Science.gov

Sample records for air emissions inventory

  1. Air Emission Inventory for the INEEL -- 1999 Emission Report

    SciTech Connect

    Zohner, Steven K

    2000-05-01

    This report presents the 1999 calendar year update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of nonradionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEEL, and provides nonradionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources.

  2. REGIONAL AIR POLLUTION STUDY, EMISSION INVENTORY SUMMARIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the Regional Air Pollution Study (RAPS), data for an air pollution emission inventory are summarized for point and area sources in the St. Louis Air Quality Control Region. Data for point sources were collected for criteria and noncriteria pollutants, hydrocarbons, sul...

  3. REGIONAL AIR POLLUTION STUDY: HEAT EMISSION INVENTORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the St. Louis Regional Air Pollution Study (RAPS), a heat emission inventory has been assembled. Heat emissions to the atmosphere originate, directly or indirectly, from the combustion of fossil fuels (there are no nuclear plants in the St. Louis AQCR). With the except...

  4. Air emission inventories in North America: a critical assessment

    SciTech Connect

    C. Andrew Miller; George Hidy; Jeremy Hales

    2006-08-15

    Although emission inventories are the foundation of air quality management and have supported substantial improvements in North American air quality, they have a number of shortcomings that can potentially lead to ineffective air quality management strategies. Major reductions in the largest emissions sources have made accurate inventories of previously minor sources much more important to the understanding and improvement of local air quality. Changes in manufacturing processes, industry types, vehicle technologies, and metropolitan infrastructure are occurring at an increasingly rapid pace, emphasizing the importance of inventories that reflect current conditions. New technologies for measuring source emissions and ambient pollutant concentrations, both at the point of emissions and from remote platforms, are providing novel approaches to collecting data for inventory developers. Advances in information technologies are allowing data to be shared more quickly, more easily, and processed and compared in novel ways that can speed the development of emission inventories. Approaches to improving quantitative measures of inventory uncertainty allow air quality management decisions to take into account the uncertainties associated with emissions estimates, providing more accurate projections of how well alternative strategies may work. This paper discusses applications of these technologies and techniques to improve the accuracy, timeliness, and completeness of emission inventories across North America and outlines a series of eight recommendations aimed at inventory developers and air quality management decision-makers to improve emission inventories and enable them to support effective air quality management decisions for the foreseeable future. 122 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Developing a Great Lakes air toxic emission inventory for Ontario

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, P.; Wong, S.; Bobet, E.; Wong, S.; Doan, C.

    1997-12-31

    In meeting the increasing needs for an emission inventory of toxic air pollutants around the Ontario portion of the Great Lakes Region, this pilot study was the first phase of the development of a comprehensive toxic air pollutant emission inventory system which will meet the demand from the Ontario domestic and international environmental management programs. In the ongoing development of a toxic air pollutant emission inventory for Ontario, source-release information gaps and emission estimation methodology deficiencies have been identified for future improvement. The state-of-the-art Regional Air Pollutant Inventory Development System (RAPIDS), being developed by the eight Great Lakes states and under the project management of the Great Lakes Commission, was used in this study to compile the emission inventories of selected toxic air pollutants from point, area and mobile sources for 1990. Other emission inventory related models/tools used in this study included the MOBILE 5C (modified version of US MOBILE 5a by Environment Canada), PART5 and other Environment Canada or Ontario specific emission profiles. An emission inventory of toxic air pollutants from the Great Lakes Commission`s 49 targeted compounds and the Canada-Ontario Agreement Respecting the Great Lakes Basin Ecosystem (COA) was developed in this study. This study identified major point source and area source categories that contributed significant emissions of the specified toxic air pollutants. This study demonstrated that RAPIDS can be used as a framework for the development of an Ontario toxic air pollutant emission inventory. However, further refinement of the RAPIDS system, the emission factors, and source specific toxic air speciation profiles would be required.

  6. Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory - Calendar Year 1999 Emission Report

    SciTech Connect

    Zohner, S.K.

    2000-05-30

    This report presents the 1999 calendar year update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of nonradionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEEL, and provides nonradionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources.

  7. Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory - Calendar Year 1998 Emissions Report

    SciTech Connect

    S. K. Zohner

    1999-10-01

    This report presents the 1998 calendar year update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of nonradionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEEL, and provides nonradiological emissions estimates for stationary sources.

  8. Air emission inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory: 1994 emissions report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    This report Presents the 1994 update of the Air Emission inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The INEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of non-radionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEL, and provides non-radionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources.

  9. Air Emission, Liquid Effluent Inventory and Reporting

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1998-08-18

    The IES maintains an inventory of radiological air and liquid effluents released to the atmosphere. The IES utilizes the official stack numbers. Data may be entered by generators for any monitoring time period. Waste volumes released as well as their radiological constituents are tracked. The IES provides data to produce a report for NESHAPS as well as several administrative action/anomaly reports. These reports flag unusual occurences (releases) that are above normal range releases.

  10. Air emissions inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory -- 1995 emissions report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    This report presents the 1995 update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The INEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of non-radionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEL, and provides non-radionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources. The air contaminants reported include nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, particulates, and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs).

  11. Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, 1993 emissions report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This report presents the 1993 update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The purpose of the Air Emission Inventory is to commence the preparation of the permit to operate application for the INEL, as required by the recently promulgated Title V regulations of the Clean Air Act. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEL and provides emissions estimates for both mobile and stationary sources.

  12. EMISSION INVENTORIES FOR THE 1996 NATIONAL AIR TOXICS ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The product is a data set of estimates of 1996 emissions of hazardous air pollutants for every county in the US, with sufficient detail on source characteristics to support dispersion modeling, projection to future years, etc. To support NSA/NATA the inventory must be delivered ...

  13. EMISSION INVENTORIES FOR THE 1999 NATIONAL AIR TOXICS ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The product is a data set of estimates of 1999 emissions of hazardous air pollutants for every county in the US, with sufficient detail on source characteristics to support dispersion modeling, projection to future years, etc. To support NSA/NATA the inventory must be delivered ...

  14. EMISSION INVENTORIES FOR THE 2002 NATIONAL AIR TOXICS ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This product is a data set of estimates of 2002 emissions of hazardous air pollutants for every county in the US, with sufficient detail on source characteristics to support dispersion modeling, projection to future years, etc. To support NSA/NATA the inventory must be delivered ...

  15. Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory: 1992 emissions report

    SciTech Connect

    Stirrup, T.S.

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the 1992 Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Originally, this report was in response to the Environmental Oversight and Monitoring Agreement in 1989 between the State of Idaho and the Department of Energy Idaho Field Office, and a request from the Idaho Air Quality Bureau. The current purpose of the Air Emission Inventory is to provide the basis for the preparation of the INEL Permit-to-Operate (PTO) an Air Emission Source Application, as required by the recently promulgated Title V regulations of the Clean Air Act. This report includes emissions calculations from 1989 to 1992. The Air Emission Inventory System, an ORACLE-based database system, maintains the emissions inventory.

  16. Inventory of pesticide emissions into the air in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarigiannis, D. A.; Kontoroupis, P.; Solomou, E. S.; Nikolaki, S.; Karabelas, A. J.

    2013-08-01

    Creation of a reliable and comprehensive emission inventory of the pesticides used in Europe is a key step towards quantitatively assessing the link between actual pesticide exposure and adverse health effects. An inventory of pesticide emissions was generated at a 1 × 1 km grid, for the year 2000. The emission model comprises three components: estimates of active substance (AS) wind drift taking into account crop type, volatilization during pesticide application and volatilization from the crop canopy. Results show that atmospheric emission of pesticides varies significantly across Europe. Different pesticide families are emitted from different parts of Europe as a function of the main crop(s) cultivated, agro-climatic conditions and production intensity. The pesticide emission inventory methodology developed herein is a valuable tool for assessing air quality in rural and peri-urban Europe, furnishing the necessary input for atmospheric modelling at different scales. Its estimates have been tested using global sensitivity and Monte Carlo analysis for uncertainty assessment and they have been validated against national and local surveys in four European countries; the results demonstrate the robustness and reliability of the inventory. The latter may therefore be readily used for exposure and health risk assessment studies targeting farmers, applicators, but also bystanders and the general population in Europe.

  17. IMPROVING EMISSION INVENTORIES FOR EFFECTIVE AIR-QUALITY MANAGMENT ACROSS NORTH AMERICA - A NARSTO ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The NARSTO Ozone and Particulate Matter Assessments emphasized that emission inventories are critical to the success of air quality management programs and that emissions inventories in Canada, Mexico, and the United States need improvement to meet expectations for quality, timel...

  18. (AWMA) IMPROVING EMISSION INVENTORIES FOR EFFECTIVE AIR-QUALITY MANAGEMENT ACROSS NORTH AMERICA - A NARSTO ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The NARSTO Ozone and Particulate Matter Assessments emphasized that emission inventories are critical to the success of air quality management programs and that emissions inventories in Canada, Mexico, and the United States need improvement to meet expectations for quality, timel...

  19. NARSTO EMISSION INVENTORY ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The NARSTO Ozone and Particulate Matter Assessments emphasized that emission inventories are critical to the success of air quality management programs and that emissions inventories in Canada, Mexico, and the United States need improvement to meet expectations for quality, timel...

  20. Preliminary analysis of hazardous air pollutant emission inventories from three major urban areas

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, J.W.; Campbell, D.; Murphy, P.; Smith, R.

    1993-01-01

    The paper reports EPA/AEERL's progress on emissions inventory evaluation and improvement under a hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions research program in support of the Urban Area Source Program required under Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA). The paper summarizes results of three current projects and indicates HAP emissions inventory needs. HAP inventories for three urban areas--Chicago, San Francisco, and Seattle/Tacoma--were analyzed to identify area sources as defined in the CAAA. One inventory focused on area sources; the other two were basically point source inventories that had facilities that met the area source definition. The HAPs that contribute most of the area source emissions in each inventory were identified, and 22 HAPs that were common to the inventories were selected for further analysis.

  1. The incorporation of the US national emission inventory into version 2 of the Hemispheric Transport of air Pollutants inventory

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's 2008 national emission inventory has been incorporated into version 2 of the Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollutants Inventory. This work involves the creation of a detailed mapping of EPA Source Classification Codes (SCC) to the International Nomenclature for Reporting Sy...

  2. REGIONAL AIR POLLUTION STUDY: POINT AND AREA SOURCE ORGANIC EMISSION INVENTORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    An inventory of organic emissions from stationary and mobile sources has been assembled for the St. Louis Air Quality Control Region. The inventory covers point and area sources for process, combustion and evaporative emissions. A breakdown into five categories has been assigned ...

  3. Evaluating NOx emission inventories for regulatory air quality modeling using satellite and air quality model data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemball-Cook, Susan; Yarwood, Greg; Johnson, Jeremiah; Dornblaser, Bright; Estes, Mark

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of NOx emissions in the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality's (TCEQ) State Implementation Plan (SIP) modeling inventories of the southeastern U.S. We used retrieved satellite tropospheric NO2 columns from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) together with NO2 columns from the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions (CAMx) to make top-down NOx emissions estimates using the mass balance method. Two different top-down NOx emissions estimates were developed using the KNMI DOMINO v2.0 and NASA SP2 retrievals of OMI NO2 columns. Differences in the top-down NOx emissions estimates made with these two operational products derived from the same OMI radiance data were sufficiently large that they could not be used to constrain the TCEQ NOx emissions in the southeast. The fact that the two available operational NO2 column retrievals give such different top-down NOx emissions results is important because these retrievals are increasingly being used to diagnose air quality problems and to inform efforts to solve them. These results reflect the fact that NO2 column retrievals are a blend of measurements and modeled data and should be used with caution in analyses that will inform policy development. This study illustrates both benefits and challenges of using satellite NO2 data for air quality management applications. Comparison with OMI NO2 columns pointed the way toward improvements in the CAMx simulation of the upper troposphere, but further refinement of both regional air quality models and the NO2 column retrievals is needed before the mass balance and other emission inversion methods can be used to successfully constrain NOx emission inventories used in U.S. regulatory modeling.

  4. "The Incorporation of National Emission Inventories into Version 2 of the Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollutants Inventory"

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA’s National Emission Inventory has been incorporated into the Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research-Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollutants (EDGAR-HTAP) version 2. This work involves the creation of a detailed mapping of EPA Source Classification Codes (SCC) to the...

  5. REGIONAL AIR POLLUTION STUDY: OFF-HIGHWAY MOBILE SOURCE EMISSION INVENTORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    An emission inventory of mobile off-highway sources of air pollution has been determined for the Regional Air Pollution Study (RAPS) in St. Louis, Missouri. Emissions of HC, CO, NOx, SOx and particulate matter have been calculated with the aid of a computer for the 1,989 grid squ...

  6. PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS OF HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANT EMISSION INVENTORIES FROM THREE MAJOR URBAN AREAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper reports EPA/AEERL's progress on emissions inventory evaluation and improvement under a hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions research program in support of the Urban Area Source Program required under Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA). he paper ...

  7. ( RTP, NC ) IMPROVING EMISSION INVENTORIES FOR EFFECTIVE AIR-QUALITY MANAGEMENT ACROSS NORTH AMERICA - A NARSTO ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The NARSTO Ozone and Particulate Matter Assessments emphasized that emission inventories are critical to the success of air quality management programs and that emissions inventories in Canada, Mexico, and the United States need improvement to meet expectations for quality, timel...

  8. Improving the City-scale Emission Inventory of Anthropogenic Air Pollutants: A Case Study of Nanjing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, L.; Zhao, Y.; Xu, R.; Xie, F.; Wang, H.; Qin, H.; Wu, X.; Zhang, J.

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the improvement of city-scale emission inventory, a high-resolution emission inventory of air pollutants for Nanjing is first developed combining detailed source information, and then justified through quantitative analysis with observations. The best available domestic emission factors and unit-/facility-based activity level data were compiled based on a thorough field survey on major emission sources. Totally 1089 individual emission sources were identified as point sources and all the emission-related parameters including burner type, combustion technology, fuel quality, and removal efficiency of pollution control devices, are carefully investigated and analyzed. Some new data such as detailed information of city fueling-gas stations, construction sites, monthly activity level, data from continuous emission monitoring systems and traffic flow information were combined to improve spatiotemporal distribution of this inventory. For SO2, NOX and CO, good spatial correlations were found between ground observation (9 state controlling air sampling sites in Nanjing) and city-scale emission inventory (R2=0.34, 0.38 and 0.74, respectively). For TSP, PM10 and PM2.5, however, poorer correlation was found due to relatively weaker accuracy in emission estimation and spatial distribution of road dust. The mixing ratios between specific pollutants including OC/EC, BC/CO and CO2/CO, are well correlated between those from ground observation and emission. Compared to MEIC (Multi-resolution Emission Inventory for China), there is a better spatial consistence between this city-scale emission inventory and NO2 measured by OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument). In particular, the city-scale emission inventory still correlated well with satellite observations (R2=0.28) while the regional emission inventory showed little correlation with satellite observations (R2=0.09) when grids containing power plants are excluded. It thus confirms the improvement of city-scale emission

  9. Development of an air emissions inventory for Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Skipper, D.D.

    1996-08-01

    Accurate air emissions inventory is important in an effective Clean Air Act (CAA) compliance program; without it, a facility may have difficulty proving compliance with regulations or permit conditions. An emissions inventory can also serve for evaluating the applicability of new regulations (eg, Title V of CAA) and in complying with them. Therefore it is important for the inventory to be well-planned and comprehensive. Preparation of an emissions inventory for a large R&D facility such as ORNL can be a challenging task. ORNL, a government facility managed by Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corp. for US DOE, consists of more than 300 buildings on about 1,500 acres. It has several thousand diverse emission sources, including small laboratory hoods, several wastewater treatment facilities, and a steam plant. This paper describes the development of ORNL`s emissions inventory with emphasis on setting goals and identifying the scope of the inventory, identifying the emission points, developing/implementing the inventory methodology, compiling data, and evaluating the results.

  10. Dynamic Evaluation of Regional Air Quality Model's Response to Emission Reductions in the Presence of Uncertain Emission Inventories

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method is presented and applied for evaluating an air quality model’s changes in pollutant concentrations stemming from changes in emissions while explicitly accounting for the uncertainties in the base emission inventory. Specifically, the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMA...

  11. The 1977 emissions inventory for southeastern Virginia. [environment model of air quality based on exhaust emission from urban areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, D. A.; Remsberg, E. E.; Woodbury, G. E.; Quinn, L. C.

    1979-01-01

    Regional tropospheric air pollution modeling and data compilation to simulate the time variation of species concentrations in and around an urban area is discussed. The methods used to compile an emissions inventory are outlined. Emissions factors for vehicular travel in the urban area are presented along with an analysis of the emission gases. Emission sources other than vehicular including industrial wastes, residential solid waste disposal, aircraft emissions, and emissions from the railroads are investigated.

  12. BIOGENIC EMISSIONS INVENTORY SYSTEM (BEIS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Biogenic Emissions Inventory System (BEIS) is a computer algorithm used to generate emissions for air quality simulation models, such as EPAs Regional Acid Deposition Model (RADM). Emission sources that are modeled include volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from vegeta...

  13. Emissions inventory and scenario analyses of air pollutants in Guangdong Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hui; Meng, Jing

    2016-03-01

    Air pollution, causing significantly adverse health impacts and severe environmental problems, has raised great concerns in China in the past few decades. Guangdong Province faces major challenges to address the regional air pollution problem due to the lack of an emissions inventory. To fill this gap, an emissions inventory of primary fine particles (PM2.5) is compiled for the year 2012, and the key precursors (sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides) are identified. Furthermore, policy packages are simulated during the period of 2012-2030 to investigate the potential mitigation effect. The results show that in 2012, SO2, NO x , and PM2.5 emissions in Guangdong Province were as high as (951.7, 1363.6, and 294.9) kt, respectively. Industrial production processes are the largest source of SO2 and PM2.5 emissions, and transport is the top contributor of NO x emissions. Both the baseline scenario and policy scenario are constructed based on projected energy growth and policy designs. Under the baseline scenario, SO2, NO x , and PM2.5 emissions will almost double in 2030 without proper emissions control policies. The suggested policies are categorized into end-of-pipe control in power plants (ECP), end-of-pipe control in industrial processes (ECI), fuel improvement (FI), energy efficiency improvement (EEI), substitution-pattern development (SPD), and energy saving options (ESO). With the implementation of all these policies, SO2, NO x , and PM2.5 emissions are projected to drop to (303.1, 585.4, and 102.4) kt, respectively, in 2030. This inventory and simulated results will provide deeper insights for policy makers to understand the present situation and the evolution of key emissions in Guangdong Province.

  14. Biogenic Emissions Inventory System

    EPA Science Inventory

    ***BEIS3 is now embedded in the CMAQ model***

    The Biogenic Emissions Inventory System, Version 3 (BEIS3) is being developed to support the needs of regional and urban-scale air quality simulation models. BEIS3 is designed to be incorporated into the Sparse Matrix Op...

  15. NATIONAL EMISSIONS INVENTORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Emisssions Inventory (NEI) is a data base containing estimates of air pollutant emissions in every US county for the years 1990-2002. National estimates back to 1970 are also part of the NEI. Access to NEI data is available from the following products and services:...

  16. A new statistical approach for establishing high-resolution emission inventory of primary gaseous air pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ying; Cheng, Shuiyuan; Chen, Dongsheng; Lang, Jianlei; Zhao, Beibei; Wei, Wei

    2014-09-01

    This paper, which aims at the primary gaseous air pollutants (i.e., SO2, NOx, VOCS and CO), is the third paper in the series papers published in Atmospheric Environment to develop new emission estimation models by the regression method. A group of regression models for various industrial and non-industrial sectors were proposed based on an emission investigation case study of Handan region in northern China. The main data requirements of the regression models for industrial sectors were coal consumption, oil consumption, gaseous fuel consumption and annual industrial output. The data requirements for non-industrial sector emission estimations were the population, the number of resident population households, the vehicle population, the area of construction sites, the forestland area, and the orchard area. The models were then applied to Tangshan region in northern China. The results showed that the developed regression models had relatively satisfactory performance. The modeling errors at the regional level for SO2, NOx, VOCS and CO were -16.5%, -10.6%, -11.8% and -22.6%, respectively. The corresponding modeling errors at the county level were 39.9%, 33.9%, 46.3% and 46.9%, respectively. The models were also applied to other regions in northern China. The results revealed that the new models could develop emission inventories with generally lower error than found in previous emission inventory studies. The developed models had the advantages of only using publicly available statistical information for developing high-accuracy and high-resolution emission inventory, without requiring detailed data investigation which is necessary by conventional “bottom-up” emission inventory development approach.

  17. EDGAR_v4.3: a global air pollutant emission inventory from 1970 to 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crippa, M.; Janssens-Maenhout, G.; Guizzardi, D.; Muntean, M.; Schaaf, E.; Olivier, J. G.; Denier Van Der Gon, H.; Dentener, F. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) provides consistent gridded anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases, precursor gases and aerosols from 1970 to 2010. Since EDGAR's first release in 1996 (EDGARv2), a continuous improvement and upgrade of the emission data resulted in a sequence of releases. Here we present EDGAR_v4.3 (2014), which features new information on emission factors and an extension to 2009-2010 data compared to EDGAR_v4.2. EDGAR_v4.2 was used in many inverse modeling studies in EU, US, Africa and Asia yielding regional refinement of emission factors and adjustments of technology penetration (e.g. coal mining, power plants) and proxy data for geospatial distribution (e.g. passenger car transport). We focus on SO2, NOx, CO, NMVOC, NH3, PM10, PM2.5, BC and OC emissions for the most recent year (2010), and compare them to two global inventories used in global modeling, as well as the regional inventories included in them. HTAP_v2 is a harmonized, global, gridded, emission database for 2010, developed for global and regional model tasks within the Task Force Hemispheric Transport Air pollution. It uses officially reported, gridded national inventories, complemented with science based data, partly gap-filled with EDGAR. However, since HTAP_v2 is relying on (sub-)national statistics, it may not be as consistent across countries and regions, as a globally calculated inventory using international statistics and global geospatial distributions. Another available global inventory is MACCity, covering the years 1980-2010. We compare EDGAR_v4.3 with HTAP_v2 and MACCity in order to explain differences from national estimates and address emission inventory uncertainties, indicating weaknesses and strengths of these databases. We present the geospatial distribution of emissions at 0.1x0.1 degree resolution, comparing the contribution of developing and emerging countries with industrialized regions, both as absolute and per capita data.

  18. Regional Air Quality in central México and emissions inventories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerardo Ruiz-Suarez, Luis; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Agustín García-Reynoso, José; Santos García-Yee, José; Barrera-Huertas, Hugo; Alejandro Torres-Jaramillo, Jorge; Robles-Roldán, Miguel Angel; Gutierrez López, Wilfrido; García-Espinoza, Manuel; Castro-Romero, Telma

    2014-05-01

    Four air quality field campaigns, from 2009 to 2012, during March-April were carried out in several sites in urban, rural and semi-rural sites in Central México. One of the sites was in the Chalco Gap southeast of MCMA (2011), another in the state of Morelos (2011), other two in the state of Puebla (2009 and 2012). All these sites are South and East of the Mexico Basin. The main object of those campaigns was to document regional air quality, mainly in rural and periurban sites, including the photochemical age of regional polluted plumes as they were transported away from the main metropolitan areas within the region. In this paper, we focus on comparisons between observed CO/NOx, and CO/SO2 ratios with those from the National Emissions Inventory and form local inventories reported in state air quality management programs. Comparisons were made with data between 05:00 to 08:00 h to minimize effects photochemical activity and the fast evolution of MLH occurring between 08:00 and 09:00 due to high insolation. Comparisons among observed ratios show a fairly consistent ratio, whereas ratios from emissions inventory are widely variable and only in few sites compare reasonable well with observed ones, indicating the need for homologation of emissions inventories in the country. Also Ozone, CO, NOx and NOy observed time series are compared with WRF-Chem model results for the same campaign periods to evaluate its performance outside MCMA. In addition, observed surface wind speeds and early morning MLH obtained with a tethered balloon are also compared with modeled values to help understanding discrepancies in the trace gases comparisons.

  19. Air pollution monitoring using emission inventories combined with the moss bag approach.

    PubMed

    Iodice, P; Adamo, P; Capozzi, F; Di Palma, A; Senatore, A; Spagnuolo, V; Giordano, S

    2016-01-15

    Inventory of emission sources and biomonitoring with moss transplants are two different methods to evaluate air pollution. In this study, for the first time, both these approaches were simultaneously applied in five municipalities in Campania (southern Italy), deserving attention for health-oriented interventions as part of a National Interest Priority Site. The pollutants covered by the inventory were CO, NOx, particulate matter (PM10), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and some heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se, and Zn). The biomonitoring survey was based on the use of the devitalized moss Hypnum cupressiforme transplanted into bags, following a harmonized protocol. The exposure covered 40 agricultural and urban/residential sites, with half of them located in proximity to roads. The pollutants monitored were Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se, and Zn, as well as total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) only in five sites. Using the emission inventory approach, high emission loads were detected for all the major air pollutants and the following heavy metals: Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn, over the entire study area. Arsenic, Pb, and Zn were the elements most accumulated by moss. Total PAH postexposure contents were higher than the preexposure values (~20-50% of initial value). Moss uptakes did not differ substantially among municipalities or within exposure sites. In the five municipalities, a similar spatial pattern was evidenced for Pb by emission inventory and moss accumulation. Both approaches indicated the same most polluted municipality, suggesting their combined use as a valuable resource to reveal contaminants that are not routinely monitored. PMID:26479914

  20. Evaluation of national emissions inventories of anthropogenic air pollutants for Brunei Darussalam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dotse, Sam-Quarcoo; Dagar, Lalit; Petra, Mohammad Iskandar; De Silva, Liyanage C.

    2016-05-01

    Haze and other air pollution related problems are getting more significant in Brunei Darussalam but till date there is absence of comprehensive national emission inventory for Brunei Darussalam. Although there are few regional and global inventories available for Brunei Darussalam, large variations in the emission estimates exist in these datasets. Therefore, there is an important need for an updated inventory, based on data available from government and other sources. This study presents a sector-wise anthropogenic emission estimates and trends (2001-2012) for the pollutants CO2, CH4, N2O, NOX, NMVOC, CO, SOX, and PM10. The results suggest no significant contributions from residential sector (<1%) whilst road transport is the main contributor for most of the pollutants. CO2 is largely emitted by power plants (∼72% in 2001 and∼ 62% in 2012) and the main source of CH4 is Solid waste disposal and wastewater handling (∼92%). There were also significant contributions from industrial processes and solvent use to NMVOC and PM10 emissions (∼74% and ∼45% respectively).

  1. Getting the most from your AQUIS database for air emission inventories

    SciTech Connect

    Alex, G.S.; Rasmussen, S.; Monarch, M.

    1995-07-01

    During the early 1990s, air quality managers at Hill Air Force Base (Hill) in Ogden, Utah saw the number of emission sources they were required to track escalating rapidly to over. 1,200. They felt the only way to effectively manage the associated data was using an electronic system. The US Air Force Material Command had just developed the Air Quality Utility Information System (AQUIS), as a means of helping bases manage their air emission sources. As Hill experimented with the system, it became evident that the air quality staff did not have the time and resources to keep the system updated. Hill determined that if they hired a contractor to become intimately familiar with AQUIS, they could receive on-going support without constantly retraining new full-time staff and AQUIS could become a valuable tool in managing its emission sources. In this way, Hill was able to manage the effort, while placing the responsibility for a cost effective, quality product on dedicated specialists. The contractor was asked to: (1) to find an efficient, cost effective method for collecting and entering data into AQUIS; (2) to determine whether the AQUIS emission algorithms and factors were appropriate for all of Hill`s sources; (3) if AQUIS did not have the capability to calculate emissions for some sources, to change the system or prepare supplementary spreadsheets for future inventories, until AQUIS generated the appropriate emissions; (4) to figure out a flexible method for generating the needed information from AQUIS for in-house and regulatory reporting, and (5) coordinate these efforts with the system development contractor (Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)) to limit duplication of effort. This paper discusses some of the methods the contractor used to achieve the goals set by Hill. The reader will be introduced to some methods that go beyond what AQUIS is currently designed to do.

  2. NARSTO EMISSION INVENTORY WORKSHOP & ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation summarizes the NARSTO activities related to emission inventories in 2003-2005. The NARSTO Particulate Matter Assessment, issued in 2003, identified emission inventories as one of the critical elements of the air quality program which needs improvement if it i...

  3. THE CLIMATE-AIR QUALITY SCALE CONTINUUM AND THE GLOBAL EMISSION INVENTORY ACTIVITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Global Emissions Inventory Activity (GEIA), a core program activity of the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC) Project of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program, develops data and other related information on key chemical emissions to the atmosphere and...

  4. Evaluation of bottom-up and downscaled emission inventories for Paris and consequences for estimating urban air pollution increments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timmermans, R.; Denier van der Gon, H.; Segers, A.; Honore, C.; Perrussel, O.; Builtjes, P.; Schaap, M.

    2012-04-01

    Since a major part of the Earth's population lives in cities, it is of great importance to correctly characterise the air pollution levels over these urban areas. Many studies in the past have already been dedicated to this subject and have determined so-called urban increments: the impact of large cities on the air pollution levels. The impact of large cities on air pollution levels usually is determined with models driven by so-called downscaled emission inventories. In these inventories official country total emissions are gridded using information on for example population density and location of industries and roads. The question is how accurate are the downscaled inventories over cities or large urban areas. Within the EU FP 7 project MEGAPOLI project a new emission inventory has been produced including refined local emission data for two European megacities (Paris, London) and two urban conglomerations (the Po valley, Italy and the Rhine-Ruhr region, Germany) based on a bottom-up approach. The inventory has comparable national totals but remarkable difference at the city scale. Such a bottom up inventory is thought to be more accurate as it contains local knowledge. Within this study we compared modelled nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter (PM) concentrations from the LOTOS-EUROS chemistry transport model driven by a conventional downscaled emission inventory (TNO-MACC inventory) with the concentrations from the same model driven by the new MEGAPOLI 'bottom-up' emission inventory focusing on the Paris region. Model predictions for Paris significantly improve using the new Megapoli inventory. Both the emissions as well as the simulated average concentrations of PM over urban sites in Paris are much lower due to the different spatial distribution of the anthropogenic emissions. The difference for the nearby rural stations is small implicating that also the urban increment for PM simulated using the bottom-up emission inventory is much smaller than

  5. Assessment of China's virtual air pollution transport embodied in trade by a consumption-based emission inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, H. Y.; Zhang, Q.; Davis, S. J.; Guan, D.; Liu, Z.; Huo, H.; Lin, J. T.; Liu, W. D.; He, K. B.

    2014-10-01

    High anthropogenic emissions from China have resulted in serious air pollution, and it has attracted considerable academic and public concern. The physical transport of air pollutants in the atmosphere has been extensively investigated, however, understanding the mechanisms how the pollutants were transferred through economic and trade activities remains challenge. In this work, we assessed China's virtual air pollutant transport embodied in trade, by using consumption-based accounting approach. We first constructed a consumption-based emission inventory for China's four key air pollutants (primary PM2.5, sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC)) in 2007, based on the bottom-up sectoral emission inventory concerning their production activities - a production-based inventory. We used a multiregional input-output (MRIO) model to integrate the sectoral production-based emissions and the associated economic and trade activities, and finally obtained consumption-based inventory. Unlike the production-based inventory, the consumption-based inventory tracked emissions throughout the supply chain related to the consumption of goods and services and hereby identified the emission flows followed the supply chains. From consumption-based perspective, emissions were significantly redistributed among provinces due to interprovincial trade. Large amount of emissions were embodied in the net imports of east regions from northern and central regions; these were determined by differences in the regional economic status and environmental policies. We also calculated the emissions embodied in exported and imported goods and services. It is found that 15-23% of China's pollutant emissions were related to exports for foreign consumption; that proportion was much higher for central and export-oriented coastal regions. It is suggested that measures should be introduced to reduce air pollution by integrating cross-regional consumers

  6. Reconciling Long-Term Trends in Air Quality with Bottom-up Emission Inventories for Los Angeles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mcdonald, B. C.; Kim, S. W.; Frost, G. J.; Harley, R.; Trainer, M.

    2014-12-01

    Significant long-term changes in air quality have been observed in the United States over several decades. However, reconciling ambient observations with bottom-up emission inventories has proved challenging. In this study, we perform WRF-Chem modeling in the Los Angeles basin for carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and ozone (O3) over a long time period (1987-2010). To improve reconciliation of emission inventories with atmospheric observations, we incorporate new high-resolution emissions maps of a major to dominant source of urban air pollution, motor vehicles. A fuel-based approach is used to estimate motor vehicle emissions utilizing annual fuel sales reports, traffic count data that capture spatial and temporal patterns of vehicle activity, and pollutant emission factors measured from roadway studies performed over the last twenty years. We also update emissions from stationary sources using Continuous Emissions Monitoring Systems (CEMS) data when available, and use emission inventories developed by the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) and California Air Resources Board (ARB) for other important emission source categories. WRF-Chem modeling is performed in three years where field-intensive measurements were made: 1987 (SCAQS: Southern California Air Quality Study), 2002 (ITCT: Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation Study), and 2010 (CALNEX). We assess the ability of the improved bottom-up emissions inventory to predict long-term changes in ambient levels of CO, NOx, and O3, which are known to have occurred over this time period. We also assess changing spatial and temporal patterns of primary (CO and NOx) and secondary (O3) pollutant concentrations across the Los Angeles basin, which has important implications on human health.

  7. Formation of photochemical air pollution in central California 1. Development of a revised motor vehicle emission inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marr, Linsey C.; Black, Douglas R.; Harley, Robert A.

    2002-03-01

    Photochemical air pollution problems have proved difficult to understand and control in central California. A major source of uncertainty is the rate of precursor volatile organic compounds and NOx emissions, especially from motor vehicles. We develop alternative emissions estimates for on-road motor vehicles in 1990, using fuel sales data, emission factors measured in on-road studies, and ambient pollutant ratios, for a region that includes the San Francisco Bay and San Joaquin Valley air basins and Sacramento County. Fuel-based emissions estimates are compared with predictions of California's most recent motor vehicle emission factor model (EMFAC) and with an inventory that has been used in previous regional-scale photochemical modeling studies. The fuel-based inventory contains 10-50% less CO, 40-100% more nonmethane organic compounds, and 10-20% less NOx than estimated both by EMFAC and the photochemical modeling inventory. We also describe new temporal distributions of vehicle emissions by hour and day of week. Diesel trucks, a major source of NOx, have a broad midday peak in emissions on weekdays, in contrast to passenger vehicles, which show morning and afternoon commuter peaks. While passenger vehicle travel is similar on weekdays and weekends, diesel truck activity and emissions decrease by 70-80% on weekends. Vehicle emission rates and their temporal patterns are linked to a regional photochemical air pollution episode that spans a weekend in August 1990.

  8. Air quality modelling over Bogota, Colombia: Combined techniques to estimate and evaluate emission inventories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zárate, Erika; Carlos Belalcázar, Luis; Clappier, Alain; Manzi, Veronica; Van den Bergh, Hubert

    Two versions of the Emission Inventory (EI) are generated for the city of Bogota, Colombia. In the first version (EI-1), CORINAIR traffic emission factors (EFs) are used. In the second (EI-2), bulk traffic EFs calculated for the city, using in situ measurements and inverse modelling techniques at street level, are used. EI-2 traffic emissions are 5, 4 and 3 times bigger than the corresponding values in EI-1, for CO, PM10 and NMVOCs, respectively. The main goal of this study consists in evaluating the two versions of the EI when introduced into a mesoscale air quality model. The AOT (accumulated exposure over a threshold) index is calculated for comparison between observed and simulated concentrations of primary pollutants. Simulated concentrations using EI-2 are closer to the observed values. This comparison allows us to extract some conclusions of the methodology used to calculate the EFs. Local factors like the driving behavior, the altitude, vehicle technology and an aged fleet cannot be totally included and corrected in the standard methodologies, and seem to be more important than obtaining very detailed and precise information on the classification of the fleet or driving speeds. Under financially limited and fast changing situations, as in the case of many developing countries, a simple methodology to estimate bulk traffic EFs and to evaluate the EI, is of utmost importance. The use of combined techniques such as in situ measurements to estimate bulk traffic EFs, and further evaluation of the inventories with numerical models, proved to be a useful tool for this purpose.

  9. Compilation and application of Japanese inventories for energy consumption and air pollutant emissions using input-output tables.

    PubMed

    Nansai, Keisuke; Moriguchi, Yuichi; Tohno, Susumu

    2003-05-01

    Preparing emission inventories is essential to the assessment and management of our environment. In this study, Japanese air pollutant emissions, energy consumption, and CO2 emissions categorized by approximately 400 sectors (as classified by Japanese input-output tables in 1995) were estimated, and the contributions of each sector to the total amounts were analyzed. The air pollutants examined were nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur oxides (SOx), and suspended particulate matter (SPM). Consumptions of about 20 fossil fuels and five other fuels were estimated according to sector. Air pollutant emission factors for stationary sources were calculated from the results of a survey on air pollution prevention in Japan. Pollutant emissions from mobile sources were estimated taking into consideration vehicle types, traveling speeds, and distances. This work also counted energy supply and emissions from seven nonfossil fuel sources, including nonthermal electric power, and CO2 emissions from limestone (for example, during cement production). The total energy consumption in 1995 was concluded to be 18.3 EJ, and the annual total emissions of CO2, NOx, SOx, and SPM were, respectively, 343 Mt-C, 3.51 Mt, 1.87 Mt, and 0.32 Mt. An input-output analysis of the emission inventories was used to calculate the amounts of energy consumption and emissions induced in each sector by the economic final demand. PMID:12775078

  10. NARSTO EMISSION INVENTORY ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The NARSTO Emission Inventory Committee has been pursuing enhancement of the emission inventory program for North American countries--Canada, Mexico, and the United States. With the completion of the NARSTO Ozone and Particulate Matter Assessments, it was recognized that emissio...

  11. What can we learn about ship emission inventories from measurements of air pollutants over the Mediterranean Sea?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marmer, E.; Dentener, F.; Aardenne, J. V.; Cavalli, F.; Vignati, E.; Velchev, K.; Hjorth, J.; Boersma, F.; Vinken, G.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Raes, F.

    2009-03-01

    Ship emission estimates diverge widely for all chemical compounds for several reasons: use of different methodologies (bottom-up or top-down), activity data and emission factors can easily result in a difference from a factor of 1.5 to two orders of magnitude. Despite these large discrepancies in existing ship emission inventories for air pollutants very little has been done to evaluate their consistency with atmospheric measurements at open sea. Combining three sets of observational data - ozone and black carbon measurements sampled at three coastal sites and on board of a Mediterranean cruise ship, as well as satellite observations of atmospheric NO2 column concentration over the same area - we assess the accuracy of the three most commonly used ship emission inventories, EDGAR FT (Olivier et al., 2005), emissions described by Eyring et al. (2005) and emissions reported by EMEP (Vestreng et al., 2007). Our tool is a global atmospheric chemistry transport model which simulates the chemical state of the Mediterranean atmosphere applying different ship emission inventories. The simulated contributions of ships to air pollutant levels in the Mediterranean atmosphere are significant but strongly depend on the inventory applied. Close to the major shipping routes relative contributions vary from 10 to 50% for black carbon and from 2 to 12% for ozone in the surface layer, as well as from 5 to 20% for nitrogen dioxide atmospheric column burden. The relative contributions are still significant over the North African coast, but less so over the South European coast. The observations poorly constrain the ship emission inventories in the Eastern Mediterranean where the influence of uncertain land based emissions, the model transport and wet deposition are at least as important as the signal from ships. In the Western Mediterranean, the regional EMEP emission inventory gives the best match with most measurements, followed by Eyring for NO2 and ozone and by EDGAR for black

  12. 40 CFR 52.2309 - Emissions inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) The Governor of the State of Texas submitted the 1990 base year emission inventories for the Houston... emission inventory requirement of section 182(a)(1) of the Clean Air Act, as amended in 1990, has been... organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, and carbon monoxide. The inventories cover point, area,...

  13. Assessment of China's virtual air pollution transport embodied in trade by using a consumption-based emission inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, H. Y.; Zhang, Q.; Guan, D. B.; Davis, S. J.; Liu, Z.; Huo, H.; Lin, J. T.; Liu, W. D.; He, K. B.

    2015-05-01

    Substantial anthropogenic emissions from China have resulted in serious air pollution, and this has generated considerable academic and public concern. The physical transport of air pollutants in the atmosphere has been extensively investigated; however, understanding the mechanisms how the pollutant was transferred through economic and trade activities remains a challenge. For the first time, we quantified and tracked China's air pollutant emission flows embodied in interprovincial trade, using a multiregional input-output model framework. Trade relative emissions for four key air pollutants (primary fine particle matter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and non-methane volatile organic compounds) were assessed for 2007 in each Chinese province. We found that emissions were significantly redistributed among provinces owing to interprovincial trade. Large amounts of emissions were embodied in the imports of eastern regions from northern and central regions, and these were determined by differences in regional economic status and environmental policy. It is suggested that measures should be introduced to reduce air pollution by integrating cross-regional consumers and producers within national agreements to encourage efficiency improvement in the supply chain and optimize consumption structure internationally. The consumption-based air pollutant emission inventory developed in this work can be further used to attribute pollution to various economic activities and final demand types with the aid of air quality models.

  14. Prospective air pollutant emissions inventory for the development and production of unconventional natural gas in the Karoo basin, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altieri, Katye E.; Stone, Adrian

    2016-03-01

    The increased use of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing techniques to produce gas from unconventional deposits has led to concerns about the impacts to local and regional air quality. South Africa has the 8th largest technically recoverable shale gas reserve in the world and is in the early stages of exploration of this resource. This paper presents a prospective air pollutant emissions inventory for the development and production of unconventional natural gas in South Africa's Karoo basin. A bottom-up Monte Carlo assessment of nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2), particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5), and non-methane volatile organic compound (NMVOC) emissions was conducted for major categories of well development and production activities. NOx emissions are estimated to be 68 tons per day (±42; standard deviation), total NMVOC emissions are 39 tons per day (±28), and PM2.5 emissions are 3.0 tons per day (±1.9). NOx and NMVOC emissions from shale gas development and production would dominate all other regional emission sources, and could be significant contributors to regional ozone and local air quality, especially considering the current lack of industrial activity in the region. Emissions of PM2.5 will contribute to local air quality, and are of a similar magnitude as typical vehicle and industrial emissions from a large South African city. This emissions inventory provides the information necessary for regulatory authorities to evaluate emissions reduction opportunities using existing technologies and to implement appropriate monitoring of shale gas-related activities.

  15. What can we learn about ship emission inventories from measurements of air pollutants over the Mediterranean Sea?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marmer, E.; Dentener, F.; Aardenne, J. V.; Cavalli, F.; Vignati, E.; Velchev, K.; Hjorth, J.; Boersma, F.; Vinken, G.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Raes, F.

    2009-09-01

    Ship emission estimates diverge widely for all chemical compounds for several reasons: use of different methodologies (bottom-up or top-down), activity data and emission factors can easily result in a difference ranging from a factor of 1.5 to even an order of magnitude. Combining three sets of observational data - ozone and black carbon measurements sampled at three coastal sites and on board of a Mediterranean cruise ship, as well as satellite observations of atmospheric NO2 column concentration over the same area - we assess the accuracy of the three most commonly used ship emission inventories, EDGAR FT (Olivier et al., 2005), emissions described by Eyring et al. (2005) and emissions reported by EMEP (Vestreng et al., 2007). Our tool is a global atmospheric chemistry transport model which simulates the chemical state of the Mediterranean atmosphere applying different ship emission inventories. The simulated contributions of ships to air pollutant levels in the Mediterranean atmosphere are significant but strongly depend on the inventory applied. Close to the major shipping routes relative contributions vary from 10 to 50% for black carbon and from 2 to 12% for ozone in the surface layer, as well as from 5 to 20% for nitrogen dioxide atmospheric column burden. The relative contributions are still significant over the North African coast, but less so over the South European coast because densely populated regions with significant human activity contribute relatively more to air pollution than ships, even if these regions attract a lot of ship traffic. The observations poorly constrain the ship emission inventories in the Eastern Mediterranean where the influence of uncertain land based emissions, the model transport and wet deposition are at least as important as the signal from ships. In the Western Mediterranean, the regional EMEP emission inventory gives the best match with most measurements, followed by Eyring for NO2 and ozone and by EDGAR for black carbon

  16. An elaborate high resolution emission inventory of primary air pollutants for the Central Plain Urban Agglomeration of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Peipei; Tian, Hezhong; Zhu, Chuanyong; Liu, Kaiyun; Gao, Jiajia; Zhou, Junrui

    2014-04-01

    A high resolution emission inventory of primary air pollutants was developed based on the detailed collected activity data and the latest source-specific emission factors for the year 2010 in the Central Plain Urban Agglomeration (CPUA) region of China. The total emissions of SO2, NOx, PM10, PM2.5, CO, VOCs, and NH3 were estimated to be about 863.7 kt, 1058.2 kt, 1180.4 kt, 753.2 kt, 2854.3 kt, 466.1 kt, and 496.0 kt, respectively. Therein, power plants were demonstrated to be the largest sources for NOx, contributing about 36.1% of total emissions; industrial processes and biomass burning sources were proved to be the two major contributors of PM10, PM2.5 and VOCs emissions, together accounting for about 71.1%, 79.2% and 56.9% of the total emissions respectively. Besides, 18.4% of VOCs emissions can be explained by VOCs product-related sources. Other stationary combustion sources accounted for 57.7% of SO2 and 30.3% of CO emissions, respectively. Livestock and N-fertilizer application sources contributed about 81.0% of NH3 emissions together. Further, the emissions were spatially distributed into grid cells with a resolution of 3 km × 3 km, by using spatial allocation surrogates such as high resolution gridded population density and regional GDP. This inventory will benefit for policymakers and researchers to better understand the current situation of complex air pollution in the CPUA region of China and supply important necessary input for regional air quality modeling and policymaking.

  17. Development of a high temporal-spatial resolution vehicle emission inventory based on NRT traffic data and its impact on air pollution in Beijing - Part 1: Development and evaluation of vehicle emission inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, B. Y.; Wu, L.; Mao, H. J.; Gong, S. L.; He, J. J.; Zou, C.; Song, G. H.; Li, X. Y.; Wu, Z.

    2015-10-01

    As the ownership of vehicles and frequency of utilization increase, vehicle emissions have become an important source of air pollution in Chinese cities. An accurate emission inventory for on-road vehicles is necessary for numerical air quality simulation and the assessment of implementation strategies. This paper presents a bottom-up methodology based on the local emission factors, complemented with the widely used emission factors of Computer Programme to Calculate Emissions from Road Transport (COPERT) model and near real time (NRT) traffic data on road segments to develop a high temporal-spatial resolution vehicle emission inventory (HTSVE) for the urban Beijing area. To simulate real-world vehicle emissions accurately, the road has been divided into segments according to the driving cycle (traffic speed) on this road segment. The results show that the vehicle emissions of NOx, CO, HC and PM were 10.54 × 104, 42.51 × 104 and 2.13 × 104 and 0.41 × 104 Mg, respectively. The vehicle emissions and fuel consumption estimated by the model were compared with the China Vehicle Emission Control Annual Report and fuel sales thereafter. The grid-based emissions were also compared with the vehicular emission inventory developed by the macro-scale approach. This method indicates that the bottom-up approach better estimates the levels and spatial distribution of vehicle emissions than the macro-scale method, which relies on more information. Additionally, the on-road vehicle emission inventory model and control effect assessment system in Beijing, a vehicle emission inventory model, was established based on this study in a companion paper (He et al., 2015).

  18. Emission Characterization and Emission Inventories for the 21st Century

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emission inventories are the foundation of cost-effective air quality management strategies. A goal of the emissions community is to develop the ultimate emission inventory which would include all significant emissions from all sources, time periods and areas, with quantified un...

  19. Development of North American emission inventories for air quality modeling under climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Jung-Hun Woo; Shan He; Efthimios Tagaris; Kuo-Jen Liao; Kasemsan Manomaiphiboon; Praveen Amar; Armistead G. Russell

    2008-11-15

    An approach that integrates the impact of both the current regulations and the longer-term national and global trends is developed to construct an emissions inventory (EI) for North America for the mid-century in support of a regional modeling study of ozone and particulate matter (PM) less than or equal to 2.5 {mu}m (PM2.5). Because the time horizon of such a distant projection is beyond that of EIs used in typical modeling studies, it is necessary to identify a practical approach that allows the emission projections to account for emission controls and climatic and energy-use changes. However, a technical challenge arises because this requires integration of various different types of information with which emissions from human activities are associated. The method developed here is based on data availability, spatiotemporal coverage and resolution, and future-scenario consistency (i.e., Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Emissions Scenarios A1B), and consists of two major steps: (1) near-future EI projection (to the year 2020), and (2) longer-term EI projection (to mid-century). For the United States, the year-2050 emissions for nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), PM2.5, anthropogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and ammonia are projected to change by 55, 55, 30, 40, and 20%, respectively, compared with 2001. NOx and SO{sub 2} Emission changes are very similar in total amount but different in sectoral contribution. The projected emission trends for Canada and Mexico differ considerably. After taking into account the modeled climate changes, biogenic VOC emission increases from three countries overwhelm the decreases in anthropogenic VOC emissions, leading to a net small increase (2%) in overall VOC emissions. 16 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Validation of road traffic urban emission inventories by means of concentration data measured at air quality monitoring stations in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellios, Giorgos; Van Aalst, Roel; Samaras, Zissis

    A method has been developed to validate inventories of urban emissions from road transport using air quality measurements. To this aim atmospheric concentration data for CO, NO x and PM 10 measured at urban traffic stations in five European countries, retrieved from the European Air Quality Information System AirBase, have been analysed. Traffic emission ratios as derived from this analysis were compared to estimates of emission ratios as provided by a suitable emissions model (TRENDS). The comparison shows a fair agreement for the CO over NO x ratio on a country level, suggesting that the measured concentrations indeed dominantly originate from traffic-related emissions. On the other hand, the NO x over PM 10 and PM 10 over CO emission ratios estimated by TRENDS are over- and underestimated, respectively, as compared to the respective average measured ratio. These discrepancies may be attributed to the fact that modelled PM 10 emissions do not account for particles originating from non-exhaust sources. Modelled ratios have confirmed the observed weekday and year dependence of the ratios. A sensitivity analysis on the CO over NO x ratio has shown that small changes in the share of mileage allocated to urban driving by different vehicle categories result in significant changes in the emission ratio. Appropriate re-allocations of the urban shares, especially for diesel vehicles, enabled the calibration of the TRENDS model against air quality data collected at various monitoring sites in different countries. In order to further improve the consistency of the method, more information on ambient air PM 2.5 mass concentrations needs to be collected from the monitoring stations and PM 10 emission factors from primary non-exhaust sources (including gasoline-fuelled vehicles) need to be incorporated into TRENDS.

  1. [The determination of resort and stress-areas by air pollution 1. Communication: health effects, methods, emission inventories (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Kofler, W

    1977-01-01

    The Alps and other mountainous areas are air-hygene problem zones: By distadvantageous geographical and meteorological conditions relativ small emissions can be the reason of high concentration of air pollutants in the ambient air. Therefore the separation of different stress zones by the air quality is an important data for land use planning with regards on health. Different methods which are internationally usual can not be used in mountainous areas (e.g., dispersion models, calculation according to the TAL). A method is introduced for determination and separation of the level of SO2 and particulate matter in a spreadout area which can be used also in complex terrain. This method was proved in air pollution studies in areas with more than 30000 km2 over four years. The investigations were based on a combination of emissions studies, measurements of immissions by continous working SO2 monitoring instruments, lead dioxide candles and Bergerhoff-instruments, and--if possible--meteorological investigations. Report 1 describes the health effects of SO2 and particulate matter, the used tentative methods (analysis for dustfall, the sulfation rate by lead dioxide candles, analysis for sulfur dioxide content by conductimetric and coulometric methods), the emission inventories and the net works. PMID:842186

  2. Research on the Emission Inventory of Major Air Pollutants in 2012 for the Sichuan City Cluster in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, J.; He, Q.

    2014-12-01

    This paper developed a high resolution emission inventory of major pollutants in city cluster of Sichuan Basin, one of the most polluted regions in China. The city cluster included five cities, which were Chengdu, Deyang, Mianyang, Meishan and Ziyang. Pollution source census and field measurements were conducted for the major emission sources such as the industry sources, on-road mobile sources, catering sources and the dust sources. The inventory results showed that in the year of 2012, the emission of SO2、NOX、CO、PM10、PM2.5、VOCs and NH3 in the region were 143.5、251.9、1659.9、299.3、163.5、464.1 and 995kt respectively. Chengdu, the provincial capital city, had the largest emission load of every pollutant among the cities. The industry sources, including power plants, fuel combustion facilities and non-combustion processes were the largest emission sources for SO2、NOX and CO, contributing to 84%, 46.5%, 35% of total SO2, NOX and CO emissions. On-road mobile sources accounted for 46.5%, 33%, 16% of the total NOx, CO, PM2.5 emissions and 28% of the anthropogenic VOCs emission. Dust and industry sources contributed to 42% and 23% of the PM10 emission with the dust sources also as the largest source of PM2.5, contributing to 27%. Anthropogenic and biogenic sources took 75% and 25% of the total VOCs emission while 36% of anthropogenic VOCs emission was owing to solvent use. Livestock contributed to 62% of NH3 emissions, followed by nitrogen fertilizer application whose contribution was 23%. Based on the developed emission inventory and local meteorological data, the regional air quality modeling system WRF-CMAQ was applied to simulate the status of PM2.5 pollution in a regional scale. The results showed that high PM2.5 concentration was distributed over the urban area of Chengdu and Deyang. On-road mobile sources and dust sources were two major contributors to the PM2.5 pollution in Chengdu, both had an contribution ratio of 27%. In Deyang, Mianyang

  3. A novel approach to produce road-level inventories of on-road greenhouse gas and air pollutant emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, J.; Butenhoff, C. L.

    2015-12-01

    Emissions inventories are an important tool often built by governments tomanage and assess greenhouse gases and other air pollutants. High resolutioninventories, both in space and time, are necessary to capture localcharacteristics of on-road transportation emissions in particular. Emissionsvary widely due to the local nature of the fleet, fuel, and roads and thisheterogeneity must inform effective emissions modeling on the urban level. Inaddition, widespread availability of low-cost computing now makes highresolution climate and air quality modeling feasible, but efforts to improveinventories have not kept pace. There currently is a lack of inventories atcomparable resolutions. This motivated similar work such as the VULCAN projectwhich used county-level data to estimate on-road emissions. We are motivatedto improve upon this by using site-level traffic count data where available.Here we show a new high resolution model of CO2 emissions for the Portland,OR metropolitan region. The backbone is an archive of traffic counterrecordings taken by the Portland Bureau of Transportation intermittently at9,352 sites over 21 years and continuing today (1986-2006 data are summarizedhere) and by The Portland Regional Transportation Archive Listing at 309freeway sites. We constructed a regression model to fill in traffic networkgaps using GIS data such as road class and population density. After stepwisetesting of each of eighteen road classes (from minor streets to freeway), wewere able to select ten variables that are significant (P < 0.001) predictorsof traffic; particularly freeway, unimproved road, and minor streets. Themodel was tested by holding back one-third of the data. The R2 for the linearmodel (based on road class and land use) is 0.84. The EPA MOVES model was thenused to estimate transportation CO2 emissions using local fleet, traffic, andmeteorology data.

  4. Advantages of city-scale emission inventory for urban air quality research and policy: the case of Nanjing, a typical industrial city in the Yangtze River Delta, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y.; Qiu, L.; Xu, R.; Xie, F.; Zhang, Q.; Yu, Y.; Nielsen, C. P.; Qin, H.; Wang, H.; Wu, X.; Li, W.; Zhang, J.

    2015-07-01

    With most eastern Chinese cities facing major air quality challenges, there is a strong need for city-scale emission inventories for use in both chemical transport modeling and the development of pollution control policies. In this paper, a high-resolution emission inventory of air pollutants and CO2 for Nanjing, a typical large city in the Yangtze River Delta, is developed incorporating the best available information on local sources. Emission factors and activity data at the unit or facility level are collected and compiled using a thorough onsite survey of major sources. Over 900 individual plants, which account for 97 % of the city's total coal consumption, are identified as point sources, and all of the emission-related parameters including combustion technology, fuel quality, and removal efficiency of air pollution control devices (APCD) are analyzed. New data-collection approaches including continuous emission monitoring systems and real-time monitoring of traffic flows are employed to improve spatiotemporal distribution of emissions. Despite fast growth of energy consumption between 2010 and 2012, relatively small inter-annual changes in emissions are found for most air pollutants during this period, attributed mainly to benefits of growing APCD deployment and the comparatively strong and improving regulatory oversight of the large point sources that dominate the levels and spatial distributions of Nanjing emissions overall. The improvement of this city-level emission inventory is indicated by comparisons with observations and other inventories at larger spatial scale. Relatively good spatial correlations are found for SO2, NOx, and CO between the city-scale emission estimates and concentrations at 9 state-opertated monitoring sites (R = 0.58, 0.46, and 0.61, respectively). The emission ratios of specific pollutants including BC to CO, OC to EC, and CO2 to CO compare well to top-down constraints from ground observations. The inter-annual variability and

  5. Development of a vehicle emission inventory with high temporal-spatial resolution based on NRT traffic data and its impact on air pollution in Beijing - Part 1: Development and evaluation of vehicle emission inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Boyu; Wu, Lin; Mao, Hongjun; Gong, Sunning; He, Jianjun; Zou, Chao; Song, Guohua; Li, Xiaoyu; Wu, Zhong

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a bottom-up methodology based on the local emission factors, complemented with the widely used emission factors of Computer Programme to Calculate Emissions from Road Transport (COPERT) model and near-real-time traffic data on road segments to develop a vehicle emission inventory with high temporal-spatial resolution (HTSVE) for the Beijing urban area. To simulate real-world vehicle emissions accurately, the road has been divided into segments according to the driving cycle (traffic speed) on this road segment. The results show that the vehicle emissions of NOx, CO, HC and PM were 10.54 × 104, 42.51 × 104 and 2.13 × 104 and 0.41 × 104 Mg respectively. The vehicle emissions and fuel consumption estimated by the model were compared with the China Vehicle Emission Control Annual Report and fuel sales thereafter. The grid-based emissions were also compared with the vehicular emission inventory developed by the macro-scale approach. This method indicates that the bottom-up approach better estimates the levels and spatial distribution of vehicle emissions than the macro-scale method, which relies on more information. Based on the results of this study, improved air quality simulation and the contribution of vehicle emissions to ambient pollutant concentration in Beijing have been investigated in a companion paper (He et al., 2016).

  6. Vision for Future North American Emission Inventory Programs

    EPA Science Inventory

    The NARSTO Ozone and Particulate Matter Assessments emphasized that emission inventories are critical to the success of air quality management programs and that emissions inventories in Canada, Mexico, and the United States need improvement to meet expectations for quality, timel...

  7. An air quality emission inventory of offshore operations for the exploration and production of petroleum by the Mexican oil industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villasenor, R.; Magdaleno, M.; Quintanar, A.; Gallardo, J. C.; López, M. T.; Jurado, R.; Miranda, A.; Aguilar, M.; Melgarejo, L. A.; Palmerín, E.; Vallejo, C. J.; Barchet, W. R.

    An air quality screening study was performed to assess the impacts of emissions from the offshore operations of the oil and gas exploration and production by Mexican industry in the Campeche Sound, which includes the states of Tabasco and Campeche in southeast Mexico. The major goal of this study was the compilation of an emission inventory (EI) for elevated, boom and ground level flares, processes, internal combustion engines and fugitive emissions. This inventory is so far the most comprehensive emission register that has ever been developed for the Mexican petroleum industry in this area. The EI considered 174 offshore platforms, the compression station at Atasta, and the Maritime Ports at Dos Bocas and Cayo Arcas. The offshore facilities identified as potential emitters in the area were the following: (1) trans-shipment stations, (2) a maritime floating port terminal, (3) drilling platforms, (4) crude oil recovering platforms, (5) crude oil production platforms, (6) linking platforms, (7) water injection platforms, (8) pumping platforms, (9) shelter platforms, (10) telecommunication platforms, (11) crude oil measurement platforms, and (12) flaring platforms. Crude oil storage tanks, helicopters and marine ship tankers were also considered to have an EI accurate enough for air quality regulations and mesoscale modeling of atmospheric pollutants. Historical ambient data measure at two onshore petroleum facilities were analyzed to measure air quality impacts on nearby inhabited coastal areas, and a source-receptor relationship for flares at the Ixtoc marine complex was performed to investigate health-based standards for offshore workers. A preliminary air quality model simulation was performed to observe the transport and dispersion patterns of SO 2, which is the main pollutant emitted from the offshore platforms. The meteorological wind and temperature fields were generated with CALMET, a diagnostic meteorological model that used surface observations and upper

  8. Preferred emission factor techniques for army emission inventories

    SciTech Connect

    Polyak, L.M.; Robinson, D.L.; Alden, S.A.; Hopp, P.L.; Ruff, T.E.

    1997-12-31

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA-90) present an unprecedented regulatory challenge to the Department of the Army and the entire US business community. Unlike previous legislation, which focused heavily on the substantive or emission control aspects of air quality management, this round of Amendments focused equal attention on the administrative aspects of air pollution control. Specifically, each new Title of the CAAA-90 is underpinned, either explicitly or implicitly, with the need to perform an emission inventory. The emission inventory is an implied prerequisite for determining the applicability of any of the emission control requirements of the 1990 Amendments, and it is the explicit center piece of the Title 5 operating permit program. Although the emission inventory is little more than a formal accounting of the number and type of emission sources and their associated air emissions, the resource requirements for preparing and maintaining the inventory can be substantial. The average contractor cost for preparing an initial emission inventory at an Army installation was over $100,000. Record keeping to support the inventory, and the annual inventory updates required for the Title 5 permit program will only expand these costs. In an effort to assist the Army community with the ongoing obligation to prepare these emission inventories, the US Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine (USACHPPM) has compiled a list of preferred emission inventory techniques for the various emission sources found at Army installations. The USACHPPM guidance identifies emission sources most likely to be found at an Army installation, as well as the most effective and preferred emission factors associated with these sources. This guidance is designed to be widely disseminated, and may have relevant applications in the non-military community.

  9. Development of the GAINS-KOREA Base Year Emission Inventory for Criteria Air Pollutants: Issues in Linking the Korea NEI to the GAINS Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Y. M.; Woo, J. H.; Kim, H. K.; Choi, K. C.; Kim, Y.; Ahn, Y. H.; Lee, J. B.; Song, C. K.; Han, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    In the era of air pollution and climate change, we should have reliable outlooks of national air pollutant and GHGs emission, which are also important components of international environmental policy negotiation. The Greenhouse gas - Air pollution Interactions and Synergies (GAINS) model has been developed as a tool to identify reasonable emission forecast and mitigation strategies that achieve air quality and greenhouse gas related targets simultaneously at least cost. Recently, Konkuk University and IIASA has been jointly developing the GAINS-Korea Model by reflecting domestic emission activities and environmental conditions. One of the most important challenges for developing GAINS-Korea model is to reproduce CAPSS - the national emissions inventory of Korea- in the GAINS framework. Matching two different databases are not easy because of different sector classification schemes, estimation methods, and etc. In this study, we developed a base year emissions of the GAINS-Korea for the criteria air pollutants using CAPSS. A new set of methodologies to link national inventory to international framework (GAINS) were introduced so that the GAINS-Korea can produce realistic emission outlooks and test control alternatives. We will discuss several underlying issues, such as improvement of accuracy for mapping, conversion, for our base year emission inventory development in site.

  10. QA procedures and emissions from nonstandard sources in AQUIS, a PC-based emission inventory and air permit manager

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.E.; Tschanz, J.; Monarch, M.

    1996-05-01

    The Air Quality Utility Information System (AQUIS) is a database management system that operates under dBASE IV. It runs on an IBM-compatible personal computer (PC) with MS DOS 5.0 or later, 4 megabytes of memory, and 30 megabytes of disk space. AQUIS calculates emissions for both traditional and toxic pollutants and reports emissions in user-defined formats. The system was originally designed for use at 7 facilities of the Air Force Materiel Command, and now more than 50 facilities use it. Within the last two years, the system has been used in support of Title V permit applications at Department of Defense facilities. Growth in the user community, changes and additions to reference emission factor data, and changing regulatory requirements have demanded additions and enhancements to the system. These changes have ranged from adding or updating an emission factor to restructuring databases and adding new capabilities. Quality assurance (QA) procedures have been developed to ensure that emission calculations are correct even when databases are reconfigured and major changes in calculation procedures are implemented. This paper describes these QA and updating procedures. Some user facilities include light industrial operations associated with aircraft maintenance. These facilities have operations such as fiberglass and composite layup and plating operations for which standard emission factors are not available or are inadequate. In addition, generally applied procedures such as material balances may need special treatment to work in an automated environment, for example, in the use of oils and greases and when materials such as polyurethane paints react chemically during application. Some techniques used in these situations are highlighted here. To provide a framework for the main discussions, this paper begins with a description of AQUIS.

  11. Emission Inventories and Projections

    SciTech Connect

    Streets, D. G.; van Aardenne, John; Battye, Bill; Garivait, Savitri; Grano, D.; Guenther, Alex; Klimont, Z.; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Lu, Zifeng; Maenhout, Greet; Ohara, Toshimasa; Parrish, David J.; Smith, Steven J.; Vallack, Harry

    2011-04-21

    When the Executive Body to the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution took the decision to establish the Task Force on Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (TF HTAP) in December 2004, it was on the basis of a growing understanding of the issues surrounding the hemispheric and intercontinental transport of air pollutants. It was recognised that whilst current regional emissions on their own created pollution levels that exceeded internationally-agreed air quality objectives, hemispheric transport could exacerbate local and regional air quality problems.Two particular pollutants of concern, and the focus of this report, are ozone and particulate matter (PM), known for their detrimental impacts on human health (these impacts and others are described in Chapter 5). There was well-documented evidence for the intercontinental transport of ozone and PM but, at that time, the significance of this intercontinental influence on the design of air pollution control policies was not well understood. The European Union, in drawing up its Thematic Strategy on Clean Air for Europe during 2004, became aware of the significance of intercontinental transport and the importance of sources of pollution beyond its borders and sphere of influence, in meeting its air quality goals.

  12. INNOVATIVE METHODS FOR EMISSION INVENTORY DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION: WORKSHOP SYNTHESIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emission inventories are key databases for evaluating, managing, and regulating air pollutants. Refinements and innovations in instruments that measure air pollutants, models that calculate emissions, and techniques for data management and uncertainty assessment are critical to ...

  13. EMISSION INVENTORY PREPARATION IN SUPPORT OF AIR QUALITY MODELING AND BENEFITS ESTIMATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Statutes and executive orders require that major national regulatory initiatives, for example new rules for emissions from motor vehicles or proposed legislation setting emission limits on electricity producing units, be studied for their cost and benefits. This often requires t...

  14. Emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases over Asian regions during 2000-2008: Regional Emission inventory in ASia (REAS) version 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurokawa, J.; Ohara, T.; Morikawa, T.; Hanayama, S.; Greet, J.-M.; Fukui, T.; Kawashima, K.; Akimoto, H.

    2013-04-01

    We have updated the Regional Emission inventory in ASia (REAS) as version 2.1. REAS 2.1 includes most major air pollutants and greenhouse gases from each year during 2000 and 2008 and following areas of Asia: East, Southeast, South, and Central Asia and the Asian part of Russia. Emissions are estimated for each country and region using updated activity data and parameters. Monthly gridded data with a 0.25 × 0.25° resolution are also provided. Asian emissions for each species in 2008 are as follows (with their growth rate from 2000 to 2008): 56.9 Tg (+34%) for SO2, 53.9 Tg (+54%) for NOx, 359.5 Tg (+34%) for CO, 68.5 Tg (+46%) for non-methane volatile organic compounds, 32.8 Tg (+17%) for NH3, 36.4 Tg (+45%) for PM10, 24.7 Tg (+42%) for PM2.5, 3.03 Tg (+35%) for black carbon, 7.72 Tg (+21%) for organic carbon, 182.2 Tg (+32%) for CH4, 5.80 Tg (+18%) for N2O, and 16.7 Pg (+59%) for CO2. By country, China and India were respectively the largest and second largest contributors to Asian emissions. Both countries also had higher growth rates in emissions than others because of their continuous increases in energy consumption, industrial activities, and infrastructure development. In China, emission mitigation measures have been implemented gradually. Emissions of SO2 in China increased from 2000 to 2006 and then began to decrease as flue-gas desulfurization was installed to large power plants. On the other hand, emissions of air pollutants in total East Asia except for China decreased from 2000 to 2008 owing to lower economic growth rates and more effective emission regulations in Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan. Emissions from other regions generally increased from 2000 to 2008, although their relative shares of total Asian emissions are smaller than those of China and India. Tables of annual emissions by country and region broken down by sub-sector and fuel type, and monthly gridded emission data with a resolution of 0.25 × 0.25° for the major sectors are available

  15. Emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases over Asian regions during 2000-2008: Regional Emission inventory in ASia (REAS) version 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurokawa, J.; Ohara, T.; Morikawa, T.; Hanayama, S.; Janssens-Maenhout, G.; Fukui, T.; Kawashima, K.; Akimoto, H.

    2013-11-01

    We have updated the Regional Emission inventory in ASia (REAS) as version 2.1. REAS 2.1 includes most major air pollutants and greenhouse gases from each year during 2000 and 2008 and following areas of Asia: East, Southeast, South, and Central Asia and the Asian part of Russia. Emissions are estimated for each country and region using updated activity data and parameters. Monthly gridded data with a 0.25° × 0.25° resolution are also provided. Asian emissions for each species in 2008 are as follows (with their growth rate from 2000 to 2008): 56.9 Tg (+34%) for SO2, 53.9 Tg (+54%) for NOx, 359.5 Tg (+34%) for CO, 68.5 Tg (+46%) for non-methane volatile organic compounds, 32.8 Tg (+17%) for NH3, 36.4 Tg (+45%) for PM10, 24.7 Tg (+42%) for PM2.5, 3.03 Tg (+35%) for black carbon, 7.72 Tg (+21%) for organic carbon, 182.2 Tg (+32%) for CH4, 5.80 Tg (+18%) for N2O, and 16.0 Pg (+57%) for CO2. By country, China and India were respectively the largest and second largest contributors to Asian emissions. Both countries also had higher growth rates in emissions than others because of their continuous increases in energy consumption, industrial activities, and infrastructure development. In China, emission mitigation measures have been implemented gradually. Emissions of SO2 in China increased from 2000 to 2006 and then began to decrease as flue-gas desulphurization was installed to large power plants. On the other hand, emissions of air pollutants in total East Asia except for China decreased from 2000 to 2008 owing to lower economic growth rates and more effective emission regulations in Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan. Emissions from other regions generally increased from 2000 to 2008, although their relative shares of total Asian emissions are smaller than those of China and India. Tables of annual emissions by country and region broken down by sub-sector and fuel type, and monthly gridded emission data with a resolution of 0.25° × 0.25° for the major sectors are

  16. Developing an Improved Wildland Fire Emissions Inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larkin, S.; Raffuse, S. M.; Strand, T.; Drury, S.; Solomon, R. C.; Wheeler, N.

    2010-12-01

    Smoke from wildland fire is a growing concern as air quality regulations tighten and public acceptance declines. Wildland fire emissions inventories are not only important for understanding air quality impacts from smoke but also in quantifying sources of greenhouse gas emissions. Calculation of wildland fire emissions can be done using a number of models and methods. Under the Smoke and Emissions Model Intercomparison Project, comparisons between different methodologies are presented allowing for direct model-to-model variability calculations. Additionally, the relative importance of uncertainties in fire size information, available fuels information, consumption modeling techniques, and emissions factors can be compared. This work shows the local need for accurate fire information and a new effort to integrate both ground and satellite information into the the SMARTFIRE-BlueSky framework is presented. This DOI/USFS effort is designed to provide constraints on fire information and other errors in the modeling chain, resulting in an improved wildland fire emissions inventory.

  17. EMISSION INVENTORY FOR URBAN PARTICLE MODEL VALIDATION IN THE PHILADELPHIA AQCR (AIR QUALITY CONTROL REGION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is in the process of revising the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for total suspended particulates (TSP) to account for the fact that smaller particles are responsible for adverse health effects. The new standard has not been ...

  18. A comprehensive emission inventory of multiple air pollutants from iron and steel industry in China: Temporal trends and spatial variation characteristics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kun; Tian, Hezhong; Hua, Shenbing; Zhu, Chuanyong; Gao, Jiajia; Xue, Yifeng; Hao, Jiming; Wang, Yong; Zhou, Junrui

    2016-07-15

    China has become the largest producer of iron and steel throughout the world since 1996. However, as an energy-and-pollution intensive manufacturing sector, a detailed comprehensive emission inventory of air pollutants for iron and steel industry of China is still not available. To obtain and better understand the temporal trends and spatial variation characteristics of typical hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) emissions from iron and steel production in China, a comprehensive emission inventory of multiple air pollutants, including size segregated particulate matter (TSP/PM10/PM2.5), gaseous pollutants (SO2, NOx, CO), heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Hg, As, Cr, Ni etc.), as well as the more dangerous PCDD/Fs, is established with the unit-based annual activity, specific dynamic emission factors for the historical period of 1978-2011, and the future potential trends till to 2050 are forecasted by using scenario analysis. Our results show that emissions of gaseous pollutants and particulate matter have experienced a gradual increase tendency since 2000, while emissions of priority-controlled heavy metals (Hg, Pb, As, Cd, Cr, and Ni) have exhibited a short-term fluctuation during the period of 1990 to 2005. With regard to the spatial distribution of HAPs emissions in base year 2011, Bohai economic circle is identified as the top emission intensity region where iron and steel smelting plants are densely built; within iron and steel industry, blast furnaces contribute the majority of PM emissions, sinter plants account for most of gaseous pollutants and the majority of PCDD/Fs, whereas steel making processes are responsible for the majority of heavy metal emissions. Moreover, comparisons of future emission trends under three scenarios indicate that advanced technologies and integrated whole process management strategies are in great need to further diminish various hazardous air pollutants from iron and steel industry in the future. PMID:27054489

  19. Development of a high temporal-spatial resolution vehicle emission inventory based on NRT traffic data and its impact on air pollution in Beijing - Part 2: Impact of vehicle emission on urban air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, J. J.; Wu, L.; Mao, H. J.; Liu, H. L.; Jing, B. Y.; Yu, Y.; Ren, P. P.; Feng, C.; Liu, X. H.

    2015-07-01

    In a companion paper (Jing et al., 2015), a high temporal-spatial resolution vehicle emission inventory (HTSVE) for 2013 in Beijing has been established based on near real time (NRT) traffic data and bottom up methodology. In this study, based on the sensitivity analysis method of switching on/off pollutant emissions in the Chinese air quality forecasting model CUACE, a modeling study was carried out to evaluate the contributions of vehicle emission to the air pollution in Beijing main urban areas in the periods of summer (July) and winter (December) 2013. Generally, CUACE model had good performance of pollutants concentration simulation. The model simulation has been improved by using HTSVE. The vehicle emission contribution (VEC) to ambient pollutant concentrations not only changes with seasons but also changes over moment. The mean VEC, affected by regional pollutant transports significantly, is 55.4 and 48.5 % for NO2, while 5.4 and 10.5 % for PM2.5 in July and December 2013, respectively. Regardless of regional transports, relative vehicle emission contribution (RVEC) to NO2 is 59.2 and 57.8 % in July and December 2013, while 8.7 and 13.9 % for PM2.5. The RVEC to PM2.5 is lower than PM2.5 contribution rate for vehicle emission in total emission, which may be caused by easily dry deposition of PM2.5 from vehicle emission in near-surface layer compared to elevated source emission.

  20. The ABAG biogenic emissions inventory project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carson-Henry, C. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    The ability to identify the role of biogenic hydrocarbon emissions in contributing to overall ozone production in the Bay Area, and to identify the significance of that role, were investigated in a joint project of the Association of Bay Area Governments (ABAG) and NASA/Ames Research Center. Ozone, which is produced when nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons combine in the presence of sunlight, is a primary factor in air quality planning. In investigating the role of biogenic emissions, this project employed a pre-existing land cover classification to define areal extent of land cover types. Emission factors were then derived for those cover types. The land cover data and emission factors were integrated into an existing geographic information system, where they were combined to form a Biogenic Hydrocarbon Emissions Inventory. The emissions inventory information was then integrated into an existing photochemical dispersion model.

  1. 10 CFR 300.6 - Emissions inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Emissions inventories. 300.6 Section 300.6 Energy... Emissions inventories. (a) General. The objective of an emission inventory is to provide a full accounting... emission inventory must be prepared in accordance with Chapter 1 of the Technical Guidelines...

  2. Derivation of a New Smoke Emissions Inventory using Remote Sensing, and Its Implications for Near Real-Time Air Quality Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellison, Luke; Ichoku, Charles

    2012-01-01

    A new emissions inventory of particulate matter (PM) is being derived mainly from remote sensing data using fire radiative power (FRP) and aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrievals from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument, as well as wind data from the Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) reanalysis dataset, which spans the satellite era. This product is generated using a coefficient of emission, C(sub e), that has been produced on a 1x1 degree global grid such that, when it is multiplied with satellite measurements of FRP or its time-integrated equivalent fire radiative energy (FRE) retrieved over a given area and time period, the corresponding PM emissions are estimated. This methodology of using C(sub e) to derive PM emissions is relatively new and advantageous for near real-time air quality applications compared to current methods based on post-fire burned area that may not provide emissions in a timely manner. Furthermore, by using FRP to characterize a fire s output, it will represent better accuracy than the use of raw fire pixel counts, since fires in individual pixels can differ in size and strength by orders of magnitude, resulting in similar differences in emission rates. Here we will show examples of this effect and how this new emission inventory can properly account for the differing emission rates from fires of varying strengths. We also describe the characteristics of the new emissions inventory, and propose the process chain of incorporating it into models for air quality applications.

  3. Evaluation of on-road vehicle CO and NOx National Emission Inventories using an urban-scale source-oriented air quality model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kota, Sri Harsha; Zhang, Hongliang; Chen, Gang; Schade, Gunnar W.; Ying, Qi

    2014-03-01

    The MOBILE6.2 model was replaced by the Motor Vehicle Emission Simulator (MOVES) in 2012 as an official tool recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) to predict vehicular pollutant emission factors. In this study, on-road vehicle emission inventories of CO and NOx for Southeast Texas generated by MOVES and MOBILE6.2 in two versions of the 2005 National Emission Inventory (NEI) were studied by comparing predicted CO and NOx using the EPA's Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) Model incorporated with a source-oriented gas phase chemical mechanism with measurements made at six urban and industrial sites in Southeast Texas. The source tracing technique allows direct determination of contributions of on-road vehicles to overall CO and NOx concentrations and identification of ambient concentration measurements which are mostly impacted by vehicle emissions. By grouping the fractional bias (FB) values of the hourly predictions based on vehicle contributions to total CO or NOx concentrations, clear trends in the FB were observed, indicating systematic biases in the emission inventory for these species. Data points dominated by vehicle emissions suggest that surface CO concentrations due to vehicle exhaust are significantly over-estimated by a factor of 2 using either MOVES or MOBILE6.2. NOx concentrations are overestimated by approximately 20-35% and 70% by using the MOBILE6.2 and MOVES emissions, respectively. Emission scaling runs show that a domain-wide reduction of MOBILE6.2 CO emissions by 60% and NOx emissions by 15-25% leads to better model performance of exhaust CO and NOx concentrations in the current study.

  4. Development of a vehicle emission inventory with high temporal-spatial resolution based on NRT traffic data and its impact on air pollution in Beijing - Part 2: Impact of vehicle emission on urban air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jianjun; Wu, Lin; Mao, Hongjun; Liu, Hongli; Jing, Boyu; Yu, Ye; Ren, Peipei; Feng, Cheng; Liu, Xuehao

    2016-03-01

    A companion paper developed a vehicle emission inventory with high temporal-spatial resolution (HTSVE) with a bottom-up methodology based on local emission factors, complemented with the widely used emission factors of COPERT model and near-real-time (NRT) traffic data on a specific road segment for 2013 in urban Beijing (Jing et al., 2016), which is used to investigate the impact of vehicle pollution on air pollution in this study. Based on the sensitivity analysis method of switching on/off pollutant emissions in the Chinese air quality forecasting model CUACE, a modelling study was carried out to evaluate the contributions of vehicle emission to the air pollution in Beijing's main urban areas in the periods of summer (July) and winter (December) 2013. Generally, the CUACE model had good performance of the concentration simulation of pollutants. The model simulation has been improved by using HTSVE. The vehicle emission contribution (VEC) to ambient pollutant concentrations not only changes with seasons but also changes with time. The mean VEC, affected by regional pollutant transports significantly, is 55.4 and 48.5 % for NO2 and 5.4 and 10.5 % for PM2.5 in July and December 2013 respectively. Regardless of regional transports, relative vehicle emission contribution (RVEC) to NO2 is 59.2 and 57.8 % in July and December 2013, while it is 8.7 and 13.9 % for PM2.5. The RVEC to PM2.5 is lower than the PM2.5 contribution rate for vehicle emission in total emission, which may be due to dry deposition of PM2.5 from vehicle emission in the near-surface layer occuring more easily than from elevated source emission.

  5. REGIONAL AIR POLLUTION STUDY, NON-CRITERIA POLLUTANT INVENTORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    In conjunction with the Regional Air Pollution Study (RAPS) being conducted in the St. Louis Air Quality Control Region (AQCR), an inventory of non-criteria pollutants was assembled for point sources. The inventory was based on the following data: (1) The National Emissions Data ...

  6. A GIS based emissions inventory at 1 km × 1 km spatial resolution for air pollution analysis in Delhi, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guttikunda, Sarath K.; Calori, Giuseppe

    2013-03-01

    In Delhi, between 2008 and 2011, at seven monitoring stations, the daily average of particulates with diameter <2.5 μm (PM2.5) was 123 ± 87 μg m-3 and particulates with diameter <10 μm (PM10) was 208 ± 137 μg m-3. The bulk of the pollution is due to motorization, power generation, and construction activities. In this paper, we present a multi-pollutant emissions inventory for the National Capital Territory of Delhi, covering the main district and its satellite cities - Gurgaon, Noida, Faridabad, and Ghaziabad. For the base year 2010, we estimate emissions (to the nearest 000's) of 63,000 tons of PM2.5, 114,000 tons of PM10, 37,000 tons of sulfur dioxide, 376,000 tons of nitrogen oxides, 1.42 million tons of carbon monoxide, and 261,000 tons of volatile organic compounds. The inventory is further spatially disaggregated into 80 × 80 grids at 0.01° resolution for each of the contributing sectors, which include vehicle exhaust, road dust re-suspension, domestic cooking and heating, power plants, industries (including brick kilns), diesel generator sets and waste burning. The GIS based spatial inventory coupled with temporal resolution of 1 h, was utilized for chemical transport modeling using the ATMoS dispersion model. The modeled annual average PM2.5 concentrations were 122 ± 10 μg m-3 for South Delhi; 90 ± 20 μg m-3 for Gurgaon and Dwarka; 93 ± 26 μg m-3 for North-West Delhi; 93 ± 23 μg m-3 for North-East Delhi; 42 ± 10 μg m-3 for Greater Noida; 77 ± 11 μg m-3 for Faridabad industrial area. The results have been compared to measured ambient PM pollution to validate the emissions inventory.

  7. Methane emissions inventory verification in southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Ying-Kuang; VanCuren, Tony; Park, Seong; Jakober, Chris; Herner, Jorn; FitzGibbon, Michael; Blake, Donald R.; Parrish, David D.

    2010-01-01

    Methane (CH 4) and carbon monoxide (CO) mixing ratios were measured at an air quality monitoring station near the Mt. Wilson (MW) Observatory in southern California starting in the spring of 2007. Diurnal variation and mixing ratio correlation ( R2 = 0.81) were observed. The correlation results observed agree with previous aircraft measurements collected over the greater Los Angeles (LA) metropolitan area. The consistent agreement between CH 4 and CO indicates these gases are well-mixed before reaching the sampling site and the emission source contributions of both compounds are reasonably constant. Since CH 4 and CO are considered non-reactive on the time scale of dispersion within the LA urban area and their emission sources are likely to be similarly distributed (e.g., associated with human activities) they are subject to similar scales of atmospheric transport and dilution. This behavior allows the relationship of CH 4 and CO to be applied for estimation of CH 4 emissions using well-documented CO emissions. Applying this relationship a "top-down" CH 4 inventory was calculated for LA County based on the measurements observed at MW and compared with the California Air Resources Board (CARB) "bottom-up" CH 4 emissions inventory based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change recommended methodologies. The "top-down" CH 4 emissions inventory is approximately one-third greater than CARB's "bottom-up" inventory for LA County. Considering the uncertainties in both methodologies, the different CH 4 emissions inventory approaches are in good agreement, although some under and/or uninventoried CH 4 sources may exist.

  8. Emissions Inventory of Anthropogenic PM2.5 and PM10 in Mega city, Delhi, India for Air Quality Forecasting during CWG- 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, S.; Beig, G.; Schultz, M.; Parkhi, N.; Stein, O.

    2012-04-01

    The mega city of Delhi is the second largest urban agglomeration in India with 16.7 mio. inhabitants. Delhi has the highest per capita power consumption of electricity in India and the demand has risen by more than 50% during the last decade. Emissions from commercial, power, domestic and industrial sectors have strongly increased causing more and more environmental problems due to air pollution and its adverse impacts on human health. Particulate matter (PM) of size less than 2.5-micron (PM2.5) and 10 micron (PM10) have emerged as primary pollutants of concern due to their adverse impact on human health. As part of the System of Air quality Forecasting and Research (SAFAR) project developed for air quality forecasting during the Commonwealth Games (CWG) - 2010, a high resolution Emission Inventory (EI) of PM10 and PM2.5 has been developed for the metropolitan city Delhi for the year 2010. The comprehensive inventory involves detailed activity data and has been developed for a domain of 70km×65km with a 1.67km×1.67km resolution covering Delhi and its surrounding region (i.e. National Capital Region (NCR)). In creating this inventory, Geographical Information System (GIS) based techniques were used for the first time in India. The major sectors considered are, transport, thermal power plants, industries, residential and commercial cooking along with windblown road dust which is found to play a major role for the megacity environment. Extensive surveys were conducted among the Delhi slum dwellers (Jhuggi) in order to obtain more robust estimates for the activity data related to domestic cooking and heating. Total emissions of PM10 and PM2.5 including wind blown dust over the study area are found to be 236 Gg/yr and 94 Gg/yr respectively. About half of the PM10 emissions stem from windblown road dust. The new emission inventory has been used for regional air quality forecasts in the Delhi region during the Commonwealth games (SAFAR project), and they will soon be

  9. 40 CFR 52.76 - 1990 Base Year Emission Inventory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 1990 Base Year Emission Inventory. 52.76 Section 52.76 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Alaska § 52.76 1990 Base Year Emission Inventory. (a) EPA approves as a revision to...

  10. 40 CFR 52.474 - 1990 Base Year Emission Inventory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 1990 Base Year Emission Inventory. 52.474 Section 52.474 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS District of Columbia § 52.474 1990 Base Year Emission Inventory. (a) EPA approves as...

  11. 40 CFR 52.423 - 1990 Base Year Emission Inventory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 1990 Base Year Emission Inventory. 52.423 Section 52.423 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Delaware § 52.423 1990 Base Year Emission Inventory. EPA approves as a revision to...

  12. 40 CFR 52.423 - 1990 Base Year Emission Inventory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 1990 Base Year Emission Inventory. 52.423 Section 52.423 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Delaware § 52.423 1990 Base Year Emission Inventory. EPA approves as a revision to...

  13. Global emissions inventories

    SciTech Connect

    Dignon, J.

    1995-07-01

    Atmospheric chemistry determines the concentrations of most of the important greenhouse gases except for carbon dioxide. The rate of removal of the greenhouse gases from the atmosphere is also controlled by atmospheric chemistry. The indirect effects of chemical forcing resulting from the chemical interactions of other species can also affect the concentrations of radiatively important gases such as ozone. In order to establish the contribution of any possible climatic change attributable to individual greenhouse gases, spatially and temporally resolved estimates of their emissions need to be established. Unfortunately, for most of the radiatively important species the global magnitudes of their individual fluxes are not known to better than a factor of two and their spatial distributions are even more poorly characterized. Efforts to estimate future projections of potential impacts and to monitor international agreements will require continued research to narrow the uncertainties of magnitude and geographical distribution of emissions.

  14. Evaluating Global Emission Inventories of Biogenic Bromocarbons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hossaini, Ryan; Mantle, H.; Chipperfield, M. P.; Montzka, S. A.; Hamer, P.; Ziska, F.; Quack, B.; Kruger, K.; Tegtmeier, S.; Atlas, E.; Sala, S.; Engel, A.; Bonisch, H.; Keber, T.; Oram, D.; Mills, G.; Ordonez, C.; Saiz-Lopez, A.; Warwick, N.; Liang, Q.; Feng, W.; Moore, F.; Miller, F.; Marecal, V.; Richards, N. A. D.; Dorf, M.; Pfeilsticker, K.

    2013-01-01

    Emissions of halogenated very short-lived substances (VSLS) are poorly constrained. However, their inclusion in global models is required to simulate a realistic inorganic bromine (Bry) loading in both the troposphere, where bromine chemistry perturbs global oxidizing capacity, and in the stratosphere, where it is a major sink for ozone (O3). We have performed simulations using a 3-D chemical transport model (CTM) including three top-down and a single bottom-up derived emission inventory of the major brominated VSLS bromoform (CHBr3) and dibromomethane (CH2Br2). We perform the first concerted evaluation of these inventories, comparing both the magnitude and spatial distribution of emissions. For a quantitative evaluation of each inventory, model output is compared with independent long-term observations at National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) ground-based stations and with aircraft observations made during the NSF (National Science Foundation) HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO) project. For CHBr3, the mean absolute deviation between model and surface observation ranges from 0.22 (38 %) to 0.78 (115 %) parts per trillion (ppt) in the tropics, depending on emission inventory. For CH2Br2, the range is 0.17 (24 %) to 1.25 (167 %) ppt. We also use aircraft observations made during the 2011 Stratospheric Ozone: Halogen Impacts in a Varying Atmosphere (SHIVA) campaign, in the tropical western Pacific. Here, the performance of the various inventories also varies significantly, but overall the CTM is able to reproduce observed CHBr3 well in the free troposphere using an inventory based on observed sea-to-air fluxes. Finally, we identify the range of uncertainty associated with these VSLS emission inventories on stratospheric bromine loading due to VSLS (Br(VSLS/y)). Our simulations show Br(VSLS/y) ranges from approximately 4.0 to 8.0 ppt depending on the inventory. We report an optimized estimate at the lower end of this range (approximately 4 ppt

  15. 40 CFR 52.1391 - Emission inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) The Governor of the State of Montana submitted the 1990 carbon monoxide base year emission inventories... Governor submitted the 1990 carbon monoxide base year emission inventory for Great Falls on April 23, 1997... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emission inventories. 52.1391...

  16. 40 CFR 52.384 - Emission inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emission inventories. 52.384 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Connecticut § 52.384 Emission inventories. (a) The Governor's designee for the State of Connecticut submitted the 1990 base year emission inventories for...

  17. 40 CFR 52.384 - Emission inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emission inventories. 52.384 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Connecticut § 52.384 Emission inventories. (a) The Governor's designee for the State of Connecticut submitted the 1990 base year emission inventories for...

  18. 40 CFR 52.384 - Emission inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emission inventories. 52.384 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Connecticut § 52.384 Emission inventories. (a) The Governor's designee for the State of Connecticut submitted the 1990 base year emission inventories for...

  19. 40 CFR 52.1391 - Emission inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) The Governor of the State of Montana submitted the 1990 carbon monoxide base year emission inventories... Governor submitted the 1990 carbon monoxide base year emission inventory for Great Falls on April 23, 1997... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emission inventories. 52.1391...

  20. 40 CFR 52.1391 - Emission inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) The Governor of the State of Montana submitted the 1990 carbon monoxide base year emission inventories... Governor submitted the 1990 carbon monoxide base year emission inventory for Great Falls on April 23, 1997... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Emission inventories. 52.1391...

  1. 40 CFR 52.2350 - Emission inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., 1997, the Governor of Utah submitted the 1993 Carbon Monoxide Periodic Emission Inventories for Ogden... 14, 1999, the Governor of Utah submitted the 1996 Carbon Monoxide Periodic Emission Inventory for... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emission inventories. 52.2350...

  2. 40 CFR 52.384 - Emission inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Emission inventories. 52.384 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Connecticut § 52.384 Emission inventories. (a) The Governor's designee for the State of Connecticut submitted the 1990 base year emission inventories for...

  3. 40 CFR 52.2350 - Emission inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., 1997, the Governor of Utah submitted the 1993 Carbon Monoxide Periodic Emission Inventories for Ogden... 14, 1999, the Governor of Utah submitted the 1996 Carbon Monoxide Periodic Emission Inventory for... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emission inventories. 52.2350...

  4. 40 CFR 52.1391 - Emission inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) The Governor of the State of Montana submitted the 1990 carbon monoxide base year emission inventories... Governor submitted the 1990 carbon monoxide base year emission inventory for Great Falls on April 23, 1997... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emission inventories. 52.1391...

  5. 40 CFR 52.1125 - Emission inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Emission inventories. 52.1125 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Massachusetts § 52.1125 Emission inventories... emission inventories for the Springfield nonattainment area and the Massachusetts portion of the...

  6. 40 CFR 52.348 - Emission inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of the State of Colorado submitted the 1990 carbon monoxide base year emission inventories for the... submitted the 1990 Carbon Monoxide Base Year Emission Inventory for Greeley as a revision to the Colorado... 1996 Carbon Monoxide Periodic Emission Inventories for Denver and Fort Collins, as a revision to...

  7. 40 CFR 52.348 - Emission inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of the State of Colorado submitted the 1990 carbon monoxide base year emission inventories for the... submitted the 1990 Carbon Monoxide Base Year Emission Inventory for Greeley as a revision to the Colorado... 1996 Carbon Monoxide Periodic Emission Inventories for Denver and Fort Collins, as a revision to...

  8. 40 CFR 52.1125 - Emission inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission inventories. 52.1125 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Massachusetts § 52.1125 Emission inventories... emission inventories for the Springfield nonattainment area and the Massachusetts portion of the...

  9. 40 CFR 52.384 - Emission inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission inventories. 52.384 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Connecticut § 52.384 Emission inventories. (a) The Governor's designee for the State of Connecticut submitted the 1990 base year emission inventories for...

  10. 40 CFR 52.1036 - Emission inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Implementation Plan (SIP). The 2002 base year emission inventory requirement of 40 CFR 51.915 has been satisfied... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission inventories. 52.1036 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Maine § 52.1036 Emission inventories. (a)...

  11. 40 CFR 52.2350 - Emission inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission inventories. 52.2350 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Utah § 52.2350 Emission inventories. (a) The Governor of the State of Utah submitted the 1990 base year emission inventory of ozone precursors,...

  12. 40 CFR 52.993 - Emissions inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emissions inventories. 52.993 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Louisiana § 52.993 Emissions inventories. (a) The Governor of the State of Louisiana submitted the 1990 base year emission inventories for the Baton...

  13. 40 CFR 52.348 - Emission inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission inventories. 52.348 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado § 52.348 Emission inventories. (a) The Governor of the State of Colorado submitted the 1990 carbon monoxide base year emission inventories for...

  14. 40 CFR 52.2309 - Emissions inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emissions inventories. 52.2309 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Texas § 52.2309 Emissions inventories. (a) The Governor of the State of Texas submitted the 1990 base year emission inventories for the...

  15. Development and deployment of AQUIS: A PC-based emission inventory calculator and air information management system

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.E.; Tschanz, J.; Monarch, M.; Narducci, P.; Bormet, S.

    1995-06-01

    The Air Quality Utility Information System (AQUIS) is a database management system. AQUIS assists users in calculation emissions, both traditional and toxic, and tracking and reporting emissions and source information. With some facilities having over 1200 sources and AQUIS calculating as many as 125 pollutants for a single source, tracking and correlating this information involve considerable effort. Originally designed for use at seven facilities of the Air Force Material Command, the user community has expanded to over 50 facilities since last reported at the 1993 Air and Waste Management Association (AWMA) annual meeting. This expansion in the user community has provided an opportunity to test the system under expanded operating conditions and in applications not anticipated during original system design. User feedback is used to determine needed enhancements and features and to prioritize the content of new releases. In responding to evolving user needs and new emission calculation procedures, it has been necessary to reconfigure AQUIS several times. Reconfigurations have ranged from simple to complex. These changes have necessitated augmenting quality assurance (QA) and validation procedures.

  16. Advantages of a city-scale emission inventory for urban air quality research and policy: the case of Nanjing, a typical industrial city in the Yangtze River Delta, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y.; Qiu, L. P.; Xu, R. Y.; Xie, F. J.; Zhang, Q.; Yu, Y. Y.; Nielsen, C. P.; Qin, H. X.; Wang, H. K.; Wu, X. C.; Li, W. Q.; Zhang, J.

    2015-11-01

    With most eastern Chinese cities facing major air quality challenges, there is a strong need for city-scale emission inventories for use in both chemical transport modeling and the development of pollution control policies. In this paper, a high-resolution emission inventory (with a horizontal resolution of 3 × 3 km) of air pollutants and CO2 for Nanjing, a typical large city in the Yangtze River Delta, is developed, incorporating the best available information on local sources. Emission factors and activity data at the unit or facility level are collected and compiled using a thorough on-site survey of major sources. Over 900 individual plants, which account for 97 % of the city's total coal consumption, are identified as point sources, and all of the emission-related parameters including combustion technology, fuel quality, and removal efficiency of air pollution control devices (APCD) are analyzed. New data-collection approaches including continuous emission monitoring systems and real-time monitoring of traffic flows are employed to improve spatiotemporal distribution of emissions. Despite fast growth of energy consumption between 2010 and 2012, relatively small interannual changes in emissions are found for most air pollutants during this period, attributed mainly to benefits of growing APCD deployment and the comparatively strong and improving regulatory oversight of the large point sources that dominate the levels and spatial distributions of Nanjing emissions overall. The improvement of this city-level emission inventory is indicated by comparisons with observations and other inventories at larger spatial scale. Relatively good spatial correlations are found for SO2, NOx, and CO between the city-scale emission estimates and concentrations at nine state-operated monitoring sites (R = 0.58, 0.46, and 0.61, respectively). The emission ratios of specific pollutants including BC to CO, OC to EC, and CO2 to CO compare well to top-down constraints from ground

  17. The Role of Global Emission Inventory of Carbonaceous Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatima, H.; Sharma, O. P.; Updhyaya, H.

    2010-12-01

    Aerosols - liquid or solid particles suspended in the air - are important constituents of the global atmosphere. They have a direct effect on climate by scattering and/or absorbing solar radiation modifying the radiative balance of the atmosphere and indirect effect by acting as condensation nuclei, their increase in number concentration may give rise to increased number of cloud condensation nuclei, which might increase the droplet concentration with relatively smaller size droplets for fixed liquid water content, making clouds more reflective (Twomey, 1977). Recent measurements show that atmospheric black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC) aerosol particles frequently contribute significantly to the total aerosol mass (Novakov et al. 1997). BC is emitted as primary particles from incomplete combustion process, such as fossil fuel and biomass burning, and therefore much atmospheric BC is of anthropogenic origin. OC is emitted as both primary particles and by secondary production from gaseous compounds via condensation or gas phase oxidation of hydrocarbons. Primary organic aerosols come from both anthropogenic sources (fossil fuel and biomass burning) and from natural sources (such as debris, pollen, spores, and algae). Carbonaceous aerosols make up a large but highly variable fraction of the atmospheric aerosol. Black carbon aerosols absorb the solar radiation and induce positive forcing whereas organic matter aerosols reflect solar radiation and produce negative forcing. Various emission inventories have been developed for carbonaceous aerosols. Detailed emission inventories for both BC and OC have been developed (e.g., Penner et al., 1993; Cooke and Wilson, 1996; Liousse et al., 1996; Cooke et al., 1999, Bond et al. 2004) that consider both fossil fuel and biomass components. The inventories of biomass- burning BC and OC particles are more difficult to constrain than fossil fuel emissions, owing to the paucity of data. In the present study we have compared the

  18. 40 CFR 52.1533 - Emission inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission inventories. 52.1533 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) New Hampshire § 52.1533 Emission inventories... inventory for the entire state on January 26, 1993 as a revision to the State Implementation Plan...

  19. 40 CFR 52.2086 - Emission inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission inventories. 52.2086 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Rhode Island § 52.2086 Emission inventories... inventory for the Providence ozone nonattainment area on January 12, 1993 as a revision to the...

  20. Monitoring the progress of emission inventories

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, J.A. Jr.; Solomon, D.; Husk, M.; Irving, B.; Kruger, D.; Levin. L.

    2006-12-15

    This issue of EM contains three articles which focus on the latest improvements on the emissions inventory process. The first, 'Building the national emissions inventory: challenges and plans for improvements' by Doug Solomon and Martin Husk (pages 8-11), looks at the US national emissions inventory. The next, 'Greenhouse gas inventories - a historical perspective and assessment of improvements since 1990' by Bill Irving and Dina Kruger (pages 12-19) assesses improvements in national and international greenhouse gas emissions inventories over the last 15 years. The third article, 'The global mercury emissions inventory' by Leonard Levin (pages 20-25) gives an overview of the challenges associated with conducting a worldwide inventory of mercury emissions.

  1. A high-resolution vehicle emission inventory for China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, B.; Zhang, Q.; He, K.; Huo, H.; Yao, Z.; Wang, X.

    2012-12-01

    Developing high resolution emission inventory is an essential task for air quality modeling and management. However, current vehicle emission inventories in China are usually developed at provincial level and then allocated to grids based on various spatial surrogates, which is difficult to get high spatial resolution. In this work, we developed a new approach to construct a high-resolution vehicle emission inventory for China. First, vehicle population at county level were estimated by using the relationship between per-capita GDP and vehicle ownership. Then the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model were used to drive the International Vehicle Emission (IVE) model to get monthly emission factors for each county. Finally, vehicle emissions by county were allocated to grids with 5-km horizon resolution by using high-resolution road network data. This work provides a better understanding of spatial representation of vehicle emissions in China and can benefit both air quality modeling and management with improved spatial accuracy.

  2. 40 CFR 52.1391 - Emission inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission inventories. 52.1391 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Montana § 52.1391 Emission inventories. (a) The Governor of the State of Montana submitted the 1990 carbon monoxide base year emission...

  3. 40 CFR 52.1125 - Emission inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... emission inventories for the Springfield nonattainment area and the Massachusetts portion of the Boston... Springfield nonattainment area and the Massachusetts portion of the Boston-Lawrence-Worcester...

  4. EIIP volume 1: Introduction and use of EIIP guidance for emissions inventory development. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    The Emission Inventory Improvement Program (EIIP) was established in 1993 to promote the development and use of standard procedures for collecting, calculating, storing, reporting, and sharing air emissions data. Volume I describes the importance of emission inventory data in making public policy, the necessity of matching inventory collection efforts to end uses of the data, and the benefits of using standardized data collection procedures.

  5. INNOVATIVE METHODS FOR EMISSION-INVENTORY DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION: WORKSHOP SUMMARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emission inventories are an essential tool for evaluating, managing, and regulating air pollution. Refinements and innovations in instruments that measure air pollutants, models that calculate emissions as well as techniques for data management and uncertainty assessment are nee...

  6. Life cycle inventory analysis of regenerative thermal oxidation of air emissions from oriented strand board facilities in Minnesota - a perspective of global climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholson, W.J.

    1997-12-31

    Life cycle inventory analysis has been applied to the prospective operation of regenerative thermal oxidation (RTO) technology at oriented strand board plants at Bemidji (Line 1) and Cook, Minnesota. The net system destruction of VOC`s and carbon monoxide, and at Cook a small quantity of particulate, has a very high environmental price in terms of energy and water use, global warming potential, sulfur and nitrogen oxide emissions, solids discharged to water, and solid waste deposited in landfills. The benefit of VOC destruction is identified as minor in terms of ground level ozone at best and possibly slightly detrimental. Recognition of environmental tradeoffs associated with proposed system changes is critical to sound decision-making. There are more conventional ways to address carbon monoxide emissions than combustion in RTO`s. In an environment in which global warming is a concern, fuel supplemental combustion for environmental control does not appear warranted. Consideration of non-combustion approaches to address air emission issues at the two operations is recommended. 1 ref., 5 tabs.

  7. IMPROVING EMISSION INVENTORIES USING DIRECT FLUX MEASUREMENTS AND MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project uses a novel approach to measure real-world pollutant fluxes on an extended spatial and temporal scale, and to infer from those the source-specific pollutant emissions needed for a comparison to and an improvement of current emissions inventories. Air pollutants a...

  8. FUNCTIONALITY OF AN INTEGRATED EMISSION PREPROCESSING SYSTEM FOR AIR QUALITY MODELING: THE MODELS-3 EMISSION PREPROCESSOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conventional preparation of emission inventories for air quality modeling is typically an extended process using computer routines to reformat, quality check, chemically speciate, and temporally and spatially allocate data. rocessing of emission inventories for regional modeling ...

  9. Future prediction of surface ozone over east Asia using Models-3 Community Multiscale Air Quality Modeling System and Regional Emission Inventory in Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaji, Kazuyo; Ohara, Toshimasa; Uno, Itsushi; Kurokawa, Jun-Ichi; Pochanart, Pakpong; Akimoto, Hajime

    2008-04-01

    Present and future tropospheric ozone (O3) concentrations over east Asia have been simulated by the Models-3 Community Multiscale Air Quality Modeling System (CMAQ) coupled with the Regional Emission Inventory in Asia (REAS) to predict surface O3 variations caused by future anthropogenic emissions changes. For future prediction, REAS provides three emission scenarios for China (the reference (REF), the policy succeed case (PSC), and the policy failure case (PFC) scenarios) and one emission scenario (the REF scenario) for the other countries. Simulated O3 concentration in summer was relatively high (70-80 ppbv in June and 65-75 ppbv in August) over the North China Plain in 2000. The projected REF emissions for 2020 (2020REF) enhance the monthly averaged O3 to 75-90 ppbv in June and 75-85 ppbv in August. The projected PSC emissions for 2020 (2020PFC), including a slight NOx reduction of -0.2 Tg (-2%) and a large NMVOC increase of 14.3 Tg (97%) for total Chinese emissions during 2000-2020, cause the monthly and annually averaged O3 concentrations to decrease by less than 2 ppbv in northeastern and central China. Over the North China Plain, the projected PFC emissions for 2020 (2020PFC) cause significant increases, more than 20 ppbv in the monthly averaged O3, and the O3 will be 85-105 ppbv in June and 80-95 ppbv in August for 2020. The 2020PFC also affect O3 increases in early summer in South Korea (14-18 ppbv increase for monthly average) and Japan (2-14 ppbv increase for monthly average) during 2000-2020 despite the slight NOx increase of 0.4 Tg (25%) in South Korea and the slight NOx reduction of -0.2 Tg (-10%) in Japan during 2000-2020. The pollutant in these regions seems to be transport from upwind source regions. These experiments show that over central eastern China at midday in June, the O3 concentration is largely affected by NOx emission increases but is insensitive to NMVOC emission increases.

  10. 40 CFR 52.2309 - Emissions inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Texas § 52.2309 Emissions inventories. (a) The Governor of the State of Texas submitted the 1990 base year emission inventories for the Houston... Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission submitted State Implementation Plan revisions to the...

  11. 40 CFR 52.2309 - Emissions inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Texas § 52.2309 Emissions inventories. (a) The Governor of the State of Texas submitted the 1990 base year emission inventories for the Houston... Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission submitted State Implementation Plan revisions to the...

  12. 40 CFR 52.1533 - Emission inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emission inventories. 52.1533 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) New Hampshire § 52.1533 Emission inventories. (a) The Governor's designee for the State of New Hampshire submitted a 1990 base year...

  13. 40 CFR 52.1533 - Emission inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Emission inventories. 52.1533 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) New Hampshire § 52.1533 Emission inventories. (a) The Governor's designee for the State of New Hampshire submitted a 1990 base year...

  14. 40 CFR 52.2086 - Emission inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emission inventories. 52.2086 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Rhode Island § 52.2086 Emission inventories. (a) The Governor's designee for the State of Rhode Island submitted the 1990 base year...

  15. 40 CFR 52.1533 - Emission inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emission inventories. 52.1533 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) New Hampshire § 52.1533 Emission inventories. (a) The Governor's designee for the State of New Hampshire submitted a 1990 base year...

  16. 40 CFR 52.2086 - Emission inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emission inventories. 52.2086 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Rhode Island § 52.2086 Emission inventories. (a) The Governor's designee for the State of Rhode Island submitted the 1990 base year...

  17. 40 CFR 52.1533 - Emission inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emission inventories. 52.1533 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) New Hampshire § 52.1533 Emission inventories. (a) The Governor's designee for the State of New Hampshire submitted a 1990 base year...

  18. 40 CFR 52.2086 - Emission inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Emission inventories. 52.2086 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Rhode Island § 52.2086 Emission inventories. (a) The Governor's designee for the State of Rhode Island submitted the 1990 base year...

  19. 40 CFR 52.1036 - Emission inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Implementation Plan (SIP). The 2002 base year emission inventory requirement of 40 CFR 51.915 has been satisfied... Cumberland, Sagadahoc and York Counties. The Hancock and Waldo Counties nonattainment area is classified as... submitted a 2002 base year emission inventory for Cumberland, Sagadahoc, and York counties, to...

  20. 40 CFR 52.1036 - Emission inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Implementation Plan (SIP). The 2002 base year emission inventory requirement of 40 CFR 51.915 has been satisfied... Cumberland, Sagadahoc and York Counties. The Hancock and Waldo Counties nonattainment area is classified as... submitted a 2002 base year emission inventory for Cumberland, Sagadahoc, and York counties, to...

  1. 40 CFR 52.1036 - Emission inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Implementation Plan (SIP). The 2002 base year emission inventory requirement of 40 CFR 51.915 has been satisfied... Cumberland, Sagadahoc and York Counties. The Hancock and Waldo Counties nonattainment area is classified as... submitted a 2002 base year emission inventory for Cumberland, Sagadahoc, and York counties, to...

  2. 40 CFR 52.1036 - Emission inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Implementation Plan (SIP). The 2002 base year emission inventory requirement of 40 CFR 51.915 has been satisfied... Cumberland, Sagadahoc and York Counties. The Hancock and Waldo Counties nonattainment area is classified as... submitted a 2002 base year emission inventory for Cumberland, Sagadahoc, and York counties, to...

  3. Evaluations of NOx and highly reactive VOC emission inventories in Texas and their implications for ozone plume simulations during the Texas Air Quality Study 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S.-W.; McKeen, S. A.; Frost, G. J.; Lee, S.-H.; Trainer, M.; Richter, A.; Angevine, W. M.; Atlas, E.; Bianco, L.; Boersma, F. K.; Brioude, J.; Burrows, J. P.; de Gouw, J.; Fried, A.; Gleason, J.; Hilboll, A.; Mellqvist, J.; Peischl, J.; Richter, D.; Rivera, C.; Ryerson, T.; Te Lintel Hekkert, S.; Walega, J.; Warneke, C.; Weibring, P.; Williams, E.

    2011-07-01

    Satellite and aircraft observations made during the 2006 Texas Air Quality Study (TexAQS) detected strong urban, industrial and power plant plumes in Texas. We simulated these plumes using the Weather Research and Forecasting - Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model with input from the US EPA's 2005 National Emission Inventory (NEI-2005), in order to evaluate emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the cities of Houston and Dallas-Fort Worth. We compared the model results with satellite retrievals of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) columns and airborne in-situ observations of several trace gases including NOx and a number of VOCs. The model and satellite NO2 columns agree well for regions with large power plants and for urban areas that are dominated by mobile sources, such as Dallas. However, in Houston, where significant mobile, industrial, and in-port marine vessel sources contribute to NOx emissions, the model NO2 columns are approximately 50 %-70 % higher than the satellite columns. Similar conclusions are drawn from comparisons of the model results with the TexAQS 2006 aircraft observations in Dallas and Houston. For Dallas plumes, the model-simulated NO2 showed good agreement with the aircraft observations. In contrast, the model-simulated NO2 is ~60 % higher than the aircraft observations in the Houston plumes. Further analysis indicates that the NEI-2005 NOx emissions over the Houston Ship Channel area are overestimated while the urban Houston NOx emissions are reasonably represented. The comparisons of model and aircraft observations confirm that highly reactive VOC emissions originating from industrial sources in Houston are underestimated in NEI-2005. The update of VOC emissions based on Solar Occultation Flux measurements during the field campaign leads to improved model simulations of ethylene, propylene, and formaldehyde. Reducing NOx emissions in the Houston Ship Channel and increasing highly reactive VOC

  4. Evaluations of NOx and highly reactive VOC emission inventories in Texas and their implications for ozone plume simulations during the Texas Air Quality Study 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S.-W.; McKeen, S. A.; Frost, G. J.; Lee, S.-H.; Trainer, M.; Richter, A.; Angevine, W. M.; Atlas, E.; Bianco, L.; Boersma, K. F.; Brioude, J.; Burrows, J. P.; de Gouw, J.; Fried, A.; Gleason, J.; Hilboll, A.; Mellqvist, J.; Peischl, J.; Richter, D.; Rivera, C.; Ryerson, T.; Te Lintel Hekkert, S.; Walega, J.; Warneke, C.; Weibring, P.; Williams, E.

    2011-11-01

    Satellite and aircraft observations made during the 2006 Texas Air Quality Study (TexAQS) detected strong urban, industrial and power plant plumes in Texas. We simulated these plumes using the Weather Research and Forecasting-Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model with input from the US EPA's 2005 National Emission Inventory (NEI-2005), in order to evaluate emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the cities of Houston and Dallas-Fort Worth. We compared the model results with satellite retrievals of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) columns and airborne in-situ observations of several trace gases including NOx and a number of VOCs. The model and satellite NO2 columns agree well for regions with large power plants and for urban areas that are dominated by mobile sources, such as Dallas. However, in Houston, where significant mobile, industrial, and in-port marine vessel sources contribute to NOx emissions, the model NO2 columns are approximately 50%-70% higher than the satellite columns. Similar conclusions are drawn from comparisons of the model results with the TexAQS 2006 aircraft observations in Dallas and Houston. For Dallas plumes, the model-simulated NO2 showed good agreement with the aircraft observations. In contrast, the model-simulated NO2 is ~60% higher than the aircraft observations in the Houston plumes. Further analysis indicates that the NEI-2005 NOx emissions over the Houston Ship Channel area are overestimated while the urban Houston NOx emissions are reasonably represented. The comparisons of model and aircraft observations confirm that highly reactive VOC emissions originating from industrial sources in Houston are underestimated in NEI-2005. The update of VOC emissions based on Solar Occultation Flux measurements during the field campaign leads to improved model simulations of ethylene, propylene, and formaldehyde. Reducing NOx emissions in the Houston Ship Channel and increasing highly reactive VOC emissions

  5. UPDATED PHOTOCHEMICAL MODELING FOR CALIFORNIA'S SOUTH COAST AIR BASIN: COMPARISON OF CHEMICAL MECHANISMS AND MOTOR VEHICLE EMISSION INVENTORIES. (R824792)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Large uncertainties remain in photochemical models used
    to relate emissions of VOC and NOx to ambient
    O3
    concentrations. Bias in motor vehicle emission
    estimates
    for VOC has been a long-standing concern. An improved
    Eul...

  6. Ammonia emission inventory for the state of Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Maser, Colette R.; Brown, Nancy J.

    2003-12-17

    Ammonia (NH{sub 3}) is the only significant gaseous base in the atmosphere and it has a variety of impacts as an atmospheric pollutant, including the formation of secondary aerosol particles: ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate. NH{sub 3} preferentially forms ammonium sulfate; consequently ammonium nitrate aerosol formation may be limited by the availability of NH{sub 3}. Understanding the impact of emissions of oxides of sulfur and nitrogen on visibility, therefore, requires accurately determined ammonia emission inventories for use in air quality models, upon which regulatory and policy decisions increasingly depend. This report presents an emission inventory of NH{sub 3} for the state of Wyoming. The inventory is temporally and spatially resolved at the monthly and county level, and is comprised of emissions from individual sources in ten categories: livestock, fertilizer, domestic animals, wild animals, wildfires, soil, industry, mobile sources, humans, and publicly owned treatment works. The Wyoming NH{sub 3} inventory was developed using the Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) Ammonia Model as framework. Current Wyoming-specific activity data and emissions factors obtained from state agencies and published literature were assessed and used as inputs to the CMU Ammonia Model. Biogenic emissions from soils comprise about three-quarters of the Wyoming NH{sub 3} inventory, though emission factors from soils are highly uncertain. Published emission factors are scarce and based on limited measurements. In Wyoming, agricultural land, rangeland, and forests comprise 96% of the land area and essentially all of the estimated emissions from soils. Future research on emission rates of NH{sub 3} for these land categories may lead to a substantial change in the magnitude of soil emissions, a different inventory composition, and reduced uncertainty in the inventory. While many NH{sub 3} inventories include annual emissions, air quality modeling studies require finer temporal

  7. How to conduct an emissions inventory

    SciTech Connect

    Topazio, R.J.

    1994-07-01

    An inventory will quantify emissions through source identification, extensive data gathering, research, process investigation, emission rate calculation and control equipment efficiency determination. For most facilities, a proper inventory will take six months to complete. Add that to the time it will take to prepare the permit application and it becomes evident that action needs to be taken now. Deadlines for submitting Title V operating permit applications to state agencies are right around the corner. This paper describes the process of conducting an emissions inventory.

  8. Global emissions inventories to aid atmospheric modelers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graedel, T. E.

    Computer projections of changes in global atmospheric chemistry could become more accurate and more easily compared with the availability of standard global emissions inventories. Starting in 1994, the Global Emissions Inventory Activity (GEIA) began to finalize gridded global emissions inventories and distribute them to atmospheric scientists. GEIA operates under the auspices of the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC) Project, a cooperative effort of several hundred atmospheric scientists from more than 30 countries. The purpose of the IGAC Project is to measure, understand, and predict changes in global atmospheric chemistry, particularly those contributing to global problems such as acid rain, depletion of stratospheric ozone, greenhouse warming, and increased oxidant levels that damage biota.A 1992 survey by participants in the GEIA project [Graedel et al., 1993] showed that suitable emissions inventories are rarely available. The chlorofluorocarbon inventory, regarded as well quantified, was unavailable in gridded form. Inventories for CO2, CH4, NOx, SO2, reduced sulfur, and radon were regarded as having excess uncertainty, inadequate spatial resolution, or both; inventories for other chemical species were sketchy or nonexistent. Temporal resolution was almost uniformly poor. The survey made it clear that internally consistent, rigorously developed, gridded inventories with adequate spatial and temporal resolution would be valuable.

  9. Anthropogenic Emission Inventories for SAFARI 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleming, G.; van der Merwe, M.

    2001-12-01

    Surface emission inventories are required as input into atmospheric transport models and other investigations forming part of SAFARI 2000. We have generated an anthropogenic emissions inventory for continental Africa south of the equator. It covers the period 1999 to 2001 with a monthly temporal resolution and a 20km spatial resolution. The anthropogenic inventory covers emissions of CH4, CO2, CO, SO2, VOC (volatile organic carbons), NOx and N2O from the energy sector, mines, transport, industries and other major emitting sectors, in all major emitting countries south of the equator. The baseline country total emissions data were taken from the 1990 IPCC Greenhouse Gas Inventory Country Summaries. Emissions reported for 1990 were extrapolated to the SAFARI 2000 study period, temporally distributed by month and spatially disaggregated according to sector-specific driver surfaces. This anthropogenic emissions inventory together with others developed during SAFARI 2000, namely those for soil, vegetation, domestic biomass combustion and fire constitute a comprehensive new emissions inventory.

  10. 40 CFR 62.08 - Emission inventories and source surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... surveillance. 62.08 Section 62.08 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... General Provisions § 62.08 Emission inventories and source surveillance. (a) Each subpart identifies the plan provisions for source surveillance which are disapproved, and sets forth the...

  11. 40 CFR 62.08 - Emission inventories and source surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... surveillance. 62.08 Section 62.08 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... General Provisions § 62.08 Emission inventories and source surveillance. (a) Each subpart identifies the plan provisions for source surveillance which are disapproved, and sets forth the...

  12. 40 CFR 62.08 - Emission inventories and source surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... surveillance. 62.08 Section 62.08 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... General Provisions § 62.08 Emission inventories and source surveillance. (a) Each subpart identifies the plan provisions for source surveillance which are disapproved, and sets forth the...

  13. 40 CFR 62.08 - Emission inventories and source surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission inventories and source surveillance. 62.08 Section 62.08 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF STATE PLANS FOR DESIGNATED FACILITIES AND POLLUTANTS General Provisions § 62.08...

  14. Comparing Emission Inventories and Model-Ready Emission Datasets between Europe and North America for the AQMEII Project

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper highlights the similarities and differences in how emission inventories and datasets were developed and processed across North America and Europe for the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII) project and then characterizes the emissions for the...

  15. 40 CFR 52.2350 - Emission inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... are volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, and carbon monoxide, for the Salt Lake and Davis..., 1997, the Governor of Utah submitted the 1993 Carbon Monoxide Periodic Emission Inventories for Ogden... carbon monoxide emissions from stationary point, area, non-road, and on-road mobile sources. (c) On...

  16. 40 CFR 52.2350 - Emission inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... are volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, and carbon monoxide, for the Salt Lake and Davis..., 1997, the Governor of Utah submitted the 1993 Carbon Monoxide Periodic Emission Inventories for Ogden... carbon monoxide emissions from stationary point, area, non-road, and on-road mobile sources. (c) On...

  17. 40 CFR 52.1125 - Emission inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... emission inventories for the Springfield nonattainment area and the Massachusetts portion of the Boston... Springfield nonattainment area and the Massachusetts portion of the Boston-Lawrence-Worcester nonattainment... emissions for calendar year 2002 from the Boston-Lawrence-Worcester moderate 8-hour ozone nonattainment...

  18. 40 CFR 52.1125 - Emission inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... emission inventories for the Springfield nonattainment area and the Massachusetts portion of the Boston... Springfield nonattainment area and the Massachusetts portion of the Boston-Lawrence-Worcester nonattainment... emissions for calendar year 2002 from the Boston-Lawrence-Worcester moderate 8-hour ozone nonattainment...

  19. Air emissions testing

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L.D.

    1993-01-01

    The article presents a brief overview of air emission sampling methods and analysis procedures related to stationary sources such as incinerators, power plants, and industrial boilers. It is intended primarily for the laboratory chemist or manager who is familiar with samples and methods associated with water or waste sources, but not with those associated with air and stack gas emissions.

  20. Preparation of mercury emissions inventory for eastern North America.

    PubMed

    Walcek, Chris; De Santis, Steven; Gentile, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    Point and area inventories of anthropogenic mercury emissions documented by US and Canadian environmental agencies have been aggregated into a single archive for analysis and air pollution modeling work. For 5341 point sources and 1634 aggregated area sources, mercury emissions are apportioned among elemental gaseous [Hg(0)], reactive gaseous[Hg(II)], and particulate [Hg(p)] emissions using speciation factors derived from available monitoring measurements. According to this inventory, 4.82 x 10(5) mol of mercury were emitted in calendar year 1996 in the latitude range 24-51 degrees north, and longitude range 64-91 degrees west, which covers most of North America east of the Mississippi River. Using speciation factors consistent with past emission source studies, we find the relative emission proportions among Hg(0):Hg(II):Hg(p) species are 47:35:18. Maps of the various mercury species' emissions patterns are presented. Gridded emission patterns show local mercury emission extremes associated with individual cement production and municipal incineration facilities, and in contrast to past inventories, population centers do not stand out. Considerable uncertainties are still present in estimating emissions from large point sources, as are methods of apportioning emissions among various mercury species. PMID:12667765

  1. EMISSION INVENTORIES TO SUPPORT OTAQ RULEMAKING ON HEAVY-DUTY NONROAD DIESEL ENGINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The product will be a set of historical and projected emission inventories. The projected inventories will represent a number of alternative regulatory scenarios. Inventories will be in the form required by CMAQ/Models-3 and other air quality models, and will be accompanied by n...

  2. EMISSION INVENTORIES TO SUPPORT DEVELOPMENT OF PM2.5 AND 8-HOUR OZONE IMPLEMENTATION POLICIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The product will be a set of historical and projected emission inventories. The projected inventories will represent a number of alternative regulatory scenarios. Inventories will be in the form required by CMAQ/Models-3 and other air quality models, and will be accompanied by n...

  3. Assessment of mercury emissions inventories for the Great Lakes states.

    PubMed

    Murray, Michael; Holmes, S A Stacie A

    2004-07-01

    Anthropogenic mercury (Hg) air emissions for the eight Great Lakes states in 1999-2000 were evaluated by analyzing three inventories. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Emissions Inventory (NEI) had the most complete coverage for all states, and total Hg emissions ranged from 4226 lb in Minnesota to 15,828 lb in Pennsylvania. Coal-fired electric utilities accounted for 52.7% of the region's Hg emissions, varying from 20.2% of the total in New York to 67.5% in Ohio. Other important contributors to regional emissions included municipal waste combustion (5.6%), mercury-cell chlor-alkali plants and hazardous-waste incinerators (4% each), stationary internal combustion engines (ICEs) (3.5%), industrial, commercial, and institutional (ICI) boilers (3.3%), and lime manufacturing (3.0%). Although medical waste incineration accounted for just over 1% of regional emissions using the original classifications, the inclusion of health care facilities that may have been inappropriately identified with other sectors would increase the sector to 4.5% of regional emissions (and decrease the stationary ICE sector to 1.4% of the regional total). There were substantial differences for some sectors between the NEI and the Great Lakes Regional Air Toxics Emissions Inventory (GLEI), as well as unexplained differences within inventories between states (particularly for the cement, lime, and asphalt industries, and for lamp breakage). Toxics Release Inventory data for 2000 mainly covered electric utilities, and differences from the NEI were significant for several states. An independent assessment indicates the possibility of underestimated Hg emissions by about twofold for ICI boilers, although data for the sector (in particular concerning fuel oil emissions) are highly uncertain. Limited data indicate the likelihood of significant underestimates of electric arc furnace mercury emissions in the NEI and GLEI inventories. Several measures are here identified for improving

  4. THE 1985 NAPAP EMISSIONS INVENTORY: DEVELOPMENT OF TEMPORAL ALLOCATION FACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report documents the development and processing of temporal allocation factors for the 1985 National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) emissions inventory (Version 2). The NAPAP emissions inventory represents the most comprehensive emissions data base available fo...

  5. An industrial emissions inventory of calcium for Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, David S.; Pacyna, Jozef M.

    The base cations calcium, magnesium and potassium, have been observed to be declining in air and precipitation in both Europe and North America. There is good evidence that this is the result of declining emissions of fly ash from industrial plant, as a result of increased abatement and industrial decline. This may have the effect of offsetting the effects of declines in acidic emissions, in terms of net deposited acidity. In order to reconcile source strengths of base cations, an industrial emissions inventory of calcium, the dominant base cation in air and precipitation, has been compiled. The main sources identified were: cement plants; iron and steel plants; and coal combustion from both large and small boilers. The overall emission was calculated to be between approximately 750 and 800 ktonnes Ca yr -1. The dominant source was coal combustion from domestic and small boilers. Of the point sources, cement production dominated over coal combustion, and iron and steel plant. The emission factors used are very uncertain, which gives the inventory a large uncertainty. Furthermore, the emissions are compiled on a base year of 1990, and large changes have taken place in the industrial structuring of the largest contributing countries. Despite the uncertainties, the compilation of the inventory represents a vital first step in understanding the sources of deposited calcium and its effect on net deposited acidity.

  6. Vehicular emission inventory of criteria pollutants in Delhi.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Pramila; Mishra, Dhirendra; Kumar, Anikender

    2013-12-01

    The rapid urbanization in Delhi has resulted in a tremendous increase in the number of motor vehicles with the increase in population and urban mobilization. The vehicular traffic is now recognized as one of the main sources of air pollution in Delhi and has noticeable impact on air quality. The emission of criteria pollutants namely Carbon Monoxide (CO), Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) and Particulate Matter (PM) due to vehicles is estimated through the International Vehicle Emission (IVE) model, which includes the different driving modes of vehicles and meteorological parameters. The estimated emissions of Carbon Monoxide (CO), Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) and Particulate Matter (PM) due to different types of vehicles in the year 2008-09 are found to be 509, 194 and 15 tons/day respectively. The diurnal variation of emissions of air pollutants shows two peaks, which are fortunately matching with the morning and evening office hours. The emissions of CO and NOx due to personal cars (PCs) are found to be about 34% and 50% respectively, and the emission of CO due to 2 W (2- Wheeler) is about 61%. Similarly, the Heavy Commercial Vehicles (HCVs) are contributing PM about 92%. The analysis of fuel-wise emission of pollutants reveals that CO is mainly contributed by petrol, and NOx and PM are contributed by diesel. It is also noticeable that CO, NOx and PM emissions at ITO, one of the busiest traffic intersections of Delhi, are approximately 15, 6 and 0.5 tons/day respectively, which are found to be the maximum followed by Kashmiri Gate (ISBT), Nizamuddin etc. The present vehicular emissions inventory has been compared quantitatively with previous studies of Delhi. The present vehicular emission inventory has also validated using US environmental protection agency's (USEPA's) AERMOD model with observed concentration at different locations in Delhi. However, the present study shows that the air quality of Delhi has been degraded due to high level emissions of criteria pollutants. PMID

  7. 1985 NAPAP EMISSIONS INVENTORY: DEVELOPMENT OF SPATIAL ALLOCATION FACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report documents the development and application of spatial allocation factors for the 1985 National Acid Precipitation Assessment program(NAPAP) Emissions Inventory (Version 2). The 1985 annual inventory and related modelers' inventory represent the most comprehensive and hi...

  8. 40 CFR Appendix D to Part 60 - Required Emission Inventory Information

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Required Emission Inventory Information D Appendix D to Part 60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Appendix D to Part 60—Required Emission Inventory Information (a) Completed NEDS point source form(s)...

  9. 40 CFR 51.1008 - Emission inventory requirements for the PM2.5 NAAQS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PM2.5 NAAQS. 51.1008 Section 51.1008 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Provisions for Implementation of PM2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standards § 51.1008 Emission inventory requirements for the PM2.5 NAAQS. (a) For purposes of meeting the emission inventory requirements of...

  10. 40 CFR 51.1008 - Emission inventory requirements for the PM2.5 NAAQS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PM2.5 NAAQS. 51.1008 Section 51.1008 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Provisions for Implementation of PM2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standards § 51.1008 Emission inventory requirements for the PM2.5 NAAQS. (a) For purposes of meeting the emission inventory requirements of...

  11. 40 CFR 51.1008 - Emission inventory requirements for the PM2.5 NAAQS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PM2.5 NAAQS. 51.1008 Section 51.1008 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Provisions for Implementation of PM2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standards § 51.1008 Emission inventory requirements for the PM2.5 NAAQS. (a) For purposes of meeting the emission inventory requirements of...

  12. 40 CFR 51.1008 - Emission inventory requirements for the PM2.5 NAAQS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PM2.5 NAAQS. 51.1008 Section 51.1008 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Provisions for Implementation of PM2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standards § 51.1008 Emission inventory requirements for the PM2.5 NAAQS. (a) For purposes of meeting the emission inventory requirements of...

  13. 40 CFR 51.1008 - Emission inventory requirements for the PM2.5 NAAQS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PM2.5 NAAQS. 51.1008 Section 51.1008 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Provisions for Implementation of PM2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standards § 51.1008 Emission inventory requirements for the PM2.5 NAAQS. (a) For purposes of meeting the emission inventory requirements of...

  14. 40 CFR 52.993 - Emissions inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Governor of the State of Louisiana submitted the 1990 base year emission inventories for the Baton Rouge... BTR nonattainment area is classified as Serious and includes Ascension, East Baton Rouge, Iberville, Livingston, Point Coupee, and West Baton Rouge Parishes; the CAL nonattainment area is classified as...

  15. 40 CFR 52.993 - Emissions inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Governor of the State of Louisiana submitted the 1990 base year emission inventories for the Baton Rouge... BTR nonattainment area is classified as Serious and includes Ascension, East Baton Rouge, Iberville, Livingston, Point Coupee, and West Baton Rouge Parishes; the CAL nonattainment area is classified as...

  16. 40 CFR 52.993 - Emissions inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Governor of the State of Louisiana submitted the 1990 base year emission inventories for the Baton Rouge... BTR nonattainment area is classified as Serious and includes Ascension, East Baton Rouge, Iberville, Livingston, Point Coupee, and West Baton Rouge Parishes; the CAL nonattainment area is classified as...

  17. 40 CFR 52.993 - Emissions inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Governor of the State of Louisiana submitted the 1990 base year emission inventories for the Baton Rouge... BTR nonattainment area is classified as Serious and includes Ascension, East Baton Rouge, Iberville, Livingston, Point Coupee, and West Baton Rouge Parishes; the CAL nonattainment area is classified as...

  18. 40 CFR 52.348 - Emission inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Colorado Springs, Denver/Longmont, and Fort Collins nonattainment areas on December 31, 1992, as a revision to the State Implementation Plan (SIP). The Governor submitted revisions to the Colorado Springs and... Emission Inventories for Colorado Springs, Denver, Fort Collins, and Longmont as revisions to the...

  19. 40 CFR 52.348 - Emission inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Colorado Springs, Denver/Longmont, and Fort Collins nonattainment areas on December 31, 1992, as a revision to the State Implementation Plan (SIP). The Governor submitted revisions to the Colorado Springs and... Emission Inventories for Colorado Springs, Denver, Fort Collins, and Longmont as revisions to the...

  20. COMPILATION OF REGIONAL TO GLOBAL INVENTORIES OF ANTHROPOGENIC EMISSIONS

    SciTech Connect

    BENKOVITZ,C.M.

    2002-11-01

    The mathematical modeling of the transport and transformation of trace species in the atmosphere is one of the scientific tools currently used to assess atmospheric chemistry, air quality, and climatic conditions. From the scientific but also from the management perspectives accurate inventories of emissions of the trace species at the appropriate spatial, temporal, and species resolution are required. There are two general methodologies used to estimate regional to global emissions: bottom-up and top-down (also known as inverse modeling). Bottom-up methodologies to estimate industrial emissions are based on activity data, emission factors (amount of emissions per unit activity), and for some inventories additional parameters (such as sulfur content of fuels). Generally these emissions estimates must be given finer sectoral, spatial (usually gridded), temporal, and for some inventories species resolution. Temporal and spatial resolution are obtained via the use of surrogate information, such as population, land use, traffic counts, etc. which already exists in or can directly be converted to gridded form. Speciation factors have been and are being developed to speciate inventories of NO{sub x}, particulate matter, and hydrocarbons. Top-down (inverse modeling) methodologies directly invert air quality measurements in terms of poorly known but critical parameters to constrain the emissions needed to explain these measurements; values of these parameters are usually computed using atmospheric transport models. Currently there are several strong limitations of inverse modeling, but the continued evolution of top-down estimates will be facilitated by the development of denser monitoring networks and by the massive amounts of data from satellite observations.

  1. Evaluation of Bottom-Up Mobile Emissions Inventories in the Upper Midwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spak, S.; Holloway, T.; Mednick, A.; Stone, B.

    2007-12-01

    The effects of mobile emissions inventories on regional ozone, fine particulate matter, nitrate, and secondary organic aerosol are investigated using the Community Multiscale Air Quality Model (CMAQ) and a bottom-up regional inventory. This inventory, developed for an EPA STAR-funded study, Projecting the Impact of Land Use and Transportation on Future Air Quality in the Upper Midwestern United States (PLUTO), use the Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey transferability framework's demographic and vehicle activity modeling to estimate vehicle trips and miles of travel (VMT) at the census tract level in response to four census variables: income, vehicle ownership, employment rate, and density. Once grouped into demographically homogenous clusters, average daily household vehicle travel rates are derived from the national travel survey respondents captured in each cluster and used to estimate tract level vehicle travel activity. Regional VMT and emissions estimates are compared with the US EPA's 2002 National Emissions Inventory onroad mobile inventory, developed with the National Mobile Inventory Model, which clusters by county. CMAQ is run in a 2002 annual simulation at 36 km x 36 km resolution over Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin. Impacts of mobile emissions inventories on air quality model performance are established through comparison with surface observations from AQS and STN networks. In evaluating mobile emissions inventories, this study provides insight into the sensitivity of simulated air quality to a range of mobile emissions estimates, and allows for an attribution of CMAQ error to uncertainty in mobile emissions.

  2. Global High-Resolution Emission Inventories from Combustion Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, S.; Huang, Y.; Chen, H.; Shen, H.

    2014-12-01

    A series efforts have been made to reduce uncertainty of emission inventories from combustion sources. The inventories developed are highly resolved spatially (0.1 degree), temporally (monthly or daily), and sectorically (over 60 combustion sources). Sub-national, instead of national fuel data are used to reduce spatial bias due to uneven distribution of per person energy consumption within large countries. Space-for-time substitution method was developed to model the dependence of residential energy consumptions on a series of meteorological and socioeconomic conditions. The regression models were used to project temporal variation of energy consumption, subsequently emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants. The models can also be used to downscale spatial distribution of residential emissions. By using this approach, global emission inventories of black carbon, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, mercury, TSP, PM10, and PM2.5 have been established. The inventories were used to potential health impact assessment, atmospheric transport and long-range transport modeling, as well as exposure and health impact modeling.

  3. EPA RESPONSE TO THE NARSTO EMISSION INVENTORY ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    NARSTO conducted an assessment of emission inventory programs and recommended actions to enhance the accuracy, quality, timeliness, and affordability of emission inventories across Canada, Mexico and the United States. This briefing provides the EPA response to the NARSTO report...

  4. Emission inventory estimation of an intercity bus terminal.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Zhaowen; Li, Xiaoxia; Hao, Yanzhao; Deng, Shunxi; Gao, H Oliver

    2016-06-01

    Intercity bus terminals are hotspots of air pollution due to concentrated activities of diesel buses. In order to evaluate the bus terminals' impact on air quality, it is necessary to estimate the associated mobile emission inventories. Since the vehicles' operating condition at the bus terminal varies significantly, conventional calculation of the emissions based on average emission factors suffers the loss of accuracy. In this study, we examined a typical intercity bus terminal-the Southern City Bus Station of Xi'an, China-using a multi-scale emission model-(US EPA's MOVES model)-to quantity the vehicle emission inventory. A representative operating cycle for buses within the station is constructed. The emission inventory was then estimated using detailed inputs including vehicle ages, operating speeds, operating schedules, and operating mode distribution, as well as meteorological data (temperature and humidity). Five functional areas (bus yard, platforms, disembarking area, bus travel routes within the station, and bus entrance/exit routes) at the terminal were identified, and the bus operation cycle was established using the micro-trip cycle construction method. Results of our case study showed that switching to compressed natural gas (CNG) from diesel fuel could reduce PM2.5 and CO emissions by 85.64 and 6.21 %, respectively, in the microenvironment of the bus terminal. When CNG is used, tail pipe exhaust PM2.5 emission is significantly reduced, even less than brake wear PM2.5. The estimated bus operating cycles can also offer researchers and policy makers important information for emission evaluation in the planning and design of any typical intercity bus terminals of a similar scale. PMID:27220506

  5. 40 CFR 52.2531 - 1990 base year emission inventory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 1990 base year emission inventory. 52... year emission inventory. EPA approves as a revision to the West Virginia State Implementation Plan the 1990 base year emission inventories for the Greenbrier county ozone nonattainment area submitted by...

  6. 40 CFR 52.2531 - 1990 base year emission inventory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... emission inventories in Greenbrier County for the following pollutants: Volatile organic compounds (VOC... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 1990 base year emission inventory. 52... year emission inventory. EPA approves as a revision to the West Virginia State Implementation Plan...

  7. 40 CFR 52.2531 - 1990 base year emission inventory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... emission inventories in Greenbrier County for the following pollutants: Volatile organic compounds (VOC... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false 1990 base year emission inventory. 52... year emission inventory. EPA approves as a revision to the West Virginia State Implementation Plan...

  8. 40 CFR 51.915 - What emissions inventory requirements apply under the 8-hour NAAQS?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PLANS Provisions for Implementation of 8-hour Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard § 51.915 What... emissions inventories for these areas, the ozone-relevant data element requirements under 40 CFR part...

  9. 40 CFR 51.915 - What emissions inventory requirements apply under the 8-hour NAAQS?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PLANS Provisions for Implementation of 8-hour Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard § 51.915 What... emissions inventories for these areas, the ozone-relevant data element requirements under 40 CFR part...

  10. 40 CFR 51.915 - What emissions inventory requirements apply under the 8-hour NAAQS?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PLANS Provisions for Implementation of 8-hour Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard § 51.915 What... emissions inventories for these areas, the ozone-relevant data element requirements under 40 CFR part...

  11. 40 CFR 51.915 - What emissions inventory requirements apply under the 8-hour NAAQS?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PLANS Provisions for Implementation of 8-hour Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard § 51.915 What... emissions inventories for these areas, the ozone-relevant data element requirements under 40 CFR part...

  12. Compilation and evaluation of a Paso del Norte emission inventory for use in photochemical dispersion modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Haste, T.L.; Kumar, N.; Chinkin, L.R.; Roberts, P.T.; Saeger, M.; Mulligan, S.; Yarbrough, J.

    1999-07-01

    Emission inventories are routinely used for planning purposes and as input to comprehensive photochemical air quality models. Photochemical model performance and the development of an effective control strategy are predicated on the accuracy of an underlying emission inventory. The purpose of this study was to compile an ozone precursor emission inventory for the El Paso/Ciudad Juarez/Southern Dona Ana region; generate a spatially and temporally resolved, speciated emission inventory; and evaluate the accuracy and representativeness of the inventory. Existing point, area, and mobile source emissions data were obtained from local government agencies. Emissions were spatially and temporally allocated to a gridded domain using region-specific demographic and land cover information. The inventory was processed using the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recommended Urban Airshed Model Emissions Preprocessor System 2.0 (UAM-EPS 2.0) which generates emissions files that can be directly used as input to the Urban Airshed Model. An evaluation of the emission inventory was then performed by comparing inventory non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC)/NO{sub x} and CO/NO{sub x} ratios to ambient ratios using air quality data collected during the 1996 Paso del Norte Ozone Study. Detailed NMHC species comparisons were also made in order to investigate the relative composition of individual hydrocarbon species in the emission inventory and in the ambient data. This initial emission inventory is expected to undergo substantial revisions during the upcoming photochemical modeling phase of the effort to better understand and improve the air quality of the El Paso/Ciudad Juarez/Southern Dona Ana region.

  13. Inventories and scenarios of nitrous oxide emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Eric A.; Kanter, David

    2014-10-01

    Effective mitigation for N2O emissions, now the third most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas and the largest remaining anthropogenic source of stratospheric ozone depleting substances, requires understanding of the sources and how they may increase this century. Here we update estimates and their uncertainties for current anthropogenic and natural N2O emissions and for emissions scenarios to 2050. Although major uncertainties remain, ‘bottom-up’ inventories and ‘top-down’ atmospheric modeling yield estimates that are in broad agreement. Global natural N2O emissions are most likely between 10 and 12 Tg N2O-N yr-1. Net anthropogenic N2O emissions are now about 5.3 Tg N2O-N yr-1. Gross anthropogenic emissions by sector are 66% from agriculture, 15% from energy and transport sectors, 11% from biomass burning, and 8% from other sources. A decrease in natural emissions from tropical soils due to deforestation reduces gross anthropogenic emissions by about 14%. Business-as-usual emission scenarios project almost a doubling of anthropogenic N2O emissions by 2050. In contrast, concerted mitigation scenarios project an average decline of 22% relative to 2005, which would lead to a near stabilization of atmospheric concentration of N2O at about 350 ppb. The impact of growing demand for biofuels on future projections of N2O emissions is highly uncertain; N2O emissions from second and third generation biofuels could remain trivial or could become the most significant source to date. It will not be possible to completely eliminate anthropogenic N2O emissions from agriculture, but better matching of crop N needs and N supply offers significant opportunities for emission reductions.

  14. Air quality simulation over South Asia using Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution version-2 (HTAP-v2) emission inventory and Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers (MOZART-4)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surendran, Divya E.; Ghude, Sachin D.; Beig, G.; Emmons, L. K.; Jena, Chinmay; Kumar, Rajesh; Pfister, G. G.; Chate, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    This study presents the distribution of tropospheric ozone and related species for South Asia using the Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers (MOZART-4) and Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution version-2 (HTAP-v2) emission inventory. The model present-day simulated ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) are evaluated against surface-based, balloon-borne and satellite-based (MOPITT and OMI) observations. The model systematically overestimates surface O3 mixing ratios (range of mean bias about: 1-30 ppbv) at different ground-based measurement sites in India. Comparison between simulated and observed vertical profiles of ozone shows a positive bias from the surface up to 600 hPa and a negative bias above 600 hPa. The simulated seasonal variation in surface CO mixing ratio is consistent with the surface observations, but has a negative bias of about 50-200 ppb which can be attributed to a large part to the coarse model resolution. In contrast to the surface evaluation, the model shows a positive bias of about 15-20 × 1017 molecules/cm2 over South Asia when compared to satellite derived CO columns from the MOPITT instrument. The model also overestimates OMI retrieved tropospheric column NO2 abundance by about 100-250 × 1013 molecules/cm2. A response to 20% reduction in all anthropogenic emissions over South Asia shows a decrease in the anuual mean O3 mixing ratios by about 3-12 ppb, CO by about 10-80 ppb and NOX by about 3-6 ppb at the surface level. During summer monsoon, O3 mixing ratios at 200 hPa show a decrease of about 6-12 ppb over South Asia and about 1-4 ppb over the remote northern hemispheric western Pacific region.

  15. An atmospheric emission inventory of anthropogenic and biogenic sources for Lebanon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waked, A.; Afif, C.; Seigneur, C.

    2011-12-01

    The Middle East region, which is a significant source for photochemical air pollution and a place for dust storms activities, is facing today serious air pollution problems. In this region, local inventory data are sparse and the development of an emission inventory is a challenge. In Lebanon, a small developing country in the Middle East region, data on air pollution are sketchy and the development of an emission inventory is an essential step to develop efficient emission control strategies to decrease air pollution levels. Accordingly, a temporally-resolved and spatially-distributed emission inventory was developed for Lebanon to provide quantitative information for air pollution studies as well as for use as input to air quality models. This inventory covers major anthropogenic and biogenic sources in the region with 5 km spatial resolution for Lebanon and 1 km spatial resolution for its capital city Beirut and its suburbs. The results obtained for CO, NOx, SO2, VOC, NH3, PM10 and PM2.5 show some differences with previous estimates. Emissions show different temporal and spatial patterns depending on the source categories. Major source contributions are on-road traffic (particularly in Beirut) and industry (particularly in Zouk Mikael, Jieh, Chekka, and Selaata). Pollutant ratios (CO/NOx and PM10/PM2.5) obtained from the emission inventory and ambient measurements are compared and major sources of uncertainty are identified.

  16. Veracruz State Preliminary Greenhouse Gases Emissions Inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welsh Rodriguez, C.; Rodriquez Viqueira, L.; Guzman Rojas, S.

    2007-05-01

    At recent years, the international organisms such as United Nations, has discussed that the temperature has increased slightly and the pattern of precipitations has changed in different parts of the world, which cause either extreme droughts or floods and that the extreme events have increased. These are some of the risks of global climate change because of the increase of gas concentration in the atmosphere such as carbon dioxides, nitrogen oxides and methane - which increase the greenhouse effect. Facing the consequences that could emerge because of the global temperature grown, there is a genuine necessity in different sectors of reduction the greenhouse gases and reduced the adverse impacts of climate change. To solve that, many worldwide conventions have been realized (Rio de Janeiro, Kyoto, Montreal) where different countries have established political compromises to stabilize their emissions of greenhouse gases. The mitigation and adaptation policies merge as a response to the effects that the global climate change could have, on the humans as well as the environment. That is the reason to provide the analysis of the areas and geographic zones of the country that present major vulnerability to the climate change. The development of an inventory of emissions that identifies and quantifies the principal sources of greenhouse gases of a country, and also of a region is basic to any study about climate change, also to develop specific political programs that allow to preserve and even improve a quality of the atmospheric environment, and maybe to incorporate to international mechanisms such as the emissions market. To estimate emissions in a systematic and consistent way on a regional, national and international level is a requirement to evaluate the feasibility and the cost-benefit of instrumented possible mitigation strategies and to adopt politics and technologies to reduce emissions. Mexico has two national inventories of emissions, 1990 and 1995, now it is

  17. GLOBAL INVENTORY OF VOLATILE COMPOUND EMISSIONS FROM ANTHROPOGENIC SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes a global inventory anthropogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions that includes a separate inventory for each of seven pollutant groups--paraffins, olefins, aromatics, formaldehyde, other aldehydes, other aromatics, and marginally reactive compounds....

  18. GLOBAL INVENTORY OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSIONS FORM ANTHROPOGENIC SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes a global inventory anthropogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions that includes a separate inventory for each of seven pollutant groups--paraffins, olefins, aromatics, formaldehyde, other aldehydes, other aromatics, and marginally reactive compounds....

  19. Uncertainties in Satellite Based Fire Emission Inventories in the Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandi, S.; Vanchindorj, U.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Guenther, A.; Prins, E.; Setzer, A.; Artaxo, P.; Elvidge, C.

    2004-12-01

    The uncertainties of developing satellite geolocation based fire emissions inventories for air quality models are discussed in this work. Various satellite hot spot detection and burn scar area products are routinely combined with emission factors to develop monthly and daily gridded fire emission inventories for both air quality modeling applications and global models Here, we compare the spatial autocorrelations between fire hot spots detected in the infrared by the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) Wildfire Automated Biomass Burning Algorithm (WF ABBA), the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 5 minute L2 thermal anomaly, and the NOAA-14 Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) visible channel for one month from 20 September 2002 to 20 October 2002 for an approximately 1000 km x 1000 km domain in Amazonia. Because of the differing overpass times of the polar orbiting satellites and the differing temporal and spatial resolutions of the sun-synchronous satellites and geosynchronous satellites, there is no discernable spatial autocorrelation between the detected hot spots on a 1 to 2.5 kilometer scale. Once these hot spots are counted and allocated to either 10 km2 or 20 km2 grid cells typically used for regional air quality modeling applications, spatial autocorrelation increases from 0.55 to 0.69, indicating that all the satellites examined here detect fires in the same general geographic locations. Further inventories of hot spots detected as a function of ecosystem type (GLCC version 2.0) in the GOES WF ABBA data are consistent with recent fire spots as a function of ecosystem type in the Global Wildland Fire Emission Model as reported by Hoelzemann et al in 2004. Comparison of the number of hotspots in South America month period, respectively 227,159 for GOES WF ABBA, 28,359 for MODIS L2 and 13,334 for AVHRR indicate that although these satellites observe

  20. 40 CFR 52.474 - Base Year Emissions Inventory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... revision to the District of Columbia State Implementation Plan the 1990 base year emission inventory for... revision to the District of Columbia State Implementation Plan an amendment to the 1990 base year emission... Implementation Plan the 2002 base year emissions inventory for the District of Columbia portion of the...

  1. 40 CFR 52.474 - Base Year Emissions Inventory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... revision to the District of Columbia State Implementation Plan the 1990 base year emission inventory for... revision to the District of Columbia State Implementation Plan an amendment to the 1990 base year emission... Implementation Plan the 2002 base year emissions inventory for the District of Columbia portion of the...

  2. 40 CFR 52.474 - Base Year Emissions Inventory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... revision to the District of Columbia State Implementation Plan the 1990 base year emission inventory for... revision to the District of Columbia State Implementation Plan an amendment to the 1990 base year emission... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Base Year Emissions Inventory....

  3. EMISSION INVENTORIES TO SUPPORT DEVELOPMENT OF RULE ON INTERSTATE TRANSPORT CONTRIBUTING TO PM2.5 NAAQS NONATTAINMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The product will be a set of historical and projected emission inventories. The projected inventories will represent a number of alternative regulatory scenarios. Inventories will be in the form required by CMAQ/Models-3 and other air quality models, and will be accompanied by n...

  4. Development of an Anthropogenic Carbon Dioxide Emissions Inventory in Support of the INTEX-NA Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, J.; Choi, Y.; Vay, S. A.

    2006-12-01

    The Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment (INTEX-NA) is a major NASA science campaign envisioned to understand the transport and transformation of gases and aerosols on transcontinental and intercontinental scales and their impact on air quality and climate. During the campaign series, high temporal resolution (1 Hz) in situ CO2 data were recorded aboard the NASA DC-8 aircraft over sparsely sampled areas of North America and adjacent ocean basins. When coupled with other simultaneous tracer measurements on the DC-8, the in situ CO2 observations provide valuable regional-scale information on carbon sources and sinks. In contrast to the INTEX-NA airborne observations, supporting meteorological data and available modeling tools, the bottom-up U.S. CO2 emissions inventory is not at the same level of sophistication. This is mainly because the traditional focus of monitoring atmospheric CO2 behavior has been directed towards global warming research at both national and international scales rather than at the regional level. To fill the gap between these data scales and improve our understating on fine-scale carbon behavior, we developed a bottom-up modeling inventory in support of INTEX-NA. The Inventory Data Analyzer (IDA) format, which has been widely used for the U.S. EPA's modeling version of the National Emissions Inventory (NEI), was selected as our inventory format so that we can use the emissions processing and air quality modeling tools developed for various scientific and regulatory applications. As a first step, a state-level CO2 emissions inventory was developed using the U.S. EPA's State Tool for Estimating Greenhouse Gas Emissions (i.e. State Inventory Tool, or SIT). We then allocate a state level, database format inventory into a county/point level, IDA format inventory. Subsequently, the Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE) emissions modeling/processing system was used to create a higher resolution, gridded emissions inventory that can

  5. Biogenic emission measurement and inventories determination of biogenic emissions in the eastern United States and Texas and comparison with biogenic emission inventories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warneke, C.; de Gouw, J. A.; Del Negro, L.; Brioude, J.; McKeen, S.; Stark, H.; Kuster, W. C.; Goldan, P. D.; Trainer, M.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Guenther, A. B.; Hansel, A.; Wisthaler, A.; Atlas, E.; Holloway, J. S.; Ryerson, T. B.; Peischl, J.; Huey, L. G.; Hanks, A. T. Case

    2010-04-01

    During the NOAA Southern Oxidant Study 1999 (SOS1999), Texas Air Quality Study 2000 (TexAQS2000), International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation (ICARTT2004), and Texas Air Quality Study 2006 (TexAQS2006) campaigns, airborne measurements of isoprene and monoterpenes were made in the eastern United States and in Texas, and the results are used to evaluate the biogenic emission inventories BEIS3.12, BEIS3.13, MEGAN2, and WM2001. Two methods are used for the evaluation. First, the emissions are directly estimated from the ambient isoprene and monoterpene measurements assuming a well-mixed boundary layer and are compared with the emissions from the inventories extracted along the flight tracks. Second, BEIS3.12 is incorporated into the detailed transport model FLEXPART, which allows the isoprene and monoterpene mixing ratios to be calculated and compared to the measurements. The overall agreement for all inventories is within a factor of 2 and the two methods give consistent results. MEGAN2 is in most cases higher, and BEIS3.12 and BEIS3.13 lower than the emissions determined from the measurements. Regions with clear discrepancies are identified. For example, an isoprene hot spot to the northwest of Houston, Texas, was expected from BEIS3 but not observed in the measurements. Interannual differences in emissions of about a factor of 2 were observed in Texas between 2000 and 2006.

  6. A new inventory of ammonia emissions from Irish agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyde, B. P.; Carton, O. T.; O'Toole, P.; Misselbrook, T. H.

    Agriculture plays a vital role in the Irish economy, accounting for 3.5% of the gross domestic product (GDP) in 2000. Grassland farming and, in particular, cattle rearing and dairying accounts for more than 90% of farming activity. In addition, there have been significant increases in the number of sheep, pigs and poultry over the last twenty years. As a consequence, gaseous nitrogen (N) emissions have shown a clear upward trend. Following the adoption of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) Gothenburg protocol (Protocol to the 1979 convention on long-range transboundary air pollution to abate acidification, eutrophication and ground-level ozone. United Nations Economic Commissions for Europe (UNECE), Geneva.), Ireland has to achieve a 9% reduction in national ammonia (NH 3) emissions between 1990 and 2010. The agricultural sector accounts for virtually all NH 3 emissions in Ireland. It is on this basis that a new inventory of NH 3 emissions from agriculture has been produced. This paper describes the adoption of the UK national inventory model to Irish agricultural systems, the results of model calculations and the measures available to enable compliance with national targets and areas within the inventory, which require further investigation. Estimated total emissions from Irish agriculture were 89.9 and 91.8 kt NH 3-N for 1991 and 2010, respectively. Cattle farming accounts for more than 75% of total emissions. The largest emission factors found included 46.9 g NH 3-N lu -1 d -1 for cattle housing, 29.5 g NH 3-N lu -1 d -1 for pig housing and 150 g NH 3-N lu -1 d -1 for housed broilers (lu being equivalent to 500 kg live weight). In addition, model predictions for the year 2010 showed that without any abatement strategies being implemented, NH 3 emissions would exceed the agreed national emission reduction target by 12%. It was also found that strategies for reducing emissions from the land spreading of manure offer the greatest potential to

  7. User access to the MAP3S source emissions inventory

    SciTech Connect

    Benkovitz, C M; Evans, V A

    1981-03-01

    An emissions inventory based on data obtained from the National Emissions Data System (NEDS), the Federal Power Commission (FPC), Environment Canada, and other agencies was compiled by the MAP3S Central Data Coordination at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Pertinent data was brought together, collated, and loaded into computerized data bases using SYSTEM 2000 as the data base management system. These data bases are available to interested users for interactive scanning or batch retrieval. The emissions inventory consists of two distinct sections: a point source inventory and an area source inventory. The point source inventory covers the continental US and Canada; information is kept at the individual source level. The area source inventory covers the continental US; information is kept on a county basis. Work is in progress to obtain a Canadian area source inventory based on census divisions.

  8. Spatially resolved flux measurements of NOx from London suggest significantly higher emissions than predicted by inventories.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Adam R; Lee, James D; Misztal, Pawel K; Metzger, Stefan; Shaw, Marvin D; Lewis, Alastair C; Purvis, Ruth M; Carslaw, David C; Goldstein, Allen H; Hewitt, C Nicholas; Davison, Brian; Beevers, Sean D; Karl, Thomas G

    2016-07-18

    To date, direct validation of city-wide emissions inventories for air pollutants has been difficult or impossible. However, recent technological innovations now allow direct measurement of pollutant fluxes from cities, for comparison with emissions inventories, which are themselves commonly used for prediction of current and future air quality and to help guide abatement strategies. Fluxes of NOx were measured using the eddy-covariance technique from an aircraft flying at low altitude over London. The highest fluxes were observed over central London, with lower fluxes measured in suburban areas. A footprint model was used to estimate the spatial area from which the measured emissions occurred. This allowed comparison of the flux measurements to the UK's National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory (NAEI) for NOx, with scaling factors used to account for the actual time of day, day of week and month of year of the measurement. The comparison suggests significant underestimation of NOx emissions in London by the NAEI, mainly due to its under-representation of real world road traffic emissions. A comparison was also carried out with an enhanced version of the inventory using real world driving emission factors and road measurement data taken from the London Atmospheric Emissions Inventory (LAEI). The measurement to inventory agreement was substantially improved using the enhanced version, showing the importance of fully accounting for road traffic, which is the dominant NOx emission source in London. In central London there was still an underestimation by the inventory of 30-40% compared with flux measurements, suggesting significant improvements are still required in the NOx emissions inventory. PMID:27098421

  9. CHANGES TO THE BIOGENIC EMISSION INVENTORY SYSTEM VERSION 3 (BEIS3)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This extended abstract describes recent changes to the Biogenic Emissions Inventory System (BEIS3) that were completed in preparation for the 2005 release of the Community Multiscale Air Quality model. Changes to the model affect the calculated emissions of isoprene and monoterp...

  10. 40 CFR 52.1075 - Base year emissions inventory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Maryland Implementation Plan the 1990 base year emission inventory for the Washington Metropolitan... (CO). (c) EPA approves as a revision to the Maryland State Implementation Plan the 1990 base year... revision to the Maryland State Implementation Plan the 1990 base year emission inventories for the...

  11. 40 CFR 52.1075 - Base year emissions inventory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Maryland Implementation Plan the 1990 base year emission inventory for the Washington Metropolitan... (CO). (c) EPA approves as a revision to the Maryland State Implementation Plan the 1990 base year... revision to the Maryland State Implementation Plan the 1990 base year emission inventories for the...

  12. 40 CFR 52.1075 - 1990 base year emission inventory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 1990 base year emission inventory. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Maryland § 52.1075 1990 base year... year emission inventory for the Baltimore Metropolitan Statistical Area, submitted by the...

  13. 40 CFR 62.4622 - Emission inventories, source surveillance, reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emission inventories, source surveillance, reports. 62.4622 Section 62.4622 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...) § 62.4622 Emission inventories, source surveillance, reports. (a) The requirements of § 60.25(a)...

  14. 40 CFR 62.4622 - Emission inventories, source surveillance, reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emission inventories, source surveillance, reports. 62.4622 Section 62.4622 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...) § 62.4622 Emission inventories, source surveillance, reports. (a) The requirements of § 60.25(a)...

  15. 40 CFR 62.4622 - Emission inventories, source surveillance, reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Emission inventories, source surveillance, reports. 62.4622 Section 62.4622 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...) § 62.4622 Emission inventories, source surveillance, reports. (a) The requirements of § 60.25(a)...

  16. 40 CFR 52.2425 - Base Year Emissions Inventory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Virginia § 52.2425 Base Year Emissions Inventory. (a) EPA approves as a revision to the Virginia Implementation Plan the 1990 base year emission inventory for the Washington Metropolitan Statistical Area, submitted by Director,...

  17. 40 CFR 52.2425 - 1990 Base Year Emission Inventory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Virginia § 52.2425 1990 Base Year Emission Inventory. (a) EPA approves as a revision to the Virginia Implementation Plan the 1990 base year emission inventory for the Washington Metropolitan Statistical Area, submitted by Director,...

  18. 40 CFR 52.2425 - Base Year Emissions Inventory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Virginia § 52.2425 Base Year Emissions Inventory. (a) EPA approves as a revision to the Virginia Implementation Plan the 1990 base year emission inventory for the Washington Metropolitan Statistical Area, submitted by Director,...

  19. 40 CFR 52.2425 - 1990 Base Year Emission Inventory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Virginia § 52.2425 1990 Base Year Emission Inventory. (a) EPA approves as a revision to the Virginia Implementation Plan the 1990 base year emission inventory for the Washington Metropolitan Statistical Area, submitted by Director,...

  20. 40 CFR 52.2425 - Base Year Emissions Inventory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Virginia § 52.2425 Base Year Emissions Inventory. (a) EPA approves as a revision to the Virginia Implementation Plan the 1990 base year emission inventory for the Washington Metropolitan Statistical Area, submitted by Director,...

  1. 40 CFR 52.2036 - 1990 base year emission inventory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 1990 base year emission inventory. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Pennsylvania § 52.2036 1990 base... the 1990 base year carbon monoxide emission inventory for Philadelphia County, submitted by...

  2. 40 CFR 52.2036 - Base year emissions inventory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Base year emissions inventory. 52.2036... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Pennsylvania § 52.2036 Base year... base year carbon monoxide emission inventory for Philadelphia County, submitted by the...

  3. 40 CFR 60.25 - Emission inventories, source surveillance, reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... electronic documents shall comply with the requirements of 40 CFR part 3—(Electronic reporting). (2) Periodic... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission inventories, source... State Plans for Designated Facilities § 60.25 Emission inventories, source surveillance, reports....

  4. 40 CFR 62.08 - Emission inventories and source surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emission inventories and source... General Provisions § 62.08 Emission inventories and source surveillance. (a) Each subpart identifies the plan provisions for source surveillance which are disapproved, and sets forth the...

  5. 40 CFR 60.25 - Emission inventories, source surveillance, reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... electronic documents shall comply with the requirements of 40 CFR part 3—(Electronic reporting). (2) Periodic... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emission inventories, source... State Plans for Designated Facilities § 60.25 Emission inventories, source surveillance, reports....

  6. Projection of hazardous air pollutant emissions to future years.

    PubMed

    Strum, Madeleine; Cook, Rich; Thurman, James; Ensley, Darrell; Pope, Anne; Palma, Ted; Mason, Richard; Michaels, Harvey; Shedd, Stephen

    2006-08-01

    Projecting a hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emission inventory to future years can provide valuable information for air quality management activities such as prediction of program successes and helping to assess future priorities. We have projected the 1999 National Emission Inventory for HAPs to numerous future years up to 2020 using the following tools and data: the Emissions Modeling System for Hazardous Air Pollutants (EMS-HAP), the National Mobile Inventory Model (NMIM), emission reduction information resulting from national standards and economic growth data. This paper discusses these projection tools, the underlying data, limitations and the results. The results presented include total HAP emissions (sum of pollutants) and toxicity-weighted HAP emissions for cancer and respiratory noncancer effects. Weighting emissions by toxicity does not consider fate, transport, or location and behavior of receptor populations and can only be used to estimate relative risks of direct emissions. We show these projections, along with historical emission trends. The data show that stationary source programs under Section 112 of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and mobile source programs which reduce hydrocarbon and particulate matter emissions, as well as toxic emission performance standards for reformulated gasoline, have contributed to and are expected to continue to contribute to large declines in air toxics emissions, in spite of economic and population growth. We have also analyzed the particular HAPs that dominate the source sectors to better understand the historical and future year trends and the differences across sectors. PMID:16448686

  7. Locating and estimating air emissions from sources of nickel

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-03-01

    To assist groups interested in inventorying air emissions of various potentially toxic substances, EPA is preparing a series of documents such as this to compile available information on sources and emissions of these substances. This document deals specifically with nickel. Its intended audience includes Federal, State and local air pollution personnel and others interested in locating potential emitters of nickel and in making gross estimates of air emissions therefrom. This document presents information on (1) the types of sources that may emit nickel, (2) process variations and release points that may be expected within these sources, and (3) available emissions information indicating the potential for nickel release into the air from each operation.

  8. On the Quality of Global Emission Inventories : Approaches, Methodologies, Input Data and Uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivier, Johannes Gerardus Jozef

    2002-09-01

    This thesis deals with methodological and practical aspects of compiling global emission inventories in relation to their use. The first part of the thesis describes quality aspects from the perspective of the user: i.e. definition, determining factors, practical applications and quantitative uncertainty estimates. Quality aspects discussed are transparency, consistency, completeness, comparability and accuracy. The practical applications refer to (a) the development and improvement of bottom-up global emission inventories in the framework of the Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) that assist in policy and scientific applications and (b) with the development of methods and guidelines for compiling, reporting and reviewing national greenhouse gas emission inventories. In the second part, a description is given of methods and data sources used for compiling global emission inventories in practice, and reviewing the uncertainties and other quality elements to be considered. The role and importance of validation and verification of the emission inventory is also explained. Inventories of global emissions of pollutants are made for specific scientific and policy purposes. Various approaches and methods are available for inventory construction. Provision of a quality label - in terms of accuracy or uncertainty in a broad sense - to the data of such emission inventories is required to judge their applicability. Research questions were: (a) how does a user define the 'quality' of an inventory; (b) what determines the quality of a global emission inventory; (c) how can inventory quality be achieved in practice and expressed in quantitative terms ('uncertainty'); and (d) what is the preferred approach for compiling a global emission inventory, given the practical limitations and the desired inventory quality? These questions were explored by analysing recent insights gained from knowledge on sources of global emissions to air of greenhouse gases and of

  9. ESTIMATING UNCERTAINTY OF EMISSIONS INVENTORIES: WHAT HAS BEEN DONE/WHAT NEEDS TO BE DONE.

    SciTech Connect

    BENKOVITZ,C.M.

    1998-10-01

    Developing scientifically defensible quantitative estimates of the uncertainty of atmospheric emissions inventories has been a ''gleam in researchers' eyes'' since atmospheric chemical transport and transformation models (CTMs) started to be used to study ''air pollution''. Originally, the compilation of these inventories was done as part of the development and application of the models by researchers whose expertise usually did not include the ''art'' of emissions estimations. In general, the smaller the effort spent on compiling the inventories the more effort could be placed on the model development, application and analysis. Yet model results are intimately tied to the accuracy of the emissions data; no model, however accurately the atmospheric physical and chemical processes are represented, will give reliable representation of air concentrations if the emissions data are flawed.

  10. Development of Future Scenario Emission Inventories for East Asia in Support of Multiple Modeling Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y.; Woo, J. H.; Choi, K. C.; Lee, J. B.; Song, C. K.; Kim, S. K.; Hong, J.; Hong, S. C.; Zhang, Q.; Hong, C.; Tong, D.

    2015-12-01

    Future emission scenarios based on up-to-date regional socio-economic and control policy information were developed in support of climate-air quality integrated modeling research over East Asia. Two IPCC-participated Integrated Assessment Models(IAMs) were used to developed those scenario pathways. The two emission processing systems, KU-EPS and SMOKE-Asia, were used to convert these future scenario emissions to comprehensive chemical transport model-ready form. The NIER/KU-CREATE (Comprehensive Regional Emissions inventory for Atmospheric Transport Experiment) served as the regional base-year emission inventory. For anthropogenic emissions, it has 54 fuel classes, 201 sub-sectors and 13 pollutants, including CO2, CH4, N2O, SO2, NOx, CO, NMVOC, NH3, OC, BC, PM10, PM2.5, and mercury. Fast energy growth and aggressive penetration of the control measures make emissions projection very active for East Asia. Despite of more stringent air pollution control policies by the governments, however, air quality over the region seems not been improved as much - even worse in many cases. The needs of more scientific understanding of inter-relationship among emissions, transport, chemistry over the region are very high to effectively protect public health and ecosystems against ozone, fine particles, and other toxic pollutants in the air. After developing these long-term future emissions, therefore, we also tried to apply our future scenarios to develop the present emissions inventory for chemical weather forecasting and aircraft field campaign. On site, we will present; 1) the future scenario development framework and process methodologies, 2) initial development results of the future emission pathways, 3) present emission inventories from short-term projection, and 4) air quality modeling performance improvements over the region.

  11. A comparative analysis of two highly spatially resolved European atmospheric emission inventories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, J.; Guevara, M.; Baldasano, J. M.; Tchepel, O.; Schaap, M.; Miranda, A. I.; Borrego, C.

    2013-08-01

    A reliable emissions inventory is highly important for air quality modelling applications, especially at regional or local scales, which require high resolutions. Consequently, higher resolution emission inventories have been developed that are suitable for regional air quality modelling. This research performs an inter-comparative analysis of different spatial disaggregation methodologies of atmospheric emission inventories. This study is based on two different European emission inventories with different spatial resolutions: 1) the EMEP (European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme) inventory and 2) an emission inventory developed by the TNO (Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research). These two emission inventories were converted into three distinct gridded emission datasets as follows: (i) the EMEP emission inventory was disaggregated by area (EMEParea) and (ii) following a more complex methodology (HERMES-DIS - High-Elective Resolution Modelling Emissions System - DISaggregation module) to understand and evaluate the influence of different disaggregation methods; and (iii) the TNO gridded emissions, which are based on different emission data sources and different disaggregation methods. A predefined common grid with a spatial resolution of 12 × 12 km2 was used to compare the three datasets spatially. The inter-comparative analysis was performed by source sector (SNAP - Selected Nomenclature for Air Pollution) with emission totals for selected pollutants. It included the computation of difference maps (to focus on the spatial variability of emission differences) and a linear regression analysis to calculate the coefficients of determination and to quantitatively measure differences. From the spatial analysis, greater differences were found for residential/commercial combustion (SNAP02), solvent use (SNAP06) and road transport (SNAP07). These findings were related to the different spatial disaggregation that was conducted by the TNO and HERMES

  12. Identifying and characterizing major emission point sources as a basis for geospatial distribution of mercury emissions inventories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steenhuisen, Frits; Wilson, Simon J.

    2015-07-01

    Mercury is a global pollutant that poses threats to ecosystem and human health. Due to its global transport, mercury contamination is found in regions of the Earth that are remote from major emissions areas, including the Polar regions. Global anthropogenic emission inventories identify important sectors and industries responsible for emissions at a national level; however, to be useful for air transport modelling, more precise information on the locations of emission is required. This paper describes the methodology applied, and the results of work that was conducted to assign anthropogenic mercury emissions to point sources as part of geospatial mapping of the 2010 global anthropogenic mercury emissions inventory prepared by AMAP/UNEP. Major point-source emission sectors addressed in this work account for about 850 tonnes of the emissions included in the 2010 inventory. This work allocated more than 90% of these emissions to some 4600 identified point source locations, including significantly more point source locations in Africa, Asia, Australia and South America than had been identified during previous work to geospatially-distribute the 2005 global inventory. The results demonstrate the utility and the limitations of using existing, mainly public domain resources to accomplish this work. Assumptions necessary to make use of selected online resources are discussed, as are artefacts that can arise when these assumptions are applied to assign (national-sector) emissions estimates to point sources in various countries and regions. Notwithstanding the limitations of the available information, the value of this procedure over alternative methods commonly used to geo-spatially distribute emissions, such as use of 'proxy' datasets to represent emissions patterns, is illustrated. Improvements in information that would facilitate greater use of these methods in future work to assign emissions to point-sources are discussed. These include improvements to both national

  13. INVENTORY OF CURRENT INDOOR AIR QUALITY-RELATED RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Inventory lists a total of 171 current or recently completed projects relating to indoor air quality. It covers six specific areas of research: monitoring, instrumentation, health effects, control technology, risk assessment and pollutant characterization. It is cross-referen...

  14. 75 FR 57275 - Information Collection; Supplier Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory Pilot

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-20

    ... ADMINISTRATION Information Collection; Supplier Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory Pilot AGENCY: Federal... Supplier Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions Inventory pilot. Public comments are particularly invited on... Information Collection 3090- 00XX; Supplier Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory Pilot, by any of the...

  15. Development and validation of a lead emission inventory for the Greater Cairo area

    PubMed Central

    Safar, Zeinab; Labib, Mounir W.; Gertler, Alan W.

    2013-01-01

    Studies that investigate the environmental health risks to Cairo residents invariably conclude that lead is one of the area’s major health hazards. The Cairo Air Improvement Project (CAIP), which was implemented by a team led by Chemonics International, funded by USAID in partnership with the Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (EEAA), started developing a lead emission inventory for the greater Cairo (GC) area in 1998. The inventory contains a list by major source of the annual lead emissions in the GC area. Uses of the inventory and associated database include developing effective regulatory and control strategies, assessing emissions trends, and conducting modeling exercises. This paper describes the development of the current lead emissions inventory (1999–2010), along with an approach to develop site specific emission factors and measurements to validate the inventory. This paper discusses the major sources of lead in the GC area, which include lead smelters, Mazout (heavy fuel oil) combustion, lead manufacturing batteries factories, copper foundries, and cement factories. Included will be the trend in the lead emissions inventory with regard to the production capacity of each source category. In addition, the lead ambient measurements from 1999 through 2010 are described and compared with the results of Source Attribution Studies (SAS) conducted in 1999, 2002, and 2010. Due to EEAA/CAIP efforts, a remarkable decrease in more than 90% in lead emissions was attained for 2007. PMID:25685523

  16. ISS Ambient Air Quality: Updated Inventory of Known Aerosol Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Marit

    2014-01-01

    Spacecraft cabin air quality is of fundamental importance to crew health, with concerns encompassing both gaseous contaminants and particulate matter. Little opportunity exists for direct measurement of aerosol concentrations on the International Space Station (ISS), however, an aerosol source model was developed for the purpose of filtration and ventilation systems design. This model has successfully been applied, however, since the initial effort, an increase in the number of crewmembers from 3 to 6 and new processes on board the ISS necessitate an updated aerosol inventory to accurately reflect the current ambient aerosol conditions. Results from recent analyses of dust samples from ISS, combined with a literature review provide new predicted aerosol emission rates in terms of size-segregated mass and number concentration. Some new aerosol sources have been considered and added to the existing array of materials. The goal of this work is to provide updated filtration model inputs which can verify that the current ISS filtration system is adequate and filter lifetime targets are met. This inventory of aerosol sources is applicable to other spacecraft, and becomes more important as NASA considers future long term exploration missions, which will preclude the opportunity for resupply of filtration products.

  17. Commercial marine vessel contributions to emission inventories. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-07

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 require the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to conduct a survey of emissions from combustion engines associates with non-road vehicles and stationary sources. Among the emission source categories under scrutiny of the EPA are commercial marine vessels. This group of sources includes revenue vessels operated on US ports and waterways in such diverse pursuits as international and domestic trade, port and ship service, offshore and coastal industry, and passenger transport. For the purposes of the study, EPA is assessing commercial marine vessel operations at selected ports around the country which are characterized by a high level of commercial marine vessel activity. Booz-Allen has been retained by the EPA to assist in developing emission inventories from marine vessels for up to six ports, based on vessel arrival/departure data, are believed to exhibit high levels of marine generated emissions. Booz-Allen developed a listing of the top 20 major ports in terms of total vessel activity (as measured by annual tonnage of cargo and annual vessel calls).

  18. Air pollution emission factors. (Latest citations from the NTIS database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning emission factors for a variety of industrial, stationary, and mobile sources. Emissions inventories are discussed in terms of specific compounds, as well as by source type. Computer simulations utilizing emission factors in air pollution impact studies are also included. Excluded are NAPA Emissions Inventories and Toxic Release Inventories by state. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  19. Air pollution emission factors. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning emission factors for a variety of industrial, stationary, and mobile sources. Emissions inventories are discussed in terms of specific compounds, as well as by source type. Computer simulations utilizing emission factors in air pollution impact studies are also included. Excluded are NAPA Emissions Inventories and Toxic Release Inventories by state.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  20. Air pollution emission factors. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). NewSearch

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning emission factors for a variety of industrial, stationary, and mobile sources. Emissions inventories are discussed in terms of specific compounds, as well as by source type. Computer simulations utilizing emission factors in air pollution impact studies are also included. Excluded are NAPA Emissions Inventories and Toxic Release Inventories by state. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  1. Air pollution emission factors. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning emission factors for a variety of industrial, stationary, and mobile sources. Emissions inventories are discussed in terms of specific compounds, as well as by source type. Computer simulations utilizing emission factors in air pollution impact studies are also included. Excluded are NAPA Emissions Inventories and Toxic Release Inventories by state.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  2. 40 CFR 52.76 - 1990 Base Year Emission Inventory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... pollutant carbon monoxide. (b) EPA approves a revision to the Alaska State Implementation Plan, submitted on... Inventory. (a) EPA approves as a revision to the Alaska State Implementation Plan the 1990 Base Year Carbon Monoxide Emission Inventory for the Anchorage and Fairbanks areas designated as nonattainment for...

  3. 40 CFR 52.76 - 1990 Base Year Emission Inventory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... pollutant carbon monoxide. (b) EPA approves a revision to the Alaska State Implementation Plan, submitted on... Inventory. (a) EPA approves as a revision to the Alaska State Implementation Plan the 1990 Base Year Carbon Monoxide Emission Inventory for the Anchorage and Fairbanks areas designated as nonattainment for...

  4. 40 CFR 52.76 - 1990 Base Year Emission Inventory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... pollutant carbon monoxide. (b) EPA approves a revision to the Alaska State Implementation Plan, submitted on... Inventory. (a) EPA approves as a revision to the Alaska State Implementation Plan the 1990 Base Year Carbon Monoxide Emission Inventory for the Anchorage and Fairbanks areas designated as nonattainment for...

  5. 40 CFR 52.76 - 1990 Base Year Emission Inventory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... pollutant carbon monoxide. (b) EPA approves a revision to the Alaska State Implementation Plan, submitted on... Inventory. (a) EPA approves as a revision to the Alaska State Implementation Plan the 1990 Base Year Carbon Monoxide Emission Inventory for the Anchorage and Fairbanks areas designated as nonattainment for...

  6. DEVELOPMENT AND SELECTION OF AMMONIA EMISSION FACTORS FOR THE 1985 NAPAP EMISSIONS INVENTORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report, prepared for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP), identifies the most appropriate ammonia (NH3) emission factors available for inclusion in the 1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory. H3 emission factors developed for several new NAPAP source categories...

  7. GLOBAL INVENTORY OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSIONS FROM ANTHROPOGENIC SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the development of a global inventory of anthropogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. t includes VOC estimates for seven classes of VOCs: paraffins, olefins, aromatics (benzene, toluene, xylene), formaldehyde, other aldehydes, other aromatics, and ...

  8. The wildland fire emission inventory: western United States emission estimates and an evaluation of uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbanski, S. P.; Hao, W. M.; Nordgren, B.

    2011-12-01

    Biomass burning emission inventories serve as critical input for atmospheric chemical transport models that are used to understand the role of biomass fires in the chemical composition of the atmosphere, air quality, and the climate system. Significant progress has been achieved in the development of regional and global biomass burning emission inventories over the past decade using satellite remote sensing technology for fire detection and burned area mapping. However, agreement among biomass burning emission inventories is frequently poor. Furthermore, the uncertainties of the emission estimates are typically not well characterized, particularly at the spatio-temporal scales pertinent to regional air quality modeling. We present the Wildland Fire Emission Inventory (WFEI), a high resolution model for non-agricultural open biomass burning (hereafter referred to as wildland fires, WF) in the contiguous United States (CONUS). The model combines observations from the MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors on the Terra and Aqua satellites, meteorological analyses, fuel loading maps, an emission factor database, and fuel condition and fuel consumption models to estimate emissions from WF. WFEI was used to estimate emissions of CO (ECO) and PM2.5 (EPM2.5) for the western United States from 2003-2008. The uncertainties in the inventory estimates of ECO and EPM2.5 (uECO and uEPM2.5, respectively) have been explored across spatial and temporal scales relevant to regional and global modeling applications. In order to evaluate the uncertainty in our emission estimates across multiple scales we used a figure of merit, the half mass uncertainty, ũEX (where X = CO or PM2.5), defined such that for a given aggregation level 50% of total emissions occurred from elements with uEX ũEX. The sensitivity of the WFEI estimates of ECO and EPM2.5 to uncertainties in mapped fuel loading, fuel consumption, burned area and emission factors have also been examined

  9. 40 CFR 52.2086 - Emission inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... precursors which are volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, and carbon monoxide. The inventory covers... volatile organic compounds and nitrogen oxides, and cover point, area, non-road mobile, on-road mobile...

  10. Working Toward Policy-Relevant Air Quality Emissions Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holloway, T.

    2010-12-01

    Though much work has been done to develop accurate chemical emission inventories, few publicly available inventories are appropriate for realistic policy analysis. Emissions from the electricity and transportation sectors, in particular, respond in complex ways to policy, technology, and energy use change. Many widely used inventories, such as the EPA National Emissions Inventory, are well-suited for modeling current air quality, but do not have the specificity needed to address "what if?" questions. Changes in electricity demand, fuel prices, new power sources, and emission controls all influence the emissions from regional power production, requiring a plant-by-plant assessment to capture the spatially explicit impacts. Similarly, land use, freight distribution, or driving behavior will yield differentiated transportation emissions for urban areas, suburbs, and rural highways. We here present results from three recent research projects at the University of Wisconsin—Madison, where bottom-up emission inventories for electricity, freight transport, and urban vehicle use were constructed to support policy-relevant air quality research. These three studies include: 1) Using the MyPower electricity dispatch model to calculate emissions and air quality impacts of Renewable Portfolio Standards and other carbon-management strategies; 2) Using advanced vehicle and commodity flow data from the Federal Highway Administration to evaluate the potential to shift commodities from truck to rail (assuming expanded infrastructure), and assess a range of alternative fuel suggestions; and 3) Working with urban planners to connect urban density with vehicle use to evaluate the air quality impacts of smart-growth in major Midwest cities. Drawing on the results of these three studies, and on challenges overcome in their execution, we discuss the current state of policy-relevant emission dataset generation, as well as techniques and attributes that need to be further refined in order

  11. 40 CFR Appendix D to Part 60 - Required Emission Inventory Information

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... D Appendix D to Part 60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES (CONTINUED) Pt. 60, App. D Appendix D to Part 60—Required Emission Inventory Information (a) Completed NEDS point source form(s)...

  12. 40 CFR Appendix D to Part 60 - Required Emission Inventory Information

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... D Appendix D to Part 60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES (CONTINUED) Pt. 60, App. D Appendix D to Part 60—Required Emission Inventory Information (a) Completed NEDS point source form(s)...

  13. 40 CFR Appendix D to Part 60 - Required Emission Inventory Information

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... D Appendix D to Part 60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES (CONTINUED) Pt. 60, App. D Appendix D to Part 60—Required Emission Inventory Information (a) Completed NEDS point source form(s)...

  14. “Summary of the Emission Inventories compiled for the AQMEII phase 2 Simulations”

    EPA Science Inventory

    We present a summary of the emission inventories from the US, Canada, and Mexico developed for the second phase of the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII). Activities in this second phase are focused on the application and evaluation of coupled meteorol...

  15. Global Gridded Emission Inventories of Pentabrominated Diphenyl Ether (PeBDE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yi-Fan; Tian, Chongguo; Yang, Meng; Jia, Hongliang; Ma, Jianmin; Li, Dacheng

    2010-05-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are flame retardants widely used in many everyday products such as cars, furniture, textiles, and other electronic equipment. The commercial PBDEs have three major technical mixtures: penta-(PeBDE), octa-(OBDE) and decabromodiphenyl ethers (DeBDE). PeBDE is a mixture of several BDE congeners, such as BDE-47, -99, and -100, and has been included as a new member of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) under the 2009 Stockholm Convention. In order to produce gridded emission inventories of PeBDE on a global scale, information of production, consumption, emission, and physiochemical properties of PeBDE have been searched for published papers, government reports, and internet publications. A methodology to estimate the emissions of PeBDE has been developed and global gridded emission inventories of 2 major congener in PeBDE mixture, BDE-47 and -99, on a 1 degree by 1degree latitude/longitude resolution for 2005 have been compiled. Using these emission inventories as input data, the Canadian Model for Environmental Transport of Organochlorine Pesticides (CanMETOP) model was used to simulate the transport of these chemicals and their concentrations in air were calculated for the year of 2005. The modeled air concentration of BDE-47 and -99 were compared with the monitoring air concentrations of these two congeners in the same year obtained from renowned international/national monitoring programs, such as Global Atmospheric Passive Sampling (GAPS), the Integrated Atmospheric Deposition Network (IADN), and the Chinese POPs Soil and Air Monitoring Program (SAMP), and significant correlations between the modeled results and the monitoring data were found, indicating the high quality of the produced emission inventories of BDE-47 and -99. Keywords: Pentabrominated Diphenyl Ether (PeBDE), Emission Inventories, Global, Model

  16. An emission inventory of sulfur from anthropogenic sources in Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirsat, S. V.; Graf, H. F.

    2009-05-01

    This paper presents first results of a comprehensive emission inventory of chemical species from anthropogenic activities (power generation, vehicles, ships and aircraft) in Antarctica, covering the 2004-2005 period. The inventory is based on estimated emission rates of fuel consumption provided by some of the Antarctic research stations. Since the emission sources have different modes of operation and use a variety of fuel, the emission flux rate of chemical species is calculated by multiplying the fuel consumption value with the density of fuel and appropriate emission factors. A separate inventory is prepared for each anthropogenic emission source in Antarctica. Depending on the type of operation, emission rates of SO2, and BC (Black Carbon, from shipping only) have been calculated using the above technique. However, only results of SO2 emissions from each source are presented here. Emission inventory maps of SO2 depicting the track/path taken by each mobile source are shown. The total annual SO2 is 158 Mg from power generation and vehicle operations, 3873 Mg from ships and 56 Mg from aircraft for 2004-2005 and these values undergo strong seasonality following the human activity in Antarctica. Though these figures are small when compared to the emissions at most other regions of the world, they are an indication that human presence in Antarctica leads to at least local pollution. The sources are mainly line and point sources and thus the local pollution potentially is relatively strong.

  17. An emission inventory of sulfur from anthropogenic sources in Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirsat, S. V.; Graf, H. F.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents first results of a comprehensive emission inventory of chemical species from anthropogenic activities (power generation, vehicles, ships and aircraft) in Antarctica, covering the 2004-2005 period. The inventory is based on estimated emission rates of fuel consumption provided by some of the Antarctic research stations. Since the emission sources have different modes of operation and use a variety of fuel, the emission flux rate of chemical species is calculated by multiplying the fuel consumption value with the density of fuel and appropriate emission factors. A separate inventory is prepared for each anthropogenic emission source in Antarctica. Depending on the type of operation, emission rates of SO2, and BC (Black Carbon, from shipping only) have been calculated using the above technique. However, only results of SO2 emissions from each source are presented here. Emission inventory maps of SO2 depicting the track/path taken by each mobile source are shown. The total annual SO2 is 158 Mg from power generation and vehicle operations, 3873 Mg from ships and 56 Mg from aircraft for 2004-2005 and these values undergo strong seasonality following the human activity in Antarctica. Though these figures are small when compared to the emissions at most other regions of the world, they are an indication that human presence in Antarctica leads to at least local pollution. The sources are mainly line and point sources and thus the local pollution potentially is relatively strong.

  18. Global inventory of volatile organic compound emissions from anthropogenic sources

    SciTech Connect

    Piccot, S.D.; Watson, J.J.; Jones, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    The paper discusses the development of a global inventory of anthropogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. It includes VOC estimates for seven classes of VOCs: paraffins, olefins, aromatics (benzene, toluene, xylene), formaldehyde, other aldehydes, other aromatics, and marginally reactive compounds. These classes represent general classes of VOC compounds that possess different chemical reactivities in the atmosphere. The inventory shows total global anthropogenic VOC emissions of about 110,000 Gg/yr, about 10% lower than global VOC inventories developed by other researchers. The study identifies the U.S. as the largest emitter (21% of the total global VOC), followed by the USSR, China, India, and Japan. Globally, fuel wood combustion and savanna burning were among the largest VOC emission sources, accounting for over 35% of the total global VOC emissions. The production and use of gasoline, refuse disposal activities, and organic chemical and rubber manufacturing were also found to be significant sources of global VOC emissions.

  19. A biogenic volatile organic compounds emission inventory for Yunnan Province.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi-Hui; Bai, Yu-Hua; Zhang, Shu-Yu

    2005-01-01

    The first detailed inventory for volatile organic compounds (VOC) emissions from vegetation over Yunnan Province, China was presented. The spatially and temporally resolved inventory was developed based on a geographic information system (GIS), remote sensing (RS) data and field measurement data, such as digitized land-use data, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and temperature data from direct real-time measurement. The inventory has a spatial resolution of 5 km x 5 km and a time resolution of 1 h. Urban, agriculture, and natural land-use distributions in Yunnan Province were combined with biomass factors for each land-use category to produce a spatially resolved biomass inventory. A biogenic emission inventory was developed by combining the biomass inventory with hourly emission rates for tree, shrub and ground cover species of the study area. Correcting for environmental factors, including light intensity and temperature, a value of 1.1 x 10(12) gC for total annual biogenic VOC emissions from Yunnan Province, including 6.1 x 10(11) gC for isoprene, 2.1 x 10(11) gC for monoterpenes, and 2.6 x 10(11) gC for OVOC was obtained. The highest VOC emissions occurred in the northwestern, southwestern and north region of Yunnan Province. Some uncertainties were also discussed in this study. PMID:16083102

  20. Comparing emission inventories and model-ready emission datasets between Europe and North America for the AQMEII project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pouliot, George; Pierce, Thomas; Denier van der Gon, Hugo; Schaap, Martijn; Moran, Michael; Nopmongcol, Uarporn

    2012-06-01

    This paper highlights the similarities and differences in how emission inventories and datasets were developed and processed across North America and Europe for the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII) project and then characterizes the emissions for the two domains. We focus specifically on the creation of “model-ready” gridded emission datasets for 2006 across the two continental study domains. The practice of creating and processing the two inventories is discussed with a focus on emission factors, spatial allocation, temporal variability, speciation of PM and VOCs, and the mechanics of distributing the data and supporting emission algorithms to the modeling community. The spatial and temporal distribution on common scales is compared for the pollutants of primary concern: NOx, VOCs, SO2, PM2.5, CO, and NH3. Because of differences of population distribution, emissions across North America tend to be more heterogeneous in spatial coverage than in Europe. The temporal patterns in the estimated emissions are largely the result of assumptions used to characterize human activity, with the exception of “natural” emissions, which are modulated by meteorological variability, and emissions from large electric generating units in the U.S., which have the benefit of continuous emission monitors that provide hourly resolved profiles. Emission estimates in both study domains are challenged by several important but poorly characterized emission source sectors, notably road dust, agricultural operations, biomass burning, and road transport. Finally, this paper provides insight on the strengths and weaknesses of emission inventory preparation practices on both continents. One important outcome of this comparison of 2006 emissions between Europe and North America is the greater understanding provided into how the emission estimates developed for the AQMEII project impact regional air quality model performance.

  1. Estimating uncertainty of emissions inventories: What has been done/what needs to be done

    SciTech Connect

    Benkovitz, C.M.

    1998-10-01

    Developing scientifically defensible quantitative estimates of the uncertainty of atmospheric emissions inventories has been a gleam in researchers eyes since atmospheric chemical transport and transformation models (CTMs) started to be used to study air pollution. Originally, the compilation of these inventories was done as part of the development and application of the models by researchers whose expertise usually did not include the art of emissions estimations. In general, the smaller the effort spent on compiling the inventories the more effort could be placed on the model development, application and analysis. Yet model results are intimately tied to the accuracy of the emissions data; no model, however accurately the atmospheric physical and chemical processes are represented, will give reliable representation of air concentrations if the emissions data are flawed. The author briefly summarizes some of the work done to develop quantitative estimates of the uncertainty of emissions inventories. The author then presents what is needed to develop scientifically defensible quantitative estimates of the uncertainties of emissions data.

  2. Evaluating BC and NOx emission inventories for the Paris region from MEGAPOLI aircraft measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petetin, H.; Beekmann, M.; Colomb, A.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.; Dupont, J.-C.; Honoré, C.; Michoud, V.; Morille, Y.; Perrussel, O.; Schwarzenboeck, A.; Sciare, J.; Wiedensohler, A.; Zhang, Q. J.

    2015-09-01

    High uncertainties affect black carbon (BC) emissions, and, despite its important impact on air pollution and climate, very few BC emissions evaluations are found in the literature. This paper presents a novel approach, based on airborne measurements across the Paris, France, plume, developed in order to evaluate BC and NOx emissions at the scale of a whole agglomeration. The methodology consists in integrating, for each transect, across the plume observed and simulated concentrations above background. This allows for several error sources (e.g., representativeness, chemistry, plume lateral dispersion) to be minimized in the model used. The procedure is applied with the CHIMERE chemistry-transport model to three inventories - the EMEP inventory and the so-called TNO and TNO-MP inventories - over the month of July 2009. Various systematic uncertainty sources both in the model (e.g., boundary layer height, vertical mixing, deposition) and in observations (e.g., BC nature) are discussed and quantified, notably through sensitivity tests. Large uncertainty values are determined in our results, which limits the usefulness of the method to rather strongly erroneous emission inventories. A statistically significant (but moderate) overestimation is obtained for the TNO BC emissions and the EMEP and TNO-MP NOx emissions, as well as for the BC / NOx emission ratio in TNO-MP. The benefit of the airborne approach is discussed through a comparison with the BC / NOx ratio at a ground site in Paris, which additionally suggests a spatially heterogeneous error in BC emissions over the agglomeration.

  3. Using Satellite Imagery to Improve the Characterization of Crop Residue Burning Emissions in the U.S. National Emission Inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, T. E.; Pouliot, G.; Rao, V.; McCarty, J. L.; Soja, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    Biomass burning contributes to the degradation of air quality because of its impact on ozone and particulate matter. One sector of the U.S. National Emission Inventory (NEI), crop residue burning, has been difficult to characterize. Previous "bottom up" efforts have resulted in omissions in some regions and unrealistic gradients of emissions across state boundaries. This work integrates daily fire locations from NOAA's Hazard Mapping System (HMS), burn scar products from NASA satellite imagery, and updated emission factors to build an improved characterization of temporally and spatially resolved emission datasets for regional air quality modeling. Comparisons with earlier estimates show significant changes in the temporal and spatial distribution of crop residue burning emissions. Results from the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system exercised at a 12 km resolution across the continental U.S. show relatively small but appreciable changes in fine particulate (PM2.5) concentrations over parts of the modeling domain.

  4. 40 CFR 62.4622 - Emission inventories, source surveillance, reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... shall require the owner or operator of any such source to submit information within 30 days on the nature and amounts of emissions from such source and any other information as may be deemed necessary by... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emission inventories,...

  5. Emission Inventory Improvement Program (EIIP) area source committee. Report for November-December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D.L.; Adams, L.; Goodenow, D.; Mann, C.

    1994-12-31

    The paper describes the past activities and future plans of the Emission Inventory Improvement Program (EIIP) Area Source Committee, as discussed during the November 2, 1994 EIIP panel discussion session. The EIIP Area Source Committee will develop a set of preferred and alternate methods for estimating air emissions from area source categories. The Committee work will involve the evaluation of presently available methodologies and the determination of the best available method for each source category. Even though one method will be selected as the Preferred Method for each category, one or more alternate methods will also be specified. The alternate methods will be recommended for those inventory regions where the best method is impractical or too costly to employ. In making these determinations and recommendations, the Committee will consider the relative importance of the source category to air program needs, emphasizing first the categories important to ozone nonattainment problems (primarily sources of volatile organic compounds); second, important particulate matter source categories; and third, categories for which no methods are currently available. The ultimate goal of the Committee is to compile a document to be published by STAPPA/ALAPCO/EPA as a procedural reference document for use by all government agencies that are responsible for the preparation of area source emissions inventories. The primary customers for this effort are perceived to be the state and local agencies that must prepare emissions inventories to meet the State Implementation Plan requirements of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments.

  6. Evaluating policy-relevant emission inventories for transportation and electricity (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holloway, T.; Meier, P.; Bickford, E. E.

    2013-12-01

    We explore the challenges and opportunities in evaluating bottom-up emission inventories for transportation and electricity. These anthropogenic emissions respond in complex ways to technology and activity changes. Thus, it is essential that inventories capture historic emissions consistent with observations, as well as future emissions consistent with policy scenarios. For transportation, we focus on freight-related trucking emissions, represented by the Wisconsin Inventory for Freight Emissions (WIFE), developed with activity data from the U.S. Federal Highway Administration Freight Analysis Framework and emission factors from the EPA MOVES model. Because WIFE is linked to commodity flows and roadway speeds, it offers a useful data set to evaluate policy changes such as truck-to-rail modal shifts and alternative fuel choices. However, the value of the inventory in assessing these scenarios depends on its skill in calculating frieght-related emissions. Satellite data of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) from the OMI instrument aboard the NASA Aura satellite is used to evaluate truck and rail NOx emissions, especially on rural highways away from ground-based monitors. For electricity, we use the MyPower electricity dispatch model to calculate emissions and power generation in response to policy and technology changes. These include renewable portfolio standards, conservation, increased natural gas, and response to building demand. To evaluate MyPower, we compare with the Clean Air Markets database, and 2007 calculated daily afternoon emissions with satellite-derived NO2 from OMI. Drawing on the results of these studies, we discuss strategies to meet the information demands of both historically correct air quality inputs and future-relevant policy scenarios.

  7. An atmospheric emission inventory of anthropogenic and biogenic sources for Lebanon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waked, Antoine; Afif, Charbel; Seigneur, Christian

    2012-04-01

    A temporally-resolved and spatially-distributed emission inventory was developed for Lebanon to provide quantitative information for air pollution studies as well as for use as input to air quality models. This inventory covers major anthropogenic and biogenic sources in the region with 5 km spatial resolution for Lebanon and 1 km spatial resolution for its capital city Beirut and its suburbs. The results obtained for CO, NOx, SO2, NMVOC, NH3, PM10 and PM2.5 for the year 2010 were 563, 75, 62, 115, 4, 12, and 9 Gg, respectively. About 93% of CO emissions, 67% of NMVOC emissions and 52% of NOx emissions are calculated to originate from the on-road transport sector while 73% of SO2 emissions, 62% of PM10 emissions and 59% of PM2.5 emissions are calculated to originate from power plants and industrial sources. The spatial allocation of emissions shows that the city of Beirut and its suburbs encounter a large fraction of the emissions from the on-road transport sector while urban areas such as Zouk Mikael, Jieh, Chekka and Selaata are mostly affected by emissions originating from the industrial and energy production sectors. Temporal profiles were developed for several emission sectors.

  8. An Evaluation of Aircraft Emissions Inventory Methodology by Comparisons with Reported Airline Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daggett, D. L.; Sutkus, D. J.; DuBois, D. P.; Baughcum, S. L.

    1999-01-01

    This report provides results of work done to evaluate the calculation methodology used in generating aircraft emissions inventories. Results from the inventory calculation methodology are compared to actual fuel consumption data. Results are also presented that show the sensitivity of calculated emissions to aircraft payload factors. Comparisons of departures made, ground track miles flown and total fuel consumed by selected air carriers were made between U.S. Dept. of Transportation (DOT) Form 41 data reported for 1992 and results of simplified aircraft emissions inventory calculations. These comparisons provide an indication of the magnitude of error that may be present in aircraft emissions inventories. To determine some of the factors responsible for the errors quantified in the DOT Form 41 analysis, a comparative study of in-flight fuel flow data for a specific operator's 747-400 fleet was conducted. Fuel consumption differences between the studied aircraft and the inventory calculation results may be attributable to several factors. Among these are longer flight times, greater actual aircraft weight and performance deterioration effects for the in-service aircraft. Results of a parametric study on the variation in fuel use and NOx emissions as a function of aircraft payload for different aircraft types are also presented.

  9. Methodology for Airborne Quantification of NOx fluxes over Central London and Comparison to Emission Inventories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, A. R.; Lee, J. D.; Lewis, A. C.; Purvis, R.; Carslaw, D.; Misztal, P. K.; Metzger, S.; Beevers, S.; Goldstein, A. H.; Hewitt, C. N.; Shaw, M.; Karl, T.; Davison, B.

    2015-12-01

    The emission of pollutants is a major problem in today's cities. Emission inventories are a key tool for air quality management, with the United Kingdom's National and London Atmospheric Emission Inventories (NAEI & LAEI) being good examples. Assessing the validity of such inventoried is important. Here we report on the technical methodology of matching flux measurements of NOx over a city to inventory estimates. We used an eddy covariance technique to directly measure NOx fluxes from central London on an aircraft flown at low altitude. NOx mixing ratios were measured at 10 Hz time resolution using chemiluminescence (to measure NO) and highly specific photolytic conversion of NO2 to NO (to measure NO2). Wavelet transformation was used to calculate instantaneous fluxes along the flight track for each flight leg. The transformation allows for both frequency and time information to be extracted from a signal, where we quantify the covariance between the de-trended vertical wind and concentration to derive a flux. Comparison between the calculated fluxes and emission inventory data was achieved using a footprint model, which accounts for contributing source. Using both a backwards lagrangian model and cross-wind dispersion function, we find the footprint extent ranges from 5 to 11 Km in distance from the sample point. We then calculate a relative weighting matrix for each emission inventory within the calculated footprint. The inventories are split into their contributing source sectors with each scaled using up to date emission factors, giving a month; day and hourly scaled estimate which is then compared to the measurement.

  10. Estimation of local fleet characteristics data for improved emission inventory development

    SciTech Connect

    Heiken, J.; Pollack, A.; Austin, B.

    1996-12-31

    Considerable effort in recent years has been focused on the improvement of on-road mobile source emission factors with much less attention paid to the refinement of activity and fleet characteristics estimates. Current emissions modeling practices commonly use emission factor model defaults or statewide averages for fleet and activity data. As part of the US EPA`s Emission Inventory Improvement Program (EIIP), ENVIRON developed methodologies to derive locality-specific fleet characteristics data from existing data sources in order to improve local emission inventory estimates. Data sources examined included remote sensing studies and inspection and maintenance (I/M) program data. In this paper, we focus on two specific examples: (1) the calculation of mileage accumulation rates from Arizona I/M program data, and (2) the calculation of registration distribution from a Sacramento remote sensing database. In both examples, differences exist between the calculated distributions and those currently used for air quality modeling, resulting in significant impacts on the estimated mobile source emissions inventory. For example, use of the automobile registration distribution data derived from the Sacramento Pilot I/M Program remote sensing database results in an increase in estimated automobile TOG, CO and NO{sub x} of 15, 24 and 17 percent, respectively, when used in place of the default registration distribution in the current California Air Resources Board MVEI7G emissions model.

  11. Biological aspects of constructing volatile organic compound emission inventories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monson, Russell K.; Lerdau, Manuel T.; Sharkey, Thomas D.; Schimel, David S.; Fall, Ray

    The: emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from vegetation is subject to numerous biological controls. Past inventories have relied heavily on empirical models which are limited in their ability to simulate the response of organisms to short- and long-term changes in their growth environment. In this review we consider the principal biochemical, physiological and ecological controls over VOC emission with specific reference to how such controls can be included in ecosystem-level inventories. A distinction is made between longer-term biological controls over basal VOC emission rates (rates determined under a standard set of environmental conditions) and instantaneous biological and environmental controls over instantaneous VOC emission rates (rates determined at the prevailing, instantaneous set of environmental conditions). Emphasis is placed on the emission of isoprene and monoterpenes. Isoprene emission occurs essentially without a leaf reservoir and is tightly linked to instantaneous photosynthetic metabolism and the activity of isoprene synthase, the enzyme that underlies isoprene production. At present, there are still large uncertainties about which of these controls dominates isoprene emission rate. Ecosystem-level inventories of isoprene emission would be best handled through consideration of (1) the early season induction of isoprene emission, (2) seasonal and spatial variability in light, nitrogen and water availability and their influences on the basal emission rate, and (3) the influence of instantaneous changes in light and temperature on the basal emission rate. Monoterpene emission occurs from a large leaf reservoir, is uncoupled from instantaneous controls over biosynthesis, and is likely linked to whole-plant carbon allocation patterns. Because of the well-defined role of monoterpenes as herbivore deterrents and their linkage to plant carbon balance, there is promise for ecosystem-level inventories based on biological resource allocation

  12. An Emission Inventory of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Xilong; Zhu, Xianlei; Wang, Xuesong

    2015-04-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are among the most dangerous compounds due to their high carcinogenic and mutagenic character. Emission inventory provides the primary data to account for the sources of ambient PAHs and server as a necessary database for effective PAHs pollution control. China is experiencing fast economic growth and large energy consumption, which might result in a large amount of PAHs anthropogenic emissions. Therefore, based on the previous studies and combined recently field emission measurements as well as socio-economic activity data, the development of a nationwide PAHs emission inventory is needed. In this work, the emission inventory of 16 PAHs listed as U.S. Environmental Protection Agency priority pollutants in China in the year 2012 is compiled. The emission amounts of PAHs were estimated as annual rates of emission-related activities multiplied by respective emission factors. The activities such as fuel consumption, including fossil fuel and biofuel, and socio-economic statistics were obtained from yearbook released by Chinese central government and/or provincial governments, as well as related industry reports. Emission factors were derived from the related literature. Recently reported emission factors from local measurements were used. The total emissions of PAHs were 120611 ton in 2012. In China, PAHs were emitted predominantly from domestic combustion of coal and biofuel, coking industry and motor vehicles, accounting for 72% of the total amount. PAHs emission profiles were significantly different between China and the other countries. The emission profile in China featured a relatively higher portion of high molecular weight species with carcinogenic potential due to large contributions of domestic combustion and coking industry. Domestic combustion of straw, coal and firewood emitted 19464 ton, 8831 ton, and 5062 ton of PAHs, respectively, which were much higher than those in other countries. Emission per capita showed

  13. Emissions Inventory Report Summary for Los Alamos National Laboratory for Calendar Year 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Ecology and Air Quality Group

    2007-09-28

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is subject to annual emissions reporting requirements for regulated air pollutants under Title 20 of the New Mexico Administrative Code, Chapter 2, Part 73 (20.2.73 NMAC), Notice of Intent and Emissions Inventory Requirements. The applicability of the requirements is based on the Laboratory's potential to emit 100 tons per year of suspended particulate matter, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, or volatile organic compounds. Additionally, on April 30, 2004, LANL was issued a Title V Operating Permit from the New Mexico Environment Department, Air Quality Bureau, under 20.2.70 NMAC. Modification Number 1 to this Title V Operating Permit was issued on June 15, 2006 (Permit No P-100M1) and includes emission limits and operating limits for all regulated sources of air pollution at LANL. The Title V Operating Permit also requires semi-annual emissions reporting for all sources included in the permit. This report summarizes both the annual emissions inventory reporting and the semi-annual emissions reporting for LANL for calendar year 2006. LANL's 2006 emissions are well below the emission limits in the Title V Operating Permit.

  14. Emissions Inventory Report Summary for Los Alamos National Laboratory for Calendar Year 2004

    SciTech Connect

    M. Stockton

    2005-10-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is subject to annual emissions reporting requirements for regulated air pollutants under Title 20 of the New Mexico Administrative Code, Chapter 2, Part 73 (20.2.73 NMAC), ''Notice of Intent and Emissions Inventory Requirements''. The applicability of the requirements is based on the Laboratory's potential to emit 100 tons per year of suspended particulate matter, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, or volatile organic compounds. Additionally, on April 30, 2004, LANL was issued a Title V Operating Permit from the New Mexico Environment Department, Air Quality Bureau, under 20.2.70 NMAC. This Title V Operating Permit (Permit No. P-100) includes emission limits and operating limits for all regulated sources of air pollution at LANL. The Title V Operating Permit also requires semi-annual emissions reporting for all sources included in the permit. This report summarizes both the annual emissions inventory reporting and the semi-annual emissions reporting for LANL for calendar year 2004. LANL's 2004 emissions are well below the emission limits in the Title V Operating Permit.

  15. Emissions Inventory Report Summary for Los Alamos National Laboratory for Calendar Year 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Environmental Stewardship Group

    2010-10-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is subject to annual emissions reporting requirements for regulated air pollutants under Title 20 of the New Mexico Administrative Code, Chapter 2, Part 73 (20.2.73 NMAC), Notice of Intent and Emissions Inventory Requirements. The applicability of the requirements is based on the Laboratory's potential to emit 100 tons per year of suspended particulate matter, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, or volatile organic compounds. Additionally, on April 30, 2004, LANL was issued a Title V Operating Permit from the New Mexico Environment Department/Air Quality Bureau, under 20.2.70 NMAC. This permit was modified and reissued on July 16, 2007. This Title V Operating Permit (Permit No. P-100M2) includes emission limits and operating limits for all regulated sources of air pollution at LANL. The Title V Operating Permit also requires semiannual emissions reporting for all sources included in the permit. This report summarizes both the annual emissions inventory reporting and the semiannual emissions reporting for LANL for calendar year 2009. LANL's 2009 emissions are well below the emission limits in the Title V Operating Permit.

  16. Emissions inventory report summary for Los Alamos National Laboratory for calendar year 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Ecology and Air Quality Group

    2009-10-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is subject to annual emissions reporting requirements for regulated air pollutants under Title 20 of the New Mexico Administrative Code, Chapter 2, Part 73 (20.2.73 NMAC), Notice of Intent and Emissions Inventory Requirements. The applicability of the requirements is based on the Laboratory’s potential to emit 100 tons per year of suspended particulate matter, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, or volatile organic compounds. Additionally, on April 30, 2004, LANL was issued a Title V Operating Permit from the New Mexico Environment Department/Air Quality Bureau, under 20.2.70 NMAC. This permit was modified and reissued on July 16, 2007. This Title V Operating Permit (Permit No. P-100M2) includes emission limits and operating limits for all regulated sources of air pollution at LANL. The Title V Operating Permit also requires semiannual emissions reporting for all sources included in the permit. This report summarizes both the annual emissions inventory reporting and the semiannual emissions reporting for LANL for calendar year 2008. LANL’s 2008 emissions are well below the emission limits in the Title V Operating Permit.

  17. EMISSIONS INVENTORIES THEN, NOW, AND TOMORROW

    EPA Science Inventory

    As late as the 1970s, air pollution was viewed almost exclusively as an urban phenomenon associated with energy production and factories that was manifested as smog in Los Angeles, New York, London, and other large cities. Wark, K. and C.F. Warner. 1976. Air Pollution, Its Origin...

  18. Regional emissions of air pollutants in China.

    SciTech Connect

    Streets, D. G.

    1998-10-05

    As part of the China-MAP program, sponsored by the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration, regional inventories of air pollutants emitted in China are being characterized, in order that the atmospheric chemistry over China can be more fully understood and the resulting ambient concentrations in Chinese cities and the deposition levels to Chinese ecosystems be determined with better confidence. In addition, the contributions of greenhouse gases from China and of acidic aerosols that counteract global warming are being quantified. This paper presents preliminary estimates of the emissions of some of the major air pollutants in China: sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), carbon monoxide (CO), and black carbon (C). Emissions are estimated for each of the 27 regions of China included in the RAINS-Asia simulation model and are subsequently distributed to a 1{degree} x 1{degree} grid using appropriate disaggregation factors. Emissions from all sectors of the Chinese economy are considered, including the combustion of biofuels in rural homes. Emissions from larger power plants are calculated individually and allocated to the grid accordingly. Data for the period 1990-1995 are being developed, as well as projections for the future under alternative assumptions about economic growth and environmental control.

  19. International Global Atmospheric Chemistry Programme global emissions inventory activity: Sulfur emissions from volcanoes, current status

    SciTech Connect

    Benkovitz, C.M.

    1995-07-01

    Sulfur emissions from volcanoes are located in areas of volcanic activity, are extremely variable in time, and can be released anywhere from ground level to the stratosphere. Previous estimates of global sulfur emissions from all sources by various authors have included estimates for emissions from volcanic activity. In general, these global estimates of sulfur emissions from volcanoes are given as global totals for an ``average`` year. A project has been initiated at Brookhaven National Laboratory to compile inventories of sulfur emissions from volcanoes. In order to complement the GEIA inventories of anthropogenic sulfur emissions, which represent conditions circa specific years, sulfur emissions from volcanoes are being estimated for the years 1985 and 1990.

  20. Portuguese inventory of dioxins and furans atmospheric emissions.

    PubMed

    Relvas, H; Lopes, M; Coutinho, M

    2013-11-01

    This article presents the results of the most recent estimation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and dibenzofurans (PCDF) atmospheric emissions in Portugal, which has covered the period 2004-2009 and includes 27 emission sources types. The results are compared with previous emissions inventories published for Portugal. The main objective of this work is to provide relevant information about the amounts of the compounds that are released into the atmosphere in Portugal, and identify their major sources and trends. The methodology involved the identification of relevant sources, the collection of information to characterize these sources, the selection of appropriate emission factors and their application to estimate the emissions. Furthermore, several studies conducted in Portugal were considered, namely reports from PCDD/PCDF measurements performed in some industrial facilities. The inventory covered 27 emission sources types. However the results show that only 8 were relevant, i.e. with emission amounts greater than 1 g I-TEQ year(-1). The total emissions of PCDD/PCDF in Portugal reached between 40 and 105 g I-TEQ year(-1), for the period of 2004-2009. The largest emission source and at same time with greater variation is forest fires, with emissions between 3 g I-TEQ year(-1) and 67 g I-TEQ year(-1) in 2008 and 2005, respectively. Excluding the emissions from forest fires, the total emission is more or less constant over the years and around 37 g I-TEQ year(-1). PMID:24011897

  1. Development of a US Carbon Dioxide Emission Inventory with High Spatial and Temporal Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frost, G. J.; Petron, G.; McKeen, S.; Capps, S.; Trainer, M.

    2006-12-01

    Power generation and transportation are responsible for about 40 percent and 33 percent, respectively, of the CO2 generated from US fossil fuel combustion. We are developing a US CO2 emission inventory of the power generation and on-road motor vehicle sectors that incorporates the high spatial and temporal resolution available in a variety of data sets. CO2 emission data with up to hourly resolution are measured by continuous emission monitors installed at most US power generation facilities. CO2 emissions from on-road motor vehicles are determined from annual Federal Highway Administration statistics on gasoline and diesel sales in every US state. These statewide data are spatially allocated to 4-km resolution using the EPA's National Emission Inventory estimates of NOx and CO emissions from on-road gasoline and diesel combustion. The inventory incorporating these highly resolved components is compared with other available bottom-up estimates of CO2 sources for the US. Comparisons are also made between this inventory and atmospheric measurements from air quality field studies during the past decade.

  2. Reactive Nitrogen in Atmospheric Emission Inventories

    EPA Science Inventory

    Excess reactive Nitrogen (NT) has become one of the most pressing environmental problems leading to air pollution, acidification and eutrophication of ecosystems, biodiversity impacts, leaching of nitrates into groundwater and global warming. This paper investigates how current i...

  3. A GIS-based, Micro-scale Emission Inventory System For CFD-based Atmospheric Modeling System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryoo, R.; Ko, E.; Woo, J.; Kim, J.; Park, R.; Lim, S.; Kim, H.; Young, S.

    2008-12-01

    The structure of a city is complex due to the construction of high-rise buildings and extensive road networks. Complex structure of a highly urbanized city causes many different dispersion patterns of wind and pollutants. The importance of micro-scale air quality management, therefore, is getting larger. Micro-scale air pollution lasts only for minutes to hours and occurs near to our living environment. Because of its short lifetime and small spatial extent, our understanding for micro-scale air quality has been pretty limited. In the micro-scale air pollution, describing 3-dimensional air flow, which incorporates detail building structures and terrain, is very important to see the realistic pollutant dispersion. In addition, there are many cases that the air pollution in an urbanized city is affected directly by strong local emission events. Detailed emission inventory from various emission events in urban area, therefore, should be developed. We try to establish 3D GIS database in an urban area and develop a micro-scale emission inventory. The GIS database and emission inventory can be used and applied to micro-scale atmospheric modeling in the Konkuk University Complex, Seoul, Korea. Methodologies and initial results of establishing 3D GIS database and detailed emission inventory will be presented. Acknowledgement This research was supported by a grant from Seoul R&BD Program (GS070167)

  4. Effect of different emission inventories on modeled ozone and carbon monoxide in Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amnuaylojaroen, T.; Barth, M. C.; Emmons, L. K.; Carmichael, G. R.; Kreasuwun, J.; Prasitwattanaseree, S.; Chantara, S.

    2014-12-01

    In order to improve our understanding of air quality in Southeast Asia, the anthropogenic emissions inventory must be well represented. In this work, we apply different anthropogenic emission inventories in the Weather Research and Forecasting Model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) version 3.3 using Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers (MOZART) gas-phase chemistry and Global Ozone Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) aerosols to examine the differences in predicted carbon monoxide (CO) and ozone (O3) surface mixing ratios for Southeast Asia in March and December 2008. The anthropogenic emission inventories include the Reanalysis of the TROpospheric chemical composition (RETRO), the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment-Phase B (INTEX-B), the MACCity emissions (adapted from the Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate and megacity Zoom for the Environment projects), the Southeast Asia Composition, Cloud, Climate Coupling Regional Study (SEAC4RS) emissions, and a combination of MACCity and SEAC4RS emissions. Biomass-burning emissions are from the Fire Inventory from the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) (FINNv1) model. WRF-Chem reasonably predicts the 2 m temperature, 10 m wind, and precipitation. In general, surface CO is underpredicted by WRF-Chem while surface O3 is overpredicted. The NO2 tropospheric column predicted by WRF-Chem has the same magnitude as observations, but tends to underpredict the NO2 column over the equatorial ocean and near Indonesia. Simulations using different anthropogenic emissions produce only a slight variability of O3 and CO mixing ratios, while biomass-burning emissions add more variability. The different anthropogenic emissions differ by up to 30% in CO emissions, but O3 and CO mixing ratios averaged over the land areas of the model domain differ by ~4.5% and ~8%, respectively, among the simulations. Biomass-burning emissions create a substantial increase for both O3 and CO by ~29% and ~16

  5. The Global Emissions Inventory Activity (GEIA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middleton, P.; Guenther, A. B.; Granier, C.; Mieville, A.

    2010-12-01

    GEIA aims to bring together people, analyses, data, and tools to quantify the anthropogenic emissions and natural exchanges of trace gases and aerosols that drive earth system changes and to facilitate use of this information by the research, assessment and policy communities. This presentation provides an overview of the current activities of GEIA. The GEIA network currently includes over 1000 people around the globe, and the plan is to extend this network to different communities working on environmental changes issues. The GEIA Center (www.geiacenter.org) hosts a comprehensive set of emissions related information, and plans to maintain a new database of scientific papers as well as national and international reports dealing with emissions issues. Conclusions from the recent GEIA conference, held in October 2009, also are summarized. Given the differences often found among data sets, the formation of a GEIA working group composed of emission developers and modelers who will compare data sets and implications for modeling is discussed. It has been recognized that consistent information on emissions at the global and regional scale is required, as well as an accurate quantification of emissions in the different megacities of the world. In order to develop these perspectives, GEIA plans to begin strengthening links with different key regions through creation of regional centers in corporation with other entities and individuals working in these regions.

  6. African anthropogenic combustion emission inventory: specificities and uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekou, K.; Liousse, C.; Eric-michel, A.; Veronique, Y.; Thierno, D.; Roblou, L.; Toure, E. N.; Julien, B.

    2015-12-01

    Fossil fuel and biofuel emissions of gases and particles in Africa are expected to significantly increase in the near future, particularly due to the growth of African cities. In addition, African large savannah fires occur each year during the dry season, mainly for socio-economical purposes. In this study, we will present the most recent developments of African anthropogenic combustion emission inventories, stressing African specificities. (1)A regional fossil fuel and biofuel inventory for gases and particulates will be presented for Africa at a resolution of 0.25° x 0.25° from 1990 to 2012. For this purpose, the original database of Liousse et al. (2014) has been used after modification for emission factors and for updated regional fuel consumption including new emitter categories (waste burning, flaring) and new activity sectors (i.e. disaggregation of transport into sub-sectors including two wheel ). In terms of emission factors, new measured values will be presented and compared to litterature with a focus on aerosols. They result from measurement campaigns organized in the frame of DACCIWA European program for each kind of African specific anthropogenic sources in 2015, in Abidjan (Ivory Coast), Cotonou (Benin) and in Laboratoire d'Aérologie combustion chamber. Finally, a more detailed spatial distribution of emissions will be proposed at a country level to better take into account road distributions and population densities. (2) Large uncertainties still remain in biomass burning emission inventories estimates, especially over Africa between different datasets such as GFED and AMMABB. Sensitivity tests will be presented to investigate uncertainties in the emission inventories, applying methodologies used for AMMABB and GFED inventories respectively. Then, the relative importance of each sources (fossil fuel, biofuel and biomass burning inventories) on the budgets of carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, black and organic carbon, and volatile

  7. High-global warming potential F-gas emissions in California: comparison of ambient-based versus inventory-based emission estimates, and implications of refined estimates.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Glenn; Zhan, Tao; Hsu, Ying-Kuang; Gupta, Pamela; Pederson, James; Croes, Bart; Blake, Donald R; Barletta, Barbara; Meinardi, Simone; Ashford, Paul; Vetter, Arnie; Saba, Sabine; Slim, Rayan; Palandre, Lionel; Clodic, Denis; Mathis, Pamela; Wagner, Mark; Forgie, Julia; Dwyer, Harry; Wolf, Katy

    2014-01-21

    To provide information for greenhouse gas reduction policies, the California Air Resources Board (CARB) inventories annual emissions of high-global-warming potential (GWP) fluorinated gases, the fastest growing sector of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions globally. Baseline 2008 F-gas emissions estimates for selected chlorofluorocarbons (CFC-12), hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFC-22), and hydrofluorocarbons (HFC-134a) made with an inventory-based methodology were compared to emissions estimates made by ambient-based measurements. Significant discrepancies were found, with the inventory-based emissions methodology resulting in a systematic 42% under-estimation of CFC-12 emissions from older refrigeration equipment and older vehicles, and a systematic 114% overestimation of emissions for HFC-134a, a refrigerant substitute for phased-out CFCs. Initial, inventory-based estimates for all F-gas emissions had assumed that equipment is no longer in service once it reaches its average lifetime of use. Revised emission estimates using improved models for equipment age at end-of-life, inventories, and leak rates specific to California resulted in F-gas emissions estimates in closer agreement to ambient-based measurements. The discrepancies between inventory-based estimates and ambient-based measurements were reduced from -42% to -6% for CFC-12, and from +114% to +9% for HFC-134a. PMID:24328112

  8. The ANCAT/EC global inventory of NO x emissions from aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, R. M.; Adams, K.; Cook, T.; Deidewig, F.; Ernedal, S.; Falk, R.; Fleuti, E.; Herms, E.; Johnson, C. E.; Lecht, M.; Lee, D. S.; Leech, M.; Lister, D.; Massé, B.; Metcalfe, M.; Newton, P.; Schmitt, A.; Vandenbergh, C.; van Drimmelen, R.

    A three dimensional global emissions inventory for NO, from civil and military aviation has been formulated by a joint European Civil Aviation Conference/European Commission working group in support of the AERONOX project " The Impact of NO x Emissions from Aircraft Upon the Atmosphere at Flight Altitudes 8-15 km". The inventory was compiled on a resolution of 2.8 by 2.8° by 1 km in altitude for a 12 month period spanning mid-1991 to mid-1992. Traffic movement data were compiled from Air Traffic Control recorded movements and timetables for January, April, July and October and combined with an airframe emissions performance model. The global emission of aircraft NO x was estimated to be 2.78 Tg NO 2 yr -1 and the overall emission index for NO x in g NO x kg -1 fuel burnt was 16.8. The estimated NO x emissions are higher than the most comparable inventory (NASA, 1990) by a factor of almost 2. The vertical distribution shows that 60% of the global NO x is emitted at cruise altitudes of 10-12 km. There is a pronounced latitudinal bias with 93 % of the global emissions being in the Northern Hemisphere and 70% between 30 and 60°N The spatial distributions of NO x emissions show some seasonality. Emissions of CO 2 H 2O and SO 2 have also been estimated at 528, 216 and 0.165 Tg yr -1, respectively. Although not quantified, the uncertainties in the emissions estimate of NO x from aircraft are discussed and a small overestimation in the traffic movement data base was identified. However, the uncertainties are probably smaller than those for natural sources of NO x which are injected into the top of the troposphere. More work is required to refine emission inventories from aircraft.

  9. MIX: a mosaic Asian anthropogenic emission inventory for the MICS-Asia and the HTAP projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, M.; Zhang, Q.; Kurokawa, J.; Woo, J.-H.; He, K. B.; Lu, Z.; Ohara, T.; Song, Y.; Streets, D. G.; Carmichael, G. R.; Cheng, Y. F.; Hong, C. P.; Huo, H.; Jiang, X. J.; Kang, S. C.; Liu, F.; Su, H.; Zheng, B.

    2015-12-01

    An anthropogenic emission inventory for Asia is developed for the years 2008 and 2010 to support the Model Inter-Comparison Study for Asia (MICS-Asia) and the Task Force on Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (TF HTAP) projects by a mosaic of up-to-date regional emission inventories. Emissions are estimated for all major anthropogenic sources in 30 countries and regions in Asia. We conducted detailed comparisons of different regional emission inventories and incorporated the best-available ones for each region into the mosaic inventory at a uniform spatial and temporal resolution. We estimate the total Asian emissions of ten species in 2010 as follows: 51.3 Tg SO2, 52.1 Tg NOx, 336.6 Tg CO, 67.0 Tg NMVOC (non-methane volatile organic compounds), 28.8 Tg NH3, 31.7 Tg PM10, 22.7 Tg PM2.5, 3.5 Tg BC, 8.3 Tg OC and 17.3 Pg CO2. Emissions from China and India dominate the emissions of Asia for most of the species. We also estimated Asian emissions in 2006 using the same methodology of MIX. The relative change rates of Asian emissions for the period of 2006-2010 are estimated as follows: -8.0 % for SO2, +19 % for NOx, +4 % for CO, +15 % for NMVOC, +2 % for NH3, -3 % for PM10, -2 % for PM2.5, +6 % for BC, +2 % for OC and +20 % for CO2. Model-ready speciated NMVOC emissions for SAPRC-99 and CB05 mechanisms were developed following a profile-assignment approach. Monthly gridded emissions at a spatial resolution of 0.25° × 0.25° are developed and can be accessed from http://www.meicmodel.org/dataset-mix.

  10. Development of a United States-Mexico Emissions Inventory for the Big Bend Regional Aerosol and Visibility Observational (BRAVO) Study.

    PubMed

    Kuhns, Hampden; Knipping, Eladio M; Vukovich, Jeffrey M

    2005-05-01

    The Big Bend Regional Aerosol and Visibility Observational (BRAVO) Study was commissioned to investigate the sources of haze at Big Bend National Park in southwest Texas. The modeling domain of the BRAVO Study includes most of the continental United States and Mexico. The BRAVO emissions inventory was constructed from the 1999 National Emission Inventory for the United States, modified to include finer-resolution data for Texas and 13 U.S. states in close proximity. The first regional-scale Mexican emissions inventory designed for air-quality modeling applications was developed for 10 northern Mexican states, the Tula Industrial Park in the state of Hidalgo, and the Popocatépetl volcano in the state of Puebla. Emissions data were compiled from numerous sources, including the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Texas Natural Resources Conservation Commission (now Texas Commission on Environmental Quality), the Eastern Research Group, the Minerals Management Service, the Instituto Nacional de Ecología, and the Instituto Nacional de Estadistica Geografía y Informática. The inventory includes emissions for CO, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ammonia, particulate matter (PM) < 10 microm in aerodynamic diameter, and PM < 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter. Wind-blown dust and biomass burning were not included in the inventory, although high concentrations of dust and organic PM attributed to biomass burning have been observed at Big Bend National Park. The SMOKE modeling system was used to generate gridded emissions fields for use with the Regional Modeling System for Aerosols and Deposition (REMSAD) and the Community Multiscale Air Quality model modified with the Model of Aerosol Dynamics, Reaction, Ionization and Dissolution (CMAQ-MADRID). The compilation of the inventory, supporting model input data, and issues encountered during the development of the inventory are documented. A comparison of the BRAVO emissions

  11. Emissions inventory for the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    SciTech Connect

    Figueroa, V.H.P.; Renteria, J.S.; Hernandez, C.G.

    1996-12-31

    The emissions inventory bears a broad relationship to the energy balance, reflecting the dependence of the emissions with reference to the use of energy. Actually the consumption of gasoline and diesel fuel in the transport sector represents collectively, the greatest comparative expense of energy and the major contributor of the ozone precursor pollutants HC, NO{sub x} and CO, relative to the total volume of emissions in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). Also, the industrial sector introduces significant emissions of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} due to its energy consumption of fuel oils and natural gas. In contrast, the great majority of suspended particulate in the MCMA emanate from degradation processes of surface soil along the periphery of the urban zone. To the federal and local authorities charged with the design of strategies for prevention and control of atmospheric pollution, the emissions inventory is a strategic tool that reflects the relative intensity of the various emitters to the load capacity of the atmosphere. A comprehensive inventory was compiled for 1995, categorizing the emissions generated by four sectors: industry, services, transport and surface soils and vegetation, considering the following pollutants: TSP, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, HC and CO. The combined pollutant emissions are 4,009,628 tons/year of which 3% are generated by the industry, 10% by the services sector, 75% by the transport sector, and 12% by surface soils and vegetation.

  12. An emission inventory for the central European initiative 1988

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimont, Z.; Amann, M.; Cofala, J.; Gyárfáŝ, F.; Klaassen, G.; Schöpp, W.

    This paper presents the first consistent inventory of emission of sulphur dioxide (SO 2), nitrogen oxides (NO x), particulate matter (PM), and carbon dioxide (CO 2), for the countries co-operating in the Central European Initiative: Austria, Croatia, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Italy, Poland and Slovenia. The inventory is based on national and regional statistics as well as on information received from collaborating institutions. National data has been verified and converted into a common format, consistent with the database used by the European Environmental Agency and the European Community (the "CORINAIR" system). The inventory describes emissions in the year 1988, before the restructuring process began in former socialist economies. Data has been collected on the national level, for administrational units and for large point sources. The database on point sources contains specific information on 400 large plants in the region (e.g. capacity, commissioning year, fuel use, production, etc.). Total emissions of SO 2 in the CEI region in 1988 were 10.3 million tons, which accounts for 25% of total European SO 2 emissions. The highest emission densities (more than 100 t km -2) are found in Northern Bohemia (Czech Republic) and Upper Silesia (Poland). The overwhelming majority of SO 2 emissions (70%) originates from combustion of domestic (brown and hard) coal. Across the region, 60% of SO 2 is emitted from the large point sources identified in the study and over 60% of SO 2 emissions from public power plants in the CEI region is produced in plants older than 20 years.

  13. Comparison of models used for national agricultural ammonia emission inventories in Europe: Liquid manure systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reidy, B.; Dämmgen, U.; Döhler, H.; Eurich-Menden, B.; van Evert, F. K.; Hutchings, N. J.; Luesink, H. H.; Menzi, H.; Misselbrook, T. H.; Monteny, G.-J.; Webb, J.

    Ammonia (NH 3) emissions from agriculture commonly account for >80% of the total NH 3 emissions. Accurate agricultural NH 3 emission inventories are therefore required for reporting within the framework of the Gothenburg Protocol of the UN Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution. To allow a co-ordinated implementation of the Protocol, different national inventories should be comparable. A core group of emission inventory experts therefore developed a network and joint programme to achieve a detailed overview of the best inventory techniques currently available and compiled and harmonized the available knowledge on emission factors (EFs) for nitrogen (N)-flow emission calculation models and initiated a new generation of emission inventories. As a first step in summarizing the available knowledge, six N-flow models, used to calculate national NH 3 emissions from agriculture in different European countries, were compared using standard datasets. Two scenarios for slurry-based systems were run separately for dairy cattle and for pigs, with three different levels of model standardisation: (a) standardised inputs to all models (FF scenario); (b) standard N excretion, but national values for EFs (FN scenario); (c) national values for N excretion and EFs (NN scenario). Results of the FF scenario showed very good agreement among models, indicating that the underlying N flows of the different models are highly similar. As a result of the different national EFs and N excretion rates, larger differences among the results were observed for the FN and the NN scenarios. Reasons for the differences were primarily attributed to differences in the agricultural practices and climatic factors reflected in the EFs and the N excretion rates. The scientific debate necessary to understand the variation in the results generated awareness and consensus concerning available scientific data and the importance of specific processes not yet included in some models.

  14. A preliminary compilation and evaluation of a comprehensive emission inventory for polychlorinated biphenyls in China.

    PubMed

    Cui, Song; Fu, Qiang; Ma, Wan-Li; Song, Wei-Wei; Liu, Li-Yan; Li, Yi-Fan

    2015-11-15

    Emission inventories for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are crucial input data for atmospheric transport modeling and for the study of source-receptor relationships and the environmental behavior of these chemicals. Three types of primary PCB sources are considered in this study: intentionally produced PCBs (IP-PCBs), unintentionally produced PCBs (UP-PCBs), and PCB emissions from two e-waste sites (EW-PCBs). This study presents the historical emissions of all IP-, UP- and EW-PCBs into the air in China and the gridded Chinese emission inventories at a resolution of 1/6° latitude×1/4° longitude from 1950 to 2010. The UP-TPCB emissions from 1950 to 2010 were re-estimated to be 8.56t from eight emission sources comprising 96.3% of the Chinese UP-TPCB emissions. The EW-TPCB emissions from 1990 to 2010 were estimated to be 103.5 t, of which 7.1t and 12.3t were EW-PCB28 and EW-7PCB congeners (i.e., indicator-PCB28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, 180), respectively. The IP-PCB28 and IP-7PCB congener emissions from 1965 to 2010 were estimated to be 57.4 t and 130.1t, respectively. A significant correlation was found between congener PCB28 and 7PCBs (R(2)=0.988 and P=0.000), which suggests that PCB28 is a good marker congener for describing the emission trends of all 7PCB emission sources. The gridded emission data were compared with published measured atmospheric concentrations for 2004 and 2008, and a significant correlation was found between the modeled emissions and monitoring data. To our knowledge, this study presents the first comprehensive gridded emission inventories that include all IP-, UP-, and EW-PCBs on a national scale. PMID:26172591

  15. Fast and optimized methodology to generate road traffic emission inventories and their uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blond, N.; Ho, B. Q.; Clappier, A.

    2012-04-01

    Road traffic emissions are one of the main sources of air pollution in the cities. They are also the main sources of uncertainties in the air quality numerical models used to forecast and define abatement strategies. Until now, the available models for generating road traffic emission always required a big effort, money and time. This inhibits decisions to preserve air quality, especially in developing countries where road traffic emissions are changing very fast. In this research, we developed a new model designed to fast produce road traffic emission inventories. This model, called EMISENS, combines the well-known top-down and bottom-up approaches to force them to be coherent. A Monte Carlo methodology is included for computing emission uncertainties and the uncertainty rate due to each input parameters. This paper presents the EMISENS model and a demonstration of its capabilities through an application over Strasbourg region (Alsace), France. Same input data as collected for Circul'air model (using bottom-up approach) which has been applied for many years to forecast and study air pollution by the Alsatian air quality agency, ASPA, are used to evaluate the impact of several simplifications that a user could operate . These experiments give the possibility to review older methodologies and evaluate EMISENS results when few input data are available to produce emission inventories, as in developing countries and assumptions need to be done. We show that same average fraction of mileage driven with a cold engine can be used for all the cells of the study domain and one emission factor could replace both cold and hot emission factors.

  16. The emission inventory of PCDD/PCDF in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chien-Min

    2004-03-01

    Establishment of a country or region-based dioxin inventory was considered a crucial step toward elimination of worldwide dioxins/POPs contaminations, although no harmonized method for the preparation of an inventory is available at present. In this study, we used limited data and information to generate an inventory of dioxin emissions from some major sources in Taiwan. A total of 67.25 g I-TEQ of dioxins released annually was estimated. Unlike most of the industrialized countries, municipal waste incineration is not the highest contributor for dioxins released into the atmosphere. In contrast, secondary copper smelting accounts for more than 39% of the total dioxin emissions, and is higher than those from all waste incinerators combined (23.7%). Cement kilns and electric arc furnaces for steels also produced significant portion (both >10%) of dioxins into the environment, followed by secondary aluminum smelting (6.53%), industrial oil combustion (5.02%) and power plants fueled by coal (5.01%). Other known sources are either insignificant with respect to their dioxin emissions or not included in this inventory due to lack of information or uncertainty of the results. Data presented in this report provide a general picture of dioxin emissions in Taiwan, but were mostly based on less reliable or representative information, especially with respect to emission factors from different emission sources. It is necessary to establish background information relative to our own environment at present. Upon available, the inventory should be updated accordingly for proper environmental management on dioxins. PMID:14659943

  17. Global Commercial Aviation Emissions Inventory for 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkerson, J.; Balasubramanian, S.; Malwitz, A.; Wayson, R.; Fleming, G.; Jacobson, M. Z.; Naiman, A.; Lele, S.

    2008-12-01

    In 2004, the global commercial aircraft fleet included more than 13,000 aircraft flying over 30 billion km, burning more than 100 million tons of fuel. All this activity incurs substantial amounts of fossil-fuel combustion products at the cruise altitude within the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere that could potentially affect the atmospheric composition and climate. These emissions; such as CO, CO2, PM, NOx, SOx, are not distributed uniformly over the earth, so understanding the temporal and spatial distributions is an important component for modeling aviation climate impacts. Previous studies for specific years have shown that nearly all activity occurs in the northern hemisphere, and most is within mid-latitudes. Simply scaling older data by the annual global industry growth of 3-5 percent may provide emission trends which are not representative of geographically varying growth in aviation sector that has been noted over the past years. India, for example, increased its domestic aviation activity recently by 46 percent in one year. Therefore, it is important that aircraft emissions are best characterized and represented in the atmospheric models for impacts analysis. Data containing all global commercial flights for 2004 was computed using the Federal Aviation Administration's Aviation Environmental Design Tool (AEDT) and provided by the Volpe National Transportation Systems Center. The following is a summary of this data which illustrates the global aviation footprint for 2004, and provides temporal and three-dimensional spatial distribution statistics of several emissions constituents.

  18. WOOD PRESERVING INDUSTRY MULTIMEDIA EMISSION INVENTORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Restriction of the discharge of wastewater generated during the preservation of wood has resulted in the increased use of evaporation techniques by the wood preserving industry. This report discusses emissions that may occur during evaporation and projects the pollutant burden on...

  19. 1986 U.S. AND CANADIAN EMISSIONS INVENTORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses efforts by the U.S. and Canada to develop an accurate and highly detailed 1985 emissions inventory which focuses on three pollutants (SO2, NOx, and VOCs) believed to play a critical role in the formation of acid deposition, and also includes information on spe...

  20. 40 CFR 60.25 - Emission inventories, source surveillance, reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... electronic documents shall comply with the requirements of 40 CFR part 3—(Electronic reporting). (2) Periodic... surveillance, reports. 60.25 Section 60.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... State Plans for Designated Facilities § 60.25 Emission inventories, source surveillance, reports....

  1. 40 CFR 60.25 - Emission inventories, source surveillance, reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... electronic documents shall comply with the requirements of 40 CFR part 3—(Electronic reporting). (2) Periodic... surveillance, reports. 60.25 Section 60.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... State Plans for Designated Facilities § 60.25 Emission inventories, source surveillance, reports....

  2. 40 CFR 60.25 - Emission inventories, source surveillance, reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... electronic documents shall comply with the requirements of 40 CFR part 3—(Electronic reporting). (2) Periodic... surveillance, reports. 60.25 Section 60.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... State Plans for Designated Facilities § 60.25 Emission inventories, source surveillance, reports....

  3. INVENTORY OF COMBUSTION-RELATED EMISSIONS FROM STATIONARY SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the first year of a study covering the combustion-related emissions inventory phase of a 3-year program entitled, 'Analysis of NOx Control in Stationary Sources.' The study is aimed at assisting in the establishment of priorities for detailed studies of techn...

  4. Top-down analysis of the elemental carbon emissions inventory in the United States by inverse modeling using Community Multiscale Air Quality model with decoupled direct method (CMAQ-DDM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yongtao; Odman, M. Talat; Russell, Armistead G.

    2009-12-01

    A Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model based inverse method is used for calibrating the 2004 elemental carbon (EC) emissions in the continental United States. We convert the Thermal Optical Transmittance (TOT) EC measurements to the Thermal Optical Reflectance (TOR) equivalents to fully utilize available observational networks. The reestimate of the total emissions is 0.40 Tg yr-1, about 13% higher than the a priori. The posterior CMAQ simulation driven by the adjusted emissions had an ˜10% reduction in annual average fractional error based on 24 h EC observations. Comparison of simulated EC concentrations to hourly aethalometer black carbon (BC) measurements improved as well. Also, using the EC scaling factors to adjust the primary particulate organic matter (OM) emissions improved performance for OM simulation. Results show that splitting sources further spatially and category-wise increases the flexibility of adjusting emissions according to the spatial variability of the emissions strength and hence makes a better reestimate of emissions.

  5. Analysis of the Emission Inventories and Model-Ready Emission Datasets of Europe and North America for Phase 2 of the AQMEII Project

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper highlights the development of the emission inventories and emission processing for Europe (EU) and North America (NA) in the second phase of the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII) project. The main purpose of the second phase of the AQMEII...

  6. Inventory of PCBs in Chicago and Opportunities for Reduction in Airborne Emissions and Human Exposure.

    PubMed

    Shanahan, Caitlin E; Spak, Scott N; Martinez, Andres; Hornbuckle, Keri C

    2015-12-01

    Urban areas are important regional sources of airborne polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and population-scale airborne exposure, yet a comprehensive bottom-up source inventory of PCB emissions has never been quantified at urban scales in the United States. Here we report a comprehensive parcel level inventory of PCB stocks and emissions for Chicago, Illinois, developed with a transferable method from publicly available data. Chicago's legacy stocks hold 276 ± 147 tonnes ∑PCBs, with 0.2 tonnes added annually. Transformers and building sealants represent the largest legacy categories at 250 and 20 tonnes, respectively. From these stocks, annual emissions rates of 203 kg for ∑PCBs and 3 kg for PCB 11 explain observed concentrations in Chicago air. Sewage sludge drying contributes 25% to emissions, soils 31%, and transformers 21%. Known contaminated sites account for <1% of stocks and 17% of emissions to air. Paint is responsible for 0.00001% of stocks but up to 7% of ∑PCBs emissions. Stocks and emissions are highly concentrated and not correlated with population density or demographics at the neighborhood scale. Results suggest that strategies to further reduce exposure and ecosystem deposition must focus on the largest emissions sources rather than the most contaminated sites or the largest closed source legacy stocks. PMID:26440379

  7. A high-resolution emission inventory of primary pollutants for the Huabei region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, B.; Wang, P.; Ma, J. Z.; Zhu, S.; Pozzer, A.; Li, W.

    2012-01-01

    Huabei, located between 32° N and 42° N, is part of eastern China and includes administratively the Beijing and Tianjin Municipalities, Hebei and Shanxi Provinces, and Inner-Mongolia Autonomous Region. Over the past decades, the region has experienced dramatic changes in air quality and climate, and has become a major focus of environmental research in China. Here we present a new inventory of air pollutant emissions in Huabei for the year 2003 developed as part of the project Influence of Pollution on Aerosols and Cloud Microphysics in North China (IPAC-NC). Our estimates are based on data from the statistical yearbooks of the state, provinces and local districts, including major sectors and activities of power generation, industrial energy consumption, industrial processing, civil energy consumption, crop straw burning, oil and solvent evaporation, manure, and motor vehicles. The emission factors are selected from a variety of literature and those from local measurements in China are used whenever available. The estimated total emissions in the Huabei administrative region in 2003 are 4.73 Tg SO2, 2.72 Tg NOx (in equivalent NO2), 1.77 Tg VOC, 24.14 Tg CO, 2.03 Tg NH3, 4.57 Tg PM10, 2.42 Tg PM2.5, 0.21 Tg EC, and 0.46 Tg OC. For model convenience, we consider a larger Huabei region with Shandong, Henan and Liaoning Provinces included in our inventory. The estimated total emissions in the larger Huabei region in 2003 are: 9.55 Tg SO2, 5.27 Tg NOx (in equivalent NO2), 3.82 Tg VOC, 46.59 Tg CO, 5.36 Tg NH3, 10.74 Tg PM10, 5.62 Tg PM2.5, 0.41 Tg EC, and 0.99 Tg OC. The estimated emission rates are projected into grid cells at a horizontal resolution of 0.1° latitude by 0.1° longitude. Our gridded emission inventory consists of area sources, which are classified into industrial, civil, traffic, and straw burning sectors, and large industrial point sources, which include 345 sets of power plants, iron and steel plants, cement plants, and chemical plants. The

  8. Evaluating BC and NOx emission inventories for the Paris region from MEGAPOLI aircraft measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petetin, H.; Beekmann, M.; Colomb, A.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.; Dupont, J.-C.; Honoré, C.; Michoud, V.; Morille, Y.; Perrussel, O.; Schwarzenboeck, A.; Sciare, J.; Wiedensohler, A.; Zhang, Q. J.

    2014-11-01

    High uncertainties affect black carbon (BC) emissions and, despite its important impact on air pollution and climate, very few BC emissions evaluations are found in the literature. This paper presents a novel approach, based on airborne measurements across the Paris plume, developed in order to evaluate BC and NOx emissions at the scale of a whole agglomeration. The methodology consists in integrating, for each transect, across the plume observed and simulated concentrations above background. This allows minimizing several error sources in the model (e.g. representativeness, chemistry, plume lateral dispersion). The procedure is applied with the CHIMERE chemistry-transport model to three inventories - the EMEP inventory, and the so-called TNO and TNO-MP inventories - over the month of July 2009. Various systematic uncertainty sources both in the model (e.g. boundary layer height, vertical mixing, deposition) and in observations (e.g. BC nature) are discussed and quantified, notably though sensitivity tests. A statistically significant (but moderate) overestimation is obtained on the TNO BC emissions and on EMEP and TNO-MP NOx emissions, as well as on the BC/NOx emission ratio in TNO-MP. The benefit of the airborne approach is discussed through a comparison with the BC/NOx ratio at a ground site in Paris, which additionally suggests potential error compensations in the BC emissions spatial distribution over the agglomeration.

  9. Inventory of U.S. 2012 dioxin emissions to atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, Henri; Themelis, Nickolas J

    2015-12-01

    In 2006, the U.S. EPA published an inventory of dioxin emissions for the U.S. covering the period from 1987-2000. This paper is an updated inventory of all U.S. dioxin emissions to the atmosphere in the year 2012. The sources of emissions of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), collectively referred to in this paper as "dioxins", were separated into two classes: controlled industrial and open burning sources. Controlled source emissions decreased 95.5% from 14.0 kg TEQ in 1987 to 0.6 kg in 2012. Open burning source emissions increased from 2.3 kg TEQ in 1987 to 2.9 kg in 2012. The 2012 dioxin emissions from 53 U.S. waste-to-energy (WTE) power plants were compiled on the basis of detailed data obtained from the two major U.S. WTE companies, representing 84% of the total MSW combusted (27.4 million metric tons). The dioxin emissions of all U.S. WTE plants in 2012 were 3.4 g TEQ and represented 0.54% of the controlled industrial dioxin emissions, and 0.09% of all dioxin emissions from controlled and open burning sources. PMID:26297638

  10. MODELS TO ESTIMATE VOLATILE ORGANIC HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM MUNICIPAL SEWER SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emissions from municipal sewers are usually omitted from hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emission inventories. This omission may result from a lack of appreciation for the potential emission impact and/or from inadequate emission estimation procedures. This paper presents an analys...

  11. Estonian greenhouse gas emissions inventory report

    SciTech Connect

    Punning, J.M.; Ilomets, M.; Karindi, A.; Mandre, M.; Reisner, V.; Martins, A.; Pesur, A.; Roostalu, H.; Tullus, H.

    1996-07-01

    It is widely accepted that the increase of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere due to human activities would result in warming of the Earth`s surface. To examine this effect and better understand how the GHG increase in the atmosphere might change the climate in the future, how ecosystems and societies in different regions of the World should adapt to these changes, what must policymakers do for the mitigation of that effect, the worldwide project within the Framework Convention on Climate Change was generated by the initiative of United Nations. Estonia is one of more than 150 countries, which signed the Framework Convention on Climate Change at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development held in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992. In 1994 a new project, Estonian Country Study was initiated within the US Country Studies Program. The project will help to compile the GHG inventory for Estonia, find contemporary trends to investigate the impact of climate change on the Estonian ecosystems and economy and to formulate national strategies for Estonia addressing to global climate change.

  12. Inventory and forecasting of maritime emissions in the Belgian sea territory, an activity-based emission model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrooten, Liesbeth; De Vlieger, Ina; Int Panis, Luc; Styns, Karel; Torfs, Rudi

    Air quality policy has focussed on land-based emissions for decades. In recent years, it has become increasingly clear that emissions from sea-going vessels can no longer be ignored. There is a growing need for detailed emission inventories to evaluate the impact of this transport mode on air quality and health. In this paper we present MOPSEA, an activity-based emission model to determine emissions from sea-going vessels. The model considers shipping activities of sea-going vessels on Belgian territory, combined with individual vessel characteristics. We apply this model to study the effects of recent international efforts to reduce emissions from sea-going vessels in Belgian territorial waters for the current fleet and for two scenarios up to 2010. The emission model for Belgium, based on different vessel operating areas, reveals that most maritime emissions from the main engines will increase. CO 2 emissions will increase by 2-9% over the 2004-2010 period due to an increase in shipping activity. NO X emissions are projected to rise between 1% and 8% because the increase in activity offsets the reductions from the international maritime organisation (IMO) and European regulations. In contrast, SO 2 emissions will decrease by at least 50% in 6 years time. The switch of auxiliaries from heavy fuel oil to diesel oil at berth results in a large emission reduction (33%) for PM and small reductions for CO 2, NO X, CO and HC (4-5%). The choice between a bottom-up versus top-down approach can have important implications for the allocation of maritime emissions. The MOPSEA bottom-up model allocates only 0.7 Mton CO 2 to Belgium, compared to 24.2 Mton CO 2 based on bunker fuel inventories.

  13. Historical evaluation of vehicle emission control in Guangzhou based on a multi-year emission inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shaojun; Wu, Ye; Liu, Huan; Wu, Xiaomeng; Zhou, Yu; Yao, Zhiliang; Fu, Lixin; He, Kebin; Hao, Jiming

    2013-09-01

    The Guangzhou government adopted many vehicle emission control policies and strategies during the five-year preparation (2005-2009) to host the 2010 Asian Games. This study established a multi-year emission inventory for vehicles in Guangzhou during 2005-2009 and estimated the uncertainty in total vehicle emissions by taking the assumed uncertainties in fleet-average emission factors and annual mileage into account. In 2009, the estimated total vehicle emissions in Guangzhou were 313 000 (242 000-387 000) tons of CO, 60 900 (54 000-70 200) tons of THC, 65 600 (56 800-74 100) tons of NOx and 2740 (2100-3400) tons of PM10. Vehicle emissions within the urban area of Guangzhou were estimated to be responsible for ˜40% of total gaseous pollutants and ˜25% of total PM10 in the entire city. Although vehicle use intensity increased rapidly in Guangzhou during 2005-2009, vehicle emissions were estimated to have been reduced by 12% for CO, 21% for THC and 20% for PM10 relative to those in 2005. NOx emissions were estimated to have remained almost constant during this period. Compared to the "without control" scenario, 19% (15%-23%) of CO, 20% (18%-23%) of THC, 9% (8%-10%) of NOx and 16% (12%-20%) of PM10 were estimated to have been mitigated from a combination of the implementation of Euro III standards for light-duty vehicles (LDVs) and heavy-duty diesel vehicles and improvement of fuel quality. This study also evaluated several enhanced vehicle emission control actions taken recently. For example, the enhanced I/M program for LDVs was estimated to reduce 11% (9%-14%) of CO, 9% (8%-10%) of THC and 2% (2%-3%) of NOx relative to total vehicle emissions in 2009. Total emission reductions by temporary traffic controls for the Asian Games were estimated equivalent to 9% (7%-11%) of CO, 9% (8%-10%) of THC, 5% (5%-6%) of NOx and 10% (8%-13%) of PM10 estimated total vehicle emissions in 2009. Those controls are essential to further vehicle emission mitigation in Guangzhou

  14. POP emission inventories on different scales and their future trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theloke, Jochen; Breivik, Knut; Denier van der Gon, Hugo; Kugler, Ulrike; Li, Yi-Fan; Pacyna, Jozef; Panasiuk, Damian; Sundseth, Kyrre; Sweetman, Andy; Tao, Shu

    2010-05-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are defined as organic substances that possess toxic characteristics; are persistent; bioaccumulate; are prone to long-range transboundary atmospheric transport and deposition; and are likely to cause significant adverse human health or environmental effects near to and distant from their sources. To reduce these adverse effects and for monitoring the effectiveness of existing international agreements, esp. UNECE-POP and UNEP protocols, concerning POPs the compilation of emission inventories is required. This presentation addresses emission inventories for POPs which are covered by existing protocols as well as candidate substances which are in focus for the revision of the international protocols. The following substances will be taken into account in this presentation: Dioxins and Furans (PCDD/F), PAHs, PCBs, Hexachlorbenzene (HCB), Pesticides (e.g. HCH, Dicofol and Endosulfan), Perfluoroctansulfonate (PFOS) and Polybrominated Diphenylethers (PBDEs), Hexachlorobutadiene (HCBD), Pentachlorobenzene (PeCB), Polychlorinated Naphthalenes (PCN), and Pentachlorophenols (PCPs). For all considered substances emission inventories exist with different qualities, from preliminary estimates to more complete inventories. These inventories are based on different methodologies (measurements, modelling, mass balance approaches, etc.), cover different regions (Europe, North America, Asia, China) and different spatial scales (regional, global) with different spatial resolutions. An overview will be given of the current state of the knowledge through a description of the main sources for the specific pollutants, the recent emission levels, a description of historical emission (incl. time series) and gridded data bases, if available. Furthermore, recommendations to improve POP emission inventories as well as major obstacles to achieve these improvements will be given. A further focus of this presentation will be an overview of future trends of

  15. Development of a United States - Mexico emissions inventory for the Big Bend Regional Aerosol and Visibility Observational (BRAVO) Study

    SciTech Connect

    Hampden Kuhns; Eladio M. Knipping; Jeffrey M. Vukovich,

    2005-05-01

    The Big Bend Regional Aerosol and Visibility Observational (BRAVO) Study investigated the sources of haze at Big Bend National Park in southwest Texas. The modeling domain includes most of the continental United States and Mexico. The BRAVO emissions inventory was constructed from the 1999 National Emission Inventory for the United States, modified to include finer-resolution data for Texas and 13 U.S. states in close proximity. The inventory includes emissions for CO, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ammonia, particulate matter (PM) {lt}10 {mu}m in aerodynamic diameter, and PM {lt}2.5 {mu}m in aerodynamic diameter. The SMOKE modeling system was used to generate gridded emissions fields for use with the Regional Modeling System for Aerosols and Deposition (REMSAD) and the Community Multiscale Air Quality model modified with the Model of Aerosol Dynamics, Reaction, Ionization and Dissolution (CMAQ-MADRID). The compilation of the inventory, supporting model input data, and issues encountered during the development of the inventory are documented. A comparison of the BRAVO emissions inventory for Mexico with other emerging Mexican emission inventories illustrates their uncertainty. 65 refs., 4 figs., 9 tabs.

  16. Investigations for Heavy Metals and POPs Emission Inventory Improvement in Belarus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakareka, S.; Kukharchyk, T.

    2003-04-01

    Emission fluxes assessment acts as starting point of air pollution interpretation. The paper presents results of a 7-years activity on identification and estimation of heavy metals and POPs emission sources in Belarus, most of which are poorly inventoried. Methodology based on sources testing and emission factors has been used. The following heavy metals emission sources have been evaluated: stationary fuel combustion, ferrous industry, cement production, glass production, phosphate fertilizers production, road transport, other mobile sources and machinery, cremation, waste incineration. We can generalize that on the territory of Belarus stationary fuel combustion is the main source of emission of arsenic and nickel. Cement production is the main source of mercury, and an essential source of cadmium and lead. Electric arc furnace steel plant provides main part of zinc emissions, and significant share of cadmium and lead. In the 90s the steady reduction heavy metals emissions on the territory of Belarus occured. It especially typical for lead emissions - from in 798 tonnes in 1990 tonnes to 46 tonnes in 2000 because of prohibition of ethylated gasoline usage. As the result of POPs sources identification and estimation it was detected that main contribution into dioxin emission have non-industrial solid fuel combustion (firewood and peat), electric arc furnace and waste incineration. Firewood and peat combustion and mobile sources were revealed to make the largest contribution in PAH emissions in Belarus. Pesticides from POPs Protocol to Geneva Convention and Stockholm POPs Convention (such as DDT, lindane, hexachlorobenzene, toxaphen, endrin, dieldrine, mirex, heptachlor et. al.) are not used now in Belarus. But a large amount of them are stored in various burial sites and storage places which cause significant ecological problems due to pollutants infiltration and spills. Leakage from transformers and damaged capacitors were estimated as the main source of

  17. Inter-comparison of different NOX emission inventories and associated variation in simulated surface ozone in Indian region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jena, Chinmay; Ghude, Sachin D.; Beig, G.; Chate, D. M.; Kumar, Rajesh; Pfister, G. G.; Lal, D. M.; Surendran, Divya E.; Fadnavis, S.; van der A, R. J.

    2015-09-01

    In this work, we compare for the first time different anthropogenic NOX emission inventories and examine the associate variation in simulated surface ozone (O3) in India. Six anthropogenic NOX emission inventories namely Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR), Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment-Phase B (INTEX-B), Regional Emission Inventory in Asia (REAS), MACCity, Indian National Emission Inventory (India_NOx), and Top-Down NOX emission inventory for India (Top-Down) are included in the comparison. We include these emission inventories in regional chemical transport model WRF-Chem to simulate tropospheric column NO2 and surface O3 mixing ratios for the month of summer (15-March to 15-April) and winter (December) in 2005. Predicted tropospheric column NO2 using different NOX emission inventory are evaluated with the OMI satellite observations. All emission inventories show similar spatial features, however uncertainty in NOX emissions distribution is about 20-50% over rural regions and about 60-160% over the major point sources. Compared to OMI, the largest bias in simulated tropospheric NO2 columns is seen in the REAS (-243.0 ± 338.8 × 1013 molecules cm-2) emission inventory, followed by EDGAR (-199.1 ± 272.2 × 1013 molecules cm-2), MACCity (-150.5 ± 236.3 × 1013 molecules cm-2), INTEX-B (-96.8 ± 199.5 × 1013 molecules cm-2), India_NOx (-87.7 ± 159.9 × 1013 molecules cm-2) and Top-Down (-30.8 ± 69.6 × 1013 molecules cm-2) inventories during winter. Simulations using different NOX emission inventories produces maximum deviation in daytime 8-h averaged O3 of the order of 9-17 ppb (15-40%) in summer and 3-12 ppb (5-25%) in winter over most of the land area. The simulation suggests that choice of NOX emission inventories have significant effect on surface O3 concentration for air quality studies over India.

  18. New national emission inventory for navigation in Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winther, Morten

    This article explains the new emission inventory for navigation in Denmark, covering national sea transport, fisheries and international sea transport. For national sea transport, the new Danish inventory distinguishes between regional ferries, local ferries and other national sea transport. Detailed traffic and technical data lie behind the fleet activity-based fuel consumption and emission calculations for regional ferries. For local ferries and other national sea transport, the new inventory is partly fleet activity based; fuel consumption estimates are calculated for single years, and full fuel consumption coverage is established in a time series by means of appropriate assumptions. For fisheries and international sea transport, the new inventory remains fuel based, using fuel sales data from the Danish Energy Authority (DEA). The new Danish inventory uses specific fuel consumption (sfc) and NO x emission factors as a function of engine type and production year. These factors, which are used directly for regional ferries and, for the remaining navigation categories, are derived by means of appropriate assumptions, serve as a major inventory improvement, necessary for making proper emission trend assessments. International sea transport is the most important fuel consumption and emission source for navigation, and the contributions are large even compared with the overall Danish totals. If the contributions from international sea transport were included in the Danish all-sector totals, the extra contributions in 2005 from fuel consumption (and CO 2), NO x and SO 2 would be 5%, 34% and 167%, respectively. The 1990-2005 changes in fuel consumption as well as NO x and SO 2 emissions for national sea transport (-45, -45, -81), fisheries (-18, 6, -18) and international sea transport (-14, 1, -14) reflect changes in fleet activity/fuel consumption and emission factors. The 2006-2020 emission forecasts demonstrate a need for stricter fuel quality and NO x emission

  19. Inventory of methane emissions from U.S. cattle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westberg, H.; Lamb, B.; Johnson, K. A.; Huyler, M.

    2001-01-01

    Many countries, including the United States, are in the process of inventorying greenhouse gas emissions as a prerequisite for designing control strategies. We have developed a measurement-based inventory of methane emissions from cattle in the United States. Methane emission factors were established for the major livestock groups using an internal tracer method. The groups studied included cows, replacement heifers, slaughter cattle, calves, and bulls in the beef sector and cows plus replacement heifers in the dairy industry. Since methane emission is dependent on the quality and quantity of feed, diets were chosen that are representative of the feed regimes utilized by producers in the United States. Regional cattle populations, obtained from U.S. Department of Agriculture statistics, were combined with the methane emission factors to yield regional emission estimates. The methane totals from the five regions were then summed to give a U.S. inventory of cattle emissions for 1990, 1992, 1994, 1996, and 1998. Annual releases ranged from 6.50 Tg in 1990 to a high of 6.98 Tg in 1996. On a regional scale the North Central region of the United States had the largest methane emissions from livestock followed by the South Central and the West. The beef cow group released the most methane (˜2.5 Tg yr-1) followed by slaughter cattle (˜1.7 Tg yr-1) and dairy cows at about 1.5 Tg yr-1. Methane released by cattle in the United States contributes about 11% of the global cattle source.

  20. Colorado State Emissions Inventory Trends 2000-2011 and relevance to the FRAPPE/Discover-AQ Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bon, D.; Adelman, Z.; Moore, T.; Wells, D.; Briggs, K. R.

    2015-12-01

    The Intermountain West Data Warehouse (IWDW) was created through joint efforts of Federal agencies (Land Managers and EPA), and State Air Quality Program Managers to address regional scale modeling analysis and planning needs. The IWDW contains monitoring, emissions, and air quality modeling data and analysis tools to support regulatory, research, and academic applications. As one of the participants, the State of Colorado uses the data from the IWDW for a variety of regulatory efforts including modeling efforts to support the development of State Implementation Plans and for air quality research efforts such as the Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Experiment (FRAPPE). The emissions inventories developed for the IWDW are highly detailed and much more suitable to local modeling efforts than the EPA National Emission Inventory. Here we present an overview of the 2011 statewide IWDW emissions inventory for Colorado and examine historic trends in statewide inventories used for modeling, planning and analysis. The IWDW 2011 inventory should prove highly useful to modeling, regulatory, research and policy needs for participating agencies.

  1. A high-resolution emission inventory of primary pollutants for the Huabei region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, B.; Wang, P.; Ma, J. Z.; Zhu, S.; Pozzer, A.; Li, W.

    2011-07-01

    Huabei is a part of eastern China located between 32° N and 42° N latitude. Administratively it is a region including Beijing and Tianjin Municipalities, Hebei and Shanxi Provinces, and Inner-Mongolia Autonomous Region. Over the past decades, the region has experienced dramatic changes in air quality and climate, and has become a major focus of environmental research in China. Here we present a new inventory of air pollutant emissions in Huabei for the year 2003 developed as part of the project Influence of Pollution on Aerosols and Cloud Microphysics in North China (IPAC-NC). Our estimates are based on the data from the statistical yearbooks of state and provinces as well as local districts including major sectors and activities of power generation, industrial energy consumption, industrial processing, civil energy consumption, crop straw burning, oil and solvent evaporation, manure, and motor vehicles. The emission factors are selected from a variety of literature and those from local measurements in China are used whenever available. The estimated total emissions in the Huabei administrative region in 2003 are 4.73 Tg SO2, 2.72 Tg NOx (in equivalent NO2), 1.77 Tg VOC, 24.14 Tg CO, 2.03 Tg NH3, 4.57 Tg PM10, 2.42 Tg PM2.5, 0.21 Tg EC, and 0.46 Tg OC. For model convenience, we consider a larger Huabei region with Shandong, Henan and Liaoning Provinces included in our inventory. The estimated total emissions in the larger Huabei region in 2003 are: 9.55 Tg SO2, 5.27 Tg NOx (in equivalent NO2), 3.82 Tg VOC, 46.59 Tg CO, 5.36 Tg NH3, 10.74 Tg PM10, 5.62 Tg PM2.5, 0.41 Tg EC, and 0.99 Tg OC. The estimated emission rates are projected into grid cells at a horizontal resolution of 0.1° latitude by 0.1° longitude. Our gridded emission inventory consists of area sources, which are classified into industrial, civil, traffic, and straw burning sectors, and large industrial point sources, which include 345 sets of power plants, iron and steel plants, cement plants, and

  2. Update and improvement of the global krypton-85 emission inventory.

    PubMed

    Ahlswede, Jochen; Hebel, Simon; Ross, J Ole; Schoetter, Robert; Kalinowski, Martin B

    2013-01-01

    Krypton-85 is mainly produced in nuclear reactors by fission of uranium and plutonium and released during chopping and dissolution of spent fuel rods in nuclear reprocessing facilities. As noble gas it is suited as a passive tracer for evaluation of atmospheric transport models. Furthermore, research is ongoing to assess its quality as an indicator for clandestine reprocessing activities. This paper continues previous efforts to compile a comprehensive historic emission inventory for krypton-85. Reprocessing facilities are the by far largest emitters of krypton-85. Information on sources and calculations used to derive the annual krypton-85 emission is provided for all known reprocessing facilities in the world. In addition, the emission characteristics of two plants, Tokai (Japan) and La Hague (France), are analysed in detail using emission data with high temporal resolution. Other types of krypton-85 sources are power reactors, naval reactors and isotope production facilities. These sources contribute only little or negligible amounts of krypton-85 compared to the large reprocessing facilities. Taking the decay of krypton-85 into account, the global atmospheric inventory is estimated to about 5500 PBq at the end of 2009. The correctness if the inventory has been proven by meteorological simulations and its error is assumed to be in the range of a few percent. PMID:22858641

  3. Emissions of hazardous air pollutants from aeration tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, H.; Keener, T.C.; Bishop, P.L.; Orton, T.L.; Wang, M.; Siddiqui, K.F.

    1998-12-31

    Regulated under the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA), Publicly Owned Treatment Works (POT Ws) need to inventory and control their hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions, primarily from the aeration tanks. The spatial characteristics of hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions, primarily from the aeration tanks. The spatial characteristics of hazardous air pollutants in the form of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the aeration units of POTWs have been investigated by systematic monitoring and mathematical modeling. Using a verified off-gas sampling system and CC-MS analytical method, a large wastewater treatment plant has been tested to understand the air emissions from its aeration basins. Variations of VOC emissions along the length of the aeration units have been tested and modeled. Most VOCs have decreasing concentration profiles. A simple PFR model has been developed to obtain the spatial information of the VOC fate. This model can be easily used to validate model parameters and accurately simulate the process especially in the case where the aeration tanks are operated with varied airflow rates along the tank length. Using this simple model, air emissions can be accurately estimated and the simulation results are useful to support an emissions control analysis. This study also reveals that simple multiplication of measured off-gas concentration and total airflow over-estimates the overall emissions.

  4. NWCF Evaporator Tank System 2001 Offgas Emissions Inventory

    SciTech Connect

    Boardman, R.D.; Lamb, K.M.; Matejka, L.A.; Nenni, J.A.

    2002-02-27

    An offgas emissions inventory and liquid stream characterization of the Idaho New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) Evaporator Tank System (ETS), formerly known as the High Level Liquid Waste Evaporator (HLLWE), has been completed. The emissions rates of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds, multiple metals, particulate, and hydrochloric acid were measured in accordance with an approved Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP) and Test Plan that invoked U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard sample collection and analysis procedures. Offgas samples were collected during the start up and at the end of evaporator batches when it was hypothesized the emissions would be at peak rates. Corresponding collection of samples from the evaporator feed overhead condensate, and bottoms was made at approximately the same time as the emissions inventory to support material balance determinations for the evaporator process. The data indicate that organic compound emissions are slightly higher at the beginning of the batch while metals emissions, including mercury, are slightly higher at the end of the evaporator batch. The maximum emissions concentrations are low for all constituents of primary concern. Mercury emissions were less than 5 ppbv, while the sum of HCl and Cl2 emissions was less than 1 ppmv. The sum of all organic emissions also was less than 1 ppmv. The estimated hazardous quotient (HQ) for the evaporator was 6.2e-6 as compared to 0.25 for the EPA target criteria. The cancer risk was 1.3e-10 compared to an EPA target of le-5.

  5. NWCF Evaporator Tank System 2001 Offgas Emissions Inventory

    SciTech Connect

    Boardman, Richard Doin; Lamb, Kenneth Mitchel; Matejka, Leon Anthony; Nenni, Joseph A

    2002-02-01

    An offgas emissions inventory and liquid stream characterization of the Idaho New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) Evaporator Tank System (ETS), formerly known as the High Level Liquid Waste Evaporator (HLLWE), has been completed. The emissions rates of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds, multiple metals, particulate, and hydrochloric acid were measured in accordance with an approved Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP) and Test Plan that invoked U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard sample collection and analysis procedures. Offgas samples were collected during the start up and at the end of evaporator batches when it was hypothesized the emissions would be at peak rates. Corresponding collection of samples from the evaporator feed overhead condensate, and bottoms was made at approximately the same time as the emissions inventory to support material balance determinations for the evaporator process. The data indicate that organic compound emissions are slightly higher at the beginning of the batch while metals emissions, including mercury, are slightly higher at the end of the evaporator batch. The maximum emissions concentrations are low for all constituents of primary concern. Mercury emissions were less than 5 ppbv, while the sum of HCl and Cl2 emissions was less than 1 ppmv. The sum of all organic emissions also was less than 1 ppmv. The estimated hazardous quotient (HQ) for the evaporator was 6.2e-6 as compared to 0.25 for the EPA target criteria. The cancer risk was 1.3e-10 compared to an EPA target of le-5.

  6. Emissions inventories for MSW landfills under Title V

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, W.G.; Peyser, T.R.; Hamilton, S.M.

    1996-05-01

    In the past, many states were either not concerned with, or unaware that, municipal solid waste landfills (MSWLFs) were potential sources of regulated air pollutants. This philosophy is rapidly changing, in part due to US EPA policy documents concerning (and defining) fugitive and non-fugitive emissions from MSWLFs, the attention given to the newly released New Source Performance Standards and a recent lawsuit that gained national notoriety involving landfill air emissions and air permitting applicability issues. Most states now recognize that MSWLFs are sources of regulated air pollutants and are subject to permitting requirements (and pollutant emission fees) as other industries; i.e., state-level minor- and major-source operating permit programs, and the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments Title V Operating Permits Program (Title V).

  7. Gridded atmospheric emission inventory of 2,3,7,8-TCDD in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Tao; Tian, Chongguo; Zhang, Kai; Gao, Hong; Li, Yi-Fan; Ma, Jianmin

    2015-05-01

    Establishment of the dioxins emission inventory has been considered as a crucial step toward risk assessment and elimination of dioxins contaminations. Based on a total dioxin emission inventory in China from different emission categories in 2004, this study created a gridded emission inventory of 2,3,7,8-TCDD, the most toxic congener in dioxins, in China in 2009 with a 1/4° longitude by 1/4° latitude resolution. It was estimated that annually total 371 ± 53 g (average ± standard deviation) of 2,3,7,8-TCDD was released into the atmosphere in 2009 over China, increasing approximately by 37% compared with its emission in 2004. Differing from most developed countries where municipal waste incinerations were regarded as a major atmospheric emission source, in China ferrous and non-ferrous metal production made the largest contribution to 2,3,7,8-TCDD air emission (138 ± 16 g), followed by waste incineration (109 ± 12 g), power and heating generation (62 ± 9 g), and production of mineral products (47 ± 8 g). The rest of sources contributed approximately 3% to the total 2,3,7,8-TCDD emission in 2009. Iron and steel industries are mainly located in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) and Yangtze River Delta (YRD) regions, whereas waste incinerators are mainly located in Pearl River Delta (PRD) region. Higher 2,3,7,8-TCDD emissions were found in these three regions. While the BTH, YRD, and PRD accounted for only about 4% of total land area of China, they contributed approximately 14%, 15%, and 5% to the total 2,3,7,8-TCDD emission in 2009 in China, respectively.

  8. High resolution inventory of GHG emissions of the road transport sector in Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puliafito, Salvador Enrique; Allende, David; Pinto, Sebastián; Castesana, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Air quality models require the use of extensive background information, such as land use and topography maps, meteorological data and emission inventories of pollutant sources. This challenge increases when considering the vehicular sources. The available international databases have uneven resolution for all countries including some areas with low spatial resolution associated with large districts (several hundred km). A simple procedure is proposed in order to develop an inventory of emissions with high resolution (9 km) for the transport sector based on a geographic information system using readily available information applied to Argentina. The basic variable used is the vehicle activity (vehicle - km transported) estimated from fuel consumption and fuel efficiency. This information is distributed to a spatial grid according to a road hierarchy and segment length assigned to each street within the cell. Information on fuel is obtained from district consumption, but weighted using the DMSP-OLS satellite "Earth at night" image. The uncertainty of vehicle estimation and emission calculations was tested using sensitivity Montecarlo analysis. The resulting inventory is calibrated using annual average daily traffic counts in around 850 measuring points all over the country leading to an uncertainty of 20%. Uncertainties in the emissions calculation at pixel level can be estimated to be less than 12%. Comparison with international databases showed a better spatial distribution of greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions in the transport sector, but similar total national values.

  9. Developing Shipping Emissions Assessments, Inventories and Scenarios (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbett, J. J.

    2010-12-01

    Inventories of shipping have been important contributions to scientific understanding of regional pollution and transboundary transport. These inventories have also been used to evaluate global scale environmental and climate effects and trends. However, these inventories also inform policy making decisions and this role is increasingly occurring within the timescale of scientific assessment. Shipping exhibits a growth trend for uncontrolled pollutants that is highly coupled to economic activity, and historically increasing faster than many other anthropogenic sources on a global and regional scale. Shipping emissions are being regulated asymmetrically in various dimensions. Some pollutants are being controlled more than others, some regions are subject to stricter controls, and correlated changes in operations are affecting unregulated pollutant emissions. Shipping inventories require more than current assessments, including historic and future scenarios. Generally conceived as sets of business-as-usual (BAU) and high-growth scenarios, ship inventories now also need regulatory control pathways and maximum feasible reduction (MFR) scenarios. In this context, shipping inventories also present other challenges to both scientists and policymakers. Systemic bias can occur in non-shipping assessments when emissions along well-traveled shipping lanes are ignored by far offshore scientific studies, even some campaigns that control very carefully the potential influence of the shipping platforms for their measurements. Examples where shipping may contribute understood and potential biases include: a. Health impacts from transboundary pollution b. Ozone trends over the Pacific c. Sulfur emissions from biogenic sources in Northern hemisphere d. Acidification of coastal waters (potential) e. Arctic impacts on snow and ice Other challenges exist. The fuels and technology used by ships are unique from other transportation, from other stationary sources - and these are changing

  10. Year 2015 Aircraft Emission Scenario for Scheduled Air Traffic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baughcum, Steven L.; Sutkus, Donald J.; Henderson, Stephen C.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes the development of a three-dimensional scenario of aircraft fuel burn and emissions (fuel burned, NOx, CO, and hydrocarbons)for projected year 2015 scheduled air traffic. These emission inventories are available for use by atmospheric scientists conducting the Atmospheric Effects of Aviation Project (AEAP) modeling studies. Fuel burned and emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx as NO2), carbon monoxides, and hydrocarbons have been calculated on a 1 degree latitude x 1 degree longitude x 1 kilometer altitude grid and delivered to NASA as electronic files.

  11. A Comparison of Inventoried and Measured U.S. Urban/Industrial Hg Emission Factors during the NOMADSS Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambrose, J. L., II; Gratz, L.; Jaffe, D. A.; Apel, E. C.; Campos, T. L.; Flocke, F. M.; Guenther, A. B.; Hornbrook, R. S.; Karl, T.; Kaser, L.; Knapp, D. J.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Cantrell, C. A.; Mauldin, L.; Yuan, B.

    2014-12-01

    current formulation of the Hg emission inventories critically limits our ability to accurately predict the transport and fate of U.S. urban/industrial emissions of Hg to the atmosphere. These findings are broadly relevant to the design and use of emission inventories for industrial hazardous air pollutants.

  12. A high-resolution ammonia emission inventory in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xin; Song, Yu; Li, Mengmeng; Li, Jianfeng; Huo, Qing; Cai, Xuhui; Zhu, Tong; Hu, Min; Zhang, Hongsheng

    2012-03-01

    The existence of gas-phase ammonia (NH3) in the atmosphere and its interaction with other trace chemical species could have a substantial impact on tropospheric chemistry and global climate change. China is a large agricultural country with an enormous animal population, tremendous nitrogen fertilizer consumption and, consequently, a large emission of NH3. Despite the importance of NH3 in the global nitrogen (N) cycle, considerable inaccuracies and uncertainty exist regarding its emission in China. In this study, a comprehensive NH3 emission inventory was compiled for China on a 1 km × 1 km grid, which is suitable for input to atmospheric models. We attempted to estimate NH3 emissions accurately by taking into consideration as many native experiment results as possible and parameterizing the emission factors (EFs) by the ambient temperature, soil acidity and other factors. The total NH3emission in China was approximately 9.8 Tg in 2006. The emission sources considered included livestock excreta (5.3 Tg), fertilizer application (3.2 Tg), agricultural soil (0.2 Tg), nitrogen-fixing plants (0.05 Tg), crop residue compost (0.3 Tg), biomass burning (0.1 Tg), urine from rural populations (0.2 Tg), chemical industry (0.2 Tg), waste disposal (0.1 Tg) and traffic (0.1 Tg). The regions with the highest emission rates are located in Central and Southwest China. Seasonally, the peak ammonia emissions occur in spring and summer.

  13. HFC-134a Emissions in China: An Inventory for 1995-2030

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Shenshen; Fang, Xuekun; Wu, Jing; Li, Li; Hu, Jianxin; Han, Jiarui

    2014-05-01

    HFC-134a is the most important substitute of CFC-12 used in the mobile air-conditioner in China since 1995. The bottom-up method was used to estimate HFC-134a emissions in China, from 1995 to 2030, basing on updated automobile industry data and latest emission characters. From 1995, total HFC-134a emission has kept a high growth rate of nearly 60% per year, and reached 16,414.3 Mg (11,959.4-20,834.5 Mg) in 2010, which was equivalent to 23.5 Mt CO2-eq emissions. Furthermore, the emissions in China accounted for nearly half of total emissions of Non-AnnexI countries in 2008. As for provincial emissions in 2010, provinces with emission greater than 1,000 Mg are Guangdong, Shandong, Jiangsu and Beijing. Quantitative relationship between provincial HFC-134a emissions and GRP of the Tertiary Industry was used to estimate HFC-134a emissions at county level, and Hangzhou municipal district held the maximum emission intensity (4,605 Mg/10,000 km2). For HFC-134a, emissions calculated from the observations within 46 cities through Euler box model are in good agreement with the corresponding emissions estimated from the bottom-up method, verifying that the emission inventory at county level adequately describes the emission spatial pattern. For the future emissions of HFC-134a, projected emissions will reach 89,370.4 Mg (65,959.7- 114,068.2 Mg) in 2030 under the Business-as-usual (BAU) Scenario, but under the Alternative Scenario, a emission reduction potential of 88.6% of the projected BAU emissions would be obtained.

  14. Air pollution emission factors. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning emission factors for a variety of industrial, stationary, and mobile sources. Emissions inventories are discussed in terms of specific compounds, as well as by source type. Computer simulations utilizing emission factors in air pollution impact studies are also included. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  15. Emissions and Air Quality Impacts of Freight Transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bickford, Erica

    Diesel freight vehicles (trucks + trains) are responsible for 20% of all U.S. nitrogen oxide (NOx) and 3% of fine particulate (PM2.5) emissions - pollutants that are harmful to human health. Freight tonnage is also projected to double over the next several decades, reaching 30 billion tons by 2050, increasing freight transport activity. Air quality impacts from increased activity, trade-offs between activity and vehicle technology improvements, as well as where to make infrastructure investments that encourage sustainable freight growth, are important considerations for transportation and air quality managers. To address these questions, we build a bottom-up roadway-by-roadway freight truck inventory (WIFE) and employ it to quantify emissions impacts of swapping biodiesel blends into the Midwest diesel freight truck fleet, and investigate emissions and air quality impacts of truck-to-rail freight modal shifts in the Midwest. We also evaluate the spatial and seasonal freight performance of WIFE modeled in a regional photochemical model (CMAQ) against satellite retrievals of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). Results show that spatial and seasonal distribution of biodiesel affects regional emissions impacts. Summer high-blend deployment yields a larger annual emissions reduction than year-round low-blend deployment, however, technological improvements in vehicle emissions controls between 2009 and 2018 dwarf the impacts of biodiesel. Truck-to-rail modal shift analysis found 40% of daily freight truck VMT could be shifted to rail freight, causing a 26% net reduction in NOx emissions, and 31% less carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Despite significant emissions impacts, air quality modeling results showed mostly localized near roadway air quality improvements, with small regional net changes; yet, federal regulation of CO2 emissions and/or rising costs of diesel fuel could motivate shifting freight to more fuel efficient rail. Evaluation of

  16. Non-methane volatile organic compound emission inventories in Beijing during Olympic Games 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Junhua; Shao, Min; Lu, Sihua; Xie, Yangyang

    2011-12-01

    Non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) play important roles in ground-level ozone and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. To evaluate the effectiveness of air quality control measures in Beijing in 2008, NMVOC emission inventories were compiled for June, July, August, and September with emission factors and updated activity data. Total NMVOC emissions were 22.6, 20.2, 14.9, and 14.6 Gg in June, July, August, and September, respectively. Anthropogenic NMVOC emissions were 45% lower in August than June; vehicles, solvent utilization, industrial processing, and miscellaneous sources declined by 66, 48, 15, and 75%, respectively. Anthropogenic NMVOC emissions increased in September compared with August. NMVOC emissions from petroleum storage and transport varied little during these months because of the installation of low-fugitive facilities. Reduced emissions from vehicles, industrial processing, and petroleum storage and transport contributed to the total anthropogenic reduction. Inventory uncertainties were evaluated to be [-51%, +126%], [-56%, +146%], [-58%, +161%], and [-52%, +133%] in June, July, August, and September, respectively, at the 95% confidence level.

  17. The National Emissions Inventory Significantly Overestimates NOx Emissions: Analysis of CMAQ and in situ observations from DISCOVER-AQ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, D. C.; Dickerson, R. R.; Loughner, C.

    2013-12-01

    NOx and CO not only adversely impact human health, but they, along with associated VOCs, are also important precursors for O3 formation. While ambient NOx and CO concentrations have decreased dramatically over the past 10-20 years, O3 has remained a more recalcitrant problem, particularly in the Baltimore/Washington region. Reduction of O3 production requires that emissions inventories, such as the National Emissions Inventory (NEI), accurately capture total emissions of CO and NOx while also correctly apportioning them among different sectors. Previous evaluations of the NEI paint different pictures of its accuracy, with assertions that it overestimates either one or both of CO and NOx from anywhere between 25 percent to a factor of 2. These conflicting claims warrant further investigation. In this study, measurements of NOx and CO taken aboard the NOAA P3B airplane during the 2011 DISCOVER-AQ field campaign were used to determine the NOx/CO emissions ratio at 6 locations in the Washington/Baltimore region. An average molar emissions ratio of 12.8 × 1.2 CO/NOx was found by calculating the change in CO over the change in NOx from vertical concentration profiles in the planetary boundary layer. Ratios showed little variation with location. Observed values were approximately a factor of 1.35 - 1.75 times greater than that predicted by the annual, countywide emissions ratio from the 2008 NEI. When compared to a temporalized, gridded version of the inventory processed by SMOKE, ratio observations were greater than that predicted by inventories by up to a factor of 2. Comparison of the in situ measurements and remotely sensed observations from MOPITT of CO to the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model agree within 10-35 percent, with the model higher on average. Measurements of NOy by two separate analytical techniques, on the other hand, show that CMAQ consistently and significantly overestimates NOy concentrations. Combined with the CO observations, this

  18. Top-down estimate of anthropogenic emission inventories and their interannual variability in Houston using a mesoscale inverse modeling technique

    SciTech Connect

    Brioude, J.; Kim, S. W.; Angevine, Wayne M.; Frost, G. J.; Lee, S. H.; McKeen, S. A.; Trainer, Michael; Fehsenfeld, Fred C.; Holloway, J. S.; Ryerson, T. B.; Williams, E. J.; Petron, Gabrielle; Fast, Jerome D.

    2011-10-31

    The 2000 and 2006 Texas Air Quality Study (TexAQS 2000 and 2006) field campaigns took place in eastern Texas in August-October of 2000 and 2006. Several flights of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) research aircraft were dedicated to characterizing anthropogenic emissions over Houston. Houston is known for having serious problems with non-attainment of air quality standards. We present a method that uses three models and aircraft observations to assess and improve existing emission inventories using an inverse modeling technique. We used 3-dimensional and 4-dimensional variational (3D-VAR and 4D-VAR) inverse modeling techniques based on a least-squares method to improve the spatial and temporal distribution of CO, NOy (sum of all reactive nitrogen compounds), and SO2 emissions predicted by the 4-km-resolution U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Emission Inventory (NEI) for 2005. Differences between the prior and posterior inventories are discussed in detail. We found that in 2006 the prior daytime emissions in the urban area of Houston have to be reduced by 40% {+-} 12% for CO and 7% {+-} 13% for NOy. Over the Houston Ship Channel, where industrial emissions are predominant, the prior emissions have to be reduced by 41% {+-} 15% for CO and 51% {+-} 9% for NOy. Major ports around Houston have their NOy emissions reduced as well, probably due to uncertainties in near-shore ship emissions in the EPA NEI inventory. Using the measurements from the two field campaigns, we assessed the interannual emission variability between 2000 and 2006. Daytime CO emissions from the Houston urban area have been reduced by 8% {+-} 20%, while the NOy emissions have increased by 20% {+-} 12% from 2000 to 2006. In the Houston Ship Channel, the daytime NOy emissions have increased by 13% {+-} 17%. Our results show qualitative consistencies with known changes in Houston emissions sources.

  19. Emissions inventory of PM2.5 trace elements across the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Adam Reff; Prakash V. Bhave; Heather Simon; Thompson G. Pace; George A. Pouliot; J. David Mobley; Marc Houyoux

    2009-08-15

    This paper presents the first National Emissions Inventory (NEI) of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) that includes the full suite of PM2.5 trace elements (atomic number >10) measured at ambient monitoring sites across the U.S. PM2.5 emissions in the NEI were organized and aggregated into a set of 84 source categories for which chemical speciation profiles are available (e.g., Unpaved Road Dust, Agricultural Soil, Wildfires). Emission estimates for ten metals classified as Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP) were refined using data from a recent HAP NEI. All emissions were spatially gridded, and U.S. emissions maps for dozens of trace elements (e.g., Fe, Ti) are presented for the first time. Nationally, the trace elements emitted in the highest quantities are silicon (3.8 x 10{sup 5} ton/yr), aluminium (1.4 x 10{sup 5} ton/yr), and calcium (1.3 x 10{sup 5} ton/yr). Our chemical characterization of the PM2.5 inventory shows that most of the previously unspeciated emissions are comprised of crustal elements, potassium, sodium, chlorine, and metal-bound oxygen. Coal combustion is the largest source of S, Se, Sr, Hg and primary sulfates. This work also reveals that the largest PM2.5 sources lacking specific speciation data are off-road diesel-powered mobile equipment, road construction dust, marine vessels, gasoline-powered boats, and railroad locomotives. 28 refs., 4 figs.

  20. Emission estimates for air pollution transport models.

    SciTech Connect

    Streets, D. G.

    1998-10-09

    The results of studies of energy consumption and emission inventories in Asia are discussed. These data primarily reflect emissions from fuel combustion (both biofuels and fossil fuels) and were collected to determine emissions of acid-deposition precursors (SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}) and greenhouse gases (CO{sub 2} CO, CH{sub 4}, and NMHC) appropriate to RAINS-Asia regions. Current work is focusing on black carbon (soot), volatile organic compounds, and ammonia.

  1. Development and Evaluation of the Biogenic Emissions Inventory System (BEIS) Model v3.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bash, J. O.; Baker, K. R.; Pouliot, G.

    2014-12-01

    Atmospheric biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) influences ozone and organic aerosol formation and can enhance the impact that anthropogenic pollutants have on ambient air-quality and climate. BVOC emissions are estimated to be approximately an order of magnitude higher than anthropogenic sources of volatile organic compounds. Despite the importance of BVOC emissions on air-quality and climate, considerable uncertainty remains in the parametrization emission algorithms and emission factors from different land uses and vegetation species. We will present three updates to the the BEIS model. (1) The BEIS canopy model has been updated with explicit estimates of leaf temperature coupled to the driving meteorological model's energy balance implemented in. (2) The Biogenic Emission Landuse Database (BELD) was updated with year specific satellite derrived land use, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) crop survey data, and U.S. Forest Service forest Forest Inventory Analyssis (FIA) survayed tree speceis to develop a tree species specific land use data set. (3) A survey of published flux measurements were used to update the BEIS BVOC normalized emission factors. Incremental updates to the BEIS model are evaluated against surface and aircraft based field campain measurements and network observations in Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model v5.0.2 simulations. Prelimilar model simulations result in improvements in model O3, isoprene, oxidized nitrogen, and aerosol performance over the contenental U.S.

  2. The Wildland Fire Emission Inventory: emission estimates and an evaluation of uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbanski, S. P.; Hao, W. M.; Nordgren, B.

    2011-08-01

    We present the Wildland Fire Emission Inventory (WFEI), a high resolution model for non-agricultural open biomass burning (hereafter referred to as wildland fires) in the contiguous United States (CONUS). WFEI was used to estimate emissions of CO and PM2.5 for the western United States from 2003-2008. The estimated annual CO emitted ranged from 436 Gg yr-1 in 2004 to 3107 Gg yr-1 in 2007. The extremes in estimated annual PM2.5 emitted were 65 Gg yr-1 in 2004 and 454 Gg yr-1 in 2007. Annual wildland fire emissions were significant compared to other emission sources in the western United States as estimated in a national emission inventory. In the peak fire year of 2007, fire emissions were ~20 % of total CO emissions and ~39 % of total PM2.5 emissions. During the months with the greatest fire activity, wildland fires accounted for the majority of CO and PM2.5 emitted across the study region. The uncertainty in the inventory estimates of CO and PM2.5 emissions (ECO and EPM2.5, respectively) have been quantified across spatial and temporal scales relevant to regional and global modeling applications. The uncertainty in annual, domain wide emissions was 28 % to 51 % for CO and 40 % to 65 % for PM2.5. Sensitivity of the uncertainty in ECO and EPM2.5 to the emission model components depended on scale. At scales relevant to regional modeling applications (Δx = 10 km, Δt = 1 day) WFEI estimates 50 % of total ECO with an uncertainty <133 % and half of total EPM2.5 with an uncertainty <146 %. The uncertainty in ECO and EPM2.5 is significantly reduced at the scale of global modeling applications (Δx = 100 km, Δt = 30 day). Fifty percent of total emissions are estimated with an uncertainty <50 % for CO and <64 % for PM2.5. Uncertainty in the burned area drives the emission uncertainties at regional scales. At global scales the uncertainty in ECO is most sensitive to uncertainties in the fuel load consumed while the uncertainty in the emission factor for PM2.5 drives the

  3. Noise Emission from Laboratory Air Blowers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossing, Thomas D.; Windham, Betty

    1978-01-01

    Product noise ratings for a number of laboratory air blowers are reported and several recommendations for reducing laboratory noise from air blowers are given. Relevant noise ratings and methods for measuring noise emission of appliances are discussed. (BB)

  4. DESTRUCTION OF AIR EMISSIONS USING CATALYTIC OXIDATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses key emission stream characteristics and hazardous air pollutant (HAP) characteristics that affect the applicability of catalytic oxidation as an air pollution control technique in which volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and vapor-phase air toxics in an air emi...

  5. A UK inventory of nitrous oxide emissions from farmed livestock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadwick, D. R.; Sneath, R. W.; Phillips, V. R.; Pain, B. F.

    A UK inventory of the nitrous oxide (N 2O) emissions from farmed livestock was compiled to identify areas where potential abatement practices may be effective. Where possible, emission factors based on direct experimental data gathered under UK conditions were used, but published data were used when this was not feasible, together with statistical information, which included details of numbers of animals within each category of a species, animal liveweights, number of days housed, excretal rates and volumes of manures in stores. Total N 2O emissions were calculated for each component of livestock production systems, i.e. animal houses, manure stores, following application of manures to land and during grazing. Emissions were also estimated from land used for forage conservation and tillage. Total annual N 2O emissions from UK farmed livestock, based mainly on 1996 animal census data, were estimated to be 38.27 kt. The two main terms were 22.66 kt N 2O from mineral fertilisers after application to soils and 5.61 kt N 2O from stored manures (mainly in the form of farmyard manure). Within buildings, poultry were the largest contributors of N 2O, 2.97 kt, followed by cattle, 1.62 kt. Within the total emissions from stored manures, cattle were the largest contributors of N 2O, 3.58 kt, followed by poultry, 1.86 kt. Dietary manipulation and a move from solid manure based systems to slurry based systems appear to be promising abatement practices.

  6. [Development of mercury emission inventory from coal combustion in China].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jing-kun; Hao, Ji-ming; Wu, Ye; Streets, David G; Duan, Lei; Tian, He-zhong

    2005-03-01

    Mercury emission inventory by province from coal combustion in China was developed by combining fuel consumption, mercury content in fuel and emission factors after combustion in this study. The study is intended to provide an understanding of mercury transformation, transportation and deposition in atmosphere, as well as propose measures to control mercury pollution in China. Mercury emission sources were classified into 65 categories by economic sectors, fuel types, boiler types and pollution control technologies. For two different data sets of mercury content in coal the total amounts of mercury released into atmosphere in 2000 in China were estimated at about 161.6 tons and 219.5 tons, respectively. The biggest three source sectors were industry, power plants, and residential use, contributing 46%, 35% and 14% of total mercury emissions, respectively. The shares of elemental mercury (Hg0), oxidized mercury (Hg2+ ) and particulate mercury (Hgp) were 16% , 61% and 23% , respectively. The spatial distribution of mercury emissions from coal combustion in China is not uniform. Henan, Shanxi, Hebei, Liaoning and Jiangsu contributed large amounts of mercury emissions, exceeding 10t x a(- 1). PMID:16004296

  7. Ship emissions inventory, social cost and eco-efficiency in Shanghai Yangshan port

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Su

    2014-01-01

    This study estimated both the in-port ship emissions inventory (CO2, CH4, N2O, PM10, PM2.5, NOx, SOx, CO, and HC) and the emission associated social cost in Yangshan port of Shanghai. A sophisticated activity-based methodology, supported by the ship-by-ship and real-time data from the modern automatic identification system (AIS), was introduced to obtain accurate estimates of ship emissions. The detailed spatial and temporal emission inventories can be used as input for air quality dispersion modeling in the port and vicinities. The social cost of the emission impact on the Yangshan port coastal regions was then assessed based on the emissions inventories. The social cost covers the impact on human health, the environment, and the climate of the coastal community. Finally, the ship emissions was combined with port's basic operation profiles, i.e. container throughput, ship calls, and port revenue, in an attempt to assess the port's “eco-efficiency”, which indicates the port performance with social-economic and environmental concerns. This study filled the gap of previous studies by providing the AIS-supported activity-based emission inventory to facilitate the social cost-benefit analysis for the emission abatement policies. The result shows that i) the amount of in-port ship emissions of CO2, CH4, N2O, PM10, PM2.5, NOx, SOx, CO, and HC in Yangshan port area was 578,444 tons, 10 tons, 33 tons, 1078 tons (PM10, inducing PM2.5), 859 tons (PM2.5 only), 10,758 tons, 5623 tons, 1136 tons, and 519 tons, respectively, with ii) a total social cost of 287 million; iii) the values of the three parameters of the port eco-efficiency performance were 36,528 per 1,000 TEU throughput, 43,993 per ship call, and 44 million per billion US$ port revenue (4.4% of port revenue), respectively in 2009.

  8. An approach to a black carbon emission inventory for Mexico by two methods.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Núñez, Xochitl

    2014-05-01

    A black carbon (BC) emission inventory for Mexico is presented. Estimate was performed by using two approaches, based on fuel consumption and emission factors in a top-down scheme, and the second from PM25 emission data and its correlation with black carbon by source category, assuming that black carbon=elemental carbon. Results show that black carbon emissions are in interval 53-473Gg using the fuel consumption approach and between 62 and 89 using the sector method. Black carbon key sources come from biomass burning in the rural sector, with 47 percent share to the National total. Mobile sources emissions account to 16% to the total. An opportunity to reduce, in the short-term, carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2-eq) emissions by reducing black carbon emissions would be obtained in reducing emissions mainly from biomass burning in rural housing sector and diesel emissions in the transport sector with important co-benefits in direct radiative forcing, public health and air quality. PMID:24561296

  9. A Daily Wildland Fire Greenhouse Gas Emission Inventory for the Conterminous United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raffuse, S. M.; Gilliland, E. K.; Larkin, N. K.; Solomon, R.; Strand, T. M.; Sullivan, D. C.

    2008-12-01

    Biomass burning is a significant contributor to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, even in regions with substantial anthropogenic emissions, such as the United States. GHG emissions from wildland fire are highly variable in time and space. We present methodology and results from the development of a four-year wildland fire emission inventory for the Conterminous United States (2003-2006). Top-down fire information was provided by the Satellite Mapping Automatic Reanalysis Tool for Fire Incident Reconciliation (SMARTFIRE), which combines satellite-derived fire detection with ground-based, human-generated fire reporting systems. Daily emissions were calculated within the BlueSky smoke modeling framework, developed by the US Forest Service. Emissions were estimated for carbon dioxide and methane, in addition to traditional ambient air pollutants and toxic species. There are many sources of uncertainty in biomass burning emission estimates. For example, different fire information sources can have significant impacts on the resulting estimated emissions. We present preliminary results on the sensitivity of GHG emission estimates to different fire information inputs.

  10. Adjoint inverse modeling of a CO emission inventory at the city scale: Santiago de Chile's case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saide, P.; Osses, A.; Gallardo, L.; Osses, M.

    2009-03-01

    Emission inventories (EIs) are key-tools for air quality management. However, EIs are expensive, and they have uncertainties. A way to improve the accuracy of EIs is data assimilation. Multiple inverse methods have been used at various scales. However, typically, when applying these methods at the city scale, one encounters, in addition to problems related to the precision of the first guess, or the reliability and representativeness of the observations, or the shortcomings of the dispersion model, the problem of co-location of sources and observation sites. The latter problem results in spurious corrections to the a priori EI. Here we present a methodology to improve an EI of carbon monoxide over a city. We use a 3-D variational approach, in which a cost function that includes balanced terms addressing observation and emission errors is minimized to obtain an ameliorated EI. In addition to positivity, the method addresses the co-location of sources and observations by means of a factor that multiplies the emission error covariance matrix. The factor is chosen so that the reliability of the initial inventory is increased at the observation sites, reducing the local influence of the observations, avoiding spurious corrections to the EI and increasing the temporal and spatial extent of the corrections. The method is applied to Santiago de Chile. We find that the a posteriori inventory shows a decrease in total emissions of 8% with respect to the a priori inventory. Nevertheless, locally over 100% changes are found in the eastern area of Santiago during the morning hours.

  11. U.S. broiler housing ammonia emissions inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gates, R. S.; Casey, K. D.; Wheeler, E. F.; Xin, H.; Pescatore, A. J.

    Using recently published baseline ammonia emissions data for U.S. broiler chicken housing, we present a method of estimating their contribution to an annual ammonia budget that is different from that used by USEPA. Emission rate increases in a linear relationship with flock age from near zero at the start of the flock to a maximum at the end of the flock, 28-65 days later. Market weight of chickens raised for meat varies from "broilers" weighing about 2 kg to "roasters" weighing about 3 kg. Multiple flocks of birds are grown in a single house annually, with variable downtime to prepare the house between flocks. The method takes into account weight and number of chickens marketed. Uncertainty in baseline emissions estimates is used so that inventory estimates are provided with error estimates. The method also incorporates the condition of litter that birds are raised upon and the varying market weight of birds grown. Using 2003 USDA data on broiler production numbers, broiler housing is estimated to contribute 8.8-11.7 kT ammonia for new and built-up litter, respectively, in Kentucky and 240-324 kT ammonia for new and built-up litter, respectively, nationally. Results suggest that a 10% uncertainty in annual emission rate is expected for the market weight categories of broilers, heavy broilers, and roasters. A 27-47% reduction in annual housing emission rate is predicted if new rather than built-up litter were used for every flock. The estimating method can be adapted to other meat bird building emissions and future ammonia emission strategies, with suitable insertion of an age-dependent emission factor or slope into a predictive model equation. The method can be readily applied and is an alternative to that used by USEPA.

  12. Top-down estimate of anthropogenic emission inventories and their interannual variability in Houston using a mesoscale inverse modeling technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brioude, J.; Kim, S.-W.; Angevine, W. M.; Frost, G. J.; Lee, S.-H.; McKeen, S. A.; Trainer, M.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.; Holloway, J. S.; Ryerson, T. B.; Williams, E. J.; Petron, G.; Fast, J. D.

    2011-10-01

    Texas Air Quality Study field campaigns took place in eastern Texas in August-October of 2000 and 2006. Several flights of NOAA and NCAR research aircraft were dedicated to characterizing anthropogenic emissions over Houston. We present results from an inverse modeling technique that uses three atmospheric transport models and these aircraft observations to assess and improve existing emission inventories. We used inverse modeling techniques to improve the spatial and temporal emissions' distribution of CO, NOy, and SO2 predicted by the 4 km resolution U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Emission Inventory (NEI) for 2005. Differences between the prior and posterior inventories are discussed in detail. In September 2006, we found that the prior daytime CO emissions in the Houston urban area have to be reduced by 41% ± 8%. Over the Houston Ship Channel, where industrial emissions are predominant, the prior emissions have to be decreased by 43% ± 5% for CO and 51% ± 5% for NOy. Prior NOy emissions from other major ports around Houston also have to be reduced, probably owing to uncertain nearshore ship emissions in the EPA NEI inventory. Using the measurements from the two field campaigns, we assessed the emissions' variability between August 2000 and September 2006. Daytime CO emissions from the Houston urban area have decreased by 8% ± 3%, while the NOy emissions have increased by 20% ± 6%. In the Houston Ship Channel, daytime NOy emissions have increased by 13% ± 7%. Our results show qualitative consistencies with known changes in Houston emissions' sources.

  13. Towards a comprehensive greenhouse gas emissions inventory for biosolids.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Gaitan, J P; Short, Michael D; Lundie, Sven; Stuetz, Richard

    2016-06-01

    Effective handling and treatment of the solids fraction from advanced wastewater treatment operations carries a substantial burden for water utilities relative to the total economic and environmental impacts from modern day wastewater treatment. While good process-level data for a range of wastewater treatment operations are becoming more readily available, there remains a dearth of high quality operational data for solids line processes in particular. This study seeks to address this data gap by presenting a suite of high quality, process-level life cycle inventory data covering a range of solids line wastewater treatment processes, extending from primary treatment through to biosolids reuse in agriculture. Within the study, the impacts of secondary treatment technology and key parameters such as sludge retention time, activated sludge age and primary-to-waste activated sludge ratio (PS:WAS) on the life cycle inventory data of solids processing trains for five model wastewater treatment plant configurations are presented. BioWin(®) models are calibrated with real operational plant data and estimated electricity consumption values were reconciled against overall plant energy consumption. The concept of "representative crop" is also introduced in order to reduce the uncertainty associated with nitrous oxide emissions and soil carbon sequestration offsets under biosolids land application scenarios. Results indicate that both the treatment plant biogas electricity offset and the soil carbon sequestration offset from land-applied biosolids, represent the main greenhouse gas mitigation opportunities. In contrast, fertiliser offsets are of relatively minor importance in terms of the overall life cycle emissions impacts. Results also show that fugitive methane emissions at the plant, as well as nitrous oxide emissions both at the plant and following agricultural application of biosolids, are significant contributors to the overall greenhouse gas balance and combined are

  14. [Analysis on Emission Inventory and Temporal-Spatial Characteristics of Pollutants from Key Coal-Fired Stationary Sources in Jiangsu Province by On-Line Monitoring Data].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying-jie; Kong, Shao-fei; Tang, Li-li; Zhao, Tian-liang; Han, Yong-xiang; Yu, Hong-xia

    2015-08-01

    Emission inventory of air pollutants is the key to understand the spatial and temporal distribution of atmospheric pollutants and to accurately simulate the ambient air quality. The currently established emission inventories are still limited on spatial and temporal resolution which greatly influences the numerical prediction accuracy of air quality. With coal-fired stationary sources considered, this study analyzed the total emissions and monthly variation of main pollutants from them in 2012 as the basic year, by collecting the on-line monitoring data for power plants and atmospheric verifiable accounting tables of Jiangsu Province. Emission factors in documents are summarized and adopted. Results indicated that the emission amounts of SO2, NOx, TSP, PM10, PM2.5, CO, EC, OC, NMVOC and NH3 were 106.0, 278.3, 40.9, 32.7, 21.7, 582.0, 3.6, 2.5, 17.3 and 2.2 kt, respectively. They presented monthly variation with high emission amounts in February, March, July, August and December and low emissions in September and October. The reason may be that more coal are consumed which leads to the increase of pollutants emitted, to satisfy the needs, of heat and electricity power supply in cold and hot periods. Local emission factors are needed for emission inventory studies and the monthly variation should be considered when emission inventories are used in air quality simulation. PMID:26592003

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF SEASONAL AND ANNUAL BIOGENIC EMISSIONS INVENTORIES FOR THE U.S. AND CANADA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the development of a biogenic emissions inventory for the U.S. and Canada, to assess the role of biogenic emissions in ozone formation. Emission inventories were developed at hourly and grid (1/4 x 116 degree) level from input data at the same scales. Emissio...

  16. Influence of updating global emission inventory of black carbon on evaluation of the climate and health impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Rong; Tao, Shu; Balkanski, Yves; Ciais, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    Black carbon (BC) is an air component of particular concern in terms of air quality and climate change. Black carbon emissions are often estimated based on the fuel data and emission factors. However, large variations in emission factors reported in the literature have led to a high uncertainty in previous inventories. Here, we develop a new global 0.1°×0.1° BC emission inventory for 2007 with full uncertainty analysis based on updated source and emission factor databases. Two versions of LMDz-OR-INCA models, named as INCA and INCA-zA, are run to evaluate the new emission inventory. INCA is built up based on a regular grid system with a resolution of 1.27° in latitude and 2.50° in longitude, while INCA-zA is specially zoomed to 0.51°×0.66° (latitude×longitude) in Asia. By checking against field observations, we compare our inventory with ACCMIP, which is used by IPCC in the 5th assessment report, and also evaluate the influence of model resolutions. With the newly calculated BC air concentrations and the nested model, we estimate the direct radiative forcing of BC and the premature death and mortality rate induced by BC exposure with Asia emphasized. Global BC direct radiative forcing at TOA is estimated to be 0.41 W/m2 (0.2 - 0.8 as inter-quartile range), which is 17% higher than that derived from the inventory adopted by IPCC-AR5 (0.34 W/m2). The estimated premature deaths induced by inhalation exposure to anthropogenic BC (0.36 million in 2007) and the percentage of high risk population are higher than those previously estimated. Ninety percents of the global total anthropogenic PD occur in Asia with 0.18 and 0.08 million deaths in China and India, respectively.

  17. Emission inventory of primary pollutants and chemical speciation in 2010 for the Yangtze River Delta region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Xiao; Wang, Shuxiao; Zhao, Bin; Xing, Jia; Cheng, Zhen; Liu, Huan; Hao, Jiming

    2013-05-01

    We developed a high-resolution emission inventory of primary air pollutants for Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region, which included Shanghai plus 24 cities in the provinces of Jiangsu and Zhejiang. The emissions of SO2, NOX, PM10, PM2.5, NMVOCs and NH3 in the year of 2010 were estimated as 2147 kt, 2776 kt, 1006 kt, 643 kt, 3822 kt and 1439 kt, respectively. Power plants are the largest emission sources for SO2 and NOX, which contributes 44.1% and 37.3% of total SO2 and NOX emissions. Emissions from industrial process accounted for 26.9%, 28.9% and 33.7% of the total PM10, PM2.5 and NMVOCs respectively. Besides, 37.3% of NMVOCs emissions were contributed by solvent use. Livestock and fertilizer application contribute over 90% of NH3 emissions. High emission densities are visible in Shanghai and the area around Tai Lake. This emission inventory includes the speciation of PM2.5 for the YRD region for the first time, which is important to source apportionment and secondary-pollution analysis. In 2010, emissions of three major PM2.5 species, namely OC, EC and sulfate, are 136.9 kt, 75.0 kt and 76.2 kt, respectively. Aromatics and alkanes are the main NMVOC species, accounting for 30.4% and 20.3% of total VOCs. Non-road transportation and biomass burning were main uncertain sources because of a lack of proper activity and emission factor data. Compared with other pollutants, NMVOCs and NH3 have higher uncertainty. From 2000 to 2010, emissions of all pollutants have changed significantly, suggesting that the newly updated and high-resolution emission inventory will be useful for the identification of air pollution sources in YRD.

  18. ESP 2.0: Improved method for projecting U.S. GHG and air pollution emissions through 2055

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Emission Scenario Projection (ESP) method is used to develop multi-decadal projections of U.S. Greenhouse Gas (GHG) and criteria pollutant emissions. The resulting future-year emissions can then translated into an emissions inventory and applied in climate and air quality mod...

  19. Global inventory of nitrogen oxide emissions constrained by space-based observations of NO2 columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Randall V.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Chance, Kelly; Kurosu, Thomas P.; Palmer, Paul I.; Evans, Mathew J.

    2003-09-01

    We use tropospheric NO2 columns from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) satellite instrument to derive top-down constraints on emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx ≡ NO + NO2), and combine these with a priori information from a bottom-up emission inventory (with error weighting) to achieve an optimized a posteriori estimate of the global distribution of surface NOx emissions. Our GOME NO2 retrieval improves on previous work by accounting for scattering and absorption of radiation by aerosols; the effect on the air mass factor (AMF) ranges from +10 to -40% depending on the region. Our AMF also includes local information on relative vertical profiles (shape factors) of NO2 from a global 3-D chemical transport model (GEOS-CHEM); assumption of a globally uniform shape factor, as in most previous retrievals, would introduce regional biases of up to 40% over industrial regions and a factor of 2 over remote regions. We derive a top-down NOx emission inventory from the GOME data by using the local GEOS-CHEM relationship between NO2 columns and NOx emissions. The resulting NOx emissions for industrial regions are aseasonal, despite large seasonal variation in NO2 columns, providing confidence in the method. Top-down errors in monthly NOx emissions are comparable with bottom-up errors over source regions. Annual global a posteriori errors are half of a priori errors. Our global a posteriori estimate for annual land surface NOx emissions (37.7 Tg N yr-1) agrees closely with the GEIA-based a priori (36.4) and with the EDGAR 3.0 bottom-up inventory (36.6), but there are significant regional differences. A posteriori NOx emissions are higher by 50-100% in the Po Valley, Tehran, and Riyadh urban areas, and by 25-35% in Japan and South Africa. Biomass burning emissions from India, central Africa, and Brazil are lower by up to 50%; soil NOx emissions are appreciably higher in the western United States, the Sahel, and southern Europe.

  20. Assembling a biogenic hydrocarbon emissions inventory for the SCOS97-NARSTO modeling domain

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin, M.T.; Winer, A.M.; Karlik, J.; Campbell, S.; Jackson, B.; Lashgari, A.

    1998-12-31

    To assist in developing ozone control strategies for Southern California, the California Air Resources Board is developing a biogenic hydrocarbon (BHC) emissions inventory model for the SCOS97-NARSTO domain. The basis for this bottom-up model is SCOS97-NARSTO-specific landuse and landcover maps, leafmass constants, and BHC emission rates. In urban areas, landuse maps developed by the Southern California Association of Governments, San Diego Association of Governments, and other local governments are used while in natural areas, landcover and plant community databases produced by the GAP Analysis Project (GAP) are employed. Plant identities and canopy volumes for species in each landuse and landcover category are based on the most recent botanical field survey data. Where possible, experimentally determined leafmass constant and BHC emission rate measurements reported in the literature are used or, for those species where experimental data are not available, values are assigned based on taxonomic methods. A geographic information system is being used to integrate these databases, as well as the most recent environmental correction algorithms and canopy shading factors, to produce a spatially- and temporally-resolved BHC emission inventory suitable for input into the Urban Airshed Model.

  1. Planning tools for PM2.5 emission factors and inventories

    SciTech Connect

    Pace, T.G. III; Kuykendal, W.B.

    1998-12-31

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has promulgated a revision to the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for Particulate Matter. The basis for this new standard is particles that are smaller than 2.5 micrometers aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5). Such an indicator will require extensive revision to emission factors and inventory procedures. This paper will present information about the composition of PM2.5 that indicates the following needs for a PM2.5 inventory: 1. it will require information on precursors of PM (i.e., SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, ammonia, and some organics) as well as primary emissions; 2. inorganic and organic carbonaceous emissions (including condensibles) will be important; and 3. fugitive geological (soil) source characterization tools are flawed and fugitive soil dust will have a very limited role in PM2.5, based on the consistently low amount of soil found in ambient samples, in contrast to the much higher content of soil in the PM10 size fraction. This paper will make a preliminary assessment of the current efficacy of the emission estimation available for key source categories contributing to PM2.5. It will discuss EPA`s plans to improve the factors to support implementation of the revised PM2.5 NAAQ.

  2. Carbon dioxide emissions from international air freight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howitt, Oliver J. A.; Carruthers, Michael A.; Smith, Inga J.; Rodger, Craig J.

    2011-12-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions from international air transport were excluded from reduction targets under the Kyoto Protocol, partly because of difficulties with quantifying and apportioning such emissions. Although there has been a great deal of recent research into calculating emissions from aeroplane operations globally, publicly available emissions factors for air freight emissions are scarce. This paper presents a methodology to calculate the amount of fuel burnt and the resulting CO 2 emissions from New Zealand's internationally air freighted imports and exports in 2007. This methodology could be applied to other nations and/or regions. Using data on fuel uplift, air freight and air craft movements, and assumptions on mean passenger loadings and the mass of passengers and air freight, CO 2 emissions factors of 0.82 kg CO 2 per t-km and 0.69 kg CO 2 per t-km for short-haul and long-haul journeys, respectively, were calculated. The total amount of fuel consumed for the international air transport of New Zealand's imports and exports was calculated to be 0.21 Mt and 0.17 Mt respectively, with corresponding CO 2 emissions of 0.67 Mt and 0.53 Mt.

  3. 2010 LANL radionuclide air emissions report /

    SciTech Connect

    Fuehne, David P.

    2011-06-01

    The emissions of radionuclides from Department of Energy Facilities such as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are regulated by the Amendments to the Clean Air Act of 1990, National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR 61 Subpart H). These regulations established an annual dose limit of 10 mrem to the maximally exposed member of the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides. This document describes the emissions of radionuclides from LANL and the dose calculations resulting from these emissions for calendar year 2010. This report meets the reporting requirements established in the regulations.

  4. 2008 LANL radionuclide air emissions report

    SciTech Connect

    Fuehne, David P.

    2009-06-01

    The emissions of radionuclides from Department of Energy Facilities such as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are regulated by the Amendments to the Clean Air Act of 1990, National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR 61 Subpart H). These regulations established an annual dose limit of 10 mrem to the maximally exposed member of the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides. This document describes the emissions of radionuclides from LANL and the dose calculations resulting from these emissions for calendar year 2008. This report meets the reporting requirements established in the regulations.

  5. 2009 LANL radionuclide air emissions report

    SciTech Connect

    Fuehne, David P.

    2010-06-01

    The emissions of radionuclides from Department of Energy Facilities such as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are regulated by the Amendments to the Clean Air Act of 1990, National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR 61 Subpart H). These regulations established an annual dose limit of 10 mrem to the maximally exposed member of the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides. This document describes the emissions of radionuclides from LANL and the dose calculations resulting from these emissions for calendar year 2009. This report meets the reporting requirements established in the regulations.

  6. AIR TOXIC EMISSIONS FROM IRON FOUNDRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper presents uncontrolled air toxic emission factors for different process operations in a gray iron foundry. he emission factors are based on the results of on-site test measurements available in the literature. he emission factors are presented for organic and inorganic c...

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF THE 1980 NAPAP (NATIONAL ACID PRECIPITATION ASSESSMENT PROGRAM) EMISSIONS INVENTORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report documents the development of the 1980 National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) Emissions Inventory. The current version of the annual inventory, Version 5.0, and the related Version 5.2 Eulerian Modeling Inventory and Version 5.3 Regional Oxidant Modeling...

  8. Inverse Modeling to Improve Emission Inventory for PM10 Forecasting in East Asia Region Focusing on Korea.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, Y. S.; Choi, D.; Kwon, H. Y.; Han, J.

    2014-12-01

    The aerosol transports from China and Mongolia along the Northwestern wind have large influence on the air quality in Korea and the assessment of the emission in the East Asia region is an important factor in air quality forecasting in Korea. In order to obtain working PM10 emission inventory for the PM10 forecast modeling over East Asia, the Bayesian approach with CAMx (Comprehensive Air-quality Model with extension) forward model was applied. The surface observations of PM10 from EANET (Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia), API (Air Pollution Index) sites over China and AAQMS (Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Stations) in Korea were used for the inverse modelling. The predicted PM10 concentrations with a priori emission were compared with observations at monitoring sites in China and Korea. The comparison showed that PM10 concentrations with a priori emissions were generally under-predicted. The result also indicated that anthropogenic PM10 emissions in the industrialized and urbanized areas in China were under-estimated in particular. Optimized a posteriori PM10 emissions over East Asia from inverse modelling analysis ware proposed. A posteriori PM10 emissions were much lower than the a priori emission where the soil dust emissions were prevailing. This implied that the dust emission module still had large uncertainty and it was necessary to further research on the improvement of in-line emission modelling for the soil dust. In contrast, a posteriori anthropogenic emissions from industrialized areas such as Beijing and Shenyang sites were slightly higher than a priori emission at regions. Especially, a posteriori PM10 emissions increased in Korea and in Northeast region of China. The predictions of PM10 with proposed a posteriori emission showed better agreement with the observations, implying that the inverse modelling minimized the discrepancies in the model estimation by improving PM10 emissions in East Asia. Further details of inverse modeling

  9. Building the Fire Energetics and Emissions Research (FEER) Smoke Emissions Inventory Version 1.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellison, Luke; Ichoku, Charles; Zhang, Feng; Wang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The Fire Energetics and Emissions Research (FEER) group's new coefficient of emission global gridded product at 1x1 resolution that directly relates fire readiative energy (FRE) to smoke aerosol release, FEERv1.0 Ce, made its public debut in August 2013. Since then, steps have been taken to generate corresponding maps and totals of total particulate matter (PM) emissions using different sources of FRE, and subsequently to simulate the resulting PM(sub 2.5) in the WRF-Chem 3.5 model using emission rates from FEERv1.0 as well as other standard biomass burning emission inventories. An flowchart of the FEER algorithm to calculate Ce is outlined here along with a display of the resulting emissions of total PM globally and also regionally. The modeling results from the WRF-Chem3.5 simulations are also shown.

  10. Estimating Lightning NOx Emissions for Regional Air Quality Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holloway, T.; Scotty, E.; Harkey, M.

    2014-12-01

    Lightning emissions have long been recognized as an important source of nitrogen oxides (NOx) on a global scale, and an essential emission component for global atmospheric chemistry models. However, only in recent years have regional air quality models incorporated lightning NOx emissions into simulations. The growth in regional modeling of lightning emissions has been driven in part by comparisons with satellite-derived estimates of column NO2, especially from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) aboard the Aura satellite. We present and evaluate a lightning inventory for the EPA Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. Our approach follows Koo et al. [2010] in the approach to spatially and temporally allocating a given total value based on cloud-top height and convective precipitation. However, we consider alternate total NOx emission values (which translate into alternate lightning emission factors) based on a review of the literature and performance evaluation against OMI NO2 for July 2007 conditions over the U.S. and parts of Canada and Mexico. The vertical distribution of lightning emissions follow a bimodal distribution from Allen et al. [2012] calculated over 27 vertical model layers. Total lightning NO emissions for July 2007 show the highest above-land emissions in Florida, southeastern Texas and southern Louisiana. Although agreement with OMI NO2 across the domain varied significantly depending on lightning NOx assumptions, agreement among the simulations at ground-based NO2 monitors from the EPA Air Quality System database showed no meaningful sensitivity to lightning NOx. Emissions are compared with prior studies, which find similar distribution patterns, but a wide range of calculated magnitudes.

  11. FRAMEWORK FOR UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS OF THE NAPAP (NATIONAL ACID PRECIPITATION ASSESSMENT PROGRAM) EMISSIONS INVENTORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a project to develop a methodologies framework to assess the uncertainties associated with the emissions values as presented in the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) emissions inventory and to implement a prototype computer system ...

  12. Compilation and analyses of emissions inventories for the NOAA atmospheric chemistry project. Progress report, August 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Benkovitz, C.M.

    1997-09-01

    Global inventories of anthropogenic emissions of oxides of nitrogen for circa 1985 and 1990 and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) for circa 1990 have been compiled by this project. Work on the inventories has been carried out under the umbrella of the Global Emissions Inventory Activity of the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry program. Global emissions of NOx for 1985 are estimated to be 21 Tg N/yr, with approximately 84% originating in the Northern Hemisphere. The global emissions for 1990 are 31 Tg N/yr for NOx and 173 Gg NMVOC/yr. Ongoing research activities for this project continue to address emissions of both NOx and NMVOCs. Future tasks include: evaluation of more detailed regional emissions estimates and update of the default 1990 inventories with the appropriate estimates; derivation of quantitative uncertainty estimates for the emission values; and development of emissions estimates for 1995.

  13. Black and organic carbon emission inventories: review and application to California.

    PubMed

    Chow, Judith C; Watson, John G; Lowenthal, Douglas H; Chen, Lung-Wen Antony; Motallebi, Nehzat

    2010-04-01

    Particulate black or elemental carbon (EC) (black carbon [BC]) and organic carbon (OC) affect climate, visibility, and human health. Several "top-down" and "bottom-up" global emission inventories for these components have compiled country-wide emission factors, source profiles, and activity levels that do not necessarily reflect local conditions. Recent estimates of global BC and OC emissions range from 8 to 24 and 33 to 62 Tg (1012 g) per year, respectively. U.S. BC emissions account for 5.6% of the global total emissions. Uncertainties in global BC emission estimates are a factor of 2 or more. The U.S. National Emissions Inventory is well documented, but its major source categories are not easily related to EC- and OC-emitting source subcategories. California's bottom-up emission inventory is easily accessible at many levels of detail and provides an example of how sources can be regrouped for speciated emission rates. PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters < 2.5 microm) emissions from these categories are associated with EC and OC source profiles to generate California's speciated emissions. A BC inventory for California of 38,731 t/yr was comparable to the 33,281 t/yr estimated from a bottom-up global BC inventory. However, further examination showed substantial differences among subcategories, with the global inventory BC from fossil fuel combustion at two-thirds that from the California inventory and the remainder attributed to biomass burning. Major discrepancies were found for directly emitted OC, with the global inventory estimating more than twice that of the California inventory. Most of the discrepancy was due to differences in open biomass burning (wildfires and agricultural waste) for which carbon emissions are highly variable. BC and OC emissions are sensitive to the availability and variability of existing source profiles, and profiles more specific to fuels and operating conditions are needed to increase emission accuracy. PMID

  14. Development of a Biomass Burning Emissions Inventory by Combining Satellite and Ground-based Information

    EPA Science Inventory

    A 2005 biomass burning (wildfire, prescribed, and agricultural) emission inventory has been developed for the contiguous United States using a newly developed simplified method of combining information from multiple sources for use in the US EPA’s national Emission Inventory (NEI...

  15. BIOGENIC HYDROCARBON EMISSION INVENTORY FOR THE U.S. USING A SIMPLE FOREST CANOPY MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    A biogenic hydrocarbon emission inventory system, developed for acid deposition and regional oxidant modeling, is described, and results for a U.S. emission inventory are presented. or deciduous and coniferous forests, scaling relationships are used to account for canopy effects ...

  16. 78 FR 12310 - Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    ...The Draft Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2011 is available for public review. Annual U.S. emissions for the period of time from 1990 through 2011 are summarized and presented by source category and sector. The inventory contains estimates of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), hydrofluorocarbons (HFC),......

  17. GHG and black carbon emission inventories from Mezquital Valley: The main energy provider for Mexico Megacity.

    PubMed

    Montelongo-Reyes, M M; Otazo-Sánchez, E M; Romo-Gómez, C; Gordillo-Martínez, A J; Galindo-Castillo, E

    2015-09-15

    The greenhouse gases and black carbon emission inventory from IPCC key category Energy was accomplished for the Mezquital Valley, one of the most polluted regions in Mexico, as the Mexico City wastewater have been continuously used in agricultural irrigation for more than a hundred years. In addition, thermoelectric, refinery, cement and chemistry industries are concentrated in the southern part of the valley, near Mexico City. Several studies have reported air, soil, and water pollution data and its main sources for the region. Paradoxically, these sources contaminate the valley, but boosted its economic development. Nevertheless, no research has been done concerning GHG emissions, or climate change assessment. This paper reports inventories performed by the 1996 IPCC methodology for the baseline year 2005. Fuel consumption data were derived from priority sectors such as electricity generation, refineries, manufacturing & cement industries, transportation, and residential use. The total CO2 emission result was 13,894.9 Gg, which constituted three-quarters of Hidalgo statewide energy category. The principal CO2 sources were energy transformation (69%) and manufacturing (19%). Total black carbon emissions were estimated by a bottom-up method at 0.66 Gg. The principal contributor was on-road transportation (37%), followed by firewood residential consumption (26%) and cocked brick manufactures (22%). Non-CO2 gas emissions were also significant, particularly SO2 (255.9 Gg), which accounts for 80% of the whole Hidalgo State emissions. Results demonstrated the negative environmental impact on Mezquital Valley, caused by its role as a Megacity secondary fuel and electricity provider, as well as by the presence of several cement industries. PMID:25981943

  18. Impact of historical air pollution emissions reductions on nitrogen deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loughner, C.; Tzortziou, M.; Duffy, M.; Duncan, B. N.; Hains, J.; Pickering, K. E.; Yoshida, Y.; Follette-Cook, M. B.

    2013-12-01

    There have been significant NOx emissions reductions since 2002 in the eastern and central US through a combination of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) NOx State Implementation Plan (SIP) call, which required 22 states and the District of Columbia to regulate NOx emissions to mitigate ozone transport, the NOx Budget Trading Program, subsequent EPA rules, court-orders, and state regulations. As reported by the EPA's National Emissions Inventory (NEI), NOx emissions nationwide have been reduced by 37% between 2002 and 2011. The benefit of these emissions reductions on decreasing nitrogen deposition onto terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems will be presented by comparing CMAQ air quality model simulations for July 2011 from a 12 km domain over the eastern US and a 4 km domain over the Mid-Atlantic with anthropogenic emissions appropriate for 2002 and 2011. Previously we showed that the historical emissions reductions from 2002 to 2011 prevented 9 to 13 ozone standard exceedance days throughout much of the Ohio River Valley and 3 to 9 ozone exceedance days throughout the Baltimore-Washington metropolitan area for the month of July 2011. Here, we focus on how the historical emissions reductions decreased nitrogen deposition, subsequently benefiting terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The base case simulation with emissions appropriate for 2011 everywhere was evaluated with ground-, ship-, aircraft-, and satellite-based observations, which include measurements made during the DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality) and GeoCAPE-CBODAQ (Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events-Chesapeake Bay Oceanographic Campaign with DISCOVER-AQ) field campaigns.

  19. Emission ratios of anthropogenic volatile organic compounds in northern mid-latitude megacities: Observations versus emission inventories in Los Angeles and Paris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borbon, Agnes; Gilman, J. B.; Kuster, W. C.; Grand, N.; Chevaillier, S.; Colomb, A.; Dolgorouky, C.; Gros, V.; Lopez, M.; Sarda-Esteve, R.; Holloway, J.; Stutz, J.; Petetin, H.; McKeen, S.; Beekmann, M.; Warneke, C.; Parrish, D. D.; Gouw, J. A.

    2013-02-01

    Ground-based and airborne volatile organic compound (VOC) measurements in Los Angeles, California, and Paris, France, during the Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex) and Megacities: Emissions, Urban, Regional and Global Atmospheric Pollution and Climate Effects, and Integrated Tools for Assessment and Mitigation (MEGAPOLI) campaigns, respectively, are used to examine the spatial variability of the composition of anthropogenic VOC urban emissions and to evaluate regional emission inventories. Two independent methods that take into account the effect of chemistry were used to determine the emission ratios of anthropogenic VOCs (including anthropogenic isoprene and oxygenated VOCs) over carbon monoxide (CO) and acetylene. Emission ratios from both methods agree within ±20%, showing the reliability of our approach. Emission ratios for alkenes, alkanes, and benzene are fairly similar between Los Angeles and Paris, whereas the emission ratios for C7-C9 aromatics in Paris are higher than in Los Angeles and other French and European Union urban areas by a factor of 2-3. The results suggest that the emissions of gasoline-powered vehicles still dominate the hydrocarbon distribution in northern mid-latitude urban areas, which disagrees with emission inventories. However, regional characteristics like the gasoline composition could affect the composition of hydrocarbon emissions. The observed emission ratios show large discrepancies by a factor of 2-4 (alkanes and oxygenated VOC) with the ones derived from four reference emission databases. A bias in CO emissions was also evident for both megacities. Nevertheless, the difference between measurements and inventory in terms of the overall OH reactivity is, in general, lower than 40%, and the potential to form secondary organic aerosols (SOA) agrees within 30% when considering volatile organic emissions as the main SOA precursors.

  20. AIR EMISSIONS FROM SCRAP TIRE COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses air emissions from two types of scrap tire combustion: uncontrolled and controlled. Uncontrolled sources are open tire fires, which produce many unhealthful products of incomplete combustion and release them directly into the atmosphere. Controlled combustion...

  1. Characterization of road freight transportation and its impact on the national emission inventory in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, X. F.; Liu, H.; Man, H. Y.; He, K. B.

    2014-06-01

    Mobile source emission inventories serve as critical input for atmospheric chemical transport models, which are used to simulate air quality and understand the role of mobile source emissions. The significance of mobile sources is even more important in China because the country has the largest vehicle population in the world, and that population continues to grow rapidly. Estimating emissions from diesel trucks is a critical work in mobile source emission inventories due to the importance and difficulties associated with estimating emissions from diesel trucks. Although diesel trucks are major contributors of nitrogen oxide (NOx) and primary particulate matter smaller than 2.5 μm (PM2.5), there are still more obstacles on the existing estimation of diesel truck emissions compared with that of cars; long-range freight transportation activities are complicated, and much of the basic data remain unclear. Most of existing inventories were based on local registration number. However, according to our research, a large number of trucks are conducting long-distance inter-city or inter province transportation. Instead of the local registration number based approach, a road emission intensity-based (REIB) approach is introduced in this research. To provide efficient data for the REIB approach, 1060 questionnaire responses and approximately 1.7 million valid seconds of onboard GPS monitoring data were collected. Both the questionnaire answers and GPS monitoring results indicated that the driving conditions on different types of road have significant impacts on the emission levels of freight trucks. We present estimated emissions of NOx and primary PM2.5 from diesel freight trucks for China in 2011. Using the REIB approach, the activity level and distribution data are obtained from the questionnaire answers. Emission factors are calculated with the International Vehicle Emission (IVE) model that interpolated local on-board measurement results in China according to the GPS

  2. Using GIS to study the health impact of air emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Dent, A.L.; Fowler, D.A.; Kaplan, B.M.; Zarus, G.M.

    1999-07-01

    Geographical Information Systems (GIS) is a fast-developing technology with an ever-increasing number of applications. Air dispersion modeling is a well-established discipline that can produce results in a spatial context. The marriage of these two application is optimal because it leverages the predictive capacity of modeling with the data management, analysis, and display capabilities of GIS. In the public health arena, exposure estimation techniques are invaluable. The utilization of air emission data, such as US EPA Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) data, and air dispersion modeling with GIS enable public health professionals to identify and define the potentially exposed population, estimate the health risk burden of that population, and determine correlations between point-based health outcome results with estimated health risk.

  3. High-resolution ammonia emissions inventories in China from 1980 to 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Yaning; Liu, Mingxu; Song, Yu; Huang, Xin; Yao, Huan; Cai, Xuhui; Zhang, Hongsheng; Kang, Ling; Liu, Xuejun; Yan, Xiaoyuan; He, Hong; Zhang, Qiang; Shao, Min; Zhu, Tong

    2016-02-01

    Ammonia (NH3) can interact in the atmosphere with other trace chemical species, which can lead to detrimental environmental consequences, such as the formation of fine particulates and ultimately global climate change. China is a major agricultural country, and livestock numbers and nitrogen fertilizer use have increased drastically since 1978, following the rapid economic and industrial development experienced by the country. In this study, comprehensive NH3 emissions inventories were compiled for China for 1980-2012. In a previous study, we parameterized emissions factors (EFs) considering ambient temperature, soil acidity, and the method and rate of fertilizer application. In this study, we refined these EFs by adding the effects of wind speed and new data from field experiments of NH3 flux in cropland in northern China. We found that total NH3 emissions in China increased from 5.9 to 11.1 Tg from 1980 to 1996, and then decreased to 9.7 Tg in 2012. The two major contributors were livestock manure and synthetic fertilizer application, which contributed 80-90 % of the total emissions. Emissions from livestock manure rose from 2.86 Tg (1980) to 6.16 Tg (2005), and then decreased to 5.0 Tg (2012); beef cattle were the largest source followed by laying hens and pigs. The remarkable downward trend in livestock emissions that occurred in 2007 was attributed to a decrease in the numbers of various livestock animals, including beef cattle, goats, and sheep. Meanwhile, emissions from synthetic fertilizer ranged from 2.1 Tg (1980) to 4.7 Tg (1996), and then declined to 2.8 Tg (2012). Urea and ammonium bicarbonate (ABC) dominated this category of emissions, and a decline in ABC application led to the decrease in emissions that took place from the mid-1990s onwards. High emissions were concentrated in eastern and southwestern China. Seasonally, peak NH3 emissions occurred in spring and summer. The inventories had a monthly temporal resolution and a spatial resolution of 1000

  4. High-resolution ammonia emissions inventories in China from 1980-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Y.; Liu, M.; Song, Y.; Huang, X.; Yao, H.; Cai, X.; Zhang, H.; Kang, L.; Liu, X.; Yan, X.; He, H.; Shao, M.; Zhu, T.

    2015-10-01

    Ammonia (NH3) can interact in the atmosphere with other trace chemical species, which can lead to detrimental environmental consequences, such as the formation of fine particulates and ultimately global climate change. China is a major agricultural country, and livestock numbers and nitrogen fertilizer use have increased drastically since 1978, following the rapid economic and industrial development experienced by the country. In this study, comprehensive NH3 emissions inventories were compiled for China for 1980-2012. In a previous study, we parameterized emissions factors (EFs) considering ambient temperature, soil acidity, and the method and rate of fertilizer application. In this study, we refined these EFs by adding the effects of wind speed and new data from field experiments of NH3 flux in cropland in northern China. We found that total NH3 emissions in China increased from 5.9 to 11.2 Tg from 1980 to 1996, and then decreased to 9.5 Tg in 2012. The two major contributors were livestock manure and synthetic fertilizer application, which contributed 80-90 % of the total emissions. Emissions from livestock manure rose from 2.87 Tg (1980) to 6.17 Tg (2005), and then decreased to 5.0 Tg (2012); beef cattle were the largest source followed by laying hens and pigs. The remarkable downward trend in livestock emissions that occurred in 2007 was attributed to a decrease in the numbers of various livestock animals, including beef cattle, goats, and sheep. Meanwhile, emissions from synthetic fertilizer ranged from 2.1 Tg (1980) to 4.7 Tg (1996), and then declined to 2.8 Tg (2012). Urea and ammonium bicarbonate (ABC) dominated this category of emissions, and a decline in ABC application led to the decrease in emissions that took place from the mid-1990s onwards. High emissions were concentrated in eastern and southwestern China. Seasonally, peak NH3 emissions occurred in spring and summer. The inventories had a monthly temporal resolution and a spatial resolution of 1000

  5. A new inventory for two-wheel vehicle emissions in West Africa for 2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assamoi, Eric-Michel; Liousse, Catherine

    2010-10-01

    Rather surprisingly, urban atmospheric particulate levels in West Africa compare with measured concentrations in Europe and Asia megacities (Liousse, C., Galy-Lacaux, C., Assamoi, E.-M., Ndiaye, A., Diop, B., Cachier, H., Doumbia, T., Gueye, P., Yoboue, V., Lacaux, J.-P., Guinot, B., Guillaume, B., Rosset, R., Castera, P., Gardrat, E., Zouiten, C., Jambert, C., Diouf, A., Koita, O., Baeza, A., Annesi-Maesano, I., Didier, A., Audry, S., Konare, A., 2009. Integrated Focus on West African Cities (Cotonou, Bamako, Dakar, Ouagadougou, Abidjan, Niamey): Emissions, Air Quality and Health Impacts of Gases and Aerosols. Third International AMMA Conference on Predictability of the West African Moosoon Weather, Climate and Impacts. Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. July 20-24). This pollution mainly derives from road traffic emissions with, in some capitals (e.g. Cotonou), the strong contribution of two-wheel vehicles. Two key questions arise: are presently available emission inventories (e.g. Junker, C., Liousse, C., 2008. A global emission inventory of carbonaceous aerosol from historic records of fossil fuel and biofuel consumption for the period 1860-1997. Atmospheric Chemistry Physics, 8, 1-13; Bond, T.C., Streets, D.G., Yarber, K.F., Nelson, S.M., Woo, J.H., Klimont, Z., 2004. A technology-based global inventory of black and organic carbon emissions from combustion. Journal of Geophysical Research, 1009, D14203, DOI:10.1029/2003JD003697) able to account for these emissions? And, if not, how can we remedy this? The aim of this paper is to develop a methodology to estimate emissions produced by two-wheel vehicles in West Africa for 2002 in a context where reliable information is hardly available. Fuel consumption ratios between two-wheel engines (in this work) and all vehicles issued from UN database ( http://data.un.org/Data.aspx?d=EDATA&f=cmID%3aMO%3btrID%3a1221) are as high as 169%, 264% and 628%, for Burkina Faso, Mali and Chad respectively, indicating that this global

  6. EPA- NEW ENGLAND AIR FACILITY EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The AirData NET Facility Emissions report displays the amount of air pollution released in a year by individual sources (facilities). Electric power plants, steel mills, factories, and universities are examples of facilities. The main purpose of the report is to compare the emis...

  7. Improving ammonia emissions in air quality modelling for France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamaoui-Laguel, Lynda; Meleux, Frédérik; Beekmann, Matthias; Bessagnet, Bertrand; Génermont, Sophie; Cellier, Pierre; Létinois, Laurent

    2014-08-01

    We have implemented a new module to improve the representation of ammonia emissions from agricultural activities in France with the objective to evaluate the impact of such emissions on the formation of particulate matter modelled with the air quality model CHIMERE. A novel method has been set up for the part of ammonia emissions originating from mineral fertilizer spreading. They are calculated using the one dimensional 1D mechanistic model “VOLT'AIR” which has been coupled with data on agricultural practices, meteorology and soil properties obtained at high spatial resolution (cantonal level). These emissions display high spatiotemporal variations depending on soil pH, rates and dates of fertilization and meteorological variables, especially soil temperature. The emissions from other agricultural sources (animal housing, manure storage and organic manure spreading) are calculated using the national spatialised inventory (INS) recently developed in France. The comparison of the total ammonia emissions estimated with the new approach VOLT'AIR_INS with the standard emissions provided by EMEP (European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme) used currently in the CHIMERE model shows significant differences in the spatiotemporal distributions. The implementation of new ammonia emissions in the CHIMERE model has a limited impact on ammonium nitrate aerosol concentrations which only increase at most by 10% on the average for the considered spring period but this impact can be more significant for specific pollution episodes. The comparison of modelled PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 μm) and ammonium nitrate aerosol with observations shows that the use of the new ammonia emission method slightly improves the spatiotemporal correlation in certain regions and reduces the negative bias on average by 1 μg m-3. The formation of ammonium nitrate aerosol depends not only on ammonia concentrations but also on nitric acid availability, which

  8. Controlling air emissions from incinerators

    SciTech Connect

    Foisy, M.B.; Li, R.; Chattapadhyay, A.

    1994-04-01

    Last year, EPA published final rules establishing technical standards for the use and disposal of wastewater biosolids (40 CFR, Part 503). Subpart E specifically regulates the operations of and emissions from municipal wastewater biosolids incinerators.

  9. High-resolution inventory of ammonia emissions from agricultural fertilizer in China from 1978 to 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, P.; Liao, Y. J.; Lin, Y. H.; Zhao, C. X.; Yan, C. H.; Cao, M. N.; Wang, G. S.; Luan, S. J.

    2016-02-01

    The quantification of ammonia (NH3) emissions is essential to the more accurate quantification of atmospheric nitrogen deposition, improved air quality and the assessment of ammonia-related agricultural policy and climate mitigation strategies. The quantity, geographic distribution and historical trends of these emissions remain largely uncertain. In this paper, a new Chinese agricultural fertilizer NH3 (CAF_NH3) emissions inventory has been compiled that exhibits the following improvements: (1) a 1 × 1 km gridded map on the county level was developed for 2008; (2) a combined bottom-up and top-down method was used for the local correction of emission factors (EFs) and parameters; (3) the temporal patterns of historical time trends for 1978-2008 were estimated and the uncertainties were quantified for the inventories; and (4) a sensitivity test was performed in which a province-level disaggregated map was compared with CAF_NH3 emissions for 2008. The total CAF_NH3 emissions for 2008 were 8.4 TgNH3 yr-1 (a 6.6-9.8 Tg interquartile range). From 1978 to 2008, annual NH3 emissions fluctuated with three peaks (1987, 1996 and 2005), and total emissions increased from 3.2 to 8.4 Tg at an annual rate of 3.0 %. During the study period, the contribution of livestock manure spreading increased from 37.0 to 45.5 % because of changing fertilization practices and the rapid increase in egg, milk, and meat consumption. The average contribution of synthetic fertilizer, which has a positive effect on crop yields, was approximately 38.3 % (minimum: 33.4 %; maximum: 42.7 %). With rapid urbanization causing a decline in the rural population, the contribution of the rural excrement sector varied widely between 20.3 % and 8.5 %. The average contributions of cake fertilizer and straw returning were approximately 3.8 and 4.5 %, respectively, thus small and stable. Collectively, the CAF_NH3 emissions reflect the nation's agricultural policy to a certain extent. An effective approach to

  10. Land cover change mapping using MODIS time series to improve emissions inventories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Saldaña, Gerardo; Quaife, Tristan; Clifford, Debbie

    2016-04-01

    MELODIES is an FP7 funded project to develop innovative and sustainable services, based upon Open Data, for users in research, government, industry and the general public in a broad range of societal and environmental benefit areas. Understanding and quantifying land surface changes is necessary for estimating greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions, and for meeting air quality limits and targets. More sophisticated inventories methodologies for at least key emission source are needed due to policy-driven air quality directives. Quantifying land cover changes on an annual basis requires greater spatial and temporal disaggregation of input data. The main aim of this study is to develop a methodology for using Earth Observations (EO) to identify annual land surface changes that will improve emissions inventories from agriculture and land use/land use change and forestry (LULUCF) in the UK. First goal is to find the best sets of input features that describe accurately the surface dynamics. In order to identify annual and inter-annual land surface changes, a times series of surface reflectance was used to capture seasonal variability. Daily surface reflectance images from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) at 500m resolution were used to invert a Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) model to create the seamless time series. Given the limited number of cloud-free observations, a BRDF climatology was used to constrain the model inversion and where no high-scientific quality observations were available at all, as a gap filler. The Land Cover Map 2007 (LC2007) produced by the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology (CEH) was used for training and testing purposes. A land cover product was created for 2003 to 2015 and a bayesian approach was created to identified land cover changes. We will present the results of the time series development and the first exercises when creating the land cover and land cover changes products.

  11. Annual land cover change mapping using MODIS time series to improve emissions inventories.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López Saldaña, G.; Quaife, T. L.; Clifford, D.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding and quantifying land surface changes is necessary for estimating greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions, and for meeting air quality limits and targets. More sophisticated inventories methodologies for at least key emission source are needed due to policy-driven air quality directives. Quantifying land cover changes on an annual basis requires greater spatial and temporal disaggregation of input data. The main aim of this study is to develop a methodology for using Earth Observations (EO) to identify annual land surface changes that will improve emissions inventories from agriculture and land use/land use change and forestry (LULUCF) in the UK. First goal is to find the best sets of input features that describe accurately the surface dynamics. In order to identify annual and inter-annual land surface changes, a times series of surface reflectance was used to capture seasonal variability. Daily surface reflectance images from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) at 500m resolution were used to invert a Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) model to create the seamless time series. Given the limited number of cloud-free observations, a BRDF climatology was used to constrain the model inversion and where no high-scientific quality observations were available at all, as a gap filler. The Land Cover Map 2007 (LC2007) produced by the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology (CEH) was used for training and testing purposes. A prototype land cover product was created for 2006 to 2008. Several machine learning classifiers were tested as well as different sets of input features going from the BRDF parameters to spectral Albedo. We will present the results of the time series development and the first exercises when creating the prototype land cover product.

  12. Evaluation of mobile emissions contributions to Mexico City's emissions inventory using on-road and cross-road emission measurements and ambient data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavala, M.; Herndon, S. C.; Wood, E. C.; Onasch, T. B.; Knighton, W. B.; Kolb, C. E.; Molina, L. T.

    2009-03-01

    Mobile emissions represent a significant fraction of the total anthropogenic emissions burden in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) and, therefore, it is crucial to use top-down techniques informed by on-road exhaust measurements to evaluate and improve traditional bottom-up official emissions inventory (EI) for the city. We present the measurements of on-road fleet-average emission factors obtained using the Aerodyne mobile laboratory in the MCMA in March 2006 as part of the MILAGRO/MCMA-2006 field campaign. A comparison of our on-road emission measurements with those obtained in 2003 using essentially the same measurement techniques and analysis methods indicates that, in the three year span, NO emission factors remain within the measured variability ranges whereas emission factors of aldehydes and aromatics species were reduced for all sampled driving conditions. We use a top-down fuel-based approach to evaluate the mobile emissions from the gasoline fleet estimated in the bottom-up official 2006 MCMA mobile sources. Within the range of measurement uncertainties, we found probable slight overpredictions of mean EI estimates on the order of 20-28% for CO and 14-20% for NO. However, we identify a probable EI underprediction of VOC mobile emissions between 1.4 and 1.9; although estimated benzene and toluene mobile emissions in the inventory seem to be well within the uncertainties of the corresponding emissions estimates. Aldehydes mobile emissions in the inventory, however, seem to be under predicted by factors of 3 for HCHO and 2 for CH3CHO. Our on-road measurement based estimate of annual emissions of organic mass from PM1 particles suggests a severe underprediction (larger than a factor of 4) of PM2.5 mobile emissions in the inventory. Analyses of ambient CO, NOx and CO/NOx concentration trends in the MCMA indicate that the early morning ambient CO/NOx ratio has decreased at a rate of about 1.9 ppm/ppm/year over the last two decades and that the decrease

  13. Evaluation of mobile emissions contributions to Mexico City's emissions inventory using on-road and cross-road emission measurements and ambient data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavala, M.; Herndon, S. C.; Wood, E. C.; Onasch, T. B.; Knighton, W. B.; Marr, L. C.; Kolb, C. E.; Molina, L. T.

    2009-09-01

    Mobile emissions represent a significant fraction of the total anthropogenic emissions burden in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) and, therefore, it is crucial to use top-down techniques informed by on-road exhaust measurements to evaluate and improve traditional bottom-up official emissions inventory (EI) for the city. We present the measurements of on-road fleet-average emission factors obtained using the Aerodyne mobile laboratory in the MCMA in March 2006 as part of the MILAGRO/MCMA-2006 field campaign. A comparison of our on-road emission measurements with those obtained in 2003 using essentially the same measurement techniques and analysis methods indicates that, in the three year span, NO emission factors remain within the measured variability ranges whereas emission factors of aldehydes and aromatics species were reduced for all sampled driving conditions. We use a top-down fuel-based approach to evaluate the mobile emissions from the gasoline fleet estimated in the bottom-up official 2006 MCMA mobile sources. Within the range of measurement uncertainties, we found probable slight overpredictions of mean EI estimates on the order of 20-28% for CO and 14-20% for NO. However, we identify a probable EI discrepancy of VOC mobile emissions between 1.4 and 1.9; although estimated benzene and toluene mobile emissions in the inventory seem to be well within the uncertainties of the corresponding emissions estimates. Aldehydes mobile emissions in the inventory, however, seem to be underpredicted by factors of 3 for HCHO and 2 for CH3CHO. Our on-road measurement-based estimate of annual emissions of organic mass from PM1 particles suggests a severe underprediction (larger than a factor of 4) of PM2.5 mobile emissions in the inventory. Analyses of ambient CO, NOx and CO/NOx concentration trends in the MCMA indicate that the early morning ambient CO/NOx ratio has decreased at a rate of about 1.9 ppm/ppm/year over the last two decades due to reductions in CO

  14. Towards the development of a global inventory for black carbon emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penner, J. E.; Eddleman, H.; Novakov, T.

    We have developed two global inventories for black carbon (BC) emissions using two distinct methods. The first method uses measured ambient concentration ratios of BC and SO 2 at locations throughout the world. We demonstrate that BC to SO 2 ratios are well correlated at most sites and that distinct ratios of BC to SO 2 apply to source areas from economically distinct regions. However, within any one economic region, the ratio of BC to SO 2 appears to be relatively constant. These facts are used to construct a global inventory of BC emissions by using previously published inventories for the emissions of sulfur. The derived inventory totals nearly 24 Tg C yr -1. The second method uses estimated emission factors and published fuel production and use statistics for wood and bagasse burning, diesel fuel, and domestic and commercial coal use. The combined global emissions using the second method total 12.6 Tg C yr -1. A comparison of the two inventories shows that the estimated emissions from the ratio method are within a factor of two of those derived from emission factors in regions where the data appear to be reliable. The BC inventory from the ratio method is used in the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory global chemistry/climate model to simulate the world wide distribution of BC. The predicted concentrations are compared with available measurements from throughout the world. This comparison also supports the magnitude of the inventory which we derived from the ratio method to within about a factor of two.

  15. Modelling the impacts of ammonia emissions reductions on North American air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makar, P. A.; Moran, M. D.; Zheng, Q.; Cousineau, S.; Sassi, M.; Duhamel, A.; Besner, M.; Davignon, D.; Crevier, L.-P.; Bouchet, V. S.

    2009-03-01

    A unified regional air-quality modelling system (AURAMS) was used to investigate the effects of reductions in ammonia emissions on regional air quality, with a focus on particulate-matter formation. Three simulations of one-year duration were performed for a North American domain: (1) a base-case simulation using 2002 Canadian and US national emissions inventories augmented by a more detailed Canadian emissions inventory for agricultural ammonia; (2) a 30% North-American-wide reduction in agricultural ammonia emissions; and (3) a 50% reduction in Canadian beef-cattle ammonia emissions. The simulations show that a 30% continent-wide reduction in agricultural ammonia emissions lead to reductions in median hourly ±2.5 mass of <1 μg m-3 on an annual basis. The atmospheric response to these emission reductions displays marked seasonal variations, and on even shorter time scales the impacts of the emissions reductions are highly episodic: 95-percentile hourly ±2.5 mass decreases can be up to a factor of six larger than the median values. A key finding of the modelling work is the linkage between gas and aqueous chemistry and transport; reductions in ammonia emissions affect gaseous ammonia concentrations close to the emissions site, but substantial impacts on particulate matter and atmospheric deposition often occur at considerable distances downwind, with particle nitrate being the main vector of ammonia/um transport. Ammonia emissions reductions therefore have trans-boundary and possibly trans-oceanic consequences downwind. Calculations of critical-load exceedances for sensitive ecosystems in Canada suggest that ammonia emission reductions will have a minimal impact on current ecosystem acidification within Canada, but may have a substantial impact on future ecosystem acidification. The 50% Canadian beef-cattle ammonia emissions reduction scenario was used to examine model sensitivity to uncertainties in the new Canadian agricultural ammonia emissions inventory, and

  16. COMPILATION AND ANALYSES OF EMISSIONS INVENTORIES FOR THE NOAA ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY PROJECT. PROGRESS REPORT, AUGUST 1997.

    SciTech Connect

    BENKOVITZ,C.M.

    1997-09-01

    Global inventories of anthropogenic emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) for circa 1985 and 1990 and Non-Methane Volatile Organic Compounds (NMVOCs) for circa 1990 have been compiled by this project. Work on the inventories has been carried out under the umbrella of the Global Emissions Inventory Activity (GEIA) of the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC) Program. The 1985 NO{sub x} inventory was compiled using default data sets of global emissions that were refined via the use of more detailed regional data sets; this inventory is being distributed to the scientific community at large as the GEIA Version 1A inventory. Global emissions of NO{sub x} for 1985 are estimated to be 21 Tg N y{sup -1}, with approximately 84% originating in the Northern Hemisphere. The 1990 inventories of NO{sub x} and NMVOCs were compiled using unified methodologies and data sets in collaboration with the Netherlands National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection (Rijksinstituut Voor Volksgezondheid en Milieuhygiene, RIVM) and the Division of Technology for Society of the Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research, (IMW-TNO); these emissions will be used as the default estimates to be updated with more accurate regional data. The NMVOC inventory was gridded and speciated into 23 chemical categories. The resulting global emissions for 1990 are 31 Tg N yr{sup -1} for NO{sub x} and 173 Gg NMVOC yr{sup -1}. Emissions of NO{sub x} are highest in the populated and industrialized areas of eastern North America and across Europe, and in biomass burning areas of South America, Africa, and Asia. Emissions of NMVOCs are highest in biomass burning areas of South America, Africa, and Asia. The 1990 NO{sub x} emissions were gridded to 1{sup o} resolution using surrogate data, and were given seasonal, two-vertical-level resolution and speciated into NO and NO{sub 2} based on proportions derived from the 1985 GEIA Version 1B inventory. Global NMVOC

  17. SOURCES OF COPPER AIR EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study to update estimates of atmospheric emissions of copper and copper compounds in the U.S. Source categories evaluated included: metallic minerals, primary copper smelters, iron and steel making, combustion, municipal incineration, secondary coppe...

  18. 40 CFR 52.423 - 1990 Base Year Emission Inventory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... following pollutants: volatile organic compounds (VOC), carbon monoxide (CO), and oxides of nitrogen (NOX... mobile source inventories in area for the following pollutants: Volatile organic compounds (VOC),...

  19. Incinerator air emissions: Inhalation exposure perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, H.W.

    1995-12-01

    Incineration is often proposed as the treatment of choice for processing diverse wastes, particularly hazardous wastes. Where such treatment is proposed, people are often fearful that it will adversely affect their health. Unfortunately, information presented to the public about incinerators often does not include any criteria or benchmarks for evaluating such facilities. This article describes a review of air emission data from regulatory trial burns in a large prototype incinerator, operated at design capacity by the US Army to destroy chemical warfare materials. It uses several sets of criteria to gauge the threat that these emissions pose to public health. Incinerator air emission levels are evaluated with respect to various toxicity screening levels and ambient air levels of the same pollutants. Also, emission levels of chlorinated dioxins and furans are compared with emission levels of two common combustion sources. Such comparisons can add to a community`s understanding of health risks associated with an incinerator. This article focuses only on the air exposure/inhalation pathway as related to human health. It does not address other potential human exposure pathways or the possible effects of emissions on the local ecology, both of which should also be examined during a complete analysis of any major new facility.

  20. The Fire INventory from NCAR (FINN) - a high resolution global model to estimate the emissions from open burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiedinmyer, C.; Akagi, S. K.; Yokelson, R. J.; Emmons, L. K.; Al-Saadi, J. A.; Orlando, J. J.; Soja, A. J.

    2010-12-01

    The Fire INventory from NCAR version 1.0 (FINNv1) provides daily, 1 km resolution, global estimates of the trace gas and particle emissions from open burning of biomass, which includes wildfire, agricultural fires, and prescribed burning and does not include biofuel use and trash burning. Emission factors used in the calculations have been updated with recent data, particularly for the non-methane organic compounds (NMOC). The resulting global annual NMOC emission estimates are as much as a factor of 5 greater than some prior estimates. Chemical speciation profiles, necessary to allocate the total NMOC emission estimates to lumped species for use by chemical transport models, are provided for three widely used chemical mechanisms: SAPRC99, GEOS-CHEM, and MOZART-4. Using these profiles, FINNv1 also provides global estimates of key organic compounds, including formaldehyde and methanol. The uncertainty in the FINNv1 emission estimates are about a factor of two; but, the estimates agree closely with other global inventories of biomass burning emissions for CO, CO2, and other species with less variable emission factors. FINNv1 emission estimates have been developed specifically for modeling atmospheric chemistry and air quality in a consistent framework at scales from local to global. The product is unique because of the high temporal and spatial resolution, global coverage, and the number of species estimated. FINNv1 can be used for both hindcast and forecast or near-real time model applications and the results are being critically evaluated with models and observations whenever possible.

  1. Development and selection of ammonia emission factors for the 1985 NAPAP emissions inventory. Final report, August 1987-December 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Warn, T.E.; Zelmanowitz, S.; Saeger, M.

    1990-06-01

    The report, prepared for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP), identifies the most appropriate ammonia (NH{sub 3}) emission factors available for inclusion in the 1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory. NH{sub 3} emission factors developed for several new NAPAP source categories were compared with factors developed for other inventories. Although many of the NH{sub 3} emission factors presented in the report have low quality ratings, those factors determined to be the most accurate for each category were selected for application to the Inventory. Emissions factors and estimates of NH{sub 3} emissions are included for human breath, cigarette smoke, and human perspiration but, for reasons discussed, are not included in the Inventory. NH{sub 3} emissions from wildlife excrement were investigated; while there is not universal agreement, the report and other NAPAP research conclude that the net contribution to ambient NH3 is zero. The total NH{sub 3} emissions included in the Inventory are 1,685,473 tons per year. The most significant NH{sub 3} sources, accounting for 83% of the total emissions, were livestock wastes, wastewater treatment, and ammonium nitrate manufacture.

  2. GIS-based emission inventories of urban scale: A case study of Hangzhou, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qingyu; Wei, Yumei; Tian, Weili; Yang, Kemin

    This research established GIS-based urban-scale emission inventories of SO 2, NO X, and PM 10 from both fossil energy consumption and industrial production process. Hangzhou, a typical Yangtse Delta city in south China, was selected to be the case study city. It is found that PM 10 emission from industrial production process is the third highest, about 17.1% of total PM 10 emission. The total emissions of SO 2, NO X, and PM 10 were 41385.9, 54780.4, and 24239.2 t a -1 in 2004. AERMOD model was used to simulate pollutants concentration in the urban area of Hangzhou. The simulated concentrations were compared with the observed data collected at seven air quality-monitoring stations. The results show that simulated data of SO 2 and NO X annual average concentrations agreed reasonably with observation data in five monitoring stations, but had obvious differences with observation data in the other two monitoring stations because of boundary and geographical data limitation in the simulation. The simulated data of PM 10 annual average concentrations were much lower than observation data of all monitoring stations because secondary PM 10 data were not included in the simulation.

  3. An emission inventory of agricultural internal combustion engines for California`s San Joaquin Valley

    SciTech Connect

    Coe, D.; Chinkin, L.; Reiss, R.

    1996-12-31

    Previous work concluded that stationary agricultural internal combustion (IC) engines are a substantial source of criteria pollutants the San Joaquin Valley (SJV). However, due to time and resource restrictions, earlier work did not include a rigorous survey of engine users. Instead, emission estimates were based on interviews with a few knowledgeable experts (e.g., Department of Agricultural Engineering at U.C. Davis, the Agriculture Extension office of U.C. Davis, Farm Bureau, and Water District offices) or were extrapolated from data designed for other purposes. The purpose of the current study, which was sponsored by the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District, was to improve the estimate of emissions from this source category by conducting a more comprehensive inventory of this source type based on data collected via a telephone survey of engine users. These survey data were then used to estimate and seasonally allocate emissions for this source category. The findings of this current work show that these emissions are much lower than previously estimated.

  4. 75 FR 48860 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; New Mexico; Revisions to Emissions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-12

    ...The EPA is taking direct final action to approve revisions to the New Mexico State Implementation Plan (SIP). These revisions concern two separate actions. First, we are approving revisions to regulations on Emission Inventories (EIs) submitted by stationary sources of air pollutants. EIs are critical for the efforts of state, local, and federal agencies to attain and maintain the National......

  5. Quantifying the air pollutants emission reduction during the 2008 Olympic games in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuxiao; Zhao, Meng; Xing, Jia; Wu, Ye; Zhou, Yu; Lei, Yu; He, Kebin; Fu, Lixin; Hao, Jiming

    2010-04-01

    Air quality was a vital concern for the Beijing Olympic Games in 2008. To strictly control air pollutant emissions and ensure good air quality for the Games, Beijing municipal government announced an "Air Quality Guarantee Plan for the 29th Olympics in Beijing". In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the guarantee plan, this study analyzed the air pollutant emission reductions during the 29th Olympiad in Beijing. In June 2008, daily emissions of SO(2), NO(X), PM(10), and NMVOC in Beijing were 103.9 t, 428.5 t, 362.7 t, and 890.0 t, respectively. During the Olympic Games, the daily emissions of SO(2), NO(X), PM(10), and NMVOC in Beijing were reduced to 61.6 t, 229.1 t, 164.3 t, and 381.8 t -41%, 47%, 55%, and 57% lower than June 2008 emission levels. Closing facilities producing construction materials reduced the sector's SO(2) emissions by 85%. Emission control measures for mobile sources, including high-emitting vehicle restrictions, government vehicle use controls, and alternate day driving rules for Beijing's 3.3 million private cars, reduced mobile source NO(X) and NMVOC by 46% and 57%, respectively. Prohibitions on building construction reduced the sector's PM(10) emissions by approximately 90% or total PM(10) by 35%. NMVOC reductions came mainly from mobile source and fugitive emission reductions. Based on the emission inventories developed in this study, the CMAQ model was used to simulate Beijing's ambient air quality during the Olympic Games. The model results accurately reflect the environmental monitoring data providing evidence that the emission inventories in this study are reasonably accurate and quantitatively reflect the emission changes attributable to air pollution control measures taken during the 29th Olympic Games in 2008. PMID:20222727

  6. 2014 LANL Radionuclide Air Emissions Report

    SciTech Connect

    Fuehne, David Patrick

    2015-07-21

    This report describes the emissions of airborne radionuclides from operations at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for calendar year 2014, and the resulting off-site dose from these emissions. This document fulfills the requirements established by the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants in 40 CFR 61, Subpart H – Emissions of Radionuclides other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities, commonly referred to as the Radionuclide NESHAP or Rad-NESHAP. Compliance with this regulation and preparation of this document is the responsibility of LANL’s RadNESHAP compliance program, which is part of the Environmental Protection Division. The information in this report is required under the Clean Air Act and is being submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 6.

  7. USER'S GUIDE TO THE PERSONAL COMPUTER VERSION OF THE BIOGENIC EMISSIONS INVENTORY SYSTEM (PC-BEIS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Personal Computer Version of the Biogenic Emissions Inventory System (PC-BEIS) has been developed to allow users to estimate hourly emissions of biogenic non-methane hydrocarbon emissions for any county in the contiguous United States. PC-BEIS has been compiled using Microsof...

  8. AN AMMONIA EMISSION INVENTORY FOR FERTILIZER APPLICATION IN THE UNITED STATES. (R826371C006)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fertilizer application represents a significant fraction of ammonia emissions from all sources in the United States. Previously published ammonia inventories have generally suffered from poor spatial and temporal resolution, erroneous activity levels, and highly uncertain emis...

  9. Mapping Emissions that Contribute to Air Pollution Using Adjoint Sensitivity Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastien, L. A. J.; Mcdonald, B. C.; Brown, N. J.; Harley, R.

    2014-12-01

    The adjoint of the Community Multiscale Air Quality model (CMAQ) is used to map emissions that contribute to air pollution at receptors of interest. Adjoint tools provide an efficient way to calculate the sensitivity of a model response to a large number of model inputs, a task that would require thousands of simulations using a more traditional forward sensitivity approach. Initial applications of this technique, demonstrated here, are to benzene and directly-emitted diesel particulate matter, for which atmospheric reactions are neglected. Emissions of these pollutants are strongly influenced by light-duty gasoline vehicles and heavy-duty diesel trucks, respectively. We study air quality responses in three receptor areas where populations have been identified as especially susceptible to, and adversely affected by air pollution. Population-weighted air basin-wide responses for each pollutant are also evaluated for the entire San Francisco Bay area. High-resolution (1 km horizontal grid) emission inventories have been developed for on-road motor vehicle emission sources, based on observed traffic count data. Emission estimates represent diurnal, day of week, and seasonal variations of on-road vehicle activity, with separate descriptions for gasoline and diesel sources. Emissions that contribute to air pollution at each receptor have been mapped in space and time using the adjoint method. Effects on air quality of both relative (multiplicative) and absolute (additive) perturbations to underlying emission inventories are analyzed. The contributions of local versus upwind sources to air quality in each receptor area are quantified, and weekday/weekend and seasonal variations in the influence of emissions from upwind areas are investigated. The contribution of local sources to the total air pollution burden within the receptor areas increases from about 40% in the summer to about 50% in the winter due to increased atmospheric stagnation. The effectiveness of control

  10. Scheduled civil aircraft emission inventories for 1992: Database development and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baughcum, Steven L.; Tritz, Terrance G.; Henderson, Stephen C.; Pickett, David C.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the development of a three-dimensional database of aircraft fuel burn and emissions (fuel burned, NOx, CO, and hydrocarbons) from scheduled commercial aircraft for each month of 1992. The seasonal variation in aircraft emissions was calculated for selected regions (global, North America, Europe, North Atlantic, and North Pacific). A series of parametric calculations were done to quantify the possible errors introduced from making approximations necessary to calculate the global emission inventory. The effects of wind, temperature, load factor, payload, and fuel tankering on fuel burn were evaluated to identify how they might affect the accuracy of aircraft emission inventories. These emissions inventories are available for use by atmospheric scientists conducting the Atmospheric Effects of Aviation Project (AEAP) modeling studies. Fuel burned and emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx as N02), carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons have been calculated on a 1 degree latitude x 1 degree longitude x 1 kilometer altitude grid and delivered to NASA as electronic files.

  11. How do emission patterns in megacities affect regional air pollution?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heil, A.; Richter, C.; Schroeder, S.; Schultz, M. G.

    2010-12-01

    Megacities around the world show distinctly different emission patterns in terms of absolute amounts and emission ratios of individual chemical compounds due to varying socio-economic developments and technological standards. The emission patterns influence the chemical reactivity of the urban pollution plume, and hence determine air quality in and around megacity areas. In this study, which is part of the European project CITYZEN (megaCITY - Zoom for the ENvironment), the effects of emission changes in four selected megacity areas on air pollution were investigated: BeNeLux (BNL), Istanbul (IST), Pearl River Delta (PRD) and Sao Paulo (SAP). The study aims at answering the question: how would air pollution in megacity X change if it had the same urban emissions per capita as megacity Y? Model simulations with the global chemistry climate model ECHAM5-MOZ were carried out for the year 2001 using a resolution of about 2 degrees in the horizontal and of 31 levels (surface to 10 hPa) in the vertical. The model was driven by meteorological input data from the ECMWF ERA Interim reanalysis. Emissions were taken from the gridded global ACCMIP emission inventory recently established for use in chemistry-climate simulations in connection to the IPCC-AR5 assessments (Lamarque et al. 2010). We carried out sensitivity simulations where emission patterns from each of the megacity areas were replaced by those from all others. This was done on the basis of the per capita emissions for each species and sector averaged over the respective region. Total per capita CO and NMVOC emissions are highest in PRD and lowest in SAP while total per capita NOx emissions are highest in BNL and lowest in SAP. There are strong differences in the relative contribution of the urban sectors to total emissions of individual compounds. As a result, each of the four megacity areas exhibits a very characteristic NMVOC speciation profile which determines the NMVOC-related photochemical ozone (O_3

  12. Anthropogenic mercury emission inventory with emission factors and total emission in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jeong-Hun; Park, Jung-Min; Lee, Sang-Bo; Pudasainee, Deepak; Seo, Yong-Chil

    2010-07-01

    Mercury emissions concentrations, emission factors, and the total national emission from major anthropogenic sources in Korea for the year 2007 were estimated. Uncontrolled and controlled mercury emission factors and the total emission from each source types are presented. The annual national mercury emission from major anthropogenic sources for the year 2007, on average was 12.8 ton which ranged from 6.5 to 20.2 ton. Averaged emissions of elemental, oxidized, and particulate mercury were estimated at 8.25 ton, 3.69 ton, and 0.87 ton, respectively. Due to the removal of a major portion of particulate and oxidized mercury species, elemental mercury was dominant in stack emission. About 54.8% of mercury emission was contributed by industrial sources, 45.0% by stationary combustion sources and 0.02% by mobile sources. Thermal power plants, oil refineries, cement kilns and incinerators (municipal, industrial, medical, sewage sludge) were the major mercury emitters, contributing about 26%, 25%, 21% and 20%, respectively to the total mercury emission. Other sources (crematory, pulp and paper manufacturing, nonferrous metals manufacturing, glass manufacturing) contributed about 8% of the total emission. Priority should be given in controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants, oil refineries, cement kilns and waste incinerators. More measurements including natural and re-emission sources are to be carried out in the future in order to have a clear scenario of mercury emission from the country and to apply effective control measures.

  13. Iterative Inverse Modeling for Reconciliation of Emission Inventories during the 2006 TexAQS Intensive Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, X.; Cohan, D. S.

    2009-12-01

    Substantial uncertainties in current emission inventories have been detected by the Texas Air Quality Study 2006 (TexAQS 2006) intensive field program. These emission uncertainties have caused large inaccuracies in model simulations of air quality and its responses to management strategies. To improve the quantitative understanding of the temporal, spatial, and categorized distributions of primary pollutant emissions by utilizing the corresponding measurements collected during TexAQS 2006, we implemented both the recursive Kalman filter and a batch matrix inversion 4-D data assimilation (FDDA) method in an iterative inverse modeling framework of the CMAQ-DDM model. Equipped with the decoupled direct method, CMAQ-DDM enables simultaneous calculation of the sensitivity coefficients of pollutant concentrations to emissions to be used in the inversions. Primary pollutant concentrations measured by the multiple platforms (TCEQ ground-based, NOAA WP-3D aircraft and Ronald H. Brown vessel, and UH Moody Tower) during TexAQS 2006 have been integrated for the use in the inverse modeling. Firstly pseudo-data analyses have been conducted to assess the two methods, taking a coarse spatial resolution emission inventory as a case. Model base case concentrations of isoprene and ozone at arbitrarily selected ground grid cells were perturbed to generate pseudo measurements with different assumed Gaussian uncertainties expressed by 1-sigma standard deviations. Single-species inversions have been conducted with both methods for isoprene and NOx surface emissions from eight states in the Southeastern United States by using the pseudo measurements of isoprene and ozone, respectively. Utilization of ozone pseudo data to invert for NOx emissions serves only for the purpose of method assessment. Both the Kalman filter and FDDA methods show good performance in tuning arbitrarily shifted a priori emissions to the base case “true” values within 3-4 iterations even for the nonlinear

  14. Development of a road transport emission inventory for Greece and the Greater Athens Area: effects of important parameters.

    PubMed

    Fameli, K M; Assimakopoulos, V D

    2015-02-01

    Traffic is considered one of the major polluting sectors and as a consequence a significant cause for the measured exceedances of ambient air quality limit values mainly in urban areas. The Greater Athens Area (located in Attica), the most populated area in Greece, faces severe air pollution problems due to the combination of high road traffic emissions, complex topography and local meteorological conditions. Even though several efforts were made to construct traffic emission inventories for Greece and Attica, still there is not a spatially and temporally resolved one, based on data from relevant authorities and organisations. The present work aims to estimate road emissions in Greece and Attica based on the top down approach. The programme COPERT 4 was used to calculate the annual total emissions from the road transport sector for the period 2006-2010 and an emission inventory for Greece and Attica was developed with high spatial (6 × 6 km(2) for Greece and 2 × 2 km(2) for Attica) and temporal (1-hour) resolutions. The results revealed that about 40% of national CO₂, CO, VOC and NMVOC values and 30% of NOx and particles are emitted in Attica. The fuel consumption and the subsequent reduction of annual mileage driven in combination with the import of new engine anti-pollution technologies affected CO₂, CO, VOC and NMVOC emissions. The major part of CO (56.53%) and CO₂ (66.15%) emissions was due to passenger cars (2010), while heavy duty vehicles (HDVs) were connected with NOx, PM₂.₅ and PM₁₀ emissions with 51.27%, 43.97% and 38.13% respectively (2010). The fleet composition, the penetration of diesel fuelled cars, the increase of urban average speed and the fleet renewal are among the most effective parameters towards the emission reduction strategies. PMID:25461080

  15. Biofuels, vehicle emissions, and urban air quality.

    PubMed

    Wallington, Timothy J; Anderson, James E; Kurtz, Eric M; Tennison, Paul J

    2016-07-18

    Increased biofuel content in automotive fuels impacts vehicle tailpipe emissions via two mechanisms: fuel chemistry and engine calibration. Fuel chemistry effects are generally well recognized, while engine calibration effects are not. It is important that investigations of the impact of biofuels on vehicle emissions consider the impact of engine calibration effects and are conducted using vehicles designed to operate using such fuels. We report the results of emission measurements from a Ford F-350 fueled with either fossil diesel or a biodiesel surrogate (butyl nonanoate) and demonstrate the critical influence of engine calibration on NOx emissions. Using the production calibration the emissions of NOx were higher with the biodiesel fuel. Using an adjusted calibration (maintaining equivalent exhaust oxygen concentration to that of the fossil diesel at the same conditions by adjusting injected fuel quantities) the emissions of NOx were unchanged, or lower, with biodiesel fuel. For ethanol, a review of the literature data addressing the impact of ethanol blend levels (E0-E85) on emissions from gasoline light-duty vehicles in the U.S. is presented. The available data suggest that emissions of NOx, non-methane hydrocarbons, particulate matter (PM), and mobile source air toxics (compounds known, or suspected, to cause serious health impacts) from modern gasoline and diesel vehicles are not adversely affected by increased biofuel content over the range for which the vehicles are designed to operate. Future increases in biofuel content when accomplished in concert with changes in engine design and calibration for new vehicles should not result in problematic increases in emissions impacting urban air quality and may in fact facilitate future required emissions reductions. A systems perspective (fuel and vehicle) is needed to fully understand, and optimize, the benefits of biofuels when blended into gasoline and diesel. PMID:27112132

  16. Development of hourly probabilistic utility NO x emission inventories using time series techniques: Part I—univariate approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Aziz, Amr; Frey, H. Christopher

    Historical data regarding hourly variability in coal-fired power plant unit emissions based upon continuous emission monitoring enables estimation of the likely range of possible values in the near future for purposes of air quality modeling. Analyses were conducted for 32 units for a base case in 1995, an alternative 1998 case, and a 2007 future scenario case. Hourly inter-unit uncertainty was assumed to be independent. Univariate stochastic time series models were employed to quantify hourly uncertainty in capacity and emission factors. Ordinary least-squares regression models were used to quantify hourly uncertainty in heat rate. The models were used to develop an hourly probabilistic emission inventory for a 4-day period. There was significant autocorrelation for time lags 1, 2, 23, and 24 for the capacity and emission factor and a 24 h cyclical pattern for the capacity factor. The uncertainty ranges for hourly emissions were found to vary for different hours of the day, with 95% probability ranges of typically ±20-40% of the mean. For the 1995 case, the 95% confidence interval for the daily inventory was 510-633 t/d, representing approximately ±10% uncertainty with respect to the average value of 576 t/d. Inter-annual changes in the mean and variability were assessed by comparison of 1998 data with 1995 data. The daily inventory for the 2007 scenario had an uncertainty range of ±8% of the average value of 175 t/d. The substantial autocorrelation in capacity and emission factor, and the cyclic effect for capacity factor, indicate the importance of accounting for time series effects in estimation of uncertainty in hourly emissions. Additional work is recommended to account for inter-unit dependence, which is addressed in Part 2.

  17. [Implementation results of emission standards of air pollutants for thermal power plants: a numerical simulation].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhan-Shan; Pan, Li-Bo

    2014-03-01

    The emission inventory of air pollutants from the thermal power plants in the year of 2010 was set up. Based on the inventory, the air quality of the prediction scenarios by implementation of both 2003-version emission standard and the new emission standard were simulated using Models-3/CMAQ. The concentrations of NO2, SO2, and PM2.5, and the deposition of nitrogen and sulfur in the year of 2015 and 2020 were predicted to investigate the regional air quality improvement by the new emission standard. The results showed that the new emission standard could effectively improve the air quality in China. Compared with the implementation results of the 2003-version emission standard, by 2015 and 2020, the area with NO2 concentration higher than the emission standard would be reduced by 53.9% and 55.2%, the area with SO2 concentration higher than the emission standard would be reduced by 40.0%, the area with nitrogen deposition higher than 1.0 t x km(-2) would be reduced by 75.4% and 77.9%, and the area with sulfur deposition higher than 1.6 t x km(-2) would be reduced by 37.1% and 34.3%, respectively. PMID:24881370

  18. Constructing a Spatially Resolved Methane Emission Inventory for the Barnett Shale Region.

    PubMed

    Lyon, David R; Zavala-Araiza, Daniel; Alvarez, Ramón A; Harriss, Robert; Palacios, Virginia; Lan, Xin; Talbot, Robert; Lavoie, Tegan; Shepson, Paul; Yacovitch, Tara I; Herndon, Scott C; Marchese, Anthony J; Zimmerle, Daniel; Robinson, Allen L; Hamburg, Steven P

    2015-07-01

    Methane emissions from the oil and gas industry (O&G) and other sources in the Barnett Shale region were estimated by constructing a spatially resolved emission inventory. Eighteen source categories were estimated using multiple data sets, including new empirical measurements at regional O&G sites and a national study of gathering and processing facilities. Spatially referenced activity data were compiled from federal and state databases and combined with O&G facility emission factors calculated using Monte Carlo simulations that account for high emission sites representing the very upper portion, or fat-tail, in the observed emissions distributions. Total methane emissions in the 25-county Barnett Shale region in October 2013 were estimated to be 72,300 (63,400-82,400) kg CH4 h(-1). O&G emissions were estimated to be 46,200 (40,000-54,100) kg CH4 h(-1) with 19% of emissions from fat-tail sites representing less than 2% of sites. Our estimate of O&G emissions in the Barnett Shale region was higher than alternative inventories based on the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Greenhouse Gas Inventory, EPA Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program, and Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research by factors of 1.5, 2.7, and 4.3, respectively. Gathering compressor stations, which accounted for 40% of O&G emissions in our inventory, had the largest difference from emission estimates based on EPA data sources. Our inventory's higher O&G emission estimate was due primarily to its more comprehensive activity factors and inclusion of emissions from fat-tail sites. PMID:26148553

  19. Modeling Ozone in the Eastern United States Using a Fuel-Based Mobile Source Emissions Inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mcdonald, B. C.; Ahmadov, R.; McKeen, S. A.; Kim, S. W.; Frost, G. J.; Trainer, M.

    2015-12-01

    A fuel-based mobile source emissions inventory of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and carbon monoxide (CO) is developed for the continental US. Emissions are mapped for the year 2013, including emissions from on-road gasoline and diesel vehicles, and off-road engines. We find that mobile source emissions of NOx in the National Emissions Inventory 2011 (NEI11) are 50-60% higher than results from this study; mobile sources contribute around half of total US anthropogenic NOx emissions. We model chemistry and transport of emissions from the NEI11 and our fuel-based inventory during the Southeast Nexus (SENEX) Study period in the summer of 2013, using the Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model. In the Eastern US, there is a consistent over-prediction of tropospheric ozone (O3) levels when simulating emissions from the NEI11, with the largest biases located in the Southeastern US. Using our fuel-based inventory, we test O3 sensitivity to lower NOx emissions. We highlight results in the Southeast, a region with significant interactions between anthropogenic and biogenic emissions of ozone precursors. Model results of NOy, CO, and O3 are compared with aircraft measurements made during SENEX.

  20. [County-scale N2O emission inventory of China's manure management system].

    PubMed

    Wang, Chuan; Gao, Wei; Zhou, Feng; Chen, Qing; Ying, Na; Xu, Peng; Hou, Xi-Kang

    2013-10-01

    Manure is one of the two largest contributors to China's N2O emission. By using the county-scale activity data and the regional emission factors and related parameters with spatial differentiation in China in 2008, this paper assessed the N2O emission loading, sources profile, spatial pattern, and uncertainty, aimed to establish a high-resolution N2O emission inventory of China's manure management system in 2008. As compared with the research results based on the IPCC, EDGAR, and other works, the proposed emission inventory was more reliable and comprehensive. The total China' s N2O emission from manure in 2008 was estimated as 572 Gg, among which, the emission from the manure except pasture/range/paddock was 322 Gg (56.3%), from the manure in pasture/range/paddock was 180 Gg (31.5%), and the indirect emission from atmospheric volatilized N deposition and leaching/runoff was 45.8 Gg (8.0%) and 1.23 Gg (0.2%), respectively. The spatial pattern of China's N2O emission from manure was more centralized, and mainly concentrated in Jilin, Shandong, Sichuan, Hunan, Henan, Heilongjiang, and Liaoning provinces, contributing 52.4% of the total emission, and more than 25% being from 84 counties (only < 3% of the whole counties). The proposed emission inventory had a higher spatial resolution and accuracy. Different with this inventory, the IPCC underestimated the direct emission while overestimated the indirect emission, with the regions of higher emission rate being underestimated by -1.5%-6.0% and those of lower emission rate being overestimated by 1.6%-13%. As for the EDGAR, the regions of higher emission rate were underestimated by -18. 8--50.0%, and those of lower emission rate were mostly overestimated by 25%-54.1%. PMID:24483097

  1. A Wildland Fire Emission Inventory for the Western United States -Uncertainty Across Spatial and Temporal Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbanski, S. P.; Hao, W.

    2010-12-01

    Emissions of trace gases and aerosols by biomass burning (BB) have a significant influence on the chemical composition of the atmosphere, air quality, and climate. BB emissions depend on a range of variables including burned area, fuels, meteorology, combustion completeness, and emission factors (EF). Emission algorithms provide BB emission inventories (EI) which serve as critical input for Chemical Transport Models (CTM) employed in atmospheric sciences in a wide array of studies. Many different BB EI are commonly used and agreement among these EI is often poor. In general, the sensitivity of the emission estimates to the algorithm components is not well characterized and the performance of most algorithms have not been examined across the scales they are used. Understanding the sensitivity of EI to algorithm component uncertainties is crucial for assessing their impact on CTM simulations. We examine the spatial and temporal sensitivity of BB emission estimates of CO to uncertainties in mapped fuel loading, fuel consumption, burned area and emission factors. The study focuses on wildland fire in the western United States(2003 - 2008). Two fuel loading maps and 2 fuel consumption models provided 4 fuel load consumption emission scenarios with identical burned area and meteorology. The burned area used in the study was mapped using a MODIS burn scar algorithm. The emission algorithm was run at 1-day and 1-km2. Each of the 4 EI was aggregated across multiple spatial (dx= 10 - 200km2) and temporal (dt= 5day - 1yr) scales to evaluate the algorithm sensitivity to scale. At each (dx, dt) the native scale EI of the 4 scenarios were averaged to provide a ‘best estimate’ EI. The uncertainty associated with fuel load consumption (Uflc) was taken as half the range of emissions predicted by the 4 scenarios at each (dx, dt). Estimated uncertainties for the burned area (Ua) and EF (Uef) were combined with Uflc to provide the CO emissions uncertainty (U). The sensitivity of U

  2. Emission Inventory for PFOS in China: Review of Past Methodologies and Suggestions

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Theodore Chao; Wang, Bin; Huang, Jun; Deng, Shubo; Yu, Gang

    2011-01-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic chemical that has the potential for long-range transport in the environment. Its use in a wide variety of consumer products and industrial processes makes a detailed characterization of its emissions sources very challenging. These varied emissions sources all contribute to PFOS' existence within nearly all environmental media. Currently, China is the only country documented to still be producing PFOS, though there is no China PFOS emission inventory available. This study reviews the inventory methodologies for PFOS in other countries to suggest a China-specific methodology framework for a PFOS emission inventory. The suggested framework combines unknowns for PFOS-containing product penetration into the Chinese market with product lifecycle assumptions, centralizing these diverse sources into municipal sewage treatment plants. Releases from industrial sources can be quantified separately using another set of emission factors. Industrial sources likely to be relevant to the Chinese environment are identified. PMID:22125449

  3. Mapping the spatial distribution of global anthropogenic mercury atmospheric emission inventories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Simon J.; Steenhuisen, Frits; Pacyna, Jozef M.; Pacyna, Elisabeth G.

    This paper describes the procedures employed to spatially distribute global inventories of anthropogenic emissions of mercury to the atmosphere, prepared by Pacyna, E.G., Pacyna, J.M., Steenhuisen, F., Wilson, S. [2006. Global anthropogenic mercury emission inventory for 2000. Atmospheric Environment, this issue, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2006.03.041], and briefly discusses the results of this work. A new spatially distributed global emission inventory for the (nominal) year 2000, and a revised version of the 1995 inventory are presented. Emissions estimates for total mercury and major species groups are distributed within latitude/longitude-based grids with a resolution of 1×1 and 0.5×0.5°. A key component in the spatial distribution procedure is the use of population distribution as a surrogate parameter to distribute emissions from sources that cannot be accurately geographically located. In this connection, new gridded population datasets were prepared, based on the CEISIN GPW3 datasets (CIESIN, 2004. Gridded Population of the World (GPW), Version 3. Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN), Columbia University and Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT). GPW3 data are available at http://beta.sedac.ciesin.columbia.edu/gpw/index.jsp). The spatially distributed emissions inventories and population datasets prepared in the course of this work are available on the Internet at www.amap.no/Resources/HgEmissions/

  4. ESTIMATION OF EMISSION ADJUSTMENTS FROM THE APPLICATION OF FOUR-DIMENSIONAL DATA ASSIMILATION TO PHOTOCHEMICAL AIR QUALITY MODELING. (R826372)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Four-dimensional data assimilation applied to photochemical air quality modeling is used to suggest adjustments to the emissions inventory of the Atlanta, Georgia metropolitan area. In this approach, a three-dimensional air quality model, coupled with direct sensitivity analys...

  5. Modelling African aerosol using updated fossil fuel and biofuel emission inventories for 2005 and 2030

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liousse, C.; Penner, J. E.; Assamoi, E.; Xu, L.; Criqui, P.; Mima, S.; Guillaume, B.; Rosset, R.

    2010-12-01

    A regional fossil fuel and biofuel emission inventory for particulates has been developed for Africa at a resolution of 0.25° x 0.25° for the year 2005. The original database of Junker and Liousse (2008) was used after modification for updated regional fuel consumption and emission factors. Consumption data were corrected after direct inquiries conducted in Africa, including a new emitter category (i.e. two-wheel vehicles including “zemidjans”) and a new activity sector (i.e. power plants) since both were not considered in the previous emission inventory. Emission factors were measured during the 2005 AMMA campaign (Assamoi and Liousse, 2010) and combustion chamber experiments. Two prospective inventories for 2030 are derived based on this new regional inventory and two energy consumption forecasts by the Prospective Outlook on Long-term Energy Systems (POLES) model (Criqui, 2001). The first is a reference scenario, where no emission controls beyond those achieved in 2003 are taken into account, and the second is for a "clean" scenario where possible and planned policies for emission control are assumed to be effective. BC and OCp emission budgets for these new inventories will be discussed and compared to the previous global dataset. These new inventories along with the most recent open biomass burning inventory (Liousse et al., 2010) have been tested in the ORISAM-TM5 global chemistry-climate model with a focus over Africa at a 1° x 1° resolution. Global simulations for BC and primary OC for the years 2005 and 2030 are carried out and the modelled particulate concentrations for 2005 are compared to available measurements in Africa. Finally, BC and OC radiative properties (aerosol optical depths and single scattering albedo) are calculated and the direct radiative forcing is estimated using an off line model (Wang and Penner, 2009). Results of sensitivity tests driven with different emission scenarios will be presented.

  6. Comparison of near-surface CO from multispectral measurements from MOPITT with WRF-Chem simulations using emissions inventory for the Beijing 2008 Olympics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worden, H. M.; Cheng, Y.; Pfister, G.; Carmichael, G.; Deeter, M. N.; Edwards, D. P.; Gille, J. C.; Zhang, Q.; Streets, D. G.

    2010-12-01

    We present initial comparisons of MOPITT multispectral (TIR + NIR) CO measurements with WRF-Chem simulations for the Beijing Olympics in August 2008. The Chinese government made a significant effort to improve air quality during the Olympics by controlling pollution emissions around Beijing before and during Olympics. A new emissions inventory has been created to account for these controls and implemented in WRF-chem. The inventory is specific for pollution sectors such as power, industry, transport and domestic, with corresponding emission factors. By comparing to the MOPITT data, we can test the model predictions for CO and derive improved emissions estimates, then potentially use the emission factors to infer the corresponding reduction in CO2 emissions during the Olympics.

  7. PROJECTING FUTURE-YEAR POLLUTANT EMISSIONS: EMERGING APPROACHES FROM THE EPA ORD GLOBAL CHANGE AIR QUALITY ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA's Office of Research and Development is exploring approaches for assessing the relative impacts of climate and emissions changes on future-year air quality. A challenge related to this effort is the development of emissions inventories out to the year 2050. This pap...

  8. Global emissions of trace gases, particulate matter, and hazardous air pollutants from open burning of domestic waste

    EPA Science Inventory

    The open burning of waste, whether at individual residences, businesses, or dump sites, is a large source of air pollutants. These emissions, however, are not included in many current emission inventories used in chemistry and climate modeling applications. This paper presents th...

  9. Global inventory of volatile organic compound emissions from anthropogenic sources. Final report, March 1988-September 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, J.J.; Probert, J.A.; Piccot, S.D.

    1991-01-01

    The report describes a global inventory of anthropogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions that includes a separate inventory for each of seven pollutant groups--paraffins, olefins, aromatics, formaldehyde, other aldehydes, other aromatics, and marginally reactive compounds. The inventory, one input to atmospheric chemistry models required to estimate the global atmospheric concentration of ozone, is part of an assessment of the potential environmental impacts associated with global climate change. Study results show total global anthropogenic emissions of about 121 million short tons of VOCs per year. The U.S. is the largest emitter with 21% of the total. Globally, fuelwood combustion and savanna burning are the largest sources, together accounting for over 35% of global VOC emissions. The approach used to develop the inventory involved: (1) identifying the major anthropogenic sources of VOC emissions in the U.S. and grouping them into categories; (2) developing emission factors by dividing the U.S. emissions by the amount of production or consumption of the related commodity in the U.S.; (3) multiplying the U.S. emission factors by production/consumption statistics for other countries to yield global VOC emission estimates; and (4) geographically distributing the emissions.

  10. A Self-Consistent Global Emissions Inventory Spanning 1850-2050 – Why We Need One

    EPA Science Inventory

    While emissions inventory development has advanced significantly in recent years, the scientific community still lacks a global inventory utilizing consistent estimation approaches spanning multiple centuries. In this analysis, we investigate the strengths and weakness of curre...

  11. The Fire INventory from NCAR (FINN): a high resolution global model to estimate the emissions from open burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiedinmyer, C.; Akagi, S. K.; Yokelson, R. J.; Emmons, L. K.; Al-Saadi, J. A.; Orlando, J. J.; Soja, A. J.

    2011-07-01

    The Fire INventory from NCAR version 1.0 (FINNv1) provides daily, 1 km resolution, global estimates of the trace gas and particle emissions from open burning of biomass, which includes wildfire, agricultural fires, and prescribed burning and does not include biofuel use and trash burning. Emission factors used in the calculations have been updated with recent data, particularly for the non-methane organic compounds (NMOC). The resulting global annual NMOC emission estimates are as much as a factor of 5 greater than some prior estimates. Chemical speciation profiles, necessary to allocate the total NMOC emission estimates to lumped species for use by chemical transport models, are provided for three widely used chemical mechanisms: SAPRC99, GEOS-CHEM, and MOZART-4. Using these profiles, FINNv1 also provides global estimates of key organic compounds, including formaldehyde and methanol. Uncertainties in the emissions estimates arise from several of the method steps. The use of fire hot spots, assumed area burned, land cover maps, biomass consumption estimates, and emission factors all introduce error into the model estimates. The uncertainty in the FINNv1 emission estimates are about a factor of two; but, the global estimates agree reasonably well with other global inventories of biomass burning emissions for CO, CO2, and other species with less variable emission factors. FINNv1 emission estimates have been developed specifically for modeling atmospheric chemistry and air quality in a consistent framework at scales from local to global. The product is unique because of the high temporal and spatial resolution, global coverage, and the number of species estimated. FINNv1 can be used for both hindcast and forecast or near-real time model applications and the results are being critically evaluated with models and observations whenever possible.

  12. Improving high resolution emission inventories with local proxies and urban eddy covariance flux measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gioli, Beniamino; Gualtieri, Giovanni; Busillo, Caterina; Calastrini, Francesca; Zaldei, Alessandro; Toscano, Piero

    2015-08-01

    Emission inventories are the fundamental official data on atmospheric emissions of pollutants and greenhouse gases at a variety of spatial and temporal scales worldwide. This study makes use of direct CO2 emission measurements made with the eddy covariance technique over a completely urbanized area, with no confounding effect of vegetation, where emissions are mostly controlled by natural gas combustion processes and road traffic. Objectives are: i) to validate top-down spatially and temporally disaggregated emission inventories at yearly, monthly, weekly and hourly time scales; ii) to quantify the improvement achieved in official inventories when replacing built-in temporal disaggregation proxies with customized proxies based on local data of road traffic and natural gas consumption. We demonstrate that the overall performance of official inventory at yearly scale is rather good with an emission of 3.08 g CO2 m-2 h-1 against a measured emission of 3.21 ± 0.12 g CO2 m-2 h-1. When temporally disaggregating annual emissions, the agreement between inventory and observations always significantly improves when using local proxies, by 47% (from 0.70 to 0.37 g CO2 m-2 h-1 RMSE) at monthly scale, by 26% (from 0.58 to 0.43 g CO2 m-2 h-1 RMSE) at weekly scale, and by 32% (from 1.26 to 0.85 g CO2 m-2 h-1 RMSE), at hourly scale. The validity of this analysis goes beyond CO2 since the temporal proxies used by the inventories mimic the intensity of specific emission processes, therefore species emitted in the same processes as CO2, would benefit from the improved parameterization of temporal proxies shown here. These results indicate that effort should be put into developing improved temporal proxies based on local rather than national scale data, that can better mimic site dependent behaviors.

  13. 40 CFR 52.423 - 1990 Base Year Emission Inventory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), PM2.5, coarse particles (PM10), ammonia (NH3), and sulfur dioxide (SO2). ... following pollutants: volatile organic compounds (VOC), carbon monoxide (CO), and oxides of nitrogen (NOX... mobile source inventories in area for the following pollutants: Volatile organic compounds (VOC),...

  14. 40 CFR 52.423 - 1990 Base Year Emission Inventory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), PM2.5, coarse particles (PM10), ammonia (NH3), and sulfur dioxide (SO2). ... following pollutants: volatile organic compounds (VOC), carbon monoxide (CO), and oxides of nitrogen (NOX... mobile source inventories in area for the following pollutants: Volatile organic compounds (VOC),...

  15. Updated emission inventories for speciated atmospheric mercury from anthropogenic sources in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Wang, Shuxiao; Wang, Long; Wu, Ye; Duan, Lei; Wu, Qingru; Wang, Fengyang; Yang, Mei; Yang, Hai; Hao, Jiming; Liu, Xiang

    2015-03-01

    China is the largest contributor to global atmospheric mercury (Hg), and accurate emission inventories in China are needed to reduce large gaps existing in global Hg mass balance estimates and assess Hg effects on various ecosystems. The China Atmospheric Mercury Emission (CAME) model was developed in this study using probabilistic emission factors generated from abundant on-site measurements and literature data. Using this model, total anthropogenic Hg emissions were estimated to be continuously increasing from 356 t in 2000 to 538 t in 2010 with an average annual increase rate of 4.2%. Industrial coal combustion, coal-fired power plants, nonferrous metal smelting, and cement production were identified to be the dominant Hg emission sources in China. The ten largest contributing provinces accounted for nearly 60% of the total Hg emissions in 2010. Speciated Hg emission inventory was developed over China with a grid-resolution of 36 × 36 km, providing needed emission fields for Hg transport models. In this new inventory, the sectoral Hg speciation profiles were significantly improved based on the latest data from field measurements and more detailed technology categorization. The overall uncertainties of the newly developed inventory were estimated to be in the range of -20% to +23%. PMID:25655106

  16. INVENTORY OF U.S. GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS AND SINKS: 1990-2001

    EPA Science Inventory

    The inventory report presents estimates by the United States government of U.S. anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and sinks for the years 1990 through 2001. The emission estimates in the tables are presented on both a full molecular mass basis and on a Global Warming Potent...

  17. ANTHROPOGENIC EMISSIONS DATA FOR THE 1985 NAPAP (NATIONAL ACID PRECIPITATION ASSESSMENT PROGRAM) INVENTORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report documents the development of the anthropogenic emissions estimates to be used in the 1985 National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) Emissions Inventory. Point and area source data, spanning the contiguous U.S., focus on the NAPAP high priority pollutants S...

  18. Emissions Inventory of PM2.5 Trace Elements across the United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents the first National Emissions Inventory (NEI) of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) that includes the full suite of PM2.5 trace elements (atomic number >10) measured at ambient monitoring sites across the U.S. PM 2.5 emissions in ...

  19. TEMPORALLY-RESOLVED AMMONIA EMISSION INVENTORIES: CURRENT ESTIMATES, EVALUATION TOOLS, AND MEASUREMENT NEEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, we evaluate the suitability of a three-dimensional chemical transport model (CTM) as a tool for assessing ammonia emission inventories, calculate the improvement in CTM performance owing to recent advances in temporally-varying ammonia emission estimates, and ident...

  20. Water Quality Modelling - Developing a Data Input Set Based on an Emission Inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christoffels, E.

    2009-04-01

    To enable precise characterisation of the immission situations for watercourses, it is first necessary to characterise the emissions in the catchment area. The data required to yield useful information on emissions can be collected via monitoring (e.g. at waste water treatment plant outlet, run-off of surface waters, run-off of soil moisture content) and can also be generated as the result of running a suitable model (e.g. by sewer simulation modelling). The combined approach of monitoring and modelling permits development of an emission inventory. This inventory can be used as a data input set to run a water quality model for rivers which, when used in conjunction with valid methods of river monitoring (routine spot check program, online monitoring network, sediment studies), provides valuable information about the immission situation (immission inventory). It will be presented how the Erftverband, a water management association operating in the Erft river catchment in Germany, has established an emission inventory for the entire Erft basin. This inventory provides essential data input to run the water quality model of the German Water Association, generally known as the DWA Water Quality Model. It will be demonstrated that, using this inventory, the DWA Water Quality Model, applied to the Erft river basin as the Erft water quality model, constitutes a valuable tool in support of water management planning.

  1. High-resolution historical emission inventories of crop residue burning in fields in China for the period 1990-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jing; Li, Yaqi; Bo, Yu; Xie, Shaodong

    2016-08-01

    High-resolution historical emission inventories of crop residue burning in fields in China were developed for the period 1990-2013. More accurate time-varying statistical data and locally observed emission factors were utilized to estimate crop residue open burning emissions at provincial level. Then pollutants emissions were allocated to a high spatial resolution of 10 km × 10 km and a high temporal resolution of 1 day based on the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Fire Product (MOD/MYD14A1). Results show that China's CO emissions have increased by 5.67 times at an annual average rate of 24% from 1.06 Tg in 1990 to 7.06 Tg in 2013; the emissions of CO2, CH4, NMVOCs, N2O, NOx, NH3, SO2, PM2.5, OC, and BC have increased by 595%, 500%, 608%, 584%, 600%, 600%, 543%, 571%, 775%, and 500%, respectively, over the past 24 years. Spatially, the regions with high emissions had been notable expanding over the years, especially in the central eastern districts, the Northeastern of China, and the Sichuan Basin. Strong temporal pattern were observed with the highest emissions in June, followed by March to May and October. This work provides a better understanding of the spatiotemporal representation of agricultural fire emissions in China and can benefit both air quality modeling and management with improved accuracy.

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF THE NATIONAL ACID PRECIPITATION ASSESSMENT PROGRAM (NAPAP) EMISSIONS INVENTORY, 1980: THE FLEXIBLE REGIONAL EMISSIONS DATA SYSTEM (SOFTWARE, ALLOCATION FACTOR FILES, PERIPHERAL DATA FILES)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The package contains documentation of the Flexible Regional Emissions Data System (FREDS) for the 1980 NAPAP Emissions Inventory, FREDS source code, allocation factor files, and peripheral data files. FREDS extracts emissions data, pertinent modeling parameters (e.g., stack heigh...

  3. Development and uncertainty analysis of a high-resolution NH3 emissions inventory and its implications with precipitation over the Pearl River Delta region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, J. Y.; Yin, S. S.; Kang, D. W.; Che, W. W.; Zhong, L. J.

    2012-08-01

    Detailed NH3 emission inventories are important to understand various atmospheric processes, air quality modeling studies, air pollution management, and related environmental and ecological issues. A high-resolution NH3 emission inventory was developed based on state-of-the-science techniques, up-to-date information, and advanced expert knowledge for the Pearl River Delta region, China. To provide model-ready emissions input, this NH3 emissions inventory was spatially allocated to 3 km × 3 km grid cells using source-based spatial surrogates with geographical information system (GIS) technology. For NH3 emissions, 9 source categories and 45 subcategories were identified in this region, and detailed spatial and temporal characteristics were investigated. Results show that livestock is by far the most important NH3 emission source by contributing about 61.7% of the total NH3 emissions in this region, followed by nitrogen fertilizer applications (~23.7%) and non-agricultural sources (~14.6%). Uncertainty analysis reveals that the uncertainties associated with different sources vary from source to source and the magnitude of the uncertainty associated with a specific source mainly depends on the degree of accuracy of the emission factors and activity data as well as the technique used to perform the estimate. Further studies should give priority to the hog, broiler, goose subsectors of the livestock source and N fertilizer application source in order to reduce uncertainties of ammonia emission estimates in this region. The validity of the NH3 emissions inventory is justified by the trend analysis of local precipitation compositions, such as pH values, the Ca2++NH4+/SO42-+ NO3- ratios, and NH4+ concentrations which are directly or indirectly related to NH3 emissions.

  4. 2006 LANL Radionuclide Air Emissions Report

    SciTech Connect

    David P. Fuehne

    2007-06-30

    This report describes the impacts from emissions of radionuclides at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for calendar year 2006. This report fulfills the requirements established by the Radionuclide National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (Rad-NESHAP). This report is prepared by LANL's Rad-NESHAP compliance team, part of the Environmental Protection Division. The information in this report is required under the Clean Air Act and is being reported to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to an off-site member of the public was calculated using procedures specified by the EPA and described in this report. LANL's EDE was 0.47 mrem for 2006. The annual limit established by the EPA is 10 mrem per year. During calendar year 2006, LANL continuously monitored radionuclide emissions at 28 release points, or stacks. The Laboratory estimates emissions from an additional 58 release points using radionuclide usage source terms. Also, LANL uses a network of air samplers around the Laboratory perimeter to monitor ambient airborne levels of radionuclides. To provide data for dispersion modeling and dose assessment, LANL maintains and operates meteorological monitoring systems. From these measurement systems, a comprehensive evaluation is conducted to calculate the EDE for the Laboratory. The EDE is evaluated as any member of the public at any off-site location where there is a residence, school, business, or office. In 2006, this location was the Los Alamos Airport Terminal. The majority of this dose is due to ambient air sampling of plutonium emitted from 2006 clean-up activities at an environmental restoration site (73-002-99; ash pile). Doses reported to the EPA for the past 10 years are shown in Table E1.

  5. A refined 2010-based VOC emission inventory and its improvement on modeling regional ozone in the Pearl River Delta Region, China.

    PubMed

    Yin, Shasha; Zheng, Junyu; Lu, Qing; Yuan, Zibing; Huang, Zhijiong; Zhong, Liuju; Lin, Hui

    2015-05-01

    Accurate and gridded VOC emission inventories are important for improving regional air quality model performance. In this study, a four-level VOC emission source categorization system was proposed. A 2010-based gridded Pearl River Delta (PRD) regional VOC emission inventory was developed with more comprehensive source coverage, latest emission factors, and updated activity data. The total anthropogenic VOC emission was estimated to be about 117.4 × 10(4)t, in which on-road mobile source shared the largest contribution, followed by industrial solvent use and industrial processes sources. Among the industrial solvent use source, furniture manufacturing and shoemaking were major VOC emission contributors. The spatial surrogates of VOC emission were updated for major VOC sources such as industrial sectors and gas stations. Subsector-based temporal characteristics were investigated and their temporal variations were characterized. The impacts of updated VOC emission estimates and spatial surrogates were evaluated by modeling O₃ concentration in the PRD region in the July and October of 2010, respectively. The results indicated that both updated emission estimates and spatial allocations can effectively reduce model bias on O₃ simulation. Further efforts should be made on the refinement of source classification, comprehensive collection of activity data, and spatial-temporal surrogates in order to reduce uncertainty in emission inventory and improve model performance. PMID:25687669

  6. Development of emission factors and emission inventories for motorcycles and light duty vehicles in the urban region in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Tung, H D; Tong, H Y; Hung, W T; Anh, N T N

    2011-06-15

    This paper reports on a 2-year emissions monitoring program launched by the Centre for Environmental Monitoring of the Vietnam Environment Administration which aimed at determining emission factors and emission inventories for two typical types of vehicle in Hanoi, Vietnam. The program involves four major activities. A database for motorcycles and light duty vehicles (LDV) in Hanoi was first compiled through a questionnaire survey. Then, two typical driving cycles were developed for the first time for motorcycles and LDVs in Hanoi. Based on this database and the developed driving cycles for Hanoi, a sample of 12 representative test vehicles were selected to determine vehicle specific fuel consumption and emission factors (CO, HC, NOx and CO(2)). This set of emission factors were developed for the first time in Hanoi with due considerations of local driving characteristics. In particular, it was found that the emission factors derived from Economic Commission for Europe (ECE) driving cycles and adopted in some previous studies were generally overestimated. Eventually, emission inventories for motorcycles and LDVs were derived by combining the vehicle population data, the developed vehicle specific emission factors and vehicle kilometre travelled (VKT) information from the survey. The inventory suggested that motorcycles contributed most to CO, HC and NOx emissions while LDVs appeared to be more fuel consuming. PMID:21549413

  7. Development of a stationary carbon emission inventory for Shanghai using pollution source census data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xianzhe; Jiang, Ping; Zhang, Yan; Ma, Weichun

    2016-03-01

    This study utilizes 521,631 activity data points from the 2007 Shanghai Pollution Source Census to compile a stationary carbon emission inventory for Shanghai. The inventory generated from our dataset shows that a large portion of Shanghai's total energy use consists of coal-oriented energy consumption. The electricity and heat production industries, iron and steel mills, and the petroleum refining industry are the main carbon emitters. In addition, most of these industries are located in Baoshan District, which is Shanghai's largest contributor of carbon emissions. Policy makers can use the enterpriselevel carbon emission inventory and the method designed in this study to construct sound carbon emission reduction policies. The carbon trading scheme to be established in Shanghai based on the developed carbon inventory is also introduced in this paper with the aim of promoting the monitoring, reporting and verification of carbon trading. Moreover, we believe that it might be useful to consider the participation of industries, such as those for food processing, beverage, and tobacco, in Shanghai's carbon trading scheme. Based on the results contained herein, we recommend establishing a comprehensive carbon emission inventory by inputting data from the pollution source census used in this study.

  8. An approach for verifying biogenic greenhouse gas emissions inventories with atmospheric CO 2 concentration data

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ogle, Stephen; Davis, Kenneth J.; Lauvaux, Thomas; Schuh, Andrew E.; Cooley, Dan; West, Tristram O.; Heath, L.; Miles, Natasha; Richardson, S. J.; Breidt, F. Jay; et al

    2015-03-10

    Verifying national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions inventories is a critical step to ensure that reported emissions data to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) are accurate and representative of a country’s contribution to GHG concentrations in the atmosphere. Verification could include a variety of evidence, but arguably the most convincing verification would be confirmation of a change in GHG concentrations in the atmosphere that is consistent with reported emissions to the UNFCCC. We report here on a case study evaluating this option based on a prototype atmospheric CO2 measurement network deployed in the Mid-Continent Region of themore » conterminous United States. We found that the atmospheric CO2 measurement data did verify the accuracy of the emissions inventory within the confidence limits of the emissions estimates, suggesting that this technology could be further developed and deployed more widely in the future for verifying reported emissions.« less

  9. Ammonia emissions in Europe, part I: Development of a dynamical ammonia emission inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backes, Anna; Aulinger, Armin; Bieser, Johannes; Matthias, Volker; Quante, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Nitrogen input from agricultural ammonia emissions into the environment causes numerous environmental and health problems. The purpose of this study is to present and evaluate an improved ammonia emission inventory based on a dynamical temporal parameterization suitable to compare and assess ammonia abatement strategies. The setup of the dynamical time profile (DTP) consists of individual temporal profiles for ammonia emissions, calculated for each model grid cell, depending on temperature, crop type, fertilizer and manure application, as well as on local legislation. It is based on the method of Skjøth et al., 2004 and Gyldenkærne et al., 2005. The method has been modified to cover the study area and to improve the performance of the emission model. To compare the results of the dynamical approach with the results of the static time profile (STP) the ammonia emission parameterizations have been implemented in the SMOKE for Europe emission model. Furthermore, the influence on secondary aerosol formation in the North Sea region and possible changes triggered through the use of a modified temporal distribution of ammonia emissions were analysed with the CMAQ chemistry transport model. The results were evaluated with observations of the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP). The correlation coefficient of NH3 improved significantly for 12 out of 16 EMEP measurement stations and an improvement in predicting the Normalized Mean Error can be seen for particulate NH4+ and NO3-. The prediction of the 95th percentile of the daily average concentrations has improved for NH3, NH4+ and NO3-. The NH3 concentration modelled with the STP is 157% higher in winter, and about 22% lower in early summer than the one modelled with the new DTP. Consequently, the influence of the DTP on the formation of secondary aerosols is particularly noticeable in winter, when the PM2.5 concentration is 25% lower in comparison to the use of STP for temporal disaggregation. Besides

  10. Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Wahl, Linnea; Wahl, Linnea

    2008-06-13

    Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) radioactive air emission regulations in Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H (EPA 1989). The EPA regulates radionuclide emissions that may be released from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or that may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2007, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor stack or building emissions sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]), there were no diffuse emissions, and there were no unplanned emissions. Emissions from minor sources either were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities received for use or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, Version 3.0, to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The effective dose equivalent from all sources at Berkeley Lab in 2007 is 1.2 x 10{sup -2} mrem/yr (1.2 x 10{sup -4} mSv/yr) to the MEI, well below the 10 mrem/yr (0.1 mSv/yr) EPA dose standard. The location of the MEI is at the University of California (UC) Lawrence Hall of Science, a public science museum about 1500 ft (460 m) east of Berkeley Lab's Building 56. The estimated collective effective dose equivalent to persons living within 50 mi (80 km) of Berkeley Lab is 3.1 x 10{sup -1} person-rem (3.1 x 10{sup -3} person-Sv) attributable to the Lab's airborne emissions in 2007.

  11. NICKEL SPECIES EMISSION INVENTORY FOR OIL-FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin C. Galbreath; Richard L. Schulz; Donald L. Toman; Carolyn M. Nyberg

    2004-01-01

    to EPA's Ni inhalation cancer risk assessment (''Study of Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions from Electric Utility Steam Generating Units--Final Report to Congress'', February 1998), where it is assumed that the Ni compound mixture emitted from oil-fired utilities is 50% as carcinogenic as Ni{sub 3}S{sub 2}. Apparently, this assumption greatly overestimates the Ni inhalation cancer risk from oil-fired utilities.

  12. A Global inventory of volatile organic compound emissions from anthropogenic sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccot, Stephen D.; Watson, Joel J.; Jones, Julian W.

    1992-06-01

    As part of an effort to assess the potential impacts associated with global climate change, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Research and Development is supporting global atmospheric chemistry research by developing global scale estimates of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions (excluding methane). Atmospheric chemistry models require, as one input, an emissions inventory of VOCs. Consequently, a global inventory of anthropogenic VOC emissions has been developed. The inventory includes VOC estimates for seven classes of VOCs: paraffins, olefins, aromatics (benzene, toluene, xylene), formaldehyde, other aldehydes, other aromatics, and marginally reactive compounds. These classes represent general classes of VOC compounds which possess different chemical reactivities in the atmosphere. The technical approach used to develop this inventory involved four major steps. The first step was to identify the major anthropogenic sources of VOC emissions in the United States and to group these sources into 28 general source groups. Source groups were developed to represent general categories such as "sources associated with oil and natural gas production" and more specific categories such as savanna buming. Emission factors for these source groups were then developed using different techniques and data bases. For example, emission factors for oil and natural gas production were estimated by dividing the United States' emissions from oil and gas production operations by the amount of oil and natural gas produced in the United States. Multiplication of these emission factors by production/consumption statistics for other countries yielded global VOC emission estimates for specific source groups within those countries. The final step in development of the VOC inventory was to distribute emissions into 10° by 10° grid cells using detailed maps of population and industrial activity. The results of this study show total global anthropogenic VOC emissions of

  13. Quantifying Uncontrolled Air Emissions from Two Florida Landfills

    EPA Science Inventory

    Landfill gas emissions, if left uncontrolled, contribute to air toxics, climate change, trospospheric ozone, and urban smog. Measuring emissions from landfills presents unique challenges due to the large and variable source area, spatial and temporal variability of emissions, and...

  14. OFFICE EQUIPMENT: DESIGN, INDOOR AIR EMISSIONS, AND POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes available information on office equipment design; indoor air emissions of organics, ozone, and particulates from office equipment; and pollution prevention approaches for reducing these emissions. Since much of the existing emissions data from office equipme...

  15. Contribution of area sources to hazardous air pollutant emissions in three urban areas. Report for November 1992-October 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, J.W.; Campbell, D.L.

    1995-04-01

    The paper discusses the contribution of area sources to hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions in three urban areas--Baltimore, Chicago, and Seattle-Tacoma (Puget Sound). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has implemented the Urban Area Source Program (UASP) required until Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA). The HAPs emitted in the greatest quantities in these area source inventories are from degreasing and dry cleaning. Another important source category is fossil fuel combustion. The best approach to use in developing a HAP area source emissions inventory may be to combine the top-down method with local surveys of small manufacturing facilities and service industies.

  16. Temporalization of Electric Generation Emissions for Improved Representation of Peak Air Quality Episodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farkas, C. M.; Moeller, M.; Carlton, A. G.

    2013-12-01

    Photochemical transport models routinely under predict peak air quality events. This deficiency may be due, in part, to inadequate temporalization of emissions from the electric generating sector. The National Emissions Inventory (NEI) reports emissions from Electric Generating Units (EGUs) by either Continuous Emission Monitors (CEMs) that report hourly values or as an annual total. The Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions preprocessor (SMOKE), used to prepare emissions data for modeling with the CMAQ air quality model, allocates annual emission totals throughout the year using specific monthly, weekly, and hourly weights according to standard classification code (SCC) and location. This approach represents average diurnal and seasonal patterns of electricity generation but does not capture spikes in emissions due to episodic use as with peaking units or due to extreme weather events. In this project we use a combination of state air quality permits, CEM data, and EPA emission factors to more accurately temporalize emissions of NOx, SO2 and particulate matter (PM) during the extensive heat wave of July and August 2006. Two CMAQ simulations are conducted; the first with the base NEI emissions and the second with improved temporalization, more representative of actual emissions during the heat wave. Predictions from both simulations are evaluated with O3 and PM measurement data from EPA's National Air Monitoring Stations (NAMS) and State and Local Air Monitoring Stations (SLAMS) during the heat wave, for which ambient concentrations of criteria pollutants were often above NAAQS. During periods of increased photochemistry and high pollutant concentrations, it is critical that emissions are most accurately represented in air quality models.

  17. Regional air quality impacts of future fire emissions in Sumatra and Kalimantan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marlier, Miriam E.; DeFries, Ruth S.; Kim, Patrick S.; Gaveau, David L. A.; Koplitz, Shannon N.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Mickley, Loretta J.; Margono, Belinda A.; Myers, Samuel S.

    2015-05-01

    Fire emissions associated with land cover change and land management contribute to the concentrations of atmospheric pollutants, which can affect regional air quality and climate. Mitigating these impacts requires a comprehensive understanding of the relationship between fires and different land cover change trajectories and land management strategies. We develop future fire emissions inventories from 2010-2030 for Sumatra and Kalimantan (Indonesian Borneo) to assess the impact of varying levels of forest and peatland conservation on air quality in Equatorial Asia. To compile these inventories, we combine detailed land cover information from published maps of forest extent, satellite fire radiative power observations, fire emissions from the Global Fire Emissions Database, and spatially explicit future land cover projections using a land cover change model. We apply the sensitivities of mean smoke concentrations to Indonesian fire emissions, calculated by the GEOS-Chem adjoint model, to our scenario-based future fire emissions inventories to quantify the different impacts of fires on surface air quality across Equatorial Asia. We find that public health impacts are highly sensitive to the location of fires, with emissions from Sumatra contributing more to smoke concentrations at population centers across the region than Kalimantan, which had higher emissions by more than a factor of two. Compared to business-as-usual projections, protecting peatlands from fires reduces smoke concentrations in the cities of Singapore and Palembang by 70% and 40%, and by 60% for the Equatorial Asian region, weighted by the population in each grid cell. Our results indicate the importance of focusing conservation priorities on protecting both forested (intact or logged) peatlands and non-forested peatlands from fire, even after considering potential leakage of deforestation pressure to other areas, in order to limit the impact of fire emissions on atmospheric smoke concentrations and

  18. VOC RADIOCARBON MEASUREMENTS DURING SCOS97 AND EMISSIONS INVENTORY VALIDATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Radiocarbon (14C) measurements provide an estimate of the fraction of carbon in a sample that is biogenic. In September 1997 during SCOS97 a series of 3-h canister samples of ambient air were collected at the Azusa air monitoring station during morning and afternoon periods. ...

  19. Development of an organic vapor emission inventory for polyester resin/fiberglass fabrication processes in California

    SciTech Connect

    Rogozen, M.B.

    1982-01-01

    The production of reinforced plastics through the combination of polyester resin/styrene mixtures and glass fibers results in the release of significant uncontrolled organic vapor emissions. Because styrene and other compounds used as cross-linking agents in polyester resin are photochemically reactive, there is concern that their release may contribute to oxidant formation. An attempt has been made to locate and characterize as many sources of polyester resin/fiberglass process emissions in California as possible. An emission inventory based upon more realistic emission factors has been established. The technology for controlling organic vapor emissions from this industry has been reviewed. 12 references, 5 figures, 3 tables.

  20. Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Wahl, Linnea

    2009-05-21

    Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) radioactive air emission regulations in Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H (EPA 1989). Radionuclides may be emitted from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or they may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2008, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]). These minor sources include more than 100 stack sources and one source of diffuse emissions. There were no unplanned emissions from the Berkeley Lab site. Emissions from minor sources (stacks and diffuse emissions) either were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities used, received for use, or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The effective dose equivalent from all sources at Berkeley Lab in 2008 is 5.2 x 10{sup -3} mrem/yr (5.2 x 10{sup -5} mSv/yr) to the MEI, well below the 10 mrem/yr (0.1 mSv/yr) dose standard. The location of the MEI is at the University of California (UC) Lawrence Hall of Science, a public science museum about 1500 ft (460 m) east of Berkeley Lab's Building 56. The estimated collective effective dose equivalent to persons living within 50 mi (80 km) of Berkeley Lab is 1.1 x 10{sup -1} person-rem (1.1 x 10{sup -3} person-Sv) attributable to the Lab's airborne emissions in 2008.

  1. Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Wahl, Linnea

    2010-06-01

    Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the EPA radioactive air emission regulations in 40CFR61, Subpart H (EPA 1989). Radionuclides may be emitted from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or they may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2009, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]). These minor sources included more than 100 stack sources and one source of diffuse emissions. There were no unplanned emissions from the Berkeley Lab site. Emissions from minor sources (stacks and diffuse emissions) either were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities used, received for use, or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The effective dose equivalent from all sources at Berkeley Lab in 2009 is 7.0 x 10{sup -3} mrem/yr (7.0 x 10{sup -5} mSv/yr) to the MEI, well below the 10 mrem/yr (0.1 mSv/yr) dose standard. The location of the MEI is at the University of California (UC) Lawrence Hall of Science, a public science museum about 1500 ft (460 m) east of Berkeley Lab's Building 56. The estimated collective effective dose equivalent to persons living within 50 mi (80 km) of Berkeley Lab is 1.5 x 10{sup -1} person-rem (1.5 x 10{sup -3} person-Sv) attributable to the Lab's airborne emissions in 2009.

  2. Hydrogen/Air Fuel Nozzle Emissions Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Timothy D.

    2001-01-01

    The use of hydrogen combustion for aircraft gas turbine engines provides significant opportunities to reduce harmful exhaust emissions. Hydrogen has many advantages (no CO2 production, high reaction rates, high heating value, and future availability), along with some disadvantages (high current cost of production and storage, high volume per BTU, and an unknown safety profile when in wide use). One of the primary reasons for switching to hydrogen is the elimination of CO2 emissions. Also, with hydrogen, design challenges such as fuel coking in the fuel nozzle and particulate emissions are no longer an issue. However, because it takes place at high temperatures, hydrogen-air combustion can still produce significant levels of NOx emissions. Much of the current research into conventional hydrocarbon-fueled aircraft gas turbine combustors is focused on NOx reduction methods. The Zero CO2 Emission Technology (ZCET) hydrogen combustion project will focus on meeting the Office of Aerospace Technology goal 2 within pillar one for Global Civil Aviation reducing the emissions of future aircraft by a factor of 3 within 10 years and by a factor of 5 within 25 years. Recent advances in hydrocarbon-based gas turbine combustion components have expanded the horizons for fuel nozzle development. Both new fluid designs and manufacturing technologies have led to the development of fuel nozzles that significantly reduce aircraft emissions. The goal of the ZCET program is to mesh the current technology of Lean Direct Injection and rocket injectors to provide quick mixing, low emissions, and high-performance fuel nozzle designs. An experimental program is planned to investigate the fuel nozzle concepts in a flametube test rig. Currently, a hydrogen system is being installed in cell 23 at NASA Glenn Research Center's Research Combustion Laboratory. Testing will be conducted on a variety of fuel nozzle concepts up to combustion pressures of 350 psia and inlet air temperatures of 1200 F

  3. Inventory of nitrogen oxide emissions derived from space-based observations of NO2 columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, R. V.; Jacob, D. J.; Chance, K. V.; Kurosu, T. P.; Palmer, P. I.; Evans, M. J.

    2003-04-01

    Nitrogen oxide radicals (NO_x = NO + NO_2) largely control tropospheric ozone production. We construct a global inventory of nitrogen oxide emissions using top-down information from our retrieval of tropospheric NO_2 columns (1996--97) from the European Space Agency's Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) satellite instrument. We combine the top-down information with an a priori bottom-up inventory (based on the Global Emission Inventory Activity (GEIA) and scaled to 1996--97) weighted by relative errors in the top-down and bottom-up sources. We calculate the local relationship between NO_2 columns and NO_x emissions with a global 3-D model of tropospheric chemistry (GEOS-CHEM) that uses the a priori inventory. Monthly mean top-down errors in NO_x emissions of 50% at 2^ox2.5^o resolution are comparable to bottom-up errors over industrial regions and much better elsewhere. A posteriori errors are about half of a priori errors. Global annual land surface NO_x emissions for the a priori, an independent inventory (EDGAR 3.0), and the a posteriori are 36.4, 36.6, and 37.7 Tg N yr-1 respectively. Local a posteriori NO_x emissions suggest underestimates of up to a factor of 2 near Johannesburg, Tehran, and Riyadh, up to 50% for Spain, Tokyo, and the Po Valley of Italy, and 25% for the eastern United States, as well as local overestimates of up to 50% for India and the biomass burning regions of central Africa and Brazil. A posteriori NO_x emissions provide evidence that soil NO_x emissions are underestimated for the western United States, Spain, the Sahel, and the Mediterranean coastal region.

  4. Evaluation of a U.S. National Emissions Inventory of PM2.5 Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reff, A.; Bhave, P.; Zubrow, A.; Rao, V.

    2012-12-01

    This work explores the potential of speciating PM2.5 emissions to evaluate inventories against ambient pollutant measurements. Previously developed (Reff et al., Environ. Sci Technol., 2009, vol. 43, 5790-5796) source profiles of PM2.5 trace elements, carbon, and ions are applied to the U.S. EPA's 2005 National Emissions Inventory (NEI) to create a database of emissions disaggregated by species, source category, location, and time period (annual and monthly). These emissions are then "diluted" to produce projected ambient concentrations, which can be directly compared to measurements from monitoring networks. Dilution is performed by multiplying emissions against ratios of elemental carbon (EC) concentrations to EC emissions from a CMAQ modeling run that employed the same version of the NEI. After emissions dilution and spatial aggregation to the Core-Based Statistical Area (CBSA) level, various statistical and graphical comparisons of ambient measurements to emissions in each of the four dimensions above are then performed to diagnose gross errors in the 2005 PM2.5 NEI. Results are anticpated to be highly useful for developing future versions of the NEI, since they will allow developers to focus their efforts on the regions of the inventory that are most in need of improvement.

  5. Ammonia emissions in tropical biomass burning regions: Comparison between satellite-derived emissions and bottom-up fire inventories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitburn, S.; Van Damme, M.; Kaiser, J. W.; van der Werf, G. R.; Turquety, S.; Hurtmans, D.; Clarisse, L.; Clerbaux, C.; Coheur, P.-F.

    2015-11-01

    Vegetation fires emit large amounts of nitrogen compounds in the atmosphere, including ammonia (NH3). These emissions are still subject to large uncertainties. In this study, we analyze time series of monthly NH3 total columns (molec cm-2) from the IASI sounder on board MetOp-A satellite and their relation with MODIS fire radiative power (MW) measurements. We derive monthly NH3 emissions estimates for four regions accounting for a major part of the total area affected by fires (two in Africa, one in central South America and one in Southeast Asia), using a simplified box model, and we compare them to the emissions from both the GFEDv3.1 and GFASv1.0 biomass burning emission inventories. In order to strengthen the analysis, we perform a similar comparison for carbon monoxide (CO), also measured by IASI and for which the emission factors used in the inventories to convert biomass burned to trace gas emissions are thought to be more reliable. In general, a good correspondence between NH3 and CO columns and the FRP is found, especially for regions in central South America with correlation coefficients of 0.82 and 0.66, respectively. The comparison with the two biomass burning emission inventories GFASv1.0 and GFEDv3.1 shows good agreements, particularly in the time of the maximum of emissions for the central South America region and in the magnitude for the region of Africa south of the equator. We find evidence of significant non-pyrogenic emissions for the regions of Africa north of the equator (for NH3) and Southeast Asia (for NH3 and CO). On a yearly basis, total emissions calculated from IASI measurements for the four regions reproduce fairly well the interannual variability from the GFEDv3.1 and GFASv1.0 emissions inventories for NH3 but show values about 1.5-2 times higher than emissions given by the two biomass burning emission inventories, even when assuming a fairly long lifetime of 36 h for that species.

  6. A spatial ammonia emission inventory for pig farming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebolledo, Boris; Gil, Antonia; Pallarés, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Atmospheric emissions of ammonia (NH3) from the agricultural sector have become a significant environmental and public concern as they have impacts on human health and ecosystems. This work proposes an improved methodology in order to identify administrative regions with high NH3 emissions from pig farming and calculates an ammonia density map (kg NH3-N ha-1), based on the number of pigs and available agricultural land, terrain slopes, groundwater bodies, soil permeability, zones sensitive to nitrate pollution and surface water buffer zones. The methodology has been used to construct a general tool for locating ammonia emissions from pig farming when detailed information of livestock farms is not available.

  7. Modelling the impacts of ammonia emissions reductions on North American air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makar, P. A.; Moran, M. D.; Zheng, Q.; Cousineau, S.; Sassi, M.; Duhamel, A.; Besner, M.; Davignon, D.; Crevier, L.-P.; Bouchet, V. S.

    2009-09-01

    A unified regional air-quality modelling system (AURAMS) was used to investigate the effects of reductions in ammonia emissions on regional air quality, with a focus on particulate-matter formation. Three simulations of one-year duration were performed for a North American domain: (1) a base-case simulation using 2002 Canadian and US national emissions inventories augmented by a more detailed Canadian emissions inventory for agricultural ammonia; (2) a 30% North-American-wide reduction in agricultural ammonia emissions; and (3) a 50% reduction in Canadian beef-cattle ammonia emissions. The simulations show that a 30% continent-wide reduction in agricultural ammonia emissions lead to reductions in median hourly PM2.5 mass of <1 μg m-3 on an annual basis. The atmospheric response to these emission reductions displays marked seasonal variations, and on even shorter time scales, the impacts of the emissions reductions are highly episodic: 95th-percentile hourly PM2.5 mass decreases can be up to a factor of six larger than the median values. A key finding of the modelling work is the linkage between gas and aqueous chemistry and transport; reductions in ammonia emissions affect gaseous ammonia concentrations close to the emissions site, but substantial impacts on particulate matter and atmospheric deposition often occur at considerable distances downwind, with particle nitrate being the main vector of ammonia/um transport. Ammonia emissions reductions therefore have trans-boundary consequences downwind. Calculations of critical-load exceedances for sensitive ecosystems in Canada suggest that ammonia emission reductions will have a minimal impact on current ecosystem acidification within Canada, but may have a substantial impact on future ecosystem acidification. The 50% Canadian beef-cattle ammonia emissions reduction scenario was used to examine model sensitivity to uncertainties in the new Canadian agricultural ammonia emissions inventory, and the simulation results

  8. Surveys of Microwave Emission from Air Showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuramoto, Kazuyuki; Ogio, Shoichi; Iijima, Takashi; Yamamoto, Tokonatsu

    2011-09-01

    A possibility of detection of microwave molecular bremsstrahlung radiation from Extensive Air Showers was reported by AMBER group [1] [2]. This method has a potential to provide a high duty cycle and a new technique for measuring longitudinal profile of EAS. To survey this microwave emission from EAS, we built prototype detectors using parabolic antenna dishes for broadcasting satellites, and we are operating detectors with a small EAS array at Osaka City Univercity. Here, we report our detector configurations and the current experimental status.

  9. Evaluating Radionuclide Air Emission Stack Sampling Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.

    2002-12-16

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) operates a number of research and development (R&D) facilities for the U.S. Department of Energy at the Hanford Site, Washington. These facilities are subject to Clean Air Act regulations that require sampling of radionuclide air emissions from some of these facilities. A revision to an American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standard on sampling radioactive air emissions has recently been incorporated into federal and state regulations and a re-evaluation of affected facilities is being performed to determine the impact. The revised standard requires a well-mixed sampling location that must be demonstrated through tests specified in the standard. It also carries a number of maintenance requirements, including inspections and cleaning of the sampling system. Evaluations were performed in 2000 – 2002 on two PNNL facilities to determine the operational and design impacts of the new requirements. The evaluation included inspection and cleaning maintenance activities plus testing to determine if the current sampling locations meet criteria in the revised standard. Results show a wide range of complexity in inspection and cleaning activities depending on accessibility of the system, ease of removal, and potential impact on building operations (need for outages). As expected, these High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA)-filtered systems did not show deposition significant enough to cause concerns with blocking of the nozzle or other parts of the system. The tests for sampling system location in the revised standard also varied in complexity depending on accessibility of the sample site and use of a scale model can alleviate many issues. Previous criteria to locate sampling systems at eight duct diameters downstream and two duct diameters upstream of the nearest disturbances is no guarantee of meeting criteria in the revised standard. A computational fluid dynamics model was helpful in understanding flow and

  10. Validation of the Swiss methane emission inventory by atmospheric observations and inverse modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henne, S.; Brunner, D.; Oney, B.; Leuenberger, M.; Eugster, W.; Bamberger, I.; Meinhardt, F.; Steinbacher, M.; Emmenegger, L.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric inverse modelling has the potential to provide observation-based estimates of greenhouse gas emissions at the country scale, thereby allowing for an independent validation of national emission inventories. Here, we present a regional scale inverse modelling study to quantify the emissions of methane (CH4) from Switzerland, making use of the newly established CarboCount-CH measurement network and a high resolution Lagrangian transport model. Overall we estimate national CH4 emissions to be 196 ± 18 Gg yr-1 for the year 2013 (1σ uncertainty). This result is in close agreement with the recently revised "bottom-up" estimate of 206 ± 33 Gg yr-1 published by the Swiss Federal Office for the Environment as part of the Swiss Greenhouse Gas Inventory (SGHGI). Results from sensitivity inversions using alternative prior emissions, covariance settings, baseline treatments, two different inverse algorithms (Bayesian and extended Kalman Filter), and two different transport models confirms the robustness and independent character of our estimate. According to the latest "bottom-up" inventory the main CH4 source categories in Switzerland are agriculture (78 %), waste handling (15 %) and natural gas distribution and combustion (6 %). The spatial distribution and seasonal variability of our posterior emissions suggest an overestimation of agricultural CH4 emissions by 10 to 20 % in the most recent national inventory, which is likely due to an overestimation of emissions from manure handling. Urban areas do not appear as emission hotspots in our posterior results suggesting that leakages from natural gas disribution are only a minor source of CH4 in Switzerland. This is consistent with rather low emissions of 8.4 Gg yr-1 reported by the SGHGI but inconsistent with the much higher value of 32 Gg yr-1 implied by the EDGARv4.2 inventory for this sector. Increased CH4 emissions (up to 30 % compared to the prior) were deduced for the north-eastern parts of Switzerland. This

  11. Emissions Inventory Report Summary: Reporting Requirements for the New Mexico Administrative Code, Title 20, Chapter 2, Part 73 (20 NMAC 2.73) for Calendar Year 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Margorie Stockton

    2003-04-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is subject to annual emissions-reporting requirements for regulated air contaminants under Title 20 of the New Mexico Administrative Code, Chapter 2, Part 73 (20.2.73 NMAC), Notice of Intent and Emissions Inventory Requirements. The applicability of the requirements is based on the Laboratory's potential to emit 100 tons per year of suspended particulate matter, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, or volatile organic compounds. For calendar year 2001, the Technical Area 3 steam plant was the primary source of criteria air pollutants from the Laboratory, while research and development activities were the primary source of volatile organic compounds. Emissions of beryllium and aluminum were reported for activities permitted under 20.2.72 NMAC. Hazardous air pollutant emissions from chemical use for research and development activities were also reported.

  12. Emissions inventory of anthropogenic PM 2.5 and PM 10 in Delhi during Commonwealth Games 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, Saroj Kumar; Beig, Gufran; Parkhi, Neha S.

    2011-11-01

    As part of the System of Air quality Forecasting and Research (SAFAR) project developed for air quality forecasting during the Commonwealth Games (CWG) - 2010, a high resolution Emission Inventory (EI) of PM 10 and PM 2.5 has been developed for the metropolitan city Delhi for the year 2010. The comprehensive inventory involves detailed activity data and developed for a domain of 70 km × 65 km with a 1.67 km × 1.67 km resolution covering Delhi and surrounding region using Geographical Information System (GIS) technique. The major sectors considered are, transport, thermal power plants, industries, residential and commercial cooking along with windblown road dust which is found to play a major role for Delhi environment. It has been found that total emissions of PM 10 and PM 2.5 including wind blown dust over the study area are found to be 236 Gg yr -1 and 94 Gg yr -1 respectively. The contribution of windblown road dust is found to be as high as 131 Gg yr -1 for PM 10.

  13. Use of Historical Measurements to Constrain a Black Carbon Emission Inventory of the United States from 1960s to 2000s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, T.; Bond, T. C.; Liu, L.; Flanner, M.; Kirchstetter, T.; Jiao, C.; Preble, C.; Chang, W.

    2015-12-01

    We use historical coefficient of haze measurements in California and New Jersey to evaluate and constrain a black carbon (BC) emission inventory for the period 1960-2000. We estimate the relationship between emissions and ambient air concentrations of BC using the Community Atmosphere Model to create source-receptor that allow reconstruction of ambient, time-varying concentrations. We adjust this matrix to account for errors in modeled mixing height with observations. We also apply Heating Degree Days (HDD) data to estimate seasonal variation in emissions. However, HDDs do not fully explain the seasonal variation trend of the measurement. The emission inventory used in this work is based on U.S. Energy Information Administration fuel use data published in 2010. We calculate BC emissions with Speciated Pollutant Emissions Wizard (SPEW). Modifications to previous work include use of the SPEW-Trend vehicle fleet model to compute vehicle emissions, incorporating parameters of vehicle type, age, retirement rate, and the number of superemitters. Analyzing the discrepancy between reconstructed and measured BC concentrations of California and New Jersey identifies potential errors in historical emissions. Acknowledging the resolution difference between the reconstructed concentrations based on global model simulation and the urban measurements, we rely more on the discrepancies in trends than in absolute discrepancies. Although the observations decreased throughout this time period, the reconstructed concentrations peaked in the 1980s. Fuel use and emission factors for specific technologies and sectors in the BC emission inventory are analyzed to isolate those sectors most likely to cause the discrepancy. The modified emission inventory for the period 1960-2000 is presented.

  14. Assessment of Biogenic Terpenoid Emission Inventories in Asia using Remotely Sensed Spatial and Temporal Surrogate Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H. K.; Woo, J. H.; Choi, K. C.; Lee, Y. M.; Kim, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Among biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) species, the most comprehensively studied species are isoprene and monoterpene (terpenoid) due to their significant impacts on global and regional total VOC emission budget and ozone and aerosol formation mechanisms. Biogenic terpenoid emission inventories have been often assessed on a global basis and consistently available on model grid system units to support climate and chemical transport modeling. However, little of these have been assessed based on the political units such as countries and provinces. On the basis of political boundaries in Asia, we assembled and compared a large number of terpenoid emission estimates including currently published or reported sources. We assessed these terpenoid emission estimates in the context of the spatial and temporal consistency. Since the biogenic terpenoid emission inventories commonly use leaf biomass density, solar radiation and temperature as driving variables, we used the MODIS Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and Land Surface Temperature (LST) datasets as surrogates to correlate with the terpenoid emission estimates in Asia. Based on our current assessment, we will discuss about the current status of the biogenic terpenoid emission inventories in Asia.

  15. Monte Carlo analysis of uncertainties in the Netherlands greenhouse gas emission inventory for 1990-2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez, Andrea; de Keizer, Corry; Van der Sluijs, Jeroen P.; Olivier, Jos; Brandes, Laurens

    This paper presents an assessment of the value added of a Monte Carlo analysis of the uncertainties in the Netherlands inventory of greenhouse gases over a Tier 1 analysis. It also examines which parameters contributed the most to the total emission uncertainty and identified areas of high priority for the further improvement of the accuracy and quality of the inventory. The Monte Carlo analysis resulted in an uncertainty range in total GHG emissions of 4.1% in 2004 and 5.4% in 1990 (with LUCF) and 5.3% (in 1990) and 3.9% (in 2004) for GHG emissions without LUCF. Uncertainty in the trend was estimated at 4.5%. The values are in the same order of magnitude as those estimated in the Tier 1. The results show that accounting for correlation among parameters is important, and for the Netherlands inventory it has a larger impact on the uncertainty in the trend than on the uncertainty in the total GHG emissions. The main contributors to overall uncertainty are found to be related to N 2O emissions from agricultural soils, the N 2O implied emission factors of Nitric Acid Production, CH 4 from managed solid waste disposal on land, and the implied emission factor of CH 4 from manure management from cattle.

  16. Influence of future anthropogenic emissions on climate, natural emissions, and air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, Mark Z.; Streets, David G.

    2009-04-01

    This study examines the effects of future anthropogenic emissions on climate, and the resulting feedback to natural emissions and air quality. Speciated sector- and region-specific 2030 emission factors were developed to produce gas and particle emission inventories that followed Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES) A1B and B1 emission trajectories. Current and future climate model simulations were run, in which anthropogenic emission changes affected climate, which fed back to natural emissions from lightning (NO, NO2, HONO, HNO3, N2O, H2O2, HO2, CO), soils (dust, bacteria, NO, N2O, H2, CH4, H2S, DMS, OCS, CS2), the ocean (bacteria, sea spray, DMS, N2O, H2, CH4), vegetation (pollen, spores, isoprene, monoterpenes, methanol, other VOCs), and photosynthesis/respiration. New methods were derived to calculate lightning flash rates as a function of size-resolved collisions and other physical principles and pollen, spore, and bacteria emissions. Although the B1 scenario was "cleaner" than the A1B scenario, global warming increased more in the B1 scenario because much A1B warming was masked by additional reflective aerosol particles. Thus neither scenario is entirely beneficial from a climate and health perspective, and the best control measure is to reduce warming gases and warming/cooling particles together. Lightning emissions declined by ˜3% in the B1 scenario and ˜12% in the A1B scenario as the number of ice crystals, thus charge-separating bounceoffs, decreased. Net primary production increased by ˜2% in both scenarios. Emissions of isoprene and monoterpenes increased by ˜1% in the A1B scenario and 4-5% in the B1 scenario. Near-surface ozone increased by ˜14% in the A1B scenario and ˜4% in the B1 scenario, reducing ambient isoprene in the latter case. Gases from soils increased in both scenarios due to higher temperatures. Near-surface PM2.5 mass increased by ˜2% in the A1B scenario and decreased by ˜2% in the B1 scenario. The resulting 1.4% higher

  17. Ozone formation potentials of organic compounds from different emission sources in the South Coast Air Basin of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jianjun; Luo, Dongmin

    2012-08-01

    Different organic compounds exhibit different propensities for ozone formation. Two approaches were used to study the ozone formation potentials or source reactivities of different anthropogenic organic compounds emission categories in California's South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB). The first approach was based on the combination of total organic gases (TOG) emission speciation profiles and the maximum incremental reactivity (MIR) scale of organic species. The second approach quantified ozone impacts from different emission sources by performing 3-dimensional air quality model sensitivity analysis involving increased TOG emissions from particular sources. The source reactivities derived from these two approaches agree reasonably well for 58 anthropogenic organic compounds emission categories in the SoCAB. Both approaches identify TOG emissions from mobile sources as having the highest reactivity. Source reactivities from both approaches were also combined with TOG emissions from each source category to produce a 2005 reactivity-based anthropogenic TOG emission inventory for the SoCAB. The top five reactivity-based anthropogenic TOG emission sources in the SoCAB during 2005 were: light-duty passenger cars, off-road equipment, consumer products, light-duty trucks category 2 (i.e., 3751-5750 lb), and recreational boats. This is in contrast to the mass-based TOG emission inventory, which indicates that livestock waste and composting emission categories were two of the five largest mass-based anthropogenic TOG emission sources. The reactivity-based TOG emission inventory is an important addition to the mass-based TOG emission inventory because it represents the ozone formation potentials from emission sources and can be used to assist in determining targeted sources for developing organic compounds reduction policies.

  18. Assessment of fire emission inventories during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Gabriel; Siqueira, Ricardo; Rosário, Nilton E.; Longo, Karla L.; Freitas, Saulo R.; Cardozo, Francielle S.; Kaiser, Johannes W.; Wooster, Martin J.

    2016-06-01

    Fires associated with land use and land cover changes release large amounts of aerosols and trace gases into the atmosphere. Although several inventories of biomass burning emissions cover Brazil, there are still considerable uncertainties and differences among them. While most fire emission inventories utilize the parameters of burned area, vegetation fuel load, emission factors, and other parameters to estimate the biomass burned and its associated emissions, several more recent inventories apply an alternative method based on fire radiative power (FRP) observations to estimate the amount of biomass burned and the corresponding emissions of trace gases and aerosols. The Brazilian Biomass Burning Emission Model (3BEM) and the Fire Inventory from NCAR (FINN) are examples of the first, while the Brazilian Biomass Burning Emission Model with FRP assimilation (3BEM_FRP) and the Global Fire Assimilation System (GFAS) are examples of the latter. These four biomass burning emission inventories were used during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) field campaign. This paper analyzes and inter-compared them, focusing on eight regions in Brazil and the time period of 1 September-31 October 2012. Aerosol optical thickness (AOT550 nm) derived from measurements made by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) operating on board the Terra and Aqua satellites is also applied to assess the inventories' consistency. The daily area-averaged pyrogenic carbon monoxide (CO) emission estimates exhibit significant linear correlations (r, p > 0.05 level, Student t test) between 3BEM and FINN and between 3BEM_ FRP and GFAS, with values of 0.86 and 0.85, respectively. These results indicate that emission estimates in this region derived via similar methods tend to agree with one other. However, they differ more from the estimates derived via the alternative approach. The evaluation of MODIS AOT550 nm indicates that model simulation driven by 3BEM and FINN

  19. Eddy Covariance Flux Measurements of Pollutant Gases in the Mexico City Urban Area: a Useful Technique to Evaluate Emissions inventories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasco, E.; Grivicke, R.; Pressley, S.; Allwine, G.; Jobson, T.; Westberg, H.; Lamb, B.; Ramos, R.; Molina, L.

    2007-12-01

    Direct measurements of emissions of pollutant gases that include all major and minor emissions sources in urban areas are a missing requirement to improve and evaluate emissions inventories. The quality of an urban emissions inventory relies on the accuracy of the information of anthropogenic activities, which in many cases is not available, in particular in urban areas of developing countries. As part of the MCMA-2003 field campaign, we demonstrated the feasibility of using eddy covariance (EC) techniques coupled with fast-response sensors to measure fluxes of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and CO2 from a residential district of Mexico City. Those flux measurements demonstrated to be also a valuable tool to evaluate the emissions inventory used for air quality modeling. With the objective to confirm the representativeness of the 2003 flux measurements in terms of magnitude, composition and diurnal distribution, as well to evaluate the most recent emissions inventory, a second flux system was deployed in a different district of Mexico City during the 2006 MILAGRO field campaign. This system was located in a busy district surrounded by congested avenues close to the center of the city. In 2003 and 2006 fluxes of olefins and CO2 were measured by the EC technique using a Fast Isoprene Sensor calibrated with a propylene standard and an open path Infrared Gas Analyzer (IRGA), respectively. Fluxes of aromatic and oxygenated VOCs were analyzed by Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectroscopy (PTR-MS) and the disjunct eddy covariance (DEC) technique. In 2006 the number of VOCs was extended using a disjunct eddy accumulation (DEA) system. This system collected whole air samples as function of the direction of the vertical wind component, and the samples were analyzed on site by gas chromatography / flame ionization detection (GC-FID). In both studies we found that the urban surface is a net source of CO2 and VOCs. The diurnal patterns were similar, but the 2006 fluxes

  20. Municipal solid waste management in Thailand and disposal emission inventory.

    PubMed

    Chiemchaisri, C; Juanga, J P; Visvanathan, C

    2007-12-01

    The increasing municipal solid waste (MSW) generation along with the high fraction of organic waste and a common disposal of open dumping is the current scenario in many areas in Thailand. As a response to this problem, the country's Pollution Control Department (PCD) aims to reduce the MSW generation rate to less than 1 kg/capita/day, increase the collection efficiency, and improve the recovery of recyclables. For many years, more than 60% of the solid waste disposal system in Thailand has been carried out by open dumping. According to the survey conducted by this study, in 2004 there were 425 disposal sites (95 landfills; 330 open dumps) in Thailand and an estimated methane emission of 115.4 Gg/year was generated based on this practice. It has been estimated that the anticipated methane emission in Thailand will rise from 115.4 Gg/year to 118.5 Gg/year if the largest open dumpsites in provinces with no existing landfill are upgraded to sanitary landfill; and it will increase to 193.5 Gg/year if the existing sanitary landfill is upgraded to integrated waste management facilities. Moreover, Bangkok metropolitan have the highest methane emission (54.83 Gg/year) among all the regions in Thailand. The methane emission forecast of 339 Gg/year by 2020 (based on LandGEM methodology) provides a stimulus to create a comprehensive plan to capture and utilize methane as an energy source. PMID:17492361

  1. 40 CFR 62.4622 - Emission inventories, source surveillance, reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... POLLUTANTS Louisiana Plan for Control of Designated Pollutants from Existing Facilities (section 111(d) Plan... limitations or other control measures that are part of the applicable plan. (2) Commencing after the initial... source is in compliance with applicable emission limitations or other control measures that are part...

  2. 40 CFR 52.2036 - Base year emissions inventory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 22, 1996 submittal of the 15 Percent Rate-of-Progress Plan for the Pittsburgh-Beaver Valley ozone..., 1997 Pittsburgh-Beaver Valley 15% plan SIP revisions). The approved plan contains 1990 base year point, area, highway, and non-road mobile VOC emissions estimates for the 7-county Pittsburgh-Beaver...

  3. 40 CFR 52.2036 - Base year emissions inventory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 22, 1996 submittal of the 15 Percent Rate-of-Progress Plan for the Pittsburgh-Beaver Valley ozone..., 1997 Pittsburgh-Beaver Valley 15% plan SIP revisions). The approved plan contains 1990 base year point, area, highway, and non-road mobile VOC emissions estimates for the 7-county Pittsburgh-Beaver...

  4. 40 CFR 52.2036 - Base year emissions inventory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 22, 1996 submittal of the 15 Percent Rate-of-Progress Plan for the Pittsburgh-Beaver Valley ozone..., 1997 Pittsburgh-Beaver Valley 15% plan SIP revisions). The approved plan contains 1990 base year point, area, highway, and non-road mobile VOC emissions estimates for the 7-county Pittsburgh-Beaver...

  5. COARSE PM EMISSIONS MODEL DEVELOPMENT AND INVENTORY VALIDATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The proposed research will contribute to our understanding of the sources and controlling variables of coarse PM. This greater understanding, along with an increase in our ability to predict these emissions, will enable more efficient pollution control strategy development. Ad...

  6. TOWARDS A VERIFIABLE AMMONIA EMISSIONS INVENTORY FOR CATTLE FEEDLOTS IN THE GREAT PLAINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Collectively, beef cattle feedlots in the Great Plains may be the nation’s single largest source of atmospheric ammonia. Unfortunately, the large uncertainty around these emissions not only affects the U.S. ammonia inventory, but also undermines attempts to understand and miti...

  7. FRAMEWORK FOR CONTEXT-SENSITIVE SPATIALLY- AND TEMPORALLY-RESOLVED ONROAD MOBILE SOURCE EMISSION INVENTORIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The proposed approach will result in new methods for building, testing and improving emission inventories from mobile sources, taking into account the variety of data sources, modeling resources and traffic control measures that have been put in place in the last few years....

  8. 40 CFR 51.915 - What emissions inventory requirements apply under the 8-hour NAAQS?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... emissions inventories for these areas, the ozone-relevant data element requirements under 40 CFR part 51... nonattainment area subject only to title I, part D, subpart 1 of the Act in accordance with § 51.902(b), the... apply under the 8-hour NAAQS? 51.915 Section 51.915 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...

  9. IMPROVEMENTS IN EMISSIONS INVENTORIES USING SEMI-CONTINUOUS MONITORING DATA AND CONCENTRATIONS FIELD ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project will focus on a three city study using yearlong datasets from St. Louis, Milwaukee, and Los Angeles. Emissions inventory data will be evaluated and improved for fine particle elemental carbon, ultrafine particle number concentrations and fine particle organic carb...

  10. 40 CFR 1065.667 - Dilution air background emission correction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.667 Dilution air background emission correction. (a) To determine the mass of background emissions to subtract... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dilution air background...

  11. 40 CFR 1065.667 - Dilution air background emission correction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.667 Dilution air background emission correction. (a) To determine the mass of background emissions to subtract... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dilution air background...

  12. 40 CFR 1065.667 - Dilution air background emission correction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.667 Dilution air background emission correction. (a) To determine the mass of background emissions to subtract... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dilution air background...

  13. 40 CFR 1065.667 - Dilution air background emission correction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.667 Dilution air background emission correction. (a) To determine the mass of background emissions to subtract... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dilution air background...

  14. 40 CFR 1065.667 - Dilution air background emission correction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.667 Dilution air background emission correction. (a) To determine the mass of background emissions to subtract... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dilution air background...

  15. A methodology for elemental and organic carbon emission inventory and results for Lombardy region, Italy.

    PubMed

    Caserini, Stefano; Galante, Silvia; Ozgen, Senem; Cucco, Sara; de Gregorio, Katia; Moretti, Marco

    2013-04-15

    This paper presents a methodology and its application for the compilation of elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) emission inventories. The methodology consists of the estimation of EC and OC emissions from available total suspended particulate matter (TSP) emission inventory data using EC and OC abundances in TSP derived from an extensive literature review, by taking into account the local technological context. In particular, the method is applied to the 2008 emissions of Lombardy region, Italy, considering 148 different activities and 30 types of fuels, typical of Western Europe. The abundances estimated in this study may provide a useful basis to assess the emissions also in other emission contexts with similar prevailing sources and technologies. The dominant sources of EC and OC in Lombardy are diesel vehicles for EC and the residential wood combustion (RWC) for OC which together account for about 83% of the total emissions of both pollutants. The EC and OC emissions from industrial processes and other fuel (e.g., gasoline, kerosene and LPG) combustion are significantly lower, while non-combustion sources give an almost negligible contribution. Total EC+OC contribution to regional greenhouse gas emissions is positive for every sector assuming whichever GWP100 value within the range proposed in literature. An uncertainty assessment is performed through a Monte Carlo simulation for RWC, showing a large uncertainty range (280% of the mean value for EC and 70% for OC), whereas for road transport a qualitative analysis identified a narrower range of uncertainty. PMID:23454906