reliefs in tropical regions. METHODS: Analysis was made on work and projects of emergency medical rescue, based on information and data collected from 3 emergency medical rescue missions of China International Search and Rescue Team to overseas earthquakes and tsunamis aftermaths in tropical disaster regions — Indonesia-Aceh, Indonesia-Yogyakarta, and Haiti-Port au Prince. RESULTS: Shock, infection and heat stroke were frequently encountered in addition to outbreaks of infectious diseases, skin diseases, and diarrhea during post-disaster emergency medical rescue in tropical regions. CONCLUSIONS: High temperature, high humidity, and proliferation of microorganisms and parasites are the characteristics of tropical climate that impose strict requirements on the preparation of rescue work including selective team members suitable for a particular rescue mission and the provisioning of medical equipment and life support materials. The overseas rescue mission itself needs a scientific, efficient, simple workflow for providing efficient emergency medical assistance. Since shock and infection are major tasks in post-disaster treatment of severely injured victims in tropical regions, the prevention and diagnosis of hyperthermia, insect-borne infectious diseases, tropic skin diseases, infectious diarrhea, and pest harms of disaster victims and rescue team staff should be emphasized during the rescue operations. PMID:25215034

  10. Evolutionary rescue in vertebrates: evidence, applications and uncertainty

    PubMed Central

    Vander Wal, E.; Garant, D.; Festa-Bianchet, M.; Pelletier, F.

    2013-01-01

    The current rapid rate of human-driven environmental change presents wild populations with novel conditions and stresses. Theory and experimental evidence for evolutionary rescue present a promising case for species facing environmental change persisting via adaptation. Here, we assess the potential for evolutionary rescue in wild vertebrates. Available information on evolutionary rescue was rare and restricted to abundant and highly fecund species that faced severe intentional anthropogenic selective pressures. However, examples from adaptive tracking in common species and genetic rescues in species of conservation concern provide convincing evidence in favour of the mechanisms of evolutionary rescue. We conclude that low population size, long generation times and limited genetic variability will result in evolutionary rescue occurring rarely for endangered species without intervention. Owing to the risks presented by current environmental change and the possibility of evolutionary rescue in nature, we suggest means to study evolutionary rescue by mapping genotype → phenotype → demography → fitness relationships, and priorities for applying evolutionary rescue to wild populations. PMID:23209171

  11. The Pain and the Gain of Rescuing Historic Science Data: The Nimbus Data Rescue Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallaher, D. W.; Campbell, G. G.

    2015-12-01

    While technology of our satellite systems have greatly improved the quality of observations over the past 50 years, it is the legacy of the first global coverage environment satellites, the Nimbus systems launched by NASA in the mid-1960s, that marks the beginning of a unique perspective from space. Such early data can extend our climate record and provide important context in longer-term climate changes. Unfortunately, the Nimbus data nearly disappeared before its value was recognized and attempts to recover the data were undertaken. While the Nimbus data was never truly lost, it was in a form that could not be read and was not organized in a way that could be accessed with modern computer systems. The rescue and recovery of the Nimbus data began in 2007 with an initiative by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Without the Goddard efforts, the early Nimbus data might be forever dark. The Nimbus Rescue Project has just completed processing and archival of the Nimbus 4 visible and infrared observations from 1970 and 1971. This adds to our rescue efforts from Nimbus 1, 2 and 3 for 1964, 1966 and 1969. The procedures to recover the Nimbus data, from both film and tape, could be used by other data rescue projects, however the algorithms presented will tend to be Nimbus specific. The compositing of the mapped minimum brightness over weekly intervals resulted in never before seen views of the Polar Regions, such as a visible light view of the Antarctic ice extent from October 1970 (Figure 1). The Nimbus data recovery and reprocessing into modern formats was important, however it was the utility of the data as a part of the satellite climate record that made it valuable. Data rescue projects are often both difficult and time consuming but the data they bring back to the science community makes these efforts worthwhile.

  12. Collaboration between Extension and Industry: Coordination and Assessment of Technical Large Animal Emergency Rescue Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porr, C. A. Shea; Shultz, Alyx M.; Gimenez, Rebecca; Splan, Rebecca K.

    2016-01-01

    Rescuing large animals from emergency situations can be fraught with dangers not only to the animals but also to the rescuers. People involved at the scene of such an emergency are most likely to include first responders, horse owners, and veterinarians. These groups need to be aware of how they can best work together to effect a safe and…

  13. Leadership lessons from the Chilean mine rescue.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Faaiza; Edmondson, Amy C; Leonard, Herman B

    2013-01-01

    Three years ago, when a cave-in at the San José mine in Chile trapped 33 men under 700,000 metric tons of rock, experts estimated the probability of getting them out alive at less than 1%. Yet, after spending a record 69 days underground, all 33 were hoisted up to safety. The inspiring story of their rescue is a case study in how to lead in situations where the stakes, risk, and uncertainty are incredibly high and time pressure is intense. Today executives often find themselves in similar straits. When they do, many feel torn. Should they be directive, taking charge and commanding action? Or should they be empowering, enabling innovation and experimentation? As the successful example of André Sougarret, the chief of the mine rescue operation, shows, the answer is yes--to both. The choice is a false dichotomy. Implementing this dual approach involves three key tasks. Each has directive and enabling components. The first task is envisioning, which requires instilling both realism and hope. The second task is enrolling, which means setting clear boundaries for who is on and off the team, but inviting in helpful collaborators. The third task is engaging--leading disciplined execution while encouraging innovation and experimentation. The authors of this article describe how Sougarret ably juggled all of these tasks, orchestrating the efforts of hundreds of people from different organizations, areas of expertise, and countries in an extraordinary mission that overcame impossible odds. PMID:24730174

  14. [Anaesthesia under unfavorable conditions - rescue helicopter].

    PubMed

    Knacke, Peer G; Gehring, Hartmut; Saur, Petra

    2011-03-01

    Rescue helicopters are used for emergency care and transport of emergency patients. The dimension of the cabin is clearly limited. A transport is carried out under spatial narrowness and high noise levels. Acoustic alarms or noises caused by the patient are hardly to be perceived, so that the view at optical alarms is necessary. Environmental conditions affect the concentration on the patient. Rearrangement maneuvers represent the most critical phases. Always the whole apparative monitoring and respirator must be in the field of view of the emergency doctor, drugs to the care must be handy to be quickly administered, the quantity of oxygen has to be observed. Infusions and option of airway management are ready to set in advance. Standardized work with the aid of algorithms and knowledge of treatment recommendations and guidelines help to prevent errors. To optimize the care of emergency patients, special training courses for the crew of rescue helicopters are offered. A training simulator to practice different scenarios and the establishment of a CIRS system are recommended. PMID:21400396

  15. Self-rescue strategies for EVA crewmembers equipped with the SAFER backpack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Trevor; Baughman, David

    1994-01-01

    An extravehicular astronaut who becomes separated from a space station has three options available: grappling the station immediately by means of a 'shepherd's crook' device; rescue by either a second crewmember flying an MMU or a robotic-controlled MMU; or self-rescue by means of a propulsive system. The first option requires very fast response by a tumbling astronaut; the second requires constant availability of an MMU, as well as a rendezvous procedure thousands of feet from the station. This paper will consider the third option, propulsive self-rescue. In particular, the capability of the new Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue (SAFER) propulsive backpack, which is to be tested on STS-64 in Sep. 1994, will be studied. This system possesses an attitude hold function that can automatically detumble an astronaut after separation. On-orbit tests of candidate self-rescue systems have demonstrated the need for such a feature. SAFER has a total delta(v) capability of about 10 fps, to cover both rotations and translations, compared with a possible separation rate of 2.5 fps. But the delta(v) required for self-rescue is critically dependent on the delay before return can be initiated, as a consequence of orbital effects. A very important practical question is then whether the total delta(v) of SAFER is adequate to perform self-rescue for worst case values of separation speed, time to detumble, and time for the astronaut to visually acquire the station. This paper shows that SAFER does indeed have sufficient propellant to carry out self-rescue in all realistic separation cases, as well as in cases which are considerably more severe than anything likely to be encountered in practice. The return trajectories and total delta(v)'s discussed are obtained by means of an 'inertial line-of-sight targeting' scheme, derived in the paper, which allows orbital effects to be corrected by making use of the visual information available to the pilot, namely the line-of-sight direction to the

  16. Awareness and Attitudes Toward Intranasal Naloxone Rescue for Opioid Overdose Prevention.

    PubMed

    Kirane, Harshal; Ketteringham, Michael; Bereket, Sewit; Dima, Richie; Basta, Ann; Mendoza, Sonia; Hansen, Helena

    2016-10-01

    Opioid overdose prevention is a pressing public health concern and intranasal naloxone rescue kits are a useful tool in preventing fatal overdose. We evaluated the attitudes, knowledge, and experiences of patients and providers related to overdose and naloxone rescue. Over a six month period, patients and providers within a large community hospital in Staten Island were recruited to complete tailored questionnaires for their respective groupings. 100 patients and 101 providers completed questionnaires between August, 2014 and January, 2015. Patient participants were primarily Caucasian males with a mean age of 37.7 years, of which 65% accurately identified naloxone for opioid overdose, but only 21% knew more specific clinical features. 68% of patients had previously witnessed a drug overdose. Notably, 58% of patients anticipated their behavior would change if provided access to an intranasal naloxone rescue kit, of which 83% predicted an increase in opioid use. Prior overdose was significantly correlated with anticipating no change in subsequent opioid use pattern (p=0.02). 99% of patients reported that their rapport with their health-care provider would be enhanced if offered an intranasal naloxone rescue kit. As for providers, 24% had completed naloxone rescue kit training, and 96% were able to properly identify its clinical application. 50% of providers felt naloxone access would decrease the likelihood of an overdose occurring, and 58% felt it would not contribute to high-risk behavior. Among providers, completion of naloxone training was correlated with increased awareness of where to access kits for patients (p<0.001). This study suggests that patients and providers have distinct beliefs and attitudes toward overdose prevention. Patient-Provider discussion of overdose prevention enhances patients' rapport with providers. However, access to an intranasal naloxone rescue kit may make some patients more vulnerable to high-risk behavior. Future research efforts

  17. Improving Mortality Following Emergency Surgery in Older Patients Requires Focus on Complication Rescue

    PubMed Central

    Sheetz, Kyle H.; Waits, Seth A.; Krell, Robert W.; Campbell, Darrell A.; Englesbe, Michael J.; Ghaferi, Amir A.

    2014-01-01

    Structured Abstract Objective To determine if a hospital’s ability to rescue patients from major complications underlies variation in outcomes for elderly patients undergoing emergency surgery. Summary Background Data Perioperative mortality rates in elderly patients undergoing emergent general/vascular operations are high and vary widely across Michigan hospitals. Methods We identified 23,224 patients undergoing emergent general/vascular surgery procedures at 41 hospitals within the Michigan Surgical Quality Collaborative (MSQC) between 2006–2011. Hospitals were ranked by risk- and reliability-adjusted 30-day mortality and grouped into tertiles. We stratified patients by age (<75 and ≥75). Risk-adjusted major complication and failure to rescue (i.e., mortality following major complication) rates were determined for each tertile of hospital mortality. Results Risk-adjusted mortality rates in elderly patients varied 2-fold across all hospitals. Complication rates correlated poorly with mortality. Failure-to-rescue rates, however, were markedly higher in high mortality hospitals (29% lowest tertile vs. 41% highest tertile, p<0.01). When compared to younger patients, overall failure to rescue rates were almost 2-fold greater in the elderly (36.1% ≥75 vs. 18.7% <75, p<0.01). Conclusions Hospitals’ failure to rescue patients from major complications seems to underlie the variation in mortality across Michigan hospitals following emergent surgery. While higher failure to rescue rates in the elderly may signify their diminished physiological reserve for surviving critical illness, the wide variation across hospitals also highlights the importance of systems aimed at the early recognition and effective management of major complications in this vulnerable population. PMID:23979275

  18. 77 FR 39745 - General Aviation Search and Rescue

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ... SAFETY BOARD General Aviation Search and Rescue The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) will convene a 2- day forum focused on general aviation search and rescue operations on July 17 and 18, 2012. In the United States, following the crash of a general aviation airplane, inland searches for...

  19. 46 CFR 133.140 - Stowage of rescue boats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... survival craft at any other launching station. (b) Each rescue boat must be provided a means for recharging the rescue boat batteries from the OSV's power supply at a supply voltage not exceeding 50 volts. (c... Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS...

  20. 46 CFR 108.565 - Stowage of rescue boats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... operation of any survival craft at any other launching station. (4) Each rescue boat that is also a lifeboat... rescue boat batteries from the unit's power supply at a supply voltage not exceeding 50 volts. (c) Each... Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS...

  1. 29 CFR 553.215 - Ambulance and rescue service employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Protection and Law Enforcement Employees of Public Agencies Exemption Requirements § 553.215 Ambulance and rescue service employees. (a) Ambulance and rescue service employees of a public agency other than a fire... activities, the applicable standard is the one which applies to the activity in which the employee spends...

  2. Project Rescue: So Close and yet so Far

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laster, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    This is the third installment in a four-part series that follows the exploits of Gene, a well-established CIO of a sizable IT organization at a top-100 university. Gene has been working with his team to regain the trust of the campus through Project Rescue, a 30-day turnaround plan focused on demonstrating IT's value. Project Rescue has two…

  3. Emotional Reactions of Rescue Workers Following a Tornado.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCammon, Susan L.; And Others

    Rescue and medical workers may be at risk for negative emotional experience following intervention efforts in disaster situations. To examine this possibility, 120 rescue and hospital personnel responded to a survey of their emotional reactions and coping behaviors 3 months after a devastating tornado. Twenty-eight subjects had been involved in…

  4. 30 CFR 57.4362 - Underground rescue and firefighting operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground rescue and firefighting operations... MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4362 Underground rescue and firefighting operations. Following evacuation of a mine in a fire emergency, only persons wearing and...

  5. 30 CFR 56.4330 - Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures... Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 56.4330 Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures. (a) Mine operators shall establish emergency firefighting, evacuation,...

  6. 30 CFR 56.4330 - Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures... Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 56.4330 Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures. (a) Mine operators shall establish emergency firefighting, evacuation,...

  7. 30 CFR 57.4362 - Underground rescue and firefighting operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Underground rescue and firefighting operations... MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4362 Underground rescue and firefighting operations. Following evacuation of a mine in a fire emergency, only persons wearing and...

  8. 49 CFR 238.114 - Rescue access windows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rescue access windows. 238.114 Section 238.114 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PASSENGER EQUIPMENT SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Planning and General Requirements § 238.114 Rescue access windows....

  9. Air and sea rescue via satellite systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scales, W. C.; Swanson, R.

    1984-03-01

    Two approaches to a satellite system for air and sea rescue to be put into use by the 1990s, one employing polar-orbiting satellites and the other using fixed geosynchronous satellites over the equator, are discussed. A battery-powered transmitter on a ship or aircraft would be activated in an accident to emit a low-power omnidirectional signal that would be relayed by a satellite to an earth station. The polar-orbiting approach, now being evaluated on a small-scale with the Cospas-Sarsat system, allows complete coverage of the earth, including the poles, and provides a fix on the origin of the distress signals by means of the Doppler shift. A parallel effort for the testing of geostationary satellites to measure system sensitivity to various interference sources, to optimize design, and to measure land and sea performance is reviewed.

  10. Nitric oxide rescues thalidomide mediated teratogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Siamwala, Jamila H.; Veeriah, Vimal; Priya, M. Krishna; Rajendran, Saranya; Saran, Uttara; Sinha, Swaraj; Nagarajan, Shunmugam; T, Pradeep; Chatterjee, Suvro

    2012-01-01

    Thalidomide, a sedative drug given to pregnant women, unfortunately caused limb deformities in thousands of babies. Recently the drug was revived because of its therapeutic potential; however the search is still ongoing for an antidote against thalidomide induced limb deformities. In the current study we found that nitric oxide (NO) rescues thalidomide affected chick (Gallus gallus) and zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos. This study confirms that NO reduced the number of thalidomide mediated limb deformities by 94% and 80% in chick and zebrafish embryos respectively. NO prevents limb deformities by promoting angiogenesis, reducing oxidative stress and inactivating caspase-3 dependent apoptosis. We conclude that NO secures angiogenesis in the thalidomide treated embryos to protect them from deformities. PMID:22997553

  11. Apollo 16 Crew Aboard Rescue Ship

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    The Apollo 16 Command Module splashed down in the Pacific Ocean on April 27, 1972 after an 11-day moon exploration mission. The 3-man crew is shown here aboard the rescue ship, USS Horton. From left to right are: Mission Commander John W. Young, Lunar Module pilot Charles M. Duke, and Command Module pilot Thomas K. Mattingly II. The sixth manned lunar landing mission, the Apollo 16 (SA-511) lifted off on April 16, 1972. The Apollo 16 mission continued the broad-scale geological, geochemical, and geophysical mapping of the Moon's crust, begun by the Apollo 15, from lunar orbit. This mission marked the first use of the Moon as an astronomical observatory by using the ultraviolet camera/spectrograph which photographed ultraviolet light emitted by Earth and other celestial objects. The Lunar Roving Vehicle, developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center, was also used.

  12. 46 CFR 160.056-4 - Approval tests of prototype rescue boat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... tests of prototype rescue boat. (a) Drop test. The rescue boat, fully equipped, shall be dropped, in a... unserviceable shall result from this drop. (b) Stability and freeboard test. The rescue boat shall...

  13. 46 CFR 160.056-4 - Approval tests of prototype rescue boat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... tests of prototype rescue boat. (a) Drop test. The rescue boat, fully equipped, shall be dropped, in a... unserviceable shall result from this drop. (b) Stability and freeboard test. The rescue boat shall...

  14. 46 CFR 160.156-7 - Design, construction and performance of rescue boats and fast rescue boats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 CFR part 164, subpart 164.120. (B) Glass reinforcement. Any glass reinforcement used must have... the type of rescue boat; (3) 46 CFR part 159; and (4) This subpart. (b) Each rescue boat must meet the... recognized by the Commandant in accordance with 46 CFR 8.220, the U.S. Navy, or the national body where...

  15. 46 CFR 160.156-7 - Design, construction and performance of rescue boats and fast rescue boats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 CFR part 164, subpart 164.120. (B) Glass reinforcement. Any glass reinforcement used must have... the type of rescue boat; (3) 46 CFR part 159; and (4) This subpart. (b) Each rescue boat must meet the... recognized by the Commandant in accordance with 46 CFR 8.220, the U.S. Navy, or the national body where...

  16. 46 CFR 160.156-7 - Design, construction and performance of rescue boats and fast rescue boats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 CFR part 164, subpart 164.120. (B) Glass reinforcement. Any glass reinforcement used must have... the type of rescue boat; (3) 46 CFR part 159; and (4) This subpart. (b) Each rescue boat must meet the... recognized by the Commandant in accordance with 46 CFR 8.220, the U.S. Navy, or the national body where...

  17. Molecular Mechanism of Action of Pharmacoperone Rescue of Misrouted GPCR Mutants: The GnRH Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Janovick, Jo Ann; Patny, Akshay; Mosley, Ralph; Goulet, Mark T.; Altman, Michael D.; Rush, Thomas S.; Cornea, Anda; Conn, P. Michael

    2009-01-01

    The human GnRH receptor (hGnRHR), a G protein-coupled receptor, is a useful model for studying pharmacological chaperones (pharmacoperones), drugs that rescue misfolded and misrouted protein mutants and restore them to function. This technique forms the basis of a therapeutic approach of rescuing mutants associated with human disease and restoring them to function. The present study relies on computational modeling, followed by site-directed mutagenesis, assessment of ligand binding, effector activation, and confocal microscopy. Our results show that two different chemical classes of pharmacoperones act to stabilize hGnRHR mutants by bridging residues D98 and K121. This ligand-mediated bridge serves as a surrogate for a naturally occurring and highly conserved salt bridge (E90–K121) that stabilizes the relation between transmembranes 2 and 3, which is required for passage of the receptor through the cellular quality control system and to the plasma membrane. Our model was used to reveal important pharmacophoric features, and then identify a novel chemical ligand, which was able to rescue a D98 mutant of the hGnRHR that could not be rescued as effectively by previously known pharmacoperones. PMID:19095769

  18. Genomic DNA nanoparticles rescue rhodopsin-associated retinitis pigmentosa phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Han, Zongchao; Banworth, Marcellus J.; Makkia, Rasha; Conley, Shannon M.; Al-Ubaidi, Muayyad R.; Cooper, Mark J.; Naash, Muna I.

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the rhodopsin gene cause retinal degeneration and clinical phenotypes including retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and congenital stationary night blindness. Effective gene therapies have been difficult to develop, however, because generating precise levels of rhodopsin expression is critical; overexpression causes toxicity, and underexpression would result in incomplete rescue. Current gene delivery strategies routinely use cDNA-based vectors for gene targeting; however, inclusion of noncoding components of genomic DNA (gDNA) such as introns may help promote more endogenous regulation of gene expression. Here we test the hypothesis that inclusion of genomic sequences from the rhodopsin gene can improve the efficacy of rhodopsin gene therapy in the rhodopsin knockout (RKO) mouse model of RP. We utilize our compacted DNA nanoparticles (NPs), which have the ability to transfer larger and more complex genetic constructs, to deliver murine rhodopsin cDNA or gDNA. We show functional and structural improvements in RKO eyes for up to 8 months after NP-mediated gDNA but not cDNA delivery. Importantly, in addition to improvements in rod function, we observe significant preservation of cone function at time points when cones in the RKO model are degenerated. These results suggest that inclusion of native expression elements, such as introns, can significantly enhance gene expression and therapeutic efficacy and may become an essential option in the array of available gene delivery tools.— Han, Z., Banworth, M. J., Makkia, R., Conley, S. M., Al-Ubaidi, M. R., Cooper, M. J., Naash, M. I. Genomic DNA nanoparticles rescue rhodopsin-associated retinitis pigmentosa phenotype. PMID:25713057

  19. Self-Expanding Metal Stent (SEMS): an innovative rescue therapy for refractory acute variceal bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Changela, Kinesh; Ona, Mel A.; Anand, Sury; Duddempudi, Sushil

    2014-01-01

    Background: Acute variceal bleeding (AVB) is a life-threatening complication of liver cirrhosis or less commonly splenic vein thrombosis. Pharmacological and endoscopic interventions are cornerstones in the management of variceal bleeding but may fail in 10 – 15 % of patients. Rescue therapy with balloon tamponade (BT) or transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) may be required to control refractory acute variceal bleeding effectively but with some limitations. The self-expanding metal stent (SEMS) is a covered, removable tool that can be deployed in the lower esophagus under endoscopic guidance as a rescue therapy to achieve hemostasis for refractory AVB. Aims: To evaluate the technical feasibility, efficacy, and safety of SEMS as a rescue therapy for AVB. Methods: In this review article, we have performed an extensive literature search summarizing case reports and case series describing SEMS as a rescue therapy for AVB. Indications, features, technique, deployment, success rate, limitations, and complications are discussed. Results: At present, 103 cases have been described in the literature. Studies have reported 97.08 % technical success rates in deployment of SEMS. Most of the stents were intact for 4 – 14 days with no major complications reported. Stent extraction had a success rate of 100 %. Successful hemostasis was achieved in 96 % of cases with only 3.12 % found to have rebleeding after placement of SEMS. Stent migration, which was the most common complication, was observed in 21 % of patients. Conclusion: SEMS is a safe and effective alternative approach as a rescue therapy for refractory AVB. PMID:26135101

  20. Unirradiated cells rescue cells exposed to ionizing radiation: Activation of NF-κB pathway in irradiated cells.

    PubMed

    Lam, R K K; Han, Wei; Yu, K N

    2015-12-01

    We studied the involvement of NF-κB pathway activation in the rescue effect in HeLa and NIH/3T3 cells irradiated by α particles. Firstly, upon irradiation by 5 cGy of α particles, for both cell lines, the numbers of 53BP1 foci/cell at 12 h post-irradiation were significantly smaller when only 2.5% of the cell population was irradiated as compared to 100% irradiation, which demonstrated the rescue effect. Secondly, we studied the effect of NF-κB on the rescue effect through the use of the NF-κB activation inhibitor BAY-11-7082. Novel experimental setup and procedures were designed to prepare the medium (CM) which had conditioned the bystander cells previously partnered with irradiated cells, to ensure physical separation between rescue and bystander signals. BAY-11-7082 itself did not inflict DNA damages in the cells or have effects on activation of the NF-κB response pathway in the irradiated cells through direct irradiation. The rescue effect was induced in both cell lines by the CM, which was abrogated if BAY-11-7082 was added to the CM. Thirdly, we studied the effect of NF-κB on the rescue effect through staining for phosphorylated NF-κB (p-NF-κB) expression using the anti-NF-κB p65 (phospho S536) antibody. When the fraction of irradiated cells dropped from 100% to 2.5%, the p-NF-κB expression in the cell nuclei of irradiated NIH/3T3 cells increased significantly, while that in the cell nuclei of irradiated HeLa cells also increased although not significantly. Moreover, the p-NF-κB expression in the cell nuclei of irradiated HeLa cells and NIH/3T3 cells treated with CM also increased significantly. PMID:26524645

  1. Artist's concept illustrating cutaway view of Skylab Rescue Command Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    An artist's concept illustrating a cutaway view of the general arrangement of the Skylab Rescue Command Module (CM). The standard Skylab CM accommodates a crew of three with storage lockers on the aft bulkhead for resupply of experiment film and other equipment as well as the return of exposed film, data tapes and experiment samples. To convert the standard CM to a rescue vehicle, the storage lockers are removed and replaced with two crew couches in order to seat five crewmen. The rescue CM would then be launched with a crew of two.

  2. Medical rescue of naval combat: challenges and future.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hai; Hou, Li-Jun; Fu, Xiao-Bing

    2015-01-01

    There has been no large-scale naval combat in the last 30 years. With the rapid development of battleships, weapons manufacturing and electronic technology, naval combat will present some new characteristics. Additionally, naval combat is facing unprecedented challenges. In this paper, we discuss the topic of medical rescue at sea: what challenges we face and what we could do. The contents discussed in this paper contain battlefield self-aid buddy care, clinical skills, organized health services, medical training and future medical research programs. We also discuss the characteristics of modern naval combat, medical rescue challenges, medical treatment highlights and future developments of medical rescue at sea. PMID:26309738

  3. Space shuttle search and rescue experiment using synthetic aperture radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sivertson, W. E., Jr.; Larson, R. W.; Zelenka, J. S.

    1977-01-01

    The feasibility of a synthetic aperture radar for search and rescue applications was demonstrated with aircraft experiments. One experiment was conducted using the ERIM four-channel radar and several test sites in the Michigan area. In this test simple corner-reflector targets were successfully imaged. Results from this investigation were positive and indicate that the concept can be used to investigate new approaches focused on the development of a global search and rescue system. An orbital experiment to demonstrate the application of synthetic aperture radar to search and rescue is proposed using the space shuttle.

  4. IMMEDIATE RESCUE DESIGNS IN PEDIATRIC ANALGESIC TRIALS: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW AND META ANALYSIS

    PubMed Central

    Berde, Charles B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Designing analgesic clinical trials in pediatrics requires a balance between scientific, ethical and practical concerns. A previous consensus group recommended immediate-rescue designs using opioid sparing as a surrogate measure of analgesic efficacy. We summarize the performance of rescue analgesic designs in pediatric trials of four commonly used classes of analgesics: opioids, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, acetaminophen, and local anesthetics. Methods Medline, Embase, CINAHL, The Cochrane Library and Web of science were searched in April 2013. The 85 studies selected were randomized or controlled clinical trials using immediate rescue paradigms in postoperative pain settings. A random effects meta-analysis was used to synthesize predefined outcomes using Hedges’ G. Difference between the means of the treatment arms were also expressed as a percentage of the corresponding value in the placebo group (placebo-treatment/placebo). Distributions of pain scores in study and control groups and relationships between opioid sparing and pain scores were examined. Results For each of the four study drug classes, significant opioid sparing was demonstrated in a majority of studies by one or more of the following endpoints: (1) total dose (mg/kg/h), (2) percentage of children requiring rescue medication and (3) time to first rescue medication (minutes). Pain scores averaged 2.4/10 in study groups, 3.4/10 in control groups. Conclusions Opioid sparing is a feasible pragmatic endpoint for pediatric pain analgesic trials. This review serves to guide future research in pediatric analgesia trials, which could test whether some specific design features may improve assay sensitivity while minimizing the risk of unrelieved pain. PMID:25222831

  5. In vivo model of adeno-associated virus vector persistence and rescue.

    PubMed Central

    Afione, S A; Conrad, C K; Kearns, W G; Chunduru, S; Adams, R; Reynolds, T C; Guggino, W B; Cutting, G R; Carter, B J; Flotte, T R

    1996-01-01

    Gene therapy vectors based on human DNA viruses could be mobilized or rescued from individuals who are subsequently infected with the corresponding wild-type (wt) helper viruses. This phenomenon has been effectively modeled in vitro with both adenovirus (Ad) and adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors but has not previously been studied in vivo. In the current study, we have developed an in vivo model to study the interactions of a recombinant AAV vector (AAV-CFTR) with wt AAV type 2 (AAV2) and a host range mutant Ad (Ad2HR405) for which monkey cells are permissive (D.E.Brough, S.A.Rice, S.Sell, and D.F.Klessig, J. Virol. 55:206-212, 1985). AAV-CFTR was administered to the respiratory epithelium of the nose or lung of rhesus macaques. Primary cells were harvested from the infusion site at time points up to 3 months after vector administration to confirm vector DNA persistence. Vector DNA was present in episomal form and could be rescued in vitro only by addition of wt AAV2 and Ad. In in vivo rescue studies, vector was administered before or after wt-AAV2 and Ad2HR405 infection, and the shedding of AAV-CFTR was examined. Ad2HR405 and wt-AAV2 infections were established in the nose with concomitant administration. wt-AAV2 replication occurred in the lung when virus was administered directly at a high titer to the lower respiratory tract. AAV-CFTR vector rescue was also observed in the latter setting. Although these studies were performed with small numbers of animals within each group, it appears that AAV-CFTR DNA persists in the primate respiratory tract and that this model may be useful for studies of recombinant AAV vector rescue. PMID:8627804

  6. The Lantibiotic NAI-107 Efficiently Rescues Drosophila melanogaster from Infection with Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA300.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Thomas T; Mojsoska, Biljana; Cruz, João C S; Donadio, Stefano; Jenssen, Håvard; Løbner-Olesen, Anders; Rewitz, Kim

    2016-09-01

    We used the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster as a cost-effective in vivo model to evaluate the efficacy of novel antibacterial peptides and peptoids for treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. A panel of peptides with known antibacterial activity in vitro and/or in vivo was tested in Drosophila Although most peptides and peptoids that were effective in vitro failed to rescue lethal effects of S. aureus infections in vivo, we found that two lantibiotics, nisin and NAI-107, rescued adult flies from fatal infections. Furthermore, NAI-107 rescued mortality of infection with the MRSA strain USA300 with an efficacy equivalent to that of vancomycin, a widely applied antibiotic for the treatment of serious MRSA infections. These results establish Drosophila as a useful model for in vivo drug evaluation of antibacterial peptides. PMID:27381394

  7. The Lantibiotic NAI-107 Efficiently Rescues Drosophila melanogaster from Infection with Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA300

    PubMed Central

    Mojsoska, Biljana; Cruz, João C. S.; Donadio, Stefano; Jenssen, Håvard

    2016-01-01

    We used the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster as a cost-effective in vivo model to evaluate the efficacy of novel antibacterial peptides and peptoids for treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. A panel of peptides with known antibacterial activity in vitro and/or in vivo was tested in Drosophila. Although most peptides and peptoids that were effective in vitro failed to rescue lethal effects of S. aureus infections in vivo, we found that two lantibiotics, nisin and NAI-107, rescued adult flies from fatal infections. Furthermore, NAI-107 rescued mortality of infection with the MRSA strain USA300 with an efficacy equivalent to that of vancomycin, a widely applied antibiotic for the treatment of serious MRSA infections. These results establish Drosophila as a useful model for in vivo drug evaluation of antibacterial peptides. PMID:27381394

  8. Rescuing the intracluster medium of NGC 5813

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soker, Noam; Hillel, Shlomi; Sternberg, Assaf

    2016-06-01

    We use recent X-ray observations of the intracluster medium (ICM) of the galaxy group NGC 5813 to confront theoretical studies of ICM thermal evolution with the newly derived ICM properties. We argue that the ICM of the cooling flow in the galaxy group NGC 5813 is more likely to be heated by mixing of post-shock gas from jets residing in hot bubbles with the ICM, than by shocks or turbulent-heating. Shocks thermalize only a small fraction of their energy in the inner regions of the cooling flow; in order to adequately heat the inner part of the ICM, they would overheat the outer regions by a large factor, leading to its ejection from the group. Heating by mixing, which was found to be much more efficient than turbulent-heating and shocks-heating, hence, rescues the outer ICM of NGC 5813 from its predestined fate according to cooling flow feedback scenarios that are based on heating by shocks.

  9. Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD-1C) mutants of caveolin-3 undergo ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. Treatment with proteasomal inhibitors blocks the dominant negative effect of LGMD-1C mutanta and rescues wild-type caveolin-3.

    PubMed

    Galbiati, F; Volonte, D; Minetti, C; Bregman, D B; Lisanti, M P

    2000-12-01

    Caveolin-3 is the principal structural protein of caveolae in striated muscle. Autosomal dominant limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD-1C) in humans is due to mutations (DeltaTFT and Pro --> Leu) within the CAV3 gene. We have shown that LGMD-1C mutations lead to formation of unstable aggregates of caveolin-3 that are retained intracellularly and are rapidly degraded. The mechanism by which LGMD-1C mutants of caveolin-3 are degraded remains unknown. Here, we show that LGMD-1C mutants of caveolin-3 undergo ubiquitination-proteasomal degradation. Treatment with proteasomal inhibitors (MG-132, MG-115, lactacystin, or proteasome inhibitor I), but not lysosomal inhibitors, prevented degradation of LGMD-1C caveolin-3 mutants. In the presence of MG-132, LGMD-1C caveolin-3 mutants accumulated within the endoplasmic reticulum and did not reach the plasma membrane. LGMD-1C mutants of caveolin-3 behave in a dominant negative fashion, causing intracellular retention and degradation of wild-type caveolin-3. Interestingly, in cells co-expressing wild-type and mutant forms of caveolin-3, MG-132 treatment rescued wild-type caveolin-3; wild-type caveolin-3 was not degraded and reached the plasma membrane. These results may have clinical implications for treatment of patients with LGMD-1C. PMID:10973975

  10. The habitus of 'rescue' and its significance for implementation of rapid response systems in acute health care.

    PubMed

    Mackintosh, Nicola; Humphrey, Charlotte; Sandall, Jane

    2014-11-01

    The need to focus on patient safety and improve the quality and consistency of medical care in acute hospital settings has been highlighted in a number of UK and international reports. When patients on a hospital ward become acutely unwell there is often a window of opportunity for staff, patients and relatives to contribute to the 'rescue' process by intervening in the trajectory of clinical deterioration. This paper explores the social and institutional processes associated with the practice of rescue, and implications for the implementation and effectiveness of rapid response systems (RRSs) within acute health care. An ethnographic case study was conducted in 2009 in two UK hospitals (focussing on the medical directorates in each organisation). Data collection involved 180 h of observation, 35 staff interviews (doctors, nurses, health care assistants and managers) and documentary review. Analysis was informed by Bourdieu's logic of practice and his relational concept of the 'field' of the general medical ward. Three themes illustrated the nature of rescue work within the field and collective rules which guided associated occupational distinction practices: (1) the 'dirty work' of vital sign recording and its distinction from diagnostic (higher order) interpretive work; (2) the moral order of legitimacy claims for additional help; and (3) professional deference and the selective managerial control of rescue work. The discourse of rescue provided a means of exercising greater control over clinical uncertainty. The acquisition of 'rescue capital' enabled the social positioning of health care assistants, nurses and doctors, and shaped use of the RRS on the wards. Boundary work, professional legitimation and jurisdictional claims defined the social practice of rescue, as clinical staff had to balance safety, professional and organisational concerns within the field. This paper offers a nuanced understanding of patient safety on the front-line, challenging notions of

  11. 33 CFR 127.1505 - Emergency response and rescue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... furnished to those personnel. Training and equipment that meets 29 CFR 1910.120, hazardous-waste operations... and rescue pending the arrival of resources for firefighting or pollution control. Response and...

  12. Line drawing illustrating Skylab crew rescue mission profile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A line drawing by North American Rockwell Space Division artist illustrating Skylab crew rescue mission profile. The standard Command Module converts from a three-seater to accommodate five astronauts for the return trip.

  13. Space shuttle search and rescue experiment using synthetic aperture radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sivertson, W. E., Jr.; Larson, R. W.; Zelenka, J. S.

    1977-01-01

    Langley Research Center, NASA, is developing a concept for using a spaceborne synthetic aperture radar with passive reflectors for search and rescue applications. The feasibility of a synthetic aperture radar for search and rescue applications has been demonstrated with aircraft experiments. One experiment was conducted using the ERIM four-channel radar and several test sites in the Michigan area. In this test simple corner-reflector targets were successfully imaged. Results from this investigation were positive and indicate that the concept can be used to investigate new approaches focused on the development of a global search and rescue system. An orbital experiment to demonstrate the application of synthetic aperture radar to search and rescue is proposed using the space shuttle.

  14. Space safety and rescue 1991; Proceedings of the 24th International IAA Symposium, Montreal, Canada, Oct. 5-11, 1991

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heath, Gloria W.

    Various papers on space safety and rescue are presented. The topics addressed include: the human factor in spacecraft operation, space rescue system analysis and design, safety operation experiment M-V launch vehicle, laser systems for spacecraft hull protection, EVA self-rescue simulation in the virtual interactive environment workstation, crew escape subsystems for space transportation subsystems, enhancing safety for future space transportation systems, manned spaceflight certification, activities on space debris in Europe, management of the orbital environment, orbital space debris problem, analysis of the necessity and the effectiveness of countermeasures to prevent a chain reaction of collisions, examination of possible collisions in space, quantifying the orbital debris environment, breakup in geostationary orbit and possible creation of a debris ring, effects of chemical propulsion on the environment.

  15. 75 FR 28200 - Safety Zone; Washington State Department of Transportation Ferries Division Marine Rescue...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-20

    ... Transportation Ferries Division Marine Rescue Response (M2R) Full-Scale Exercise for a Mass Rescue Incident (MRI... Madison. This training exercise will simulate a mass rescue incident (MRI) and will involve an abandon... Department of Transportation Ferries Division Marine Rescue Response (M2R) Full-Scale Exercise for a...

  16. 30 CFR Appendix to Subpart B - Optional Form for Certifying Mine Rescue Teams

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Optional Form for Certifying Mine Rescue Teams... EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines Pt. 49, Subpt. B, App. Appendix to Subpart B—Optional Form for Certifying Mine Rescue Teams ER08FE08.000 ER08FE08.001...

  17. Simulations suggest pharmacological methods for rescuing long-term potentiation.

    PubMed

    Smolen, Paul; Baxter, Douglas A; Byrne, John H

    2014-11-01

    Congenital cognitive dysfunctions are frequently due to deficits in molecular pathways that underlie the induction or maintenance of synaptic plasticity. For example, Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RTS) is due to a mutation in cbp, encoding the histone acetyltransferase CREB-binding protein (CBP). CBP is a transcriptional co-activator for CREB, and induction of CREB-dependent transcription plays a key role in long-term memory (LTM). In animal models of RTS, mutations of cbp impair LTM and late-phase long-term potentiation (LTP). As a step toward exploring plausible intervention strategies to rescue the deficits in LTP, we extended our previous model of LTP induction to describe histone acetylation and simulated LTP impairment due to cbp mutation. Plausible drug effects were simulated by model parameter changes, and many increased LTP. However no parameter variation consistent with a effect of a known drug class fully restored LTP. Thus we examined paired parameter variations consistent with effects of known drugs. A pair that simulated the effects of a phosphodiesterase inhibitor (slowing cAMP degradation) concurrent with a deacetylase inhibitor (prolonging histone acetylation) restored normal LTP. Importantly these paired parameter changes did not alter basal synaptic weight. A pair that simulated the effects of a phosphodiesterase inhibitor and an acetyltransferase activator was similarly effective. For both pairs strong additive synergism was present. The effect of the combination was greater than the summed effect of the separate parameter changes. These results suggest that promoting histone acetylation while simultaneously slowing the degradation of cAMP may constitute a promising strategy for restoring deficits in LTP that may be associated with learning deficits in RTS. More generally these results illustrate how the strategy of combining modeling and empirical studies may provide insights into the design of effective therapies for improving long-term synaptic

  18. Defectors Can Create Conditions That Rescue Cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Waite, Adam James; Cannistra, Caroline; Shou, Wenying

    2015-01-01

    Cooperation based on the production of costly common goods is observed throughout nature. This is puzzling, as cooperation is vulnerable to exploitation by defectors which enjoy a fitness advantage by consuming the common good without contributing fairly. Depletion of the common good can lead to population collapse and the destruction of cooperation. However, population collapse implies small population size, which, in a structured population, is known to favor cooperation. This happens because small population size increases variability in cooperator frequency across different locations. Since individuals in cooperator-dominated locations (which are most likely cooperators) will grow more than those in defector-dominated locations (which are most likely defectors), cooperators can outgrow defectors globally despite defectors outgrowing cooperators in each location. This raises the possibility that defectors can lead to conditions that sometimes rescue cooperation from defector-induced destruction. We demonstrate multiple mechanisms through which this can occur, using an individual-based approach to model stochastic birth, death, migration, and mutation events. First, during defector-induced population collapse, defectors occasionally go extinct before cooperators by chance, which allows cooperators to grow. Second, empty locations, either preexisting or created by defector-induced population extinction, can favor cooperation because they allow cooperator but not defector migrants to grow. These factors lead to the counterintuitive result that the initial presence of defectors sometimes allows better survival of cooperation compared to when defectors are initially absent. Finally, we find that resource limitation, inducible by defectors, can select for mutations adaptive to resource limitation. When these mutations are initially present at low levels or continuously generated at a moderate rate, they can favor cooperation by further reducing local population size

  19. Defectors Can Create Conditions That Rescue Cooperation.

    PubMed

    Waite, Adam James; Cannistra, Caroline; Shou, Wenying

    2015-12-01

    Cooperation based on the production of costly common goods is observed throughout nature. This is puzzling, as cooperation is vulnerable to exploitation by defectors which enjoy a fitness advantage by consuming the common good without contributing fairly. Depletion of the common good can lead to population collapse and the destruction of cooperation. However, population collapse implies small population size, which, in a structured population, is known to favor cooperation. This happens because small population size increases variability in cooperator frequency across different locations. Since individuals in cooperator-dominated locations (which are most likely cooperators) will grow more than those in defector-dominated locations (which are most likely defectors), cooperators can outgrow defectors globally despite defectors outgrowing cooperators in each location. This raises the possibility that defectors can lead to conditions that sometimes rescue cooperation from defector-induced destruction. We demonstrate multiple mechanisms through which this can occur, using an individual-based approach to model stochastic birth, death, migration, and mutation events. First, during defector-induced population collapse, defectors occasionally go extinct before cooperators by chance, which allows cooperators to grow. Second, empty locations, either preexisting or created by defector-induced population extinction, can favor cooperation because they allow cooperator but not defector migrants to grow. These factors lead to the counterintuitive result that the initial presence of defectors sometimes allows better survival of cooperation compared to when defectors are initially absent. Finally, we find that resource limitation, inducible by defectors, can select for mutations adaptive to resource limitation. When these mutations are initially present at low levels or continuously generated at a moderate rate, they can favor cooperation by further reducing local population size

  20. The Role of Macronuclear DNA Sequences in the Permanent Rescue of a Non-Mendelian Mutation in Paramecium Tetraurelia

    PubMed Central

    You, Y.; Scott, J.; Forney, J.

    1994-01-01

    The Paramecium tetraurelia mutant called d48 has a complete copy of the A surface protein gene in its micronuclei, but lacks the A gene in the macronucleus. Previous experiments have shown that microinjection of a plasmid containing the entire A gene or a large portion of the gene into the macronucleus of d48 rescued the cell line after formation of a new macronucleus (autogamy). Here we show that several different regions of the A gene can rescue d48, but 100% of the activity cannot be localized to a single, defined region. Inversion of a sequence contained within an A gene plasmid had no measurable effect on rescue efficiency and co-injection of two different plasmids results in enhancement of rescue activity despite the non-contiguous form of the DNA sequences. Both these results suggest that no specific product (RNA or protein) with defined end points is made from the rescuing fragment. A unique restriction site was created in the A gene and used to demonstrate that the injected DNA does not serve as a direct template for the synthesis of the new macronuclear DNA. Models to explain the action of the injected DNA are discussed. PMID:8013908

  1. Adenosine Amine Congener as a Cochlear Rescue Agent

    PubMed Central

    Vlajkovic, Srdjan M.; Chang, Hao; Paek, Song Yee; Chi, Howard H.-T.; Sreebhavan, Sreevalsan; Telang, Ravindra S.; Tingle, Malcolm; Housley, Gary D.; Thorne, Peter R.

    2014-01-01

    We have previously shown that adenosine amine congener (ADAC), a selective A1 adenosine receptor agonist, can ameliorate noise- and cisplatin-induced cochlear injury. Here we demonstrate the dose-dependent rescue effects of ADAC on noise-induced cochlear injury in a rat model and establish the time window for treatment. Methods. ADAC (25–300 μg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally to Wistar rats (8–10 weeks old) at intervals (6–72 hours) after exposure to traumatic noise (8–16 kHz, 110 dB sound pressure level, 2 hours). Hearing sensitivity was assessed using auditory brainstem responses (ABR) before and 12 days after noise exposure. Pharmacokinetic studies investigated ADAC concentrations in plasma after systemic (intravenous) administration. Results. ADAC was most effective in the first 24 hours after noise exposure at doses >50 μg/kg, providing up to 21 dB protection (averaged across 8–28 kHz). Pharmacokinetic studies demonstrated a short (5 min) half-life of ADAC in plasma after intravenous administration without detection of degradation products. Conclusion. Our data show that ADAC mitigates noise-induced hearing loss in a dose- and time-dependent manner, but further studies are required to establish its translation as a clinical otological treatment. PMID:25243188

  2. Performance standards for urban search and rescue robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messina, Elena; Jacoff, Adam

    2006-05-01

    In this paper, we describe work in performance standards for urban search and rescue (USAR) robots begun in 2004 by the Department of Homeland Security. This program is being coordinated by the National Institute of Standards and Technology and will result in consensus standards developed through ASTM International, under the Operational Equipment Subcommittee of their Homeland Security Committee. The first phase of the program involved definition of requirements by subject matter experts. Responders participated in a series of workshops to identify deployment categories for robots, performance categories, and ranges of acceptable or target performance in the various categories. Over one hundred individual requirements were identified, within main categories such as Human-System Interaction, Logistics, Operating Environment, and System (which includes Chassis, Communications, Mobility, Payload, Power, and Sensing). To ensure that the robot developers and eventual end users work closely together, "responders meet robots" events at situationally relevant sites are being held to refine and extend the performance requirements and develop standard test methods. The results of these standard performance tests will be captured in a compendium of existing and developmental robots with classifications and descriptors to differentiate particular robotic capabilities. This, along with ongoing efforts to categorize situational USAR constraints such as building collapse types or the presence of hazardous materials, will help responders match particular robotic capabilities to response needs. In general, these efforts will enable responders to effectively use robotic tools to enhance their effectiveness while reducing risk to personnel during disasters.

  3. The Drosophila melanogaster hybrid male rescue gene causes inviability in male and female species hybrids.

    PubMed Central

    Barbash, D A; Roote, J; Ashburner, M

    2000-01-01

    The Drosophila melanogaster mutation Hmr rescues inviable hybrid sons from the cross of D. melanogaster females to males of its sibling species D. mauritiana, D. simulans, and D. sechellia. We have extended previous observations that hybrid daughters from this cross are poorly viable at high temperatures and have shown that this female lethality is suppressed by Hmr and the rescue mutations In(1)AB and D. simulans Lhr. Deficiencies defined here as Hmr(-) also suppressed lethality, demonstrating that reducing Hmr(+) activity can rescue otherwise inviable hybrids. An Hmr(+) duplication had the opposite effect of reducing the viability of female and sibling X-male hybrid progeny. Similar dose-dependent viability effects of Hmr were observed in the reciprocal cross of D. simulans females to D. melanogaster males. Finally, Lhr and Hmr(+) were shown to have mutually antagonistic effects on hybrid viability. These data suggest a model where the interaction of sibling species Lhr(+) and D. melanogaster Hmr(+) causes lethality in both sexes of species hybrids and in both directions of crossing. Our results further suggest that a twofold difference in Hmr(+) dosage accounts in part for the differential viability of male and female hybrid progeny, but also that additional, unidentified genes must be invoked to account for the invariant lethality of hybrid sons of D. melanogaster mothers. Implications of our findings for understanding Haldane's rule-the observation that hybrid breakdown is often specific to the heterogametic sex-are also discussed. PMID:10747067

  4. The A2A adenosine receptor rescues neuritogenesis impaired by p53 blockage via KIF2A, a kinesin family member.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chung-Nan; Chuang, Hsiu-Chun; Wang, Jiz-Yuh; Chen, Si-Ying; Cheng, Ya-Yun; Lee, Chien-Fei; Chern, Yijuang

    2010-07-01

    The A2A adenosine receptor (A2AR) is a G-protein-coupled receptor. We previously reported that the C terminus of the A2AR binds to translin-associated protein X (TRAX) and modulates nerve growth factor (NGF)-evoked neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells. Herein, we show that neuritogenesis of primary hippocampal neurons requires p53 because blockage of p53 suppressed neurite outgrowth. The impaired neuritogenesis caused by p53 blockage was rescued by activation of the A2AR (designated the A2A rescue effect) in a TRAX-dependent manner. Importantly, suppression of a TRAX-interacting protein (kinesin heavy chain member 2A, KIF2A) inhibited the A2A rescue effect, whereas overexpression of KIF2A caused a rescue effect. Expression of a KIF2A fragment (KIF2A514), which disturbed the interaction between KIF2A and TRAX, blocked the rescue effect. Transient colocalization of TRAX and KIF2A was detected in the nucleus of PC12 cells upon NGF treatment. These data suggest that functional interaction between KIF2A and TRAX is critical for the A2A rescue effect. Moreover, p53 blockage during NGF treatment prevented the redistribution of KIF2A from the nucleus to the cytoplasmic region. Expression of a nuclear-retained KIF2A variant (NLS-KIF2A) did not rescue the impaired neurite outgrowth as did the wild-type KIF2A. Therefore, redistribution of KIF2A to the cytoplasmic fraction is a prerequisite for neurite outgrowth. Collectively, we demonstrate that KIF2A functions downstream of p53 to mediate neuritogenesis of primary hippocampal neurons and PC12 cells. Stimulation of the A2AR rescued neuritogenesis impaired by p53 blockage via an interaction between TRAX and KIF2A. PMID:20506231

  5. Renal rescue of dopamine D2 receptor function reverses renal injury and high blood pressure

    PubMed Central

    Konkalmatt, Prasad R.; Asico, Laureano D.; Zhang, Yanrong; Yang, Yu; Drachenberg, Cinthia; Zheng, Xiaoxu; Han, Fei; Jose, Pedro A.; Armando, Ines

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) deficiency increases renal inflammation and blood pressure in mice. We show here that long-term renal-selective silencing of Drd2 using siRNA increases renal expression of proinflammatory and profibrotic factors and blood pressure in mice. To determine the effects of renal-selective rescue of Drd2 expression in mice, the renal expression of DRD2 was first silenced using siRNA and 14 days later rescued by retrograde renal infusion of adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector with DRD2. Renal Drd2 siRNA treatment decreased the renal expression of DRD2 protein by 55%, and DRD2 AAV treatment increased the renal expression of DRD2 protein by 7.5- to 10-fold. Renal-selective DRD2 rescue reduced the expression of proinflammatory factors and kidney injury, preserved renal function, and normalized systolic and diastolic blood pressure. These results demonstrate that the deleterious effects of renal-selective Drd2 silencing on renal function and blood pressure were rescued by renal-selective overexpression of DRD2. Moreover, the deleterious effects of 45-minute bilateral ischemia/reperfusion on renal function and blood pressure in mice were ameliorated by a renal-selective increase in DRD2 expression by the retrograde ureteral infusion of DRD2 AAV immediately after the induction of ischemia/reperfusion injury. Thus, 14 days after ischemia/reperfusion injury, the renal expression of profibrotic factors, serum creatinine, and blood pressure were lower in mice infused with DRD2 AAV than in those infused with control AAV. These results indicate an important role of renal DRD2 in limiting renal injury and preserving normal renal function and blood pressure. PMID:27358912

  6. Rapamycin Rescues the Poor Developmental Capacity of Aged Porcine Oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Eun; Kim, Eun Young; Choi, Hyun Yong; Moon, Jeremiah Jiman; Park, Min Jee; Lee, Jun Beom; Jeong, Chang Jin; Park, Se Pill

    2014-01-01

    Unfertilized oocytes age inevitably after ovulation, which limits their fertilizable life span and embryonic development. Rapamycin affects mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) expression and cytoskeleton reorganization during oocyte meiotic maturation. The goal of this study was to examine the effects of rapamycin treatment on aged porcine oocytes and their in vitro development. Rapamycin treatment of aged oocytes for 24 h (68 h in vitro maturation [IVM]; 44 h+10 μM rapamycin/24 h, 47.52±5.68) or control oocytes (44 h IVM; 42.14±4.40) significantly increased the development rate and total cell number compared with untreated aged oocytes (68 h IVM, 22.04±5.68) (p<0.05). Rapamycin treatment of aged IVM oocytes for 24 h also rescued aberrant spindle organization and chromosomal misalignment, blocked the decrease in the level of phosphorylated-p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and increased the mRNA expression of cytoplasmic maturation factor genes (MOS, BMP15, GDF9, and CCNB1) compared with untreated, 24 h-aged IVM oocytes (p<0.05). Furthermore, rapamycin treatment of aged oocytes decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) activity and DNA fragmentation (p<0.05), and downregulated the mRNA expression of mTOR compared with control or untreated aged oocytes. By contrast, rapamycin treatment of aged oocytes increased mitochondrial localization (p<0.05) and upregulated the mRNA expression of autophagy (BECN1, ATG7, MAP1LC3B, ATG12, GABARAP, and GABARAPL1), anti-apoptosis (BCL2L1 and BIRC5; p<0.05), and development (NANOG and SOX2; p<0.05) genes, but it did not affect the mRNA expression of pro-apoptosis genes (FAS and CASP3) compared with the control. This study demonstrates that rapamycin treatment can rescue the poor developmental capacity of aged porcine oocytes. PMID:25049998

  7. Flight tests with enhanced/synthetic vision system for rescue helicopter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuda, Hiroka; Funabiki, Kohei; Iijima, Tomoko; Tawada, Kazuho; Yoshida, Takashi

    2011-06-01

    JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency) has been conducting a research project named SAVERH (Situation Awareness and Visual Enhancer for Rescue Helicopter) with Shimadzu Corporation and NEC from 2008. SAVERH aims at inventing a method of presenting suitable information to the pilot to support search and rescue missions. An integrated system comprising an HMD (Helmet-Mounted Display) and a FLIR (Forward Looking Infrared) sensor were installed in a JAXA research helicopter, and a series of flight tests was conducted to evaluate the benefit of presenting FLIR images on the HMD in night flight. Three pilots evaluated the display system during six night flights, considering terrain and position awareness. The tests showed that use of FLIR gave better route tracking performance, and the effectiveness of head-slaved FLIR on an approach task was shown by subjective pilot rating.

  8. The 1980 earthquake in southern Italy: rescue of trapped victims and mortality*

    PubMed Central

    de Bruycker, Marc; Greco, Donato; Annino, Isidoro; Stazi, Maria A.; de Ruggiero, Nicola; Triassi, Maria; de Kettenis, Yves P.; Lechat, Michel F.

    1983-01-01

    A retrospective survey was undertaken on the health effects of the 1980 earthquake in southern Italy. The study population included 3619 people living in 7 villages situated near the epicentre of the disaster. The overall casualty rate (dead and injured) was 19.7%. Nearly all the deaths (192/202) occurred among trapped people who died before they could be rescued. Eighty per cent of all the trapped people were extricated within 2 days, mostly without the use of sophisticated means. The probability of survival decreased sharply, the longer the time before extrication. The crude mortality during the 18 months following the earthquake was 19.0 per thousand among the injured people who received treatment, and 14.1 per thousand among non-injured people. After age standardization, there was no significant difference between these two figures and the expected mortality figures for the Italian population in normal times (14.4 per thousand). These results stress the importance of providing rescue activities in the first 48 hours after the impact. Strengthening the self-reliance of the community in disaster preparedness is suggested as the best way to improve the effectiveness of relief operations. In disaster-prone areas, training and education in methods of rescue should be an integral part of any primary health care programme. PMID:6609007

  9. Mitochondrial proteolytic stress induced by loss of mortalin function is rescued by Parkin and PINK1

    PubMed Central

    Burbulla, L F; Fitzgerald, J C; Stegen, K; Westermeier, J; Thost, A-K; Kato, H; Mokranjac, D; Sauerwald, J; Martins, L M; Woitalla, D; Rapaport, D; Riess, O; Proikas-Cezanne, T; Rasse, T M; Krüger, R

    2014-01-01

    The mitochondrial chaperone mortalin was implicated in Parkinson's disease (PD) because of its reduced levels in the brains of PD patients and disease-associated rare genetic variants that failed to rescue impaired mitochondrial integrity in cellular knockdown models. To uncover the molecular mechanisms underlying mortalin-related neurodegeneration, we dissected the cellular surveillance mechanisms related to mitochondrial quality control, defined the effects of reduced mortalin function at the molecular and cellular levels and investigated the functional interaction of mortalin with Parkin and PINK1, two PD-related proteins involved in mitochondrial homeostasis. We found that reduced mortalin function leads to: (1) activation of the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPR(mt)), (2) increased susceptibility towards intramitochondrial proteolytic stress, (3) increased autophagic degradation of fragmented mitochondria and (4) reduced mitochondrial mass in human cells in vitro and ex vivo. These alterations caused increased vulnerability toward apoptotic cell death. Proteotoxic perturbations induced by either partial loss of mortalin or chemical induction were rescued by complementation with native mortalin, but not disease-associated mortalin variants, and were independent of the integrity of autophagic pathways. However, Parkin and PINK1 rescued loss of mortalin phenotypes via increased lysosomal-mediated mitochondrial clearance and required intact autophagic machinery. Our results on loss of mortalin function reveal a direct link between impaired mitochondrial proteostasis, UPR(mt) and PD and show that effective removal of dysfunctional mitochondria via either genetic (PINK1 and Parkin overexpression) or pharmacological intervention (rapamycin) may compensate mitochondrial phenotypes. PMID:24743735

  10. Intelligent systems for urban search and rescue: challenges and lessons learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacoff, Adam; Messina, Elena; Weiss, Brian A.

    2003-09-01

    Urban search and rescue (USAR) is one of the most dangerous and time-critical non-wartime activities. Researchers have been developing hardware and software to enable robots to perform some search and rescue functions so as to minimize the exposure of human rescue personnel to danger and maximize the survival of victims. Significant progress has been achieved, but much work remains. USAR demands a blending of numerous specialized technologies. An effective USAR robot must be endowed with key competencies, such as being able to negotiate collapsed structures, find victims and assess their condition, identify potential hazards, generate maps of the structure and victim locations, and communicate with rescue personnel. These competencies bring to bear work in numerous sub-disciplines of intelligent systems (or artificial intelligence) such as sensory processing, world modeling, behavior generation, path planning, and human-robot interaction, in addition to work in communications, mechanism design and advanced sensors. In an attempt to stimulate progress in the field, reference USAR challenges are being developed and propagated worldwide. In order to make efficient use of finite research resources, the robotic USAR community must share a common understanding of what is required, technologically, to attain each competency, and have a rigorous measure of the current level of effectiveness of various technologies. NIST is working with partner organizations to measure the performance of robotic USAR competencies and technologies. In this paper, we describe the reference test arenas for USAR robots, assess the current challenges within the field, and discuss experiences thus far in the testing effort.