Science.gov

Sample records for air conditioners water

  1. Air Conditioner/Dehumidifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    An ordinary air conditioner in a very humid environment must overcool the room air, then reheat it. Mr. Dinh, a former STAC associate, devised a heat pipe based humidifier under a NASA Contract. The system used heat pipes to precool the air; the air conditioner's cooling coil removes heat and humidity, then the heat pipes restore the overcooled air to a comfortable temperature. The heat pipes use no energy, and typical savings are from 15-20%. The Dinh Company also manufactures a "Z" coil, a retrofit cooling coil which may be installed on an existing heater/air conditioner. It will also provide free hot water. The company has also developed a photovoltaic air conditioner and solar powered water pump.

  2. Water Conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A home use water treatment incorporates technology developed to purify water aboard Space Shuttle Orbiters. The General Ionics Model IQ Bacteriostatic Water Softener softens water and inhibits bacteria growth in the filtering unit. Ionics used NASA silver ion technology as a basis for development of a silver carbon dense enough to remain on top of the water softening resin bed.

  3. Water Conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The Aqualizer is designed to cleanse water with minimal use of chemicals by stabilizing the ions in the water. Its applications are both recreational and industrial. A non-electrical passive device, the Aqualizer operates on the principle of catalytic water conditioning. It consists of a stainless steel pipe length with a helical core and is offered in a variety of sizes depending on the quantity of water to be treated. The device is based on NASA silver ionization technology used to purify drinking water aboard the Apollo spacecraft.

  4. Ventilating Air-Conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dinh, Khanh

    1994-01-01

    Air-conditioner provides ventilation designed to be used alone or incorporated into cooling or heating system operates efficiently only by recirculating stale air within building. Energy needed to operate overall ventilating cooling or heating system slightly greater than operating nonventilating cooling or heating system. Helps to preserve energy efficiency while satisfying need for increased forced ventilation to prevent accumulation of undesired gases like radon and formaldehyde. Provides fresh treated air to variety of confined spaces: hospital surgeries, laboratories, clean rooms, and printing shops and other places where solvents used. In mobile homes and portable classrooms, eliminates irritant chemicals exuded by carpets, panels, and other materials, ensuring healthy indoor environment for occupants.

  5. EVALUATION OF REFRIGERANT FROM MOBILE AIR CONDITIONERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a project to provide a scientific basis for choosing a reasonable standard of purity for recycled chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) refrigerant in operating automobile air conditioners. The quality of refrigerant from air conditioners in automobiles of differen...

  6. MOBILE AIR CONDITIONER REFRIGERANT EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses an evaluation of refrigerant from mobile air conditioners. The data gathered indicate that CFC-l2 refrigerant does not degrade significantly with use. Furthermore, while small amounts of contaminant are removed with the refrigerant during servicing, most of th...

  7. Residential air conditioner cycling: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Strickler, G.F.; Noell, S.K.

    1988-02-01

    Southern California Edison currently operates its Residential Air Conditioner Cycling Program as a production program on a systemwide basis. Air conditioner cycling enables Edison to cycle, or switch off, at predetermined intervals, approximately 100,000 air conditioners throughout the Edison service areas. Activation of this system reduces peak demands for load shaping capability. Benefits of this method of peak reduction include the potential for system load factor improvement and/or for deferral of construction of new generation facilities. Edison began testing hardware for direct load control in 1976. Experimental test programs were implemented from 1978 through 1980. These successful test programs resulted in the decision to implement the Residential Air Conditioner Cycling Program on a systemwide basis in 1983.

  8. Stirling Air Conditioner for Compact Cooling

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-01

    BEETIT Project: Infinia is developing a compact air conditioner that uses an unconventional high efficient Stirling cycle system (vs. conventional vapor compression systems) to produce cool air that is energy efficient and does not rely on polluting refrigerants. The Stirling cycle system is a type of air conditioning system that uses a motor with a piston to remove heat to the outside atmosphere using a gas refrigerant. To date, Stirling systems have been expensive and have not had the right kind of heat exchanger to help cool air efficiently. Infinia is using chip cooling technology from the computer industry to make improvements to the heat exchanger and improve system performance. Infinia’s air conditioner uses helium gas as refrigerant, an environmentally benign gas that does not react with other chemicals and does not burn. Infinia’s improvements to the Stirling cycle system will enable the cost-effective mass production of high-efficiency air conditioners that use no polluting refrigerants.

  9. High Efficiency Room Air Conditioner

    SciTech Connect

    Bansal, Pradeep

    2015-01-01

    This project was undertaken as a CRADA project between UT-Battelle and Geberal Electric Company and was funded by Department of Energy to design and develop of a high efficiency room air conditioner. A number of novel elements were investigated to improve the energy efficiency of a state-of-the-art WAC with base capacity of 10,000 BTU/h. One of the major modifications was made by downgrading its capacity from 10,000 BTU/hr to 8,000 BTU/hr by replacing the original compressor with a lower capacity (8,000 BTU/hr) but high efficiency compressor having an EER of 9.7 as compared with 9.3 of the original compressor. However, all heat exchangers from the original unit were retained to provide higher EER. The other subsequent major modifications included- (i) the AC fan motor was replaced by a brushless high efficiency ECM motor along with its fan housing, (ii) the capillary tube was replaced with a needle valve to better control the refrigerant flow and refrigerant set points, and (iii) the unit was tested with a drop-in environmentally friendly binary mixture of R32 (90% molar concentration)/R125 (10% molar concentration). The WAC was tested in the environmental chambers at ORNL as per the design rating conditions of AHAM/ASHRAE (Outdoor- 95F and 40%RH, Indoor- 80F, 51.5%RH). All these modifications resulted in enhancing the EER of the WAC by up to 25%.

  10. 16 CFR Appendix E to Part 305 - Room Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Room Air Conditioners E Appendix E to Part 305 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULE CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES AND...

  11. Switching on the Aire conditioner.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Mitsuru

    2015-12-01

    Aire has been cloned as the gene responsible for a hereditary type of organ-specific autoimmune disease. Aire controls the expression of a wide array of tissue-restricted Ags by medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs), thereby leading to clonal deletion and Treg-cell production, and ultimately to the establishment of self-tolerance. However, relatively little is known about the mechanism responsible for the control of Aire expression itself. In this issue of the European Journal of Immunology, Haljasorg et al. [Eur. J. Immunol. 2015. 45: 3246-3256] have reported the presence of an enhancer element for Aire that binds with NF-κB components downstream of the TNF receptor family member, RANK (receptor activator of NF-κB). The results suggest that RANK has a dual mode of action in Aire expression: one involving the promotion of mTEC differentiation and the other involving activation of the molecular switch for Aire within mature mTECs. PMID:26643138

  12. Air Conditioner Compressor Performance Model

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Ning; Xie, YuLong; Huang, Zhenyu

    2008-09-05

    During the past three years, the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) Load Modeling Task Force (LMTF) has led the effort to develop the new modeling approach. As part of this effort, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Southern California Edison (SCE), and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Solutions tested 27 residential air-conditioning units to assess their response to delayed voltage recovery transients. After completing these tests, different modeling approaches were proposed, among them a performance modeling approach that proved to be one of the three favored for its simplicity and ability to recreate different SVR events satisfactorily. Funded by the California Energy Commission (CEC) under its load modeling project, researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) led the follow-on task to analyze the motor testing data to derive the parameters needed to develop a performance models for the single-phase air-conditioning (SPAC) unit. To derive the performance model, PNNL researchers first used the motor voltage and frequency ramping test data to obtain the real (P) and reactive (Q) power versus voltage (V) and frequency (f) curves. Then, curve fitting was used to develop the P-V, Q-V, P-f, and Q-f relationships for motor running and stalling states. The resulting performance model ignores the dynamic response of the air-conditioning motor. Because the inertia of the air-conditioning motor is very small (H<0.05), the motor reaches from one steady state to another in a few cycles. So, the performance model is a fair representation of the motor behaviors in both running and stalling states.

  13. 10 CFR 429.15 - Room air conditioners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Room air conditioners. 429.15 Section 429.15 Energy... COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification § 429.15 Room air conditioners. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for testing. (1) The requirements of § 429.11 are applicable to room air...

  14. 10 CFR 429.15 - Room air conditioners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Room air conditioners. 429.15 Section 429.15 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION CERTIFICATION, COMPLIANCE, AND ENFORCEMENT FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS AND COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification § 429.15 Room air conditioners. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for testing. (1)...

  15. 16 CFR Appendix E to Part 305 - Room Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Room Air Conditioners E Appendix E to Part 305 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULE... Appendix E to Part 305—Room Air Conditioners Range Information Manufacturer's rated cooling capacity in...

  16. 16 CFR Appendix E to Part 305 - Room Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Room Air Conditioners E Appendix E to Part 305 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULE... Appendix E to Part 305—Room Air Conditioners Range Information Manufacturer's rated cooling capacity in...

  17. 16 CFR Appendix E to Part 305 - Room Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Room Air Conditioners E Appendix E to Part 305 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULE... Appendix E to Part 305—Room Air Conditioners Range Information Manufacturer's rated cooling capacity in...

  18. An automobile air conditioner design model

    SciTech Connect

    Kyle, D M; Mei, V C; Chen, F C

    1992-12-01

    A computer program has been developed to predict the steady-state performance of vapor compression automobile air conditioners and heat pumps. The code is based on the residential heat pump model developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Most calculations are based on fundamental physical principles, in conjunction with generalized correlations available in the research literature. Automobile air conditioning components that can be specified as input to the program include open and hermetic compressors; finned tube condensers; finned tube and plate-fin style evaporators; thermostatic expansion valves (TXV), capillary tube, and short tube expansion devices; refrigerant mass; and evaporator pressure regulator and all interconnecting tubing. Pressure drop, heat transfer rates, and latent capacity ratio for the new plate-fin evaporator submodel are shown to agree well with laboratory data. The program can be used with a variety of refrigerants, including R-134a.

  19. Energy savings potential in air conditioners and chiller systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kaya, Durmus; Alidrisi, Hisham

    2014-01-22

    In the current paper we quantified and evaluated the energy saving potential in air conditioners and chiller systems. Here, we also showed how to reduce the cost of air conditioners and chiller systems in existing facilities on the basis of payback periods. Among the measures investigated were: (1) installing higher efficiency air conditioners, (2) installing higher efficiency chillers, (3) duty cycling air conditioning units, and (4) utilizing existing economizers on air conditioning units. For each method, examples were provided from Arizona, USA. In these examples, the amount of saved energy, the financial evaluation of this energy, and the investment cost and pay back periods were calculated.

  20. Energy savings potential in air conditioners and chiller systems

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kaya, Durmus; Alidrisi, Hisham

    2014-01-22

    In the current paper we quantified and evaluated the energy saving potential in air conditioners and chiller systems. Here, we also showed how to reduce the cost of air conditioners and chiller systems in existing facilities on the basis of payback periods. Among the measures investigated were: (1) installing higher efficiency air conditioners, (2) installing higher efficiency chillers, (3) duty cycling air conditioning units, and (4) utilizing existing economizers on air conditioning units. For each method, examples were provided from Arizona, USA. In these examples, the amount of saved energy, the financial evaluation of this energy, and the investment costmore » and pay back periods were calculated.« less

  1. High efficiency novel window air conditioner

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bansal, Pradeep

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the technical development of a high efficiency window air conditioner. In order to achieve higher energy efficiency ratio (EER), the original capacity of the R410A unit was downgraded by replacing the original compressor with a lower capacity but higher EER compressor, while all heat exchangers and the chassis from the original unit were retained. The other subsequent major modifications included – the AC fan motor being replaced with a brushless high efficiency electronically commuted motor (ECM) motor, the capillary tube being replaced with a needle valve to better control the refrigerant flow and refrigerant set points, andmore » R410A being replaced with drop-in environmentally friendly binary mixture of R32 (85% molar concentration)/R125 (15% molar concentration). All these modifications resulted in significant EER enhancement of the modified unit.« less

  2. High efficiency novel window air conditioner

    SciTech Connect

    Bansal, Pradeep

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the technical development of a high efficiency window air conditioner. In order to achieve higher energy efficiency ratio (EER), the original capacity of the R410A unit was downgraded by replacing the original compressor with a lower capacity but higher EER compressor, while all heat exchangers and the chassis from the original unit were retained. The other subsequent major modifications included – the AC fan motor being replaced with a brushless high efficiency electronically commuted motor (ECM) motor, the capillary tube being replaced with a needle valve to better control the refrigerant flow and refrigerant set points, and R410A being replaced with drop-in environmentally friendly binary mixture of R32 (85% molar concentration)/R125 (15% molar concentration). All these modifications resulted in significant EER enhancement of the modified unit.

  3. Development of a solar-powered residential air conditioner: System optimization preliminary specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rousseau, J.; Hwang, K. C.

    1975-01-01

    Investigations aimed at the optimization of a baseline Rankine cycle solar powered air conditioner and the development of a preliminary system specification were conducted. Efforts encompassed the following: (1) investigations of the use of recuperators/regenerators to enhance the performance of the baseline system, (2) development of an off-design computer program for system performance prediction, (3) optimization of the turbocompressor design to cover a broad range of conditions and permit operation at low heat source water temperatures, (4) generation of parametric data describing system performance (COP and capacity), (5) development and evaluation of candidate system augmentation concepts and selection of the optimum approach, (6) generation of auxiliary power requirement data, (7) development of a complete solar collector-thermal storage-air conditioner computer program, (8) evaluation of the baseline Rankine air conditioner over a five day period simulating the NASA solar house operation, and (9) evaluation of the air conditioner as a heat pump.

  4. Improving Air-Conditioner and Heat Pump Modeling (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Winkler, J.

    2012-03-01

    A new approach to modeling residential air conditioners and heat pumps allows users to model systems by specifying only the more readily-available SEER/EER/HSPF-type metrics. Manufacturer data was used to generate full sets of model inputs for over 450 heat pumps and air conditioners. A sensitivity analysis identified which inputs can be safely defaulted 'behind-the-scenes' without negatively impacting the reliability of energy simulations.

  5. Control Technologies for Room Air-conditioner and Packaged Air-conditioner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Nobuhisa

    Trends of control technologies about air-conditioning machineries, especially room or packaged air conditioners, are presented in this paper. Multiple air conditioning systems for office buildings are mainly described as one application of the refrigeration cycle control technologies including sensors for thermal comfort and heating/ cooling loads are also described as one of the system control technologies. Inverter systems and related technologies for driving variable speed compressors are described in both case of including induction motors and brushless DC motors. Technologies for more accurate control to meet various kind of regulations such as ozone layer destruction, energy saving and global warming, and for eliminating harmonic distortion of power source current, as a typical EMC problem, will be urgently desired.

  6. Development of a solar powered residential air conditioner (General optimization)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowen, D. J.

    1976-01-01

    A commercially available 3-ton residential Lithium Bromide (LiBr) absorption air conditioner was modified for use with lower temperature solar heated water. The modification included removal of components such as the generator, concentration control chamber, liquid trap, and separator; and the addition of a Chrysler designed generator, an off-the-shelf LiBr-solution pump. The design goal of the modified unit was to operate with water as the heat-transfer fluid at a target temperature of 85 C (185 F), 29.4 C (85 F) cooling water inlet, producing 10.5 kW (3 tons) of cooling. Tests were performed on the system before and after modification to provide comparative data. At elevated temperatures (96 C, 205 F), the test results show that Lithium Bromide was carried into the condenser due to the extremely violent boiling and degraded the evaporator performance.

  7. Air-conditioner filters enriching dust mites allergen.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Xiaodong; Li, Chaopin; Xu, Haifeng; Xu, Pengfei; Zhu, Haibin; Diao, Jidong; Li, Na; Zhao, Beibei

    2015-01-01

    We detected the concentration of dust mites allergen (Der f1 & Der p1) in the air of different places before and after the starting of air-conditioners in Wuhu City, Anhui, China, and to discuss the relation between the dust mites allergen in air-conditioner filters and the asthma attack. The dust samples were collected from the air-conditioner filters in dining rooms, shopping malls, hotels and households respectively. Concentrations of dust mites major group allergen 1 (Der f 1, Der p1) were detected with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the dust mite immune activities were determined by dot-ELISA. The concentration of Der f1 in dining rooms, shopping malls, hotels and households was 1.52 μg/g, 1.24 μg/g, 1.31 μg/g and 1.46 μg/g respectively, and the concentration of Der p1 in above-mentioned places was 1.23 μg/g, 1.12 μg/g, 1.16 μg/g and 1.18 μg/g respectively. The concentration of Der f1 & Der p1 in air was higher after the air-conditioners starting one hours later, and the difference was significant (P<0.05, respectively). Additionally, dot-ELISA findings revealed that the allergen extracted from the dust was capable of reacting with IgE from the sera of asthma mice allergic to dust mites. The study concludes that air-conditioner filters can enrich dust mites major group allergen, and the allergens can induce asthma. The air-conditioner filters shall be cleaned or replaced regularly to prevent or reduce accumulation of the dust mites and its allergens. PMID:26064381

  8. Air-conditioner filters enriching dust mites allergen

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Xiaodong; Li, Chaopin; Xu, Haifeng; Xu, Pengfei; Zhu, Haibin; Diao, Jidong; Li, Na; Zhao, Beibei

    2015-01-01

    We detected the concentration of dust mites allergen (Der f1 & Der p1) in the air of different places before and after the starting of air-conditioners in Wuhu City, Anhui, China, and to discuss the relation between the dust mites allergen in air-conditioner filters and the asthma attack. The dust samples were collected from the air-conditioner filters in dining rooms, shopping malls, hotels and households respectively. Concentrations of dust mites major group allergen 1 (Der f 1, Der p1) were detected with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the dust mite immune activities were determined by dot-ELISA. The concentration of Der f1 in dining rooms, shopping malls, hotels and households was 1.52 μg/g, 1.24 μg/g, 1.31 μg/g and 1.46 μg/g respectively, and the concentration of Der p1 in above-mentioned places was 1.23 μg/g, 1.12 μg/g, 1.16 μg/g and 1.18 μg/g respectively. The concentration of Der f1 & Der p1 in air was higher after the air-conditioners starting one hours later, and the difference was significant (P<0.05, respectively). Additionally, dot-ELISA findings revealed that the allergen extracted from the dust was capable of reacting with IgE from the sera of asthma mice allergic to dust mites. The study concludes that air-conditioner filters can enrich dust mites major group allergen, and the allergens can induce asthma. The air-conditioner filters shall be cleaned or replaced regularly to prevent or reduce accumulation of the dust mites and its allergens. PMID:26064381

  9. Shortening the Defrost Time on a Heat Pump Air Conditioner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwahara, Eiji; Yamazaki, Masaya; Kawamura, Toshiaki

    Methods to shorten the defrost time have been studied on a heat pump air conditioner. The experiment has been carried out using a 0.75kW heat pump and the energy balance during defrosting has been analyzed. We have found that the following methods are effective to shorten the defrost time; (1) Increase in power inqut to the compressor during defrosting, (2) Utilization of the compressor for thermal energy storage, (3) Reduction of the water left on the outdoor heat exchanger fins. The heat pump with the new defrosting system has been made on an experimental basis. lts defrost time is 1 minute and 55 seconds under the defrost condition of the Japanese Industrial Standard. The defrost time of a conventional heat pump is about 4 or 5 minutes.

  10. Rooftop Unitary Air Conditioner with Integral Dedicated Outdoor Air System

    SciTech Connect

    Tiax Llc

    2006-02-28

    Energy use of rooftop and other unitary air-conditioners in commercial applications accounts for about 1 quad (10{sup 15} Btu) of primary energy use annually in the U.S. [Reference 7]. The realization that this cooling equipment accounts for the majority of commercial building cooled floorspace and the majority also of commercial building energy use has spurred development of improved-efficiency equipment as well as development of stricter standards addressing efficiency levels. Another key market driver affecting design of rooftop air-conditioning equipment has been concern regarding comfort and the control of humidity. Trends for increases in outdoor air ventilation rates in certain applications, and the increasing concern about indoor air quality problems associated with humidity levels and moisture in buildings points to a need for improved dehumidification capability in air-conditioning equipment of all types. In many cases addressing this issue exacerbates energy efficiency, and vice versa. The integrated dedicated outdoor air system configuration developed in this project addresses both energy and comfort/humidity issues.

  11. Laboratory Performance Testing of Residential Window Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Winkler, J.; Booten, C.; Christensen, D.; Tomerlin, J.

    2013-03-01

    Window air conditioners are the dominant cooling product for residences, in terms of annual unit sales. They are inexpensive, portable and can be installed by the owner. For this reason, they are an attractive solution for supplemental cooling, for retrofitting air conditioning into a home which lacks ductwork, and for renters. Window air conditioners for sale in the United States are required to meet very modest minimum efficiency standards. Four window air conditioners' performance were tested in the Advanced HVAC Systems Laboratory on NREL's campus in Golden, CO. In order to separate and study the refrigerant system's performance, the unit's internal leakage pathways, the unit's fanforced ventilation, and the leakage around the unit resulting from installation in a window, a series of tests were devised that focused on each aspect of the unit's performance. These tests were designed to develop a detailed performance map to determine whole-house performance in different climates. Even though the test regimen deviated thoroughly from the industry-standard ratings test, the results permit simple calculation of an estimated rating for both capacity and efficiency that would result from a standard ratings test. Using this calculation method, it was found that the three new air conditioners' measured performance was consistent with their ratings. This method also permits calculation of equivalent SEER for the test articles. Performance datasets were developed across a broad range of indoor and outdoor operating conditions, and used them to generate performance maps.

  12. 16 CFR 305.12 - Labeling for central air conditioners, heat pumps, and furnaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling for central air conditioners, heat... (âAPPLIANCE LABELING RULEâ) Required Disclosures § 305.12 Labeling for central air conditioners, heat pumps, and furnaces. (a) Layout. All energy labels for central air conditioners, heat pumps,...

  13. 10 CFR 429.15 - Room air conditioners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Room air conditioners. 429.15 Section 429.15 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION CERTIFICATION, COMPLIANCE, AND ENFORCEMENT FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS AND... selected and tested to ensure that— (i) Any represented value of estimated annual operating cost,...

  14. Domestic Refrigeration, Freezer, and Window Air Conditioner Service. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemons, Mark

    This curriculum guide contains six units of instruction for a course in domestic refrigerator, freezer, and window air conditioner service. The units cover the following topics: (1) service fundamentals; (2) mechanical components and functions; (3) electrical components and control devices; (4) refrigerator and freezer service; (5) domestic ice…

  15. Development of a solar-powered residential air conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    An extensive review of the literature was conducted which was concerned with the characterization of systems and equipment that could be applicable to the development of solar-powered air conditioners based on the Rankine cycle approach, and the establishment of baseline data defining the performance, physical characteristics, and cost of systems using the LiBr/H2O absorption cycle.

  16. 10 CFR 431.92 - Definitions concerning commercial air conditioners and heat pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... applications; rated for sensible coefficient of performance (SCOP) and tested in accordance with 10 CFR 431.96... split system air conditioner incorporating a single refrigerant circuit, with one or more outdoor units... resistance, steam, hot water, or gas. The equipment incorporates a single refrigerant circuit, with one...

  17. Monitoring and evaluation of replacing low-efficiency air conditioners with high-efficiency air conditioners in single-family detached houses in Austin, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, R.; Hough, R.E. and Associates, Inc., Syracuse, NY )

    1991-10-01

    The US DOE initiated this project to evaluate the performance of an air conditioner retrofit program in Austin, Texas. The City's Austin's Resource Management Department pursued this project to quantify the retrofit effect of replacing low-efficiency air conditioners with high-efficiency air conditioners in single-family detached homes. If successfully implemented, this retrofit program could help defer construction of a new power plant which is a major goal of this department. The project compares data collected from 12 houses during two cooling seasons under pre-retrofit and then post-retrofit air conditioner units. The existing low-efficiency air conditioners were monitored during the 1987 cooling season, replaced during the 1987--88 heating season with new, smaller sized, high-efficiency units, and then monitored again during the 1988 cooling season. Results indicated that the air conditioner retrofits reduce the annual air conditioner electric consumption and peak electric demand by an average of 38%. When normalized to the nominal capacity of the air conditioner, average demand savings were 1.12 W/ft{sup 2} and estimated annual energy savings were 1.419 kWh/ft{sup 2}. Individual air conditioner power requirements were found to be a well defined function of outdoor temperature as expected. In the absence of detailed data, estimates of the peak demand reductions of new air conditioners can be made from the manufacturer's specifications. Air conditioner energy consumption proved to be strongly linear as a function of the outdoor temperature as expected when taken as an aggregate. No noticeable differences in the diversity factor of the air conditioner usage were found. Analysis of the retrofit effect using PRISM yields estimates of the reduction in normalized annual consumption (NAC) and annual cooling consumption of 12% and 30%. 2 refs., 11 figs., 17 tabs.

  18. Dehumidifying Characteristics of Polymer Electrolyte Dehumidifying Cell and its Application to Air Conditioner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyakuno, Takahiro; Hattori, Kikuo; Ikeda, Takanobu; Araki, Takuto; Onda, Kazuo

    Lots of the chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) has been released to atmosphere, resulting that the ozone layer in the stratosphere has been destroyed by the released CFC. Therefore, air conditioners without using CFC have been required to be developed. One of the candidates for such air conditioners is a combined conditioner of the dehumidifying cell by the proton exchange membrane (PEM) and the air cooler by water evaporation. But, we need to understand the operating principle of the dehumidifying cell because the performance of existing dehumidifying cells are not cleared. In this study, first we measured the transmissibility and the electro-osmotic coefficient nd of water vapor through the membrane electrode assembly, the water vapor diffusivity through the diffusion electrode, and the mass transfer coefficient between the flow in channel and the diffusion electrode, as important factors to determine the dehumidifying performance. These factors were adopted in our analysis of the dehumidifying cell performance, where the conservation equations of mass and energy with an equivalent electric circuit of the cell are solved simultaneously. Calculated results can describe well the experimental dehumidifying performance. By using this simulation code we predicted the coefficient of performance (COP) of our novel air conditioner. Calculated COP’s for test cell are as small as 0.10 or 0.21, but could be 4 when we can get the PEM with high nd of 5.

  19. Development of a solar-powered residential air conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The initial objective of the program was the optimization (in terms of cost and performance) of a Rankine cycle mechanical refrigeration system which utilizes thermal energy from a flat solar collector for air conditioning residential buildings. However, feasibility investigations of the adsorption process revealed that a dessicant-type air conditioner offers many significant advantages. As a result, limited efforts were expended toward the optimization of such a system.

  20. 10 CFR 431.92 - Definitions concerning commercial air conditioners and heat pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... electricity. Packaged terminal heat pump means a packaged terminal air conditioner that utilizes reverse cycle... indoor grilles, outdoor louvers, various ventilation options, indoor free air discharges, ductwork,...

  1. Optimal Design of Automotive Thermoelectric Air Conditioner (TEAC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attar, Alaa; Lee, HoSung; Weera, Sean

    2014-06-01

    The present work is an analytical study of the optimal design of an automotive thermoelectric air conditioner (TEAC) using a new optimal design method with dimensional analysis that has been recently developed by our research group. The optimal design gives not only the optimal current but also the optimal geometry (i.e., the number of thermocouples, the geometric factor, or the hot fluid parameters). The optimal design for the TEAC is carried out with two configurations: air-to-liquid and air-to-air heat exchangers.

  2. Mist Formation in Heat Exchanger of Air-Conditioners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishihara, Isao; Matsumoto, Ryosuke; Shibata, Yutaka

    The mist formation is found occasionally at the outlet of the air-conditioner, especially in the high temperature and high humidity environment. When the condensation takes place, a certain degree of the super-saturation is needed. Some researchers introduced the critical saturation model1-3) into the condensation process concerning with the super-saturation. However, under the ordinary environmental conditions where air-conditioners are installed, there are many nuclei for the phase change such as dusts in the humid air. They may offer the trigger to condense; that is to form the mist. In this research, with taking into account the super-saturation depending on the diameter of foreign nucleus, the mist formation is numerically predicted by solving boundary layer equations for the cold parallel plate channel simulating the heat exchanger of air-conditioner with the slit fins. The effects of the humidity and channel dimension on the mist formation rate and on heat and mass transfer are investigated. In addition, the numerical results are compared with those for the plate channel reported previously.

  3. Assessment of Environmentally Friendly Refrigerants for Window Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Bansal, Pradeep; Shen, Bo

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents technical assessment of environmentally friendly refrigerants for window air conditioners that currently use refrigerant R410A for residential and commercial applications. The alternative refrigerants that are studied for its replacement include R32, R600a, R290, R1234yf, R1234ze and a mixture of R32 (90% molar concentration) and R125 (10% molar concentration). Baseline experiments were performed on a window unit charged with R410A. The ORNL Heat Pump Design Model was calibrated with the baseline data and was used to assess the comparative performance of the WAC with alternative refrigerants. The paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of each refrigerants and their suitability for window air conditioners.

  4. Analysis of Environmentally Friendly Refrigerant Options for Window Air Conditioners

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bansal, Pradeep; Shen, Bo

    2015-03-12

    This paper presents a technical assessment of environmentally friendly refrigerants as alternatives to R410A for window air conditioners. The alternative refrigerants that are studied for its replacement include R32, a mixture of R32/R125 with 90%/10% molar concentration, R600a, R290, R1234yf, R1234ze and R134a. Baseline experiments were performed on a window unit charged with R410A. The heat pump design model (HPDM) was modified and calibrated with the baseline data and was used to evaluate the comparative performance of the WAC with alternative refrigerants. The paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of each refrigerants and their suitability for window air conditioners. Amongmore » all the refrigerants studied, R32 offers the best efficiency and the lowest Global Warming Potential (GWP), and hence its use will result in the overall environmental friendliness.« less

  5. Analysis of Environmentally Friendly Refrigerant Options for Window Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Bansal, Pradeep; Shen, Bo

    2015-03-12

    This paper presents a technical assessment of environmentally friendly refrigerants as alternatives to R410A for window air conditioners. The alternative refrigerants that are studied for its replacement include R32, a mixture of R32/R125 with 90%/10% molar concentration, R600a, R290, R1234yf, R1234ze and R134a. Baseline experiments were performed on a window unit charged with R410A. The heat pump design model (HPDM) was modified and calibrated with the baseline data and was used to evaluate the comparative performance of the WAC with alternative refrigerants. The paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of each refrigerants and their suitability for window air conditioners. Among all the refrigerants studied, R32 offers the best efficiency and the lowest Global Warming Potential (GWP), and hence its use will result in the overall environmental friendliness.

  6. Development and Analysis of Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioner Prototype

    SciTech Connect

    Kozubal, E.; Woods, J.; Judkoff, R.

    2012-04-01

    This report documents the design of a desiccant enhanced evaporative air conditioner (DEVAP AC) prototype and the testing to prove its performance. Previous numerical modeling and building energy simulations indicate a DEVAP AC can save significant energy compared to a conventional vapor compression AC (Kozubal et al. 2011). The purposes of this research were to build DEVAP prototypes, test them to validate the numerical model, and identify potential commercialization barriers.

  7. The Performance Evaluation of Room Air Conditioner Using R32

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taira, Shigeharu; Yazima, Ryuzaburo; Koyama, Shigeru

    This paper deals with an experimental study on the performance evaluation of a room air conditioner using R32. The test room air conditioner is a product developed for the R410A use. The COP, cooling and heating capacities, charge amount of refrigerant, electric power input, refrigerant thermodynamic states in the air conditioner etc. were measured for both refrigerant R410A and R32, based on JIS-C9612 standard. The experimental results of R32 are evaluated in comparison with the results of R410A, and the following are confirmed :(1) The performance of R32 is higher than R410A. This reason is mainly due to the pressure drop and heat exchange characteristics (in the evaporator and the condenser), (2) The charge amount of R32 is less than that of R410A. From the above results, the further improving the performance and saving the refrigerant amount are expected when refrigerant R410A is replaced with R32. The effects of the performance of components on the COP are also analyzed based on the measured thermodynamic states at both ends of components in the system. Then, it's clarified that the most effective factor is irreversibility of the compressor and the following is the pressure drop in low pressure side including the evaporator and the suction pipe in the system.

  8. Building pressurization control with rooftop air conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, S.

    1982-10-01

    The modulated exhaust fan appears to be the most cost effective positive means to maintain close building pressure control with rooftop air conditioning, but because building construction and applications vary, every building's pressure control needs must be analyzed. Requirements will vary from no relief to barometric dampers to return fans to modulated exhaust fans. As heating and cooling costs continue to rise and tighter building codes prevail, proper selection of building pressure control is one area that must be monitored more carefully by the HVAC system designer.

  9. 10 CFR 429.16 - Central air conditioners and heat pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... air conditioning heat pumps: The seasonal energy efficiency ratio (SEER in British thermal units per... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Central air conditioners and heat pumps. 429.16 Section..., energy consumption or other measure of energy consumption of the central air conditioner or heat pump...

  10. 10 CFR 429.16 - Central air conditioners and heat pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... air conditioning heat pumps: The seasonal energy efficiency ratio (SEER in British thermal units per... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Central air conditioners and heat pumps. 429.16 Section..., energy consumption or other measure of energy consumption of the central air conditioner or heat pump...

  11. 10 CFR 429.16 - Central air conditioners and heat pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... air conditioning heat pumps: The seasonal energy efficiency ratio (SEER in British thermal units per... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Central air conditioners and heat pumps. 429.16 Section..., energy consumption or other measure of energy consumption of the central air conditioner or heat pump...

  12. Zero Carryover Liquid-Desiccant Air Conditioner for Solar Applications: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Lowenstein, A.; Slayzak, S.; Kozubal, E.

    2006-07-01

    A novel liquid-desiccant air conditioner that dries and cools building supply air will transform the use of direct-contact liquid-desiccant systems in HVAC applications, improving comfort, air quality, and providing energy-efficient humidity control.

  13. Huffing air conditioner fluid: a cool way to die?

    PubMed

    Phatak, Darshan R; Walterscheid, Jeffrey

    2012-03-01

    "Huffing," the form of substance abuse involving inhalants, is growing in popularity because of the ease and availability of chemical inhalants in many household products. The purpose in huffing is to achieve euphoria when the chemicals in question interact with the central nervous system in combination with oxygen displacement. The abuser is lulled into a false sense of safety despite the well-documented potential for lethal cardiac arrhythmia and the effects of chronic inhalant abuse, including multisystem organ failure, and brain damage. Huffing air conditioner fluid is a growing problem given the accessibility to outdoor units and their fluid components, such as difluorochloromethane(chlorodifluoromethane, Freon), and we have classified multiple cases of accidental death due to the toxicity of difluorochloromethane. Given the ubiquity of these devices and the vast lack of gating or security devices, they make an inviting target for inhalant abusers. Acute huffing fatalities have distinct findings that are present at the scene, given the position of the decedent and proximity to the air conditioner unit. The purpose of the autopsy in these cases is to exclude other potential causes of death and to procure specimens for toxicological analysis. PMID:22442834

  14. 48 CFR 52.223-12 - Refrigeration Equipment and Air Conditioners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Refrigeration Equipment... Provisions and Clauses 52.223-12 Refrigeration Equipment and Air Conditioners. As prescribed in 23.804(b), insert the following clause: Refrigeration Equipment and Air Conditioners (MAY 1995) The Contractor...

  15. 48 CFR 52.223-12 - Refrigeration Equipment and Air Conditioners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Refrigeration Equipment... Provisions and Clauses 52.223-12 Refrigeration Equipment and Air Conditioners. As prescribed in 23.804(b), insert the following clause: Refrigeration Equipment and Air Conditioners (MAY 1995) The Contractor...

  16. 48 CFR 52.223-12 - Refrigeration Equipment and Air Conditioners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Refrigeration Equipment... Provisions and Clauses 52.223-12 Refrigeration Equipment and Air Conditioners. As prescribed in 23.804(b), insert the following clause: Refrigeration Equipment and Air Conditioners (MAY 1995) The Contractor...

  17. 48 CFR 52.223-12 - Refrigeration Equipment and Air Conditioners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Refrigeration Equipment... Provisions and Clauses 52.223-12 Refrigeration Equipment and Air Conditioners. As prescribed in 23.804(b), insert the following clause: Refrigeration Equipment and Air Conditioners (MAY 1995) The Contractor...

  18. 48 CFR 52.223-12 - Refrigeration Equipment and Air Conditioners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Refrigeration Equipment... Provisions and Clauses 52.223-12 Refrigeration Equipment and Air Conditioners. As prescribed in 23.804(b), insert the following clause: Refrigeration Equipment and Air Conditioners (MAY 1995) The Contractor...

  19. 10 CFR 431.92 - Definitions concerning commercial air conditioners and heat pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... heat pumps. 431.92 Section 431.92 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps § 431.92 Definitions concerning commercial air conditioners and heat pumps. The following definitions...

  20. 10 CFR 431.92 - Definitions concerning commercial air conditioners and heat pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... effect of an air conditioner or heat pump (or its produced heating effect, depending on the mode of... heat pumps. 431.92 Section 431.92 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps §...

  1. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 1, Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (P.L. 94-163), as amended, establishes energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products specifically covered by the Act. The legislation requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to consider new or amended standards for these and other types of products at specified times. DOE is currently considering amending standards for seven types of products: water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, pool heaters, room air conditioners, kitchen ranges and ovens (including microwave ovens), and fluorescent light ballasts and is considering establishing standards for television sets. This Technical Support Document presents the methodology, data, and results from the analysis of the energy and economic impacts of the proposed standards. This volume presents a general description of the analytic approach, including the structure of the major models.

  2. Dirty air conditioners: Energy implications of coil fouling

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, Jeffrey; Walker, Iain; Sherman, Max

    2002-03-01

    Residential air conditioning is responsible for a substantial amount of peak electrical demand and energy consumption throughout most of the United States. Coil fouling, the deposition of indoor dusts and other particulate matter on evaporator heat exchangers, increases system pressure drop and, correspondingly, decreases system air flow and air conditioner performance. In this paper, we apply experimental and simulation results describing particle deposition on evaporator coils as well as research about indoor particle and dust concentrations to determine coil fouling rates. The results suggest that typical coils foul enough to double evaporator pressure drop in about 7.5 years, much sooner than the expected 15-30 year life time for an evaporator coil. The most important parameters in determining coil fouling times are the efficiency of the filter and indoor particle concentrations, although filter bypass and duct and coil design are important as well. The reduced air flows that result from coil fouling cause typical efficiency and capacity degradations of less than 5%, however they can be much greater for marginal systems or extreme conditions. These energy issues, as well as possible indoor air quality issues resulting from fouling by biological aerosols, suggest that regular coil cleaning to ameliorate low flow and the elimination of filter bypass should be an important part of residential air conditioning commissioning and maintenance practices.

  3. Mycoflora of air-conditioners dust from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Bagy, M M; Gohar, Y M

    1988-01-01

    Using the hair baiting technique, 6 genera and 14 species were collected on Sabouraud's dextrose agar from 37 dust samples from air-conditioners. The most common fungi were Chrysosporium tropicum, C. indicum, C. keratinophilum, Aspergillus flavus followed by Acremonium strictum and Scopulariopsis brevicaulis. Using the dilution-plate method, 26 genera and 52 species were collected from 37 dust samples on glucose-(23 genera and 45 species) and cellulose-(18 genera and 34 species) Czapek's agar at 28 degrees C. The most prevalent species were Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, Penicillium chrysogenum, Stachybotrys chartarum, Ulocladium atrum, Mucor racemosus and Fusarium solani and A. niger, A. flavus, Trichoderma viride, P. chrysogenum, Ulocladium atrum, Chaetomium globosum, C. spirale, Stachybotrys chartarum and Mucor racemosus on the two media, respectively. PMID:3236219

  4. High-Efficiency Rooftop Air Conditioners: Small Commercial ACs Could Add Up to Big Energy Savings

    SciTech Connect

    Hollomon, J Bradford; Gilbride, Theresa L.

    2003-04-01

    This paper describes a technology procurement conducted by DOE, PNNL, and the Defense Logistics Agency to increase the availability of energy-efficient, packaged, unitary ''rooftop'' air conditioners. The procurement encourages air conditioner manufacturers to produce equipment that exceeds federal energy efficiency standards by at least 25 percent at a lower first cost. Program developers have also sought to aggregate market demand by organizing groups of large-volume buyers of air conditioning equipment. A Cost Estimator tool developed by PNNL to help consumers determine the cost effectiveness, based on local climate conditions, of purchasing energy efficient air conditioners for their own facilities is also described.

  5. High-Efficiency Rooftop Air Conditioners: Innovative Procurement to Achieve Advances in Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Hollomon, Brad

    2003-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, Defense Logistics Agency, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory recently conducted a technology procurement to increase the availability of energy-efficient, packaged unitary ''rooftop'' air conditioners. The procurement encouraged air conditioner manufacturers to produce equipment that exceeded US energy efficiency standards by at least 25% at a lower life-cycle cost. An outgrowth of the project, a web-based cost estimator tool is now available to help consumers determine the cost-effectiveness of purchasing energy-efficient air conditioners based on climate conditions and other factors at their own locations.

  6. Effect of air-conditioner on fungal contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamada, Nobuo; Fujita, Tadao

    Air-conditioners (AC) produce much dew and wet conditions inside their apparatus, when in operation. We studied the fungal contamination in AC and found that the average fungal contamination of AC filters was about 5-fold greater than that of a carpet, and Cladosporium and Penicillium were predominant in AC filters. The fungal contamination inside AC, which were used everyday, increased more markedly than those not used daily, e.g. a few days per week or rarely. Moreover, the airborne fungal contamination in rooms during air-conditioning was about 2-fold greater than one in rooms without AC, and was highest when air-conditioning started and decreased gradually with time. We recognized that the airborne fungal contamination was controlled by the environmental condition of the rooms, in which AC were used. It is suggested that AC might promote mold allergies in users via airborne fungal spores derived from the AC. On the other hand, AC was estimated to remove moisture in the room atmosphere and carpets, and reduce the relative humidity in rooms. It was found that the average fungal contamination in the house dust of carpets with AC was suppressed by two-third of that in rooms without AC. The use of AC for suppressing fungal hazards was discussed.

  7. Liquid Desiccant in Air Conditioners: Nano-Engineered Porous Hollow Fiber Membrane-Based Air Conditioning System

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-02

    BEETIT Project: UTRC is developing an air conditioning system that is optimized for use in warm and humid climates. UTRC’s air conditioning system integrates a liquid drying agent or desiccant and a traditional vapor compression system found in 90% of air conditioners. The drying agent reduces the humidity in the air before it is cooled, using less energy. The technology uses a membrane as a barrier between the air and the liquid salt stream allowing only water vapor to pass through and not the salt molecules. This solves an inherent problem with traditional liquid desiccant systems—carryover of the liquid drying agent into the conditioned air stream—which eliminates corrosion and health issues

  8. Understanding Energy Impacts of Oversized Air Conditioners; NREL Highlights, Research & Development, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-01

    This NREL highlight describes a simulation-based study that analyzes the energy impacts of oversized residential air conditioners. Researchers found that, if parasitic power losses are minimal, there is very little increase in energy use for oversizing an air conditioner. The research demonstrates that new residential air conditioners can be sized primarily based on comfort considerations, because capacity typically has minimal impact on energy efficiency. The results of this research can be useful for contractors and homeowners when choosing a new air conditioner or heat pump during retrofits of existing homes. If the selected unit has a crankcase heater, performing proper load calculations to be sure the new unit is not oversized will help avoid excessive energy use.

  9. Improved Modeling of Residential Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps for Energy Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Cutler, D.; Winkler, J.; Kruis, N.; Christensen, C.; Brendemuehl, M.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents improved air conditioner and heat pump modeling methods in the context of whole-building simulation tools, with the goal of enabling more accurate evaluation of cost effective equipment upgrade opportunities and efficiency improvements in residential buildings.

  10. Building America Top Innovations 2013 Profile – High-Efficiency Window Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-09-01

    This Top Innovation profile explains how comprehensive performance testing by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory led to simple, affordable methods that homeowners could employ for increasing the energy efficiency of window air conditioners.

  11. Centrifugal compressors for automotive air conditioners -- Component design

    SciTech Connect

    Yun, H.; Smith, J.L. Jr.

    1996-12-31

    The application of a novel, electric motor-driven, variable-speed centrifugal compressor for automotive air conditioners has been investigated. For the feasibility analysis, a configuration design has been performed. It includes refrigerant selection, thermodynamic cycle analysis, compressor aerodynamic design, and mechanical layout of the integrated motor-compressor structure. Both the motor constraints (provided by the Laboratory for Electromagnetic and Electronic Systems at M.I.T.) and the compressor constraints were considered for the configuration design. The result is an inter-cooled two-stage compression system using R123 as the refrigerant. The inter-cooling is achieved by feeding back a small fraction of the condenser liquid into the return channel between the first and the second stage through the electric motor. At the design condition, the pressure ratio is 3.2 for the first stage and 1.9 for the second stage. The design rotational speed is 75,000 rpm, and the maximum cooling capacity is 5,275 Watts. High efficiency is expected by varying the compressor speed to match the required cooling load at each instant.

  12. A hybrid air conditioner driven by a hybrid solar collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Alili, Ali

    The objective of this thesis is to search for an efficient way of utilizing solar energy in air conditioning applications. The current solar Air Conditioners (A/C)s suffer from low Coefficient of Performance (COP) and performance degradation in hot and humid climates. By investigating the possible ways of utilizing solar energy in air conditioning applications, the bottlenecks in these approaches were identified. That resulted in proposing a novel system whose subsystem synergy led to a COP higher than unity. The proposed system was found to maintain indoor comfort at a higher COP compared to the most common solar A/Cs, especially under very hot and humid climate conditions. The novelty of the proposed A/C is to use a concentrating photovoltaic/thermal collector, which outputs thermal and electrical energy simultaneously, to drive a hybrid A/C. The performance of the hybrid A/C, which consists of a desiccant wheel, an enthalpy wheel, and a vapor compression cycle (VCC), was investigated experimentally. This work also explored the use of a new type of desiccant material, which can be regenerated with a low temperature heat source. The experimental results showed that the hybrid A/C is more effective than the standalone VCC in maintaining the indoor conditions within the comfort zone. Using the experimental data, the COP of the hybrid A/C driven by a hybrid solar collector was found to be at least double that of the current solar A/Cs. The innovative integration of its subsystems allows each subsystem to do what it can do best. That leads to lower energy consumption which helps reduce the peak electrical loads on electric utilities and reduces the consumer operating cost since less energy is purchased during the on peak periods and less solar collector area is needed. In order for the proposed A/C to become a real alternative to conventional systems, its performance and total cost were optimized using the experimentally validated model. The results showed that for an

  13. Evaluation of Annual Performance of Multi-type Air-conditioners for Buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Choyu; Ohashi, Ei-Ichiro; Hirota, Masafumi; Nagamatsu, Katsuaki; Nakayama, Hiroshi

    The partial thermal load performance tests of electric-motor driven multi-type air-conditioners for buildings, the rated cooling and heating capacities of which were 56 kW and 63 kW, respectively, were carried out using the air-enthalpy method testing apparatus. Based on the results of those tests, the applicability of JIS B 8616: 2006, which was developed for the estimation of the annual electricity consumption of packaged air-conditioners with rated cooling capacities less than 28 kW, to the multi-type air-conditioners with larger capacities were examined. It was found that JIS B 8616: 2006 generally overestimates COP under a relatively low thermal load operation. As a result, the annual electricity consumption is underestimated by JIS. The prediction error changes depending of the building uses, and it amounted to -17 % in the case of office and -6 % in the detached shop.

  14. EPA evaluation of the 'Pass Master Vehicle Air Conditioner Cut-Off' Device. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Penninga, T.J.

    1980-08-01

    The conclusions of the EPA evaluation of the 'Pass Master Vehicle Air Conditioner Compressor Cut-Off Device' under the provisions of Section 511 of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act are announced. The Pass Master device disengages the air conditioning compressor during hard vehicle acceleration modes. The reduced engine loading will result in some fuel savings.

  15. 16 CFR Appendix H to Part 305 - Cooling Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cooling Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners H Appendix H to Part 305 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC... RULEâ) Pt. 305, App. H Appendix H to Part 305—Cooling Performance and Cost for Central Air...

  16. 16 CFR Appendix H to Part 305 - Cooling Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooling Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners H Appendix H to Part 305 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC... RULEâ) Pt. 305, App. H Appendix H to Part 305—Cooling Performance and Cost for Central Air...

  17. 16 CFR Appendix I to Part 305 - Heating Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Heating Performance and Cost for Central Air... CONSERVATION ACT (âENERGY LABELING RULEâ) Pt. 305, App. I Appendix I to Part 305—Heating Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners Manufacturer's rated heating capacity (Btu's/hr.) Range of HSPF's...

  18. Swozzle based burner tube premixer including inlet air conditioner for low emissions combustion

    DOEpatents

    Tuthill, Richard Sterling; Bechtel, II, William Theodore; Benoit, Jeffrey Arthur; Black, Stephen Hugh; Bland, Robert James; DeLeonardo, Guy Wayne; Meyer, Stefan Martin; Taura, Joseph Charles; Battaglioli, John Luigi

    2002-01-01

    A burner for use in a combustion system of a heavy-duty industrial gas turbine includes a fuel/air premixer having an air inlet, a fuel inlet, and an annular mixing passage. The fuel/air premixer mixes fuel and air into a uniform mixture for injection into a combustor reaction zone. The burner also includes an inlet flow conditioner disposed at the air inlet of the fuel/air premixer for controlling a radial and circumferential distribution of incoming air. The pattern of perforations in the inlet flow conditioner is designed such that a uniform air flow distribution is produced at the swirler inlet annulus in both the radial and circumference directions. The premixer includes a swozzle assembly having a series of preferably air foil shaped turning vanes that impart swirl to the airflow entering via the inlet flow conditioner. Each air foil contains internal fuel flow passages that introduce natural gas fuel into the air stream via fuel metering holes that pass through the walls of the air foil shaped turning vanes. By injecting fuel in this manner, an aerodynamically clean flow field is maintained throughout the premixer. By injecting fuel via two separate passages, the fuel/air mixture strength distribution can be controlled in the radial direction to obtain optimum radial concentration profiles for control of emissions, lean blow outs, and combustion driven dynamic pressure activity as machine and combustor load are varied.

  19. 10 CFR Appendix F to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Room Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... conditioners at 10 CFR 430.32(b). 1. Definitions. 1.1“Active mode” means a mode in which the room air... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Room Air Conditioners F Appendix F to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY...

  20. 10 CFR Appendix F to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Room Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... conditioners at 10 CFR 430.32(b). 1. Definitions. 1.1“Active mode” means a mode in which the room air... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Room Air Conditioners F Appendix F to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY...

  1. 10 CFR Appendix F to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Room Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... conditioners at 10 CFR 430.32(b). 1. Definitions. 1.1 “Active mode” means a mode in which the room air... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Room Air Conditioners F Appendix F to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY...

  2. 10 CFR 431.96 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial air conditioners and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... efficiency of commercial air conditioners and heat pumps. 431.96 Section 431.96 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial... energy efficiency of commercial air conditioners and heat pumps. (a) Scope. This section contains...

  3. 10 CFR 431.96 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial air conditioners and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... efficiency of commercial air conditioners and heat pumps. 431.96 Section 431.96 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial... energy efficiency of commercial air conditioners and heat pumps. (a) Scope. This section contains...

  4. Development of Small Gas-fired Ammonia Absorption Air Conditioner for Residential Use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawada, Takashi; Yamamoto, Yoshiaki; Kobayashi, Hirotake; Shimaoka, Takaharu; Kawahara, Michinori; Uedono, Norio

    Due to the global environmental problems, the usage of natural refrigerants, such as water, ammonia, and hydrocarbons, are examined widely. Especially, absorption heat pump system using ammonia and water is penetrated widely for residential use in the U.S. and Europe, because it is easy to make the air-cooled system and to perform with high COP for heating. Authors have been developing an ammonia/water heat pump system for residential use. This system is driven by natural gas and supplies chilled water for cooling and hot water for heating. The results of performance tests indicated 6.8kW for cooling capacity and 10.3kW for heating capacity. And, some indexes which were related the charge of ammonium and the weight of the out-door unit, were compared with the same item of other equipments, such as, gas-fired LiBr absorption air-conditioners and gas engine driven heat pumps for residential use. The objective of this paper is to introduce the specifications and performance test results of the latest model, and to evaluate the performance of this heat pump system.

  5. 16 CFR 305.12 - Labeling for central air conditioners, heat pumps, and furnaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... pumps, and furnaces. 305.12 Section 305.12 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS... pumps, and furnaces. (a) Layout. All energy labels for central air conditioners, heat pumps, and furnaces (including boilers) shall use one size, similar colors, and typefaces with consistent...

  6. 16 CFR 305.12 - Labeling for central air conditioners, heat pumps, and furnaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... pumps, and furnaces. 305.12 Section 305.12 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS... pumps, and furnaces. (a) Layout. All energy labels for central air conditioners, heat pumps, and furnaces (including boilers) shall use one size, similar colors, and typefaces with consistent...

  7. 16 CFR 305.12 - Labeling for central air conditioners, heat pumps, and furnaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... pumps, and furnaces. 305.12 Section 305.12 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS... pumps, and furnaces. (a) Layout. All energy labels for central air conditioners, heat pumps, and furnaces (including boilers) shall use one size, similar colors, and typefaces with consistent...

  8. RETROFITTING AN AUTOMOTIVE AIR CONDITIONER WITH HFC-134A, ADDITIVE, AND MINERAL OIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of an evaluation of a lubricant additive developed for use in retrofitting motor vehicle air conditioners. he additive was designed to enable HFC-134a to be used as a retrofit refrigerant with the existing mineral oil in CVC-12 systems. he goal of the proj...

  9. 16 CFR Appendix H to Part 305 - Cooling Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cooling Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners H Appendix H to Part 305 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC... CONSERVATION ACT (âENERGY LABELING RULEâ) Pt. 305, App. H Appendix H to Part 305—Cooling Performance and...

  10. Technical and economic analysis of energy efficiency of Chinese room air conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Fridley, David G.; Rosenquist, Gregory; Jiang, Lin; Li, Aixian; Xin, Dingguo; Cheng, Jianhong

    2001-02-01

    China has experienced tremendous growth in the production and sales of room air conditioners over the last decade. Although minimum room air conditioner energy efficiency standards have been in effect since 1989, no efforts were made during most of the 1990's to update the standard to be more reflective of current market conditions. In 1999, China's State Bureau of Technical Supervision (SBTS) included in their annual plan the development and revision of the 1989 room air conditioner standard, and experts from SBTS worked together with LBNL to analyze the new standards. Based on the engineering and life cycle-cost analyses performed, the most predominant type of room air conditioner in the Chinese market (split-type with a cooling capacity between 2500 and 4500 W (8500 Btu/h and 15,300Btu/h)) can have its efficiency increased cost-effectively to an energy efficiency ratio (EER) of 2.92 W/W (9.9 Btu/hr/W). If an EER standard of 2.92 W/W became effective in 2001, Chinese consumers would be estimated to save over 3.5 billion Yuan (420 million U.S. dollars) over the period of 2001-2020. Carbon emissions over the same period would be reduced by approximately 12 million metric tonnes.

  11. Improved Modeling of Residential Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps for Energy Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Cutler, D.; Winkler, J.; Kruis, N.; Christensen, C.; Brandemuehl, M.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents improved air conditioner and heat pump modeling methods in the context of whole-building simulation tools, with the goal of enabling more accurate evaluation of cost-effective equipment upgrade opportunities and efficiency improvements in residential buildings.

  12. Product lifetime, energy efficiency and climate change: A case study of air conditioners in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nishijima, Daisuke

    2016-10-01

    This study proposed a modelling technique for estimating life-cycle CO2 emissions of durable goods by considering changes in product lifetime and energy efficiency. The stock and flow of durable goods was modelled by Weibull lifetime distributions and the trend in annual energy efficiency (i.e., annual electricity consumption) of an "average" durable good was formulated as a reverse logistic curve including a technologically critical value (i.e., limit energy efficiency) with respect to time. I found that when the average product lifetime is reduced, there is a trade-off between the reduction in emissions during product use (use phase), due to the additional purchases of new, more energy-efficient air conditioners, and the increase in emissions arising from the additional production of new air conditioners stimulated by the reduction of the average product lifetime. A scenario analysis focused on residential air conditioners in Japan during 1972-2013 showed that for a reduction of average lifetime of 1 year, if the air conditioner energy efficiency limit can be improved by 1.4% from the estimated current efficiency level, then CO2 emissions can be reduced by approximately the same amount as for an extension of average product lifetime of 1 year. PMID:27423771

  13. Experimental Validation of the Optimum Design of an Automotive Air-to-Air Thermoelectric Air Conditioner (TEAC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attar, Alaa; Lee, HoSung; Weera, Sean

    2015-06-01

    The optimization of thermoelectric air conditioners (TEAC) has been a challenging topic due to the multitude of variables that must be considered. The present work discusses an experimental validation of the optimum design for an automotive air-to-air TEAC. The TEAC optimum design was obtained by using a new optimal design method with dimensional analysis that has been recently developed. The design constraints were obtained through a previous analytical study on the same topic. To simplify the problem, a unit cell representing the entire TEAC system was analytically simulated and experimentally tested. Moreover, commercial TEC modules and heat sinks were selected and tested based on the analytical optimum design results.

  14. Development of solar driven absorption air conditioners and heat pumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dao, K.; Wahlig, M.; Wali, E.; Rasson, J.; Molishever, E.

    1980-03-01

    The development of absorption refrigeration systems for solar active heating and cooling applications is discussed. The approaches investigated are those using air-cooled condenser-absorber and those leading to coefficient of performances (COP) that increase continuously with heat source temperature. This is primarily an experimental project, with the emphasis on designing, fabricating and testing absorption chillers in operating regimes that are particularly suited for solar energy applications. Its demonstrated that the conventional single-effect ammonia-water absorption cycle can be used (with minor modifications) for solar cooling.

  15. Development of a solar-powered residential air conditioner: Screening analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Screening analysis aimed at the definition of an optimum configuration of a Rankine cycle solar-powered air conditioner designed for residential application were conducted. Initial studies revealed that system performance and cost were extremely sensitive to condensing temperature and to the type of condenser used in the system. Consequently, the screening analyses were concerned with the generation of parametric design data for different condenser approaches; i. e., (1) an ambient air condenser, (2) a humidified ambient air condenser (3) an evaporative condenser, and (4) a water condenser (with a cooling tower). All systems feature a high performance turbocompressor and a single refrigerant (R-11) for the power and refrigeration loops. Data were obtained by computerized methods developed to permit system characterization over a broad range of operating and design conditions. The criteria used for comparison of the candidate system approaches were (1) overall system COP (refrigeration effect/solar heat input), (2) auxiliary electric power for fans and pumps, and (3) system installed cost or cost to the user.

  16. Low GWP Refrigerants Modelling Study for a Room Air Conditioner Having Microchannel Heat Exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Bo; Bhandari, Mahabir S

    2016-01-01

    Microchannel heat exchangers (MHX) have found great successes in residential and commercial air conditioning applications, being compact heat exchangers, to reduce refrigerant charge and material cost. This investigation aims to extend the application of MHXs in split, room air conditioners (RAC), per fundamental heat exchanger and system modelling. For this paper, microchannel condenser and evaporator models were developed, using a segment-to-segment modelling approach. The microchannel heat exchanger models were integrated to a system design model. The system model is able to predict the performance indices, such as cooling capacity, efficiency, sensible heat ratio, etc. Using the calibrated system and heat exchanger models, we evaluated numerous low GWP (global warming potential) refrigerants. The predicted system performance indices, e.g. cooling efficiency, compressor discharge temperature, and required compressor displacement volume etc., are compared. Suitable replacements for R22 and R-410A for the room air conditioner application are recommended.

  17. Study on Variable Capacity Control Mechanism of Scroll Compressor for Automotive Air Conditioner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirano, Takahisa; Shigeoka, Tetsuo

    As for the automotive air conditioner, (1) to keep the automotive cabin temperature in a comfortable region, (2) to improve driving feeling, (3) to drive the air conditioning system economically through all seasons, are universally required. Recently, from these points, compressors with variable capacity control mechanism for automotive air conditioners have been remarkably requested. We have developed a scroll comoressor with variable capacity control mechanism. The capacity control mechanism, which changes the channel area of the bypass hole continuously, according to the suction gas pressure and the discharge gas pressure, has been developed. In this report, we describe the mechanism of variable capacity control and the performance simulation program that has been developed for the scroll compressor. Further, we describe the measuring results of cylinder pressure behavior, the results of energy loss analysis and the effect of comfort, drivability, power saving in the refrigerating cycle using the developed capacity control compressor.

  18. Techno-Economic Analysis of Indian Draft Standard Levels for RoomAir Conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    McNeil, Michael A.; Iyer, Maithili

    2007-03-01

    The Indian Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) finalized its first set of efficiency standards and labels for room air conditioners in July of 2006. These regulations followed soon after the publication of levels for frost-free refrigerators in the same year. As in the case of refrigerators, the air conditioner program introduces Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards (MEPS) and comparative labels simultaneously, with levels for one to five stars. Also like the refrigerator program, BEE defined several successive program phases of increasing stringency. In support of BEE's refrigerator program, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) produced an analysis of national impacts of standards in collaboration with the Collaborative Labeling and Standards Program (CLASP). That analysis drew on LBNL's experience with standards programs in the United States, as well as many other countries. Subsequently, as part of the process for setting optimal levels for air conditioner regulations, CLASP commissioned LBNL to provide support to BEE in the form of a techno-economic evaluation of air conditioner efficiency technologies. This report describes the methodology and results of this techno-economic evaluation. The analysis consists of three components: (1) Cost effectiveness to consumers of efficiency technologies relative to current baseline. (2) Impacts on the current market from efficiency regulations. (3) National energy and financial impacts. The analysis relied on detailed and up-to-date technical data made available by BEE and industry representatives. Technical parameters were used in conjunction with knowledge about air conditioner use patterns in the residential and commercial sectors, and prevailing marginal electricity prices, in order to give an estimate of per-unit financial impacts. In addition, the overall impact of the program was evaluated by combining unit savings with market forecasts in order to yield national impacts. LBNL presented preliminary results

  19. Actual Performance Prediction of Split-type Room Air Conditioner which Considered Unsteady Operation Concerning Heat Island Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinomiya, Naruaki; Nishimura, Nobuya; Iyota, Hiroyuki; Nomura, Tomohiro

    Split type air conditioners are operated actually in the situation unlike the condition that was described in a product catalog. On the other hand, exhaust heat from air conditioner is considered as one of the causes of heat island problem in urban area, and the air conditioner performance and heat load affect exhaust heat amount. In this study, air conditioner performances in both standard summer day and severe hot day were examined by dynamic simulation which considered outdoor weather changes. As a result, actual performances of the air conditioner were demonstrated as a function of outdoor temperature, heat load and indoor temperature. The higher the outdoor temperature and heat load rise, the smaller influences of indoor temperature against COP became. In standard summer day, relative performance exceeded by 15 to 45% than that of JIS operating condition. Also, COP in severe hot day decreased about 6% at the peak time than that of standard day. As a result, the air conditioner exhaust heat during one day which was predicted by the proposed simulation model became about 16% smaller than the conventional prediction model.

  20. EER, COP, and the Second Law Efficiency for Air Conditioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leff, Harvey S.; Teeters, William D.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the relationship existing between coefficient of performance (COP) and energy efficiency ratio (EER) in air conditioning units and introduces new efficiency parameters measured relative to the energy extracted from the primary energy source. (SL)

  1. Room Air Conditioners; Appliance Repair--Advanced: 9027.04.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This Quinmester course includes installations, electrical and mechanical servicing, reverse cycle air conditioning, malfunctions, troubleshooting and repair, discharge, pump down, and recharging the system. The course may be taught as a two or three Quinmester credit course. In each instance the course consists of six instructional blocks:…

  2. Performance Characteristics of Cross-Fin-Tube-Type Heat Exchanger for Air Conditioner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Naoe; Kakiyama, Shiro; Sanuki, Noriyoshi

    The effects of enhanced heat transfer tube with ability to control the heat transfer disturbance by mechanical tube expanding were experimentally investigated on the performance characteristics of air-cooled cross-fin-tube-type heat exchanger for air conditioner. Three kinds of the enhanced heat transfer tube were developed and used in the experiment. The enhanced heat transfer tube was a kind of spirally grooved tube and composed with the fins smaller than those of the conventional spirally grooved tube excepting four fins located in orthogonal position on the tube circumference. The optimum groove number to enhance the performance of heat exchanger was also shown.

  3. USAF Bioenvironmental Noise Data Handbook. Volume 167: MA-3M air conditioner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rau, T. H.

    1982-06-01

    The MA-3M is an electric motor-driven air conditioner designed to cool electronic equipment on aircraft during ground maintenance. This report provides measured and extrapolated data defining the bioacoustic environments produced by this unit operating at a normal rated condition. Near-field data are reported for 37 locations in a wide variety of physical and psychoacoustic measures: overall and band sound pressure levels, C-weighted and A-weighted sound levels, preferred speech interference levels, perceived noise levels, and limiting times for total daily exposure of personnel with and without standard Air Force ear protectors.

  4. Automotive absorption air conditioner utilizing solar and motor waste heat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popinski, Z. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    In combination with the ground vehicles powered by a waste heat generating electric motor, a cooling system including a generator for driving off refrigerant vapor from a strong refrigerant absorbant solution is described. A solar collector, an air-cooled condenser connected with the generator for converting the refrigerant vapor to its liquid state, an air cooled evaporator connected with the condenser for returning the liquid refrigerant to its vapor state, and an absorber is connected to the generator and to the evaporator for dissolving the refrigerant vapor in the weak refrigerant absorbant solution, for providing a strong refrigerant solution. A pump is used to establish a pressurized flow of strong refrigerant absorbant solution from the absorber through the electric motor, and to the collector.

  5. Measure Guideline. Air Conditioner Diagnostics, Maintenance, and Replacement

    SciTech Connect

    Springer, David; Dakin, Bill

    2013-03-01

    This guideline responds to the need for an efficient means of identifying, diagnosing, and repairing faults in air conditioning systems in existing homes that are undergoing energy upgrades. Inadequate airflow due to constricted ducts or undersized filters, improper refrigerant charge, and other system defects can be corrected at a fraction of the cost of equipment replacement and can yield significant savings. The guideline presents a two-step approach to diagnostics and repair.

  6. Measure Guideline: Air Conditioner Diagnostics, Maintenance, and Replacement

    SciTech Connect

    Springer, D.; Dakin, B.

    2013-03-01

    This guideline responds to the need for an efficient means of identifying, diagnosing, and repairing faults in air conditioning systems in existing homes that are undergoing energy upgrades. Inadequate airflow due to constricted ducts or undersized filters, improper refrigerant charge, and other system defects can be corrected at a fraction of the cost of equipment replacement and can yield significant savings. The guideline presents a two-step approach to diagnostics and repair.

  7. Rating procedure for mixed-air-source unitary air conditioners and heat pumps operating in the cooling mode

    SciTech Connect

    Domanski, P.A.

    1986-02-01

    A procedure is presented for rating split, residential air conditioners and heat pumps operating in the cooling mode that are made up of an evaporator unit combined with a condensing unit that has been rated under current procedures in conjunction with a different evaporator unit. The procedure allows calculation of capacity at the 95/sup 0/ F rating point and seasonal energy efficiency ratio, SEER, without performing laboratory tests of the complete system.

  8. Desiccant-assisted air conditioner improves IAQ and comfort

    SciTech Connect

    Meckler, M. )

    1994-10-01

    This article describes a system which offers the advantage of downsizing the evaporator coil and condensing unit capacities for comparable design loads, which in turn provides numerous benefits. Airborne microorganisms, which are responsible for many acute diseases, infections, and allergies, are well protected indoors by the moisture surrounding them. While the human body is generally the host for various bacteria and viruses, fungi can grow in moist places. It has been concluded that an optimum relative humidity (RH) range of 40 to 60 percent is necessary to minimize or eliminate the bacterial, viral, and fungal growth. In addition, humidity also has an effect on air cleanliness--it reduces the presence of dust particles--and on the deterioration of the building structure and its contents. Therefore, controlling humidity is a very important factor to human comfort in minimizing adverse health effects and maximizing the structural longevity of the building.

  9. 16 CFR Appendix E to Part 305 - Room Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND WATER USE LABELING FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS UNDER THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT (âENERGY... Without Reverse Cycle and with Louvered Sides: Less than 6,000 Btu $42 $48 6,000 to 7,999 Btu 50 72 8,000 to 13,999 Btu 66 115 14,000 to 19,999 Btu 117 195 20,000 and more Btu 169 382 Without Reverse...

  10. A liquid over-feeding military air conditioner

    SciTech Connect

    Mei, V.C.; Chen, F.C.

    1995-07-01

    A 3.3-ton military air conditioning unit has been studied experimentally in both baseline (as received) and as modified for liquid over-feeding (LOF) operation. Tne baseline test, using a proper refrigerant charge, showed the measured cooling capacity to be less than 1% off the rated capacity at 95{degrees}F ambient temperature. The test results indicate that LOF operation outperforms the baseline case over a wide ambient temperature range in terms of cooling capacity, power consumption, and system coefficient of performance (COP). At a 95{degrees}F test point, LOF operation has a cooling capacity of 51,100 BTU per hour, which is a 28.9% improvement over the baseline operation capacity of 39,600 BTU per hour. The COP for LOF at 95{degrees}F is 2.62, which is 29% better than the baseline COP of 2.03. However, an optimal refrigerant charge is essential for LOF to work properly.

  11. Human location and recognition for intelligent air conditioners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Bing; Li, Ke; Weng, Fei; Liu, Yuncai

    2010-08-01

    Through analyzing the low resolution video captured by a single camera fixed on the air condition, this paper proposes an approach that can automatically estimate the person's location and recognize the person's identification in real time. Human location can be obtained by smart geometry calculation with the knowledge of the camera intrinsic parameters and living experience. Human recognition has been found to be very difficult in reality, especially when the person is walking at a distance in the complexity indoor conditions. For optimal performance, we use the shape feature gait energy image (GEI) as the basis, since it isn't sensitive the noise. Then we extract more efficient features using the histograms of oriented gradients (HOG) and do the dimensionality reduction by the coupled subspaces analysis and discriminant analysis with tensor representation (CSA+DATER), Finally the classical Bayesian Theory is used for fusion of the result of HOG and the result of CSA+DATER. The proposed approach is tested on our lab database to evaluate the performance of the human location and recognition. To verify the robust of our human recognition approach especially, CMU MoBo gait database is used. Experimental results show that the proposed approach has a high accuracy rate in both human identification recognition and location estimation.

  12. Using Field-Metered Data to Quantify Annual Energy Use of Portable Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, Thomas; Willem, Henry; Ni, Chun Chun; Stratton, Hannah; Chen, Yuting; Ganeshalingam, Mohan; Iyer, Maithili; Price, Sarah; Dunham, Camilla

    2014-12-01

    As many regions of the United States experience rising temperatures, consumers have come to rely increasingly on cooling appliances (including portable air conditioners) to provide a comfortable indoor temperature. Home occupants sometimes use a portable air conditioner (PAC) to maintain a desired indoor temperature in a single room or enclosed space. Although PACs in residential use are few compared to centrally installed and room air conditioning (AC) units, the past few years have witnessed an increase of PACs use throughout the United States. There is, however, little information and few research projects focused on the energy consumption and performance of PACs, particularly studies that collect information from field applications of PACs. The operation and energy consumption of PACs may differ among geographic locations and households, because of variations in cooling load, frequency, duration of use, and other user-selected settings. In addition, the performance of building envelope (thermal mass and air leakage) as well as inter-zonal mixing within the building would substantially influence the ability to control and maintain desirable indoor thermal conditions. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) conducted an initial field-metering study aimed at increasing the knowledge and data related to PAC operation and energy consumption in the United States.

  13. Evaluation of Annual Performance of Multi-type Air-Conditioners for Buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirota, Masafumi; Watanabe, Choyu; Furukawa, Masahide; Nagamatsu, Katsuaki

    The partial load performance tests of multi-type package air-conditioners for buildings powered by electric motors, the rating cooling performance of which was 56 kW, were carried out by using the air-enthalpy method testing apparatus. The coefficient of performance (COP) and annual energy consumption measured by those tests were closely compared with those estimated from the current calculating method (JIS B 8616:2006). It was found that the performance of the air-conditioner changes depending on the outdoor air temperature and the indoor thermal load. The current calculating method could not reproduce the deteriorations of COP that appeared under the low thermal load condition in both the cooling and heating seasons. As a result it seriously underestimated the annual energy consumption; the error amounted to as large as about 20 % of the measured annual electric power consumption. Based on these results, we have proposed new testing conditions for the performance evaluation and a calculation method of the annual energy consumption that can improve the accuracy of the estimation of the annual energy consumption.

  14. Air Sample Conditioner Helps the Waste Treatment Plant Meet Emissions Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Glissmeyer, John A.; Flaherty, Julia E.; Pekour, Mikhail S.

    2014-12-02

    The air in three of the Hanford Site Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) melter off-gas discharge stacks will be hot and humid after passing through the train of emission abatement equipment. The off-gas temperature and humidity levels will be incompatible with the airborne emissions monitoring equipment required for this type of stack. To facilitate sampling from these facilities, an air sample conditioner system will be installed to introduce cool, dry air into the sample stream to reduce the temperature and dew point. This will avoid thermal damage to the instrumentation and problematic condensation. The complete sample transport system must also deliver at least 50% of the particles in the sample airstream to the sample collection and on-line analysis equipment. The primary components of the sample conditioning system were tested in a laboratory setting. The sample conditioner itself is based on a commercially-available porous tube filter design. It consists of a porous sintered metal tube inside a coaxial metal jacket. The hot gas sample stream passes axially through the porous tube, and the dry, cool air is injected into the jacket and through the porous wall of the inner tube, creating an effective sample diluter. The dilution and sample air mix along the entire length of the porous tube, thereby simultaneously reducing the dew point and temperature of the mixed sample stream. Furthermore, because the dilution air enters through the porous tube wall, the sample stream does not come in contact with the porous wall and particle deposition is reduced in this part of the sampling system. Tests were performed with an environmental chamber to supply air with the temperature and humidity needed to simulate the off-gas conditions. Air from the chamber was passed through the conditioning system to test its ability to reduce the temperature and dew point of the sample stream. To measure particle deposition, oil droplets in the range of 9 to 11 micrometer

  15. Optimum dry-cooling sub-systems for a solar air conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, J. L. S.; Namkoong, D.

    1978-01-01

    Dry-cooling sub-systems for residential solar powered Rankine compression air conditioners were economically optimized and compared with the cost of a wet cooling tower. Results in terms of yearly incremental busbar cost due to the use of dry-cooling were presented for Philadelphia and Miami. With input data corresponding to local weather, energy rate and capital costs, condenser surface designs and performance, the computerized optimization program yields design specifications of the sub-system which has the lowest annual incremental cost.

  16. A review of polymer-based water conditioners for reduction of handling-related injury

    SciTech Connect

    Harnish, Ryan A.; Colotelo, Alison HA; Brown, Richard S.

    2011-01-01

    Fish are coated with an external layer of protective mucus. This layer serves as the primary barrier against infection or injury, reduces friction, and plays a role in ionic and osmotic regulation. However, the mucus layer is easily disturbed when fish are netted, handled, transported, stressed, or subjected to adverse water conditions. Water additives containing polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) or proprietary polymers have been used to prevent the deleterious effects of mucus layer disturbances in the commercial tropical fish industry, aquaculture, and for other fisheries management purposes. This paper reviews research on the effectiveness of water conditioners, and examines the contents and uses of a wide variety of commercially available water conditioners. Water conditioners containing polymers may reduce external damage to fish held in containers during scientific experimentation, including surgical implantation of electronic tags. However, there is a need to empirically test the effectiveness of water conditioners at preventing damage to and promoting healing of the mucus layer. A research agenda is provided to advance the science related to the use of water conditions to improve the condition of fish during handling and tagging.

  17. Evaluation of Annual Performance of Multi-type Air-Conditioners for Buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Choyu; Ohashi, Ei-Ichiro; Nagamatsu, Katsuaki; Nakayama, Hiroshi; Hirota, Masafumi

    In this paper, firstly the results of the partial thermal load performance tests of multi-type air-conditioners for buildings were shown. Tests were conducted by using the air-enthalpy method testing apparatus. Two types of air-conditioners, heat pump driven by electric motors (EHP) and that driven by gas engines (GHP), with a rated cooling capacity of 56 kW were tested. The coefficient of performance (COP) and the annual energy consumption measured by the above mentioned tests were closely compared with those predicted by JIS. In EHP,the measured COP indicates the maximum when the indoor thermal load is about 50% of the rated capacity, while COP in GHP decreases gradually as the thermal load is decreased. Based on these results, we examined the accuracies of COP and the annual energy consumption predicted by JIS. It was found that in both EHP and GHP the current calculating method prescribed in JIS could not duplicate the COP decrease that appeared under the low thermal load conditions. As a result, the annual energy consumption is seriously underestimated by JIS. The prediction errors of the annual energy consumption amounted to about 17% for EHP and 38% for GHP

  18. Energy Impacts of Oversized Residential Air Conditioners -- Simulation Study of Retrofit Sequence Impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Booten, C.; Christensen, C.; Winkler, J.

    2014-11-01

    This research addresses the question of what are the energy consequences for oversizing of an air conditioner in a home. Conventional wisdom holds that oversizing the AC results in significant energy penalties. However, the reason for this was shown to be due to crankcase heaters and not due to cycling performance of the AC, and is only valid for a particular set of assumptions. Adding or removing individual characteristics, such as ducts or crankcase heaters, can have measurable impacts on energy use. However, with all other home characteristics held constant, oversizing the AC generally has a small effect on cooling energy use, even if the cycling performance of the unit is poor. The relevant aspects of air conditioner modeling are discussed to illustrate the effects of the cycling loss coefficient, Cd, capacity, climate, ducts and parasitic losses such as crankcase heaters. A case study of a typical 1960's vintage home demonstrates results in the context of whole building simulations using EnergyPlus.

  19. A Proposal for the Time Domain Modeling of Split Air Conditioners for Consumer Reimbursement Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezende, Paulo Henrique Oliveira; Almeida Junior, Afonso Bernardino; Gondim, Isaque Nogueira; Oliveira, José Carlos

    2015-04-01

    This paper deals with computer application procedures for the evaluation of the causal consistency between anomalous phenomena manifested in electrical networks, along with the physical damage associated with electrical equipment and possible reimbursement requests. The focus is on the development of an air conditioner appliance model of the type known as split founded upon a representation, in the time domain, in accordance with the Alternative Transients Program (ATP) simulator requirements. This approach permits investigations concerning the performance of the product when submitted to ideal and non-ideal supply conditions. Once the equipment model is implemented in the program, a set of investigative studies are carried out to show the device performance under specific energy quality disturbance conditions. In addition, there are still the results for the validation of the process established through the correlation between computational performance of the air conditioner with corresponding studies carried out experimentally, which are presented herein. Moreover, once the effectiveness of the developed model is verified, it is implemented into the Requests for Reimbursement Software. Investigations related to the correlation between disturbances and the levels of thermal and dielectric tolerance are then performed aiming at illustrating the use of the research results for the reimbursement analyzes purposes.

  20. Development of a double-effect air conditioner-heater (deach) phase 2. Final report, January 1989-December 1989

    SciTech Connect

    De Vuono, A.C.; Landstrom, D.K.; Osborne, R.L.; Christensen, R.N.; Flanigan, L.

    1992-12-01

    The report describes the results of Phase II of a multi-phase project to develop a high-efficiency, gas-fired, residential size air-conditioner/heater based on a double-effect, absorption cycle using LiBr and water as working fluids. The results discussed include experimental and analytical analysis of various options for key components and subsystems including absorber, direct expansion evaporator, solution heat exchangers and burner/generator subsystem. The thermodynamic model used to evaluate various system design tradeoffs is also discussed. The results of the Phase II effort provided the basis for full-scale, integrated breadboard testing to be conducted in Phase III of the project.

  1. Development of a solar-powered residential air conditioner: Economic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The results of investigations aimed at the development of cost models to be used in the economic assessment of Rankine-powered air conditioning systems for residential application are summarized. The rationale used in the development of the cost model was to: (1) collect cost data on complete systems and on the major equipment used in these systems; (2) reduce these data and establish relationships between cost and other engineering parameters such as weight, size, power level, etc; and (3) derive simple correlations from which cost-to-the-user can be calculated from performance requirements. The equipment considered in the survey included heat exchangers, fans, motors, and turbocompressors. This kind of hardware represents more than 2/3 of the total cost of conventional air conditioners.

  2. Energy savings and economics of advanced control strategies for packaged air conditioners with gas heat

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas; Huang, Yunzhi; Brambley, Michael R.

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of the potential energy savings from adding advanced control to existing packaged air conditioners. Advanced control options include air-side economizer, multi-speed fan control, demand control ventilation and staged cooling. The energy and cost savings from the different control strategies individually and in combination are estimated using the EnergyPlus detailed energy simulation program for four building types, namely, a small office building, a stand-alone retail building, a strip mall building and a supermarket building. For each of the four building types, the simulation was run for 16 locations covering all 15 climate zones in the U.S. The maximum installed cost of a replacement controller that provides acceptable payback periods to owners is estimated.

  3. 10 CFR Appendix F to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Room Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Room Air Conditioners F Appendix F to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Test Procedures Pt. 430, Subpt. B, App. F Appendix F to Subpart B of Part 430—Uniform...

  4. 10 CFR Appendix F to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Room Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Room Air Conditioners F Appendix F to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Test Procedures Pt. 430, Subpt. B, App. F Appendix F to Subpart B of Part 430—Uniform...

  5. Experimental Study on Efficiency Improvement of R410A Scroll Compressor for Air Conditioner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawai, Kiyoshi; Sakuda, Atsushi; Iida, Noboru; Hiwata, Akira; Morimoto, Takashi; Ishii, Noriaki

    In scroll compressors, an increase in oil flow rate into thecompression chamber improves sealing effectsand decreases refrigerant leakage. On the other hand, as the oil supplies the heat energy, the suction refrigerantis heated and the volumetric efficiency degreases. In the present study, we made an apparatus which suppliesthe oil into the compression chamber while measuring the mass flow rate, thus investigating the relationshipbetween the oil flow rate and the compressor performance. Experimental results indicated that the presentR410A scroll compressor provided higher performance as the oil flow rate decreased under the rated conditionof the air-conditioner. In addition, based on the experimental results, we discussed that the oil flow in thecapillary installed in the orbiting scroll was considered to be a laminar flow, and the volumetric efficiencywould degrease by the effect of a quarter of the oil heat energy.

  6. Modeling of a second-generation solar-driven Rankine air conditioner. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Denius, M.W.; Batton, W.D.

    1984-07-01

    Ten configurations of a second-generation (2G), solar-powered, Rankine-driven air conditioner were simulated and the data presented for use in companion studies. The results of the analysis show that the boiling-in-collector (BIC) configuration generates more power per collector area than the other configurations. The models used to simulate the configuration are presented in this report. The generated data are also presented. Experimental work was done under this study to both improve a novel refrigerant and oil lubrication system for the centrifugal compressor and investigate the aerodynamic unloading characteristics of the centrifugal compressor. The information generated was used to define possible turbo-gearbox configurations for use in the second generation computer simulation.

  7. Evaluation of malodor for automobile air conditioner evaporator by using laboratory-scale test cooling bench.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung Hwan; Kim, Sun Hwa; Jung, Young Rim; Kim, Man Goo

    2008-09-12

    As one of the measures to improve the environment in an automobile, malodor caused by the automobile air-conditioning system evaporator was evaluated and analyzed using laboratory-scale test cooling bench. The odor was simulated with an evaporator test cooling bench equipped with an airflow controller, air temperature and relative humidity controller. To simulate the same odor characteristics that occur from automobiles, one previously used automobile air conditioner evaporator associated with unpleasant odors was selected. The odor was evaluated by trained panels and collected with aluminum polyester bags. Collected samples were analyzed by thermal desorption into a cryotrap and subsequent gas chromatographic separation, followed by simultaneous olfactometry, flame ionization detector and identified by atomic emission detection and mass spectrometry. Compounds such as alcohols, aldehydes, and organic acids were identified as responsible odor-active compounds. Gas chromatography/flame ionization detection/olfactometry combined sensory method with instrumental analysis was very effective as an odor evaluation method in an automobile air-conditioning system evaporator. PMID:18701113

  8. Flow control of a centrifugal fan in a commercial air conditioner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jiyu; Bang, Kyeongtae; Choi, Haecheon; Seo, Eung Ryeol; Kang, Yonghun

    2015-11-01

    Air-conditioning fans require a low noise level to provide user comfort and quietness. The aerodynamic noise sources are generated by highly unsteady, turbulent structures near the fan blade. In this study, we investigate the flow characteristics of a centrifugal fan in an air-conditioner indoor unit and suggest control ideas to develop a low noise fan. The experiment is conducted at the operation condition where the Reynolds number is 163000 based on the blade tip velocity and chord length. Intermittent separation occurs at the blade leading edge and thus flow significantly fluctuates there, whereas vortex shedding occurs at the blade trailing edge. Furthermore, the discharge flow observed in the axial plane near the shroud shows low-frequency intermittent behaviors, resulting in high Reynolds stresses. To control these flow structures, we modify the shapes of the blade leading edge and shroud of the centrifugal fan and obtain noise reduction. The flow characteristics of the base and modified fans will be discussed. Supported by 0420-20130051.

  9. Field evaluation of advanced controls for the retrofit of packaged air conditioners and heat pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas; Ngo, Hung; Underhill, Ronald M.; Taasevigen, Danny J.; Lutes, Robert G.

    2015-09-01

    This paper documents the magnitude of energy savings achievable in the field by retrofitting existing packaged rooftop units (RTUs) with advanced control strategies not ordinarily used for RTUs. A total of 66 RTUs on 8 different buildings were retrofitted with a commercially available advanced controller for improving RTU operational efficiency. The controller features enhanced air-side economizer control, multi-speed fan control, and demand controlled ventilation. Of the 66 RTUs, 18 are packaged heat pumps and the rest are packaged air conditioners with gas heat. The eight buildings cover four building types and four climate conditions. Based on the data collected for about a whole year, the advanced controller reduced the normalized annual RTU energy consumption between 22% and 90%, with an average of 57% for all RTUs. The average fractional savings uncertainty was 12% at 95% confidence level. Normalized annual electricity savings were in the range between 0.47 kWh/h (kWh per hour of RTU operation) and 7.21 kWh/h, with an average of 2.39 kWh/h. RTUs greater than 53 kW and runtime greater than 14 hours per day had payback periods less than 3 years even at $0.05/kWh.

  10. Progress towards Managing Residential Electricity Demand: Impacts of Standards and Labeling for Refrigerators and Air Conditioners in India

    SciTech Connect

    McNeil, Michael A.; Iyer, Maithili

    2009-05-30

    The development of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labeling (EES&L) began in earnest in India in 2001 with the Energy Conservation Act and the establishment of the Indian Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE). The first main residential appliance to be targeted was refrigerators, soon to be followed by room air conditioners. Both of these appliances are of critical importance to India's residential electricity demand. About 15percent of Indian households own a refrigerator, and sales total about 4 million per year, but are growing. At the same time, the Indian refrigerator market has seen a strong trend towards larger and more consumptive frost-free units. Room air conditioners in India have traditionally been sold to commercial sector customers, but an increasing number are going to the residential sector. Room air conditioner sales growth in India peaked in the last few years at 20percent per year. In this paper, we perform an engineering-based analysis using data specific to Indian appliances. We evaluate costs and benefits to residential and commercial sector consumers from increased equipment costs and utility bill savings. The analysis finds that, while the BEE scheme presents net benefits to consumers, there remain opportunities for efficiency improvement that would optimize consumer benefits, according to Life Cycle Cost analysis. Due to the large and growing market for refrigerators and air conditioners in India, we forecast large impacts from the standards and labeling program as scheduled. By 2030, this program, if fully implemented would reduce Indian residential electricity consumption by 55 TWh. Overall savings through 2030 totals 385 TWh. Finally, while efficiency levels have been set for several years for refrigerators, labels and MEPS for these products remain voluntary. We therefore consider the negative impact of this delay of implementation to energy and financial savings achievable by 2030.

  11. Greenhouse gas emissions for refrigerant choices in room air conditioner units.

    PubMed

    Galka, Michael D; Lownsbury, James M; Blowers, Paul

    2012-12-01

    In this work, potential replacement refrigerants for window-mounted room air conditioners (RACs) in the U.S. have been evaluated using a greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions analysis. CO(2)-equivalent emissions for several hydrofluoroethers (HFEs) and other potential replacements were compared to the most widely used refrigerants today. Included in this comparison are pure refrigerants that make up a number of hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) mixtures, pure hydrocarbons, and historically used refrigerants such as propane and ammonia. GHG emissions from direct and indirect sources were considered in this thermodynamic analysis. Propylene, dimethyl ether, ammonia, R-152a, propane, and HFE-152a all performed effectively in a 1 ton window unit and produced slightly lower emissions than the currently used R-22 and R-134a. The results suggest that regulation of HFCs in this application would have some effect on reducing emissions since end-of-life emissions remain at 55% of total refrigerant charge despite EPA regulations that mandate 80% recovery. Even so, offsite emissions due to energy generation dominate over direct GHG emissions and all the refrigerants perform similarly in totals of indirect GHG emissions. PMID:23136858

  12. Performance characteristics of a turbo expander substituted for expansion valve on air-conditioner

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Soo-Yong; Cho, Chong-Hyun; Kim, Chaesil

    2008-09-15

    An experimental study is conducted on a small turbo expander which could be applied to the expansion process in place of expansion valves in refrigerator or air-conditioner to improve the cycle efficiency by recovering energy from the throttling process. The operating gas is HFC134a and the maximum cooling capacity of experiment apparatus is 32.7 kW. Four different turbo expanders are tested to find the performance characteristics of the turbo expander when they operate at a low partial admission rate. The partial admission rate is 1.70% or 2.37, and expanders are operated in the supersonic flow. In the experiment, pressure and temperature are measured at 10 different locations in the experimental apparatus. In addition to these measurements, output power at the turbo expander is measured through a generator installed on a rotor shaft with the rotational speed. Performance data of the turbo expander are obtained at many part load operations by adjusting the output power of the generator. A maximum of 15.8% total-to-static efficiency is obtained when the pressure ratio and the partial admission ratio are 2.37 and 1.70%, respectively. Experimental results show that the optimal velocity ratio decreases when the pressure ratio is decreased, and peak efficiencies, which are obtained at locally maximized efficiency depending on the operating condition, vary linearly against the subcooling temperature or the pressure ratio. (author)

  13. Air Conditioner Charging. Automotive Mechanics. Air Conditioning. Instructor's Guide [and] Student Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spignesi, B.

    This instructional package, one in a series of individualized instructional units on automobile air conditioning, consists of a student guide and an instructor guide dealing with air conditioning charging. Covered in the module are checking the air conditioning system for leaks, checking and adding refrigerant oil as needed, evacuating the system,…

  14. China Energy Efficiency Round Robin Testing Results for Room Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina; Pierrot, Andre

    2010-06-07

    of all countries energy strategies. As we all know, a very large amount of total energy consumption is due to energy consuming products and equipment, which account for about 50% of China's total energy consumption. However, the current average energy utilization efficiency of this sector is only about 60%, 10 percent lower than the international advanced level. Therefore, China's energy consuming products and equipment sector holds great energy-saving potential. On the other hand, the energy supplied to these products is mainly from fossil fuel combustion, a major source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Therefore, improving the energy efficiency and augmenting the market share of market-dominant energy consuming products is of significant importance to achieving China's energy saving and emission reduction target and is an effective means to deal with energy and environmental constraints and climate change issues. Main energy consuming products generally include widely-used home appliances, industrial equipment, office equipment, transportation vehicles, etc. China is one of the major manufacturers and exporters of energy end-using products such as air-conditioners, refrigerators, televisions, etc. Their overall energy efficiency is comparatively low and the products are poorly designed, leading to great energy-saving potential. For example, electricity consumption of air conditioners accounts for about 20% of China's total electricity consumption and 40% of the summer electricity peak load in large and medium cities. However, less than 5% of units sold in the domestic market in 2009 reached the standard's highly efficient level of grade 2 above. The electricity consumption of electric motors and their related drive systems accounts for about 60% of China's total electricity consumption; however, less than 2% of the domestic market share consists of energy-efficient electric motor products. Promoting the energy efficiency and market shares of main energy

  15. Impact of Natural Conditioners on Water Retention, Infiltration and Evaporation Characteristics of Sandy Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Nasser, G.; Al-Omran, A. M.; Falatah, A. M.; Sheta, A. S.; Al-Harbi, A. R.

    Soil conditioners i.e., natural deposits and organic fertilizer are used for alleviate some of poor physical properties of sandy soils such as low water retention and inefficient water use, especially in arid and semi-arid regions such as in Saudi Arabia conditions. The present study aims to investigate the impact of clay deposits and organic fertilizer on water characteristics, cumulative infiltration and intermittent evaporation of loamy sand soil. Soil sample was collected from surface layer (0-30 cm depth) of the Agricultural Experiment and Research Station at Dierab, 40 km south west of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Two samples of clay deposits (CD#22 and CD#23) collected from Khyleis area, Jeddah-Madina road in addition of commercial Organic Fertilizer (OF) were used in the present study. The experiments were done during August to December 2005 in soil physics laboratory, the soil was mixed with clay deposits and organic fertilizer at rates of 0, 1, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0% (w/w). The transparent PVC columns were packed with soil to depth of 30 cm every 5.0 cm intervals to insure a homogeneity of soil in columns. The clay deposits (CD#22 and CD#23) and Organic Fertilizer (OF) mixed with the soil were packed in the upper 0-5.0 cm of each soil column. The infiltration experiment was done using a flooding apparatus (Marriot device) with constant head of 3.0 cm over the soil surface. The cumulative infiltration and wetting front depth as a function of time were recorded. The evaporation experiment was conducted in 40 cm long transparent sectioned Lucite cylinders (5.0 cm ID). Fifty millimeters of tap water were applied weekly for three wetting/drying cycles. Cumulative evaporation against time was measured daily by weighing each soil column. The soil moisture distribution at the end of the experiment was determined gravimetrically for each 5.0 cm interval. The results indicated that the three conditioners significantly increased the water constants of mixed soil (i.e., SWC, FC

  16. Comparison of residential air-to-air heat pump and air-conditioner/gas furnace systems in 16 California climatic zones

    SciTech Connect

    Ayres, J.M.; Lau, H.

    1987-06-01

    Heat pumps with coefficients of performance ranging from 2.5 to 3.1 and gas furnaces with thermal efficiencies of 75% to 90% are analyzed through DOE-2 computer simulations and life-cycle cost analyses. The annual heating performances and the life-cycle costs of air-to-air heat pump and air-conditioner/gas furnace systems operating in single-family detached residences located in 16 climatic zones defined by the California Energy Commission are compared. With standard performance equipment, heat pumps cost more in all zones except for China Lake and Sacramento, but with high performance equipment, heat pumps cost less in all zones except for Fresno and Mt. Shasta.

  17. Future emissions and atmospheric fate of HFC-1234yf from mobile air conditioners in Europe.

    PubMed

    Henne, Stephan; Shallcross, Dudley E; Reimann, Stefan; Xiao, Ping; Brunner, Dominik; O'Doherty, Simon; Buchmann, Brigitte

    2012-02-01

    HFC-1234yf (2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene) is under discussion for replacing HFC-134a (1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane) as a cooling agent in mobile air conditioners (MACs) in the European vehicle fleet. Some HFC-1234yf will be released into the atmosphere, where it is almost completely transformed to the persistent trifluoroacetic acid (TFA). Future emissions of HFC-1234yf after a complete conversion of the European vehicle fleet were assessed. Taking current day leakage rates and predicted vehicle numbers for the year 2020 into account, European total HFC-1234yf emissions from MACs were predicted to range between 11.0 and 19.2 Gg yr(-1). Resulting TFA deposition rates and rainwater concentrations over Europe were assessed with two Lagrangian chemistry transport models. Mean European summer-time TFA mixing ratios of about 0.15 ppt (high emission scenario) will surpass previously measured levels in background air in Germany and Switzerland by more than a factor of 10. Mean deposition rates (wet + dry) of TFA were estimated to be 0.65-0.76 kg km(-2) yr(-1), with a maxium of ∼2.0 kg km(-2) yr(-1) occurring in Northern Italy. About 30-40% of the European HFC-1234yf emissions were deposited as TFA within Europe, while the remaining fraction was exported toward the Atlantic Ocean, Central Asia, Northern, and Tropical Africa. Largest annual mean TFA concentrations in rainwater were simulated over the Mediterranean and Northern Africa, reaching up to 2500 ng L(-1), while maxima over the continent of about 2000 ng L(-1) occurred in the Czech Republic and Southern Germany. These highest annual mean concentrations are at least 60 times lower than previously determined to be a safe level for the most sensitive aquatic life-forms. Rainwater concentrations during individual rain events would still be 1 order of magnitude lower than the no effect level. To verify these results future occasional sampling of TFA in the atmospheric environment should be considered. If future HFC-1234yf

  18. 16 CFR 305.12 - Labeling for central air conditioners, heat pumps, and furnaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 CFR part 430 for non-weatherized, and mobile home furnaces and content of labels for weatherized... Department of Energy for those products in 10 CFR part 430, manufacturers shall affix labels to covered... conditioners issued by the Department of Energy in 10 CFR part 430. (1) Headlines and texts, as illustrated...

  19. The Oklahoma Field Test: Air-Conditioning Electricity Savings from Standard Energy Conservation Measures, Radiant Barriers, and High-Efficiency Window Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Ternes, M.P.

    1992-01-01

    A field test involving 104 houses was performed in Tulsa, Oklahoma, to measure the air-conditioning electricity consumption of low-income houses equipped with window air conditioners, the reduction in this electricity consumption attributed to the installation of energy conservation measures (ECMs) as typically installed under the Oklahoma Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP), and the reduction achieved by the replacement of low-efficiency window air conditioners with high-efficiency units and the installation of attic radiant barriers. Air-conditioning electricity consumption and indoor temperature were monitored weekly during the pre-weatherization period (June to September 1988) and post-weatherization period (May to September 1989). House energy consumption models and regression analyses were used to normalize the air-conditioning electricity savings to average outdoor temperature conditions and the pre-weatherization indoor temperature of each house. The average measured pre-weatherization air-conditioning electricity consumption was 1664 kWh/year ($119/year). Ten percent of the houses used less than 250 kWh/year, while another 10% used more than 3000 kWh/year. An average reduction in air-conditioning electricity consumption of 535 kWh/year ($38/year and 28% of pre-weatherization consumption) was obtained from replacement of one low-efficiency window air conditioner (EER less than 7.0) per house with a high-efficiency unit (EER greater than 9.0). For approximately the same cost, savings tripled to 1503 kWh/year ($107/year and 41% of pre-weatherization consumption) in those houses with initial air-conditioning electricity consumption greater than 2750 kWh/year. For these houses, replacement of a low-efficiency air conditioner with a high-efficiency unit was cost effective using the incremental cost of installing a new unit now rather than later; the average installation cost for these houses under a weatherization program was estimated to be $786. The

  20. The Oklahoma Field Test: Air-conditioning electricity savings from standard energy conservation measures, radiant barriers, and high-efficiency window air conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Ternes, M.P.; Levins, W.P.

    1992-08-01

    A field test Involving 104 houses was performed in Tulsa, Oklahoma, to measure the air-conditioning electricity consumption of low-income houses equipped with window air conditioners, the reduction in this electricity consumption attributed to the installation of energy conservation measures (ECMS) as typically installed under the Oklahoma Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP), and the reduction achieved by the replacement of low-efficiency window air conditioners with high-efficiency units and the installation of attic radiant barriers. Air-conditioning electricity consumption and indoor temperature were monitored weekly during the pre-weatherization period (June to September 1988) and post-weatherization period (May to September 1989). House energy consumption models and regression analyses were used to normalize the air-conditioning electricity savings to average outdoor temperature conditions and the pre-weatherization indoor temperature of each house. The following conclusions were drawn from the study: (1) programs directed at reducing air-conditioning electricity consumption should be targeted at clients with high consumption to improve cost effectiveness; (2) replacing low-efficiency air conditioners with high-efficiency units should be considered an option in a weatherization program directed at reducing air-conditioning electricity consumption; (3) ECMs currently being installed under the Oklahoma WAP (chosen based on effectiveness at reducing space-heating energy consumption) should continue to be justified based on their space-heating energy savings potential only; and (4) attic radiant barriers should not be included in the Oklahoma WAP if alternatives with verified savings are available or until further testing demonstrates energy savings or other benefits in this typo of housing.

  1. Study on Improvement of the Suction Valve in a Reciprocating Compressor for an Automotive Air-Conditioner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyabu, Eitaro; Tsukiji, Tetsuhiro; Matsumura, Yoshito; Sato, Taizo

    The simplified test model of the commercial reciprocating compressor for an automotive air-conditioner, which is developed in the previous study, is used to measure the displacement of the suction valves using as train gauge and to investigate the velocity distributions of the discharge flow from the valves using PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) technique. This paper is focused on the effects of shape of the suction valve on the vibration-reduction. First, the size of the conventional valve hole and the width of the tip of the conventional valve are changed and seven new valves are manufactured to reduce the vibration of the valve. Consequently, it is found that one of the new valves is the most effective for the vibration-reduction. Next the influence of the natural frequency on the vibration-reduction is investigated using one of the new valves by changing the material and the thickness of the valve. Finally, the reason of the vibration-reduction for one of the new valves is discussed from the results of the flow analysis around the valve. The vibration-reduction for one of the new valves is confirmed by measurement of the displacement of the valve in the reciprocating compressor for the automotive air-conditioner.

  2. Preliminary design package for residential heating/cooling system: Rankine air conditioner redesign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A summary of the preliminary redesign and development of a marketable single family heating and cooling system is presented. The interim design and schedule status of the residential (3-ton) redesign, problem areas and solutions, and the definition of plans for future design and development activities were discussed. The proposed system for a single-family residential heating and cooling system is a single-loop, solar-assisted, hydronic-to-warm-air heating subsystem with solar-assisted domestic water heating and a Rankine-driven expansion air-conditioning subsystem.

  3. Measurement of Fine Particles From Mobile and Stationary Sources, and Reducing the Air Conditioner Power Consumption in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, Eli Henry

    We study the PM2.5and ultrafine exhaust emissions from a new natural gas-fired turbine power facility to better understand air pollution in California. To characterize the emissions from new natural gas turbines, a series of tests were performed on a GE LMS100 gas turbine. These tests included PM2.5 and wet chemical tests for SO2/SO 3 and NH3, as well as ultrafine (less than 100 nm in diameter) particulate matter measurements. The turbine exhaust had an average particle number concentration that was 2.3x103 times higher than ambient air. The majority of these particles were nanoparticles; at the 100 nm size, stack particle concentrations were about 20 times higher than ambient, and increased to 3.9x104 times higher on average in the 2.5 - 3 nm particle size range. This study also found that ammonia emissions were higher than expected, but in compliance with permit conditions. This was possibly due to an ammonia imbalance entering the catalyst, some flue gas bypassing the catalyst, or not enough catalyst volume. SO3 accounted for an average of 23% of the total sulfur oxides emissions measured. Some of the SO3 is formed in the combustion process, it is likely that the majority formed as the SO2 in the combustion products passed across the oxidizing CO catalyst and SCR catalyst. The 100 MW turbine sampled in this study emitted particle loadings similar to those previously measured from turbines in the SCAQMD area, however, the turbine exhaust contained far more particles than ambient air. The power consumed by an air conditioner accounts for a significant fraction of the total power used by hybrid and electric vehicles especially during summer. This study examined the effect of recirculation of cabin air on power consumption of mobile air conditioners both in-lab and on-road. Real time power consumption and vehicle mileage were recorded by an On Board Diagnostic monitor and carbon balance method. Vehicle mileage improved with increased cabin air recirculation. The

  4. 10 CFR Appendix M to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps M Appendix M to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Test Procedures Pt. 430, Subpt. B, App. M Appendix M to Subpart B...

  5. 10 CFR Appendix M to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps M Appendix M to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Test Procedures Pt. 430, Subpt. B, App. M Appendix M to Subpart B...

  6. 10 CFR Appendix M to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps M Appendix M to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Test Procedures Pt. 430, Subpt. B, App. M Appendix M to Subpart B...

  7. 10 CFR Appendix M to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps M Appendix M to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Test Procedures Pt. 430, Subpt. B, App. M Appendix M to Subpart B...

  8. Optimal coupling and feasibility of a solar-powered year-round ejector air conditioner

    SciTech Connect

    Sokolov, M.; Hershgal, D. )

    1993-06-01

    An ejector refrigeration system that uses a conventional refrigerant (R-114) is introduced as a possible mechanism for providing solar-based air-conditioning. Optimal coupling conditions between the collectors' energy output and energy requirements of the cooling system, are investigated. Operation at such optimal conditions assures maximized overall efficiency. Procedures leading to the evaluation of the performance of a real system are disclosed. Design curves for such a system with R-114 as refrigerant are provided. A multi-ejectors arrangement that provides an efficient adjustment for variations of ambient conditions, is described. Year-round air-conditioning is facilitated by rerouting the refrigerant flow through a heating mode of the system. Calculations are carried out for illustrative configurations in which relatively low condensing temperature (water reservoirs, cooling towers, or moderate climate) can be maintained.

  9. Influence of surrounding structures upon the aerodynamic and acoustic performance of the outdoor unit of a split air-conditioner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chengjun; Liu, Jiang; Pan, Jie

    2014-07-01

    DC-inverter split air-conditioner is widely used in Chinese homes as a result of its high-efficiency and energy-saving. Recently, the researches on its outdoor unit have focused on the influence of surrounding structures upon the aerodynamic and acoustic performance, however they are only limited to the influence of a few parameters on the performance, and practical design of the unit requires more detailed parametric analysis. Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics(CFD) and computational aerodynamic acoustics(CAA) simulation based on FLUENT solver is used to study the influence of surrounding structures upon the aforementioned properties of the unit. The flow rate and sound pressure level are predicted for different rotating speed, and agree well with the experimental results. The parametric influence of three main surrounding structures(i.e. the heat sink, the bell-mouth type shroud and the outlet grille) upon the aerodynamic performance of the unit is analyzed thoroughly. The results demonstrate that the tip vortex plays a major role in the flow fields near the blade tip and has a great effect on the flow field of the unit. The inlet ring's size and throat's depth of the bell-mouth type shroud, and the through-flow area and configuration of upwind and downwind sections of the outlet grille are the most important factors that affect the aerodynamic performance of the unit. Furthermore, two improved schemes against the existing prototype of the unit are developed, which both can significantly increase the flow rate more than 6 %(i.e. 100 m3·h-1) at given rotating speeds. The inevitable increase of flow noise level when flow rate is increased and the advantage of keeping a lower rotating speed are also discussed. The presented work could be a useful guideline in designing the aerodynamic and acoustic performance of the split air-conditioner in engineering practice.

  10. Cardio-Muscular Conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    In the mid-sixties, Gary Graham, a Boeing designer, developed a cardiovascular conditioner for a planned Air Force orbiting laboratory. After the project was cancelled, Graham participated in space station conditioning studies for the Skylab program. Twenty years later, he used this expertise to develop the Shuttle 2000-1, a physical therapy and athletic development conditioner, available through Contemporary Designs. The machine is used by football teams, sports clinics and medical rehabilitation centers. Cardiovascular fitness and muscular strength development are promoted through both kinetic and plyometric exercises.

  11. Improving Best Air Conditioner Efficiency by 20-30% through a High Efficiency Fan and Diffuser Stage Coupled with an Evaporative Condenser Pre-Cooler

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, Danny S; Sherwin, John R; Raustad, Richard

    2014-04-10

    The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) conducted a research project to improve the best residential air conditioner condenser technology currently available on the market by retrofitting a commercially-available unit with both a high efficiency fan system and an evaporative pre-cooler. The objective was to integrate these two concepts to achieve an ultra-efficient residential air conditioner design. The project produced a working prototype that was 30% more efficient compared to the best currently-available technologies; the peak the energy efficiency ratio (EER) was improved by 41%. Efficiency at the Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute (ARI) standard B-condition which is used to estimate seasonal energy efficiency ratio (SEER), was raised from a nominal 21 Btu/Wh to 32 Btu/Wh.

  12. Auto-ignition of lubricating oil working at high pressures in a compressor for an air conditioner.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chul Jin; Choi, Hyo Hyun; Sohn, Chae Hoon

    2011-01-15

    Auto-ignition of lubricating oil working in a compressor for an air conditioner is studied experimentally. The adopted lubricating oil is an unknown mixture with multi-components and known to have flash point temperature of 170 °C. First, its auto-ignition temperature is measured 365 °C at atmospheric pressure. The lubricating oil works under high-pressure condition up to 30 atm and it is heated and cooled down repeatedly. Accordingly, auto-ignition temperatures or flammable limits of lubricating oil are required at high pressures with respect to fire safety. Because there is not a standard test method for the purpose, a new ignition-test method is proposed in this study and thereby, auto-ignition temperatures are measured over the pressure range below 30 atm. The measured temperatures range from 215 °C to 255 °C and they strongly depend on pressure of gas mixture consisting of oil vapor, nitrogen, and oxygen. They are close to flash point temperature and the lubricating oil can be hazardous when it works for high-pressure operating condition and abundant air flows into a compressor. PMID:20934810

  13. Experimental Analysis of 3D Flow in Scroll Casing of Multi-Blade Fan for Air-Conditioner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitadume, Michio; Kawahashi, Masaaki; Hirahara, Hiroyuki; Uchida, Tadashi; Yanagawa, Hideki

    The multi-blade fan, which has been widely used as a blower for air-conditioning systems of vehicles, is one of the well-established fluid machinery. However, many factors must be considered in its practical design because the flow generated in the fan is quite complicated with three-dimensionality and unsteadiness. The fundamental fan performance is primarily determined by the impeller of the fan, and is also affected by the scroll casing. However, the theoretical estimation of the effect of the casing on the performance has not been well established. In order to estimate the casing effect on fan performance, detailed three-dimensional (3D) flow analysis in the casing is necessary. Stereoscopic PIV (SPIV) is one of the useful techniques for experimental analysis of 3D flow fields. There are some difficulties in practical application of SPIV for flow analysis in fluid machinery with complicated geometry, but the results obtained provide useful information for understanding the 3D flow field. In this report, experimental investigation of the flow in the scroll casing has been carried out using PIV and SPIV under the premise of downsizing automobile air conditioner fans.

  14. Air/Water Purification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    After 18 years of research into air/water pollution at Stennis Space Center, Dr. B. C. Wolverton formed his own company, Wolverton Environmental Services, Inc., to provide technology and consultation in air and water treatment. Common houseplants are used to absorb potentially harmful materials from bathrooms and kitchens. The plants are fertilized, air is purified, and wastewater is converted to clean water. More than 100 U.S. communities have adopted Wolverton's earlier water hyacinth and artificial marsh applications. Catfish farmers are currently evaluating the artificial marsh technology as a purification system.

  15. High-Efficiency Variable Dehumidification for Air Conditioners: ClimaStat

    SciTech Connect

    West, Michael K., Ph.D. P.E.

    2006-04-30

    Advantek has successfully developed the first low-cost technology offering significant improvement in both Seasonal Energy Efficiency (SEER) and comfort & humidity control. A production prototype was constructed based on a commercial roof top package unit. The prototype was operated under a wide range of psychrometric conditions. Test data was analyzed to identify refinements, which were implemented to further improve performance in an iterative procedure that resulted in a fully optimized technology. The latest results show an increase in dehumidification capacity of 56% with ClimaStat™ in full dehumidify mode vs. with ClimaStat™ off. Dehumidification improved by a factor of 1.7 to 1.9 – meaning that the unit can provide nearly twice the water removal per unit of sensible cooling load. Performance testing results have been consistent, verifiable and repeatable. . ClimaStat™ cost-effectively controls humidity on-demand and improves indoor air quality while reducing annual energy costs. Test data clearly shows that ClimaStat™ costs 20% to 60% less to operate. ClimaStat™ is ready for market.

  16. Alternative Refrigerant Evaluation for High-Ambient Temperature Environments: R-22 and R-410A Alternatives for Mini-Split Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Abdelaziz, Omar; Munk, Jeffrey D.; Shrestha, Som S.; Linkous, Randall Lee; Goetzler, William; Guernsey, Matt; Kassuga, Theo

    2015-08-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) High-Ambient Temperature Testing Program for Low-GWP Refrigerants aims to develop an understanding of the performance of low-Global Warming Potential (low-GWP) alternatives to Hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) and Hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants in mini-split air conditioners under high ambient temperature conditions. This interim working paper describes the parties involved, the alternative refrigerants selection process, the test procedures, and the preliminary results.

  17. Alternative Refrigerant Evaluation for High-Ambient-Temperature Environments: R-22 and R-410A Alternatives for Mini-Split Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Abdelaziz, Omar; Shrestha, Som S.; Munk, Jeffrey D.; Linkous, Randall Lee; Goetzler, William; Guernsey, Matt; Kassuga, Theo

    2015-10-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) High-Ambient-Temperature Evaluation Program for low– global warming potential (Low-GWP) Refrigerants aims to develop an understanding of the performance of low-GWP alternative refrigerants to hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) and hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants in mini-split air conditioners under high-ambient-temperature conditions. This final report describes the parties involved, the alternative refrigerant selection process, the test procedures, and the final results.

  18. 76 FR 19913 - Compliance Testing Procedures: Correction Factor for Room Air Conditioners

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-11

    ... contained in the petition. (75 FR 72739, Nov. 26, 2010). In addition to a comment from AHAM reiterating... that as atmospheric pressure drops, so does the air density and, therefore, the mass of air in a room. As atmospheric pressure drops, the efficiency of a unit would also drop because there would be...

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF A LINEAR COMPRESSOR FOR AIR CONDITIONERS AND HEAT PUMPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses the design, building, testing, and delivering to the Environmental Protection Agency of a linear compressor for operation in a 3.0- ton (10.5 kW) residential air-conditioning and heat pumping system. The compressor design evolved from a linear resonant piston...

  20. Development of a solar-powered residential air conditioner. Program review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Progress in the effort to develop a residential solar-powered air conditioning system is reported. The topics covered include the objectives, scope and status of the program. The results of state-of-art, design, and economic studies and component and system data are also presented.

  1. Improving the Operating Efficiency of Packaged Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Katipamula, Srinivas; Wang, Weimin; Vowles, Mira

    2014-03-10

    This article discusses several control strategies that can significantly reduce energy consumption associated with packaged rooftop units RTUs). Although all of the considered strategies are widely used in built-up air-handing units, they are not commonly used in existing RTUs. Both simulation and field evaluations show that adding these control strategies to existing RTUs can reduce their energy consumption by between 30% and 60%.

  2. 16 CFR Appendix I to Part 305 - Heating Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ACTS OF CONGRESS RULE CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES AND OTHER PRODUCTS REQUIRED UNDER THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT (âAPPLIANCE...

  3. 16 CFR Appendix H to Part 305 - Cooling Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ACTS OF CONGRESS RULE CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES AND OTHER PRODUCTS REQUIRED UNDER THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT (âAPPLIANCE...

  4. 16 CFR Appendix I to Part 305 - Heating Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ACTS OF CONGRESS RULE CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES AND OTHER PRODUCTS REQUIRED UNDER THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT (âAPPLIANCE...

  5. 16 CFR Appendix I to Part 305 - Heating Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ACTS OF CONGRESS RULE CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES AND OTHER PRODUCTS REQUIRED UNDER THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT (âAPPLIANCE...

  6. 16 CFR Appendix H to Part 305 - Cooling Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ACTS OF CONGRESS RULE CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES AND OTHER PRODUCTS REQUIRED UNDER THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT (âAPPLIANCE...

  7. 16 CFR Appendix I to Part 305 - Heating Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ACTS OF CONGRESS RULE CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES AND OTHER PRODUCTS REQUIRED UNDER THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT (âAPPLIANCE...

  8. High-efficiency gas heat pump air-conditioner equipped with absorption refrigerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imai, Yosuke; Ohashi, Toshinori; Okamoto, Hiroaki; Hihara, Eiji; Kawakami, Ryuichiro

    On conventional gas heat pump(GHP), waste heat from gas engine that uses as driving source is emitted into outside. So from the standpoint of efficient use of waste heat, it is assumed that waste heat from gas engine is used as driving source of absorption chiller, and high temperature condensate refrigerant in GHP is subcooled to middle temperature by cold source from absorption cycle, and as a result, GHP makes more efficiency. However, in equipping GHP with absorption cycle, downsizing and high-efficiency of absorption cycle is required. In this study, air-cooled subcooled adiabatic absorber is focused and physical phenomenon in it is analyzed, and finally one perception of the optimized designing is shown.

  9. Local Voltage Support from Distributed Energy Resources to Prevent Air Conditioner Motor Stalling

    SciTech Connect

    Baone, Chaitanya A; Xu, Yan; Kueck, John D

    2010-01-01

    Microgrid voltage collapse often happens when there is a high percentage of low inertia air-conditioning (AC) motors in the power systems. The stalling of the AC motors results in Fault Induced Delayed Voltage Recovery (FIDVR). A hybrid load model including typical building loads, AC motor loads, and other induction motor loads is built to simulate the motoring stalling phenomena. Furthermore, distributed energy resources (DE) with local voltage support capability are utilized to boost the local bus voltage during a fault, and prevent the motor stalling. The simulation results are presented. The analysis of the simulation results show that local voltage support from multiple DEs can effectively and economically solve the microgrid voltage collapse problem.

  10. Centrifugal compressors for automotive air conditioners -- System design and operation strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Yun, H.; Smith, J.L. Jr.

    1996-12-31

    System designs and operation strategies for a motor-driven, variable-speed compression system (described in the companion paper) have been developed. Systems which can cover the required range of operating conditions (i.e., various cooling loads) have been designed. They require a compromise between high efficiency at high cooling loads and compressor surge prevention at low cooling loads. Therefore, compressor operation strategies consist of a variable speed strategy for stable operating points (to match the cooling load at any instant) and a compressor stabilization strategy (to prevent compressor surge instability at low cooling load operations) for unstable operating points. The system design and the operation strategy study results indicate that the novel compression device can improve the overall system efficiency by matching the compressor characteristics with the rest of the air conditioning system.

  11. Spinning Reserves from Controllable Packaged Through the Wall Air Conditioner (PTAC) Units

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, B.J.

    2003-04-02

    This report summarizes the feasibility of providing spinning reserves from packaged through the wall air conditioning (PTAC) units. Spinning reserves, together with non-spinning reserves, compose the contingency reserves; the essential resources that the power system operator uses to restore the generation and load balance and maintain bulk power system reliability in the event of a major generation or transmission outage. Spinning reserves are the fastest responding and most expensive reserves. Many responsive load technologies could (and we hope will) be used to provide spinning reserve. It is also easier for many loads (including air conditioning loads) to provide the relatively shorter and less frequent interruptions required to respond to contingencies than it is for them to reduce consumption for an entire peak period. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is conducting research on obtaining spinning reserve from large pumping loads and from residential and small commercial thermostat controlled heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) units. The technology selected for this project, Digi-Log's retrofit PTAC controller, offers significant advantages. To evaluate the availability of spinning reserve capacity from responsive heating and air conditioning loads, ORNL obtained data from a number of units operating over a year at a motel in the TVA service territory. A total of 24 PTAC units in as many rooms were fitted with Digi-Log's supervisory control unit that could be controlled from the motel front desk. Twelve of the rooms formed the group in which the controller was controlled from the hotel front desk only. The remaining twelve rooms were controlled by the occupant and formed the uncontrolled group. This enables us to evaluate the spinning reserve capacity from PTACS that were operating normally and from those under active energy management. A second generation of the Digi-Log controller that will respond quickly enough to provide spinning reserve

  12. COP improvement of refrigerator/freezers, air-conditioners, and heat pumps using nonazeotropic refrigerant mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westra, Douglas G.

    1993-02-01

    With the February, 1992 announcement by President Bush to move the deadline for outlawing CFC (chloro-fluoro-carbon) refrigerants from the year 2000 to the year 1996, the refrigeration and air-conditioning industries have been accelerating their efforts to find alternative refrigerants. Many of the alternative refrigerants being evaluated require synthetic lubricants, are less efficient, and have toxicity problems. One option to developing new, alternative refrigerants is to combine existing non-CFC refrigerants to form a nonazeotropic mixture, with the concentration optimized for the given application so that system COP (Coefficient Of Performance) may be maintained or even improved. This paper will discuss the dilemma that industry is facing regarding CFC phase-out and the problems associated with CFC alternatives presently under development. A definition of nonazeotropic mixtures will be provided, and the characteristics and COP benefits of nonazeotropic refrigerant mixtures will be explained using thermodynamic principles. Limitations and disadvantages of nonazeotropic mixtures will be discussed, and example systems using such mixtures will be reviewed.

  13. COP improvement of refrigerator/freezers, air-conditioners, and heat pumps using nonazeotropic refrigerant mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westra, Douglas G.

    1993-01-01

    With the February, 1992 announcement by President Bush to move the deadline for outlawing CFC (chloro-fluoro-carbon) refrigerants from the year 2000 to the year 1996, the refrigeration and air-conditioning industries have been accelerating their efforts to find alternative refrigerants. Many of the alternative refrigerants being evaluated require synthetic lubricants, are less efficient, and have toxicity problems. One option to developing new, alternative refrigerants is to combine existing non-CFC refrigerants to form a nonazeotropic mixture, with the concentration optimized for the given application so that system COP (Coefficient Of Performance) may be maintained or even improved. This paper will discuss the dilemma that industry is facing regarding CFC phase-out and the problems associated with CFC alternatives presently under development. A definition of nonazeotropic mixtures will be provided, and the characteristics and COP benefits of nonazeotropic refrigerant mixtures will be explained using thermodynamic principles. Limitations and disadvantages of nonazeotropic mixtures will be discussed, and example systems using such mixtures will be reviewed.

  14. Properties and Cycle Performance of Refrigerant Blends Operating Near and Above the Refrigerant Critical Point, Task 2: Air Conditioner System Study

    SciTech Connect

    Piotr A. Domanski; W. Vance Payne

    2002-10-31

    The main goal of this project was to investigate and compare the performance of an R410A air conditioner to that of an R22 air conditioner, with specific interest in performance at high ambient temperatures at which the condenser of the R410A system may be operating above the refrigerant's critical point. Part 1 of this project consisted of conducting comprehensive measurements of thermophysical for refrigerant R125 and refrigerant blends R410A and R507A and developing new equation of state formulations and mixture models for predicting thermophysical properties of HFC refrigerant blends. Part 2 of this project conducted performance measurements of split-system, 3-ton R22 and R410A residential air conditioners in the 80 to 135 F (27.8 to 57.2 C) outdoor temperature range and development of a system performance model. The performance data was used in preparing a beta version of EVAP-COND, a windows-based simulation package for predicting performance of finned-tube evaporators and condensers. The modeling portion of this project also included the formulation of a model for an air-conditioner equipped with a thermal expansion valve (TXV). Capacity and energy efficiency ratio (EER) were measured and compared. The R22 system's performance was measured over the outdoor ambient temperature range of 80 to 135 F (27.8 to 57.2 C). The same test range was planned for the R410A system. However, the compressor's safety system cut off the compressor at the 135.0 F (57.2 C) test temperature. The highest measurement on this system was at 130.0 F (54.4 C). Subsequently, a custom-manufactured R410A compressor with a disabled safety system and a more powerful motor was installed and performance was measured at outdoor temperatures up to 155.0 F (68.3 C). Both systems had similar capacity and EER performance at 82.0 F (27.8 C). The capacity and EER degradation of both systems were nearly linearly dependent with rising ambient outdoor ambient test temperatures. The performance

  15. A Novel, Low-Cost, Reduced-Sensor Approach for Providing Smart Renote Monitoring and Diagnostics for Packaged Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Brambley, Michael R.

    2009-09-01

    This report describes conceptually an approach to providing automated remote performance and conditioning monitoring and fault detection for air conditioners and heat pumps that shows great promise to reduce the capital and installation costs of such systems from over $1000 per unit to $200 to $400 per unit. The approach relies on non-intrusive electric load monitoring (NIELM) to enable separation of the power use signals of compressors and fans in the air conditioner or heat pump. Then combining information on the power uses and one or two air temperature measurements, changes in energy efficiency and occurrence of major faults would be detected. By decreasing the number of sensors used from between ten and twenty in current diagnostic monitoring systems to three for the envisaged system, the capital cost of the monitoring system hardware and the cost of labor for installation would be decreased significantly. After describing the problem being addressed and the concept for performance monitoring and fault detection in more detail, the report identifies specific conditions and faults that the proposed method would detect, discusses specific needs for successful use of the NIELM approach, and identifies the major elements in the path from concept to a commercialized monitoring and diagnostic system.

  16. Development of a Double-Effect Air-Conditioner Heater (DEACH). Phase 3 and final report, January 1990-December 1991. Phase 3, September 1987-December 1991. Overall project

    SciTech Connect

    De Vuono, A.C.; Hanna, W.T.; Osborne, R.L.; Ball, D.A.

    1992-04-01

    The report describes development efforts on a Double-Effect Air-Conditioner Heater (DEACH). Based on a double-effect LiBr/H2O absorption cycle, the DEACH was focused on residential applications with the primary objective being a low first-cost efficient gas-fired cooling system. The concept included compact integrated heat exchangers, direct heat rejection to outdoor air (no cooling tower), and ability to self-decrystallize. The performance goals of the system were essentially demonstrated in a full-scale (3 refrigeration ton), fully integrated breadboard. However, the projected manufacturing cost was somewhat above the original target and even further above that deemed competitive at the end of the project. Therefore, technical development was stopped in late 1991.

  17. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 3, Water heaters, pool heaters, direct heating equipment, and mobile home furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    This is Volume 3 in a series of documents on energy efficiency of consumer products. This volume discusses energy efficiency of water heaters. Water heaters are defined by NAECA as products that utilize oil, gas, or electricity to heat potable water for use outside the heater upon demand. These are major appliances, which use a large portion (18% on average) of total energy consumed per household (1). They differ from most other appliances in that they are usually installed in obscure locations as part of the plumbing and are ignored until they fail. Residential water heaters are capable of heating water up to 180{degrees}F, although the setpoints are usually set lower.

  18. Solar-Powered, Liquid-Desiccant Air Conditioner for Low-Electricity Humidity Control: Report and Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Dean, J.; Kozubal, E.; Herrmann, L.; Miller, J.; Lowenstein, A.; Barker, G.; Slayzak, S.

    2012-11-01

    The primary objective of this project was to demonstrate the capabilities of a new high-performance, liquid-desiccant dedicated outdoor air system (DOAS) to enhance cooling efficiency and comfort in humid climates while substantially reducing electric peak demand at Tyndall Air Force Base (AFB), which is 12 miles east of Panama City, Florida.

  19. Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in central air-conditioner filter dust and relevance of non-dietary exposure in occupational indoor environments in Greece.

    PubMed

    Besis, Athanasios; Katsoyiannis, Athanasios; Botsaropoulou, Elisavet; Samara, Constantini

    2014-05-01

    Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) are ubiquitous in the indoor environment owing to their use in consumer products and various studies around the world have found higher concentrations indoors than outdoors. Central air conditioner (A/C) systems have been widely used in many workplaces, therefore, studying of PBDEs in central A/C filter dust is useful to better understand the occurrences and health implications of PBDEs in indoor environments. The present study examined the occurrence of PBDEs in central A/C filter dust collected from various workplaces (n = 20) in Thessaloniki, Greece. The sum concentrations of 21 target congeners (∑21PBDE) in A/C dust ranged between 84 and 4062 ng g(-1) with a median value of 1092 ng g(-1), while BDE-209 was found to be the most abundant BDE congener. The daily intake via dust ingestion of PBDEs estimated for the employees of the occupational settings ranged from 3 to 45 ng day(-1) (median 12 ng day(-1)). PMID:24556227

  20. Cost benefit analysis and energy savings of using compression and absorption chillers for air conditioners in hot and humid climates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shekarchian, M.; Moghavvemi, M.; Motasemi, F.; Mahlia, T. M. I.

    2012-06-01

    The electricity consumption growth has increased steadily in the recent decade which is a great concern for the environment. Increasing the number of high-rise air-conditioned buildings and the rapid use of electrical appliances in residential and commercial sectors are two important factors for high electricity consumption. This paper investigates the annual energy required for cooling per unit area and the total energy cost per unit area for each type of air conditioning systems in hot and humid climates. The effects of changing the coefficient of performance (COP) of absorption chillers on cost saving was also investigated in this study. The results showed that using absorption chillers for cooling will increase the amount of energy consumption per unit area; however the energy cost per unit area will decrease. In addition this research indicates that for each 0.1 increment in COP of absorption chillers, there is about 500 USD/m2 saved cost.

  1. Air-water centrifugal convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrada, Miguel; Shtern, Vladimir

    2014-07-01

    A sealed cylindrical container is filled with air and water. The container rotation and the axial gradient of temperature induce the steady axisymmetric meridional circulation of both fluids due to the thermal buoyancy and surface-tension (Marangoni) effects. If the temperature gradient is small, the water circulation is one-cellular while the air circulation can be one- or two-cellular depending on water fraction Wf. The numerical simulations are performed for the cylinder length-to-radius ratio l = 1 and l = 4. The l = 4 results and the analytical solution for l → ∞ agree in the cylinder's middle part. As the temperature gradient increases, the water circulation becomes one-, two-, or three-cellular depending on Wf. The results are of fundamental interest and can be applied for bioreactors.

  2. Formulation of humic-based soil conditioners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amanova, M. A.; Mamytova, G. A.; Mamytova, B. A.; Kydralieva, K. A.; Jorobekova, Sh. J.

    2009-04-01

    The goal of the study is to prepare soil conditioners (SC) able to carry out the following functions: (i) the chemical conditioning of soil mainly comprising the adjustment of pH, (ii) the balancing of inorganic nutrients, (iii) the physical conditioning of soil mainly comprising the improvement of water permeability, air permeability and water retention properties, and (iv) improvement of the ecological system concerning of useful microorganisms activity in the soil. The SC was made of a mixture of inorganic ingredients, a chemical composition and physical and chemical properties of which promoted improvement of physical characteristic of soil and enrichment by its mineral nutritious elements. In addition to aforesaid ingredients, this soil conditioner contains agronomical-valued groups of microorganisms having the function promoting the growth of the crop. As organic component of SC humic acids (HA) was used. HA serve many major functions that result in better soil and plant health. In soil, HA can increase microbial and mycorrhizal activity while enhancing nutrient uptake by plant roots. HA work as a catalyst by stimulating root and plant growth, it may enhance enzymatic activity that in turn accelerates cell division which can lead to increased yields. HA can help to increase crop yields, seed germination, and much more. In short, humic acids helps keep healthy plants health. The first stage goal was to evaluate mineral and organic ingredients for formulation of SC. Soil conditioners assessed included ash and slag. The use of slags has been largelly used in agriculture as a source of lime and phosphoric acid. The silicic acid of slags reduces Al-acitivity thus, promoting a better assimilation of P-fertilizer by plants. Additionally, silicic acid is also known to improve soil moisture capacity, thus enhancing soil water availability to plants. Physico-chemical characteristics of ash and slag were determined, as a total - about 20 samples. Results include

  3. Environmental Chemistry: Air and Water Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoker, H. Stephen; Seager, Spencer L.

    This is a book about air and water pollution whose chapters cover the topics of air pollution--general considerations, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons and photochemical oxidants, sulfur oxides, particulates, temperature inversions and the greenhouse effect; and water pollution--general considerations, mercury, lead, detergents,…

  4. Water gun vs air gun: A comparison

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hutchinson, D.R.; Detrick, R. S.

    1984-01-01

    The water gun is a relatively new marine seismic sound source that produces an acoustic signal by an implosive rather than explosive mechanism. A comparison of the source characteristics of two different-sized water guns with those of conventional air guns shows the the water gun signature is cleaner and much shorter than that of a comparable-sized air gun: about 60-100 milliseconds (ms) for an 80-in3. (1.31-liter (I)) water gun compared with several hundred ms for an 80-in3. (1.31-1) air gun. The source spectra of water guns are richer in high frequencies (>200 Hz) than are those of air guns, but they also have less energy than those of air guns at low frequencies. A comparison between water gun and air gun reflection profiles in both shallow (Long Island Sound)-and deep (western Bermuda Rise)-water settings suggests that the water gun offers a good compromise between very high resolution, limited penetration systems (e.g. 3.5-kHz profilers and sparkers) and the large volume air guns and tuned air gun arrays generally used where significant penetration is required. ?? 1984 D. Reidel Publishing Company.

  5. Attenuator And Conditioner

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Gene R.; Armendariz, Marcelino G.; Carson, Richard F.; Bryan, Robert P.; Duckett, III, Edwin B.; Kemme, Shanalyn Adair; McCormick, Frederick B.; Peterson, David W.

    2006-04-04

    An apparatus and method of attenuating and/or conditioning optical energy for an optical transmitter, receiver or transceiver module is disclosed. An apparatus for attenuating the optical output of an optoelectronic connector including: a mounting surface; an array of optoelectronic devices having at least a first end; an array of optical elements having at least a first end; the first end of the array of optical elements optically aligned with the first end of the array of optoelectronic devices; an optical path extending from the first end of the array of optoelectronic devices and ending at a second end of the array of optical elements; and an attenuator in the optical path for attenuating the optical energy emitted from the array of optoelectronic devices. Alternatively, a conditioner may be adapted in the optical path for conditioning the optical energy emitted from the array of optoelectronic devices.

  6. Cleaning verification by air/water impingement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Lisa L.; Littlefield, Maria D.; Melton, Gregory S.; Caimi, Raoul E. B.; Thaxton, Eric A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper will discuss how the Kennedy Space Center intends to perform precision cleaning verification by Air/Water Impingement in lieu of chlorofluorocarbon-113 gravimetric nonvolatile residue analysis (NVR). Test results will be given that demonstrate the effectiveness of the Air/Water system. A brief discussion of the Total Carbon method via the use of a high temperature combustion analyzer will also be given. The necessary equipment for impingement will be shown along with other possible applications of this technology.

  7. Air and water cooled modulator

    DOEpatents

    Birx, Daniel L.; Arnold, Phillip A.; Ball, Don G.; Cook, Edward G.

    1995-01-01

    A compact high power magnetic compression apparatus and method for delivering high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output which does not require the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids such as chlorofluorocarbons either as a dielectric or as a coolant, and which discharges very little waste heat into the surrounding air. A first magnetic switch has cooling channels formed therethrough to facilitate the removal of excess heat. The first magnetic switch is mounted on a printed circuit board. A pulse transformer comprised of a plurality of discrete electrically insulated and magnetically coupled units is also mounted on said printed board and is electrically coupled to the first magnetic switch. The pulse transformer also has cooling means attached thereto for removing heat from the pulse transformer. A second magnetic switch also having cooling means for removing excess heat is electrically coupled to the pulse transformer. Thus, the present invention is able to provide high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output without the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids and without discharging significant waste heat into the surrounding air.

  8. Air and water cooled modulator

    DOEpatents

    Birx, D.L.; Arnold, P.A.; Ball, D.G.; Cook, E.G.

    1995-09-05

    A compact high power magnetic compression apparatus and method are disclosed for delivering high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output which does not require the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids such as chlorofluorocarbons either as a dielectric or as a coolant, and which discharges very little waste heat into the surrounding air. A first magnetic switch has cooling channels formed therethrough to facilitate the removal of excess heat. The first magnetic switch is mounted on a printed circuit board. A pulse transformer comprised of a plurality of discrete electrically insulated and magnetically coupled units is also mounted on said printed board and is electrically coupled to the first magnetic switch. The pulse transformer also has cooling means attached thereto for removing heat from the pulse transformer. A second magnetic switch also having cooling means for removing excess heat is electrically coupled to the pulse transformer. Thus, the present invention is able to provide high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output without the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids and without discharging significant waste heat into the surrounding air. 9 figs.

  9. Air Conditioning Overflow Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Technology Transfer Office at Stennis Space Center helped a local inventor develop a prototype of an attachment for central air conditioners and heat pumps that helps monitor water levels to prevent condensation overflow. The sensor will indicate a need for drain line maintenance and prevent possible damage caused by drain pan water spillover. An engineer in the Stennis Space Center prototype Development Laboratory used SSC sensor technology in the development of the sensor.

  10. Flow Analysis around the Suction Valve and the Effect of the Flow on the Vibration-Reduction of the Valve in a Reciprocating Compressor for an Automotive Air-Conditioner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Taizo; Tsukiji, Tetsuhiro; Koyabu, Eitaro; Nakamura, Yusuke

    In the present study the simplified test model of the commercial reciprocating compressor for an automotive air-conditioner is designed to investigate the velocity distributions of the discharge flow from the suction valve using PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) technique and to measure the displacement of the valve. The displacement of the conventional valve in the test model is observed using the high speed video camera and is also measured using a strain gauge. On the other hand the velocity distributions around the suction valve are measured using PIV and the relation between the velocity distributions and the movement of the valve is investigated. Furthermore the new valve with the shape improved from the conventional valve is designed and the results of the flow visualization and the measurement of the valve displacement for the new valve are compared with those of the conventional valve. We found that the vibration of the new valve can be suppressed compared with the conventional one from the experiment using both the present test model and the commercial reciprocating compressor. The reason of the vibration-reduction for the new valve is discussed from the results of the present flow analysis.

  11. Penguin vision in air and water.

    PubMed

    Howland, H C; Sivak, J G

    1984-01-01

    Refractive states measured by retinoscopy and photorefraction indicate that rockhopper (Eudyptes crestatus), Magellanic (Spheniscus magellanicus) and gentoo (Pygoscelis papua) penguins are approximately emmetropic in air and water. Extensive myopia in air, as predicted by early authors, is nonexistent. Photorefractive measurements of refractive state in water indicate that rockhopper, gentoo, Magellanic and king (Aptenodytes patagonica) penguins can accommodate sufficiently to make up for the loss of refractive power of the cornea. Corneas of rockhopper and Megellanic penguins are flattened relative to the overall size of the eye. This feature minimizes the optical effect of submergence. PMID:6534014

  12. Combined air and water pollution control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, Billy C. (Inventor); Jarrell, Lamont (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A bioaquatic air pollution control system for controlling both water and atmospheric pollution is disclosed. The pollution control system includes an exhaust for directing polluted gases out of a furnace and a fluid circulating system which circulates fluid, such as waste water, from a source, past the furnace where the fluid flow entrains the pollutants from the furnace. The combined fluid and pollutants are then directed through a rock/plant/microbial filtering system. A suction pump pumps the treated waste water from the filter system past the exhaust to again entrain more pollutants from the furnace where they are combined with the fluid (waste water) and directed to the filter system.

  13. Quenching using air-water mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Wallis, R.A.; Garwood, R.; Ward, J.; Xia, Q.

    1996-12-31

    With the current trend toward reduced manufacturing cycle time there is considerable interest in minimizing heat treatment related distortion and the residual stresses that are present in components. There is therefore a need to optimize the quenching process for a particular part such that the desired cooling rate, and hence mechanical properties, are obtained while minimizing distortion. This paper describes work aimed at developing a system to provide heat transfer rates between those obtained for oil quenching and fan cooling. Tests are described in which quenching was carried out by spraying water into the stream of air exiting a fan cooling system. Data are also presented for air mist quenching using atomizing nozzles. Comparison of computer predicted cooling rates and residual stress levels in components are presented for oil quenching, fan cooling, fan plus water injection cooling and air-mist cooling.

  14. Solar-powered air-conditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, D. C.; Rousseau, J.

    1977-01-01

    Report focuses on recent study on development of solar-powered residential air conditioners and is based on selected literature through 1975. Its purposes are to characterize thermal and mechanical systems that might be useful in development of Rankine-cycle approach to solar cooling and assessment of a Lithium Bromide/Water absorption cycle system.

  15. Integration of air and water quality issues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The environmental sustainability of dairy farms is dependent upon a number of air and water quality issues. Atmospheric emissions include hazardous compounds such as ammonia and hydrogen sulfide along with greenhouse gases and their implications with global climate change. Runoff of sediment, phosph...

  16. Ethylene-air detonation in water spray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarsalé, G.; Virot, F.; Chinnayya, A.

    2016-07-01

    Detonation experiments are conducted in a 52 mm square channel with an ethylene-air gaseous mixture with dispersed liquid water droplets. The tests were conducted with a fuel-air equivalence ratio ranging from 0.9 to 1.1 at atmospheric pressure. An ultrasonic atomizer generates a polydisperse liquid water spray with droplet diameters of 8.5-12 μm, yielding an effective density of 100-120 g/m3 . Pressure signals from seven transducers and cellular structure are recorded for each test. The detonation structure in the two-phase mixture exhibits a gaseous-like behaviour. The pressure profile in the expansion fan is not affected by the addition of water. A small detonation velocity deficit of up to 5 % was measured. However, the investigation highlights a dramatic increase in the cell size (λ ) associated with the increase in the liquid water mass fraction in the two-phase mixture. The detonation structure evolves from a multi-cell to a half-cell mode. The analysis of the decay of the post-shock pressure fluctuations reveals that the ratio of the hydrodynamic thickness over the cell size (x_{{HT}}/{λ } ) remains quite constant, between 5 and 7. A slight decrease of this ratio is observed as the liquid water mass fraction is increased, or the ethylene-air mixture is made leaner.

  17. 10 CFR Appendix M to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... coefficient calculation. 3.9 Test procedures for Frost Accumulation heating mode tests (the H2, H22, H2V, and... during cyclic tests and frost accumulation tests, if needed, to produce stabilized room air temperatures... system (see Definition 1.42), the manufacturer must specify the frosting interval to be used during...

  18. Hybrid respiration-signal conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinard, G. A.; Steffen, D. A.; Sturm, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    Hybrid impedance-pneumograph and respiration-rate signal conditioner element of hand-held vital signs monitor measures changes in impedance of chest during breathing cycle and generates analog respiration signal as output along with synchronous square wave that can be monitored by breath-rate processor.

  19. Flow Analysis around the Suction Valve and the Vibration Characteristics of the Valve in a Compressor for Automotive Air-Conditioner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Taizo; Tsukiji, Tetsuhiro

    The displacement of the suction valve in a compressor for automotive air-conditioning and the flow around the valve are investigated using a flow visualization technique. The visualization is conducted using the real compressor, which is improved to observe inside under the actual condition. Turbulent flow around the suction valve is solved using a computational fluid dynamics simulation. The flow is assumed to be an incompressible three-dimensional and viscous. The standard k-ε turbulent model is used Furthermore the pressure pulsations, the flow velocity and the displacements of the suction valves are analyzed numerically using the system simulation program we developed. The calculated results using a computational fluid dynamics are compared with the flow visualization results and the vibrations of the valve are discussed.

  20. 14 CFR 1260.34 - Clean air and water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Clean air and water. 1260.34 Section 1260... AGREEMENTS General Provisions § 1260.34 Clean air and water. Clean Air and Water October 2000 (Applicable... the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 1857c-8(c)(1) or the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (33 U.S.C....

  1. 14 CFR 1260.34 - Clean air and water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean air and water. 1260.34 Section 1260... AGREEMENTS General Provisions § 1260.34 Clean air and water. Clean Air and Water October 2000 (Applicable... the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 1857c-8(c)(1) or the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (33 U.S.C....

  2. 14 CFR 1260.34 - Clean air and water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Clean air and water. 1260.34 Section 1260... AGREEMENTS General Provisions § 1260.34 Clean air and water. Clean Air and Water October 2000 (Applicable... the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 1857c-8(c)(1) or the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (33 U.S.C....

  3. 14 CFR § 1260.34 - Clean air and water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Clean air and water. § 1260.34 Section Â... AGREEMENTS General Provisions § 1260.34 Clean air and water. Clean Air and Water October 2000 (Applicable... the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 1857c-8(c)(1) or the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (33 U.S.C....

  4. Photodetoxification and purification of water and air

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, M.; Blake, D.M.

    1996-09-01

    The scope of interest in this section is basic research in photochemistry that can remove barriers to the development of photochemical technologies for the removal of hazardous chemicals from contaminated air or water (photodetoxification). Photochemistry is be broadly interpreted to include direct photochemistry, indirect photochemistry (sensitized and photocatalytic), photochemistry of species adsorbed on inert surfaces, and complementary effects of high energy radiation photons and particles. These may occur in either homogeneous or heterogeneous media. The photon source may span the range from ionizing radiation to the near infrared.

  5. Stable Encapsulated Air Nanobubbles in Water.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Liu, Guojun; Hu, Heng; Li, Terry Yantian; Johri, Amer M; Li, Xiaoyu; Wang, Jian

    2015-11-23

    The dispersion into water of nanocapsules bearing a highly hydrophobic fluorinated internal lining yielded encapsulated air nanobubbles. These bubbles, like their micrometer-sized counterparts (microbubbles), effectively reflected ultrasound. More importantly, the nanobubbles survived under ultrasonication 100-times longer than a commercial microbubble sample that is currently in clinical use. We justify this unprecedented stability theoretically. These nanobubbles, owing to their small size and potential ability to permeate the capillary networks of tissues, may expand the applications of microbubbles in diagnostic ultrasonography and find new applications in ultrasound-regulated drug delivery. PMID:26439669

  6. NBC detection in air and water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, Frank T.; Smith, Steven J.; McMurtry, Gary M.

    2003-01-01

    Participating in a Navy STTR project to develop a system capable of the 'real-time' detection and quanitification of nuclear, biological and chemical (NBC) warfare agents, and of related industrial chemicals including NBC agent synthesis by-products in water and in air immediately above the water's surface. This project uses JPL's Soft Ionization Membrane (SIM) technology which totally ionizes molecules without fragmentation (a process that can markedly improve the sensitivity and specificity of molecule compostition identification), and JPL's Rotating Field Mass Spectrometer (RFMS) technology which has large enough dynamic mass range to enable detection of nuclear materials as well as biological and chemical agents. This Navy project integrates these JPL Environmental Monitoring UnitS (REMUS) an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV). It is anticipated that the REMUS AUV will be capable of 'real-time' detection and quantification of NBC warefare agents.

  7. 21 CFR 874.1800 - Air or water caloric stimulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Air or water caloric stimulator. 874.1800 Section 874.1800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 874.1800 Air or water caloric stimulator. (a) Identification. An air or...

  8. 14 CFR 1260.34 - Clean air and water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Clean air and water. 1260.34 Section 1260.34... Provisions § 1260.34 Clean air and water. Clean Air and Water October 2000 (Applicable only if the award... (42 U.S.C. 1857c-8(c)(1) or the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (33 U.S.C. 1319(c)), and is...

  9. Low-noise pulse conditioner

    DOEpatents

    Bird, David A.

    1983-01-01

    A low-noise pulse conditioner is provided for driving electronic digital processing circuitry directly from differentially induced input pulses. The circuit uses a unique differential-to-peak detector circuit to generate a dynamic reference signal proportional to the input peak voltage. The input pulses are compared with the reference signal in an input network which operates in full differential mode with only a passive input filter. This reduces the introduction of circuit-induced noise, or jitter, generated in ground referenced input elements normally used in pulse conditioning circuits, especially speed transducer processing circuits.

  10. 7 CFR 3201.92 - Fuel conditioners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel conditioners. 3201.92 Section 3201.92... Designated Items § 3201.92 Fuel conditioners. (a) Definition. Products formulated to improve the performance... fuel system. (b) Minimum biobased content. The Federal preferred procurement product must have...

  11. 7 CFR 3201.92 - Fuel conditioners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fuel conditioners. 3201.92 Section 3201.92... Designated Items § 3201.92 Fuel conditioners. (a) Definition. Products formulated to improve the performance... fuel system. (b) Minimum biobased content. The Federal preferred procurement product must have...

  12. Food-Growing, Air- And Water-Cleaning Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, R. L.; Scheld, H. W.; Mafnuson, J. W.

    1988-01-01

    Apparatus produces fresh vegetables and removes pollutants from air. Hydroponic apparatus performs dual function of growing fresh vegetables and purifying air and water. Leafy vegetables rooted in granular growth medium grow in light of fluorescent lamps. Air flowing over leaves supplies carbon dioxide and receives fresh oxygen from them. Adaptable to production of food and cleaning of air and water in closed environments as in underwater research stations and submarines.

  13. Conditioner for a helically transported electron beam

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Changbiao.

    1992-05-01

    The kinetic theory is developed to investigate a conditioner for a helically transported electron beam. Linear expressions for axial velocity spread are derived. Numerical simulation is used to check the theoretical results and examine nonlinear aspects of the conditioning process. The results show that in the linear regime the action of the beam conditioner on a pulsed beam mainly depends on the phase at which the beam enters the conditioner and depends only slightly on the operating wavelength. In the nonlinear regime, however, the action of the conditioner strongly depends on the operating wavelength and only slightly upon the entrance phase. For a properly chosen operating wavelength, a little less than the electron's relativistic cyclotron wavelength, the conditioner can decrease the axial velocity spread of a pulsed beam down to less than one-third of its initial value.

  14. Conditioner for a helically transported electron beam

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Changbiao

    1992-05-01

    The kinetic theory is developed to investigate a conditioner for a helically transported electron beam. Linear expressions for axial velocity spread are derived. Numerical simulation is used to check the theoretical results and examine nonlinear aspects of the conditioning process. The results show that in the linear regime the action of the beam conditioner on a pulsed beam mainly depends on the phase at which the beam enters the conditioner and depends only slightly on the operating wavelength. In the nonlinear regime, however, the action of the conditioner strongly depends on the operating wavelength and only slightly upon the entrance phase. For a properly chosen operating wavelength, a little less than the electron`s relativistic cyclotron wavelength, the conditioner can decrease the axial velocity spread of a pulsed beam down to less than one-third of its initial value.

  15. Space shuttle aps propellant thermal conditioner study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fulton, D. L.

    1973-01-01

    An analytical and experimental effort was completed to evaluate a baffle type thermal conditioner for superheating O2 and H2 at supercritical pressures. The thermal conditioner consisted of a heat exchanger and an integral reactor (gas generator) operating on O2/H2 propellants. Primary emphasis was placed on the hydrogen conditioner with some effort on the oxygen conditioner and a study completed of alternate concepts for use in conditioning oxygen. A hydrogen conditioner was hot fire tested under a range of conditions to establish ignition, heat exchange and response parameters. A parallel technology task was completed to further evaluate the integral reactor and heat exchanger with the side mounted electrical spark igniter.

  16. Conditioner for a helically transported electron beam

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.

    1992-05-01

    The kinetic theory is developed to investigate a conditioner for a helically imported electron beam. Linear expressions for axial velocity spread are derived. Numerical simulation is used to check the theoretical results and examine nonlinear aspects of the conditioning process. The results show that in the linear regime the action of the beam conditioner on a pulsed beam mainly depends on the phase at which the beam enters the conditioner and depends only slightly on the operating wavelength. In the nonlinear regime, however, the action of the conditioner strongly depends on the operating wavelength and only slightly upon the entrance phase. For a properly chosen operating wavelength, a little less than the electron's relativistic cyclotron wavelength, the conditioner can decrease the axial velocity spread of a pulsed beam down to less than one-third of its initial value.

  17. Conditioner for a helically transported electron beam

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.

    1992-05-01

    The kinetic theory is developed to investigate a conditioner for a helically imported electron beam. Linear expressions for axial velocity spread are derived. Numerical simulation is used to check the theoretical results and examine nonlinear aspects of the conditioning process. The results show that in the linear regime the action of the beam conditioner on a pulsed beam mainly depends on the phase at which the beam enters the conditioner and depends only slightly on the operating wavelength. In the nonlinear regime, however, the action of the conditioner strongly depends on the operating wavelength and only slightly upon the entrance phase. For a properly chosen operating wavelength, a little less than the electron`s relativistic cyclotron wavelength, the conditioner can decrease the axial velocity spread of a pulsed beam down to less than one-third of its initial value.

  18. Hazardous solid wastes generated in the cleanup of air and water.

    PubMed Central

    Eisenbud, M

    1978-01-01

    Air and water pollution control programs sometimes result in production of solid wastes that are difficult to manage. The sludges from sewage treatment plants and flue gas scrubbers are two examples. In many coastal communities, there is no alternative to ocean dumpling of sewage sludges for the foreseeable future. The use of sludges as soil conditioners, their conversion to fuels by pyrolysis, and other alternatives are frequently mentioned options, but they have not been demonstrated to be practical on a large scale. The Federal requirement that ocean dumping be terminated by 1981 presents the large seaboard population centers with a dilemma, due to the absence of economically feasible alternative methods of disposal. Another major solid waste problem is arising from the Federal policy that requires flue gas desulfurization on practically all power plants. This policy, designed to reduce sulfur oxide emissions, will require that vast quantities of sludge be stored. Their environmental impact is as yet not fully evaluated. Commercial use of the sulfur or sulfates produced in these processes may be possible, but its practicability on a large scale remains to be demonstrated. PMID:738245

  19. Hazardous solid wastes generated in the cleanup of air and water.

    PubMed

    Eisenbud, M

    1978-12-01

    Air and water pollution control programs sometimes result in production of solid wastes that are difficult to manage. The sludges from sewage treatment plants and flue gas scrubbers are two examples. In many coastal communities, there is no alternative to ocean dumpling of sewage sludges for the foreseeable future. The use of sludges as soil conditioners, their conversion to fuels by pyrolysis, and other alternatives are frequently mentioned options, but they have not been demonstrated to be practical on a large scale. The Federal requirement that ocean dumping be terminated by 1981 presents the large seaboard population centers with a dilemma, due to the absence of economically feasible alternative methods of disposal. Another major solid waste problem is arising from the Federal policy that requires flue gas desulfurization on practically all power plants. This policy, designed to reduce sulfur oxide emissions, will require that vast quantities of sludge be stored. Their environmental impact is as yet not fully evaluated. Commercial use of the sulfur or sulfates produced in these processes may be possible, but its practicability on a large scale remains to be demonstrated. PMID:738245

  20. Methylglyoxal at the Air-Water Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wren, S. N.; Gordon, B. P.; McWilliams, L.; Valley, N. A.; Richmond, G.

    2014-12-01

    Recently, it has been suggested that aqueous-phase processing of atmospheric α-dicarbonyl compounds such as methylglyoxal (MG) could constitute an important source of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). The uptake of MG to aqueous particles is higher than expected due to the fact that its carbonyl moieties can hydrate to form diols, as well as the fact that MG can undergo aldol condensation reactions to form larger oligomers in solution. MG is known to be surface active but an improved description of its surface behaviour is crucial to understanding MG-SOA formation, in addition to understanding its gas-to-particle partitioning and cloud forming potential. Here, we employ a combined experimental and theoretical approach involving vibrational sum frequency generation spectroscopy (VSFS), surface tensiometry, molecular dynamics simulations, and density functional theory calculations to study MG's surface adsorption, in both the presence and absence of salts. We are particularly interested in determining MG's hydration state at the surface. Our experimental results indicate that MG slowly adsorbs to the air-water interface and strongly perturbs the water structure there. This perturbation is enhanced in the presence of NaCl. Together our experimental and theoretical results suggest that singly-hydrated MG is the dominant form of MG at the surface.

  1. 16 CFR 305.11 - Labeling for refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, freezers, dishwashers, clothes washers, water...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CONGRESS RULE CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES..., clothes washers, and water heaters must contain the model's estimated annual energy consumption as...-freezers, freezers, dishwashers, clothes washers, water heaters, room air conditioners, and pool...

  2. 21 CFR 874.1800 - Air or water caloric stimulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 874.1800 Air or water caloric... or water to the ear canal at controlled rates of flow and temperature and that is intended...

  3. 21 CFR 874.1800 - Air or water caloric stimulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 874.1800 Air or water caloric... or water to the ear canal at controlled rates of flow and temperature and that is intended...

  4. 21 CFR 874.1800 - Air or water caloric stimulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 874.1800 Air or water caloric... or water to the ear canal at controlled rates of flow and temperature and that is intended...

  5. 21 CFR 874.1800 - Air or water caloric stimulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 874.1800 Air or water caloric... or water to the ear canal at controlled rates of flow and temperature and that is intended...

  6. Method and apparatus for extracting water from air

    DOEpatents

    Spletzer, Barry L.; Callow, Diane Schafer; Marron, Lisa C.; Salton, Jonathan R.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention provides a method and apparatus for extracting liquid water from moist air using minimal energy input. The method comprises compressing moist air under conditions that foster the condensation of liquid water. The air can be decompressed under conditions that do not foster the vaporization of the condensate. The decompressed, dried air can be exchanged for a fresh charge of moist air and the process repeated. The liquid condensate can be removed for use. The apparatus can comprise a compression chamber having a variable internal volume. An intake port allows moist air into the compression chamber. An exhaust port allows dried air out of the compression chamber. A condensation device fosters condensation at the desired conditions. A condensate removal port allows liquid water to be removed.

  7. Method and apparatus for extracting water from air

    DOEpatents

    Spletzer, Barry L.

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides a method and apparatus for extracting liquid water from moist air using minimal energy input. The method comprises compressing moist air under conditions that foster the condensation of liquid water (ideally isothermal to a humidity of 1.0, then adiabatic thereafter). The air can be decompressed under conditions that do not foster the vaporization of the condensate. The decompressed, dried air can be exchanged for a fresh charge of moist air and the process repeated. The liquid condensate can be removed for use. The apparatus can comprise a compression chamber having a variable internal volume. An intake port allows moist air into the compression chamber. An exhaust port allows dried air out of the compression chamber. A condensation device fosters condensation at the desired conditions. A condensate removal port allows liquid water to be removed.

  8. Low-noise pulse conditioner

    DOEpatents

    Bird, D.A.

    1981-06-16

    A low-noise pulse conditioner is provided for driving electronic digital processing circuitry directly from differentially induced input pulses. The circuit uses a unique differential-to-peak detector circuit to generate a dynamic reference signal proportional to the input peak voltage. The input pulses are compared with the reference signal in an input network which operates in full differential mode with only a passive input filter. This reduces the introduction of circuit-induced noise, or jitter, generated in ground referenced input elements normally used in pulse conditioning circuits, especially speed transducer processing circuits. This circuit may be used for conditioning the sensor signal from the Fidler coil in a gas centrifuge for separation of isotopic gaseous mixtures.

  9. High efficiency laser spectrum conditioner

    DOEpatents

    Greiner, Norman R.

    1980-01-01

    A high efficiency laser spectrum conditioner for generating a collinear parallel output beam containing a predetermined set of frequencies from a multifrequency laser. A diffraction grating and spherical mirror are used in combination, to disperse the various frequencies of the input laser beam and direct these frequencies along various parallel lines spatially separated from one another to an apertured mask. Selection of the desired frequencies is accomplished by placement of apertures at locations on the mask where the desired frequencies intersect the mask. A recollimated parallel output beam with the desired set of frequencies is subsequently generated utilizing a mirror and grating matched and geometrically aligned in the same manner as the input grating and mirror.

  10. Linking Air, Land, and Water Pollution for Effective Environmental Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since the passage of the National Environmental Policy Act in 1970, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, other federal agencies, and the states have made substantial progress in improving the Nation’s air and water quality. Traditionally, the air, land, and water pollution ...

  11. Thermodynamic and transport properties of air/water mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fessler, T. E.

    1981-01-01

    Subroutine WETAIR calculates properties at nearly 1,500 K and 4,500 atmospheres. Necessary inputs are assigned values of combinations of density, pressure, temperature, and entropy. Interpolation of property tables obtains dry air and water (steam) properties, and simple mixing laws calculate properties of air/water mixture. WETAIR is used to test gas turbine engines and components operating in relatively humid air. Program is written in SFTRAN and FORTRAN.

  12. 9. Water Purification System and Instrument Air Receiver Tank, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Water Purification System and Instrument Air Receiver Tank, view to the south. The water purification system is visible in the right foreground of the photograph and the instrument air receiver tank is visible in the right background of the photograph. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Cabinet Gorge Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, North Bank of Clark Fork River at Cabinet Gorge, Cabinet, Bonner County, ID

  13. 18 CFR 1316.5 - Clean Air and Water Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Conditions and Certifications § 1316.5 Clean Air and Water Acts. When so indicated in TVA contract documents... Acts. 1316.5 Section 1316.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY... Water Acts (a) If performance of this contract would involve the use of facilities which have given...

  14. 18 CFR 1316.5 - Clean Air and Water Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Conditions and Certifications § 1316.5 Clean Air and Water Acts. When so indicated in TVA contract documents... Acts. 1316.5 Section 1316.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY... Water Acts (a) If performance of this contract would involve the use of facilities which have given...

  15. Forced convection heat transfer to air/water vapor mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, D. R.; Florschuetz, L. W.

    1986-01-01

    Heat transfer coefficients were measured using both dry air and air/water vapor mixtures in the same forced convection cooling test rig (jet array impingement configurations) with mass ratios of water vapor to air up to 0.23. The primary objective was to verify by direct experiment that selected existing methods for evaluation of viscosity and thermal conductivity of air/water vapor mixtures could be used with confidence to predict heat transfer coefficients for such mixtures using as a basis heat transfer data for dry air only. The property evaluation methods deemed most appropriate require as a basis a measured property value at one mixture composition in addition to the property values for the pure components.

  16. Comparative Evaluation of Physical Properties of Four Tissue Conditioners Relined to Modeling Plastic Material

    PubMed Central

    Monzavi, Abbas; Siadat, Hakimeh; Atai, Mohammad; Alikhasi, Marzieh; Nazari, Vahideh; Sheikhzadeh, Sadigheh

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Little is known about the interaction of tissue conditioners and modeling plastics. This study evaluates the influence of a variety of commercial tissue conditioners on alteration of viscoelastic properties of modeling plastics. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, the dynamic viscoelastic properties of four commercially available tissue conditioners (TC), Visco-gel (VG), GC Soft-Liner (SL), FITT (FT), and Coe Comfort (CC), relined to modeling plastics with a thickness of 2mm were evaluated after 1 and 7 days of water immersion with the use of storage modulus, loss modulus, and tan delta parameters. Values for these three parameters for each tissue conditioner were statistically analyzed by Kruskal Wallis and Mann Whitney tests with P value sets at<0.05. Results: Complex modulus and loss tangent values of TC were not significantly different among specimens containing 0, 2, 5 and 10 wt.%-SZ, respectively. In FT and TC containing 2 wt.%-SZ, these values were not significantly different between 1 and 28 days in both water- and saliva immersions. Conclusion: The results suggest that relining with modeling plastics does affect TC’s inherent dynamic viscoelastic properties, while the other tissue conditioners investigated may be found to have changed viscoelastic properties as a consequence of vicinity to the modeling plastics. PMID:24910661

  17. The antimicrobial activity of a dentin conditioner combined with antibacterial agents.

    PubMed

    Botelho, Michael G

    2005-01-01

    Dental hand instruments are not efficient in removing all infected dentin when performing carious removal for minimal intervention techniques. The use of an antibacterial dentin conditioner may therefore be useful when restoring cavities that have residual carious dentin. Antibacterial agents--chlorhexidine hydrochloride, cetylpyridinium chloride, cetrimide, benzaIkonium chloride and sodium hypochlorite, were added either to a dentin conditioner used for glass ionomer cements or distilled water at 1% concentration. Dentin conditioning solutions at pH 2.5, 4.9 and 7.7 were also prepared, along with 1% aqueous thymol. Using an agar diffusion test, 25 microl aliquots were examined for their inhibitory effects on three cariogenic bacteria. After 24 hours, an agar pellet was extracted adjacent to the agar well and placed on a second inoculated agar plate to observe sustained inhibitory effects, after which this procedure was repeated one more time. Antibacterial dentin conditioners showed significant inhibitory effect compared to the control over the three test periods (p<0.016). The combination of dentin conditioners with antibacterial agents significantly reduced the inhibitory effect compared to the antibacterial aqueous solutions (p<0.016). One-percent aqueous thymol showed no inhibitory effect against the test bacteria. The cetrimide-dentin conditioner showed the greatest inhibitory effect against all three test bacteria over the three experimental periods (p<0.016). The inhibitory effect of antibacterial agents was significantly reduced when combined with a dentin conditioner. Only the cetrimide-dentin conditioner combination produced significant inhibitory effects against all three test organisms. PMID:15765961

  18. Specific features of aluminum nanoparticle water and wet air oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Lozhkomoev, Aleksandr S. Glazkova, Elena A. Svarovskaya, Natalia V. Bakina, Olga V. Kazantsev, Sergey O. Lerner, Marat I.

    2015-10-27

    The oxidation processes of the electrically exploded aluminum nanopowders in water and in wet air are examined in the paper. The morphology of the intermediate reaction products of aluminum oxidation has been studied using the transmission electron microscopy. It was shown that the aluminum nanopowder water oxidation causes the formation of the hollow spheres with mesoporous boehmite nanosheets coating. The wedge-like bayerite particles are formed during aluminum nanopowder wet air oxidation.

  19. Specific features of aluminum nanoparticle water and wet air oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozhkomoev, Aleksandr S.; Glazkova, Elena A.; Svarovskaya, Natalia V.; Bakina, Olga V.; Kazantsev, Sergey O.; Lerner, Marat I.

    2015-10-01

    The oxidation processes of the electrically exploded aluminum nanopowders in water and in wet air are examined in the paper. The morphology of the intermediate reaction products of aluminum oxidation has been studied using the transmission electron microscopy. It was shown that the aluminum nanopowder water oxidation causes the formation of the hollow spheres with mesoporous boehmite nanosheets coating. The wedge-like bayerite particles are formed during aluminum nanopowder wet air oxidation.

  20. Aeroacoustic Characteristics of Model Jet Test Facility Flow Conditioners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinzie, Kevin W.; Henderson, Brenda S.; Haskin, Harry H.

    2005-01-01

    An experimental investigation of flow conditioning devices used to suppress internal rig noise in high speed, high temperature experimental jet facilities is discussed. The aerodynamic and acoustic characteristics of a number of devices including pressure loss and extraneous noise generation are measured. Both aerodynamic and acoustic characteristics are strongly dependent on the porosity of the flow conditioner and the closure ratio of the duct system. For unchoked flow conditioners, the pressure loss follows conventional incompressible flow models. However, for choked flow conditioners, a compressible flow model where the duct and flow conditioner system is modeled as a convergent-divergent nozzle can be used to estimate pressure loss. Choked flow conditioners generate significantly more noise than unchoked conditioners. In addition, flow conditioners with small hole diameters or sintered metal felt material generate less self-noise noise compared to flow conditioners with larger holes.

  1. Polysaccharide (guar) as a soil conditioner. [Cyamopsis tetragonoloba

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, A.

    1986-05-01

    The author tested a polysaccharide (guar) derived from guar bean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L. Taub.) was tested in soil flocculation tests and found that use of acid solutions to fully dissolve the guar leads to more effective soil conditioning than otherwise would be possible, and that guar does not lead to strong water-stable aggregates. Larger quantities were needed to improve emergence and growth of plants in a glasshouse than for synthetic soil conditioners. The effects of soil conditioning with guar did not last long.

  2. Photovoltaic array: Power conditioner interface characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez, C. C.; Hill, G. M.; Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The electrical output (power, current, and voltage) of flat plate solar arrays changes constantly, due primarily to changes in cell temperature and irradiance level. As a result, array loads such as dc-to-ac power conditioners must be capable of accommodating widely varying input levels while maintaining operation at or near the maximum power point of the array. The array operating characteristics and extreme output limits necessary for the systematic design of array load interfaces under a wide variety of climatic conditions are studied. A number of interface parameters are examined, including optimum operating voltage, voltage energy, maximum power and current limits, and maximum open circuit voltage. The effect of array degradation and I-V curve fill factor or the array power conditioner interface is also discussed. Results are presented as normalized ratios of power conditioner parameters to array parameters, making the results universally applicable to a wide variety of system sizes, sites, and operating modes.

  3. Cold water aquifer storage. [air conditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddell, D. L.; Davison, R. R.; Harris, W. B.

    1980-01-01

    A working prototype system is described in which water is pumped from an aquifer at 70 F in the winter time, chilled to a temperature of less than 50 F, injected into a ground-water aquifer, stored for a period of several months, pumped back to the surface in the summer time. A total of 8.1 million gallons of chilled water at an average temperature of 48 F were injected. This was followed by a storage period of 100 days. The recovery cycle was completed a year later with a total of 8.1 million gallons recovered. Approximately 20 percent of the chill energy was recovered.

  4. 21 CFR 882.1845 - Physiological signal conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Physiological signal conditioner. 882.1845 Section... signal conditioner. (a) Identification. A physiological signal conditioner is a device such as an integrator or differentiator used to modify physiological signals for recording and processing....

  5. 21 CFR 882.1845 - Physiological signal conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Physiological signal conditioner. 882.1845 Section... signal conditioner. (a) Identification. A physiological signal conditioner is a device such as an integrator or differentiator used to modify physiological signals for recording and processing....

  6. 21 CFR 882.1845 - Physiological signal conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Physiological signal conditioner. 882.1845 Section... signal conditioner. (a) Identification. A physiological signal conditioner is a device such as an integrator or differentiator used to modify physiological signals for recording and processing....

  7. 21 CFR 882.1845 - Physiological signal conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Physiological signal conditioner. 882.1845 Section... signal conditioner. (a) Identification. A physiological signal conditioner is a device such as an integrator or differentiator used to modify physiological signals for recording and processing....

  8. 21 CFR 882.1845 - Physiological signal conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Physiological signal conditioner. 882.1845 Section... signal conditioner. (a) Identification. A physiological signal conditioner is a device such as an integrator or differentiator used to modify physiological signals for recording and processing....

  9. Minimizing the water and air impacts of unconventional energy extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, R. B.

    2014-12-01

    Unconventional energy generates income and, done well, can reduce air pollution compared to other fossil fuels and even water use compared to fossil fuels and nuclear energy. Alternatively, it could slow the adoption of renewables and, done poorly, release toxic chemicals into water and air. Based on research to date, some primary threats to water resources come from surface spills, wastewater disposal, and drinking-water contamination through poor well integrity. For air resources, an increase in volatile organic compounds and air toxics locally is a potential health threat, but the switch from coal to natural gas for electricity generation will reduce sulfur, nitrogen, mercury, and particulate pollution regionally. Critical needs for future research include data for 1) estimated ultimate recovery (EUR) of unconventional hydrocarbons; 2) the potential for further reductions of water requirements and chemical toxicity; 3) whether unconventional resource development alters the frequency of well-integrity failures; 4) potential contamination of surface and ground waters from drilling and spills; and 5) the consequences of greenhouse gases and air pollution on ecosystems and human health.

  10. Forced convection heat transfer to air/water vapor mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, D. R.; Florschuetz, L. W.

    1984-01-01

    Heat transfer coefficients were measured using both dry and humid air in the same forced convection cooling scheme and were compared using appropriate nondimensional parameters (Nusselt, Prandtl and Reynolds numbers). A forced convection scheme with a complex flow field, two dimensional arrays of circular jets with crossflow, was utilized with humidity ratios (mass ratio of water vapor to air) up to 0.23. The dynamic viscosity, thermal conductivity and specific heat of air, steam and air/steam mixtures are examined. Methods for determining gaseous mixture properties from the properties of their pure components are reviewed as well as methods for determining these properties with good confidence. The need for more experimentally determined property data for humid air is discussed. It is concluded that dimensionless forms of forced convection heat transfer data and empirical correlations based on measurements with dry air may be applied to conditions involving humid air with the same confidence as for the dry air case itself, provided that the thermophysical properties of the humid air mixtures are known with the same confidence as their dry air counterparts.

  11. Interrelationships of petiole air canal architecture, water depth and convective air flow in Nymphaea odorata (Nymphaeaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Premise of the study--Nymphaea odorata grows in water up to 2 m deep, producing fewer, larger leaves in deeper water. This species has a convective flow system that moves gases from younger leaves through submerged parts to older leaves, aerating submerged parts. Petiole air canals are in the conv...

  12. Utilizing air purge to reduce water contamination of lube systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sirois, H.J.

    1994-12-31

    Lubrication systems are exposed to contaminants including dirt, process dilutants and water. Water contamination of lubricating oil is commonly experienced by users of machinery such as steam and gas turbines, compressors, pumps, motors, generators and others. Poorly designed or maintained turbomachinery features such as bearing housing seals and shaft packing do not prevent moisture laden air, the primary source of water, from entering the lube system. This paper presents a case history where a mechanical drive steam turbine and boiler feed pump was experiencing severe water contamination of the lube system. Bearing and control system component failures resulted from water induced corrosion. Various systems and approaches for dealing with this contamination are reviewed. Installation of a very simple and cost effective system using low pressure air applied directly to the bearing housing oil seals proved a most effective method for eliminating measurable water contamination of the lubrication system and can be applied to machinery of all types.

  13. Plants Clean Air and Water for Indoor Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Wolverton Environmental Services Inc., founded by longtime government environmental scientist B.C. "Bill" Wolverton, is an environmental consulting firm that gives customers access to the results of his decades of cutting-edge bioremediation research. Findings about how to use plants to improve indoor air quality have been published in dozens of NASA technical papers and in the book, "How to Grow Fresh Air: 50 Houseplants That Purify Your Home or Office." The book has now been translated into 12 languages and has been on the shelves of bookstores for nearly 10 years. A companion book, "Growing Clean Water: Nature's Solution to Water Pollution," explains how plants can clean waste water. Other discoveries include that the more air that is allowed to circulate through the roots of the plants, the more effective they are at cleaning polluted air; and that plants play a psychological role in welfare in that people recover from illness faster in the presence of plants. Wolverton Environmental is also working in partnership with Syracuse University, to engineer systems consisting of modular wicking filters tied into duct work and water supplies, essentially tying plant-based filters into heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. Also, the company has recently begun to assess the ability of the EcoPlanter to remove formaldehyde from interior environments. Wolverton Environmental is also in talks with designers of the new Stennis Visitor's Center, who are interested in using its designs for indoor air-quality filters

  14. Methane flux across the air-water interface - Air velocity effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sebacher, D. I.; Harriss, R. C.; Bartlett, K. B.

    1983-01-01

    Methane loss to the atmosphere from flooded wetlands is influenced by the degree of supersaturation and wind stress at the water surface. Measurements in freshwater ponds in the St. Marks Wildlife Refuge, Florida, demonstrated that for the combined variability of CH4 concentrations in surface water and air velocity over the water surface, CH4 flux varied from 0.01 to 1.22 g/sq m/day. The liquid exchange coefficient for a two-layer model of the gas-liquid interface was calculated as 1.7 cm/h for CH4 at air velocity of zero and as 1.1 + 1.2 v to the 1.96th power cm/h for air velocities from 1.4 to 3.5 m/s and water temperatures of 20 C.

  15. 33 CFR 334.490 - Atlantic Ocean off Georgia Coast; air-to-air and air-to-water gunnery and bombing ranges for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean off Georgia Coast; air-to-air and air-to-water gunnery and bombing ranges for fighter and bombardment aircraft, U.S. Air... ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.490 Atlantic Ocean...

  16. 33 CFR 334.490 - Atlantic Ocean off Georgia Coast; air-to-air and air-to-water gunnery and bombing ranges for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean off Georgia Coast; air-to-air and air-to-water gunnery and bombing ranges for fighter and bombardment aircraft, U.S. Air... ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.490 Atlantic Ocean...

  17. 33 CFR 334.490 - Atlantic Ocean off Georgia Coast; air-to-air and air-to-water gunnery and bombing ranges for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean off Georgia Coast; air-to-air and air-to-water gunnery and bombing ranges for fighter and bombardment aircraft, U.S. Air... ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.490 Atlantic Ocean...

  18. Behavior of Water Jet Accompanied with Air Suction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawakami, Hironobu; Ishido, Tsutomu; Ihara, Akio

    In order to atomize a liquid, the authors have investigated the behavior of air-water jets. In a series of experiments, we have discovered a strange phenomenon that the water jet accompanied with air suction from the free surface has made a periodic radial splash of water drop. The purpose of the present paper is to clear out the origin of this phenomenon and the behavior of water jet accompanied with air suction. The behavior of water jet has been photographed by a digital camera aided with a flashlight and high-speed video camera. Those experiments enable us to find the origin of a periodic radial splash due to a formation of single air bubble at the flow separation region inside the nozzle and due to explosive expansion of the bubble after injected in the free space. In order to analyze the radial splash of water, we have conducted the equation of spherical liquid membrane. The numerical results obtained have been compared with the experimental results and good agreement has been obtained in radial expansion velocity.

  19. Water Tank with Capillary Air/Liquid Separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ungar, Eugene K.; Smith, Frederick; Edeen, Gregg; Almlie, Jay C.

    2010-01-01

    A bladderless water tank (see figure) has been developed that contains capillary devices that allow it to be filled and emptied, as needed, in microgravity. When filled with water, the tank shields human occupants of a spacecraft against cosmic radiation. A membrane that is permeable by air but is hydrophobic (neither wettable nor permeable by liquid water) covers one inside surface of the tank. Grooves between the surface and the membrane allow air to flow through vent holes in the surface as the tank is filled or drained. A margin of wettable surface surrounds the edges of the membrane, and all the other inside tank surfaces are also wettable. A fill/drain port is located in one corner of the tank and is covered with a hydrophilic membrane. As filling begins, water runs from the hydrophilic membrane into the corner fillets of the tank walls. Continued filling in the absence of gravity will result in a single contiguous air bubble that will be vented through the hydrophobic membrane. The bubble will be reduced in size until it becomes spherical and smaller than the tank thickness. Draining the tank reverses the process. Air is introduced through the hydrophobic membrane, and liquid continuity is maintained with the fill/drain port through the corner fillets. Even after the tank is emptied, as long as the suction pressure on the hydrophilic membrane does not exceed its bubble point, no air will be drawn into the liquid line.

  20. A novel membrane device for the removal of water vapor and water droplets from air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Rod; Newbold, David D.; Mccray, Scott B.; Friesen, Dwayne T.; Kliss, Mark

    1992-01-01

    One of the key challenges facing NASA engineers is the development of systems for separating liquids and gases in microgravity environments. In this paper, a novel membrane-based phase separator is described. This device, known as a water recovery heat exchanger (WRHEX), overcomes the inherent deficiencies of current phase-separation technology. Specifically, the WRHEX cools and removes water vapor or water droplets from feed-air streams without the use of a vacuum or centrifugal force. As is shown in this paper, only a low-power air blower and a small stream of recirculated cool water is required for WRHEX operation. This paper presents the results of tests using this novel membrane device over a wide range of operating conditions. The data show that the WRHEX produces a dry air stream containing no entrained or liquid water - even when the feed air contains water droplets or mist. An analysis of the operation of the WRHEX is presented.

  1. 16 CFR 305.11 - Labeling for refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, freezers, dishwashers, clothes washers, water...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... air conditioners and pool heaters must contain the model's energy efficiency rating or thermal... CONGRESS RULE CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES AND OTHER PRODUCTS REQUIRED UNDER THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT (âAPPLIANCE LABELING...

  2. 16 CFR 305.11 - Labeling for refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, freezers, dishwashers, clothes washers, water...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... air conditioners and pool heaters must contain the model's energy efficiency rating or thermal... CONGRESS RULE CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES AND OTHER PRODUCTS REQUIRED UNDER THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT (âAPPLIANCE LABELING...

  3. 16 CFR 305.11 - Labeling for refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, freezers, dishwashers, clothes washers, water...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Labeling for refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, freezers, dishwashers, clothes washers, water heaters, room air conditioners, and pool heaters. 305.11 Section 305.11 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULE CONCERNING...

  4. Economics of water injected air screw compressor systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venu Madhav, K.; Kovačević, A.

    2015-08-01

    There is a growing need for compressed air free of entrained oil to be used in industry. In many cases it can be supplied by oil flooded screw compressors with multi stage filtration systems, or by oil free screw compressors. However, if water injected screw compressors can be made to operate reliably, they could be more efficient and therefore cheaper to operate. Unfortunately, to date, such machines have proved to be insufficiently reliable and not cost effective. This paper describes an investigation carried out to determine the current limitations of water injected screw compressor systems and how these could be overcome in the 15-315 kW power range and delivery pressures of 6-10 bar. Modern rotor profiles and approach to sealing and cooling allow reasonably inexpensive air end design. The prototype of the water injected screw compressor air system was built and tested for performance and reliability. The water injected compressor system was compared with the oil injected and oil free compressor systems of the equivalent size including the economic analysis based on the lifecycle costs. Based on the obtained results, it was concluded that water injected screw compressor systems could be designed to deliver clean air free of oil contamination with a better user value proposition than the oil injected or oil free screw compressor systems over the considered range of operations.

  5. Water, Air, Earth and Cosmic Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassez, Marie-Paule

    2015-06-01

    In the context of the origin of life, rocks are considered mainly for catalysis and adsorption-desorption processes. Here it is shown how some rocks evolve in energy and might induce synthesis of molecules of biological interest. Radioactive rocks are a source of thermal energy and water radiolysis producing molecular hydrogen, H2. Mafic and ultramafic rocks evolve in water and dissolved carbon dioxide releasing thermal energy and H2. Peridotites and basalts contain ferromagnesian minerals which transform through exothermic reactions with the generation of heat. These reactions might be triggered by any heating process such as radioactive decay, hydrothermal and subduction zones or post-shock of meteorite impacts. H2 might then be generated from endothermic hydrolyses of the ferromagnesian minerals olivine and pyroxene. In both cases of mafic and radioactive rocks, production of CO might occur through high temperature hydrogenation of CO2. CO, instead of CO2, was proven to be necessary in experiments synthesizing biological-type macromolecules with a gaseous mixture of CO, N2 and H2O. In the geological context, N2 is present in the environment, and the activation source might arise from cosmic radiation and/or radionuclides. Ferromagnesian and radioactive rocks might consequently be a starting point of an hydrothermal chemical evolution towards the abiotic formation of biological molecules. The two usually separate worlds of rocks and life are shown to be connected through molecular and thermodynamic chemical evolution. This concept has been proposed earlier by the author (Bassez J Phys: Condens Matter 15:L353-L361, 2003, 2008a, 2008b; Bassez Orig Life Evol Biosph 39(3-4):223-225, 2009; Bassez et al. 2011; Bassez et al. Orig Life Evol Biosph 42(4):307-316, 2012, Bassez 2013) without thermodynamic details. This concept leads to signatures of prebiotic chemistry such as radionuclides and also iron and magnesium carbonates associated with serpentine and/or talc, which

  6. Water, air, Earth and cosmic radiation.

    PubMed

    Bassez, Marie-Paule

    2015-06-01

    In the context of the origin of life, rocks are considered mainly for catalysis and adsorption-desorption processes. Here it is shown how some rocks evolve in energy and might induce synthesis of molecules of biological interest. Radioactive rocks are a source of thermal energy and water radiolysis producing molecular hydrogen, H2. Mafic and ultramafic rocks evolve in water and dissolved carbon dioxide releasing thermal energy and H2. Peridotites and basalts contain ferromagnesian minerals which transform through exothermic reactions with the generation of heat. These reactions might be triggered by any heating process such as radioactive decay, hydrothermal and subduction zones or post-shock of meteorite impacts. H2 might then be generated from endothermic hydrolyses of the ferromagnesian minerals olivine and pyroxene. In both cases of mafic and radioactive rocks, production of CO might occur through high temperature hydrogenation of CO2. CO, instead of CO2, was proven to be necessary in experiments synthesizing biological-type macromolecules with a gaseous mixture of CO, N2 and H2O. In the geological context, N2 is present in the environment, and the activation source might arise from cosmic radiation and/or radionuclides. Ferromagnesian and radioactive rocks might consequently be a starting point of an hydrothermal chemical evolution towards the abiotic formation of biological molecules. The two usually separate worlds of rocks and life are shown to be connected through molecular and thermodynamic chemical evolution. This concept has been proposed earlier by the author (Bassez J Phys: Condens Matter 15:L353-L361, 2003, 2008a, 2008b; Bassez Orig Life Evol Biosph 39(3-4):223-225, 2009; Bassez et al. 2011; Bassez et al. Orig Life Evol Biosph 42(4):307-316, 2012, Bassez 2013) without thermodynamic details. This concept leads to signatures of prebiotic chemistry such as radionuclides and also iron and magnesium carbonates associated with serpentine and/or talc

  7. 33 CFR 334.490 - Atlantic Ocean off Georgia Coast; air-to-air and air-to-water gunnery and bombing ranges for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean off Georgia Coast; air-to-air and air-to-water gunnery and bombing ranges for fighter and bombardment aircraft, U.S. Air Force. 334.490 Section 334.490 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE...

  8. Propagation of density disturbances in air-water flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nassos, G. P.

    1969-01-01

    Study investigated the behavior of density waves propagating vertically in an atmospheric pressure air-water system using a technique based on the correlation between density change and electric resistivity. This information is of interest to industries working with heat transfer systems and fluid power and control systems.

  9. Earth, Air, Fire and Water in Our Elements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lievesley, Tara

    2007-01-01

    The idea that everything is made of the four "elements", earth, air, fire and water, goes back to the ancient Greeks. In this article, the author talks about the origins of ideas about the elements. The author provides an account that attempts to summarise thousands of years of theoretical development of the elements in a thousand words or so.

  10. MONITORING CYCLICAL AIR-WATER ELEMENTAL MERCURY EXCHANGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous experimental work has demonstrated that elemental mercury evasion from natural water displays a diel cycle; evasion rates during the day can be two to three times evasion rates observed at night. A study with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBS) found that diurnal PCB air/wa...

  11. VOLATILIZATION RATES FROM WATER TO INDOOR AIR PHASE II

    EPA Science Inventory

    Contaminated water can lead to volatilization of chemicals to residential indoor air. Previous research has focused on only one source (shower stalls) and has been limited to chemicals in which gas-phase resistance to mass transfer is of marginal significance. As a result, attemp...

  12. External exposure to radionuclides in air, water, and soil

    SciTech Connect

    Eckerman, K.F.; Ryman, J.C.

    1996-05-01

    Federal Guidance Report No. 12 tabulates dose coefficients for external exposure to photons and electrons emitted by radionuclides distributed in air, water, and soil. The dose coefficients are intended for use by Federal Agencies in calculating the dose equivalent to organs and tissues of the body.

  13. Water and Air Measures That Make 'PureSense'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Each day, we read about mounting global concerns regarding the ability to sustain supplies of clean water and to reduce air contamination. With water and air serving as life s most vital elements, it is important to know when these environmental necessities may be contaminated, in order to eliminate exposure immediately. The ability to respond requires an understanding of the conditions impacting safety and quality, from source to tap for water, and from outdoor to indoor environments for air. Unfortunately, the "time-to-know" is not immediate with many current technologies, which is a major problem, given the greater likelihood of risky situations in today s world. Accelerating alert and response times requires new tools, methods, and technologies. New solutions are needed to engage in more rapid detection, analysis, and response. This is the focus of a company called PureSense Environmental, Inc., which evolved out of a unique relationship with NASA. The need for real-time management and operations over the quality of water and air, and the urgency to provide new solutions, were reinforced by the events of September 11, 2001. This, and subsequent events, exposed many of the vulnerabilities facing the multiple agencies tasked with working in tandem to protect communities from harmful disaster. Much has been done since September 11 to accelerate responses to environmental contamination. Partnerships were forged across the public and private sectors to explore, test, and use new tools. Methods and technologies were adopted to move more astutely from proof-of-concept to working solutions.

  14. Air and water quality monitor assessment of life support subsystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitley, Ken; Carrasquillo, Robyn L.; Holder, D.; Humphries, R.

    1988-01-01

    Preprotype air revitalization and water reclamation subsystems (Mole Sieve, Sabatier, Static Feed Electrolyzer, Trace Contaminant Control, and Thermoelectric Integrated Membrane Evaporative Subsystem) were operated and tested independently and in an integrated arrangement. During each test, water and/or gas samples were taken from each subsystem so that overall subsystem performance could be determined. The overall test design and objectives for both subsystem and integrated subsystem tests were limited, and no effort was made to meet water or gas specifications. The results of chemical analyses for each of the participating subsystems are presented along with other selected samples which were analyzed for physical properties and microbiologicals.

  15. Cell module and fuel conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, D. Q., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The results of the completed tests on Stack 561 and the on-going tests of 562 (23 cell stacks of the MK-1 and M-2 designs respectively) are reported and their performance is compared. Results of the on-going endurance test of Stack 560 (5 cell, MK-2) are reported. Plans for fabrication of Stacks 563 and 564 (23 cell stacks of the MK-1 and MK-2 design) are summarized. Results of the burner tests are given. Excellent performance was achieved on simulated anode exhaust gas over very wide load and air/fuel ranges.

  16. Connecting Water Quality With Air Quality Through Microbial Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dueker, M. Elias

    Aerosol production from surface waters results in the transfer of aquatic materials (including nutrients and bacteria) to air. These materials can then be transported by onshore winds to land, representing a biogeochemical connection between aquatic and terrestrial systems not normally considered. In urban waterfront environments, this transfer could result in emissions of pathogenic bacteria from contaminated waters. Despite the potential importance of this link, sources, near-shore deposition, identity and viability of microbial aerosols are largely uncharacterized. This dissertation focuses on the environmental and biological mechanisms that define this water-air connection, as a means to build our understanding of the biogeochemical, biogeographical, and public health implications of the transfer of surface water materials to the near-shore environment in both urban and non-urban environments. The effects of tidal height, wind speed and fog on coastal aerosols and microbial content were first quantified on a non-urban coast of Maine, USA. Culture-based, culture-independent, and molecular methods were used to simultaneously sample microbial aerosols while monitoring meteorological parameters. Aerosols at this site displayed clear marine influence and high concentrations of ecologically-relevant nutrients. Coarse aerosol concentrations significantly increased with tidal height, onshore wind speed, and fog presence. Tidal height and fog presence did not significantly influence total microbial aerosol concentrations, but did have a significant effect on culturable microbial aerosol fallout. Molecular analyses of the microbes settling out of near-shore aerosols provided further evidence of local ocean to terrestrial transport of microbes. Aerosol and surface ocean bacterial communities shared species and in general were dominated by organisms previously sampled in marine environments. Fog presence strengthened the microbial connection between water and land through

  17. Estuary Turbulence and Air-Water Carbon Dioxide Exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orton, Philip Mark

    The mixing of constituents between estuarine bottom and surface waters or between estuarine surface waters and the atmosphere are two topics of growing interest, in part due to the potentially important role of estuaries in global carbon budgets. These two types of mixing are typically driven by turbulence, and a research project was developed to improve the scientific understanding of atmospheric and tidal controls on estuary turbulence and airwater exchange processes. Highlights of method development and field research on the Hudson River estuary include several deployments of bottom mounted current profilers to quantify the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) budget, and construction and deployment of an instrumented catamaran that makes autonomous measurements of air-water CO2 exchange (FCO2), water TKE dissipation at 50 cm depth (epsilon50), and other physical properties just above and below the air-water interface. On the Hudson, wind correlates strongly with epsilon50, but surface water speed and airwater heat flux also have moderate correlations with epsilon50. In partially mixed estuaries such as the Hudson, as well as salt wedge estuaries, baroclinic pressure forcing typically causes spring ebb tides to have much stronger upper water column shear than flood tides. The Hudson data are used to show that this shear leads to local shear instability and stronger near-surface turbulence on spring ebbs. Also, buoyancy budget terms are compared to demonstrate how water-to-air heat fluxes can influence stratification and indirectly influence epsilon50. Looking more closely at the role of wind forcing, it is demonstrated that inland propagation of the sea breeze on warm sunny days leads to arrival in phase with peak solar forcing at seaward stations, but several hours later at up-estuary stations. Passage of the sea breeze front raises the air-water CO2 flux by 1-2 orders of magnitude, and drives epsilon50 comparable to spring tide levels in the upper meter of the water

  18. Biphilic Surfaces for Enhanced Water Collection from Humid Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benkoski, Jason; Gerasopoulos, Konstantinos; Luedeman, William

    Surface wettability plays an important role in water recovery, distillation, dehumidification, and heat transfer. The efficiency of each process depends on the rate of droplet nucleation, droplet growth, and mass transfer. Unfortunately, hydrophilic surfaces are good at nucleation but poor at shedding. Hydrophobic surfaces are the reverse. Many plants and animals overcome this tradeoff through biphilic surfaces with patterned wettability. For example, the Stenocara beetle uses hydrophilic patches on a superhydrophobic background to collect fog from air. Cribellate spiders similarly collect fog on their webs through periodic spindle-knot structures. In this study, we investigate the effects of wettability patterns on the rate of water collection from humid air. The steady state rate of water collection per unit area is measured as a function of undercooling, angle of inclination, water contact angle, hydrophilic patch size, patch spacing, area fraction, and patch height relative to the hydrophobic background. We then model each pattern by comparing the potential and kinetic energy of a droplet as it rolls downwards at a fixed angle. The results indicate that the design rules for collecting fog differ from those for condensation from humid air. The authors gratefully acknowledge the Office of Naval Research for financial support through Grant Number N00014-15-1-2107.

  19. Simulation Models of Leaf Area Index and Yield for Cotton Grown with Different Soil Conditioners.

    PubMed

    Su, Lijun; Wang, Quanjiu; Wang, Chunxia; Shan, Yuyang

    2015-01-01

    Simulation models of leaf area index (LAI) and yield for cotton can provide a theoretical foundation for predicting future variations in yield. This paper analyses the increase in LAI and the relationships between LAI, dry matter, and yield for cotton under three soil conditioners near Korla, Xinjiang, China. Dynamic changes in cotton LAI were evaluated using modified logistic, Gaussian, modified Gaussian, log normal, and cubic polynomial models. Universal models for simulating the relative leaf area index (RLAI) were established in which the application rate of soil conditioner was used to estimate the maximum LAI (LAIm). In addition, the relationships between LAIm and dry matter mass, yield, and the harvest index were investigated, and a simulation model for yield is proposed. A feasibility analysis of the models indicated that the cubic polynomial and Gaussian models were less accurate than the other three models for simulating increases in RLAI. Despite significant differences in LAIs under the type and amount of soil conditioner applied, LAIm could be described by aboveground dry matter using Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Moreover, the simulation model for cotton yield based on LAIm and the harvest index presented in this work provided important theoretical insights for improving water use efficiency in cotton cultivation and for identifying optimal application rates of soil conditioners. PMID:26536468

  20. Simulation Models of Leaf Area Index and Yield for Cotton Grown with Different Soil Conditioners

    PubMed Central

    Su, Lijun; Wang, Quanjiu; Wang, Chunxia; Shan, Yuyang

    2015-01-01

    Simulation models of leaf area index (LAI) and yield for cotton can provide a theoretical foundation for predicting future variations in yield. This paper analyses the increase in LAI and the relationships between LAI, dry matter, and yield for cotton under three soil conditioners near Korla, Xinjiang, China. Dynamic changes in cotton LAI were evaluated using modified logistic, Gaussian, modified Gaussian, log normal, and cubic polynomial models. Universal models for simulating the relative leaf area index (RLAI) were established in which the application rate of soil conditioner was used to estimate the maximum LAI (LAIm). In addition, the relationships between LAIm and dry matter mass, yield, and the harvest index were investigated, and a simulation model for yield is proposed. A feasibility analysis of the models indicated that the cubic polynomial and Gaussian models were less accurate than the other three models for simulating increases in RLAI. Despite significant differences in LAIs under the type and amount of soil conditioner applied, LAIm could be described by aboveground dry matter using Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Moreover, the simulation model for cotton yield based on LAIm and the harvest index presented in this work provided important theoretical insights for improving water use efficiency in cotton cultivation and for identifying optimal application rates of soil conditioners. PMID:26536468

  1. Proton Transfers at the Air-Water Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Himanshu

    Proton transfer reactions at the interface of water with hydrophobic media, such as air or lipids, are ubiquitous on our planet. These reactions orchestrate a host of vital phenomena in the environment including, for example, acidification of clouds, enzymatic catalysis, chemistries of aerosol and atmospheric gases, and bioenergetic transduction. Despite their importance, however, quantitative details underlying these interactions have remained unclear. Deeper insight into these interfacial reactions is also required in addressing challenges in green chemistry, improved water quality, self-assembly of materials, the next generation of micro-nanofluidics, adhesives, coatings, catalysts, and electrodes. This thesis describes experimental and theoretical investigation of proton transfer reactions at the air-water interface as a function of hydration gradients, electrochemical potential, and electrostatics. Since emerging insights hold at the lipid-water interface as well, this work is also expected to aid understanding of complex biological phenomena associated with proton migration across membranes. Based on our current understanding, it is known that the physicochemical properties of the gas-phase water are drastically different from those of bulk water. For example, the gas-phase hydronium ion, H3O +(g), can protonate most (non-alkane) organic species, whereas H 3O+(aq) can neutralize only relatively strong bases. Thus, to be able to understand and engineer water-hydrophobe interfaces, it is imperative to investigate this fluctuating region of molecular thickness wherein the 'function' of chemical species transitions from one phase to another via steep gradients in hydration, dielectric constant, and density. Aqueous interfaces are difficult to approach by current experimental techniques because designing experiments to specifically sample interfacial layers (< 1 nm thick) is an arduous task. While recent advances in surface-specific spectroscopies have provided

  2. Cell module and fuel conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, D. Q., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The computer code for the detailed analytical model of the MK-2 stacks is described. An ERC proprietary matrix is incorporated in the stacks. The mechanical behavior of the stack during thermal cycles under compression was determined. A 5 cell stack of the MK-2 design was fabricated and tested. Designs for the next three stacks were selected and component fabrication initiated. A 3 cell stack which verified the use of wet assembly and a new acid fill procedure were fabricated and tested. Components for the 2 kW test facility were received or fabricated and construction of the facility is underway. The definition of fuel and water is used in a study of the fuel conditioning subsystem. Kinetic data on several catalysts, both crushed and pellets, was obtained in the differential reactor. A preliminary definition of the equipment requirements for treating tap and recovered water was developed.

  3. Modeling of membrane processes for air revitalization and water recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lange, Kevin E.; Foerg, Sandra L.; Dall-Bauman, Liese A.

    1992-01-01

    Gas-separation and reverse-osmosis membrane models are being developed in conjunction with membrane testing at NASA JSC. The completed gas-separation membrane model extracts effective component permeabilities from multicomponent test data, and predicts the effects of flow configuration, operating conditions, and membrane dimensions on module performance. Variable feed- and permeate-side pressures are considered. The model has been applied to test data for hollow-fiber membrane modules with simulated cabin-air feeds. Results are presented for a membrane designed for air drying applications. Extracted permeabilities are used to predict the effect of operating conditions on water enrichment in the permeate. A first-order reverse-osmosis model has been applied to test data for spiral wound membrane modules with a simulated hygiene water feed. The model estimates an effective local component rejection coefficient under pseudosteady-state conditions. Results are used to define requirements for a detailed reverse-osmosis model.

  4. Modelling of Air Bubble Rising in Water and Polymeric Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, N. M. S.; Khan, M. M. K.; Rasul, M. G.; Subaschandar, N.

    2010-06-01

    This study investigates a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model for a single air bubble rising in water and xanthan gum solution. The bubble rise characteristics through the stagnant water and 0.05% xanthan gum solution in a vertical cylindrical column is modelled using the CFD code Fluent. Single air bubble rise dispersed into the continuous liquid phase has been considered and modelled for two different bubble sizes. Bubble velocity and vorticity magnitudes were captured through a surface-tracking technique i.e. Volume of Fluid (VOF) method by solving a single set of momentum equations and tracking the volume fraction of each fluid throughout the domain. The simulated results of the bubble flow contours at two different heights of the cylindrical column were validated by the experimental results and literature data. The model developed is capable of predicting the entire flow characteristics of different sizes of bubble inside the liquid column.

  5. Use of Surfactants to Decrease Air-Water Interfacial Tension During Sparging (OKC, OK)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air sparging is a remediation procedure of injecting air into polluted ground water. The primary intention of air sparging is to promote biodegradation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the groundwater passing through the treatment sector. Sparging treatment efficiency dep...

  6. Use of Surfactants to Decrease Air-Water Interfacial Tension During Sparging

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air sparging is a remediation procedure of injecting air into polluted ground water. The primary intention of air sparging is to promote biodegradation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the groundwater passing through the treatment sector. Sparging treatment efficiency dep...

  7. Air-water analogy and the study of hydraulic models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Supino, Giulio

    1953-01-01

    The author first sets forth some observations about the theory of models. Then he established certain general criteria for the construction of dynamically similar models in water and in air, through reference to the perfect fluid equations and to the ones pertaining to viscous flow. It is, in addition, pointed out that there are more cases in which the analogy is possible than is commonly supposed.

  8. Air and water pollution control: a benefit-cost assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, A.M. III

    1982-01-01

    Freeman attempts to assess the net benefits associated with environmental programs dealing with air and water quality. He concludes that stationary controls have been justified, but that mobile sources and water controls, as presently designed and implemented, have had costs greater than benefits to society. The reviewer notes that the book is more than just a compendium of mechanistic, technical detail; there is rather, far more general information on how economists view environmental problems than suggested by the title. An example is the discussions of the various approaches to valuing environmental benefits.

  9. Bacterial Swimming at Air/Water and Oil/Water Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morse, Michael; Huang, Athena; Li, Guanglai; Tang, Jay

    2012-02-01

    The microbes inhabiting the planet over billions of years have adapted to diverse physical environments of water, soil, and interfaces between water and either solid or air. Following recent studies on bacterial swimming and accumulation near solid surfaces, we turn our attention to the behavior of Caulobacter crescentus, a singly flagellated bacterium, at water/air and water/oil interfaces. The latter is motivated by relevance to microbial degradation of crude oil in light of the recent oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. Our ongoing study suggests that Caulobacter swarmer cells tend to get physically trapped at both water/air and water/oil interfaces, accumulating at the surface to a greater degree than boundary confinement properties like that of solid surfaces would predict. At the water/air interface, swimmers move in tight circles at half the speed of swimmers in the bulk fluid. At the water/oil interface, swimming circles are even tighter with further reduced swimming speed. We report experimental data and present preliminary analysis of the findings based on low Reynolds number hydrodynamics, the known surface tension, and surface viscosity at the interface. The analysis will help determine properties of the bacterium such as their surface charge and hydrophobicity.

  10. Tangential stress beneath wind-driven air water interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banner, Michael L.; Peirson, William L.

    1998-06-01

    The detailed structure of the aqueous surface sublayer flow immediately adjacent to the wind-driven air water interface is investigated in a laboratory wind-wave flume using particle image velocimetry (PIV) techniques. The goal is to investigate quantitatively the character of the flow in this crucial, very thin region which is often disrupted by microscale breaking events. In this study, we also examine critically the conclusions of Okuda, Kawai & Toba (1977), who argued that for very short, strongly forced wind-wave conditions, shear stress is the dominant mechanism for transmitting the atmospheric wind stress into the water motion waves and surface drift currents. In strong contrast, other authors have more recently observed very substantial normal stress contributions on the air side. The availability of PIV and associated image technology now permits a timely re-examination of the results of Okuda et al., which have been influential in shaping present perceptions of the physics of this dynamically important region. The PIV technique used in the present study overcomes many of the inherent shortcomings of the hydrogen bubble measurements, and allows reliable determination of the fluid velocity and shear within 200 [mu]m of the instantaneous wind-driven air water interface.

  11. Coaxial injector spray characterization using water/air as simulants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaller, Michelle M.; Klem, Mark D.

    1991-01-01

    Quantitative information about the atomization of injector sprays is required to improve the accuracy of computational models that predict the performance and stability of liquid propellant rocket engines. An experimental program is being conducted at NASA-Lewis to measure the drop size and velocity distributions in shear coaxial injector sprays. A phase/Doppler interferometer is used to obtain drop size data in water air shear coaxial injector sprays. Droplet sizes and axial component of droplet velocities are measured at different radii for various combinations of water flow rate, air flow rate, injector liquid jet diameter, injector annular gap, and liquid post recess. Sauter mean diameters measured in the spray center 51 mm downstream of the liquid post tip range from 28 to 68 microns, and mean axial drop velocities at the same location range from 37 to 120 m/s. The shear coaxial injector sprays show a high degree of symmetry; the mean drop size and velocity profiles vary with liquid flow rate, post recess, and distance from the injector face. The drop size data can be used to estimate liquid oxygen/hydrogen spray drop sizes by correcting property differences between water-air and liquid oxygen/hydrogen.

  12. New research on bioregenerative air/water purification systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Anne H.; Ellender, R. D.; Watkins, Paul J.

    1991-01-01

    For the past several years, air and water purification systems have been developed and used. This technology is based on the combined activities of plants and microorganisms as they function in a natural environment. More recently, researchers have begun to address the problems associated with indoor air pollution. Various common houseplants are currently being evaluated for their abilities to reduce concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCS) such as formaldehyde and benzene. With development of the Space Exploration Initiative, missions will increase in duration, and problems with resupply necessitates implementation of regenerative technology. Aspects of bioregenerative technology have been included in a habitat known as the BioHome. The ultimate goal is to use this technology in conjunction with physicochemical systems for air and water purification within closed systems. This study continued the risk assessment of bioregenerative technology with emphasis on biological hazards. In an effort to evaluate the risk for human infection, analyses were directed at enumeration of fecal streptococci and enteric viruses with the BioHome waste water treatment system.

  13. Energy and air emission effects of water supply.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Jennifer R; Horvath, Arpad

    2009-04-15

    Life-cycle air emission effects of supplying water are explored using a hybrid life-cycle assessment For the typically sized U.S. utility analyzed, recycled water is preferable to desalination and comparable to importation. Seawater desalination has an energy and air emission footprint that is 1.5-2.4 times larger than that of imported water. However, some desalination modes fare better; brackish groundwater is 53-66% as environmentally intensive as seawater desalination. The annual water needs (326 m3) of a typical Californian that is met with imported water requires 5.8 GJ of energy and creates 360 kg of CO2 equivalent emissions. With seawater desalination, energy use would increase to 14 GJ and 800 kg of CO2 equivalent emissions. Meeting the water demand of California with desalination would consume 52% of the state's electricity. Supply options were reassessed using alternative electricity mixes, including the average mix of the United States and several renewable sources. Desalination using solar thermal energy has lower greenhouse gas emissions than that of imported and recycled water (using California's electricity mix), but using the U.S. mix increases the environmental footprint by 1.5 times. A comparison with a more energy-intensive international scenario shows that CO2 equivalent emissions for desalination in Dubai are 1.6 times larger than in California. The methods, decision support tool (WEST), and results of this study should persuade decision makers to make informed water policy choices by including energy consumption and material use effects in the decision-making process. PMID:19475934

  14. Energy-Efficient Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Krigger, J.; Stewart, K.

    1999-06-30

    Many people buy or use air conditioners without understanding their designs, components, and operating principles. Proper sizing, selection, installation, maintenance, and correct use are keys to cost-effective operation and lower overall costs. This publication discusses both central and room air conditioners. Heat pumps, which provide both home cooling and heating, are not covered in this publication. Contact www.eren.doe.gov/consumerinfo for more information.

  15. AirSWOT: An Airborne Platform for Surface Water Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, E.; Moller, D.; Smith, L. C.; Pavelsky, T. M.; Alsdorf, D. E.

    2010-12-01

    The SWOT mission, expected to launch in 2020, will provide global measurements of surface water extent and elevation from which storage change and discharge can be derived. SWOT-like measurements are not routinely used by the hydrology community, and their optimal use and associated errors are areas of active research. The purpose of AirSWOT, a system that has been proposed to NASA’s Instrument Incubator Program, is to provide SWOT-like measurements to the hydrology and ocean community to be used to advance the understanding and use of SWOT data in the pre-launch phase. In the post-launch phase, AirSWOT will be used as the SWOT calibration/validation platform. The AirSWOT payload will consist of Kaspar, a multi-beam Ka-band radar interferometer able to produce elevations over a 5 km swath with centimetric precision. The absolute elevation accuracy of the AirSWOT system will be achieved with a combination of high precision Inertial Motion Units (IMUs), ground calibration points, and advanced calibration techniques utilizing a priori knowledge. It is expected that the accuracy of AirSWOT will exceed or match SWOT’s accuracy requirements. In addition to elevation measurements, the AirSWOT payload will include a near-infrared camera able to provide coincident high-resolution optical imagery of the water bodies imaged by the radar. In its initial hydrology deployments, AirSWOT will investigate four field sites: the Ohio-Mississippi confluence, the lower Atchafalaya River on the Mississippi River Delta, the Yukon River basin near Fairbanks, and the Sacramento River, California. The Ohio-Mississippi confluence is targeted for its large discharge, modest slope, and control structures that modulate Ohio but not Mississippi River slopes and elevations. The lower Atchafalaya River includes low slopes, wetlands with differing vegetation types, and some open lakes. Vegetation includes Cyprus forests, floating macrophytes, and grass marshes, all of which impact radar returns

  16. Cell module and fuel conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, D. Q., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Stack tests indicate that the discrepancies between calculated and measured temperature profiles are due to reactant cross-over and a lower than expected thermal conductivity of cells. Preliminary results indicate that acceptable contact resistance between cooling plane halves can be achieved without the use of paper. The preliminary design of the enclosure, definition of required labor and equipment for manufacturing repeating components, and the assembly procedures for the benchwork design were developed. Fabrication of components for a second 5-cell stack of the MK-2 design and a second 23-cell stack of the MK-1 design was started. The definition of water and fuel for the reforming subsystem was developed along with a preliminary definition of the control system for the subsystem. The construction and shakedown of the differential catalytic reactor was completed and testing of the first catalyst initiated.

  17. High Efficiency Integrated Space Conditioning, Water Heating and Air Distribution System for HUD-Code Manufactured Housing

    SciTech Connect

    Henry DeLima; Joe Akin; Joseph Pietsch

    2008-09-14

    Recognizing the need for new space conditioning and water heating systems for manufactured housing, DeLima Associates assembled a team to develop a space conditioning system that would enhance comfort conditions while also reducing energy usage at the systems level. The product, Comboflair® was defined as a result of a needs analysis of project sponsors and industry stakeholders. An integrated system would be developed that would combine a packaged airconditioning system with a small-duct, high-velocity air distribution system. In its basic configuration, the source for space heating would be a gas water heater. The complete system would be installed at the manufactured home factory and would require no site installation work at the homesite as is now required with conventional split-system air conditioners. Several prototypes were fabricated and tested before a field test unit was completed in October 2005. The Comboflair® system, complete with ductwork, was installed in a 1,984 square feet, double-wide manufactured home built by Palm Harbor Homes in Austin, TX. After the home was transported and installed at a Palm Harbor dealer lot in Austin, TX, a data acquisition system was installed for remote data collection. Over 60 parameters were continuously monitored and measurements were transmitted to a remote site every 15 minutes for performance analysis. The Comboflair® system was field tested from February 2006 until April 2007. The cooling system performed in accordance with the design specifications. The heating system initially could not provide the needed capacity at peak heating conditions until the water heater was replaced with a higher capacity standard water heater. All system comfort goals were then met. As a result of field testing, we have identified improvements to be made to specific components for incorporation into production models. The Comboflair® system will be manufactured by Unico, Inc. at their new production facility in St. Louis

  18. Cell module and fuel conditioner development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, D. Q., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The test results of and post test analysis of Stack 559 are reported. The design features and construction status of Stacks 560, 561, 562 and 563 are described. The measurements of cell materials compressibility are rationalized and summarized and an explanation of their uses is given. Preliminary results of a manifold material/coating survey are given. The results of shift converter catalyst performance tests and reforming catalyst aging tests are reported. State points for full load and part load operation of the fuel conditioning subsystem tabulated. Work on the data base for the fuel conditioner ancillary subsystems is summarized.

  19. 78 FR 37713 - Safety Zone; Chicago Air and Water Show; Lake Michigan; Chicago, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-24

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Chicago Air and Water Show; Lake Michigan; Chicago, IL... enforce the safety zone on Lake Michigan near Chicago, Illinois for the Chicago Air and Water Show. This... Chicago Air and Water Show. During the aforementioned periods, the Coast Guard will enforce...

  20. 78 FR 37710 - Safety Zone; Milwaukee Air and Water Show; Lake Michigan; Milwaukee, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-24

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Milwaukee Air and Water Show; Lake Michigan; Milwaukee... will enforce the safety zone on Lake Michigan in Milwaukee, Wisconsin for the Milwaukee Air and Water... 2013 Milwaukee Air and Water Show. During the aforementioned periods, the Coast Guard will...

  1. 14 CFR 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. 1274... AGREEMENTS WITH COMMERCIAL FIRMS Other Provisions and Special Conditions § 1274.926 Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002 If this cooperative agreement or...

  2. Air/water oxydesulfurization of coal: laboratory investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Warzinski, R. P.; Friedman, S.; Ruether, J. A.; LaCount, R. B.

    1980-08-01

    Air/water oxidative desulfurization has been demonstrated in autoclave experiments at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center for various coals representative of the major US coal basins. This experimentation has shown that the reaction proceeds effectively for pulverized coals at temperatures of 150 to 200/sup 0/C with air at a total system pressure of 500 to 1500 psig. Above 200/sup 0/C, the loss of coal and product heating value increases due to oxidative consumption of carbon and hydrogen. The pyritic sulfur solubilization reactions are typically complete (95 percent removal) within 15 to 40 minutes at temperature; however, significant apparent organic sulfur removal requires residence times of up to 60 minutes at the higher temperatures. The principal products of the reaction are sulfuric acid, which can be neutralized with limestone, and iron oxide. Under certain conditions, especially for high pyritic sulfur coals, the precipitation of sulfur-containing compounds from the products of the pyrite reaction may cause anomalous variations in the sulfur form data. The influence of various parameters on the efficiency of sulfur removal from coal by air/water oxydesulfurization has been studied.

  3. 21 CFR 870.2060 - Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner. 870.2060 Section 870.2060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner. (a) Identification. A transducer signal amplifier...

  4. 21 CFR 870.2050 - Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner. 870.2050 Section 870.2050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner. (a) Identification. A biopotential amplifier and...

  5. 21 CFR 870.2050 - Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner. 870.2050 Section 870.2050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner. (a) Identification. A biopotential amplifier and...

  6. 21 CFR 870.2050 - Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner. 870.2050 Section 870.2050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner. (a) Identification. A biopotential amplifier and...

  7. 21 CFR 870.2050 - Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner. 870.2050 Section 870.2050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner. (a) Identification. A biopotential amplifier and...

  8. 21 CFR 870.2060 - Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner. 870.2060 Section 870.2060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner. (a) Identification. A transducer signal amplifier...

  9. 21 CFR 870.2060 - Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner. 870.2060 Section 870.2060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner. (a) Identification. A transducer signal amplifier...

  10. 21 CFR 870.2050 - Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner. 870.2050 Section 870.2050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner. (a) Identification. A biopotential amplifier and...

  11. 21 CFR 870.2060 - Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner. 870.2060 Section 870.2060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner. (a) Identification. A transducer signal amplifier...

  12. 21 CFR 870.2060 - Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner. 870.2060 Section 870.2060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner. (a) Identification. A transducer signal amplifier...

  13. New Mechanistic Pathways for Criegee-Water Chemistry at the Air/Water Interface.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chongqin; Kumar, Manoj; Zhong, Jie; Li, Lei; Francisco, Joseph S; Zeng, Xiao Cheng

    2016-09-01

    Understanding Criegee chemistry has become one of central topics in atmospheric research recently. The reaction of Criegee intermediates with gas-phase water clusters has been widely viewed as a key Criegee reaction in the troposphere. However, the effect of aerosols or clouds on Criegee chemistry has received little attention. In this work, we have investigated the reaction between the smallest Criegee intermediate, CH2OO, and water clusters in the gas phase, as well as at the air/water surface using ab initio quantum chemical calculations and adaptive buffered force quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) dynamics simulations. Our simulation results show that the typical time scale for the reaction of CH2OO with water at the air/water interface is on the order of a few picoseconds, 2-3 orders of magnitude shorter than that in the gas phase. Importantly, the adbf-QM/MM dynamics simulations suggest several reaction pathways for the CH2OO + water reaction at the air/water interface, including the loop-structure-mediated mechanism and the stepwise mechanism. Contrary to the conventional gas-phase CH2OO reaction, the loop-structure is not a prerequisite for the stepwise mechanism. For the latter, a water molecule and the CH2OO at the air/water interface, upon their interaction, can result in the formation of (H3O)(+) and (OH)CH2(OO)(-). Thereafter, a hydrogen bond can be formed between (H3O)(+) and the terminal oxygen atom of (OH)CH2(OO)(-), leading to direct proton transfer and the formation of α-hydroxy methylperoxide, HOCH2OOH. The mechanistic insights obtained from this simulation study should motivate future experimental studies of the effect of water clouds on Criegee chemistry. PMID:27509207

  14. Hurricane Isabel, Amount of Atmospheric Water Vapor Observed By AIRS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    These false-color images show the amount of atmospheric water vapor observed by AIRS two weeks prior to the passage of Hurricane Isabel, and then when it was a Category 5 storm. The region shown includes parts of South America and the West Indies. Puerto Rico is the large island below the upper left corner.

    Total water vapor represents the depth of a layer if all the water vapor in the atmosphere were to condense and fall to the surface. The color bar on the right sides of the plots give the thickness of this layer in millimeters (mm). The first image, from August 28, shows typical tropical water vapor amounts over the ocean: between roughly 25 and 50 mm, or 1 to 2 inches. The highest values of roughly 80 mm, seen as a red blob over South America, corresponds to intense thunderstorms. Thunderstorms pull in water vapor from surrounding regions and concentrate it, with much of it then falling as rain.

    Figure 1 shows total water during the passage of Hurricane Isabel on September 13. The storm is apparent: the ring of moderate values surrounding a very strong maximum of 100 mm. Total water of more than 80 mm is unusual, and these values correspond to the intense thunderstorms contained within Isabel. The thunderstorms--and the large values of total water--are fed by evaporation from the ocean in the hurricane's high winds. The water vapor near the center of the storm does not remain there long, since hurricane rain rates as high 50 mm (2 inches) per hour imply rapid cycling of the water we observe. Away from the storm the amount of total water vapor is rather low, associated with fair weather where air that ascended near the storm's eye returns to earth, having dropped its moisture as rain. Also seen in the second images are two small regions of about 70 mm of total water over south America. These are yet more thunderstorms, though likely much more benign than those in Isabel.

    The

  15. Air-water partitioning of 222Rn and its dependence on water temperature and salinity.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Michael; Paschke, Albrecht; Lieberman, Eric; Burnett, William C

    2012-04-01

    Radon is useful as a tracer of certain geophysical processes in marine and aquatic environments. Recent applications include detection of groundwater discharges into surface waters and assessment of air/sea gas piston velocities. Much of the research performed in the past decade has relied on continuous measurements made in the field using a radon stripping unit connected to a radon-in-air detection system. This approach assumes that chemical equilibrium is attained between the water and gas phases and that the resulting air activity can be multiplied by a partition coefficient to obtain the corresponding radon-in-water activity. We report here the results of a series of laboratory experiments that describes the dependence of the partition coefficient upon both water temperature and salinity. Our results show that the temperature dependence for freshwater closely matches results that were previously available. The salinity effect, however, has largely been ignored and our results show that this can result in an overestimation of radon concentrations, especially in cooler, more saline waters. Related overestimates in typical situations range between 10 (warmer less saline waters) and 20% (cooler, more saline waters). PMID:22385122

  16. Inactivation of the biofilm by the air plasma containing water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suganuma, Ryota; Yasuoka, Koichi; Yasuoka Takeuchi lab Team

    2014-10-01

    Biofilms are caused by environmental degradation in food factory and medical facilities. Inactivation of biofilm has the method of making it react to chemicals including chlorine, hydrogen peroxide, and ozone. Although inactivation by chemicals has the problem that hazardous property of a residual substance and hydrogen peroxide have slow reaction velocity. We achieved advanced oxidation process (AOP) with air plasma. Hydrogen peroxide and ozone, which were used for the formation of OH radicals in our experiment, were able to be generated selectively by adjusting the amount of water supplied to the plasma. We inactivated Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm in five minutes with OH radicals generated by using hydrogen peroxide and ozone.

  17. Nano- and microstructure of air/oil/water interfaces.

    PubMed

    McGillivray, Duncan J; Mata, Jitendra P; White, John W; Zank, Johann

    2009-04-01

    We report the creation of air/oil/water interfaces with variable-thickness oil films using polyisobutylene-based (PIB) surfactants cospread with long-chain paraffinic alkanes on clean water surfaces. The resultant stable oil layers are readily measurable with simple surface techniques, exhibit physical densities the same as expected for bulk oils, and are up to approximately 100 A thick above the water surface as determined using X-ray reflectometry. This provides a ready system for studying the competition of surfactants at the oil/water interface. Results from the competition of a nonionic polyamide surfactant or an anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate with the PIB surfactant are reported. However, this smooth oil layer does not account for the total volume of spread oil nor is the increase in thickness proportional to the film compression. Brewster angle microscopy (BAM) reveals surfactant and oil structures on the scale of 1 to 10 microm at the interface. At low surface pressure (pi < 24 mN m(-1)) large, approximately 10 microm inhomogeneities are observed. Beyond a phase transition observed at pi approximately = 24 mN m(-1), a structure with a spongy appearance and a microscale texture develops. These structures have implications for understanding the microstructure at the oil/water interface in emulsions. PMID:19714829

  18. Rigid-plug elastic-water model for transient pipe flow with entrapped air pocket

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Ling; Liu, Prof. Deyou; Karney, Professor Byran W.; Zhang, Qin Fen; OU, CHANGQI

    2011-01-01

    Pressure transients in a rapidly filling pipe with an entrapped air pocket are investigated analytically. A rigid-plug elastic water model is developed by applying elastic water hammer to the majority of the water column while applying rigid water analysis to a small portion near the air-water interface, which avoids effectively the interpolation error of previous approaches. Moreover, another two simplified models are introduced respectively based on constant water length and by neglecting water elasticity. Verification of the three models is confirmed by experimental results. Calculations show that the simplification of constant water length is feasible for small air pockets. The complete rigid water model is appropriate for cases with large initial air volume. The rigid-plug elastic model can predict all the essential features for the entire range of initial air fraction considered in this study, and it is the effective model for analysis of pressure transients of entrapped air.

  19. Deformation of a water shell during free fall in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakoryakov, V. E.; Kuznetsov, G. V.; Strizhak, P. A.

    2016-04-01

    The basic regularities of the change in the shape and sizes (the initial volume is 0.05-0.5 L) of a water shell are singled out in its deformation during free fall in air from a height of 3 m. The 3D recording of the basic stages of deformation (flattening of the shell, nucleation, growth, and destruction of bubbles, formation of the droplet cloud) is carried out using high-speed (up to 105 frames per second) Phantom V411 and Phantom Miro M310 video cameras and the program complex Tema Automotive (with the function of continuous tracking). The physical model of destruction of large water bodies is formulated at free fall with the formation of the droplet cloud.

  20. Microrheology Using Optical Tweezers at the Air-Water Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boatwright, Thomas; Levine, Alex; Dennin, Michael

    2010-11-01

    Microrheological techniques have been used successfully to determine mechanical properties of materials important in cellular structure. Also critical to cellular mechanical functions are biological membranes. Many aspects of biological membranes can be modeled using Langmuir monolayers, which are single layers surfactants at the air-water interface. The macroscopic mechanical properties of Langmuir monolayers have been extensively characterized. In contrast to macroscopic measurements, we report on experimental methods for studying the rheological properties of Langmuir monolayers on the micron scale. A water immersion optical tweezers system is used to trap ˜1 micron diameter beads in a monolayer. The passive motion of the trapped beads is recorded at high frequency and the complex shear modulus is calculated. Preliminary microrheological data of a fatty acid monolayer showing dependence on surface pressure will be presented. Experimental obstacles will also be discussed.

  1. Comprehensive Assessment of Influence of Enhanced Component in Vapor Compression Air Conditioning System on Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinomiya, Naruaki; Nishimura, Nobuya; Iyota, Hiroyuki

    System performance prediction model for air-cooled air conditioner has been developed, and influences of Grooved tubes on performance of air conditioners with R410A were quantitatively investigated. Calculated results with simulation model correspond approximately to measured results by the authors and other researchers. After that, performances of air conditioners with grooved tubes were predicted. Results show that condensation heat transfer coefficients decrease with the rise of air conditioning load rate, and boiling heat transfer coefficients increase with the rise of air conditioning load rate. On the other hand, pressure drops increase 1.2-1.4 times in evaporator. Then, COPs of air conditioners with the grooved tube are 1.16 times higher than COP of air-conditioners with the smooth tube.

  2. Proton Transfers at the Air-Water Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Himanshu

    Proton transfer reactions at the interface of water with hydrophobic media, such as air or lipids, are ubiquitous on our planet. These reactions orchestrate a host of vital phenomena in the environment including, for example, acidification of clouds, enzymatic catalysis, chemistries of aerosol and atmospheric gases, and bioenergetic transduction. Despite their importance, however, quantitative details underlying these interactions have remained unclear. Deeper insight into these interfacial reactions is also required in addressing challenges in green chemistry, improved water quality, self-assembly of materials, the next generation of micro-nanofluidics, adhesives, coatings, catalysts, and electrodes. This thesis describes experimental and theoretical investigation of proton transfer reactions at the air-water interface as a function of hydration gradients, electrochemical potential, and electrostatics. Since emerging insights hold at the lipid-water interface as well, this work is also expected to aid understanding of complex biological phenomena associated with proton migration across membranes. Based on our current understanding, it is known that the physicochemical properties of the gas-phase water are drastically different from those of bulk water. For example, the gas-phase hydronium ion, H3O +(g), can protonate most (non-alkane) organic species, whereas H 3O+(aq) can neutralize only relatively strong bases. Thus, to be able to understand and engineer water-hydrophobe interfaces, it is imperative to investigate this fluctuating region of molecular thickness wherein the 'function' of chemical species transitions from one phase to another via steep gradients in hydration, dielectric constant, and density. Aqueous interfaces are difficult to approach by current experimental techniques because designing experiments to specifically sample interfacial layers (< 1 nm thick) is an arduous task. While recent advances in surface-specific spectroscopies have provided

  3. Simulation model finned water-air-coil withoutcondensation

    SciTech Connect

    Wetter, Michael

    1999-01-01

    A simple simulation model of a finned water-to- air coil without condensation is presented. The model belongs to a collection of simulation models that allows eficient computer simulation of heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems. The main emphasis of the models is short computation time and use of input data that are known in the design process of an HVAC system. The target of the models is to describe the behavior of HVAC components in the part load operation mode, which is becoming increasingly important for energy efficient HVAC systems. The models are intended to be used for yearly energy calculation or load calculation with time steps of about 10 minutes or larger. Short-time dynamic effects, which are of interest for different aspects of control performance, are neglected. The part load behavior of the coil is expressed in terms of the nominal condition and the dimensionless variation of the heat transfer with change of mass flow and temperature on the water side and the air side. The effectiveness- NTU relations are used to parametrize the convective heat transfer at nominal conditions and to compute the part load conditions. Geometrical data for the coil are not required, The calculation of the convective heat transfer coefficients at nominal conditions is based on the ratio of the air side heat transfer coefficients multiplied by the fin eficiency and divided by the water side heat transfer coefficient. In this approach, the only geometrical information required are the cross section areas, which are needed to calculate the~uid velocities. The formulas for estimating this ratio are presented. For simplicity the model ignores condensation. The model is static and uses only explicit equations. The explicit formulation ensures short computation time and numerical stability. This allows using the model with sophisticated engineering methods such as automatic system optimization. The paper fully outlines the algorithm description and its

  4. Surfactin at the Water/Air Interface and in Solution.

    PubMed

    Iglesias-Fernández, Javier; Darré, Leonardo; Kohlmeyer, Axel; Thomas, Robert K; Shen, Hsin-Hui; Domene, Carmen

    2015-10-13

    The lipopeptide surfactin produced by certain strains of Bacillus subtillis is a potent biosurfactant with high amphiphilicity and a strong tendency for self-aggregation. Surfactin possesses a number of valuable biological properties such as antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal, and hemolytic activities. Owing to these properties, in addition to the general advantages of biosurfactants over synthetic surfactants, surfactin has potential biotechnological and biomedical applications. Here, the aggregation properties of surfactin in solution together with its behavior at the water/air interface were studied using classical molecular dynamics simulations (MD) at three different pH values. Validation of the MD structural data was performed by comparing neutron reflectivity and volume fraction profiles computed from the simulations with their experimental counterparts. Analysis of the MD trajectories supported conclusions about the distribution, conformations, and interactions of surfactin in solution and at the water-air interface. Considering altogether, the work presented provides atomistic models for the rationalization of some of the structural and dynamic characteristics as well as the modes of action of surfactin at different pH values. PMID:26393968

  5. Patterns and properties of polarized light in air and water

    PubMed Central

    Cronin, Thomas W.; Marshall, Justin

    2011-01-01

    Natural sources of light are at best weakly polarized, but polarization of light is common in natural scenes in the atmosphere, on the surface of the Earth, and underwater. We review the current state of knowledge concerning how polarization and polarization patterns are formed in nature, emphasizing linearly polarized light. Scattering of sunlight or moonlight in the sky often forms a strongly polarized, stable and predictable pattern used by many animals for orientation and navigation throughout the day, at twilight, and on moonlit nights. By contrast, polarization of light in water, while visible in most directions of view, is generally much weaker. In air, the surfaces of natural objects often reflect partially polarized light, but such reflections are rarer underwater, and multiple-path scattering degrades such polarization within metres. Because polarization in both air and water is produced by scattering, visibility through such media can be enhanced using straightforward polarization-based methods of image recovery, and some living visual systems may use similar methods to improve vision in haze or underwater. Although circularly polarized light is rare in nature, it is produced by the surfaces of some animals, where it may be used in specialized systems of communication. PMID:21282165

  6. Environmental application of nanotechnology: air, soil, and water.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Rusul Khaleel; Hayyan, Maan; AlSaadi, Mohammed Abdulhakim; Hayyan, Adeeb; Ibrahim, Shaliza

    2016-07-01

    Global deterioration of water, soil, and atmosphere by the release of toxic chemicals from the ongoing anthropogenic activities is becoming a serious problem throughout the world. This poses numerous issues relevant to ecosystem and human health that intensify the application challenges of conventional treatment technologies. Therefore, this review sheds the light on the recent progresses in nanotechnology and its vital role to encompass the imperative demand to monitor and treat the emerging hazardous wastes with lower cost, less energy, as well as higher efficiency. Essentially, the key aspects of this account are to briefly outline the advantages of nanotechnology over conventional treatment technologies and to relevantly highlight the treatment applications of some nanomaterials (e.g., carbon-based nanoparticles, antibacterial nanoparticles, and metal oxide nanoparticles) in the following environments: (1) air (treatment of greenhouse gases, volatile organic compounds, and bioaerosols via adsorption, photocatalytic degradation, thermal decomposition, and air filtration processes), (2) soil (application of nanomaterials as amendment agents for phytoremediation processes and utilization of stabilizers to enhance their performance), and (3) water (removal of organic pollutants, heavy metals, pathogens through adsorption, membrane processes, photocatalysis, and disinfection processes). PMID:27074929

  7. Life Cycle Assessment of Residential Heating and Cooling Systems in Minnesota A comprehensive analysis on life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and cost-effectiveness of ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems compared to the conventional gas furnace and air conditioner system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Mo

    Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) technologies for residential heating and cooling are often suggested as an effective means to curb energy consumption, reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and lower homeowners' heating and cooling costs. As such, numerous federal, state and utility-based incentives, most often in the forms of financial incentives, installation rebates, and loan programs, have been made available for these technologies. While GSHP technology for space heating and cooling is well understood, with widespread implementation across the U.S., research specific to the environmental and economic performance of these systems in cold climates, such as Minnesota, is limited. In this study, a comparative environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) is conducted of typical residential HVAC (Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning) systems in Minnesota to investigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for delivering 20 years of residential heating and cooling—maintaining indoor temperatures of 68°F (20°C) and 75°F (24°C) in Minnesota-specific heating and cooling seasons, respectively. Eight residential GSHP design scenarios (i.e. horizontal loop field, vertical loop field, high coefficient of performance, low coefficient of performance, hybrid natural gas heat back-up) and one conventional natural gas furnace and air conditioner system are assessed for GHG and life cycle economic costs. Life cycle GHG emissions were found to range between 1.09 × 105 kg CO2 eq. and 1.86 × 10 5 kg CO2 eq. Six of the eight GSHP technology scenarios had fewer carbon impacts than the conventional system. Only in cases of horizontal low-efficiency GSHP and hybrid, do results suggest increased GHGs. Life cycle costs and present value analyses suggest GSHP technologies can be cost competitive over their 20-year life, but that policy incentives may be required to reduce the high up-front capital costs of GSHPs and relatively long payback periods of more than 20 years. In addition

  8. Use of Air2Air Technology to Recover Fresh-Water from the Normal Evaporative Cooling Loss at Coal-Based Thermoelectric Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Ken Mortensen

    2009-06-30

    This program was undertaken to build and operate the first Air2Air{trademark} Water Conservation Cooling Tower at a power plant, giving a validated basis and capability for water conservation by this method. Air2Air{trademark} water conservation technology recovers a portion of the traditional cooling tower evaporate. The Condensing Module provides an air-to-air heat exchanger above the wet fill media, extracting the heat from the hot saturated moist air leaving in the cooling tower and condensing water. The rate of evaporate water recovery is typically 10%-25% annually, depending on the cooling tower location (climate).

  9. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  10. [Virus adsorption from batch experiments as influenced by air-water interface].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Zhao, Bing-zi; Zhang, Jia-bao; Zhang, Cong-zhi; Wang, Qiu-ying; Chen, Ji

    2007-12-01

    The presence of air-water interface in batch sorption experiments may result in inaccurate estimation of virus adsorption onto various soils. A batch sorption experiment was conducted to compare the adsorption results of MS2 in different soils under presence/absence of air-water interface. Soils with sterilization/nonterilization treatment were used. Virus recovery efficiency in a blank experiment (no soil) was also evaluated as affected by different amount of air-water interface. The presence of air-water interface altered the results of virus adsorption in different soils with different extent, with Sandy fluvo-aquic soil being the most considerably affected, followed by Red loam soil, and the least being Red clay soil, probably because of different soil properties associated with virus adsorption/inactivation. Soil sterilization resulted in more significant difference of virus adsorption onto the Sandy fluvo-aquic soil between the presence and absence of air-water interface, while a reduced difference was observed in the Red loam soil. The presence of air-water interface significantly decreased virus recovery efficiency, with the values being decreased with increase in the amount of air-water interface. Soil particles likely prohibit viruses from reaching the air-water interface or alter the forces at the solid-water-air interface so that the results from the blank experiment did not truly represent results from control blank, which probably resulted in adsorption difference between presence and absence of the air-water interface. PMID:18290440

  11. Microscopic dynamics of nanoparticle monolayers at air-water interface.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, R; Basu, J K

    2013-04-15

    We present results of surface mechanical and particle tracking measurements of nanoparticles trapped at the air-water interface as a function of their areal density. We monitor both the surface pressure (Π) and isothermal compression modulus (ϵ) as well as the dynamics of nanoparticle clusters, using fluorescence confocal microscopy while they are compressed to very high density near the two dimensional close packing density Φ∼0.82. We observe non-monotonic variation in both ϵ and the dynamic heterogeneity, characterized by the dynamical susceptibility χ4 with Φ, in such high density monolayers. We provide insight into the underlying nature of such transitions in close packed high density nanoparticle monolayers in terms of the morphology and flexibility of these soft colloidal particles. We discuss the significance our results in the context of related studies on two dimensional granular or colloidal systems. PMID:23411354

  12. Entrapment of ciliates at the water-air interface.

    PubMed

    Ferracci, Jonathan; Ueno, Hironori; Numayama-Tsuruta, Keiko; Imai, Yohsuke; Yamaguchi, Takami; Ishikawa, Takuji

    2013-01-01

    The importance of water-air interfaces (WAI) on microorganism activities has been recognized by many researchers. In this paper, we report a novel phenomenon: the entrapment of ciliates Tetrahymena at the WAI. We first characterized the behavior of cells at the interface and showed that the cells' swimming velocity was considerably reduced at the WAI. To verify the possible causes of the entrapment, we investigated the effects of positive chemotaxis for oxygen, negative geotaxis and surface properties. Even though the taxes were still effective, the entrapment phenomenon was not dependent on the physiological conditions, but was instead affected by the physical properties at the interface. This knowledge is useful for a better understanding of the physiology of microorganisms at interfaces in nature and in industry. PMID:24130692

  13. 15 CFR 923.45 - Air and water pollution control requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Air and water pollution control....45 Air and water pollution control requirements. The program must incorporate, by reference or otherwise, all requirements established by the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (Clean...

  14. 15 CFR 923.45 - Air and water pollution control requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Air and water pollution control....45 Air and water pollution control requirements. The program must incorporate, by reference or otherwise, all requirements established by the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (Clean...

  15. 45 CFR 2543.86 - Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution... Water Pollution Control Act. Contracts and subgrants of amounts in excess of $100,000 shall contain a... regulations issued pursuant to the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.) and the Federal Water...

  16. 45 CFR 2543.86 - Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution... Water Pollution Control Act. Contracts and subgrants of amounts in excess of $100,000 shall contain a... regulations issued pursuant to the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.) and the Federal Water...

  17. 15 CFR 923.45 - Air and water pollution control requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air and water pollution control....45 Air and water pollution control requirements. The program must incorporate, by reference or otherwise, all requirements established by the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (Clean...

  18. 15 CFR 923.45 - Air and water pollution control requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Air and water pollution control....45 Air and water pollution control requirements. The program must incorporate, by reference or otherwise, all requirements established by the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (Clean...

  19. 14 CFR 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts...-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002 If this cooperative... Violating Facilities” published pursuant to 40 CFR 15.20. By acceptance of a cooperative agreement in...

  20. 45 CFR 2543.86 - Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution... Water Pollution Control Act. Contracts and subgrants of amounts in excess of $100,000 shall contain a... regulations issued pursuant to the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.) and the Federal Water...

  1. 14 CFR § 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. Â...-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002 If this cooperative... Violating Facilities” published pursuant to 40 CFR 15.20. By acceptance of a cooperative agreement in...

  2. 14 CFR 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts...-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002 If this cooperative... Violating Facilities” published pursuant to 40 CFR 15.20. By acceptance of a cooperative agreement in...

  3. 15 CFR 923.45 - Air and water pollution control requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Air and water pollution control....45 Air and water pollution control requirements. The program must incorporate, by reference or otherwise, all requirements established by the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (Clean...

  4. 45 CFR 2543.86 - Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution... Water Pollution Control Act. Contracts and subgrants of amounts in excess of $100,000 shall contain a... regulations issued pursuant to the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.) and the Federal Water...

  5. Relay cropping for improved air and water quality.

    PubMed

    Schepers, James S; Francis, Dennis D; Shanahan, John F

    2005-01-01

    Using plants to extract excess nitrate from soil is important in protecting against eutrophication of standing water, hypoxic conditions in lakes and oceans, or elevated nitrate concentrations in domestic water supplies Global climate change issues have raised new concerns about nitrogen (N) management as it relates to crop production even though there may not be an immediate threat to water quality. Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are frequently considered the primary cause of global climate change, but under anaerobic conditions, animals can contribute by expelling methane (CH4) as do soil microbes. In terms of the potential for global climate change, CH4 is approximately 25 times more harmful than CO2. This differential effect is minuscule compared to when nitrous oxide (N2O) is released into the atmosphere because it is approximately 300 times more harmful than CO2. N2O losses from soil have been positively correlated with residual N (nitrate, NO3-) concentrations in soil. It stands to reason that phytoremediation via nitrate scavenger crops is one approach to help protect air quality, as well as soil and water quality. Winter wheat was inserted into a seed corn/soybean rotation to utilize soil nitrate and thereby reduce the potential for nitrate leaching and N2O emissions. The net effect of the 2001-2003 relay cropping sequence was to produce three crops in two years, scavenge 130 kg N/ha from the root zone, produce an extra 2 Mg residue/ha, and increase producer profitability by approximately 250 dollars/ha. PMID:15948582

  6. Lemongrass-Incorporated Tissue Conditioner Against Candida albicans Culture

    PubMed Central

    Amornvit, Pokpong; Srithavaj, Theerathavaj

    2014-01-01

    Background: Tissue conditioner is applied popularly with dental prosthesis during wound healing process but it becomes a reservoir of oral microbiota, especially Candida species after long-term usage. Several antifungal drugs have been mixed with this material to control fungal level. In this study, lemongrass essential oil was added into COE-COMFORT tissue conditioner before being determined for anti-Candida efficacy. Materials and Methods: Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) essential oil was primarily determined for antifungal activity against C. albicans American type culture collection (ATCC) 10231 and MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) value by agar disk diffusion and broth microdilution methods, respectively. COE-COMFORT tissue conditioner was prepared as recommended by the manufacturer after a fixed volume of the oil at its MIC or higher concentrations were mixed thoroughly in its liquid part. Antifungal efficacy of the tissue conditioner with/without herb was finally analyzed. Results: Lemongrass essential oil displayed potent antifungal activity against C. albicans ATCC 10231and its MIC value was 0.06% (v/v). Dissimilarly, the tissue conditioner containing the oil at MIC level did not cease the growth of the tested fungus. Both reference and clinical isolates of C. albicans were completely inhibited after exposed to the tissue conditioner containing at least 0.25% (v/v) of the oil (approximately 4-time MIC). The tissue conditioner without herb or with nystatin was employed as negative or positive control, respectively. Conclusion: COE-COMFORT tissue conditioner supplemented with lemongrass essential oil obviously demonstrated another desirable property as in vitro anti-Candida efficacy to minimize the risk of getting Candidal infection. PMID:25177638

  7. The Effect of Rain on Air-Water Gas Exchange

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, David T.; Bliven, Larry F.; Wanninkhof, Rik; Schlosser, Peter

    1997-01-01

    The relationship between gas transfer velocity and rain rate was investigated at NASA's Rain-Sea Interaction Facility (RSIF) using several SF, evasion experiments. During each experiment, a water tank below the rain simulator was supersaturated with SF6, a synthetic gas, and the gas transfer velocities were calculated from the measured decrease in SF6 concentration with time. The results from experiments with IS different rain rates (7 to 10 mm/h) and 1 of 2 drop sizes (2.8 or 4.2 mm diameter) confirm a significant and systematic enhancement of air-water gas exchange by rainfall. The gas transfer velocities derived from our experiment were related to the kinetic energy flux calculated from the rain rate and drop size. The relationship obtained for mono-dropsize rain at the RSIF was extrapolated to natural rain using the kinetic energy flux of natural rain calculated from the Marshall-Palmer raindrop size distribution. Results of laboratory experiments at RSIF were compared to field observations made during a tropical rainstorm in Miami, Florida and show good agreement between laboratory and field data.

  8. Non-thermal plasma for air and water remediation.

    PubMed

    Hashim, Siti Aiasah; Samsudin, Farah Nadia Dayana Binti; Wong, Chiow San; Abu Bakar, Khomsaton; Yap, Seong Ling; Mohd Zin, Mohd Faiz

    2016-09-01

    A modular typed dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) device is designed and tested for air and water remediation. The module is made of a number of DBD tubes that can be arranged in series or parallel. Each of the DBD tubes comprises inner electrode enclosed with dielectric barrier and arranged as such to provide a gap for the passage of gases. Non-thermal plasma generated in the gap effectively creates gaseous chemical reactions. Its efficacy in the remediation of gas stream containing high NOx, similar to diesel emission and wastewater containing latex, are presented. A six tubes DBD module has successfully removed more than 80% of nitric oxide from the gas stream. In another arrangement, oxygen was fed into a two tubes DBD to generate ozone for treatment of wastewater. Samples of wastewater were collected from a treatment pond of a rubber vulcanization pilot plant. The water pollution load was evaluated by the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD5) values. Preliminary results showed some improvement (about 13%) on the COD after treatment and at the same time had increased the BOD5 by 42%. This results in higher BOD5/COD ratio after ozonation which indicate better biodegradability of the wastewater. PMID:27056469

  9. ISSUES IN SIMULATING ELEMENTAL MERCURY AIR/WATER EXCHANGE AND AQUEOUS MONOMETHYLMERCURY SPECIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation focuses on two areas relevant to assessing the global fate and bioavailability of mercury: elemental mercury air/water exchange and aqueous environmental monomethylmercury speciation.

  10. Air-Water Gas Exchange in Wetland Water Columns Due To Wind and Thermal Convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poindexter, C.; Variano, E. A.

    2011-12-01

    The goal of this work is to provide a parameterization of the air-water gas transfer rate in wetlands, and do so in terms of easily measured environmental variables. This parameterization is intended to support biogeochemical modeling in wetlands by providing an interfacial flux of key importance. Our approach uses laboratory experiments describe the oxygen transfer across an air-water interface in a model wetland. The oxygen transfer is sensitive to the externally imposed wind, vegetation characteristics, and vertical thermal convection. We vary these systematically, determining the gas transfer (or "piston") velocity that describes interfacial gas flux. We measure velocity vector fields near the air-water interface using particle image velocimetry, and use these measurements to help explain the mechanisms behind the measured trends in oxygen transfer. The explanatory power of these measurements includes the relationship between plant geometry and surface divergence. We explore the potential impact of our results on wetland modeling and management, for issues such as carbon sequestration and methane emission.

  11. Surface, Water, and Air Biocharacterization (SWAB) Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castro, V. A.; Ott, C. M.; Pierson, D. L.

    2012-01-01

    The determination of risk from infectious disease during spaceflight missions is composed of several factors including both the concentration and characteristics of the microorganisms to which the crew are exposed. Thus, having a good understanding of the microbial ecology aboard spacecraft provides the necessary information to mitigate health risks to the crew. While preventive measures are taken to minimize the presence of pathogens on spacecraft, medically significant organisms have been isolated from both the Mir and International Space Station (ISS). Historically, the method for isolation and identification of microorganisms from spacecraft environmental samples depended upon their growth on culture media. Unfortunately, only a fraction of the organisms may grow on a specific culture medium, potentially omitting those microorganisms whose nutritional and physical requirements for growth are not met. To address this bias in our understanding of the ISS environment, the Surface, Water, and Air Biocharacterization (SWAB) Flight Experiment was designed to investigate and develop monitoring technology to provide better microbial characterization. For the SWAB flight experiment, we hypothesized that environmental analysis using non-culture-based technologies would reveal microorganisms, allergens, and microbial toxins not previously reported in spacecraft, allowing for a more complete health assessment. Key findings during this experiment included: a) Generally, advanced molecular techniques were able to reveal a few organisms not recovered using culture-based methods; however, there is no indication that current monitoring is "missing" any medically significant bacteria or fungi. b) Molecular techniques have tremendous potential for microbial monitoring, however, sample preparation and data analysis present challenges for spaceflight hardware. c) Analytical results indicate that some molecular techniques, such as denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), can

  12. Wind driven vertical transport in a vegetated, wetland water column with air-water gas exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poindexter, C.; Variano, E. A.

    2010-12-01

    Flow around arrays of cylinders at low and intermediate Reynolds numbers has been studied numerically, analytically and experimentally. Early results demonstrated that at flow around randomly oriented cylinders exhibits reduced turbulent length scales and reduced diffusivity when compared to similarly forced, unimpeded flows (Nepf 1999). While horizontal dispersion in flows through cylinder arrays has received considerable research attention, the case of vertical dispersion of reactive constituents has not. This case is relevant to the vertical transfer of dissolved gases in wetlands with emergent vegetation. We present results showing that the presence of vegetation can significantly enhance vertical transport, including gas transfer across the air-water interface. Specifically, we study a wind-sheared air-water interface in which randomly arrayed cylinders represent emergent vegetation. Wind is one of several processes that may govern physical dispersion of dissolved gases in wetlands. Wind represents the dominant force for gas transfer across the air-water interface in the ocean. Empirical relationships between wind and the gas transfer coefficient, k, have been used to estimate spatial variability of CO2 exchange across the worlds’ oceans. Because wetlands with emergent vegetation are different from oceans, different model of wind effects is needed. We investigated the vertical transport of dissolved oxygen in a scaled wetland model built inside a laboratory tank equipped with an open-ended wind tunnel. Plastic tubing immersed in water to a depth of approximately 40 cm represented emergent vegetation of cylindrical form such as hard-stem bulrush (Schoenoplectus acutus). After partially removing the oxygen from the tank water via reaction with sodium sulfite, we used an optical probe to measure dissolved oxygen at mid-depth as the tank water re-equilibrated with the air above. We used dissolved oxygen time-series for a range of mean wind speeds to estimate the

  13. (Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    This report contains information related to the sampling and chemical analysis of ground water at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. It is part of a field investigation of ground water contamination.

  14. Bromine and heavy halide chemistry at the air/water and air/ice interfaces: a computational approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladich, I.; Shepson, P. B.; Szleifer, I.; Carignano, M.

    2010-12-01

    The air-water and air-ice interfaces are critically important surfaces, with respect to the physical and chemical properties of the Earth's atmosphere. In particular chloride, bromide and iodide ions are strongly involved in the reactions occurring at aerosol surfaces that are hydrated and at the air-ice interface in the polar boundary layer. Unfortunately, experimental access to these interfaces are quite problematic and the computational approach, based on molecular dynamic simulations and quantum mechanic calculations, is an interesting alternative approach. In this work, molecular dynamic (MD) simulations are used to study the halide enhancements at the air-water interface in the case of a dilute mixture of iodide, bromide and chloride ions. The MD results show how the air- water halide enhancement is different in the case of mixtures from the case of binary solutions (i.e. anions plus counter-positive ions) and how the presence of these halides at the interfaces depends from their relative concentrations in solution. In detail, heavy halides are strongly enhanced at the interfaces even if they are minor constituents in the bulk. Furthermore the enhancement of the larger halide ions, like bromide, at the surface is greater if lighter halides, like chloride, are in greater excess in the bulk. The applications of this last result on some real system, like sea-water, and the importance of bromide ions in the polar chemistry of ozone depletion events suggest a combined approach, MD and quantum mechanism (QM) calculation, to investigate the ozonation reaction of bromide (Br-+O3 → BrO-+O2 ) in the ice-QLL and in bulk water. The study of the reaction constants suggests how the different environments can affect the kinetics of such reaction. These results can help to understand the complex chemistry occurring at the air-water interface of hydrated aerosol and at the air-ice interface in the polar boundary layer.

  15. B and F Signal Conditioner Checkout Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magleby, Alyssa; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    ATK Thiokol Propulsion, Test Services uses B&F Signal Conditioning units to provide excitation power and shunt calibration information to the data recording systems. Gage measurements such as force, temperature, pressure, strain, etc. are recorded using this equipment. Approximately 2500 reusable instrumentation B&F Signal Conditioning units were purchased over an interval from 1978 to 1988 at a cost of around $1000 each. Through use and over time, the relay contacts on the signal conditioning mode cards have become corroded, resulting in excessive contact resistance. This causes inaccurate and inconsistent calibration data and could jeopardize the test results. These signal conditioning cards are needed for product testing for an estimated five more years, therefore, it is necessary to develop a solution to isolate the malfunctioning units for repair. The current screening method requires Test Area technicians to check cards manually, however the connections and measurements required for this process are inefficient and time consuming. To resolve this problem, funding was approved to design and build two B&F Signal Conditioner Checkout Units. Each unit will allow technicians to test relay contact resistance on signal conditioning mode cards before they are installed for data collection procedures. This tool will allow Test Area to resolve calibration accuracy problems and extend the life of the data acquisition equipment, as well as save troubleshooting time for the technicians.

  16. Embedding quantum into classical: contextualization vs conditionalization.

    PubMed

    Dzhafarov, Ehtibar N; Kujala, Janne V

    2014-01-01

    We compare two approaches to embedding joint distributions of random variables recorded under different conditions (such as spins of entangled particles for different settings) into the framework of classical, Kolmogorovian probability theory. In the contextualization approach each random variable is "automatically" labeled by all conditions under which it is recorded, and the random variables across a set of mutually exclusive conditions are probabilistically coupled (imposed a joint distribution upon). Analysis of all possible probabilistic couplings for a given set of random variables allows one to characterize various relations between their separate distributions (such as Bell-type inequalities or quantum-mechanical constraints). In the conditionalization approach one considers the conditions under which the random variables are recorded as if they were values of another random variable, so that the observed distributions are interpreted as conditional ones. This approach is uninformative with respect to relations between the distributions observed under different conditions because any set of such distributions is compatible with any distribution assigned to the conditions. PMID:24681665

  17. Embedding Quantum into Classical: Contextualization vs Conditionalization

    PubMed Central

    Dzhafarov, Ehtibar N.; Kujala, Janne V.

    2014-01-01

    We compare two approaches to embedding joint distributions of random variables recorded under different conditions (such as spins of entangled particles for different settings) into the framework of classical, Kolmogorovian probability theory. In the contextualization approach each random variable is “automatically” labeled by all conditions under which it is recorded, and the random variables across a set of mutually exclusive conditions are probabilistically coupled (imposed a joint distribution upon). Analysis of all possible probabilistic couplings for a given set of random variables allows one to characterize various relations between their separate distributions (such as Bell-type inequalities or quantum-mechanical constraints). In the conditionalization approach one considers the conditions under which the random variables are recorded as if they were values of another random variable, so that the observed distributions are interpreted as conditional ones. This approach is uninformative with respect to relations between the distributions observed under different conditions because any set of such distributions is compatible with any distribution assigned to the conditions. PMID:24681665

  18. Improvement to Air2Air Technology to Reduce Fresh-Water Evaporative Cooling Loss at Coal-Based Thermoelectric Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Ken Mortensen

    2011-12-31

    This program was undertaken to enhance the manufacturability, constructability, and cost of the Air2Air{TM} Water Conservation and Plume Abatement Cooling Tower, giving a validated cost basis and capability. Air2Air{TM} water conservation technology recovers a portion of the traditional cooling tower evaporate. The Condensing Module provides an air-to-air heat exchanger above the wet fill media, extracting the heat from the hot saturated moist air leaving in the cooling tower and condensing water. The rate of evaporate water recovery is typically 10% - 25% annually, depending on the cooling tower location (climate). This program improved the efficiency and cost of the Air2Air{TM} Water Conservation Cooling Tower capability, and led to the first commercial sale of the product, as described.

  19. Air-water oxygen exchange in a large whitewater river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, Robert O.; Kennedy, Theodore A.; Rosi-Marshall, Emma J.

    2012-01-01

    Air-water gas exchange governs fluxes of gas into and out of aquatic ecosystems. Knowing this flux is necessary to calculate gas budgets (i.e., O2) to estimate whole-ecosystem metabolism and basin-scale carbon budgets. Empirical data on rates of gas exchange for streams, estuaries, and oceans are readily available. However, there are few data from large rivers and no data from whitewater rapids. We measured gas transfer velocity in the Colorado River, Grand Canyon, as decline in O2 saturation deficit, 7 times in a 28-km segment spanning 7 rapids. The O2 saturation deficit exists because of hypolimnetic discharge from Glen Canyon Dam, located 25 km upriver from Lees Ferry. Gas transfer velocity (k600) increased with slope of the immediate reach. k600 was -1 in flat reaches, while k600 for the steepest rapid ranged 3600-7700 cm h-1, an extremely high value of k600. Using the rate of gas exchange per unit length of water surface elevation (Kdrop, m-1), segment-integrated k600 varied between 74 and 101 cm h-1. Using Kdrop we scaled k600 to the remainder of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon. At the scale corresponding to the segment length where 80% of the O2 exchanged with the atmosphere (mean length = 26.1 km), k600 varied 4.5-fold between 56 and 272 cm h-1 with a mean of 113 cm h-1. Gas transfer velocity for the Colorado River was higher than those from other aquatic ecosystems because of large rapids. Our approach of scaling k600 based on Kdrop allows comparing gas transfer velocity across rivers with spatially heterogeneous morphology.

  20. The effect of the partial pressure of water vapor on the surface tension of the liquid water-air interface.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Díaz, José L; Álvarez-Valenzuela, Marco A; García-Prada, Juan C

    2012-09-01

    Precise measurements of the surface tension of water in air vs. humidity at 5, 10, 15, and 20 °C are shown. For constant temperature, surface tension decreases linearly for increasing humidity in air. These experimental data are in good agreement with a simple model based on Newton's laws here proposed. It is assumed that evaporating molecules of water are ejected from liquid to gas with a mean normal component of the speed of "ejection" greater than zero. A high humidity in the air reduces the net flow of evaporating water molecules lowering the effective surface tension on the drop. Therefore, just steam in air acts as an effective surfactant for the water-air interface. It can partially substitute chemical surfactants helping to reduce their environmental impact. PMID:22717083

  1. Gas and liquid measurements in air-water bubbly flows

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, X.; Doup, B.; Sun, X.

    2012-07-01

    Local measurements of gas- and liquid-phase flow parameters are conducted in an air-water two-phase flow loop. The test section is a vertical pipe with an inner diameter of 50 mm and a height of 3.2 m. The measurements are performed at z/D = 10. The gas-phase measurements are performed using a four-sensor conductivity probe. The data taken from this probe are processed using a signal processing program to yield radial profiles of the void fraction, bubble velocity, and interfacial area concentration. The velocity measurements of the liquid-phase are performed using a state-of-the-art Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) system. The raw PIV images are acquired using fluorescent particles and an optical filtration device. Image processing is used to remove noise in the raw PIV images. The statistical cross correlation is introduced to determine the axial velocity field and turbulence intensity of the liquid-phase. Measurements are currently being performed at z/D = 32 to provide a more complete data set. These data can be used for computational fluid dynamic model development and validation. (authors)

  2. Environmental monitoring of chromium in air, soil, and water.

    PubMed

    Vitale, R J; Mussoline, G R; Rinehimer, K A

    1997-08-01

    Historical uses of chromium have resulted in its widespread release into the environment. In recent years, a significant amount of research has evaluated the impact of chromium on human health and the environment. Additionally, numerous analytical methods have been developed to identify and quantitate chromium in environmental media in response to various state and federal mandates such as CERCLA, RCRA, CWA, CAA, and SWDA. Due to the significant toxicity differences between trivalent [Cr(III)] and hexavalent [Cr(VI)] chromium, it is essential that chromium be quantified in these two distinct valence states to assess the potential risks to exposure to each in environmental media. Speciation is equally important because of their marked differences in environmental behavior. As the knowledge of risks associated with each valence state has grown and regulatory requirements have evolved, methods to accurately quantitate these species at ever-decreasing concentrations within environmental media have also evolved. This paper addresses the challenges of chromium species quantitation and some of the most relevant current methods used for environmental monitoring, including ASTM Method D5281 for air, SW-846 Methods 3060A, 7196A and 7199 for soils, sediments, and waste, and U.S. EPA Method 218.6 for water. PMID:9380841

  3. Motion of Air Bubbles in Water Subjected to Microgravity Accelerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLombard, Richard; Kelly, Eric M.; Hrovat, Kenneth; Nelson, Emily S.; Pettit, Donald R.

    2006-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) serves as a platform for microgravity research for the foreseeable future. A microgravity environment is one in which the effects of gravity are drastically reduced which then allows physical experiments to be conducted without the over powering effects of gravity. During his 6-month stay on the ISS, astronaut Donald R. Pettit performed many informal/impromptu science experiments with available equipment. One such experiment focused on the motion of air bubbles in a rectangular container nearly filled with de-ionized water. Bubbles were introduced by shaking and then the container was secured in place for several hours while motion of the bubbles was recorded using time-lapse photography. This paper shows correlation between bubble motion and quasi-steady acceleration levels during one such experiment operation. The quasi-steady acceleration vectors were measured by the Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System (MAMS). Essentially linear motion was observed in the condition considered here. Dr. Pettit also created other conditions which produced linear and circulating motion, which are the subjects of further study. Initial observations of this bubble motion agree with calculations from many microgravity physical science experiments conducted on shuttle microgravity science missions. Many crystal-growth furnaces involve heavy metals and high temperatures in which undesired acceleration-driven convection during solidification can adversely affect the crystal. Presented in this paper will be results showing correlation between bubble motion and the quasi-steady acceleration vector.

  4. Motion of Air Bubbles in Water Subjected to Microgravity Accelerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLombard, Richard; Kelly, Eric M.; Hrovar, Kenneth; Nelson, Emily S.; Pettit, Donald R.

    2004-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) serves as a platform for microgravity research for the foreseeable future. A microgravity environment is one in which the effects of gravity are drastically reduced which then allows physical experiments to be conducted without the overpowering effects of gravity. During his six month stay on the ISS, astronaut Donald R Pettit performed many informal/impromptu science experiments with available equipment. One such experiment focused on the motion of air bubbles in a rectangular container nearly filled with de-ionized water. Bubbles were introduced by shaking and the container was secured in place for several hours while motion of the bubbles were recorded using time-lapse photography. This paper shows correlation between bubble motion and quasi-steady acceleration levels during one such experiment operation. The quasi-steady acceleration vectors were measured by the Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System. Essentially linear motion was observed in the condition considered here. Dr. Pettit also created other conditions which produced linear and circulating motion, which are the subjects of further study. Initial observations of this bubble motion agree with calculations from many microgravity physical science experiments conducted on Shuttle microgravity science missions. Many crystal-growth furnaces involve heavy metals and high temperatures in which undesired acceleration-driven convection during solidification can adversely affect the crystal. Presented in this paper will be results showing correlation between bubble motion and the quasi-steady acceleration vector.

  5. Three-dimensional freezing of flowing water in a tube cooled by air flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugawara, M.; Komatsu, Y.; Beer, H.

    2015-05-01

    The 3-D freezing of flowing water in a copper tube cooled by air flow is investigated by means of a numerical analysis. The air flows normal to the tube axis. Several parameters as inlet water mean velocity w m , inlet water temperature T iℓ t , air flow temperature T a and air flow velocity u a are selected in the calculations to adapt it to a winter season actually encountered. The numerical results present the development of the ice layer mean thickness and its 3-D morphologies as well as the critical ice layer thickness in the tube choked by the ice layer.

  6. Acoustic wave propagation in air-bubble curtains in water. Part 1. History and theory

    SciTech Connect

    Domenico, S.N.

    1982-03-01

    Air bubbles in water increase the compressibility several orders of magnitude above that in bubble-free water, thereby greatly reducing the velocity and increasing attenuation of acoustic waves. Currently, air bubble curtains are used to prevent damage of submerged structures (e.g., dams) by shock waves from submarine explosives. Also, air-bubble curtains are used to reduce damage to water-filler tanks in which metals are formed by explosives. Published results of laboratory experiments confirm theoretic velocity and attenuation functions and demonstrate that these quantities are dependent principally upon frequency, bubble size, and fractional volume of air. 31 references.

  7. 77 FR 49349 - Safety Zone; Chicago Air and Water Show, Lake Michigan, Chicago, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-16

    ... DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A... CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Chicago Air and Water Show, Lake Michigan, Chicago, IL AGENCY... deviation to the Chicago Air and Water Show safety zone on Lake Michigan near Lincoln Park. This action...

  8. 75 FR 32664 - Safety Zone; Milwaukee Air and Water Show, Lake Michigan, Milwaukee, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-09

    ..., Milwaukee, Wisconsin in the Federal Register (75 FR 19307). The Coast Guard received 0 comments on this... determined that the Milwaukee Air and Water show does pose significant risks to public safety and property... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Milwaukee Air and Water Show, Lake...

  9. 14 CFR 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. 1274.926 Section 1274.926 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS WITH COMMERCIAL FIRMS Other Provisions and Special Conditions § 1274.926 Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean...

  10. Effects of water-contaminated air on blowoff limits of opposed jet hydrogen-air diffusion flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellett, Gerald L.; Jentzen, Marilyn E.; Wilson, Lloyd G.; Northam, G. Burton

    1988-01-01

    The effects of water-contaminated air on the extinction and flame restoration of the central portion of N2-diluted H2 versus air counterflow diffusion flames are investigated using a coaxial tubular opposed jet burner. The results show that the replacement of N2 contaminant in air by water on a mole for mole basis decreases the maximum sustainable H2 mass flow, just prior to extinction, of the flame. This result contrasts strongly with the analogous substitution of water for N2 in a relatively hot premixed H2-O2-N2 flame, which was shown by Koroll and Mulpuru (1986) to lead to a significant, kinetically controlled increase in laminar burning velocity.

  11. Managing the Drivers of Air Flow and Water Vapor Transport in Existing Single Family Homes (Revised)

    SciTech Connect

    Cummings, J.; Withers, C.; Martin, E.; Moyer, N.

    2012-10-01

    This document focuses on managing the driving forces which move air and moisture across the building envelope. While other previously published Measure Guidelines focus on elimination of air pathways, the ultimate goal of this Measure Guideline is to manage drivers which cause air flow and water vapor transport across the building envelope (and also within the home), control air infiltration, keep relative humidity (RH) within acceptable limits, avoid combustion safety problems, improve occupant comfort, and reduce house energy use.

  12. [Experimental research on combined water and air backwashing reactor technology for biological activated carbon].

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhi-Gang; Qiu, Xue-Min; Zhao, Yan-Ling

    2012-01-01

    To proper control the backwashing process of biological activated carbon (BAC) reactor and improve the overall operation performance, the evaluative indexes such as backwashing wastewater turbidity, organic pollutants removal rate of pre and post-backwashing, and the variation of biomass and biological activity in carbon column are used to compare and analyze the effect of three different combined water and air backwashing methods on the operation of BAC reactor. The result shows that intermittent combined water and air backwashing method is most suitable to BAC reactor. The biological activaty obviously increases by 62.5% after intermittent combined water and air backwashing process. While, the biological activaty using the backwashing method of air plus water and the backwashing method of water and air compounded plus water washing increases by 55.6%, 38.5%, respectively. After backwashing 308h, the reactor recovered to its normal function after intermittent combined water and air backwashing process with the removal rate of UV254 reaching to 60.0%. The fulvic-like fluorescence peak of backwashing water are very weak, and are characterized by low-excitation wavelength tryptophan like (peak S) and high excitation wavelength of tryptophan (peak T), which are caused by the microbial debris washed down. The three-dimensional fluorescence spectra also show that microbial fragments are easy to be washed clean with intermittent combined water and air backwashing. PMID:22452199

  13. Spectra of conditionalization and typicality in the multiverse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azhar, Feraz

    2016-02-01

    An approach to testing theories describing a multiverse, that has gained interest of late, involves comparing theory-generated probability distributions over observables with their experimentally measured values. It is likely that such distributions, were we indeed able to calculate them unambiguously, will assign low probabilities to any such experimental measurements. An alternative to thereby rejecting these theories, is to conditionalize the distributions involved by restricting attention to domains of the multiverse in which we might arise. In order to elicit a crisp prediction, however, one needs to make a further assumption about how typical we are of the chosen domains. In this paper, we investigate interactions between the spectra of available assumptions regarding both conditionalization and typicality, and draw out the effects of these interactions in a concrete setting; namely, on predictions of the total number of species that contribute significantly to dark matter. In particular, for each conditionalization scheme studied, we analyze how correlations between densities of different dark matter species affect the prediction, and explicate the effects of assumptions regarding typicality. We find that the effects of correlations can depend on the conditionalization scheme, and that in each case atypicality can significantly change the prediction. In doing so, we demonstrate the existence of overlaps in the predictions of different "frameworks" consisting of conjunctions of theory, conditionalization scheme and typicality assumption. This conclusion highlights the acute challenges involved in using such tests to identify a preferred framework that aims to describe our observational situation in a multiverse.

  14. Influence of water depth on the sound generated by air-bubble vibration in the water musical instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohuchi, Yoshito; Nakazono, Yoichi

    2014-06-01

    We have developed a water musical instrument that generates sound by the falling of water drops within resonance tubes. The instrument can give people who hear it the healing effect inherent in the sound of water. The sound produced by falling water drops arises from air- bubble vibrations. To investigate the impact of water depth on the air-bubble vibrations, we conducted experiments at varying values of water pressure and nozzle shape. We found that air-bubble vibration frequency does not change at a water depth of 50 mm or greater. Between 35 and 40 mm, however, the frequency decreases. At water depths of 30 mm or below, the air-bubble vibration frequency increases. In our tests, we varied the nozzle diameter from 2 to 4 mm. In addition, we discovered that the time taken for air-bubble vibration to start after the water drops start falling is constant at water depths of 40 mm or greater, but slower at depths below 40 mm.

  15. ETR COMPRESSOR BUILDING, TRA643. CAMERA FACES NORTHEAST. WATER HEAT EXCHANGER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR COMPRESSOR BUILDING, TRA-643. CAMERA FACES NORTHEAST. WATER HEAT EXCHANGER IS IN LEFT FOREGROUND. A PARTIALLY ASSEMBLED PLANT AIR CONDITIONER IS AT CENTER. WORKERS AT RIGHT ASSEMBLE 4000 HORSEPOWER COMPRESSOR DRIVE MOTOR AT RIGHT. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-3714. R.G. Larsen, Photographer, 11/13/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  16. Pulse laser ablation at water-air interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utsunomiya, Yuji; Kajiwara, Takashi; Nishiyama, Takashi; Nagayama, Kunihito; Kubota, Shiro

    2010-06-01

    We studied a new pulse laser ablation phenomenon on a liquid surface layer, which is caused by the difference between the refractive indices of the two materials involved. The present study was motivated by our previous study, which showed that laser ablation can occur at the interface between a transparent material and a gas or liquid medium when the laser pulse is focused through the transparent material. In this case, the ablation threshold fluence is reduced remarkably. In the present study, experiments were conducted in water and air in order to confirm this phenomenon for a combination of two fluid media with different refractive indices. This phenomenon was observed in detail by pulse laser shadowgraphy. A high-resolution film was used to record the phenomenon with a Nd:YAG pulse laser with 10-ns duration as a light source. The laser ablation phenomenon on the liquid surface layer caused by a focused Nd:YAG laser pulse with 1064-nm wavelength was found to be followed by the splashing of the liquid surface, inducing a liquid jet with many ligaments. The liquid jet extension velocity was around 1000 m/s in a typical case. The liquid jet decelerated drastically due to rapid atomization at the tips of the ligaments. The liquid jet phenomenon was found to depend on the pulse laser parameters such as the laser fluence on the liquid surface, laser energy, and laser beam pattern. The threshold laser fluence for the generation of a liquid jet was 20 J/cm2. By increasing the incident laser energy with a fixed laser fluence, the laser focused area increased, which eventually led to an increase in the size of the plasma column. The larger the laser energy, the larger the jet size and the longer the temporal behavior. The laser beam pattern was found to have significant effects on the liquid jet’s velocity, shape, and history.

  17. Characterization of predominantly hydrophobic poly(styrene)-poly(ethylene oxide) copolymers at air/water and cyclohexane/water interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Gragson, D.E.; Jensen, J.M.; Baker, S.M.

    1999-09-14

    Interfacial tension measurements are employed to explore the spreading behavior of predominantly hydrophobic poly(styrene)--poly(ethylene oxide), PS-PEO, diblock copolymers at air/water and cyclohexane/water interfaces. Two copolymers with 7%- and 15.5%-PEO are examined in this study. The former is expected to have a PS block limiting area in air roughly equal to the limiting PEO pancake area, whereas the latter is expected to have a limiting PS block area in air approximately 3 times smaller than the limiting PEO pancake area. At the air/water interface, the 7%-PEO copolymer does not spread well, which is attributed to interference from the hydrophobic PS block. In contrast, the 7%-PEO copolymer spreads well at the cyclohexane/water interface, producing an isotherm with a terminating mean molecular area 3 times smaller than that obtained at the air/water interface. The 15.5%-PEO copolymer spreads well at both the air/water ad cyclohexane/water interfaces due to less interference from the smaller hydrophobic PS block. These observations are compared to compression isotherms, and the results are discussed in terms of the solvating nature of the adjacent cyclohexane phase for the PS block.

  18. Effects of air and water temperatures on resting metabolism of auklets and other diving birds.

    PubMed

    Richman, Samantha E; Lovvorn, James R

    2011-01-01

    For small aquatic endotherms, heat loss while floating on water can be a dominant energy cost, and requires accurate estimation in energetics models for different species. We measured resting metabolic rate (RMR) in air and on water for a small diving bird, the Cassin's auklet (Ptychoramphus aleuticus), and compared these results to published data for other diving birds of diverse taxa and sizes. For 8 Cassin's auklets (~165 g), the lower critical temperature was higher on water (21 °C) than in air (16 °C). Lowest values of RMR (W kg⁻¹) averaged 19% higher on water (12.14 ± 3.14 SD) than in air (10.22 ± 1.43). At lower temperatures, RMR averaged 25% higher on water than in air, increasing with similar slope. RMR was higher on water than in air for alcids, cormorants, and small penguins but not for diving ducks, which appear exceptionally resistant to heat loss in water. Changes in RMR (W) with body mass either in air or on water were mostly linear over the 5- to 20-fold body mass ranges of alcids, diving ducks, and penguins, while cormorants showed no relationship of RMR with mass. The often large energetic effects of time spent floating on water can differ substantially among major taxa of diving birds, so that relevant estimates are critical to understanding their patterns of daily energy use. PMID:21527823

  19. 21 CFR 872.3750 - Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner. 872... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3750 Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner. (a) Identification. A bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner is a...

  20. 21 CFR 872.3750 - Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner. 872... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3750 Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner. (a) Identification. A bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner is a...

  1. 21 CFR 872.3750 - Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner. 872... and tooth conditioner. (a) Identification. A bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner is a device... to a tooth surface. (b) Classification. Class II....

  2. 21 CFR 872.3750 - Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner. 872... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3750 Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner. (a) Identification. A bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner is a...

  3. 21 CFR 872.3750 - Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner. 872... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3750 Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner. (a) Identification. A bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner is a...

  4. Monolayers at air-water interfaces: from origins-of-life to nanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Ariga, Katsuhiko; Hill, Jonathan P

    2011-08-01

    The air-water interface presents several interesting features, namely a) a molecularly flat environment, b) a boundary region between two phases with different dielectric constants, c) permits or promotes dynamic interactions within the interface region, and d) a point of interaction between hydrophobic compounds and aqueous molecules. Accordingly, Langmuir monolayers at the air-water interface have several unique characteristics and properties, which require investigation. In this review-type personal account, typical examples of molecular recognition and molecular patterning at air-water interfaces are first introduced, followed by descriptions of specific and unusual properties of monolayers on water. In addition, two examples of our own results concerning Langmuir monolayers are explained. We have selected examples from two apparently unrelated research areas, these being the origin of life and future nanotechnology, in order to emphasize the diverse scientific contribution of research on monolayers at the air-water interface. PMID:21739568

  5. WETAIR: A computer code for calculating thermodynamic and transport properties of air-water mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fessler, T. E.

    1979-01-01

    A computer program subroutine, WETAIR, was developed to calculate the thermodynamic and transport properties of air water mixtures. It determines the thermodynamic state from assigned values of temperature and density, pressure and density, temperature and pressure, pressure and entropy, or pressure and enthalpy. The WETAIR calculates the properties of dry air and water (steam) by interpolating to obtain values from property tables. Then it uses simple mixing laws to calculate the properties of air water mixtures. Properties of mixtures with water contents below 40 percent (by mass) can be calculated at temperatures from 273.2 to 1497 K and pressures to 450 MN/sq m. Dry air properties can be calculated at temperatures as low as 150 K. Water properties can be calculated at temperatures to 1747 K and pressures to 100 MN/sq m. The WETAIR is available in both SFTRAN and FORTRAN.

  6. Predicting Air-Water Geysers and Their Implications on Reducing Combined Sewer Overflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Y.; Leon, A.; Apte, S.

    2014-12-01

    An air-water geyser in a closed conduit system is characterized by an explosive jetting of a mixture of air and water through drop-shafts. In this study, three scenarios of geysers are numerically simulated using a 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. The three tested scenarios are comprised of a drop shaft that is closed at its bottom and partially or fully open at the top. Initially, the lower section of the drop shaft is filled with pressurized air, the middle section with stagnant water and the upper section with air at atmospheric pressure. The pressure and volume of the pressurized air, and hence the stored energy, is different for all three test cases. The volume of the stagnant water and the air at atmospheric pressure are kept constant in the tests. The numerical simulations aim to identify the correlation between dimensionless energy stored in the pressurized air pocket and dimensionless maximum pressure reached at the outlet. This dimensionless correlation could be used to determine the energy threshold that does not produce air-water geyser, which in turn could be used in the design of combined sewer systems for minimizing geysers.

  7. PILOT STUDY FOR REMOVAL OF ARSENIC FROM DRINKING WATER AT THE FALLON, NEVADA NAVAL AIR STATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report presents the results of pilot plant testing of two treatment methods capable of removing arsenic from drinking water; activated alumina and ion exchange. Using the Naval Air Station (NAS) drinking water (raw water arsenic concentration = 0.080 - 0.116 mg/l) for evaluat...

  8. Use Of The Operational Air Quality Monitor (AQM) For In-Flight Water Testing Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macatangay, Ariel

    2014-01-01

    A primary requirement for manned spaceflight is Environmental Health which ensures air and water contaminants, acoustic profiles, microbial flora, and radiation exposures within the cabin are maintained to levels needed for crew health and for vehicle system functionality. The reliance on ground analyses of returned samples is a limitation in the current environmental monitoring strategy that will prevent future Exploration missions beyond low-Earth orbit. This proposal attempts to address this shortcoming by advancing in-flight analyses of water and air. Ground analysis of in-flight, air and water samples typically employ vapor-phase analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to identify and quantify organic compounds present in the samples. We envision the use of newly-developed direct ionization approaches as the most viable avenue leading towards an integrated analytical platform for the monitoring of water, air, and, potentially bio-samples in the cabin environment. Development of an in-flight instrument capable of analyzing air and water samples would be the logical next step to meeting the environmental monitoring needs of Exploration missions. Currently, the Air Quality Monitor (AQM) on-board ISS provides this specific information for a number of target compounds in the air. However, there is a significant subset of common target compounds between air and water. Naturally, the following question arises, "Can the AQM be used for both air and water quality monitoring?" Previous directorate-level IR&D funding led to the development of a water sample introduction method for mass spectrometry using electrothermal vaporization (ETV). This project will focus on the integration of the ETV with a ground-based AQM. The capabilities of this integrated platform will be evaluated using a subset of toxicologically important compounds.

  9. Influence of tap water quality and household water use activities on indoor air and internal dose levels of trihalomethanes.

    PubMed

    Nuckols, John R; Ashley, David L; Lyu, Christopher; Gordon, Sydney M; Hinckley, Alison F; Singer, Philip

    2005-07-01

    Individual exposure to trihalomethanes (THMs) in tap water can occur through ingestion, inhalation, or dermal exposure. Studies indicate that activities associated with inhaled or dermal exposure routes result in a greater increase in blood THM concentration than does ingestion. We measured blood and exhaled air concentrations of THM as biomarkers of exposure to participants conducting 14 common household water use activities, including ingestion of hot and cold tap water beverages, showering, clothes washing, hand washing, bathing, dish washing, and indirect shower exposure. We conducted our study at a single residence in each of two water utility service areas, one with relatively high and the other low total THM in the residence tap water. To maintain a consistent exposure environment for seven participants, we controlled water use activities, exposure time, air exchange, water flow and temperature, and nonstudy THM sources to the indoor air. We collected reference samples for water supply and air (pre-water use activity), as well as tap water and ambient air samples. We collected blood samples before and after each activity and exhaled breath samples at baseline and post-activity. All hot water use activities yielded a 2-fold increase in blood or breath THM concentrations for at least one individual. The greatest observed increase in blood and exhaled breath THM concentration in any participant was due to showering (direct and indirect), bathing, and hand dishwashing. Average increase in blood THM concentration ranged from 57 to 358 pg/mL due to these activities. More research is needed to determine whether acute and frequent exposures to THM at these concentrations have public health implications. Further research is also needed in designing epidemiologic studies that minimize data collection burden yet maximize accuracy in classification of dermal and inhalation THM exposure during hot water use activities. PMID:16002374

  10. Allergies to molds caused by fungal spores in air conditioning equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Schata, M.; Jorde, W. ); Elixmann, J.H.; Linskens, H.F. )

    1989-01-01

    People suffering from various symptoms while in air-conditioned rooms often show sensitizations to fungi that can be isolated when the fungi are removed from air conditioners. By using specific challenge tests it was shown that fungal spores in air conditioners can evoke allergic symptoms. Hyposensitization was the specific therapy prescribed for such allergic reactions. After hyposensitization therapy, more than 70% of the patients so treated could live and work again in air-conditioned rooms without developing specific symptoms.

  11. Characterization of AIRS temperature and water vapor measurement capability using correlative observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fetzer, Eric J.; Eldering, Annmarie; Lee, Sung-Yung

    2005-01-01

    In this presentation we address several fundamental issues in the measurement of temperature and water vapor by AIRS: accuracy, precision, vertical resolution and biases as a function of cloud amount. We use two correlative data sources. First we compare AIRS total water vapor with that from the Advanced microwave Sounding Radiometer for EOS (AMSR-E) instrument, also onboard the Aqua spacecraft. AMSRE uses a mature methodology with a heritage including the operational Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) instruments. AIRS and AMSR-E observations are collocated and simultaneous, providing a very large data set for comparison: about 200,000 over-ocean matches daily. We show small cloud-dependent biases between AIRS and AMSR-E total water vapor for several oceanic regions. Our second correlative data source is several hundred dedicated radiosondes launched during AIRS overpasses.

  12. COMPOSITION CHANGES IN REFRIGERANT BLENDS FOR AUTOMOTIVE AIR CONDITIONING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three refrigerant blends used to replace CFC-12 in automotive air conditioners were evaluated for composition changes due to typical servicing and leakage. When recommended service procedures were followed, changes in blend compositions were relatively small. Small changes in b...

  13. 75 FR 11560 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act and Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ... of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act and Clean Air Act Notice is hereby given that... violations of the Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq., and the Clean Air Act, 42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq. at... of water effluent controls, the rerouting of air emissions through control devices, and...

  14. A Comprehensive Analysis of AIRS Near Surface Air Temperature and Water Vapor Over Land and Tropical Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang, H. V. T.; Lambrigtsen, B.; Manning, E. M.; Fetzer, E. J.; Wong, S.; Teixeira, J.

    2015-12-01

    Version 6 (V6) of the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder's (AIRS) combined infrared and microwave (IR+MW) retrieval of near surface air temperature (NSAT) and water vapor (NSWV) is validated over the United States with the densely populated MESONET data. MESONET data is a collection of surface/near surface meteorological data from many federal and state agencies. The ones used for this analysis are measured from instruments maintained by the National Weather Service (NWS), the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), and the Interagency Remote Automatic Weather Stations (RAWS), resulting in a little more than four thousand locations throughout the US. Over the Tropical oceans, NSAT and NSWV are compared to a network of moored buoys from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean/Triangle Trans-Ocean Buoy Network (TAO/TRITON), and the Pilot Research Moored Array in the Tropical Atlantic (PIRATA). With the analysis of AIRS surface and near surface products over ocean, we glean information on how retrieval of NSAT and NSWV over land can be improved and why it needs some adjustments. We also compare AIRS initial guess of near surface products that are trained on fifty days of ECMWF along with AIRS calibrated radiances, to ECMWF analysis data. The comparison is done to show the differing characteristics of AIRS initial guesses from ECMWF.

  15. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 2, Fluorescent lamp ballasts, television sets, room air conditioners, and kitchen ranges and ovens

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    This document is divided into ``volumes`` B through E, dealing with individual classes of consumer products. Chapters in each present engineering analysis, base case forecasts, projected national impacts of standards, life-cycle costs and payback periods, impacts on manufacturers, impacts of standards on electric utilities, and environmental effects. Supporting appendices are included.

  16. Addressing Water Consumption of Evaporative Coolers with Greywater

    SciTech Connect

    Sahai, Rashmi; Shah, Nihar; Phadke, Amol

    2012-07-01

    Evaporative coolers (ECs) provide significant gains in energy efficiency compared to vapor compression air conditioners, but simultaneously have significant onsite water demand. This can be a major barrier to deployment in areas of the world with hot and arid climates. To address this concern, this study determined where in the world evaporative cooling is suitable, the water consumption of ECs in these cities, and the potential that greywater can be used reduce the consumption of potable water in ECs. ECs covered 69percent of the cities where room air conditioners are may be deployed, based on comfort conditions alone. The average water consumption due to ECs was found to be 400 L/household/day in the United States and Australia, with the potential for greywater to provide 50percent this amount. In the rest of the world, the average water consumption was 250 L/household/day, with the potential for greywater to supply 80percent of this amount. Home size was the main factor that contributed to this difference. In the Mediterranean, the Middle East, Northern India, and the Midwestern and Southwestern United States alkalinity levels are high and water used for bleeding will likely contribute significantly to EC water consumption. Although technically feasible, upfront costs for household GW systems are currently high. In both developed and developing parts of the world, however, a direct EC and GW system is cost competitive with conventional vapor compression air conditioners. Moreover, in regions of the world that face problems of water scarcity the benefits can substantially outweigh the costs.

  17. Air Stripping Designs and Reactive Water Purification Processes for the Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boul, Peter J.; Lange, Kevin; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

    2010-01-01

    Air stripping designs are considered to reduce the presence of volatile organic compounds in the purified water. Components of the wastewater streams are ranked by Henry's Law Constant and the suitability of air stripping in the purification of wastewater in terms of component removal is evaluated. Distillation processes are modeled in tandem with air stripping to demonstrate the potential effectiveness and utility of these methods in recycling wastewater on the Moon. Scaling factors for distillation and air stripping columns are presented to account for the difference in the lunar gravitation environment. Commercially available distillation and air stripping units which are considered suitable for Exploration Life Support are presented. The advantages to the various designs are summarized with respect to water purity levels, power consumption, and processing rates. An evaluation of reactive distillation and air stripping is presented with regards to the reduction of volatile organic compounds in the contaminated water and air. Among the methods presented, an architecture is presented for the evaluation of the simultaneous oxidation of organics in air and water. These and other designs are presented in light of potential improvements in power consumptions and air and water purities for architectures which include catalytic activity integrated into the water processor. In particular, catalytic oxidation of organics may be useful as a tool to remove contaminants that more traditional distillation and/or air stripping columns may not remove. A review of the current leading edge at the commercial level and at the research frontier in catalytically active materials is presented. Themes and directions from the engineering developments in catalyst design are presented conceptually in light of developments in the nanoscale chemistry of a variety of catalyst materials.

  18. Thermionic reactor power conditioner design for nuclear electric propulsion.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobsen, A. S.; Tasca, D. M.

    1971-01-01

    Consideration of the effects of various thermionic reactor parameters and requirements upon spacecraft power conditioning design. A basic spacecraft is defined using nuclear electric propulsion, requiring approximately 120 kWe. The interrelationships of reactor operating characteristics and power conditioning requirements are discussed and evaluated, and the effects on power conditioner design and performance are presented.

  19. Contraction pre-conditioner in finite-difference electromagnetic modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yavich, Nikolay; Zhdanov, Michael S.

    2016-09-01

    This paper introduces a novel approach to constructing an effective pre-conditioner for finite-difference (FD) electromagnetic modelling in geophysical applications. This approach is based on introducing an FD contraction operator, similar to one developed for integral equation formulation of Maxwell's equation. The properties of the FD contraction operator were established using an FD analogue of the energy equality for the anomalous electromagnetic field. A new pre-conditioner uses a discrete Green's function of a 1-D layered background conductivity. We also developed the formulae for an estimation of the condition number of the system of FD equations pre-conditioned with the introduced FD contraction operator. Based on this estimation, we have established that the condition number is bounded by the maximum conductivity contrast between the background conductivity and actual conductivity. When there are both resistive and conductive anomalies relative to the background, the new pre-conditioner is advantageous over using the 1-D discrete Green's function directly. In our numerical experiments with both resistive and conductive anomalies, for a land geoelectrical model with 1:10 contrast, the method accelerates convergence of an iterative method (BiCGStab) by factors of 2-2.5, and in a marine example with 1:50 contrast, by a factor of 4.6, compared to direct use of the discrete 1-D Green's function as a pre-conditioner.

  20. Transforming PC Power Supplies into Smart Car Battery Conditioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez-Ascariz, J. M.; Boquete-Vazquez, L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a laboratory project consisting of a PC power supply modification into an intelligent car-battery conditioner with both wireless and wired networking capabilities. Adding a microcontroller to an average PC power supply transforms it into a flexible, intelligent device that can be configured and that is suitable to keep car…

  1. Method and apparatus for extracting water from air using a desiccant

    DOEpatents

    Spletzer, Barry L.; Callow, Diane Schafer

    2003-01-01

    The present invention provides a method and apparatus for extracting liquid water from moist air using minimal energy input. The method can be considered as four phases: (1) adsorbing water from air into a desiccant, (2) isolating the water-laden desiccant from the air source, (3) desorbing water as vapor from the desiccant into a chamber, and (4) isolating the desiccant from the chamber, and compressing the vapor in the chamber to form liquid condensate. The liquid condensate can be removed for use. Careful design of the dead volumes and pressure balances can minimize the energy required. The dried air can be exchanged for fresh moist air and the process repeated. An apparatus comprises a first chamber in fluid communication with a desiccant, and having ports to intake moist air and exhaust dried air. The apparatus also comprises a second chamber in fluid communication with the desiccant. The second chamber allows variable internal pressure, and has a port for removal of liquid condensate. Each chamber can be configured to be isolated or in communication with the desiccant. The first chamber can be configured to be isolated or in communication with a course of moist air. Various arrangements of valves, pistons, and chambers are described.

  2. It's Alive!: Students Observe Air-Water Interface Samples Rich with Organisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avant, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    This article describes an experiment, designed by Cindy Henk, manager of the Socolofsky Microscopy Center at Louisiana State University (LSU), that involved collecting and viewing microorganisms in the air-water interface. The experiment was participated by Leesville High School microbiology students. The students found that the air-water…

  3. Driving Students and Parents to Cleaner Air: An Interview with Michelle Waters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curriculum Review, 2006

    2006-01-01

    After spending three years as a kindergarten teacher and one as a reading specialist, Michelle Waters recently became the education outreach coordinator for the Georgia-based Clean Air Campaign. In that role, she has helped roll out a comprehensive Better Air Schools initiative to 20 Atlanta-area elementary schools. The program includes a…

  4. The transfer of carbon fibers through a commercial aircraft water separator and air cleaner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyers, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    The fraction of carbon fibers passing through a water separator and an air filter was determined in order to estimate the proportion of fibers outside a closed aircraft that are transmitted to the electronics through the air conditioning system. When both devices were used together and only fibers 3 mm or larger were considered, a transfer function of .001 was obtained.

  5. 75 FR 19307 - Safety Zone; Milwaukee Air and Water Show, Milwaukee, Lake Michigan, Milwaukee, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-14

    ... public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Milwaukee Air and Water Show, Milwaukee... ensure the safety of the public and vessels from the hazards associated with the Milwaukee Air and...

  6. Sensory descriptive Profiles of Air and Water Chilled Broiler Breast Fillets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Air chilled chicken products are gaining popularity in the USA. It has been claimed that air chilling (AC) results in improved tenderness and flavor of broiler meat compared with water chilling (WC). However, there was lack of published sensory study results to support the claims. The objective of...

  7. Adhesive bonding of super-elastic titanium-nickel alloy castings with a phosphate metal conditioner and an acrylic adhesive.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, H; Tanoue, N; Yanagida, H; Atsuta, M; Koike, M; Yoneyama, T

    2003-06-01

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the bonding characteristics of super-elastic titanium-nickel (Ti-Ni) alloy castings. Disk specimens were cast from a Ti-Ni alloy (Ti-50.85Ni mol%) using an arc centrifugal casting machine. High-purity titanium and nickel specimens were also prepared as experimental references. The specimens were air-abraded with alumina, and bonded with an adhesive resin (Super-Bond C & B). A metal conditioner containing a phosphate monomer (Cesead II Opaque Primer) was also used for priming the specimens. Post-thermocycling average bond strengths (MPa) of the primed groups were 41.5 for Ti-Ni, 30.4 for Ti and 19.5 for Ni, whereas those of the unprimed groups were 21.6 for Ti, 19.3 for Ti-Ni and 9.3 for Ni. Application of the phosphate conditioner elevated the bond strengths of all alloy/metals (P < 0.05). X-ray fluorescence analysis revealed that nickel was attached to the debonded resin surface of the resin-to-nickel bonded specimen, indicating that corrosion of high-purity nickel occurred at the resin-nickel interface. Durable bonding to super-elastic Ti-Ni alloy castings can be achieved with a combination of a phosphate metal conditioner and a tri-n-butylborane-initiated adhesive resin. PMID:12787464

  8. The Clean Air and Clean Water Acts: The "Fifth" and "Eighth" Most Significant Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Laurel A.

    1991-01-01

    The history and impact of this federal legislation are discussed. An assessment of the progress of federal legislation in these areas is presented. Key issues for federal legislation regarding water and air quality are identified. (CW)

  9. SURVIVAL OF 'DAPHNIA', CRAYFISH, AND STONEFLIES IN AIR-SUPERSATURATED WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Daphnia magna, the crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus, and nymphs of the stoneflies, Acroneuria californica, A. pacifica, and Pteronarcys californica were tested in the laboratory to determine their survival in different concentrations of air-supersaturated water. The mean 96-h LC...

  10. A CRITICAL ASSESSMENT OF ELEMENTAL MERCURY AIR/WATER EXCHANGE PARTNERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although evasion of elemental mercury from aquatic systems can significantly deplete net mercury accumulation resulting from atmospheric deposition, the current ability to model elemental mercury air/water exchange is limited by uncertainties in our understanding of all gaseous a...

  11. Boundary layer flow of air over water on a flat plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, John; Alving, Amy E.; Joseph, Daniel D.

    1993-01-01

    A non-similar boundary layer theory for air blowing over a water layer on a flat plate is formulated and studied as a two-fluid problem in which the position of the interface is unknown. The problem is considered at large Reynolds number (based on x), away from the leading edge. A simple non-similar analytic solution of the problem is derived for which the interface height is proportional to x(sub 1/4) and the water and air flow satisfy the Blasius boundary layer equations, with a linear profile in the water and a Blasius profile in the air. Numerical studies of the initial value problem suggests that this asymptotic, non-similar air-water boundary layer solution is a global attractor for all initial conditions.

  12. (Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    This report presents information concerning field procedures employed during the monitoring, well construction, well purging, sampling, and well logging at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. Activities were conducted in an effort to evaluate ground water contamination.

  13. Fluidized bed heat exchanger with water cooled air distributor and dust hopper

    DOEpatents

    Jukkola, Walfred W.; Leon, Albert M.; Van Dyk, Jr., Garritt C.; McCoy, Daniel E.; Fisher, Barry L.; Saiers, Timothy L.; Karstetter, Marlin E.

    1981-11-24

    A fluidized bed heat exchanger is provided in which air is passed through a bed of particulate material containing fuel. A steam-water natural circulation system is provided for heat exchange and the housing of the heat exchanger has a water-wall type construction. Vertical in-bed heat exchange tubes are provided and the air distributor is water-cooled. A water-cooled dust hopper is provided in the housing to collect particulates from the combustion gases and separate the combustion zone from a volume within said housing in which convection heat exchange tubes are provided to extract heat from the exiting combustion gases.

  14. A theoretical remark about waves on a static water surface beneath a layer of moving air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kida, T.; Hayashi, R.; Yasutomi, Z.

    1990-12-01

    Grundy and Tuck (1987) treat the problem of large-amplitude waves on an air-water interface where the air is a steady nonuniform flow and the water is stationary. Both periodic nonlinear Stokes-like waves far downstream and a configuration of the water surface from the edge region of a hovercraft were computed. However, there is no work that treats the existence of such Stokes-like waves theoretically. The present work aims to prove the existence of such solutions in the case where the cushion pressure is low, that is, the depression at the upstream stagnation point from the mean water level is small.

  15. Water permeability of primary mouse keratinocyte cultures grown at the air-liquid interface

    SciTech Connect

    Cumpstone, M.B.; Kennedy, A.H.; Harmon, C.S.; Potts, R.O.

    1989-04-01

    In order to study the development of the epidermal permeability barrier in vitro, tritiated water (HTO) flux was measured across murine keratinocytes cultured at the air-liquid interface. Using a micro-diffusion technique, it was shown that air-liquid cultures form areas where the water diffusion is comparable to that of intact neonatal mouse skin. When water permeability is measured over a large area of the culture surface, however, significantly higher flux is obtained. These results show that under the culture conditions used, areas of water barrier comparable to intact neonatal mouse skin coexist with regions of less complete barrier formation.

  16. Smart Sensors Enable Smart Air Conditioning Control

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Chin-Chi; Lee, Dasheng

    2014-01-01

    In this study, mobile phones, wearable devices, temperature and human motion detectors are integrated as smart sensors for enabling smart air conditioning control. Smart sensors obtain feedback, especially occupants' information, from mobile phones and wearable devices placed on human body. The information can be used to adjust air conditioners in advance according to humans' intentions, in so-called intention causing control. Experimental results show that the indoor temperature can be controlled accurately with errors of less than ±0.1 °C. Rapid cool down can be achieved within 2 min to the optimized indoor capacity after occupants enter a room. It's also noted that within two-hour operation the total compressor output of the smart air conditioner is 48.4% less than that of the one using On-Off control. The smart air conditioner with wearable devices could detect the human temperature and activity during sleep to determine the sleeping state and adjusting the sleeping function flexibly. The sleeping function optimized by the smart air conditioner with wearable devices could reduce the energy consumption up to 46.9% and keep the human health. The presented smart air conditioner could provide a comfortable environment and achieve the goals of energy conservation and environmental protection. PMID:24961213

  17. Smart sensors enable smart air conditioning control.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chin-Chi; Lee, Dasheng

    2014-01-01

    In this study, mobile phones, wearable devices, temperature and human motion detectors are integrated as smart sensors for enabling smart air conditioning control. Smart sensors obtain feedback, especially occupants' information, from mobile phones and wearable devices placed on human body. The information can be used to adjust air conditioners in advance according to humans' intentions, in so-called intention causing control. Experimental results show that the indoor temperature can be controlled accurately with errors of less than ±0.1 °C. Rapid cool down can be achieved within 2 min to the optimized indoor capacity after occupants enter a room. It's also noted that within two-hour operation the total compressor output of the smart air conditioner is 48.4% less than that of the one using On-Off control. The smart air conditioner with wearable devices could detect the human temperature and activity during sleep to determine the sleeping state and adjusting the sleeping function flexibly. The sleeping function optimized by the smart air conditioner with wearable devices could reduce the energy consumption up to 46.9% and keep the human health. The presented smart air conditioner could provide a comfortable environment and achieve the goals of energy conservation and environmental protection. PMID:24961213

  18. The behavior of NaOH at the air-water interface, a computational study

    SciTech Connect

    Wick, Collin D.; Dang, Liem X.

    2010-07-14

    Molecular dynamics simulations with a polarizable multi-state empirical valence bond model were carried out to investigate NaOH dissociation and pairing in water bulk and at the air-water interface. It was found that NaOH readily dissociates in the bulk, and the effect of the air-water interface on NaOH dissociation is fairly minor. Also, NaOH complexes were found to be strongly repelled from the air-water interface, which is consistent with surface tension measurements. At the same time, a very strong preference for the hydroxide anion to be oriented towards the air was found that persisted a few angstroms towards the liquid from the Gibbs dividing surface of the air-water interface. This was due to a preference for the hydroxide anion to have its hydrogen pointing towards the air, and the fact that the sodium ion was more likely to be found near the hydroxide oxygen than hydrogen. As a consequence, the simulation results show that surfaces of NaOH solutions should be negatively charged, in agreement with experimental observations, but also that the hydroxide has little surface affinity. This provides the possibility that the surface of water can be devoid of hydroxide anions, but still have a strong negative charge. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy Basic Energy Sciences' Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences Division. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

  19. Effect of metal conditioner on bonding of porcelain to cobalt-chromium alloy

    PubMed Central

    Kajihara, Yutaro; Takenouchi, Yoshihisa; Tanaka, Takuo; Suzuki, Shiro; Minami, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of two different metal conditioners for non-precious metal alloys for the bonding of porcelain to a cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) alloy. MATERIALS AND METHODS Disk-shaped specimens (2.5×10.0 mm) were cast with Co-Cr alloy and used as adherend materials. The bonding surfaces were polished with a 600-grid silicon carbide paper and airborne-particle abraded using 110 µm alumina particles. Bonding specimens were fabricated by applying and firing either of the metal conditioners on the airborne-particle abraded surface, followed by firing porcelain into 5 mm in diameter and 3 mm in height. Specimens without metal conditioner were also fabricated. Shear bond strength for each group (n=8) were measured and compared (α=.05). Sectional view of bonding interface was observed by SEM. EDS analysis was performed to determine the chemical elements of metal conditioners and to determine the failure modes after shear test. RESULTS There were significant differences among three groups, and two metal conditioner-applied groups showed significantly higher values compared to the non-metal conditioner group. The SEM observation of the sectional view at bonding interface revealed loose contact at porcelain-alloy surface for non-metal conditioner group, however, close contact at both alloy-metal conditioner and metal conditioner-porcelain interfaces for both metal conditioner-applied groups. All the specimens showed mixed failures. EDS analysis showed that one metal conditioner was Si-based material, and another was Ti-based material. Si-based metal conditioner showed higher bond strengths compared to the Ti-based metal conditioner, but exhibited more porous failure surface failure. CONCLUSION Based on the results of this study, it can be stated that the application of metal conditioner is recommended for the bonding of porcelain to cobalt-chromium alloys. PMID:26949481

  20. Surface tension of ab initio liquid water at the water-air interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagata, Yuki; Ohto, Tatsuhiko; Bonn, Mischa; Kühne, Thomas D.

    2016-05-01

    We report calculations on the surface tension of the water-air interface using ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations. We investigate the influence of the cell size on surface tension of water from force field molecular dynamics simulations. We find that the calculated surface tension increases with increasing simulation cell size, thereby illustrating that a correction for finite size effects is essential for small systems that are customary in AIMD simulations. Moreover, AIMD simulations reveal that the use of a double-ζ basis set overestimates the experimentally measured surface tension due to the Pulay stress while more accurate triple and quadruple-ζ basis sets give converged results. We further demonstrate that van der Waals corrections critically affect the surface tension. AIMD simulations without the van der Waals correction substantially underestimate the surface tension while the van der Waals correction with the Grimme's D2 technique results in a value for the surface tension that is too high. The Grimme's D3 van der Waals correction provides a surface tension close to the experimental value. Whereas the specific choices for the van der Waals correction and basis sets critically affect the calculated surface tension, the surface tension is remarkably insensitive to the details of the exchange and correlation functionals, which highlights the impact of long-range interactions on the surface tension. Our simulated values provide important benchmarks, both for improving van der Waals corrections and AIMD simulations of aqueous interfaces.

  1. International Space Station Common Cabin Air Assembly Water Separator On-Orbit Operation, Failure, and Redesign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balistreri, Steven F., Jr.; Shaw, Laura A.; Laliberte, Yvon

    2010-01-01

    The ability to control the temperature and humidity of an environment or habitat is critical for human survival. These factors are important to maintaining human health and comfort, as well as maintaining mechanical and electrical equipment in good working order to support the human and to accomplish mission objectives. The temperature and humidity of the International Space Station (ISS) United States On-orbit Segment (USOS) cabin air is controlled by the Common Cabin Air Assembly (CCAA). The CCAA consists of a fan, a condensing heat exchanger (CHX), an air/water separator, temperature and liquid sensors, and electrical controlling hardware and software. The Water Separator (WS) pulls in air and water from the CHX, and centrifugally separates the mixture, sending the water to the condensate bus and the air back into the CHX outlet airstream. Two distinct early failures of the CCAA Water Separator in the Quest Airlock forced operational changes and brought about the re-design of the Water Separator to improve the useful life via modification kits. The on-orbit operational environment of the Airlock presented challenges that were not foreseen with the original design of the Water Separator. Operational changes were instituted to prolong the life of the third installed WS, while waiting for newly designed Water Separators to be delivered on-orbit. The modification kit design involved several different components of the Water Separator, including the innovative use of a fabrication technique to build the impellers used in Water Separators out of titanium instead of aluminum. The technique allowed for the cost effective production of the low quantity build. This paper will describe the failures of the Water Separators in the Quest Airlock, the operational constraints that were implemented to prolong the life of the installed Water Separators throughout the USOS, and the innovative re-design of the CCAA Water Separator.

  2. Two-phase air-water stratified flow measurement using ultrasonic techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Shiwei; Yan, Tinghu; Yeung, Hoi

    2014-04-11

    In this paper, a time resolved ultrasound system was developed for investigating two-phase air-water stratified flow. The hardware of the system includes a pulsed wave transducer, a pulser/receiver, and a digital oscilloscope. The time domain cross correlation method is used to calculate the velocity profile along ultrasonic beam. The system is able to provide velocities with spatial resolution of around 1mm and the temporal resolution of 200μs. Experiments were carried out on single phase water flow and two-phase air-water stratified flow. For single phase water flow, the flow rates from ultrasound system were compared with those from electromagnetic flow (EM) meter, which showed good agreement. Then, the experiments were conducted on two-phase air-water stratified flow and the results were given. Compared with liquid height measurement from conductance probe, it indicated that the measured velocities were explainable.

  3. Theoretical study of vibrational energy transfer of free OH groups at the water-air interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Renhui; Wei, Wenmei; Sun, Yuanyuan; Song, Kai; Shi, Qiang

    2016-04-01

    Recent experimental studies have shown that the vibrational dynamics of free OH groups at the water-air interface is significantly different from that in bulk water. In this work, by performing molecular dynamics simulations and mixed quantum/classical calculations, we investigate different vibrational energy transfer pathways of free OH groups at the water-air interface. The calculated intramolecular vibrational energy transfer rate constant and the free OH bond reorientation time scale agree well with the experiment. It is also found that, due to the small intermolecular vibrational couplings, the intermolecular vibrational energy transfer pathway that is very important in bulk water plays a much less significant role in the vibrational energy relaxation of the free OH groups at the water-air interface.

  4. Fracture toughness of Alloy 600 and EN82H weld in air and water

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, W.J.; Brown, C.M.

    1999-06-01

    The fracture toughness of Alloy 600 and its weld, EN82H, was characterized in 54 C to 338 C air and hydrogenated water. Elastic-plastic J{sub IC} testing was performed due to the inherent high toughness of these materials. Alloy 600 exhibited excellent fracture toughness under all test conditions. While EN82H welds displayed excellent toughness in air and high temperature water, a dramatic toughness degradation occurred in water at temperatures below 149 C. Comparison of the cracking response in low temperature water with that for hydrogen-precharged specimens tested in air demonstrated that the loss in toughness is due to a hydrogen-induced intergranular cracking mechanism. At loading rates about approx. 1000 MPa {radical}m/h, the toughness in low temperature water is improved because there is insufficient time for hydrogen to embrittle grain boundaries. Electron fractographic examinations were performed to correlate macroscopic properties with key microstructural features and operative fracture mechanisms.

  5. Theoretical study of vibrational energy transfer of free OH groups at the water-air interface.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Renhui; Wei, Wenmei; Sun, Yuanyuan; Song, Kai; Shi, Qiang

    2016-04-14

    Recent experimental studies have shown that the vibrational dynamics of free OH groups at the water-air interface is significantly different from that in bulk water. In this work, by performing molecular dynamics simulations and mixed quantum/classical calculations, we investigate different vibrational energy transfer pathways of free OH groups at the water-air interface. The calculated intramolecular vibrational energy transfer rate constant and the free OH bond reorientation time scale agree well with the experiment. It is also found that, due to the small intermolecular vibrational couplings, the intermolecular vibrational energy transfer pathway that is very important in bulk water plays a much less significant role in the vibrational energy relaxation of the free OH groups at the water-air interface. PMID:27083739

  6. Major Upgrades to the AIRS Version-6 Water Vapor Profile Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel; Blaisdell, John; Iredell, Lena

    2015-01-01

    This research is a continuation of part of what was shown at the last AIRS Science Team Meeting and the AIRS 2015 NetMeeting. AIRS Version 6 was finalized in late 2012 and is now operational. Version 6 contained many significant improvements in retrieval methodology compared to Version 5. Version 6 retrieval methodology used for the water vapor profile q(p) and ozone profile O3(p) retrievals is basically unchanged from Version 5, or even from Version 4. Subsequent research has made significant improvements in both water vapor and O3 profiles compared to Version 6.

  7. Potable water recovery for spacecraft application by electrolytic pretreatment/air evaporation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, G. W.

    1975-01-01

    A process for the recovery of potable water from urine using electrolytic pretreatment followed by distillation in a closed-cycle air evaporator has been developed and tested. Both the electrolytic pretreatment unit and the air evaporation unit are six-person, flight-concept prototype, automated units. Significantly extended wick lifetimes have been achieved in the air evaporation unit using electrolytically pretreated, as opposed to chemically pretreated, urine feed. Parametric test data are presented on product water quality, wick life, process power, maintenance requirements, and expendable requirements.

  8. X-ray microtomography determination of air-water interfacial area-water saturation relationships in sandy porous media.

    PubMed

    Costanza-Robinson, Molly S; Harrold, Katherine H; Lieb-Lappen, Ross M

    2008-04-15

    In this work, total smooth air-water interfacial areas were measured for a series of nine natural and model sandy porous media as a function of water saturation using synchrotron X-ray microtomography. Interfacial areas decreased linearly with water satuation, while the estimated maximum interfacial area compared favorably to the media geometric surface areas. Importantly, relative interfacial area (i.e., normalized by geometric surface area) versus water saturation plots for all media collapsed into a single linear cluster (r2 = 0.93), suggesting that geometric surface area is an important, and perhaps sufficient, descriptor of sandy media that governs total smooth interfacial area-water saturation relationships. Measured relationships were used to develop an empirical model for estimating interfacial area-water saturation relationships for sandy porous media. Model-based interfacial area estimates for independent media were generally slightly higher than interfacial areas measured using aqueous-phase interfacial tracer methods, which may indicate that microtomography captures regions of the air-water interface that are not accessible to aqueous-phase interfacial tracers. The empirical model presented here requires only average particle diameter and porosity as input parameters and can be used to readily estimate air-water interfacial area-water saturation relationships for sandy porous media. PMID:18497149

  9. Reducing Water/Hull Drag By Injecting Air Into Grooves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Jason C.; Bushnell, Dennis M.; Weinstein, Leonard M.

    1991-01-01

    Proposed technique for reduction of friction drag on hydrodynamic body involves use of grooves and combinations of surfactants to control motion of layer on surface of such body. Surface contains many rows of side-by-side, evenly spaced, longitudinal grooves. Dimensions of grooves and sharpnesses of tips in specific case depends on conditions of flow about vessel. Requires much less air than does microbubble-injection method.

  10. Oxygen and Air Nanobubble Water Solution Promote the Growth of Plants, Fishes, and Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ebina, Kosuke; Shi, Kenrin; Hirao, Makoto; Hashimoto, Jun; Kawato, Yoshitaka; Kaneshiro, Shoichi; Morimoto, Tokimitsu; Koizumi, Kota; Yoshikawa, Hideki

    2013-01-01

    Nanobubbles (<200 nm in diameter) have several unique properties such as long lifetime in liquid owing to its negatively charged surface, and its high gas solubility into the liquid owing to its high internal pressure. They are used in variety of fields including diagnostic aids and drug delivery, while there are no reports assessing their effects on the growth of lives. Nanobubbles of air or oxygen gas were generated using a nanobubble aerator (BUVITAS; Ligaric Company Limited, Osaka, Japan). Brassica campestris were cultured hydroponically for 4 weeks within air-nanobubble water or within normal water. Sweetfish (for 3 weeks) and rainbow trout (for 6 weeks) were kept either within air-nanobubble water or within normal water. Finally, 5 week-old male DBA1/J mice were bred with normal free-chaw and free-drinking either of oxygen-nanobubble water or of normal water for 12 weeks. Oxygen-nanobubble significantly increased the dissolved oxygen concentration of water as well as concentration/size of nanobubbles which were relatively stable for 70 days. Air-nanobubble water significantly promoted the height (19.1 vs. 16.7 cm; P<0.05), length of leaves (24.4 vs. 22.4 cm; P<0.01), and aerial fresh weight (27.3 vs. 20.3 g; P<0.01) of Brassica campestris compared to normal water. Total weight of sweetfish increased from 3.0 to 6.4 kg in normal water, whereas it increased from 3.0 to 10.2 kg in air-nanobubble water. In addition, total weight of rainbow trout increased from 50.0 to 129.5 kg in normal water, whereas it increased from 50.0 to 148.0 kg in air-nanobubble water. Free oral intake of oxygen-nanobubble water significantly promoted the weight (23.5 vs. 21.8 g; P<0.01) and the length (17.0 vs. 16.1 cm; P<0.001) of mice compared to that of normal water. We have demonstrated for the first time that oxygen and air-nanobubble water may be potentially effective tools for the growth of lives. PMID:23755221

  11. Oxygen and air nanobubble water solution promote the growth of plants, fishes, and mice.

    PubMed

    Ebina, Kosuke; Shi, Kenrin; Hirao, Makoto; Hashimoto, Jun; Kawato, Yoshitaka; Kaneshiro, Shoichi; Morimoto, Tokimitsu; Koizumi, Kota; Yoshikawa, Hideki

    2013-01-01

    Nanobubbles (<200 nm in diameter) have several unique properties such as long lifetime in liquid owing to its negatively charged surface, and its high gas solubility into the liquid owing to its high internal pressure. They are used in variety of fields including diagnostic aids and drug delivery, while there are no reports assessing their effects on the growth of lives. Nanobubbles of air or oxygen gas were generated using a nanobubble aerator (BUVITAS; Ligaric Company Limited, Osaka, Japan). Brassica campestris were cultured hydroponically for 4 weeks within air-nanobubble water or within normal water. Sweetfish (for 3 weeks) and rainbow trout (for 6 weeks) were kept either within air-nanobubble water or within normal water. Finally, 5 week-old male DBA1/J mice were bred with normal free-chaw and free-drinking either of oxygen-nanobubble water or of normal water for 12 weeks. Oxygen-nanobubble significantly increased the dissolved oxygen concentration of water as well as concentration/size of nanobubbles which were relatively stable for 70 days. Air-nanobubble water significantly promoted the height (19.1 vs. 16.7 cm; P<0.05), length of leaves (24.4 vs. 22.4 cm; P<0.01), and aerial fresh weight (27.3 vs. 20.3 g; P<0.01) of Brassica campestris compared to normal water. Total weight of sweetfish increased from 3.0 to 6.4 kg in normal water, whereas it increased from 3.0 to 10.2 kg in air-nanobubble water. In addition, total weight of rainbow trout increased from 50.0 to 129.5 kg in normal water, whereas it increased from 50.0 to 148.0 kg in air-nanobubble water. Free oral intake of oxygen-nanobubble water significantly promoted the weight (23.5 vs. 21.8 g; P<0.01) and the length (17.0 vs. 16.1 cm; P<0.001) of mice compared to that of normal water. We have demonstrated for the first time that oxygen and air-nanobubble water may be potentially effective tools for the growth of lives. PMID:23755221

  12. Alternatives for reducing hot-water bills

    SciTech Connect

    Bennington, G.E.; Spewak, P.C.

    1981-06-01

    A two stage approach to reducing residential water heating bills is described. In Stage I, simple conservation measures were included to reduce the daily hot water energy consumption and the energy losses from the water tank. Once these savings are achieved, Stage II considers more costly options for further reducing the water heating bill. Four alternatives are considered in Stage II: gas water heaters; solar water heaters (two types); heat pump water heaters; and heat recovery from a heat pump or air conditioner. To account for variations within the MASEC region, information on water heating in Rapid City, Minneapolis, Chicago, Detroit, and Kansas City is presented in detail. Information on geography, major population centers, fuel prices, climate, and state solar incentives is covered. (MCW)

  13. Critical air/water blow-down in safety valves at low qualities.

    PubMed

    Moncalvo, D; Friedel, L

    2011-02-28

    Critical air/water blow-downs in safety valves for qualities from 0.01 to 0.113 and mass flow rates from 1.5 up to 4.3 kg/s have been observed in our test facility. These critical blow-downs are characterized by a large void fraction and by an intense mixing of the phases both in the valve body and in the outlet pipe. A qualitative estimation of the flow pattern in the outlet pipe using the map of Taitel and Dukler suggests that these air/water flows are intermittent flows--presumably slug flows--evolving to annular flows for qualities above 0.1. Intermittent flows are also predicted for critical air/water and air/glycerine flows taken from the literature for the same safety valve at slightly larger relieving pressures. PMID:21227579

  14. Experimental study on bi-phase flow Air-Oil in Water Emulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnone, Davide; Poesio, Pietro

    2015-11-01

    Bi-phase slug flow oil-in-water emulsion [5%-20%] and air through a horizontal pipe (inner diameter 22mm) is experimentally studied. A test with water and air has been performed as comparison. First we create and analyze the flow pattern map to identify slug flow liquid and air inlet conditions. Flow maps are similar for all the used liquid. A video analysis procedure using an high speed camera has been created to obtain all the characteristics of unit slugs: slug velocity, slug length, bubble velocity, bubbles length and slug frequency. We compare translational velocity and frequency with models finding a good agreement. We calculate the pdfs of the lengths to find the correlations between mean values and STD on different air and liquid superficial velocities. We also perform pressure measurements along the pipe. We conclude that the percentage of oil-in- water has no influence on results in terms of velocity, lengths, frequency and pressure drop.

  15. Validating AIRS upper atmosphere water vapor retrievals using aircraft and balloon in situ measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagan, D. E.; Webster, C. R.; Farmer, C. B.; May, R. D.; Herman, R. L.; Weinstock, E. M.; Christensen, L. E.; Lait, L. R.; Newman, P. A.

    2004-11-01

    This paper provides an initial assessment of the accuracy of the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) water vapor retrievals from 500 to 100 mbar. AIRS satellite measurements are compared with accurate aircraft (NASA WB57) and balloon in situ water vapor measurements obtained during the NASA Pre-Aura Validation Experiment (Pre-AVE) in Costa Rica during Jan. 2004. AIRS retrieval (each pressure level of a single footprint) of water vapor amount agrees with the in situ measurements to ~25% or better if matched closely in time (1 hr) and space (50-100 km). Both AIRS and in situ measurements observe similar significant variation in moisture amount over a two-day period, associated with large-scale changes in weather patterns.

  16. Using advanced oxidation treatment for biofilm inactivation by varying water vapor content in air plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryota, Suganuma; Koichi, Yasuoka

    2015-09-01

    Biofilms are caused by environmental degradation in food factories and medical facilities. The inactivation of biofilms involves making them react with chemicals including chlorine, hydrogen peroxide, and ozone, although inactivation using chemicals has a potential problem because of the hazardous properties of the residual substance and hydrogen peroxide, which have slow reaction velocity. We successfully performed an advanced oxidation process (AOP) using air plasma. Hydrogen peroxide and ozone, which were used for the formation of OH radicals in our experiment, were generated by varying the amount of water vapor supplied to the plasma. By varying the content of the water included in the air, the main product was changed from air plasma. When we increased the water content in the air, hydrogen peroxide was produced, while ozone peroxide was produced when we decreased the water content in the air. By varying the amount of water vapor, we realized a 99.9% reduction in the amount of bacteria in the biofilm when we discharged humidified air only. This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 25630104.

  17. Air-cooled condensers eliminate plant water use

    SciTech Connect

    Wurtz, W.; Peltier, R.

    2008-09-15

    River or ocean water has been the mainstay for condensing turbine exhaust steam since the first steam turbine began generating electricity. A primary challenge facing today's plant developers, especially in drought-prone regions, is incorporating processes that reduce plant water use and consumption. One solution is to shed the conventional mindset that once-through cooling is the only option and adopt dry cooling technologies that reduce plant water use from a flood to a few sips. A case study at the Astoria Energy plant, New York City is described. 14 figs.

  18. 78 FR 17229 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Amendment Under the Clean Air Act; the Clean Water...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-20

    ... of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Amendment Under the Clean Air Act; the Clean Water Act; the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act; the Missouri Air Conservation Law; the Missouri Clean Water Law and..., the Clean Water Act, the Missouri Clean Water Law, the Resource Conservation and Recovery......

  19. Dry under water: comparative morphology and functional aspects of air-retaining insect surfaces.

    PubMed

    Balmert, Alexander; Florian Bohn, Holger; Ditsche-Kuru, Petra; Barthlott, Wilhelm

    2011-04-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces prevent certain body parts of semiaquatic and aquatic insects from getting wet while submerged in water. The air layer on these surfaces can serve the insects as a physical gill. Using scanning electron microscopy, we investigated the morphology of air-retaining surfaces in five insect species with different levels of adaptation to aquatic habitats. We found surfaces with either large and sparse hairs (setae), small and dense hairs (microtrichia), or hierarchically structured surfaces with both types of hairs. The structural parameters and air-film persistence of these surfaces were compared. Air-film persistence varied between 2 days in the beetle Galerucella nymphaea possessing only sparse setae and more than 120 days in the bugs Notonecta glauca and Ilyocoris cimicoides possessing dense microtrichia (up to 6.6 × 10(6) microtrichia per millimeter square). From our results, we conclude that the density of the surface structures is the most important factor that affects the persistence of air films. Combinations of setae and microtrichia are not decisive for the overall persistence of the air film but might provide a thick air store for a short time and a thin but mechanically more stable air film for a long time. Thus, we assume that a dense cover of microtrichia acts as a "backup system" preventing wetting of the body surface in case the air-water interface is pressed toward the surface. Our findings might be beneficial for the development of biomimetic surfaces for long-term air retention and drag reduction under water. In addition, the biological functions of the different air retention capabilities are discussed. PMID:21290417

  20. Air-Liquid Interfaces: II. Water Structure and Salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Heather; Gopalakrishnan, Sandhya; Ma, Gang; Liu, Dingfang; Levering, Lori

    2004-03-01

    Aqueous salt solutions were investigated using scanning sum frequency generation (SFG), a highly surface-selective spectroscopy, and ATR-IR and Raman spectroscopies. Water surface structure was investigated for NaF, NaCl, NaBr and NaI aqueous solutions and surface data indicate a significantly disturbed hydrogen bonding environment from that of neat water. The spectra strongly suggest the presence of bromide and iodide anions in the interfacial region in addition to an increase in interfacial depth; yet the surfaces of the sodium fluoride and chloride salt solutions do not show evidence of surface water perturbation. Ammonium chloride and sulfate, and sodium sulfate aqueous solutions were also investigated. Surface water structure varied considerably between the three salt solutions. Electric double layer effects are indicated.

  1. Large scale air monitoring: lichen vs. air particulate matter analysis.

    PubMed

    Rossbach, M; Jayasekera, R; Kniewald, G; Thang, N H

    1999-07-15

    Biological indicator organisms have been widely used for monitoring and banking purposes for many years. Although the complexity of the interactions between organisms and their environment is generally not easily comprehensible, environmental quality assessment using the bioindicator approach offers some convincing advantages compared to direct analysis of soil, water, or air. Measurement of air particulates is restricted to experienced laboratories with access to expensive sampling equipment. Additionally, the amount of material collected generally is just enough for one determination per sampling and no multidimensional characterization might be possible. Further, fluctuations in air masses have a pronounced effect on the results from air filter sampling. Combining the integrating property of bioindicators with the world wide availability and particular matrix characteristics of air particulate matter as a prerequisite for global monitoring of air pollution is discussed. A new approach for sampling urban dust using large volume filtering devices installed in air conditioners of large hotel buildings is assessed. A first experiment was initiated to collect air particulates (300-500 g each) from a number of hotels during a period of 3-4 months by successive vacuum cleaning of used inlet filters from high volume air conditioning installations reflecting average concentrations per 3 months in different large cities. This approach is expected to be upgraded and applied for global monitoring. Highly positive correlated elements were found in lichens such as K/S, Zn/P, the rare earth elements (REE) and a significant negative correlation between Hg and Cu was observed in these samples. The ratio of concentrations of elements in dust and Usnea spp. is highest for Cz, Zn and Fe (400-200) and lowest for elements such as Ca, Rb, and Sr (20-10). PMID:10474261

  2. 20 Years of Air-Water Gas Exchange Observations for Pesticides in the Western Arctic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Jantunen, Liisa M; Wong, Fiona; Gawor, Anya; Kylin, Henrik; Helm, Paul A; Stern, Gary A; Strachan, William M J; Burniston, Deborah A; Bidleman, Terry F

    2015-12-01

    The Arctic has been contaminated by legacy organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and currently used pesticides (CUPs) through atmospheric transport and oceanic currents. Here we report the time trends and air-water exchange of OCPs and CUPs from research expeditions conducted between 1993 and 2013. Compounds determined in both air and water were trans- and cis-chlordanes (TC, CC), trans- and cis-nonachlors (TN, CN), heptachlor exo-epoxide (HEPX), dieldrin (DIEL), chlorobornanes (ΣCHBs and toxaphene), dacthal (DAC), endosulfans and metabolite endosulfan sulfate (ENDO-I, ENDO-II, and ENDO SUL), chlorothalonil (CHT), chlorpyrifos (CPF), and trifluralin (TFN). Pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB and quintozene) and its soil metabolite pentachlorothianisole (PCTA) were also found in air. Concentrations of most OCPs declined in surface water, whereas some CUPs increased (ENDO-I, CHT, and TFN) or showed no significant change (CPF and DAC), and most compounds declined in air. Chlordane compound fractions TC/(TC + CC) and TC/(TC + CC + TN) decreased in water and air, while CC/(TC + CC + TN) increased. TN/(TC + CC + TN) also increased in air and slightly, but not significantly, in water. These changes suggest selective removal of more labile TC and/or a shift in chlordane sources. Water-air fugacity ratios indicated net volatilization (FR > 1.0) or near equilibrium (FR not significantly different from 1.0) for most OCPs but net deposition (FR < 1.0) for ΣCHBs. Net deposition was shown for ENDO-I on all expeditions, while the net exchange direction of other CUPs varied. Understanding the processes and current state of air-surface exchange helps to interpret environmental exposure and evaluate the effectiveness of international protocols and provides insights for the environmental fate of new and emerging chemicals. PMID:26196214

  3. Seminar 14 - Desiccant Enhanced Air Conditioning: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Kozubal, E.

    2013-02-01

    This presentation explains how liquid desiccant based coupled with an indirect evaporative cooler can efficiently produce cool, dry air, and how a liquid desiccant membrane air conditioner can efficiently provide cooling and dehumidification without the carryover problems of previous generations of liquid desiccant systems. It provides an overview to a liquid desiccant DX air conditioner that can efficiently provide cooling and dehumidification to high latent loads without the need for reheat, explains how liquid desiccant cooling and dehumidification systems can outperform vapor compression based air conditioning systems in hot and humid climates, explains how liquid desiccant cooling and dehumidification systems work, and describes a refrigerant free liquid desiccant based cooling system.

  4. EFFECTS OF AIR-SUPERSATURATED WATER ON ADULT SOCKEYE SALMON (ONCORHYNCHUS NERKA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adult sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) were exposed to air supersaturated water in the laboratory from July 8 to August 13, 1974, approximately the same time period that they are exposed to supersaturated water during their movement through the lower and middle sections of the...

  5. AIR LAND WATER ANALYSIS SYSTEM (ALEAS): A MULTI-MEDIA MODEL FOR TOXIC SUBSTANCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Air Land Water Analysis System (ALWAS) is a multi-media environmental model for describing the atmospheric dispersion of toxicants, the surface runoff of deposited toxicants, and the subsequent fate of these materials in surface water bodies. ALWAS dipicts the spatial and tem...

  6. (Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    This report presents information related to the sampling of ground water at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. It is part of an investigation into possible ground water contamination. Information concerns well drilling/construction; x-ray diffraction and sampling; soil boring logs; and chain-of-custody records.

  7. Calibration of Dissolved Noble Gas Mass Spectrometric Measurements by an Air-Water Equilibration System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillegonds, Darren; Matsumoto, Takuya; Jaklitsch, Manfred; Han, Liang-Feng; Klaus, Philipp; Wassenaar, Leonard; Aggarwal, Pradeep

    2013-04-01

    Precise measurements by mass spectrometry of dissolved noble gases (He, Ar, Ne, Kr, Xe) in water samples require careful calibration against laboratory standards with known concentrations. Currently, air pipettes are used for day-to-day calibrations, making estimation of overall analytical uncertainties for dissolved noble gas measurements in water difficult. Air equilibrated water (AEW) is often used as a matrix-equivalent laboratory standard for dissolved gases in groundwater, because of the well-known and constant fractions of noble gases in the atmosphere. AEW standards, however, are only useful if the temperature and pressure of the gas-water equilibrium can be controlled and measured precisely (i.e., to better than 0.5%); contamination and partial sample degassing must also be prevented during sampling. Here we present the details of a new custom air-water equilibration system which consists of an insulated 600 liter tank filled with deionized water, held isothermally at a precise target temperature (<0.05 °C) through the use of a heat exchanger. The temperature and total dissolved gas of the water in the tank are monitored continually, as are atmospheric pressure and air temperature in the laboratory. Different noble gas concentration standards can be reliably produced by accurately controlling the water temperature of the equilibration system. Equilibration characteristics and reproducibility of this system for production of copper tubes containing known amounts of noble gases will be presented.

  8. Evaluation of Vertically Resolved Water Winds from AIRS using Hurricane Katrina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aumann, Hartmut H.; Dobkowski, Edwin C.; Gregorich, David T.

    2005-01-01

    The knowledge of wind velocity as a function of altitude is key to weather forecast improvements. The ability of hyperspectral sounders in principle to measure vertically resolved water winds, which has long been recognized, has been tested with Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) data. AIRS retrievals of total column water above 300 mb have been correlated with the radiosonde upper-tropospheric wind velocity and moisture data. The excellent correlation is illustrated with results obtained from hurricane Katrina and from the western United States. AIRS is a hyperspectral infrared sounder in low Earth orbit. It was launched in May 2002. We illustrate the use of AIRS data for the measurement of upper tropospheric water by using the 2387/cm CO2 R-branch channel and the 1551/cm water vapor channel. The 2387/cm channel measures the temperature at 300 mb totally independent of water vapor. The weighting function of the 1551/cm channel peaks at 300 mb only under moist conditions; the peak shifts downward (higher temperature) for less water and upward (lower temperature) for more water. The difference between the brightness temperatures bt2387 and bt1551 cancels the local several degree weather related variability of the temperature and measures the component due to the water vapor at 300 mb.

  9. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WATER TEMPERATURES AND AIR TEMPERATURES FOR CENTRAL US STREAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An analysis of the relationship between air and stream water temperature records for 11 rivers located in the central United States was conducted. he reliability of commonly available water temperature records was shown to be of unequal quality. imple linear relationships between...

  10. Automobile air-conditioning unit. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Schaetzle, W.J.

    1982-12-01

    In this study the refrigerant in the automobile air-conditioner is compressed by thermal energy in a unique compression system rather than by work in a standard compressor. The compression uses an intermittent compression process with a solid absorbent. The vapor is absorbed by an absorbent at relatively low temperature and ejected as the absorbent temperature is raised. A set of one way valves limits flow to one direction. Major contributions are heat transfer requirements, molecular sieve-refrigerant matching, minimizing non-producing mass, solving thermal fatigue and shock problems, and applying this to automobile air-conditioning. The performance study shows energy savings up to fifty percent are possible, depending on engine load. A twenty percent energy savings with the vehicle tested with the air-conditioner in operation is average. The study also showed that less fuel is used with the windows open than with the air-conditioner operating.

  11. The patterns and implications of diurnal variations in d-excess of plant water, shallow soil water and air moisture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, L.; Wang, L.; Xiao, H.; Cheng, G.; Ruan, Y.; Zhou, M.; Wang, F.

    2014-04-01

    Deuterium excess (d-excess) of air moisture is traditionally considered as a conservative tracer of oceanic evaporation conditions. Recent studies challenge this view and emphasize the importance of vegetation activity in controlling the dynamics of air moisture d-excess. However direct field observations supporting the role of vegetation in d-excess variations is not well documented. In this study, we quantified d-excess of air moisture, leaf and xylem water of multiple dominant species as well as shallow soil water (5 and 10 cm) at hourly interval during three extensive field campaigns at two climatically different locations within the Heihe River Basin. The results showed that with the increase of temperature (T) and decrease of relative humidity (RH), the δD-δ18O plots of leaf water, xylem water and shallow soil water deviated gradually from their corresponding local meteoric water line. There were significant differences in d-excess values among different water pools at all the study sites. The most positive d-excess values were found in air moisture (9.3‰) and the most negative d-excess values (-85.6‰) were found in leaf water. The d-excess values of air moisture (dmoisture) and leaf water (dleaf) during the sunny days, and shallow soil water (dsoil) during the first sunny day after rain event showed strong diurnal patterns. There were significantly positive relationships between dleaf and RH and negative relationships between dmoisture and RH. The correlations of dleaf and dmoisture with T were opposite to their relationships with RH. In addition, we found the opposite diurnal variations for dleaf and dmoisture during the sunny day, and for dleaf during the sunny days, and shallow soil water dsoil and dmoisture during the first sunny day after rain event. Significant negative relationships were found between dleaf and dmoisture in all the sites during the sunny day. Our results provide direct evidence that dmoisture of the surface air at continental

  12. Bacterial counts associated with sawdust and recycled manure bedding treated with commercial conditioners.

    PubMed

    Hogan, J S; Bogacz, V L; Thompson, L M; Romig, S; Schoenberger, P S; Weiss, W P; Smith, K L

    1999-08-01

    Bacteria counts associated with untreated organic bedding materials were compared with those of bedding treated with either an alkaline commercial bedding conditioner, acidic commercial bedding conditioner, or hydrated lime. Bedding materials were recycled manure and kiln-dried sawdust. The effects of bedding treatments on bacteria counts differed between bedding types. Each of the bedding treatments significantly reduced bacteria in recycled manure prior to use. The alkaline conditioner and hydrated lime effectively inhibited bacteria in recycled manure for 1 d. Bedding counts and teat swabs of cows housed on recycled manure treated with the alkaline conditioner were reduced on d 2. The use of the acid conditioner in recycled manure had little effect on bacteria in bedding. Sawdust differed from recycled manure in that bacteria in untreated sawdust prior to use were minimal, and populations increased rapidly during the first 2 d after use as bedding. The acid conditioner had a bacteriostatic effect in sawdust, evident by the reduction of bacteria on d 2. The alkaline conditioner and hydrated lime did not alter bacteria counts in sawdust compared with untreated sawdust. Antibacterial activity of each conditioner deteriorated between d 2 and d 6 in both beddings. The antibacterial activities of conditioners were related to the pH of bedding materials. The use of commercial bedding conditioners initially reduced bacterial counts; however, the antibacterial effects had diminished between d 2 and 6 after use in bedding. PMID:10480094

  13. Comparison of Upper Tropospheric Water Vapor from AIRS and Cryogenic Frostpoint Hygrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fetzer, Eric J.; Vomel, Holger

    2004-01-01

    Upper tropospheric water vapor (UTWV) from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) experiment on NASA's Aqua spacecraft has the potential of addressing several important climate questions. The specified AIRS system measurement uncertainty for water vapor is 20 percent absolute averaged over 2 km layers. Cryogenic frostpoint hygrometers (CFH) are balloon-borne water vapor sensors responsive from the surface into the lower stratosphere. Several dozen coincident, collocated CFH profiles have been obtained for AlRS validation. The combination of CFH sensitivity and sample size offers a statistically compelling picture of AIRS UTWV measurement capability. We present a comparison between CFH observations and AlRS retrievals. We focus on the altitude range from the middle troposphere up to heights at the limits of AlRS sensitivity to water vapor, believed to be around 100-1 50 hPa.

  14. Cell module and fuel conditioner development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, D. Q., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The phosphoric acid fuel cell module (stack) development which culminated in an 80 cell air-cooled stack with separated gas cooling and treed cooling plates is described. The performance of the 80 cell stack was approx. 100 mV per cell higher than that attained during phase 1. The components and materials performed stably for over 8000 hours in a 5 cell stack. The conceptual design of a fuel conditioning system is described.

  15. Enforcement under the 1990 CAAA: Hot air or hot water?

    SciTech Connect

    Hanisch, J.

    1998-06-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) have caused varying degrees of anxiety in facility and environmental managers. How worried should they be? One area of special concern is Title VII, Provisions Relating to Enforcement, which has led to field citations, new civil penalties, provisions for citizen suits and, of most concern, the new criminal provision. The CAAA include strong new enforcement authority, which allows the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to take swift and strong action against violators. The Agency can issue tickets up to $5,000 per violation, penalties up to $25,000 per day for administrative penalties and $250,000 and up to five years in prison for criminal violations. Sources that maintain compliance with air pollution regulations and maintain accurate records and documentation have nothing to fear from these new regulations. However, sources that violate federal requirements, falsify records or knowingly create risks to the environment or human health can look forward to aggressive enforcement by EPA. This article briefly discusses the new provisions, whom they affect, how one may be able to minimize the potential liabilities and what to do if the EPA begins an enforcement action.

  16. The temperature of inspired air influences respiratory water loss in young lambs.

    PubMed

    Riesenfeld, T; Hammarlund, K; Norsted, T; Sedin, G

    1994-01-01

    The temperature of inspired air influences respiratory water loss (RWL) in young lambs. Water loss from the airways, oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production were measured using an open flow-through system with a mass spectrometer, specially equipped with a water channel, for gas analysis. Measurements were made in 9 newborn lambs at 3 different inspired air temperatures keeping all other environmental factors stable, including the ambient air temperature. The water content of the inspired air was also kept constant. RWL was found to be 9.9 +/- 3.9 (SD) mg/kg/min when the temperature of the inspired air was 30 degrees C and its humidity 30%. At 40 degrees C this loss increased to 11.5 +/- 3.6 mg/kg/min, and at about 60 degrees C it increased further to 26.0 +/- 8.2 mg/kg/min. The oxygen consumption was 10.0 +/- 0.8 (SD) ml/kg/min at 30 degrees C and 10.4 +/- 2.0 ml/kg/min at 60 degrees C, a change which is not significant. Thus RWL is influenced by the temperature of the inspired air, with greater loss at higher temperatures. PMID:8054401

  17. Performance Evaluation of the Operational Air Quality Monitor for Water Testing Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, William T.; Limero, Thomas F.; Gazda, Daniel B.; Macatangay, Ariel V.; Dwivedi, Prabha; Fernandez, Facundo M.

    2014-01-01

    In the history of manned spaceflight, environmental monitoring has relied heavily on archival sampling. For short missions, this type of sample collection was sufficient; returned samples provided a snapshot of the presence of chemical and biological contaminants in the spacecraft air and water. However, with the construction of the International Space Station (ISS) and the subsequent extension of mission durations, soon to be up to one year, the need for enhanced, real-time environmental monitoring became more pressing. The past several years have seen the implementation of several real-time monitors aboard the ISS, complemented with reduced archival sampling. The station air is currently monitored for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using gas chromatography-differential mobility spectrometry (Air Quality Monitor [AQM]). The water on ISS is analyzed to measure total organic carbon and biocide concentrations using the Total Organic Carbon Analyzer (TOCA) and the Colorimetric Water Quality Monitoring Kit (CWQMK), respectively. The current air and water monitors provide important data, but the number and size of the different instruments makes them impractical for future exploration missions. It is apparent that there is still a need for improvements in environmental monitoring capabilities. One such improvement could be realized by modifying a single instrument to analyze both air and water. As the AQM currently provides quantitative, compound-specific information for target compounds present in air samples, and many of the compounds are also targets for water quality monitoring, this instrument provides a logical starting point to evaluate the feasibility of this approach. In this presentation, we will discuss our recent studies aimed at determining an appropriate method for introducing VOCs from water samples into the gas phase and our current work, in which an electro-thermal vaporization unit has been interfaced with the AQM to analyze target analytes at the

  18. Water from air: an overlooked source of moisture in arid and semiarid regions.

    PubMed

    McHugh, Theresa A; Morrissey, Ember M; Reed, Sasha C; Hungate, Bruce A; Schwartz, Egbert

    2015-01-01

    Water drives the functioning of Earth's arid and semiarid lands. Drylands can obtain water from sources other than precipitation, yet little is known about how non-rainfall water inputs influence dryland communities and their activity. In particular, water vapor adsorption--movement of atmospheric water vapor into soil when soil air is drier than the overlying air--likely occurs often in drylands, yet its effects on ecosystem processes are not known. By adding (18)O-enriched water vapor to the atmosphere of a closed system, we documented the conversion of water vapor to soil liquid water across a temperature range typical of arid ecosystems. This phenomenon rapidly increased soil moisture and stimulated microbial carbon (C) cycling, and the flux of water vapor to soil had a stronger impact than temperature on microbial activity. In a semiarid grassland, we also observed that non-rainfall water inputs stimulated microbial activity and C cycling. Together these data suggest that, during rain-free periods, atmospheric moisture in drylands may significantly contribute to variation in soil water content, thereby influencing ecosystem processes. The simple physical process of adsorption of water vapor to soil particles, forming liquid water, represents an overlooked but potentially important contributor to C cycling in drylands. PMID:26345615

  19. Water from air: an overlooked source of moisture in arid and semiarid regions

    PubMed Central

    McHugh, Theresa A.; Morrissey, Ember M.; Reed, Sasha C.; Hungate, Bruce A.; Schwartz, Egbert

    2015-01-01

    Water drives the functioning of Earth’s arid and semiarid lands. Drylands can obtain water from sources other than precipitation, yet little is known about how non-rainfall water inputs influence dryland communities and their activity. In particular, water vapor adsorption – movement of atmospheric water vapor into soil when soil air is drier than the overlying air – likely occurs often in drylands, yet its effects on ecosystem processes are not known. By adding 18O-enriched water vapor to the atmosphere of a closed system, we documented the conversion of water vapor to soil liquid water across a temperature range typical of arid ecosystems. This phenomenon rapidly increased soil moisture and stimulated microbial carbon (C) cycling, and the flux of water vapor to soil had a stronger impact than temperature on microbial activity. In a semiarid grassland, we also observed that non-rainfall water inputs stimulated microbial activity and C cycling. Together these data suggest that, during rain-free periods, atmospheric moisture in drylands may significantly contribute to variation in soil water content, thereby influencing ecosystem processes. The simple physical process of adsorption of water vapor to soil particles, forming liquid water, represents an overlooked but potentially important contributor to C cycling in drylands. PMID:26345615

  20. Water from air: An overlooked source of moisture in arid and semiarid regions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McHugh, Theresa; Morrissey, Ember M; Reed, Sasha C.; Hungate, Bruce A.; Schwartz, Egbert

    2015-01-01

    Water drives the functioning of Earth’s arid and semiarid lands. Drylands can obtain water from sources other than precipitation, yet little is known about how non-rainfall water inputs influence dryland communities and their activity. In particular, water vapor adsorption – movement of atmospheric water vapor into soil when soil air is drier than the overlying air – likely occurs often in drylands, yet its effects on ecosystem processes are not known. By adding 18O-enriched water vapor to the atmosphere of a closed system, we documented the conversion of water vapor to soil liquid water across a temperature range typical of arid ecosystems. This phenomenon rapidly increased soil moisture and stimulated microbial carbon (C) cycling, and the flux of water vapor to soil had a stronger impact than temperature on microbial activity. In a semiarid grassland, we also observed that non-rainfall water inputs stimulated microbial activity and C cycling. Together these data suggest that, during rain-free periods, atmospheric moisture in drylands may significantly contribute to variation in soil water content, thereby influencing ecosystem processes. The simple physical process of adsorption of water vapor to soil particles, forming liquid water, represents an overlooked but potentially important contributor to C cycling in drylands.

  1. 18 CFR 1316.5 - Clean Air and Water Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... meaning set forth in 40 CFR 15.4. (b) TVA will not award a contract to any offeror whose performance would... is exempt at the time of contract award from the provisions of 40 CFR part 15 as set forth therein... Water Acts (a) If performance of this contract would involve the use of facilities which have given...

  2. 18 CFR 1316.5 - Clean Air and Water Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... meaning set forth in 40 CFR 15.4. (b) TVA will not award a contract to any offeror whose performance would... is exempt at the time of contract award from the provisions of 40 CFR part 15 as set forth therein... Water Acts (a) If performance of this contract would involve the use of facilities which have given...

  3. ANALYSIS OF SUPERSATUATED AIR IN NATURAL WATERS AND RESERVOIRS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report provides a state of the art summary and evaluation of the methods for the determination of total gas in water samples. The hollow fiber, the hollow tube, and the flat membrane probes were evaluated. A flat surface probe was developed that has a low dead space, high pe...

  4. Finch, Pruyn cleans air and water while increasing steam production

    SciTech Connect

    Reason, J.; Bauer, P.; Makansi, J.

    1981-11-01

    It is shown how a paper manufacturing company in Glens Falls, NY, employs primary and secondary water-treatment plants, chemical recovery from SO/sub 2/ -laden flue gas, a bark boiler, and waste-liquor boilers to balance the conflicting demands of a changing market, increasing power needs, stringent, pollution regulations, higher fuel costs, and limited production space.

  5. Advanced Signal Conditioners for Data-Acquisition Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucena, Angel; Perotti, Jose; Eckhoff, Anthony; Medelius, Pedro

    2004-01-01

    Signal conditioners embodying advanced concepts in analog and digital electronic circuitry and software have been developed for use in data-acquisition systems that are required to be compact and lightweight, to utilize electric energy efficiently, and to operate with high reliability, high accuracy, and high power efficiency, without intervention by human technicians. These signal conditioners were originally intended for use aboard spacecraft. There are also numerous potential terrestrial uses - especially in the fields of aeronautics and medicine, wherein it is necessary to monitor critical functions. Going beyond the usual analog and digital signal-processing functions of prior signal conditioners, the new signal conditioner performs the following additional functions: It continuously diagnoses its own electronic circuitry, so that it can detect failures and repair itself (as described below) within seconds. It continuously calibrates itself on the basis of a highly accurate and stable voltage reference, so that it can continue to generate accurate measurement data, even under extreme environmental conditions. It repairs itself in the sense that it contains a micro-controller that reroutes signals among redundant components as needed to maintain the ability to perform accurate and stable measurements. It detects deterioration of components, predicts future failures, and/or detects imminent failures by means of a real-time analysis in which, among other things, data on its present state are continuously compared with locally stored historical data. It minimizes unnecessary consumption of electric energy. The design architecture divides the signal conditioner into three main sections: an analog signal section, a digital module, and a power-management section. The design of the analog signal section does not follow the traditional approach of ensuring reliability through total redundancy of hardware: Instead, following an approach called spare parts tool box, the

  6. Micro-machining of silicon wafer in air and under water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wee, L. M.; Ng, E. Y. K.; Prathama, A. H.; Zheng, H.

    2011-02-01

    Laser ablation micro-machining tests are conducted on silicon wafer, both in air and under flowing water stream, with the use of 355 nm-X AVIA laser. Effects of laser pulse frequency, power level, scan velocity and focal plane position on the associated laser spatter deposition (in air), irradiated areas (under flowing water film) and taper are investigated. It shows that low frequency, i.e. 30-40 kHz, and high peak power result in smaller spatter and irradiated areas, and the hole taper decreases with increase in pulse frequency. Increase in the laser fluence broadens both the areas and increases the hole taper. Both areas enlarge with the increase of scanning velocity of more than 3 mm s -1. The scan velocity has no effect on hole taper in air environment but inconsistent hole taper is obtained under flowing water stream. Furthermore, moving the focal plane position below the workpiece surface contributes relatively smaller areas of spatter deposition, irradiation and taper in comparison to zero focal plane position. Finally, the differences between laser ablation in air and under water are identified. The reduction in the spatter deposition and irradiated areas around the perimeter of the ablated hole and a smaller taper with the use of laser trepan drilling method in air and under water machining are investigated in this paper.

  7. Reactive Distillation and Air Stripping Processes for Water Recycling and Trace Contaminant Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boul, Peter J.; Lange, Kevin E.; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

    2009-01-01

    Reactive distillation designs are considered to reduce the presence of volatile organic compounds in the purified water. Reactive distillation integrates a reactor with a distillation column. A review of the literature in this field has revealed a variety of functional reactive columns in industry. Wastewater may be purified by a combination of a reactor and a distiller (e.g., the EWRS or VPCAR concepts) or, in principle, through a design which integrates the reactor with the distiller. A review of the literature in reactive distillation has identified some different designs in such combinations of reactor and distiller. An evaluation of reactive distillation and reactive air stripping is presented with regards to the reduction of volatile organic compounds in the contaminated water and air. Among the methods presented, an architecture is presented for the evaluation of the simultaneous oxidation of organics in air and water. These and other designs are presented in light of potential improvements in power consumptions and air and water purities for architectures which include catalytic activity integrated into the water processor. In particular, catalytic oxidation of organics may be useful as a tool to remove contaminants that more traditional distillation and/or air stripping columns may not remove. A review of the current leading edge at the commercial level and at the research frontier in catalytically active materials is presented. Themes and directions from the engineering developments in catalyst design are presented conceptually in light of developments in the nanoscale chemistry of a variety of catalyst materials.

  8. Bifurcations of a creeping air-water flow in a conical container

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balci, Adnan; Brøns, Morten; Herrada, Miguel A.; Shtern, Vladimir N.

    2016-04-01

    This numerical study describes the eddy emergence and transformations in a slow steady axisymmetric air-water flow, driven by a rotating top disk in a vertical conical container. As water height Hw and cone half-angle β vary, numerous flow metamorphoses occur. They are investigated for β =30°, 45°, and 60°. For small Hw , the air flow is multi-cellular with clockwise meridional circulation near the disk. The air flow becomes one cellular as Hw exceeds a threshold depending on β . For all β , the water flow has an unbounded number of eddies whose size and strength diminish as the cone apex is approached. As the water level becomes close to the disk, the outmost water eddy with clockwise meridional circulation expands, reaches the interface, and induces a thin layer with anticlockwise circulation in the air. Then this layer expands and occupies the entire air domain. The physical reasons for the flow transformations are provided. The results are of fundamental interest and can be relevant for aerial bioreactors.

  9. High Energy Efficiency Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Edward McCullough; Patrick Dhooge; Jonathan Nimitz

    2003-12-31

    This project determined the performance of a new high efficiency refrigerant, Ikon B, in a residential air conditioner designed to use R-22. The refrigerant R-22, used in residential and small commercial air conditioners, is being phased out of production in developed countries beginning this year because of concerns regarding its ozone depletion potential. Although a replacement refrigerant, R-410A, is available, it operates at much higher pressure than R-22 and requires new equipment. R-22 air conditioners will continue to be in use for many years to come. Air conditioning is a large part of expensive summer peak power use in many parts of the U.S. Previous testing and computer simulations of Ikon B indicated that it would have 20 - 25% higher coefficient of performance (COP, the amount of cooling obtained per energy used) than R-22 in an air-cooled air conditioner. In this project, a typical new R-22 residential air conditioner was obtained, installed in a large environmental chamber, instrumented, and run both with its original charge of R-22 and then with Ikon B. In the environmental chamber, controlled temperature and humidity could be maintained to obtain repeatable and comparable energy use results. Tests with Ikon B included runs with and without a power controller, and an extended run for several months with subsequent analyses to check compatibility of Ikon B with the air conditioner materials and lubricant. Baseline energy use of the air conditioner with its original R-22 charge was measured at 90 deg F and 100 deg F. After changeover to Ikon B and a larger expansion orifice, energy use was measured at 90 deg F and 100 deg F. Ikon B proved to have about 19% higher COP at 90 deg F and about 26% higher COP at 100 deg F versus R-22. Ikon B had about 20% lower cooling capacity at 90 deg F and about 17% lower cooling capacity at 100 deg F versus R-22 in this system. All results over multiple runs were within 1% relative standard deviation (RSD). All of these

  10. Air-Water Exchange of Legacy and Emerging Organic Pollutants across the Great Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohmann, R.; Ruge, Z.; Khairy, M.; Muir, D.; Helm, P.

    2014-12-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are transported to great water bodies via long-range atmospheric transport and released from the surface water as air concentrations continue to diminish. As the largest fresh water bodies in North America, the Great Lakes have both the potential to accumulate and serve as a secondary source of persistent bioaccumulative toxins. OCP and PCB concentrations were sampled at 30+ sites across Lake Superior, Ontario and Erie in the summer of 2011. Polyethylene passive samplers (PEs) were simultaneously deployed in surface water and near surface atmosphere to determine air-water gaseous exchange of OCPs and PCBs. In Lake Superior, surface water and atmospheric concentrations were dominated by α-HCH (average 250 pg/L and 4.2 pg/m3, respectively), followed by HCB (average 17 pg/L and 89 pg/m3, respectively). Air-water exchange varied greatly between sites and individual OCPs, however α-endosulfan was consistently deposited into the surface water (average 19 pg/m2/day). PCBs in the air and water were characterized by penta- and hexachlorobiphenyls with distribution along the coast correlated with proximity to developed areas. Air-water exchange gradients generally yielded net volatilization of PCBs out of Lake Superior. Gaseous concentrations of hexachlorobenzene, dieldrin and chlordanes were significantly higher (p < 0.05) at Lake Erie than Lake Ontario. A multiple linear regression that incorporated meteorological, landuse and population data was used to explain variability in the atmospheric concentrations. Results indicated that landuse (urban and/or cropland) greatly explained the variability in the data. Freely dissolved concentrations of OCPs (water quality guidelines for the protection of human health from the consumption of fish. Spatial distributions of

  11. Laboratory study of air sparging of TCE-contaminated saturated soils and ground water

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, J.A.; Reddy, K.R.

    1999-06-30

    Air sparging has proven to be an effective remediation technique for treating saturated soils and ground water contaminated by volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Since little is known about the system variables and mass transfer mechanisms important to air sparging, several researchers have recently performed laboratory investigations to study such issues. This paper presents the results of column experiments performed to investigate the behavior of dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs), specifically trichloroethylene (TCE), during air sparging. The specific objectives of the study were (1) to compare the removal of dissolved TCE with the removal of dissolved light nonaqueous phase liquids (LNAPLs), such as benzene or toluene; (2) to determine the effect of injected air-flow rate on dissolved TCE removal; (3) to determine the effect of initial dissolved TCE concentration on removal efficiency; and (4) to determine the differences in removal between dissolved and pure-chase TCE. The test results showed that (1) the removal of dissolved TCE was similar to that of dissolved LNAPL; (2) increased air-injection rates led to increased TCE removal at lower ranges of air injection, but further increases at higher ranges of air injection did not increase the rate of removal, indicating a threshold removal rate had been reached; (3) increased initial concentration of dissolved TCE resulted in similar rates of removal; and (4) the removal pf pure-phase TCE was difficult using a low air-injection rate, but higher air-injection rates led to easier removal.

  12. Superhydrophobic surfaces of the water bug Notonecta glauca: a model for friction reduction and air retention.

    PubMed

    Ditsche-Kuru, Petra; Schneider, Erik S; Melskotte, Jan-Erik; Brede, Martin; Leder, Alfred; Barthlott, Wilhelm

    2011-01-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces of plants and animals are of great interest for biomimetic applications. Whereas the self-cleaning properties of superhydrophobic surfaces have been extensively investigated, their ability to retain an air film while submerged under water has not, in the past, received much attention. Nevertheless, air retaining surfaces are of great economic and ecological interest because an air film can reduce friction of solid bodies sliding through the water. This opens perspectives for biomimetic applications such as low friction fluid transport or friction reduction on ship hulls. For such applications the durability of the air film is most important. While the air film on most superhydrophobic surfaces usually lasts no longer than a few days, a few semi-aquatic plants and insects are able to hold an air film over a longer time period. Currently, we found high air film persistence under hydrostatic conditions for the elytra of the backswimmer Notonecta glauca which we therefore have chosen for further investigations. In this study, we compare the micro- and nanostructure of selected body parts (sternites, upper side of elytra, underside of elytra) in reference to their air retaining properties. Our investigations demonstrate outstanding air film persistence of the upper side of the elytra of Notonecta glauca under hydrostatic and hydrodynamic conditions. This hierarchically structured surface was able to hold a complete air film under hydrostatic conditions for longer than 130 days while on other body parts with simple structures the air film showed gaps (underside of elytra) or even vanished completely after a few days (sternites). Moreover, the upper side of the elytra was able to keep an air film up to flow velocities of 5 m/s. Obviously the complex surface structure with tiny dense microtrichia and two types of larger specially shaped setae is relevant for this outstanding ability. Besides high air film persistence, the observation of a

  13. Air Evaporation closed cycle water recovery technology - Advanced energy saving designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morasko, Gwyndolyn; Putnam, David F.; Bagdigian, Robert

    1986-01-01

    The Air Evaporation water recovery system is a visible candidate for Space Station application. A four-man Air Evaporation open cycle system has been successfully demonstrated for waste water recovery in manned chamber tests. The design improvements described in this paper greatly enhance the system operation and energy efficiency of the air evaporation process. A state-of-the-art wick feed design which results in reduced logistics requirements is presented. In addition, several design concepts that incorporate regenerative features to minimize the energy input to the system are discussed. These include a recuperative heat exchanger, a heat pump for energy transfer to the air heater, and solar collectors for evaporative heat. The addition of the energy recovery devices will result in an energy reduction of more than 80 percent over the systems used in earlier manned chamber tests.

  14. Portable RF-Sensor System for the Monitoring of Air Pollution and Water Contamination

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Joonhee; Kim, Jin Young

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring air pollution including the contents of VOC, O3, NO2, and dusts has attracted a lot of interest in addition to the monitoring of water contamination because it affects directly to the quality of living conditions. Most of the current air pollution monitoring stations use the expensive and bulky instruments and are only installed in the very limited area. To bring the information of the air and water quality to the public in real time, it is important to construct portable monitoring systems and distribute them close to our everyday living places. In this work, we have constructed a low-cost portable RF sensor system by using 400 MHz transceiver to achieve this goal. Accuracy of the measurement was comparable to the ones used in the expensive and bulky commercial air pollution forecast systems. PMID:22928151

  15. Hydrogeology, simulated ground-water flow, and ground-water quality, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dumouchelle, D.H.; Schalk, C.W.; Rowe, G.L.; De Roche, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    Ground water is the primary source of water in the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base area. The aquifer consists of glacial sands and gravels that fill a buried bedrock-valley system. Consolidated rocks in the area consist of poorly permeable Ordovician shale of the Richmondian stage, in the upland areas, the Brassfield Limestone of Silurian age. The valleys are filled with glacial sediments of Wisconsinan age consisting of clay-rich tills and coarse-grained outwash deposits. Estimates of hydraulic conductivity of the shales based on results of displacement/recovery tests range from 0.0016 to 12 feet per day; estimates for the glacial sediments range from less than 1 foot per day to more than 1,000 feet per day. Ground water flow from the uplands towards the valleys and the major rivers in the region, the Great Miami and the Mad Rivers. Hydraulic-head data indicate that ground water flows between the bedrock and unconsolidated deposits. Data from a gain/loss study of the Mad River System and hydrographs from nearby wells reveal that the reach of the river next to Wright-Patterson Air Force Base is a ground-water discharge area. A steady-state, three-dimensional ground-water-flow model was developed to simulate ground-water flow in the region. The model contains three layers and encompasses about 100 square miles centered on Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. Ground water enters the modeled area primarily by river leakage and underflow at the model boundary. Ground water exits the modeled area primarily by flow through the valleys at the model boundaries and through production wells. A model sensitivity analysis involving systematic changes in values of hydrologic parameters in the model indicates that the model is most sensitive to decreases in riverbed conductance and vertical conductance between the upper two layers. The analysis also indicates that the contribution of water to the buried-valley aquifer from the bedrock that forms the valley walls is about 2 to 4

  16. Assessment of internal contamination problems associated with bioregenerative air/water purification systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Anne H.; Bounds, B. Keith; Gardner, Warren

    1990-01-01

    The emphasis is to characterize the mechanisms of bioregenerative revitalization of air and water as well as to assess the possible risks associated with such a system in a closed environment. Marsh and aquatic plants are utilized for purposes of wastewater treatment as well as possible desalinization and demineralization. Foliage plants are also being screened for their ability to remove toxic organics from ambient air. Preliminary test results indicate that treated wastewater is typically of potable quality with numbers of pathogens such as Salmonella and Shigella significantly reduced by the artificial marsh system. Microbiological analyses of ambient air indicate the presence of bacilli as well as thermophilic actinomycetes.

  17. The adsorption onto fibrous activated carbon applications to water and air treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Le Cloirec, P.; Brasquet, C.; Subrenat, E.

    1996-12-31

    The adsorption of polluted fluids is performed by fiber activated carbon (FAC). The adsorption is carried out in a batch or dynamic reactor. Classic models are applied and kinetic constants are calculated. Results showed that the performances of FAC are significantly higher than that of granular activated carbon (GAC) in terms of adsorption velocity and selectivity. The breakthrough curves obtained with FAC adsorbers are particularly steep, suggesting a smaller mass transfer resistance than GAC. The adsorption zone in the FAC bed is about 3.4 mm and is not really dependent on the water flow rate within the studied range. Applications are developed in water and air treatments. Examples are given in the micropollutants removal of an aqueous solution. Air loaded with VOC or/and odorous molecules is treated by fibers. Regeneration of this material is performed by heating by joule effects or electromagnetic induction. Theses original approaches to water or air treatment processes are successfully put to use.

  18. The adsorption onto fibrous activated carbon - applications to water and air treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Le Cloirec, P.; Subrenat, E.

    1996-10-01

    The adsorption of polluted fluids is performed by fiber activated carbon (FAC). The adsorption is carried out in a batch or dynamic reactor. Classic model`s are applied and kinetic constants are calculated. Results showed that the performances of FAC are significantly higher than that of granular activated carbon (GAC) in terms of adsorption velocity. and selectivity. The breakthrough curves obtained with FAC adsorbers are particularly steep, suggesting a smaller mass transfer resistance than GAC. The adsorption zone in the FAC bed is about 3.4 mm and is not really dependent on the water flow rare within the studied range. Applications are developed in water and air treatments. Examples are given in the micropollutants removal of an aqueous solution. Air loaded with VOC or/and odorous molecules is treated by fibers. Regeneration of this material is performed by heating by joule effects or electromagnetic induction. These original approaches to water or air treatment processes are successfully put to use.

  19. Leaf photosynthetic and water-relations responses for 'Valencia' orange trees exposed to oxidant air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Olszyk, D.M.; Takemoto, B.K.; Poe, M.

    1991-01-01

    Leaf responses were measured to test a hypothesis that reduced photosynthetic capacity and/or altered water relations were associated with reductions in yield for 'Valencia' orange trees (Citrus sinensis (L.), Osbeck) exposed to ambient oxidant air pollution. Exposures were continuous for 4 years to three levels of oxidants (in charcoal-filtered, half-filtered, and non-filtered air). Oxidants had no effect on net leaf photosynthetic rates or on photosynthetic pigment concentrations. A single set of measurements indicated that oxidants increased leaf starch concentrations (24%) prior to flowering, suggesting a change in photosynthate allocation. Leaves exposed to oxidants had small, but consistent, changes in water relations over the summer growing season, compared to trees growing in filtered air. Other changes included decreased stomatal conductance (12%) and transpiration (9%) rates, and increased water pressure potentials (5%). While all responses were subtle, their cumulative impact over 4 years indicated that 'Valencia' orange trees were subject to increased ambient oxidant stress.

  20. Vision of the Humboldt penguin (Spheniscus humboldti) in air and water.

    PubMed

    Sivak, J; Howland, H C; McGill-Harelstad, P

    1987-01-22

    Refractive states measured by retinoscopy and photorefraction indicate that the eyes of the Humboldt penguin, Spheniscus humboldti, are approximately emmetropic in air and water. Extensive myopia in air, as predicted by earlier authors and by a recent anatomical study, is non-existent. Photorefractive measurements of the refractive state, in water, of the Humboldt penguin indicate that it can accommodate sufficiently to make up the loss of the refractive power of the cornea. The cornea of the Humboldt penguin is flattened relative to the overall size of the eye. In all these respects (corneal flattening, and accommodation in air and water) the eyes of Humboldt penguins are like those of gentoo, (Pygoscelis papua), rockhopper (Eudyptes crestatus), Magellanic (Spheniscus magellanicus), and king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonica). PMID:2881308

  1. Microorganism levels in air near spray irrigation of municipal waste water: The Lubbock Infection Surveillance Study

    SciTech Connect

    Camann, D.E.; Moore, B.E.; Harding, H.J.; Sorber, C.A.

    1988-01-01

    The Lubbock Infection Surveillance Study (LISS) investigated possible adverse effects on human health from slow-rate land application of municipal wastewater. Extensive air sampling was conducted to characterize the irrigation site as a source of infectious microbial aerosols. Spray irrigation of poor-quality waste water received directly from the treatment plant significantly elevated air densities of fecal coliforms, fecal streptococci, mycobacteria, and coliphage above ambient background levels for at least 200 m downwind. Enteroviruses were repeatedly recovered at 44 to 60 m downwind at a higher level (geometric mean = 0.05 pfu/m3) than observed at other waste water aerosol sites in the U.S. and in Israel. Waste water storage in reservoirs reduced downwind air densities of indicator organisms by two orders of magnitude.

  2. Ground-water conditions at Beale Air Force Base and vicinity, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Page, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    Ground-water conditions were studied in a 168-square-mile area between the Sierra Nevada and the Feather River in Yuba County, Calif. The area is in the eastern part of the Sacramento Valley and includes most of Beale Air Force Base. Source, occurrence, movement, and chemical quality of the ground water were evaluated. Ground water occurs in sedimentary and volcanic rocks of Tertiary and Quaternary age. The base of the freshwater is in the undifferentiated sedimentary rocks of Oligocene and Eocene age, that contain water of high dissolved-solids concentration. The ground water occurs under unconfined and partly confined conditions. At Beale Air Force Base it is at times partly confined. Recharge is principally from the rivers. Pumpage in the study area was estimated to be 129,000 acre-feet in 1975. In the 1960's, water levels in most parts of the study area declined less rapidly than in earlier years or became fairly stable. In the 1970's, water levels at Beale Air Force Base declined only slightly. Spacing of wells on the base and rates of pumping are such that excessive pumping interference is avoided. Water quality at the base and throughout the study area is generally good. Dissolved-solids concentrations are 700 to 900 milligrams per liter in the undifferentiated sedimentary rocks beneath the base well field. (USGS)

  3. Demonstration of adaptive optics for mitigating laser propagation through a random air-water interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Land, Phillip; Majumdar, Arun K.

    2016-05-01

    This paper describes a new concept of mitigating signal distortions caused by random air-water interface using an adaptive optics (AO) system. This is the first time the concept of using an AO for mitigating the effects of distortions caused mainly by a random air-water interface is presented. We have demonstrated the feasibility of correcting the distortions using AO in a laboratory water tank for investigating the propagation effects of a laser beam through an airwater interface. The AO system consisting of a fast steering mirror, deformable mirror, and a Shack-Hartmann Wavefront Sensor for mitigating surface water distortions has a unique way of stabilizing and aiming a laser onto an object underneath the water. Essentially the AO system mathematically takes the complex conjugate of the random phase caused by air-water interface allowing the laser beam to penetrate through the water by cancelling with the complex conjugates. The results show the improvement of a number of metrics including Strehl ratio, a measure of the quality of optical image formation for diffraction limited optical system. These are the first results demonstrating the feasibility of developing a new sensor system such as Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV) utilizing AO for mitigating surface water distortions.

  4. The interaction of water mists and premixed propane-air flames under low-gravity conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbud-Madrid, Angel; Riedel, Edward P.; McKinnon, J. Thomas

    1999-01-01

    A preliminary investigation of the effect of water mists on premixed flame propagation in a cylindrical tube under low-gravity conditions has been conducted to define the scientific and technical objectives of the experiments to be performed on the Space Shuttle and International Space Station microgravity environments. The inhibiting characteristics of water mists in propagating flames of propane-air mixtures at various equivalence ratios are studied. The effects of droplet size and concentration on the laminar flame speed are used as the measure of fire suppression efficacy. Flame speed and propagation behavior are monitored by a video camera. Reduced gravity is obtained with an aircraft flying parabolic trajectories. Measurements and qualitative observations from the low-gravity experiments clearly show the effect of water mist on flame speed abatement, flame shape, and radiant emission. For lean propane-air mixtures, the flame speed increases at first with low water-mist concentrations and then decreases below its dry value when higher water-mist volumes are introduced in the tube. This phenomenon may be due in part to the heating of the unburned mixture ahead of the flame as a result of radiation absorption by the water droplets. For rich propane-air mixtures, similar behavior of flame speed vs. water concentration is encountered but in this case is mostly due to the formation of cellular flames. At high water loads both lean and rich flames exhibit extinction before reaching the end of the tube.

  5. Using aliphatic alcohols as gaseous tracers in determination of water contents and air-water interfacial areas in unsaturated sands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Menghau; Chen, Bi-Hsiang

    2011-11-01

    A new type of gaseous tracer utilizing nontoxic aliphatic alcohols for the determination of water content and air-water interfacial area is tested on unsaturated sands of low water content. Alcohol vapors are generated at room temperature and passed through the experimental sand column. Breakthrough curves (BTCs) of these vapors are obtained by monitoring their effluent concentrations using GC-FID. The retardation factor with respect to each vapor transport process is obtained by optimizing BTCs data using the CXTFIT program in the reverse problem mode. The water content and the interfacial area are subsequently calculated from their retardation factors by both equilibrium and nonequilibrium transport models. Experimental results indicate that the pentanol tracer is feasible in the determination of water content at conditions when the degree of water saturation is low. In the determination of air-water interfacial area, decanol is selected due to its interfacial adsorption characteristics. By comparing to interfacial areas from theoretical predictions as well as other conventional tarcer methods, the ones determined from the decanol tracer tests are found to be close to the true interfacial areas when the water content is low.

  6. 33 CFR 334.330 - Atlantic Ocean and connecting waters in vicinity of Myrtle Island, Va.; Air Force practice...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean and connecting waters in vicinity of Myrtle Island, Va.; Air Force practice bombing, rocket firing, and gunnery range... waters in vicinity of Myrtle Island, Va.; Air Force practice bombing, rocket firing, and gunnery...

  7. 33 CFR 334.330 - Atlantic Ocean and connecting waters in vicinity of Myrtle Island, Va.; Air Force practice...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean and connecting waters in vicinity of Myrtle Island, Va.; Air Force practice bombing, rocket firing, and gunnery range... waters in vicinity of Myrtle Island, Va.; Air Force practice bombing, rocket firing, and gunnery...

  8. Optimizing the air flotation water treatment process. Final report, May 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, B.

    1998-09-01

    The injection water for the Nelson Project is a combination of produced and make-up water, typical of many Eastern Kansas operations. The make-up water is a low-salinity salt water from the Arbuckle Formation and contains dissolved minerals and sulfides. The produced water contains suspended oil, suspended clay and silt particles, along with a combination of other dissolved minerals. The combination of the two waters causes several undesirable reactions. The suspended solids load contained in the combined waters would plug a 75-micron plant bag filter within one day. Wellhead filters of 75-micron size were also being used on the injection wells. The poor water quality resulted in severe loss of injectivity and frequent wellbore cleaning of the injection wells. Various mechanical and graded-bed filtration methods were considered for cleaning the water. These methods were rejected due to the lack of field equipment and service availability. A number of vendors did not even respond to the author`s request. The air flotation process was selected as offering the best hope for a long-term solution. The objective of this work is to: increase the cost effectiveness of the process through optimizing process design factors and operational parameters. A vastly modified air flotation system is the principal tool for accomplishing the project objective. The air flotation unit, as received from manufacturer Separation Specialist, was primarily designed to remove oil from produced water. The additional requirement for solids removal necessitated major physical changes in the unit. Problems encountered with the air flotation unit and specific modifications are detailed in the body of the report.

  9. Troubleshooting the residential air conditioning system

    SciTech Connect

    Puzio, H.

    1996-01-01

    In order to effectively diagnose problems in a residential air conditioning system, the technician should develop and follow a logical step-by-step troubleshooting procedure. A list of problems, along with possible causes and solutions, that a technician may encounter when servicing a residential air conditioner is presented.

  10. Laboratory scale studies on mitigation of high 222Rn concentrations in air and water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamoon, A.; Gomma, M. A.; Sohsah, M.

    2004-01-01

    In view of the occasional occurrence of high 222Rn concentrations in air and water under certain circumstances, and in view of the potential health hazards of increased levels of 222Rn in respirable air and in potable water, mitigation of such high 222Rn concentration has become of primary concern. To facilitate the study of the efficiency of the various 222Rn mitigating factors simple laboratory systems were used. Altered alkali granite was used as radon source to enrich air and a piece of pitchblende was used as radon source to enrich water samples. Both enriched media will then be subjected to the mitigation treatments. Charcoal canister technique along with gamma spectrometry were used to measure 222Rn concentrations in air before and after the different mitigating treatments. These were: use of ventilation, radon barriers such as geo-membranes and aluminum sheet, and sealant such as epoxy and vinyl tape. Regarding high levels of 222Rn in air ventilation was the most efficient mitigating factor. Standard liquid scintillation counting was used to measure 222Rn concentrations in water before and after the different mitigation treatments. These were: use of aeration, activated charcoal and heating. Regarding high levels of 222Rn in water, aeration using bubblers and large volume of air was most effective in removing radon from water in a short time. However all the mitigating factors proved effective, in different degrees in decreasing 222Rn concentrations in the respective media. The result from these studies are in general agreement with reports in the literature. It can be concluded then that the different 222Rn mitigating factors can be tested and compared effectively under controlled conditions using simple laboratory scale systems.

  11. Interaction of Charged Colloidal Particles at the Air-Water Interface.

    PubMed

    Girotto, Matheus; Dos Santos, Alexandre P; Levin, Yan

    2016-07-01

    We study, using Monte Carlo simulations, the interaction between charged colloidal particles confined to the air-water interface. The dependence of force on ionic strength and counterion valence is explored. For 1:1 electrolyte, we find that the electrostatic interaction at the interface is very close to the one observed in the bulk. On the other hand, for salts with multivalent counterions, an interface produces an enhanced attraction between like charged colloids. Finally, we explore the effect of induced surface charge at the air-water interface on the interaction between colloidal particles. PMID:26551757

  12. Pulmonary epithelial permeability after inhaling saline, distilled water ''fog'' and cold air

    SciTech Connect

    Borland, C.; Chamberlain, A.; Barber, B.; Higenbottam, T.

    1985-03-01

    It is recognized that hyperventilation of cold air and the inhalation of fine mists of distilled water provoke significant bronchoconstriction in the asthmatic individual, yet little is known as to how these provocations affect the structural integrity of the alveolar epithelial membrane. In 11 normal subjects, the following effects have been studied: cold air hyperventilation for three minutes, inhalation of 80 L of ultrasonically nebulized distilled water ''fog,'' and 80 L of isotonic saline ''fog'' on the half time clearance (T1/2) from the alveoli of technetium 99m diethylene triamine pentaacetate (DTPA), inhaled as an aerosol. The DTPA T1/2 provided a measurement of pulmonary epithelial permeability.

  13. Cell module and fuel conditioner development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoover, D. Q., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Components for the first 5 cell stack (no cooling plates) of the MK-2 design were fabricated. Preliminary specfications and designs for the components of a 23 cell MK-1 stack with four DIGAS cooling plates were developed. The MK-2 was selected as a bench mark design and a preliminary design of the facilities required for high rate manufacture of fuel cell modules was developed. Two stands for testing 5 cell stacks were built and design work for modifying existing stands and building new stands for 23 and 80 cell stacks was initiated. Design and procurement of components and materials for the catalyst test stand were completed and construction initiated. Work on the specifications of pipeline gas, tap water and recovered water and definition of equipment required for treatment was initiated. An innovative geometry for the reformer was conceived and modifications of the computer program to be used in its design were stated.

  14. Experimentally probing the libration of interfacial water: the rotational potential of water is stiffer at the air/water interface than in bulk liquid.

    PubMed

    Tong, Yujin; Kampfrath, Tobias; Campen, R Kramer

    2016-07-21

    Most properties of liquid water are determined by its hydrogen-bond network. Because forming an aqueous interface requires termination of this network, one might expect the molecular level properties of interfacial water to markedly differ from water in bulk. Intriguingly, much prior experimental and theoretical work has found that, from the perspective of their time-averaged structure and picosecond structural dynamics, hydrogen-bonded OH groups at an air/water interface behave the same as hydrogen-bonded OH groups in bulk liquid water. Here we report the first experimental observation of interfacial water's libration (i.e. frustrated rotation) using the laser-based technique vibrational sum frequency spectroscopy. We find this mode has a frequency of 834 cm(-1), ≈165 cm(-1) higher than in bulk liquid water at the same temperature and similar to bulk ice. Because libration frequency is proportional to the stiffness of water's rotational potential, this increase suggests that one effect of terminating bulk water's hydrogen bonding network at the air/water interface is retarding rotation of water around intact hydrogen bonds. Because in bulk liquid water the libration plays a key role in stabilizing reaction intermediates and dissipating excess vibrational energy, we expect the ability to probe this mode in interfacial water to open new perspectives on the kinetics of heterogeneous reactions at aqueous interfaces. PMID:27339861

  15. Understanding the structure of hydrophobic surfactants at the air/water interface from molecular level.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Liu, Zhipei; Ren, Tao; Wu, Pan; Shen, Jia-Wei; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Xinping

    2014-11-25

    Understanding the behavior of fluorocarbon surfactants at the air/water interface is crucial for many applications, such as lubricants, paints, cosmetics, and fire-fighting foams. In this study, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were employed to investigate the microscopic properties of non-ionic fluorocarbon surfactants at the air/water interface. Several properties, including the distribution of head groups, the distribution probability of the tilt angle between hydrophobic tails with respect to the xy plane, and the order parameter of surfactants, were computed to probe the structure of hydrophobic surfactants at the air/water interface. The effects of the monomer structure on interfacial phenomena of non-ionic surfactants were investigated as well. It is observed that the structure of fluorocarbon surfactants at the air/water interface is more ordered than that of hydrocarbons, which is dominated by the van der Waals interaction between surfactants and water molecules. However, replacing one or two CF2 with one or two CH2 group does not significantly influence the interfacial structure, suggesting that hydrocarbons may be promising alternatives to perfluorinated surfactants. PMID:25358083

  16. Hydrodynamics of a self-propelled camphor boat at the air-water interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akella, Sathish; Singh, Dhiraj; Singh, Ravi; Bandi, Mahesh

    2015-11-01

    A camphor tablet, when placed at the air-water interface undergoes sublimation and camphor vapour spreads radially outwards across the surface due to Marangoni forces. This steady camphor influx from tablet onto the air-water interface is balanced by the camphor outflux due to evaporation. When spontaneous fluctuations in evaporation break the axial symmetry of Marangoni force acting radially outwards, the camphor tablet is propelled like a boat along the water surface. We report experiments on the hydrodynamics of a self-propelled camphor boat at air-water interfaces. We observe three different modes of motion, namely continuous, harmonic and periodic, due to the volatile nature of camphor. We explain these modes in terms of ratio of two time-scales: the time-scale over which viscous forces are dominant over the Marangoni forces (τη) and the time-scale over which Marangoni forces are dominant over the viscous forces (τσ). The continuous, harmonic and periodic motions are observed when τη /τσ ~ 1 , τη /τσ >= 1 and τη /τσ >> 1 respectively. Experimentally, the ratio of the time scales is varied by changing the interfacial tension of the air-water interface using Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate. This work was supported by the Collective Interactions Unit, OIST Graduate University.

  17. Coupling of phytoplankton uptake and air-water exchange of persistent organic pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Dachs, J.; Eisenreich, S.J.; Baker, J.E.; Ko, F.C.; Jeremiason, J.D.

    1999-10-15

    A dynamic model that couples air-water exchange and phytoplankton uptake of persistent organic pollutants has been developed and then applied to PCB data from a small experimental lake. A sensitivity analysis of the model, taking into account the influence of physical environmental conditions such as temperature, wind speed, and mixing depth as well as plankton-related parameters such as biomass and growth rate was carried out for a number of PCBs with different physical-chemical properties. The results indicate that air-water exchange dynamics are influenced not only by physical parameters but also by phytoplankton biomass and growth rate. New phytoplankton production results in substantially longer times to reach equilibrium. Phytoplankton uptake-induced depletion of the dissolved phase concentration maintains air and water phases out of equilibrium. Furthermore, PCBs in phytoplankton also take longer times to reach equilibrium with the dissolved water phase when the latter is supported by diffusive air-water exchange. However, both model analysis and model application to the Experimental Lakes Area of northwestern Ontario (Canada) suggest that the gas phase supports the concentrations of persistent organic pollutants, such as PCBs, in atmospherically driven aquatic environments.

  18. Air - water temperature relationships in the trout streams of southeastern Minnesota’s carbonate - sandstone landscape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krider, Lori A.; Magner, Joseph A.; Perry, Jim; Vondracek, Bruce C.; Ferrington, Leonard C., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Carbonate-sandstone geology in southeastern Minnesota creates a heterogeneous landscape of springs, seeps, and sinkholes that supply groundwater into streams. Air temperatures are effective predictors of water temperature in surface-water dominated streams. However, no published work investigates the relationship between air and water temperatures in groundwater-fed streams (GWFS) across watersheds. We used simple linear regressions to examine weekly air-water temperature relationships for 40 GWFS in southeastern Minnesota. A 40-stream, composite linear regression model has a slope of 0.38, an intercept of 6.63, and R2 of 0.83. The regression models for GWFS have lower slopes and higher intercepts in comparison to surface-water dominated streams. Regression models for streams with high R2 values offer promise for use as predictive tools for future climate conditions. Climate change is expected to alter the thermal regime of groundwater-fed systems, but will do so at a slower rate than surface-water dominated systems. A regression model of intercept vs. slope can be used to identify streams for which water temperatures are more meteorologically than groundwater controlled, and thus more vulnerable to climate change. Such relationships can be used to guide restoration vs. management strategies to protect trout streams.

  19. Performance Evaluation of the Operational Air Quality Monitor for Water Testing Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, William T.; Limero, Thomas F.; Gazda, Daniel B.; Minton, John M.; Macatangay, Ariel V.; Dwivedi, Prabha; Fernandez, Facundo M.

    2014-01-01

    Real-time environmental monitoring on ISS is necessary to provide data in a timely fashion and to help ensure astronaut health. Current real-time water TOC monitoring provides high-quality trending information, but compound-specific data is needed. The combination of ETV with the AQM showed that compounds of interest could be liberated from water and analyzed in the same manner as air sampling. Calibration of the AQM using water samples allowed for the quantitative analysis of ISS archival samples. Some calibration issues remain, but the excellent accuracy of DMSD indicates that ETV holds promise for as a sample introduction method for water analysis in spaceflight.

  20. Investigation of ground-water pollution at Air Force Plant Number 4, Fort Worth Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-10-01

    Beginning in December 1982, an extensive investigation was conducted to determine the presence and extent of industrial chemical pollution at Air Force Plant No. 4. A major portion of this work was devoted to the testing of ground water flowing within the overburden. In addition, 16 wells were drilled to monitor for polluted ground water in the upper and middle zones of the Paluxy Formation. Paluxy ground water was monitored; trichloroethylene, 1,2-trans-dichloroethylene, and lesser amounts of other chlorinated hydrocarbons, and the existence of abnormally high water levels in the upper zone of the Paluxy Formation in well P-8(U) were discovered.