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Sample records for air pollution concentrations

  1. Pollutant roses for daily averaged ambient air pollutant concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosemans, Guido; Kretzschmar, Jan; Mensink, Clemens

    Pollutant roses are indispensable tools to identify unknown (fugitive) sources of heavy metals at industrial sites whose current impact exceeds the target values imposed for the year 2012 by the European Air Quality Daughter Directive 2004/207/EC. As most of the measured concentrations of heavy metals in ambient air are daily averaged values, a method to obtain high quality pollutant roses from such data is of practical interest for cost-effective air quality management. A computational scheme is presented to obtain, from daily averaged concentrations, 10° angular resolution pollutant roses, called PRP roses, that are in many aspects comparable to pollutant roses made with half-hourly concentrations. The computational scheme is a ridge regression, based on three building blocks: ordinary least squares regression; outlier handling by weighting based on expected values of the higher percentiles in a lognormal distribution; weighted averages whereby observed values, raised to a power m, and daily wind rose frequencies are used as weights. Distance measures are used to find the optimal value for m. The performance of the computational scheme is illustrated by comparing the pollutant roses, constructed with measured half-hourly SO 2 data for 10 monitoring sites in the Antwerp harbour, with the PRP roses made with the corresponding daily averaged SO 2 concentrations. A miniature dataset, made up of 7 daily concentrations and of half-hourly wind directions assigned to 4 wind sectors, is used to illustrate the formulas and their results.

  2. Long-memory property in air pollutant concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chelani, Asha

    2016-05-01

    In the present paper, long-memory in air pollutant concentrations is reviewed and outcome of the past studies is analyzed to provide the possible mechanism behind temporal evolution of air pollutant concentrations. It is observed that almost all the studies show air pollutant concentrations over time possess persistence up to a certain limit. Self-organized criticality of air pollution, multiplicative process of pollutant concentrations, and uniformity in emission sources leading to self-organized criticality are few of the phenomena behind the persistent property of air pollutant concentrations. The self-organized criticality of air pollution is linked to atmosphere's self-cleansing mechanism. This demonstrates that inspite of increasing anthropogenic emissions, self-organized criticality of air pollution is sustained and has low influence of human interventions. In the future, this property may, however, be perturbed due to continuous air pollution emissions, which may influence the accuracy in predictions.

  3. Spectra of concentration of air pollution for turbulent convection

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, S.R.

    1996-12-31

    Very recently the study of formation and destruction of photochemical smog is increasing at both small and large scale. Also the transport of chemical species through the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) of the atmosphere is a key of the global change problem and will have to be parameterized more reliably than in the past. Further, in the air pollution modeling, the usual practice of neglecting the concentration correlation in the atmospheric photochemical reaction has recently been recognized as a source of serious error. So, it is important to study the various aspects of the concentration fluctuations (of air pollution) with chemical reaction. A model of the spectrum of concentration of air pollution with chemical reaction has been developed using the models of Hill and Hill and Clifford. The results obtained are applicable for arbitrary Schmidt number. Further, for the case of pure mixing (without chemical reaction) and the concentration replaced by temperature, the form of the spectra obtained here reduces to the form obtained by Hill and Clifford. This study also shows that, in the case of pure mixing, the concentration decays in a natural manner, but if the concentration selected is that of the chemical reactant, then the effect is that the dispersion of the concentration is much more rapid.

  4. Air Pollution in China: Mapping of Concentrations and Sources

    PubMed Central

    Rohde, Robert A.; Muller, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    China has recently made available hourly air pollution data from over 1500 sites, including airborne particulate matter (PM), SO2, NO2, and O3. We apply Kriging interpolation to four months of data to derive pollution maps for eastern China. Consistent with prior findings, the greatest pollution occurs in the east, but significant levels are widespread across northern and central China and are not limited to major cities or geologic basins. Sources of pollution are widespread, but are particularly intense in a northeast corridor that extends from near Shanghai to north of Beijing. During our analysis period, 92% of the population of China experienced >120 hours of unhealthy air (US EPA standard), and 38% experienced average concentrations that were unhealthy. China’s population-weighted average exposure to PM2.5 was 52 μg/m3. The observed air pollution is calculated to contribute to 1.6 million deaths/year in China [0.7–2.2 million deaths/year at 95% confidence], roughly 17% of all deaths in China. PMID:26291610

  5. Air Pollution in China: Mapping of Concentrations and Sources.

    PubMed

    Rohde, Robert A; Muller, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    China has recently made available hourly air pollution data from over 1500 sites, including airborne particulate matter (PM), SO2, NO2, and O3. We apply Kriging interpolation to four months of data to derive pollution maps for eastern China. Consistent with prior findings, the greatest pollution occurs in the east, but significant levels are widespread across northern and central China and are not limited to major cities or geologic basins. Sources of pollution are widespread, but are particularly intense in a northeast corridor that extends from near Shanghai to north of Beijing. During our analysis period, 92% of the population of China experienced >120 hours of unhealthy air (US EPA standard), and 38% experienced average concentrations that were unhealthy. China's population-weighted average exposure to PM2.5 was 52 μg/m3. The observed air pollution is calculated to contribute to 1.6 million deaths/year in China [0.7-2.2 million deaths/year at 95% confidence], roughly 17% of all deaths in China. PMID:26291610

  6. Predicting indoor pollutant concentrations, and applications to air quality management

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenzetti, David M.

    2002-10-01

    Because most people spend more than 90% of their time indoors, predicting exposure to airborne pollutants requires models that incorporate the effect of buildings. Buildings affect the exposure of their occupants in a number of ways, both by design (for example, filters in ventilation systems remove particles) and incidentally (for example, sorption on walls can reduce peak concentrations, but prolong exposure to semivolatile organic compounds). Furthermore, building materials and occupant activities can generate pollutants. Indoor air quality depends not only on outdoor air quality, but also on the design, maintenance, and use of the building. For example, ''sick building'' symptoms such as respiratory problems and headaches have been related to the presence of air-conditioning systems, to carpeting, to low ventilation rates, and to high occupant density (1). The physical processes of interest apply even in simple structures such as homes. Indoor air quality models simulate the processes, such as ventilation and filtration, that control pollutant concentrations in a building. Section 2 describes the modeling approach, and the important transport processes in buildings. Because advection usually dominates among the transport processes, Sections 3 and 4 describe methods for predicting airflows. The concluding section summarizes the application of these models.

  7. Concentrations of mobile source air pollutants in urban microenvironments.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Eric M; Campbell, David E; Arnott, W Patrick; Johnson, Ted; Ollison, Will

    2014-07-01

    Human exposures to criteria and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) in urban areas vary greatly due to temporal-spatial variations in emissions, changing meteorology, varying proximity to sources, as well as due to building, vehicle, and other environmental characteristics that influence the amounts of ambient pollutants that penetrate or infiltrate into these microenvironments. Consequently, the exposure estimates derived from central-site ambient measurements are uncertain and tend to underestimate actual exposures. The Exposure Classification Project (ECP) was conducted to measure pollutant concentrations for common urban microenvironments (MEs) for use in evaluating the results of regulatory human exposure models. Nearly 500 sets of measurements were made in three Los Angeles County communities during fall 2008, winter 2009, and summer 2009. MEs included in-vehicle, near-road, outdoor and indoor locations accessible to the general public. Contemporaneous 1- to 15-min average personal breathing zone concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen oxides (NO(x)), particulate matter (< 2.5 microm diameter; PM2.5) mass, ultrafine particle (UFP; < 100 nm diameter) number black carbon (BC), speciated HAPs (e.g, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes [BTEX], 1,3-butadiene), and ozone (O3) were measured continuously. In-vehicle and inside/outside measurements were made in various passenger vehicle types and in public buildings to estimate penetration or infiltration factors. A large fraction of the observed pollutant concentrations for on-road MEs, especially near diesel trucks, was unrelated to ambient measurements at nearby monitors. Comparisons of ME concentrations estimated using the median ME/ambient ratio versus regression slopes and intercepts indicate that the regression approach may be more accurate for on-road MEs. Ranges in the ME/ambient ratios among ME categories were generally

  8. CONCENTRATIONS OF TOXIC AIR POLLUTANTS IN THE U.S. SIMULATED BY AN AIR QUALITY MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the US National Air Toxics Assessment, we have applied the Community Multiscale Air Quality Model, CMAQ, to study the concentrations of twenty gas-phase, toxic, hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) in the atmosphere over the continental United States. We modified the Carbo...

  9. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, ... a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  10. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  11. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilpin, Alan

    A summary of one of our most pressing environmental problems, air pollution, is offered in this book by the Director of Air Pollution Control for the Queensland (Australia) State Government. Discussion of the subject is not restricted to Queensland or Australian problems and policies, however, but includes analysis of air pollution the world over.…

  12. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Donald L.

    1989-01-01

    Materials related to air pollution are reviewed for the period January 1987, to October 1988. The topics are pollution monitoring, air pollution, and environmental chemistry. The organization consists of two major analytical divisions: (1) gaseous methods; and (2) aerosol and particulate methods. (MVL)

  13. LARGE-SCALE PREDICTIONS OF MOBILE SOURCE CONTRIBUTIONS TO CONCENTRATIONS OF TOXIC AIR POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation shows concentrations and deposition of toxic air pollutants predicted by a 3-D air quality model, the Community Multi Scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system. Contributions from both on-road and non-road mobile sources are analyzed.

  14. Air Pollution.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air quality is affected by many types of pollutants that are emitted from various sources, including stationary and mobile. These sources release both criteria and hazardous air pollutants, which cause health effects, ecological harm, and material damage. They are generally categ...

  15. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... tobacco smoke. How is air pollution linked to climate change? While climate change is a global process, it ... ozone levels are also a concern. Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health in the United States: A ...

  16. [Air pollution].

    PubMed

    Bauters, Christophe; Bauters, Gautier

    2016-01-01

    Short-term exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution is associated with an increased cardiovascular mortality. Chronic exposure to PM is also associated with cardiovascular risk. Myocardial infarction and heart failure are the most common cardiovascular events associated with PM pollution. The pathophysiological mechanisms related to PM pollution are inflammation, thrombosis, vasomotion abnormalities, progression of atherosclerosis, increased blood pressure, and cardiac remodeling. A decrease in PM exposure may be particularly beneficial in subjects with a high cardiovascular risk. PMID:26547674

  17. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scorer, Richard S.

    The purpose of this book is to describe the basic mechanisms whereby pollution is transported and diffused in the atmosphere. It is designed to give practitioners an understanding of basic mechanics and physics so they may have a correct basis on which to formulate their decisions related to practical air pollution control problems. Since many…

  18. Increased mortality in Philadelphia associated with daily air pollution concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, J.; Dockery, D.W. )

    1992-03-01

    Cause-specific deaths by day for the years 1973 to 1980 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, were extracted from National Center for Health Statistics mortality tapes. Death from accidents (International Classification of Disease, Revision 9 greater than or equal to 800) and deaths outside of the city were excluded. Daily counts of deaths were regressed using Poisson regression on total suspended particulate (TSP) and/or SO2 on the same day and on the preceding day, controlling for year, season, temperature, and humidity. A significant positive association was found between total mortality (mean of 48 deaths/day) and both TSP (second highest daily mean, 222 micrograms/m3) and SO2 (second highest daily mean, 299 micrograms/m3). The strongest associations were found with the mean pollution of the current and the preceding days. Total mortality was estimated to increase by 7% (95% CI, 4 to 10%) with each 100-micrograms/m3 increase in TSP, and 5% (95% CI, 3 to 7%) with each 100-micrograms/m3 increase in SO2. When both pollutants were considered simultaneously, the SO2 association was no longer significant. Mortality increased monotonically with TSP. The effect of 100 micrograms/m3 TSP was stronger in subjects older than 65 yr of age (10% increase) compared with those younger than 65 yr of age (3% increase). Cause-specific mortality was also associated with a 100-micrograms/m3 increase in TSP: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (ICD9 490-496), +19% (95% CI, 0 to 42%), pneumonia (ICD9 480-486 and 507), +11% (95% CI, -3 to +27%), and cardiovascular disease (ICD9 390-448), +10% (95% CI, 6 to 14%). These results are somewhat higher than previously reported associations, and they add to the body of evidence showing that particulate pollution is associated with increased daily mortality at current levels in the United States.

  19. Modeling the Concentrations of On-Road Air Pollutants in Southern California

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lianfa; Wu, Jun; Hudda, Neelakshi; Sioutas, Constantinos; Fruin, Scott A.; Delfino, Ralph J.

    2014-01-01

    High concentrations of air pollutants on roadways, relative to ambient concentrations, contribute significantly to total personal exposure. Estimation of these exposures requires measurements or prediction of roadway concentrations. Our study develops, compares and evaluates linear regression and non-linear generalized additive models (GAMs) to estimate on-road concentrations of four key air pollutants, particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PB-PAH), particle number count (PNC), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and particulate matter with diameter <2.5 μm (PM2.5) using traffic, meteorology, and elevation variables. Critical predictors included wind speed and direction for all the pollutants, traffic-related variables for PB-PAH, PNC, and NOx, and air temperatures and relative humidity for PM2.5. GAMs explained 50%, 55%, 46%, and 71% of the variance for log or square-root transformed concentrations of PB-PAH, PNC, NOx, and PM2.5 respectively, an improvement of 5 to over 15% over the linear models. Accounting for temporal autocorrelation in the GAMs further improved the prediction, explaining 57-89% of the variance. We concluded that traffic and meteorological data are good predictors in estimating on-road traffic-related air pollutant concentrations and GAMs perform better for non-linear variables, such as meteorological parameters. PMID:23859442

  20. Determinants of perceived air pollution annoyance and association between annoyance scores and air pollution (PM 2.5, NO 2) concentrations in the European EXPOLIS study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotko, Tuulia; Oglesby, Lucy; Künzli, Nino; Carrer, Paolo; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Jantunen, Matti

    Apart from its traditionally considered objective impacts on health, air pollution can also have perceived effects, such as annoyance. The psychological effects of air pollution may often be more important to well-being than the biophysical effects. Health effects of perceived annoyance from air pollution are so far unknown. More knowledge of air pollution annoyance levels, determinants and also associations with different air pollution components is needed. In the European air pollution exposure study, EXPOLIS, the air pollution annoyance as perceived at home, workplace and in traffic were surveyed among other study objectives. Overall 1736 randomly drawn 25-55-yr-old subjects participated in six cities (Athens, Basel, Milan, Oxford, Prague and Helsinki). Levels and predictors of individual perceived annoyances from air pollution were assessed. Instead of the usual air pollution concentrations at fixed monitoring sites, this paper compares the measured microenvironment concentrations and personal exposures of PM 2.5 and NO 2 to the perceived annoyance levels. A considerable proportion of the adults surveyed was annoyed by air pollution. Female gender, self-reported respiratory symptoms, downtown living and self-reported sensitivity to air pollution were directly associated with high air pollution annoyance score while in traffic, but smoking status, age or education level were not significantly associated. Population level annoyance averages correlated with the city average exposure levels of PM 2.5 and NO 2. A high correlation was observed between the personal 48-h PM 2.5 exposure and perceived annoyance at home as well as between the mean annoyance at work and both the average work indoor PM 2.5 and the personal work time PM 2.5 exposure. With the other significant determinants (gender, city code, home location) and home outdoor levels the model explained 14% (PM 2.5) and 19% (NO 2) of the variation in perceived air pollution annoyance in traffic. Compared to

  1. [Change and analysis of background concentration of air pollutants in north China during 2008 Olympic Games].

    PubMed

    Wu, Dan; Xin, Jin-yuan; Sun, Yang; Wang, Yue-si; Wang, Pu-cai

    2010-05-01

    To understand the atmospheric background in North China and evaluate the effect of pollutant emission control as well as the influence of contaminant transportation in the regional pollution, during the 2008 Olympic Games, concentrations of four main air pollutants were observed from June to November at Xinglong station which is the regional background station of North China. We compared the concentrations and diurnal variations in different periods, analyzed the pollution transportation using the ground meteorological data and the backward trajectory model and compared the concentrations between different observation stations in Northern China. The results indicated that the concentrations of NOx, SO2, O3 and PM2.5 in summer were 8.4, 10.5, 126.0 and 59.8 microg x m(-3) respectively and in autumn were 11.7, 17.2, 97.5 and 30.7 microg x m(-3) respectively. During the period of Olympic (2008-08-08-2008-08-24), the concentrations of NOx, SO2, O3 and PM2.5 were 6.6, 6.8, 100.5 and 33.3 microg x m(-3) and reduced 29.0%, 46.9%, 18.6% and 36.5% respectively compared to the average concentrations of the period before and after Olympic Games. The concentration of NOx has reduced 62.5% and the PM2.5 has reduced 29.0% compared to the same term of Olympic in 2007. The air quality has obvious improvement in North China during the Olympic Games. Before the emission control, the concentrations of pollutants were lower in the night and became higher gradually in the daytime and reached the peak values in 17:00-20:00 which can indicate the accumulation of regional pollution transportation in Xinlong. In the emission control period, the accumulation of pollutants in afternoon was obviously weakened and the transportation of pollutants was lower which can reveal the obvious effect of the emission control in Beijing and peripheral areas. The atmosphere in Xinglong was mainly influenced by the monsoon from south direction in summer and autumn and the pollution of Xinglong was

  2. Effect of geocoding errors on traffic-related air pollutant exposure and concentration estimates

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to traffic-related air pollutants is highest very near roads, and thus exposure estimates are sensitive to positional errors. This study evaluates positional and PM2.5 concentration errors that result from the use of automated geocoding methods and from linearized approx...

  3. Ambient concentrations of aldehydes in relation to Beijing Olympic air pollution control measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, J. C.; Zhu, T.; Hu, M.; Zhang, L. W.; Cheng, H.; Zhang, L.; Tong, J.; Zhang, J.

    2010-08-01

    Aldehydes are ubiquitous constituents of the atmosphere. Their concentrations are elevated in polluted urban atmospheres. The present study was carried out to characterize three aldehydes of most health concern (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein) in a central Beijing site in the summer and early fall of 2008 (from June to October). Measurements were made before, during, and after the Beijing Olympics to examine whether the air pollution control measures implemented to improve Beijing's air quality during the Olympics had any impact on concentrations of the three aldehydes. Average concentrations of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein were 29.34 ± 15.12 μg/m3, 27.09 ± 15.74 μg/m3 and 2.32 ± 0.95 μg/m3, respectively, for the entire period of measurements, all being the highest among the levels measured in cities around the world in photochemical smog seasons. Among the three measured aldehydes, only acetaldehyde had a substantially reduced mean concentration during the Olympic air pollution control period compared to the pre-Olympic period. Formaldehyde and acrolein followed the changing pattern of temperature and were each significantly correlated with ozone (a secondary product of photochemical reactions). In contrast, acetaldehyde was significantly correlated with several pollutants emitted mainly from local emission sources (e.g., NO2, CO, and PM2.5). These findings suggest that local direct emissions had a larger impact on acetaldehyde than formaldehyde and acrolein.

  4. Air Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Clifton, Marjorie

    1964-01-01

    Dr Marjorie Clifton describes the classification of gaseous and nongaseous constituents of air pollution and then outlines the methods of measuring these. The National Survey embraced 150 towns of all sizes throughout England and Wales and provided data on smoke and sulphur dioxide in relation to climate, topography, industrialization, population density, fuel utilization and urban development. Dr W C Turner discusses the relationship between air pollution and mortality from respiratory conditions, and particularly the incidence of chronic bronchitis. He postulates a theory that such respiratory conditions arise as an allergy to the spores of certain moulds, spore formation being encouraged by the air humidity in Greatv Britain and overcrowded and damp living conditions. He describes the results of a twenty-week study undertaken in 1962-3, showing associations between respiratory disease and levels of air pollution. Dr Stuart Carne undertook a survey in general practice to plot the patterns of respiratory illness in London during the winter of 1962-3. There were two peaks of respiratory illnesses coinciding with the fog at the beginning of December and the freeze-up from the end of December until the beginning of March. PMID:14178955

  5. The Impact of Future Emissions Changes on Air Pollution Concentrations and Related Human Health Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikolajczyk, U.; Suppan, P.; Williams, M.

    2015-12-01

    Quantification of potential health benefits of reductions in air pollution on the local scale is becoming increasingly important. The aim of this study is to conduct health impact assessment (HIA) by utilizing regionally and spatially specific data in order to assess the influence of future emission scenarios on human health. In the first stage of this investigation, a modeling study was carried out using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model coupled with Chemistry to estimate ambient concentrations of air pollutants for the baseline year 2009, and for the future emission scenarios in southern Germany. Anthropogenic emissions for the baseline year 2009 are derived from the emission inventory provided by the Netherlands Organization of Applied Scientific Research (TNO) (Denier van der Gon et al., 2010). For Germany, the TNO emissions were replaced by gridded emission data with a high spatial resolution of 1/64 x 1/64 degrees. Future air quality simulations are carried out under different emission scenarios, which reflect possible energy and climate measures in year 2030. The model set-up included a nesting approach, where three domains with horizontal resolution of 18 km, 6 km and 2 km were defined. The simulation results for the baseline year 2009 are used to quantify present-day health burdens. Concentration-response functions (CRFs) for PM2.5 and NO2 from the WHO Health risks of air Pollution in Europe (HRAPIE) project were applied to population-weighted mean concentrations to estimate relative risks and hence to determine numbers of attributable deaths and associated life-years lost. In the next step, future health impacts of projected concentrations were calculated taking into account different emissions scenarios. The health benefits that we assume with air pollution reductions can be used to provide options for future policy decisions to protect public health.

  6. [Estimation of average traffic emission factor based on synchronized incremental traffic flow and air pollutant concentration].

    PubMed

    Li, Run-Kui; Zhao, Tong; Li, Zhi-Peng; Ding, Wen-Jun; Cui, Xiao-Yong; Xu, Qun; Song, Xian-Feng

    2014-04-01

    On-road vehicle emissions have become the main source of urban air pollution and attracted broad attentions. Vehicle emission factor is a basic parameter to reflect the status of vehicle emissions, but the measured emission factor is difficult to obtain, and the simulated emission factor is not localized in China. Based on the synchronized increments of traffic flow and concentration of air pollutants in the morning rush hour period, while meteorological condition and background air pollution concentration retain relatively stable, the relationship between the increase of traffic and the increase of air pollution concentration close to a road is established. Infinite line source Gaussian dispersion model was transformed for the inversion of average vehicle emission factors. A case study was conducted on a main road in Beijing. Traffic flow, meteorological data and carbon monoxide (CO) concentration were collected to estimate average vehicle emission factors of CO. The results were compared with simulated emission factors of COPERT4 model. Results showed that the average emission factors estimated by the proposed approach and COPERT4 in August were 2.0 g x km(-1) and 1.2 g x km(-1), respectively, and in December were 5.5 g x km(-1) and 5.2 g x km(-1), respectively. The emission factors from the proposed approach and COPERT4 showed close values and similar seasonal trends. The proposed method for average emission factor estimation eliminates the disturbance of background concentrations and potentially provides real-time access to vehicle fleet emission factors. PMID:24946571

  7. Effect of geocoding errors on traffic-related air pollutant exposure and concentration estimates.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Rajiv; Batterman, Stuart; Isakov, Vlad; Snyder, Michelle; Breen, Michael; Brakefield-Caldwell, Wilma

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to traffic-related air pollutants is highest very near roads, and thus exposure estimates are sensitive to positional errors. This study evaluates positional and PM2.5 concentration errors that result from the use of automated geocoding methods and from linearized approximations of roads in link-based emission inventories. Two automated geocoders (Bing Map and ArcGIS) along with handheld GPS instruments were used to geocode 160 home locations of children enrolled in an air pollution study investigating effects of traffic-related pollutants in Detroit, Michigan. The average and maximum positional errors using the automated geocoders were 35 and 196 m, respectively. Comparing road edge and road centerline, differences in house-to-highway distances averaged 23 m and reached 82 m. These differences were attributable to road curvature, road width and the presence of ramps, factors that should be considered in proximity measures used either directly as an exposure metric or as inputs to dispersion or other models. Effects of positional errors for the 160 homes on PM2.5 concentrations resulting from traffic-related emissions were predicted using a detailed road network and the RLINE dispersion model. Concentration errors averaged only 9%, but maximum errors reached 54% for annual averages and 87% for maximum 24-h averages. Whereas most geocoding errors appear modest in magnitude, 5% to 20% of residences are expected to have positional errors exceeding 100 m. Such errors can substantially alter exposure estimates near roads because of the dramatic spatial gradients of traffic-related pollutant concentrations. To ensure the accuracy of exposure estimates for traffic-related air pollutants, especially near roads, confirmation of geocoordinates is recommended. PMID:25670023

  8. Effect of geocoding errors on traffic-related air pollutant exposure and concentration estimates

    PubMed Central

    Ganguly, Rajiv; Batterman, Stuart; Isakov, Vlad; Snyder, Michelle; Breen, Michael; Brakefield-Caldwell, Wilma

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to traffic-related air pollutants is highest very near roads, and thus exposure estimates are sensitive to positional errors. This study evaluates positional and PM2.5 concentration errors that result from the use of automated geocoding methods and from linearized approximations of roads in link-based emission inventories. Two automated geocoders (Bing Map and ArcGIS) along with handheld GPS instruments were used to geocode 160 home locations of children enrolled in an air pollution study investigating effects of traffic-related pollutants in Detroit, Michigan. The average and maximum positional errors using the automated geocoders were 35 and 196 m, respectively. Comparing road edge and road centerline, differences in house-to-highway distances averaged 23 m and reached 82 m. These differences were attributable to road curvature, road width and the presence of ramps, factors that should be considered in proximity measures used either directly as an exposure metric or as inputs to dispersion or other models. Effects of positional errors for the 160 homes on PM2.5 concentrations resulting from traffic-related emissions were predicted using a detailed road network and the RLINE dispersion model. Concentration errors averaged only 9%, but maximum errors reached 54% for annual averages and 87% for maximum 24-h averages. Whereas most geocoding errors appear modest in magnitude, 5% to 20% of residences are expected to have positional errors exceeding 100 m. Such errors can substantially alter exposure estimates near roads because of the dramatic spatial gradients of traffic-related pollutant concentrations. To ensure the accuracy of exposure estimates for traffic-related air pollutants, especially near roads, confirmation of geocoordinates is recommended. PMID:25670023

  9. Air quality in postunification Erfurt, East Germany: associating changes in pollutant concentrations with changes in emissions.

    PubMed Central

    Ebelt, S; Brauer, M; Cyrys, J; Tuch, T; Kreyling, W G; Wichmann, H E; Heinrich, J

    2001-01-01

    The unification of East and West Germany in 1990 resulted in sharp decreases in emissions of major air pollutants. This change in air quality has provided an opportunity for a natural experiment to evaluate the health impacts of air pollution. We evaluated airborne particle size distribution and gaseous co-pollutant data collected in Erfurt, Germany, throughout the 1990s and assessed the extent to which the observed changes are associated with changes in the two major emission sources: coal burning for power production and residential heating, and motor vehicles. Continuous data for sulfur dioxide, total suspended particulates (TSP), nitric oxide, carbon monoxide, and meteorologic parameters were available for 1990-1999, and size-selective particle number and mass concentration measurements were made during winters of 1991 and 1998. We used hourly profiles of pollutants and linear regression analyses, stratified by year, weekday/weekend, and hour, using NO and SO(2) as markers of traffic- and heating-related combustion sources, respectively, to study the patterns of various particle size fractions. Supplementary data on traffic and heating-related sources were gathered to support hypotheses linking these sources with observed changes in ambient air pollution levels. Substantially decreased (19-91%) concentrations were observed for all pollutants, with the exception of particles in the 0.01-0.03 microm size range (representing the smallest ultrafine particles that were measured). The number concentration for these particles increased by 115% between 1991 and 1998. The ratio of these ultrafine particles to TSP also increased by more than 500%, indicating a dramatic change in the size distribution of airborne particles. Analysis of hourly concentration patterns indicated that in 1991, concentrations of SO(2) and larger particle sizes were related to residential heating with coal. These peaks were no longer evident in 1998 due to decreases in coal consumption and

  10. Contribution of ship emissions to the concentration and deposition of air pollutants in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksoyoglu, S.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Baltensperger, U.

    2015-11-01

    Emissions from the marine transport sector are one of the least regulated anthropogenic emission sources and contribute significantly to air pollution. Although strict limits were introduced recently for the maximum sulfur content in marine fuels in the SECAs (sulfur emission control areas) and in the EU ports, sulfur emissions outside the SECAs and emissions of other components in all European maritime areas have continued to increase in the last two decades. We have used the air quality model CAMx with and without ship emissions for the year 2006 to determine the effects of international shipping on the annual as well as seasonal concentrations of ozone, primary and secondary components of PM2.5 and the dry and wet deposition of nitrogen and sulfur compounds in Europe. Our results suggest that emissions from international shipping affect the air quality in northern and southern Europe differently and their contributions to the air concentrations vary seasonally. The largest changes in pollutant concentrations due to ship emissions were predicted for summer. Increased concentrations of the primary particle mass were found only along the shipping routes whereas concentrations of the secondary pollutants were affected over a larger area. Concentrations of particulate sulfate increased due to ship emissions in the Mediterranean (up to 60 %), in the English Channel and the North Sea (30-35 %) while increases in particulate nitrate levels were found especially in the north, around the Benelux area (20 %) where there were high NH3 land-based emissions. Our model results showed that not only the atmospheric concentrations of pollutants are affected by ship emissions, but also depositions of nitrogen and sulfur compounds increase significantly along the shipping routes. NOx emissions from the ships especially in the English Channel and the North Sea, cause a decrease in the dry deposition of reduced nitrogen at source regions by moving it from the gas-phase to the

  11. Reduced gene expression levels after chronic exposure to high concentrations of air pollutants.

    PubMed

    Rossner, Pavel; Tulupova, Elena; Rossnerova, Andrea; Libalova, Helena; Honkova, Katerina; Gmuender, Hans; Pastorkova, Anna; Svecova, Vlasta; Topinka, Jan; Sram, Radim J

    2015-10-01

    We analyzed the ability of particulate matter (PM) and chemicals adsorbed onto it to induce diverse gene expression profiles in subjects living in two regions of the Czech Republic differing in levels and sources of the air pollution. A total of 312 samples from polluted Ostrava region and 154 control samples from Prague were collected in winter 2009, summer 2009 and winter 2010. The highest concentrations of air pollutants were detected in winter 2010 when the subjects were exposed to: PM of aerodynamic diameter <2.5μm (PM2.5) (70 vs. 44.9μg/m(3)); benzo[a]pyrene (9.02 vs. 2.56ng/m(3)) and benzene (10.2 vs. 5.5μg/m(3)) in Ostrava and Prague, respectively. Global gene expression analysis of total RNA extracted from leukocytes was performed using Illumina Expression BeadChips microarrays. The expression of selected genes was verified by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Gene expression profiles differed by locations and seasons. Despite lower concentrations of air pollutants a higher number of differentially expressed genes and affected KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathways was found in subjects from Prague. In both locations immune response pathways were affected, in Prague also neurodegenerative diseases-related pathways. Over-representation of the latter pathways was associated with the exposure to PM2.5. The qRT-PCR analysis showed a significant decrease in expression of APEX, ATM, FAS, GSTM1, IL1B and RAD21 in subjects from Ostrava, in a comparison of winter 2010 and summer 2009. In Prague, an increase in gene expression was observed for GADD45A and PTGS2. In conclusion, high concentrations of pollutants in Ostrava were not associated with higher number of differentially expressed genes, affected KEGG pathways and expression levels of selected genes. This observation suggests that chronic exposure to air pollution may result in reduced gene expression response with possible negative health consequences. PMID:26298100

  12. Seasonal change of persistent organic pollutant concentrations in air at Niigata area, Japan.

    PubMed

    Murayama, Hitoshi; Takase, Yuuya; Mitobe, Hideko; Mukai, Hiroyuki; Ohzeki, Toshiharu; Shimizu, Ken-ichi; Kitayama, Yoshie

    2003-07-01

    The concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as HCB, alpha-, beta-, gamma- and delta-HCH, trans- and cis-chlordane (t-CHL, c-CHL), DDE, DDD and DDT, in ambient air have been measured at five sampling points in Niigata area, Japan (Niigata, Maki, Tsubame, Jouzo and Yahiko) during the period from September 1999 to November 2001. HCB, alpha-HCH, t-CHL and c-CHL showed higher concentrations than the other chemicals in all locations. All the POPs except t-CHL and c-CHL collected at urban sites of the Niigata Plain was almost the same in their concentration levels. Higher concentrations of t-CHL and c-CHL in residential areas should be attributed to the past usage of the chemical as a termiticide. At Yahiko (remote site), most of the POPs showed lower concentrations than those measured at the other sampling sites, although alpha-HCH and gamma-HCH were comparable with the concentrations found at the other sampling sites. All POPs except alpha-HCH and gamma-HCH tend to decrease 41-80% in their concentrations from 2000 to 2001. The lower POPs concentrations in winter and the higher POPs concentrations in summer at every sampling point can be partly explained by temperature differences. Applying the equation of the logarithm of the POP partial pressure in air versus reciprocal temperature (lnPa=m/T+b) to our data, linear relations were observed. HCB gave a poor linearity and the smallest slope, while beta-HCH, t-CHL and c-CHL gave good linearities and large slopes in the equation. The results suggest that HCB level is influenced by not only the emission from terrestrial sources but the global-scale background pollution. A peculiar observation is that beta-HCH concentration measured in our study showed large temperature dependence, indicating there could be a source of contamination in the surrounding areas. PMID:12738282

  13. Estimated long-term outdoor air pollution concentrations in a cohort study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beelen, Rob; Hoek, Gerard; Fischer, Paul; Brandt, Piet A. van den; Brunekreef, Bert

    Several recent studies associated long-term exposure to air pollution with increased mortality. An ongoing cohort study, the Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer (NLCS), was used to study the association between long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and mortality. Following on a previous exposure assessment study in the NLCS, we improved the exposure assessment methods. Long-term exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO 2), nitrogen oxide (NO), black smoke (BS), and sulphur dioxide (SO 2) was estimated. Exposure at each home address ( N=21 868) was considered as a function of a regional, an urban and a local component. The regional component was estimated using inverse distance weighed interpolation of measurement data from regional background sites in a national monitoring network. Regression models with urban concentrations as dependent variables, and number of inhabitants in different buffers and land use variables, derived with a Geographic Information System (GIS), as predictor variables were used to estimate the urban component. The local component was assessed using a GIS and a digital road network with linked traffic intensities. Traffic intensity on the nearest road and on the nearest major road, and the sum of traffic intensity in a buffer of 100 m around each home address were assessed. Further, a quantitative estimate of the local component was estimated. The regression models to estimate the urban component explained 67%, 46%, 49% and 35% of the variances of NO 2, NO, BS, and SO 2 concentrations, respectively. Overall regression models which incorporated the regional, urban and local component explained 84%, 44%, 59% and 56% of the variability in concentrations for NO 2, NO, BS and SO 2, respectively. We were able to develop an exposure assessment model using GIS methods and traffic intensities that explained a large part of the variations in outdoor air pollution concentrations.

  14. Air pollutant concentrations near three Texas roadways, Part I: Ultrafine particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yifang; Pudota, Jayanth; Collins, Donald; Allen, David; Clements, Andrea; DenBleyker, Allison; Fraser, Matt; Jia, Yuling; McDonald-Buller, Elena; Michel, Edward

    Vehicular emitted air pollutant concentrations were studied near three types of roadways in Austin, Texas: (1) State Highway 71 (SH-71), a heavily traveled arterial highway dominated by passenger vehicles; (2) Interstate 35 (I-35), a limited access highway north of Austin in Georgetown; and (3) Farm to Market Road 973 (FM-973), a heavily traveled surface roadway dominated by truck traffic. Air pollutants examined include carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NO x), and carbonyl species in the gas-phase. In the particle phase, ultrafine particle (UFP) concentrations (diameter < 100 nm), fine particulate matter (PM 2.5, diameter < 2.5 μm) mass and carbon content and several particle-bound organics were examined. All roadways had an upwind stationary sampling location, one or two fixed downwind sample locations and a mobile monitoring platform that characterized pollutant concentrations fall-off with increased distance from the roadways. Data reported in this paper focus on UFP while other pollutants and near-roadway chemical processes are examined in a companion paper. Traffic volume, especially heavy-duty traffic, wind speed, and proximity to the road were found to be the most important factors determining UFP concentrations near the roadways. Since wind directions were not consistent during the sampling periods, distances along wind trajectories from the roadway to the sampling points were used to study the decay characteristics of UFPs. Under perpendicular wind conditions, for all studied roadway types, particle number concentrations increased dramatically moving from the upwind side to the downwind side. The elevated particle number concentrations decay exponentially with increasing distances from the roadway with sharp concentration gradients observed within 100-150 m, similar to previously reported studies. A single exponential decay curve was found to fit the data collected from all three roadways very well under perpendicular wind conditions. No

  15. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, K.; And Others

    Pollution of the general environment, which exposes an entire population group for an indeterminate period of time, certainly constitutes a problem in public health. Serious aid pollution episodes have resulted in increased mortality and a possible relationship between chronic exposure to a polluted atmosphere and certain diseases has been…

  16. [Variation in indoor air pollutant concentrations with time in a newly constructed private house].

    PubMed

    Minami, Tamae; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Kondo, Fumio; Yamada, Seiji; Matsumura, Toshiro; Ando, Masanori; Miyazaki, Yutaka

    2002-03-01

    . These data suggest that personal exposure levels to formaldehyde and nitrogen dioxide are high in newly constructed private homes in Japan. In order to avoid prolonged exposure to high concentrations of indoor air pollutants, it is considered very important to take measures such as of use building materials with low formaldehyde emissions and to discontinue the use of oil fan heaters. PMID:11974924

  17. A Unified Spatiotemporal Modeling Approach for Predicting Concentrations of Multiple Air Pollutants in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Olives, Casey; Kim, Sun-Young; Sheppard, Lianne; Sampson, Paul D.; Szpiro, Adam A.; Oron, Assaf P.; Lindström, Johan; Vedal, Sverre; Kaufman, Joel D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cohort studies of the relationship between air pollution exposure and chronic health effects require predictions of exposure over long periods of time. Objectives: We developed a unified modeling approach for predicting fine particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, and black carbon (as measured by light absorption coefficient) in six U.S. metropolitan regions from 1999 through early 2012 as part of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution (MESA Air). Methods: We obtained monitoring data from regulatory networks and supplemented those data with study-specific measurements collected from MESA Air community locations and participants’ homes. In each region, we applied a spatiotemporal model that included a long-term spatial mean, time trends with spatially varying coefficients, and a spatiotemporal residual. The mean structure was derived from a large set of geographic covariates that was reduced using partial least-squares regression. We estimated time trends from observed time series and used spatial smoothing methods to borrow strength between observations. Results: Prediction accuracy was high for most models, with cross-validation R2 (R2CV) > 0.80 at regulatory and fixed sites for most regions and pollutants. At home sites, overall R2CV ranged from 0.45 to 0.92, and temporally adjusted R2CV ranged from 0.23 to 0.92. Conclusions: This novel spatiotemporal modeling approach provides accurate fine-scale predictions in multiple regions for four pollutants. We have generated participant-specific predictions for MESA Air to investigate health effects of long-term air pollution exposures. These successes highlight modeling advances that can be adopted more widely in modern cohort studies. Citation: Keller JP, Olives C, Kim SY, Sheppard L, Sampson PD, Szpiro AA, Oron AP, Lindström J, Vedal S, Kaufman JD. 2015. A unified spatiotemporal modeling approach for predicting concentrations of multiple air pollutants in the Multi

  18. Contribution of ship emissions to the concentration and deposition of air pollutants in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksoyoglu, Sebnem; Baltensperger, Urs; Prévôt, André S. H.

    2016-02-01

    Emissions from the marine transport sector are one of the least-regulated anthropogenic emission sources and contribute significantly to air pollution. Although strict limits were introduced recently for the maximum sulfur content in marine fuels in the SECAs (sulfur emission control areas) and in EU ports, sulfur emissions outside the SECAs and emissions of other components in all European maritime areas have continued to increase in the last two decades. We have used the air quality model CAMx (Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions) with and without ship emissions for the year 2006 to determine the effects of international shipping on the annual as well as seasonal concentrations of ozone, primary and secondary components of PM2.5, and the dry and wet deposition of nitrogen and sulfur compounds in Europe. The largest changes in pollutant concentrations due to ship emissions were predicted for summer. Concentrations of particulate sulfate increased due to ship emissions in the Mediterranean (up to 60 %), the English Channel and the North Sea (30-35 %), while increases in particulate nitrate levels were found especially in the north, around the Benelux area (20 %), where there were high NH3 land-based emissions. Our model results showed that not only are the atmospheric concentrations of pollutants affected by ship emissions, but also depositions of nitrogen and sulfur compounds increase significantly along the shipping routes. NOx emissions from the ships, especially in the English Channel and the North Sea, cause a decrease in the dry deposition of reduced nitrogen at source regions by moving it from the gas phase to the particle phase which then contributes to an increase in the wet deposition at coastal areas with higher precipitation. In the western Mediterranean region, on the other hand, model results show an increase in the deposition of oxidized nitrogen (mostly HNO3) due to the ship traffic. Dry deposition of SO2 seems to be significant along

  19. The impact of the congestion charging scheme on ambient air pollution concentrations in London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, R. W.; Barratt, B.; Armstrong, B.; Anderson, H. R.; Beevers, S. D.; Mudway, I. S.; Green, D.; Derwent, R. G.; Wilkinson, P.; Tonne, C.; Kelly, F. J.

    On 17th February 2003, a congestion charging scheme (CCS), operating Monday-Friday, 07:00-18:00, was introduced in central London along with a programme of traffic management measures. We investigated the potential impact of the introduction of the CCS on measured pollutant concentrations (oxides of nitrogen (NO X, NO and NO 2), particles with a median diameter less than 10 microns (PM 10), carbon monoxide (CO) and ozone (O 3)) measured at roadside and background monitoring sites across Greater London. Temporal changes in pollution concentrations within the congestion charging zone were compared to changes, over the same time period, at monitors unlikely to be affected by the CCS (the control zone) and in the boundary zone between the two. Similar analyses were done for CCS hours during weekends (when the CCS was not operating). Based on the single roadside monitor with the CCS Zone, it was not possible to identify any relative changes in pollution concentrations associated with the introduction of the scheme. However, using background monitors, there was good evidence for a decrease in NO and increases in NO 2 and O 3 relative to the control zone. There was little change in background concentrations of NO X. There was also evidence of relative reductions in PM 10 and CO. Similar changes were observed during the same hours in weekends when the scheme was not operating. The causal attribution of these changes to the CCS per se is not appropriate since the scheme was introduced concurrently with other traffic and emissions interventions which might have had a more concentrated effect in central London. This study provides important pointers for study design and data requirements for the evaluation of similar schemes in terms of air quality. It also shows that results may be unexpected and that the overall effect on toxicity may not be entirely favourable.

  20. Air pollutants in rural homes in Guizhou, China - Concentrations, speciation, and size distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shuxiao; Wei, Wei; Li, Du; Aunan, Kristin; Hao, Jiming

    2010-11-01

    Several types of fuels, including coal, fuel wood, and biogas, are commonly used for cooking and heating in Chinese rural households, resulting in indoor air pollution and causing severe health impacts. In this paper, we report a study monitoring multiple pollutants including PM 10, PM 2.5, CO, CO 2, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from fuel combustion at households in Guizhou province of China. The results showed that most pollutants exhibited large variability for different type of fuels except for CO 2. Among these fuels, wood combustion caused the most serious indoor air pollution, with the highest concentrations of particulate matters (218˜417 μg m -3 for PM 10 and 201˜304 μg m -3 for PM 2.5), and higher concentrations of CO (10.8 ± 0.8 mg m -3) and TVOC (about 466.7 ± 337.9 μg m -3). Coal combustion also resulted in higher concentrations of particulate matters (220˜250 μg m -3 for PM 10 and 170˜200 μg m -3 for PM 2.5), but different levels for CO (respectively 14.5 ± 3.7 mg m -3 for combustion in brick stove and 5.5 ± 0.7 mg m -3 for combustion in metal stove) and TVOC (170 mg m -3 for combustion in brick stove and 700 mg m -3 for combustion in metal stove). Biogas was the cleanest fuel, which brought about the similar levels of various pollutants with the indoor case of non-combustion, and worth being promoted in more areas. Analysis of the chemical profiles of PM 2.5 indicated that OC and EC were dominant components for all fuels, with the proportions of 30˜48%. A high fraction of SO 42- (31˜34%) was detected for coal combustion. The cumulative percentages of these chemical species were within the range of 0.7˜1.3, which was acceptable for the assessment of mass balance.

  1. Influence of eutrophication on air-water exchange, vertical fluxes, and phytoplankton concentrations of persistent organic pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Dachs, J.; Eisenreich, S.J.; Hoff, R.M.

    2000-03-15

    The influence of eutrophication on the biogeochemical cycles of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is largely unknown. In this paper, the application of a dynamic air-water-phytoplankton exchange model to Lake Ontario is used as a framework to study the influence of eutrophication on air-water exchange, vertical fluxes, and phytoplankton concentrations of POPs. The results of these simulations demonstrate that air-water exchange controls phytoplankton concentrations in remote aquatic environments with little influence from land-based sources of pollutants and supports levels in even historically contaminated systems. Furthermore, eutrophication or high biomass leads to a disequilibrium between the gas and dissolved phase, enhanced air-water exchange, and vertical sinking fluxes of PCBs. Increasing biomass also depletes the water concentrations leading to lower than equilibrium PCB concentrations in phytoplankton. Implications to future trends in PCB pollution in Lake Ontario are also discussed.

  2. Air pollution and associated human mortality: the role of air pollutant emissions, climate change and methane concentration increases from the preindustrial period to present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Y.; Naik, V.; Horowitz, L. W.; Mauzerall, D. L.

    2013-02-01

    Increases in surface ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (≤2.5 μm aerodynamic diameter, PM2.5) are associated with excess premature human mortalities. We estimate changes in surface O3 and PM2.5 from pre-industrial (1860) to present (2000) and the global present-day (2000) premature human mortalities associated with these changes. We extend previous work to differentiate the contribution of changes in three factors: emissions of short-lived air pollutants, climate change, and increased methane (CH4) concentrations, to air pollution levels and associated premature mortalities. We use a coupled chemistry-climate model in conjunction with global population distributions in 2000 to estimate exposure attributable to concentration changes since 1860 from each factor. Attributable mortalities are estimated using health impact functions of long-term relative risk estimates for O3 and PM2.5 from the epidemiology literature. We find global mean surface PM2.5 and health-relevant O3 (defined as the maximum 6-month mean of 1-h daily maximum O3 in a year) have increased by 8 ± 0.16 μg m-3 and 30 ± 0.16 ppbv (results reported as annual average ±standard deviation of 10-yr model simulations), respectively, over this industrial period as a result of combined changes in emissions of air pollutants (EMIS), climate (CLIM) and CH4 concentrations (TCH4). EMIS, CLIM and TCH4 cause global population-weighted average PM2.5 (O35) to change by +7.5 ± 0.19 μg m-3 (+25 ± 0.30 ppbv), +0.4 ± 0.17 μg m-3 (+0.5 ± 0.28 ppbv), and 0.04 ± 0.24 μg m-3 (+4.3 ± 0.33 ppbv), respectively. Total global changes in PM2.5 are associated with 1.5 (95% confidence interval, CI, 1.2-1.8) million cardiopulmonary mortalities and 95 (95% CI, 44-144) thousand lung cancer mortalities annually and changes in O3 are associated with 375 (95% CI, 129-592) thousand respiratory mortalities annually. Most air pollution mortality is driven by changes in emissions of short-lived air pollutants and their

  3. Estimating spatiotemporal variability of ambient air pollutant concentrations with a hierarchical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lianfa; Wu, Jun; Ghosh, Jo Kay; Ritz, Beate

    2013-06-01

    Studies have linked exposure to air pollutants to short-term and sub-chronic health outcomes. However, individual-level air pollution exposure is difficult to measure at a high spatial and temporal resolution and for larger populations due to limitations in sampling techniques. We presented a hierarchical model to capture spatiotemporal variability of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) concentrations in Southern California by combining high temporal resolution data from routine monitoring stations with high spatial resolution data from investigator-initiated episodic measurements. In this model, the spatiotemporal field of concentrations was first decomposed into a mean and residual and the mean representing the seasonal trend was further decomposed into a constant and varying temporal basis functions. The mean of the spatially varying coefficients of temporal basis functions were modeled by local covariates using non-linear generalized additive model and least square fitting using measurements from both routine monitoring and additional episodic sampling locations, while the spatially-correlated residuals of the coefficients were co-kriged. We found traffic, land-use and wind accounted for a large portion of the variance (beyond 35%) for the long-term average trend of concentrations. Spatial residuals accounted for a large portion of the variance of the temporal components (about 30% for NO2 and 20% for NOx). Leave-one-out cross validation produced an R2 of 0.84 for NO2 and 0.81 for NOx when comparing the modeled weekly concentration with the observed trends at all routine monitoring stations.

  4. Cardiovascular Effects in Adults with Metabolic Syndrome Exposed to Concentrated Ultrafine Air Pollution Particles

    EPA Science Inventory

    RATIONALE: Epidemiologic studies report associations between ambient air pollution particulate matter (PM) and various indices of cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality. A leading hypothesis contends that smaller ultrafine (UF) particles induce a greater physiologic response bec...

  5. The concentration-response relation between air pollution and daily deaths.

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, J; Ballester, F; Saez, M; Pérez-Hoyos, S; Bellido, J; Cambra, K; Arribas, F; Cañada, A; Pérez-Boillos, M J; Sunyer, J

    2001-01-01

    Studies on three continents have reported associations between various measures of airborne particles and daily deaths. Sulfur dioxide has also been associated with daily deaths, particularly in Europe. Questions remain about the shape of those associations, particularly whether there are thresholds at low levels. We examined the association of daily concentrations of black smoke and SO(2) with daily deaths in eight Spanish cities (Barcelona, Bilbao, Castellón, Gijón, Oviedo, Valencia, Vitoria, and Zaragoza) with different climates and different environmental and social characteristics. We used nonparametric smoothing to estimate the shape of the concentration-response curve in each city and combined those results using a metasmoothing technique developed by Schwartz and Zanobetti. We extended their method to incorporate random variance components. Black smoke had a nearly linear association with daily deaths, with no evidence of a threshold. A 10 microg/m(3) increase in black smoke was associated with a 0.88% increase in daily deaths (95% confidence interval, 0.56%-1.20%). SO(2) had a less plausible association: Daily deaths increased at very low concentrations, but leveled off and then decreased at higher concentrations. These findings held in both one- and two-pollutant models and held whether we optimized our weather and seasonal model in each city or used the same smoothing parameters in each city. We conclude that the association with particle levels is more convincing than for SO(2), and without a threshold. Linear models provide an adequate estimation of the effect of particulate air pollution on mortality at low to moderate concentrations. PMID:11675264

  6. Indoor Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    We usually think of air pollution as being outdoors, but the air in your house or office could also be polluted. Sources of indoor pollution include Mold and pollen Tobacco smoke Household products ...

  7. Effects of trans-Eurasian transport of air pollutants on surface ozone concentrations over Western China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaoyuan; Liu, Junfeng; Mauzerall, Denise L.; Emmons, Louisa K.; Walters, Stacy; Horowitz, Larry W.; Tao, Shu

    2014-11-01

    Due to a lack of industrialization in Western China, surface air there was, until recently, believed to be relatively unpolluted. However, recent measurements and modeling studies have found high levels of ozone (O3) there. Based on the state-of-the-science global chemical transport model MOZART-4, we identify the origin, pathway, and mechanism of trans-Eurasian transport of air pollutants to Western China in 2000. MOZART-4 generally simulates well the observed surface O3 over inland areas of China. Simulations find surface ozone concentrations over Western China on average to be about 10 ppbv higher than Eastern China. Using sensitivity studies, we find that anthropogenic emissions from all Eurasian regions except China contribute 10-15 ppbv surface O3 over Western China, superimposed upon a 35-40 ppbv natural background. Transport from European anthropogenic sources to Northwestern China results in 2-6 ppbv O3 enhancements in spring and summer. Indian anthropogenic sources strongly influence O3 over the Tibetan Plateau during the summer monsoon. Transport of O3 originating from emissions in the Middle East occasionally reach Western China and increase surface ozone there by about 1-4 ppbv. These influences are of similar magnitude as trans-Pacific and transatlantic transport of O3 and its precursors, indicating the significance of trans-Eurasian ozone transport in hemispheric transport of air pollution. Our study further indicates that mitigation of anthropogenic emissions from Europe, the Indian subcontinent, and the Middle East could benefit public health and agricultural productivity in Western China.

  8. Mapping Air Pollution Concentrations and Sources in China from Ground-Level Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohde, R. A.; Muller, R. A.

    2014-12-01

    China has recently established an extensive air quality monitoring system with over 1500 sites providing hourly data on airborne particulate matter (PM2.5 / PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), and carbon monoxide (CO). Based on Kriging interpolation of these surface data, we derive a detailed map of air pollution across the eastern half of China. In northern and central China, the pollution is widespread; contrary to popular belief, pollution is not simply localized to major cities such as Beijing, Shanghai, or Chongqing, or in geologic basins. Pollution levels are lower in southern China, in part due to frequent rains. By incorporating wind measurements and estimating pollution transport, we also infer source distributions for key pollutants. Sources are widespread, but many of the largest sources are often situated in or near major population centers. A northeast corridor extending from near Shanghai to north of Beijing includes many of the most significant pollution sources in China. Roughly 5% of the study region accounts for 25% of observed particulate matter emissions. During the analysis period, roughly half of the population of China was subjected to a long-term average pollution level in the unhealthy range, according to standards used by the US Environmental Protection Agency. In addition, nearly all of China's population (>90%) was exposed to unhealthy levels of air pollution at least some of the time. Based on health impact estimates from the Huai River Study, we estimate that the observed levels of particulate matter pollution contribute to about 1.4 million deaths every year in China, about 3500 per day, in agreement with prior estimates. Identification of sources from pollution data was facilitated by the reporting of hourly measurements, and we encourage other nations around the world to follow China's example and provide such time-resolved data.

  9. Mixing layer height measurements determines influence of meteorology on air pollutant concentrations in urban area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, Klaus; Blumenstock, Thomas; Bonn, Boris; Gerwig, Holger; Hase, Frank; Münkel, Christoph; Nothard, Rainer; von Schneidemesser, Erika

    2015-10-01

    Mixing layer height (MLH) is a key parameter to determine the influence of meteorological parameters upon air pollutants such as trace gas species and particulate concentrations near the surface. Meteorology, and MLH as a key parameter, affect the budget of emission source strengths, deposition, and accumulation. However, greater possibilities for the application of MLH data have been identified in recent years. Here, the results of measurements in Berlin in 2014 are shown and discussed. The concentrations of NO, NO2, O3, CO, PM1, PM2.5, PM10 and about 70 volatile organic compounds (anthropogenic and biogenic of origin) as well as particle size distributions and contributions of SOA and soot species to PM were measured at the urban background station of the Berlin air quality network (BLUME) in Nansenstr./Framstr., Berlin-Neukölln. A Vaisala ceilometer CL51, which is a commercial mini-lidar system, was applied at that site to detect the layers of the lower atmosphere in real time. Special software for these ceilometers with MATLAB provided routine retrievals of MLH from vertical profiles of laser backscatter data. Five portable Bruker EM27/SUN FTIR spectrometers were set up around Berlin to detect column averaged abundances of CO2 and CH4 by solar absorption spectrometry. Correlation analyses were used to show the coupling of temporal variations of trace gas compounds and PM with MLH. Significant influences of MLH upon NO, NO2, PM10, PM2.5, PM1 and toluene (marker for traffic emissions) concentrations as well as particle number concentrations in the size modes 70 - 100 nm, 100 - 200 nm and 200 - 500 nm on the basis of averaged diurnal courses were found. Further, MLH was taken as important auxiliary information about the development of the boundary layer during each day of observations, which was required for the proper estimation of CO2 and CH4 source strengths from Berlin on the basis of atmospheric column density measurements.

  10. Effect of poverty on the relationship between personal exposures and ambient concentrations of air pollutants in Ho Chi Minh City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Sumi; Sbihi, Hind; Dinh, Tuan Nguyen; Xuan, Dan Vu; Le Thi Thanh, Loan; Thanh, Canh Truong; Le Truong, Giang; Cohen, Aaron; Brauer, Michael

    2014-10-01

    Socioeconomic factors often affect the distribution of exposure to air pollution. The relationships between health, air pollution, and poverty potentially have important public health and policy implications, especially in areas of Asia where air pollution levels are high and income disparity is large. The objective of the study was to characterize the levels, determinants of exposure, and relationships between children personal exposures and ambient concentrations of multiple air pollutants amongst different socioeconomic segments of the population of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Using repeated (N = 9) measures personal exposure monitoring and determinants of exposure modeling, we compared daily average PM2.5, PM10, PM2.5 absorbance and NO2 concentrations measured at ambient monitoring sites to measures of personal exposures for (N = 64) caregivers of young children from high and low socioeconomic groups in two districts (urban and peri-urban), across two seasons. Personal exposures for both PM sizes were significantly higher among the poor compared to non-poor participants in each district. Absolute levels of personal exposures were under-represented by ambient monitors with median individual longitudinal correlations between personal exposures and ambient concentrations of 0.4 for NO2, 0.6 for PM2.5 and PM10 and 0.7 for absorbance. Exposures of the non-poor were more highly correlated with ambient concentrations for both PM size fractions and absorbance while those for NO2 were not significantly affected by socioeconomic position. Determinants of exposure modeling indicated the importance of ventilation quality, time spent in the kitchen, air conditioner use and season as important determinant of exposure that are not fully captured by the differences in socioeconomic position. Our results underscore the need to evaluate how socioeconomic position affects exposure to air pollution. Here, differential exposure to major sources of pollution, further influenced by

  11. Concentrations of vehicle-related air pollutants in an urban parking garage.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung R; Dominici, Francesca; Buckley, Timothy J

    2007-11-01

    There is growing evidence that traffic-related air pollution poses a public health threat, yet the dynamics of human exposure are not well understood. The urban parking garage is a microenvironment that is of concern but has not been characterized. Using time-resolved measurement methods, we evaluated air toxics levels within an urban parking garage and assessed the influence of vehicle activity and type on their levels. Carbon monoxide (CO) and particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pPAH) were measured with direct-reading instruments. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured in 30 min intervals using a sorbent tube loaded sequential sampler. Vehicle volume and type were evaluated by video recording. Sampling was conducted from June 24 to July 17, 2002. We observed garage traffic median volumes of 71 counts/h on weekdays and 6 counts/h on weekends. The 12-fold reduction in traffic volume from weekday to weekend corresponded with a decrease in median air pollution that varied from a minimum 2- (CO) to a maximum 7 (pPAH)-fold. The actual 30-min median weekday and weekend values were: CO--2.6/1.2 ppm; pPAH--19/2.6 ng/m(3); 1,3-butadiene-0.5/0.2 microg/m(3), MTBE-7.4/0.4 microg/m(3); and benzene-2.7/0.3 microg/m(3). The influence of traffic was quantified using longitudinal models. The pollutant coefficients provide an indication of the average air pollution vehicle source contribution and ranged from 0.31 (CO) to 1.08 (pPAH) percent increase/vehicle count. For some pollutants, a slightly higher (0.5-0.6%) coefficient was observed for light-trucks relative to cars. This study has public health relevance in providing a unique assessment of air pollution levels and source contribution for the urban parking garage. PMID:17716646

  12. A modeling framework for characterizing near-road air pollutant concentration at community scales

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, we combine information from transportation network, traffic emissions, and dispersion model to develop a framework to inform exposure estimates for traffic-related air pollutants (TRAPs) with a high spatial resolution. A Research LINE source dispersion model (R-LIN...

  13. MONITORING, ANALYSIS AND ESTIMATION OF AIR POLLUTION CONCENTRATIONS FOR THE DETROIT CHILDREN'S HEALTH STUDY (DCHS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research Issue: Spatial analyses of gaseous species and (possibly) particulate matter is in support of NHEERL APM 170 "Publish report on effects of particulate matter and volatile organic chemical air pollutants on children." under NHEERL APG "Characterize long term respiratory h...

  14. Exposure to concentrated coarse air pollution particles causes mild cardiopulmonary effects in young healthy adults

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: There is ample epidemiological and toxicological evidence that exposure to fme air pollution particles (PM2.5), which are primarily derived from combustion processes, can result in increased mortality and morbidity. There is less certainty as to the contribution of coa...

  15. A modeling framework for characterizing near-road air pollutant concentration at community scales.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shih Ying; Vizuete, William; Valencia, Alejandro; Naess, Brian; Isakov, Vlad; Palma, Ted; Breen, Michael; Arunachalam, Saravanan

    2015-12-15

    In this study, we combine information from transportation network, traffic emissions, and dispersion model to develop a framework to inform exposure estimates for traffic-related air pollutants (TRAPs) with a high spatial resolution. A Research LINE source dispersion model (R-LINE) is used to model multiple TRAPs from roadways at Census-block level for two U.S. regions. We used a novel Space/Time Ordinary Kriging (STOK) approach that uses data from monitoring networks to provide urban background concentrations. To reduce the computational burden, we developed and applied the METeorologically-weighted Averaging for Risk and Exposure (METARE) approach with R-LINE, where a set of selected meteorological data and annual average daily traffic (AADT) are used to obtain annual averages. Compared with explicit modeling, using METARE reduces CPU-time by 88-fold (46.8h versus 32min), while still retaining accuracy of exposure estimates. We show two examples in the Piedmont region in North Carolina (~105,000 receptors) and Portland, Maine (~7000 receptors) to characterize near-road air quality. Concentrations for NOx, PM2.5, and benzene in Portland drop by over 40% within 200m away from the roadway. The concentration drop in North Carolina is less than that in Portland, as previously shown in an observation-based study, showing the robustness of our approach. Heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDV) contribute over 55% of NOx and PM2.5 near interstate highways, while light-duty gasoline vehicles (LDGV) contribute over 50% of benzene to urban areas where multiple roadways intersect. Normalized mean error (NME) between explicit modeling and METARE in Portland ranges from 12.6 to 14.5% and normalized mean bias (NMB) ranges from -12.9 to -11.2%. When considering a static emission rate (i.e. the emission does not have temporal variability), both NME and NMB improved (10.5% and -9.5%). Modeled concentrations in Detroit, Michigan at an array of near-road monitors are within a factor of 2

  16. LOCATING NEARBY SOURCES OF AIR POLLUTION BY NONPARAMETRIC REGRESSION OF ATMOSPHERIC CONCENTRATIONS ON WIND DIRECTION. (R826238)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The relationship of the concentration of air pollutants to wind direction has been determined by nonparametric regression using a Gaussian kernel. The results are smooth curves with error bars that allow for the accurate determination of the wind direction where the concentrat...

  17. Benford's Law and the screening of analytical data: the case of pollutant concentrations in ambient air.

    PubMed

    Brown, Richard J C

    2005-09-01

    The need to ensure the robustness of very large data sets produced by analytical measurement processes is increasing. This requires data screening techniques that can identify formatting or transcription errors in large data sets, that have undergone multiple data-handling and manipulation procedures. The empirical observation that the digits 1 to 9 are not equally likely to appear as the initial digit in multi-digit numbers is known as Benford's Law, and may provide a solution to this requirement. Several sets of data pertaining to the measured concentrations of pollutants in ambient air in the UK in 2004 have been analysed for their initial digit frequencies in order to assess the potential for the use of Benford's Law as a data screening, and authenticity-checking, tool for these types of analytical data sets. Benford's Law has been shown to be a robust top-level data screening tool provided that the numerical range of the data set being considered is four orders of magnitude or greater. It has been shown that small changes in the deviation of a data set from Benford's Law may indicate the introduction of errors during data processing. In this way, Benford's Law provides a sensitive technique for identifying data mishandling in large data sets. PMID:16096674

  18. Criteria air pollutants and toxic air pollutants.

    PubMed Central

    Suh, H H; Bahadori, T; Vallarino, J; Spengler, J D

    2000-01-01

    This review presents a brief overview of the health effects and exposures of two criteria pollutants--ozone and particulate matter--and two toxic air pollutants--benzene and formaldehyde. These pollutants were selected from the six criteria pollutants and from the 189 toxic air pollutants on the basis of their prevalence in the United States, their physicochemical behavior, and the magnitude of their potential health threat. The health effects data included in this review primarily include results from epidemiologic studies; however, some findings from animal studies are also discussed when no other information is available. Health effects findings for each pollutant are related in this review to corresponding information about outdoor, indoor, and personal exposures and pollutant sources. Images Figure 3 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:10940240

  19. Indoor Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    We usually think of air pollution as being outdoors, but the air in your house or office could also be polluted. Sources of indoor pollution ... is known as sick building syndrome. Usually indoor air quality problems only cause discomfort. Most people feel ...

  20. Air Pollution Training Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Health Service (DHEW), Rockville, MD.

    This catalog lists the universities, both supported and not supported by the Division of Air Pollution, which offer graduate programs in the field of air pollution. The catalog briefly describes the programs and their entrance requirements, the requirements, qualifications and terms of special fellowships offered by the Division of Air Pollution.…

  1. Air Pollution and Preterm Birth in the U.S. State of Georgia (2002–2006): Associations with Concentrations of 11 Ambient Air Pollutants Estimated by Combining Community Multiscale Air Quality Model (CMAQ) Simulations with Stationary Monitor Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Hua; Chang, Howard H.; Holmes, Heather A.; Mulholland, James A.; Klein, Mitch; Darrow, Lyndsey A.; Strickland, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous epidemiologic studies suggest associations between preterm birth and ambient air pollution. Objective: We investigated associations between 11 ambient air pollutants, estimated by combining Community Multiscale Air Quality model (CMAQ) simulations with measurements from stationary monitors, and risk of preterm birth (< 37 weeks of gestation) in the U.S. state of Georgia. Methods: Birth records for singleton births ≥ 27 weeks of gestation with complete covariate information and estimated dates of conception between 1 January 2002 and 28 February 2006 were obtained from the Office of Health Indicators for Planning, Georgia Department of Public Health (n = 511,658 births). Daily pollutant concentrations at 12-km resolution were estimated for 11 ambient air pollutants. We used logistic regression with county-level fixed effects to estimate associations between preterm birth and average pollutant concentrations during the first and second trimester. Discrete-time survival models were used to estimate third-trimester and total pregnancy associations. Effect modification was investigated by maternal education, race, census tract poverty level, and county-level urbanicity. Results: Trimester-specific and total pregnancy associations (p < 0.05) were observed for several pollutants. All the traffic-related pollutants (carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, PM2.5 elemental carbon) were associated with preterm birth [e.g., odds ratios for interquartile range increases in carbon monoxide during the first, second, and third trimesters and total pregnancy were 1.005 (95% CI: 1.001, 1.009), 1.007 (95% CI: 1.002, 1.011), 1.010 (95% CI: 1.006, 1.014), and 1.011 (95% CI: 1.006, 1.017)]. Associations tended to be higher for mothers with low educational attainment and African American mothers. Conclusion: Several ambient air pollutants were associated with preterm birth; associations were observed in all exposure windows. Citation: Hao H, Chang HH, Holmes HA

  2. Ambient concentrations and personal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in an urban community with mixed sources of air pollution

    PubMed Central

    ZHU, XIANLEI; FAN, ZHIHUA (TINA); WU, XIANGMEI; JUNG, KYUNG HWA; OHMAN-STRICKLAND, PAMELA; BONANNO, LINDA J.; LIOY, PAUL J.

    2014-01-01

    Assessment of the health risks resulting from exposure to ambient polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) is limited by a lack of environmental exposure data among the general population. This study characterized personal exposure and ambient concentrations of PAH in the Village of Waterfront South (WFS), an urban community with many mixed sources of air toxics in Camden, New Jersey, and CopeWood/Davis Streets (CDS), an urban reference area located ~1 mile east of WFS. A total of 54 and 53 participants were recruited from non-smoking households in WFS and CDS, respectively. In all, 24-h personal and ambient air samples were collected simultaneously in both areas on weekdays and weekends during summer and winter. The ambient PAH concentrations in WFS were either significantly higher than or comparable to those in CDS, indicating the significant impact of local sources on PAH pollution in WFS. Analysis of diagnostic ratios and correlation suggested that diesel truck traffic, municipal waste combustion and industrial combustion were the major sources in WFS. In such an area, ambient air pollution contributed significantly to personal PAH exposure, explaining 44–96% of variability in personal concentrations. This study provides valuable data for examining the impact of local ambient PAH pollution on personal exposure and therefore potential health risks associated with environmental PAH pollution. PMID:21364704

  3. Discriminatory Air Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCaull, Julian

    1976-01-01

    Described are the patterns of air pollution in certain large urban areas. Persons in poverty, in occupations below the management or professional level, in low-rent districts, and in black population are most heavily exposed to air pollution. Pollution paradoxically is largely produced by high energy consuming middle-and upper-class households.…

  4. Air Pollution, Teachers' Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavaroni, Charles W.; O'Donnell, Patrick A.

    One of three in a series about pollution, this teacher's guide for a unit on air pollution is designed for use in junior high school grades. It offers suggestions for extending the information and activities contained in the textual material for students. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of air pollution and involves students in processes of…

  5. Air pollution and society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brimblecombe, P.

    2010-12-01

    Air pollution is as much a product of our society as it is one of chemistry and meteorology. Social variables such as gender, age, health status and poverty are often linked with our exposure to air pollutants. Pollution can also affect our behaviour, while regulations to improve the environment can often challenge of freedom.

  6. Comparing toxic air pollutant programs

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkins, S.C.

    1997-05-01

    This article compares state and federal toxic air pollutant programs. The Clean Air Act Ammendments created a program for the control of Hazardous Air Pollutants based on the establishment of control technology standards. State toxic programs can be classified into two categories: control technology-based and ambient concentration-based. Many states have opened to implement the MACT standards while enforcing their own state air toxics programs. Specific topics discussed include the following: the Federal air toxics program; existing state regulations; New Jersey Air Toxic Program; New York Toxics program.

  7. Controlling Indoor Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nero, Anthony V, Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the health risks posed by indoor air pollutants, such as airborne combustion products, toxic chemicals, and radioactivity. Questions as to how indoor air might be regulated. Calls for new approaches to environmental protection. (TW)

  8. Techniques of low technology sampling of air pollution by metals: a comparison of concentrations and map patterns.

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd, O L; Gailey, F A

    1987-01-01

    During a 17 month survey of air pollution in the town of Armadale, central Scotland, the concentrations of some metals (iron, manganese, zinc, lead, copper, chrome, nickel, cadmium, and cobalt) were measured in seven types of low technology sampler--four indigenous and three transplanted--at 47 sites. The geographical patterns of the concentrations in the samplers were compared on two types of map. For most metals, sites with high concentrations were present close to the foundry and also in the north of the town. The differences between the patterns of pollution shown by the various types of sampler probably reflected differing mechanisms for collection and different affinities for various sizes and types of metal particle. Images PMID:3620375

  9. Health Effects of Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health effects of air pollution Health effects of air pollution Breathing air that is not clean can hurt ... important to know about the health effects that air pollution can have on you and others. Once you ...

  10. An analysis of winds affecting air pollution concentrations in Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Shouquan; Lam, Kin-Che

    A study of concentrations of SO 2 and TSP has been performed in Hong Kong. The results were discussed from the standpoint of seasonal, monthly, and weekly variations and wind effects. The monthly mean SO 2 concentrations were in the range of 16.6-43.7 μg m -3 and showed regular seasonal variations with the highest concentrations in summer and the lowest in autumn. On the other hand, the monthly TSP concentrations reached the highest (117.7 μg m -3) in December and the lowest (72.9 μg m -3) in June. The procedure was able to identify that the high SO 2 concentrations were generally associated with the southwesterly and westerly winds, while the high TSP concentrations were usually related to the northerly and westerly winds. From 1983 to 1992, 85% of the total high and severe SO 2 concentration days were observed when there were the SSW-WNW winds over Hong Kong; and 70% of the total severe TSP concentration days occurred in the days with the W-ENE winds. Finally, the proportion of the total SO 2 concentrations contributed by each of the source regions was quantitatively estimated. On an average the power stations, industry, and automobiles, etc., are responsible for 40, 35, and 25% of the total SO 2 concentrations in the urban air of Hong Kong, respectively.

  11. Air Pollution and Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, R. D., Ed.

    This book is an authoritative reference and practical guide designed to help the plant engineer identify and solve industrial air pollution problems in order to be able to meet current air pollution regulations. Prepared under the editorial supervision of an experienced chemical engineer, with each chapter contributed by an expert in his field,…

  12. IMMUNOTOXICITY OF AIR POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The most common ubiquitous air pollutants, as well as some point source (e.g. metals) air pollutants, decrease the function of pulmonary host defense mechanisms against infection. Most of this knowledge is based on animal studies and involves cellular antibacterial defenses such ...

  13. Observation of Elevated Air Pollutant Concentrations in a Residential Neighborhood of Los Angeles California Using a Mobile Platform

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Shishan; Fruin, Scott; Kozawa, Kathleen; Mara, Steve; Winer, Arthur M.

    2013-01-01

    We observed elevated air pollutant concentrations, especially of ultrafine particles (UFP), black carbon (BC) and NO, across the residential neighborhood of the Boyle Heights Community (BH) of Los Angeles, California. Using an electric vehicle mobile platform equipped with fast response instruments, real-time air pollutant concentrations were measured in BH in spring and summer of 2008. Pollutant concentrations varied significantly in the two seasons, on different days, and by time of day, with an overall average UFP concentration in the residential areas of ~33 000 cm−3. The averaged UFP, BC, and NO concentrations measured on Soto St, a major surface street in BH, were 57 000 cm−3, 5.1 µg m−3, and 67 ppb, respectively. Concentrations of UFP across the residential areas in BH were nearly uniform spatially, in contrast to other areas in the greater metropolitan area of Los Angeles where UFP concentrations exhibit strong gradients downwind of roadways. We attribute this “UFP cloud” to high traffic volumes, including heavy duty diesel trucks on the freeways which surround and traverse BH, and substantial numbers of high-emitting vehicles (HEVs) on the surface streets traversing BH. Additionally, the high density of stop signs and lights and short block lengths, requiring frequent accelerations of vehicles, may contribute. The data also support a role for photochemical production of UFP in the afternoon. UFP concentration peaks (5 s average) of up to 9 million particles cm−3 were also observed immediately behind HEVs when they accelerated from stop lights in the BH neighborhood and areas immediately adjacent. Although encounters with HEV during mornings accounted for only about 6% and 17% of time spent monitoring residential areas and major surface streets, HEV contributed to about 28% and 53% of total ultrafine particles measured on the route, respectively. The observation of elevated pollutant number concentrations across the Boyle Heights community

  14. Observation of elevated air pollutant concentrations in a residential neighborhood of Los Angeles California using a mobile platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Shishan; Paulson, Suzanne E.; Fruin, Scott; Kozawa, Kathleen; Mara, Steve; Winer, Arthur M.

    2012-05-01

    We observed elevated air pollutant concentrations, especially of ultrafine particles (UFP), black carbon (BC) and NO, across the residential neighborhood of the Boyle Heights Community (BH) of Los Angeles, California. Using an electric vehicle mobile platform equipped with fast response instruments, real-time air pollutant concentrations were measured in BH in spring and summer of 2008. Pollutant concentrations varied significantly in the two seasons, on different days, and by time of day, with an overall average UFP concentration in the residential areas of ∼33 000 cm-3. The averaged UFP, BC, and NO concentrations measured on Soto St, a major surface street in BH, were 57 000 cm-3, 5.1 μg m-3, and 67 ppb, respectively. Concentrations of UFP across the residential areas in BH were nearly uniform spatially, in contrast to other areas in the greater metropolitan area of Los Angeles where UFP concentrations exhibit strong gradients downwind of roadways. We attribute this “UFP cloud” to high traffic volumes, including heavy duty diesel trucks on the freeways which surround and traverse BH, and substantial numbers of high-emitting vehicles (HEVs) on the surface streets traversing BH. Additionally, the high density of stop signs and lights and short block lengths, requiring frequent accelerations of vehicles, may contribute. The data also support a role for photochemical production of UFP in the afternoon. UFP concentration peaks (5 s average) of up to 9 million particles cm-3 were also observed immediately behind HEVs when they accelerated from stop lights in the BH neighborhood and areas immediately adjacent. Although encounters with HEV during mornings accounted for only about 6% and 17% of time spent monitoring residential areas and major surface streets, HEV contributed to about 28% and 53% of total ultrafine particles measured on the route, respectively. The observation of elevated pollutant concentrations across the Boyle Heights community highlights

  15. Radon as a tool for characterising atmospheric stability effects on air pollution concentrations in model evaluation studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, Scott; Williams, Alastair; Crawford, Jagoda; Griffiths, Alan

    2015-04-01

    A clearer understanding of the variability in near-surface concentrations of pollutants in urban regions is essential for improving the predictive abilities of chemical transport models as well as identifying the need for (and assessing the efficacy of) emission mitigation strategies. Pollutant concentrations in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) are a complex function of many factors, including: source strengths and distribution, local meteorology and air chemistry. On short (sub-diurnal) timescales, the extent of the vertical column within which emissions mix usually has the largest influence on measured concentrations, and the depth of this mixing volume is in turn closely related to wind speed and the thermal stability of the ABL. Continuous hourly observations of the ubiquitous, surface-emitted, passive tracer radon-222 provide a powerful alternative to contemporary meteorological techniques for assessing stability effects on urban pollutants, because radon's concentration is closely matched with pollution transport processes at the surface. Here we outline a technique by which single-height, near-surface (<20m) radon observations can be conditioned to derive a multi-category stability classification scheme for urban pollution monitoring to provide benchmarking tools for local- to regional- chemical transport model evaluations. Efficacy of the radon-based classification scheme is compared to that based on conventional Pasquil-Gifford "turbulence" and "radiation" schemes. Lastly, we apply the radon-based classification scheme to nocturnal mixing height estimates calculated from the diurnal radon accumulation time series, and provide insight to the range of nocturnal mixing depths expected for each of the stability classes.

  16. Air Pollution Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Balmes, John R.; Collard, Harold R.

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution exposure is a well-established risk factor for several adverse respiratory outcomes, including airways diseases and lung cancer. Few studies have investigated the relationship between air pollution and interstitial lung disease (ILD) despite many forms of ILD arising from environmental exposures. There are potential mechanisms by which air pollution could cause, exacerbate, or accelerate the progression of certain forms of ILD via pulmonary and systemic inflammation as well as oxidative stress. This article will review the current epidemiologic and translational data supporting the plausibility of this relationship and propose a new conceptual framework for characterizing novel environmental risk factors for these forms of lung disease. PMID:25846532

  17. Source attribution of air pollutant concentrations and trends in the southeastern aerosol research and characterization (SEARCH) network.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Charles L; Tanenbaum, Shelley; Hidy, George M

    2013-01-01

    A new approach for determining the contributions of emission sources to trends in concentrations of particulate matter and gases is developed using the chemical mass balance (CMB) method and the U.S. EPA's National Emission Inventory (NEI). The method extends our earlier analysis by using temporally varying emission profiles and includes accounting of primary and secondary particulate organic carbon with an empirical regression calculation. The model offers a potentially important tool for verifying that annual emission reductions by major source category have yielded changes in ambient pollutant concentrations. Using long-term measurements from well-instrumented monitoring sites, observed trends in ambient pollutant concentrations at urban and rural locations can be attributed to emission changes. Trends apportionment is conducted on 2000-2011 ambient monitoring data from the SEARCH network with NEI emissions data adjusted to improve interinventory consistency. The application accounts for major source category influences in southeastern U.S. regional trends; local anomalies are noted. In the SEARCH region, open burning is important as a source of CO and carbonaceous particles. Improved agreement between predicted and measured particulate carbon is obtained by increasing mobile diesel exhaust and area-source particulate carbon emissions by 1 and 20%, respectively, compared with NEI values. The method is general and is applicable to data from any monitoring site that is instrumented for criteria air pollutants, associated gases, and particle composition. PMID:24180677

  18. Meta-Analysis on Near-Road Air Pollutants Concentrations for Developing Traffic Indicators for Exposure Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Near-road air pollution has been associated with various health risks in human populations living near roadways. To better understand relationship between vehicle emissions and spatial profiles of traffic-related air pollutants we performed a comprehensive and systematic literat...

  19. Exploring EKC, trends of growth patterns and air pollutants concentration level in Malaysia: A Nemerow Index Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekhet, Hussain A.; >Tahira Yasmin,

    2013-06-01

    The present study examines an Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis by analyzing annual data of air pollutants concentartion and per capita GDP as economic indicator over the (1996-2010) period in Malaysia. Nemerow Index Approach (I) used to generate a measures of air pollution. The results show that ambient air quality indicators supports the EKC hypothesis which stated that pollution levels increase as a country develops, but begin to decrease as rising incomes pass beyond a turning poin. Also, the I result is justifying that most pollutants are showing value less than 1.

  20. Investigating Air Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Edward J.

    1977-01-01

    Describes an experiment using live plants and cigarette smoke to demonstrate the effects of air pollution on a living organism. Procedures include growth of the test plants in glass bottles, and construction and operation of smoking machine. (CS)

  1. AIR POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a chapter for John Wiley & Son's Mechanical Engineers' Handbook, and covers issues involving air pollution control. Various technologies for controlling sulfur oxides is considered including fuel desulfurization. It also considers control of nitrogen oxides including post...

  2. Air pollution from aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heywood, J. B.; Fay, J. A.; Chigier, N. A.

    1979-01-01

    A series of fundamental problems related to jet engine air pollution and combustion were examined. These include soot formation and oxidation, nitric oxide and carbon monoxide emissions mechanisms, pollutant dispension, flow and combustion characteristics of the NASA swirl can combustor, fuel atomization and fuel-air mixing processes, fuel spray drop velocity and size measurement, ignition and blowout. A summary of this work, and a bibliography of 41 theses and publications which describe this work, with abstracts, is included.

  3. Air Pollution Surveillance Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, George B.; And Others

    1970-01-01

    Describes atmospheric data monitoring as part of total airpollution control effort. Summarizes types of gaseous, liquid and solid pollutants and their sources; contrast between urban and rural environmental air quality; instrumentation to identify pollutants; and anticipated new non-wet chemical physical and physiochemical techniques tor cetection…

  4. Local emission of primary air pollutants and its contribution to wet deposition and concentrations of aerosols and gases in ambient air in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aikawa, Masahide; Hiraki, Takatoshi; Tomoyose, Nobutaka; Ohizumi, Tsuyoshi; Noguchi, Izumi; Murano, Kentaro; Mukai, Hitoshi

    2013-11-01

    We studied wet deposition by precipitation and the concentrations of aerosols and gases in ambient air in relation to the primary air pollutants discharged from domestic areas. The concentrations of aerosols and gases were influenced by nearby emissions except for non-sea-salt SO, which is transported long distances. The area facing the Sea of Japan showed much larger wet deposition than other areas, although the domestic emissions of the primary air pollutants there were small and showed a peak in wet deposition from October to March, as distinct from April to September in other areas. We performed the correlation analyses between wet deposition of each component and the product of the concentrations of corresponding aerosols and gases in ambient air and the two-thirds power of the precipitation. From the results, following scavenging processes were suggested. • Sulfate and ammonium were scavenged in precipitation as particulate matter such as (NH4)2SO4 and NH4HSO4. • Nitrate was scavenged mainly in precipitation through gaseous HNO3. • Ammonium was complementarily scavenged in precipitation through aerosols such as (NH4)2SO4 and NH4HSO4 and through gaseous NH3.

  5. Air toxics concentrations, source identification, and health risks: An air pollution hot spot in southwest Memphis, TN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Chunrong; Foran, Jeffery

    2013-12-01

    Southwest Memphis is a residential region surrounded by fossil fuel burning, steel, refining, and food processing industries, and considerable mobile sources whose emissions may pose adverse health risks to local residents. This study characterizes cancer and non-cancer risks resulting from exposure to ambient air toxics in southwest Memphis. Air toxics samples were collected at a central location every 6 days from June 5, 2008 to January 8, 2010. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were collected in evacuated stainless-steel canisters and aldehydes by DNPH cartridges, and samples were analyzed for 73 target compounds. A total of 60 compounds were detected and 39 were found in over 86% of the samples. Mean concentrations of many compounds were higher than those measured in many industrial communities throughout the U.S. The cumulative cancer risk associated with exposure to 13 carcinogens found in southwest Memphis air was 2.3 × 10-4, four times higher than the national average of 5.0 × 10-5. Three risk drivers were identified: benzene, formaldehyde, and acrylonitrile, which contributed 43%, 19%, and 14% to the cumulative risk, respectively. This is the first field study to confirm acrylonitrile as a potential risk driver. Mobile, secondary, industrial, and background sources contributed 57%, 24%, 14%, and 5% of the risk, respectively. The results of this study indicate that southwest Memphis, a region of significant income, racial, and social disparities, is also a region under significant environmental stress compared with surrounding areas and communities.

  6. Air Pollution Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Tuberculosis and Respiratory Disease Association, New York, NY.

    As the dangers of polluted air to the health and welfare of all individuals became increasingly evident and as the complexity of the causes made responsibility for solutions even more difficult to fix, the National Tuberculosis and Respiratory Disease Association felt obligated to give greater emphasis to its clean air program. To this end they…

  7. A Method for Estimating Urban Background Concentrations in Support of Hybrid Air Pollution Modeling for Environmental Health Studies

    PubMed Central

    Arunachalam, Saravanan; Valencia, Alejandro; Akita, Yasuyuki; Serre, Marc L.; Omary, Mohammad; Garcia, Valerie; Isakov, Vlad

    2014-01-01

    Exposure studies rely on detailed characterization of air quality, either from sparsely located routine ambient monitors or from central monitoring sites that may lack spatial representativeness. Alternatively, some studies use models of various complexities to characterize local-scale air quality, but often with poor representation of background concentrations. A hybrid approach that addresses this drawback combines a regional-scale model to provide background concentrations and a local-scale model to assess impacts of local sources. However, this approach may double-count sources in the study regions. To address these limitations, we carefully define the background concentration as the concentration that would be measured if local sources were not present, and to estimate these background concentrations we developed a novel technique that combines space-time ordinary kriging (STOK) of observations with outputs from a detailed chemistry-transport model with local sources zeroed out. We applied this technique to support an exposure study in Detroit, Michigan, for several pollutants (including NOx and PM2.5), and evaluated the estimated hybrid concentrations (calculated by combining the background estimates that addresses this issue of double counting with local-scale dispersion model estimates) using observations. Our results demonstrate the strength of this approach specifically by eliminating the problem of double-counting reported in previous hybrid modeling approaches leading to improved estimates of background concentrations, and further highlight the relative importance of NOx vs. PM2.5 in their relative contributions to total concentrations. While a key limitation of this approach is the requirement for another detailed model simulation to avoid double-counting, STOK improves the overall characterization of background concentrations at very fine spatial scales. PMID:25321872

  8. A method for estimating urban background concentrations in support of hybrid air pollution modeling for environmental health studies.

    PubMed

    Arunachalam, Saravanan; Valencia, Alejandro; Akita, Yasuyuki; Serre, Marc L; Omary, Mohammad; Garcia, Valerie; Isakov, Vlad

    2014-01-01

    Exposure studies rely on detailed characterization of air quality, either from sparsely located routine ambient monitors or from central monitoring sites that may lack spatial representativeness. Alternatively, some studies use models of various complexities to characterize local-scale air quality, but often with poor representation of background concentrations. A hybrid approach that addresses this drawback combines a regional-scale model to provide background concentrations and a local-scale model to assess impacts of local sources. However, this approach may double-count sources in the study regions. To address these limitations, we carefully define the background concentration as the concentration that would be measured if local sources were not present, and to estimate these background concentrations we developed a novel technique that combines space-time ordinary kriging (STOK) of observations with outputs from a detailed chemistry-transport model with local sources zeroed out. We applied this technique to support an exposure study in Detroit, Michigan, for several pollutants (including NOx and PM2.5), and evaluated the estimated hybrid concentrations (calculated by combining the background estimates that addresses this issue of double counting with local-scale dispersion model estimates) using observations. Our results demonstrate the strength of this approach specifically by eliminating the problem of double-counting reported in previous hybrid modeling approaches leading to improved estimates of background concentrations, and further highlight the relative importance of NOx vs. PM2.5 in their relative contributions to total concentrations. While a key limitation of this approach is the requirement for another detailed model simulation to avoid double-counting, STOK improves the overall characterization of background concentrations at very fine spatial scales. PMID:25321872

  9. Particulate Air Pollution: The Particulars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, James E.

    1973-01-01

    Describes some of the causes and consequences of particulate air pollution. Outlines the experimental procedures for measuring the amount of particulate materials that settles from the air and for observing the nature of particulate air pollution. (JR)

  10. Pupils' Understanding of Air Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimitriou, Anastasia; Christidou, Vasilia

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of pupils' knowledge and understanding of atmospheric pollution. Specifically, the study is aimed at identifying: 1) the extent to which pupils conceptualise the term "air pollution" in a scientifically appropriate way; 2) pupils' knowledge of air pollution sources and air pollutants; and 3) pupils' knowledge of air…

  11. Influence of road traffic, residential heating and meteorological conditions on PM10 concentrations during air pollution critical episodes.

    PubMed

    Gualtieri, Giovanni; Toscano, Piero; Crisci, Alfonso; Di Lonardo, Sara; Tartaglia, Mario; Vagnoli, Carolina; Zaldei, Alessandro; Gioli, Beniamino

    2015-12-01

    The importance of road traffic, residential heating and meteorological conditions as major drivers of urban PM10 concentrations during air pollution critical episodes has been assessed in the city of Florence (Italy) during the winter season. The most significant meteorological variables (wind speed and atmospheric stability) explained 80.5-85.5% of PM10 concentrations variance, while a marginal role was played by major emission sources such as residential heating (12.1%) and road traffic (5.7%). The persistence of low wind speeds and unstable atmospheric conditions was the leading factor controlling PM10 during critical episodes. A specific PM10 critical episode was analysed, following a snowstorm that caused a "natural" scenario of 2-day dramatic road traffic abatement (-43%), and a massive (up to +48%) and persistent (8 consecutive days) increase in residential heating use. Even with such a strong variability in local PM10 emissions, the role of meteorological conditions was prominent, revealing that short-term traffic restrictions are insufficient countermeasures to reduce the health impacts and risks of PM10 critical episodes, while efforts should be made to anticipate those measures by linking them with air quality and weather forecasts. PMID:26233744

  12. Intra-urban spatial variability in wintertime street-level concentrations of multiple combustion-related air pollutants: the New York City Community Air Survey (NYCCAS).

    PubMed

    Clougherty, Jane E; Kheirbek, Iyad; Eisl, Holger M; Ross, Zev; Pezeshki, Grant; Gorczynski, John E; Johnson, Sarah; Markowitz, Steven; Kass, Daniel; Matte, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Although intra-urban air pollution differs by season, few monitoring networks provide adequate geographic density and year-round coverage to fully characterize seasonal patterns. Here, we report winter intra-urban monitoring and land-use regression (LUR) results from the New York City Community Air Survey (NYCCAS). Two-week integrated samples of fine particles (PM(2.5)), black carbon (BC), nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) and sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) were collected at 155 city-wide street-level locations during winter 2008-2009. Sites were selected using stratified random sampling, randomized across sampling sessions to minimize spatio-temporal confounding. LUR was used to identify GIS-based source indicators associated with higher concentrations. Prediction surfaces were produced using kriging with external drift. Each pollutant varied twofold or more across sites, with higher concentrations near midtown Manhattan. All pollutants were positively correlated, particularly PM(2.5) and BC (Spearman's r=0.84). Density of oil-burning boilers, total and truck traffic density, and temporality explained 84% of PM(2.5) variation. Densities of total traffic, truck traffic, oil-burning boilers and industrial space, with temporality, explained 65% of BC variation. Temporality, built space, bus route location, and traffic density described 67% of nitrogen dioxide variation. Residual oil-burning units, nighttime population and temporality explained 77% of SO(2) variation. Spatial variation in combustion-related pollutants in New York City was strongly associated with oil-burning and traffic density. Chronic exposure disparities and unique local sources can be identified through year-round saturation monitoring. PMID:23361442

  13. Testing for Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunbar, Artice

    Three experiments are presented in this Science Study Aid to provide the teacher with some fundamental air pollution activities. The first experiment involved particulates, the second deals with microorganisms, and the third looks at gases in the atmosphere. Each activity outlines introductory information, objectives, materials required, procedure…

  14. AIR POLLUTION AND HUMMINGBIRDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A multidisciplinary team of EPA-RTP ORD pulmonary toxicologists, engineers, ecologists, and statisticians have designed a study of how ground-level ozone and other air pollutants may influence feeding activity of the ruby-throated hummingbird (Archilochus colubris). Be...

  15. Effects of air pollution on cell membrane integrity, spectral reflectance and metal and sulfur concentrations in lichens

    SciTech Connect

    Garty, J.; Cohen, Y.; Kloog, N.; Karnieli, A.

    1997-07-01

    The fruticose lichen Ramalina duriaei is generally considered to be sensitive to air pollution. In the present study the authors sought to determine whether thalli of this lichen collected in a remote unpolluted site (the HaZorea Forest, northeast Israel) and transplanted to the Ashdod region (southwest Israel) could provide information on the quality of the air in this area. For this purpose, the concentrations of Pb, Cu, Cd, Ni, Mn, Fe, S, Ca, Mg, Na, and K were determined in in situ thalli collected in the HaZorea Forest in March 1993 and in in situ and transplanted thalli retrieved in June 1993. The concentration of these elements in R. duriaei thalli was analyzed in comparison with physiological parameters such as the integrity of cell membranes, chlorophyll content, and alterations in reflectance responses from lichen thalli. Thalli transplanted to several industrial sites in the town of Ashdod for a period of 100 d accumulated high concentrations of Pb, Cd, Ni, Fe, S, Mg, Na, Ca, and K. The concentration of S in thalli transplanted to the Ashdod region was found to correlate with damage caused to cell membranes and showed and inverse correlation with the chlorophyll content and with the reflectance response of the lichen. The electrical conductivity values corresponding to membrane integrity in the lichen thallus showed an inverse correlation with the ratio of chlorophyll a to pheophytin a, indicating the integrity of the photobiontic chlorophyll and with normalized-difference vegetation index values corresponding to the reflectance response of the thallus. The chlorophyll integrity correlated with the reflectance response. Magnesium accumulated in the lichen thalli in dusty sites and was found to correlate with damage caused to membranes.

  16. Contemporary threats and air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopke, Philip K.

    It is now well understood that air pollution produces significant adverse health effects in the general public and over the past 60 years, there have been on-going efforts to reduce the emitted pollutants and their resulting health effects. There are now shifting patterns of industrialization with many heavily polluting industries moving from developed countries with increasingly stringent air quality standards to the developing world. However, even in decreasing concentrations of pollutants, health effects remain important possibly as a result of changes in the nature of the pollutants as new chemicals are produced and as other causes of mortality and morbidity are reduced. In addition, there is now the potential for deliberate introduction of toxic air pollutants by local armed conflicts and terrorists. Thus, there are new challenges to understand the role of the atmospheric environment on public health in this time of changing economic and demographic conditions overlaid with the willingness to indirectly attack governments and other established entities through direct attacks on the general public.

  17. Meteorological adjustment of yearly mean values for air pollutant concentration comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sidik, S. M.; Neustadter, H. E.

    1976-01-01

    Using multiple linear regression analysis, models which estimate mean concentrations of Total Suspended Particulate (TSP), sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide as a function of several meteorologic variables, two rough economic indicators, and a simple trend in time are studied. Meteorologic data were obtained and do not include inversion heights. The goodness of fit of the estimated models is partially reflected by the squared coefficient of multiple correlation which indicates that, at the various sampling stations, the models accounted for about 23 to 47 percent of the total variance of the observed TSP concentrations. If the resulting model equations are used in place of simple overall means of the observed concentrations, there is about a 20 percent improvement in either: (1) predicting mean concentrations for specified meteorological conditions; or (2) adjusting successive yearly averages to allow for comparisons devoid of meteorological effects. An application to source identification is presented using regression coefficients of wind velocity predictor variables.

  18. Boundary Layer Model for Air Pollutant Concentrations Due to Highway Traffic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ragland, Kenneth W.; Peirce, J. Jeffrey

    1975-01-01

    A numerical solution of the three-dimensional steady-state diffusion equation for a finite width line source is presented. The wind speed and eddy diffusivity as a function of height above the roadway are obtained. Normalized ground level and elevated concentrations near a highway are obtained for winds perpendicular, parallel, and at 45 degrees.…

  19. BIOASSAY OF COMPLEX MIXTURES OF INDOOR AIR POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Indoor air pollution is a complex mixture of chemicals originating from outdoor air and indoor sources. oxicology studies of these mixtures are limited by difficulties in obtaining indoor air samples or appropriately simulated exposures. he concentration of pollutants from indoor...

  20. Contribution of solid fuel, gas combustion or tobacco smoke to indoor air pollutant concentrations in Irish and Scottish homes

    PubMed Central

    Semple, S; Garden, C; Coggins, M; Galea, KS; Whelan, P; Cowie, H; Sánchez-Jimenéz, A; Thorne, PS; Hurley, JF; Ayres, JG

    2012-01-01

    There are limited data describing pollutant levels inside homes that burn solid fuel within developed country settings with most studies describing test conditions or the effect of interventions. This study recruited homes in Ireland and Scotland where open combustion processes take place. Open combustion was classified as coal, peat or wood fuel burning, use of a gas cooker or stove, or where there is at least one resident smoker. 24-hour data on airborne concentrations of particulate matter less than 2.5 microns in size (PM2.5), carbon monoxide (CO), endotoxin in inhalable dust and carbon dioxide (CO2), together with 2–3 week averaged concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were collected in 100 houses during the winter and spring of 2009–2010. The geometric mean of the 24-hour time-weighted-average (TWA) PM2.5 concentration was highest in homes with resident smokers (99μg/m3 – much higher than the WHO 24-hour guidance value of 25 μg/m3. Lower geometric mean 24-hour TWA levels were found in homes that burned coal (7 μg/m3) or wood (6 μg/m3) and in homes with gas cookers (7 μg/m3). In peat-burning homes the average 24-hourPM2.5 level recorded was 11 μg/m3. Airborne endotoxin, CO, CO2 and NO2 concentrations were generally within indoor air quality guidance levels. PMID:22007695

  1. Impacts of Hazardous Air Pollutants Emitted from Phosphate Fertilizer Production Plants on their Ambient Concentration Levels in the Tampa Bay Area

    EPA Science Inventory

    The concentrations and distribution of Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs) metals emitted from four phosphate fertilizer plants in Central Florida, as well as their environmental and health impacts, were assessed. The dominant HAP metals emitted from the stacks of these plants were M...

  2. The impact of shipping emissions on air pollution in the Greater North Sea region - Part 1: Current emissions and concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aulinger, A.; Matthias, V.; Zeretzke, M.; Bieser, J.; Quante, M.; Backes, A.

    2015-04-01

    The North Sea is one of the areas with the highest ship traffic densities worldwide. At any time, about 3000 ships are sailing its waterways. Previous scientific publications have shown that ships contribute significantly to atmospheric concentrations of NOx, particulate matter and ozone. Especially in the case of particulate matter and ozone this influence can even be seen in regions far away from the main shipping routes. In order to quantify the effects of North Sea shipping on air quality in its bordering states, it is essential to determine the emissions from shipping as accurately as possible. Within the Interreg IVb project Clean North Sea Shipping (CNSS) a bottom-up approach was developed and used to thoroughly compile such an emission inventory for 2011 that served as the base year for the current emission situation. The innovative aspect of this approach was to use load dependent functions to calculate emissions from the ships' current activities instead of averaged emission factors for the entire range of the engine loads. These functions were applied to ship activities that were derived from hourly records of Automatic Identification System signals together with a data base containing the engine characteristics of the vessels that traveled the North Sea in 2011. The emission model yielded ship emissions among others of NOx and SO2 in high temporal and spatial resolution that were subsequently used in a chemistry transport model in order to simulate the impact of the emissions on pollutant concentration levels. The total emissions of nitrogen reached 540 Gg and of sulfur oxides 123 Gg within the North Sea, which was about twice as much of those of a medium-sized industrialized European state like the Netherlands. The relative contribution of ships to, for example, NO2 concentration levels ashore close to the sea can reach up to 25% in summer and 15% in winter. Some hundred kilometers away from the sea the contribution was about 6% in summer and 4% in

  3. The impact of shipping emissions on air pollution in the greater North Sea region - Part 1: Current emissions and concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aulinger, A.; Matthias, V.; Zeretzke, M.; Bieser, J.; Quante, M.; Backes, A.

    2016-01-01

    The North Sea is one of the areas with the highest ship traffic densities worldwide. At any time, about 3000 ships are sailing its waterways. Previous scientific publications have shown that ships contribute significantly to atmospheric concentrations of NOx, particulate matter and ozone. Especially in the case of particulate matter and ozone, this influence can even be seen in regions far away from the main shipping routes. In order to quantify the effects of North Sea shipping on air quality in its bordering states, it is essential to determine the emissions from shipping as accurately as possible. Within Interreg IVb project Clean North Sea Shipping (CNSS), a bottom-up approach was developed and used to thoroughly compile such an emission inventory for 2011 that served as the base year for the current emission situation. The innovative aspect of this approach was to use load-dependent functions to calculate emissions from the ships' current activities instead of averaged emission factors for the entire range of the engine loads. These functions were applied to ship activities that were derived from hourly records of Automatic Identification System signals together with a database containing the engine characteristics of the vessels that traveled the North Sea in 2011. The emission model yielded ship emissions among others of NOx and SO2 at high temporal and spatial resolution that were subsequently used in a chemistry transport model in order to simulate the impact of the emissions on pollutant concentration levels. The total emissions of nitrogen reached 540 Gg and those of sulfur oxides 123 Gg within the North Sea - including the adjacent western part of the Baltic Sea until 5° W. This was about twice as much of those of a medium-sized industrialized European state like the Netherlands. The relative contribution of ships to, for example, NO2 concentration levels ashore close to the sea can reach up to 25 % in summer and 15 % in winter. Some hundred kilometers

  4. Solving widespread low-concentration VOC air pollution problems: Gas-phase photocatalytic oxidation answers the needs of many small businesses

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, C; Turchi, C; Gratson, D

    1995-04-01

    Many small businesses are facing new regulations under the 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act. Regulators, as well as the businesses themselves, face new challenges to control small point-source air pollution emissions. An individual business-such as a dry cleaner, auto repair shop, bakery, coffee roaster, photo print shop, or chemical company-may be an insignificant source of air pollution, but collectively, the industry becomes a noticeable source. Often the businesses are not equipped to respond to new regulatory requirements because of limited resources, experience, and expertise. Also, existing control strategies may be inappropriate for these businesses, having been developed for major industries with high volumes, high pollutant concentrations, and substantial corporate resources. Gas-phase photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) is an option for eliminating low-concentration, low-flow-rate emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from small business point sources. The advantages PCO has over other treatment techniques are presented in this paper. This paper also describes how PCO can be applied to specific air pollution problems. We present our methodology for identifying pollution problems for which PCO is applicable and for reaching the technology`s potential end users. PCO is compared to other gas-phase VOC control technologies.

  5. Air pollution source identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fordyce, J. S.

    1975-01-01

    Techniques for air pollution source identification are reviewed, and some results obtained with them are evaluated. Described techniques include remote sensing from satellites and aircraft, on-site monitoring, and the use of injected tracers and pollutants themselves as tracers. The use of a large number of trace elements in ambient airborne particulate matter as a practical means of identifying sources is discussed in detail. Sampling and analysis techniques are described, and it is shown that elemental constituents can be related to specific source types such as those found in the earth's crust and those associated with specific industries. Source identification sytems are noted which utilize charged particle X-ray fluorescence analysis of original field data.

  6. Remote air pollution measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byer, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    This paper presents a discussion and comparison of the Raman method, the resonance and fluorescence backscatter method, long path absorption methods and the differential absorption method for remote air pollution measurement. A comparison of the above remote detection methods shows that the absorption methods offer the most sensitivity at the least required transmitted energy. Topographical absorption provides the advantage of a single ended measurement, and differential absorption offers the additional advantage of a fully depth resolved absorption measurement. Recent experimental results confirming the range and sensitivity of the methods are presented.

  7. Air Pollution Control, Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, Werner, Ed.

    Authoritative reviews in seven areas of current importance in air pollution control are supplied in this volume, the first of a two-part set. Titles contained in this book are: "Dispersion of Pollutants Emitted into the Atmosphere,""The Formation and Control of Oxides of Nitrogen in Air Pollution,""The Control of Sulfur Emissions from Combustion…

  8. The Federal Air Pollution Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Described is the Federal air pollution program as it was in 1967. The booklet is divided into these major topics: History of the Federal Program; Research; Assistance to State and Local Governments; Abatement and Prevention of Air Pollution; Control of Motor Vehicle Pollution; Information and Education; and Conclusion. Federal legislation has…

  9. In Search of Air Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckendorf, Kirk

    2006-01-01

    Air pollution is no longer just a local issue; it is a global problem. The atmosphere is a very dynamic system. Pollution not only changes in chemical composition after it is emitted, but also is transported on local and global air systems hundreds and even thousands of miles away. Some of the pollutants that are major health concerns are not even…

  10. Air pollution from aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heywood, J. B.; Fay, J. A.; Chigier, N. A.

    1979-01-01

    Forty-one annotated abstracts of reports generated at MIT and the University of Sheffield are presented along with summaries of the technical projects undertaken. Work completed includes: (1) an analysis of the soot formation and oxidation rates in gas turbine combustors, (2) modelling the nitric oxide formation process in gas turbine combustors, (3) a study of the mechanisms causing high carbon monoxide emissions from gas turbines at low power, (4) an analysis of the dispersion of pollutants from aircraft both around large airports and from the wakes of subsonic and supersonic aircraft, (5) a study of the combustion and flow characteristics of the swirl can modular combustor and the development and verification of NO sub x and CO emissions models, (6) an analysis of the influence of fuel atomizer characteristics on the fuel-air mixing process in liquid fuel spray flames, and (7) the development of models which predict the stability limits of fully and partially premixed fuel-air mixtures.

  11. Air Pollution, Causes and Cures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manufacturing Chemists Association, Washington, DC.

    This commentary on sources of air pollution and air purification treatments is accompanied by graphic illustrations. Sources of carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and hydrocarbons found in the air are discussed. Methods of removing these pollutants at their source are presented with cut-away diagrams of the facilities and technical…

  12. Outdoor air pollution and asthma

    PubMed Central

    Guarnieri, Michael; Balmes, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Traffic and power generation are the main sources of urban air pollution. The idea that outdoor air pollution can cause exacerbations of pre-existing asthma is supported by an evidence base that has been accumulating for several decades, with several studies suggesting a contribution to new-onset asthma as well. In this Series paper, we discuss the effects of particulate matter (PM), gaseous pollutants (ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and sulphur dioxide), and mixed traffic-related air pollution. We focus on clinical studies, both epidemiological and experimental, published in the previous 5 years. From a mechanistic perspective, air pollutants probably cause oxidative injury to the airways, leading to inflammation, remodelling, and increased risk of sensitisation. Although several pollutants have been linked to new-onset asthma, the strength of the evidence is variable. We also discuss clinical implications, policy issues, and research gaps relevant to air pollution and asthma. PMID:24792855

  13. Air pollution source identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fordyce, J. S.

    1975-01-01

    The techniques available for source identification are reviewed: remote sensing, injected tracers, and pollutants themselves as tracers. The use of the large number of trace elements in the ambient airborne particulate matter as a practical means of identifying sources is discussed. Trace constituents are determined by sensitive, inexpensive, nondestructive, multielement analytical methods such as instrumental neutron activation and charged particle X-ray fluorescence. The application to a large data set of pairwise correlation, the more advanced pattern recognition-cluster analysis approach with and without training sets, enrichment factors, and pollutant concentration rose displays for each element is described. It is shown that elemental constituents are related to specific source types: earth crustal, automotive, metallurgical, and more specific industries. A field-ready source identification system based on time and wind direction resolved sampling is described.

  14. Regional-scale transport of air pollutants: impacts of southern California emissions on Phoenix ground-level ozone concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Georgescu, M.; Hyde, P.; Mahalov, A.; Moustaoui, M.

    2015-03-01

    In this study, WRF-Chem is utilized at high-resolution (1.333 km grid spacing for the innermost domain) to investigate impacts of southern California anthropogenic emissions (SoCal) on Phoenix ground-level ozone concentrations ([O3]) for a pair of recent exceedance episodes. First, WRF-Chem Control simulations are conducted to evaluate model performance. Compared with surface observations of hourly ozone, CO, NOx, and wind fields, the Control simulations reproduce observed variability well. Simulated [O3] are within acceptance ranges recommended by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) that characterize skillful experiments. Next, the relative contribution of SoCal and Arizona local anthropogenic emissions (AZ) to ozone exceedance within the Phoenix metropolitan area is investigated via a trio of sensitivity simulations: (1) SoCal emissions are excluded, with all other emissions as in Control; (2) AZ emissions are excluded with all other emissions as in Control; and (3) SoCal and AZ emissions are excluded (i.e., all anthropogenic emissions are eliminated) to account only for biogenic emissions [BEO]. Results for the selected events indicate the impacts of AZ emissions are dominant on daily maximum 8 h average (DMA8) [O3] in Phoenix. SoCal contributions to DMA8 [O3] for the Phoenix metropolitan area range from a few ppbv to over 30 ppbv (10-30% relative to Control experiments). [O3] from SoCal and AZ emissions exhibit the expected diurnal characteristics that are determined by physical and photochemical processes, while BEO contributions to DMA8 [O3] in Phoenix also play a key role. Finally, ozone transport processes and pathways within the lower troposphere are investigated. During daytime, pollutants (mainly ozone) near the southern California coasts are pumped into the planetary boundary-layer over the southern California desert through the mountain chimney and pass channel effects, aiding eastward transport along the desert air basins in southern California

  15. Regional-scale transport of air pollutants: impacts of Southern California emissions on Phoenix ground-level ozone concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Georgescu, M.; Hyde, P.; Mahalov, A.; Moustaoui, M.

    2015-08-01

    In this study, WRF-Chem is utilized at high resolution (1.333 km grid spacing for the innermost domain) to investigate impacts of southern California anthropogenic emissions (SoCal) on Phoenix ground-level ozone concentrations ([O3]) for a pair of recent exceedance episodes. First, WRF-Chem control simulations, based on the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 2005 National Emissions Inventories (NEI05), are conducted to evaluate model performance. Compared with surface observations of hourly ozone, CO, NOX, and wind fields, the control simulations reproduce observed variability well. Simulated [O3] are comparable with the previous studies in this region. Next, the relative contribution of SoCal and Arizona local anthropogenic emissions (AZ) to ozone exceedances within the Phoenix metropolitan area is investigated via a trio of sensitivity simulations: (1) SoCal emissions are excluded, with all other emissions as in Control; (2) AZ emissions are excluded with all other emissions as in Control; and (3) SoCal and AZ emissions are excluded (i.e., all anthropogenic emissions are eliminated) to account only for Biogenic emissions and lateral boundary inflow (BILB). Based on the USEPA NEI05, results for the selected events indicate the impacts of AZ emissions are dominant on daily maximum 8 h average (DMA8) [O3] in Phoenix. SoCal contributions to DMA8 [O3] for the Phoenix metropolitan area range from a few ppbv to over 30 ppbv (10-30 % relative to Control experiments). [O3] from SoCal and AZ emissions exhibit the expected diurnal characteristics that are determined by physical and photochemical processes, while BILB contributions to DMA8 [O3] in Phoenix also play a key role. Finally, ozone transport processes and pathways within the lower troposphere are investigated. During daytime, pollutants (mainly ozone) near the Southern California coasts are pumped into the planetary boundary-layer over the Southern California desert through the mountain chimney and pass

  16. Fish oil and olive oil supplements attenuate the adverse cardiovascular effects of concentrated ambient air pollution particles exposure in healthy middle-aged adult human volunteers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to ambient levels of air pollution increases cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Advanced age is among the factors associated with susceptibility to the adverse effects of air pollution. Dietary fatty acid supplementation has been shown to decrease cardiovascular ris...

  17. A method to assess the inter-annual weather-dependent variability in air pollution concentration and deposition based on weather typing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pleijel, Håkan; Grundström, Maria; Karlsson, Gunilla Pihl; Karlsson, Per Erik; Chen, Deliang

    2016-02-01

    Annual anomalies in air pollutant concentrations, and deposition (bulk and throughfall) of sulphate, nitrate and ammonium, in the Gothenburg region, south-west Sweden, were correlated with optimized linear combinations of the yearly frequency of Lamb Weather Types (LWTs) to determine the extent to which the year-to-year variation in pollution exposure can be partly explained by weather related variability. Air concentrations of urban NO2, CO, PM10, as well as O3 at both an urban and a rural monitoring site, and the deposition of sulphate, nitrate and ammonium for the period 1997-2010 were included in the analysis. Linear detrending of the time series was performed to estimate trend-independent anomalies. These estimated anomalies were subtracted from observed annual values. Then the statistical significance of temporal trends with and without LWT adjustment was tested. For the pollutants studied, the annual anomaly was well correlated with the annual LWT combination (R2 in the range 0.52-0.90). Some negative (annual average [NO2], ammonia bulk deposition) or positive (average urban [O3]) temporal trends became statistically significant (p < 0.05) when the LWT adjustment was applied. In all the cases but one (NH4 throughfall, for which no temporal trend existed) the significance of temporal trends became stronger with LWT adjustment. For nitrate and ammonium, the LWT based adjustment explained a larger fraction of the inter-annual variation for bulk deposition than for throughfall. This is probably linked to the longer time scale of canopy related dry deposition processes influencing throughfall being explained to a lesser extent by LWTs than the meteorological factors controlling bulk deposition. The proposed novel methodology can be used by authorities responsible for air pollution management, and by researchers studying temporal trends in pollution, to evaluate e.g. the relative importance of changes in emissions and weather variability in annual air pollution

  18. Association between neighbourhood air pollution concentrations and dispensed medication for psychiatric disorders in a large longitudinal cohort of Swedish children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Bråbäck, Lennart; Åström, Daniel Oudin; Strömgren, Magnus; Forsberg, Bertil

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate associations between exposure to air pollution and child and adolescent mental health. Design Observational study. Setting Swedish National Register data on dispensed medications for a broad range of psychiatric disorders, including sedative medications, sleeping pills and antipsychotic medications, together with socioeconomic and demographic data and a national land use regression model for air pollution concentrations for NO2, PM10 and PM2.5. Participants The entire population under 18 years of age in 4 major counties. We excluded cohort members whose parents had dispensed a medication in the same medication group since the start date of the register. The cohort size was 552 221. Main outcome measures Cox proportional hazards models to estimate HRs and their 95% CIs for the outcomes, adjusted for individual-level and group-level characteristics. Results The average length of follow-up was 3.5 years, with an average number of events per 1000 cohort members of ∼21. The mean annual level of NO2 was 9.8 µg/m3. Children and adolescents living in areas with higher air pollution concentrations were more likely to have a dispensed medication for a psychiatric disorder during follow-up (HR=1.09, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.12, associated with a 10 µg/m3 increase in NO2). The association with NO2 was clearly present in 3 out of 4 counties in the study area; however, no statistically significant heterogeneity was detected. Conclusion There may be a link between exposure to air pollution and dispensed medications for certain psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents even at the relatively low levels of air pollution in the study regions. The findings should be corroborated by others. PMID:27259522

  19. Sensitivity of Urban Airshed Model (UAM-IV) calculated air pollutant concentrations to the vertical diffusion parameterization during convective meteorological situations

    SciTech Connect

    Nowacki, P.; Samson, P.J.; Sillman, S.

    1996-10-01

    It is shown that Urban Airshed Model (UAM-IV) calculated air pollutant concentrations during photochemical smog episodes in Atlanta, Georgia, depend strongly on the numerical parameterization of the daytime vertical diffusivity. Results found suggest that vertical mixing is overestimated by the UAM-IV during unstable daytime conditions, as calculated vertical diffusivity values exceed measured and comparable literature values. Although deviations between measured and UAM-IV calculated air pollutant concentrations may only in part be due the UAM-IV diffusivity parameterization, results indicate the large error potential in vertical diffusivity parameterization. Easily implemented enhancements to UAM-IV algorithms are proposed, thus improving UAM-IV modeling performance during unstable stratification. 38 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  20. PLANT RESPONSE TO AIR POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air pollutants have a negative impact on plant growth, primarily through interfering with resource accumulation. ince leaves are in close contact with the atmosphere, many air pollutants, such as O3 and NOx, affect the metabolic function of the leaves and interfere with net carbo...

  1. Children, Pediatricians, and Polluted Air.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Dorothy Noyes

    Explored are children's vulnerability and the pediatrician's role in relation to the problems posed by air pollution. Research is noted to have included a search of biomedical literature over the past 10 years; attendance at medical meetings; conferences with air pollution researchers, environmental protection administrators, and specialists in…

  2. Air Pollution and Human Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lave, Lester B.; Seskin, Eugene P.

    1970-01-01

    Reviews studies statistically relating air pollution to mortality and morbidity rates for respiratory, and cardiovascular diseases, cancer and infant mortality. Some data recalculated. Estimates 50 percent air pollution reduction will save 4.5 percent (2080 million dollars per year) of all economic loss (hospitalization, income loss) associated…

  3. ACRYLONITRILE PLANT AIR POLLUTION CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Based on available literature, the report identifies and ranks (in terms of efficiency, cost, and energy requirements) air pollution control technologies for each of four major air pollutant emission sources in acrylonitrile plants. The sources are: (1) absorber vent gas streams,...

  4. Intercontinental Transport of Air Pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, David; Whung, Pai-Yei; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The development of the global economy goes beyond raising our standards of living. We are in an ear of increasing environmental as well as economic interdependence. Long-range transport of anthropogenic atmospheric pollutants such as ozone, ozone precursors, airborne particles, heavy metals (such as mercury) and persistent organic pollutants are the four major types of pollution that are transported over intercontinental distances and have global environmental effects. The talk includes: 1) an overview of the international agreements related to intercontinental transport of air pollutants, 2) information needed for decision making, 3) overview of the past research on intercontinental transport of air pollutants - a North American's perspective, and 4) future research needs.

  5. Allergic diseases and air pollution

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Suh-Young; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of allergic diseases has been increasing rapidly, especially in developing countries. Various adverse health outcomes such as allergic disease can be attributed to rapidly increasing air pollution levels. Rapid urbanization and increased energy consumption worldwide have exposed the human body to not only increased quantities of ambient air pollution, but also a greater variety of pollutants. Many studies clearly demonstrate that air pollutants potently trigger asthma exacerbation. Evidence that transportation-related pollutants contribute to the development of allergies is also emerging. Moreover, exposure to particulate matter, ozone, and nitrogen dioxide contributes to the increased susceptibility to respiratory infections. This article focuses on the current understanding of the detrimental effects of air pollutants on allergic disease including exacerbation to the development of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and eczema as well as epigenetic regulation. PMID:23956961

  6. Air pollution: Impact and prevention

    PubMed Central

    SIERRA-VARGAS, MARTHA PATRICIA; TERAN, LUIS M

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Air pollution is becoming a major health problem that affects millions of people worldwide. In support of this observation, the World Health Organization estimates that every year, 2.4 million people die because of the effects of air pollution on health. Mitigation strategies such as changes in diesel engine technology could result in fewer premature mortalities, as suggested by the US Environmental Protection Agency. This review: (i) discusses the impact of air pollution on respiratory disease; (ii) provides evidence that reducing air pollution may have a positive impact on the prevention of disease; and (iii) demonstrates the impact concerted polices may have on population health when governments take actions to reduce air pollution. PMID:22726103

  7. Developmental Exposure to Concentrated Ambient Ultrafine Particulate Matter Air Pollution in Mice Results in Persistent and Sex-Dependent Behavioral Neurotoxicity and Glial Activation

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Joshua L.; Liu, Xiufang; Weston, Douglas; Prince, Lisa; Oberdörster, Günter; Finkelstein, Jacob N.; Johnston, Carl J.; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A.

    2014-01-01

    The brain appears to be a target of air pollution. This study aimed to further ascertain behavioral and neurobiological mechanisms of our previously observed preference for immediate reward (Allen, J. L., Conrad, K., Oberdorster, G., Johnston, C. J., Sleezer, B., and Cory-Slechta, D. A. (2013). Developmental exposure to concentrated ambient particles and preference for immediate reward in mice. Environ. Health Perspect. 121, 32–38), a phenotype consistent with impulsivity, in mice developmentally exposed to inhaled ultrafine particles. It examined the impact of postnatal and/or adult concentrated ambient ultrafine particles (CAPS) or filtered air on another behavior thought to reflect impulsivity, Fixed interval (FI) schedule-controlled performance, and extended the assessment to learning/memory (novel object recognition (NOR)), and locomotor activity to assist in understanding behavioral mechanisms of action. In addition, levels of brain monoamines and amino acids, and markers of glial presence and activation (GFAP, IBA-1) were assessed in mesocorticolimbic brain regions mediating these cognitive functions. This design produced four treatment groups/sex of postnatal/adult exposure: Air/Air, Air/CAPS, CAPS/Air, and CAPS/CAPS. FI performance was adversely influenced by CAPS/Air in males, but by Air/CAPS in females, effects that appeared to reflect corresponding changes in brain mesocorticolimbic dopamine/glutamate systems that mediate FI performance. Both sexes showed impaired short-term memory on the NOR. Mechanistically, cortical and hippocampal changes in amino acids raised the potential for excitotoxicity, and persistent glial activation was seen in frontal cortex and corpus callosum of both sexes. Collectively, neurodevelopment and/or adulthood CAPS can produce enduring and sex-dependent neurotoxicity. Although mechanisms of these effects remain to be fully elucidated, findings suggest that neurodevelopment and/or adulthood air pollution exposure may

  8. Developmental exposure to concentrated ambient ultrafine particulate matter air pollution in mice results in persistent and sex-dependent behavioral neurotoxicity and glial activation.

    PubMed

    Allen, Joshua L; Liu, Xiufang; Weston, Douglas; Prince, Lisa; Oberdörster, Günter; Finkelstein, Jacob N; Johnston, Carl J; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A

    2014-07-01

    The brain appears to be a target of air pollution. This study aimed to further ascertain behavioral and neurobiological mechanisms of our previously observed preference for immediate reward (Allen, J. L., Conrad, K., Oberdorster, G., Johnston, C. J., Sleezer, B., and Cory-Slechta, D. A. (2013). Developmental exposure to concentrated ambient particles and preference for immediate reward in mice. Environ. Health Perspect. 121, 32-38), a phenotype consistent with impulsivity, in mice developmentally exposed to inhaled ultrafine particles. It examined the impact of postnatal and/or adult concentrated ambient ultrafine particles (CAPS) or filtered air on another behavior thought to reflect impulsivity, Fixed interval (FI) schedule-controlled performance, and extended the assessment to learning/memory (novel object recognition (NOR)), and locomotor activity to assist in understanding behavioral mechanisms of action. In addition, levels of brain monoamines and amino acids, and markers of glial presence and activation (GFAP, IBA-1) were assessed in mesocorticolimbic brain regions mediating these cognitive functions. This design produced four treatment groups/sex of postnatal/adult exposure: Air/Air, Air/CAPS, CAPS/Air, and CAPS/CAPS. FI performance was adversely influenced by CAPS/Air in males, but by Air/CAPS in females, effects that appeared to reflect corresponding changes in brain mesocorticolimbic dopamine/glutamate systems that mediate FI performance. Both sexes showed impaired short-term memory on the NOR. Mechanistically, cortical and hippocampal changes in amino acids raised the potential for excitotoxicity, and persistent glial activation was seen in frontal cortex and corpus callosum of both sexes. Collectively, neurodevelopment and/or adulthood CAPS can produce enduring and sex-dependent neurotoxicity. Although mechanisms of these effects remain to be fully elucidated, findings suggest that neurodevelopment and/or adulthood air pollution exposure may represent

  9. GIS implementation in air pollution analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Chaaban, F.G.

    1998-07-01

    Air quality modeling and simulation is an indispensable tool used in different environmental studies that attempt to estimate air pollution levels caused by existing or planned combustion processes, to evaluate proposed emission reduction technologies, to select sites for new emission sources, and accordingly to establish emission control strategies in different energy conversion sectors. Modeling techniques, based on established mathematical formulation, are widely used for simulating air pollution caused mainly by the transportation and electric power sectors. Geographic information systems, GIS, link spatial information to alphanumeric information thus developing geographically referenced database. GIS systems have already been incorporated successfully into several fields in the energy sector and are proven to be a very efficient and robust tool for relevant analysis. In the environmental studies, GIS can answer many questions related to air pollution such as pollution sources as well as identification of regions in which the concentration may exceed limits set by local and international standards. The work presented in this paper is aimed at integrating GIS into air pollution analysis. The main objective is to estimate, using advanced graphical illustrations, the concentration levels of different types of air effluents emitted from point, line, or area sources. The integrated package is then used to examine the influence of various mitigation strategies on the air pollutants levels, and hence to evaluate the effectiveness of these strategies. The paper is concluded by case studies from the transportation and power sectors.

  10. Physical activity, air pollution and the brain.

    PubMed

    Bos, Inge; De Boever, Patrick; Int Panis, Luc; Meeusen, Romain

    2014-11-01

    This review introduces an emerging research field that is focused on studying the effect of exposure to air pollution during exercise on cognition, with specific attention to the impact on concentrations of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and inflammatory markers. It has been repeatedly demonstrated that regular physical activity enhances cognition, and evidence suggests that BDNF, a neurotrophin, plays a key role in the mechanism. Today, however, air pollution is an environmental problem worldwide and the high traffic density, especially in urban environments and cities, is a major cause of this problem. During exercise, the intake of air pollution increases considerably due to an increased ventilation rate and particle deposition fraction. Recently, air pollution exposure has been linked to adverse effects on the brain such as cognitive decline and neuropathology. Inflammation and oxidative stress seem to play an important role in inducing these health effects. We believe that there is a need to investigate whether the well-known benefits of regular physical activity on the brain also apply when physical activity is performed in polluted air. We also report our findings about exercising in an environment with ambient levels of air pollutants. Based on the latter results, we hypothesize that traffic-related air pollution exposure during exercise may inhibit the positive effect of exercise on cognition. PMID:25119155

  11. Healthy Neighborhoods: Walkability and Air Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Julian D.; Brauer, Michael; Frank, Lawrence D.

    2009-01-01

    Background The built environment may influence health in part through the promotion of physical activity and exposure to pollution. To date, no studies have explored interactions between neighborhood walkability and air pollution exposure. Methods We estimated concentrations of nitric oxide (NO), a marker for direct vehicle emissions), and ozone (O3) and a neighborhood walkability score, for 49,702 (89% of total) postal codes in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. NO concentrations were estimated from a land-use regression model, O3 was estimated from ambient monitoring data; walkability was calculated based on geographic attributes such as land-use mix, street connectivity, and residential density. Results All three attributes exhibit an urban–rural gradient, with high walkability and NO concentrations, and low O3 concentrations, near the city center. Lower-income areas tend to have higher NO concentrations and walkability and lower O3 concentrations. Higher-income areas tend to have lower pollution (NO and O3). “Sweet-spot” neighborhoods (low pollution, high walkability) are generally located near but not at the city center and are almost exclusively higher income. Policy implications Increased concentration of activities in urban settings yields both health costs and benefits. Our research identifies neighborhoods that do especially well (and especially poorly) for walkability and air pollution exposure. Work is needed to ensure that the poor do not bear an undue burden of urban air pollution and that neighborhoods designed for walking, bicycling, or mass transit do not adversely affect resident’s exposure to air pollution. Analyses presented here could be replicated in other cities and tracked over time to better understand interactions among neighborhood walkability, air pollution exposure, and income level. PMID:20049128

  12. Air pollution and plant life

    SciTech Connect

    Treshow, M.

    1984-01-01

    This book addresses air pollution's sources and movement; biochemical, cellular, and whole-plant effects, impacts on agricultural and natural systems; and control. The effects of convective turbulence and atmospheric stability are well illustrated. The diagnosis of air pollution injury to plants and mimicking symptoms are discussed. The environmental and source variables that affect pollutant dispersion are explained by use of the Gaussian dispersion model. An overview is presented of the effects of sulfur dioxide, photochemical oxidants, and fluoride on stomatal function, photosynthesis, respiration, and metabolic processes and products. Information is discussed concerning combinations of air pollutants, impacts on lichens, and effects of trace metals on plants. The relationship between air pollutants and diseases or other stress factors is evaluated.

  13. Air pollution assessment on city of Tirana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandija, F.; Zoga, P.

    2012-04-01

    Air pollution is one of the hot topics on nowadays studies. This problem is often encountered on urban centers, especially on metropolitan areas. These areas are usually characterized by densely population, heavy traffic rates and the presence of many industrial plants on their suburbs. Problems regarding to air pollution on these areas are more evident over metropolitan areas in developing countries. Air pollution is mostly related to health effects, especially in outdoor environments. These effects regards primarily on respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Air pollution assessment on a specific area requires not only the estimation of pollutant concentrations in that area, but also determination of their principal sources as well as prediction of eventual scenarios on the area under investigation. This study is focused on air pollution assessment on the city of Tirana, which is the major urban centre and the capital city of Albania. This city has about one million inhabitants. During the last 20 years, its population has grown about four fold, and it is still growing. Because of Albania is a developing country, its capital city is involved on serious environmental problems. Considering these facts, we have conducted continuous monitoring campaigns on several sites of Tirana. These monitoring campaigns consist on measurement of several pollutant gases (SO2, CO, CO2, NOx, etc.) and particulate matter over a period of 20 months. In this paper there are obtained diurnal and annual variations of pollutant concentrations, there is modeled their spatial distributions over the area of the city, and there are estimated the potential contributions of principal sources like traffic and industrial plants. During the entire monitoring campaign there are recorded also meteorological parameters, like temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind speed, wind direction, precipitations, etc. In this way we have tried to obtain the correlations between pollutant

  14. Atmospheric Chemistry and Air Pollution

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Gaffney, Jeffrey S.; Marley, Nancy A.

    2003-01-01

    Atmospheric chemistry is an important discipline for understanding air pollution and its impacts. This mini-review gives a brief history of air pollution and presents an overview of some of the basic photochemistry involved in the production of ozone and other oxidants in the atmosphere. Urban air quality issues are reviewed with a specific focus on ozone and other oxidants, primary and secondary aerosols, alternative fuels, and the potential for chlorine releases to amplify oxidant chemistry in industrial areas. Regional air pollution issues such as acid rain, long-range transport of aerosols and visibility loss, and the connections of aerosols to ozonemore » and peroxyacetyl nitrate chemistry are examined. Finally, the potential impacts of air pollutants on the global-scale radiative balances of gases and aerosols are discussed briefly.« less

  15. Air Pollution Primer. Revised Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corman, Rena

    This revised and updated book is written to inform the citizens on the nature, causes, and effects of air pollution. It is written in terms familiar to the layman with the purpose of providing knowledge and motivation to spur community action on clean air policies. Numerous charts and drawings are provided to support discussion of air pollution…

  16. Study of air pollutant detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutshall, P. L.; Bowles, C. Q.

    1974-01-01

    The application of field ionization mass spectrometry (FIMS) to the detection of air pollutants was investigated. Current methods are reviewed for measuring contaminants of fixed gases, sulfur compounds, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, and particulates. Two enriching devices: the dimethyl silicone rubber membrane separator, and the selective adsorber of polyethylene foam were studied along with FIMS. It is concluded that the membrane enricher system is not a suitable method for removing air pollutants. However, the FIMS shows promise as a useable system for air pollution detection.

  17. Rapid increases in the steady-state concentration of reactive oxygen species in the lungs and heart after particulate air pollution inhalation.

    PubMed Central

    Gurgueira, Sonia A; Lawrence, Joy; Coull, Brent; Murthy, G G Krishna; González-Flecha, Beatriz

    2002-01-01

    In vitro studies suggest that reactive oxygen species contribute to the cardiopulmonary toxicity of particulate air pollution. To evaluate the ability of particulate air pollution to promote oxidative stress and tissue damage in vivo, we studied a rat model of short-term exposure to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs). We exposed adult Sprague-Dawley rats to either CAPs aerosols (group 1; average CAPs mass concentration, 300 +/- 60 micro g/m3) or filtered air (sham controls) for periods of 1-5 hr. Rats breathing CAPs aerosols for 5 hr showed significant oxidative stress, determined as in situ chemiluminescence in the lung [group 1, 41 +/- 4; sham, 24 +/- 1 counts per second (cps)/cm2] and heart (group 1, 45 +/- 4; sham, 24 +/- 2 cps/cm2) but not liver (group 1, 10 +/- 3; sham, 13 +/- 3 cps/cm2). Increases in oxidant levels were also triggered by highly toxic residual oil fly ash particles (lung chemiluminescence, 90 +/- 10 cps/cm2; heart chemiluminescence, 50 +/- 3 cps/cm2) but not by particle-free air or by inert carbon black aerosols (control particles). Increases in chemiluminescence showed strong associations with the CAPs content of iron, manganese, copper, and zinc in the lung and with Fe, aluminum, silicon, and titanium in the heart. The oxidant stress imposed by 5-hr exposure to CAPs was associated with slight but significant increases in the lung and heart water content (approximately 5% in both tissues, p < 0.05) and with increased serum levels of lactate dehydrogenase (approximately 80%), indicating mild damage to both tissues. Strikingly, CAPs inhalation also led to tissue-specific increases in the activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase, suggesting that episodes of increased particulate air pollution not only have potential for oxidant injurious effects but may also trigger adaptive responses. PMID:12153754

  18. Hazardous air pollutants and asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Leikauf, George D

    2002-01-01

    Asthma has a high prevalence in the United States, and persons with asthma may be at added risk from the adverse effects of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). Complex mixtures (fine particulate matter and tobacco smoke) have been associated with respiratory symptoms and hospital admissions for asthma. The toxic ingredients of these mixtures are HAPs, but whether ambient HAP exposures can induce asthma remains unclear. Certain HAPs are occupational asthmagens, whereas others may act as adjuncts during sensitization. HAPs may exacerbate asthma because, once sensitized, individuals can respond to remarkably low concentrations, and irritants lower the bronchoconstrictive threshold to respiratory antigens. Adverse responses after ambient exposures to complex mixtures often occur at concentrations below those producing effects in controlled human exposures to a single compound. In addition, certain HAPs that have been associated with asthma in occupational settings may interact with criteria pollutants in ambient air to exacerbate asthma. Based on these observations and past experience with 188 HAPs, a list of 19 compounds that could have the highest impact on the induction or exacerbation of asthma was developed. Nine additional compounds were identified that might exacerbate asthma based on their irritancy, respirability, or ability to react with biological macromolecules. Although the ambient levels of these 28 compounds are largely unknown, estimated exposures from emissions inventories and limited air monitoring suggest that aldehydes (especially acrolein and formaldehyde) and metals (especially nickel and chromium compounds) may have possible health risk indices sufficient for additional attention. Recommendations for research are presented regarding exposure monitoring and evaluation of biologic mechanisms controlling how these substances induce and exacerbate asthma. PMID:12194881

  19. Diurnal concentrations variations, size distributions for ambient air particles and metallic pollutants (Cr, Mn, Ni, Cd, Pb) during summer season at a traffic area.

    PubMed

    Fang, Guor-Cheng; Kuo, Yu-Chen; Zhuang, Yuan-Jie; Chen, Yu-Cheng

    2014-07-01

    This study characterized and discussed particulate ambient air particulate concentrations and seasonal variations for PM18, PM10, PM2.5, and PM1 during June 2013-July 2013 at this traffic sampling site. In addition, this study also characterized the ambient air particulates size distributions by using MOUDI-100S4 sampler to collect 1-day the ambient suspended particles (PM18, PM10, PM2.5, and PM1) at this sampling site. In addition, the study also showed that the main pollutants contributions were from traffic and residual areas. As for the pollutants seasonal concentrations variations, the results indicated that the average particle concentrations orders were all displayed as daytime > nighttime for PM18, PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 at this characteristic sampling site. The results further indicated that the mean highest of metal concentrations in this study indicated that the average metal concentration were all displayed as Mn > Cr > Ni > Pb > Cd for PM18, PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 on daytime and nighttime at this characteristic sampling site. PMID:24619364

  20. The Particulate Air Pollution Controversy

    PubMed Central

    Phalen, Robert F.

    2004-01-01

    Scientists, regulators, legislators, and segments of industry and the lay public are attempting to understand and respond to epidemiology findings of associations between measures of modern particulate air pollutants (PM) and adverse health outcomes in urban dwellers. The associations have been interpreted to imply that tens of thousands of Americans are killed annually by small daily increments in PM. These epidemiology studies and their interpretations have been challenged, although it is accepted that high concentrations of air pollutants have claimed many lives in the past. Although reproducible and statistically significant, the relative risks associated with modern PM are very small and confounded by many factors. Neither toxicology studies nor human clinical investigations have identified the components and/or characteristics of PM that might be causing the health-effect associations. Currently, a massive worldwide research effort is under way in an attempt to identify whom might be harmed and by what substances and mechanisms. Finding the answers is important, because control measures have the potential not only to be costly but also to limit the availability of goods and services that are important to public health. PMID:19330148

  1. Air pollution exposure prediction approaches used in air pollution epidemiology studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies of the health effects of air pollution have traditionally relied upon surrogates of personal exposures, most commonly ambient concentration measurements from central-site monitors. However, this approach may introduce exposure prediction errors and miscla...

  2. Air Pollution Affects Community Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shy, Carl M.; Finklea, John F.

    1973-01-01

    Community Health and Environmental Surveillance System (CHESS), a nationwide program relating community health to environmental quality, is designed to evaluate existing environmental standards, obtain health intelligence for new standards, and document health benefits of air pollution control. (BL)

  3. Western forests and air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, R.K.; Binkley, D.; Boehm, M.

    1992-01-01

    The book addresses the relationships between air pollution in the western United States and trends in the growth and condition of Western coniferous forests. The major atmospheric pollutants to which forest in the region are exposed are sulfur and nitrogen compounds and ozone. The potential effects of atmospheric pollution on these forests include foliar injury, alteration of growth rates and patterns, soil acidification, shifts in species composition, and modification of the effects of natural stresses.

  4. Evaluating sources of indoor air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Tichenor, B.A.; Sparks, L.A.; White, J.B.; Jackson, M.D. )

    1990-04-01

    Evaluation of indoor air pollution problems requires an understanding of the relationship between sources, air movement, and outdoor air exchange. Research is underway to investigate these relationships. A three-phase program is being implemented: (1) Environmental chambers are used to provide source emission factors for specific indoor pollutants; (2) An IAQ (Indoor Air Quality) model has been developed to calculate indoor pollutant concentrations based on chamber emissions data and the air exchange and air movement within the indoor environment; and (3) An IAQ test house is used to conduct experiments to evaluate the model results. Examples are provided to show how this coordinated approach can be used to evaluate specific sources of indoor air pollution. Two sources are examined: (1) para-dichlorobenzene emissions from solid moth repellant; and (2) emissions from unvented kerosene heaters. The evaluation process for both sources followed the three-phase approach discussed above. Para-dichlorobenzene emission factors were determined by small chamber testing at EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory. Particle emission factors for the kerosene heaters were developed in large chambers at the J.B. Pierce Foundation Laboratory. Both sources were subsequently evaluated in EPA's IAQ test house. The IAQ model predictions showed good agreement with the test house measurements when appropriate values were provided for source emissions, outside air exchange, in-house air movement, and deposition on sink surfaces.

  5. Air pollution injury to plants

    SciTech Connect

    Seibert, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    The injuries to plants by oxidant air pollution can be used as biological indicators of pollution episodes. Bel W3 tobacco is often used as an indicator organism. Dogwood is another potential indicator organism. Specific growing procedures used for indicator organisms are described, as are diagnostic criteria for the type and extent of injuries.

  6. Hazardous Air Pollutants

    MedlinePlus

    ... menu Learn the Issues Air Chemicals and Toxics Climate Change Emergencies Greener Living Health and Safety Land and Cleanup Pesticides Waste Water Science & Technology Air Climate Change Ecosystems Health Land, Waste and Cleanup Pesticides Substances ...

  7. Chinese air pollution embodied in trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    Rapid economic development in China has been accompanied by high levels of air pollution in many areas of China. Although researchers have applied a range of methods to monitor and track pollutant emissions in the atmosphere, studies of the underlying economic and technological drivers of this pollution have received considerably less attention. I will present results of a series of studies that have quantified the air pollutants embodied in goods being traded both within China and internationally. The results show that trade is facilitating the concentration of pollution in less economically developed areas, which in turn export pollution-intensive goods to more affluent areas. However, the export-related pollution itself is sometimes transported long distances; for instance, we have quantified the impacts of the Chinese pollution embodied in internationally-exported goods on air quality in the US. These findings important implications for Chinese efforts to curb CO2 emissions and improve air quality. The research to be presented reflects the efforts of a multiple year, ongoing collaboration among interdisciplinary researchers in China, the US and the UK.

  8. Indoor air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-05-01

    This factsheet reviews what is currently known about pollutant sources, abatement and control equipment and techniques for poorly ventilated houses. Radon, formaldehyde, tobacco smokes, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, particulates, bacteria, fungi and viruses are addressed. (PSB)

  9. Air pollution holiday effect in metropolitan Kaohsiung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, P.; Chen, P. Y.

    2014-12-01

    Different from Taipei, the metropolitan Kaohsiung which is a coastal and industrial city has the major pollution sources from stationary sources such as coal-fired power plants, petrochemical facilities and steel plants, rather than mobile sources. This study was an attempt to conduct a comprehensive and systematical examination of the holiday effect, defined as the difference in air pollutant concentrations between holiday and non-holiday periods, over the Kaohsiung metropolitan area. We documented evidence of a "holiday effect", where concentrations of NOx, CO, NMHC, SO2 and PM10 were significantly different between holidays and non-holidays, in the Kaohsiung metropolitan area from daily surface measurements of seven air quality monitoring stations of the Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration during the Chinese New Year (CNY) and non-Chinese New Year (NCNY) periods of 1994-2010. Concentrations of the five pollutants were lower in the CNY than in the NCNY period, however, that of O3 was higher in the CNY than in the NCNY period and had no holiday effect. The exclusion of the bad air quality day (PSI > 100) and the Lantern Festival Day showed no significant effects on the holiday effects of air pollutants. Ship transportation data of Kaohsiung Harbor Bureau showed a statistically significant difference in the CNY and NCNY period. This difference was consistent with those found in air pollutant concentrations of some industrial and general stations in coastal areas, implying the possible impact of traffic activity on the air quality of coastal areas. Holiday effects of air pollutants over the Taipei metropolitan area by Tan et al. (2009) are also compared.

  10. Dependence of urban air pollutants on meteorology.

    PubMed

    Elminir, Hamdy K

    2005-11-01

    Dependence of air pollutants on meteorology is presented with the aim of understanding the governing processes pollutants phase interaction. Intensive measurements of particulate matter (PM10) and gaseous materials (e.g., CO, NO2, SO2, and O3) are carried out regularly in 2002 at 14 measurement sites distributed over the whole territory of Great Cairo by the Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency to assess the characteristics of air pollutants. The discussions in this work are based upon measurements performed at Abbassiya site as a case study. The nature of the contributing sources has been investigated and some attempts have been made to indicate the role played by neighboring regions in determining the air quality at the site mentioned. The results hint that, wind direction was found to have an influence not only on pollutant concentrations but also on the correlation between pollutants. As expected, the pollutants associated with traffic were at highest ambient concentration levels when wind speed was low. At higher wind speeds, dust and sand from the surrounding desert was entrained by the wind, thus contributing to ambient particulate matter levels. We also found that, the highest average concentration for NO2 and O3 occurred at humidityconcentrations occurred at humidity above 80%. PMID:16227082

  11. Vegetation fires and air pollution in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Le, Thanh Ha; Thanh Nguyen, Thi Nhat; Lasko, Kristofer; Ilavajhala, Shriram; Vadrevu, Krishna Prasad; Justice, Chris

    2014-12-01

    Forest fires are a significant source of air pollution in Asia. In this study, we integrate satellite remote sensing data and ground-based measurements to infer fire-air pollution relationships in selected regions of Vietnam. We first characterized the active fires and burnt areas at a regional scale from MODIS satellite data. We then used satellite-derived active fire data to correlate the resulting atmospheric pollution. Further, we analyzed the relationship between satellite atmospheric variables and ground-based air pollutant parameters. Our results show peak fire activity during March in Vietnam, with hotspots in the Northwest and Central Highlands. Active fires were significantly correlated with UV Aerosol Index (UVAI), aerosol extinction absorption optical depth (AAOD), and Carbon Monoxide. The use of satellite aerosol optical thickness improved the prediction of Particulate Matter (PM) concentration significantly. PMID:25108840

  12. Title III hazardous air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Todd, R.

    1995-12-31

    The author presents an overview of the key provisions of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. The key provisions include the following: 112(b) -- 189 Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP); 112(a) -- Major Source: 10 TPY/25 TPY; 112(d) -- Application of MACT; 112(g) -- Modifications; 112(I) -- State Program; 112(j) -- The Hammer; and 112(r) -- Accidental Release Provisions.

  13. AIR POLLUTION AND RESPIRATORY DISEASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concern about polluted air in our urban and industrial areas began gathering momentum shortly after World War II. At that time it seemed obvious that clean air, like clean water, clean food, and a clean body, was a worth while goal in itself, requiring no further justification. B...

  14. Characterizing climate change impacts on human exposures to air pollutants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human exposures to air pollutants such as ozone (O3) have the potential to be altered by changes in climate through multiple factors that drive population exposures, including: ambient pollutant concentrations, human activity patterns, population sizes and distributions, and hous...

  15. Neighbourhood Characteristics and Long-Term Air Pollution Levels Modify the Association between the Short-Term Nitrogen Dioxide Concentrations and All-Cause Mortality in Paris

    PubMed Central

    Deguen, Séverine; Petit, Claire; Delbarre, Angélique; Kihal, Wahida; Padilla, Cindy; Benmarhnia, Tarik; Lapostolle, Annabelle; Chauvin, Pierre; Zmirou-Navier, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Background While a great number of papers have been published on the short-term effects of air pollution on mortality, few have tried to assess whether this association varies according to the neighbourhood socioeconomic level and long-term ambient air concentrations measured at the place of residence. We explored the effect modification of 1) socioeconomic status, 2) long-term NO2 ambient air concentrations, and 3) both combined, on the association between short-term exposure to NO2 and all-cause mortality in Paris (France). Methods A time-stratified case-crossover analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of short-term NO2 variations on mortality, based on 79,107 deaths having occurred among subjects aged over 35 years, from 2004 to 2009, in the city of Paris. Simple and double interactions were statistically tested in order to analyse effect modification by neighbourhood characteristics on the association between mortality and short-term NO2 exposure. The data was estimated at the census block scale (n=866). Results The mean of the NO2 concentrations during the five days prior to deaths were associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality: overall Excess Risk (ER) was 0.94% (95%CI=[0.08;1.80]. A higher risk was revealed for subjects living in the most deprived census blocks in comparison with higher socioeconomic level areas (ER=3.14% (95%CI=[1.41-4.90], p<0.001). Among these deprived census blocks, excess risk was even higher where long-term average NO2 concentrations were above 55.8 μg/m3 (the top tercile of distribution): ER=4.84% (95%CI=[1.56;8.24], p for interaction=0.02). Conclusion Our results show that people living in census blocks characterized by low socioeconomic status are more vulnerable to air pollution episodes. There is also an indication that people living in these disadvantaged census blocks might experience even higher risk following short-term air pollution episodes, when they are also chronically exposed to higher NO2 levels

  16. Climate change and the meteorological drivers of PM air pollution: Understanding U.S. particulate matter concentrations in a changing climate

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particulate matter (PM) air pollution is a serious public health issue for the United States. While there is a growing body of evidence that climate change will partially counter the effectiveness of future precursor emission reductions to reduce ozone (O3) air pollution, the lin...

  17. Lung cancer and air pollution.

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, A J; Pope, C A

    1995-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies over the last 40 years suggest rather consistently that general ambient air pollution, chiefly due to the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, may be responsible for increased rates of lung cancer. This evidence derives from studies of lung cancer trends, studies of occupational groups, comparisons of urban and rural populations, and case-control and cohort studies using diverse exposure metrics. Recent prospective cohort studies observed 30 to 50% increases in lung cancer rates associated with exposure to respirable particles. While these data reflect the effects of exposures in past decades, and despite some progress in reducing air pollution, large numbers of people in the United States continue to be exposed to pollutant mixtures containing known or suspected carcinogens. It is not known how many people in the United States are exposed to levels of fine respirable particles that have been associated with lung cancer in recent epidemiologic studies. These observations suggest that the most widely cited estimates of the proportional contribution of air pollution to lung cancer occurrence in the United States based largely on the results of animal studies, may be too low. It is important that better epidemiologic research be conducted to allow improved estimates of lung cancer risk from air pollution among the general population. The development and application of new epidemiologic methods, particularly the improved characterization of population-wide exposure to mixtures of air pollutants and the improved design of ecologic studies, could improve our ability to measure accurately the magnitude of excess cancer associated with air pollution. PMID:8741787

  18. Mobile monitoring of particle number concentration and other traffic-related air pollutants in a near-highway neighborhood over the course of a year

    PubMed Central

    Padró-Martínez, Luz T.; Patton, Allison P.; Trull, Jeffrey B.; Zamore, Wig; Brugge, Doug; Durant, John L.

    2012-01-01

    Accurate quantification of exposures to traffic-related air pollution in near-highway neighborhoods is challenging due to the high degree of spatial and temporal variation of pollutant levels. The objective of this study was to measure air pollutant levels in a near-highway urban area over a wide range of traffic and meteorological conditions using a mobile monitoring platform. The study was performed in a 2.3-km2 area in Somerville, Massachusetts (USA), near Interstate I-93, a highway that carries 150,000 vehicles per day. The mobile platform was equipped with rapid-response instruments and was driven repeatedly along a 15.4-km route on 55 days between September 2009 and August 2010. Monitoring was performed in 4–6-hour shifts in the morning, afternoon and evening on both weekdays and weekends in winter, spring, summer and fall. Measurements were made of particle number concentration (PNC; 4–3,000 nm), particle size distribution, fine particle mass (PM2.5), particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pPAH), black carbon (BC), carbon monoxide (CO), and nitrogen oxides (NO and NOx). The highest pollutant concentrations were measured within 0–50 m of I-93 with distance-decay gradients varying depending on traffic and meteorology. The most pronounced variations were observed for PNC. Annual median PNC 0–50 m from I-93 was two-fold higher compared to the background area (>1 km from I-93). In general, PNC levels were highest in winter and lowest in summer and fall, higher on weekdays and Saturdays compared to Sundays, and higher during morning rush hour compared to later in the day. Similar spatial and temporal trends were observed for NO, CO and BC, but not for PM2.5. Spatial variations in PNC distance-decay gradients were non-uniform largely due to contributions from local street traffic. Hour-to-hour, day-to-day and season-to-season variations in PNC were of the same magnitude as spatial variations. Datasets containing fine-scale temporal and spatial

  19. Air Pollution in the World's Megacities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richman, Barbara T., Ed.

    1994-01-01

    Reports findings of the Global Environment Monitoring System study concerning air pollution in the world's megacities. Discusses sources of air pollution, air pollution impacts, air quality monitoring, air quality trends, and control strategies. Provides profiles of the problem in Beijing, Los Angeles, Mexico City, India, Cairo, Sao Paulo, and…

  20. Influence of avenue-trees on air quality at the urban neighborhood scale. Part II: traffic pollutant concentrations at pedestrian level.

    PubMed

    Gromke, Christof; Blocken, Bert

    2015-01-01

    Flow and dispersion of traffic-emitted pollutants were studied in a generic urban neighborhood for various avenue-tree layouts by employing 3D steady RANS simulations with the realizable k-ε turbulence model. In comparison to the tree-free situation quantitative and qualitative changes with flow reversal in the wind field were observed. Low to moderate increases (<13.2%) in the neighborhood-averaged pollutant concentration were found at pedestrian level. An approximately 1% increase in the neighborhood-averaged concentration was obtained with each percent of the street canyon volumes being occupied by vegetation for occupation fractions between 4 and 14%. The overall pattern of concentration changes relative to the tree-free situation was similar for all avenue-tree layouts. However, pronounced locally restricted decreases or increases in concentration (-87 to +1378%) occurred. The results indicate the necessity to account for existing or planned avenue-trees in neighborhood scaled is dispersion studies. Their consideration is prerequisite for reliable urban air quality assessment. PMID:25463712

  1. Characterizing multi-pollutant air pollution in China: Comparison of three air quality indices.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jianlin; Ying, Qi; Wang, Yungang; Zhang, Hongliang

    2015-11-01

    Multi-pollutant air pollution (i.e., several pollutants reaching very high concentrations simultaneously) frequently occurs in many regions across China. Air quality index (AQI) is used worldwide to inform the public about levels of air pollution and associated health risks. The current AQI approach used in China is based on the maximum value of individual pollutants, and does not consider the combined health effects of exposure to multiple pollutants. In this study, two novel alternative indices--aggregate air quality index (AAQI) and health-risk based air quality index (HAQI)--were calculated based on data collected in six megacities of China (Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Shjiazhuang, Xi'an, and Wuhan) during 2013 to 2014. Both AAQI and HAQI take into account the combined health effects of various pollutants, and the HAQI considers the exposure (or concentration)-response relationships of pollutants. AAQI and HAQI were compared to AQI to examine the effectiveness of the current AQI in characterizing multi-pollutant air pollution in China. The AAQI and HAQI values are higher than the AQI on days when two or more pollutants simultaneously exceed the Chinese Ambient Air Quality Standards (CAAQS) 24-hour Grade II standards. The results of the comparison of the classification of risk categories based on the three indices indicate that the current AQI approach underestimates the severity of health risk associated with exposure to multi-pollutant air pollution. For the AQI-based risk category of 'unhealthy', 96% and 80% of the days would be 'very unhealthy' or 'hazardous' if based on AAQI and HAQI, respectively; and for the AQI-based risk category of 'very unhealthy', 67% and 75% of the days would be 'hazardous' if based on AAQI and HAQI, respectively. The results suggest that the general public, especially sensitive population groups such as children and the elderly, should take more stringent actions than those currently suggested based on the AQI approach during

  2. Urban air pollution: a representative survey of PM(2.5) mass concentrations in six Brazilian cities.

    PubMed

    de Miranda, Regina Maura; de Fatima Andrade, Maria; Fornaro, Adalgiza; Astolfo, Rosana; de Andre, Paulo Afonso; Saldiva, Paulo

    2012-03-01

    In urban areas of Brazil, vehicle emissions are the principal source of fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)). The World Health Organization air quality guidelines state that the annual mean concentration of PM(2.5) should be below 10 μg m(-3). In a collaboration of Brazilian institutions, coordinated by the University of São Paulo School of Medicine and conducted from June 2007 to August 2008, PM(2.5) mass was monitored at sites with high traffic volumes in six Brazilian state capitals. We employed gravimetry to determine PM(2.5) mass concentrations, reflectance to quantify black carbon concentrations, X-ray fluorescence to characterize elemental composition, and ion chromatography to determine the composition and concentrations of anions and cations. Mean PM(2.5) concentrations and proportions of black carbon (BC) in the cities of São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Belo Horizonte, Curitiba, Recife, and Porto Alegre were 28.1 ± 13.6 μg m(-3) (38% BC), 17.2 ± 11.2 μg m(-3) (20% BC), 14.7 ± 7.7 μg m(-3) (31% BC), 14.4 ± 9.5 μg m(-3) (30% BC), 7.3 ± 3.1 μg m(-3) (26% BC), and 13.4 ± 9.9 μg m(-3) (26% BC), respectively. Sulfur and minerals (Al, Si, Ca, and Fe), derived from fuel combustion and soil resuspension, respectively, were the principal elements of the PM(2.5) mass. We discuss the long-term health effects for each metropolitan region in terms of excess mortality risk, which translates to greater health care expenditures. This information could prove useful to decision makers at local environmental agencies. PMID:22408694

  3. EVALUATING SOURCES OF INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The article discusses a three-phase approach, employing environmental chambers, indoor air quality (IAQ) models, and test house experiments, that is effective in linking sources of indoor pollutants to measured concentrations. mission factors developed in test chambers can be use...

  4. Air pollution and plant life

    SciTech Connect

    Treshow, M.

    1984-01-01

    The publication of this volume could hardly have been more timely, for concern about the damage to plants from air pollution has grown rapidly in the last few years. The book comprises eighteen chapters by contributors of high repute. Three early chapters deal with Dispersion and Fate of Atmospheric Pollutants, Long Range Transport and Monitoring Levels and Effects of Air Pollutants. They provide essential reading for those working on effects in the field, and they set the scene for a contribution from the Volume Editor on the problems of diagnosis. The central chapters (7 to 11) provide, in considerable depth, a summary of the knowledge of the mechanism of action of pollutants on plants, in terms of physiology, biochemistry, and ultrastructure. Particularly valuable is the essay entitled Impact of Air Pollutant Combinations on Plants, which concludes that even though few generalizations are possible, there is now sufficient evidence to suggest that interactions between some pollutants (e.g. SO/sub 2/ and O/sub 3/, SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub 2/) may seriously damage some plants.

  5. [Air pollution and population health].

    PubMed

    Kristoforović-Ilić, Miroslava; Ilić, Miroslav

    2006-10-01

    In the last few decades, there has been increased population concern for quality of environment, for it is, after life style, the second risk factor of disease development. Particular problem is that a large majority of serious impairments of health is manifested only after a long latent period, so it is not always possible to establish clear association with environmental factors. It is considered today that around 40% of lethal cases are caused by polluted environment in various ways, while environment is the most important etiologic factor in 5% of disease incidence. Problems arising due to environment pollution are most frequently related to air pollution. The World Resource Institute, Washington, has developed the indicators for evaluation of risk of environment pollution to population health. There is one common indicator both for developed and developing countries--air pollution. EPA recommended new standards for some polluting substances. The document reviewed these standards and their implementation in our community. New Law on Environment Protection ("Official Gazette of RS" No. 135/2004) from December 20th, 2004, followed by relevant documents on air quality, should be beneficial to experts at the level of subtle diagnostics and proposal of adequate measures with a view to improve the quality of life. PMID:18172966

  6. A Modeling Investigation of Human Exposure to Select Traffic-Related Air Pollutants in the Tampa Area: Spatiotemporal Distributions of Concentrations, Social Distributions of Exposures, and Impacts of Urban Design on Both

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Haofei

    Increasing vehicle dependence in the United States has resulted in substantial emissions of traffic-related air pollutants that contribute to the deterioration of urban air quality. Exposure to urban air pollutants trigger a number of public health concerns, including the potential of inequality of exposures and health effects among population subgroups. To better understand the impact of traffic-related pollutants on air quality, exposure, and exposure inequality, modeling methods that can appropriately characterize the spatiotemporally resolved concentration distributions of traffic-related pollutants need to be improved. These modeling methods can then be used to investigate the impacts of urban design and transportation management choices on air quality, pollution exposures, and related inequality. This work will address these needs with three objectives: 1) to improve modeling methods for investigating interactions between city and transportation design choices and air pollution exposures, 2) to characterize current exposures and the social distribution of exposures to traffic-related air pollutants for the case study area of Hillsborough County, Florida, and 3) to determine expected impacts of urban design and transportation management choices on air quality, air pollution exposures, and exposure inequality. To achieve these objectives, the impacts of a small-scale transportation management project, specifically the '95 Express' high occupancy toll lane project, on pollutant emissions and nearby air quality was investigated. Next, a modeling method capable of characterizing spatiotemporally resolved pollutant emissions, concentrations, and exposures was developed and applied to estimate the impact of traffic-related pollutants on exposure and exposure inequalities among several population subgroups in Hillsborough County, Florida. Finally, using these results as baseline, the impacts of sprawl and compact urban forms, as well as vehicle fleet electrification

  7. Urban air pollution and solar energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gammon, R. B.; Huning, J. R.; Reid, M. S.; Smith, J. H.

    1981-01-01

    The design and performance of solar energy systems for many potential applications (industrial/residential heat, electricity generation by solar concentration and photovoltaics) will be critically affected by local insolation conditions. The effects of urban air pollution are considered and reviewed. A study of insolation data for Alhambra, California (9 km south of Pasadena) shows that, during a recent second-stage photochemical smog alert (greater than or equal to 0.35 ppm ozone), the direct-beam insolation at solar noon was reduced by 40%, and the total global by 15%, from clean air values. Similar effects have been observed in Pasadena, and are attributable primarily to air pollution. Effects due to advecting smog have been detected 200 km away, in the Mojave Desert. Preliminary performance and economic simulations of solar thermal and photovoltaic power systems indicate increasing nonlinear sensitivity of life cycle plant cost to reductions in insolation levels due to pollution.

  8. In Brief: Air pollution app

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2010-10-01

    A new smartphone application takes advantage of various technological capabilities and sensors to help users monitor air quality. Tapping into smartphone cameras, Global Positioning System (GPS) sensors, compasses, and accelerometers, computer scientists with the University of Southern California's (USC) Viterbi School of Engineering have developed a new application, provisionally entitled “Visibility.” Currently available for the Android telephone operating system, the application is available for free download at http://robotics.usc.edu/˜mobilesensing/Projects/AirVisibilityMonitoring. An iPhone application may be introduced soon. Smartphone users can take a picture of the sky and then compare it with models of sky luminance to estimate visibility. While conventional air pollution monitors are costly and thinly deployed in some areas, the smartphone application potentially could help fill in some blanks in existing air pollution maps, according to USC computer science professor Gaurav Sukhatme.

  9. Air pollution in China: Scientific and Public Policy Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, T.

    2014-12-01

    Sever air pollution in China has in recent years caused intensive public, media and governmental attention. Many questions need to be answered about the air pollution in China, such as how harmful is the air pollution, especially PM2.5? Why suddenly so many reports about sever air pollution, is the air in China getting more polluted? How to design a policy that can control the air pollution most efficiently? After updated the national Ambient Air Quality Standards in 2012 and included PM2.5 as one of the critical air pollutants, in 2013, Chinese central government released for the first time the "Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan". The plan has set goals to reduce annual mean concentration of PM2.5 up to 25% in 2017 in different regions in China. If the ambitious goals were achieved, this could be the most significant air pollution reduction in such a short time that affects so many people in human history. To achieve these goals, however, there are enormous scientific and public policy challenges to deal with. For example: Identify the key components, size fraction of PM that have the largest health effects; and identify the sources of PM that has the most harmful effects on human health and ecosystem. Reduce the uncertainty in health risk assessment. Understand complicate chemical transformation processes in air pollution formation with intensive emissions from industry, power plant, vehicles, agriculture. Interactions between air pollution, PBL, and atmospheric circulation at different scales. The accountability, feasibility, effectiveness, and efficiency of air pollution control policies. Integrate multi-pollutant control and achieve co-benefit with climate and energy policy. Regional coordinated air pollution control. The largest challenge in China for air pollution control remains how to strength the link between science and policy.

  10. Trends in emissions and concentrations of air pollutants in the lower troposphere in the Baltimore/Washington airshed from 1997 to 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, H.; Stehr, J. W.; Hains, J. C.; Krask, D. J.; Doddridge, B. G.; Vinnikov, K. Y.; Canty, T. P.; Hosley, K. M.; Salawitch, R. J.; Worden, H. M.; Dickerson, R. R.

    2013-08-01

    Trends in the composition of the lower atmosphere (0-1500 m altitude) and surface air quality over the Baltimore/Washington area and surrounding states were investigated for the period from 1997 to 2011. We examined emissions of ozone precursors from monitors and inventories as well as ambient ground-level and aircraft measurements to characterize trends in air pollution. The US EPA Continuous Emissions Monitoring System (CEMS) program reported substantial decreases in emission of summertime nitrogen oxides (NOx) from power plants, up to ∼80% in the mid-Atlantic States. These large reductions in emission of NOx are reflected in a sharp decrease of ground-level concentrations of NOx starting around 2003. The decreasing trend of tropospheric column CO observed by aircraft is ∼0.8 Dobson unit (DU) per year, corresponding to ∼35 ppbv yr-1 in the lower troposphere (the surface to 1500 m above ground level). Satellite observations of long-term, near-surface CO show a ∼40% decrease over western Maryland between 2000 and 2011; the same magnitude is indicated by aircraft measurements above these regions upwind of the Baltimore/Washington airshed. With decreasing emissions of ozone precursors, the ground-level ozone in the Baltimore/Washington area shows a 0.6 ppbv yr-1 decrease in the past 15 yr. Since photochemical production of ozone is substantially influenced by ambient temperature, we introduce the climate penalty factor (CPF) into the trend analysis of long-term aircraft measurements. After compensating for inter-annual variations in temperature, historical aircraft measurements indicate that the daily net production of tropospheric ozone over the Baltimore/Washington area decreased from ∼20 ppbv day-1 in the late 1990s to ∼7 ppbv day-1 in the early 2010s during ozone season. A decrease in the long-term column ozone is observed as ∼0.2 DU yr-1 in the lowest 1500 m, corresponding to an improvement of ∼1.3 ppbv yr-1. Our aircraft

  11. Phytotoxicity of Air Pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Olszyk, David M.; Tingey, David T.

    1984-01-01

    Pisum sativum L. cv Alsweet (garden pea) and Lycopersicon esculentum flacca Mill. (tomato) were used to evaluate the phytotoxicity of SO2 and O3 in the light and dark. Plants were grown in controlled environment chambers and exposed to SO2 or O3 in the light or dark at the same environmental conditions at which they were grown. The pea plants were treated with fusicoccin to ensure open stomata in the dark; the stomata of the tomato mutant remained open in the dark. Both species exhibited 64% to 80% less foliar necrosis following exposure to SO2 (0.5 to 1.0 microliter per liter for 2 hours) in the light than in the dark. The decrease in SO2 injury for light versus dark exposed plants was greater in fully expanded than expanding leaves. Both species exhibited 30% greater foliar necrosis following exposure to O3 (0.2 microliter per liter for 2 hours) in the light than dark. The increase in O3 injury in the light versus dark was similar for leaves at all stages of expansion. Leaf conductance to water vapor was 7% to 11% and 23% higher in the light than dark for fusicoccin-treated peas and tomato plants, respectively, indicating greater foliar uptake of both pollutants in the light than dark. Thus, the decreased SO2 toxicity in the light was not associated with pollutant uptake, but rather the metabolism of SO2. In contrast, the increased toxicity of O3 in the light was at least in part associated with increased uptake or could not be separated from it. PMID:16663549

  12. ECONOMICS AND PERFORMANCE MODELING (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division's Air Pollution Technology Branch (APTB) is active in the development, refinement, and maintenance of economic and performance evaluation models that provide agency-wide support for estimating costs for air pollution preventio...

  13. High-resolution simulation of link-level vehicle emissions and concentrations for air pollutants in a traffic-populated eastern Asian city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shaojun; Wu, Ye; Huang, Ruikun; Wang, Jiandong; Yan, Han; Zheng, Yali; Hao, Jiming

    2016-08-01

    Vehicle emissions containing air pollutants created substantial environmental impacts on air quality for many traffic-populated cities in eastern Asia. A high-resolution emission inventory is a useful tool compared with traditional tools (e.g. registration data-based approach) to accurately evaluate real-world traffic dynamics and their environmental burden. In this study, Macau, one of the most populated cities in the world, is selected to demonstrate a high-resolution simulation of vehicular emissions and their contribution to air pollutant concentrations by coupling multimodels. First, traffic volumes by vehicle category on 47 typical roads were investigated during weekdays in 2010 and further applied in a networking demand simulation with the TransCAD model to establish hourly profiles of link-level vehicle counts. Local vehicle driving speed and vehicle age distribution data were also collected in Macau. Second, based on a localized vehicle emission model (e.g. the emission factor model for the Beijing vehicle fleet - Macau, EMBEV-Macau), this study established a link-based vehicle emission inventory in Macau with high resolution meshed in a temporal and spatial framework. Furthermore, we employed the AERMOD (AMS/EPA Regulatory Model) model to map concentrations of CO and primary PM2.5 contributed by local vehicle emissions during weekdays in November 2010. This study has discerned the strong impact of traffic flow dynamics on the temporal and spatial patterns of vehicle emissions, such as a geographic discrepancy of spatial allocation up to 26 % between THC and PM2.5 emissions owing to spatially heterogeneous vehicle-use intensity between motorcycles and diesel fleets. We also identified that the estimated CO2 emissions from gasoline vehicles agreed well with the statistical fuel consumption in Macau. Therefore, this paper provides a case study and a solid framework for developing high-resolution environment assessment tools for other vehicle-populated cities

  14. The effect of the Standard Nomenclature for Air Pollution (SNAP) categories on ozone and PM2.5 concentrations over Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tagaris, Efthimios; Sotiropoulou, Rafaella-Eleni P.; Gounaris, Nikos; Andronopoulos, Spyros; Vlachogiannis, Diamando

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study is to estimate the contribution of different anthropogenic emission sources on ozone and PM2.5 concentrations over Europe since anthropogenic activities (and the related emissions) are the reason of air quality degradation. Gridded yearly averaged anthropogenic emissions for the year 2006 over Europe are provided by TNO at a 0.1×0.1 degree resolution. Emission sources have been classified into different activities according to the Standard Nomenclature for Air Pollution (SNAP). The available data include annual total emissions of CH4, CO, NH3, NMVOC, NOx, PM10, PM2.5, and SO2 for both area and point sources in ten (10) SNAP categories: power generation, residential-commercial and other combustion, industrial combustion, industrial processes, extraction distribution of fossil fuels, solvent use, road transport, other mobile sources, waste treatment and disposal, agriculture. Mobile sources and road transport are the major sources of NOx emissions followed by power generation units. Power generation is also the major source for SO2 emissions followed by mobile sources. Agricultural activities dominate NH3 emissions while combustion sources followed by mobile sources and road transport are the main sources for primary PM2.5. Emissions are processed by the Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE) v2.6 modeling system to convert their resolution to the resolution needed by the air quality model The Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) v4.7 Modeling System with the Carbon Bond mechanism (CB05) is used for the regional air quality modeling over Europe at 35km grid spacing. Results quantify the contribution of each SNAP category on ozone and PM2.5 concentrations, locally, across Europe.

  15. Evaluating sources of indoor air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Tichenor, B.A.; Sparks, L.E.; White, J.B.; Jackson, M.D.

    1988-05-01

    This paper discusses a three-phase approach, employing environmental chambers, indoor air quality (IAQ) models, and test-house experiments, that is effective in linking sources of indoor pollutants to measured concentrations. Emission factors developed in test chambers can be used to evaluate full-scale indoor environments. A PC-based IAQ model has been developed that can accurately predict indoor concentrations of specific pollutants under controlled conditions in a test house. The model is also useful in examining the effect of pollutant sinks and variations in ventilation parameters. Pollutants were examined from: (1) para-dichloro-benzene emissions from moth crystal cakes; and, (2) particulate emissions from unvented kerosene heaters. However, the approach has not been validated for other source types, including solvent based materials and aerosol products.

  16. Chemiluminescent detection of organic air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Marley, N.A.; Gaffney, J.S.; Chen, Yu-Harn

    1996-04-01

    Chemiluminescent reactions can be used for specific and highly sensitive detection of a number of air pollutants. Among these are chemiluminescent reactions of ozone with NO or organics and reactions of luminol with a variety of oxidants. Reported here are studies exploring (1) the use of the temperature dependence of the chemiluminescent reactions of ozone with organic pollutants as a means of differentiating types of hydrocarbon classes and (2) the use of luminol techniques to monitor atmospheric concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) and organic oxidants, specifically peroxyacyl nitrates (PANs). Coupling gas chromatography to the chemiluminescent detectors allows the measurement of individual species at very low concentrations.

  17. Air pollution and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Barry A; Brook, Robert; Arden Pope, C

    2015-05-01

    An escalating body of epidemiologic and clinical research provides compelling evidence that exposure to fine particulate matter air pollution contributes to the development of cardiovascular disease and the triggering of acute cardiac events. There are 3 potential mediating pathways that have been implicated, including "systemic spillover," autonomic imbalance, and circulating particulate matter constituents. Further support that the increased morbidity and mortality attributed to air pollution comes from studies demonstrating the adverse cardiovascular effects of even brief periods of exposure to secondhand smoke. Accordingly, persons with known or suspected cardiovascular disease, the elderly, diabetic patients, pregnant women, and those with pulmonary disease should be counseled to limit leisure-time outdoor activities when air pollution is high. Recognizing the insidious and pervasive nature of air pollution, and the associated odds ratios and population attributable fractions for this widely underappreciated chemical trigger of acute cardiovascular events, may serve to maximize the potential for cardiovascular risk reduction by addressing at least a portion of the 10%-25% incidence of coronary disease that is unexplained by traditional risk factors. PMID:25882781

  18. Air Pollution. Part A: Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ledbetter, Joe O.

    Two facets of the engineering control of air pollution (the analysis of possible problems and the application of effective controls) are covered in this two-volume text. Part A covers Analysis, and Part B, Prevention and Control. (This review is concerned with Part A only.) This volume deals with the terminology, methodology, and symptomatology…

  19. Health Effects of Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Education Report and Newsletter, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Summarizes health hazards associated with air pollution, highlighting the difficulty in establishing acceptable thresholds of exposure. Respiratory disease, asthma, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and other problems are addressed. Indicates that a wide range of effects from any one chemical exists and that there are differences in sensitivity to…

  20. Physician's Guide to Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisburd, Mel

    Prepared at the request of the American Medical Association Council on Environmental and Public Health, this pamphlet on air pollution is one of a series of publications published by the Council as part of its continuing responsibility to provide current information on environmental health problems to the physician, the medical society, the…

  1. Air Pollution Control, Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, Werner, Ed.

    This book contains five major articles in areas of current importance in air pollution control. They are written by authors who are actively participating in the areas on which they report. It is the aim of each article to completely cover theory, experimentation, and practice in the field discussed. The contents are as follows: Emissions,…

  2. Comparison of two different passive air samplers (PUF-PAS versus SIP-PAS) to determine time-integrated average air concentration of volatile hydrophobic organic pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seung-Kyu; Park, Jong-Eun

    2014-06-01

    Despite remarkable achievements with r some chemicals, a field-measurement technique has not been advanced for volatile hydrophobic organic chemicals (HOCs) that are the subjects of international concern. This study assesses the applicability of passive air sampling (PAS) by comparing PUF-PAS and its modified SIP-PAS which was made by impregnating XAD-4 powder into PUF, overviewing the principles of PAS, screening sensitive parameters, and determining the uncertainty range of PAS-derived concentration. The PAS air sampling rate determined in this study, corrected by a co-deployed low-volume active air sampler (LAS) for neutral PFCs as model chemicals, was ˜1.2 m3 day-1. Our assessment shows that the improved sorption capacity in a SIP lengthens PAS deployment duration by expanding the linear uptake range and then enlarges the effective air sampling volume and detection frequency of chemicals at trace level. Consequently, volatile chemicals can be collected during sufficiently long times without reaching equilibrium when using SIP, while this is not possible for PUF. The most sensitive parameter to influence PAS-derived CA was an air-side mass transfer coefficient (kA), implying the necessity of spiking depuration chemicals (DCs) because this parameter is strongly related with meteorological conditions. Uncertainty in partition coefficients (KPSM-A or KOA) influences PAS-derived CA to a greater extent with regard to lower KPSM-A chemicals. Also, the PAS-derived CA has an uncertainty range of a half level to a 3-fold higher level of the calculated one. This work is expected to establish solid grounds for the improvement of field measurement technique of HOCs.

  3. Solid Waste, Air Pollution and Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kupchik, George J.; Franz, Gerald J.

    1976-01-01

    This article examines the relationships among solid waste disposal, air pollution, and human disease. It is estimated that solid waste disposal contributes 9.7 percent of the total air pollution and 9.9 percent of the total air pollution health effect. Certain disposal-resource recovery systems can be implemented to meet air quality standards. (MR)

  4. Prediction of corridor effect from the launching of the satellite power system. [air pollutant concentration into narrow band of latitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borucki, W. J.; Whitten, R. C.; Woodward, H. T.; Capone, L. A.; Riegel, C. A.

    1982-01-01

    A diagnostic model is developed to define the parameters which control the corridor effect of contaminants deposited in a narrow latitudinal band of the earth's atmosphere by numerous launches of the STS and heavy lift launch vehicles for construction of satellite solar power systems. Identified factors included the pollution injection rate, the ambient background levels of the pollutant species, and the transport properties related to the dilution rate of the chemicals. If the chemical life of the pollutant was shorter or the same length of time as the transport time, alterations in the chemical production and loss rates were found to be parameters necessarily added to the model. A comparison with NASA Ames Research Center two-dimensional model results indicate that the corridor effect was possile with operations above 60 km in the case of H2O, H2, and NO production.

  5. [Polluting agents and sources of urban air pollution].

    PubMed

    Cocheo, V

    2000-01-01

    This paper is an up-to-date review of the scientific evidence on mechanisms of pollutant generation and health effects for a number of urban air pollutants. The review focuses on main sources and health effect of ozone and photochemical smog, benzene, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and particulate matter. These agents are "priority pollutants", generated by vehicle traffic, and their regulation is currently being examined by the European Council and the European Commission. The aim is to reach, by the year 2010, values lower than 180 micrograms/m3 for ozone as maximum hourly concentration, 2.5 micrograms/m3 for benzene as an annual average, 93 micrograms/m3 for nitrogen dioxide as 98 degrees percentile of hourly concentrations, 50 micrograms/m3 for particulate as a daily average. The goal can be achieved only by means of immediate interventions on emissions. PMID:11293295

  6. A Method for Estimating Urban Background Concentrations in Support of Hybrid Air Pollution Modeling for Environmental Health Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure studies rely on detailed characterization of air quality, either from sparsely located routine ambient monitors or from central monitoring sites that may lack spatial representativeness. Alternatively, some studies use models of various complexities to characterize local...

  7. Health impact of air pollution to children.

    PubMed

    Sram, Radim J; Binkova, Blanka; Dostal, Miroslav; Merkerova-Dostalova, Michaela; Libalova, Helena; Milcova, Alena; Rossner, Pavel; Rossnerova, Andrea; Schmuczerova, Jana; Svecova, Vlasta; Topinka, Jan; Votavova, Hana

    2013-08-01

    Health impact of air pollution to children was studied over the last twenty years in heavily polluted parts of the Czech Republic during. The research program (Teplice Program) analyzed these effects in the polluted district Teplice (North Bohemia) and control district Prachatice (Southern Bohemia). Study of pregnancy outcomes for newborns delivered between 1994 and 1998 demonstrated that increase in intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) was associated with PM10 and c-PAHs exposure (carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) in the first month of gestation. Morbidity was followed in the cohort of newborns (N=1492) up to the age of 10years. Coal combustion in homes was associated with increased incidence of lower respiratory track illness and impaired early childhood skeletal growth up to the age of 3years. In preschool children, we observed the effect of increased concentrations of PM2.5 and PAHs on development of bronchitis. The Northern Moravia Region (Silesia) is characterized by high concentrations of c-PAHs due to industrial air pollution. Exposure to B[a]P (benzo[a]pyrene) in Ostrava-Radvanice is the highest in the EU. Children from this part of the city of Ostrava suffered higher incidence of acute respiratory diseases in the first year of life. Gene expression profiles in leukocytes of asthmatic children compared to children without asthma were evaluated in groups from Ostrava-Radvanice and Prachatice. The results suggest the distinct molecular phenotype of asthma bronchiale in children living in polluted Ostrava region compared to children living in Prachatice. The effect of exposure to air pollution to biomarkers in newborns was analyzed in Prague vs. Ceske Budejovice, two locations with different levels of pollution in winter season. B[a]P concentrations were higher in Ceske Budejovice. DNA adducts and micronuclei were also elevated in cord blood in Ceske Budejovice in comparison to Prague. Study of gene expression profiles in the cord blood showed

  8. Air Pollution and Heart Disease, Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Air Pollution and Heart Disease, Stroke Updated:Aug 30,2016 ... or Longer-Term Acute short-term effects of air pollution tend to strike people who are elderly or ...

  9. Mild Air Pollution of Concern in Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158558.html Mild Air Pollution of Concern in Pregnancy Study found risk for ... Being exposed to just a small amount of air pollution during pregnancy ups the risk of a pregnancy ...

  10. Clean Air Slots Amid Atmospheric Pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hobbs, Peter V.

    2002-01-01

    This article investigates the mechanism for those layers in the atmosphere that are free of air borne pollution even though the air above and below them carry pollutants. Atmospheric subsidence is posed as a mechanism for this phenomenon.

  11. Mild Air Pollution of Concern in Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158558.html Mild Air Pollution of Concern in Pregnancy Study found risk for ... Being exposed to just a small amount of air pollution during pregnancy ups the risk of a pregnancy ...

  12. AIR POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES (CHAPTER 65)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chapter discusses the use of technologies for reducing air pollution emissions from stationary sources, with emphasis on the control of combustion gen-erated air pollution. Major stationary sources include utility power boilers, industrial boilers and heaters, metal smelting ...

  13. Air pollution exposure prediction approaches used in air pollution epidemiology studies.

    PubMed

    Özkaynak, Halûk; Baxter, Lisa K; Dionisio, Kathie L; Burke, Janet

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological studies of the health effects of outdoor air pollution have traditionally relied upon surrogates of personal exposures, most commonly ambient concentration measurements from central-site monitors. However, this approach may introduce exposure prediction errors and misclassification of exposures for pollutants that are spatially heterogeneous, such as those associated with traffic emissions (e.g., carbon monoxide, elemental carbon, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter). We review alternative air quality and human exposure metrics applied in recent air pollution health effect studies discussed during the International Society of Exposure Science 2011 conference in Baltimore, MD. Symposium presenters considered various alternative exposure metrics, including: central site or interpolated monitoring data, regional pollution levels predicted using the national scale Community Multiscale Air Quality model or from measurements combined with local-scale (AERMOD) air quality models, hybrid models that include satellite data, statistically blended modeling and measurement data, concentrations adjusted by home infiltration rates, and population-based human exposure model (Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation, and Air Pollutants Exposure models) predictions. These alternative exposure metrics were applied in epidemiological applications to health outcomes, including daily mortality and respiratory hospital admissions, daily hospital emergency department visits, daily myocardial infarctions, and daily adverse birth outcomes. This paper summarizes the research projects presented during the symposium, with full details of the work presented in individual papers in this journal issue. PMID:23632992

  14. Air Pollution in the Mexico Megacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Suarez, L. G.

    2007-05-01

    Mexico City is a megacity whose metropolitan area includes the country federal district, 18 municipalities of the State of Mexico. In year 1992, only 16 municipalities of the State of Mexico were part of MCMA. In year 1940 the Mexico City population was 1.78 millions in an area of 118 km2, in year 2000 the population was 17.9 millions in an area of 1,500 km2. Population has grown a ten fold whereas population density has dropped 20%. Total number of private cars has grown from 2,341,731 in year 1998 to 2,967,893 in year 2004. Nowadays, people and goods travel longer at lower speed to reach school, work and selling points. In addition highly efficient public transport lost a significant share of transport demand from 19.1 in 1986 to 14.3 in 1998. Air pollution is a public concern since early eighties last century; systematic public efforts have been carried out since late eighties. Energy consumption has steadily increased in the MCMA whereas emissions have also decreased. From year 2000 to 2004, the private cars fleet increased 17% whereas CO, NOx and COV emissions decreased between 20-30%. Average concentrations of criteria pollutants have decreased The number of days that the one-hour national standard for bad air quality was exceeded in year 1990 was 160. In year 2005 was 70. Research efforts and public policies on air pollution have been focused on public health. We are now better able to estimate the cost in human lives due to air pollution, or the cost in labor lost due to illness. Little if none at all work has been carried out to look at the effect of air pollution on private and public property or onto the cultural heritage. Few reports have can be found on the impact of air pollution in rural areas, including forest and crops, around the mega city. Mexico City is in the south end of a Valley with mountain ranges higher than 1000 m above the average city altitude. In spite the heavy loss of forested areas to the city, the mountains still retain large

  15. NUMERICAL OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUES IN AIR QUALITY MODELING. OBJECTIVE INTERPOLATION FORMULAE FOR THE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF POLLUTANT CONCENTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A technique is proposed for objective interpolation of the air quality distribution over a region in terms of sparse measurement data. Empirical information provided by the latter is effectively combined with knowledge of atmospheric dispersion functions of the type commonly used...

  16. Personal exposure of children to air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashmore, M. R.; Dimitroulopoulou, C.

    Changes over recent decades in outdoor concentrations of air pollutants are well documented. However, the impacts of air pollution on an individual's health actually relate not to these outdoor concentrations but to their personal exposure in the different locations in which they spend time. Assessing how personal exposures differ from outdoor concentrations, and how they have changed over recent decades, is challenging. This review focuses on the exposure of children, since they are a particularly sensitive group. Much of children's time is spent indoors, and childhood exposure is closely related to concentrations in the home, at school, and in transport. For this reason, children's personal exposures to air pollutants differ significantly from both those of adults and from outdoor concentrations. They depend on a range of factors, including urbanisation, energy use, building design, travel patterns, and activity profiles; analysis of these factors can identify a wider range of policy measures to reduce children's exposure than direct emission control. There is a very large variation in personal exposure between individual children, caused by differences in building design, indoor and outdoor sources, and activity patterns. Identifying groups of children with high personal exposure, and their underlying causes, is particularly important in regions of the world where emissions are increasing, but there are limited resources for environmental and health protection. Although the science of personal exposure assessment, with the associated measurement and modelling techniques, has developed to maturity in North America and western Europe over the last 50 years, there is an urgent need to apply this science in other parts of the world where the effects of air pollution are now much more serious.

  17. Air pollution modifies floral scent trails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFrederick, Quinn S.; Kathilankal, James C.; Fuentes, Jose D.

    Floral hydrocarbons provide essential signals to attract pollinators. As soon as they are emitted to the atmosphere, however, hydrocarbons are destroyed by chemical reactions involving pollutants such as ozone. It is therefore likely that increased air pollution interferes with pollinator attracting hydrocarbon signals. To test this hypothesis, a Lagrangian diffusion model was used to determine the position of air parcels away from hydrocarbon sources and to estimate the rate of chemical destruction of hydrocarbons as air parcels moved across the landscape. The hydrocarbon compounds linalool, β-myrcene, and β-ocimene were chosen because they are known to be common scents released from flowers. The suppressed ambient abundances of volatile organic compounds were determined in response to increased regional levels of ozone, hydroxyl, and nitrate radicals. The results indicate that the documented increases in air pollution concentrations, from pre-industrial to present times, can lead to reductions in volatile compound concentrations insects detect as they pollinate flowers. For highly reactive volatiles the maximum downwind distance from the source at which pollinators can detect the scents may have changed from kilometers during pre-industrial times to <200 m during the more polluted conditions of present times. The increased destruction of floral signals in polluted air masses may have important implications for both pollinators and signaling plants. When patches of flowers are further apart than the visual range of pollinators, such as in fragmented landscapes, the loss of scent signals may mean that pollinators spend more time searching for patches and less time foraging. This decrease in pollinator foraging efficiency will simultaneously decrease the pollinator's reproductive output and the amount of pollen flow in flowering plants.

  18. Regional air pollution over Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krysztofiak, G.; Catoire, V.; Dorf, M.; Grossmann, K.; Hamer, P. D.; Marécal, V.; Reiter, A.; Schlager, H.; Eckhardt, S.; Jurkat, T.; Oram, D.; Quack, B.; Atlas, E.; Pfeilsticker, K.

    2012-12-01

    During the SHIVA (Stratospheric Ozone: Halogen Impacts in a Varying Atmosphere) campaign in Nov. and Dec. 2011 a number of polluted air masses were observed in the marine and terrestrial boundary layer (0 - 2 km) and in the free troposphere (2 - 12 km) over Borneo/Malaysia. The measurements include isoprene, CO, CO2, CH4, N2O, NO2, SO2 as primary pollutants, O3 and HCHO as secondary pollutants, and meteorological parameters. This set of trace gases can be used to fingerprint different sources of local and regional air pollution (e.g., biomass burning and fossil fuel burning, gas flaring on oil rigs, emission of ships and from urban areas, volcanic emissions, and biogenic emissions). Individual sources and location can be identified when the measurements are combined with a nested-grid regional scale chemical and meteorological model and lagrangian particle dispersion model (e.g., CCATT-BRAMS and FLEXPART). In the case of the former, emission inventories of the primary pollutants provide the basis for the trace gas simulations. In this region, the anthropogenic influence on air pollution seems to dominate over natural causes. For example, CO2 and CH4 often show strong correlations with CO, suggesting biomass burning or urban fossil fuel combustion dominates the combustion sources. The study of the CO/CO2 and CH4/CO ratios can help separate anthropogenic combustion from biomass burning pollution sources. In addition, these ratios can be used as a measure of combustion efficiency to help place the type of biomass burning particular to this region within the wider context of fire types found globally. On several occasions, CH4 enhancements are observed near the ocean surface, which are not directly correlated with CO enhancements thus indicating a non-combustion-related CH4 source. Positive correlations between SO2 and CO show the anthropogenic influence of oil rigs located in the South China Sea. Furthermore, SO2 enhancements are observed without any increase in CO

  19. REGIONAL AIR POLLUTION STUDY, EMISSION INVENTORY SUMMARIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the Regional Air Pollution Study (RAPS), data for an air pollution emission inventory are summarized for point and area sources in the St. Louis Air Quality Control Region. Data for point sources were collected for criteria and noncriteria pollutants, hydrocarbons, sul...

  20. Air pollution ranks as largest health risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendel, JoAnna

    2014-04-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) reports that 7 million people died in 2012 from air-pollution-related sicknesses, marking air pollution as the single largest environmental health risk. This finding, a result of better knowledge and assessment of the diseases, is more than double previous estimates of the risk of death from air pollution.

  1. Product Guide/1972 [Air Pollution Control Association].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association, 1971

    1971-01-01

    Reprinted in this pamphlet is the fifth annual directory of air pollution control products as compiled in the "Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association" for December, 1971. The 16-page guide lists manufacturers of emission control equipment and air pollution instrumentation under product classifications as derived from McGraw-Hill's "Air…

  2. The Crisis in Air Pollution Manpower Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moeller, Dade W.

    1974-01-01

    Three studies conducted by the National Air Pollution Manpower Development Advisory Committee concluded there is a crisis in air pollution manpower development within the United States today. The studies investigated the existing federal manpower program, air pollution educational requirements and the quality of graduate level university programs.…

  3. Air Pollution. Environmental Ecological Education Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkway School District, Chesterfield, MO.

    This unit, designed for senior high school students, focuses on air pollution by examining its effect on man, plants and animals, the causes of air pollution, and possible solutions to the air pollution problems. It approaches each of these topics through both natural science and social science perspectives. The unit is divided into seven separate…

  4. Association between Air Pollution and Hemoptysis

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Olive, Ignasi; Radua, Joaquim; Fiz, Jose Antonio; Sanz-Santos, Jose; Ruiz-Manzano, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Background. The relationship between air pollution and exacerbation of respiratory diseases is well established. Nevertheless, its association with hemoptysis has been poorly investigated. This paper describes the relationship of air pollutants with severe hemoptysis. Methods. All consecutive subjects with severe hemoptysis during a 5-year period were included. The relationship between the contamination measurements and the frequency of embolizations was analyzed using Poisson regressions. In these regressions, the dependent variable was the monthly number of embolizations in a given month and the independent variable was either the concentration of an air contaminant during the same month, the concentration of the air contaminant during the previous month, or the difference between the two. Results. A higher total number of embolizations per month were observed over the months with increases in the concentration of NO. The number of embolizations was 2.0 in the 33 months with no increases in the concentration of NO, 2.1 in the 12 months with small increases, 2.2 in the 5 months with moderate increases, 2.5 in the 4 months with large increases, and 4.0 in the 5 months with very large increases. Conclusion. There is association between hemoptysis and increases in the concentration of atmospheric NO in Badalona (Spain). PMID:27445569

  5. Early life exposure to air pollution: how bad is it?

    PubMed

    Backes, Carl H; Nelin, Timothy; Gorr, Matthew W; Wold, Loren E

    2013-01-10

    Increasing concentrations of air pollution have been shown to contribute to an enormity of adverse health outcomes worldwide, which have been observed in clinical, epidemiological, and animal studies as well as in vitro investigations. Recently, studies have shown that air pollution can affect the developing fetus via maternal exposure, resulting in preterm birth, low birth weight, growth restriction, and potentially adverse cardiovascular and respiratory outcomes. This review will provide a summary of the harmful effects of air pollution exposure on the developing fetus and infant, and suggest potential mechanisms to limit the exposure of pregnant mothers and infants to air pollution. PMID:23164674

  6. Early Life Exposure to Air Pollution: How Bad Is It?

    PubMed Central

    Backes, Carl H.; Nelin, Timothy; Gorr, Matthew W.; Wold, Loren E.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing concentrations of air pollution have been shown to contribute to an enormity of adverse health outcomes worldwide, which have been observed in clinical, epidemiological, and animal studies as well as in vitro investigations. Recently, studies have shown that air pollution can affect the developing fetus via maternal exposure, resulting in preterm birth, low birth weight, growth restriction, and potentially adverse cardiovascular and respiratory outcomes. This review will provide a summary of the harmful effects of air pollution exposure on the developing fetus and infant, and suggest potential mechanisms to limit the exposure of pregnant mothers and infants to air pollution. PMID:23164674

  7. QUANTIFYING SUBGRID POLLUTANT VARIABILITY IN EULERIAN AIR QUALITY MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to properly assess human risk due to exposure to hazardous air pollutants or air toxics, detailed information is needed on the location and magnitude of ambient air toxic concentrations. Regional scale Eulerian air quality models are typically limited to relatively coar...

  8. Air Pollution and Control Legislation in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    P Bhave, Prashant; Kulkarni, Nikhil

    2015-09-01

    Air pollution in urban areas arises from multiple sources, which may vary with location and developmental activities. Anthropogenic activities as rampant industrialization, exploitation and over consumption of natural resources, ever growing population size are major contributors of air pollution. The presented review is an effort to discuss various aspects of air pollution and control legislation in India emphasizing on the history, present scenario, international treaties, gaps and drawbacks. The review also presents legislative controls with judicial response to certain landmark judgments related to air pollution. The down sides related to enforcement mechanism for the effective implementation of environmental laws for air pollution control have been highlighted.

  9. Air pollution and congenital heart defects.

    PubMed

    Agay-Shay, Keren; Friger, Michael; Linn, Shai; Peled, Ammatzia; Amitai, Yona; Peretz, Chava

    2013-07-01

    Environmental factors such as ambient air pollution have been associated with congenital heart defects. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between gestational exposure to air pollution and the risk of congenital heart defects. We conducted a registry-based cohort study with a total of 135,527 live- and still-births in the Tel-Aviv region during 2000-2006. We used a Geographic Information System-based spatiotemporal approach with weekly inverse distance weighting modeling to evaluate associations between gestational exposure to ambient air pollution during weeks 3-8 of pregnancy and the risk for congenital heart defects. The following pollutants were studied: carbon monoxide, nitrogen-dioxide, ozone, sulfur-dioxide and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 μm and 2.5 μm (PM10, PM2.5 respectively). Logistic models, adjusted for socio-demographic covariates were used to evaluate the associations. We found that maternal exposure to increased concentrations of PM10 was associated with multiple congenital heart defects (adjusted OR 1.05, 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.10 for 10 μg/m(3) increment). An inverse association was observed between concentrations of PM2.5 and isolated patent ductus arteriosus (adjusted OR 0.78, 95% CI: 0.68 to 0.91 for 5 µg/m(3) increment). Sensitivity analyses showed that results were consistent. Generally there were no evidence for an association between gaseous air pollutants and congenital heart defects.Our results for PM10 and congenital heart defects confirm results from previous studies. The results for PM2.5 need further investigations. PMID:23623715

  10. Results of the California Healthy Homes Indoor Air Quality Study of 2011-2013: impact of natural gas appliances on air pollutant concentrations.

    PubMed

    Mullen, N A; Li, J; Russell, M L; Spears, M; Less, B D; Singer, B C

    2016-04-01

    This study was conducted to assess the current impact of natural gas appliances on air quality in California homes. Data were collected via telephone interviews and measurements inside and outside of 352 homes. Passive samplers measured time-resolved CO and time-integrated NOX , NO2 , formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde over ~6-day periods in November 2011 - April 2012 and October 2012 - March 2013. The fraction of indoor NOX and NO2 attributable to indoor sources was estimated. NOX , NO2 , and highest 1-h CO were higher in homes that cooked with gas and increased with amount of gas cooking. NOX and NO2 were higher in homes with cooktop pilot burners, relative to gas cooking without pilots. Homes with a pilot burner on a floor or wall furnace had higher kitchen and bedroom NOX and NO2 compared to homes without a furnace pilot. When scaled to account for varying home size and mixing volume, indoor-attributed bedroom and kitchen NOX and kitchen NO2 were not higher in homes with wall or floor furnace pilot burners, although bedroom NO2 was higher. In homes that cooked 4 h or more with gas, self-reported use of kitchen exhaust was associated with lower NOX , NO2 , and highest 1-h CO. Gas appliances were not associated with higher concentrations of formaldehyde or acetaldehyde. PMID:25647016

  11. Results of the California Healthy Homes Indoor Air Quality Study of 2011-2013: Impact of natural gas appliances on air pollutant concentrations

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Mullen, Nasim A.; Li, Jina; Russell, Marion L.; Spears, Michael; Less, Brennan D.; Singer, Brett C.

    2015-03-17

    This study was conducted to assess the current impact of natural gas appliances on air quality in California homes. Data were collected via telephone interviews and measurements inside and outside of 352 homes. Passive samplers measured time-resolved CO and time-integrated NOX, NO2, formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde over ~6d periods in November 2011 - April 2012 and October 2012 - March 2013. The fraction of indoor NOX and NO2 attributable to indoor sources was estimated. NOX, NO2 and highest 1-h CO were higher in homes that cooked with gas and increased with amount of gas cooking. NOX and NO2 were higher inmore » homes with cooktop pilot burners, relative to gas cooking without pilots. Homes with a pilot burner on a floor or wall furnace had higher kitchen and bedroom NOX and NO2 compared to homes without a furnace pilot. When scaled to account for varying home size and mixing volume, indoor-attributed bedroom and kitchen NOX and kitchen NO2 were not higher in homes with wall or floor furnace pilot burners, though bedroom NO2 was higher. In homes that cooked 4 h or more with gas, self-reported use of kitchen exhaust was associated with lower NOX, NO2 and highest 1-h CO. Gas appliances were not associated with higher concentrations of formaldehyde or acetaldehyde.« less

  12. Associations between criteria air pollutants and asthma

    SciTech Connect

    Koren, H.S.

    1995-09-01

    The evidence that asthma is increasing in prevalence is becoming increasingly compelling. This trend has been demonstrated in the United States, the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Australia, and several other Western countries. In the US, the increase is largest in the group under 18 years of age. There is mounting evidence that certain environmental air pollutants are involved in exacerbating asthma. This is based primarily on epidemiologic studies and more recent clinical studies. The U.S. Clean Air Act of 1970 provides special consideration to the class of outdoor air pollutants referred to as criteria pollutants, including O{sub 3}, sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), particulate matter (PM), NO{sub x}, CO, and Pb. Standards for these pollutants are set by the US EPA with particular concern for populations at risk. Current evidence suggests that asthmatics are more sensitive to the effects of O{sub 3}, SO{sub 2} PM, and NO{sub 2}, and are therefore at risk. High SO{sub 2} and particulate concentrations have been associated with short-term increases in morbidity and mortality in the general population during dramatic air pollution episodes in the past. Controlled exposure studies have clearly shown that asthmatics are sensitive to low levels of SO{sub 2}. Exercising asthmatics exposed to SO{sub 2} develop bronchoconstriction within minutes, even at levels of 0.25 ppm. Responses are modified by air temperature, humidity, and exercise level. Recent epidemiologic studies have suggested that exposure to Pm is strongly associated with morbidity and mortality in the general population and that hospital admissions for bronchitis and asthma were associated with PM{sub 10} levels. In controlled clinical studies, asthmatics appear to be no more reactive to aerosols than healthy subjects. Consequently, it is difficult to attribute the increased mortality observed in epidemiologic studies to specific effects demonstrated in controlled human studies. 106 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  13. NOX CONTROL BY COMBUSTION MODIFICATION (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division's Air Pollution Technology Branch has performed research and developed technologies for NOx reduction via combustion modification. Techniques such as low-excess air firing, staged combustion, flue gas recirculation, low NOx bu...

  14. Air pollution measurements from satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwig, C. B.; Griggs, M.; Malkmus, W.; Bartle, E. R.

    1973-01-01

    A study is presented on the remote sensing of gaseous and particulate air pollutants which is an extension of a previous report. Pollutants can be observed by either active or passive remote sensing systems. Calculations discussed herein indicate that tropospheric CO, CO2, SO2, NO2, NH3, HCHO, and CH4 can be measured by means of nadir looking passive systems. Additional species such as NO, HNO3, O3, and H2O may be measured in the stratosphere through a horizon experiment. A brief theoretical overview of resonance Raman scattering and resonance fluorescence is given. It is found that radiance measurements are most promising for general global applications, and that stratospheric aerosols may be measured using a sun occultation technique. The instrumentation requirements for both active and passive systems are examined and various instruments now under development are described.

  15. A study on the atmospheric concentrations of primary and secondary air pollutants in the Athens basin performed by DOAS and DIAL measuring techniques.

    PubMed

    Kalabokas, P D; Papayannis, A D; Tsaknakis, G; Ziomas, I

    2012-01-01

    In this work an analysis of continuous Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) measurements of primary and secondary air pollutants (SO(2), NO(2) and O(3)) in the Athens basin is performed combined with Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) vertical ozone measurements obtained inside the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) and the lower free troposphere. The measurements took place during the period May 2005-February 2007, at the National Technical University of Athens Campus (200 m above sea level (asl.), 37.96 °N, 23.78 °E). The SO(2) and NO(2) DOAS measurements showed maximum 1-hour mean values (around 20 μg/m(3) and 74 μg/m(3), respectively) in winter and did not exceed the current European Union (EU) air quality standards (European Council Directive 2008/50/EC), in contrast to ozone, which shows its maximum (around 128 μg/m(3)) in summer and frequently exceeds the EU standard for human health protection (120 μg/m(3)). If the measurements are classified according to the two most frequent flow-patterns of the air masses in the Athens basin (northern-southern circulation), it is observed that in general the atmospheric concentrations of all measured pollutants including ozone are higher when the southern circulation occurs, in comparison to the corresponding values under the northern circulation. The vertical ozone profiles obtained by DIAL were also higher under the southern circulation. During the summer months a mean difference (between the southern-northern circulations) of the order of 15-20 μg/m(3), maximized at the 0.9-1.1 km and 1.7-1.8 km height, was observed within the PBL. It was also observed that the summer surface ozone levels remained relatively high (around 80-110 μg/m(3)) even during strong northerly winds, verifying the high levels of rural surface ozone in the surrounding area reported by previous studies. PMID:22153607

  16. Results of the California Healthy Homes Indoor Air Quality Study of 2011-2013: Impact of natural gas appliances on air pollutant concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Mullen, Nasim A.; Li, Jina; Russell, Marion L.; Spears, Michael; Less, Brennan D.; Singer, Brett C.

    2015-03-17

    This study was conducted to assess the current impact of natural gas appliances on air quality in California homes. Data were collected via telephone interviews and measurements inside and outside of 352 homes. Passive samplers measured time-resolved CO and time-integrated NOX, NO2, formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde over ~6d periods in November 2011 - April 2012 and October 2012 - March 2013. The fraction of indoor NOX and NO2 attributable to indoor sources was estimated. NOX, NO2 and highest 1-h CO were higher in homes that cooked with gas and increased with amount of gas cooking. NOX and NO2 were higher in homes with cooktop pilot burners, relative to gas cooking without pilots. Homes with a pilot burner on a floor or wall furnace had higher kitchen and bedroom NOX and NO2 compared to homes without a furnace pilot. When scaled to account for varying home size and mixing volume, indoor-attributed bedroom and kitchen NOX and kitchen NO2 were not higher in homes with wall or floor furnace pilot burners, though bedroom NO2 was higher. In homes that cooked 4 h or more with gas, self-reported use of kitchen exhaust was associated with lower NOX, NO2 and highest 1-h CO. Gas appliances were not associated with higher concentrations of formaldehyde or acetaldehyde.

  17. Evaluating sources of indoor air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Tichenor, B.A.; Sparks, L.E.; White, J.B.; Jackson, M.D. )

    1988-01-01

    Scientists and engineers in the Indoor Air Brand of EPS'a Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory are conducting research to increase the state of knowledge concerning indoor air pollution factors. A three phase program is being implemented. The purpose of this paper is to show how their approach can be used to evaluate specific sources of indoor air pollution. Pollutants from two sources are examined: para-dichlorobenzene emissions from moth crystal cakes; and particulate emissions from unvented kerosene heaters.

  18. Monitoring air pollution in the Bialowieza Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malzahn, Elżbieta; Sondej, Izabela; Paluch, Rafał

    2016-04-01

    Air pollution, as sulfur dioxide(SO2) and nitrous oxides (NOx), affects forest health negatively and can initiate forest dieback. Long-term monitoring (since 1986) and analyses are conducted in the Bialowieza Forest due to the threat by abiotic, biotic and anthropogenic factors. This forest has a special and unique natural value, as confirmed by the various forms of protection of national and international rank. The main aim of monitoring is to determine the level and trends of deposition of air pollutants and their effects on selected forest stands and forest communities in the Bialowieza Forest. Concentration measurements of gaseous pollutants and the chemical composition of the precipitation are performed at seven points within the forest area (62 219 ha). Measurement gauges are measuring gaseous pollutants (SO2 and NOx) by the passive method and collecting precipitation at each point at a height of three meters. The period of measuring by the instruments is 30 days. All analyses are conducted according to the methodology of the European forest monitoring program in the certified Laboratory of Natural Environment Chemistry of the Polish Forest Research Institute (IBL). The concentration of pollutant gases (dry deposition) in the years 2002-2015 accounted for only 6-13% of the limit in Poland, as defined by the Polish Ministry of Environment, and are of no threat to the forest environment. Wet deposition of pollutants, which dependents directly from the amount of precipitation and its concentration of pollutants, varied strongly between different months and years. Total deposition (dry and wet) of sulfur (S) and nitrogen (N) was calculated for seasonal and annual periods. On an annual basis, wet deposition represented approximately 80% of the total deposition of S and N. Total deposition of S did not exceed the average deposition values for forests in north-eastern Europe (5-10 kg ha‑1 year‑1) at any of the seven measuring points. Total deposition of N did

  19. Environmental Chemistry: Air and Water Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoker, H. Stephen; Seager, Spencer L.

    This is a book about air and water pollution whose chapters cover the topics of air pollution--general considerations, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons and photochemical oxidants, sulfur oxides, particulates, temperature inversions and the greenhouse effect; and water pollution--general considerations, mercury, lead, detergents,…

  20. The remote sensing of air pollution from coal utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harney, B. M.; Mccrea, D. H.; Forney, A. J.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation was made to determine the feasibility of applying earth resources data to the detection of air pollution, particularly pollution from coal burning. Efforts were also made to detect any damage caused by such pollution to vegetation growth and tree life. Results show that vegetative vigor even at low ambient concentrations was damaged and that Eastern white pine trees were severely damaged by the pollutants.

  1. Characterization of ambient air pollution for stochastic health models

    SciTech Connect

    Batterman, S.A.

    1981-08-01

    This research is an analysis of various measures of ambient air pollution useful in cross-sectional epidemiological investigations and rick assessments. The Chestnut Ridge area health effects investigation, which includes a cross-sectional study of respiratory symptoms in young children, is used as a case study. Four large coal-fired electric generating power plants are the dominant pollution sources in this area of western Pennsylvania. The air pollution data base includes four years of sulfur dioxide and five years of total suspended particulate concentrations at seventeen monitors. Some 70 different characterizations of pollution are constructed and tested. These include pollutant concentrations at various percentiles and averaging times, exceedence measures which show the amount of time a specified threshold concentration is exceeded, and several dosage measures which transform non-linear dose-response relationships onto pollutant concentrations.

  2. Marble weathering and air pollution in Philadelphia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feddema, J. J.; Meierding, T. C.

    Maps of damage to marble tombstones in the urban region of Philadelphia demonstrate a close spatial correspondence with airborne pollutant concentrations. Mean recession rates on upper tombstone faces are an order of magnitude greater (3.5 mm (100a) -1) in the center of the city than they are 20 km away in the suburbs and countryside (< 0.5 mm (100a) -1). Not only are more pollutants emitted in the city, but they are also concentrated in the city center by centripetal air movement into the urban heat island. Gaseous SO 2 appears to be the most damaging pollutant, as is shown by the presence of gypsum in urban stones. Although rainfall is important in removing sulfate reaction products, anthropogenically-induced acid rain has only a minor role in marble deterioration. High urban SO 2 concentrations cause sufficient gypsum accumulation within the stones to exfoliate the durable surface layer. Old photos of tombstones in central Philadelphia cemeteries show that exfoliation greatly accelerated between 1930 and 1960, concurrent with increases in SO 2 levels. Recent improvements in air quality are likely to have slowed stone deterioration.

  3. PILOT STUDY OF AMBIENT AIR POLLUTION AND SURVIVAL FROM CANCER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study was concerned with investigating the potential influence exerted by ambient concentrations of particulate and sulfur dioxide air pollutants upon the length of survival for diagnosed cancer patients. Monitoring data from the National Aerometric Data Bank for particulates...

  4. NOXIOUS TRACE GASES IN THE AIR. PART II. HALOGENATED POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chemistry of chlorofluorocarbons and other halogenated air pollutants is discussed. A summary is presented of the present levels of concentration of such compounds, along with comments on anticipated increases. Chemical reactions that transform and remove halogenated pollutan...

  5. MODELING POPULATION EXPOSURES TO OUTDOOR SOURCES OF HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accurate assessment of human exposures is an important part of environmental health effects research. However, most air pollution epidemiology studies rely upon imperfect surrogates of personal exposures, such as information based on available central-site outdoor concentration ...

  6. CRITICAL HEALTH ISSUES OF CRITERIA AIR POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter summarizes the key health information on ubiquitous outdoor air pollutants that can cause adverse health effects at current or historical ambient levels in the United States. Of the thousands of air pollutants, very few meet this definition. The Clean Air Act (CA...

  7. Airplanes on Air Pollution: Discover-AQ

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's launching a new mission, summer 2011, designed to gather data on air pollution and help expand our understanding of how it affects us, and that could allow pollutants to be monitored more pr...

  8. Pigeons home faster through polluted air

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhongqiu; Courchamp, Franck; Blumstein, Daniel T.

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution, especially haze pollution, is creating health issues for both humans and other animals. However, remarkably little is known about how animals behaviourally respond to air pollution. We used multiple linear regression to analyse 415 pigeon races in the North China Plain, an area with considerable air pollution, and found that while the proportion of pigeons successfully homed was not influenced by air pollution, pigeons homed faster when the air was especially polluted. Our results may be explained by an enhanced homing motivation and possibly an enriched olfactory environment that facilitates homing. Our study provides a unique example of animals’ response to haze pollution; future studies are needed to identify proposed mechanisms underlying this effect. PMID:26728113

  9. Pigeons home faster through polluted air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhongqiu; Courchamp, Franck; Blumstein, Daniel T.

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution, especially haze pollution, is creating health issues for both humans and other animals. However, remarkably little is known about how animals behaviourally respond to air pollution. We used multiple linear regression to analyse 415 pigeon races in the North China Plain, an area with considerable air pollution, and found that while the proportion of pigeons successfully homed was not influenced by air pollution, pigeons homed faster when the air was especially polluted. Our results may be explained by an enhanced homing motivation and possibly an enriched olfactory environment that facilitates homing. Our study provides a unique example of animals’ response to haze pollution; future studies are needed to identify proposed mechanisms underlying this effect.

  10. Pigeons home faster through polluted air.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhongqiu; Courchamp, Franck; Blumstein, Daniel T

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution, especially haze pollution, is creating health issues for both humans and other animals. However, remarkably little is known about how animals behaviourally respond to air pollution. We used multiple linear regression to analyse 415 pigeon races in the North China Plain, an area with considerable air pollution, and found that while the proportion of pigeons successfully homed was not influenced by air pollution, pigeons homed faster when the air was especially polluted. Our results may be explained by an enhanced homing motivation and possibly an enriched olfactory environment that facilitates homing. Our study provides a unique example of animals' response to haze pollution; future studies are needed to identify proposed mechanisms underlying this effect. PMID:26728113

  11. Air pollution in a city street. 1965.

    PubMed Central

    Waller, R E; Commins, B T; Lawther, P J

    1993-01-01

    Measurements of the concentrations of smoke, lead, and five polycyclic hydrocarbons in the air have been made in the City of London in the middle of a busy street and at two control sites. Samples were taken only throughout the daytime hours on weekdays to enable us to assess the maximum contribution made by traffic to the pollution in the street. The results showed that during these periods the air in the middle of the street contained three times as much smoke, four times as much lead, and 1.7 times as much 3:4-benzpyrene as were present in the general atmosphere as the City of London as estimated from samples taken at the control sites. One of these sites was chosen because it was only 150 feet away from the street; analyses yielded no evidence that the traffic contributed to the pollution sampled there. Sulphur dioxide concentrations were determined in the early part of the study and the results showed that traffic appeared to add little to the background level. The concentrations of lead found were below those held to be safe by many authorities. Carbon monoxide concentrations, reported in greater detail elsewhere, sometimes reached the accepted industrial maximum allowable concentration of 100 p.p.m. PMID:7691150

  12. AIR POLLUTION IN A CITY STREET

    PubMed Central

    Waller, R. E.; Commins, B. T.; Lawther, P. J.

    1965-01-01

    Measurements of the concentrations of smoke, lead, and five polycyclic hydrocarbons in the air have been made in the City of London in the middle of a busy street and at two control sites. Samples were taken only throughout the daytime hours on weekdays to enable us to assess the maximum contribution made by traffic to the pollution in the street. The results showed that during these periods the air in the middle of the street contained three times as much smoke, four times as much lead, and 1·7 times as much 3:4-benzpyrene as were present in the general atmosphere of the City of London as estimated from samples taken at the control sites. One of these sites was chosen because it was only 150 feet away from the street; analyses yielded no evidence that the traffic contributed to the pollution sampled there. Sulphur dioxide concentrations were determined in the early part of the study and the results showed that traffic appeared to add little to the background level. The concentrations of lead found were below those held to be safe by many authorities. Carbon monoxide concentrations, reported in greater detail elsewhere, sometimes reached the accepted industrial maximum allowable concentration of 100 p.p.m. PMID:14278800

  13. REGIONAL AIR POLLUTION STUDY, NON-CRITERIA POLLUTANT INVENTORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    In conjunction with the Regional Air Pollution Study (RAPS) being conducted in the St. Louis Air Quality Control Region (AQCR), an inventory of non-criteria pollutants was assembled for point sources. The inventory was based on the following data: (1) The National Emissions Data ...

  14. Correlated model for indoor and outdoor air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, L.; Lee, J.S.; Cheng, K.S.

    1998-12-31

    This study tries to correlate outdoor concentration of air pollutants with indoor data statistically and physically by means of on-site measurement. The authors measured concentrations of THC, NMHC, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} at two residential sites where were closed to a fossil industry area. An air sampling system was designed to alternately sample air from different locations, therefore they can obtain semi-simultaneously indoor and outdoor concentration of air pollutants. Four measurements were taken during a year period. The measured data were analyzed by means of statistical regression and were used to calibrate indoor decay constants in a mass balance physical model. The results of statistical regression show that indoor concentration of air pollutant is highly correlated with outdoor concentration and indoor concentration at one hour earlier rather than outdoor climate parameters such as wind speed, temperature and humidity. The results explained that outdoor concentration actually included factors of outdoor climate parameters implicitly. In physical model, they calibrated the indoor concentration decay constants in an indoor/outdoor mass conservation equation at various air exchange rates under different seasons and day/night conditions. The established statistical and physical models can be used to estimate indoor air quality from monitored or calculated outdoor data. With the proposed correlation models it becomes convenient to perform the overall indoor and outdoor air pollutants exposure and risk assessment.

  15. Perspective on Air Pollution: The Canadian Scene

    PubMed Central

    Shephard, R. J.

    1975-01-01

    Despite the large ratio of land mass to population, Canada has significant air pollution problems, some being due to our cold climate, the long arctic nights, and a mineral-based economy. Routes of intoxication include the respiration of polluted air and the secondary contamination of food and water. Although pollution is often measured in terms of industrial emissions, the physician must be concerned rather with the dose of pollutants to which the individual is exposed. The principal air pollutants, in terms of emitted tonnage, are carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrocarbons, particulates, and oxides of nitrogen. Sources of these various materials are discussed. PMID:20469224

  16. Civil aviation, air pollution and human health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Roy M.; Masiol, Mauro; Vardoulakis, Sotiris

    2015-04-01

    Air pollutant emissions from aircraft have been subjected to less rigorous control than road traffic emissions, and the rapid growth of global aviation is a matter of concern in relation to human exposures to pollutants, and consequent effects upon health. Yim et al (2015 Environ. Res. Lett. 3 034001) estimate exposures globally arising from aircraft engine emissions of primary particulate matter, and from secondary sulphates and ozone, and use concentration-response functions to calculate the impact upon mortality, which is monetised using the value of statistical life. This study makes a valuable contribution to estimating the magnitude of public health impact at various scales, ranging from local, near airport, regional and global. The results highlight the need to implement future mitigation actions to limit impacts of aviation upon air quality and public health. The approach adopted in Yim et al only accounts for the air pollutants emitted by aircraft engine exhausts. Whilst aircraft emissions are often considered as dominant near runways, there are a number of other sources and processes related to aviation that still need to be accounted for. This includes impacts of nitrate aerosol formed from NOx emissions, but probably more important, are the other airport-related emissions from ground service equipment and road traffic. By inclusion of these, and consideration of non-fatal impacts, future research will generate comprehensive estimates of impact related to aviation and airports.

  17. Association of Geography and Ambient Air Pollution with Urine Metal Concentrations in Six US Cities: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Yuanjie; Jones, Miranda R.; Tellez-Plaza, Maria; Guallar, Eliseo; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Post, Wendy S.; Kaufman, Joel D.; Delaney, Joseph A.; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the associations of urinary concentrations of antimony, cadmium, tungsten and uranium with geographic locations and with ambient air pollution in 304 adults in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis from six US cities. After adjustment for sociodemographics, body mass index, and smoking status, urinary cadmium was the highest in Winston-Salem among all study sites (the geometric mean [GM] in Winston-Salem was 0.84 µg/L [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.57–1.22]). The adjusted GMs of urinary tungsten and uranium were highest in Los Angeles (0.11 µg/L [95% CI 0.08–0.16] and 0.019 µg/L [95% CI 0.016–0.023], respectively). The adjusted GM ratio comparing fine particulate matter (PM2.5) tertiles 2 and 3 with the lowest tertile were 1.64 (95% CI 1.05–2.56) and 3.55 (95% CI 2.24–5.63) for tungsten, and 1.18 (95% CI 0.94–1.48) and 1.70 (95% CI 1.34–2.14) for uranium. The results for tungsten remained similar after adjustment for study site. Urinary cadmium, tungsten and uranium concentrations differed by geographic locations in MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) communities. PM2.5 levels could contribute to geographic differences in tungsten exposure. These findings highlight the need to implement preventive strategies to decrease toxic metal exposure and to evaluate the health effects of chronic exposure to those metals. PMID:26999173

  18. Ambient and household air pollution: complex triggers of disease

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, Stephen A.; Nelin, Timothy D.; Falvo, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Concentrations of outdoor air pollution are on the rise, particularly due to rapid urbanization worldwide. Alternatively, poor ventilation, cigarette smoke, and other toxic chemicals contribute to rising concentrations of indoor air pollution. The World Health Organization recently reported that deaths attributable to indoor and outdoor air pollutant exposure are more than double what was originally documented. Epidemiological, clinical, and animal data have demonstrated a clear connection between rising concentrations of air pollution (both indoor and outdoor) and a host of adverse health effects. During the past five years, animal, clinical, and epidemiological studies have explored the adverse health effects associated with exposure to both indoor and outdoor air pollutants throughout the various stages of life. This review provides a summary of the detrimental effects of air pollution through examination of current animal, clinical, and epidemiological studies and exposure during three different periods: maternal (in utero), early life, and adulthood. Additionally, we recommend future lines of research while suggesting conceivable strategies to curb exposure to indoor and outdoor air pollutants. PMID:24929855

  19. Hybrid regional air pollution models

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, R.L.

    1980-03-01

    This discussion deals with a family of air quality models for predicting and analyzing the fine particulate loading in the atmosphere, for assessing the extent and degree of visibility impairment, and for determining the potential of pollutants for increasing the acidity of soils and water. The major horizontal scales of interest are from 400km to 2000km; and the time scales may vary from several hours, to days, weeks, and a few months or years, depending on the EPA regulations being addressed. First the role air quality models play in the general family of atmospheric simulation models is described. Then, the characteristics of a well-designed, comprehensive air quality model are discussed. Following this, the specific objectives of this workshop are outlined, and their modeling implications are summarized. There are significant modeling differences produced by the choice of the coordinate system, whether it be the fixed Eulerian system, the moving Lagrangian system, or some hybrid of the two. These three systems are briefly discussed, and a list of hybrid models that are currently in use are given. Finally, the PNL regional transport model is outlined and a number of research needs are listed.

  20. Understanding Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Diseases: Is It Preventable?

    PubMed Central

    Morishita, Masako; Thompson, Kathryn C.

    2015-01-01

    Fine particulate matter (<2.5 µm, PM2.5) air pollution is a leading risk factor for morbidity and mortality worldwide. The largest portion of adverse health effects is from cardiovascular diseases. In North America, PM2.5 concentrations have shown a steady decline over the past several decades; however, the opposite trend has occurred throughout much of the developing world whereby daily concentrations commonly reach extraordinarily high levels. While air quality regulations can reduce air pollution at a societal level, what individuals can do to reduce their personal exposures remains an active field of investigation. Here, we review the emerging evidence that several interventions (e.g., air filters) and/or behavioral changes can lower PM pollution exposure and as such, may be capable of mitigating the ensuing adverse cardiovascular health consequences. Air pollution remains a worldwide epidemic and a multi-tiered prevention strategy is required in order to optimally protect global public health. PMID:26097526

  1. EPA's indoor air/pollution prevention workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Leovic, K.W.; White, J.B.; Sarsony, C.

    1993-01-01

    The paper discusses a workshop held as a step toward EPA's prioritizing potential areas of research for applying pollution prevention to indoor air quality (IAQ). The workshop involved technical experts in the fields of IAQ, pollution prevention, and selected industries. Workshop goals were to identify major IAQ issues and their pollution prevention opportunities, and to suggest research strategies for IAQ/pollution prevention. The paper summarizes the suggestions made by workshop participants and highlights opportunities for IAQ/pollution prevention research.

  2. Development and Evaluation of Alternative Metrics of Ambient Air Pollution Exposure for Use in Epidemiologic Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Population-based epidemiologic studies of air pollution have traditionally relied upon imperfect surrogates of personal exposures, such as area-wide ambient air pollution levels based on readily available outdoor concentrations from central monitoring sites. This practice may in...

  3. Kerbside DOAS measurements of air pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, Klaus; Ling, Hong; Legelli, Stefan; Münkel, Christoph; Emeis, Stefan

    2014-10-01

    Emission sources as well as wind speed and direction and MLH are important factors which influence high air pollutant concentrations. This is generally known (Schäfer et al., 2006) but the detailed understanding of processes directing certain air pollutant concentrations like HCHO is not complete. To study these processes a long-term campaign in Augsburg, Germany, was performed since March 2012. The concentrations of NO, NO2, O3 and HCHO, which were measured with a DOAS from OPSIS across a main traffic road and a nearby park area, are analysed. A ceilometer CL31 from Vaisala which is an eye-safe commercial mini-lidar system is applied to detect layering of the lower atmosphere continuously. Special software for this ceilometer with MATLAB provides routine retrievals of lower atmosphere layering from vertical profiles of laser backscatter data. Meteorological data were measured by a ground-based weather station at the measurement site as well as taken from monitoring data archives of the German National Meteorological Service (DWD), which are measured by radiosondes (Oberschleißheim). Correlation analyses are applied to show the coupling of temporal variations of NO, NO2, O3 and HCHO concentrations with temperature, mixing layer height and wind speed. HCHO which is emitted from both anthropogenic and biogenic sources is studied especially.

  4. Aerosol chemical components in Alaska air masses: 1. Aged pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Glenn E.

    1991-12-01

    A 4-year Alaska chemical data set of aerosols or "dust" in the air clearly reveals a mixture of distinct aerosol components with different and interesting chemical composition, one or two being ascribed to pollution imported to Alaska by winds all the way from other continents. Of particular note is a strong chemical contrast between what we imagine to be highly scavenged, orographically lifted, northern Pacific air (Pacific marine air mass) and stagnant Arctic air (polar air mass), the latter containing seasonal average concentrations of between 2-4 times the concentration of the former, at least for pollution markers noncrustal vanadium, noncrustal manganese, arsenic, selenium, bromine, and antimony. The findings concur our old discovery that Arctic air is persistently polluted (Arctic haze), but Pacific air is relatively clean, in spite of the fact that Alaska is downwind of major pollution sources in the Orient. This is remarkable. In this the first of a two-part paper, we concentrate on the pollution component found primarily during incursion of Arctic polar air. Two major occurrences of visual haze with optical depths of approximately 0.2 and elevated aerosol concentration lasting about a month (spring 1985 and 1986) were affiliated with strong incoming transport of polar air, temperatures ranging from 10° to 20°C below normal (polar air) and air trajectory hindcasts leading back to industrial pollution sources in Eurasia. These long-range transport pollution events brought metal-rich aerosol of removal-resistant submicron particles. The size, chemistry, and meteorology all strongly suggest the presence of a well-aged (10-100 day) polluted air mass. An important implication is that in spring a large fraction of the Arctic polar air mass becomes charged with by-products of industrial pollution. In this multiyear chemical data set one finds a notable summer-winter contrast, changing by factors of 2 to 4 for pollution markers As, Se, Sb, and noncrustal

  5. Diurnal, weekly and monthly spatial variations of air pollutants and air quality of Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei; Tang, Hongzhao; Zhao, Haimeng

    2015-10-01

    Under the National Ambient Air Quality Standard released in 2012 (NAAQS-2012), Beijing began to publicize hourly Air Quality Index as well as real time concentrations of 6 pollutants in its web platform to provide detailed information for air quality assessment from 2013. In this study, hourly air quality monitoring data from May 2014 to April 2015 were collected for all 35 monitoring stations in Beijing to analyze the temporal and spatial variations of air pollutants and air quality. It is found that in spatial pattern, the air qualities in southern and northern Beijing are totally different. The association between heavy pollution concentrations and wind situations suggested that neighboring area's air quality has an important role in the air quality of Beijing combining with air quality attainment rates in all 35 monitoring stations and northern China. For temporal variations, late night and early morning are the most polluted time while afternoon is the least polluted time for all pollutants except O3 with most polluted time in afternoon. Summer time in Beijing has the best air quality while winter time has the worst air quality coinciding with the heating season in the winter.

  6. AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH (AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fundamental and applied combustion research has been conducted by the Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division's Air Pollution Technology Branch (APTB)and its predecessors since EPA's inception. APTB has been instrumental in the development and successful application of flue...

  7. PUBLICATIONS (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Air Pollution Technology Branch (APTB) of NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division produces and publishes highly specialized technical and scientific documents related to APTB's research. Areas of research covered include artificial intelligence, CFC destruction,...

  8. COOPERATIVE RESEARCH (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division's Air Pollution Technology Branch (APTB) is always interested in the potential for cooperative research if overlap occurs between the research goals of external organizations and APTB's research goals.APTB has participated i...

  9. INTEGRATED AIR POLLUTION CONTROL SYSTEM (IAPCS) COST MODEL (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Air Pollution Technology Branch's (APPCD, NRMRL) Integrated Air Pollution Control System Cost Model is a compiled model written in FORTRAN and C language that is designed to be used on an IBM or compatible PC with 640K or lower RAM and at least 1.5 Mb of hard drive space. It ...

  10. Outdoor radon concentration measurements: some correlation with major urban pollutants.

    PubMed

    Garbero, V; Dellacasa, G; Bianchi, D; Magnoni, M; Erbetta, L

    2009-12-01

    Air pollutants concentration in the urban air strongly depends on the properties of the planetary boundary layer (the lower region of the atmosphere), roughly up to 1 km from Earth's surface. Radioactive radon gas has been recognised by various authors as a valuable natural tracer of transport and dispersion within this layer. To achieve a better comprehension of the urban pollution dynamic in the town of Alessandria, situated in the Po Valley in the north-west of Italy, a system for continuous measurement of radon concentration in outdoor air was experimented. This paper presents the first results obtained: the hourly trend of radon concentration in the diurnal course during different seasons and its correlation with the concentration of the major urban pollutants. PMID:19906661

  11. Combined air and water pollution control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, Billy C. (Inventor); Jarrell, Lamont (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A bioaquatic air pollution control system for controlling both water and atmospheric pollution is disclosed. The pollution control system includes an exhaust for directing polluted gases out of a furnace and a fluid circulating system which circulates fluid, such as waste water, from a source, past the furnace where the fluid flow entrains the pollutants from the furnace. The combined fluid and pollutants are then directed through a rock/plant/microbial filtering system. A suction pump pumps the treated waste water from the filter system past the exhaust to again entrain more pollutants from the furnace where they are combined with the fluid (waste water) and directed to the filter system.

  12. Long-term Changes in Extreme Air Pollution Meteorology and the Implications for Air Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Pei; Wu, Shiliang

    2016-03-01

    Extreme air pollution meteorological events, such as heat waves, temperature inversions and atmospheric stagnation episodes, can significantly affect air quality. Based on observational data, we have analyzed the long-term evolution of extreme air pollution meteorology on the global scale and their potential impacts on air quality, especially the high pollution episodes. We have identified significant increasing trends for the occurrences of extreme air pollution meteorological events in the past six decades, especially over the continental regions. Statistical analysis combining air quality data and meteorological data further indicates strong sensitivities of air quality (including both average air pollutant concentrations and high pollution episodes) to extreme meteorological events. For example, we find that in the United States the probability of severe ozone pollution when there are heat waves could be up to seven times of the average probability during summertime, while temperature inversions in wintertime could enhance the probability of severe particulate matter pollution by more than a factor of two. We have also identified significant seasonal and spatial variations in the sensitivity of air quality to extreme air pollution meteorology.

  13. Long-term Changes in Extreme Air Pollution Meteorology and the Implications for Air Quality.

    PubMed

    Hou, Pei; Wu, Shiliang

    2016-01-01

    Extreme air pollution meteorological events, such as heat waves, temperature inversions and atmospheric stagnation episodes, can significantly affect air quality. Based on observational data, we have analyzed the long-term evolution of extreme air pollution meteorology on the global scale and their potential impacts on air quality, especially the high pollution episodes. We have identified significant increasing trends for the occurrences of extreme air pollution meteorological events in the past six decades, especially over the continental regions. Statistical analysis combining air quality data and meteorological data further indicates strong sensitivities of air quality (including both average air pollutant concentrations and high pollution episodes) to extreme meteorological events. For example, we find that in the United States the probability of severe ozone pollution when there are heat waves could be up to seven times of the average probability during summertime, while temperature inversions in wintertime could enhance the probability of severe particulate matter pollution by more than a factor of two. We have also identified significant seasonal and spatial variations in the sensitivity of air quality to extreme air pollution meteorology. PMID:27029386

  14. Long-term Changes in Extreme Air Pollution Meteorology and the Implications for Air Quality

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Pei; Wu, Shiliang

    2016-01-01

    Extreme air pollution meteorological events, such as heat waves, temperature inversions and atmospheric stagnation episodes, can significantly affect air quality. Based on observational data, we have analyzed the long-term evolution of extreme air pollution meteorology on the global scale and their potential impacts on air quality, especially the high pollution episodes. We have identified significant increasing trends for the occurrences of extreme air pollution meteorological events in the past six decades, especially over the continental regions. Statistical analysis combining air quality data and meteorological data further indicates strong sensitivities of air quality (including both average air pollutant concentrations and high pollution episodes) to extreme meteorological events. For example, we find that in the United States the probability of severe ozone pollution when there are heat waves could be up to seven times of the average probability during summertime, while temperature inversions in wintertime could enhance the probability of severe particulate matter pollution by more than a factor of two. We have also identified significant seasonal and spatial variations in the sensitivity of air quality to extreme air pollution meteorology. PMID:27029386

  15. Human health risks in megacities due to air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurjar, B. R.; Jain, A.; Sharma, A.; Agarwal, A.; Gupta, P.; Nagpure, A. S.; Lelieveld, J.

    2010-11-01

    This study evaluates the health risks in megacities in terms of mortality and morbidity due to air pollution. A new spreadsheet model, Risk of Mortality/Morbidity due to Air Pollution (Ri-MAP), is used to estimate the excess numbers of deaths and illnesses. By adopting the World Health Organization (WHO) guideline concentrations for the air pollutants SO 2, NO 2 and total suspended particles (TSP), concentration-response relationships and a population attributable-risk proportion concept are employed. Results suggest that some megacities like Los Angeles, New York, Osaka Kobe, Sao Paulo and Tokyo have very low excess cases in total mortality from these pollutants. In contrast, the approximate numbers of cases is highest in Karachi (15,000/yr) characterized by a very high concentration of total TSP (˜670 μg m -3). Dhaka (7000/yr), Beijing (5500/yr), Karachi (5200/yr), Cairo (5000/yr) and Delhi (3500/yr) rank highest with cardiovascular mortality. The morbidity (hospital admissions) due to Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) follows the tendency of cardiovascular mortality. Dhaka and Karachi lead the rankings, having about 2100/yr excess cases, while Osaka-Kobe (˜20/yr) and Sao Paulo (˜50/yr) are at the low end of all megacities considered. Since air pollution is increasing in many megacities, and our database of measured pollutants is limited to the period up to 2000 and does not include all relevant components (e.g. O 3), these numbers should be interpreted as lower limits. South Asian megacities most urgently need improvement of air quality to prevent excess mortality and morbidity due to exceptionally high levels of air pollution. The risk estimates obtained from Ri-MAP present a realistic baseline evaluation for the consequences of ambient air pollution in comparison to simple air quality indices, and can be expanded and improved in parallel with the development of air pollution monitoring networks.

  16. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 21: Legal References: Air Pollution Control Regulations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The Legal References: Air Pollution Control Regulations Manual is the last in a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The manual…

  17. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 3: Air Pollution Control Officer's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The Air Pollution Control Officer's (APCO) Manual is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties, The first two sections, which are…

  18. AIR POLLUTION AND FOREST ECOSYSTEMS: A REGIONAL TO GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Changes in atmospheric concentrations of a number of air pollutants over the last century are hallmarks of the magnitude and extent of human impact on the environment. ome of these changes are important to ecologists because many pollutants, acting singly or in combination, affec...

  19. ANALYTICAL DIFFUSION MODEL FOR LONG DISTANCE TRANSPORT OF AIR POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A steady-state two-dimensional diffusion model suitable for predicting ambient air pollutant concentrations averaged over a long time period (e.g., month, season, or year) and resulting from the transport of pollutants for distances greater than about 100 km from the source is de...

  20. Comparison of the performances of land use regression modelling and dispersion modelling in estimating small-scale variations in long-term air pollution concentrations in a Dutch urban area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beelen, Rob; Voogt, Marita; Duyzer, Jan; Zandveld, Peter; Hoek, Gerard

    2010-11-01

    The performance of a Land Use Regression (LUR) model and a dispersion model (URBIS - URBis Information System) was compared in a Dutch urban area. For the Rijnmond area, i.e. Rotterdam and surroundings, nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) concentrations for 2001 were estimated for nearly 70 000 centroids of a regular grid of 100 × 100 m. A LUR model based upon measurements carried out on 44 sites from the Dutch national monitoring network and upon Geographic Information System (GIS) predictor variables including traffic intensity, industry, population and residential land use was developed. Interpolation of regional background concentration measurements was used to obtain the regional background. The URBIS system was used to estimate NO 2 concentrations using dispersion modelling. URBIS includes the CAR model (Calculation of Air pollution from Road traffic) to calculate concentrations of air pollutants near urban roads and Gaussian plume models to calculate air pollution levels near motorways and industrial sources. Background concentrations were accounted for using 1 × 1 km maps derived from monitoring and model calculations. Moderate agreement was found between the URBIS and LUR in calculating NO 2 concentrations ( R = 0.55). The predictions agreed well for the central part of the concentration distribution but differed substantially for the highest and lowest concentrations. The URBIS dispersion model performed better than the LUR model ( R = 0.77 versus R = 0.47 respectively) in the comparison between measured and calculated concentrations on 18 validation sites. Differences can be understood because of the use of different regional background concentrations, inclusion of rather coarse land use category industry as a predictor variable in the LUR model and different treatment of conversion of NO to NO 2. Moderate agreement was found between a dispersion model and a land use regression model in calculating annual average NO 2 concentrations in an area with multiple

  1. Air pollution and respiratory viral infection

    EPA Science Inventory

    Despite current regulations, which limit the levels of certain air pollutants, there are still a number of adverse health effects that result from exposure to these agents. Numerous epidemiological studies have noted an association between the levels of air pollution and hospital...

  2. Air Pollution and Its Control, Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sproull, Wayne T.

    A concise appraisal of our contemporary status and future prospects with regard to air pollution and its control are offered in this text for concerned laymen. What air pollution is, how it endangers health, the cost of controlling it, what is being done about it now, and what should be done are some of the basic questions considered. Topics cover…

  3. Career Guide for Air Pollution Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Lionel V.

    1975-01-01

    This guide to career opportunities in air pollution control includes resource information in this area and provides a listing of colleges and universities offering environmental science programs. The guide was prepared by the S-11 Education and Training Committee of the Air Pollution Control Association. (Author/BT)

  4. Measurement of Air Pollutants in the Troposphere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemitshaw, Kevin C.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the principles, applications and performances of methods to measure gas-phase air pollutants that either utilise passive or active sampling with subsequent laboratory analysis or involve automated "in situ" sampling and analysis. It focuses on air pollutants that have adverse impacts on human health (nitrogen dioxide, carbon…

  5. Controlling Indoor Air Pollution from Moxibustion

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Chung-Yen; Kang, Sy-Yuan; Liu, Shu-Hui; Mai, Cheng-Wei; Tseng, Chao-Heng

    2016-01-01

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) control of hospitals plays a critical role in protecting both hospital staffs and patients, particularly those who are highly susceptible to the adverse effects of indoor noxious hazards. However, moxibustion in outpatient departments (OPDs) of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) may be a source of indoor air pollution in hospitals. Some studies have investigated indoor air pollution during moxibustion in Chinese medicine clinics (CMCs) and moxibustion rooms, demonstrating elevated air pollutants that pose a threat to the health of medical staff and patients. Our study investigated the indoor air pollutants of indoor carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), formaldehyde (HCHO), total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs), airborne particulate matter with a diameter of ≤10 µm (PM10) and ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5) during moxibustion in an acupuncture and moxibustion room of the OPD in a hospital in Taipei. To evaluate the different control strategies for indoor air pollution from moxibution, a comparison of air pollutants during moxibution among the methods of using alternative old moxa wools, local exhaust ventilation and an air cleaner was conducted. In this study, burning alternative old moxa wools for moxibustion obviously reduced all gaseous pollutants except for aerosols comparing burning fresh moxa wools. Using local exhaust ventilation reduced most of the aerosols after burning moxa. We also found that using an air cleaner was inefficient for controlling indoor air pollutants, particularly gaseous pollutants. Therefore, combining replacing alternative old moxa wools and local exhaust ventilation could be a suitable design for controlling indoor air pollution during moxibustion therapy. PMID:27331817

  6. Controlling Indoor Air Pollution from Moxibustion.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chung-Yen; Kang, Sy-Yuan; Liu, Shu-Hui; Mai, Cheng-Wei; Tseng, Chao-Heng

    2016-01-01

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) control of hospitals plays a critical role in protecting both hospital staffs and patients, particularly those who are highly susceptible to the adverse effects of indoor noxious hazards. However, moxibustion in outpatient departments (OPDs) of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) may be a source of indoor air pollution in hospitals. Some studies have investigated indoor air pollution during moxibustion in Chinese medicine clinics (CMCs) and moxibustion rooms, demonstrating elevated air pollutants that pose a threat to the health of medical staff and patients. Our study investigated the indoor air pollutants of indoor carbon dioxide (CO₂), carbon monoxide (CO), formaldehyde (HCHO), total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs), airborne particulate matter with a diameter of ≤10 µm (PM10) and ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5) during moxibustion in an acupuncture and moxibustion room of the OPD in a hospital in Taipei. To evaluate the different control strategies for indoor air pollution from moxibution, a comparison of air pollutants during moxibution among the methods of using alternative old moxa wools, local exhaust ventilation and an air cleaner was conducted. In this study, burning alternative old moxa wools for moxibustion obviously reduced all gaseous pollutants except for aerosols comparing burning fresh moxa wools. Using local exhaust ventilation reduced most of the aerosols after burning moxa. We also found that using an air cleaner was inefficient for controlling indoor air pollutants, particularly gaseous pollutants. Therefore, combining replacing alternative old moxa wools and local exhaust ventilation could be a suitable design for controlling indoor air pollution during moxibustion therapy. PMID:27331817

  7. Law and features of TVOC and Formaldehyde pollution in urban indoor air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Chenchen; Chen, Weidong; Guo, Min; Weng, Mili; Yan, Gang; Shen, Xueyou

    2016-05-01

    There are several categories of indoor air pollutants. Organic pollutants are the most common ones. This study chooses TVOC and Formaldehyde, two of the typical pollutants, as indicators of evaluating household indoor air pollution and improves the TVOC concentration prediction model through the samples of indoor air taken from 3122 households. This study also categorizes and explains the features of household indoor air pollution based on the TVOC and Formaldehyde models as well as a large amount of sample measurement. Moreover, this study combines the TVOC model with the Formaldehyde model to calculate and verify the critical values of each type of indoor air pollution. In this study, indoor air pollution is categorized into three types: decoration pollution, consumption pollution and transition pollution. During the first 12 months after decoration, decoration pollution is the primary pollution type, both TVOC and Formaldehyde are highly concentrated while sometimes seriously over the standard. Pollutants mainly come from volatile sources. After the first 12 month but before 24 months the indoor air pollution is transition pollution. Both decoration materials and human activates affect the indoor air quality. 24 months after decoration, it transits into consumption pollution. In this stage, the main pollutants come from combustion sources, and concentration of pollutants fluctuates with the appearance and disappearance of the sources.

  8. Air Pollution: Mechanisms of Neuroinflammation & CNS Disease

    PubMed Central

    Block, Michelle L.; Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian

    2009-01-01

    Emerging evidence implicates air pollution as a chronic source of neuroinflammation, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and neuropathology instigating central nervous system (CNS) disease. Stroke incidence, and Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease pathology are linked to air pollution. Recent reports reveal that air pollution components reach the brain. Further, systemic effects known to impact lung and cardiovascular disease also impinge upon CNS health. While mechanisms driving air pollution-induced CNS pathology are poorly understood, new evidence suggests that activation of microglia and changes in the blood brain barrier may be key to this process. Here, we summarize recent findings detailing the mechanisms through which air pollution reaches the brain and activates the resident innate immune response to become a chronic source of pro-inflammatory factors and ROS culpable in CNS disease. PMID:19716187

  9. Trends in emissions and concentrations of air pollutants in the lower troposphere in the Baltimore/Washington airshed from 1997 to 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, H.; Stehr, J. W.; Hains, J. C.; Krask, D. J.; Doddridge, B. G.; Vinnikov, K. Y.; Canty, T. P.; Hosley, K. M.; Salawitch, R. J.; Worden, H. M.; Dickerson, R. R.

    2013-02-01

    Trends in the composition of the lower atmosphere (0-1500 m altitude) and surface air quality over the Baltimore/Washington area and surrounding states were investigated for the period from 1997 to 2011. We examined emissions, ground-level observations and long-term aircraft measurements to characterize trends in air pollution. The USEPA Continuous Emissions Monitoring System (CEMS) program reported substantial decreases in point sources resulting from national and regional control measures; these decreases are definitely reflected in the ground-level observations. The decreasing trend of CO column contents is ~8.0 Dobson Unit (DU) decade-1, corresponding to ~350 ppbv decade-1 in the lower troposphere. Satellite observations of long-term, near-surface CO show ~40% decrease over western Maryland between 2000 and 2011, the same magnitude as indicated by aircraft measurements over upwind regions of Baltimore/Washington aished. After compensating for inter-annual temperature variations, historical aircraft measurements suggest the daily net production of tropospheric ozone over Baltimore/Washington area decreases from ~20 ppbv in the late 1990s to ~7 ppbv in the early 2010s during the ozone season. A decrease in the long-term ozone column content is observed as ~2.0 DU decade-1 in the lowest 1500 m, corresponding to ~13 ppbv decade-1 decrease. Back trajectory cluster analysis demonstrates that emissions of air pollutants from Ohio and Pennsylvania through Maryland influence column contents of downwind ozone in the lower atmosphere. The trends of air pollutants reveal the success of regulations implemented over the last decade and the importance of region wide emission controls over the eastern United States.

  10. Air Pollution and Environmental Justice Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouvier-Brown, N. C.

    2014-12-01

    Air pollution is not equally dispersed in all neighborhoods and this raises many social concerns, such as environmental justice. "Real world" data, whether extracted from online databases or collected in the field, can be used to demonstrate air quality patterns. When students explore these trends, they not only learn about atmospheric chemistry, but they also become socially aware of any inequities. This presentation outlines specific ways to link air pollution and environmental justice suitable for an undergraduate upper division Air Pollution or Atmospheric Chemistry course.

  11. VALMET: a valley air pollution model. Final report. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteman, C.D.; Allwine, K.J.

    1985-04-01

    An air quality model is described for predicting air pollution concentrations in deep mountain valleys arising from nocturnal down-valley transport and diffusion of an elevated pollutant plume, and the fumigation of the plume on the valley floor and sidewalls after sunrise. Included is a technical description of the model, a discussion of the model's applications, the required model inputs, sample calculations and model outputs, and a full listing of the FORTRAN computer program. 55 refs., 27 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. Air pollution and infant mortality from pneumonia

    SciTech Connect

    Penna, M.L.; Duchiade, M.P. )

    1991-03-01

    This study examines the relationship between air pollution, measured as concentration of suspended particulates in the atmosphere, and infant mortality due to pneumonia in the metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro. Multiple linear regression (progressive or stepwise method) was used to analyze infant mortality due to pneumonia, diarrhea, and all causes in 1980, by geographic area, income level, and degree of contamination. While the variable proportion of families with income equivalent to more than two minimum wages was included in the regressions corresponding to the three types of infant mortality, the average contamination index had a statistically significant coefficient (b = 0.2208; t = 2.670; P = 0.0137) only in the case of mortality due to pneumonia. This would suggest a biological association, but, as in any ecological study, such conclusions should be viewed with caution. The authors believe that air quality indicators are essential to consider in studies of acute respiratory infections in developing countries.

  13. Air pollutant production by algal cell cultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fong, F.; Funkhouser, E. A.

    1982-01-01

    The production of phytotoxic air pollutants by cultures of Chlorella vulgaris and Euglena gracilis is considered. Algal and plant culture systems, a fumigation system, and ethylene, ethane, cyanide, and nitrogen oxides assays are discussed. Bean, tobacco, mustard green, cantaloupe and wheat plants all showed injury when fumigated with algal gases for 4 hours. Only coleus plants showed any resistance to the gases. It is found that a closed or recycled air effluent system does not produce plant injury from algal air pollutants.

  14. Evaluation and Application of Alternative Air Pollution Exposure Metrics in Air Pollution Epidemiology Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT: Periodic review, revision and subsequent implementation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for criteria air pollutants rely upon various types of scientific air quality, exposure, toxicological dose-response and epidemiological information. Exposure assessmen...

  15. Near-source air pollution and mitigation strategies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract. Local-scale air pollution impact is of concern for populations located in close proximity to transit sources, including highway, port, rail, and other areas of concentrated diesel emissions. Previous near-road air monitoring research has prompted the U.S. EPA to implem...

  16. Monitoring of pyrocatechol indoor air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eškinja, I.; Grabarić, Z.; Grabarić, B. S.

    Spectrophotometric and electrochemical methods for monitoring of pyrocatechol (PC) indoor air pollution have been investigated. Spectrophotometric determination was performed using Fe(III) and iodine methods. The adherence to Beer's law was found in the concentration range between 0 and 12 μg ml - for iodine method at pH = 5.7 measuring absorbance at 725 nm, and in the range 0-30 μg ml - for Fe(III) method at pH = 9.5 measuring absorbance at 510 nm. The former method showed greater sensitivity than the latter one. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and chronoamperometric (CA) detection in flow injection analysis (FIA) using carbon paste electrode in phosphate buffer solution of pH = 6.5 was also used for pyrocatechol determination. The electrochemical methods allowed pyrocatechol quantitation in submicromolar concentration level with an overall reproducibility of ± 1%. The efficiency of pyrocatechol sampling collection was investigated at two temperatures (27 and 40°C) in water, 0.1 M NaOH and 0.1 M HCl solutions. Solution of 0.1 M HCl gave the best collection efficiency (95.5-98.5%). A chamber testing simulating the indoor pollution has been performed. In order to check the reliability of the proposed methods for monitoring of the indoor pyrocatechol pollution, the air in working premises with pyrocatechol released from meteorological charts during mapping and paper drying was analyzed using proposed methods. The concentration of pyrocatechol in the air during mapping was found to be 1.8 mg m -3 which is below the hygienic standard of permissible exposure of 20 mg m -3 (≈ 5 ppm). The release of pyrocatechol from the paper impregnated with pyrocatechol standing at room temperature during one year was also measured. The proposed methods can be used for indoor pyrocatechol pollution monitoring in working premises of photographic, rubber, oil and dye industries, fur and furniture dyeing and cosmetic or pharmaceutical premises where pyrocatechol and related

  17. Air pollution and the respiratory system.

    PubMed

    Arbex, Marcos Abdo; Santos, Ubiratan de Paula; Martins, Lourdes Conceição; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Pereira, Luiz Alberto Amador; Braga, Alfésio Luis Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 250 years-since the Industrial Revolution accelerated the process of pollutant emission, which, until then, had been limited to the domestic use of fuels (mineral and vegetal) and intermittent volcanic emissions-air pollution has been present in various scenarios. Today, approximately 50% of the people in the world live in cities and urban areas and are exposed to progressively higher levels of air pollutants. This is a non-systematic review on the different types and sources of air pollutants, as well as on the respiratory effects attributed to exposure to such contaminants. Aggravation of the symptoms of disease, together with increases in the demand for emergency treatment, the number of hospitalizations, and the number of deaths, can be attributed to particulate and gaseous pollutants, emitted by various sources. Chronic exposure to air pollutants not only causes decompensation of pre-existing diseases but also increases the number of new cases of asthma, COPD, and lung cancer, even in rural areas. Air pollutants now rival tobacco smoke as the leading risk factor for these diseases. We hope that we can impress upon pulmonologists and clinicians the relevance of investigating exposure to air pollutants and of recognizing this as a risk factor that should be taken into account in the adoption of best practices for the control of the acute decompensation of respiratory diseases and for maintenance treatment between exacerbations. PMID:23147058

  18. Direct effects of energy-related air pollutants on plant sexual reproduction

    SciTech Connect

    Ragsdale, H.L.; Murdy, W.H.

    1987-12-08

    Our completed research program concentrated on the direct in vivo effects of energy-related air pollutants on plant sexual reproduction. Direct air pollution effects on plant sexual reproduction have been studied for SO{sub 2} and NO{sub 2}, two of the three major air pollutants.

  19. Knowledge of, and Attitudes to, Indoor Air Pollution in Kuwaiti Students, Teachers and University Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Khamees, Nedaa A.; Alamari, Hanaa

    2009-01-01

    The concentrations of air pollutants in residences can be many times those in outside air, and many of these pollutants are known to have adverse health consequences. Despite this, there have been very few attempts to delineate knowledge of, and attitudes to, indoor air pollution. This study aimed to establish the knowledge of, and attitudes to,…

  20. Air pollution modeling and its application III

    SciTech Connect

    De Wispelaere, C.

    1984-01-01

    This book focuses on the Lagrangian modeling of air pollution. Modeling cooling tower and power plant plumes, modeling the dispersion of heavy gases, remote sensing as a tool for air pollution modeling, dispersion modeling including photochemistry, and the evaluation of model performances in practical applications are discussed. Specific topics considered include dispersion in the convective boundary layer, the application of personal computers to Lagrangian modeling, the dynamic interaction of cooling tower and stack plumes, the diffusion of heavy gases, correlation spectrometry as a tool for mesoscale air pollution modeling, Doppler acoustic sounding, tetroon flights, photochemical air quality simulation modeling, acid deposition of photochemical oxidation products, atmospheric diffusion modeling, applications of an integral plume rise model, and the estimation of diffuse hydrocarbon leakages from petrochemical factories. This volume constitutes the proceedings of the Thirteenth International Technical Meeting on Air Pollution Modeling and Its Application held in France in 1982.

  1. INDOOR AIR ASSESSMENT - INDOOR CONCENTRATIONS OF ENVIRONMENTAL CARCINOGENS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this report, indoor concentration data are presented for the following general categories of air pollutants: adon-222, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), asbestos, gas phase organic compounds, formaldehyde, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAN), pesticides, and inorganic comp...

  2. RESEARCH AREA -- ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE CONTROL (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Air Pollution Technology Branch (APTB) of NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division in Research Triangle Park, NC, has conducted several research projects for evaluating the use of artificial intelligence (AI) to improve the control of pollution control systems an...

  3. Respiratory tract retention of inhaled air pollutants: report 1: mercury absorption by inhaling through the nose and expiring through the mouth at various concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Kikuo, O.; Saito, H.; Kifune, I.; Ohshina, T.; Fujii, M.; Takizawa, Y.

    1982-01-01

    To study atmospheric mercury absorption in human respiratory passage-ways, mercury in expired air was measured in three different states of breathing: steady breathing, deep breathing and breath held after inspiration. In this study, air containing mercury was inhaled through the nose and expired through the mouth. The concentration of mercury in the exhaled air was determined by the technique of gold-amalgam trapping, heat vaporization, and flameless atomic absorption measurement. The subjects were 13 male adults, aged 25-62 years, and 38 cases were observed. Four different concentrations of mercury, 1-3, 4-6, 10-11, and 20-30 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ were used, and absorption for each was determined, when the concentration was 1-3 ..mu../m/sup 3/, the absorption was 74-92%, the average being 82.5%. At concentrations of 4-6, 10-11, and 20-30 ..mu../m/sup 3/, the absorption was 76.6-100%, 75.5-99.2%, 70.9-95.9% respectively, and the average was 88.8%, 85.2%, and 87.7% respectively. A slightly higher rate of mercury absorption was observed in deep breathing than in steady breathing, and when expiration was suppressed for some time after inspiration, the rate increased remarkably to 97.4-99.7%. Prolonged retention of inhaled air containing mercury in the respiratory tract is believed to have caused the increased absorption.

  4. Associations between criteria air pollutants and asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Koren, H S

    1995-01-01

    The evidence that asthma is increasing in prevalence is becoming increasingly compelling. This trend has been demonstrated not only in the United States, but also in the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Australia, and several other Western countries. In the United States, the increase is largest in the group under 18 years of age. There is mounting evidence that certain environmental air pollutants are involved in exacerbating asthma. This is based primarily on epidemiologic studies and more recent clinical studies. The U.S. Clean Air Act of 1970 provides special consideration to the class of outdoor air pollutants referred to as criteria pollutants, including O3, sulfur dioxide (SO2), particulate matter (PM), NOx, CO, and Pb. Standards for these pollutants are set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency with particular concern for populations at risk. Current evidence suggests that asthmatics are more sensitive to the effects of O3, SO2, PM, and NO2, and are therefore at risk. High SO2 and particulate concentrations have been associated with short-term increases in morbidity and mortality in the general population during dramatic air pollution episodes in the past. Controlled exposure studies have clearly shown that asthmatics are sensitive to low levels of SO2. Exercising asthmatics exposed to SO2 develop bronchoconstriction within minutes, even at levels of 0.25 ppm. Responses are modified by air temperature, humidity, and exercise level. Recent epidemiologic studies have suggested that exposure to PM is strongly associated with morbidity and mortality in the general population and that hospital admissions for bronchitis and asthma were associated with PM10 levels. In controlled clinical studies, asthmatics appear to be no more reactive to aerosols than healthy subjects. Consequently, it is difficult to attribute the increased mortality observed in epidemiologic studies to specific effects demonstrated in controlled human studies. Epidemiologic studies of

  5. Panel discussion review: Session two - Interpretation of Observed Associations between Multiple Ambient Air Pollutants and Health Effects in Epidemiologic Analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air pollution epidemiologic research has often utilized ambient air concentrations measured from centrally located monitors as a surrogate measure of exposure to these pollutants. Associations between these ambient concentrations and health outcomes such as lung function, hospita...

  6. Air pollution and venous thrombosis: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Liang; Wang, Qing-Yun; Cheng, Zhi-Peng; Hu, Bei; Liu, Jing-Di; Hu, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to air pollution has been linked to cardiovascular and respiratory disorders. However, the effect of air pollution on venous thrombotic disorders is uncertain. We performed a meta-analysis to assess the association between air pollution and venous thrombosis. PubMed, Embase, EBM Reviews, Healthstar, Global Health, Nursing Database, and Web of Science were searched for citations on air pollutants (carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and particulate matters) and venous thrombosis. Using a random-effects model, overall risk estimates were derived for each increment of 10 μg/m3 of pollutant concentration. Of the 485 in-depth reviewed studies, 8 citations, involving approximately 700,000 events, fulfilled the inclusion criteria. All the main air pollutants analyzed were not associated with an increased risk of venous thrombosis (OR = 1.005, 95% CI = 0.998–1.012 for PM2.5; OR = 0.995, 95% CI = 0.984–1.007 for PM10; OR = 1.006, 95% CI = 0.994–1.019 for NO2). Based on exposure period and thrombosis location, additional subgroup analyses provided results comparable with those of the overall analyses. There was no evidence of publication bias. Therefore, this meta analysis does not suggest the possible role of air pollution as risk factor for venous thrombosis in general population. PMID:27600652

  7. Air pollution and venous thrombosis: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Tang, Liang; Wang, Qing-Yun; Cheng, Zhi-Peng; Hu, Bei; Liu, Jing-Di; Hu, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to air pollution has been linked to cardiovascular and respiratory disorders. However, the effect of air pollution on venous thrombotic disorders is uncertain. We performed a meta-analysis to assess the association between air pollution and venous thrombosis. PubMed, Embase, EBM Reviews, Healthstar, Global Health, Nursing Database, and Web of Science were searched for citations on air pollutants (carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and particulate matters) and venous thrombosis. Using a random-effects model, overall risk estimates were derived for each increment of 10 μg/m(3) of pollutant concentration. Of the 485 in-depth reviewed studies, 8 citations, involving approximately 700,000 events, fulfilled the inclusion criteria. All the main air pollutants analyzed were not associated with an increased risk of venous thrombosis (OR = 1.005, 95% CI = 0.998-1.012 for PM2.5; OR = 0.995, 95% CI = 0.984-1.007 for PM10; OR = 1.006, 95% CI = 0.994-1.019 for NO2). Based on exposure period and thrombosis location, additional subgroup analyses provided results comparable with those of the overall analyses. There was no evidence of publication bias. Therefore, this meta analysis does not suggest the possible role of air pollution as risk factor for venous thrombosis in general population. PMID:27600652

  8. Evaluating strategies to reduce urban air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duque, L.; Relvas, H.; Silveira, C.; Ferreira, J.; Monteiro, A.; Gama, C.; Rafael, S.; Freitas, S.; Borrego, C.; Miranda, A. I.

    2016-02-01

    During the last years, specific air quality problems have been detected in the urban area of Porto (Portugal). Both PM10 and NO2 limit values have been surpassed in several air quality monitoring stations and, following the European legislation requirements, Air Quality Plans were designed and implemented to reduce those levels. In this sense, measures to decrease PM10 and NO2 emissions have been selected, these mainly related to the traffic sector, but also regarding the industrial and residential combustion sectors. The main objective of this study is to investigate the efficiency of these reduction measures with regard to the improvement of PM10 and NO2 concentration levels over the Porto urban region using a numerical modelling tool - The Air Pollution Model (TAPM). TAPM was applied over the study region, for a simulation domain of 80 × 80 km2 with a spatial resolution of 1 × 1 km2. The entire year of 2012 was simulated and set as the base year for the analysis of the impacts of the selected measures. Taking into account the main activity sectors, four main scenarios have been defined and simulated, with focus on: (1) hybrid cars; (2) a Low Emission Zone (LEZ); (3) fireplaces and (4) industry. The modelling results indicate that measures to reduce PM10 should be focused on residential combustion (fireplaces) and industrial activity and for NO2 the strategy should be based on the traffic sector. The implementation of all the defined scenarios will allow a total maximum reduction of 4.5% on the levels of both pollutants.

  9. Short-term forecast of air pollutants' concentrations over the central European part of Russia on the basis of COSMO-ART

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surkova, G.; Revokatova, A.; Kirsanov, A.; Rivin, G.

    2012-04-01

    A state-of-the-art chemical-transport model COSMO-ART including a mesoscale nonhydrostatic meteorological model COSMO and a model of atmospheric chemistry ART is used to predict concentration of ozone and nitrogen dioxide over the centre of the European part of Russia under different synoptic conditions and with effect of biomass burning. Data on emissions prepared by TNO and concentrations calculated by MOZART are used as boundary and initial conditions in ART. To specify emissions in Moscow megapolis additionally, we started to develop a technology of assimilation of observed concentration. The results of the numerical experiments show that the model is able to simulate adequately the spatial-temporal features of concentration fields. It gives the perspectives to predict pollution of the Moscow megalopolis, taking into account natural and anthropogenic sources under real weather conditions, to carry out case study on assessing the impact of special pollution sources. We would like to thank Bernhard Vogel, Hieke Vogel and their colleagues as well as Christoph Knot for their kind assistance and regular consultations.

  10. Elderly exposure to indoor air pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida-Silva, M.; Wolterbeek, H. T.; Almeida, S. M.

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this work was to characterize the indoor air quality in Elderly Care Centers (ECCs) in order to assess the elders' daily exposure to air pollutants. Ten ECCs hosting 384 elderly were selected in Lisbon and Loures. Firstly, a time-budget survey was created based on questionnaires applied in the studied sites. Results showed that in average elders spend 95% of their time indoors splitted between bedrooms and living-rooms. Therefore, a set of physical and chemical parameters were measured continuously during the occupancy period in these two indoor micro-environments and in the outdoor. Results showed that indoor was the main environment contributing for the elders' daily exposure living in ECCs. In the indoor, the principal micro-environment contributing for the elders' daily exposure varied between bedrooms and living-rooms depending not only on the characteristics of the ECCs but also on the pollutants. The concentrations of CO2, VOCt, O3 and PM10 exceeded the limit values predominantly due to the insufficient ventilation preconized in the studied sites.

  11. Regional emissions of air pollutants in China.

    SciTech Connect

    Streets, D. G.

    1998-10-05

    As part of the China-MAP program, sponsored by the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration, regional inventories of air pollutants emitted in China are being characterized, in order that the atmospheric chemistry over China can be more fully understood and the resulting ambient concentrations in Chinese cities and the deposition levels to Chinese ecosystems be determined with better confidence. In addition, the contributions of greenhouse gases from China and of acidic aerosols that counteract global warming are being quantified. This paper presents preliminary estimates of the emissions of some of the major air pollutants in China: sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), carbon monoxide (CO), and black carbon (C). Emissions are estimated for each of the 27 regions of China included in the RAINS-Asia simulation model and are subsequently distributed to a 1{degree} x 1{degree} grid using appropriate disaggregation factors. Emissions from all sectors of the Chinese economy are considered, including the combustion of biofuels in rural homes. Emissions from larger power plants are calculated individually and allocated to the grid accordingly. Data for the period 1990-1995 are being developed, as well as projections for the future under alternative assumptions about economic growth and environmental control.

  12. Pollution by Urticaceae pollen-influence of selected air pollutants and meteorological parameters.

    PubMed

    Sabo, Nataša Čamprag; Kiš, Tibor; Janaćković, Peđa; Đorđević, Dragana; Popović, Aleksandar

    2016-05-01

    The goal of this study was to analyze the influence of pollutants (concentrations of NO2, SO2, and soot in the air) and meteorological parameters (air temperature, humidity, wind speed, air pressure, cloud index) on Urticaceae pollen type emission measured in the region of Subotica, Serbia. The concentrations of the air pollutants, Urticaceae pollen, and meteorological parameters were measured over a 5-year period (2009-2013), followed by a statistical analysis of the values obtained. For most of the years examined, the concentration of NO2 correlates significantly with the concentration of Urticaceae pollen type. It was also established that air temperature, humidity, wind speed, atmospheric pressure, and cloud index have an influence on Urticaceae pollen type emission, while SO2 and soot do not contribute. PMID:26865493

  13. Health effects of outdoor air pollution

    PubMed Central

    Abelsohn, Alan; Stieb, Dave M.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To inform family physicians about the health effects of air pollution and to provide an approach to counseling vulnerable patients in order to reduce exposure. Sources of information MEDLINE was searched using terms relevant to air pollution and its adverse effects. We reviewed English-language articles published from January 2008 to December 2009. Most studies provided level II evidence. Main message Outdoor air pollution causes substantial morbidity and mortality in Canada. It can affect both the respiratory system (exacerbating asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) and the cardiovascular system (triggering arrhythmias, cardiac failure, and stroke). The Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) is a new communication tool developed by Health Canada and Environment Canada that indicates the level of health risk from air pollution on a scale of 1 to 10. The AQHI is widely reported in the media, and the tool might be of use to family physicians in counseling high-risk patients (such as those with asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or cardiac failure) to reduce exposure to outdoor air pollution. Conclusion Family physicians can use the AQHI and its health messages to teach patients with asthma and other high-risk patients how to reduce health risks from air pollution. PMID:21841106

  14. Human health effects of air pollution.

    PubMed Central

    Folinsbee, L J

    1993-01-01

    Over the past three or four decades, there have been important advances in the understanding of the actions, exposure-response characteristics, and mechanisms of action of many common air pollutants. A multidisciplinary approach using epidemiology, animal toxicology, and controlled human exposure studies has contributed to the database. This review will emphasize studies of humans but will also draw on findings from the other disciplines. Air pollutants have been shown to cause responses ranging from reversible changes in respiratory symptoms and lung function, changes in airway reactivity and inflammation, structural remodeling of pulmonary airways, and impairment of pulmonary host defenses, to increased respiratory morbidity and mortality. Quantitative and qualitative understanding of the effects of a small group of air pollutants has advanced considerably, but the understanding is by no means complete, and the breadth of effects of all air pollutants is only partially understood. PMID:8354181

  15. ALTITUDE AS A FACTOR IN AIR POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air pollution is affected by change in altitude. Cities with surface elevations above 1500 meters have atmospheric pressures which are approximately fifteen percent (15%) below pressures at sea level. Consequently, mobile sources designed to operate at pressures of one atmosphere...

  16. AIR POLLUTION, OXIDATIVE STRESS AND NEUROTOXICITY.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increased incidents of classic and variant forms of neurodegenerative diseases suggest that environmental chemicals and susceptibility factors (e.g., genetics, diseased states, obesity, etc.) may be contributory. Particulate matter (PM) is a type of air pollution that is associat...

  17. GENERATION OF FUMES SIMULATING PARTICULATE AIR POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes techniques developed for generating large quantities of reproducible, stable, inorganic, fine-particle aerosol fumes. These fumes simulated particulate air pollutants emitted from power generation, basic oxygen furnaces, electric arc furnaces, and zinc smelti...

  18. HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS: DRY-DEPOSITION PHENOMENA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dry-deposition rates were evaluated for two hazardous organic air pollutants, nitrobenzene and perchloroethylene, to determine their potential for removal from the atmosphere to three building material surfaces, cement, tar paper, and vinyl asbestos tile. Dry-deposition experimen...

  19. Air-pollution effects on biodiversity

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, J.R.; Tingey, D.T.

    1992-04-01

    To address the issues of air pollution impacts on biodiversity, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Environmental Research Laboratory in Corvallis, OR, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service National Fisheries Research Center in Leetown, and the Electric Power Research Institute convened a workshop to evaluate current knowledge, identify information gaps, provide direction to research and assess policy issues. In order to obtain the most current and authoritative information possible, air pollution and biodiversity experts were invited to participate in a workshop and author the papers that make up this report. Each paper was presented and discussed, then collected in this document. The material has been organized into four parts: an introduction, an overview of air pollution exposure and effects, the consequences of air pollution on biodiversity, and policy issues and research needs.

  20. India takes steps to curb air pollution.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    India's air pollution problem needs to be tackled systematically, taking an all-of-government approach, to reduce the huge burden of associated ill-health. Patralekha Chatterjee reports. PMID:27429486

  1. Interior Landscape Plants for Indoor Air Pollution Abatement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Johnson, Anne; Bounds, Keith

    1989-01-01

    In this study, the leaves, roots, soil, and associated microorganisms of plants have been evaluated as a possible means of reducing indoor air pollutants. Additionally, a novel approach of using plant systems for removing high concentrations of indoor air pollutants such as cigarette smoke, organic solvents, and possibly radon has been designed from this work. This air filter design combines plants with an activated carbon filter. The rationale for this design, which evolved from wastewater treatment studies, is based on moving large volumes of contaminated air through an activated carbon bed where smoke, organic chemicals, pathogenic microorganisms (if present), and possibly radon are absorbed by the carbon filter. Plant roots and their associated microorganisms then destroy the pathogenic viruses, bacteria, and the organic chemicals, eventually converting all of these air pollutants into new plant tissue. It is believed that the decayed radon products would be taken up the plant roots and retained in the plant tissue.

  2. Sorbents for Trapping Organic Pollutants From Air.

    PubMed

    Ligor; Gorecka; Buszewski

    1998-01-01

    A series of siliceous adsorbents with chemically bonded phases (CBPs) of different polarity were tested as sorbents for trapping air pollutants (petroleum ether) using controlled setup. Moreover, special attention was paid to the potential role of metal impurities as strong adsorption sites. Sorbents were characterized by various physico-chemical methods, such as porosimetry, inductively coupled plasma (ICP) analysis, elemental analysis, derivatography, and gas chromatography. Trapping tubes were utilized for sorption of toxic pollutants from indoor air. PMID:10602615

  3. [Air Pollution Unit, Edmonds School District.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonds School District 15, Lynnwood, WA.

    This interdisciplinary program, developed for secondary students, contains 16 air pollution activities that can either be used directly in, or as a supplement to, curriculum in Science, Photography, Mathematics, English, Social Studies, Industrial Arts and Home Economics. The topics to be investigated include: pollutants from automobiles, exhaust…

  4. ASTM Validates Air Pollution Test Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1973

    1973-01-01

    The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) has validated six basic methods for measuring pollutants in ambient air as the first part of its Project Threshold. Aim of the project is to establish nationwide consistency in measuring pollutants; determining precision, accuracy and reproducibility of 35 standard measuring methods. (BL)

  5. Air Pollution over the States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1972

    1972-01-01

    State plans for implementing air quality standards are evaluated together with problems in modeling procedures and enforcement. Monitoring networks, standards, air quality regions, and industrial problems are also discussed. (BL)

  6. External contribution to urban air pollution.

    PubMed

    Grima, Ramon; Micallef, Alfred; Colls, Jeremy J

    2002-02-01

    Elevated particulate matter concentrations in urban locations have normally been associated with local traffic emissions. Recently it has been suggested that such episodes are influenced to a high degree by PM10 sources external to urban areas. To further corroborate this hypothesis, linear regression was sought between PM10 concentrations measured at eight urban sites in the U.K., with particulate sulphate concentration measured at two rural sites, for the years 1993-1997. Analysis of the slopes, intercepts and correlation coefficients indicate a possible relationship between urban PM10 and rural sulphate concentrations. The influences of wind direction and of the distance of the urban from the rural sites on the values of the three statistical parameters are also explored. The value of linear regression as an analysis tool in such cases is discussed and it is shown that an analysis of the sign of the rate of change of the urban PM10 and rural sulphate concentrations provides a more realistic method of correlation. The results indicate a major influence on urban PM10 concentrations from the eastern side of the United Kingdom. Linear correlation was also sought using PM10 data from nine urban sites in London and nearby rural Rochester. Analysis of the magnitude of the gradients and intercepts together with episode correlation analysis between the two sites showed the effect of transported PM10 on the local London concentrations. This article also presents methods to estimate the influence of rural and urban PM10 sources on urban PM10 concentrations and to obtain a rough estimate of the transboundary contribution to urban air pollution from the PM10 concentration data of the urban site. PMID:11878637

  7. Air Conditioning Does Reduce Air Pollution Indoors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healy, Bud

    1970-01-01

    Report of the winter meeting of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers. Subjects covered are--(1) title subject, (2) predictions for the human habitat in 1994, (3) fans, and (4) fire safety in buildings. (JW)

  8. Clean Air Slots Amid Atmospheric Pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hobbs, Peter V.

    2002-01-01

    Layering in the Earth's atmosphere is most commonly seen where parts of the atmosphere resist the incursion of air parcels from above and below - for example, when there is an increase in temperature with height over a particular altitude range. Pollutants tend to accumulate underneath the resulting stable layers. which is why visibility often increases markedly above certain altitudes. Here we describe the occurrence of an opposite effect, in which stable layers generate a layer of remarkably clean air (we refer to these layers as clean-air 'slots') sandwiched between layers of polluted air. We have observed clean-air slots in various locations around the world, but they are particularly well defined and prevalent in southern Africa during the dry season August-September). This is because at this time in this region, stable layers are common and pollution from biomass burning is widespread.

  9. Instrumentation for Air Pollution Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollowell, Craig D.; McLaughlin, Ralph D.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the techniques which form the basis of current commercial instrumentation for monitoring five major gaseous atmospheric pollutants (sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, oxidants, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons). (JR)

  10. Climatic effects of air pollutants over china: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Hong; Chang, Wenyuan; Yang, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone (O3) and aerosols are major air pollutants in the atmosphere. They have also made significant contributions to radiative forcing of climate since preindustrial times. With its rapid economic development, concentrations of air pollutants are relatively high in China; hence, quantifying the role of air pollutants in China in regional climate change is especially important. This review summarizes existing knowledge with regard to impacts of air pollutants on climate change in China and defines critical gaps needed to reduce the associated uncertainties. Measured monthly, seasonal, and annual mean surface-layer concentrations of O3 and aerosols over China are compiled in this work, with the aim to show the magnitude of concentrations of O3 and aerosols over China and to provide datasets for evaluation of model results in future studies. Ground-based and satellite measurements of O3 column burden and aerosol optical properties, as well as model estimates of radiative forcing by tropospheric O3 and aerosols are summarized. We also review regional and global modeling studies that have investigated climate change driven by tropospheric O3 and/or aerosols in China; the predicted sign and magnitude of the responses in temperature and precipitation to O3/aerosol forcings are presented. Based on this review, key priorities for future research on the climatic effects of air pollutants in China are highlighted.

  11. AIR CLEANERS FOR INDOOR AIR POLLUTION CONTROL (CHAPTER 10)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chapter describes an experimental study to evaluate performance characteristics of currently available controls for indoor air pollutants, including both particles and gases. he study evaluated the particle-size-dependent collection efficiency of seven commercially available ...

  12. Mobile Sensors and Applications for Air Pollutants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Executive Summary The public has long been interested in understanding what pollutants are in the air they breathe so they can best protect their environmental health and welfare. The current air quality monitoring network consists of discrete stations with expensive equipment ...

  13. Urban Air Pollution: State of the Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seinfeld, John H.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the highly complex mixture of gaseous and particulate matter found in urban air. Explains progress made in the understanding of the physics and chemistry of air pollution, the effects of precursors on ozone, the role of biogenic hydrocarbons, and the principal benefit of methanol-fueled vehicles. (RT)

  14. Topics in Air Pollution Control (SI: 428).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rampacek, Anne; Chaput, Linda

    This course provides information about air pollution control efforts since the passage of the Clean Air Act and places in perspective various issues that have arisen since passage of the act--significant deterioration, maintenance of standards, indirect source review, and transportation controls. Court decisions affecting these issues are cited…

  15. Air Pollution Potential from Electroplating Operations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Philip

    Measurements were made of emission rates from electroplating operations considered to have maximum air pollution potential. Sampling was performed at McClellan and additional data from a previous survey at Hill Air Force Base was used. Values obtained were extremely low. Based on existing Federal standards, no collectors are specifically required…

  16. The status of indoor air pollution.

    PubMed Central

    Esmen, N A

    1985-01-01

    Indoor air pollution, specifically restricted in its meaning to chemicals in home indoor air environment, presents a new and probably an important challenge to the researchers of the air pollution field. The general overview of this topic suggests that the voluminous data generated in the past ten or so years have only defined the rudiments of the problem, and significant areas of research still exist. Among the important areas where information is lacking, the exposures to contaminants generated by the use of consumer products and through hobbies and crafts represent perhaps the most urgent need for substantial research. PMID:4085429

  17. [Effects of air pollution on stillbirth rates in an industrial town].

    PubMed

    Dimitriev, D A

    2000-01-01

    The impact of seasonal variations in ambient air pollution with some compounds (suspended matters, sulphur dioxide, carbon oxide, nitrogen dioxide) on stillbirth was studied. Changes in the concentration of the studied pollutants were found to affect stillbirth. PMID:11030098

  18. The Automobile and Air Pollution: A Chemical Review of the Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildeman, Thomas R.

    1974-01-01

    Summarizes chemical principles underlying the operation of automobiles and the cause of air pollution, including concentrations of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, and oxides of nitrogen. Comments and opinions are made concerning present and future pollution control devices. (CC)

  19. Spatial resolution requirements for traffic-related air pollutant exposure evaluations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vehicle emissions represent one of the most important air pollution sources in most urban areas, and elevated concentrations of pollutants found near major roads have been associated with many adverse health impacts. To understand these impacts, exposure estimates should reflect ...

  20. Crop loss due to air pollution in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    van der Eerden, L J; Tonneijck, A E; Wijnands, J H

    1988-01-01

    The extent of yield reduction and economic loss caused by air pollution has been estimated for The Netherlands. Based on available data on direct effects only, each species was designated as sensitive, moderately sensitive or tolerant. On a nationwide scale, only ozone (O3), sulphur dioxide (SO2), and hydrogen fluoride (HF) exceeded effect thresholds. Effects from pollutant combinations were assumed to be additive. Yield reductions were calculated, using 10 exposure-response relationships and concentration data from the Dutch air pollution monitoring network. Changes in air pollution levels result in changes in supply. By multiplying the supply with the current price, the so-called crop volume was calculated. Subsequently, changes in crop volume were converted into economic terms, taking into account demand elasticity. On the basis of these calculations, air pollution in The Netherlands reduces total crop volume by 5%:3.4% by O3, 1.2% by SO2, and 0.4% by HF. The slope of the nonlinear relationship between crop volume reduction and exposure level increases at higher concentrations. In general, air pollution causes relatively little loss to producers, since yield reductions are largely compensated by higher prices. If air pollution in The Netherlands would be reduced to background concentrations, consumers would experience a net gain of Dfl 640 million (US 320 million dollars). Although large amounts of data were attained through literature and our own experience for this study, many assumptions still had to be made to arrive at these conclusions. With the current available knowledge, validation of our results in the field is not yet possible. PMID:15092562

  1. Air Pollution and Autism Spectrum Disorders: Causal or Confounded?

    PubMed

    Weisskopf, Marc G; Kioumourtzoglou, Marianthi-Anna; Roberts, Andrea L

    2015-12-01

    In the last decade, several studies have examined the association between perinatal exposure to ambient air pollution and risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). These studies have largely been consistent, with associations seen with different aspects of air pollution, including hazardous air toxics, ozone, particulate, and traffic-related pollution. Confounding by socioeconomic status (SES) and place of residence are of particular concern, as these can be related to ASD case ascertainment and other potential causal risk factors for ASD. While all studies take steps to address this concern, residual confounding is difficult to rule out. Two recent studies of air pollution and ASD, however, present findings that strongly argue against residual confounding, especially for factors that do not vary over relatively short time intervals. These two studies, conducted in communities around the USA, found a specific association with air pollution exposure during the 3rd, but not the 1st, trimester, when both trimesters were modeled simultaneously. In this review, we discuss confounding possibilities and then explain-with the aid of directed acyclic graphs (DAGs)-why an association that is specific to a particular time window, when multiple exposure windows are simultaneously assessed, argues against residual confounding by (even unmeasured) non-time-varying factors. In addition, we discuss why examining ambient air pollution concentration as a proxy for personal exposure helps avoid confounding by personal behavior differences, and the implications of measurement error in using ambient concentrations as a proxy for personal exposures. Given the general consistency of findings across studies and the exposure-window-specific associations recently reported, the overall evidence for a causal association between air pollution and ASD is increasingly compelling. PMID:26399256

  2. Development of a distributed air pollutant dry deposition modeling framework.

    PubMed

    Hirabayashi, Satoshi; Kroll, Charles N; Nowak, David J

    2012-12-01

    A distributed air pollutant dry deposition modeling system was developed with a geographic information system (GIS) to enhance the functionality of i-Tree Eco (i-Tree, 2011). With the developed system, temperature, leaf area index (LAI) and air pollutant concentration in a spatially distributed form can be estimated, and based on these and other input variables, dry deposition of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)), sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), and particulate matter less than 10 microns (PM10) to trees can be spatially quantified. Employing nationally available road network, traffic volume, air pollutant emission/measurement and meteorological data, the developed system provides a framework for the U.S. city managers to identify spatial patterns of urban forest and locate potential areas for future urban forest planting and protection to improve air quality. To exhibit the usability of the framework, a case study was performed for July and August of 2005 in Baltimore, MD. PMID:22858662

  3. Temporal variability of air-pollutants over Abu Dhabi, UAE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghedira, H.; Ben Romdhane, H.; Beegum S, N.

    2013-12-01

    Air quality, the measure of the concentrations of gaseous pollutants and size or number of particulate matter, is one of the most important problems worldwide and has strong implications on human health, ecosystems, as well as regional and global climate. The levels of air pollutants such as sulphur dioxide (SO2), particulate matters (PM10, PM2.5), Ozone (O3), Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), Carbon monoxide (CO), etc. show an alarming increase in urban cities across the world and in many cases, the concentrations have grown well above the World Health Organization's guidelines for ambient air-quality standards. Here, we present the periodic fluctuations observed in the concentrations of air pollutants such as SO2, NO2, O3, CO, H2S, NMHC (Non methane Hydro Carbon) and VOC (volatile organic compounds) based on the measurements collected during the period 2008-2010 at Masdar City, Abu Dhabi (24.42oN, 54.61oE, 7m MSL). The measurements were carried out using an Air Quality Monitoring System (AQM60). All these pollutant species showed statistical periodic: diurnal, monthly, seasonal and annual variations. Diurnally, all the species, except ozone, depicted an afternoon low and nighttime/early morning high, attributed to the dynamics of the local atmospheric boundary layer. Whereas, an opposite pattern with daytime high and nighttime low was observed for O3, as the species is formed in the troposphere by catalytic photochemical reactions of NOx with CO, CH4 and other VOCs. Seasonally, the pollutants depicted higher values during summer and relatively lower values during winter, associated with changes in synoptic airmass types and/or removal processes. Concentrations of all the gaseous pollutants are within the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) throughout the year, whereas the PM10 often exceeded the limits, especially during dust storm episodes.

  4. Air Pollution, Greenhouse Gases and Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramanathan, V.

    2007-12-01

    The global build up of greenhouse gases (GHGs), is the most significant environmental issue facing the planet. GHGs warm the surface and the atmosphere with significant implications for, rainfall, retreat of glaciers and sea ice, sea level, among other factors. What is less recognized, however, is a comparably major global problem dealing with air pollution. Until about ten years ago, air pollution was thought to be just an urban or a local problem. But new data have revealed that, due to fast long range transport, air pollution is transported across continents and ocean basins, resulting in trans-oceanic and trans-continental plumes of atmospheric brown clouds (ABCs) containing sub micron size particles, i.e, aerosols. ABCs intercept sunlight by absorbing as well as reflecting it, both of which lead to a large surface dimming. The dimming effect is enhanced further because aerosols nucleate more cloud drops which makes the clouds reflect more solar radiation. While the solar heating at the surface is reduced by aerosols in ABCs, the atmospheric solar heating increases due to soot solar absorption. The net difference between the dimming and the atmospheric solar heating is estimated be negative which contributes to a global cooling effect. The global cooling from this negative ABC forcing may have masked as much as 50% of the warming due to GHGs. We will identify regional and mega-city hot spots of ABCs. Long range transport from these hot spots gives rise to wide spread plumes over the adjacent oceans. Such a pattern of regionally concentrated surface dimming and atmospheric solar heating, accompanied by wide spread dimming over the oceans, gives rise to large regional effects. Only during the last decade, we have begun to comprehend the surprisingly large regional impacts. The large north-south gradient in the ABC dimming has altered the north-south gradients in sea surface temperatures, which in turn has been shown by models to decrease rainfall over the

  5. DEVELOPMENT AND ANALYSIS OF AIR QUALITY MODELING SIMULATIONS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The concentrations of five hazardous air pollutants were simulated using the Community Multi Scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system. Annual simulations were performed over the continental United States for the entire year of 2001 to support human exposure estimates. Results a...

  6. Air pollutant intrusion into the Wieliczka Salt Mine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Salmon, L.G.; Cass, G.R.; Kozlowski, R.; Hejda, A.; Spiker, E. C.; Bates, A.L.

    1996-01-01

    The Wieliczka Salt Mine World Cultural Heritage Site contains many rock salt sculptures that are threatened by water vapor condensation from the mine ventilation air. Gaseous and particulate air pollutant concentrations have been measured both outdoors and within the Wieliczka Salt Mine, along with pollutant deposition fluxes to surfaces within the mine. One purpose of these measurements was to determine whether or not low deliquescence point ionic materials (e.g., NH4NO3) are accumulating on surfaces to an extent that would exacerbate the water vapor condensation problems in the mine. It was found that pollutant gases including SO2 and HNO3 present in outdoor air are removed rapidly and almost completely from the air within the mine by deposition to surfaces. Sulfur isotope analyses confirm the accumulation of air pollutant-derived sulfur in liquid dripping from surfaces within the mine. Particle deposition onto interior surfaces in the mine is apparent, with resulting soiling of some of those sculptures that have been carved from translucent rock salt. Water accumulation by salt sculpture surfaces was studied both experimentally and by approximate thermodynamic calculations. Both approaches suggest that the pollutant deposits on the sculpture surfaces lower the relative humidity (RH) at which a substantial amount of liquid water will accumulate by 1% to several percent. The extraordinarily low SO2 concentrations within the mine may explain the apparent success of a respiratory sanatorium located deep within the mine.

  7. Spatial air pollution modelling for a West-African town.

    PubMed

    Gebreab, Sirak Zenebe; Vienneau, Danielle; Feigenwinter, Christian; Bâ, Hâmpaté; Cissé, Guéladio; Tsai, Ming-Yi

    2015-01-01

    Land use regression (LUR) modelling is a common approach used in European and Northern American epidemiological studies to assess urban and traffic related air pollution exposures. Studies applying LUR in Africa are lacking. A need exists to understand if this approach holds for an African setting, where urban features, pollutant exposures and data availability differ considerably from other continents. We developed a parsimonious regression model based on 48-hour nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations measured at 40 sites in Kaédi, a medium sized West-African town, and variables generated in a geographic information system (GIS). Road variables and settlement land use characteristics were found to be important predictors of 48-hour NO2 concentration in the model. About 68% of concentration variability in the town was explained by the model. The model was internally validated by leave-one-out cross-validation and it was found to perform moderately well. Furthermore, its parameters were robust to sampling variation. We applied the model at 100 m pixels to create a map describing the broad spatial pattern of NO2 across Kaédi. In this research, we demonstrated the potential for LUR as a valid, cost-effective approach for air pollution modelling and mapping in an African town. If the methodology were to be adopted by environmental and public health authorities in these regions, it could provide a quick assessment of the local air pollution burden and potentially support air pollution policies and guidelines. PMID:26618306

  8. ORIMULSION(R) RESEARCH STUDY (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In response to a 1998 Congressional request, the Air Pollution Technology Branch (APTB) of NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division began research as part of a study to evaluate the environmental impacts of Orimulsion(R). Orimulsion(R)is a fossil fuel composed of 70%...

  9. RESEARCH AREA -- CHLOROFLUOROCARBON (CFC) DESTRUCTION (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Six thermal oxidation (incineration) processes were approved by the Montreal Protocol for the disposal of CFCs and other ozone depleting substances. The Air Pollution Technology Branch of NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division in Research Triangle Park, NC, has eva...

  10. Air pollution: a smoking gun for cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Qian, Chao-Nan; Zeng, Yi-Xin

    2014-01-01

    Once considered a taboo topic or stigma, cancer is the number one public health enemy in the world. Once a product of an almost untouchable industry, tobacco is indisputably recognized as a major cause of cancer and a target for anticancer efforts. With the emergence of new economic powers in the world, especially in highly populated countries such as China, air pollution has rapidly emerged as a smoking gun for cancer and has become a hot topic for public health debate because of the complex political, economic, scientific, and technologic issues surrounding the air pollution problem. This editorial and the referred articles published in this special issue of the Chinese Journal of Cancer discuss these fundamental questions. Does air pollution cause a wide spectrum of cancers? Should air pollution be considered a necessary evil accompanying economic transformation in developing countries? Is an explosion of cancer incidence coming to China and how soon will it arrive? What must be done to prevent this possible human catastrophe? Finally, the approaches for air pollution control are also discussed. PMID:24636233

  11. Chemical air pollutants and otorhinolaryngeal toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Bisesi, M.S.; Rubin, A.M. . Occupational Health and Otolaryngology)

    1994-03-01

    Air pollution and the specific issue regarding the impact of airborne chemical agents to human health are familiar topics to most members of the environmental health science and environmental medicine communities. Some aspects, however, have received relatively less attention. Much has been published regarding the impact of air pollutants on the human upper and lower respiratory system, including interaction with the rhinologic (nasal) system. Relatively fewer data have been published, however, regarding the potential impact of air pollutants in reference specifically to the otologic (auditory and vestibular) and the laryngeal (larynx) system. Adverse impact to the ears, nose and throat, referred to as the otorhinolaryngeal system'', warrants attention as an important environmental health issue. Toxic interactions from exposure to many chemical air pollutants not only causes potential respiratory irritation and lung disease, but can also result in impaired hearing, balance, sense of smell, taste, and speech due to interaction with related target systems. This may be significant to environmental health risk assessment of chemical air pollutants if multi-target site models are considered.

  12. BIOINDICATORS IN AIR POLLUTION RESEARCH: APPLICATIONS AND CONSTRAINTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Physical and chemical measurements of air pollutants provide a precise measure of pollutant exposure which is frequently used to estimate probable biological impacts. Bioindicators may be classified as either accumulators of the pollutant or reactors to the pollutant. The ultimat...

  13. Coping with Indoor Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... itself. Household chemical cleaners Use baking soda or vinegar and water as household cleaners. For a job ... after each use by using one-part white vinegar to three-parts water. Let the pieces air- ...

  14. Inducibility of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase in BALB/c/ki mice exposed to urban air pollution.

    PubMed

    Mostardi, R A; Ely, D L; Liebelt, A; Grossman, S; Fu, M M

    1981-05-01

    In two separate experiments BALB/c/ki mice were exposed to urban air pollution. Mice exposed to clean air served as controls. In both experiments there were no obvious quantitative or qualitative differences in lung or liver tissue examined by light microscopy. In both experiments higher aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activities and higher trace metal concentrations were observed in the mice exposed to polluted urban air. These data are interpreted in terms of health hazards of urban air pollutants. PMID:7265310

  15. Effects of future anthropogenic pollution emissions on global air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozzer, A.; Zimmermann, P.; Doering, U.; van Aardenne, J.; Dentener, F.; Lelieveld, J.

    2012-04-01

    The atmospheric chemistry general circulation model EMAC is used to estimate the impact of anthropogenic emission changes on global and regional air quality in recent and future years (2005, 2010, 2025 and 2050). The emission scenario assumes that population and economic growth largely determine energy consumption and consequent pollution sources ("business as usual"). By comparing with recent observations, it is shown that the model reproduces the main features of regional air pollution distributions though with some imprecision inherent to the coarse horizontal resolution (around 100 km). To identify possible future hot spots of poor air quality, a multi pollutant index (MPI) has been applied. It appears that East and South Asia and the Arabian Gulf regions represent such hotspots due to very high pollutant concentrations. In East Asia a range of pollutant gases and particulate matter (PM2.5) are projected to reach very high levels from 2005 onward, while in South Asia air pollution, including ozone, will grow rapidly towards the middle of the century. Around the Arabian Gulf, where natural PM2.5 concentrations are already high (desert dust), ozone levels will increase strongly. By extending the MPI definition, we calculated a Per Capita MPI (PCMPI) in which we combined population projections with those of pollution emissions. It thus appears that a rapidly increasing number of people worldwide will experience reduced air quality during the first half of the 21st century. It is projected that air quality for the global average citizen in 2050 will be comparable to the average in East Asia in the year 2005.

  16. REMOTE FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED AIR POLLUTION STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A commercial Fourier transform infrared interferometer system has been installed in a van and used to make longpath absorption and single-ended emission measurements of gaseous pollutant concentrations at a variety of pollutant sources. The interferometer system is described and ...

  17. Pollutant Dispersion in a Developing Valley Cold-Air Pool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chemel, Charles; Burns, Paul

    2015-03-01

    Pollutants are trapped and accumulate within cold-air pools, thereby affecting air quality. A numerical model is used to quantify the role of cold-air-pooling processes in the dispersion of air pollution in a developing region of enhanced cooling within an Alpine valley under decoupled stable conditions. Results indicate that the negatively buoyant downslope flows transport and mix pollutants into the valley to depths that depend on the temperature deficit of the flow and the ambient temperature structure inside the valley. Along the slopes, pollutants are generally entrained above the region of enhanced cooling and detrained within the region of enhanced cooling largely above the ground-based inversion layer. The ability of the region of enhanced cooling to dilute pollutants is quantified. The analysis shows that the downslope flows fill the valley with air from above, which is then largely trapped within the region of enhanced cooling and that dilution depends on where the pollutants are emitted with respect to the positions of the top of the ground-based inversion layer and region of enhanced cooling, and on the slope wind speeds. Over the lower part of the slopes, the concentrations averaged across the region of enhanced cooling are proportional to the slope wind speeds where the pollutants are emitted, and diminish as the region of enhanced cooling deepens. Pollutants emitted within the ground-based inversion layer are largely trapped there. Pollutants emitted farther up the slopes detrain within the region of enhanced cooling above the ground-based inversion layer, although some fraction, increasing with distance from the top of the slopes, penetrates into the ground-based inversion layer.

  18. Synoptic typing and its application to the investigation of weather - air pollution relationships in Kuwait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Shatti, A.; Phillips, I. D.; Baker, J.

    2009-04-01

    Principal components analysis and cluster analysis of surface meteorological data were used to derive the different air mass types for Kuwait. The air mass types were analysed in terms of their mean meteorological and associated weather chart characteristics in order to relate them to their different synoptic situations. The air mass types were subsequently analysed with air pollutant concentration data. Here we report on the identified air mass types, their seasonal dependence and their pollution characteristics. Analysis of the air mass types according to pollutant mean and extreme values helps to identify the different meteorological and transport conditions influencing pollution in this region.

  19. China's international trade and air pollution in the United States.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jintai; Pan, Da; Davis, Steven J; Zhang, Qiang; He, Kebin; Wang, Can; Streets, David G; Wuebbles, Donald J; Guan, Dabo

    2014-02-01

    China is the world's largest emitter of anthropogenic air pollutants, and measurable amounts of Chinese pollution are transported via the atmosphere to other countries, including the United States. However, a large fraction of Chinese emissions is due to manufacture of goods for foreign consumption. Here, we analyze the impacts of trade-related Chinese air pollutant emissions on the global atmospheric environment, linking an economic-emission analysis and atmospheric chemical transport modeling. We find that in 2006, 36% of anthropogenic sulfur dioxide, 27% of nitrogen oxides, 22% of carbon monoxide, and 17% of black carbon emitted in China were associated with production of goods for export. For each of these pollutants, about 21% of export-related Chinese emissions were attributed to China-to-US export. Atmospheric modeling shows that transport of the export-related Chinese pollution contributed 3-10% of annual mean surface sulfate concentrations and 0.5-1.5% of ozone over the western United States in 2006. This Chinese pollution also resulted in one extra day or more of noncompliance with the US ozone standard in 2006 over the Los Angeles area and many regions in the eastern United States. On a daily basis, the export-related Chinese pollution contributed, at a maximum, 12-24% of sulfate concentrations over the western United States. As the United States outsourced manufacturing to China, sulfate pollution in 2006 increased in the western United States but decreased in the eastern United States, reflecting the competing effect between enhanced transport of Chinese pollution and reduced US emissions. Our findings are relevant to international efforts to reduce transboundary air pollution. PMID:24449863

  20. Continuous emission monitoring of metal aerosol concentrations in atmospheric air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, Anne-Marie; Sarrette, Jean-Philippe; Madon, Lydie; Almi, Abdenbi

    1996-11-01

    Improvements of an apparatus for continuous emission monitoring (CEM) by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) of metal aerosols in air are described. The method simultaneously offers low operating costs, large volume of tested air for valuable sampling and avoids supplementary contamination or keeping of the air pollutant concentrations. Questions related to detection and calibration are discussed. The detection limits (DL) obtained for the eight pollutants studied are lower than the recommended threshold limit values (TLV) and as satisfactory as the results obtained with other CEM methods involving air-argon plasmas.

  1. AIR POLLUTION CONTROL ALTERNATIVES FOR SHALE OIL PRODUCTION OPERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report consolidates, evaluates, and presents available air pollution emission data and air pollution control technology relevant to oil shale production, for use by project developers in preparing environmental impact statements and permit applications under Clean Air Act and...

  2. RELMAP: A REGIONAL LAGRANGIAN MODEL OF AIR POLLUTION - USER'S GUIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The regional Lagrangian Model of Air Pollution (RELMAP) is a mass conserving, Lagrangian model that simulates ambient concentrations and wet and dry depositions of SO2, SO4=, and fine and coarse particulate matter over the eastern United States and southeastern Canada (default do...

  3. Formaldehyde--study of indoor air pollution in Austria.

    PubMed

    Koeck, M; Pichler-Semmelrock, F P; Schlacher, R

    1997-09-01

    As part of a long-term study of indoor air pollution, formaldehyde concentrations were determined in 792 apartments following complaints by inhabitants. Measurements were carried out using Draeger tubes as well as the acetyl acetone method. In 157 apartments, HCHO concentrations of more than 0.1 ppm, exceeding the recommended standard values for indoor air concentrations, were determined. The concentrations determined tended to decrease over time. As far as they were caused by furnishings, they were limited to the spaces where these furnishings were installed. In older-style prefabricated houses with foam-filled particle-board wall systems, concentrations of more than 1.0 ppm were determined. In spite of legal regulations governing the release of formaldehyde from substances, preparations and products containing formaldehyde which have been in existence in Austria since 1990, this substance must still be considered as a possible factor of indoor pollution in causing feelings of ill-health. PMID:9386898

  4. Controlled Exposures to Air Pollutants and Risk of Cardiac Arrhythmia

    PubMed Central

    Watts, Simon J.; Hunter, Amanda J.; Shah, Anoop S.V.; Bosson, Jenny A.; Unosson, Jon; Barath, Stefan; Lundbäck, Magnus; Cassee, Flemming R.; Donaldson, Ken; Sandström, Thomas; Blomberg, Anders; Newby, David E.; Mills, Nicholas L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological studies have reported associations between air pollution exposure and increases in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Exposure to air pollutants can influence cardiac autonomic tone and reduce heart rate variability, and may increase the risk of cardiac arrhythmias, particularly in susceptible patient groups. Objectives: We investigated the incidence of cardiac arrhythmias during and after controlled exposure to air pollutants in healthy volunteers and patients with coronary heart disease. Methods: We analyzed data from 13 double-blind randomized crossover studies including 282 participants (140 healthy volunteers and 142 patients with stable coronary heart disease) from whom continuous electrocardiograms were available. The incidence of cardiac arrhythmias was recorded for each exposure and study population. Results: There were no increases in any cardiac arrhythmia during or after exposure to dilute diesel exhaust, wood smoke, ozone, concentrated ambient particles, engineered carbon nanoparticles, or high ambient levels of air pollution in either healthy volunteers or patients with coronary heart disease. Conclusions: Acute controlled exposure to air pollutants did not increase the short-term risk of arrhythmia in participants. Research employing these techniques remains crucial in identifying the important pathophysiological pathways involved in the adverse effects of air pollution, and is vital to inform environmental and public health policy decisions. Citation: Langrish JP, Watts SJ, Hunter AJ, Shah AS, Bosson JA, Unosson J, Barath S, Lundbäck M, Cassee FR, Donaldson K, Sandström T, Blomberg A, Newby DE, Mills NL. 2014. Controlled exposures to air pollutants and risk of cardiac arrhythmia. Environ Health Perspect 122:747–753; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307337 PMID:24667535

  5. Air Quality in Lanzhou, a Major Industrial City in China: Characteristics of Air Pollution and Review of Existing Evidence from Air Pollution and Health Studies

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yaqun; Li, Min; Bravo, Mercedes A.; Jin, Lan; Nori-Sarma, Amruta; Xu, Yanwen; Guan, Donghong; Wang, Chengyuan; Chen, Mingxia; Wang, Xiao; Tao, Wei; Qiu, Weitao; Zhang, Yawei

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution contributes substantially to global health burdens; however, less is known about pollution patterns in China and whether they differ from those elsewhere. We evaluated temporal and spatial heterogeneity of air pollution in Lanzhou, an urban Chinese city (April 2009–December 2012), and conducted a systematic review of literature on air pollution and health in Lanzhou. Average levels were 141.5, 42.3, and 47.2 µg/m3 for particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 µm (PM10), NO2, and SO2, respectively. Findings suggest some seasonality, particularly for SO2, with higher concentrations during colder months relative to warmer months, although a longer time frame of data is needed to evaluate seasonality fully. Correlation coefficients generally declined with distance between monitors, while coefficients of divergence increased with distance. However, these trends were not statistically significant. PM10 levels exceeded Chinese and other health-based standards and guidelines. The review identified 13 studies on outdoor air pollution and health. Although limited, the studies indicate that air pollution is associated with increased risk of health outcomes in Lanzhou. These studies and the high air pollution levels suggest potentially serious health consequences. Findings can provide guidance to future epidemiological studies, monitor placement programs, and air quality policies. PMID:25838615

  6. Studies of urban climates and air pollution in Switzerland

    SciTech Connect

    Wanner, H.; Hertig, J.

    1984-12-01

    In addition to an assessment of the factors that are responsible for urban climate change, this paper describes climatological studies and peculiarities of some Swiss cities. Although these cities are small, urban air pollution presents a real problem for urban planning. This is a result of the narow street canyons, the high traffic concentration and the complex topography, which favors air stagnation during anticyclonic weather conditions.

  7. [Air pollution, climate change and health].

    PubMed

    Ballester, Ferran

    2005-01-01

    Emissions into the atmosphere related to the climate change may further worsen the effects which air pollution has on the health of our citizens, not only indirectly due to the impact of weather phenomenon, but directly, due to the direct effects pollutants have on health. However, the efforts throughout most of the world have been aimed at dealing with these two problems separately for too many years. In fact, it is very often believed that the climate's health-safeguarding benefits would be achieved in the long term. To the contrary, what has become obvious over recent years is that the actions for reducing the emissions of polluting gases could redound in beneficial effects in the short term due to the reduction of the impact of air pollutants on the health of our citizens. This article presents the possible risks of the pollutants most closely related to climate changes, such as ozone and fine particles. Bearing in mind the uncertainties and unknowns related to this subject, the main implications for the policies related to this matter in Spain, as well as the needs for research are set out herein. In this regard, both from the standpoint of monitoring as well as research, it is considered necessary for an epidemiological monitoring system of the effects of air pollution and the relationship thereof to global changes to be established. PMID:15913052

  8. EFFECT OF AIR-POLLUTION CONTROL ON DEATH RATES IN DUBLIN, IRELAND: AN INTERVENTION STUDY. (R827353C006)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background Particulate air pollution episodes have been associated with increased daily death. However, there is little direct evidence that diminished particulate air pollution concentrations would lead to reductions in death rates. We assessed the effect of ...

  9. Air pollution and circulating biomarkers of oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Staimer, Norbert; Vaziri, Nosratola D.

    2013-01-01

    Chemical components of air pollutant exposures that induce oxidative stress and subsequent inflammation may be partly responsible for associations of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality with airborne particulate matter and combustion-related pollutant gasses. However, epidemiologic evidence regarding this is limited. An exposure-assessment approach is to measure the oxidative potential of particle mixtures because it is likely that hundreds of correlated chemicals are involved in overall effects of air pollution on health. Oxidative potential likely depends on particle composition and size distribution, especially ultrafine particle concentration, and on transition metals and certain semivolatile and volatile organic chemicals. For health effects, measuring systemic oxidative stress in the blood is one feasible approach, but there is no universal biomarker of oxidative stress and there are many potential target molecules (lipids, proteins, DNA, nitric oxide, etc.), which may be more or less suitable for specific study goals. Concurrent with the measurement of oxidative stress, it is important to measure gene and/or protein expression of endogenous antioxidant enzymes because they can modify relations between oxidative stress biomarkers and air pollutants. Conversely, the expression and activities of these enzymes are modified by oxidative stress. This interplay will likely determine the observed effects of air pollutants on systemic inflammatory and thrombotic mediators and related clinical outcomes. Studies are needed to assess the reliability and validity of oxidative stress biomarkers, evaluate differences in associations between oxidative stress biomarkers and various pollutant measurements (mass, chemical components, and oxidative potential), and evaluate impacts of antioxidant responses on these relations. PMID:23626660

  10. Urban Air Pollution in Russia: Observations and Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skorokhod, Andrey; Elansky, Nikolai; Lavrova, Olga; Pankratova, Natalia; Belikov, Igor; Falaleeva, Victoria; Mel'nikova, Irina; Remizov, Andrey; Sitnikova, Irina

    2013-04-01

    Urban air pollution is actual topic because of its influence on air quality and climate processes on both regional and global scale. There is a lack of up-to-date information about real state of air quality in Russian cities because of very few contemporary observations. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics possesses significant database of automated measurements of air composition including data of train-based TROICA experiments in 1995-2010 as well as permanent observations in Moscow since 2002. In general numerous crosses of about 100 urban settlements of different size and location have been performed that allowed us to compose detailed pattern of urban air pollution in Russia nowadays. All cities were separated at three groups: megacities (more then 500 000 citizens), middle cities (50 000-500 000 citizens) and little cities (less then 50 000 citizens). Each urban settlement has been divided into railway station area, urban zone and city (or town) surroundings. Concentrations of main polluting gases (NO, NO2, CO, SO2, NMHC, O3) and aerosols have been averaged for each settlement as well as for each group of urban settlements for day and night, and for winter and summer. Main features of air urban pollution in Russia are presented. Variations of main pollutants including anthropogenic VOCs because of daytime and seasons, as well as temperature vertical structure are studied. Concentrations of O3, CO, SO2 and NMHC are usually below MPC level. NO2 is often enhanced especially near auto-roads. In general, polluting gases have greater concentrations in winter time due to heating and stronger temperature inversions. Particulate matter is likely to be the most persistent pollutant that determines more than 90% of pollution cases. Strong pollution cases are often caused by extraordinary situations like fires, industrial pollution under unfavorable meteorological conditions. High ozone photochemical generation is quite rare. Spatial pollution structure is usually

  11. Air Pollution in Pristina, Influence on Cardiovascular Hospital Morbidity

    PubMed Central

    Ukëhaxhaj, Antigona; Gjorgjev, Dragan; Ramadani, Maser; Krasniqi, Selvete; Gjergji, Tahire; Zogaj, Drita

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Numerous studies observed health effects of particulate air pollution. Ambient air quality is particularly bad in Pristina. The principal sources of contaminants are sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides NO and NO2 (NOx), ozone (O3), lead (Pb), carbon dioxide (CO2), particulate matter (PM or dust). Objective: to investigate effects of concentrations of pollutants in ambient air on hospital admissions for cardiovascular disease in UCCK- Pristina. Methods: Retrospective ecological study. During the three year analytical research predict the potential benefit of decreasing for concentration of PM 2.5, PM 10 were measured in two station in Pristina. The study population consisted of all hospitalization patient in intern clinic for 2010,2011 and 2012 year. Air pollution measurements will be used by KHMI data for the year of 2010, 2011 and 2012 for the municipality of Pristina in the measurements point in: KHMI-MESP which is equipped with automatic analyzer- Air Compact Monitoring System (Version 2.2) recordum MESSTECHNIK GmbH. Statistical data processing will be done with SPSS 17.0 statistical package. Results: Based on the results obtained during the study period concentrated PM are higher level than standards value. The results showed that the number of hospital admissions for cardiovascular disease are positively correlated with concentration pollutants. Results show clear seasonal variation in the effects of PM on hospital admissions in Kosovo. The study period was short but the mean daily admissions for cardiovascular illnesses were quite large. Conclusion: The main source for air pollution was coal-burned power plant and traffic (old vehicles) in Kosovo. PMID:25568517

  12. Application of cellular neural network (CNN) to the prediction of missing air pollutant data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şahin, Ülkü Alver; Bayat, Cuma; Uçan, Osman N.

    2011-07-01

    For air-quality assessments in most major urban centers, air pollutants are monitored using continuous samplers. Sometimes data are not collected due to equipment failure or during equipment calibration. In this paper, we predict daily air pollutant concentrations (PM 10 and SO 2) from the Yenibosna and Umraniye air pollution measurement stations in Istanbul for times at which pollution data was not recorded. We predicted these pollutant concentrations using the CNN model with meteorological parameters, estimating missing daily pollutant concentrations for two data sets from 2002 to 2003. These data sets had 50 and 20% of data missing. The results of the CNN model predictions are compared with the results of a multivariate linear regression (LR). Results show that the correlation between predicted and observed data was higher for all pollutants using the CNN model (0.54-0.87). The CNN model predicted SO 2 concentrations better than PM 10 concentrations. Another interesting result is that winter concentrations of all pollutants were predicted better than summer concentrations. Experiments showed that accurate predictions of missing air pollutant concentrations are possible using the new approach contained in the CNN model. We therefore proposed a new approach to model air-pollution monitoring problem using CNN.

  13. Impact of air pollutants on athletic performance

    SciTech Connect

    Pierson, W.E. )

    1989-05-01

    Human controlled and observational studies both lead to the conclusion of air pollution adversely affecting athletic performance during training and competition. The dosage of various air pollutants during exercise is much higher due to the marked increase in ventilatory rate and concomitant nasal and oral breathing. This is particularly true for sulfur dioxide which is a highly water-soluble gas and is normally absorbed in the upper airway during nasal breathing. With heavy exercise, oral pharyngeal breathing is the predominant mode of breathing and much larger amounts of sulfur dioxide are delivered to the lower airway resulting in significant impact upon the lower respiratory tract. More recently, several controlled human studies have shown that a combination of exercise and air pollutants such as ozone (O3) or sulfur dioxides (SO2) cause a significant increase in bronchoconstriction and air flow obstruction when compared to the same exposure at rest. In strenuous athletic competition such as the Olympic Games where small increments of time often determine the ultimate success of athletes, the impact of air pollutants and subsequent adverse ventilatory changes can affect athletic performance. 62 references.

  14. Outdoor air pollution and lung cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, A J

    2000-01-01

    In the 1950s evidence of an ongoing epidemic of lung cancer in the United States and Western Europe led researchers to examine the role of outdoor air pollution, which was considered by some to be a likely cause. Although epidemiologic research quickly identified the central role of cigarette smoking in this epidemic, and despite progress in reducing outdoor air pollution in Western industrialized countries, concerns that ambient air pollution is causing lung cancer have persisted to the present day. This concern is based on the fact that known carcinogens continue to be released into outdoor air from industrial sources, power plants, and motor vehicles, and on a body of epidemiologic research that provides some evidence for an association between outdoor air pollution and lung cancer. This article reviews the epidemiologic evidence for this association and discusses the limitations of current studies for estimating the lung cancer risk in the general population. It also identifies research needs and suggests possible approaches to addressing outstanding questions. PMID:10931793

  15. [Etiological and exacerbation factors for COPD. Air pollution].

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Kazumasa; Kishi, Kazuma

    2016-05-01

    Recently, it has been found that the number of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) who do not have a history of smoking is higher than expected, and a number of factors affect the development of COPD. Although adequate evidence for the relation of ambient air pollution, including the presence of particulate matter (PM2.5), with the development of COPD is lacking, higher mortality from respiratory and cardiovascular diseases has been reported among patients exposed to air pollution for a long time. In addition, several reports have pointed out the possibility that acute exacerbation of COPD can be caused by short-term exposure to air pollution. Tobacco smoke is the main cause of highly concentrated PM2.5 indoors, and second hand smoke is related with the development of COPD and the high mortality from COPD. In developing countries, biomass fuel combustion contributes to COPD, especially among housewives who do not smoke. PMID:27254939

  16. Urban air pollution in Latin America and the Caribbean

    SciTech Connect

    Romieu, I.; Weitzenfeld, H.; Finkelman, J. )

    1991-09-01

    Urban air pollution has become an increasing problem in Latin America and the Caribbean. One reason is the rapid expansion in the size of the urban population. This phenomenon is associated with an increase in the number of vehicles and in energy utilization which, in addition to industrial processes often concentrated in the cities, are the primary sources of air pollution i n Latin American cities. The air quality standards established in such countries are frequently exceeded although control programs have been implemented. The urban areas more affected by anthropogenic pollutant emissions are Sao Paulo, Brazil; Santiago, Chile; and Mexico City. In Latin America, the population of cities with high priority air pollution problems include approximately 81 million people or 26.5 percent of the total urban population of Latin America, corresponding to 30 million children (<15 years), 47 million adults (15-59 years) and 4 million elderly people ({ge}60 years) who are exposed to air pollutant levels that exceed World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for adequate health protection.

  17. The Effects of Air Pollution and Temperature on COPD.

    PubMed

    Hansel, Nadia N; McCormack, Meredith C; Kim, Victor

    2016-06-01

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) affects 12-16 million people in the United States and is the third-leading cause of death. In developed countries, smoking is the greatest risk factor for the development of COPD, but other exposures also contribute to the development and progression of the disease. Several studies suggest, though are not definitive, that outdoor air pollution exposure is linked to the prevalence and incidence of COPD. Among individuals with COPD, outdoor air pollutants are associated with loss of lung function and increased respiratory symptoms. In addition, outdoor air pollutants are also associated with COPD exacerbations and mortality. There is much less evidence for the impact of indoor air on COPD, especially in developed countries in residences without biomass exposure. The limited existing data suggests that indoor particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide concentrations are linked to increased respiratory symptoms among patients with COPD. In addition, with the projected increases in temperature and extreme weather events in the context of climate change there has been increased attention to the effects of heat exposure. Extremes of temperature-both heat and cold-have been associated with increased respiratory morbidity in COPD. Some studies also suggest that temperature may modify the effect of pollution exposure and though results are not conclusive, understanding factors that may modify susceptibility to air pollution in patients with COPD is of utmost importance. PMID:26683097

  18. The Effects of Air Pollution and Temperature on COPD

    PubMed Central

    Hansel, Nadia N.; McCormack, Meredith C.; Kim, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) affects 12–16 million people in the United States and is the third-leading cause of death. In developed countries, smoking is the greatest risk factor for the development of COPD, but other exposures also contribute to the development and progression of the disease. Several studies suggest, though are not definitive, that outdoor air pollution exposure is linked to the prevalence and incidence of COPD. Among individuals with COPD, outdoor air pollutants are associated with loss of lung function and increased respiratory symptoms. In addition, outdoor air pollutants are also associated with COPD exacerbations and mortality. There is much less evidence for the impact of indoor air on COPD, especially in developed countries in residences without biomass exposure. The limited existing data suggests that indoor particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide concentrations are linked to increased respiratory symptoms among patients with COPD. In addition, with the projected increases in temperature and extreme weather events in the context of climate change there has been increased attention to the effects of heat exposure. Extremes of temperature—both heat and cold—have been associated with increased respiratory morbidity in COPD. Some studies also suggest that temperature may modify the effect of pollution exposure and though results are not conclusive, understanding factors that may modify susceptibility to air pollution in patients with COPD is of utmost importance. PMID:26683097

  19. 40 CFR 52.274 - California air pollution emergency plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false California air pollution emergency plan... pollution emergency plan. (a) Since the California Air Pollution Emergency Plan does not provide complete... District (SCAQMD). (2) Sacramento County Air Pollution Control District. (3) Monterey Bay Unified...

  20. 40 CFR 52.274 - California air pollution emergency plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false California air pollution emergency plan... pollution emergency plan. (a) Since the California Air Pollution Emergency Plan does not provide complete... District (SCAQMD). (2) Sacramento County Air Pollution Control District. (3) Monterey Bay Unified...

  1. 40 CFR 52.274 - California air pollution emergency plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false California air pollution emergency plan... pollution emergency plan. (a) Since the California Air Pollution Emergency Plan does not provide complete... District (SCAQMD). (2) Sacramento County Air Pollution Control District. (3) Monterey Bay Unified...

  2. 40 CFR 52.274 - California air pollution emergency plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false California air pollution emergency plan... pollution emergency plan. (a) Since the California Air Pollution Emergency Plan does not provide complete... District (SCAQMD). (2) Sacramento County Air Pollution Control District. (3) Monterey Bay Unified...

  3. 40 CFR 52.274 - California air pollution emergency plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false California air pollution emergency plan... pollution emergency plan. (a) Since the California Air Pollution Emergency Plan does not provide complete... District (SCAQMD). (2) Sacramento County Air Pollution Control District. (3) Monterey Bay Unified...

  4. Adverse health effects of air pollutants in a nonsmoking population.

    PubMed

    Pope, C A

    1996-07-17

    Utah Valley has provided an interesting and unique opportunity to evaluate the health effects of respirable particulate air pollution (PM10). Residents of this valley are predominantly nonsmoking members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons). The area has moderately high average PM10 levels with periods of highly elevated PM10 concentrations due to local emissions being trapped in a stagnant air mass near the valley floor during low-level temperature inversion episodes. Due to a labor dispute, there was intermittent operation of the single largest pollution source, an old integrated steel mill. Levels of other common pollutants including sulfur dioxide, ozone, and acidic aerosol are relatively low. Studies specific to Utah Valley have observed that elevated PM10 concentrations are associated with: (1) decreased lung function; (2) increased incidence of respiratory symptoms; (3) increased school absenteeism; (4) increased respiratory hospital admissions; and (5) increased mortality, especially respiratory and cardiovascular mortality. PMID:8711730

  5. Framing air pollution epidemiology in terms of population interventions, with applications to multi-pollutant modeling

    PubMed Central

    Snowden, Jonathan M.; Reid, Colleen E.; Tager, Ira B.

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution epidemiology continues moving toward the study of mixtures and multi-pollutant modeling. Simultaneously, there is a movement in epidemiology to estimate policy-relevant health effects that can be understood in reference to specific interventions. Scaling regression coefficients from a regression model by an interquartile range (IQR) is one common approach to presenting multi-pollutant health effect estimates. We are unaware of guidance on how to interpret these effect estimates as an intervention. To illustrate the issues of interpretability of IQR-scaled air pollution health effects, we analyzed how daily concentration changes in two air pollutants (NO2 and PM2.5; nitrogen dioxide and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5μm) related to one another within two seasons (summer and winter), within three cities with distinct air pollution profiles (Burbank, California; Houston, Texas; and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania). In each city-season, we examined how realistically IQR-scaling in multipollutant lag-1 time-series studies reflects a hypothetical intervention that is possible given the observed data. We proposed 2 causal conditions to explicitly link IQR-scaled effects to a clearly defined hypothetical intervention. Condition 1 specified that the index pollutant had to experience a daily concentration change of greater than one IQR, reflecting the notion that the IQR is an appropriate measure of variability between consecutive days. Condition 2 specified that the co-pollutant had to remain relatively constant. We found that in some city-seasons, there were very few instances in which these conditions were satisfied (e.g., 1 day in Pittsburgh during summer). We discuss the practical implications of IQR scaling and suggest alternative approaches to presenting multi-pollutant effects that are supported by empirical data. PMID:25643106

  6. Experience with urban air pollution in Paterson, New Jersey and implications for air pollution communication.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Branden B

    2012-01-01

    Communication about air pollution can help reduce health risks, but a scattered, largely qualitative literature on air pollution beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors raises questions about its effectiveness. A telephone survey of Paterson, New Jersey (USA) residents tested four hypotheses aimed toward integrating these findings. Self-reported sheltering indoors during high pollution, the recommended strategy, was predicted by perceived air quality and self-reported "sensitivity" to air pollution. Nearly a quarter of the sample reported mandatory outdoor activity (e.g., work) that might increase their exposures, but this factor did not significantly affect self-reported sheltering. Perceptions of air quality did not correlate strongly with official monitoring data (U.S. Air Quality Index (AQI)); even people who regularly sought AQI data relied upon sensory cues to high pollution, and secondarily upon health cues. Use of sensory and health cues, definitions of what makes someone sensitive to air pollution, and (less strongly) definitions of vulnerability to air pollution varied widely. The minority aware of the AQI were more likely to seek it if they had illnesses or saw themselves in the targeted AQI audience, yet less likely if they believed themselves sensitive to pollution. However, their sense of the AQI's match to their own experience was driven by whether they used sensory (yes) or health (no) cues, not by illness status. Some urban residents might not have access to AQI data, but this barrier seems outweighed by need to bridge interpretive gaps over definitions of air pollution, sensory perception, vulnerability, and health consequences. PMID:21883333

  7. Air Pollution and Symptoms of Depression in Elderly Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Youn-Hee; Kim, Ho; Kim, Jin Hee; Bae, Sanghyuk; Park, Hye Yin

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although the effect of air pollution on various diseases has been extensively investigated, few studies have examined its effect on depression. Objectives: We investigated the effect of air pollution on symptoms of depression in an elderly population. Methods: We enrolled 537 participants in the study who regularly visited a community center for the elderly located in Seoul, Korea. The Korean version of the Geriatric Depression Scale-Short Form (SGDS-K) was used to evaluate depressive symptomatology during a 3-year follow-up study. We associated ambient air pollutants with SGDS-K results using generalized estimating equations (GEE). We also conducted a factor analysis with items on the SGDS-K to determine which symptoms were associated with air pollution. Results: SGDS-K scores were positively associated with interquartile range (IQR) increases in the 3-day moving average concentration of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 μm (PM10) [17.0% increase in SGDS-K score, 95% confidence interval (CI): 4.9%, 30.5%], the 0–7 day moving average of nitrogen dioxide [NO2; 32.8% (95% CI: 12.6%, 56.6%)], and the 3-day moving average of ozone [O3; 43.7% (95% CI: 11.5%, 85.2%)]. For these three pollutants, factor analysis showed that air pollution was more strongly associated with emotional symptoms such as feeling happy and satisfied than with somatic or affective symptoms. Conclusions: Our study suggests that increases in PM10, NO2, and O3 may increase depressive symptoms among the elderly. Of the symptoms evaluated, ambient air pollution was most strongly associated with emotional symptoms. PMID:22514209

  8. Monitoring strategy to assessment the air pollution level in Salamanca (México)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrón-Adame, J. M.; Cortina-Januchs, M. G.; Andina, D.; Vega-Corona, A.

    2009-04-01

    Air pollution affects not only the quality of life and the health of the urban population but also forests and agriculture. Agricultural crops can be injured when exposed to high concentrations of various air pollutants. Air pollutants can generally be classed as either local or widespread. Local pollutants are those emitted from a specific stationary source and result in a well-defined zone of vegetation injury or contamination. Most common among the local pollutants are sulphur dioxide, fluorides, ammonia and particulate matter. The paper presents an air monitoring strategy based on data fusion and Artificial Neural Networks. The main objective is to classify automatically the air pollution level as a proposal to assessment the air pollution level affecting the agriculture in Salamanca (Mexico). Salamanca is catalogued as one of the most polluted cities in Mexico. Pollutant concentrations and meteorological variables have been consider in data fusion process in order to build a Representative Pollution Vector (RPV). Meteorological variables (Wind Direction and Wind Speed) are taken as a decision factor in the air pollutant concentration level. RPV is used to train an Artificial Neural Network in order to classify new pollutant events. In the experiments, real time series gathered from the Automatic Environmental Monitoring Network (AEMN) in Salamanca have been used.

  9. Air pollutant penetration through airflow leaks into buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, De-Ling

    2002-09-01

    The penetration of ambient air pollutants into the indoor environment is of concern owing to several factors: (1) epidemiological studies have shown a strong association between ambient fine particulate pollution and elevated risk of human mortality; (2) people spend most of their time in indoor environments; and (3) most information about air pollutant concentration is only available from ambient routine monitoring networks. A good understanding of ambient air pollutant transport from source to receptor requires knowledge about pollutant penetration across building envelopes. Therefore, it is essential to gain insight into particle penetration in infiltrating air and the factors that affect it in order to assess human exposure more accurately, and to further prevent adverse human health effects from ambient particulate pollution. In this dissertation, the understanding of air pollutant infiltration across leaks in the building envelope was advanced by performing modeling predictions as well as experimental investigations. The modeling analyses quantified the extent of airborne particle and reactive gas (e.g., ozone) penetration through building cracks and wall cavities using engineering analysis that incorporates existing information on building leakage characteristics, knowledge of pollutant transport processes, as well as pollutant-surface interactions. Particle penetration is primarily governed by particle diameter and by the smallest dimension of the building cracks. Particles of 0.1-1 {micro}m are predicted to have the highest penetration efficiency, nearly unity for crack heights of 0.25 mm or higher, assuming a pressure differential of 4 Pa or greater and a flow path length of 3 cm or less. Supermicron and ultrafine particles (less than 0.1 {micro}m) are readily deposited on crack surfaces by means of gravitational settling and Brownian diffusion, respectively. The fraction of ozone penetration through building leaks could vary widely, depending

  10. Urban air pollution, poverty, violence and health--Neurological and immunological aspects as mediating factors.

    PubMed

    Kristiansson, Marianne; Sörman, Karolina; Tekwe, Carmen; Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian

    2015-07-01

    Rapid rural-urban migration has created overcrowded areas characterized by concentrated poverty and increases in indoor and outdoor air pollutants. These "hotspots" constitute an increased risk of violence and disease outbreaks. We hypothesize that the effects of poverty and associated air pollution-related stress on impaired cognitive skills are mediated by inflammatory cytokines. A research framework is proposed, encompassing (i) an epidemiological investigation of associations between poverty, high concentrations of air pollutants, violence and health, (ii) a longitudinal follow-up of working memory capacities and inflammatory markers, and (iii) intervention programs aiming to strengthen employability and decreased exposures to toxic air pollutants. PMID:26005121

  11. AIR POLLUTION EFFECTS ON SEMEN QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential impact of exposure to periods of high air pollution on male reproductive health was examined within the framework of an international project conducted in the Czech Republic. Semen quality was evaluated in young men (age 18) living in the Teplice District who are ex...

  12. Control Techniques for Particulate Air Pollutants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Included is a comprehensive review of the approaches commonly recommended for controlling the sources of particulate air pollution. Not all possible combinations of control techniques that might bring about more stringent control of each individual source are reviewed. The many agricultural, commercial, domestic, industrial, and municipal…

  13. HARVARD'S INDOOR AIR POLLUTION/HEALTH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    An indoor air pollution/acute respiratory health study is being conducted by researchers at the Harvard University School of Public Health. Upper and lower respiratory symptoms of 300 children living in Watertown, Massachusetts, have been recorded on a daily diary by a parent. Ev...

  14. HANDBOOK: CONTROL TECHNIQUES FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manual is a revision of the first (1986) edition of the Handbook: Control Technologies for Hazardous Air Pollutants, which incorporated information from numerous sources into a single, self-contained reference source focusing on the design and cost of VOC and partic...

  15. Indoor Air Pollution: An Energy Management Problem?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cousins, David M.; Kulba, John W.

    1987-01-01

    Energy conservation measures have led to airtight buildings and reduced levels of ventilation resulting in indoor air pollution. Five kinds of contaminants--tobacco smoke, combustion products, microorganisms, organic compounds, and radon--are described, their hazards considered, and countermeasures outlined. (MLF)

  16. PUBLICATIONS - AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division (APPCD)publishes highly scientific and technical information developed through its four research branches. A list of key publications produced by the individual branches can be viewed by visiting the website for the respective bra...

  17. COLD REGIONS AIR POLLUTION: BIBLIOGRAPHY AND SUMMARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Through a series of workshops on cold climate environmental research priorities, conducted in 1982 by Battelle for the Environmental Protection Agency and the Department of Energy, air pollution was identified as the topic of highest priority. The current state of knowledge on ai...

  18. Air pollution control at a DOE facility

    SciTech Connect

    Curn, B.L.

    1995-11-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) plutonium production program Produced some of the greatest scientific and engineering accomplishments of all time. It is remarkable to consider the accomplishments of the Manhattan Project. The Reactor on the Hanford Site, the first production reactor in the world, began operation only 13 months after the start of construction. The DOE nuclear production program was also instrumental in pioneering other fields such as health physics an radiation monitoring. The safety record of these installations is remarkable considering that virtually every significant accomplishment was on the technological threshold of the time. One other area that the DOE Facilities pioneered was the control of radioactive particles and gases emitted to the atmosphere. The high efficiency particulate air filter (HEPA) was a development that provided high collection efficiencies of particulates to protect workers and the public. The halogen and noble gases also were of particular concern. Radioactive iodine is captured by adsorption on activated carbon or synthetic zeolites. Besides controlling radioncuclide air pollution, DOE facilities are concerned with other criteria pollutants and hazardous air pollutant emissions. The Hanford Site encompasses all those air pollution challenges.

  19. REGIONAL AIR POLLUTION STUDY: HEAT EMISSION INVENTORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the St. Louis Regional Air Pollution Study (RAPS), a heat emission inventory has been assembled. Heat emissions to the atmosphere originate, directly or indirectly, from the combustion of fossil fuels (there are no nuclear plants in the St. Louis AQCR). With the except...

  20. Changing the Paradigm of Air Pollution Monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    Historically, approaches for monitoring air pollution generally use expensive, complex, stationary equipment,1,2 which limits who collects data, why data are collected, and how data are accessed. This paradigm is changing with the materialization of lower-cost, easy-to...

  1. 30 CFR 780.15 - Air pollution control plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Air pollution control plan. 780.15 Section 780....15 Air pollution control plan. (a) For all surface mining activities with projected production rates... application shall contain an air pollution control plan which includes the following: (1) An air...

  2. 30 CFR 780.15 - Air pollution control plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Air pollution control plan. 780.15 Section 780....15 Air pollution control plan. (a) For all surface mining activities with projected production rates... application shall contain an air pollution control plan which includes the following: (1) An air...

  3. 30 CFR 780.15 - Air pollution control plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air pollution control plan. 780.15 Section 780....15 Air pollution control plan. (a) For all surface mining activities with projected production rates... application shall contain an air pollution control plan which includes the following: (1) An air...

  4. 30 CFR 780.15 - Air pollution control plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air pollution control plan. 780.15 Section 780....15 Air pollution control plan. (a) For all surface mining activities with projected production rates... application shall contain an air pollution control plan which includes the following: (1) An air...

  5. 30 CFR 780.15 - Air pollution control plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air pollution control plan. 780.15 Section 780....15 Air pollution control plan. (a) For all surface mining activities with projected production rates... application shall contain an air pollution control plan which includes the following: (1) An air...

  6. Controlling Air Pollution; A Primer on Stationary Source Control Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corman, Rena

    This companion document to "Air Pollution Primer" is written for the nonexpert in air pollution; however, it does assume a familiarity with air pollution problems. This work is oriented toward providing the reader with knowledge about current and proposed air quality legislation and knowledge about available technology to meet these standards for…

  7. Exposure measurement for air-pollution epidemiology

    SciTech Connect

    Ferris, B.G.; Ware, J.H.; Spengler, J.D.

    1988-08-01

    The chapter describes the evolution of air-pollution epidemiology over a period when changes in pollution technologies have both lowered total exposures and dispersed them over vastly greater areas. Since personal exposure and microenvironmental measurements are expensive, studies oriented toward measurements of total exposure will be smaller and more intensive. The shift in emphasis to total human exposure also will affect health risk assessment and raise difficult issues in the regulatory domain. Considering that outdoor exposures (for which EPA has a regulatory mandate) occur in the context of exposures from other sources, the potential effect of regulatory action would probably be small. The regulatory issues are even more difficult for particulate air pollution since cigarette smoking is the strongest determinant of indoor levels but the EPA lacks regulatory responsibility for cigarette smoke.

  8. Air pollution, acid rain and the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Mellanby, K.

    1988-01-01

    This book reports on the Watt Committee's working group on acid rain, which was set up in 1981. The authors consider the relationship between natural and the man-made factors and the effects of possible remedial strategies. In the first phase of the study, the group looked at the fate of airborne pollution, vegetation and soils, freshwater and remedial strategy. In this report, which contains the results of a further phase of study, these topics are included and have been brought up to date. The scope of the report is extended to include buildings and non-living materials. Consideration is given to the problem of acid rain and air pollution worldwide. Emphasis is placed on the United Kingdom. The main conclusion is that more research is necessary on some aspects of acid rain and air pollution, but that some of the reports widespread damage caused by acid rain cannot be confirmed.

  9. Comparing universal kriging and land-use regression for predicting concentrations of gaseous oxides of nitrogen (NO x) for the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution (MESA Air)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercer, Laina D.; Szpiro, Adam A.; Sheppard, Lianne; Lindström, Johan; Adar, Sara D.; Allen, Ryan W.; Avol, Edward L.; Oron, Assaf P.; Larson, Timothy; Liu, L.-J. Sally; Kaufman, Joel D.

    2011-08-01

    BackgroundEpidemiological studies that assess the health effects of long-term exposure to ambient air pollution are used to inform public policy. These studies rely on exposure models that use data collected from pollution monitoring sites to predict exposures at subject locations. Land-use regression (LUR) and universal kriging (UK) have been suggested as potential prediction methods. We evaluate these approaches on a dataset including measurements from three seasons in Los Angeles, CA. MethodsThe measurements of gaseous oxides of nitrogen (NO x) used in this study are from a "snapshot" sampling campaign that is part of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution (MESA Air). The measurements in Los Angeles were collected during three two-week periods in the summer, autumn, and winter, each with about 150 sites. The design included clusters of monitors on either side of busy roads to capture near-field gradients of traffic-related pollution. LUR and UK prediction models were created using geographic information system (GIS)-based covariates. Selection of covariates was based on 10-fold cross-validated (CV) R2 and root mean square error (RMSE). Since UK requires specialized software, a computationally simpler two-step procedure was also employed to approximate fitting the UK model using readily available regression and GIS software. ResultsUK models consistently performed as well as or better than the analogous LUR models. The best CV R2 values for season-specific UK models predicting log(NO x) were 0.75, 0.72, and 0.74 (CV RMSE 0.20, 0.17, and 0.15) for summer, autumn, and winter, respectively. The best CV R2 values for season-specific LUR models predicting log(NO x) were 0.74, 0.60, and 0.67 (CV RMSE 0.20, 0.20, and 0.17). The two-stage approximation to UK also performed better than LUR and nearly as well as the full UK model with CV R2 values 0.75, 0.70, and 0.70 (CV RMSE 0.20, 0.17, and 0.17) for summer, autumn, and winter, respectively

  10. Acculturation, ethnicity, and air pollution perceptions.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Branden B

    2011-06-01

    A globalizing world increases immigration between nations, raising the question of how acculturation (or its lack) of immigrants and their descendants to host societies affects risk perceptions. A survey of Paterson, New Jersey, residents tested acculturation's associations with attitudes to air pollution and its management, and knowledge of and self-reported behaviors concerning air pollution. Linguistic and temporal proxy measures for acculturation were independent variables along with ethnicity, plus controls for gender, age, education, and income in multivariate analyses. About one-fifth of contrasts between non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks, English-interviewed Hispanics, and Spanish-interviewed Hispanics were statistically significant (Bonferroni-corrected) and of medium or higher affect size, with most featuring the Spanish-interviewed Hispanics. Knowledge variables featured the most significant differences. Specifically, Spanish-interviewed Hispanics reported less concern, familiarity with pollution, recognition of high pollution, and vigorous outdoor activity, and greater belief that government overregulates pollution than English-interviewed Hispanics (and than the other two groups on most of these variables too). English-interviewed Hispanics did not differ from non-Hispanic whites, but did on several variables from non-Hispanic blacks. Temporal proxies of acculturation among the foreign-born were far less significant, but concern and familiarity with air pollution increased with time spent in the United States, while belief in overregulation and a positive trend in New Jersey pollution increased with time in the nation of origin. Implications of these acculturation and ethnicity findings for risk perception/communication research and practice are discussed. PMID:21231941

  11. Emissions of hazardous air pollutants from aeration tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, H.; Keener, T.C.; Bishop, P.L.; Orton, T.L.; Wang, M.; Siddiqui, K.F.

    1998-12-31

    Regulated under the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA), Publicly Owned Treatment Works (POT Ws) need to inventory and control their hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions, primarily from the aeration tanks. The spatial characteristics of hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions, primarily from the aeration tanks. The spatial characteristics of hazardous air pollutants in the form of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the aeration units of POTWs have been investigated by systematic monitoring and mathematical modeling. Using a verified off-gas sampling system and CC-MS analytical method, a large wastewater treatment plant has been tested to understand the air emissions from its aeration basins. Variations of VOC emissions along the length of the aeration units have been tested and modeled. Most VOCs have decreasing concentration profiles. A simple PFR model has been developed to obtain the spatial information of the VOC fate. This model can be easily used to validate model parameters and accurately simulate the process especially in the case where the aeration tanks are operated with varied airflow rates along the tank length. Using this simple model, air emissions can be accurately estimated and the simulation results are useful to support an emissions control analysis. This study also reveals that simple multiplication of measured off-gas concentration and total airflow over-estimates the overall emissions.

  12. Air pollutants emissions from waste treatment and disposal facilities.

    PubMed

    Hamoda, Mohamed F

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the atmospheric pollution created by some waste treatment and disposal facilities in the State of Kuwait. Air monitoring was conducted in a municipal wastewater treatment plant, an industrial wastewater treatment plant established in a petroleum refinery, and at a landfill site used for disposal of solid wastes. Such plants were selected as models for waste treatment and disposal facilities in the Arabian Gulf region and elsewhere. Air measurements were made over a period of 6 months and included levels of gaseous emissions as well as concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Samples of gas and bioaerosols were collected from ambient air surrounding the treatment facilities. The results obtained from this study have indicated the presence of VOCs and other gaseous pollutants such as methane, ammonia, and hydrogen sulphide in air surrounding the waste treatment and disposal facilities. In some cases the levels exceeded the concentration limits specified by the air quality standards. Offensive odors were also detected. The study revealed that adverse environmental impact of air pollutants is a major concern in the industrial more than in the municipal waste treatment facilities but sitting of municipal waste treatment and disposal facilities nearby the urban areas poses a threat to the public health. PMID:16401572

  13. Air pollution and stroke - an overview of the evidence base.

    PubMed

    Maheswaran, Ravi

    2016-08-01

    Air pollution is being increasingly recognized as a significant risk factor for stroke. There are numerous sources of air pollution including industry, road transport and domestic use of biomass and solid fuels. Early reports of the association between air pollution and stroke come from studies investigating health effects of severe pollution episodes. Several daily time series and case-crossover studies have reported associations with stroke. There is also evidence linking chronic air pollution exposure with stroke and with reduced survival after stroke. A conceptual framework linking air pollution exposure and stroke is proposed. It links acute and chronic exposure to air pollution with pathways to acute and chronic effects on stroke risk. Current evidence regarding potential mechanisms mainly relate to particulate air pollution. Whilst further evidence would be useful, there is already sufficient evidence to support consideration of reduction in air pollution as a preventative measure to reduce the stroke burden globally. PMID:27494962

  14. Characterization of background air pollution exposure in urban environments using a metric based on Hidden Markov Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Losada, Álvaro; Pires, José Carlos M.; Pino-Mejías, Rafael

    2016-02-01

    Urban area air pollution results from local air pollutants (from different sources) and horizontal transport (background pollution). Understanding urban air pollution background (lowest) concentration profiles is key in population exposure assessment and epidemiological studies. To this end, air pollution registered at background monitoring sites is studied, but background pollution levels are given as the average of the air pollutant concentrations measured at these sites over long periods of time. This short communication shows how a metric based on Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) can characterise the air pollutant background concentration profiles. HMMs were applied to daily average concentrations of CO, NO2, PM10 and SO2 at thirteen urban monitoring sites from three cities from 2010 to 2013. Using the proposed metric, the mean values of background and ambient air pollution registered at these sites for these primary pollutants were estimated and the ratio of ambient to background air pollution and the difference between them were studied. The ratio indicator for the studied air pollutants during the four-year study sets the background air pollution at 48%-69% of the ambient air pollution, while the difference between these values ranges from 101 to 193 μg/m3, 7-12 μg/m3, 11-13 μg/m3 and 2-3 μg/m3 for CO, NO2, PM10 and SO2, respectively.

  15. Spatial and temporal characteristics of air quality and air pollutants in 2013 in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shujun; Cao, Hui; Chen, Ying; Wu, Chengzhen; Hong, Tao; Fan, Hailan

    2016-07-01

    Air pollution has become an ever more critical issue in Beijing in more recent years. In this study, we use the air quality index (AQI), corresponding primary pollutant types and meteorological data which are collected at 16 monitoring stations in Beijing between January 2013 and December, 2013 studying the spatial and temporal variations of air quality and air pollutants. The results show that PM2.5 was the most serious pollutant, followed by O3. The average PM2.5 mass concentration was 119.5 ± 13.8 μg m(-3) in Beijing. In addition, the air quality varies across different seasons. More specifically, winter season showed the worst air quality. Moreover, while particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10) concentrations were relatively higher in the spring and winter seasons, gaseous pollutants (O3 and NO2) were more serious in the summer and autumn. In terms of spatial heterogeneity, the findings showed that AQI and PM2.5 concentrations were higher in south and lower in the north of the city, and the O3 showed exactly a pattern with the opposite direction-higher in the north and lower in the south. NO2 was found to have a greater impact on the central region compared with that in other regions. Furthermore, PM2.5 was found to be positively correlated with the relative humidity, but negatively correlated with wind speed and atmospheric pressure (P < 0.01). However, the dominant meteorological factors that influence the PM2.5 concentrations varied in different seasons. The results in this paper provide additional information for the effective control of the air pollution in Beijing. PMID:27040547

  16. Respiratory effects of air pollution on children.

    PubMed

    Goldizen, Fiona C; Sly, Peter D; Knibbs, Luke D

    2016-01-01

    A substantial proportion of the global burden of disease is directly or indirectly attributable to exposure to air pollution. Exposures occurring during the periods of organogenesis and rapid lung growth during fetal development and early post-natal life are especially damaging. In this State of the Art review, we discuss air toxicants impacting on children's respiratory health, routes of exposure with an emphasis on unique pathways relevant to young children, methods of exposure assessment and their limitations and the adverse health consequences of exposures. Finally, we point out gaps in knowledge and research needs in this area. A greater understanding of the adverse health consequences of exposure to air pollution in early life is required to encourage policy makers to reduce such exposures and improve human health. PMID:26207724

  17. Chemical climatology of air pollutants at Pico Mountain Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, B.; Owen, R. C.; Perlinger, J. A.; Val Martin, M.; Fialho, P. J.; Mazzoleni, L. R.

    2013-12-01

    Pico Mountain Observatory (PMO) was established in 2001 on top of Pico Mountain (38.47°N, 28.40°W, 2,225 m a.s.l.) in the Azores Islands. PMO frequently samples free troposphere air over the Central North Atlantic. Long-range transport from neighboring continents impacts the concentration of air pollutants at PMO, but North American outflows have the most frequent influence due to predominantly westerly wind in mid-latitude regions of the Northern Hemisphere. This study summarizes observations of gases and aerosol since the station was established and combines transport patterns simulated by FLEXPART with observations to investigate chemical signatures of transport patterns. As the first step, FLEXPART backward retroplumes released from PMO will be created for the periods covered by our observation datasets. These results will be used to determine and classify sources of the transported air for long time periods. Seasonal variations in sources and transport pathways will be examined. This information is critical to understand variations in air pollutant observations at PMO, because sources and transport trajectories define age and composition of air plumes that arrive at PMO. In the second step, transport associated with certain chemical signatures, e.g., elevated ozone combined with depressed CO, will be extracted, and transport patterns will be identified for each classified chemical signature. The analysis will reveal correlations between transport patterns and elevation of air pollutants at PMO, which will help to understand measurement datasets of multiple air pollutants. Impacts of anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions on CO concentration at PMO will also be determined through multiplying retroplumes with emission inventories. Long-term trends in impacts from both sources will be examined to find potential correlations with recently implemented air quality regulations, occurrence of wildfires, and global climate change.

  18. Daily mortality and air pollution in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Hoek, G; Brunekreef, B; Verhoeff, A; van Wijnen, J; Fischer, P

    2000-08-01

    We studied the association of daily mortality with short-term variations in the ambient concentrations of major gaseous pollutants and PM in the Netherlands. The magnitude of the association in the four major urban areas was compared with that in the remainder of the country. Daily cause-specific mortality counts, air quality, temperature, relative humidity, and influenza data were obtained from 1986 to 1994. The relationship between daily mortality and air pollution was modeled using Poisson regression analysis. We adjusted for potential confounding due to long-term and seasonal trends, influenza epidemics, ambient temperature and relative humidity, day of the week, and holidays, using generalized additive models. Influenza episodes were associated with increased mortality up to 3 weeks later. Daily mortality was significantly associated with the concentration of all air pollutants. An increase in the PM10 concentration by 100 micrograms/m3 was associated with a relative risk (RR) of 1.02 for total mortality. The largest RRs were found for pneumonia deaths. Ozone had the most consistent, independent association with mortality. Particulate air pollution (e.g., PM10, black smoke [BS]) was not more consistently associated with mortality than were the gaseous pollutants SO2 and NO2. Aerosol SO4(-2), NO3-, and BS were more consistently associated with total mortality than was PM10. The RRs for all pollutants were substantially larger in the summer months than in the winter months. The RR of total mortality for PM10 was 1.10 for the summer and 1.03 for the winter. There was no consistent difference between RRs in the four major urban areas and the more rural areas. PMID:11002600

  19. Peat-fire-related air pollution in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Hayasaka, Hiroshi; Noguchi, Izumi; Putra, Erianto Indra; Yulianti, Nina; Vadrevu, Krishna

    2014-12-01

    The past decade marked record high air pollution episodes in Indonesia. In this study, we specifically focus on vegetation fires in Palangkaraya located near a Mega Rice Project area in Indonesia. We analyzed various gaseous air pollution data such as particulate matter (PM10), SO2, CO, O3, and NO2 study region. We also conducted elemental analysis at two different sites. Results from 2001 to 2010 suggested the longest hazardous air pollution episode during 2002 lasting about 80 days from mid-August to late-October. Maximum peak concentrations of PM10, SO2, CO, and O3 were also observed during 2002 and their values reached 1905, 85.8, 38.3, and 1003×10(-6) gm(-3) respectively. Elemental analysis showed significant increase in concentrations during 2011 and 2010. Satellite retrieved fires and weather data could explain most of the temporal variations. Our results highlight peat fires as a major contributor of photochemical smog and air pollution in the region. PMID:25087200

  20. Clean Air Slots Amid Dense Atmospheric Pollution in Southern Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hobbs, Peter V.

    2003-01-01

    During the flights of the University of Washington's Convair-580 in the Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000) in southern Africa, a phenomenon was observed that has not been reported previously. This was the occurrence of thin layers of remarkably clean air, sandwiched between heavily polluted air, which persisted for many hours during the day. Photographs are shown of these clean air slots (CAS), and particle concentrations and light scattering coefficients in and around such slot are presented. An explanation is proposed for the propensity of CAS to form in southern Africa during the dry season.

  1. RESEARCH AREA -- MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The municipal waste combustion (MWC) program supports the development of revised rules for air pollutant emissions from the MWC source category. Basic research is performed on MWC pollutant formation and control mechanisms for acid gas, trace organic, and trace metal emissions. T...

  2. AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION - HOME PAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division (APPCD), located in Research Triangle Park, NC, is part of the National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL), which is headquartered in Cincinnati, OH. APPCD researches, develops, anddemonstrates air pollution prevention a...

  3. PHYSICAL AND ECONOMIC DAMAGE FUNCTIONS FOR AIR POLLUTANTS BY RECEPTOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study is primarily concerned with evaluating regional economic damages to human health, material, and vegetation and of property soiling resulting from air pollution. This study represents a step forward in methodological development of air pollution damage estimation. It at...

  4. THE STATUS OF INDOOR AIR POLLUTION RESEARCH 1976

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numerous research projects have examined the occurrences of air pollution in outdoor and workplace environments. A smaller, newer body of research has examined air pollution in nonworkplace, indoor environments. A new emphasis on measures to conserve energy in buildings, curbing ...

  5. Cheap Face Masks Little Help Against Air Pollutants

    MedlinePlus

    ... News) -- Inexpensive cloth masks offer little protection against air pollution, a new study suggests. Many people in Asia ... or washable cloth masks to protect against small air pollution particles. But tests on different types of masks ...

  6. As Traffic Piles Up, So Does Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... 160914.html As Traffic Piles Up, So Does Air Pollution To minimize exposure, researchers recommend shutting windows and ... Doing so can reduce your exposure to toxic air pollution from a traffic jam by up to 76 ...

  7. Consequences of Developmental Exposure to Concentrated Ambient Ultrafine Particle Air Pollution Combined with the Adult Paraquat and Maneb Model of the Parkinson’s Disease Phenotype in Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Joshua L; Liu, Xiufang; Weston, Douglas; Conrad, Katherine; Oberdörster, Günter; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A

    2014-01-01

    Current evidence suggests suceptibility of both the substantia nigra and striatum to exposure to components of air pollution. Further, air pollution has been associated with increased risk of PD diagnsosis in humans or PD-like pathology in animals. This study examined whether exposure of mice to concentrated ambient ultrafine particles (CAPS; <100 nm diameter) during the first two weeks of life would alter susceptibility to induction of the Parkinson’s disease phenyotype (PDP) in a pesticide-based paraquat and maneb (PQ+MB) model during adulthood utilizing i.p. injections of 10 mg/kg PQ and 30 mg/kg MB 2× per week for 6 weeks. Evidence of CAPS-induced enhancement of the PQ+MB PDP was limited primarily to delayed recovery of locomotor activity 24 post injection of PQ+MB that could be related to alterations in striatal GABA inhibitory function. Absence of more extensive interactions might also reflect the finding that CAPS and PQ+MB appeared to differentially target the nigrostriatal dopamine and amino acid systems, with CAPS impacting striatum and PQ+MB impacting dopamine-glutamate function in midbrain; both CAPS and PQ+MB elevated glutamate levels in these specific regions, consistent with potential excitotoxicity. These findings demonstrate the ability of postnatal CAPS to produce locomotor dysfunction and dopaminergic and glutamateric changes, independent of PQ+MB, in brain regions involved in the PDP. PMID:24486957

  8. Socioeconomic Disparities and Air Pollution Exposure: a Global Review.

    PubMed

    Hajat, Anjum; Hsia, Charlene; O'Neill, Marie S

    2015-12-01

    The existing reviews and meta-analyses addressing unequal exposure of environmental hazards on certain populations have focused on several environmental pollutants or on the siting of hazardous facilities. This review updates and contributes to the environmental inequality literature by focusing on ambient criteria air pollutants (including NOx), by evaluating studies related to inequality by socioeconomic status (as opposed to race/ethnicity) and by providing a more global perspective. Overall, most North American studies have shown that areas where low-socioeconomic-status (SES) communities dwell experience higher concentrations of criteria air pollutants, while European research has been mixed. Research from Asia, Africa, and other parts of the world has shown a general trend similar to that of North America, but research in these parts of the world is limited. PMID:26381684

  9. What can individuals do to reduce personal health risks from air pollution?

    PubMed Central

    Laumbach, Robert; Meng, Qingyu

    2015-01-01

    In many areas of the world, concentrations of ambient air pollutants exceed levels associated with increased risk of acute and chronic health problems. While effective policies to reduce emissions at their sources are clearly preferable, some evidence supports the effectiveness of individual actions to reduce exposure and health risks. Personal exposure to ambient air pollution can be reduced on high air pollution days by staying indoors, reducing outdoor air infiltration to indoors, cleaning indoor air with air filters, and limiting physical exertion, especially outdoors and near air pollution sources. Limited evidence suggests that the use of respirators may be effective in some circumstances. Awareness of air pollution levels is facilitated by a growing number of public air quality alert systems. Avoiding exposure to air pollutants is especially important for susceptible individuals with chronic cardiovascular or pulmonary disease, children, and the elderly. Research on mechanisms underlying the adverse health effects of air pollution have suggested potential pharmaceutical or chemopreventive interventions, such as antioxidant or antithrombotic agents, but in the absence of data on health outcomes, no sound recommendations can be made for primary prevention. Health care providers and their patients should carefully consider individual circumstances related to outdoor and indoor air pollutant exposure levels and susceptibility to those air pollutants when deciding on a course of action to reduce personal exposure and health risks from ambient air pollutants. Careful consideration is especially warranted when interventions may have unintended negative consequences, such as when efforts to avoid exposure to air pollutants lead to reduced physical activity or when there is evidence that dietary supplements, such as antioxidants, have potential adverse health effects. These potential complications of partially effective personal interventions to reduce exposure or

  10. Direct effects of energy-related air pollutants on plant sexual reproduction. Final report, February 1, 1979--January 31, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Ragsdale, H.L.; Murdy, W.H.

    1987-12-08

    Our completed research program concentrated on the direct in vivo effects of energy-related air pollutants on plant sexual reproduction. Direct air pollution effects on plant sexual reproduction have been studied for SO{sub 2} and NO{sub 2}, two of the three major air pollutants.

  11. Mathematical Modeling of Photochemical Air Pollution.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McRae, Gregory John

    Air pollution is an environmental problem that is both pervasive and difficult to control. An important element of any rational control approach is a reliable means for evaluating the air quality impact of alternative abatement measures. This work presents such a capability, in the form of a mathematical description of the production and transport of photochemical oxidants within an urban airshed. The combined influences of advection, turbulent diffusion, chemical reaction, emissions and surface removal processes are all incorporated into a series of models that are based on the species continuity equations. A delineation of the essential assumptions underlying the formulation of a three-dimensional, a Lagrangian trajectory, a vertically integrated and single cell air quality model is presented. Since each model employs common components and input data the simpler forms can be used for rapid screening calculations and the more complex ones for detailed evaluations. The flow fields, needed for species transport, are constructed using inverse distance weighted polynomial interpolation techniques that map routine monitoring data onto a regular computational mesh. Variational analysis procedures are then employed to adjust the field so that mass is conserved. Initial concentration and mixing height distributions can be established with the same interpolation algorithms. Subgrid scale turbulent transport is characterized by a gradient diffusion hypothesis. Similarity solutions are used to model the surface layer fluxes. Above this layer different treatments of turbulent diffusivity are required to account for variations in atmospheric stability. Convective velocity scaling is utilized to develop eddy diffusivities for unstable conditions. The predicted mixing times are in accord with results obtained during sulfur hexafluoride (SF(,6)) tracer experiments. Conventional models are employed for neutral and stable conditions. A new formulation for gaseous deposition fluxes

  12. Biological Monitoring of Air Pollutants and Its Influence on Human Beings

    PubMed Central

    Cen, Shihong

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring air pollutants via plants is an economic, convenient and credible method compared with the traditional ways. Plants show different damage symptoms to different air pollutants, which can be used to determine the species of air pollutants. Besides, pollutants mass concentration scope can be estimated by the damage extent of plants and the span of polluted time. Based on the domestic and foreign research, this paper discusses the principles, mechanism, advantages and disadvantages of plant-monitoring, and exemplifies plenty of such plants and the minimum mass concentration and pollution time of the plants showing damage symptoms. Finally, this paper introduced the human health effects of air pollutants on immune function of the body, such as decrease of the body's immune function, decline of lung function, respiratory and circulatory system changes, inducing and promoting human allergic diseases, respiratory diseases and other diseases. PMID:26628931

  13. Basic mechanisms for adverse cardiovascular events associated with air pollution

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution is a significant cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although the epidemiologic association between air pollution exposures and exacerbation of cardiovascular disease is well established, the mechanisms by which these exposures promote cardiovascular disease are incompletely understood. In this review I will give an overview of the components of air pollution, an overview of the cardiovascular effects of air pollution exposure and a review of the basic mechanisms that are activated by exposure to promote cardiovascular disease. PMID:25552258

  14. Monitoring of fine particle air pollutants at FWS Class 1 air quality areas

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, E.

    1995-12-31

    Fine particle samplers have been installed at five FWS wilderness areas, all Class 1 air quality areas. The samplers are designed primarily to measure the fine particles in ambient air responsible for visibility impairment and are part of the national IMPROVE (Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments) network. Filters in the samplers are analyzed for trace elements, soil elements, sulfur, hydrogen, nitrate, chloride, organic carbon, and inorganic carbon. Several composite parameters are derived from the measured parameters and include sulfate, nitrate, organic mass, light-absorbing carbon, and soil. Data indicate that fine particle concentrations at FWS sites are consistent with geographical trends observed in the national IMPROVE network. For instance, concentrations of most parameters are higher in the eastern US than in the western US, reflecting the pattern or greater air pollution and lower visibility in the east. Of the five FWS sites, Brigantine Wilderness Area experiences the greatest air pollution, receiving polluted air masses from the Ohio Valley and eastern metropolitan areas, including Philadelphia and Washington, DC. As the data record lengthens, attributing air pollution and visibility impairment at the wilderness areas to specific source types and regions will be more accurate.

  15. VALMET-A valley air pollution model

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteman, C.D.; Allwine, K.J.

    1983-09-01

    Following a thorough analysis of meteorological data obtained from deep valleys of western Colorado, a modular air-pollution model has been developed to simulate the transport and diffusion of pollutants released from an elevated point source in a well-defined mountain valley during the nighttime and morning transition periods. This initial version of the model, named VALMET, operates on a valley cross section at an arbitrary distance down-valley from a continuous point source. The model has been constructed to include parameterizations of the major physical processes that act to disperse pollution during these time periods. The model has not been fully evaluated. Further testing, evaluations, and development of the model are needed. Priorities for further development and testing are provided.

  16. Indoor air pollution in slum neighbourhoods of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanbata, Habtamu; Asfaw, Araya; Kumie, Abera

    2014-06-01

    An estimated 95% of the population of Ethiopia uses traditional biomass fuels, such as wood, dung, charcoal, or crop residues, to meet household energy needs. As a result of the harmful smoke emitted from the combustion of biomass fuels, indoor air pollution is responsible for more than 50,000 deaths annually and causes nearly 5% of the burden of disease in Ethiopia. Very limited research on indoor air pollution and its health impacts exists in Ethiopia. This study was, therefore, undertaken to assess the magnitude of indoor air pollution from household fuel use in Addis Ababa, the capital city of Ethiopia. During January and February, 2012, the concentration of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in 59 households was measured using the University of California at Berkeley Particle Monitor (UCB PM). The raw data was analysed using Statistical Package of Social Science (SPSS version 20.0) software to determine variance between groups and descriptive statistics. The geometric mean of 24-h indoor PM2.5 concentration is approximately 818 μg m-3 (Standard deviation (SD = 3.61)). The highest 24-h geometric mean of PM2.5 concentration observed were 1134 μg m-3 (SD = 3.36), 637 μg m-3 (SD = 4.44), and 335 μg m-3 (SD = 2.51), respectively, in households using predominantly solid fuel, kerosene, and clean fuel. Although 24-h mean PM2.5 concentration between fuel types differed statistically (P < 0.05), post hoc pairwise comparison indicated no significant difference in mean concentration of PM2.5 between improved biomass stoves and traditional stoves (P > 0.05). The study revealed indoor air pollution is a major environmental and health hazard from home using biomass fuel in Addis Ababa. The use of clean fuels and efficient cooking stoves is recommended.

  17. Air pollution in Athens basin and health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Economopoulou, Alexia A; Economopoulos, Alexander P

    2002-12-01

    An inventory of air pollution sources within the Athens basin is carried out for the years 1989, 1992 and 1998 and the results are inputted in a climatological model for predicting ambient concentrations. Despite of the significant growth in the number of road vehicles and the deteriorating traffic, the emissions and ambient concentrations of fine particulates, CO, NOx and VOC appear to remain reasonably constant over for the period 1989 to 1998, while these of SO2 and Pb are reduced, mainly due to the renewal of vehicle fleet, the use of catalytic technologies and the improved quality of the used fuel. The results further indicate that for CO, NOx and VOC the major source is road traffic, while for PM2.5 and SO2 both space heating and traffic share responsibility. The air pollutant concentrations monitored by the network of 11 stations are reviewed and statistics related to air quality guidelines are presented. As fine particulate levels are not monitored, approximate PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations are derived from black smoke ones on basis of experimentally determined conversion factors. The computed and monitored air pollution levels are compared and found in reasonable agreement. The results of the above analysis show that the levels of all 'classical' pollutants, with the exception of SO2 and Pb, exceed significantly the WHO guidelines and are thus expected to exert a significant health impact. The latter could be quantified in relation to the PM2.5 or PM10 levels on the basis of risk assessment information developed by the World Health Organization (WHO). The results show that the existing levels of fine particle concentrations in Athens increase significantly the mortality and morbidity, and reduce the average longevity of the entire population from 1.3 to 1.7 years. PMID:12503898

  18. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  19. Particulate air pollution and impaired lung function

    PubMed Central

    Paulin, Laura; Hansel, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world, particularly in individuals with existing lung disease. Of the most common air pollutants, particulate matter (PM) is associated with an increased risk of exacerbations and respiratory symptoms in individuals with existing lung disease, and to a lesser extent, in those without known respiratory issues. The majority of published research has focused on the effects of PM exposures on symptoms and health care utilization. Fewer studies focus on the impact of PM on objective measurements of pulmonary function. This review will focus on the effects of PM exposure on objective measurements of lung function in both healthy individuals and those with existing lung disease. PMID:26962445

  20. Effects of particulate air pollution on asthmatics

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, G.B.; Chai, H.; Dickey, D.W.; Jones, R.H.; Kinsman, R.A.; Morrill, C.G.; Spector, S.L.; Weiser, P.C.

    1983-01-01

    Twenty-four asthmatic subjects in Denver were followed from January through March 1979, a three-month period in which Denver air pollution levels are generally high and variable. Dichotomous, virtual impactor samplers provided daily measurements (micrograms/m3) of inhaled particulate matter (total mass, sulfates, and nitrates) for coarse (2.5--15 micrograms in aerodynamic diameter) and fine fractions (less than 2.5 micrometers). Carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, ozone, temperature, and barometric pressure were also measured. Twice daily measurements of each subject's peak expiratory flow rates, use of as-needed aerosolized bronchodilators, and report of airways obstruction symptoms characteristic of asthma were tested for relationships to air pollutants using a random effects model across subjects. During the time actually observed, there were very few days in which high levels of suspended particulates were recorded. Of the environmental variables studied, only fine nitrates were associated with increased symptom reports and increased aerosolized bronchodilator usage.

  1. Particulate air pollution and impaired lung function.

    PubMed

    Paulin, Laura; Hansel, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world, particularly in individuals with existing lung disease. Of the most common air pollutants, particulate matter (PM) is associated with an increased risk of exacerbations and respiratory symptoms in individuals with existing lung disease, and to a lesser extent, in those without known respiratory issues. The majority of published research has focused on the effects of PM exposures on symptoms and health care utilization. Fewer studies focus on the impact of PM on objective measurements of pulmonary function. This review will focus on the effects of PM exposure on objective measurements of lung function in both healthy individuals and those with existing lung disease. PMID:26962445

  2. A REVIEW OF AIR POLLUTANT DAMAGE TO MATERIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Report prepared as U.S. contribution to Panel 3 of NATO Committee on Challenges of Modern Society Pilot Study on Air Pollution Control Strategies and Impact Modeling. Panel 3 focuses on air pollutant impact and will publish 4 reports on air pollutants effects; this is the first i...

  3. A review of methods for predicting air pollution dispersion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathis, J. J., Jr.; Grose, W. L.

    1973-01-01

    Air pollution modeling, and problem areas in air pollution dispersion modeling were surveyed. Emission source inventory, meteorological data, and turbulent diffusion are discussed in terms of developing a dispersion model. Existing mathematical models of urban air pollution, and highway and airport models are discussed along with their limitations. Recommendations for improving modeling capabilities are included.

  4. 40 CFR 49.137 - Rule for air pollution episodes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Rule for air pollution episodes. 49.137... General Rules for Application to Indian Reservations in Epa Region 10 § 49.137 Rule for air pollution... prevent the occurrence of an air pollution emergency within the Indian reservation due to the effects...

  5. 40 CFR 49.137 - Rule for air pollution episodes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Rule for air pollution episodes. 49.137... General Rules for Application to Indian Reservations in Epa Region 10 § 49.137 Rule for air pollution... prevent the occurrence of an air pollution emergency within the Indian reservation due to the effects...

  6. 40 CFR 49.137 - Rule for air pollution episodes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Rule for air pollution episodes. 49.137... General Rules for Application to Indian Reservations in Epa Region 10 § 49.137 Rule for air pollution... prevent the occurrence of an air pollution emergency within the Indian reservation due to the effects...

  7. 40 CFR 49.137 - Rule for air pollution episodes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rule for air pollution episodes. 49.137... Application to Indian Reservations in Epa Region 10 § 49.137 Rule for air pollution episodes. (a) What is the... of an air pollution emergency within the Indian reservation due to the effects of these...

  8. 30 CFR 784.26 - Air pollution control plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air pollution control plan. 784.26 Section 784... § 784.26 Air pollution control plan. For all surface operations associated with underground mining activities, the application shall contain an air pollution control plan which includes the following: (a)...

  9. 30 CFR 784.26 - Air pollution control plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Air pollution control plan. 784.26 Section 784... § 784.26 Air pollution control plan. For all surface operations associated with underground mining activities, the application shall contain an air pollution control plan which includes the following: (a)...

  10. 30 CFR 784.26 - Air pollution control plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Air pollution control plan. 784.26 Section 784... § 784.26 Air pollution control plan. For all surface operations associated with underground mining activities, the application shall contain an air pollution control plan which includes the following: (a)...

  11. 30 CFR 784.26 - Air pollution control plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air pollution control plan. 784.26 Section 784... § 784.26 Air pollution control plan. For all surface operations associated with underground mining activities, the application shall contain an air pollution control plan which includes the following: (a)...

  12. 40 CFR 49.137 - Rule for air pollution episodes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Rule for air pollution episodes. 49.137... General Rules for Application to Indian Reservations in Epa Region 10 § 49.137 Rule for air pollution... prevent the occurrence of an air pollution emergency within the Indian reservation due to the effects...

  13. 30 CFR 784.26 - Air pollution control plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air pollution control plan. 784.26 Section 784... § 784.26 Air pollution control plan. For all surface operations associated with underground mining activities, the application shall contain an air pollution control plan which includes the following: (a)...

  14. Indoor Air Pollution (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gases Impact on Weather Health Effects Take Action Water Pollution Water Pollution Home Chemicals and Pollutants Natural Disasters Drinking Water ... Gases Impact on Weather Health Effects Take Action Water Pollution Water Pollution Home Chemicals and Pollutants Natural Disasters ...

  15. Air pollutants effects on forest ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on the effects of acid rain on forests. The conference was sponsored by the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP). Topics considered at the conference included the status of US research on acid deposition and its effects contributing factors to the decline of forests, evidence for effects on ecosystems, the effects of air pollutants on forest ecosystems in North America and Europe, forest management, and future scientific research programs and management approaches.

  16. Critical issues in air pollution epidemiology.

    PubMed Central

    Lippmann, M; Lioy, P J

    1985-01-01

    The epidemiological studies which have had significant impact on the setting of National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQSs) were performed more than twenty years ago. Most of the more recent studies have been seriously flawed in their design and/or execution because they neglected to account for important variables such as: pollutant exposures other than those from ambient air; the influence of personal activity on pollutant uptake; host responsiveness; and the separate contributions of recent transient peak exposures and long-term chronic exposures on the effects endpoints. For particulate pollutants, the influence of composition and size distribution has also received too little consideration. In order to address these deficiencies, research and methods development are needed on: indices for particulate exposures; identification of exposures relevant to the effects; improved indices of effects; acquisition of response data; identification of exposed populations; and identification of susceptible subgroups. Approaches to these needs are discussed, along with brief reviews of several recent studies that have focused on critical issues of concern, made the necessary efforts to characterize the relevant exposures of the populations being studied, and demonstrated human responses to ambient pollutants at current exposure levels. PMID:4085428

  17. Characterization and variability of pollutant concentrations for the Las Vegas implementation of the National Near-Road Mobile Source Air Toxics Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA, in collaboration with FHWA, has been involved in a large-scale monitoring research study in an effort to characterize highway vehicle emissions in a near-road environment. The pollutants of interest include particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 microns ...

  18. Air Pollution Determination Using a Surveillance Internet Protocol Camera Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chow Jeng, C. J.; Hwee San, Hslim; Matjafri, M. Z.; Abdullah, Abdul, K.

    Air pollution has long been a problem in the industrial nations of the West It has now become an increasing source of environmental degradation in the developing nations of east Asia Malaysia government has built a network to monitor air pollution But the cost of these networks is high and limits the knowledge of pollutant concentration to specific points of the cities A methodology based on a surveillance internet protocol IP camera for the determination air pollution concentrations was presented in this study The objective of this study was to test the feasibility of using IP camera data for estimating real time particulate matter of size less than 10 micron PM10 in the campus of USM The proposed PM10 retrieval algorithm derived from the atmospheric optical properties was employed in the present study In situ data sets of PM10 measurements and sun radiation measurements at the ground surface were collected simultaneously with the IP camera images using a DustTrak meter and a handheld spectroradiometer respectively The digital images were separated into three bands namely red green and blue bands for multispectral algorithm calibration The digital number DN of the IP camera images were converted into radiance and reflectance values After that the reflectance recorded by the digital camera was subtracted by the reflectance of the known surface and we obtained the reflectance caused by the atmospheric components The atmospheric reflectance values were used for regression analysis Regression technique was employed to determine suitable

  19. Short-term effects of daily air pollution on mortality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan Mahiyuddin, Wan Rozita; Sahani, Mazrura; Aripin, Rasimah; Latif, Mohd Talib; Thach, Thuan-Quoc; Wong, Chit-Ming

    2013-02-01

    The daily variations of air pollutants in the Klang Valley, Malaysia, which includes Kuala Lumpur were investigated for its association with mortality counts using time series analysis. This study located in the tropic with much less seasonal variation than typically seen in more temperate climates. Data on daily mortality for the Klang Valley (2000-2006), daily mean concentrations of air pollutants of PM10, SO2, CO, NO2, O3, daily maximum O3 and meteorological conditions were obtained from Malaysian Department of Environment. We examined the association between pollutants and daily mortality using Poisson regression while controlling for time trends and meteorological factors. Effects of the pollutants (Relative Risk, RR) on current-day (lag 0) mortality to seven previous days (lag 7) and the effects of the pollutants from the first two days (lag 01) to the first eight days (lag 07) were determined. We found significant associations in the single-pollutant model for PM10 and the daily mean O3 with natural mortality. For the daily mean O3, the highest association was at lag 05 (RR = 1.0215, 95% CI = 1.0013-1.0202). CO was found not significantly associated with natural mortality, however the RR's of CO were found to be consistently higher than PM10. In spite of significant results of PM10, the magnitude of RR's of PM10 was not important for natural mortality in comparison with either daily mean O3 or CO. There is an association between daily mean O3 and natural mortality in a two-pollutants model after adjusting for PM10. Most pollutants except SO2, were significantly associated with respiratory mortality in a single pollutant model. Daily mean O3 is also important for respiratory mortality, with over 10% of mortality associated with every IQR increased. These findings are noteworthy because seasonal confounding is unlikely in this relatively stable climate, by contrast with more temperate regions.

  20. Multi-year simulations of air pollution in two cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zink, Katrin; Berchet, Antoine; Emmenegger, Lukas; Brunner, Dominik

    2016-04-01

    As more and more people are living in urban areas world wide, air quality monitoring and forecasting at the city scale becomes increasingly critical. Due to the proximity to sources and the complex, fine-scale structure of the flow and turbulence in the built environment, air pollutant concentrations vary strongly in cities both spatially and temporally. Studies assessing the effect of air pollution on human health would greatly benefit from accurate knowledge of individual exposure, but given the high variability of concentrations and the mobility of the population, this is a marvellous task requiring highly-resolved, city-wide information on air pollutant concentrations. The Swiss Nano-Tera project OpenSense II addresses these issues using statistical and physical modeling of air pollution at very high resolution combined with long-term air pollution measurements and mobile networks of low-cost sensors. In the framework of this project, we have set up the nested meteorology and dispersion model system GRAMM/GRAL the cities of Lausanne and Zurich and improved several computational aspects of the system. Using the mesoscale model GRAMM, we simulate the flow in a larger domain around the two cities at 100 m resolution taking the complex topography and influences of different land cover on surface-atmosphere exchange of heat and momentum into account. These flow fields serve as initial and boundary conditions for the nested model GRAL, which simulates the flow inside the city at building-resolving scale (5 m resolution) based on the Reynolds-Averaged-Navier-Stokes equations, and computes the transport and dispersion of air pollutants in a Lagrangian framework. For computational efficiency, both GRAMM and GRAL simulations are run for a fixed catalog of 1008 weather situations varying in terms of background wind speed, direction and stability. Hourly time-series of meteorology and air pollutants are constructed from these steady-state solutions by selecting, for each

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF MODEL-BASED AIR POLLUTION EXPOSURE METRICS FOR USE IN EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Population-based epidemiological studies of air pollution have traditionally relied upon imperfect surrogates of personal exposures, such as area-wide ambient air pollution levels based on readily available concentrations from central monitoring sites. U.S. EPA in collaboration w...

  2. Model evaluation of roadside barrier impact on near-road air pollution

    EPA Science Inventory

    Roadside noise barriers are common features along major highways in urban regions and are anticipated to have important effects on near-road air pollution – the occurrence of elevated air pollutant concentrations for several hundred meters downwind of a major roadway. A 3-dimens...

  3. Teplice Program--The Impact of Air Pollution on Human Health

    EPA Science Inventory

    The aim of the Teplice Program is to investigate and assess the impact of air pollution on the health of the population in the district of Teplice, Czech Republic. Characterization of the air pollutants demonstrated unusually high concentrations during winter inversions of fine p...

  4. THE EFFECT OF AIR POLLUTION ON INNER-CITY CHILDREN WITH ASTHMA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of daily ambient air pollution was examined within a cohort of 846 asthmatic children residing in eight urban areas of the USA, using data from the National Cooperative Inner-City Asthma Study. Daily air pollution concentrations were extracted from the Aerometric Infor...

  5. "Development of Model-Based Air Pollution Exposure Metrics for use in Epidemiologic Studies"

    EPA Science Inventory

    Population-based epidemiological studies of air pollution have traditionally relied upon imperfect surrogates of personal exposures, such as area-wide ambient air pollution levels based on readily available concentrations from central monitoring sites. U.S. EPA in collaboration w...

  6. Air pollution control in an age of prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    In the case of air pollution control technology, the case for pollution prevention is frequently cast as a case against pollution control technology. The errors in this argument are that pollution control technology is always the more expensive compliance option and that pollution prevention techniques exist to solve all or most of US air quality problems. A true market-based clean air policy would not contain these assumptions, would set a goal and appoint the market as the arbiter of final compliance decisions. This article discusses the market-based option and the balance needed between pollution prevention and pollution control technologies.

  7. Air Pollution in the San Francisco Bay Area. Final Report of the Stanford Workshop on Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groth, Ned; And Others

    Presented in this compendium is the final report of the Stanford Workshop on Air Pollution, one segment of the SWOPSI Program (Stanford Workshops on Political and Social Issues). The workshop's goals were to apply the techniques of a scientific research team to Bay Area air pollution problems; to study all aspects of air pollution in detail; to…

  8. Can the Air Pollution Index be used to communicate the health risks of air pollution?

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Lin, Guo-Zhen; Liu, Hua-Zhang; Guo, Yuming; Ou, Chun-Quan; Chen, Ping-Yan

    2015-10-01

    The validity of using the Air Pollution Index (API) to assess health impacts of air pollution and potential modification by individual characteristics on air pollution effects remain uncertain. We applied distributed lag non-linear models (DLNMs) to assess associations of daily API, specific pollution indices for PM10, SO2, NO2 and the weighted combined API (APIw) with mortality during 2003-2011 in Guangzhou, China. An increase of 10 in API was associated with a 0.88% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.50, 1.27%) increase of non-accidental mortality at lag 0-2 days. Harvesting effects appeared after 2 days' exposure. The effect estimate of API over lag 0-15 days was statistically significant and similar with those of pollutant-specific indices and APIw. Stronger associations between API and mortality were observed in the elderly, females and residents with low educational attainment. In conclusion, the API can be used to communicate health risks of air pollution. PMID:26057478

  9. Long-range transport of air pollution into the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stohl, A.; Berg, T.; Breivik, K.; Burkhart, J. F.; Eckhardt, S.; Fjæraa, A.; Forster, C.; Herber, A.; Lunder, C.; McMillan, W. W.; None, N.; Manø, S.; Oltmans, S.; Shiobara, M.; Stebel, K.; Hirdman, D.; Stroem, J.; Tørseth, K.; Treffeisen, R.; Virkkunen, K.; Yttri, K. E.; Andrews, E.; Kowal, D.; Mefford, T.; Ogren, J. A.; Sharma, S.; Spichtinger, N.; Stone, R.; Hoch, S.; Wehrli, C.

    2007-12-01

    This paper presents an overview of air pollution transport into the Arctic. The major transport processes will be highlighted, as well as their seasonal, interannual, and spatial variability. The source regions of Arctic air pollution will be discussed, with a focus on black carbon (BC) sources, as BC can produce significant radiative forcing in the Arctic. It is found that Europe is the main source region for BC in winter, whereas boreal forest fires are the strongest source in summer, especially in years of strong burning. Two case studies of recent extreme Arctic air pollution events will be presented. In summer 2004, boreal forest fires in Alaska and Canada caused pan-Arctic enhancements of black carbon. The BC concentrations measured at Barrow (Alaska), Alert (Canada), Summit (Greenland) and Zeppelin (Spitsbergen) were all episodically elevated, as a result of the long-range transport of the biomass burning emissions. Aerosol optical depth was also episodically elevated at these stations, with an almost continuous elevation over more than a month at Summit. During the second episode in spring 2006, new records were set for all measured air pollutant species at the Zeppelin station (Spitsbergen) as well as for ozone in Iceland. At Zeppelin, BC, AOD, aerosol mass, ozone, carbon monoxide and other compounds all reached new record levels, compared to the long-term monitoring record. The episode was caused by transport of polluted air masses from Eastern Europe deep into the Arctic, a consequence of the unusual warmth in the European Arctic during the episode. While fossil fuel combustion sources certainly contributed to this episode, smoke from agricultural fires in Eastern Europe was the dominant pollution component. We also suggest a new revolatilization mechanism for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) stored in soils and vegetation by fires, as POPs were strongly elevated during both episodes. All this suggests a considerable influence of biomass burning on

  10. Air pollution episodes in larger area of Bucharest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raicu, C.; Iorga, G.

    2009-04-01

    In view of the fact that aerosol burdens in Eastern Europe may be heavily impacted by regional anthropogenic sources, this research is focused on analyses of air pollution episodes with the goal to quantify this impact in larger area of Bucharest. City of Bucharest is large size city (population 2.8 million) located in the Romanian Plain, characterised by environmental problems and meteorology typical for several cities in South-eastern Europe. It experiences intense photochemical processes. City environment includes intense emissions from traffic, thermo-electrical power-generation stations (CETs) that use mainly fossil fuels for power generation and domestic heating, and from industry. The data (PM10, SO2, CO, NOx) were collected at eight sampling sites in and around the urban area of Bucharest (three industrial and two traffic sites, one EPA urban background site, one suburban site and one regional site situated outside of Bucharest). Mass concentrations spanning over one year (2005 year) of continuous sampling were taken from data provided by the Air Quality Monitoring Network of the city. Analyses of temporal and spatial variability of PM10 were correlated with data of SO2, CO, NOx. The criterion for selecting the pollution episodes was the daily average concentration of PM10 to exceed by 35 times per year the limit value of 50 gm-3 (in accordance with Romanian Ministry Order 592/2002 criterion). Exceedances were considered as strong pollution events and were studied related to local pollution and long-range transport of pollutants provided by back-trajectories of air masses. As a general characteristics, the main contribution to the aerosol mass is due to anthropogenic local sources, but natural sources play a role, as well. The comparison between the concentration values at different sites indicates that industrial sources are responsible for a large part of the high concentrations in urban area followed by the traffic sources. The urban impact on nearby

  11. Population Dynamics and Air Pollution: The Impact of Demographics on Health Impact Assessment of Air Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Bønløkke, Jakob; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To explore how three different assumptions on demographics affect the health impact of Danish emitted air pollution in Denmark from 2005 to 2030, with health impact modeled from 2005 to 2050. Methods. Modeled air pollution from Danish sources was used as exposure in a newly developed health impact assessment model, which models four major diseases and mortality causes in addition to all-cause mortality. The modeling was at the municipal level, which divides the approximately 5.5 M residents in Denmark into 99 municipalities. Three sets of demographic assumptions were used: (1) a static year 2005 population, (2) morbidity and mortality fixed at the year 2005 level, or (3) an expected development. Results. The health impact of air pollution was estimated at 672,000, 290,000, and 280,000 lost life years depending on demographic assumptions and the corresponding social costs at 430.4 M€, 317.5 M€, and 261.6 M€ through the modeled years 2005–2050. Conclusion. The modeled health impact of air pollution differed widely with the demographic assumptions, and thus demographics and assumptions on demographics played a key role in making health impact assessments on air pollution. PMID:23762084

  12. Methods of valuing air pollution and estimated monetary values of air pollutants in various U.S. regions

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, M.Q.; Santini, D.J.; Warinner, S.A.

    1994-12-01

    Air pollutant emission values are used to determine the social costs of various technologies that cause air pollution and to estimate the benefits of emission control technologies. In this report, the authors present two methods of estimating air pollutant emission values--the damage value method and the control cost method--and review 15 recent studies in which these methods were employed to estimate emission values. The reviewed studies derived emission values for only a limited number of areas; emission value estimates are needed for other US regions. Using the emission values estimated in the reviewed studies, they establish regression relationships between emission values, air pollutant concentrations, and total population exposed, and apply the established relationships to 17 US metropolitan areas to estimate damage-based and control-cost-based emission values for reactive organic gases, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter measuring less than 10 microns, sulfur oxides, and carbon monoxide in these areas. Their estimates show significant variations in emission values across the 17 regions.

  13. [Air pollution in the vicinity of streets].

    PubMed

    Wanner, H U; Deuber, A; Satish, J; Meier, M; Sommer, H

    1976-01-01

    Air samples were collected in plastic bags simultaneously at various measuring points in the close range of streets. When examining the various bag materials, Teflon bags showed the smallest deviations in direct analyses and in analyses of up to two hours after the drawing of samples. The following methods were used for the analysis of the air samples collected in the bags: coulometry for CO and SO2, chemiluminescence for NO/NO2, chromotrophic acid for CH2O and flame ionization for hydrocarbons. The various components were measured close to a highway and near streets in residential and business areas. The simultaneously drawn samples showed a marked dependence on traffic frequency, type of built-up area along the streets as well as meteorological conditions. An opinion survey among adjacent residents on annoyance caused by air pollution and noise resulted in distinct differences between the sections with different traffic intensity. PMID:997954

  14. Air Pollution and Quality of Sperm: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fathi Najafi, Tahereh; Latifnejad Roudsari, Robab; Namvar, Farideh; Ghavami Ghanbarabadi, Vahid; Hadizadeh Talasaz, Zahra; Esmaeli, Mahin

    2015-01-01

    Context: Air pollution is common in all countries and affects reproductive functions in men and women. It particularly impacts sperm parameters in men. This meta-analysis aimed to examine the impact of air pollution on the quality of sperm. Evidence Acquisition: The scientific databases of Medline, PubMed, Scopus, Google scholar, Cochrane Library, and Elsevier were searched to identify relevant articles published between 1978 to 2013. In the first step, 76 articles were selected. These studies were ecological correlation, cohort, retrospective, cross-sectional, and case control ones that were found through electronic and hand search of references about air pollution and male infertility. The outcome measurement was the change in sperm parameters. A total of 11 articles were ultimately included in a meta-analysis to examine the impact of air pollution on sperm parameters. The authors applied meta-analysis sheets from Cochrane library, then data extraction, including mean and standard deviation of sperm parameters were calculated and finally their confidence interval (CI) were compared to CI of standard parameters. Results: The CI for pooled means were as follows: 2.68 ± 0.32 for ejaculation volume (mL), 62.1 ± 15.88 for sperm concentration (million per milliliter), 39.4 ± 5.52 for sperm motility (%), 23.91 ± 13.43 for sperm morphology (%) and 49.53 ± 11.08 for sperm count. Conclusions: The results of this meta-analysis showed that air pollution reduces sperm motility, but has no impact on the other sperm parameters of spermogram. PMID:26023349

  15. Evaluating impacts of air pollution in China on public health: Implications for future air pollution and energy policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoping; Mauzerall, Denise L.

    Our objective is to establish the link between energy consumption and technologies, air pollution concentrations, and resulting impacts on public health in eastern China. We use Zaozhuang, a city in eastern China heavily dependent on coal, as a case study to quantify the impacts that air pollution in eastern China had on public health in 2000 and the benefits in improved air quality and health that could be obtained by 2020, relative to business-as-usual (BAU), through the implementation of best available emission control technology (BACT) and advanced coal gasification technologies (ACGT). We use an integrated assessment approach, utilizing state-of-the-science air quality and meteorological models, engineering, epidemiology, and economics, to achieve this objective. We find that total health damages due to year 2000 anthropogenic emissions from Zaozhuang, using the "willingness-to-pay" metric, was equivalent to 10% of Zaozhuang's GDP. If all health damages resulting from coal use were internalized in the market price of coal, the year 2000 price would have more than tripled. With no new air pollution controls implemented between 2000 and 2020 but with projected increases in energy use, we estimate health damages from air pollution exposure to be equivalent to 16% of Zaozhuang's projected 2020 GDP. BACT and ACGT (with only 24% penetration in Zaozhuang and providing 2% of energy needs in three surrounding municipalities) could reduce the potential health damage of air pollution in 2020 to 13% and 8% of projected GDP, respectively. Benefits to public health, of substantial monetary value, can be achieved through the use of BACT; health benefits from the use of ACGT could be even larger. Despite significant uncertainty associated with each element of the integrated assessment approach, we demonstrate that substantial benefits to public health could be achieved in this region of eastern China through the use of additional pollution controls and particularly from the

  16. China's international trade and air pollution: 2000 - 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Ruijing; Lin, Jintai; Pan, Da; Wang, Jingxu; Yan, Yingying; Zhang, Qiang

    2016-04-01

    As the world's top trading country, China is now the most polluted country. However, a large portion of pollution produced in China is associated with its production of goods for foreign consumption via international trade. Along with China's rapid economic growth in recent years, its economic-trade structure and volume has been changing all the time, resulting in large changes in total emissions and the shares of trade-related emissions. Here, we assess the influence of China's changing total and export-related emissions between 2000 and 2009 on its atmospheric pollution loadings and transport, by exploiting simulations of a global chemical transport model GEOS-Chem. We find that both air pollution related to Chinese exports (PRE) which including nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), black carbon (BC), and primary organic aerosol (POA), and its share in total Chinese pollution have experienced continuous rapid growth until 2007, exposing more and more people to severely polluted air. After 2007, PRE decreases due to strengthened emission controls accompanied by declined exports as a result of the global financial crisis. Although production for exports contribute less than 35% SO2 over China in any year, the increasing trend of trade-related SO2 contributes 51% of integral trend. The changing PRE of China also affects its downwind regions such as the western United States. The contribution of export-related Chinese pollution to surface sulfate concentrations over the western United States has increased from 3% in 2000 to 12% in 2007. Overall, we find that the interannual variation of trade and associated production is a critical factor driving the trend of pollution over China and its downwind regions.

  17. Infrared Laser System for Extended Area Monitoring of Air Pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snowman, L. R.; Gillmeister, R. J.

    1971-01-01

    An atmospheric pollution monitoring system using a spectrally scanning laser has been developed by the General Electric Company. This paper will report on an evaluation of a breadboard model, and will discuss applications of the concept to various ambient air monitoring situations. The system is adaptable to other tunable lasers. Operating in the middle infrared region, the system uses retroreflectors to measure average concentrations over long paths at low, safe power levels. The concept shows promise of meeting operational needs in ambient air monitoring and providing new data for atmospheric research.

  18. Modeling indoor air pollution of outdoor origin in homes of SAPALDIA subjects in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Meier, Reto; Schindler, Christian; Eeftens, Marloes; Aguilera, Inmaculada; Ducret-Stich, Regina E; Ineichen, Alex; Davey, Mark; Phuleria, Harish C; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Tsai, Ming-Yi; Künzli, Nino

    2015-09-01

    Given the shrinking spatial contrasts in outdoor air pollution in Switzerland and the trends toward tightly insulated buildings, the Swiss Cohort Study on Air Pollution and Lung and Heart Diseases in Adults (SAPALDIA) needs to understand to what extent outdoor air pollution remains a determinant for residential indoor exposure. The objectives of this paper are to identify determining factors for indoor air pollution concentrations of particulate matter (PM), ultrafine particles in the size range from 15 to 300nm, black smoke measured as light absorbance of PM (PMabsorbance) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and to develop predictive indoor models for SAPALDIA. Multivariable regression models were developed based on indoor and outdoor measurements among homes of selected SAPALDIA participants in three urban (Basel, Geneva, Lugano) and one rural region (Wald ZH) in Switzerland, various home characteristics and reported indoor sources such as cooking. Outdoor levels of air pollutants were important predictors for indoor air pollutants, except for the coarse particle fraction. The fractions of outdoor concentrations infiltrating indoors were between 30% and 66%, the highest one was observed for PMabsorbance. A modifying effect of open windows was found for NO2 and the ultrafine particle number concentration. Cooking was associated with increased particle and NO2 levels. This study shows that outdoor air pollution remains an important determinant of residential indoor air pollution in Switzerland. PMID:26070024

  19. New directions: Air pollution challenges for developing megacities like Delhi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Prashant; Khare, Mukesh; Harrison, Roy M.; Bloss, William J.; Lewis, Alastair C.; Coe, Hugh; Morawska, Lidia

    2015-12-01

    Most major cities around the world experience periods of elevated air pollution levels, which exceed international health-based air quality standards (Kumar et al., 2013). Although it is a global problem, some of the highest air pollution levels are found in rapidly expanding cities in India and China. The sources, emissions, transformations and broad effects of meteorology on air pollution are reasonably well accounted in air quality control strategies in many developed cities; however these key factors remain poorly constrained in the growing cities of countries with emerging economies. We focus here on Delhi, one of the largest global population centres, which faces particular air pollution challenges, now and in the future.

  20. An air quality balance index estimating the total amount of air pollutants at ground level.

    PubMed

    Trivero, Paolo; Biamino, Walter; Borasi, Maria; Cavagnero, Marco; Musa, Maya; Rinaudo, Caterina; Sesia, Veronica

    2012-07-01

    A new index named Air Quality Balance Index (AQBI), which is able to characterise the amount of pollution level in a selected area, is proposed. This index is a function of the ratios between pollutant concentration values and their standards; it aims at identifying all situations in which there is a possible environmental risk even when several pollutants are below their limit values but air quality is reduced. AQBI is evaluated by using a high-resolution three-dimensional dispersion model: the air concentration for each substance is computed starting from detailed emissions sources: point, line and area emissions hourly modulated. This model is driven with accurate meteorological data from ground stations and remote sensing systems providing vertical profiles of temperature and wind; these data are integrated with wind and temperature profiles at higher altitudes obtained by a Local Area Model. The outputs of the dispersion model are compared with pollutant concentrations provided by measuring stations, in order to recalibrate emission data. A three-dimensional high resolution grid of AQBI data is evaluated for an industrial area close to Alessandria (Northern Italy), assessing air quality and environmental conditions. Performance of AQBI is compared with the Air Quality Index (AQI) developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. AQBI, computed taking into account all pollutants, is able to point out situations not evidenced by AQI, based on a preset limited number of substances; therefore, AQBI is a good tool for evaluating the air quality either in urban and in industrial areas. The AQBI values at ground level, in selected points, are in agreement with in situ observations. PMID:21830066

  1. Modeling Spatial and Temporal Variability of Residential Air Exchange Rates for the Near-Road Exposures and Effects of Urban Air Pollutants Study (NEXUS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air pollution health studies often use outdoor concentrations as exposure surrogates. Failure to account for variability of residential infiltration of outdoor pollutants can induce exposure errors and lead to bias and incorrect confidence intervals in health effect estimates. Th...

  2. Hematological and hemorheological effects of air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Baskurt, O.K.; Levi, E.; Caglayan, S.; Dikmenoglu, N.; Kutman, M.N. )

    1990-07-01

    Selected hematological parameters and erythrocyte deformability indexes for 16 young male military students were compared before and after a period of exposure to heavy pollution. These students lived in Ankara, which has a serious air pollution problem. The mean sulfur dioxide levels measured at a station proximal to the campus where the students lived were 188 micrograms/m3 and 201 micrograms/m3 during first and second measurements, respectively. During the period between the two measurements, the mean sulfur dioxide level was 292 micrograms/m3. Significant erythropoiesis was indicated by increased erythrocyte counts and hemoglobin and hematocrit levels. Methemoglobin percentage was increased to 2.37 +/- 0.49% (mean +/- standard error) from 0.51 +/- 0.23%. Sulfhemoglobinemia was present in six subjects after the period of pollution, but it was not present in any student prior to this period. Significant increases in erythrocyte deformability indexes were observed after the period of pollution, i.e., from 1.13 +/- 0.01 to 1.21 +/0 0.02, implying that erythrocytes were less flexible, which might impair tissue perfusion.

  3. 75 FR 18061 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Texas; Control of Air Pollution...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Direct final... amend 30 TAC Chapter 114, Control of Air Pollution from Motor Vehicles. These revisions consist of the... to develop air pollution regulations and control strategies to ensure that air quality meets...

  4. Geospatial Modeling of Asthma Population in Relation to Air Pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kethireddy, Swatantra R.; Tchounwou, Paul B.; Young, John H.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Alhamdan, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Current observations indicate that asthma is growing every year in the United States, specific reasons for this are not well understood. This study stems from an ongoing research effort to investigate the spatio-temporal behavior of asthma and its relatedness to air pollution. The association between environmental variables such as air quality and asthma related health issues over Mississippi State are investigated using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) tools and applications. Health data concerning asthma obtained from Mississippi State Department of Health (MSDH) for 9-year period of 2003-2011, and data of air pollutant concentrations (PM2.5) collected from USEPA web resources, and are analyzed geospatially to establish the impacts of air quality on human health specifically related to asthma. Disease mapping using geospatial techniques provides valuable insights into the spatial nature, variability, and association of asthma to air pollution. Asthma patient hospitalization data of Mississippi has been analyzed and mapped using quantitative Choropleth techniques in ArcGIS. Patients have been geocoded to their respective zip codes. Potential air pollutant sources of Interstate highways, Industries, and other land use data have been integrated in common geospatial platform to understand their adverse contribution on human health. Existing hospitals and emergency clinics are being injected into analysis to further understand their proximity and easy access to patient locations. At the current level of analysis and understanding, spatial distribution of Asthma is observed in the populations of Zip code regions in gulf coast, along the interstates of south, and in counties of Northeast Mississippi. It is also found that asthma is prevalent in most of the urban population. This GIS based project would be useful to make health risk assessment and provide information support to the administrators and decision makers for establishing satellite clinics in future.

  5. Bangkok and its air pollution problem

    SciTech Connect

    Panich, S.

    1995-12-31

    Bangkok is the city on a former river delta and is a very flat area. The topography is unremarkable but being only a few kilometers (about 20) from the sea in the Gulf of Bangkok, the City experiences the sea breeze every afternoon and evening. The natural phenomenon is caused by the uplifting of hot air from the sun-baked ground and heat generation in the city, to be replaced by the cooler air from the sea, which is to the south. During the nighttime the sea breeze ceases to operate as the ground temperature cools down. The late night and early morning is characterized by the calm or no wind. With 2.1 million vehicles, the city has a serious problem of carbon monoxide from the gasoline vehicles stuck in the traffic on start and stop cycles, while particulate matter is the result of diesel vehicles. Hydrocarbons mainly result from two-stroke motorcycles and tuk-tuk (three-wheeled) taxis. Air pollution in Bangkok and major cities of Thailand is the result of emissions from gasoline, diesel, and LPG fueled vehicles, which contribute to the observed levels of carbon monoxide, lead, particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone and hydrocarbons. The industrial activities contribute smaller share due to tall stacks and more efficient combusting processes and pollution control.

  6. Rapid guide to hazardous air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Beim, H.J.; Spero, J.; Theodore, L.

    1998-12-31

    Concise and easy to use, this book brings together a wealth of hard-to-gather information in one compact pocket guide. It offers--in alphabetical order--detailed profiles of the 189 elements and compounds determined to be hazardous air pollutants by the 1990 Amendments of the Clean Air Act. The profile for each pollutant includes: fundamental identification data (CAS number, molecular formula, formula weight, synonyms); uses (primarily in the manufacture of chemicals and as a component in the manufacturing process); physical properties (such as boiling point, density, vapor pressures, color); chemical properties (such as air/water reactivity, reactivity with skin or metal, flash point, heat of combustion); health risks, including toxic exposure guidelines, toxicity data, and acute and chronic risks; hazard risks (the substance`s potential for accidents, fires, explosions, corrosion, and chemical incompatibility); exposure routes tracking the activities, environment, sources, and occupations that tend to lead to exposure; regulatory status, listing the primary laws and citations of regulated chemicals; and important additional information on symptoms, first aid, firefighting methods, protective equipment, and safe storage.

  7. Mapping real-time air pollution health risk for environmental management: Combining mobile and stationary air pollution monitoring with neural network models.

    PubMed

    Adams, Matthew D; Kanaroglou, Pavlos S

    2016-03-01

    Air pollution poses health concerns at the global scale. The challenge of managing air pollution is significant because of the many air pollutants, insufficient funds for monitoring and abatement programs, and political and social challenges in defining policy to limit emissions. Some governments provide citizens with air pollution health risk information to allow them to limit their exposure. However, many regions still have insufficient air pollution monitoring networks to provide real-time mapping. Where available, these risk mapping systems either provide absolute concentration data or the concentrations are used to derive an Air Quality Index, which provides the air pollution risk for a mix of air pollutants with a single value. When risk information is presented as a single value for an entire region it does not inform on the spatial variation within the region. Without an understanding of the local variation residents can only make a partially informed decision when choosing daily activities. The single value is typically provided because of a limited number of active monitoring units in the area. In our work, we overcome this issue by leveraging mobile air pollution monitoring techniques, meteorological information and land use information to map real-time air pollution health risks. We propose an approach that can provide improved health risk information to the public by applying neural network models within a framework that is inspired by land use regression. Mobile air pollution monitoring campaigns were conducted across Hamilton from 2005 to 2013. These mobile air pollution data were modelled with a number of predictor variables that included information on the surrounding land use characteristics, the meteorological conditions, air pollution concentrations from fixed location monitors, and traffic information during the time of collection. Fine particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide were both modelled. During the model fitting process we reserved

  8. Identification and Tracking of Polluted Air Masses in the South-Central Coast Air Basin.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, G. E.; Douglas, S. G.; Kessler, R. C.; Killus, J. P.

    1991-05-01

    Canister samples of air taken during the South-Central Coast Cooperative Air Monitoring Program (SCCCAMP) 1985 field study program were analyzed for concentrations of over 50 hydrocarbons as well as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), carbon monoxide, hydrogen, and methane. Additional evidence of location and timing of airmass origin was obtained by utilizing long-lived halocarbons such as F-12 as `tracers of opportunity' in conjunction with known source profiles. Wind trajectories were developed from hourly gridded wind fields produced by a diagnostic wind model utilizing observed wind data. These wind trajectories were used to determine how pollutants from major source areas might be transported to sampling sites. Particulate lidar height-distance traverses were made from aircraft that provided a view of pollutant layering. Mixing height and vertical pollutant concentration distributions were obtained in order to determine if observed pollutant concentrations were consistent with the degree of stagnation present and hypothesized transport pathway.Analyses to track specific polluted air masses were conducted for the 13 September, 21 September, 23-24 September, and 2-3 October 1985 intensive study periods. The analyses find that elevated ozone concentrations during these periods are primarily attributed to transport and storage of ozone-enriched air from Los Angeles. During one type of episode (2-3 October) ozone and ozone precursors are stored near the surface over the Santa Barbara Channel overnight and transported into coastal areas on the following day. In another type of episode (23-24 September) ozone is transported into the study domain from the San Fernando Valley and Los Angeles via flow around the Santa Monica Hills. Transport of pollutant-enriched air takes place in a layer 200-500 m aloft, in many places overlaying cleaner marine-layer air. This advected ozone is mixed down to contribute to ground-level ozone concentrations over terrain where the marine layer

  9. Air pollution prevention at the Hanford Site: Status and recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Engel, J.A.

    1995-08-01

    With the introduction of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and other air and pollution prevention regulations, there has been increased focus on both pollution prevention and air emissions at US DOE sites. The Pollution Prevention (P2) Group of WHC reviewed the status of air pollution prevention with the goal of making recommendations on how to address air emissions at Hanford through pollution prevention. Using the air emissions inventory from Hanford`s Title V permit, the P2 Group was able to identify major and significant air sources. By reviewing the literature and benchmarking two other DOE Sites, two major activities were recommended to reduce air pollution and reduce costs at the Hanford Site. First, a pollution prevention opportunity assessment (P2OA) should be conducted on the significant painting sources in the Maintenance group and credit should be taken for reducing the burning of tumbleweeds, another significant source of air pollution. Since they are significant sources, reducing these emissions will reduce air emission fees, as well as have the potential to reduce material and labor costs, and increase worker safety. Second, a P2OA should be conducted on alternatives to the three coal-fired powerhouses (steam plants) on-site, including a significant costs analysis of alternatives. This analysis could be of significant value to other DOE sites. Overall, these two activities would reduce pollution, ease regulatory requirements and fees, save money, and help Hanford take a leadership role in air pollution prevention.

  10. FMPS measurement of nanoparticle pollutant in office air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Zhaoqin; Lin, Jianzhong; Yu, Mingzhou

    2010-08-01

    Fast Mobility Particle Sizer (FMPS) is an electrical mobility instrument used to measure the nanoparticle number concentration and size distribution in an office environment. Actual measurements indicate the distributions of ultrafine particle number and size in office air are inhomogeneous in space. The nonaparticle size is bimodal and log-normally distribution in an office environment when only people activities are considered. The traffic pollutant in the outdoor including the automobile tail gas and the dust will change the particles size distribution and enhance the particle number concentration those of indoor air. It can also be seen from the results that the laser printer releases a large number of nanoparticles, especially around 80nm in diameter in the printing process. The laser printer may be the mainly ultrafine particle source in the office air.

  11. Modelling of air pollution impacts from power stations in Kuwait

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Ajmi, D.N.; Abdal, Y. )

    1987-01-01

    Kuwait is undergoing rapid development with fast growth of both urban and industrial areas. The environmental impact of such activities is already noticeable. Conditions are therefore favorable for the use of air pollution models to supply adequate tools for effective air quality management in Kuwait. The Industrial Source Complex Long Term (ISCLT) dispersion model was developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in response to the need for comprehensive analytical techniques that can be used to evaluate the air quality impact of emissions from industrial sources. This model was used to predict the air quality impact of SO{sub 2} emissions from the Doha East and West Power Stations in Kuwait. The meteorological and emissions data and the seasonal and annual SO{sub 2} concentrations emitted from the power stations are described.

  12. Can air pollution negate the health benefits of cycling and walking?

    PubMed

    Tainio, Marko; de Nazelle, Audrey J; Götschi, Thomas; Kahlmeier, Sonja; Rojas-Rueda, David; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; de Sá, Thiago Hérick; Kelly, Paul; Woodcock, James

    2016-06-01

    Active travel (cycling, walking) is beneficial for the health due to increased physical activity (PA). However, active travel may increase the intake of air pollution, leading to negative health consequences. We examined the risk-benefit balance between active travel related PA and exposure to air pollution across a range of air pollution and PA scenarios. The health effects of active travel and air pollution were estimated through changes in all-cause mortality for different levels of active travel and air pollution. Air pollution exposure was estimated through changes in background concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), ranging from 5 to 200μg/m3. For active travel exposure, we estimated cycling and walking from 0 up to 16h per day, respectively. These refer to long-term average levels of active travel and PM2.5 exposure. For the global average urban background PM2.5 concentration (22μg/m3) benefits of PA by far outweigh risks from air pollution even under the most extreme levels of active travel. In areas with PM2.5 concentrations of 100μg/m3, harms would exceed benefits after 1h 30min of cycling per day or more than 10h of walking per day. If the counterfactual was driving, rather than staying at home, the benefits of PA would exceed harms from air pollution up to 3h 30min of cycling per day. The results were sensitive to dose-response function (DRF) assumptions for PM2.5 and PA. PA benefits of active travel outweighed the harm caused by air pollution in all but the most extreme air pollution concentrations. PMID:27156248

  13. Time series analysis of air pollutants in Beirut, Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Farah, Wehbeh; Nakhlé, Myriam Mrad; Abboud, Maher; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Zaarour, Rita; Saliba, Nada; Germanos, Georges; Gerard, Jocelyne

    2014-12-01

    This study reports for the first time a time series analysis of daily urban air pollutant levels (CO, NO, NO2, O3, PM10, and SO2) in Beirut, Lebanon. The study examines data obtained between September 2005 and July 2006, and their descriptive analysis shows long-term variations of daily levels of air pollution concentrations. Strong persistence of these daily levels is identified in the time series using an autocorrelation function, except for SO2. Time series of standardized residual values (SRVs) are also calculated to compare fluctuations of the time series with different levels. Time series plots of the SRVs indicate that NO and NO2 had similar temporal fluctuations. However, NO2 and O3 had opposite temporal fluctuations, attributable to weather conditions and the accumulation of vehicular emissions. The effects of both desert dust storms and airborne particulate matter resulting from the Lebanon War in July 2006 are also discernible in the SRV plots. PMID:25150052

  14. Economically consistent long-term scenarios for air pollutant emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Steven J.; West, Jason; Kyle, G. Page

    2011-09-08

    Pollutant emissions such as aerosols and tropospheric ozone precursors substantially influence climate. While future century-scale scenarios for these emissions have become more realistic through the inclusion of emission controls, they still potentially lack consistency between surface pollutant concentrations and regional levels of affluence. We demonstrate a methodology combining use of an integrated assessment model and a three-dimensional atmospheric chemical transport model, whereby a reference scenario is constructed by requiring consistent surface pollutant levels as a function of regional income over the 21st century. By adjusting air pollutant emission control parameters, we improve agreement between modeled PM2.5 and economic income among world regions through time; agreement for ozone is also improved but is more difficult to achieve because of the strong influence of upwind world regions. The scenario examined here was used as the basis for one of the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios. This analysis methodology could also be used to examine the consistency of other pollutant emission scenarios.

  15. Comparative studies of metal air pollution by atomic spectrometry techniques and biomonitoring with moss and lichens.

    PubMed

    State, Gabriel; Popescu, Ion V; Radulescu, Cristiana; Macris, Cristina; Stihi, Claudia; Gheboianu, Anca; Dulama, Ioana; Niţescu, Ovidiu

    2012-09-01

    Our study was dedicated to the analysis of air pollution level with metals in Dambovita County, Romania; maps of the concentration distributions for air pollutants were drawn; statistical analysis includes calculation of the background concentrations and the contamination factors. The highest values of the contamination factor CF is 63.1 ± 6.63 for mosses samples and 33.12 ± 3.96 for lichens and it indicates extreme contaminations in the surroundings of steel works and an electric plant. The comparison of the distribution maps for Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn concentrations enables the identification of the pollution sources, the limits of areas with very high levels of pollution, the comparison of the concentration gradients in some areas and the influence of woodlands on the spread of pollutants through the air. PMID:22760846

  16. Air pollution levels and regulations in Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Monarch, M.

    1986-08-01

    This report is one of a series of three prepared for the Office of Fossil Energy of the US Department of Energy. Each report deals with one county in which acid deposition, commonly referred to as acid rain, has been a prominent issue of public discussion. The three countries covered in this series of reports are Canada, the Federal Republic of Germany, and the United Kingdom. For each country, air pollution control regulations are trends in air quality and emissions are broadly outlined, then are compared with corresponding regulations and trends in the United States. Since acid rain is the intended field of application, the reports generally deal only with sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, ozone, and total suspended particulates.

  17. Aerodynamic effects of trees on pollutant concentration in street canyons.

    PubMed

    Buccolieri, Riccardo; Gromke, Christof; Di Sabatino, Silvana; Ruck, Bodo

    2009-09-15

    This paper deals with aerodynamic effects of avenue-like tree planting on flow and traffic-originated pollutant dispersion in urban street canyons by means of wind tunnel experiments and numerical simulations. Several parameters affecting pedestrian level concentration are investigated, namely plant morphology, positioning and arrangement. We extend our previous work in this novel aspect of research to new configurations which comprise tree planting of different crown porosity and stand density, planted in two rows within a canyon of street width to building height ratio W/H=2 with perpendicular approaching wind. Sulfur hexafluoride was used as tracer gas to model the traffic emissions. Complementary to wind tunnel experiments, 3D numerical simulations were performed with the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code FLUENT using a Reynolds Stress turbulence closure for flow and the advection-diffusion method for concentration calculations. In the presence of trees, both measurements and simulations showed considerable larger pollutant concentrations near the leeward wall and slightly lower concentrations near the windward wall in comparison with the tree-less case. Tree stand density and crown porosity were found to be of minor importance in affecting pollutant concentration. On the other hand, the analysis indicated that W/H is a more crucial parameter. The larger the value of W/H the smaller is the effect of trees on pedestrian level concentration regardless of tree morphology and arrangement. A preliminary analysis of approaching flow velocities showed that at low wind speed the effect of trees on concentrations is worst than at higher speed. The investigations carried out in this work allowed us to set up an appropriate CFD modelling methodology for the study of the aerodynamic effects of tree planting in street canyons. The results obtained can be used by city planners for the design of tree planting in the urban environment with regard to air quality issues

  18. Gestational Diabetes and Preeclampsia in Association with Air Pollution at Levels below Current Air Quality Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Jakobsson, Kristina; Tinnerberg, Håkan; Rignell-Hydbom, Anna; Rylander, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Background: Several studies have estimated associations between air pollution and birth outcomes, but few have evaluated potential effects on pregnancy complications. Objective: We investigated whether low-level exposure to air pollution is associated with gestational diabetes and preeclampsia. Methods: High-quality registry information on 81,110 singleton pregnancy outcomes in southern Sweden during 1999–2005 was linked to individual-level exposure estimates with high spatial resolution. Modeled exposure to nitrogen oxides (NOx), expressed as mean concentrations per trimester, and proximity to roads of different traffic densities were used as proxy indicators of exposure to combustion-related air pollution. The data were analyzed by logistic regression, with and without adjusting for potential confounders. Results: The prevalence of gestational diabetes increased with each NOx quartile, with an adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 1.69 (95% CI: 1.41, 2.03) for the highest (> 22.7 µg/m3) compared with the lowest quartile (2.5–8.9 µg/m3) of exposure during the second trimester. The adjusted OR for acquiring preeclampsia after exposure during the third trimester was 1.51 (1.32, 1.73) in the highest quartile of NOx compared with the lowest. Both outcomes were associated with high traffic density, but ORs were significant for gestational diabetes only. Conclusion: NOx exposure during pregnancy was associated with gestational diabetes and preeclampsia in an area with air pollution levels below current air quality guidelines. PMID:23563048

  19. Inhalation intake of ambient air pollution in California's South Coast Air Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Julian D.; Granvold, Patrick W.; Hoats, Abigail S.; McKone, Thomas E.; Deakin, Elizabeth; W Nazaroff, William

    Reliable estimates of inhalation intake of air pollution and its distribution among a specified population are important for environmental epidemiology, health risk assessment, urban planning, and environmental policy. We computed distributional characteristics of the inhalation intake of five pollutants for a group of ˜25,000 people (˜29,000 person-days) living in California's South Coast Air Basin. Our approach incorporates four main inputs: temporally resolved information about people's location (latitude and longitude), microenvironment, and activity level; temporally and spatially explicit model determinations of ambient concentrations; stochastically determined microenvironmental adjustment factors relating the exposure concentration to the ambient concentration; and, age-, gender-, and activity-specific breathing rates. Our study is restricted to pollutants of outdoor origin, i.e. it does not incorporate intake in a microenvironment from direct emissions into that microenvironment. Median estimated inhalation intake rates (μg d -1) are 53 for benzene, 5.1 for 1,3-butadiene, 8.7×10 -4 for hexavalent chromium in fine particulate matter (Cr-PM 2.5), 30 for diesel fine particulate matter (DPM 2.5), and 68 for ozone. For the four primary pollutants studied, estimated median intake rates are higher for non-whites and for individuals in low-income households than for the population as a whole. For ozone, a secondary pollutant, the reverse is true. Accounting for microenvironmental adjustment factors, population mobility and temporal correlations between pollutant concentrations and breathing rates affects the estimated inhalation intake by 40% on average. The approach presented here could be extended to quantify the impact on intakes and intake distributions of proposed changes in emissions, air quality, and urban infrastructure.

  20. Evaluation of the effect of different sampling time periods and ambient air pollutant concentrations on the performance of the Radiello diffusive sampler for the analysis of VOCs by TD-GC/MS.

    PubMed

    Gallego, E; Roca, F J; Perales, J F; Guardino, X

    2011-09-01

    The effect of different sampling exposure times and ambient air pollutant concentrations on the performance of Radiello® samplers for analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is evaluated. Quadruplicate samples of Radiello® passive tubes were taken for 3, 4, 7 and 14 days. Samples were taken indoors during February and March 2010 and outdoors during July 2010 in La Canonja (Tarragona, Spain). The analysis was performed by automatic thermal desorption (ATD) coupled with capillary gas chromatography (GC)/mass spectrometry detection (MS). The results show significant differences (t-test, p < 0.05) between the amounts of VOCs obtained from the sum of two short sampling periods and a single equivalent longer sampling period for 65% of all the data. 17% of the results show significantly larger amounts of pollutant in the sum of two short sampling periods. Back diffusion due to changes in concentrations together with saturation and competitive effects between the compounds during longer sampling periods could be responsible for these differences. The other 48% of the results that are different show significantly larger amounts in the single equivalent longer sampling period. The remaining 35% of the results do not show significant differences. Although significant differences are observed in the amount of several VOCs collected over two shorter sampling intervals compared to the amount collected during a single equivalent longer sampling period, the ratios obtained are very close to unity (between 0.7 and 1.2 in 75% of cases). We conclude that Radiello® passive samplers are useful tools if their limitations are taken into account and the manufacturer's recommendations are followed. PMID:21829856

  1. Review of air pollution and health impacts in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Afroz, Rafia; Hassan, Mohd Nasir; Ibrahim, Noor Akma

    2003-06-01

    In the early days of abundant resources and minimal development pressures, little attention was paid to growing environmental concerns in Malaysia. The haze episodes in Southeast Asia in 1983, 1984, 1991, 1994, and 1997 imposed threats to the environmental management of Malaysia and increased awareness of the environment. As a consequence, the government established Malaysian Air Quality Guidelines, the Air Pollution Index, and the Haze Action Plan to improve air quality. Air quality monitoring is part of the initial strategy in the pollution prevention program in Malaysia. Review of air pollution in Malaysia is based on the reports of the air quality monitoring in several large cities in Malaysia, which cover air pollutants such as Carbon monoxide (CO), Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2), Ozone (O3), and Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM). The results of the monitoring indicate that Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) and Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) are the predominant pollutants. Other pollutants such as CO, O(x), SO2, and Pb are also observed in several big cities in Malaysia. The air pollution comes mainly from land transportation, industrial emissions, and open burning sources. Among them, land transportation contributes the most to air pollution. This paper reviews the results of the ambient air quality monitoring and studies related to air pollution and health impacts. PMID:12854685

  2. MODEL FOR MEASURING THE HEALTH IMPACT FROM CHANGING LEVELS OF AMBIENT AIR POLLUTION: MORBIDITY STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study quantitatively examines the relationship between human health and ambient air concentrations of the major pollutants in the city of Chicago. This report describes the morbidity analysis in which linear regression models have been developed to quantitatively estimate the...

  3. Athletic performance and urban air pollution.

    PubMed Central

    Shephard, R J

    1984-01-01

    Air pollution may affect athletic performance. In Los Angeles, contaminants include carbon monoxide, ozone, peroxyacetylnitrate (PAN) and nitrogen oxides, whereas in older European cities, such as Sarajevo, "reducing smog" of sulfur dioxide is the main hazard. The carbon monoxide and ozone levels expected in Los Angeles this summer could affect the athletes' performance in endurance events at the Olympic Games. Carbon monoxide may also impair psychomotor abilities, and PAN causes visual disturbances. The only likely physiologic consequence from reducing smog is an increase in the workload of the respiratory system and thus a decrease in endurance performance. While carbon monoxide has been blamed for myocardial infarctions, nitrogen oxides for pulmonary edema and sulfur dioxide for deaths due to respiratory failure, the only illnesses that are likely to be more frequent than usual among young athletes exposed to high levels of these pollutants are upper respiratory tract infections. Therapeutic tactics include the avoidance of pollution, the administration of oxygen, vitamin C and vitamin E, and general reassurance. PMID:6744156

  4. POINTS-OF-CONTACT (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Air Pollution Technology Branch's (APTB) Point-of-Contact page lists APTB research areas along with the name, telephone number, and e-mail address for each responsible person. APTB's research areas include NOx Control, Hazardous Waste Incineration, Municipal Waste Combustion,...

  5. RESEARCH AREA -- FLUE GAS CLEANING (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Air Pollution Technology Branch's (APPCD, NRMRL)flue gas cleaning program supports New Source Performance Standards regulations development and has fostered the development of technologies that today are considered industry standards. These include both dry and wet flue gas d...

  6. InMAP: a new model for air pollution interventions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tessum, C. W.; Hill, J. D.; Marshall, J. D.

    2015-10-01

    Mechanistic air pollution models are essential tools in air quality management. Widespread use of such models is hindered, however, by the extensive expertise or computational resources needed to run most models. Here, we present InMAP (Intervention Model for Air Pollution), which offers an alternative to comprehensive air quality models for estimating the air pollution health impacts of emission reductions and other potential interventions. InMAP estimates annual-average changes in primary and secondary fine particle (PM2.5) concentrations - the air pollution outcome generally causing the largest monetized health damages - attributable to annual changes in precursor emissions. InMAP leverages pre-processed physical and chemical information from the output of a state-of-the-science chemical transport model (WRF-Chem) within an Eulerian modeling framework, to perform simulations that are several orders of magnitude less computationally intensive than comprehensive model simulations. InMAP uses a variable resolution grid that focuses on human exposures by employing higher spatial resolution in urban areas and lower spatial resolution in rural and remote locations and in the upper atmosphere; and by directly calculating steady-state, annual average concentrations. In comparisons run here, InMAP recreates WRF-Chem predictions of changes in total PM2.5 concentrations with population-weighted mean fractional error (MFE) and bias (MFB) < 10 % and population-weighted R2 ~ 0.99. Among individual PM2.5 species, the best predictive performance is for primary PM2.5 (MFE: 16 %; MFB: 13 %) and the worst predictive performance is for particulate nitrate (MFE: 119 %; MFB: 106 %). Potential uses of InMAP include studying exposure, health, and environmental justice impacts of potential shifts in emissions for annual-average PM2.5. Features planned for future model releases include a larger spatial domain, more temporal information, and the ability to predict ground-level ozone (O3

  7. Oxidative Stress and Air Pollution Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Lodovici, Maura; Bigagli, Elisabetta

    2011-01-01

    Air pollution is associated with increased cardiovascular and pulmonary morbidity and mortality. The mechanisms of air pollution-induced health effects involve oxidative stress and inflammation. As a matter of fact, particulate matter (PM), especially fine (PM2.5, PM < 2.5 μm) and ultrafine (PM0.1, PM < 0.1 μm) particles, ozone, nitrogen oxides, and transition metals, are potent oxidants or able to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS). Oxidative stress can trigger redox-sensitive pathways that lead to different biological processes such as inflammation and cell death. However, it does appear that the susceptibility of target organ to oxidative injury also depends upon its ability to upregulate protective scavenging systems. As vehicular traffic is known to importantly contribute to PM exposure, its intensity and quality must be strongly relevant determinants of the qualitative characteristics of PM spread in the atmosphere. Change in the composition of this PM is likely to modify its health impact. PMID:21860622

  8. Particulate matter air pollution and atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Brook, Robert D; Rajagopalan, Sanjay

    2010-09-01

    Particulate matter (PM) air pollution less than 2.5 microm in diameter (PM(2.5)), which is now an all-pervading element of modern-day society, is associated with heightened cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Not only can short-term PM(2.5) exposure trigger acute cardiovascular events, but longer-term exposure over years augments cardiovascular risk to an even greater extent. One biological mechanism capable of explaining this observation is that chronic exposure may promote the progression and vulnerability of atherosclerotic plaques. Indeed, recent epidemiologic studies have demonstrated an association between ambient PM(2.5) exposure and the presence or extent of atherosclerosis in humans. Several animal experiments have provided corroborating evidence that chronic exposures in fact do enhance the progression and perhaps vulnerability of atherosclerotic lesions. Due to the billions of people continually exposed to PM(2.5), the long-term pro-atherosclerotic effects of this ubiquitous air pollutant are likely to be of enormous and growing global public health importance. PMID:20617466

  9. INDOOR AIR CONCENTRATION UNIT CONVERSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Migration of volatile chemicals from the subsurface into overlying buildings is called vapor intrusion (VI). Volatile organic chemicals in contaminated soils or groundwater can emit vapors, which can migrate through subsurface soils and may enter the indoor air of overlying buil...

  10. What you can do to reduce air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    The pamphlet describes some major air pollutants, their sources, and their effects on both the environment and people. It also explains the goals of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and suggests various ways of preventing air pollution regionally, locally, and individually. Phone numbers for state environmental agencies and EPA regional offices are included in the back of the pamphlet.

  11. Mercury and Air Pollution: A Bibliography With Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Air Programs.

    The Air Pollution Technical Information Center (APTIC) of the Office of Air Programs has selected and compiled this bibliography of abstracts on mercury and air pollution. The abstracted documents are considered representative of available literature, although not all-inclusive. They are grouped into eleven categories: (1) Emission Sources, (2)…

  12. POPULATION-BASED EXPOSURE AND DOSE MODELING FOR AIR POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This task will address EPA's need to better understand the variability in personal exposure to air pollutants for the purpose of assessing what populations are at risk for adverse health outcomes due to air pollutant exposures. To improve our understanding of exposures to air po...

  13. Controlling Urban Air Pollution: A Benefit-Cost Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krupnick, Alan J.; Portney, Paul R.

    1991-01-01

    The pros and cons of air pollution control efforts are discussed. Both national and regional air pollution control plans are described. Topics of discussion include benefit-cost analysis, air quality regulation, reducing ozone in the urban areas, the Los Angeles plan, uncertainties, and policy implications. (KR)

  14. 40 CFR 52.1477 - Nevada air pollution emergency plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Nevada air pollution emergency plan. 52.1477 Section 52.1477 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Nevada § 52.1477 Nevada air pollution emergency plan. Section 6.1.5...

  15. THE CHALLENGES OF AIR POLLUTION AND RESIDUAL RISK ASSESSMENT (EDITORIAL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Clean Air Act (CAA), a comprehensive federal law that regulates air pollution from stationary and mobile sources, was first passed in 1963. The act has provided the primary framework for protecting human health and the environment. The CAA divides air pollutants into "criteri...

  16. Health impact assessment of air pollution in Valladolid, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Cárdaba Arranz, Mario; Muñoz Moreno, María Fe; Armentia Medina, Alicia; Alonso Capitán, Margarita; Carreras Vaquer, Fernando; Almaraz Gómez, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Objective To estimate the attributable and targeted avoidable deaths (ADs; TADs) of outdoor air pollution by ambient particulate matter (PM10), PM2.5 and O3 according to specific WHO methodology. Design Health impact assessment. Setting City of Valladolid, Spain (around 300 000 residents). Data sources Demographics; mortality; pollutant concentrations collected 1999–2008. Main outcome measures Attributable fractions; ADs and TADs per year for 1999–2008. Results Higher TADs estimates (shown here) were obtained when assuming as ‘target’ concentrations WHO Air Quality Guidelines instead of Directive 2008/50/EC. ADs are considered relative to pollutant background levels. All-cause mortality associated to PM10 (all ages): 52 ADs (95% CI 39 to 64); 31 TADs (95% CI 24 to 39).All-cause mortality associated to PM10 (<5 years): 0 ADs (95% CI 0 to 1); 0 TADs (95% CI 0 to 1). All-cause mortality associated to PM2.5 (>30 years): 326 ADs (95% CI 217 to 422); 231 TADs (95% CI 153 to 301). Cardiopulmonary and lung cancer mortality associated to PM2.5 (>30 years): ▸ Cardiopulmonary: 186 ADs (95% CI 74 to 280); 94 TADs (95% CI 36 to 148). ▸ Lung cancer : 51 ADs (95% CI 21 to 73); 27 TADs (95% CI 10 to 41).All-cause, respiratory and cardiovascular mortality associated to O3 (all ages): ▸ All-cause: 52ADs (95% CI 25 to 77) ; 31 TADs (95% CI 15 to 45). ▸ Respiratory: 5ADs (95% CI −2 to 13) ; 3 TADs (95% CI −1 to 8). ▸ Cardiovascular: 30 ADs (95% CI 8 to 51) ; 17 TADs (95% CI 5 to 30). Negative estimates which should be read as zero were obtained when pollutant concentrations were below counterfactuals or assumed risk coefficients were below one. Conclusions Our estimates suggest a not negligible negative impact on mortality of outdoor air pollution. The implementation of WHO methodology provides critical information to distinguish an improvement range in air pollution control. PMID:25326212

  17. Motor Vehicles, Air Pollution, and Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mark, Jason

    2000-04-01

    Despite years of technical progress, motor vehicles continue to be a leading cause of environmental damage in the United States. For example, today's cars and trucks are the largest source of air pollution in many urban areas. US motor vehicles also account for 25 percent of the nation's carbon emissions, more than most countries emit from all sources combined. Fortunately, a host of technical improvements are emerging that could go a long ways towards taking vehicles out of the pollution picture. In the near-term, improving on the century-old internal combustion engine can deliver much-needed incremental gains. But electric drive vehicles--whether powered by batteries, small engines in hybrid configuration, or fuel cells--ultimately offer the greatest promise. Such technologies could dramatically reduce energy use, greenhouse gas emissions, and key air pollutants. The bulk of technical attention in recent years has been focused on improving the passenger vehicle, which will be the dominant energy consumer in the transportation sector for years to come. But freight trucks are also of growing concern, both because their contribution to global warming is on the rise and because serious questions are being raised about the public health impact of diesel technology. As a result, heavy trucks are emerging as a priority issue. Capitalizing on the opportunity presented by new technologies will not only require continued technical innovation but also policy action. As research into improved engines, fuels, and drive systems bears fruit over the coming years, aggressive and prudent policies will ensure that these new options make it onto the road and deliver on their environmental promise.

  18. Integrated Assessment of Air Pollution Control Measures for Megacities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, R.; Theloke, J.; Denier-van-der-Gon, H.; Kugler, U.; Kampffmeyer, T.; Roos, J.; Torras, S.

    2012-04-01

    Air pollution in large cities is still a matter of concern. Especially the concentration of fine particles (PM10 and PM2.5) is largest in large cities leading to severe health impacts. Furthermore the PM10 thresholds of the EU Air Quality Directive are frequently exceeded. Thus the question arises, whether the initiated policies and measures for mitigating air pollution are sufficient to meet the air quality targets and - if not - which efficient further pollution mitigation measures exist. These questions have been addressed in the EU research project MEGAPOLI for the four European megacities respectively agglomerations London, Paris, Rhine-Ruhr area and Po valley. Firstly, a reference scenario of future activities and emissions has been compiled for the megacities for the years 2020, 2030 and 2050 for all relevant air pollutants (CO, NH3, NMVOC, NOx, PM10, PM2.5 and SO2) and greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4 and N2O). The reference scenario takes into account as well population changes as technical progress and economic growth. As pollution flowing in from outside the city is about as important as pollution caused by emissions in the city, the analysis covers the whole of Europe and not only the city area. Emissions are then transformed into concentrations using atmospheric models. The higher concentrations in cities were estimated with a newly developed 'urban increment' model. Results show, that in the megacities the limits of the Air Quality Directive (2008/50/EC) will be exceeded. Thus additional efforts are necessary to reduce emissions further. Thus, a number of further measures (not implemented in current legislation) were selected and assessed. These included mitigation options for road transport, other mobile sources, large combustion plants, small and medium combustion plants and industry. For each measure and in addition for various bundles of measures a cost-benefit analysis has been carried out. Benefits (avoided health risks and climate change risks) have

  19. Community air pollution in Canada: a review and predictions for the 1980s.

    PubMed Central

    Bates, D. V.

    1979-01-01

    The main trends in Canadian air pollution since the national program of surveillance began are reviewed in this paper. In common with the United States, significant improvements in sulfur dioxide and particulate pollution have been recorded in a number of cities after the institution of control measures. However, some areas with a concentration of certain industries still have considerable particulate pollution. Since emission of nitrogen dioxide is increasing in the United States, the consequent photochemical pollution in southern Ontario will probably continue to increase. Nitrogen dioxide concentrations in the air are elevated in some western Canadian cities, presumably because of the presence of plants that burn natural gas to generate electricity and increasing pollution from automobiles. There is increasing concern about community air pollution in cities with large metal-fabricating plants, and community exposure to asbestos fibres is likely to be an important concern in the 1980s. PMID:445269

  20. Simulation of urban and regional air pollution in Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muntaseer Billah Ibn Azkar, M. A.; Chatani, Satoru; Sudo, Kengo

    2012-04-01

    We have developed a regional scale air quality simulation using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) - Community Multiscale Air Quality Model (CMAQ) to assess the suitability of such an advanced modeling system for predicting the air quality of Bangladesh and its surrounding region. The Regional Emission Inventory in Asia (REAS) was used as the emission input in this modeling approach. Both meteorological and chemical model performance were evaluated with observations including satellite data. Comparison between simulated and observed meteorological parameters revealed that the WRF can generate the necessary meteorological inputs for CMAQ. Comparison of observed and simulated concentrations of different air pollutants revealed that CMAQ greatly underestimates the concentrations of key pollutants. Comparison with satellite observations revealed that CMAQ reproduces the spatial distribution of NO2with some underestimation in Bangladesh and India. The simulated AOD and satellite-retrieved AOD showed good temporal and spatial agreement mutually, with a correlation coefficient of 0.58. Sensitivity simulation using higher horizontal resolution emission data made by re-gridding the REAS inventory with the population distribution improved the CMAQ performance. Nevertheless, CMAQ underestimated the pollutant concentrations in Dhaka. Uncertainties in the emission inventory and in the lack of time variation in emissions input mainly contributed to the model underestimation. Model predictions show that 36-72% PM10 and 15-60% PM2.5 in Dhaka might be contributed from brick kiln emissions in monthly average of January 2004. The chemical composition of PM2.5showed that the considerable amounts of secondary aerosols in Dhaka and carbonaceous components (particularly organic carbon) are most responsible for the model underestimation. Results suggest that improvements of emission inputs and more detailed sensitivity analysis of CMAQ model are important to assess the reliability