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1

Air Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This portal leads to multifaceted information about air pollution. It is divided into sections, each offering links to various topics related to air pollution. The sections are News, General/Overviews, Pictures/Diagrams, Prevention/Screening, Research, Specific Conditions/Aspects Law and Policy, Organizations and Children. Another link allows one to search MEDLINE for recent research articles on air pollution. Additional links lead to environmental health, indoor air pollution, ozone, poisoning, toxicology, and environmental health.

2

Air Pollution, A Scientists' Institute for Public Information Workbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Documentation is given on the known and potential effects of air pollution on human health, weather conditions, and biosphere. Practical applications of this information are discussed, with special reference to the Federal Air Quality Act and to the planning of urban expressways. Problems in defining standards of air quality are discussed.…

Nadler, Allen A.; And Others

3

Air pollution and health: emerging information on susceptible populations  

PubMed Central

Outdoor air pollution poses risks to human health in communities around the world, and research on populations who are most susceptible continues to reveal new insights. Human susceptibility to adverse health effects from exposure to air pollution can be related to underlying disease; demographic or anthropometric characteristics; genetic profile; race and ethnicity; lifestyle, behaviors, and socioeconomic position; and location of residence or daily activities. In health research, an individual or group may have an enhanced responsiveness to a given, identical level of pollution exposure compared to those who are less susceptible. Or, people in these different groups may experience varying levels of exposure (for example, a theoretically homogeneous population whose members differ only by proximity to a road). Often the information available for health research may relate to both exposure and enhanced response to a given dose of pollution. This paper discusses the general direction of research on susceptibility to air pollution, with a general though not an exclusive focus on particulate matter, with specific examples of research on susceptibility related to cardiovascular disease, diabetes, asthma, and genetic and epigenetic features. We conclude by commenting how emerging knowledge of susceptibility can inform policy for controlling pollution sources and exposures to yield maximal health benefit and discuss two areas of emerging interest: studying air pollution and its connection to perinatal health, as well as land use and urban infrastructure design. PMID:25741389

Breton, Carrie V.; Devlin, Robert B.; Utell, Mark J.

2015-01-01

4

Air Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Phoenix metropolitan area, like many large cities, has problems with air pollution at certain times of the year. You can do a simple experiment to determine some of the factors that affect air pollution.

Dr. Biology

5

Air Pollution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A summary of one of our most pressing environmental problems, air pollution, is offered in this book by the Director of Air Pollution Control for the Queensland (Australia) State Government. Discussion of the subject is not restricted to Queensland or Australian problems and policies, however, but includes analysis of air pollution the world over.…

Gilpin, Alan

6

Air Pollution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Materials related to air pollution are reviewed for the period January 1987, to October 1988. The topics are pollution monitoring, air pollution, and environmental chemistry. The organization consists of two major analytical divisions: (1) gaseous methods; and (2) aerosol and particulate methods. (MVL)

Fox, Donald L.

1989-01-01

7

Air Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to the concept of air quality by investigating the composition, properties, atmospheric layers and everyday importance of air. They explore the sources and effects of visible and invisible air pollution. By learning some fundamental meteorology concepts (air pressure, barometers, prediction, convection currents, temperature inversions), students learn the impact of weather on air pollution control and prevention. Looking at models and maps, they explore the consequences of pollutant transport via weather and water cycles. Students are introduced to acids, bases and pH, and the environmental problem of acid rain, including how engineers address this type of pollution. Using simple models, they study the greenhouse effect, the impact of increased greenhouse gases on the planet's protective ozone layer and the global warming theory. Students explore the causes and effects of the Earth's ozone holes through an interactive simulation. Students identify the types and sources of indoor air pollutants in their school and home, evaluating actions that can be taken to reduce and prevent poor indoor air quality. By building and observing a few simple models of pollutant recovery methods, students explore the modern industrial technologies designed by engineers to clean up and prevent air pollution.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

8

Air Pollution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this book is to describe the basic mechanisms whereby pollution is transported and diffused in the atmosphere. It is designed to give practitioners an understanding of basic mechanics and physics so they may have a correct basis on which to formulate their decisions related to practical air pollution control problems. Since many…

Scorer, Richard S.

9

Air Pollution and Health: Emerging Information on Susceptible Populations  

EPA Science Inventory

Outdoor air pollution poses risks to human health in communities around the world, and research on populations who are most susceptible continues to reveal new insights. Human susceptibility to adverse health effects from exposure to air pollution can be related to underlying dis...

10

Industry market research, China: Pollution control-air pollution. Export trade information  

SciTech Connect

The market survey covers the air pollution control equipment and instruments market in China. The analysis contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users; receptivity of Chinese consumers to U.S. products; the competitive situation, and market access (tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes, distribution channels). It also contains key contact information and information on upcoming trade events related to the industry.

Not Available

1993-01-01

11

Air Pollution, Teachers' Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of three in a series about pollution, this teacher's guide for a unit on air pollution is designed for use in junior high school grades. It offers suggestions for extending the information and activities contained in the textual material for students. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of air pollution and involves students in processes of…

Lavaroni, Charles W.; O'Donnell, Patrick A.

12

Criteria air pollutants and toxic air pollutants.  

PubMed Central

This review presents a brief overview of the health effects and exposures of two criteria pollutants--ozone and particulate matter--and two toxic air pollutants--benzene and formaldehyde. These pollutants were selected from the six criteria pollutants and from the 189 toxic air pollutants on the basis of their prevalence in the United States, their physicochemical behavior, and the magnitude of their potential health threat. The health effects data included in this review primarily include results from epidemiologic studies; however, some findings from animal studies are also discussed when no other information is available. Health effects findings for each pollutant are related in this review to corresponding information about outdoor, indoor, and personal exposures and pollutant sources. Images Figure 3 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:10940240

Suh, H H; Bahadori, T; Vallarino, J; Spengler, J D

2000-01-01

13

Air Pollution  

PubMed Central

Dr Marjorie Clifton describes the classification of gaseous and nongaseous constituents of air pollution and then outlines the methods of measuring these. The National Survey embraced 150 towns of all sizes throughout England and Wales and provided data on smoke and sulphur dioxide in relation to climate, topography, industrialization, population density, fuel utilization and urban development. Dr W C Turner discusses the relationship between air pollution and mortality from respiratory conditions, and particularly the incidence of chronic bronchitis. He postulates a theory that such respiratory conditions arise as an allergy to the spores of certain moulds, spore formation being encouraged by the air humidity in Greatv Britain and overcrowded and damp living conditions. He describes the results of a twenty-week study undertaken in 1962-3, showing associations between respiratory disease and levels of air pollution. Dr Stuart Carne undertook a survey in general practice to plot the patterns of respiratory illness in London during the winter of 1962-3. There were two peaks of respiratory illnesses coinciding with the fog at the beginning of December and the freeze-up from the end of December until the beginning of March. PMID:14178955

Clifton, Marjorie

1964-01-01

14

Polluted Air = Polluted Lungs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To gain a better understanding of the roles and functions of components of the human respiratory system and our need for clean air, students construct model lungs that include a diaphragm and chest cavity. They see how air moving in and out of the lungs coincides with diaphragm movement. Then student teams design and build a prototype face mask pollution filter. They use their model lungs to evaluate their prototypes to design requirements.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

15

UK Air Pollution Bulletin  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hourly updates of levels of benzyne, 1-3 butadiene, ozone, nitric oxide, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, and particles in Britain's air are accessible at the UK Air Pollution Bulletin Website. Provided by the United Kingdom Department of Transport, Environment and the Regions, this site gives air quality information along with yearly average concentrations of the above-mentioned chemicals, graphical summaries, historical summaries, and maps and information about monitoring sites. The data pages are arranged in a versatile way so that users can view information by geographic site, pollutant, or year. Daily, weekly, and annual summaries of pollutant concentrations are available.

16

COMMUNICATING RISK INFORMATION TO STATE AND LOCAL AIR POLLUTION CONTROL AGENCIES VIA U.S. EPA'S AIR RISK INFORMATION SUPPORT CENTER (AIR RISC)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Air Risk Information Support Center (Air RISC) has been organized by U.S. EPA's offices of Air Quality Planning and Standards and Health and Environmental Assessment. The center has been developed in cooperation with the State and Territorial air Pollution Control Program Adm...

17

Foreign Profiles in Air Pollution Control Activities: Special Sources of Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed guide to air pollution control activities in selected countries outside of the United States is being prepared for NAPCA and this article discusses the special sources of information and procedures used. The significant differences which exist among countries is well illustrated in the categorization of activities. The highlights and breadths of current air pollution control activities and the

Homer J. Hall; Howard I. Fuller; Arthur C. Stern

1970-01-01

18

Industry sector analysis Mexico: Air pollution equipment. Export trade information  

SciTech Connect

The Industry Sector Analyses (I.S.A.) for pollution control equipment contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users, receptivity of Mexican consumers to U.S. products, the competitive situation - Mexican production, total import market, U.S. market position, foreign competition, and competitive factors, and market access - Mexican tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes and distribution channels. The I.S.A. provides the United States industry with meaningful information regarding the Mexican market for pollution control equipment.

Ceron, F.

1992-10-01

19

Air Pollution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pollution of the general environment, which exposes an entire population group for an indeterminate period of time, certainly constitutes a problem in public health. Serious aid pollution episodes have resulted in increased mortality and a possible relationship between chronic exposure to a polluted atmosphere and certain diseases has been…

Barker, K.; And Others

20

Environmental Pollution Air Pollution Dispersion Practical Air Pollution Dispersion  

E-print Network

Environmental Pollution Air Pollution Dispersion 1 of 5 Practical ­ Air Pollution Dispersion in the lectures how such models can be used to explain observed concentrations of air pollutants in an area to a large extent, downwind air pollution levels on a local or regional scale. The Gaussian Plume Model

Moncrieff, John B.

21

Air pollution in cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air quality in cities is the result of a complex interaction between natural and anthropogenic environmental conditions. Air pollution in cities is a serious environmental problem – especially in the developing countries. The air pollution path of the urban atmosphere consists of emission and transmission of air pollutants resulting in the ambient air pollution. Each part of the path is

Helmut Mayer

1999-01-01

22

Air Pollution Spring 2010  

E-print Network

ATS 555 Air Pollution Spring 2010 T Th 11:00 ­ 12:15, NESB 101 Instructor: Prof. Sonia Kreidenweis an understanding of types and sources of air pollution. 2. Examine concentrations of air pollutants and their effects on health and welfare. Review regulations governing air pollution. 3. Examine the meteorological

23

Indoor Air Pollution  

MedlinePLUS

We usually think of air pollution as being outdoors, but the air in your house or office could also be polluted. Sources of indoor pollution include Mold and pollen Tobacco smoke Household products ...

24

Air pollution: how it affects plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The workshop provided information on problems of air pollution and associated damage to vegetation at the community level. The first section, social aspects of environmental pollution, addressed effects of atmospheric SOâ on vegetation; fluoride; minor pollutants; photochemical pollutants; nutritional imbalance; and herbicide injury. Section 2 covered agricultural sources of air pollution and the case history of air pollution at The

MacSwan

1973-01-01

25

The Federal Air Pollution Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described is the Federal air pollution program as it was in 1967. The booklet is divided into these major topics: History of the Federal Program; Research; Assistance to State and Local Governments; Abatement and Prevention of Air Pollution; Control of Motor Vehicle Pollution; Information and Education; and Conclusion. Federal legislation has…

National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

26

Air pollution meteorology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air Pollution Meteorology is divided into three parts: air pollution fundamentals; concentration calculations and distributions; and pollution and meteorological interactions. The first section includes chapters on the following topics: the problem; measurements, sources, and standards; air stagnation and pollutant index; and effects. The second section of the book includes chapters on diffusion theory, the Gaussian plume dispersion model, plume rise,

Eagleman

1991-01-01

27

Air Pollution Primer. Revised Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This revised and updated book is written to inform the citizens on the nature, causes, and effects of air pollution. It is written in terms familiar to the layman with the purpose of providing knowledge and motivation to spur community action on clean air policies. Numerous charts and drawings are provided to support discussion of air pollution

Corman, Rena

28

Testing for Air Pollution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three experiments are presented in this Science Study Aid to provide the teacher with some fundamental air pollution activities. The first experiment involved particulates, the second deals with microorganisms, and the third looks at gases in the atmosphere. Each activity outlines introductory information, objectives, materials required, procedure…

Dunbar, Artice

29

Fundamentals of air pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fundamentals of Air Pollution, Second Edition, a textbook for undergraduate and graduate level courses in air pollution, covers elements, sources, effects, measurement, monitoring, meteorology, and regulatory and engineering control of air pollution. Existing knowledge of these topics are reviewed and the book is updated to include acidic deposition, long-distance transport, atmospheric chemistry, and mathematical modeling. The authors discuss current air

A. C. Stern; R. W. Boubel; D. L. Fox; B. Turner

1984-01-01

30

Fundamentals of air pollution  

SciTech Connect

Fundamentals of Air Pollution, Second Edition, a textbook for undergraduate and graduate level courses in air pollution, covers elements, sources, effects, measurement, monitoring, meteorology, and regulatory and engineering control of air pollution. Existing knowledge of these topics are reviewed and the book is updated to include acidic deposition, long-distance transport, atmospheric chemistry, and mathematical modeling. The authors discuss current air pollution standards, such as air quality and new source performance.

Stern, A.C.; Boubel, R.W.; Fox, D.L.; Turner, B.

1984-05-01

31

Air pollution control equipment  

Microsoft Academic Search

These volumes provide the fundamentals of air pollution control equipment with appropriate practical applications and an introduction to design principles. Divided into two parts, this book addresses air pollution control equipment for particulate pollutants and control equipment for gaseous pollutants. Each of the control equipment chapters in Parts I and II contain sections dealing with introductory material description of equipment,

L. Theodore; A. J. Buonicore

1988-01-01

32

Air Pollution Training Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This catalog lists the universities, both supported and not supported by the Division of Air Pollution, which offer graduate programs in the field of air pollution. The catalog briefly describes the programs and their entrance requirements, the requirements, qualifications and terms of special fellowships offered by the Division of Air Pollution.…

Public Health Service (DHEW), Rockville, MD.

33

Industry sector analysis, Hong Kong: Air pollution monitoring equipment. Export trade information  

SciTech Connect

The market survey covers the air pollution monitoring equipment market in Hong Kong. The analysis contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users; receptivity of Hong Kong consumers to U.S. products; the competitive situation, and market access (tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes, distribution channels). It also contains key contact information and information on upcoming trade events related to the industry.

Not Available

1993-01-01

34

Geographical information systems and air pollution simulation for Megalopolis' electric power plant in Peloponnese, Greece.  

PubMed

The growth and sophistication of geographic information systems (GIS) have propelled us into a new era of environmental analyses. Air pollution is a growing concern in populated areas as many recent studies have associated high levels of pollution with increased illnesses and mortality. The study will focus on the toxicity levels incurred by radioactive lignite-burning Power Generation facilities located in Megalopolis, Greece. An estimate of pollution emissions followed by dispersion simulations for various atmospheric conditions will be given. The exercise will be integrated with a Geographical Information System (GIS) for defining the emission sources and visualizing the dispersion of pollutants over the geographical terrain. Data samples were collected from vegetation in the surrounding areas and analyzed for radioactivity. High energy levels (up to 4-5 times higher than recommended standards, (UNCEAR, 1982) were found in several samples containing (226)Ra, (232)Th, (234)Th, (40)K and (238)U. The study concludes that air quality and vegetation of the neighbouring areas is adversely affected by industrial waste. Greater pollution controls and air quality monitoring should be applied for the benefit and health of its citizens. Radioactivity in food and water and inhaled air become very dangerous for public health thus, the levels of radioactivity should be kept within UNCEAR 1982 limits. PMID:24798903

Theophanides, Mike; Anastassopoulou, Jane; Theophanides, Theophile

2014-01-01

35

Intercontinental Transport of Air Pollution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of the global economy goes beyond raising our standards of living. We are in an ear of increasing environmental as well as economic interdependence. Long-range transport of anthropogenic atmospheric pollutants such as ozone, ozone precursors, airborne particles, heavy metals (such as mercury) and persistent organic pollutants are the four major types of pollution that are transported over intercontinental distances and have global environmental effects. The talk includes: 1) an overview of the international agreements related to intercontinental transport of air pollutants, 2) information needed for decision making, 3) overview of the past research on intercontinental transport of air pollutants - a North American's perspective, and 4) future research needs.

Rogers, David; Whung, Pai-Yei; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

36

[Pollution of room air].  

PubMed

In the last decade the significance of indoor air pollution to human health has increased because of improved thermal insulation of buildings to save energy: air turnover is reduced and air quality is impaired. The most frequent air pollutants are tobacco smoke, radioactive radon gas emanating from the soil, formaldehyde from furniture and insulation material, nitrogen oxides from gas stoves, as well as solvents from cleaning agents. The most important pollutants leading to health hazards are tobacco smoke and air pollutants which are emitted continuously from building materials and furniture. Such pollutants have to be eliminated by reducing the emission rate. A fresh air supply is necessary to reduce the pollutants resulting from the inhabitants and their activities, the amount depending on the number of inhabitants and the usage of the room. The carbon dioxide level should not exceed 1500 ppm. PMID:3962506

Schlatter, J

1986-01-01

37

Controlling Indoor Air Pollution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the health risks posed by indoor air pollutants, such as airborne combustion products, toxic chemicals, and radioactivity. Questions as to how indoor air might be regulated. Calls for new approaches to environmental protection. (TW)

Nero, Anthony V, Jr.

1988-01-01

38

IMMUNOTOXICITY OF AIR POLLUTANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The most common ubiquitous air pollutants, as well as some point source (e.g. metals) air pollutants, decrease the function of pulmonary host defense mechanisms against infection. Most of this knowledge is based on animal studies and involves cellular antibacterial defenses such ...

39

Sensing Air Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about electricity and air pollution while building devices to measure volatile organic compounds (VOC) by attaching VOC sensors to prototyping boards. In the second part of the activity, students evaluate the impact of various indoor air pollutants using the devices they made.

2014-09-18

40

Air Pollution and Industry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is an authoritative reference and practical guide designed to help the plant engineer identify and solve industrial air pollution problems in order to be able to meet current air pollution regulations. Prepared under the editorial supervision of an experienced chemical engineer, with each chapter contributed by an expert in his field,…

Ross, R. D., Ed.

41

Air pollution and human health  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quantitative effects of air pollution on human health is considered, along with the dollar benefit of pollution abatement. Data is presented showing the correlations between air pollution and several diseases. The economic cost of air pollution-caused disease is estimated, and is used as the basis of benefit cost analysis for air pollution abatement.

L. B. Lave; E. P. Seskin

1970-01-01

42

Investigating Air Pollution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an experiment using live plants and cigarette smoke to demonstrate the effects of air pollution on a living organism. Procedures include growth of the test plants in glass bottles, and construction and operation of smoking machine. (CS)

Carter, Edward J.

1977-01-01

43

AIR POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES  

EPA Science Inventory

This is a chapter for John Wiley & Son's Mechanical Engineers' Handbook, and covers issues involving air pollution control. Various technologies for controlling sulfur oxides is considered including fuel desulfurization. It also considers control of nitrogen oxides including post...

44

Air pollution from aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of fundamental problems related to jet engine air pollution and combustion were examined. These include soot formation and oxidation, nitric oxide and carbon monoxide emissions mechanisms, pollutant dispension, flow and combustion characteristics of the NASA swirl can combustor, fuel atomization and fuel-air mixing processes, fuel spray drop velocity and size measurement, ignition and blowout. A summary of this work, and a bibliography of 41 theses and publications which describe this work, with abstracts, is included.

Heywood, J. B.; Fay, J. A.; Chigier, N. A.

1979-01-01

45

Indoor Air Pollution Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indoor air pollution has occurred since prehistoric times when people moved to live indoors and fire was brought into closed\\u000a shelters for cooking and space heating 1. Today, indoor air pollution caused by burning of traditional solid fuels such as woodfuel, agricultural residues, and dried\\u000a animal dung in unvented cookstoves in rural areas of developing countries is not much different

Nguyen Thi Kim Oanh; Yung-Tse Hung

46

Exposure information in environmental health research: Current opportunities and future directions for particulate matter, ozone, and toxic air pollutants  

E-print Network

J. and Smith K.R. Indoor air pollution: a global healthoccupational, indoor, and community air pollution research.indoor sources of human exposure are essential but often not adequately addressed in health-effects studies for air pollution.

McKone, Thomas E.

2008-01-01

47

Pupils' Understanding of Air Pollution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on a study of pupils' knowledge and understanding of atmospheric pollution. Specifically, the study is aimed at identifying: 1) the extent to which pupils conceptualise the term "air pollution" in a scientifically appropriate way; 2) pupils' knowledge of air pollution sources and air pollutants; and 3) pupils' knowledge of air

Dimitriou, Anastasia; Christidou, Vasilia

2007-01-01

48

Air pollution and medical research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sixth annual air pollution medical research conference was sponsored by the California State Department of Public Health, and was held in San Francisco during January 1963. Participants were scientists involved in research on air pollution and officials who are concerned with air pollution control and public health. The main topics of the meetings were: trends in air pollution and

J. R. Goldsmith

1963-01-01

49

Exposure information in environmental health research: Current opportunities and future directions for particulate matter, ozone, and toxic air pollutants  

SciTech Connect

Understanding and quantifying outdoor and indoor sources of human exposure are essential but often not adequately addressed in health-effects studies for air pollution. Air pollution epidemiology, risk assessment, health tracking and accountability assessments are examples of health-effects studies that require but often lack adequate exposure information. Recent advances in exposure modeling along with better information on time-activity and exposure factors data provide us with unique opportunities to improve the assignment of exposures for both future and ongoing studies linking air pollution to health impacts. In September 2006, scientists from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) along with scientists from the academic community and state health departments convened a symposium on air pollution exposure and health in order to identify, evaluate, and improve current approaches for linking air pollution exposures to disease. This manuscript presents the key issues, challenges and recommendations identified by the exposure working group, who used cases studies of particulate matter, ozone, and toxic air pollutant exposure to evaluate health-effects for air pollution. One of the over-arching lessons of this workshop is that obtaining better exposure information for these different health-effects studies requires both goal-setting for what is needed and mapping out the transition pathway from current capabilities to meeting these goals. Meeting our long-term goals requires definition of incremental steps that provide useful information for the interim and move us toward our long-term goals. Another over-arching theme among the three different pollutants and the different health study approaches is the need for integration among alternate exposure assessment approaches. For example, different groups may advocate exposure indicators, biomonitoring, mapping methods (GIS), modeling, environmental media monitoring, and/or personal exposure modeling. However, emerging research reveals that the greatest progress comes from integration among two or more of these efforts.

McKone, Thomas E.; Ryan, P. Barry; Ozkaynak, Haluk

2007-02-01

50

Air Pollution Primer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the dangers of polluted air to the health and welfare of all individuals became increasingly evident and as the complexity of the causes made responsibility for solutions even more difficult to fix, the National Tuberculosis and Respiratory Disease Association felt obligated to give greater emphasis to its clean air program. To this end they…

National Tuberculosis and Respiratory Disease Association, New York, NY.

51

Air Pollution: What's the Solution?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Through this project, students will focus on outdoor air pollution; what it is, what factors contribute to its formation and the health effects from breathing polluted air. Students will use data and animated maps from the Internet and monitor for the presence of air pollution. Students are challenged to think critically and creatively about the problems surrounding air pollution. Students will learn to describe what air pollutants are, when and how outdoor air pollution is formed, and what the health effects are from breathing polluted air, and much more.

2010-01-01

52

Particulate Air Pollution: The Particulars  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes some of the causes and consequences of particulate air pollution. Outlines the experimental procedures for measuring the amount of particulate materials that settles from the air and for observing the nature of particulate air pollution. (JR)

Murphy, James E.

1973-01-01

53

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Ambient Air Pollution  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Ambient Air Pollution and Respiratory Emergency Department Visits Jennifer L. Peel pollution and respiratory outcomes. More refined assessment has been limited by study size and available air in relation to air pollutants using Poisson generalized estimating equations. Results: In single-pollutant

Mulholland, James A.

54

CRITICAL HEALTH ISSUES OF CRITERIA AIR POLLUTANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

This chapter summarizes the key health information on ubiquitous outdoor air pollutants that can cause adverse health effects at current or historical ambient levels in the United States. Of the thousands of air pollutants, very few meet this definition. The Clean Air Act (CA...

55

Physician's Guide to Air Pollution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prepared at the request of the American Medical Association Council on Environmental and Public Health, this pamphlet on air pollution is one of a series of publications published by the Council as part of its continuing responsibility to provide current information on environmental health problems to the physician, the medical society, the…

Weisburd, Mel

56

Air pollution from household solid fuel combustion in India: an overview of exposure and health related information to inform health research priorities  

PubMed Central

Environmental and occupational risk factors contribute to nearly 40% of the national burden of disease in India, with air pollution in the indoor and outdoor environment ranking amongst leading risk factors. It is now recognized that the health burden from air pollution exposures that primarily occur in the rural indoors, from pollutants released during the incomplete combustion of solid fuels in households, may rival or even exceed the burden attributable to urban outdoor exposures. Few environmental epidemiological efforts have been devoted to this setting, however. We provide an overview of important available information on exposures and health effects related to household solid fuel use in India, with a view to inform health research priorities for household air pollution and facilitate being able to address air pollution within an integrated rural–urban framework in the future. PMID:21987631

Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Ramaswamy, Padmavathi; Sambandam, Sankar; Thangavel, Gurusamy; Ghosh, Santu; Johnson, Priscilla; Mukhopadhyay, Krishnendu; Venugopal, Vidhya; Thanasekaraan, Vijayalakshmi

2011-01-01

57

Introduction: Addressing Air Pollution and Health Science Questions to Inform Science and Policy  

EPA Science Inventory

This special issue of Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health (AQAH) is the sixth and final in a series of special journal issues (Solomon 2010, 2011a, b; Solomon et al. 2011; Solomon 2012) associated with the 2010 Air Pollution and Heath Conference: Bridging the Gap between Sources ...

58

AirPEx: Air Pollution Exposure Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of inhalatory exposure to air pollution is an important area of\\u000ainvestigation when assessing the risks of air pollution for human health. \\u000aInhalatory exposure research focuses on the exposure of humans to air\\u000apollutants and the entry of these pollutants into the human respiratory\\u000atract. The principal grounds for studying the inhalatory exposure of\\u000ahumans to air pollutants are

Freijer JI; Bloemen HJTh; Loos S de; Marra M; Rombout PJA; Steentjes GM; Veen MP van

2007-01-01

59

Evaluation and Application of Alternative Air Pollution Exposure Metrics in Air Pollution Epidemiology Studies  

EPA Science Inventory

ABSTRACT: Periodic review, revision and subsequent implementation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for criteria air pollutants rely upon various types of scientific air quality, exposure, toxicological dose-response and epidemiological information. Exposure assessmen...

60

AIR POLLUTION AND HUMMINGBIRDS  

EPA Science Inventory

A multidisciplinary team of EPA-RTP ORD pulmonary toxicologists, engineers, ecologists, and statisticians have designed a study of how ground-level ozone and other air pollutants may influence feeding activity of the ruby-throated hummingbird ( Archilochus colubris ). Be...

61

Damage by air pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photochemical air pollution in the Los Angeles and San Francisco bay areas of California causes damage to the foliage of many plants and reduces the growth of a variety of glasshouse-grown crops. Not only is commercial flower production adversely affected, but a wide variety of critically controlled plant experiments conducted by several research institutions also are hampered. Moderate to severe

E. F. Darley; J. T. Middleton

1961-01-01

62

Air Pollution and Your Brain  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... lower right-hand corner of the player. Air Pollution and Your Brain HealthDay April 24, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Air Pollution Brain Diseases Environmental Health Transcript A common type ...

63

Air Pollution Socio-Economic  

E-print Network

Traffic Air Pollution and Socio-Economic Status Gregory C Pratt PhD Kristie Ellickson PhD #12 · Relationships #12;Living near traffic increases exposure to air pollution and is associated with adverse health exposed to traffic and air pollution. They are also more vulnerable and have an increased risk of adverse

Minnesota, University of

64

Soil absorption of air pollutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil emits some, but absorbs man, air pollutants. The net effect of the soil is to reduce air pollution by asorbing air pollutant gases and particulate matter and converting them into less harmful forms, forms unavailable to plants and nutrients. The gases emitted by soils, such as HâS, NâO, CHâ, and CO, are products of reactions largely outside of man's

Hinrich L. Bohn

1972-01-01

65

Career Guide for Air Pollution Control  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide to career opportunities in air pollution control includes resource information in this area and provides a listing of colleges and universities offering environmental science programs. The guide was prepared by the S-11 Education and Training Committee of the Air Pollution Control Association. (Author/BT)

Baldwin, Lionel V.

1975-01-01

66

Fundamentals of air pollution. Third edition  

SciTech Connect

This book presents an overview of air pollution. In Part I, the history of air pollution and the basic concepts involved with air pollution such as sources, scales, definitions are covered. Part II describes how airborne pollutants damage materials, vegetation, animals, and humans. Six fundamental aspects of air pollution are included in the text: The Elements of Air Pollution; The Effects of Air Pollution; Measurement and Monitoring of Air Pollution; Meterology of Air Pollution; regulatory Control of Air Pollution; and Engineering Control of Air Pollution.

Boubel, R.W.; Fox, D.L.; Turner, D.B.; Stern, A.C.

1994-12-31

67

Air Pollution Control, Part I.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Authoritative reviews in seven areas of current importance in air pollution control are supplied in this volume, the first of a two-part set. Titles contained in this book are: "Dispersion of Pollutants Emitted into the Atmosphere,""The Formation and Control of Oxides of Nitrogen in Air Pollution,""The Control of Sulfur Emissions from Combustion…

Strauss, Werner, Ed.

68

In Search of Air Pollution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Air pollution is no longer just a local issue; it is a global problem. The atmosphere is a very dynamic system. Pollution not only changes in chemical composition after it is emitted, but also is transported on local and global air systems hundreds and even thousands of miles away. Some of the pollutants that are major health concerns are not even…

Beckendorf, Kirk

2006-01-01

69

Air pollution source identification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Techniques for air pollution source identification are reviewed, and some results obtained with them are evaluated. Described techniques include remote sensing from satellites and aircraft, on-site monitoring, and the use of injected tracers and pollutants themselves as tracers. The use of a large number of trace elements in ambient airborne particulate matter as a practical means of identifying sources is discussed in detail. Sampling and analysis techniques are described, and it is shown that elemental constituents can be related to specific source types such as those found in the earth's crust and those associated with specific industries. Source identification sytems are noted which utilize charged particle X-ray fluorescence analysis of original field data.

Fordyce, J. S.

1975-01-01

70

Indoor air pollution  

SciTech Connect

This article summarizes the health effects of indoor air pollutants and the modalities available to control them. The pollutants discussed include active and passive exposure to tobacco smoke; combustion products of carbon monoxide; nitrogen dioxide; products of biofuels, including wood and coal; biologic agents leading to immune responses, such as house dust mites, cockroaches, fungi, animal dander, and urine; biologic agents associated with infection such as Legionella and tuberculosis; formaldehyde; and volatile organic compounds. An approach to assessing building-related illness and tight building' syndrome is presented. Finally, the article reviews recent data on hospital-related asthma and exposures to potential respiratory hazards such as antineoplastic agents, anesthetic gases, and ethylene oxide.88 references.

Gold, D.R. (Channing Laboratory, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (United States))

1992-06-01

71

Remote air pollution measurement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a discussion and comparison of the Raman method, the resonance and fluorescence backscatter method, long path absorption methods and the differential absorption method for remote air pollution measurement. A comparison of the above remote detection methods shows that the absorption methods offer the most sensitivity at the least required transmitted energy. Topographical absorption provides the advantage of a single ended measurement, and differential absorption offers the additional advantage of a fully depth resolved absorption measurement. Recent experimental results confirming the range and sensitivity of the methods are presented.

Byer, R. L.

1975-01-01

72

Air pollution from aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Forty-one annotated abstracts of reports generated at MIT and the University of Sheffield are presented along with summaries of the technical projects undertaken. Work completed includes: (1) an analysis of the soot formation and oxidation rates in gas turbine combustors, (2) modelling the nitric oxide formation process in gas turbine combustors, (3) a study of the mechanisms causing high carbon monoxide emissions from gas turbines at low power, (4) an analysis of the dispersion of pollutants from aircraft both around large airports and from the wakes of subsonic and supersonic aircraft, (5) a study of the combustion and flow characteristics of the swirl can modular combustor and the development and verification of NO sub x and CO emissions models, (6) an analysis of the influence of fuel atomizer characteristics on the fuel-air mixing process in liquid fuel spray flames, and (7) the development of models which predict the stability limits of fully and partially premixed fuel-air mixtures.

Heywood, J. B.; Fay, J. A.; Chigier, N. A.

1979-01-01

73

Air Pollution, Causes and Cures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This commentary on sources of air pollution and air purification treatments is accompanied by graphic illustrations. Sources of carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and hydrocarbons found in the air are discussed. Methods of removing these pollutants at their source are presented with cut-away diagrams of the facilities and technical…

Manufacturing Chemists Association, Washington, DC.

74

Outdoor air pollution and asthma.  

PubMed

Traffic and power generation are the main sources of urban air pollution. The idea that outdoor air pollution can cause exacerbations of pre-existing asthma is supported by an evidence base that has been accumulating for several decades, with several studies suggesting a contribution to new-onset asthma as well. In this Series paper, we discuss the effects of particulate matter (PM), gaseous pollutants (ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and sulphur dioxide), and mixed traffic-related air pollution. We focus on clinical studies, both epidemiological and experimental, published in the previous 5 years. From a mechanistic perspective, air pollutants probably cause oxidative injury to the airways, leading to inflammation, remodelling, and increased risk of sensitisation. Although several pollutants have been linked to new-onset asthma, the strength of the evidence is variable. We also discuss clinical implications, policy issues, and research gaps relevant to air pollution and asthma. PMID:24792855

Guarnieri, Michael; Balmes, John R

2014-05-01

75

Fundamentals of air pollution. Third edition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book presents an overview of air pollution. In Part I, the history of air pollution and the basic concepts involved with air pollution such as sources, scales, definitions are covered. Part II describes how airborne pollutants damage materials, vegetation, animals, and humans. Six fundamental aspects of air pollution are included in the text: The Elements of Air Pollution; The

R. W. Boubel; D. L. Fox; D. B. Turner; A. C. Stern

1994-01-01

76

AIR POLLUTION EFFECTS ON TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents information on the effects of ozone, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, particulate matter, and acidic disposition on terrestrial ecosystems. A brief explanation of ecosystem dynamics is presented to provide a framework for discussion of air pollutant effects. D...

77

Understanding Air: Air Pollution and Modeling Pollutants with LEGO® Bricks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students learn about the chemical reactions that release various pollutants into the atmosphere and what happens when pollutants in the air are exposed to sunlight. They model incomplete combustion using LEGO bricks, and explore the connection between air quality and environmental health.

2012-06-08

78

Explorative forecasting of air pollution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the paper a model to predict immission concentrations of PM10, SO2, O3 for a selected number of forward time steps is proposed. The proposed model (e-APFM) is an extension of the Air Pollution Forecasting Model (APFM). APFM requires historical data for a large number of points in time, particularly weather forecast, meteorological and pollution data. e-APFM additionally requires information about the wind direction in sectors and meteorological station. This information also permits pollution at meteorological stations for which we do not have the necessary data (in particular the data about pollution) to be forecast. The experimental verification of the proposed model was conducted on the data from the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management in Poland over a period of two years (between January 2011 and December 2012). Experiments show that the e-APFM method has lower deviations between the measured and predicted concentrations compared to the APFM method for the first day and similar deviations for the next two days (for hourly values) and for the first day and mostly worse for the second and third day (for daily values).

Doma?ska, D.; Wojtylak, M.

2014-08-01

79

Air Quality: Air Pollutants, SLAC Emissions Sources, and Regulatory Reference  

E-print Network

Air Quality: Air Pollutants, SLAC Emissions Sources, and Regulatory Reference Department: Chemical permit regulations are designed to track, record, and control air pollutants belonging to several on chemical classifications. This reference outlines major categories of air pollutants found at SLAC

Wechsler, Risa H.

80

Global Air Quality and Pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of global air pollution on climate and the environment is a new focus in atmospheric science. Intercontinental transport and hemispheric air pollution by ozone jeopardize agricultural and natural ecosystems worldwide and have a strong effect on climate. Aerosols, which are spread globally but have a strong regional imbalance, change global climate through their direct and indirect effects on

Hajime Akimoto

2003-01-01

81

PLANT RESPONSE TO AIR POLLUTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Air pollutants have a negative impact on plant growth, primarily through interfering with resource accumulation. ince leaves are in close contact with the atmosphere, many air pollutants, such as O3 and NOx, affect the metabolic function of the leaves and interfere with net carbo...

82

The Control of Air Pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The steps taken by the City of Los Angeles to identify the sources of and control air pollution are chronicled. The first steps taken were to control outside burning, which dramatically reduced smoke and dust. The principal industries affected by this step were steel factories and refineries. Further analysis of the smog indicated that the composition of the polluted air

A. J. Haagen-Smit

1964-01-01

83

ACRYLONITRILE PLANT AIR POLLUTION CONTROL  

EPA Science Inventory

Based on available literature, the report identifies and ranks (in terms of efficiency, cost, and energy requirements) air pollution control technologies for each of four major air pollutant emission sources in acrylonitrile plants. The sources are: (1) absorber vent gas streams,...

84

Air pollution: impact and prevention.  

PubMed

Air pollution is becoming a major health problem that affects millions of people worldwide. In support of this observation, the World Health Organization estimates that every year, 2.4 million people die because of the effects of air pollution on health. Mitigation strategies such as changes in diesel engine technology could result in fewer premature mortalities, as suggested by the US Environmental Protection Agency. This review: (i) discusses the impact of air pollution on respiratory disease; (ii) provides evidence that reducing air pollution may have a positive impact on the prevention of disease; and (iii) demonstrates the impact concerted polices may have on population health when governments take actions to reduce air pollution. PMID:22726103

Sierra-Vargas, Martha Patricia; Teran, Luis M

2012-10-01

85

Air pollution: Impact and prevention  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Air pollution is becoming a major health problem that affects millions of people worldwide. In support of this observation, the World Health Organization estimates that every year, 2.4 million people die because of the effects of air pollution on health. Mitigation strategies such as changes in diesel engine technology could result in fewer premature mortalities, as suggested by the US Environmental Protection Agency. This review: (i) discusses the impact of air pollution on respiratory disease; (ii) provides evidence that reducing air pollution may have a positive impact on the prevention of disease; and (iii) demonstrates the impact concerted polices may have on population health when governments take actions to reduce air pollution. PMID:22726103

SIERRA-VARGAS, MARTHA PATRICIA; TERAN, LUIS M

2012-01-01

86

Air-pollution effects on biodiversity  

SciTech Connect

To address the issues of air pollution impacts on biodiversity, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Environmental Research Laboratory in Corvallis, OR, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service National Fisheries Research Center in Leetown, and the Electric Power Research Institute convened a workshop to evaluate current knowledge, identify information gaps, provide direction to research and assess policy issues. In order to obtain the most current and authoritative information possible, air pollution and biodiversity experts were invited to participate in a workshop and author the papers that make up this report. Each paper was presented and discussed, then collected in this document. The material has been organized into four parts: an introduction, an overview of air pollution exposure and effects, the consequences of air pollution on biodiversity, and policy issues and research needs.

Barker, J.R.; Tingey, D.T.

1992-04-01

87

Exercise Beneficial Even in Polluted Air  

MedlinePLUS

... air pollution, according to a new study from Denmark. The findings show that air pollution should not ... to note that the study's findings pertain to Denmark and other areas with similar air pollution levels. ...

88

Initial events in injury to plants by air pollutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pool of information on air pollution injury to plants increases in size and complexity each year. In addition, air pollution literature has been unable to generate a cohesive theory which relates the various major air pollutants and their effects on plants. This review attempts to fill this gap; I have chosen not to attempt a general review of literature

R L Heath

1980-01-01

89

Topics in Air Pollution Control (SI: 428).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This course provides information about air pollution control efforts since the passage of the Clean Air Act and places in perspective various issues that have arisen since passage of the act--significant deterioration, maintenance of standards, indirect source review, and transportation controls. Court decisions affecting these issues are cited…

Rampacek, Anne; Chaput, Linda

90

Air pollution. Assessment methodology and modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following topics are presented: air quality management systems; introduction to air quality modelling; uses and needs for air quality modelling; fundamentals for the application of a Gaussian plume model; practical demonstration of multiple-source urban air quality simulation models; air pollution emissions inventory systems; and air pollution emissions projecting. A glossary of terms used in air pollution assessment methodology and

1982-01-01

91

Study of air pollutant detectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The application of field ionization mass spectrometry (FIMS) to the detection of air pollutants was investigated. Current methods are reviewed for measuring contaminants of fixed gases, sulfur compounds, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, and particulates. Two enriching devices: the dimethyl silicone rubber membrane separator, and the selective adsorber of polyethylene foam were studied along with FIMS. It is concluded that the membrane enricher system is not a suitable method for removing air pollutants. However, the FIMS shows promise as a useable system for air pollution detection.

Gutshall, P. L.; Bowles, C. Q.

1974-01-01

92

Air Pollution Affects Community Health  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Community Health and Environmental Surveillance System (CHESS), a nationwide program relating community health to environmental quality, is designed to evaluate existing environmental standards, obtain health intelligence for new standards, and document health benefits of air pollution control. (BL)

Shy, Carl M.; Finklea, John F.

1973-01-01

93

Air pollution and community health  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book provides a background for understanding the fundamental conflict between the intense drive for environmental cost effectiveness vs. new epidemiological studies showning adverse effects of air pollution on human health.

Lipfert

1994-01-01

94

Air Pollution 7.1 INTRODUCTION  

E-print Network

CHAPTER 7 Air Pollution 7.1 INTRODUCTION 7.2 OVERVIEW OF EMISSIONS 7.3 THE CLEAN AIR ACT 7.4 THE POLLUTANT STANDARDS INDEX 7.5 CRITERIA POLLUTANTS 7.6 TOXIC AIR POLLUTANTS 7.7 AIR POLLUTION IN THE WORLD'S MEGACITIES 7.8 MOTOR VEHICLE EMISSIONS 7.9 STATIONARY SOURCES 7.10 AIR POLLUTION AND METEOROLOGY 7

Kammen, Daniel M.

95

WESTERN FORESTS AND AIR POLLUTION  

EPA Science Inventory

This book addresses the relationships between air pollution in western United States and trends in the growth and condition of Western coniferous forests. he major atmospheric pollutants to which forest in this region are exposed are sulfur and nitrogen compounds and ozone. The p...

96

Air Pollution Training Institute Virtual Classroom: Basic Air Pollution Meteorology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Air Pollution Training Institute (APTI) course uses video presentations, text materials, and reading assignments to present basic meteorology, meteorological effects on air pollution, meteorological instrumentation, air quality modeling, and regulatory programs requiring a knowledge of meteorology. It consists of seven lessons that cover solar and terrestrial radiation, cyclones and anticyclones, wind speed and direction, atmospheric circulation, and many other topics. To finish the course, an online quiz is offered. Students may take the quiz for APTI Continuing Education Unit (CEU) credits; registration is required to receive CEU credits.

97

AIRNow: Air Quality Information  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

AIRNow is a cross-agency U.S. government web site that provides information and forecasts of air quality across the country. The organization's home page features news articles, information on the Air Quality Index (AQI), and highlighted forecasts for areas with AQIs of special concern. An interactive map shows weather systems, winds, and areas where air quality is likely to be compromised by ozone, particulates, ultraviolet radiation, or other pollutants, with links to current conditions, forecasts, and webcams for selected cities. There are also links to educational materials on air quality for younger students, interactive features and visual materials for older students, and curriculum materials for teachers. Other resources include information on AQI for health providers, older adults, and TV weathercasters; information on air quality and personal health, smoke from fires, and links to air quality information from other countries.

United States Environmental Protection Agency

98

Title III hazardous air pollutants  

SciTech Connect

The author presents an overview of the key provisions of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. The key provisions include the following: 112(b) -- 189 Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP); 112(a) -- Major Source: 10 TPY/25 TPY; 112(d) -- Application of MACT; 112(g) -- Modifications; 112(I) -- State Program; 112(j) -- The Hammer; and 112(r) -- Accidental Release Provisions.

Todd, R.

1995-12-31

99

AIR POLLUTION AND RESPIRATORY DISEASE  

EPA Science Inventory

Concern about polluted air in our urban and industrial areas began gathering momentum shortly after World War II. At that time it seemed obvious that clean air, like clean water, clean food, and a clean body, was a worth while goal in itself, requiring no further justification. B...

100

Disparities in the Impact of Air Pollution  

MedlinePLUS

... in the Impact of Air Pollution Health Risks Ozone Pollution Particle Pollution Focusing on Children Disparities Protect ... more likely to live in counties with worse ozone pollution. Income groups, by contrast, differed little in ...

101

Air Pollution in the World's Megacities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports findings of the Global Environment Monitoring System study concerning air pollution in the world's megacities. Discusses sources of air pollution, air pollution impacts, air quality monitoring, air quality trends, and control strategies. Provides profiles of the problem in Beijing, Los Angeles, Mexico City, India, Cairo, Sao Paulo, and…

Richman, Barbara T., Ed.

1994-01-01

102

Lung cancer and air pollution.  

PubMed Central

Epidemiologic studies over the last 40 years suggest rather consistently that general ambient air pollution, chiefly due to the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, may be responsible for increased rates of lung cancer. This evidence derives from studies of lung cancer trends, studies of occupational groups, comparisons of urban and rural populations, and case-control and cohort studies using diverse exposure metrics. Recent prospective cohort studies observed 30 to 50% increases in lung cancer rates associated with exposure to respirable particles. While these data reflect the effects of exposures in past decades, and despite some progress in reducing air pollution, large numbers of people in the United States continue to be exposed to pollutant mixtures containing known or suspected carcinogens. It is not known how many people in the United States are exposed to levels of fine respirable particles that have been associated with lung cancer in recent epidemiologic studies. These observations suggest that the most widely cited estimates of the proportional contribution of air pollution to lung cancer occurrence in the United States based largely on the results of animal studies, may be too low. It is important that better epidemiologic research be conducted to allow improved estimates of lung cancer risk from air pollution among the general population. The development and application of new epidemiologic methods, particularly the improved characterization of population-wide exposure to mixtures of air pollutants and the improved design of ecologic studies, could improve our ability to measure accurately the magnitude of excess cancer associated with air pollution. PMID:8741787

Cohen, A J; Pope, C A

1995-01-01

103

Volcanic Air Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The phenomenon is a series of photographs of 'vog' or volcanic smog caused by the long-lasting eruption of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii. Text included with the images describes how vog is created. An additional digitally enhanced map shows effects of trade winds on pollution concentration.

104

Beryllium - hazardous air pollutant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beryllium was placed on the EPA list of hazardous pollutants because of its potential for creating serious disease. The principal route of entrance into the human body is by inhalation and absorption through the lungs. Skin may be damaged by beryllium salts producing dermatitis. Chronic beryllium disease has a long latent period. Beryllium respiratory effects are chronic or acute. Acute

1971-01-01

105

Leaves and Air Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students investigate the effects of automobile pollution on plant growth by making measurements on two populations of leaves, one from within 10 meters of a busy road and a population of the same species situated more than 20 meters away. They will choose a method for measuring the leaves, create a table for their data, and test their hypotheses by performing a t-test.

Matt Laposata

106

HANDBOOK: CONTROL TECHNIQUES FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

This manual is a revision of the first (1986) edition of the Handbook: Control Technologies for Hazardous Air Pollutants, which incorporated information from numerous sources into a single, self-contained reference source focusing on the design and cost of VOC and partic...

107

In Brief: Air pollution app  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new smartphone application takes advantage of various technological capabilities and sensors to help users monitor air quality. Tapping into smartphone cameras, Global Positioning System (GPS) sensors, compasses, and accelerometers, computer scientists with the University of Southern California's (USC) Viterbi School of Engineering have developed a new application, provisionally entitled “Visibility.” Currently available for the Android telephone operating system, the application is available for free download at http://robotics.usc.edu/˜mobilesensing/Projects/AirVisibilityMonitoring. An iPhone application may be introduced soon. Smartphone users can take a picture of the sky and then compare it with models of sky luminance to estimate visibility. While conventional air pollution monitors are costly and thinly deployed in some areas, the smartphone application potentially could help fill in some blanks in existing air pollution maps, according to USC computer science professor Gaurav Sukhatme.

Showstack, Randy

2010-10-01

108

AIR QUALITY POLLUTION DISCHARGE POINTS, NEUSE RIVER WATERSHED, NC  

EPA Science Inventory

The North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Environmental Management, Air Quality Section in cooperation with the North Carolina Center for Geographical Information and Analysis developed the digital Air Quality Pollution Discharge Poi...

109

Product Guide/1972 [Air Pollution Control Association].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reprinted in this pamphlet is the fifth annual directory of air pollution control products as compiled in the "Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association" for December, 1971. The 16-page guide lists manufacturers of emission control equipment and air pollution instrumentation under product classifications as derived from McGraw-Hill's "Air

Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association, 1971

1971-01-01

110

Solid Waste, Air Pollution and Health  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the relationships among solid waste disposal, air pollution, and human disease. It is estimated that solid waste disposal contributes 9.7 percent of the total air pollution and 9.9 percent of the total air pollution health effect. Certain disposal-resource recovery systems can be implemented to meet air quality standards. (MR)

Kupchik, George J.; Franz, Gerald J.

1976-01-01

111

The myths of indoor air pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

A popular myth holds that building energy conservation measures, implemented since the oil crises of the 1970s, cause indoor air pollution problems. This myth ignores the fact that most indoor air pollutant sources have little or nothing to do with energy conservation. Air studied inside buildings before 1973 was found to be more polluted than outdoor air even during severe

1993-01-01

112

Lichens and air pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lichens are a combination of fungi and algae which live in a symbiotic partnership. This partnership is so delicate that a slight change in the environment or exposure to toxic substances in the air can destroy the lichen. Researchers have noticed that by mapping the distribution of lichens in and around an urban area that they can pinpoint areas of

Brodo

2009-01-01

113

System design guide for air pollution control equipment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper gives fundamental information about the seven types of air pollution control systems most frequently encountered in industrial applications. A brief description and flow diagram for each system giving details covering applicability, operating parameters, design considerations and materials of construction is presented. Also, information on instrumentation and controls for both dry and wet air pollution control systems is included.

L. J. ODell; S. V. Shepherd

1984-01-01

114

Air Pollution Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

The atmosphere surrounding a plant is a complex mixture of gases and particles, some common and some present in only trace\\u000a amounts. In addition to naturally-occurring gases such as N2, O2, CO2, water vapor, and methane, the lower atmosphere also contains a wide array of natural and anthropogenic compounds whose presence\\u000a in the air can strongly affect the growth of

Patrick J. Temple; David A. Grantz

115

Children's Response to Air Pollutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is important to focus on children with respect to air pollution because (1) their lungs are not completely developed, (2) they can have greater exposures than adults, and (3) those exposures can deliver higher doses of different composition that may remain in the lung for greater duration. The undeveloped lung is more vulnerable to assault and less able to

Thomas F. Bateson; Joel Schwartz

2007-01-01

116

Air Pollution. Part A: Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two facets of the engineering control of air pollution (the analysis of possible problems and the application of effective controls) are covered in this two-volume text. Part A covers Analysis, and Part B, Prevention and Control. (This review is concerned with Part A only.) This volume deals with the terminology, methodology, and symptomatology…

Ledbetter, Joe O.

117

Air pollution and cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

An escalating body of epidemiologic and clinical research provides compelling evidence that exposure to fine particulate matter air pollution contributes to the development of cardiovascular disease and the triggering of acute cardiac events. There are 3 potential mediating pathways that have been implicated, including "systemic spillover," autonomic imbalance, and circulating particulate matter constituents. Further support that the increased morbidity and mortality attributed to air pollution comes from studies demonstrating the adverse cardiovascular effects of even brief periods of exposure to secondhand smoke. Accordingly, persons with known or suspected cardiovascular disease, the elderly, diabetic patients, pregnant women, and those with pulmonary disease should be counseled to limit leisure-time outdoor activities when air pollution is high. Recognizing the insidious and pervasive nature of air pollution, and the associated odds ratios and population attributable fractions for this widely underappreciated chemical trigger of acute cardiovascular events, may serve to maximize the potential for cardiovascular risk reduction by addressing at least a portion of the 10%-25% incidence of coronary disease that is unexplained by traditional risk factors. PMID:25882781

Franklin, Barry A; Brook, Robert; Arden Pope, C

2015-05-01

118

Air pollution problems in nurseries  

Microsoft Academic Search

As urbanization and industrialization intensify, harmful gaseous and particulate emissions will continue to affect nursery and ornamental plantings. Although efforts are being made to control emissions at their sources, plant damage will increase because of our inability to curb chronic air pollution. Nursery crops are injured primarily by ozone, fluorides, and sulfur dioxide, but other phytotoxicants, such as hydrogen chloride,

Dochinger

1974-01-01

119

Health Effects of Air Pollution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes health hazards associated with air pollution, highlighting the difficulty in establishing acceptable thresholds of exposure. Respiratory disease, asthma, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and other problems are addressed. Indicates that a wide range of effects from any one chemical exists and that there are differences in sensitivity to…

Environmental Education Report and Newsletter, 1985

1985-01-01

120

Nasal responses to air pollutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The upper respiratory tract, including the nose, nasal pharynx, and paranasal sinuses, is the major interface for initial contact of air pollutants with the respiratory system. The upper airway provides important physiologic functions, including warming, humidification, and cleansing of the airstream that is ultimately delivered to the lungs. The warming, humidification, and cleansing are carried out by control of the

Jane Q. Koenig; William E. Pierson

1984-01-01

121

Air Pollution Control, Part II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains five major articles in areas of current importance in air pollution control. They are written by authors who are actively participating in the areas on which they report. It is the aim of each article to completely cover theory, experimentation, and practice in the field discussed. The contents are as follows: Emissions,…

Strauss, Werner, Ed.

122

Clean Air Slots Amid Atmospheric Pollution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This article investigates the mechanism for those layers in the atmosphere that are free of air borne pollution even though the air above and below them carry pollutants. Atmospheric subsidence is posed as a mechanism for this phenomenon.

Hobbs, Peter V.

2002-01-01

123

Mercury Air Pollution Reflected in Ocean Fish  

MedlinePLUS

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Mercury Air Pollution Reflected in Ocean Fish, Study Says Concentrations in ... mercury in the open ocean is fallout from air pollution, especially from coal-fired power plants and artisanal ...

124

AIR POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES (CHAPTER 65)  

EPA Science Inventory

The chapter discusses the use of technologies for reducing air pollution emissions from stationary sources, with emphasis on the control of combustion gen-erated air pollution. Major stationary sources include utility power boilers, industrial boilers and heaters, metal smelting ...

125

Scottish Air Pollution and Health Workshop  

E-print Network

Scottish Air Pollution and Health Workshop Session 4 Joint Research Policy Needs and Interactions needs and how can we work together effectively on these to reduce the adverse effects of air pollution together effectively on these to reduce the adverse effects of air pollution in Scotland. Modelling

126

Air Pollution, ATS555 Colorado State University  

E-print Network

Air Pollution, ATS555 Colorado State University Fall 2014 Mondays and Wednesdays @ 4:00 ­ 5:30 Room://ramct.colostate.edu/) Textbooks: Air Pollution: Its Origin and Control, 3rd Edition, by Wark, Warner and Davis, Addison Wesley. Specific objectives include: 1. Develop an understanding of types and sources of air pollution. 2. Examine

Collett Jr., Jeffrey L.

127

Quantifying precipitation suppression due to air Pollution  

E-print Network

Quantifying precipitation suppression due to air Pollution First author: Amir Givati The Hebrew January 2004 #12;ABSTRACT: Urban and industrial air pollution has been shown qualitatively to suppress. The evidence suggests that air pollution aerosols that are incorporated in orographic clouds slow down cloud

Li, Zhanqing

128

The Crisis in Air Pollution Manpower Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three studies conducted by the National Air Pollution Manpower Development Advisory Committee concluded there is a crisis in air pollution manpower development within the United States today. The studies investigated the existing federal manpower program, air pollution educational requirements and the quality of graduate level university programs.…

Moeller, Dade W.

1974-01-01

129

3, 35433588, 2003 3-D air pollution  

E-print Network

ACPD 3, 3543­3588, 2003 3-D air pollution modelling L. M. Frohn et al. Title Page Abstract hemispheric nested air pollution model L. M. Frohn, J. H. Christensen, J. Brandt, C. Geels, and K. M. Hansen 2003 Correspondence to: L. M. Frohn (lmf@dmu.dk) 3543 #12;ACPD 3, 3543­3588, 2003 3-D air pollution

Boyer, Edmond

130

Air Pollution. Environmental Ecological Education Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit, designed for senior high school students, focuses on air pollution by examining its effect on man, plants and animals, the causes of air pollution, and possible solutions to the air pollution problems. It approaches each of these topics through both natural science and social science perspectives. The unit is divided into seven separate…

Parkway School District, Chesterfield, MO.

131

Biochemical effects of air pollution on plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The subject of air pollution and its effects on plants is reviewed in depth. Fluoride serves as a basis for generalizations concerning the effects of air pollutants and as an illustration of the evidence that supports them. The biochemical effects of an air pollutant involve many processes that occur at different times and on different levels of organization. The experimental

D. C. McCune; L. H. Weinstein; J. S. Jacobson; A. De Hertogh; A. E. Hitchcock

1965-01-01

132

Plant response to air pollution. Book chapter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air pollutants have a negative impact on plant growth, primarily through interfering with resource accumulation. Since leaves are in close contact with the atmosphere, many air pollutants, such as O3 and NOx, affect the metabolic function of the leaves and interfere with net carbon fixation by the plant canopy. Air pollutants that are first deposited on the soil, such as

J. A. Weber; D. T. Tingey; C. P. Andersen

1993-01-01

133

Atmospheric diffusion fundamentals for air pollution applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following a description of the role played by the atmospheric boundary layer in controlling air pollution, the theory and parameterization of atmospheric diffusion are discussed. Diffusion in exceptional flows, such as over cities, water, complex terrain etc., is summarized together with diffusion modeling in air pollution applications. A course in the meteorology of air pollution is outlined.

F. A. Gifford Jr.

1977-01-01

134

EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTANTS ON PLANT PRODUCTIVITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Air pollutants modify the productivity of agrisystems. Any effect of air pollution on growth or quality of a plant is an effect of productivity. Early efforts to estimate the effects of air pollutants on crop productivity were often based only on observation. Of the different met...

135

Air pollution ranks as largest health risk  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The World Health Organization (WHO) reports that 7 million people died in 2012 from air-pollution-related sicknesses, marking air pollution as the single largest environmental health risk. This finding, a result of better knowledge and assessment of the diseases, is more than double previous estimates of the risk of death from air pollution.

Wendel, JoAnna

2014-04-01

136

Air Pollution: History Air Pollution: Any atmospheric constituent present as a result of  

E-print Network

Air Pollution: History Air Pollution: Any atmospheric constituent present as a result, or materials. Before 1200 AD · Air pollution results from wood burning, tanning, decaying trash, smelting = industrial revolution ­ x100 increase in G.B. coal combustion between 1800-1900 estimated air pollution in G

Weber, Rodney

137

Response mechanisms of conifers to air pollutants  

SciTech Connect

Conifers are known to respond to SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, NO{sub x} and acid deposition. Of these pollutants, O{sub 3} is likely the most widespread and phytotoxic compound, and therefore of great interest to individuals concerned with forest resources Direct biological responses have a toxicological effects on metabolism which can then scale to effects on tree growth and forest ecology, including processes of competition and succession. Air pollution can cause reductions in photosynthesis and stomatal conductance, which are the physiological parameters most rigorously studied for conifers. Some effects air pollutants can have on plants are influenced by the presence of co-occurring environmental stresses. For example, drought usually reduces vulnerability of plants to air pollution. In addition, air pollution sensitivity may differ among species and with plant/leaf age. Plants may make short-term physiological adjustments to compensate for air pollution or may evolve resistance to air pollution through the processes of selection. Models are necessary to understand how physiological processes, growth processes, and ecological processes are affected by air pollutants. The process of defining the ecological risk that air pollutants pose for coniferous forests requires approaches that exploit existing databases, environmental monitoring of air pollutants and forest resources, experiments with well-defined air pollution treatments and environmental control/monitoring, modeling, predicting air pollution-caused changes in productivity and ecological processes over time and space, and integration of social values.

Matyssek, R.; Reich, P.; Oren, R.; Winner, W.E.

1995-07-01

138

QUANTIFYING SUBGRID POLLUTANT VARIABILITY IN EULERIAN AIR QUALITY MODELS  

EPA Science Inventory

In order to properly assess human risk due to exposure to hazardous air pollutants or air toxics, detailed information is needed on the location and magnitude of ambient air toxic concentrations. Regional scale Eulerian air quality models are typically limited to relatively coar...

139

Exposure Information in Environmental Health Research: Current Opportunities and Future Directions for Particulate Matter, Ozone, and Toxic Air Pollutants  

EPA Science Inventory

In September 2006, scientists from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) along with scientists from the academic community and state health departments convened a symposium on air pollution exposure and health in ord...

140

APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 2: Computer Operator's Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Computer Operator's Manual is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The information in the manual is sufficiently basic…

Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

141

Air Pollution Manual, Part 1--Evaluation. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Due to the great increase in technical knowledge and improvement in procedures, this second edition has been prepared to update existing information. Air pollution legislation is reviewed. Sources of air pollution are examined extensively. They are treated in terms of natural sources, man-made sources, metropolitan regional emissions, emission…

Giever, Paul M., Ed.

142

Evaluating Sources of Indoor Air Pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluation of Indoor air pollution problems requires an understanding of the relationship between sources, air movement, and outdoor air exchange. Research is underway to investigate these relationships. A three-phase program is being implemented: 1) Environmental chambers are used to provide source emission factors for specific indoor pollutants; 2) An IAQ (Indoor Air Quality) model has been developed to calculate indoor

Bruce A. Tichenor; Leslie A. Sparks; James B. White; Merrill D. Jackson

1990-01-01

143

AEROMETRIC INFORMATION RETRIEVAL SYSTEM (AIRS)  

EPA Science Inventory

Aeromatic Information Retrieval System (AIRS) is a computer-based repository of information about airborne pollution in the United States and various World Health Organization (WHO) member countries. AIRS is administered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and runs on th...

144

Minimizing the Effects of Outdoor Air Pollution  

MedlinePLUS

... Air Pollution Everyone is adversely affected by poor air quality; however, individuals who suffer from pulmonary problems are ... avoid exposure to, and complications from, poor outdoor air quality. Avoid exposure to noxious fumes The Environmental Protection ...

145

Environmental Chemistry: Air and Water Pollution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a book about air and water pollution whose chapters cover the topics of air pollution--general considerations, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons and photochemical oxidants, sulfur oxides, particulates, temperature inversions and the greenhouse effect; and water pollution--general considerations, mercury, lead, detergents,…

Stoker, H. Stephen; Seager, Spencer L.

146

A PROPOSED UNIFORM AIR POLLUTION INDEX  

EPA Science Inventory

A uniform air pollution index for the U.S. is proposed. The index was developed from ten criteria identified in a survey of all the air pollution indices currently in use in the U.S. and Canada. The proposed index, named the Pollutant Standards Index (PSI), was designed to overco...

147

Global Air Pollution Crossroads over the Mediterranean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mediterranean Intensive Oxidant Study, performed in the summer of 2001, uncovered air pollution layers from the surface to an altitude of 15 kilometers. In the boundary layer, air pollution standards are exceeded throughout the region, caused by West and East European pollution from the north. Aerosol particles also reduce solar radiation penetration to the surface, which can suppress precipitation.

J. Lelieveld; H. Berresheim; S. Borrmann; P. J. Crutzen; F. J. Dentener; H. Fischer; J. Feichter; P. J. Flatau; J. Heland; R. Holzinger; R. Korrmann; M. G. Lawrence; Z. Levin; K. M. Markowicz; N. Mihalopoulos; A. Minikin; V. Ramanathan; M. de Reus; G. J. Roelofs; H. A. Scheeren; J. Sciare; H. Schlager; M. Schultz; P. Siegmund; B. Steil; E. G. Stephanou; P. Stier; M. Traub; C. Warneke; J. Williams; H. Ziereis

2002-01-01

148

Air Quality Modeling in Support of the Near-Road Exposures and Effects of Urban Air Pollutants Study (NEXUS)  

EPA Science Inventory

A major challenge in traffic-related air pollution exposure studies is the lack of information regarding pollutant exposure characterization. Air quality modeling can provide spatially and temporally varying exposure estimates for examining relationships between traffic-related a...

149

Air pollution measurements from satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study is presented on the remote sensing of gaseous and particulate air pollutants which is an extension of a previous report. Pollutants can be observed by either active or passive remote sensing systems. Calculations discussed herein indicate that tropospheric CO, CO2, SO2, NO2, NH3, HCHO, and CH4 can be measured by means of nadir looking passive systems. Additional species such as NO, HNO3, O3, and H2O may be measured in the stratosphere through a horizon experiment. A brief theoretical overview of resonance Raman scattering and resonance fluorescence is given. It is found that radiance measurements are most promising for general global applications, and that stratospheric aerosols may be measured using a sun occultation technique. The instrumentation requirements for both active and passive systems are examined and various instruments now under development are described.

Ludwig, C. B.; Griggs, M.; Malkmus, W.; Bartle, E. R.

1973-01-01

150

Air pollution and congenital heart defects.  

PubMed

Environmental factors such as ambient air pollution have been associated with congenital heart defects. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between gestational exposure to air pollution and the risk of congenital heart defects. We conducted a registry-based cohort study with a total of 135,527 live- and still-births in the Tel-Aviv region during 2000-2006. We used a Geographic Information System-based spatiotemporal approach with weekly inverse distance weighting modeling to evaluate associations between gestational exposure to ambient air pollution during weeks 3-8 of pregnancy and the risk for congenital heart defects. The following pollutants were studied: carbon monoxide, nitrogen-dioxide, ozone, sulfur-dioxide and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 ?m and 2.5 ?m (PM10, PM2.5 respectively). Logistic models, adjusted for socio-demographic covariates were used to evaluate the associations. We found that maternal exposure to increased concentrations of PM10 was associated with multiple congenital heart defects (adjusted OR 1.05, 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.10 for 10 ?g/m(3) increment). An inverse association was observed between concentrations of PM2.5 and isolated patent ductus arteriosus (adjusted OR 0.78, 95% CI: 0.68 to 0.91 for 5 µg/m(3) increment). Sensitivity analyses showed that results were consistent. Generally there were no evidence for an association between gaseous air pollutants and congenital heart defects.Our results for PM10 and congenital heart defects confirm results from previous studies. The results for PM2.5 need further investigations. PMID:23623715

Agay-Shay, Keren; Friger, Michael; Linn, Shai; Peled, Ammatzia; Amitai, Yona; Peretz, Chava

2013-07-01

151

Air Risk Information Support Center  

SciTech Connect

The Air Risk Information Support Center (Air RISC) was initiated in early 1988 by the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) Office of Health and Environmental Assessment (OHEA) and the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS) as a technology transfer effort that would focus on providing information to state and local environmental agencies and to EPA Regional Offices in the areas of health, risk, and exposure assessment for toxic air pollutants. Technical information is fostered and disseminated by Air RISCs three primary activities: (1) a {open_quotes}hotline{close_quotes}, (2) quick turn-around technical assistance projects, and (3) general technical guidance projects. 1 ref., 2 figs.

Shoaf, C.R.; Guth, D.J. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

1990-12-31

152

AT 560 (2 Credits) Air Pollution Measurement  

E-print Network

AT 560 (2 Credits) Air Pollution Measurement Spring 2013 Instructor: Jeff Collett, 491 Resolution and Student Conduct Services." #12;ATS 560 - Air Pollution Measurement Spring 2013 Schedule Useful in experimental air quality monitoring and re- search. 2. Become familiar with the process of designing, proposing

153

Physiological responses to air pollutants G. Halbwachs  

E-print Network

of fumigation experiments on young plants could be utilized for inter- preting some effects when air pollutionPhysiological responses to air pollutants G. Halbwachs Zentrum fur Umwelt- und Naturschutz', particularly its appearance in so-called clean air regions, plant physiology has gained considerable importance

Boyer, Edmond

154

Indoor Air Pollution: A Public Health Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although official efforts to control air pollution have traditionally focused on outdoor air, it is now apparent that elevated contaminant concentrations are common inside some private and public buildings. Concerns about potential public health problems due to indoor air pollution are based on evidence that urban residents typically spend more than 90 percent of their time indoors, concentrations of some

John D. Spengler; Ken Sexton

1983-01-01

155

EXPOSURE MEASUREMENT FOR AIR POLLUTION EPIDEMIOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

The chapter describes the evolution of air pollution epidemiology over a period when changes in pollution technologies have both lowered total exposures and dispersed them over vastly greater areas. Since personal exposure and microenvironmental measurements are expensive, studie...

156

REGIONAL AIR POLLUTION STUDY, NON-CRITERIA POLLUTANT INVENTORY  

EPA Science Inventory

In conjunction with the Regional Air Pollution Study (RAPS) being conducted in the St. Louis Air Quality Control Region (AQCR), an inventory of non-criteria pollutants was assembled for point sources. The inventory was based on the following data: (1) The National Emissions Data ...

157

The Particulate Air Pollution Controversy  

PubMed Central

Scientists, regulators, legislators, and segments of industry and the lay public are attempting to understand and respond to epidemiology findings of associations between measures of modern particulate air pollutants (PM) and adverse health outcomes in urban dwellers. The associations have been interpreted to imply that tens of thousands of Americans are killed annually by small daily increments in PM. These epidemiology studies and their interpretations have been challenged, although it is accepted that high concentrations of air pollutants have claimed many lives in the past. Although reproducible and statistically significant, the relative risks associated with modern PM are very small and confounded by many factors. Neither toxicology studies nor human clinical investigations have identified the components and/or characteristics of PM that might be causing the health-effect associations. Currently, a massive worldwide research effort is under way in an attempt to identify whom might be harmed and by what substances and mechanisms. Finding the answers is important, because control measures have the potential not only to be costly but also to limit the availability of goods and services that are important to public health. PMID:19330148

Phalen, Robert F.

2004-01-01

158

Air Pollution Aspects of Soap and Detergent Manufacture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Informative Report No. 8 on soap and detergent manufacture is one of a series of survey reports prepared by APCA’s Tl-2 Committee on air pollution problems and control methods encountered in the chemical industry today.

A. H. Phelps Jr

1967-01-01

159

MODELING POPULATION EXPOSURES TO OUTDOOR SOURCES OF HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Accurate assessment of human exposures is an important part of environmental health effects research. However, most air pollution epidemiology studies rely upon imperfect surrogates of personal exposures, such as information based on available central-site outdoor concentration ...

160

Perspective on Air Pollution: The Canadian Scene  

PubMed Central

Despite the large ratio of land mass to population, Canada has significant air pollution problems, some being due to our cold climate, the long arctic nights, and a mineral-based economy. Routes of intoxication include the respiration of polluted air and the secondary contamination of food and water. Although pollution is often measured in terms of industrial emissions, the physician must be concerned rather with the dose of pollutants to which the individual is exposed. The principal air pollutants, in terms of emitted tonnage, are carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrocarbons, particulates, and oxides of nitrogen. Sources of these various materials are discussed. PMID:20469224

Shephard, R. J.

1975-01-01

161

Effects of air pollution on vascular thrombosis   

E-print Network

Increases in air pollution, especially the particulate component, are associated with increased cardiovascular mortality, possibly through increases in thrombogenic mechanisms. The research presented in this thesis ...

Tabor, Caroline Mary

2011-07-05

162

Air pollution and COPD in China  

PubMed Central

Recently, many researchers paid more attentions to the association between air pollution and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Haze, a severe form of outdoor air pollution, affected most parts of northern and eastern China in the past winter. In China, studies have been performed to evaluate the impact of outdoor air pollution and biomass smoke exposure on COPD; and most studies have focused on the role of air pollution in acutely triggering symptoms and exacerbations. Few studies have examined the role of air pollution in inducing pathophysiological changes that characterise COPD. Evidence showed that outdoor air pollution affects lung function in both children and adults and triggers exacerbations of COPD symptoms. Hence outdoor air pollution may be considered a risk factor for COPD mortality. However, evidence to date has been suggestive (not conclusive) that chronic exposure to outdoor air pollution increases the prevalence and incidence of COPD. Cross-sectional studies showed biomass smoke exposure is a risk factor for COPD. A long-term retrospective study and a long-term prospective cohort study showed that biomass smoke exposure reductions were associated with a reduced decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and with a decreased risk of COPD. To fully understand the effect of air pollution on COPD, we recommend future studies with longer follow-up periods, more standardized definitions of COPD and more refined and source-specific exposure assessments. PMID:25694818

Hu, Guoping; Zhong, Nanshan

2015-01-01

163

HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATION (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH,AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)  

EPA Science Inventory

Researchers in the Air Pollution Technology Branch (APTB) of NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division in Research Triangle Park, NC, have extensive experience in examining fundamental phenomena associated with hazardous waste incineration. This research program was c...

164

PUBLICATIONS (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Air Pollution Technology Branch (APTB) of NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division produces and publishes highly specialized technical and scientific documents related to APTB's research. Areas of research covered include artificial intelligence, CFC destruction,...

165

COOPERATIVE RESEARCH (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)  

EPA Science Inventory

NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division's Air Pollution Technology Branch (APTB) is always interested in the potential for cooperative research if overlap occurs between the research goals of external organizations and APTB's research goals. APTB has participated i...

166

The myths of indoor air pollution  

SciTech Connect

A popular myth holds that building energy conservation measures, implemented since the oil crises of the 1970s, cause indoor air pollution problems. This myth ignores the fact that most indoor air pollutant sources have little or nothing to do with energy conservation. Air studied inside buildings before 1973 was found to be more polluted than outdoor air even during severe air pollution events. In fact, only two types of conservation measures directly increase indoor air pollutant concentrations: inappropriately reduced ventilation and using sealants and caulks that emit pollutants. The myth ignores the fundamental responsibility (and ability) of architects, engineers, and building operators to create indoor environments that are both extremely habitable and environmentally responsible. Architects and other building design professionals must provide safe, healthy, and comfortable environments; minimize damage to the environment; and conserve energy and other resources. Achieving good indoor air quality (IAQ) is as essential as providing comfortable, healthy thermal conditions and functional, aesthetically sound lighting and acoustical environments. Reducing ventilation to conserve energy certainly increases concentrations of pollutants emitted from indoor sources. Adequate ventilation is essential to achieving and maintaining good IAQ. But there are many factors that determine IAQ and their interdependence is strong. Although ventilation is an important way to limit pollutant concentrations, limiting pollutant sources is far more effective. Pollutants from indoor sources that cannot be eliminated should be minimized by careful planning, design, specification, and construction. The preventive approach costs very little and it saves energy. 6 refs., 7 tabs.

Levin, H.

1993-03-01

167

INTEGRATED AIR POLLUTION CONTROL SYSTEM (IAPCS) COST MODEL (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Air Pollution Technology Branch's (APPCD, NRMRL) Integrated Air Pollution Control System Cost Model is a compiled model written in FORTRAN and C language that is designed to be used on an IBM or compatible PC with 640K or lower RAM and at least 1.5 Mb of hard drive space. It ...

168

Combined air and water pollution control system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A bioaquatic air pollution control system for controlling both water and atmospheric pollution is disclosed. The pollution control system includes an exhaust for directing polluted gases out of a furnace and a fluid circulating system which circulates fluid, such as waste water, from a source, past the furnace where the fluid flow entrains the pollutants from the furnace. The combined fluid and pollutants are then directed through a rock/plant/microbial filtering system. A suction pump pumps the treated waste water from the filter system past the exhaust to again entrain more pollutants from the furnace where they are combined with the fluid (waste water) and directed to the filter system.

Wolverton, Billy C. (inventor); Jarrell, Lamont (inventor)

1990-01-01

169

Interactions between particulate air pollution and temperature in air pollution mortality time series studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many community time series studies on the effect of particulate air pollution on mortality, particulate air pollution is modeled additively. In this study, we investigated the interaction between daily particulate air pollution and daily mean temperature in Cook County, Illinois and Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, using data for the period 1987–1994. This was done through the use of joint particulate

Steven Roberts

2004-01-01

170

APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 3: Air Pollution Control Officer's Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Air Pollution Control Officer's (APCO) Manual is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties, The first two sections, which are…

Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

171

APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 21: Legal References: Air Pollution Control Regulations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Legal References: Air Pollution Control Regulations Manual is the last in a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The manual…

Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

172

Air pollution and respiratory viral infection  

EPA Science Inventory

Despite current regulations, which limit the levels of certain air pollutants, there are still a number of adverse health effects that result from exposure to these agents. Numerous epidemiological studies have noted an association between the levels of air pollution and hospital...

173

Personal exposure of children to air pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes over recent decades in outdoor concentrations of air pollutants are well documented. However, the impacts of air pollution on an individual's health actually relate not to these outdoor concentrations but to their personal exposure in the different locations in which they spend time. Assessing how personal exposures differ from outdoor concentrations, and how they have changed over recent decades,

M. R. Ashmore; C. Dimitroulopoulou

2009-01-01

174

Air Pollution Training Resource Materials List.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This listing and description of air pollution training resource materials was developed and compiled by the Air Pollution Training Institute (APTI) of the Environmental Protection Agency. The contents include APTI course descriptions and adjunct faculty in addition to a listing of films, audio cassette tapes, games and simulations, guest speakers,…

Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Air Pollution Training Inst.

175

Air pollution vulnerabiity of 22 midwestern parks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air pollution increases in United States national parks as sources grow closer. As this happens, biota will be increasingly affected. Can it be determined in advance which parks will be more impacted by these air pollutants that others? This study of 22 park units in the midwestern United States attempted to answer this question. Plant lists were compiled for the

J. P. Bennett; N. Banerjee

1995-01-01

176

Urban air pollution: State of the science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban air pollution is comprised in a highly complex mixture of gaseous and particulate components. Much progress has been made in our understanding of the detailed chemistry and physics of air pollution, but important areas of uncertainty still remain. 67 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

J. H. Seinfeld

1989-01-01

177

Air Pollution and Its Control, Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A concise appraisal of our contemporary status and future prospects with regard to air pollution and its control are offered in this text for concerned laymen. What air pollution is, how it endangers health, the cost of controlling it, what is being done about it now, and what should be done are some of the basic questions considered. Topics cover…

Sproull, Wayne T.

178

Measurement of Air Pollutants in the Troposphere  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the principles, applications and performances of methods to measure gas-phase air pollutants that either utilise passive or active sampling with subsequent laboratory analysis or involve automated "in situ" sampling and analysis. It focuses on air pollutants that have adverse impacts on human health (nitrogen dioxide, carbon…

Clemitshaw, Kevin C.

2011-01-01

179

Air Pollution and Mortality: Issues and Uncertainties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results from 31 epidemiology studies linking air pollution with premature mortality are compared and synthesized. Consistent positive associations between mortality and various measures of air pollution have been shown within each of two fundamentally different types of regression studies and in many variations within these basic types; this is extremely unlikely to have occurred by chance. In this paper, the

Frederick W. Lipfert; Ronald E. Wyzga

1995-01-01

180

A Course in Air Pollution for Engineers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An air pollution course covering both the fundamentals and control of air pollution introduces a new sequential structure for its topic presentation. The new structure is built on the basis of theoretical principles and has minimized the traditional case study approach. A detailed course outline is included. (Author/JN)

Seapan, Mayis

1982-01-01

181

HANDBOOK: CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

This handbook was prepared to provide a methodology for determining the performance and cost of air pollution control techniques used to reduce the emissions of hazardous air pollutants from commercial/industrial sources. arious control techniques that may be applicable to differ...

182

AIR POLLUTION ASPECTS OF SLUDGE INCINERATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Incineration offers the opportunity to reduce municipal sludge to a sterile landfill and remove offensive factors, but it also has the potential to be a significant contributor to the air pollution problem in an urban community. This publication explains the air pollution problem...

183

Air pollution and the future of agricultural production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ozone and sulfur dioxide are presently the most pervasive air pollutants affecting agricultural production. They have a major impact on the growth and productivity of certain sensitive cultivated and native species of plants. These pollutants are a national problem around urban centers but are important in rural areas, particularly throughout the eastern US. The present information base is too diffuse

Heck

1973-01-01

184

Air Pollution: Mechanisms of Neuroinflammation & CNS Disease  

PubMed Central

Emerging evidence implicates air pollution as a chronic source of neuroinflammation, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and neuropathology instigating central nervous system (CNS) disease. Stroke incidence, and Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease pathology are linked to air pollution. Recent reports reveal that air pollution components reach the brain. Further, systemic effects known to impact lung and cardiovascular disease also impinge upon CNS health. While mechanisms driving air pollution-induced CNS pathology are poorly understood, new evidence suggests that activation of microglia and changes in the blood brain barrier may be key to this process. Here, we summarize recent findings detailing the mechanisms through which air pollution reaches the brain and activates the resident innate immune response to become a chronic source of pro-inflammatory factors and ROS culpable in CNS disease. PMID:19716187

Block, Michelle L.; Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian

2009-01-01

185

Cancer risk of air pollution: epidemiological evidence.  

PubMed Central

Epidemiological studies on the effect of urban air pollution on lung cancer were surveyed. Overall, the studies from many countries point to a smoking-adjusted risk in urban areas over countryside areas that is higher by a factor of up to 1.5. The extent to which urban air pollution contributes to this excess remains unknown. Studies on diesel-exposed occupational groups show that urban air pollution may have a causative role in lung cancer. Model calculations on unit risk factors of known human carcinogens were carried out to rank carcinogens according to their current ambient air concentrations. PMID:7529702

Hemminki, K; Pershagen, G

1994-01-01

186

Air pollutants, bronchial hyperreactivity, and exercise  

SciTech Connect

The interaction of air pollutants and their effect on bronchial hyperreactivity show that sulfur dioxide and ozone both increase bronchial hyperreactivity. Sulfur dioxide concentrates as low as 0.5 ppm and ozone concentrations as low as 0.2 ppm have demonstrated this effect. Exercise with either sulfur dioxide or ozone exposure can significantly increase bronchial hyperreactivity in susceptible individuals. Other factors including ambient air temperature, time of day, wind velocity and direction, geography, climate, tobacco smoke exposure, and other indoor air pollutants may enhance the impact of air pollutants, causing bronchial hyperreactivity.

Pierson, W.E.; Covert, D.S.; Koenig, J.Q.

1984-05-01

187

AIRS (AEROMETRIC INFORMATION RETRIEVAL SYSTEM)  

EPA Science Inventory

AIRS (Aerometric Information Retrieval System) is a computer-based repository of information about airborne pollution in the United States and various World Health Organization (WHO) member countries. The system is administered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), O...

188

Meeting Report: National Workshops for the Communication of Air Pollution and Health Information: Summary of Four Workshops in Different Regions of Europe  

PubMed Central

AIRNET was a thematic network project (2002–2004) initiated to stimulate the interaction between researchers in air pollution and health in Europe. As part of AIRNET’s communication strategy, a standardized workshop model was developed to organize national meetings on air pollution and health (AIRNET network days). Emphasis was given to tailor the national workshop information and related activities to the specific needs of a wider range of stakeholders (e.g., policy makers, nongovernmental organizations, industry representatives). In this report we present an overview of the results of four workshops held in western, northern, central/eastern, and southern regions of Europe in 2004. Overall, workshop experiences indicated that by actively involving participants in the planning of each meeting, AIRNET helped create an event that addressed participants’ needs and interests. A wide range of communication formats used to discuss air pollution and health also helped stimulate active interaction among participants. Overall, the national workshops held by AIRNET offered a way to improve communication among the different stakeholders. Because a broad stakeholder involvement in decision making can positively affect the development of widely supported policies, such meetings should be continued for Europe and elsewhere. PMID:16835066

Sanderson, Eric Gordon; Fudge, Nina; Totlandsdal, Annike Irene; Hovelynck, Ingrid; Korbee, Herbert; Rameckers, Edith; Brunekreef, Bert; van Bree, Leendert

2006-01-01

189

Outdoor air pollution: a global perspective.  

PubMed

Although the air quality in Western countries has continued to improve over the past decades, rapid economic growth in developing countries has left air quality in many cities notoriously poor. The World Health Organization estimates that urban outdoor air pollution is estimated to cause 1.3 million deaths worldwide per year. The primary health concerns of outdoor air pollution come from particulate matter less than 2.5 ?m (PM2.5) and ozone (O3). Short-term exposure to PM2.5 increases cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality. Long-term exposure to PM2.5 has been linked to adverse perinatal outcomes and lung cancer. Excessive O3 exposure is known to increase respiratory morbidity. Patients with chronic cardiopulmonary diseases are more susceptible to the adverse effects of air pollution. Counseling these patients about air pollution and the associated risks should be part of the regular management plans in clinical practice. PMID:25285972

Huang, Yuh-Chin T

2014-10-01

190

Air pollutant production by algal cell cultures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The production of phytotoxic air pollutants by cultures of Chlorella vulgaris and Euglena gracilis is considered. Algal and plant culture systems, a fumigation system, and ethylene, ethane, cyanide, and nitrogen oxides assays are discussed. Bean, tobacco, mustard green, cantaloupe and wheat plants all showed injury when fumigated with algal gases for 4 hours. Only coleus plants showed any resistance to the gases. It is found that a closed or recycled air effluent system does not produce plant injury from algal air pollutants.

Fong, F.; Funkhouser, E. A.

1982-01-01

191

40 CFR 52.274 - California air pollution emergency plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false California air pollution emergency plan. 52.274 Section...California § 52.274 California air pollution emergency plan. (a) Since the California Air Pollution Emergency Plan does not...

2012-07-01

192

40 CFR 52.274 - California air pollution emergency plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false California air pollution emergency plan. 52.274 Section...California § 52.274 California air pollution emergency plan. (a) Since the California Air Pollution Emergency Plan does not...

2013-07-01

193

40 CFR 52.274 - California air pollution emergency plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false California air pollution emergency plan. 52.274 Section...California § 52.274 California air pollution emergency plan. (a) Since the California Air Pollution Emergency Plan does not...

2011-07-01

194

The burden of disease from indoor air pollution in developing countries: comparison of estimates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four different methods have been applied to estimate the burden of disease due to indoor air pollution from household solid fuel use in developing countries (LDCs). The largest number of estimates involves applying exposure-response information from urban ambient air pollution studies to estimate indoor exposure concentrations of particulate air pollution. Another approach is to construct child survival curves using the

Kirk R. Smith; Sumi Mehta

2003-01-01

195

Spatial and temporal variability of air pollution in Birmingham, Alabama  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantification of the spatial and temporal variations of outdoor air pollutant concentrations provides important information for epidemiological and other air-pollution studies, many of which have relied in the past on data from a single, centrally-located air pollution monitoring site. A method is developed for combining air pollution measurements from multiple monitors and monitoring networks to generate daily air pollution concentration fields representing spatial variations over distances of approximately 1-10 km. Meteorological and co-pollutant data are used to estimate missing site measurements, yielding more realistic concentration fields as the number of monitoring locations with available data increases. Monitoring data are interpolated with weights computed from intersite pollutant correlations, which decay with distance, so distances between interpolation points and monitoring sites are factored into the interpolation weights. The approach minimizes the influence of source-oriented sites that represent limited areas, because data from such sites exhibit low intersite correlations and yield interpolation weights that decay rapidly to zero. Interpolated values represent pollutant concentrations averaged over spatial scales that depend on intersite distances and the interpolation grid, and do not delineate sharp spatial gradients associated with roadside or near-source conditions. The approach yields quantified interpolation errors the values of which depend on measurement uncertainties, intersite distances, and the representativeness of monitoring site locations. The method is illustrated using an 11-year period of measurements of ozone, PM2.5, and PM10 concentrations from Jefferson County, Alabama. The principal city is Birmingham, which is influenced by regional-scale air pollution and by local emissions from mobile sources, industrial facilities, and residential communities. Emission sources are not distributed uniformly throughout Birmingham, the ridge-and-valley topography complicates dispersion of local emissions, and monitoring data indicate that air pollutant concentrations vary spatially as well as temporally. No single monitor represents air quality across the entire study area.

Blanchard, C. L.; Tanenbaum, S.; Hidy, G. M.

2014-06-01

196

Physical activity, air pollution and the brain.  

PubMed

This review introduces an emerging research field that is focused on studying the effect of exposure to air pollution during exercise on cognition, with specific attention to the impact on concentrations of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and inflammatory markers. It has been repeatedly demonstrated that regular physical activity enhances cognition, and evidence suggests that BDNF, a neurotrophin, plays a key role in the mechanism. Today, however, air pollution is an environmental problem worldwide and the high traffic density, especially in urban environments and cities, is a major cause of this problem. During exercise, the intake of air pollution increases considerably due to an increased ventilation rate and particle deposition fraction. Recently, air pollution exposure has been linked to adverse effects on the brain such as cognitive decline and neuropathology. Inflammation and oxidative stress seem to play an important role in inducing these health effects. We believe that there is a need to investigate whether the well-known benefits of regular physical activity on the brain also apply when physical activity is performed in polluted air. We also report our findings about exercising in an environment with ambient levels of air pollutants. Based on the latter results, we hypothesize that traffic-related air pollution exposure during exercise may inhibit the positive effect of exercise on cognition. PMID:25119155

Bos, Inge; De Boever, Patrick; Int Panis, Luc; Meeusen, Romain

2014-11-01

197

RESEARCH AREA -- ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE CONTROL (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Air Pollution Technology Branch (APTB) of NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division in Research Triangle Park, NC, has conducted several research projects for evaluating the use of artificial intelligence (AI) to improve the control of pollution control systems an...

198

Debate on hazardous air pollutants continues  

SciTech Connect

EPA Administrator William D. Rucklehaus has committed the agency to decide whether or not to list 20 to 25 of the 37 chemicals currently under consideration as potential hazardous air pollutants by January 1, 1986. A health assessment document will be developed for at least 15 of the substances in 1984. These include vinylidene chloride, epichlorohydrin, cadmium, mercury, beryllium, nickel, chlorinated benzenes, dioxin, asbestos, ethylene dichloride, ethylene oxide, hexachlorobenzene, hexachlorocyclopentadiene, methylene chloride, perchloroethylene. Proposed changes to section 112 of the Clean Air Act include: listing of any substance that is an air pollutant and has been classified by the National Toxicology Program as carcinogenic; requirement that an emission limitation include an ample margin of safety and rely on technical feasibility, rather than economic efficiency. EPA has released a document entitled ''Review and Evaluation of Evidence for Cancer Associated with Air Pollution'' for public comment. The report covers a wide range of mostly epidemiological studies which analyze the potential carcinogenicity of air pollutants.

Dowd, R.M.

1984-05-01

199

Ability of Catalytic Converters to Reduce Air Pollution  

E-print Network

NOx - 1 Ability of Catalytic Converters to Reduce Air Pollution MEASUREMENT OF SELECTED AIR Air Pollution MEASUREMENT OF SELECTED AIR POLLUTANTS IN CAR EXHAUST INTRODUCTION Automobile engines pollutants such as NOx or ozone in the air in terms of ppm or even parts per billion (ppb), which are defined

Nizkorodov, Sergey

200

Effects of Air Pollution Control on Climate  

E-print Network

Urban air pollution and climate are closely connected due to shared generating processes (e.g., combustion) for emissions of the driving gases and aerosols. They are also connected because the atmospheric lifecycles of ...

Prinn, Ronald G.

201

AIR POLLUTION, OXIDATIVE STRESS AND NEUROTOXICITY.  

EPA Science Inventory

Increased incidents of classic and variant forms of neurodegenerative diseases suggest that environmental chemicals and susceptibility factors (e.g., genetics, diseased states, obesity, etc.) may be contributory. Particulate matter (PM) is a type of air pollution that is associat...

202

GENERATION OF FUMES SIMULATING PARTICULATE AIR POLLUTANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes techniques developed for generating large quantities of reproducible, stable, inorganic, fine-particle aerosol fumes. These fumes simulated particulate air pollutants emitted from power generation, basic oxygen furnaces, electric arc furnaces, and zinc smelti...

203

Health Damages from Air Pollution in China  

E-print Network

In China, elevated levels of urban air pollution result in substantial adverse health impacts for its large and rapidly growing urban population. An expanded version of the Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA), ...

Matus, Kira

204

HUMAN HEALTH EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Over the past three or four decades, there have been important advances in the understanding of the actions, exposure-response characteristics, and mechanisms of action of many common air pollutants. ultidisciplinary approach using epidemiology, animal toxicology, and controlled ...

205

ALTITUDE AS A FACTOR IN AIR POLLUTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Air pollution is affected by change in altitude. Cities with surface elevations above 1500 meters have atmospheric pressures which are approximately fifteen percent (15%) below pressures at sea level. Consequently, mobile sources designed to operate at pressures of one atmosphere...

206

HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS: DRY-DEPOSITION PHENOMENA  

EPA Science Inventory

Dry-deposition rates were evaluated for two hazardous organic air pollutants, nitrobenzene and perchloroethylene, to determine their potential for removal from the atmosphere to three building material surfaces, cement, tar paper, and vinyl asbestos tile. Dry-deposition experimen...

207

Lichens as an indicator of air pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Hawaii, a lichen-pollution study was undertaken in three principle areas: Downtown Honolulu, Waikiki, and Diamond Head. In a city the population density of lichens is controlled by three factors of the environment; relative humidity and temperature; the removal of the indigenous population during construction; and air pollutants. The Diamond Head area and Waikiki differ only in the density of

1968-01-01

208

ASTM Validates Air Pollution Test Methods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) has validated six basic methods for measuring pollutants in ambient air as the first part of its Project Threshold. Aim of the project is to establish nationwide consistency in measuring pollutants; determining precision, accuracy and reproducibility of 35 standard measuring methods. (BL)

Chemical and Engineering News, 1973

1973-01-01

209

Traffic, Outdoor Air Pollution, and Asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well known that outdoor air pollution can affect the health of patients with asthma. Epidemiologic studies have shown that increased levels of outdoor pollutants are associated with acute and chronic changes in lung function, increased risk for asthma exacerbations, increased risk for work or school absenteeism, and need for rescue bronchodilators. For- tunately, we have also learned that

Fernando Holguin

2008-01-01

210

[Air Pollution Unit, Edmonds School District.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This interdisciplinary program, developed for secondary students, contains 16 air pollution activities that can either be used directly in, or as a supplement to, curriculum in Science, Photography, Mathematics, English, Social Studies, Industrial Arts and Home Economics. The topics to be investigated include: pollutants from automobiles, exhaust…

Edmonds School District 15, Lynnwood, WA.

211

Air pollution control by electrical discharges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air pollution caused by gas emission of pollutants produced from a wide range of sources including coal, oil and gas burning power plants, diesel engines, paper mills, steel and chemical production plants must be reduced drastically and urgently, as mandated by recent worldwide national legislation which recently are being reinforced increasingly by international agreements. Non-thermal plasmas in which the mean

R. Hackam; H. Aklyama

2000-01-01

212

EPA'S INDOOR AIR/POLLUTION PREVENTION WORKSHOP  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses a workshop held as a step toward EPA's prioritizing potential areas of research for applying pollution prevention to indoor air quality (IAQ). he workshop involved technical experts in the fields of IAQ, pollution prevention, and selected industries. orkshop g...

213

Indoor Air Pollution From Cigar Smoke  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION Smoking in enclosed spaces exposes occupants to indoor air pollution from the by-products of tobacco combustion in confined spaces where airborne contaminant removal is slow and uneven. This chapter investigates the factors determining the indoor environmental tobacco smoke exposure from cigar smoking. Mathematical models allow the prediction of the levels of indoor pollutants, such as environmental tobacco smoke (ETS).

James L. Repace; Wayne R. Ott; Neil E. Klepeis

214

Adverse Health Effects of Air Pollution  

E-print Network

Adverse Health Effects of Air Pollution Robert W. Haley, M.D. Professor of Medicine Director, Division of Epidemiology University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center Dallas, Texas ? Texas Medical Association has adopted resolutions... ? Increases in autism? ? Increases in ADD? 10,263 547 476 288 290 Adverse Health Effects of Air Pollution Robert W. Haley, M.D. Professor of Medicine Director, Division of Epidemiology University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center...

Haley, R. W.

2011-01-01

215

Air pollution assessment on city of Tirana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Air pollution is one of the hot topics on nowadays studies. This problem is often encountered on urban centers, especially on metropolitan areas. These areas are usually characterized by densely population, heavy traffic rates and the presence of many industrial plants on their suburbs. Problems regarding to air pollution on these areas are more evident over metropolitan areas in developing countries. Air pollution is mostly related to health effects, especially in outdoor environments. These effects regards primarily on respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Air pollution assessment on a specific area requires not only the estimation of pollutant concentrations in that area, but also determination of their principal sources as well as prediction of eventual scenarios on the area under investigation. This study is focused on air pollution assessment on the city of Tirana, which is the major urban centre and the capital city of Albania. This city has about one million inhabitants. During the last 20 years, its population has grown about four fold, and it is still growing. Because of Albania is a developing country, its capital city is involved on serious environmental problems. Considering these facts, we have conducted continuous monitoring campaigns on several sites of Tirana. These monitoring campaigns consist on measurement of several pollutant gases (SO2, CO, CO2, NOx, etc.) and particulate matter over a period of 20 months. In this paper there are obtained diurnal and annual variations of pollutant concentrations, there is modeled their spatial distributions over the area of the city, and there are estimated the potential contributions of principal sources like traffic and industrial plants. During the entire monitoring campaign there are recorded also meteorological parameters, like temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind speed, wind direction, precipitations, etc. In this way we have tried to obtain the correlations between pollutant concentrations and meteorological parameters, and so to estimate their contribution on air pollution situation in this city. Overall measurement results indicate a critical situation of air pollution in this city, where pollutant concentrations exceed international recommendations. Because of in Albania these types of studies are very rare; the air pollution assessment in the capital city Tirana has an enormous importance not only for this city but also in general for entire the country.

Mandija, F.; Zoga, P.

2012-04-01

216

Clean Air Slots Amid Atmospheric Pollution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Layering in the Earth's atmosphere is most commonly seen where parts of the atmosphere resist the incursion of air parcels from above and below - for example, when there is an increase in temperature with height over a particular altitude range. Pollutants tend to accumulate underneath the resulting stable layers. which is why visibility often increases markedly above certain altitudes. Here we describe the occurrence of an opposite effect, in which stable layers generate a layer of remarkably clean air (we refer to these layers as clean-air 'slots') sandwiched between layers of polluted air. We have observed clean-air slots in various locations around the world, but they are particularly well defined and prevalent in southern Africa during the dry season August-September). This is because at this time in this region, stable layers are common and pollution from biomass burning is widespread.

Hobbs, Peter V.

2002-01-01

217

THE GEOMET INDOOR-OUTDOOR AIR POLLUTION MODEL  

EPA Science Inventory

This report documents the formulation of the GEOMET Indoor-Outdoor Air Pollution (GIOAP) model. The model estimates indoor air pollutant concentrations as a function of outdoor pollutant levels, indoor pollutant generation sources rates, pollutant chemical decay rates, and air ex...

218

Application to Air Pollution 5.1 Introduction  

E-print Network

Chapter 5 Application to Air Pollution Data 5.1 Introduction Ambient ozone pollution in urban areas to us, O 3 , is a secondary pollutant. There are two main kinds of air pollutants: primary and secondary while the air is being carried by winds, secondary pollutants are generally more widespread than primary

Heckman, Nancy E.

219

Air pollution and asthma severity in adults Rage Estelle 1 *  

E-print Network

Air pollution and asthma severity in adults Rage Estelle 1 * , Siroux Val rieé 2 , K nzliü Nino 3 4 that exposure to air pollution affects asthma, but the effect of air pollution on asthma severity has not been outdoor concentrations of air pollution. Methods Asthma severity over the last 12 months was assessed

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

220

Measuring air pollution using a mobile, bicycle-based platform  

E-print Network

Measuring air pollution using a mobile, bicycle-based platform Steve Hankey University-walkability Physical activity Air pollution 2 #12;Approach: Mobile, bicycle-based sampling Air pollution measurements;Results: Exposure by mode 11 #12;Next steps: Land-use regression model Air pollution measurements LUR

Minnesota, University of

221

Modelling the spreading of air pollution with weather models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial emissions affect the air quality in Switzerland. There is an inhomogeneous distribution of emission sources causing the pollution. Emissions from Switzerland as well as different European regions may contribute to the pollution measured in Switzerland. Further, the highly variable meteorological transport of the air pollution determines the air quality. As a decision basis for the air pollution control politics,

Andrea Weiss; Daniel Schaub; Peter Hofer

222

AIR CLEANERS FOR INDOOR AIR POLLUTION CONTROL (CHAPTER 10)  

EPA Science Inventory

The chapter describes an experimental study to evaluate performance characteristics of currently available controls for indoor air pollutants, including both particles and gases. he study evaluated the particle-size-dependent collection efficiency of seven commercially available ...

223

Vegetation fires and air pollution in Vietnam.  

PubMed

Forest fires are a significant source of air pollution in Asia. In this study, we integrate satellite remote sensing data and ground-based measurements to infer fire-air pollution relationships in selected regions of Vietnam. We first characterized the active fires and burnt areas at a regional scale from MODIS satellite data. We then used satellite-derived active fire data to correlate the resulting atmospheric pollution. Further, we analyzed the relationship between satellite atmospheric variables and ground-based air pollutant parameters. Our results show peak fire activity during March in Vietnam, with hotspots in the Northwest and Central Highlands. Active fires were significantly correlated with UV Aerosol Index (UVAI), aerosol extinction absorption optical depth (AAOD), and Carbon Monoxide. The use of satellite aerosol optical thickness improved the prediction of Particulate Matter (PM) concentration significantly. PMID:25108840

Le, Thanh Ha; Thanh Nguyen, Thi Nhat; Lasko, Kristofer; Ilavajhala, Shriram; Vadrevu, Krishna Prasad; Justice, Chris

2014-12-01

224

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Ambient Air Pollution  

E-print Network

associated with NO2, CO, PM2.5, organic carbon, elemental carbon, and oxygenated hydrocarbons. Secondary pollutants, including gases, PM2.5, and PM2.5 components. (Epidemiology 2004;15: 46­56) Despite evidence

Mulholland, James A.

225

Instrumentation for Air Pollution Monitoring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the techniques which form the basis of current commercial instrumentation for monitoring five major gaseous atmospheric pollutants (sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, oxidants, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons). (JR)

Hollowell, Craig D.; McLaughlin, Ralph D.

1973-01-01

226

Air Pollution Potential from Electroplating Operations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Measurements were made of emission rates from electroplating operations considered to have maximum air pollution potential. Sampling was performed at McClellan and additional data from a previous survey at Hill Air Force Base was used. Values obtained were extremely low. Based on existing Federal standards, no collectors are specifically required…

Diamond, Philip

227

Parking, energy consumption and air pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the impacts of different ways of parking on environmental effects, mainly vehicle emissions and air pollution. Vehicle energy consumption and the urban air quality at street level, related to location and design of parking establishments, need to be assessed and quantified. In addition, the indoor parking environment needs attention.This paper gives a description of a methodological approach

Paul G. Höglund

2004-01-01

228

Urban Air Pollution: State of the Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the highly complex mixture of gaseous and particulate matter found in urban air. Explains progress made in the understanding of the physics and chemistry of air pollution, the effects of precursors on ozone, the role of biogenic hydrocarbons, and the principal benefit of methanol-fueled vehicles. (RT)

Seinfeld, John H.

1989-01-01

229

Mobile Sensors and Applications for Air Pollutants  

EPA Science Inventory

Executive Summary The public has long been interested in understanding what pollutants are in the air they breathe so they can best protect their environmental health and welfare. The current air quality monitoring network consists of discrete stations with expensive equipment ...

230

Effects of environmental air pollution on the eye  

SciTech Connect

The eye is vulnerable to the effects of air pollution. Manifestations of air pollution can range from minimal or no symptoms to chronic discomfort and eye irritation. There may also be specific situations, in contact lens wearers for example, where the eyes may be adversely affected by air pollution. Despite the presence of air pollution in many indoor and outdoor environments, the ocular effects of air pollution are often overlooked by optometrists when examining their patients. In this article, background knowledge needed to understand the effects of air pollution on the eye will be reviewed. Suggestions for management of air pollution-related eye symptoms are provided.26 references.

Klopfer, J. (Eye Institute, Philadelphia, PA (USA))

1989-10-01

231

Air Conditioning Does Reduce Air Pollution Indoors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Report of the winter meeting of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers. Subjects covered are--(1) title subject, (2) predictions for the human habitat in 1994, (3) fans, and (4) fire safety in buildings. (JW)

Healy, Bud

1970-01-01

232

AIR POLLUTION AND INFANT HEALTH: LESSONS FROM NEW JERSEY*  

PubMed Central

We examine the impact of three “criteria” air pollutants on infant health in New Jersey in the 1990s by combining information about mother’s residential location from birth certificates with information from air quality monitors. Our work offers three important innovations: First, we use the exact addresses of mothers to select those closest to air monitors to improve the accuracy of air quality exposure. Second, we include maternal fixed effects to control for unobserved characteristics of mothers. Third, we examine interactions of air pollution with smoking and other risk factors for poor infant health outcomes. We find consistently negative effects of exposure to carbon monoxide, both during and after birth, with effects considerably larger for smokers and older mothers. Since automobiles are the main source of carbon monoxide emissions, our results have important implications for regulation of automobile emissions. PMID:19328569

Currie, Janet; Neidell, Matthew; Schmieder, Johannes

2009-01-01

233

BIOINDICATORS IN AIR POLLUTION RESEARCH: APPLICATIONS AND CONSTRAINTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Physical and chemical measurements of air pollutants provide a precise measure of pollutant exposure which is frequently used to estimate probable biological impacts. Bioindicators may be classified as either accumulators of the pollutant or reactors to the pollutant. The ultimat...

234

Pollutant roses for daily averaged ambient air pollutant concentrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pollutant roses are indispensable tools to identify unknown (fugitive) sources of heavy metals at industrial sites whose current impact exceeds the target values imposed for the year 2012 by the European Air Quality Daughter Directive 2004/207/EC. As most of the measured concentrations of heavy metals in ambient air are daily averaged values, a method to obtain high quality pollutant roses from such data is of practical interest for cost-effective air quality management. A computational scheme is presented to obtain, from daily averaged concentrations, 10° angular resolution pollutant roses, called PRP roses, that are in many aspects comparable to pollutant roses made with half-hourly concentrations. The computational scheme is a ridge regression, based on three building blocks: ordinary least squares regression; outlier handling by weighting based on expected values of the higher percentiles in a lognormal distribution; weighted averages whereby observed values, raised to a power m, and daily wind rose frequencies are used as weights. Distance measures are used to find the optimal value for m. The performance of the computational scheme is illustrated by comparing the pollutant roses, constructed with measured half-hourly SO 2 data for 10 monitoring sites in the Antwerp harbour, with the PRP roses made with the corresponding daily averaged SO 2 concentrations. A miniature dataset, made up of 7 daily concentrations and of half-hourly wind directions assigned to 4 wind sectors, is used to illustrate the formulas and their results.

Cosemans, Guido; Kretzschmar, Jan; Mensink, Clemens

235

AIR POLLUTION EPIDEMIOLOGY: CAN INFORMATION BE OBTAINED FROM THE VARIATIONS IN SIGNIFICANCE AND RISK AS A FUNCTION OF DAYS AFTER EXPOSURE (LAG STRUCTURE)?  

EPA Science Inventory

Determine if analysis of lag structure from time series epidemiology, using gases, particles, and source factor time series, can contribute to understanding the relationships among various air pollution indicators. Methods: Analyze lag structure from an epidemiologic study of ca...

236

ORIMULSION(R) RESEARCH STUDY (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)  

EPA Science Inventory

In response to a 1998 Congressional request, the Air Pollution Technology Branch (APTB) of NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division began research as part of a study to evaluate the environmental impacts of Orimulsion(R). Orimulsion(R)is a fossil fuel composed of 70%...

237

RESEARCH AREA -- CHLOROFLUOROCARBON (CFC) DESTRUCTION (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)  

EPA Science Inventory

Six thermal oxidation (incineration) processes were approved by the Montreal Protocol for the disposal of CFCs and other ozone depleting substances. The Air Pollution Technology Branch of NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division in Research Triangle Park, NC, has eva...

238

Analysis on the correlation of atmospheric path radiation and air pollution index  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional ground-based air pollution observations are difficult to indicate the spatial distribution of pollutant and its changes. To overcome the difficulty, this paper proposes a method which is used to monitor the distribution of urban air pollution by using remote sensing technology. The method uses surface reflectance image to extract the weak atmospheric information from MODIS data, and then generate

Zheng Cheng-Jian; Li Xian-Hua; Huang Wei; Shi Xiang-Yong; Luo Qing-Zhou

2009-01-01

239

APTI (Air Pollution Training Institute) Course 427: combustion evaluation, student manual  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Student Manual is used in conjunction with Course No. 427, 'Combustion Evaluation' as applied to air pollution control situations. This manual was prepared by the EPA Air Pollution Training Institute (APTI) to supplement the course lecture materials and to present detailed reference information on the following topics: combustion fundamentals, fuel properties, combustion system design, pollutant emission evaluations, combustion control,

J. T. Beard; F. A. Iachetta; L. U. Lilleleht

1980-01-01

240

78 FR 12267 - Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Placer County Air Pollution Control...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Plan; California; Placer County Air Pollution Control District and Feather River...revision to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and...modification of stationary sources of air pollution within each District. EPA...

2013-02-22

241

Healthy Neighborhoods: Walkability and Air Pollution  

PubMed Central

Background The built environment may influence health in part through the promotion of physical activity and exposure to pollution. To date, no studies have explored interactions between neighborhood walkability and air pollution exposure. Methods We estimated concentrations of nitric oxide (NO), a marker for direct vehicle emissions), and ozone (O3) and a neighborhood walkability score, for 49,702 (89% of total) postal codes in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. NO concentrations were estimated from a land-use regression model, O3 was estimated from ambient monitoring data; walkability was calculated based on geographic attributes such as land-use mix, street connectivity, and residential density. Results All three attributes exhibit an urban–rural gradient, with high walkability and NO concentrations, and low O3 concentrations, near the city center. Lower-income areas tend to have higher NO concentrations and walkability and lower O3 concentrations. Higher-income areas tend to have lower pollution (NO and O3). “Sweet-spot” neighborhoods (low pollution, high walkability) are generally located near but not at the city center and are almost exclusively higher income. Policy implications Increased concentration of activities in urban settings yields both health costs and benefits. Our research identifies neighborhoods that do especially well (and especially poorly) for walkability and air pollution exposure. Work is needed to ensure that the poor do not bear an undue burden of urban air pollution and that neighborhoods designed for walking, bicycling, or mass transit do not adversely affect resident’s exposure to air pollution. Analyses presented here could be replicated in other cities and tracked over time to better understand interactions among neighborhood walkability, air pollution exposure, and income level. PMID:20049128

Marshall, Julian D.; Brauer, Michael; Frank, Lawrence D.

2009-01-01

242

Light Pollution, Air Pollution and Mount Wilson Observatory  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss a simple extension of our night sky brightness program to include a layer of polluted air ('smog'). Two possibilities are discussed, a layer with density decreasing exponentially with height above the ground, and a layer of constant density and finite thickness. The ground level density is determined by the visibility. We check our models against observations in Cincinnati

R. H. Garstang

1998-01-01

243

AIR POLLUTION CONTROL ALTERNATIVES FOR SHALE OIL PRODUCTION OPERATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report consolidates, evaluates, and presents available air pollution emission data and air pollution control technology relevant to oil shale production, for use by project developers in preparing environmental impact statements and permit applications under Clean Air Act and...

244

BIOASSAY OF COMPLEX MIXTURES OF INDOOR AIR POLLUTANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Indoor air pollution is a complex mixture of chemicals originating from outdoor air and indoor sources. oxicology studies of these mixtures are limited by difficulties in obtaining indoor air samples or appropriately simulated exposures. he concentration of pollutants from indoor...

245

Chemical air pollutants and otorhinolaryngeal toxicity  

SciTech Connect

Air pollution and the specific issue regarding the impact of airborne chemical agents to human health are familiar topics to most members of the environmental health science and environmental medicine communities. Some aspects, however, have received relatively less attention. Much has been published regarding the impact of air pollutants on the human upper and lower respiratory system, including interaction with the rhinologic (nasal) system. Relatively fewer data have been published, however, regarding the potential impact of air pollutants in reference specifically to the otologic (auditory and vestibular) and the laryngeal (larynx) system. Adverse impact to the ears, nose and throat, referred to as the otorhinolaryngeal system'', warrants attention as an important environmental health issue. Toxic interactions from exposure to many chemical air pollutants not only causes potential respiratory irritation and lung disease, but can also result in impaired hearing, balance, sense of smell, taste, and speech due to interaction with related target systems. This may be significant to environmental health risk assessment of chemical air pollutants if multi-target site models are considered.

Bisesi, M.S.; Rubin, A.M. (Medical Coll. of Ohio, Toledo, OH (United States). Occupational Health and Otolaryngology)

1994-03-01

246

Air pollution: a smoking gun for cancer.  

PubMed

Once considered a taboo topic or stigma, cancer is the number one public health enemy in the world. Once a product of an almost untouchable industry, tobacco is indisputably recognized as a major cause of cancer and a target for anticancer efforts. With the emergence of new economic powers in the world, especially in highly populated countries such as China, air pollution has rapidly emerged as a smoking gun for cancer and has become a hot topic for public health debate because of the complex political, economic, scientific, and technologic issues surrounding the air pollution problem. This editorial and the referred articles published in this special issue of the Chinese Journal of Cancer discuss these fundamental questions. Does air pollution cause a wide spectrum of cancers? Should air pollution be considered a necessary evil accompanying economic transformation in developing countries? Is an explosion of cancer incidence coming to China and how soon will it arrive? What must be done to prevent this possible human catastrophe? Finally, the approaches for air pollution control are also discussed. PMID:24636233

Zhang, Wei; Qian, Chao-Nan; Zeng, Yi-Xin

2014-04-01

247

Air pollution: a smoking gun for cancer  

PubMed Central

Once considered a taboo topic or stigma, cancer is the number one public health enemy in the world. Once a product of an almost untouchable industry, tobacco is indisputably recognized as a major cause of cancer and a target for anticancer efforts. With the emergence of new economic powers in the world, especially in highly populated countries such as China, air pollution has rapidly emerged as a smoking gun for cancer and has become a hot topic for public health debate because of the complex political, economic, scientific, and technologic issues surrounding the air pollution problem. This editorial and the referred articles published in this special issue of the Chinese Journal of Cancer discuss these fundamental questions. Does air pollution cause a wide spectrum of cancers? Should air pollution be considered a necessary evil accompanying economic transformation in developing countries? Is an explosion of cancer incidence coming to China and how soon will it arrive? What must be done to prevent this possible human catastrophe? Finally, the approaches for air pollution control are also discussed. PMID:24636233

Zhang, Wei; Qian, Chao-Nan; Zeng, Yi-Xin

2014-01-01

248

A geospatial time-aware web interface to deliver information about air pollution and exposure in a big city and its surroundings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A GIS-based web-mapping system is presented, aimed at providing specialists, stakeholders and population with a simple, while scientifically rigorous, way to obtain information about people exposure to air pollution in the city of Rome (Italy). It combines a geo-spatial visualization with easy access to time dimension and to quantitative information. The study is part of the EXPAH (Population Exposure to PAHs) LIFE+ EC Project, which goal is to identify and quantify children and elderly people exposure to PM2.5-bound Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the atmosphere of Rome, and to assess the impact on human health. The core of the system is a GIS, which database contains data and results of the project research activity. They include daily indoor and outdoor ground measurements and daily maps from simulation modeling of atmospheric PAHs and PM2.5 concentration for the period June 2011-May 2012, and daily and average exposure maps. Datasets have been published as time-enabled standard OGC Web Map Services (WMS). A set of web mapping applications query the web services to produce a set of interactive and time-aware thematic maps. Finding effective ways to communicate risk for human health, and environmental determinants for it, is a topical and challenging task: the web mapping system presented is a prototype of a possible model to disseminate scientific results on these items, providing a sight into impacts of air pollution on people living and working in a big city, and shipping information about the overall exposure, its spatial pattern and levels at specific locations.

Bogliolo, M. P.; Contino, G.

2014-11-01

249

Dependence of urban air pollutants on meteorology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dependence of air pollutants on meteorology is presented with the aim of understanding the governing processes pollutants phase interaction. Intensive measurements of particulate matter (PM10) and gaseous materials (e.g., CO, NO2, SO2, and O3) are carried out regularly in 2002 at 14 measurement sites distributed over the whole territory of Great Cairo by the Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency to assess

Hamdy K. Elminir

2005-01-01

250

Cigarette smoking and reactions to air pollutants.  

PubMed Central

There are many mechanisms whereby recent exposure to cigarette smoke augments the toxicity of common air contaminants: the total pollutant burden is increased, there is cumulative irritation of the airways, pollutants are deposited selectively in the airways, ventilatory patterns are altered, mucus production is increased, ciliary function is depressed, mucosal characteristics are altered, macrophage activity is depressed and specific allergic reactions may occur. In the longer term adverse changes of form and function may develop in the lining of the airways. PMID:343900

Shephard, R. J.

1978-01-01

251

Air Pollution in the Pacific Northwest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to measuring and identifying sources of air pollution, as well as how environmental engineers try to control and limit the amount of air pollution. In Part 1, students are introduced to nitrogen dioxide as an air pollutant and how it is quantified. Major sources are identified, using EPA bar graphs. Students identify major cities and determine their latitudes and longitudes. They estimate NO2 values from color maps showing monthly NO2 averages from two sources: a NASA satellite and the WSU forecast model AIRPACT. In Part 2, students continue to estimate NO2 values from color maps and use Excel to calculate differences and ratios to determine the model's performance. They gain experience working with very large numbers written in scientific notation, as well as spreadsheet application capabilities.

2014-09-18

252

Urban air pollution and solar energy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design and performance of solar energy systems for many potential applications (industrial/residential heat, electricity generation by solar concentration and photovoltaics) will be critically affected by local insolation conditions. The effects of urban air pollution are considered and reviewed. A study of insolation data for Alhambra, California (9 km south of Pasadena) shows that, during a recent second-stage photochemical smog alert (greater than or equal to 0.35 ppm ozone), the direct-beam insolation at solar noon was reduced by 40%, and the total global by 15%, from clean air values. Similar effects have been observed in Pasadena, and are attributable primarily to air pollution. Effects due to advecting smog have been detected 200 km away, in the Mojave Desert. Preliminary performance and economic simulations of solar thermal and photovoltaic power systems indicate increasing nonlinear sensitivity of life cycle plant cost to reductions in insolation levels due to pollution.

Gammon, R. B.; Huning, J. R.; Reid, M. S.; Smith, J. H.

1981-01-01

253

Controlled Exposures to Air Pollutants and Risk of Cardiac Arrhythmia  

PubMed Central

Background: Epidemiological studies have reported associations between air pollution exposure and increases in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Exposure to air pollutants can influence cardiac autonomic tone and reduce heart rate variability, and may increase the risk of cardiac arrhythmias, particularly in susceptible patient groups. Objectives: We investigated the incidence of cardiac arrhythmias during and after controlled exposure to air pollutants in healthy volunteers and patients with coronary heart disease. Methods: We analyzed data from 13 double-blind randomized crossover studies including 282 participants (140 healthy volunteers and 142 patients with stable coronary heart disease) from whom continuous electrocardiograms were available. The incidence of cardiac arrhythmias was recorded for each exposure and study population. Results: There were no increases in any cardiac arrhythmia during or after exposure to dilute diesel exhaust, wood smoke, ozone, concentrated ambient particles, engineered carbon nanoparticles, or high ambient levels of air pollution in either healthy volunteers or patients with coronary heart disease. Conclusions: Acute controlled exposure to air pollutants did not increase the short-term risk of arrhythmia in participants. Research employing these techniques remains crucial in identifying the important pathophysiological pathways involved in the adverse effects of air pollution, and is vital to inform environmental and public health policy decisions. Citation: Langrish JP, Watts SJ, Hunter AJ, Shah AS, Bosson JA, Unosson J, Barath S, Lundbäck M, Cassee FR, Donaldson K, Sandström T, Blomberg A, Newby DE, Mills NL. 2014. Controlled exposures to air pollutants and risk of cardiac arrhythmia. Environ Health Perspect 122:747–753;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307337 PMID:24667535

Watts, Simon J.; Hunter, Amanda J.; Shah, Anoop S.V.; Bosson, Jenny A.; Unosson, Jon; Barath, Stefan; Lundbäck, Magnus; Cassee, Flemming R.; Donaldson, Ken; Sandström, Thomas; Blomberg, Anders; Newby, David E.; Mills, Nicholas L.

2014-01-01

254

Air pollutant penetration through airflow leaks into buildings  

SciTech Connect

The penetration of ambient air pollutants into the indoor environment is of concern owing to several factors: (1) epidemiological studies have shown a strong association between ambient fine particulate pollution and elevated risk of human mortality; (2) people spend most of their time in indoor environments; and (3) most information about air pollutant concentration is only available from ambient routine monitoring networks. A good understanding of ambient air pollutant transport from source to receptor requires knowledge about pollutant penetration across building envelopes. Therefore, it is essential to gain insight into particle penetration in infiltrating air and the factors that affect it in order to assess human exposure more accurately, and to further prevent adverse human health effects from ambient particulate pollution. In this dissertation, the understanding of air pollutant infiltration across leaks in the building envelope was advanced by performing modeling predictions as well as experimental investigations. The modeling analyses quantified the extent of airborne particle and reactive gas (e.g., ozone) penetration through building cracks and wall cavities using engineering analysis that incorporates existing information on building leakage characteristics, knowledge of pollutant transport processes, as well as pollutant-surface interactions. Particle penetration is primarily governed by particle diameter and by the smallest dimension of the building cracks. Particles of 0.1-1 {micro}m are predicted to have the highest penetration efficiency, nearly unity for crack heights of 0.25 mm or higher, assuming a pressure differential of 4 Pa or greater and a flow path length of 3 cm or less. Supermicron and ultrafine particles (less than 0.1 {micro}m) are readily deposited on crack surfaces by means of gravitational settling and Brownian diffusion, respectively. The fraction of ozone penetration through building leaks could vary widely, depending significantly on its reactivity with the adjacent surfaces, in addition to the crack geometry and pressure difference. Infiltrating air can also travel through wall cavities, where the penetration of particles and ozone is predicted to vary substantially, depending mainly on whether air flow passes through fiberglass insulation. For ozone, its reactivity with the insulation materials is also an important factor. The overall pollutant penetration factor is governed by the flow-weighted average from all air leakage pathways. Large building leaks would strongly influence the overall penetration factor, because they permit much larger flow.

Liu, De-Ling

2002-09-01

255

Measuring Bicyclists' Uptake of Traffic-Related Air Pollution  

E-print Network

Measuring Bicyclists' Uptake of Traffic-Related Air Pollution Alex Bigazzi PSU Transportation doses 4.Health effects 4Urban Bicyclists' Pollution Uptake #12;Bicyclists' Exposure to Air Pollution 5 reduce exposure risks for bikers? Urban transportation system Bicyclists' uptake of air pollution #12

Bertini, Robert L.

256

Harvard's indoor air pollution/health study  

SciTech Connect

An indoor air pollution/acute respiratory health study is being conducted by researchers at the Harvard University School of Public Health. Upper and lower respiratory symptoms of 300 children living in Watertown, Massachusetts, have been recorded on a daily diary by a parent. Every two weeks the parent is called for the illness/wellness history. At the end of the month the calendar is returned by mail. Families participated in the survey from the time of induction (after September 1, 1984) to August 31, 1985. Coincident with the symptom survey, indoor air pollution measurements are made in each home and in the elementary schools of the participating student.

Spengler, J.D.; Reed, M.P.; Leberet, E.; Chang, B.H.; Ware, J.H.

1986-06-01

257

Air Pollution in the Mexico Megacity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mexico City is a megacity whose metropolitan area includes the country federal district, 18 municipalities of the State of Mexico. In year 1992, only 16 municipalities of the State of Mexico were part of MCMA. In year 1940 the Mexico City population was 1.78 millions in an area of 118 km2, in year 2000 the population was 17.9 millions in an area of 1,500 km2. Population has grown a ten fold whereas population density has dropped 20%. Total number of private cars has grown from 2,341,731 in year 1998 to 2,967,893 in year 2004. Nowadays, people and goods travel longer at lower speed to reach school, work and selling points. In addition highly efficient public transport lost a significant share of transport demand from 19.1 in 1986 to 14.3 in 1998. Air pollution is a public concern since early eighties last century; systematic public efforts have been carried out since late eighties. Energy consumption has steadily increased in the MCMA whereas emissions have also decreased. From year 2000 to 2004, the private cars fleet increased 17% whereas CO, NOx and COV emissions decreased between 20-30%. Average concentrations of criteria pollutants have decreased The number of days that the one-hour national standard for bad air quality was exceeded in year 1990 was 160. In year 2005 was 70. Research efforts and public policies on air pollution have been focused on public health. We are now better able to estimate the cost in human lives due to air pollution, or the cost in labor lost due to illness. Little if none at all work has been carried out to look at the effect of air pollution on private and public property or onto the cultural heritage. Few reports have can be found on the impact of air pollution in rural areas, including forest and crops, around the mega city. Mexico City is in the south end of a Valley with mountain ranges higher than 1000 m above the average city altitude. In spite the heavy loss of forested areas to the city, the mountains still retain large forest under strong demographic pressure and under heavy impact of air pollution. Flow patterns induced by complex terrain in the center of Mexico induce strong interaction between the mega city and the rural areas in the Mexico Basin. In and out mesoscale transport to and from the neighboring valleys with cities already larger than one million inhabitants increase the complexity of air pollution processes. Fast urbanization in these valleys suggests even more complicated and full of concerns scenarios. Some recent results on these issues will be shown.

Ruiz-Suarez, L. G.

2007-05-01

258

HAZARDOUS/TOXIC AIR POLLUTANT CONTROL TECHNOLOGY: A LITERATURE REVIEW  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes literature on hazardous/toxic air pollutant (HAP) sources and control techniques employed in their reduction and/or destruction. The information was abstracted from an extensive computerized and manual literature search and data base development study. The p...

259

DEVELOPMENT OF AN INDOOR AIR POLLUTION SOURCE EMISSIONS DATABASE  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses the design, structure, and theory of a microcomputer-based relational database which has been created to archive and retrieve published information concerning sources of indoor air pollutants. The database is designed to be used by researchers, architects, pol...

260

CATALOG OF MATERIALS AS POTENTIAL SOURCES OF INDOOR AIR POLLUTION  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses a series of documents being developed by the U.S. EPA, summarizing available information on building materials and products brought into homes and office buildings as potential sources of indoor air pollution. he documents will provide a complete list of mater...

261

Impact of air pollutants on athletic performance  

SciTech Connect

Human controlled and observational studies both lead to the conclusion of air pollution adversely affecting athletic performance during training and competition. The dosage of various air pollutants during exercise is much higher due to the marked increase in ventilatory rate and concomitant nasal and oral breathing. This is particularly true for sulfur dioxide which is a highly water-soluble gas and is normally absorbed in the upper airway during nasal breathing. With heavy exercise, oral pharyngeal breathing is the predominant mode of breathing and much larger amounts of sulfur dioxide are delivered to the lower airway resulting in significant impact upon the lower respiratory tract. More recently, several controlled human studies have shown that a combination of exercise and air pollutants such as ozone (O3) or sulfur dioxides (SO2) cause a significant increase in bronchoconstriction and air flow obstruction when compared to the same exposure at rest. In strenuous athletic competition such as the Olympic Games where small increments of time often determine the ultimate success of athletes, the impact of air pollutants and subsequent adverse ventilatory changes can affect athletic performance. 62 references.

Pierson, W.E. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle (USA))

1989-05-01

262

Air pollution mortality: harvesting and loss of life expectancy.  

PubMed

This article concerns the interpretation of epidemiological studies of air pollution mortality and the choice of indicators for quantifying the impact, for communication with policymakers. It is shown that the total mortality impact (measured by cohort studies) can only be quantified in terms of loss of life expectancy (LLE), not number of premature deaths. Time-series (TS) studies of mortality observe only acute impacts, that is, deaths due to short-term exposure ("acute mortality"); they allow the estimation of a number of deaths without providing any information on the LLE per death. However, even if the average loss per death is as long as 6 mo, acute mortality is only a very small percentage of the total mortality attributable to air pollution. Estimates of the population-average LLE due to air pollution are provided, for acute mortality, total adult mortality, and infant mortality. PMID:16024496

Rabl, Ari

263

AEROMETRIC INFORMATION RETRIEVAL SYSTEM - AIRS FACILITY SUBSYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

Aerometric Information Retrieval System (AIRS) is a computer-based repository of information about airborne pollution in the United States and various World Health Organization (WHO) member countries. AIRS is administered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and runs on t...

264

AEROMETRIC INFORMATION RETRIEVAL SYSTEM (AIRS) - GRAPHICS  

EPA Science Inventory

Aerometric Information Retrieval System (AIRS) is a computer-based repository of information about airborne pollution in the United States and various World Health Organization (WHO) member countries. AIRS is administered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and runs on t...

265

AEROMETRIC INFORMATION RETRIEVAL SYSTEM (AIRS) EXECUTIVE  

EPA Science Inventory

Aerometric Information Retrieval System (AIRS) is a computer-based repository of information about airborne pollution in the United States and various World Health Organization (WHO) member countries. AIRS is administered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and runs on t...

266

Ambient Air Pollution and Oxygen Saturation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the association between fine particulate air pollu- tion and oxygen saturation as measured with a peripheral oxygen saturation monitor during a 12-week repeated-measures study of 28 older Boston residents. Oxygen saturation and air pollution par- ticulates with a mean diameter less than or equal to 2.5 m were measured continuously during a protocol of rest, standing, exercise, postexercise

Dawn L. DeMeo; Antonella Zanobetti; Augusto A. Litonjua; Brent A. Coull; Joel Schwartz; Diane R. Gold

2004-01-01

267

Earth Under Siege: From Air Pollution to Global Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lucky indeed are the students taking Richard Turco's course and using his book, Earth Under Siege: From Air Pollution to Global Change. They have an enthusiastic and communicative lecturer who is a true authority in his field and who passionately devotes his efforts to enlightening his students.The passion is evident in the text, but it never interferes with the rigor of the material presented.Earth Under Siege is based on lectures given by Turco in a popular course for undergraduate students of all stripes at the University of California at Los Angeles. Student knowledge that is provided by a high school college preparatory curriculum is assumed.The style is engagingly informal and the book is a delight to read. Sprinkled throughout are pithy comments, many humorous, that are designed to heighten student understanding and interest. They also reveal Turco's personal opinions about issues of air pollution. However, despite the title, it is clear that Turco is not an environmental zealot. He is scientifically accurate and thorough in presenting vital information about air pollution on all scales, local through global. He is also clear-eyed and nondoctrinaire in presenting social, political, and economic aspects of air pollution. His devotion is to the education of individuals who can become informed members of an environmentally aware society.

Friend, James P.

268

Air pollution kills. So what? Air quality engineering to improve public health  

E-print Network

9/14/12 1 Air pollution kills. So what? Air quality engineering to improve public health;9/14/12 2 Air Quality Engineering H Air Quality Engineering H #12;9/14/12 3 Really? Air pollution running out of coffins and florists were running out of flowers. -- BBC #12;9/14/12 4 Air pollution

Levinson, David M.

269

URBAN AIR POLLUTION MODELING WITHOUT COMPUTERS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report was the basis for a series of three lectures by the author on urban air pollution modeling, and represents a condensed version of selected topics from a recent monograph by him. The emphasis is on simple but efficient models that often can be used without resorting to...

270

Breathing Easy About New Air Pollution Standards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A town hall meeting is the backdrop for a role-playing case about ground-level ozone air pollution. The case consists of a flier and scripts drawn from public comment records on the current government mandate to reduce ground-level ozone by limiting nitro

Kathryn Rowberg

2000-09-01

271

Control Techniques for Particulate Air Pollutants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Included is a comprehensive review of the approaches commonly recommended for controlling the sources of particulate air pollution. Not all possible combinations of control techniques that might bring about more stringent control of each individual source are reviewed. The many agricultural, commercial, domestic, industrial, and municipal…

National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

272

COLD REGIONS AIR POLLUTION: BIBLIOGRAPHY AND SUMMARY  

EPA Science Inventory

Through a series of workshops on cold climate environmental research priorities, conducted in 1982 by Battelle for the Environmental Protection Agency and the Department of Energy, air pollution was identified as the topic of highest priority. The current state of knowledge on ai...

273

Lichens as biological indicators of air pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thus with the help of lichens - whether growing naturally on tree trunks or whether transplanted in some way - an assessment can readily be made of the extent of air pollution. In this context, because of their sensitivity, and because they normally occur almost everywhere, they are far better than any measuring instrument. However, the difficulty lies in translating

E Skye

1979-01-01

274

REGIONAL AIR POLLUTION STUDY: HEAT EMISSION INVENTORY  

EPA Science Inventory

As part of the St. Louis Regional Air Pollution Study (RAPS), a heat emission inventory has been assembled. Heat emissions to the atmosphere originate, directly or indirectly, from the combustion of fossil fuels (there are no nuclear plants in the St. Louis AQCR). With the except...

275

Exercise and outdoor ambient air pollution  

PubMed Central

Objectives—To establish by literature survey: (a) levels at which air pollutants are considered damaging to human health and to exercisers in particular; (b) the current ambient levels experienced in the United Kingdom; (c) whether athletes are especially at risk. Methods—Six major urban air pollutants were examined: carbon monoxide (CO); nitrogen oxides (NOX); ozone (O3); particulate matter (PM10); sulphur dioxide (SO2); volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Results—CO is detrimental to athletic performance. NO2 is of concern to human health, but outdoor levels are low. O3 poses a potentially serious risk to exercising athletes. Decrements in lung function result from exposure, and there is evidence that athletic performance may be affected. Detrimental effects may occur at low ambient levels, but there is no scientific consensus on this matter. PM10 is causing concern in the scientific community. Blood lead accumulation during exercise indicates that personal exposure to toxic compounds associated with PM10 may be magnified. Generally, outdoor ambient levels of SO2 are too low to cause a problem to the athlete, except the asthmatic athlete. The few studies on exposure of exercisers to VOCs are reviewed. Conclusions—Athletes and exercisers should avoid exercising by the road side even though levels of the more noxious air pollutants have been controlled in the United Kingdom. O3 is particularly damaging to athletes; it reaches its highest concentrations on hot bright days in rural areas. Key Words: exercise; air pollution PMID:11477012

Carlisle, A; Sharp, N

2001-01-01

276

Indoor Air Pollution: Issues for Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure to indoor air pollution, resulting from the burning of biomass in homes (e.g. wood, agricultural residues, leaves and dung) has been linked to a number of acute respiratory infections (ARIs). ARIs are the biggest killer of children under five and responsible for 9% of the global burden of disease. This paper provides an overview of issues relating to indoor

J R Rouse

277

ATOC 3500/CHEM 3151 Air Pollution Chemistry  

E-print Network

and suspensions of particles in gases (`aerosols') are both important to the chemistry of Earth's atmosphere AllATOC 3500/CHEM 3151 Air Pollution Chemistry Spring 2011 #12;"Atmos" = vapor + "sphaira" = ball What mixing ratio") All of the other noble gases (He, Ne, Kr, Xe) are present in the atmosphere, but at very

Toohey, Darin W.

278

Breathing Easy About New Air Pollution Standards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A town meeting is the backdrop for a role-playing case about ground-level ozone air pollution. The case consists of a flier and scripts drawn from public comment records on the government mandate to reduce ground-level ozone by limiting nitrogen oxide emissions. Students play the parts of stakeholders and develop recommendations for reducing emissions.

Kathryn L. Rowberg

2000-01-01

279

Adverse cardiovascular effects of air pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air pollution is increasingly recognized as an important and modifiable determinant of cardiovascular disease in urban communities. Acute exposure has been linked to a range of adverse cardiovascular events including hospital admissions with angina, myocardial infarction, and heart failure. Long-term exposure increases an individual's lifetime risk of death from coronary heart disease. The main arbiter of these adverse health effects

Ken Donaldson; Paddy W Hadoke; Nicholas A Boon; William MacNee; Flemming R Cassee; Thomas Sandström; Anders Blomberg; David E Newby; Nicholas L Mills

2008-01-01

280

EVALUATING SOURCES OF INDOOR AIR POLLUTION  

EPA Science Inventory

The article discusses a three-phase approach, employing environmental chambers, indoor air quality (IAQ) models, and test house experiments, that is effective in linking sources of indoor pollutants to measured concentrations. mission factors developed in test chambers can be use...

281

Changing the Paradigm of Air Pollution Monitoring  

EPA Science Inventory

Historically, approaches for monitoring air pollution generally use expensive, complex, stationary equipment,1,2 which limits who collects data, why data are collected, and how data are accessed. This paradigm is changing with the materialization of lower-cost, easy-to...

282

AIR POLLUTION EFFECTS ON SEMEN QUALITY  

EPA Science Inventory

The potential impact of exposure to periods of high air pollution on male reproductive health was examined within the framework of an international project conducted in the Czech Republic. Semen quality was evaluated in young men (age 18) living in the Teplice District who are ex...

283

Contamination of dairy feeds by air pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air pollution of forage for dairy cattle is already a serious problem where industry is encroaching upon land used for production of feed and forage crops. In Pennsylvania, lead poisoning and serious metabolic disease resulting from lime plant stack effluents have caused losses on dairy and beef cattle farms. Evidence of intoxication and other metabolic disturbances in cattle in areas

Guss

1970-01-01

284

Air pollution effects on plant growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The volume discusses new avenues of research from those who represent the second and third generations of scientists working in the field of oxidant air pollution effects. Eleven papers discuss topics which include: plant-environment interaction, effects of ozone on cell permeability, reaction of ozone with lysozyme, alterations of metabolite pools, ozone injury to cell membranes, pigmentation and physiology of plant

1974-01-01

285

Air Pollution and Heart Disease, Stroke  

MedlinePLUS

Air Pollution and Heart Disease, Stroke Updated:Jan 9,2014 Whether you live in a city where smog forecasts are routine or in a ... people who are elderly or already struggling with heart disease , said Dr. Luepker, who is also an epidemiologist. ...

286

HARVARD'S INDOOR AIR POLLUTION/HEALTH STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

An indoor air pollution/acute respiratory health study is being conducted by researchers at the Harvard University School of Public Health. Upper and lower respiratory symptoms of 300 children living in Watertown, Massachusetts, have been recorded on a daily diary by a parent. Ev...

287

Industrial air pollution control equipment for particulates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fundamentals and design principles of industrial control equipment for particulate air pollutants are described. The five basic devices available for controlling the discharge of particulates into the atmosphere--gravity settlers, centrifugal separators, electrostatic precipitators, wet scrubbers, and fabric filters--are discussed in depth. The design of each is considered from both a theoretical and practical viewpoint.

L. Theodore; A. J. Buonicore

1976-01-01

288

Atmospheric Turbulence and Air Pollution Modelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atmospheric Turbulence and Air Pollution Modelling originates from a September 1981 short course at The Hague presented by seven outstanding specialists. The material has been combined and integrated by the editors.The first two chapters cover the basic concepts, fundamental equations, and similarity relations applied in the planetary boundary layer. They provide a very important background for succeeding chapters. The first-order

Wen-yih Sun

1983-01-01

289

Particulate air pollution and acute health effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiological studies have consistently shown an association between particulate air pollution and not only exacerbations of illness in people with respiratory disease but also rises in the numbers of deaths from cardiovascular and respiratory disease among older people. Meta-analyses of these studies indicate that the associations are unlikely to be explained by any confounder, and suggest that they represent cause

A. Seaton; D. Godden; W. MacNee; K. Donaldson

1995-01-01

290

Indoor Air Pollution: An Energy Management Problem?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Energy conservation measures have led to airtight buildings and reduced levels of ventilation resulting in indoor air pollution. Five kinds of contaminants--tobacco smoke, combustion products, microorganisms, organic compounds, and radon--are described, their hazards considered, and countermeasures outlined. (MLF)

Cousins, David M.; Kulba, John W.

1987-01-01

291

AIR POLLUTION AND ITS EFFECT ON HEALTH  

PubMed Central

An experimental study of the effect of air pollutants on health can be undertaken only subsequent to the creation of synthetically polluted atmosphere in exposure chambers as a readily available and easily controllable laboratory tool. The many and varied pollutants must be studied singly and in combination so as to reproduce any synergistic or antagonistic effects that may exist. A study of pollutant substances at their source is wholly inadequate in view of the pronounced photo-chemical activity in the atmosphere. The products of this activity may well be the significant ones insofar as morbid effects are concerned. In the acute and subacute biological studies, both in vitro and in vivo systems are being used with the experimental progression being from the simple to the complex. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3. PMID:13230911

Kotin, Paul; Falk, Hans L.

1955-01-01

292

Associations between criteria air pollutants and asthma  

SciTech Connect

The evidence that asthma is increasing in prevalence is becoming increasingly compelling. This trend has been demonstrated in the United States, the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Australia, and several other Western countries. In the US, the increase is largest in the group under 18 years of age. There is mounting evidence that certain environmental air pollutants are involved in exacerbating asthma. This is based primarily on epidemiologic studies and more recent clinical studies. The U.S. Clean Air Act of 1970 provides special consideration to the class of outdoor air pollutants referred to as criteria pollutants, including O{sub 3}, sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), particulate matter (PM), NO{sub x}, CO, and Pb. Standards for these pollutants are set by the US EPA with particular concern for populations at risk. Current evidence suggests that asthmatics are more sensitive to the effects of O{sub 3}, SO{sub 2} PM, and NO{sub 2}, and are therefore at risk. High SO{sub 2} and particulate concentrations have been associated with short-term increases in morbidity and mortality in the general population during dramatic air pollution episodes in the past. Controlled exposure studies have clearly shown that asthmatics are sensitive to low levels of SO{sub 2}. Exercising asthmatics exposed to SO{sub 2} develop bronchoconstriction within minutes, even at levels of 0.25 ppm. Responses are modified by air temperature, humidity, and exercise level. Recent epidemiologic studies have suggested that exposure to Pm is strongly associated with morbidity and mortality in the general population and that hospital admissions for bronchitis and asthma were associated with PM{sub 10} levels. In controlled clinical studies, asthmatics appear to be no more reactive to aerosols than healthy subjects. Consequently, it is difficult to attribute the increased mortality observed in epidemiologic studies to specific effects demonstrated in controlled human studies. 106 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Koren, H.S. [Environmental Protection Agency, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

1995-09-01

293

Air pollution exposure prediction approaches used in air pollution epidemiology studies  

EPA Science Inventory

Epidemiological studies of the health effects of air pollution have traditionally relied upon surrogates of personal exposures, most commonly ambient concentration measurements from central-site monitors. However, this approach may introduce exposure prediction errors and miscla...

294

76 FR 30080 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District and Ventura County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...revisions to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD)...

2011-05-24

295

76 FR 67369 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Plan, Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District and Imperial County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District...

2011-11-01

296

76 FR 30025 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District and Ventura County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...revisions to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD)...

2011-05-24

297

RESEARCH AREA -- MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)  

EPA Science Inventory

The municipal waste combustion (MWC) program supports the development of revised rules for air pollutant emissions from the MWC source category. Basic research is performed on MWC pollutant formation and control mechanisms for acid gas, trace organic, and trace metal emissions. T...

298

Urban air pollution and health inequities: a workshop report.  

PubMed Central

Over the past three decades, an array of legislation with attendant regulations has been implemented to enhance the quality of the environment and thereby improve the public's health. Despite the many beneficial changes that have followed, there remains a disproportionately higher prevalence of harmful environmental exposures, particularly air pollution, for certain populations. These populations most often reside in urban settings, have low socioeconomic status, and include a large proportion of ethnic minorities. The disparities between racial/ethnic minority and/or low-income populations in cities and the general population in terms of environmental exposures and related health risks have prompted the "environmental justice" or "environmental equity" movement, which strives to create cleaner environments for the most polluted communities. Achieving cleaner environments will require interventions based on scientific data specific to the populations at risk; however, research in this area has been relatively limited. To assess the current scientific information on urban air pollution and its health impacts and to help set the agenda for immediate intervention and future research, the American Lung Association organized an invited workshop on Urban Air Pollution and Health Inequities held 22-24 October 1999 in Washington, DC. This report builds on literature reviews and summarizes the discussions of working groups charged with addressing key areas relevant to air pollution and health effects in urban environments. An overview was provided of the state of the science for health impacts of air pollution and technologies available for air quality monitoring and exposure assessment. The working groups then prioritized research needs to address the knowledge gaps and developed recommendations for community interventions and public policy to begin to remedy the exposure and health inequities. PMID:11427385

2001-01-01

299

THE STATUS OF INDOOR AIR POLLUTION RESEARCH 1976  

EPA Science Inventory

Numerous research projects have examined the occurrences of air pollution in outdoor and workplace environments. A smaller, newer body of research has examined air pollution in nonworkplace, indoor environments. A new emphasis on measures to conserve energy in buildings, curbing ...

300

AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION - HOME PAGE  

EPA Science Inventory

The Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division (APPCD), located in Research Triangle Park, NC, is part of the National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL), which is headquartered in Cincinnati, OH. APPCD researches, develops, and demonstrates air pollution prevention a...

301

PHYSICAL AND ECONOMIC DAMAGE FUNCTIONS FOR AIR POLLUTANTS BY RECEPTOR  

EPA Science Inventory

This study is primarily concerned with evaluating regional economic damages to human health, material, and vegetation and of property soiling resulting from air pollution. This study represents a step forward in methodological development of air pollution damage estimation. It at...

302

Effects on air pollutant removal by plant absorption and adsorption  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well known that plants aid the removal of air pollutants. On the other hand, there is little research on air purification capabilities of absorption and disintegration of the air pollutants by plants. This research observes the air purification effect of plants' absorption capabilities of carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOX) with the aim of quantifying air purification

Shuji Fujii; Hiun Cha; Naoki Kagi; Hisashi Miyamura; Yong-Shik Kim

2005-01-01

303

Sources of Indoor Air Pollution- Improving Indoor Air Quality  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There are three basic strategies to improve indoor air quality: source control, improved ventilation, and air cleaners. This site offers the reader some insights to improving air quality through increased ventilation, air cleaners for particle removal, and other common sense methods that may be employed. Many times the quality of the air in our homes and public or office buildings is marginal at best. The sources of indoor pollution may be outside of our ability to rectify or it may be as simple as adjusting the flame on our furnace or kitchen stove or maybe something as simple as opening a door or window. However, in many instances we have no control over the air quality because of the materials used in the construction of the building.

304

Basic mechanisms for adverse cardiovascular events associated with air pollution.  

PubMed

Air pollution is a significant cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although the epidemiologic association between air pollution exposures and exacerbation of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is well established, the mechanisms by which these exposures promote CVD are incompletely understood. This review provides an overview of the components of air pollution, an overview of the cardiovascular effects of air pollution exposure, and a review of the basic mechanisms that are activated by exposure to promote CVD. PMID:25552258

Chin, Michael T

2015-02-01

305

POLUTE. Forest Air Pollutant Uptake Model  

SciTech Connect

POLUTE is a computer model designed to estimate the uptake of air pollutants by forests. The model utilizes submodels to describe atmospheric diffusion immediately above and within the canopy, and into the sink areas within or on the trees. The program implementing the model is general and can be used, with only minor changes, for any gaseous pollutant. The model provides an estimate describing the response of the vegetarian-atmosphere system to the environment as related to three types of processes: atmospheric diffusion, diffusion near and inside the absorbing plant, and the physical and chemical processes at the sink on or within the plant.

Murphy, C.E. Jr. [Savannah River Plant, Aiken, SC (United States); Sinclair, T.R. [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States)

1992-02-13

306

Los Angeles air pollution and asthma in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indices of air pollution, meteorological conditions and airborne allergens were correlated with emergency room census and hospitalizations for asthma at the Childrens Hospital of Los Angeles (CHLA) during a six-month period encompassing high and low periods of air pollution. In addition, patients in residence at the Sunair Home for Asthmatic Children (SHAC) were studied during a 10-day peak air pollution

W. Richards; S. P. Azen; J. Weiss; S. Stocking; J. Church

1981-01-01

307

Lichens as litmus for air pollution: a historical review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature on the relationships between lichens and air pollution is reviewed, with particular reference to the development of the concepts governing their use as indicators of air pollution levels. Lichens are particularly sensitive to sulphur dioxide which acts by the destruction of chlorophyll. By considering both the species present and their abundance, zones indicative of mean air pollution levels

David Leslie Hawksworth

1971-01-01

308

Visualization of Urban Air Pollution with Cloud Computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visualization of urban air pollution requires massive data processing since it should make air pollution maps either in two dimensions or three dimensions and we have to deal with geographical data, that is, GIS data. We used our own cloud computing technology to visualize urban air pollution and found that our approach vastly reduced the processing time of the visualization.

Jong Won Park; Chang Ho Yun; Hae Sun Jung; Yong Woo Lee

2011-01-01

309

Exposure to air pollution and pulmonary function in university students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Exposure to air pollution has been reported to be associated with increase in pulmonary disease. The aims of the present study were to examine the use of personal nitrogen dioxide (NO2) samplers as a means of measuring exposure to air pollution and to investigate the relationship between personal exposure to air pollution and pulmonary function. Methods: We measured individual

Yun-Chul Hong; Jong-Han Leem; Kwan-Hee Lee; Dong-Hyun Park; Jae-Yeon Jang; Sun-Tae Kim; Eun-Hee Ha

2005-01-01

310

The Role of Sea Spray in Cleansing Air Pollution over  

E-print Network

The Role of Sea Spray in Cleansing Air Pollution over Ocean via Cloud Processes Daniel Rosenfeld by collecting small cloud droplets that form on the pollution particles, thereby cleansing the air. Therefore, sea salt helps cleanse the atmosphere of the air pollution via cloud processes. This implies that over

Daniel, Rosenfeld

311

San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District  

E-print Network

#12;San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District Best Available Control Technology.4.2 #12;San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control Distri RECEIVED ~ 2 ED ECEIVED www.valleyalr.org SJVAPCD-2370·(661)326-6900"FAX(661)326-6985 #12;San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District TITLE V MODIFICATION

312

SOLVING VERTICAL TRANSPORT AND CHEMISTRY IN AIR POLLUTION MODELS  

E-print Network

SOLVING VERTICAL TRANSPORT AND CHEMISTRY IN AIR POLLUTION MODELS P.J.F. BERKVENS #3; , M.A. BOTCHEV; transport-chemistry problems from air pollution modelling, standard ODE solvers are not feasible due causing large errors for such species. In the framework of an operational global air pollution model, we

Botchev, Mike

313

30 CFR 780.15 - Air pollution control plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air pollution control plan. 780.15 Section...OPERATION PLAN § 780.15 Air pollution control plan. (a) For...the application shall contain an air pollution control plan which includes...

2010-07-01

314

30 CFR 780.15 - Air pollution control plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Air pollution control plan. 780.15 Section...OPERATION PLAN § 780.15 Air pollution control plan. (a) For...the application shall contain an air pollution control plan which includes...

2012-07-01

315

Proceedings of 10th International Symposium "Transport and Air Pollution"  

E-print Network

Proceedings of 10th International Symposium "Transport and Air Pollution" September 17-19, 2001 ­ Boulder, Colorado USA Air pollution mapping over a city ­ virtual stations and morphological indicators Surveillance et l'tude de la Pollution atmosphrique en Alsace), Schiltigheim, FRANCE Abstract Air quality

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

316

Session 2: Modelling air pollution across a range of scales  

E-print Network

Session 2: Modelling air pollution across a range of scales Ruth Doherty, Massimo Vieno, Ian Mac) EMEP2009 (less complex) Observations Modelling regional air pollution #12;Nested regions: 50 to 5 to 1 km2 O3 concentration (ppb) NO2 concentration (µg m-3) #12;Modelling Urban air pollution Regional

317

A review of methods for predicting air pollution dispersion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Air pollution modeling, and problem areas in air pollution dispersion modeling were surveyed. Emission source inventory, meteorological data, and turbulent diffusion are discussed in terms of developing a dispersion model. Existing mathematical models of urban air pollution, and highway and airport models are discussed along with their limitations. Recommendations for improving modeling capabilities are included.

Mathis, J. J., Jr.; Grose, W. L.

1973-01-01

318

ENV 6105 Page 1 of 6 Fall 2011 Air Pollution  

E-print Network

ENV 6105 Page 1 of 6 Fall 2011 Syllabus Air Pollution ENV 6105.901 (ref# 90504) Fall 2011 Course Description: A study of air pollution. Emphasis is given to principles underlying our understanding of ambient air pollution, its sources, its effects, and mechanisms for its management. Credit Hours and Work

Stuart, Amy L.

319

Hierarchical Bayesian models for space-time air pollution data  

E-print Network

Hierarchical Bayesian models for space-time air pollution data Sujit K. Sahu June 14, 2011 sets have led to a step change in the analysis of space-time air pollution data. Accurate predictions-time air pollution data and illustrate the benefits of modeling with a real data example on monitoring

Sahu, Sujit K

320

30 CFR 780.15 - Air pollution control plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air pollution control plan. 780.15 Section...OPERATION PLAN § 780.15 Air pollution control plan. (a) For...the application shall contain an air pollution control plan which includes...

2014-07-01

321

30 CFR 784.26 - Air pollution control plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air pollution control plan. 784.26 Section...OPERATION PLAN § 784.26 Air pollution control plan. For all surface...the application shall contain an air pollution control plan which includes...

2014-07-01

322

30 CFR 784.26 - Air pollution control plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air pollution control plan. 784.26 Section...OPERATION PLAN § 784.26 Air pollution control plan. For all surface...the application shall contain an air pollution control plan which includes...

2011-07-01

323

Development of Foamed Emulsion Bioreactor for Air Pollution Control  

E-print Network

Development of Foamed Emulsion Bioreactor for Air Pollution Control Eunsung Kan, Marc A. Deshusses: 10.1002/bit.10767 Abstract: A new type of bioreactor for air pollution con- trol has been developed used bioreactors for air pollution control. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 84: 240

324

30 CFR 784.26 - Air pollution control plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air pollution control plan. 784.26 Section...OPERATION PLAN § 784.26 Air pollution control plan. For all surface...the application shall contain an air pollution control plan which includes...

2010-07-01

325

40 CFR 49.137 - Rule for air pollution episodes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Rule for air pollution episodes. 49.137 Section...Region 10 § 49.137 Rule for air pollution episodes. (a) What is the...to prevent the occurrence of an air pollution emergency within the Indian...

2010-07-01

326

30 CFR 780.15 - Air pollution control plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air pollution control plan. 780.15 Section...OPERATION PLAN § 780.15 Air pollution control plan. (a) For...the application shall contain an air pollution control plan which includes...

2011-07-01

327

Air Pollution Impacts on Ecosystems and Biological Diversity  

E-print Network

Air Pollution Impacts on Ecosystems and Biological Diversity in the Eastern United States Threats CITATION Lovett, G.M., and T.H. Tear. 2008. Threats from Above: Air Pollution Impacts on Ecosystems by its parent as it takes its first swim. © Daniel Poleschook Jr. and Ginger Gumm #12;Air Pollution

328

30 CFR 784.26 - Air pollution control plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Air pollution control plan. 784.26 Section...OPERATION PLAN § 784.26 Air pollution control plan. For all surface...the application shall contain an air pollution control plan which includes...

2013-07-01

329

40 CFR 49.137 - Rule for air pollution episodes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Rule for air pollution episodes. 49.137 Section...Region 10 § 49.137 Rule for air pollution episodes. (a) What is the...to prevent the occurrence of an air pollution emergency within the Indian...

2012-07-01

330

30 CFR 780.15 - Air pollution control plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Air pollution control plan. 780.15 Section...OPERATION PLAN § 780.15 Air pollution control plan. (a) For...the application shall contain an air pollution control plan which includes...

2013-07-01

331

Modeling impact of urban air pollution on health  

E-print Network

Modeling impact of urban air pollution on health: Preliminary results and testing a methodology with hospitals for the study of air pollution impact on specific deceases (old people admitted in emergency morbidity data and pollutants concentrations at the regional/urban scale Health and air quality in France

Menut, Laurent

332

40 CFR 49.137 - Rule for air pollution episodes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Rule for air pollution episodes. 49.137 Section...Region 10 § 49.137 Rule for air pollution episodes. (a) What is the...to prevent the occurrence of an air pollution emergency within the Indian...

2014-07-01

333

30 CFR 784.26 - Air pollution control plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Air pollution control plan. 784.26 Section...OPERATION PLAN § 784.26 Air pollution control plan. For all surface...the application shall contain an air pollution control plan which includes...

2012-07-01

334

40 CFR 49.137 - Rule for air pollution episodes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Rule for air pollution episodes. 49.137 Section...Region 10 § 49.137 Rule for air pollution episodes. (a) What is the...to prevent the occurrence of an air pollution emergency within the Indian...

2013-07-01

335

REVIEW Open Access Climate change, air pollution and extreme events  

E-print Network

REVIEW Open Access Climate change, air pollution and extreme events leading to increasing dramatically during the past few decades not only in industrialized countries. Urban air pollution from motor be explained only in changes occurred in the environment. Despite some differences in the air pollution profile

336

40 CFR 49.137 - Rule for air pollution episodes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Rule for air pollution episodes. 49.137 Section...Region 10 § 49.137 Rule for air pollution episodes. (a) What is the...to prevent the occurrence of an air pollution emergency within the Indian...

2011-07-01

337

A REVIEW OF AIR POLLUTANT DAMAGE TO MATERIALS  

EPA Science Inventory

Report prepared as U.S. contribution to Panel 3 of NATO Committee on Challenges of Modern Society Pilot Study on Air Pollution Control Strategies and Impact Modeling. Panel 3 focuses on air pollutant impact and will publish 4 reports on air pollutants effects; this is the first i...

338

microRNAs: Implications for air pollution research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this review is to provide an update of the current understanding on the role of microRNAs in mediating genetic responses to air pollutants and to contemplate on how these responses ultimately control susceptibility to ambient air pollution. Morbidity and mortality attributable to air pollution continues to be a growing public health concern worldwide. Despite several studies on

Melanie J. Jardim

2011-01-01

339

Urban Air Pollution in Russia: Observations and Assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban air pollution is actual topic because of its influence on air quality and climate processes on both regional and global scale. There is a lack of up-to-date information about real state of air quality in Russian cities because of very few contemporary observations. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics possesses significant database of automated measurements of air composition including data of train-based TROICA experiments in 1995-2010 as well as permanent observations in Moscow since 2002. In general numerous crosses of about 100 urban settlements of different size and location have been performed that allowed us to compose detailed pattern of urban air pollution in Russia nowadays. All cities were separated at three groups: megacities (more then 500 000 citizens), middle cities (50 000-500 000 citizens) and little cities (less then 50 000 citizens). Each urban settlement has been divided into railway station area, urban zone and city (or town) surroundings. Concentrations of main polluting gases (NO, NO2, CO, SO2, NMHC, O3) and aerosols have been averaged for each settlement as well as for each group of urban settlements for day and night, and for winter and summer. Main features of air urban pollution in Russia are presented. Variations of main pollutants including anthropogenic VOCs because of daytime and seasons, as well as temperature vertical structure are studied. Concentrations of O3, CO, SO2 and NMHC are usually below MPC level. NO2 is often enhanced especially near auto-roads. In general, polluting gases have greater concentrations in winter time due to heating and stronger temperature inversions. Particulate matter is likely to be the most persistent pollutant that determines more than 90% of pollution cases. Strong pollution cases are often caused by extraordinary situations like fires, industrial pollution under unfavorable meteorological conditions. High ozone photochemical generation is quite rare. Spatial pollution structure is usually in good agreement with so called "heat islands" revealed over cities due to mobile observations. From 50 to 75% of all cases temperature growth over cities makes up from 0 to 1 ° C, while in large cities there is substantial proportion of higher values of temperature growth - from 4 to 12% is in the range 2-3 ° C of the temperature rise, and almost as many (from 4 to 9%) cases reveal temperature increase of more than 3 ° C. Air quality level was assessed on base of new approach elaborated at OIAP to assess air quality in Russian cities. It accounts for both world famous methods and official Russian legislation. General level of air pollution in Russian cities is low or moderate mostly due to favorable location and climate conditions. Extreme concentrations can happen in warm period because of wild and anthropogenic fires and other severe pollution cases. Most of high concentrations within cities during TROICA campaigns were observed near railway stations where influence of local pollution sources (diesel trains, train stoves, boiler rooms and so on) is very large.

Skorokhod, Andrey; Elansky, Nikolai; Lavrova, Olga; Pankratova, Natalia; Belikov, Igor; Falaleeva, Victoria; Mel'nikova, Irina; Remizov, Andrey; Sitnikova, Irina

2013-04-01

340

Projection of hazardous air pollutant emissions to future years.  

PubMed

Projecting a hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emission inventory to future years can provide valuable information for air quality management activities such as prediction of program successes and helping to assess future priorities. We have projected the 1999 National Emission Inventory for HAPs to numerous future years up to 2020 using the following tools and data: the Emissions Modeling System for Hazardous Air Pollutants (EMS-HAP), the National Mobile Inventory Model (NMIM), emission reduction information resulting from national standards and economic growth data. This paper discusses these projection tools, the underlying data, limitations and the results. The results presented include total HAP emissions (sum of pollutants) and toxicity-weighted HAP emissions for cancer and respiratory noncancer effects. Weighting emissions by toxicity does not consider fate, transport, or location and behavior of receptor populations and can only be used to estimate relative risks of direct emissions. We show these projections, along with historical emission trends. The data show that stationary source programs under Section 112 of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and mobile source programs which reduce hydrocarbon and particulate matter emissions, as well as toxic emission performance standards for reformulated gasoline, have contributed to and are expected to continue to contribute to large declines in air toxics emissions, in spite of economic and population growth. We have also analyzed the particular HAPs that dominate the source sectors to better understand the historical and future year trends and the differences across sectors. PMID:16448686

Strum, Madeleine; Cook, Rich; Thurman, James; Ensley, Darrell; Pope, Anne; Palma, Ted; Mason, Richard; Michaels, Harvey; Shedd, Stephen

2006-08-01

341

75 FR 18142 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Texas; Control of Air Pollution...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...FRL-9135-5] Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Texas; Control of Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles AGENCY...Administrative Code (TAC), Chapter 114, Control of Air Pollution from Motor Vehicles. The...

2010-04-09

342

Urban Air Pollution by Nanoparticles in Ostrava Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Air pollution harms human health and the environment. Ostrava's agglomeration and its immediate vicinity suffer regular exceeding of air pollution limits due to its geomorphologic location and present heavy industry. Maximum exceedances of air quality standards and especially PM10 which 24 hour limit value is in EU 50?g.m-3, must not be exceeded more than 35 days per year. This limit is being still often exceeded. In the year 2011 such as situation occurred 126 times. It is very important then for identify sources of air pollution to find out maximum information about air borne dust, like size distribution, chemical composition of individual size fractions, morphology of particulate matter together with other parameters like meteorological conditions, year season etc. Our measurement started two years ago. We focus on the critical situation when there are values of PM10 over a long period above the limit. In winter season it is so called inversion. By default, during the campaign it is measured size distribution of air born dust in range 5.6 nm -560nm by FMPS and using the sampler NanoId are collected samples in range 1nm - 35?m in 12 size fractions for chemical analysis and morphological observations. This contribution deals with results of size distributions only.

Zde?ka, Kali?áková; Vladimír, Mí?ka; Karel, Lach; Pavel, Danihelka

2013-04-01

343

Air Pollution and Acid Rain, Report 8. Effects of air pollution and acid rain on fish, wildlife, and their habitats: arctic tundra and alpine meadows  

SciTech Connect

This report on arctic tundra and alpine meadow ecosystems is part of a series synthesizing the results of scientific research related to the effects of air pollution and acid deposition on fish and wildlife resources. Recently performed research reveals the growing air pollution problem in arctic tundra and alpine meadow ecosystems once thought to be relatively unpolluted. The ecosystem features which determine sensitivity to air pollution are described. Data related to the effects of air pollutants on biota and whole ecosystems are reviewed. Because very little work has been done on the effects of air pollution specifically in arctic and alpine ecosystems this report includes relevant information based on studies in other ecosystems. Suggestions are made for areas of further research. 68 references, 2 figures.

Olson, J.E.; Adler, D.

1982-06-01

344

Air Pollution and Acid Rain, Report 9. Effects of air pollution and acid rain on fish, wildlife, and their habitats: deserts and steppes  

SciTech Connect

This report on desert and steppe ecosystems is part of a series synthesizing the results of scientific research related to the effects of air pollution and acid deposition on fish and wildlife resources. The features of desert and steppe ecosystems which determine the sensitivity of these ecosystems to air pollution are described. Data related to the effects of air pollutants on biota and whole ecosystems are reviewed. The data come from both field and laboratory studies. Some general information based on studies in other ecosystems is included. Suggestions are made for areas of further research. In general there has been less concern for the effects of air pollutants on the biota of deserts and steppes than for those of other ecosystems. Much of the concern for, and research on, air pollution in desert and steppe ecosystems is related to fossil fuel powered electric generating plants. 47 references, 3 figures, 8 tables.

Mirsky, E.N.; Harper, D.; Adler, D.

1982-06-01

345

VALMET-A valley air pollution model  

SciTech Connect

Following a thorough analysis of meteorological data obtained from deep valleys of western Colorado, a modular air-pollution model has been developed to simulate the transport and diffusion of pollutants released from an elevated point source in a well-defined mountain valley during the nighttime and morning transition periods. This initial version of the model, named VALMET, operates on a valley cross section at an arbitrary distance down-valley from a continuous point source. The model has been constructed to include parameterizations of the major physical processes that act to disperse pollution during these time periods. The model has not been fully evaluated. Further testing, evaluations, and development of the model are needed. Priorities for further development and testing are provided.

Whiteman, C.D.; Allwine, K.J.

1983-09-01

346

Chemical climatology of air pollutants at Pico Mountain Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pico Mountain Observatory (PMO) was established in 2001 on top of Pico Mountain (38.47°N, 28.40°W, 2,225 m a.s.l.) in the Azores Islands. PMO frequently samples free troposphere air over the Central North Atlantic. Long-range transport from neighboring continents impacts the concentration of air pollutants at PMO, but North American outflows have the most frequent influence due to predominantly westerly wind in mid-latitude regions of the Northern Hemisphere. This study summarizes observations of gases and aerosol since the station was established and combines transport patterns simulated by FLEXPART with observations to investigate chemical signatures of transport patterns. As the first step, FLEXPART backward retroplumes released from PMO will be created for the periods covered by our observation datasets. These results will be used to determine and classify sources of the transported air for long time periods. Seasonal variations in sources and transport pathways will be examined. This information is critical to understand variations in air pollutant observations at PMO, because sources and transport trajectories define age and composition of air plumes that arrive at PMO. In the second step, transport associated with certain chemical signatures, e.g., elevated ozone combined with depressed CO, will be extracted, and transport patterns will be identified for each classified chemical signature. The analysis will reveal correlations between transport patterns and elevation of air pollutants at PMO, which will help to understand measurement datasets of multiple air pollutants. Impacts of anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions on CO concentration at PMO will also be determined through multiplying retroplumes with emission inventories. Long-term trends in impacts from both sources will be examined to find potential correlations with recently implemented air quality regulations, occurrence of wildfires, and global climate change.

Zhang, B.; Owen, R. C.; Perlinger, J. A.; Val Martin, M.; Fialho, P. J.; Mazzoleni, L. R.

2013-12-01

347

Methodological issues in studies of air pollution and reproductive health.  

PubMed

In the past decade there have been an increasing number of scientific studies describing possible effects of air pollution on perinatal health. These papers have mostly focused on commonly monitored air pollutants, primarily ozone (O(3)), particulate matter (PM), sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), carbon monoxide (CO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)), and various indices of perinatal health, including fetal growth, pregnancy duration, and infant mortality. While most published studies have found some marker of air pollution related to some types of perinatal outcomes, variability exists in the nature of the pollutants and outcomes associated. Synthesis of the findings has been difficult for various reasons, including differences in study design and analysis. A workshop was held in September 2007 to discuss methodological differences in the published studies as a basis for understanding differences in study findings and to identify priorities for future research, including novel approaches for existing data. Four broad topic areas were considered: confounding and effect modification, spatial and temporal exposure variations, vulnerable windows of exposure, and multiple pollutants. Here we present a synopsis of the methodological issues and challenges in each area and make recommendations for future study. Two key recommendations include: (1) parallel analyses of existing data sets using a standardized methodological approach to disentangle true differences in associations from methodological differences among studies; and (2) identification of animal studies to inform important mechanistic research gaps. This work is of critical public health importance because of widespread exposure and because perinatal outcomes are important markers of future child and adult health. PMID:19215915

Woodruff, Tracey J; Parker, Jennifer D; Darrow, Lyndsey A; Slama, Rémy; Bell, Michelle L; Choi, Hyunok; Glinianaia, Svetlana; Hoggatt, Katherine J; Karr, Catherine J; Lobdell, Danelle T; Wilhelm, Michelle

2009-04-01

348

Critical issues in air pollution epidemiology.  

PubMed Central

The epidemiological studies which have had significant impact on the setting of National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQSs) were performed more than twenty years ago. Most of the more recent studies have been seriously flawed in their design and/or execution because they neglected to account for important variables such as: pollutant exposures other than those from ambient air; the influence of personal activity on pollutant uptake; host responsiveness; and the separate contributions of recent transient peak exposures and long-term chronic exposures on the effects endpoints. For particulate pollutants, the influence of composition and size distribution has also received too little consideration. In order to address these deficiencies, research and methods development are needed on: indices for particulate exposures; identification of exposures relevant to the effects; improved indices of effects; acquisition of response data; identification of exposed populations; and identification of susceptible subgroups. Approaches to these needs are discussed, along with brief reviews of several recent studies that have focused on critical issues of concern, made the necessary efforts to characterize the relevant exposures of the populations being studied, and demonstrated human responses to ambient pollutants at current exposure levels. PMID:4085428

Lippmann, M; Lioy, P J

1985-01-01

349

Charged aerosol particles and air pollution.  

PubMed

Possible environmental effects and the importance of charged aerosol particles are examined. Some calculations of the evolution of the charge distribution of the atmospheric aerosol are presented. Several possible environmental effects of particle charge are noted including effects on particle coagulation, dry deposition, and deposition in the lung. Finally some problems in aerosol charging are reviewed as they pertain to various technical operations in air pollution control. PMID:1204585

Brock, J R; Marlow, W H

1975-01-01

350

Air Pollution and the Pulmonary Vasculature  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Particulate air pollution is associated with ­mortality of many cardiorespiratory disease. This implausible association, is\\u000a now well supported by epidemiology studies, as is discussed in this chapter. There is now additional evidence for morbidity\\u000a from asthma, COPD, ischemic heart disease, and congestive heart failure. We now know that ultrafine particles escape detection\\u000a by the macrophage defense system and translocate to

Melissa L. Bates; Rebecca Bascom

351

Atmospheric chemistry and physics of air pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book is divided into six major subject areas. The first section consists of two chapters that describe the qualitative nature of tropospheric air pollution and its many effects. The second major section consists of three chapters describing gas-phase, solution-phase, and mass-transfer aspects of atmospheric chemistry. The third major section is an introduction to aerosol chemistry and physics. The fourth

J. H. Seinfeld

1986-01-01

352

Personal exposure of children to air pollution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changes over recent decades in outdoor concentrations of air pollutants are well documented. However, the impacts of air pollution on an individual's health actually relate not to these outdoor concentrations but to their personal exposure in the different locations in which they spend time. Assessing how personal exposures differ from outdoor concentrations, and how they have changed over recent decades, is challenging. This review focuses on the exposure of children, since they are a particularly sensitive group. Much of children's time is spent indoors, and childhood exposure is closely related to concentrations in the home, at school, and in transport. For this reason, children's personal exposures to air pollutants differ significantly from both those of adults and from outdoor concentrations. They depend on a range of factors, including urbanisation, energy use, building design, travel patterns, and activity profiles; analysis of these factors can identify a wider range of policy measures to reduce children's exposure than direct emission control. There is a very large variation in personal exposure between individual children, caused by differences in building design, indoor and outdoor sources, and activity patterns. Identifying groups of children with high personal exposure, and their underlying causes, is particularly important in regions of the world where emissions are increasing, but there are limited resources for environmental and health protection. Although the science of personal exposure assessment, with the associated measurement and modelling techniques, has developed to maturity in North America and western Europe over the last 50 years, there is an urgent need to apply this science in other parts of the world where the effects of air pollution are now much more serious.

Ashmore, M. R.; Dimitroulopoulou, C.

353

Particulate matter, air pollution, and blood pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

A short-term increase in fine particulate matter air pollution (PM2.5) concentration increases the risk for myocardial infarctions, strokes, and heart failure exacerbations. An important mechanism likely contributing to these associations is an elevation in arterial blood pressure (BP). Exposure to ambient PM2.5 even at present-day concentrations can increase BP within a period of a few days while long-term exposure might

Robert D. Brook; Sanjay Rajagopalan

2009-01-01

354

Place-based stressors associated with industry and air pollution.  

PubMed

Exposure to air pollution and its sources is increasingly viewed as a psychosocial stress, however its nature is not understood. This article explores the role of the concept of place on risk perception and community stress within data collected from eight focus groups in Philadelphia, USA. Discussions focused on air pollution, a nearby oil refinery, health, and a proposal for air monitoring. We present a framework of place-based elements of risk perception that includes place identity, stigma and social control. Our findings indicate that air pollution contributes to physical and psychosocial conditions that act as community-level social stressors. Findings also suggest that programs which seek to change behaviors and gather or spread information on issues such as pollution and other environmental concerns will be challenged unless they directly address: (1) the public?s identification with a place or industry, (2) immediate environmental stressors such as abandonment, waste and odors, and (3) public perceptions of lack of social control and fear of displacement. PMID:24721738

Kondo, Michelle C; Gross-Davis, Carol Ann; May, Katlyn; Davis, Lauren O; Johnson, Tyiesha; Mallard, Mable; Gabbadon, Alice; Sherrod, Claudia; Branas, Charles C

2014-07-01

355

Indoor air pollution and pulmonary performance: Investigating errors in exposure assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulmonary function measurements on pre-adolescent children and indoor air pollution measurements in the homes of these children are used to illustrate estimation techniques for linear regression models containing independent variables measured with error. In the data set, replicate measures of indoor air pollutant concentrations provide one method of estimating measurement error variances. Surrogate information in the form of cigarettes smoked

Nancy A. Hasabelnaby; James H. Ware; Wayne A. Fuller; L. Glesser

1989-01-01

356

Air pollution, avoidance behaviour and children's respiratory health: evidence from England.  

PubMed

Despite progress in air pollution control, concerns remain over the health impact of poor air quality. Governments increasingly issue air quality information to enable vulnerable groups to avoid exposure. Avoidance behaviour potentially biases estimates of the health effects of air pollutants. But avoidance behaviour imposes a cost on individuals and therefore may not be taken in all circumstances. This paper exploits panel data at the English local authority level to estimate the relationship between children's daily hospital emergency admissions for respiratory diseases and common air pollutants, while allowing for avoidance behaviour in response to air pollution warnings. A 1% increase in nitrogen dioxide or ozone concentrations increases hospital admissions by 0.1%. For the subset of asthma admissions - where avoidance is less costly - there is evidence of avoidance behaviour. Ignoring avoidance behaviour, however, does not result in statistically significant underestimation of the health effect of air pollution. PMID:25220266

Janke, Katharina

2014-12-01

357

Assessing health effects of air pollution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exposure to elevated concentrations of ambient air pollutants causes adverse human health effects. Two modes or methods of study are generally relied on to quantify the relationships between pollutants and specific effects. These are: human clinical experiments and epidemiological (or community exposure) studies. (Animal toxicological studies can be used to indicate the existence of an effect, but not the rate of the effect in humans.) Each method has limitations as a basis for quantifying the level of adverse effects anticipated in a given human population as a result of exposure. Consequently, care must be taken in deciding which studies are appropriate for assessment of health impacts in a population. Some limitations are inherent in the method. Epidemiological studies, for example, depend on adequate community monitoring and the ability to associate a cohort with ambient data. Clinical studies often do not represent the complex mix of pollutants in the atmosphere. Consequently, construction of dose/exposure-response functions is challenging. Another common complication in quantifying expected health impacts of a pollutant mix is lack of adequate ambient monitoring data coupled with little or no knowledge of a population's time and activity profiles. This paper summarizes the difficulties inherent in constructing estimates of health effects in populationsliving in densely populated and polluted areas and suggests approaches to making initial limited estimates. An example of the level of effort required to conduct a sophisticated study, using relatively rich databases, is given based on work done in the Southern California region.

Hall, Jane V.

358

Geospatial Modeling of Asthma Population in Relation to Air Pollution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current observations indicate that asthma is growing every year in the United States, specific reasons for this are not well understood. This study stems from an ongoing research effort to investigate the spatio-temporal behavior of asthma and its relatedness to air pollution. The association between environmental variables such as air quality and asthma related health issues over Mississippi State are investigated using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) tools and applications. Health data concerning asthma obtained from Mississippi State Department of Health (MSDH) for 9-year period of 2003-2011, and data of air pollutant concentrations (PM2.5) collected from USEPA web resources, and are analyzed geospatially to establish the impacts of air quality on human health specifically related to asthma. Disease mapping using geospatial techniques provides valuable insights into the spatial nature, variability, and association of asthma to air pollution. Asthma patient hospitalization data of Mississippi has been analyzed and mapped using quantitative Choropleth techniques in ArcGIS. Patients have been geocoded to their respective zip codes. Potential air pollutant sources of Interstate highways, Industries, and other land use data have been integrated in common geospatial platform to understand their adverse contribution on human health. Existing hospitals and emergency clinics are being injected into analysis to further understand their proximity and easy access to patient locations. At the current level of analysis and understanding, spatial distribution of Asthma is observed in the populations of Zip code regions in gulf coast, along the interstates of south, and in counties of Northeast Mississippi. It is also found that asthma is prevalent in most of the urban population. This GIS based project would be useful to make health risk assessment and provide information support to the administrators and decision makers for establishing satellite clinics in future.

Kethireddy, Swatantra R.; Tchounwou, Paul B.; Young, John H.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Alhamdan, Mohammad

2013-01-01

359

Space-Time Urban Air Pollution Forecasts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Air pollution, like other natural phenomena, may be considered a space-time process. However, the simultaneous integration of time and space is not an easy task to perform, due to the existence of different uncertainties levels and data characteristics. In this work we propose a hybrid method that combines geostatistical and neural models to analyze PM10 time series recorded in the urban area of Lisbon (Portugal) for the 2002-2006 period and to produce forecasts. Geostatistical models have been widely used to characterize air pollution in urban areas, where the pollutant sources are considered diffuse, and also to industrial areas with localized emission sources. It should be stressed however that most geostatistical models correspond basically to an interpolation methodology (estimation, simulation) of a set of variables in a spatial or space-time domain. The temporal prediction of a pollutant usually requires knowledge of the main trends and complex patterns of physical dispersion phenomenon. To deal with low resolution problems and to enhance reliability of predictions, an approach based on neural network short term predictions in the monitoring stations which behave as a local conditioner to a fine grid stochastic simulation model is presented here. After the pollutant concentration is predicted for a given time period at the monitoring stations, we can use the local conditional distributions of observed values, given the predicted value for that period, to perform the spatial simulations for the entire area and consequently evaluate the spatial uncertainty of pollutant concentration. To attain this objective, we propose the use of direct sequential simulations with local distributions. With this approach one succeed to predict the space-time distribution of pollutant concentration that accounts for the time prediction uncertainty (reflecting the neural networks efficiency at each local monitoring station) and the spatial uncertainty as revealed by the spatial variograms. The dataset used consists of PM10 concentrations recorded hourly by 12 monitoring stations within the Lisbon's area, for the period 2002-2006. In addition, meteorological data recorded at 3 monitoring stations and boundary layer height (BLH) daily values from the ECMWF (European Centre for Medium Weather Forecast), ERA Interim, were also used. Based on the large-scale standard pressure fields from the ERA40/ECMWF, prevailing circulation patterns at regional scale where determined and used on the construction of the models. After the daily forecasts were produced, the difference between the average maps based on real observations and predicted values were determined and the model's performance was assessed. Based on the analysis of the results, we conclude that the proposed approach shows to be a very promising alternative for urban air quality characterization because of its good results and simplicity of application.

Russo, A.; Trigo, R. M.; Soares, A.

2012-04-01

360

Air Pollution and Traffic Measurements in Bangkok Streets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ambient air quality and traffic density measurements were conducted during January to December 2001 at four air monitoring sites in Bangkok Metropolitan Region (BMR). The ambient air pollutants included carbon monoxide (CO), particulate matter (PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), ozone (O3) and benzene. The diurnal variations of air pollutant levels were generally identical to the corresponding traffic volume

S. T. Leong; S. Muttamara; P. Laortanakul

361

Air pollution modeling over Europe using WRFchem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study is to model air pollution for entire Switzerland with a very high spatial resolution. For the first time a several year period of air pollution is modeled for entire Switzerland. The high resolution domain of Switzerland is nested into a coarser European domain with a horizontal resolution of 50 km, extending from south of Spain to south of Finland. So far only the framework for the European domain exists and therefore we focus on the method and first results of this particular domain. The state-of-the-art "Weather Research and Forecasting" (WRF) model with a chemistry extension (WRFchem) is used to simulate air pollutants. It is one of the first times that these two "online" coupled models are applied for entire Europe. Gas phase chemistry is modeled with the "Carbon bond mechanism version Z" (CBMZ) with 67 prognostic chemical species and 164 chemical reactions. Aerosols are treated by the "Model for Simulating Aerosol Interactions and Chemistry" (MOSAIC) using 4 sectional aerosol bins. The meteorological initial and boundary conditions are derived from the NCEP Reanalysis 2 and GFS data. The anthropogenic emissions are taken from the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP), which have a horizontal resolution of 50 km and are divided into 11 SNAP-sectors (Selected Nomenclature for reporting of Air Pollutants). According to these different sectors and the countries the data could be disaggregated into hourly emissions according to the GENEMIS project. To use this dataset also a spatial conversion with the inverse next neighbor method and a vertical disaggregation as well as a re-apportioning of different chemical species were applied. Biogenic emissions are computed during runtime using the Guenther Scheme. We noticed that chemical initial conditions are not needed as they are mainly driven by emissions. Hence a spin-up of at least five days is used. For verification purposes correlations with European ground-based measurements (O3, NO2, SO2, PM10) are analyzed. As expected, better results are achieved using the GFS instead of the Reanalysis 2 dataset as meteorological input. As boundary conditions the performance of monthly mean values (1997-2001) from the LMDZ-INCA model and idealized profiles from the NALROM chemistry model were evaluated, but no significant differences could be found. The outcome of the model is comparable or better than other models used over entire Europe. Overall the European simulations show encouraging results for observed air pollutants, with ozone being the most and PM10 being the least satisfying, respectively.

Ritter, Mathias; Müller, Mathias

2010-05-01

362

Population Dynamics and Air Pollution: The Impact of Demographics on Health Impact Assessment of Air Pollution  

PubMed Central

Objective. To explore how three different assumptions on demographics affect the health impact of Danish emitted air pollution in Denmark from 2005 to 2030, with health impact modeled from 2005 to 2050. Methods. Modeled air pollution from Danish sources was used as exposure in a newly developed health impact assessment model, which models four major diseases and mortality causes in addition to all-cause mortality. The modeling was at the municipal level, which divides the approximately 5.5?M residents in Denmark into 99 municipalities. Three sets of demographic assumptions were used: (1) a static year 2005 population, (2) morbidity and mortality fixed at the year 2005 level, or (3) an expected development. Results. The health impact of air pollution was estimated at 672,000, 290,000, and 280,000 lost life years depending on demographic assumptions and the corresponding social costs at 430.4?M€, 317.5?M€, and 261.6?M€ through the modeled years 2005–2050. Conclusion. The modeled health impact of air pollution differed widely with the demographic assumptions, and thus demographics and assumptions on demographics played a key role in making health impact assessments on air pollution. PMID:23762084

Bønløkke, Jakob; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik

2013-01-01

363

Air pollution operating permit program update. Key features and benefits  

SciTech Connect

Each year in the United States, industrial operations emit nearly 100 million tons of pollutants into the air. In 1990, Congress established an innovative program under Title V of the Clean Air Act Amendments. The operating permit program streamlines the way federal, state, tribal, and local authorities regulate air pollution by consolidating all air pollution control requirements into a single, comprehensive `operating permit` that covers all aspects of source`s year-to-year air pollution activities. The program is designed to make it easier for sources to understand and comply with control requirements, and results in improved air quality.

NONE

1998-02-01

364

Air Pollution Aspects of Odorous Compounds.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report deals with the less ubiquitous, but potentially harmful, contaminants that are in our atmosphere. Thirty such pollutants have been identified and available information has been summarized in a series of reports describing their sources, distribution, effects, and control technology for their abatement. A total of 27 reports have been…

Sullivan, Ralph J.

365

Effective Stack Design in Air Pollution Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stack design problems fall into two general caterories--(1) those of building re-entry, and (2) those of general area pollution. Extensive research has developed adequate information, available in the literature, to permit effective stack design. A major roadblock to effective design has been the strong belief by architects and engineers that high…

Clarke, John H.

1968-01-01

366

Air pollution prevention at the Hanford Site: Status and recommendations  

SciTech Connect

With the introduction of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and other air and pollution prevention regulations, there has been increased focus on both pollution prevention and air emissions at US DOE sites. The Pollution Prevention (P2) Group of WHC reviewed the status of air pollution prevention with the goal of making recommendations on how to address air emissions at Hanford through pollution prevention. Using the air emissions inventory from Hanford`s Title V permit, the P2 Group was able to identify major and significant air sources. By reviewing the literature and benchmarking two other DOE Sites, two major activities were recommended to reduce air pollution and reduce costs at the Hanford Site. First, a pollution prevention opportunity assessment (P2OA) should be conducted on the significant painting sources in the Maintenance group and credit should be taken for reducing the burning of tumbleweeds, another significant source of air pollution. Since they are significant sources, reducing these emissions will reduce air emission fees, as well as have the potential to reduce material and labor costs, and increase worker safety. Second, a P2OA should be conducted on alternatives to the three coal-fired powerhouses (steam plants) on-site, including a significant costs analysis of alternatives. This analysis could be of significant value to other DOE sites. Overall, these two activities would reduce pollution, ease regulatory requirements and fees, save money, and help Hanford take a leadership role in air pollution prevention.

Engel, J.A.

1995-08-01

367

EFFECTIVENESS OF AIR CLEANERS FOR REDUCING RISK FROM INDOOR POLLUTANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Air cleaners may provide a cost effective way of reducing individual exposure and risk to indoor air pollutants. The effectiveness of indoor air cleaners depends on factors such as the single pass efficiency, the rate that air is circulated through the air cleaner, the air cleane...

368

Hematological and hemorheological effects of air pollution  

SciTech Connect

Selected hematological parameters and erythrocyte deformability indexes for 16 young male military students were compared before and after a period of exposure to heavy pollution. These students lived in Ankara, which has a serious air pollution problem. The mean sulfur dioxide levels measured at a station proximal to the campus where the students lived were 188 micrograms/m3 and 201 micrograms/m3 during first and second measurements, respectively. During the period between the two measurements, the mean sulfur dioxide level was 292 micrograms/m3. Significant erythropoiesis was indicated by increased erythrocyte counts and hemoglobin and hematocrit levels. Methemoglobin percentage was increased to 2.37 +/- 0.49% (mean +/- standard error) from 0.51 +/- 0.23%. Sulfhemoglobinemia was present in six subjects after the period of pollution, but it was not present in any student prior to this period. Significant increases in erythrocyte deformability indexes were observed after the period of pollution, i.e., from 1.13 +/- 0.01 to 1.21 +/0 0.02, implying that erythrocytes were less flexible, which might impair tissue perfusion.

Baskurt, O.K.; Levi, E.; Caglayan, S.; Dikmenoglu, N.; Kutman, M.N. (Univ. of Hacettepe, Ankara (Turkey))

1990-07-01

369

Satellite-aided evaluation of population exposure to air pollution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The evaluation of population exposure to air pollution through the computer processing of Landsat digital land use data, along with total suspended particulate estimates and population data by census tracts, is demonstrated. Digital image processing was employed to analyze simultaneously data from Landsat MSS bands 4 through 7 in order to extract land use and land cover information. The three data sets were spatially registered in a digital format, compatible with integrated computer processing, and cross-tabulated. A map illustrating relative air quality by 2-sq km cells for the residential population in the Portland, Oregon area is obtained.

Todd, W. J.; George, A. J., Jr.; Bryant, N. A.

1979-01-01

370

Growth of ponderosa pine seedlings as affected by air pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of air pollution on seedling survival and competitive ability is important to natural and artificial regeneration of forest trees. Although biochemical and physiological processes are sensitive indicators of pollution stress, the cumulative effects of air pollutants on seedling vigor and competitive ability may be assessed directly from whole-plant growth characteristics such as diameter, height, and photosynthetic area. A

B. Momen; P. D. Anderson; J. L. J. Houpis; J. A. Helms

2002-01-01

371

Air Pollution Determination Using a Surveillance Internet Protocol Camera Images  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air pollution has long been a problem in the industrial nations of the West It has now become an increasing source of environmental degradation in the developing nations of east Asia Malaysia government has built a network to monitor air pollution But the cost of these networks is high and limits the knowledge of pollutant concentration to specific points of

C. J. Chow Jeng; Hslim Hwee San; M. Z. Matjafri; Abdul lah K

2006-01-01

372

Cleaner air: Brightening the pollution perspective?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clean-air policies in developing countries have resulted in reduced levels of anthropogenic atmospheric aerosol pollution. Reductions in aerosol pollution is thought to result in a reduction in haze and cloud layers, leading to an increase in the amount of solar radiation reaching the surface, and ultimately, an increase in surface temperatures. There have been many studies illustrating coherent relationships between surface solar radiation and temperature however, a direct link between aerosol emissions, concentrations, and surface radiation has not been demonstrated to date. Here, we illustrate a coherence between the trends of reducing anthropogenic aerosol emissions and concentrations, at the interface between the North-East Atlantic and western-Europe, leading to a staggering increase in surface solar radiation of the order of ˜20% over the last decade.

O'Dowd, Colin; Ceburnis, Darius; Vaishya, Aditya; Jennings, S. Gerard; Moran, Eoin

2013-05-01

373

REFERENCE GUIDE TO ODOR THRESHOLDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS LISTED IN THE CLEAN AIR ACT AMENDMENTS OF 1990.  

EPA Science Inventory

In response to numerous requests for information related to odor thresholds, this document was prepared by the Air Risk Information Support Center in its role in providing technical assistance to State and Local government agencies on risk assessment of air pollutants. iscussion ...

374

Reference guide to odor thresholds for hazardous air pollutants listed in the Clean Air Act amendments of 1990  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to numerous requests for information related to odor thresholds, this document was prepared by the Air Risk Information Support Center in its role in providing technical assistance to State and Local government agencies on risk assessment of air pollutants. A discussion of basic concepts related to olfactory function and the measurement of odor thresholds is presented. A detailed

W. S. Cain; C. R. Shoaf; S. F. Velasquez; S. Selevan; W. Victery

1992-01-01

375

Inhalation Transfer Factors for Air Pollution Health Risk Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

To facilitate routine health risk assessments, we develop the concept of an inhalation transfer factor (ITF). The ITF is defined as the pollutant mass inhaled by an exposed individual per unit pollutant mass emitted from an air pollution source. A cumulative population inhalation transfer factor (PITF) is also defined to describe the total fraction of an emitted pollutant inhaled by

Alvin C. K. Lai; Tracy L. Thatcher; William W. Nazaroff

2000-01-01

376

Air Pollution Emission Factors for Medical Waste Incinerators  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of an extensive literature survey and data analysis conducted to determine uncontrolled and controlled pollutant emission factors (mass pollutant emitted per mass waste incinerated) for medical waste incinerators (MWI). Pollutant emission factors were calculated separately by type of medical waste (red bag, general hospital, and pathological waste), and add-on air pollution control (APC) equipment (wet

Barry L. Walker; C. David Cooper

1992-01-01

377

Air pollution and infant mortality from pneumonia  

SciTech Connect

This study examines the relationship between air pollution, measured as concentration of suspended particulates in the atmosphere, and infant mortality due to pneumonia in the metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro. Multiple linear regression (progressive or stepwise method) was used to analyze infant mortality due to pneumonia, diarrhea, and all causes in 1980, by geographic area, income level, and degree of contamination. While the variable proportion of families with income equivalent to more than two minimum wages was included in the regressions corresponding to the three types of infant mortality, the average contamination index had a statistically significant coefficient (b = 0.2208; t = 2.670; P = 0.0137) only in the case of mortality due to pneumonia. This would suggest a biological association, but, as in any ecological study, such conclusions should be viewed with caution. The authors believe that air quality indicators are essential to consider in studies of acute respiratory infections in developing countries.

Penna, M.L.; Duchiade, M.P. (Instituto de Medicina Social, Universidad del Estado del Rio de Janeiro (Brasil))

1991-03-01

378

Citizen Complaints of Air Pollution In Northeastern Illinois  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1964, as part of the Northeastern Illinois Metropolitan Planning Commission's Air Resource Management Study, an examination was made of citizen complaints of air pollution registered with air pollution control agencies representing the City of Chicago, outlying Cook County, and the State of Illinois. The complaint files of the City of Chicago were found to contain the addresses of some

K. L. Johnson

1968-01-01

379

Spatial Analysis of Air Pollution and Mortality in Los Angeles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The assessment of air pollution exposure using only community average concentrations may lead to measurement error that lowers estimates of the health burden attributable to poor air quality. To test this hypothesis, we modeled the association between air pollution and mortality using small-area exposure measures in Los Angeles, California. Methods: Data on 22,905 subjects were extracted from the Amer-

Michael Jerrett; Richard T. Burnett; Renjun Ma; C Arden Pope; Daniel Krewski; K Bruce Newbold; George Thurston; Yuanli Shi; Norm Finkelstein; Eugenia E. Calle; Michael J. Thun

2005-01-01

380

THE CHALLENGES OF AIR POLLUTION AND RESIDUAL RISK ASSESSMENT (EDITORIAL)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Clean Air Act (CAA), a comprehensive federal law that regulates air pollution from stationary and mobile sources, was first passed in 1963. The act has provided the primary framework for protecting human health and the environment. The CAA divides air pollutants into "criteri...

381

Literature Review of Air Pollution Control Biofilters and Biotrickling  

E-print Network

Literature Review of Air Pollution Control Biofilters and Biotrickling Filters for Odor Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants and Title V permitting) as well as local and state for the treatment of complex odorous waste air containing hydrogen sulfide (H2S), organic reduced sulfur com- pounds

382

Health Effects Associated With Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The World Health Organization has identified ambient air pollution as a high public health priority, based on estimates of air pollution related death and disability-adjusted life years derived in its Global Burden of Disease initiative. The NERAM Colloquium Series on Health and Air Quality was initiated to strengthen the linkage between scientists, policymakers, and other stakeholders by reviewing the current

Jonathan Samet; Daniel Krewski

2007-01-01

383

Air-pollutant emissions from kerosene space heaters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air pollutant emissions from portable convective and radiant kerosene space heaters were measured in an environmental chamber. Emission factors for nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and oxygen depletion are presented. The data suggest that the use of such heaters in residences can result in exposures to air pollutants in excess of ambient air quality standards and in

B. P. LEADERER

1982-01-01

384

Controlling Urban Air Pollution: A Benefit-Cost Assessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The pros and cons of air pollution control efforts are discussed. Both national and regional air pollution control plans are described. Topics of discussion include benefit-cost analysis, air quality regulation, reducing ozone in the urban areas, the Los Angeles plan, uncertainties, and policy implications. (KR)

Krupnick, Alan J.; Portney, Paul R.

1991-01-01

385

POPULATION-BASED EXPOSURE AND DOSE MODELING FOR AIR POLLUTANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

This task will address EPA's need to better understand the variability in personal exposure to air pollutants for the purpose of assessing what populations are at risk for adverse health outcomes due to air pollutant exposures. To improve our understanding of exposures to air po...

386

Environmental Regulations, Air and Water Pollution, & Infant Mortality in India  

E-print Network

Using the most comprehensive data file ever compiled on air pollution, water pollution, environmental regulations, and infant mortality from a developing country, the paper examines the effectiveness of India’s environmental ...

Greenstone, Michael

2011-07-01

387

A model of air traffic assignment as part of airport air pollution management system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The critical concern of modern airports is the air pollution generated by air traffic and its impact on the airport environment. Air pollution is an unavoidable consequence of air traffic, but it can be reduced in numerous ways, including technical innovations in aircraft design and legislation. This paper presents a model of air traffic assignment as a measure to mitigate

Petar Mirosavljevi?; Slobodan Gvozdenovi?; Olja ?okorilo

2011-01-01

388

Air pollution measurements in traffic tunnels.  

PubMed Central

Air pollution measurements during April 1991 are reported from the Craeybeckx highway tunnel in Antwerp, Belgium. The tunnel was used daily by an average of 45,000 vehicles, of which 60% were gasoline fueled passenger cars, 20% diesel cars, and 20% trucks. Of the gasoline cars, only 3% had three-way catalysts. Tunnel air concentrations of nitrogen oxides, sulphur dioxide, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nonmethane hydrocarbons, volatile organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and lead are presented. The traffic emissions in the tunnel are calculated by the carbon balance method, which uses the increase of the total carbon concentration in the tunnel air as the reference quantity. Division of the concentration of any pollutant by the total carbon concentration gives emission factors per kilogram of carbon. These emission factors can be converted directly to emissions relative to fuel consumption or per kilometer. The fraction of diesel used in the tunnel was derived from sulphur to carbon ratios in tunnel air. A calculation procedure with breakdown of emission factors according to vehicle categories was used to estimate countrywide emissions. The estimated emissions were compared to results from the Flanders Emissions Inventory [Emissie Inventaris Vlaamse Regio (EIVR)] and calculated emissions according to the emission factors proposed by the European Commissions CORINAIR Working Group. For NOx there is excellent agreement. For carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons, the tunnel data produced higher emissions than the CORINAIR model would predict but lower than the official EIVR statistics. The estimated lead emissions from traffic are found to be 22 to 29% of the lead in gasoline. PMID:7529706

De Fré, R; Bruynseraede, P; Kretzschmar, J G

1994-01-01

389

POINTS-OF-CONTACT (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Air Pollution Technology Branch's (APTB) Point-of-Contact page lists APTB research areas along with the name, telephone number, and e-mail address for each responsible person. APTB's research areas include NOx Control, Hazardous Waste Incineration, Municipal Waste Combustion,...

390

RESEARCH AREA -- FLUE GAS CLEANING (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Air Pollution Technology Branch's (APPCD, NRMRL)flue gas cleaning program supports New Source Performance Standards regulations development and has fostered the development of technologies that today are considered industry standards. These include both dry and wet flue gas d...

391

On marketable air-pollution permits: The case for a system of pollution offsets  

Microsoft Academic Search

After examining the properties of several alternative forms of marketable permit systems for the control of air pollution, this paper proposes a system of pollution offsets as the most promising approach. Under the pollution-offset scheme, sources of emissions are free to trade emissions permits subject to the constraint of no violations of the predetermined air-quality standard at any receptor point.

Alan J. Krupnick; Wallace E. Oates; Eric Van De Verg

1983-01-01

392

Strong association between air pollution and stroke mortality.  

PubMed

Exposure to air pollution is linked to a higher risk of anxiety and stroke, according to two studies. In a review of the evidence on air pollution and stroke, researchers from the University of Edinburgh analysed 103 observational studies covering 28 countries. The review looked at gaseous pollutants (carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen and ozone) and particulate matter (particles or droplets of pollutants such as smoke, dust and soot). PMID:25850478

2015-04-01

393

Health effects of particulate air pollution: time for reassessment?  

PubMed Central

Numerous studies have observed health effects of particulate air pollution. Compared to early studies that focused on severe air pollution episodes, recent studies are more relevant to understanding health effects of pollution at levels common to contemporary cities in the developed world. We review recent epidemiologic studies that evaluated health effects of particulate air pollution and conclude that respirable particulate air pollution is likely an important contributing factor to respiratory disease. Observed health effects include increased respiratory symptoms, decreased lung function, increased hospitalizations and other health care visits for respiratory and cardiovascular disease, increased respiratory morbidity as measured by absenteeism from work or school or other restrictions in activity, and increased cardiopulmonary disease mortality. These health effects are observed at levels common to many U.S. cities including levels below current U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standards for particulate air pollution. Images Figure 1. PMID:7656877

Pope, C A; Bates, D V; Raizenne, M E

1995-01-01

394

Regional emissions of air pollutants in China.  

SciTech Connect

As part of the China-MAP program, sponsored by the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration, regional inventories of air pollutants emitted in China are being characterized, in order that the atmospheric chemistry over China can be more fully understood and the resulting ambient concentrations in Chinese cities and the deposition levels to Chinese ecosystems be determined with better confidence. In addition, the contributions of greenhouse gases from China and of acidic aerosols that counteract global warming are being quantified. This paper presents preliminary estimates of the emissions of some of the major air pollutants in China: sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), carbon monoxide (CO), and black carbon (C). Emissions are estimated for each of the 27 regions of China included in the RAINS-Asia simulation model and are subsequently distributed to a 1{degree} x 1{degree} grid using appropriate disaggregation factors. Emissions from all sectors of the Chinese economy are considered, including the combustion of biofuels in rural homes. Emissions from larger power plants are calculated individually and allocated to the grid accordingly. Data for the period 1990-1995 are being developed, as well as projections for the future under alternative assumptions about economic growth and environmental control.

Streets, D. G.

1998-10-05

395

Elderly exposure to indoor air pollutants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this work was to characterize the indoor air quality in Elderly Care Centers (ECCs) in order to assess the elders' daily exposure to air pollutants. Ten ECCs hosting 384 elderly were selected in Lisbon and Loures. Firstly, a time-budget survey was created based on questionnaires applied in the studied sites. Results showed that in average elders spend 95% of their time indoors splitted between bedrooms and living-rooms. Therefore, a set of physical and chemical parameters were measured continuously during the occupancy period in these two indoor micro-environments and in the outdoor. Results showed that indoor was the main environment contributing for the elders' daily exposure living in ECCs. In the indoor, the principal micro-environment contributing for the elders' daily exposure varied between bedrooms and living-rooms depending not only on the characteristics of the ECCs but also on the pollutants. The concentrations of CO2, VOCt, O3 and PM10 exceeded the limit values predominantly due to the insufficient ventilation preconized in the studied sites.

Almeida-Silva, M.; Wolterbeek, H. T.; Almeida, S. M.

2014-03-01

396

Kerbside DOAS measurements of air pollutants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emission sources as well as wind speed and direction and MLH are important factors which influence high air pollutant concentrations. This is generally known (Schäfer et al., 2006) but the detailed understanding of processes directing certain air pollutant concentrations like HCHO is not complete. To study these processes a long-term campaign in Augsburg, Germany, was performed since March 2012. The concentrations of NO, NO2, O3 and HCHO, which were measured with a DOAS from OPSIS across a main traffic road and a nearby park area, are analysed. A ceilometer CL31 from Vaisala which is an eye-safe commercial mini-lidar system is applied to detect layering of the lower atmosphere continuously. Special software for this ceilometer with MATLAB provides routine retrievals of lower atmosphere layering from vertical profiles of laser backscatter data. Meteorological data were measured by a ground-based weather station at the measurement site as well as taken from monitoring data archives of the German National Meteorological Service (DWD), which are measured by radiosondes (Oberschleißheim). Correlation analyses are applied to show the coupling of temporal variations of NO, NO2, O3 and HCHO concentrations with temperature, mixing layer height and wind speed. HCHO which is emitted from both anthropogenic and biogenic sources is studied especially.

Schäfer, Klaus; Ling, Hong; Legelli, Stefan; Münkel, Christoph; Emeis, Stefan

2014-10-01

397

Floristic summary of North American plant species in the air pollution literature  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Notes are given on a project to create a database of bibliographic information, abstracts and keywords for publications on the biological effects of gaseous and heavy metal air pollution on plants and lichens.

Bennett, J.P.

2000-01-01

398

From -40 C to 40 C: Measuring air pollution around the world  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract. How would you go about studying the air and improving air quality? Did you know that there are instruments recording air pollution levels all over the world, reporting out information that has importance both locally and globally? Did you know that there are diverse t...

399

Motor Vehicles, Air Pollution, and Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite years of technical progress, motor vehicles continue to be a leading cause of environmental damage in the United States. For example, today's cars and trucks are the largest source of air pollution in many urban areas. US motor vehicles also account for 25 percent of the nation's carbon emissions, more than most countries emit from all sources combined. Fortunately, a host of technical improvements are emerging that could go a long ways towards taking vehicles out of the pollution picture. In the near-term, improving on the century-old internal combustion engine can deliver much-needed incremental gains. But electric drive vehicles--whether powered by batteries, small engines in hybrid configuration, or fuel cells--ultimately offer the greatest promise. Such technologies could dramatically reduce energy use, greenhouse gas emissions, and key air pollutants. The bulk of technical attention in recent years has been focused on improving the passenger vehicle, which will be the dominant energy consumer in the transportation sector for years to come. But freight trucks are also of growing concern, both because their contribution to global warming is on the rise and because serious questions are being raised about the public health impact of diesel technology. As a result, heavy trucks are emerging as a priority issue. Capitalizing on the opportunity presented by new technologies will not only require continued technical innovation but also policy action. As research into improved engines, fuels, and drive systems bears fruit over the coming years, aggressive and prudent policies will ensure that these new options make it onto the road and deliver on their environmental promise.

Mark, Jason

2000-04-01

400

Combining data from multiple monitors in air pollution mortality time series studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In community time series studies on the effect of particulate air pollution on mortality, particulate air pollution data are often available from multiple monitors. Published studies have combined the data from the multiple monitors using a simple or trimmed average. In this paper, I describe an alternative method for combining the particulate air pollution data available from multiple monitors. Using time series data from Cook County, Illinois the proposed method yields more meaningful biologically plausible particulate air pollution mortality effect estimates without loss of statistical accuracy and reduces the full set of monitors to a smaller set without loss of information. The proposed monitor combination may be more highly correlated with the average population exposure to particulate air pollution than a simple or trimmed average of the monitors.

Roberts, Steven

401

Relation of air pollution with epidemiology of respiratory diseases in isfahan, Iran from 2005 to 2009  

PubMed Central

Background: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) scientists shows that long-term exposure to air pollutants increases the risk of respiratory diseases such as allergies, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and lung cancer. Children and the elderly are particularly vulnerable to the health effects of ozone, fine particles, and other airborne toxicants. Air pollution factors are considered as one of the underlying causes of respiratory diseases. This study aimed to determine the association of respiratory diseases documented in medical records and air pollution (Map distribution) of accumulation in Isfahan province, Iran. By plotting the prevalence and spatial distribution maps, important differences from different points can be observed. Materials and Methods: The geographic information system (GIS), pollutant standards index (PSI) measurements, and remote Sensing (RS) technology were used after entering data in the mapping information table; spatial distribution was mapped and distribution of Geographical Epidemiology of Respiratory Diseases in Isfahan province (Iran) was determined in this case study from 2005 to 2009. Results: Space with tracing the distribution of respiratory diseases was scattered based on the distribution of air pollution in the points is an important part of this type of diseases in Isfahan province where air pollution was more abundant. Conclusion: The findings of this study emphasis on the importance of preventing the exposure to air pollution, and to control air pollution product industries, to improve work environmental health, and to increase the health professionals and public knowledge in this regard. PMID:24523799

Rashidi, Maasoumeh; Ramesht, Mohammad Hossein; Zohary, Moein; Poursafa, Parinaz; Kelishadi, Roya; Rashidi, Zeinab; Rouzbahani, Reza

2013-01-01

402

THE RAPS (REGIONAL AIR POLLUTION STUDY) HELICOPTER AIR POLLUTION MEASUREMENT PROGRAM, ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI, 1974-76  

EPA Science Inventory

This research program was initiated with the overall objective of providing measurement of air pollution and temperature gradient over the St. Louis, Missouri/Illinois, metropolitan area to complement surface measurements of air pollution by the Regional Air Monitoring System (RA...

403

Community Perceptions of Air Pollution and Related Health Risks in Nairobi Slums  

PubMed Central

Air pollution is among the leading global risks for mortality and responsible for increasing risk for chronic diseases. Community perceptions on exposure are critical in determining people’s response and acceptance of related policies. Therefore, understanding people’ perception is critical in informing the design of appropriate intervention measures. The aim of this paper was to establish levels and associations between perceived pollution and health risk perception among slum residents. A cross-sectional study of 5,317 individuals aged 35+ years was conducted in two slums of Nairobi. Association of perceived score and individual characteristics was assessed using linear regression. Spatial variation in the perceived levels was determined through hot spot analysis using ArcGIS. The average perceived air pollution level was higher among residents in Viwandani compared to those in Korogocho. Perceived air pollution level was positively associated with perceived health risks. The majority of respondents were exposed to air pollution in their place of work with 66% exposed to at least two sources of air pollution. Less than 20% of the respondents in both areas mentioned sources related to indoor pollution. The perceived air pollution level and related health risks in the study community were lowamong the residents indicating the need for promoting awareness on air pollution sources and related health risks. PMID:24157509

Egondi, Thaddaeus; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Ng, Nawi; Muindi, Kanyiva; Oti, Samuel; van de Vijver, Steven; Ettarh, Remare; Rocklöv, Joacim

2013-01-01

404

[Main indoor air pollutants and their health impacts].  

PubMed

The quality of indoor air is a very important factor that may directly affect human health. There are many sources as well as a variety of indoor air pollutants. Therefore, the health impact is complicated, affecting different organs and systems of human being such as respiratory and immune system. The main indoor air pollutants are the combustion products from smoking, cooking and heating, the chemical pollutants from renovation materials and the biological contaminants. The kinds, sources and health impacts of these pollutants that affect the indoor air quality are reviewed in this paper. PMID:12914298

Xu, Zhen; Jin, Yinlong

2003-05-01

405

Air System Information Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

I flew to Washington last week, a trip rich in distributed information management. Buying tickets, at the gate, in flight, landing and at the baggage claim, myriad messages about my reservation, the weather, our flight plans, gates, bags and so forth flew among a variety of travel agency, airline and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) computers and personnel. By and large, each kind of information ran on a particular application, often specialized to own data formats and communications network. I went to Washington to attend an FAA meeting on System-Wide Information Management (SWIM) for the National Airspace System (NAS) (http://www.nasarchitecture.faa.gov/Tutorials/NAS101.cfm). NAS (and its information infrastructure, SWIM) is an attempt to bring greater regularity, efficiency and uniformity to the collection of stovepipe applications now used to manage air traffic. Current systems hold information about flight plans, flight trajectories, weather, air turbulence, current and forecast weather, radar summaries, hazardous condition warnings, airport and airspace capacity constraints, temporary flight restrictions, and so forth. Information moving among these stovepipe systems is usually mediated by people (for example, air traffic controllers) or single-purpose applications. People, whose intelligence is critical for difficult tasks and unusual circumstances, are not as efficient as computers for tasks that can be automated. Better information sharing can lead to higher system capacity, more efficient utilization and safer operations. Better information sharing through greater automation is possible though not necessarily easy.

Filman, Robert E.

2004-01-01

406

Possible molecular mechanisms linking air pollution and asthma in children  

PubMed Central

Background Air pollution has many effects on the health of both adults and children, but children’s vulnerability is unique. The aim of this review is to discuss the possible molecular mechanisms linking air pollution and asthma in children, also taking into account their genetic and epigenetic characteristics. Results Air pollutants appear able to induce airway inflammation and increase asthma morbidity in children. A better definition of mechanisms related to pollution-induced airway inflammation in asthmatic children is needed in order to find new clinical and therapeutic strategies for preventing the exacerbation of asthma. Moreover, reducing pollution-induced oxidative stress and consequent lung injury could decrease children’s susceptibility to air pollution. This would be extremely useful not only for the asthmatic children who seem to have a genetic susceptibility to oxidative stress, but also for the healthy population. In addition, epigenetics seems to have a role in the lung damage induced by air pollution. Finally, a number of epidemiological studies have demonstrated that exposure to common air pollutants plays a role in the susceptibility to, and severity of respiratory infections. Conclusions Air pollution has many negative effects on pediatric health and it is recognised as a serious health hazard. There seems to be an association of air pollution with an increased risk of asthma exacerbations and acute respiratory infections. However, further studies are needed in order to clarify the specific mechanism of action of different air pollutants, identify genetic polymorphisms that modify airway responses to pollution, and investigate the effectiveness of new preventive and/or therapeutic approaches for subjects with low antioxidant enzyme levels. Moreover, as that epigenetic changes are inheritable during cell division and may be transmitted to subsequent generations, it is very important to clarify the role of epigenetics in the relationship between air pollution and lung disease in asthmatic and healthy children. PMID:24581224

2014-01-01

407

77 FR 62452 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Arizona; Prevention of Air Pollution...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...State of Arizona; Prevention of Air Pollution Emergency Episodes AGENCY: Environmental...address the requirements regarding air pollution emergency episodes in Clean Air...address the requirements regarding air pollution emergency episodes in CAA...

2012-10-15

408

77 FR 21911 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Arizona; Prevention of Air Pollution...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...State of Arizona; Prevention of Air Pollution Emergency Episodes AGENCY: Environmental...address the requirements regarding air pollution emergency episodes in Clean Air...regarding authority to address air pollution emergency episodes and...

2012-04-12

409

Recent climate and air pollution impacts on Asian agriculture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impacts of climate change on agricultural production have important ramifications for food security and policy from local to global scales. Recent research investigating these impacts has focused on the roles of temperature and precipitation on yield. However, regional climate changes are due to both global emissions of long-lived greenhouse gases (LLGHGs) as well as local emissions of aerosols and other short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs). SLCPs can impact plant growth both directly (e.g., ozone) and indirectly, by altering regional temperature, precipitation, and surface radiation. Existing estimates of the effects of SLCPs on crop yields have been drawn from field experiments and cultivar-specific dose-response relationships; no research has as yet examined the historic role of the direct and the indirect effects of SLCPs on yields. I will present results from a statistical model of the impact of climate and air pollution on wheat and rice yields in Asia over the past 3 decades (1980-2008). This builds on work we completed for India, which was the first such analysis combining the effects of climate, aerosols, and tropospheric ozone into a statistical model. Yields across Asia in 2008 were lower for wheat and rice than they otherwise would have been, absent climate and pollutant emissions trends. Most of these losses were due to SLCPs as opposed to longer-run temperature and precipitation trends, indicating that gains from addressing regional air pollution could significantly help in offsetting expected future losses due to rising temperatures and precipitation changes. This new insight into the relative importance of these climate and air pollution factors can help inform both climate policy discussions and agricultural adaptation efforts in this critical food security region.

Burney, J. A.

2012-12-01

410

The Oxides of Nitrogen in Air Pollution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on the health effects of oxides of nitrogen and on the role of oxides of nitrogen in producing photochemical smog effects is presented in this report. Prepared by the California State Department of Public Health at the request of the State Legislature, it gives a comprehensive review of available information, as well as the need for air

California State Air Resources Board, Sacramento.

411

INDUSTRIAL GUIDE FOR AIR POLLUTION CONTROL  

EPA Science Inventory

This manual is intended as a set of guidelines for companies that are not yet fully involved in a corporate program of environmental control. The information is presented for plant managers, engineers, and other industrial personnel responsible for plant compliance with air pollu...

412

Teacher's Guide to Indoor Air Pollutants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide, designed for fourth- through sixth-grade classrooms, contains information teachers will need to teach an educational unit on indoor air quality. It draws on a variety of students' skills, including science, vocabulary, reasoning, math, and basic biology. Each lesson comes with suggested activities that highlight and reinforce what is…

National Safety Council, Washington, DC. Environmental Health Center.

413

Effects of Air Pollution on Respiratory Disease Asthma, closely associated with air pollution, affects nearly 15 million people in the United States, one-third of them  

E-print Network

Effects of Air Pollution on Respiratory Disease Asthma, closely associated with air pollution as a greater understanding of the types of air pollutants that cause the most harm. Seminal findings, supporting a proposed update to existing air quality standards. Air pollutant ozone causes childhood asthma

Schladow, S. Geoffrey

414

Does urban vegetation mitigate air pollution in northern conditions?  

PubMed

It is generally accepted that urban vegetation improves air quality and thereby enhances the well-being of citizens. However, empirical evidence on the potential of urban trees to mitigate air pollution is meager, particularly in northern climates with a short growing season. We studied the ability of urban park/forest vegetation to remove air pollutants (NO2, anthropogenic VOCs and particle deposition) using passive samplers in two Finnish cities. Concentrations of each pollutant in August (summer; leaf-period) and March (winter, leaf-free period) were slightly but often insignificantly lower under tree canopies than in adjacent open areas, suggesting that the role of foliage in removing air pollutants is insignificant. Furthermore, vegetation-related environmental variables (canopy closure, number and size of trees, density of understorey vegetation) did not explain the variation in pollution concentrations. Our results suggest that the ability of urban vegetation to remove air pollutants is minor in northern climates. PMID:23274234

Setälä, Heikki; Viippola, Viljami; Rantalainen, Anna-Lea; Pennanen, Arto; Yli-Pelkonen, Vesa

2013-12-01

415

Air pollution effects on the structure of Citrus aurantium leaves  

SciTech Connect

Individual air pollutants cause acute and chronic plant injury, act on stomata and affect carbon dioxide exchange as well as plant growth and development. Inhibition of photosynthesis by several air pollutants has been reported repeatedly. Besides, structural modifications of cell organelles have been reported after fumigation by SO/sub 2/. Although chlorosis and subsequent necrosis are common phenomena caused by artificial treatment with pollutants, fine structural leaf characteristics of plants exposed to long-term air pollution in natural conditions are little explored. Light microscope examination of air pollution affected leaves of plants common in natural ecosystems of Athens' metropolitan area revealed chlorosis phenomena. Electron microscope examination of the leaves of a common subshrub of greek phryganic formations grown in a heavily air polluted natural ecosystem of Athens metropolitan area revealed pronounced ultrastructural anomalies of chloroplasts, mitochondria and microbodies of the mesophyll cells. This organelle destruction of the photosynthesizing tissue as well as the minimization of the ecosystem primary productivity are attributed to the compound action of several toxic air pollutants of the photochemical smog of Athens. This work describes the long-term air pollution effects on the structural features of the leaves of Citrus aurantium, a decorative species planted throughout the heavily air polluted city of Athens.

Psaras, G.K.; Christodoulakis, N.S.

1987-09-01

416

Air Pollution and the Triggering of Cardiac Arrhythmias  

PubMed Central

Purpose of Review The last five years have witnessed an explosion in interest regarding cardiac arrhythmias and air pollution. The data have been strongest with respect to ventricular arrhythmias but there is accumulating evidence that air pollution is also associated with supraventricular arrhythmias. Recent Findings There is clear epidemiological evidence linking air pollution and cardiac mortality. Whether the cardiac mortality was from myocardial ischemia, congestive heart failure or arrhythmic, or all of these pathways is not clear from the epidemiological data. There is a large body of evidence that air pollution can modify autonomic tone. More recent data, utilizing patients with cardiac disease and implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) has clarified the association of air pollution and arrhythmias. Data is also accumulating that air pollution may be associated with atrial arrhythmias. Summary The incremental risk of air pollution in triggering arrhythmias or other acute cardiac events is greatest for those patients with underlying cardiac disease. Cardiovascular patients and those at high risk of cardiovascular disease should be educated about the risks for triggering of arrhythmias and other cardiac events by air pollution. These patients should monitor the local forecasted Air Quality Index and follow the recommendations to reduce exposures and limit activities. PMID:19881339

Link, Mark S.; Dockery, Douglas W.

2013-01-01

417

AIR POLLUTION MEASUREMENT BY FOURIER TRANSFORM SPECTROSCOPY  

EPA Science Inventory

Fourier transform spectroscopy substantially reduces the limitations on infrared methods of pollution measurement. EPA has used long path cells and Fourier transform spectrometers for pollutant measurement both in the laboratory and in the field. Labile pollutants are best measur...

418

Air Pollution, Climate, and Heart Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... major sources of indoor particle pollution. Ground-level ozone, known for years to worsen lung disease, may ... gov . 10 Know when and where particle and ozone pollution levels may be unhealthy. Particle pollution is ...

419

Analysis of air pollution and greenhouse gases  

SciTech Connect

The current objective of the project Analysis of Air Pollution and Greenhouse Gases'' is to develop a study of emissions and emission sources that could easily be linked to models of economic activity. Initial studies were conducted to evaluate data currently available linking activity rates and emissions estimates. The emissions inventory developed for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) presents one of the most comprehensive data sets, and was chosen for our initial studies, which are described in this report. Over 99% of the SO{sub 2} emissions, 98% of the NO{sub x} emission and 57% of the VOC emissions from area sources are related to fuel combustion. The majority of emission from these sources are generated by the transportation sector. Activity rates for area sources are not archived with the NAPAP inventory; alternative derivations of these data will be part of the future activities of this project. The availability and completeness of the fuel heat content data in the NAPAP inventory were also studied. Approximately 10% of the SO{sub 2} emissions, 13% of the NO{sub x} emissions and 46% of the VOC emissions are generated by sources with unavailable data for fuel heat content. Initial estimates of pollutant emission rate per unit fuel heat content. Initial estimates of pollutant emission rate per unit fuel heat content were generated. Future studies for this project include the derivation of activity rates for area sources, improved explanations for the default fuel parameters defined in the NAPAP inventory and the development of links to data bases of economic activity.

Benkovitz, C.M.

1992-03-01

420

King Coal causes air pollution problems.  

PubMed

Every year, China is blanketed with some 23 million tons of particulates from smoke and dust along with 17 million tons of sulphur dioxide from the use of coal in power plants, factories, and home furnaces. Elevated concentrations of sulphur dioxide are found in cities like Chongqing and Guiyang, which are plagued by stagnant air masses during the winter months. Beijing, Shenyang, Shanghai, Xi'an, Guangzhou, Chongqing, and Guiyang all suffer from soot, ash, and dust fallout for much of the year. Northern cities like Beijing and Tianjin are also afflicted with high levels of heavy metals like lead, cadmium and even arsenic, which are bound to soot and dust particles. Hundreds of people in Xuanwei in Yunnan Province suffer from respiratory diseases and lung cancer brought on by pollution. Government studies have shown that between 1949 and 1979, cancer mortality in the Beijing area increased by 145%, with lung cancer being the most prevalent. Another atmospheric scourge that is spreading throughout China is acid rain. More than half of all rainfall events in large areas south of the Yangtze River have a pH of less than 5.6. The south-western part of China is also experiencing a forest dieback as severe as anything in Europe. For example, about half of all the pines on top of Mt. Nanshen (near Chongqing) have died, and nearly 40% of the fir forests on Mt. Emi have withered and died. On June 1, 1988, the National Prevention and Control of Air Pollution Law came into force. Acid rain research has been listed as one of the major priorities for the most recent National Five-Year Research Program, which runs from 1986 to 1990. For the future environmental protection measures must be taken into account when extracting coal; coal processing techniques must be improved: and new clean coal technologies should be introduced on a large scale. PMID:12291352

Wang, A; Zhao, D; Liu, J

1989-01-01

421

Assessment of Effects of Air Pollution on Daily Outpatient Visits using the Air Quality Index  

PubMed Central

Background The air quality index (AQI) is widely used to characterize the quality of ambient air. Chinese cities officially report the AQI on a daily basis. To assess the possible effects of air pollution on daily outpatient visits, we examined the association between AQI and the daily outpatient count. Methods Daily data on outpatient visits to each clinical department were collected from the Z county hospital of Datong City, China. The collection period was between 5 April and 30 June, 2012. Daily AQI data and meteorological information were simultaneously recorded. We compared outpatient counts between the index days and comparison days, and calculated Pearson’s product moment correlation coefficient between outpatient counts and AQI levels. Results The average AQI level for index days was significantly higher than that for comparison days. No significant difference was observed in temperature or relative humidity between index days and comparison days. The outpatient counts for pediatrics were significantly higher on index days than on comparison days, and no significant difference was noted in other clinical departments. The outpatient counts for pediatrics positively correlated with the AQI level, and no correlation was noted in other clinical departments. Conclusion The present study assessed the association between daily outpatient visits and air pollution using AQI. The results obtained suggest that air pollution could increase the outpatient count for pediatrics.

Mu, Haosheng; Otani, Shinji; Okamoto, Mikizo; Yokoyama, Yae; Tokushima, Yasuko; Onishi, Kazunari; Hosoda, Takenobu; Kurozawa, Youichi

2014-01-01

422

Air Pollution Data for Model Evaluation and Application  

EPA Science Inventory

One objective of designing an air pollution monitoring network is to obtain data for evaluating air quality models that are used in the air quality management process and scientific discovery.1.2 A common use is to relate emissions to air quality, including assessing ...

423

The Sources of Air Pollution and Their Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The problems of air pollution and its control are discussed. Major consideration is given the sources of pollution - motor vehicles, industry, power plants, space heating, and refuse disposal. Annual emission levels of five principle pollutants - carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, and particulate matter - are listed…

National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Arlington, VA.

424

Effect of air-pollution control on death rates in Dublin, Ireland: an intervention study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Background Particulate air pollution episodes have been associated with increased daily death. However, there is little direct evidence that diminished particulate air pollution concentrations would lead to reductions in death rates. We assessed the effect of air pollution controls—ie, the ban on coal sales—on particulate air pollution and death rates in Dublin. Methods Concentrations of air pollution and directly-

Luke Clancy; Pat Goodman; Hamish Sinclair; Douglas W Dockery

425

Ambient air pollution: an emerging risk factor for diabetes mellitus.  

PubMed

Growing evidence supports that air pollution has become an important risk factor for developing diabetes mellitus. Understanding the contributing effect of air pollution in population studies, elucidating the potential mechanisms involved, and identifying the most responsible pollutants are all required in order to promulgate successful changes in policy and to help formulate preventive measures in an effort to reduce the risk for diabetes. This review summarizes recent findings from epidemiologic studies and mechanistic insights that provide links between exposure to air pollution and a heightened risk for diabetes. PMID:25894943

Rao, Xiaoquan; Montresor-Lopez, Jessica; Puett, Robin; Rajagopalan, Sanjay; Brook, Robert D

2015-06-01

426

Absorption of air pollution by plants, and consequences for growth.  

PubMed

There is now great concern that air pollutants (especially sulfur dioxide, ozone, and oxides of nitrogen) can alter the physiological processes of plants, thereby affecting patterns of growth. Air pollutants cause damage to leaf cuticles and affect stomatal conductance. They can also have direct effects on photosynthetic systems, leaf longevity, and patterns of carbon allocation within plants. Pollutants interact with other environmental factors, and may alter plant-environment relationships on a regional scale. In this article, Winner and Atkinson summarize current knowledge of the effects of air pollutants on plant growth and physiology, and indicate the new directions of research now under way in North America and Europe. PMID:21227772

Winner, W E; Atkinson, C J

1986-07-01

427

Air Pollution and Infant Mortality in Mexico City  

EPA Science Inventory

Historic air pollution episodes of the 1950s led to acute increases in infant mortality, and some recent epidemiologic studies suggest that infant or child mortality may still result from air pollution at current levels. To investigate the evidence for such an association, we con...

428

Plug-in Sensors for Air Pollution Monitoring.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Faristors, a type of plug-in sensors used in analyzing equipment, are described in this technical report presented at the 12th Conference on Methods in Air Pollution and Industrial Hygiene Studies, University of Southern California, April, 1971. Their principles of operation, interchangeability, and versatility for measuring air pollution at…

Shaw, Manny

429

microRNAs: Implications for Air Pollution Research  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this review is to provide an update of the current understanding on the role of microRNAs in mediating genetic responses to air pollutants and to contemplate on how these responses ultimately control susceptibility to ambient air pollution. Morbidity and mortality ...

430

Author's personal copy Heavy air pollution suppresses summer thunderstorms  

E-print Network

Author's personal copy Heavy air pollution suppresses summer thunderstorms in central China Xin China, for assessing the impact of the increasing air pollution on convective precipitation. Adding frequency. This decrease was contributed by light and moderate (o25 mm dayÀ1 ) rainy days. These patterns

Li, Zhanqing

431

Methodological issues in studies of air pollution and reproductive health  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past decade there have been an increasing number of scientific studies describing possible effects of air pollution on perinatal health. These papers have mostly focused on commonly monitored air pollutants, primarily ozone (O3), particulate matter (PM), sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and various indices of perinatal health, including fetal growth, pregnancy duration, and

Tracey J. Woodruff; Jennifer D. Parker; Lyndsey A. Darrow; Rémy Slama; Michelle L. Bell; Hyunok Choi; Svetlana Glinianaia; Katherine J. Hoggatt; Catherine J. Karr; Danelle T. Lobdell; Michelle Wilhelm

2009-01-01

432

APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 11: Developer's Manual No. 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Developer's Manual No. 1 is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections, which are the same in each of…

Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

433

APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 18: City Planner's Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The City Planner's Manual is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections, which are the same in each of…

Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

434

APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 5: County Politicians' Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The County Politicians' Manual is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections, which are the same in each…

Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

435

APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 19: County Planner's Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The County Planner's Manual is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections, which are the same in each of…

Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

436

APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 20: Reference Materials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Reference Materials Manual is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. For the purposes of the gaming exercise, APEX…

Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

437

APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 13: Developer's Manual No. 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Developer's Manual No. 3 is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections, which are the same in each of…

Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

438

APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 15: Developer's Manual No. 5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Developer's Manual No. 5 is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two section, which are the same in each of…

Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

439

APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 4: City Politicians' Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The City Politicians' Manual is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections, which are the same in each of…

Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

440

APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 12: Developer's Manual No. 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Developer's Manual No. 2 is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections, which are the same in each of…

Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

441

APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 1: Game Director's Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Game Director's Manual is the first in a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The participants, which may range in number from 18 to…

Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

442

APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 16: Developer's Manual No. 6.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Developer's Manual No. 6 is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections, which are the same in each of…

Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

443

Association of Air Pollution With School Absenteeism Due to Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess the association of air pollution and school absenteeism among elementary students. Design: Time-series analysis of air pollution and school absenteeism data with controlling for long-term trends, seasonality, day of the week, and holiday as well as me- teorologic variables. Setting: School absenteeism data for the period from March 2, 1996, to December 22, 1999, were collected from

Hyesook Park; Boeun Lee; Eun-Hee Ha; Jong-Tae Lee; Ho Kim; Yun-Chul Hong

2002-01-01

444

APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 14; Developer's Manual No. 4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Developer's Manual No. 4 is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections, which are the same in each of…

Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

445

APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 17: Developer's Manual No. 7.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Developer's Manual No. 7 is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections, which are the same in each of…

Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

446

Ambient Air Pollution and Atherosclerosis in Los Angeles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Associations have been found between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The contribution of air pollution to atherosclerosis that underlies many cardiovascular diseases has not been investigated. Animal data suggest that ambient particulate matter (PM) may contribute to atherogenesis. We used data on 798 participants from two clinical trials to investigate the association between atherosclerosis

Nino Künzli; Michael Jerrett; Wendy J. Mack; Bernardo Beckerman; Laurie LaBree; Frank Gilliland; Duncan Thomas; John Peters; Howard N. Hodis

2004-01-01

447

Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Injury Epidemiology, Toxicology, and Mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent epidemiologic studies show that increased levels of air pollutants are positively associated with cardio- vascular morbidity and mortality. Inhalation of air pollutants affects heart rate, heart rate variability, blood pres- sure, vascular tone, blood coagulability, and the progression of atherosclerosis. Several categories within the general population (i.e., people with pre-existing cardiovascular disease and diabetic and elderly individuals) are considered

Boris Z. Simkhovich; Michael T. Kleinman; Robert A. Kloner

448

Novel Approaches for Estimating Human Exposure to Air Pollutants  

EPA Science Inventory

Numerous health studies have used measurements from a few central-site ambient monitors to characterize air pollution exposures. Relying on solely on central-site ambient monitors does not account for the spatial-heterogeneity of ambient air pollution patterns, the temporal varia...

449

Methodological issues in studies of air pollution and reproductive health  

EPA Science Inventory

In the past decade there have been an increasing number of scientific studies describing possible effects of air pollution on perinatal health. These papers have mostly focused on commonly monitored air pollutants, primarily ozone (O3), particulate matter (PM), sulfur dioxide (S...

450

COSTS OF AIR POLLUTION ABATEMENT SYSTEMS FOR SEWAGE SLUDGE INCINERATORS  

EPA Science Inventory

Capital and annual costs were calculated for applying six different air pollution control systems to municipal sewage sludge incinerators that were using multiple-hearth furnaces. The systems involved three principal types of air pollution equipment-wet scrubbers, fabric filters,...

451

Heart rate variability associated with particulate air pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Epidemiologic studies have linked fine particulate air pollution with cardiopulmonary mortality, yet underlying biologic mechanisms remain unknown. Changes in heart rate variability (HRV) may reflect changes in cardiac autonomic function and risk of sudden cardiac death. This study evaluated changes in mean heart rate and HRV in human beings associated with changes in exposure to particulate air pollution. Methods:

C. Arden Pope; Richard L. Verrier; Eric G. Lovett; Andrew C. Larson; Mark E. Raizenne; Richard E. Kanner; Joel Schwartz; G. Martin Villegas; Diane R. Gold; Douglas W. Dockery

1999-01-01

452

Air pollution from traffic in city districts near major motorways  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to assess exposure to air pollution from traffic of subjects living near motorways, traffic related air pollutants were measured indoors and outdoors in six city districts near motorways in the West of the Netherlands. Outdoor measurements of PM10, PM2.5, black smoke and benzene were conducted at four different distances from the roadside in two of the six city

Mirjam C Roorda-Knape; Nicole A. H Janssen; Jeroen J De Hartog; Patricia H. N Van Vliet; Hendrik Harssema; Bert Brunekreef

1998-01-01

453

EFFECTS OF PARTICULATE AIR POLLUTION ON ASTHMATIC SUBJECTS  

EPA Science Inventory

While much remains to be understood, individuals with respiratory disease appear to be affected by high levels of air pollution as indicated by subjective reports, clinic and hospital visits, and morbidity. Suspended particulates make up a substantial part of urban air pollution,...

454

Air pollution, nuclear power and electricity demand: an economic perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have studied the potential for physical or financial disruption of the electric utility system in New York as it may be affected by nuclear power availability, air pollution control policy, inflation, and economic growth. The method of analysis is the EPA-sponsored CCMU model which integrates utility economics, demand forecasting and customer charges, air pollution control, and power plant dispatching.

D. Chapman; T. Mount; M. Czerwinski; M. Younger

1983-01-01

455

Mechanistic analysis of plant responses to air pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human activity is altering the chemistry of the atmosphere, which affectS the physiology and growth of plants. This article developS four ideas currently emerging from the work of plant scientists. (1) Air pollution definitions: broadened to include analysis of plant responses to a wide range of atmospheric chemicals emitted from anthropogenic sources but not previously considered as air pollutants including

1994-01-01

456

Air pollution effects on the structure of Citrus aurantium leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individual air pollutants cause acute and chronic plant injury, act on stomata and affect carbon dioxide exchange as well as plant growth and development. Inhibition of photosynthesis by several air pollutants has been reported repeatedly. Besides, structural modifications of cell organelles have been reported after fumigation by SOâ. Although chlorosis and subsequent necrosis are common phenomena caused by artificial treatment

G. K. Psaras; N. S. Christodoulakis

1987-01-01

457

The Health Costs of Inaction with Respect to Air Pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

How much does the environment affect human health? Is air pollution shortening our lives and those of our children? These questions are fundamental to environmental policies. Air pollution is a major environmental health threat in OECD countries, contributing to a number of illnesses, such as asthma, cancer and premature deaths. Despite national and international interventions and decreases in major emissions,

Pascale Scapecchi

2008-01-01

458

Air Pollution Monitoring Site Selection by Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis  

EPA Science Inventory

Criteria air pollutants (particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, volatile organic compounds, and carbon monoxide) as well as toxic air pollutants are a global concern. A particular scenario that is receiving increased attention in the research is the exposure to t...

459

UNDERSTANDING THE EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTION ON HUMAN HEALTH  

EPA Science Inventory

Modern air pollution regulation is first and foremost motivated by concerns about the effects of air pollutants on human health and secondarily by concerns about its effects on ecosystems, cultural artifacts, and quality of life values such as visibility. This order of priority ...

460

40 CFR 52.1477 - Nevada air pollution emergency plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Nevada air pollution emergency plan. 52.1477 Section 52.1477 Protection...IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Nevada § 52.1477 Nevada air pollution emergency plan. Section 6.1.5 of the...

2014-07-01

461

40 CFR 52.1477 - Nevada air pollution emergency plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Nevada air pollution emergency plan. 52.1477 Section 52.1477 Protection...IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Nevada § 52.1477 Nevada air pollution emergency plan. Section 6.1.5 of the...

2013-07-01

462

40 CFR 52.1477 - Nevada air pollution emergency plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nevada air pollution emergency plan. 52.1477 Section 52.1477 Protection...IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Nevada § 52.1477 Nevada air pollution emergency plan. Section 6.1.5 of the...

2010-07-01

463

40 CFR 52.1477 - Nevada air pollution emergency plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Nevada air pollution emergency plan. 52.1477 Section 52.1477 Protection...IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Nevada § 52.1477 Nevada air pollution emergency plan. Section 6.1.5 of the...

2012-07-01

464

40 CFR 52.1477 - Nevada air pollution emergency plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Nevada air pollution emergency plan. 52.1477 Section 52.1477 Protection...IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Nevada § 52.1477 Nevada air pollution emergency plan. Section 6.1.5 of the...

2011-07-01

465

Discover-AQ flies in Calif. to study air pollution  

Atmospheric Science Data Center

... title:  Discover-AQ flies in Calif. to study air pollution     See the Full Video ... one as close as 1,000 feet to the ground -- to measure air pollution. They are part of a five-year NASA science campaign called ...

2013-04-25

466

Indoor air pollution from household use of solid fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This chapter summarizes the methodology used to assess the burden of disease caused by indoor air pollution from household use of solid fuels. Most research into and control of indoor air pollution worldwide has focused on sources of particular concern in developed countries, such as environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), volatile organic compounds from furnishings and radon from soil. Although

Kirk R. Smith; Sumi Mehta; Mirjam Maeusezahl-Feuz

467

Health impact assessment of air pollution in Valladolid, Spain  

PubMed Central

Objective To estimate the attributable and targeted avoidable deaths (ADs; TADs) of outdoor air pollution by ambient particulate matter (PM10), PM2.5 and O3 according to specific WHO methodology. Design Health impact assessment. Setting City of Valladolid, Spain (around 300?000 residents). Data sources Demographics; mortality; pollutant concentrations collected 1999–2008. Main outcome measures Attributable fractions; ADs and TADs per year for 1999–2008. Results Higher TADs estimates (shown here) were obtained when assuming as ‘target’ concentrations WHO Air Quality Guidelines instead of Directive 2008/50/EC. ADs are considered relative to pollutant background levels. All-cause mortality associated to PM10 (all ages): 52 ADs (95% CI 39 to 64); 31 TADs (95% CI 24 to 39).All-cause mortality associated to PM10 (<5?years): 0 ADs (95% CI 0 to 1); 0 TADs (95% CI 0 to 1). All-cause mortality associated to PM2.5 (>30?years): 326 ADs (95% CI 217 to 422); 231 TADs (95% CI 153 to 301). Cardiopulmonary and lung cancer mortality associated to PM2.5 (>30?years): ??Cardiopulmonary: 186 ADs (95% CI 74 to 280); 94 TADs (95% CI 36 to 148). ??Lung cancer : 51 ADs (95% CI 21 to 73); 27 TADs (95% CI 10 to 41).All-cause, respiratory and cardiovascular mortality associated to O3 (all ages): ??All-cause: 52ADs (95% CI 25 to 77) ; 31 TADs (95% CI 15 to 45). ??Respiratory: 5ADs (95% CI ?2 to 13) ; 3 TADs (95% CI ?1 to 8). ??Cardiovascular: 30 ADs (95% CI 8 to 51) ; 17 TADs (95% CI 5 to 30). Negative estimates which should be read as zero were obtained when pollutant concentrations were below counterfactuals or assumed risk coefficients were below one. Conclusions Our estimates suggest a not negligible negative impact on mortality of outdoor air pollution. The implementation of WHO methodology provides critical information to distinguish an improvement range in air pollution control. PMID:25326212

Cárdaba Arranz, Mario; Muñoz Moreno, María Fe; Armentia Medina, Alicia; Alonso Capitán, Margarita; Carreras Vaquer, Fernando; Almaraz Gómez, Ana

2014-01-01

468

Air Pollution Exposure and Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Ambient air pollution (AAP) and particulate matters (PM) have been closely associated with adverse health effects such as respiratory disease and cardiovascular diseases. Previous studies have examined the adverse health effects associated with short- and long-term exposure to AAP and outdoor PM on respiratory disease. However, the effect of PM size (PM2.5 and PM10) on cardiovascular disease has not been well studied. Thus, it remains unclear how the size of the inhalable particles (coarse, fine, or ultrafine) affects mortality and morbidity. Airborne PM concentrations are commonly used for ambient air quality management worldwide, owing to the known effects on cardiorespiratory health. In this article, we assess the relationship between cardiovascular diseases and PM, with a particular focus on PM size. We discuss the association of PM2.5 and PM10, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and elemental carbon with mortality and morbidity due to cardiovascular diseases, stroke, and altered blood pressure, based on epidemiological studies. In addition, we provide evidence that the adverse health effects of AAP and PM are more pronounced among the elderly, children, and people with preexisting cardiovascular and respiratory conditions. Finally, we critically summarize the literature pertaining to cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis and stroke, and introduce potential studies to better understand the health significance of AAP and PM on cardiovascular disease. PMID:25071915

Lee, Byeong-Jae; Kim, Bumseok

2014-01-01

469

Air pollution assessment of Salé's city (Morocco)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four sites were selected in Sale's city in Morocco in order to contribute in air pollution level assessment and determination of its effects on public health. The sites were selected so that they are close to the most important industrialized areas, they have a very high demographic density and they cover a heavy traffic. Two approaches of air sampling and subsequent analysis methods of elements in atmospheric aerosols have been performed. The first is a classical approach, which consists in sampling total airborne materials with a High Volume Sampler and analysing the samples using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). The second is having its interest for studies relating effects of particles on human health. It consists in employing a Dichotomous Sampler to collect inhalable particles and the X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) for elemental analysis. With such system, it was possible to collect separately respirable and inhalable aerosols. The ED-XRF analysis method used is appropriate for monitoring airborne polluants in living and working areas with advantage of simple preparation, nondestructive nature, rapidity and suitable limits of detection. Using this method, it was possible to identify and quantify S, Ca, CI, Fe, Cu, and Pb. With Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy Analysis Method, we quantified Cd. This study have been completed by measuring NOx SO2 and solid suspended particles or airborne particulate matter (APM).

Bounakhla, M.; Fatah, A.; Embarch, K.; Ibn Majah, M.; Azami, R.; Sabir, A.; Nejjar, A.; Cherkaoui, R.; Gaudry, A.

2003-05-01

470

Environmental economics: capital expenditures for air and water pollution control  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey showed that in the period 1970-76, capital expenditures by industries and utilities for air pollution abatement of stationary sources was $19.8 billion compared with $12.9 billion for water pollution control. During the 1977-85 period, capital expenditures by industries and utilities for air pollution abatement are expected to total over $36 billion, of which $6.75 billion will be for

de la Rue

1977-01-01

471

Impact Of Air Pollution On Reproductive Health In Northern Bohemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of environmental pollution on reproductive outcomes has been studied in the context of an inter-disciplinary research\\u000a program analyzing the impact of air pollution on human health in the Czech Republic.\\u000a \\u000a Semen quality was evaluated in young men living in the Teplice District of Northern Bohemia where they are exposed to episodes\\u000a of high air pollution during the winter

J. Rubes; S. G. Selevan; R. J. Sram; D. P. Evenson; S. D. Perreault

472

Invited commentary: assessment of air pollution and suicide risk.  

PubMed

Suicide is a serious public health issue worldwide, with multiple risk factors, such as severe mental illness, alcohol abuse, a painful loss, exposure to violence, or social isolation. Environmental factors, particularly chemical and meteorological variables, have been examined as risk factors for suicide, but less evidence is available on whether air pollution is related to suicide. In this issue of the Journal, Bakian et al. ( publish findings from a study that found a short-term increased risk of suicide associated with increased air pollution. This study bolsters a small body of research linking air pollution exposure to suicide risk. If the association between air pollution and suicide is confirmed, it would broaden the scope of the already large disease burden associated with air pollution. PMID:25673818

Guo, Yuming; Barnett, Adrian G

2015-03-01

473

Air Pollution Exposure—A Trigger for Myocardial Infarction?  

PubMed Central

The association between ambient air pollution exposure and hospitalization for cardiovascular events has been reported in several studies with conflicting results. A case-crossover design was used to investigate the effects of air pollution in 660 first-time myocardial infarction cases in Stockholm in 1993–1994, interviewed shortly after diagnosis using a standard protocol. Air pollution data came from central urban background monitors. No associations were observed between the risk for onset of myocardial infarction and two-hour or 24-hour air pollution exposure. No evidence of susceptible subgroups was found. This study provides no support that moderately elevated air pollution levels trigger first-time myocardial infarction. PMID:20617041

Berglind, Niklas; Ljungman, Petter; Möller, Jette; Hallqvist, Johan; Nyberg, Fredrik; Rosenqvist, Mårten; Pershagen, Göran; Bellander, Tom

2010-01-01

474

PRECOMBUSTION REMOVAL OF HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANT PRECURSORS  

SciTech Connect

In response to growing environmental concerns reflected in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA), the United States Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored several research and development projects in late 1995 as part of an initiative entitled Advanced Environmental Control Technologies for Coal-Based Power Systems. The program provided cost-shared support for research and development projects that could accelerate the commercialization of affordable, high-efficiency, low-emission, coal-fueled electric generating technologies. Clean coal technologies developed under this program would serve as prototypes for later generations of technologies to be implemented in the industrial sector. In order to identify technologies with the greatest potential for commercial implementation, projects funded under Phase I of this program were subject to competitive review by DOE before being considered for continuation funding under Phase II. One of the primary topical areas identified under the DOE initiative relates to the development of improved technologies for reducing the emissions of air toxics. Previous studies have suggested that many of the potentially hazardous air pollutant precursors (HAPPs) occur as trace elements in the mineral matter of run-of-mine coals. As a result, these elements have the potential to be removed prior to combustion at the mine site by physical coal cleaning processes (i.e., coal preparation). Unfortunately, existing coal preparation plants are generally limited in their ability to remove HAPPs due to incomplete liberation of the mineral matter and high organic associations of some trace elements. In addition, existing physical coal cleaning plants are not specifically designed or optimized to ensure that high trace element rejections may be achieved.

Unknown

2000-10-09

475

About the Air Pollution and Respiratory Health Program The Air Pollution and Respiratory Health Program of the National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for  

E-print Network

About the Air Pollution and Respiratory Health Program The Air Pollution and Respiratory Health indoor and outdoor air pollution. CDC's asthma program focuses on three main activities: (1) tracking public health agencies. For example, CDC staff are currently studying the effect of outdoor air pollution

476

Air Pollution and Mortality in 20 U.S. Cities Particulate Air Pollution and Mortality in 20 U.S. Cities: 1987-1994  

E-print Network

Air Pollution and Mortality in 20 U.S. Cities 1 Particulate Air Pollution and Mortality in 20 U Word Count: 3032 #12;Air Pollution and Mortality in 20 U.S. Cities 2 Abstract Background: Time-series analyses have linked contemporary levels of air pollution, particularly particles, to daily mortality

Dominici, Francesca

477

Determinants of perceived air pollution annoyance and association between annoyance scores and air pollution (PM 2.5, NO 2) concentrations in the European EXPOLIS study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apart from its traditionally considered objective impacts on health, air pollution can also have perceived effects, such as annoyance. The psychological effects of air pollution may often be more important to well-being than the biophysical effects. Health effects of perceived annoyance from air pollution are so far unknown. More knowledge of air pollution annoyance levels, determinants and also associations with

Tuulia Rotko; Lucy Oglesby; Nino Künzli; Paolo Carrer; Mark J Nieuwenhuijsen; Matti Jantunen

2002-01-01

478

Improving estimates of air pollution exposure through ubiquitous sensing technologies.  

PubMed

Traditional methods of exposure assessment in epidemiological studies often fail to integrate important information on activity patterns, which may lead to bias, loss of statistical power, or both in health effects estimates. Novel sensing technologies integrated with mobile phones offer potential to reduce exposure measurement error. We sought to demonstrate the usability and relevance of the CalFit smartphone technology to track person-level time, geographic location, and physical activity patterns for improved air pollution exposure assessment. We deployed CalFit-equipped smartphones in a free-living population of 36 subjects in Barcelona, Spain. Information obtained on physical activity and geographic location was linked to space-time air pollution mapping. We found that information from CalFit could substantially alter exposure estimates. For instance, on average travel activities accounted for 6% of people's time and 24% of their daily inhaled NO2. Due to the large number of mobile phone users, this technology potentially provides an unobtrusive means of enhancing epidemiologic exposure data at low cost. PMID:23416743

de Nazelle, Audrey; Seto, Edmund; Donaire-Gonzalez, David; Mendez, Michelle; Matamala, Jaume; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Jerrett, Michael

2013-05-01

479

Ambient air pollution and annoyance responses from pregnant women  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ObjectivesTo describe the degree of annoyance caused by air pollution and noise in pregnant women in a birth cohort; to determine the modifying factors and their relation with exposure to ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO 2). MethodsThe study population was 855 pregnant women in Valencia, Spain. Annoyance caused by air pollution and noise, and explanatory factors were obtained from 786 pregnant women through a questionnaire. NO 2 levels were determined combining measurements at 93 points within the area of study and using geostatistical techniques (kriging). ResultsIn all 7.9% of the women reported high annoyance caused by air pollution and 13.1% high annoyance caused by noise. There was a significant difference in the degree of annoyance due to both air pollution and noise depending on the area where the women lived and their working status. The degree of annoyance correlated better with measured NO 2 at the municipality level (air pollution: r=0.53; noise: r=0.44) than at the individual level (air pollution and noise: r=0.21). On multivariate analysis, being a housewife, higher NO 2 levels and high traffic density were associated with higher degrees of annoyance. ConclusionsThere was a high percentage of women who perceived medium-high annoyance due to noise and air pollution. Annoyance caused by environmental pollutants could lead to some psychological effects, which impair the quality of life, or even physiological ones, which affect prenatal development.

Llop, Sabrina; Ballester, Ferran; Estarlich, Marisa; Esplugues, Ana; Fernández-Patier, Rosalia; Ramón, Rosa; Marco, Alfredo; Aguirre, Amelia; Sunyer, Jordi; Iñiguez, Carmen; INMA-Valencia cohort

480

Evaluating impacts of air pollution in China on public health: Implications for future air pollution and energy policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our objective is to establish the link between energy consumption and technologies, air pollution concentrations, and resulting impacts on public health in eastern China. We use Zaozhuang, a city in eastern China heavily dependent on coal, as a case study to quantify the impacts that air pollution in eastern China had on public health in 2000 and the benefits in

Xiaoping Wang; Denise L. Mauzerall

2006-01-01

481

Pollution Control in a Manufacturing System Stochastic Models for Analysis and Control of Air Pollution  

E-print Network

-generation plants is a much-studied topic. The issue of health hazards arising from water pollution (see WagnerPollution Control in a Manufacturing System Stochastic Models for Analysis and Control of Air Pollution in a Manufacturing System Jan, 1, 2005 Technical Report SOPTL-05-01 Missouri University of Science

Gosavi, Abhijit

482

Climate Change, Air Pollution, and the Economics of Health Impacts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change and air pollution are intricately linked. The distinction between greenhouse substances and other air pollutants is resolved at least for the time being in the context of international negotiations on climate policy through the identification of CO2, CH4, N2O, SF6 and the per- and hydro- fluorocarbons as substances targeted for control. Many of the traditional air pollutant emissions including for example CO, NMVOCs, NOx, SO2, aerosols, and NH3 also directly or indirectly affect the radiative balance of the atmosphere. Among both sets of gases are precursors of and contributors to pollutants such as tropopospheric ozone, itself a strong greenhouse gas, particulate matter, and other pollutants that affect human health. Fossil fuel combustion, production, or transportation is a significant source for many of these substances. Climate policy can thus affect traditional air pollution or air pollution policy can affect climate. Health effects of acute or chronic exposure to air pollution include increased asthma, lung cancer, heart disease and bronchitis among others. These, in turn, redirect resources in the economy toward medical expenditures or result in lost labor or non-labor time with consequent effects on economic activity, itself producing a potential feedback on emissions levels. Study of these effects ultimately requires a fully coupled earth system model. Toward that end we develop an approach for introducing air pollution health impacts into the Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model, a component of the MIT Integrated Global Systems Model (IGSM) a coupled economics-chemistry-atmosphere-ocean-terrestrial biosphere model of earth systems including an air pollution model resolving the urban scale. This preliminary examination allows us to consider how climate policy affects air pollution and consequent health effects, and to study the potential impacts of air pollution policy on climate. The novel contribution is the effort to endogenize air pollution impacts within the EPPA model, allowing us to study potential economic effects and feedbacks. We find strong interaction between air pollution and economies, although precise estimates of the effects require further investigation and refined resolution of the urban scale chemistry model.

Reilly, J.; Yang, T.; Paltsev, S.; Wang, C.; Prinn, R.; Sarofim, M.

2003-12-01

483

Air pollution research needs for herbaceous and ornamental plants, and for agriculturally generated pollutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of various air pollutants on economically important crops and ornamentals have been studied since before the turn of the century. Summaries of this effects research in Criteria Documents developed by the Environmental Protection Agency should be reviewed in light of differential regional sensitivity. These differences are associated with environmental parameters and distribution of pollutants. Many research efforts on air

W. W. Heck; O. C. Taylor; H. E. Heggestad

1972-01-01

484

Air Pollution Research Needs: Herbaceous and Ornamental Plants and Agriculturally Generated Pollutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of various air pollutants on economically important crops and ornamentals have been studied since before the turn of the century.Summaries of this research on the effects of air pollutants, that have appeared in criteria documents developed by the Environmental Protection Agency, should be reviewed with respect to differences in plant susceptibility found in various regions of the country. These

W. W. Heck; O. C. Taylor; H. E. Heggestad

1973-01-01

485

E-Alerts: Environmental pollution and control (air pollution and control). E-mail newsletter  

SciTech Connect

Topics of discussion include the following: Air pollution from flue gases, exhaust gases, odors, dust, smog, microorganisms, etc.; Control techniques and equipment; Sampling and analytical techniques, and equipment; Waste gas recovery; Biological and ecological effects; Air pollution chemistry; Acid precipitation; Atmospheric motion; Laws, legislation, and regulations; Public administration; Economics; Land use.

NONE

1999-04-01

486

Air pollution problem in the Mexico City metropolitan zone: Photochemical pollution  

SciTech Connect

Mexico City Metropolitan Zone (MCMZ) represents an example of a megacity where the air pollution problem has reached an important evolution in a very short time, causing a risk in the health of a population of more than 20 million inhabitants. The atmospheric pollution problem in the MCMZ, began several decades ago, but it increased drastically in the middle of the 80`s. It is important to recognize that in the 60`s, 70`s and the first half of the 80`s the main pollutants were sulfur dioxide and total suspended particles. However since the second half of the 80`s until now, ozone is the most important air pollutant besides of the suspended particles (PM{sub 10}) and other toxic pollutants (1--8). The purpose of this paper is to discuss the evolution of the ozone atmospheric pollution problem in the MCMZ, as well as to analyze the results of several implemented air pollution control strategies.

Alvarez, H.B.; Alvarez, P.S.; Echeverria, R.S.; Jardon, R.T. [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera (Mexico). Seccion de Contaminacion Ambiental

1997-12-31

487

Deposition of air pollutants to the great waters. First report to Congress  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Great Waters program is to evaluate the atmospheric deposition of air pollutants to the Great Lakes, Lake Champlain, Chesapeake Bay, and coastal waters. The report to Congress is to include information on the contribution of atmospheric deposition to pollutant loadings, the environmental or public health effects of such pollution, the source or sources of such pollution, and a description of any regulatory revisions under applicable Federal laws that may be necessary to assure protection of human health and the environment. The scientific information currently available is summarized in this report, and recommended actions are described.

Not Available

1994-05-01

488

76 FR 42052 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries AGENCY: Environmental Protection...Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries. EPA is now providing final...Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries, and the signed rule...

2011-07-18

489

40 CFR 63.60 - Deletion of caprolactam from the list of hazardous air pollutants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Deletion of caprolactam from the list of hazardous air pollutants. 63.60...HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES List of Hazardous Air Pollutants, Petitions...Quantity Designations, Source Category List § 63.60 Deletion of caprolactam...

2010-07-01

490

14 CFR 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. 1274.926 Section 1274...Conditions § 1274.926 Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002 If...

2013-01-01

491

14 CFR 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-01-01 false Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. 1274.926 Section 1274...Conditions § 1274.926 Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002 If...

2014-01-01

492

14 CFR 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. 1274.926 Section 1274...Conditions § 1274.926 Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002 If...

2010-01-01

493

14 CFR 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. 1274.926 Section 1274...Conditions § 1274.926 Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002 If...

2012-01-01

494

40 CFR 63.13 - Addresses of State air pollution control agencies and EPA Regional Offices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Addresses of State air pollution control agencies and EPA Regional...EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES... § 63.13 Addresses of State air pollution control agencies and EPA...

2014-07-01

495

40 CFR 63.13 - Addresses of State air pollution control agencies and EPA Regional Offices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Addresses of State air pollution control agencies and EPA Regional...EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES... § 63.13 Addresses of State air pollution control agencies and EPA...

2012-07-01

496

77 FR 24883 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Intergovernmental...

2012-04-26

497

40 CFR 52.2227 - Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes. 52.2227... § 52.2227 Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes. (a...actions for mobile sources during air pollution emergency episodes. [37...

2014-07-01

498

40 CFR 52.1639 - Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes. 52.1639... § 52.1639 Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes. (a...Environmental Improvement Board, entitled Air Pollution Episode Contingency Plan...

2011-07-01

499

40 CFR 52.11 - Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes. 52.11...Provisions § 52.11 Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes. (a) Each subpart identifies portions of the air pollution emergency episode...

2011-07-01

500

76 FR 37044 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Intergovernmental...

2011-06-24