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1

The National Air Pollution Technical Information Center— A Progress Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This progress report describes the National Air Pollution Technical Information Center currently under development in the Division of Air Pollution, Public Health Service. It briefly reviews the report \\

Victor C. Searle; Robert Porter

1965-01-01

2

Technical Information Resources in the Air Pollution Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

In common with other technical fields and disciplines, the air pollution area has “information explosion” problems, compounded by the interdisciplinary nature of the field and the current increased emphasis on air pollution and its control. The development of technical information programs to meet these needs is traced, with emphasis on the Air Pollution Technical Infor-mation Center established by the National

Victor C. Searle

1969-01-01

3

Air Pollution  

MedlinePLUS

Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

4

Air Pollution, A Scientists' Institute for Public Information Workbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Documentation is given on the known and potential effects of air pollution on human health, weather conditions, and biosphere. Practical applications of this information are discussed, with special reference to the Federal Air Quality Act and to the planning of urban expressways. Problems in defining standards of air quality are discussed.…

Nadler, Allen A.; And Others

5

Six Common Air Pollutants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The EPA's site about the six common air pollutants is a great resource for the public, or for anyone studying or teaching about air pollution and other environmental issues. Air pollution trends are outlined on the site and a brief backround shows highlights of air pollutant history including the Clean Air Act and different standards. This site is a great place to find the most recent information about air pollutants and quality in the U.S.

2008-11-25

6

Air Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Phoenix metropolitan area, like many large cities, has problems with air pollution at certain times of the year. You can do a simple experiment to determine some of the factors that affect air pollution.

Biology

2009-06-11

7

Air Pollution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A summary of one of our most pressing environmental problems, air pollution, is offered in this book by the Director of Air Pollution Control for the Queensland (Australia) State Government. Discussion of the subject is not restricted to Queensland or Australian problems and policies, however, but includes analysis of air pollution the world…

Gilpin, Alan

8

Air Pollution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A summary of one of our most pressing environmental problems, air pollution, is offered in this book by the Director of Air Pollution Control for the Queensland (Australia) State Government. Discussion of the subject is not restricted to Queensland or Australian problems and policies, however, but includes analysis of air pollution the world over.…

Gilpin, Alan

9

Air Pollution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Materials related to air pollution are reviewed for the period January 1987, to October 1988. The topics are pollution monitoring, air pollution, and environmental chemistry. The organization consists of two major analytical divisions: (1) gaseous methods; and (2) aerosol and particulate methods. (MVL)|

Fox, Donald L.

1989-01-01

10

Air pollution.  

PubMed

Toxic air pollutants are continuously released into the air supply. Various pollutants come from chemical facilities and small businesses, such as automobile service stations and dry cleaning establishments. Others, such as nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and other volatile organic chemicals, arise primarily from the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels (coal and petroleum) and are emitted from sources that include car exhausts, home heating and industrial power plants. Pollutants in the atmosphere also result from photochemical transformations; for example, ozone is formed when molecular oxygen or nitrogen interacts with ultraviolet radiation. An association between air pollution exposure and lung cancer has been observed in several studies. The evidence for other cancers is far less conclusive. Estimates of the population attributable risk of cancer has varied substantially over the last 40 years, reflecting the limitations of studies; these include insufficient information on confounders, difficulties in characterizing associations due to a likely lengthy latency interval, and exposure misclassification. Although earlier estimates were less than one percent, recent cohort studies that have taken into account some confounding factors, such as smoking and education amongst others, suggest that approximately 3.6% of lung cancer in the European Union could be due to air pollution exposure, particularly to sulphate and fine particulates. A separate cohort study estimated 5-7% of lung cancers in European never smokers and ex-smokers could be due to air pollution exposure. Therefore, while cigarette smoking remains the predominant risk factor, the proportion of lung cancers attributable to air pollution may be higher than previously thought. Overall, major weaknesses in all air-pollution-and-cancer studies to date have been inadequate characterization of long-term air pollution exposure and imprecise or no measurements of covariates. It has only been in the last decade that measurements to PM2.5 become more widely available. A key weakness of many studies is using fixed-site monitoring data and assuming everyone in a region had the same exposure. This ignores spatial variability, and does not take into account how individuals' exposures differ with pollution sources inside, outside, both at work, home and elsewhere. More recent efforts to model indicators of vehicular traffic, and residential distances to major roads and highway can allow for some of this spatial variability to be better controlled for. However, this still does not take into account differences in activity patterns. If the effect is small, these biases will compromise the ability to detect an association. In most situations, the resulting estimates tend to be biased toward the null (i.e., no effect). For misclassification of exposure the inability to adequately control for confounding variables may cause bias in either direction. Recent improvements in statistical methodology use measurements at fixed sites combined with residential histories to estimate individuals' cumulative exposures. They also recognize measurement errors associated with covariates in the analysis to improve estimates of effects. Other challenges include the fact that measurements of exposure and confounders can change over time and long term data are needed due to the anticipated latency interval between harmful exposures and development of cancer. PMID:21199603

Le, Nhu D; Sun, Li; Zidek, James V

2010-01-01

11

Air Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to the concept of air quality by investigating the composition, properties, atmospheric layers and everyday importance of air. They explore the sources and effects of visible and invisible air pollution. By learning some fundamental meteorology concepts (air pressure, barometers, prediction, convection currents, temperature inversions), students learn the impact of weather on air pollution control and prevention. Looking at models and maps, they explore the consequences of pollutant transport via weather and water cycles. Students are introduced to acids, bases and pH, and the environmental problem of acid rain, including how engineers address this type of pollution. Using simple models, they study the greenhouse effect, the impact of increased greenhouse gases on the planetâs protective ozone layer and the global warming theory. Students explore the causes and effects of the Earth's ozone holes through an interactive simulation. Students identify the types and sources of indoor air pollutants in their school and home, evaluating actions that can be taken to reduce and prevent poor indoor air quality. By building and observing a few simple models of pollutant recovery methods, students explore the modern industrial technologies designed by engineers to clean up and prevent air pollution.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

12

Air Pollution and Health: Emerging Information on Susceptible Populations  

EPA Science Inventory

Outdoor air pollution poses risks to human health in communities around the world, and research on populations who are most susceptible continues to reveal new insights. Human susceptibility to adverse health effects from exposure to air pollution can be related to underlying dis...

13

U.S. EPA'S INDOOR AIR QUALITY IMPLEMENTATION PLAN. APPENDIX A. PRELIMINARY INDOOR AIR POLLUTION INFORMATION ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The 'Preliminary Indoor Air Pollution Information Assessment' summarizes and assesses information from the published scientific literature regarding sources of indoor pollutants, monitoring methodology and instrumentation, exposure, health effects and mitigation strategies. Infor...

14

Air Pollution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this book is to describe the basic mechanisms whereby pollution is transported and diffused in the atmosphere. It is designed to give practitioners an understanding of basic mechanics and physics so they may have a correct basis on which to formulate their decisions related to practical air pollution control problems. Since many…

Scorer, Richard S.

15

Air Pollution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this book is to describe the basic mechanisms whereby pollution is transported and diffused in the atmosphere. It is designed to give practitioners an understanding of basic mechanics and physics so they may have a correct basis on which to formulate their decisions related to practical air pollution control problems. Since many…

Scorer, Richard S.

16

Air pollution and health: emerging information on susceptible populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Outdoor air pollution poses risks to human health in communities around the world, and research on populations who are most\\u000a susceptible continues to reveal new insights. Human susceptibility to adverse health effects from exposure to air pollution\\u000a can be related to underlying disease; demographic or anthropometric characteristics; genetic profile; race and ethnicity;\\u000a lifestyle, behaviors, and socioeconomic position; and location of

Marie S. O’Neill; Carrie V. Breton; Robert B. Devlin; Mark J. Utell

17

Air Pollution, Teachers' Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|One of three in a series about pollution, this teacher's guide for a unit on air pollution is designed for use in junior high school grades. It offers suggestions for extending the information and activities contained in the textual material for students. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of air pollution and involves students in processes of…

Lavaroni, Charles W.; O'Donnell, Patrick A.

18

Criteria air pollutants and toxic air pollutants.  

PubMed Central

This review presents a brief overview of the health effects and exposures of two criteria pollutants--ozone and particulate matter--and two toxic air pollutants--benzene and formaldehyde. These pollutants were selected from the six criteria pollutants and from the 189 toxic air pollutants on the basis of their prevalence in the United States, their physicochemical behavior, and the magnitude of their potential health threat. The health effects data included in this review primarily include results from epidemiologic studies; however, some findings from animal studies are also discussed when no other information is available. Health effects findings for each pollutant are related in this review to corresponding information about outdoor, indoor, and personal exposures and pollutant sources. Images Figure 3 Figure 8 Figure 9

Suh, H H; Bahadori, T; Vallarino, J; Spengler, J D

2000-01-01

19

Air Pollution  

MedlinePLUS

... on Air Pollution A Human Health Perspective on Climate Change (Full Report) (4MB) Addressing New Challenges in Children’s ... Environmental Public Health (PEPH) (357KB) Programs and Initiatives: Climate Change and Human Health Report on Carcinogens - 12th Edition, ...

20

The Apheis project: Air Pollution and Health—A European Information System  

Microsoft Academic Search

At a time when the Health Effects Institute, Centers for Disease Control, and Environmental Protection Agency are creating\\u000a an Environmental Public Health Tracking Program on Air Pollution Effects in the USA, it seemed useful to share the experience\\u000a acquired since 1999 by the Apheis project (Air Pollution and Health—A European Information System), which has tracked the\\u000a effects of air pollution

Sylvia Medina; Alain Le Tertre; Michael Saklad

2009-01-01

21

COMMUNICATING RISK INFORMATION TO STATE AND LOCAL AIR POLLUTION CONTROL AGENCIES VIA U.S. EPA'S AIR RISK INFORMATION SUPPORT CENTER (AIR RISC)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Air Risk Information Support Center (Air RISC) has been organized by U.S. EPA's offices of Air Quality Planning and Standards and Health and Environmental Assessment. The center has been developed in cooperation with the State and Territorial air Pollution Control Program Adm...

22

Polluted Air = Polluted Lungs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To gain a better understanding of the roles and functions of components of the human respiratory system and our need for clean air, students construct model lungs that include a diaphragm and chest cavity. They see how air moving in and out of the lungs coincides with diaphragm movement. Then student teams design and build a prototype face mask pollution filter. They use their model lungs to evaluate their prototypes to design requirements.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

23

Air pollution  

SciTech Connect

Questions concerning the adequacy of the Alyeska Pipeline Service Company's air pollution controls on the Trans Alaska Pipeline Systems have been raised. In late 1986, the pipeline's oil producers began using a new process that condenses more of the natural gas liquids recovered from their oil fields, resulting in a greater amount of NGLs entering the pipeline and ultimately arriving at the Valdez terminal. These added NGLs increase the volatile organic compounds-a precursor to ozone-emitted from the terminal, raising the issue of whether air quality violations have occurred. The increase in volatile organic compounds and other changes to terminal facilities have led the State of Alaska and the Environmental Protection Agency to conclude that these are major modifications and, therefore, Alyeska should apply to the state for a new air quality control permit. Under the permit, the terminal would be monitored for volatile organic compounds and other air pollutants. Aleyska disagrees that the modifications warrant a new permit, and the status of the Valdez terminal dispute is unsettled, although some progress is being made.

Not Available

1988-01-01

24

Air Pollution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Pollution of the general environment, which exposes an entire population group for an indeterminate period of time, certainly constitutes a problem in public health. Serious aid pollution episodes have resulted in increased mortality and a possible relationship between chronic exposure to a polluted atmosphere and certain diseases has been…

Barker, K.; And Others

25

Air pollution in cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air quality in cities is the result of a complex interaction between natural and anthropogenic environmental conditions. Air pollution in cities is a serious environmental problem – especially in the developing countries. The air pollution path of the urban atmosphere consists of emission and transmission of air pollutants resulting in the ambient air pollution. Each part of the path is

Helmut Mayer

1999-01-01

26

Plants monitor air pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The symptoms of injury by a given air pollutant are often very specific to a given species. The plants which might function as biological indicators of air pollution are identified and discussed. The productivity losses and economic losses due to air pollution are documented. The concept of using plants in urban areas as an air pollution monitoring network is presented.

Went

1965-01-01

27

Indoor Air Pollution  

MedlinePLUS

We usually think of air pollution as being outdoors, but the air in your house or office could also be polluted. Sources of indoor pollution include Mold and pollen Tobacco smoke Household products ...

28

The Federal Air Pollution Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Described is the Federal air pollution program as it was in 1967. The booklet is divided into these major topics: History of the Federal Program; Research; Assistance to State and Local Governments; Abatement and Prevention of Air Pollution; Control of Motor Vehicle Pollution; Information and Education; and Conclusion. Federal legislation has…

National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

29

Air Pollution Primer. Revised Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This revised and updated book is written to inform the citizens on the nature, causes, and effects of air pollution. It is written in terms familiar to the layman with the purpose of providing knowledge and motivation to spur community action on clean air policies. Numerous charts and drawings are provided to support discussion of air pollution

Corman, Rena

30

Air pollution  

SciTech Connect

The 1977 amendments to the Clean Air Act gave states and localities 10 years to meet the national ozone standard, but many areas were unable to meet the final deadline of December 31, 1987. Over the last year Congress has been considering various legislative proposals to address this situation but has not agreed on a solution. In the interim, the Environment Protection Agency proposed a policy that extends the attainment deadlines for meeting the ozone standard, requires areas to submit revised plans, requires a minimum 3-percent annual reduction in hydrocarbon emissions, and outlines economic sanctions to be applied if area do not develop or implement their plans. While EPA's proposed policy is a positive step towards addressing the ozone problem, it does not currently have the proper legal authority to implement it. This report concludes that the Clean Air Act were amended to provide the agency with sufficient authority, several features of the proposed policy would help reduce the recurrence of problems.

Not Available

1988-12-01

31

Exposure information in environmental health research: Current opportunities and future directions for particulate matter, ozone, and toxic air pollutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding and quantifying outdoor and indoor sources of human exposure are essential but often not adequately addressed in health effect studies for air pollution. Air pollution epidemiology, risk assessment, health tracking, and accountability assessments are examples of health effect studies that require but often lack adequate exposure information. Recent advances in exposure modeling along with better information on time–activity and

Thomas E McKone; P Barry Ryan; Halûk Özkaynak

2009-01-01

32

Air Pollution in Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high potential for air pollution in Alaskan lowlands results from a combination of very low winds and strong temperature inversions. The inversions trap pollutants below them and prevent effective dilution of the pollutants by mixing with higher air layers. Water vapor, emitted to the atmosphere from various combustion processes, leads to the formation of ice fog and other pollutants

Carl S. Benson; Kenneth R. Rizzo

1980-01-01

33

Air Pollution Training Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This catalog lists the universities, both supported and not supported by the Division of Air Pollution, which offer graduate programs in the field of air pollution. The catalog briefly describes the programs and their entrance requirements, the requirements, qualifications and terms of special fellowships offered by the Division of Air Pollution.…

Public Health Service (DHEW), Rockville, MD.

34

Industry sector analysis Mexico: Air pollution instruments, equipment, and services, September 1990. Export trade information  

SciTech Connect

The Industry Sector Analysis (ISA) for air pollution instruments, equipment, and services contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users, receptivity of Mexican consumers to U.S. products, the competitive situation (Mexican production, total import market, U.S. market position, foreign competition, and competitive factors), and market access (Mexican tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes, and distribution channels). The ISA also contains key contact information.

Not Available

1990-09-01

35

Discriminatory Air Pollution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Described are the patterns of air pollution in certain large urban areas. Persons in poverty, in occupations below the management or professional level, in low-rent districts, and in black population are most heavily exposed to air pollution. Pollution paradoxically is largely produced by high energy consuming middle-and upper-class households.…

McCaull, Julian

1976-01-01

36

Ground Level Air Pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article a short review of the history of ground level air pollution is presented and then the sources and impacts of the main primary pollutants are briefly discussed, together with an introduction to various air pollution data archives and other excellent resources. These archives are a tremendous data resource for schools and colleges and can be used in

Dudley E Shallcross

37

Controlling Indoor Air Pollution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the health risks posed by indoor air pollutants, such as airborne combustion products, toxic chemicals, and radioactivity. Questions as to how indoor air might be regulated. Calls for new approaches to environmental protection. (TW)|

Nero, Anthony V, Jr.

1988-01-01

38

Psychological reactions to air pollution  

SciTech Connect

Interviews with a large representative sample of Los Angeles residents reveal that these citizens are somewhat aware and concerned about air pollution, but not knowledgeable about its causes. Direct behaviors to reduce causes of pollution or one's exposure to it are rare. A moderate percentage of people seek out information about air pollution or complain about it. Fewer follow state health advisories by reducing automobile driving or restricting activity during air pollution episodes. Preliminary modeling of citizen compliance with air pollution health advisories suggest that personal beliefs about negative health effects are a important predictor of compliance. Finally, modest but significant relationships are noted between ambient photochemical oxidants and anxiety symptoms. The latter finding controls for age, socioeconomic status, and temperature.

Evans, G.W.; Colome, S.D.; Shearer, D.F.

1988-02-01

39

Air pollution and plant life  

SciTech Connect

This book addresses air pollution's sources and movement; biochemical, cellular, and whole-plant effects, impacts on agricultural and natural systems; and control. The effects of convective turbulence and atmospheric stability are well illustrated. The diagnosis of air pollution injury to plants and mimicking symptoms are discussed. The environmental and source variables that affect pollutant dispersion are explained by use of the Gaussian dispersion model. An overview is presented of the effects of sulfur dioxide, photochemical oxidants, and fluoride on stomatal function, photosynthesis, respiration, and metabolic processes and products. Information is discussed concerning combinations of air pollutants, impacts on lichens, and effects of trace metals on plants. The relationship between air pollutants and diseases or other stress factors is evaluated.

Treshow, M. (ed.)

1984-01-01

40

IMMUNOTOXICITY OF AIR POLLUTANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The most common ubiquitous air pollutants, as well as some point source (e.g. metals) air pollutants, decrease the function of pulmonary host defense mechanisms against infection. Most of this knowledge is based on animal studies and involves cellular antibacterial defenses such ...

41

Air Pollution and Industry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book is an authoritative reference and practical guide designed to help the plant engineer identify and solve industrial air pollution problems in order to be able to meet current air pollution regulations. Prepared under the editorial supervision of an experienced chemical engineer, with each chapter contributed by an expert in his field,…

Ross, R. D., Ed.

42

Sensing Air Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about electricity and air pollution while building devices to measure volatile organic compounds (VOC) by attaching VOC sensors to prototyping boards. In the second part of the activity, students evaluate the impact of various indoor air pollutants using the devices they made.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

43

Asthma and Outdoor Air Pollution  

MedlinePLUS

Air pollution can make asthma symptoms worse and trigger attacks. If you or your child has asthma, have ... symptoms get worse when the air is polluted? Air pollution can make it harder to breathe. It can ...

44

An informative Bayesian structural equation model to assess source-specific health effects of air pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY A primary objective of current air pollution research is the assessment of health effects related to specific sources of air particles or particulate matter (PM). Quantifying source-specific risk is a challenge because most PM health studies do not directly observe the contributions of the pollution sources themselves. Instead, given knowledge of the chemical characteristics of known sources, investigators infer

MARGARET C. NIKOLOV; BRENT A. COULL; PAUL J. CATALANO; JOHN J. GODLESKI

2007-01-01

45

Exposure information in environmental health research: Current opportunities and future directions for particulate matter, ozone, and toxic air pollutants  

SciTech Connect

Understanding and quantifying outdoor and indoor sources of human exposure are essential but often not adequately addressed in health-effects studies for air pollution. Air pollution epidemiology, risk assessment, health tracking and accountability assessments are examples of health-effects studies that require but often lack adequate exposure information. Recent advances in exposure modeling along with better information on time-activity and exposure factors data provide us with unique opportunities to improve the assignment of exposures for both future and ongoing studies linking air pollution to health impacts. In September 2006, scientists from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) along with scientists from the academic community and state health departments convened a symposium on air pollution exposure and health in order to identify, evaluate, and improve current approaches for linking air pollution exposures to disease. This manuscript presents the key issues, challenges and recommendations identified by the exposure working group, who used cases studies of particulate matter, ozone, and toxic air pollutant exposure to evaluate health-effects for air pollution. One of the over-arching lessons of this workshop is that obtaining better exposure information for these different health-effects studies requires both goal-setting for what is needed and mapping out the transition pathway from current capabilities to meeting these goals. Meeting our long-term goals requires definition of incremental steps that provide useful information for the interim and move us toward our long-term goals. Another over-arching theme among the three different pollutants and the different health study approaches is the need for integration among alternate exposure assessment approaches. For example, different groups may advocate exposure indicators, biomonitoring, mapping methods (GIS), modeling, environmental media monitoring, and/or personal exposure modeling. However, emerging research reveals that the greatest progress comes from integration among two or more of these efforts.

McKone, Thomas E.; Ryan, P. Barry; Ozkaynak, Haluk

2007-02-01

46

Air Pollution Surveillance Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes atmospheric data monitoring as part of total airpollution control effort. Summarizes types of gaseous, liquid and solid pollutants and their sources; contrast between urban and rural environmental air quality; instrumentation to identify pollutants; and anticipated new non-wet chemical physical and physiochemical techniques tor…

Morgan, George B.; And Others

1970-01-01

47

Loose-coupling an air dispersion model and a geographic information system (GIS) for studying air pollution and asthma in the Bronx, New York City  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study developed new procedures to loosely integrate an air dispersion model, AERMOD, and a geographic information system (GIS) package, ArcGIS, to simulate air dispersion from stationary sources in the Bronx, New York City, for five pollutants: PM10, PM2.5, NOx, CO, and SO2. Plume buffers created from the model results were used as proxies of human exposure to the pollution

Juliana A. Maantay; Jun Tu; Andrew R. Maroko

2009-01-01

48

Pupils' Understanding of Air Pollution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper reports on a study of pupils' knowledge and understanding of atmospheric pollution. Specifically, the study is aimed at identifying: 1) the extent to which pupils conceptualise the term "air pollution" in a scientifically appropriate way; 2) pupils' knowledge of air pollution sources and air pollutants; and 3) pupils' knowledge of air

Dimitriou, Anastasia; Christidou, Vasilia

2007-01-01

49

Background Information-Proposed National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Asbestos, Beryllium, Mercury.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For asbestos, beryllium, and mercury, proposed national air pollution standards are summarized. Reviews are presented for the following: The effects on health; the The nature of the problem; The development of the proposed standard; and, its economic impa...

1971-01-01

50

Air Pollution: What's the Solution?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Through this project, students will focus on outdoor air pollution; what it is, what factors contribute to its formation and the health effects from breathing polluted air. Students will use data and animated maps from the Internet and monitor for the presence of air pollution. Students are challenged to think critically and creatively about the problems surrounding air pollution. Students will learn to describe what air pollutants are, when and how outdoor air pollution is formed, and what the health effects are from breathing polluted air, and much more.

2010-01-01

51

Air Pollution Primer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As the dangers of polluted air to the health and welfare of all individuals became increasingly evident and as the complexity of the causes made responsibility for solutions even more difficult to fix, the National Tuberculosis and Respiratory Disease Association felt obligated to give greater emphasis to its clean air program. To this end they…

National Tuberculosis and Respiratory Disease Association, New York, NY.

52

ARPEGE: Simulation of an air pollution crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air pollution episodes represent a major environmental problem in urban areas. The high concentration of pollution sources in such areas results in dangerously high levels of air pollution during periods of poor weather conditions. The avoidance of hazardous levels depends upon rapid and decisive actions by responsible people together with cooperation of an informed public. There is a need for

M. A. Greene; A. Hochhauser; M. J. Reilly; J. F. Sautin; A. S. Walters

1973-01-01

53

Air pollution from household solid fuel combustion in India: an overview of exposure and health related information to inform health research priorities  

PubMed Central

Environmental and occupational risk factors contribute to nearly 40% of the national burden of disease in India, with air pollution in the indoor and outdoor environment ranking amongst leading risk factors. It is now recognized that the health burden from air pollution exposures that primarily occur in the rural indoors, from pollutants released during the incomplete combustion of solid fuels in households, may rival or even exceed the burden attributable to urban outdoor exposures. Few environmental epidemiological efforts have been devoted to this setting, however. We provide an overview of important available information on exposures and health effects related to household solid fuel use in India, with a view to inform health research priorities for household air pollution and facilitate being able to address air pollution within an integrated rural–urban framework in the future.

Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Ramaswamy, Padmavathi; Sambandam, Sankar; Thangavel, Gurusamy; Ghosh, Santu; Johnson, Priscilla; Mukhopadhyay, Krishnendu; Venugopal, Vidhya; Thanasekaraan, Vijayalakshmi

2011-01-01

54

Health effects of air pollution.  

PubMed

The general public, especially patients with upper or lower respiratory symptoms, is aware from media reports that adverse respiratory effects can occur from air pollution. It is important for the allergist to have a current knowledge of the potential health effects of air pollution and how they might affect their patients to advise them accordingly. Specifically, the allergist-clinical immunologist should be keenly aware that both gaseous and particulate outdoor pollutants might aggravate or enhance the underlying pathophysiology of both the upper and lower airways. Epidemiologic and laboratory exposure research studies investigating the health effects of outdoor air pollution each have advantages and disadvantages. Epidemiologic studies can show statistical associations between levels of individual or combined air pollutants and outcomes, such as rates of asthma, emergency visits for asthma, or hospital admissions, but cannot prove a causative role. Human exposure studies, animal models, and tissue or cellular studies provide further information on mechanisms of response but also have inherent limitations. The aim of this rostrum is to review the relevant publications that provide the appropriate context for assessing the risks of air pollution relative to other more modifiable environmental factors in patients with allergic airways disease. PMID:15536419

Bernstein, Jonathan A; Alexis, Neil; Barnes, Charles; Bernstein, I Leonard; Bernstein, Jonathan A; Nel, Andre; Peden, David; Diaz-Sanchez, David; Tarlo, Susan M; Williams, P Brock

2004-11-01

55

Particulate Air Pollution: The Particulars  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes some of the causes and consequences of particulate air pollution. Outlines the experimental procedures for measuring the amount of particulate materials that settles from the air and for observing the nature of particulate air pollution. (JR)|

Murphy, James E.

1973-01-01

56

Introduction: Addressing Air Pollution and Health Science Questions to Inform Science and Policy  

EPA Science Inventory

This special issue of Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health (AQAH) is the sixth and final in a series of special journal issues (Solomon 2010, 2011a, b; Solomon et al. 2011; Solomon 2012) associated with the 2010 Air Pollution and Heath Conference: Bridging the Gap between Sources ...

57

Air pollution: brown skies research.  

PubMed Central

Direct information on the health effects of air pollution in humans relies mainly on chamber studies and epidemiological studies. Although chamber studies have limitations they allow the acute effects of individual pollutants to be studied in well characterised subjects under controlled conditions. Most chamber studies have shown relatively small falls in lung function and relatively small increases in bronchial reactivity at the concentrations of ozone, SO2, and NO2 that occur even during high pollution episodes in the UK. The possible exception is SO2 where sensitive asthmatic patients may show a greater response at concentrations that are seen from time to time in certain areas and in proximity to power stations. There is no convincing evidence of potentiation between pollutants in chamber studies. Epidemiological studies are more difficult to carry out and require considerable epidemiological and statistical expertise to deal with the main problem-confounding by other factors. Although the health effects seen with current levels of pollution are small compared with those seen in the 1950s and close to the limits of detection, this should not be interpreted as being unimportant. A small effect may have large consequences when the population exposed is large (the whole population in this case). Recent data suggest that particles have more important health effects than the pollutant gases that have been studied. Much of this information comes from the USA though the findings are probably applicable in the UK. More information is needed on the size of the health effects that occur during the three types of air pollution episodes seen in this country and the relative contributions of particles, pollutant gases, pollen, and other factors such as temperature. Research into air pollution declined in the UK following the introduction of the Clean Air Acts; it is now increasing again following pressure from certain individuals and ginger groups, including the British Lung Foundation, and its potential importance is recognised by the Department of Health. This article has concentrated on the acute effects of air pollution episodes, though the long term effects of acute episodes of air pollution and chronic high levels of pollutants is equally, if not more, important. Roger Altounyan had severe chest-disease attributed to asthma and personal pollution (cigarette smoke). But did the smog episodes in Manchester in the 1950s or subsequent vehicle related pollution play a part and did they interact with the bronchial challenges he underwent over the years (estimated at 3000)? Air pollution is a product of the way that society chooses to live. Obtaining an accurate picture of the extent to which current levels of air pollution cause acute and chronic effects on health is important if sensible choices are to be made by individuals and society about the processes contributing to air pollution. It is also important for patients with or at risk of developing cardiorespiratory disease. Images

Tattersfield, A. E.

1996-01-01

58

CRITICAL HEALTH ISSUES OF CRITERIA AIR POLLUTANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

This chapter summarizes the key health information on ubiquitous outdoor air pollutants that can cause adverse health effects at current or historical ambient levels in the United States. Of the thousands of air pollutants, very few meet this definition. The Clean Air Act (CA...

59

Health effects of air pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

This discussion, which is directed to informed laymen, physicians, and the staff and volunteers of the American Lung Association and its constitutents, is meant to outline the available knowledge about the effects of air pollution on human health. Particular attention is given to the respiratory system. Following an introductory section dealing with the purpose and scope of the monograph, the

C. M. Shy; J. R. Goldsmith; J. D. Hackney; M. D. Lebowitz; D. B. Menzel

1978-01-01

60

Traffic, air pollution, and health.  

PubMed

This paper discusses emerging information on exposure to air pollution from traffic and health and raises two key questions with regard to the impact of traffic on public health: 1) is there sufficient evidence to infer that traffic is causing adverse health effects, and; 2) what is the magnitude of the adverse impact of traffic on health? Topics addressed include characterization of exposure to traffic-related pollutants; the findings of epidemiological studies to date; and investigative approaches and the related challenges - including bias, model-based conclusions, and sample size issues--in characterizing the health effects of air pollution from traffic. Also considered are the known health effects of two of the major pollutants produced by vehicle exhaust--particles and ozone. The evidence points to traffic as a threat to public health that will be managed with great difficulty; however, more research is needed to refine our understanding of the health consequences of traffic exposures and as a basis for formulating mitigation policies. This paper discusses emerging information on exposure to air pollution from traffic and health and raises two key questions with regard to the impact of traffic on public health: 1) is there sufficient evidence to infer that traffic is causing adverse health effects, and; 2) what is the magnitude of the adverse impact of traffic on health? Topics addressed include characterization of exposure to traffic-related pollutants; the findings of epidemiological studies to date; and investigative approaches and the related challenges - including bias, model-based conclusions, and sample size issues - in characterizing the health effects of air pollution from traffic. Also considered are the known health effects of two of the major pollutants produced by vehicle exhaust - particles and ozone. The evidence points to traffic as a threat to public health that will be managed with great difficulty; however, more research is needed to refine our understanding of the health consequences of traffic exposures and as a basis for formulating mitigation policies. PMID:17917917

Samet, Jonathan M

2007-09-01

61

Environmental Pollution: Air Pollution - Particulate Matters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This bibliography contains citations of reports dealing with air pollution - particulate matters; analysis of atmospheric aerosols and particulate matters, specifically particle size, measurement, distribution and identification of pollutants; atmos;heric...

1977-01-01

62

AIR POLLUTION AND HUMMINGBIRDS  

EPA Science Inventory

A multidisciplinary team of EPA-RTP ORD pulmonary toxicologists, engineers, ecologists, and statisticians have designed a study of how ground-level ozone and other air pollutants may influence feeding activity of the ruby-throated hummingbird ( Archilochus colubris ). Be...

63

Air Pollution and Childhood Cancer  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... the lower right-hand corner of the player. Air Pollution and Childhood Cancer HealthDay April 10, 2013 Related MedlinePlus Pages Air Pollution Cancer in Children Transcript Decades of research has ...

64

Career Guide for Air Pollution Control  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guide to career opportunities in air pollution control includes resource information in this area and provides a listing of colleges and universities offering environmental science programs. The guide was prepared by the S-11 Education and Training Committee of the Air Pollution Control Association. (Author/BT)|

Baldwin, Lionel V.

1975-01-01

65

Concept of Air Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This learning activity from the Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) is intended to help environmental science students connect the real-world problem of air pollution to the application of math, science, technical and critical thinking knowledge and skill concepts. The activity should take about 90 minutes of class time to complete, and requires a few easily obtainable materials. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

Willey, Babe

2011-03-11

66

Fundamentals of air pollution. Third edition  

SciTech Connect

This book presents an overview of air pollution. In Part I, the history of air pollution and the basic concepts involved with air pollution such as sources, scales, definitions are covered. Part II describes how airborne pollutants damage materials, vegetation, animals, and humans. Six fundamental aspects of air pollution are included in the text: The Elements of Air Pollution; The Effects of Air Pollution; Measurement and Monitoring of Air Pollution; Meterology of Air Pollution; regulatory Control of Air Pollution; and Engineering Control of Air Pollution.

Boubel, R.W.; Fox, D.L.; Turner, D.B.; Stern, A.C.

1994-12-31

67

A new approach for combining information available from multiple particulate air pollution monitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In time-series studies on the effect of particulate matter (PM) air pollution on an adverse health outcome, PM time-series data are often available from multiple monitoring stations. Published studies have combined the data from the multiple monitors using a simple or trimmed average. We investigate an alternative method of combining the data available from multiple PM-monitoring sites. This method uses

Steven Roberts; Michael Martin

2008-01-01

68

In Search of Air Pollution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Air pollution is no longer just a local issue; it is a global problem. The atmosphere is a very dynamic system. Pollution not only changes in chemical composition after it is emitted, but also is transported on local and global air systems hundreds and even thousands of miles away. Some of the pollutants that are major health concerns are not…

Beckendorf, Kirk

2006-01-01

69

Fundamentals of air pollution. Third edition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book presents an overview of air pollution. In Part I, the history of air pollution and the basic concepts involved with air pollution such as sources, scales, definitions are covered. Part II describes how airborne pollutants damage materials, vegetation, animals, and humans. Six fundamental aspects of air pollution are included in the text: The Elements of Air Pollution; The

R. W. Boubel; D. L. Fox; D. B. Turner; A. C. Stern

1994-01-01

70

Comparing toxic air pollutant programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article compares state and federal toxic air pollutant programs. The Clean Air Act Ammendments created a program for the control of Hazardous Air Pollutants based on the establishment of control technology standards. State toxic programs can be classified into two categories: control technology-based and ambient concentration-based. Many states have opened to implement the MACT standards while enforcing their own

1997-01-01

71

Intercontinental transport of air pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an increasing interest on the intercontinental transport of air pollution among the three main emission regions at\\u000a northern mid-latitudes: North America, Europe, and East Asia. Air pollutants with sufficient long lifetime can be transported\\u000a from one continent to another. Observations from ground sites, aircraft and satellites have demonstrated this intercontinental-scale\\u000a transport of air pollutants in the free troposphere.

Lin Zhang

2010-01-01

72

System interactions of air pollutants  

SciTech Connect

The impact of system interactions and simultaneous or sequential exposure to various air pollutants, both man-made and natural ones, requires greater concern in the interpretation of the total adverse impact of various air pollutants. It is clear that there are highly significant system interactions with exposure to various air pollutants, and these must be considered very carefully in the evaluation of their adverse health effects.

Pierson, W.E. (Northwest Asthma and Allergy Center, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle (United States))

1992-06-01

73

Predicting Indoor Air Pollution Levels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes methods of predicting concentration levels of indoor air pollution in a variety of residences by using residence air-infiltration rates, residence volumes, and source terms, and by making assumptions about occupant lifestyle and pollu...

G. B. Parker J. G. Droppo P. C. Owczarski

1982-01-01

74

Formation of an Air Pollution Index  

Microsoft Academic Search

An air pollution index is a quantitative tool through which air pollution data can be reported uniformly. There have been efforts to describe overall air pollution by an aggregation of pollutant subindices. When ambiguous, these aggregations raise unnecessary alarm by declaring a less polluted air to be highly polluted. Similarly, when eclipsed, a false sense of security is provided by

Prabhat K. Swamee; Aditya Tyagi

1999-01-01

75

Air pollution reduction  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method for reducing the levels of air pollution resulting at least in part from the combustion of diesel fuel in diesel engines. It comprises deriving, in an oil refinery, a diesel fuel from a whole crude or a fraction thereof; then blending at least 10 volume percent of the diesel fuel produced per day from the refinery with dimethyl carbonate so as to provide a diesel fuel composition containing dimethyl carbonate in a concentration of at least about 0.5 volume percent, followed by; delivering a major portion of the blended fuel composition to storage facilities supplying fuel for use with the diesel engines; and combusting the blended fuel in the engines.

Kanne, D.D.

1991-04-02

76

Using geographic information systems to assess individual historical exposure to air pollution from traffic and house heating in Stockholm.  

PubMed Central

A specific aim of a population-based case-control study of lung cancer in Stockholm, Sweden, was to use emission data, dispersion models, and geographic information systems (GIS) to assess historical exposure to several components of ambient air pollution. Data collected for 1,042 lung cancer cases and 2,364 population controls included information on residence from 1955 to the end of follow-up for each individual, 1990-1995. We assessed ambient air concentrations of pollutants from road traffic and heating throughout the study area for three points in time (1960, 1970, and 1980) using reconstructed emission data for the index pollutants nitrogen oxides (NO(x)/NO(2)) and sulfur dioxide together with dispersion modeling. NO(2) estimates for 1980 compared well with actual measurements, but no independently measured (study-external) data were available for SO(2), precluding similar validation. Subsequently, we used linear intra- and extrapolation to obtain estimates for all other years 1955-1990. Eleven thousand individual addresses were transformed into geographic coordinates through automatic and manual procedures, with an estimated error of < 100 m for 90% of the addresses. Finally, we linked annual air pollution estimates to annual residence coordinates, yielding long-term residential exposure indices for each individual. There was a wide range of individual long-term average exposure, with an 11-fold interindividual difference in NO(2) and an 18-fold difference in SO(2). The 30-year average for all study subjects was 20 microg/m(3) NO(2) from traffic and 53 microg/m(3) SO(2) from heating. The results indicate that GIS can be useful for exposure assessment in environmental epidemiology studies, provided that detailed geographically related exposure data are available for relevant time periods.

Bellander, T; Berglind, N; Gustavsson, P; Jonson, T; Nyberg, F; Pershagen, G; Jarup, L

2001-01-01

77

ACRYLONITRILE PLANT AIR POLLUTION CONTROL  

EPA Science Inventory

Based on available literature, the report identifies and ranks (in terms of efficiency, cost, and energy requirements) air pollution control technologies for each of four major air pollutant emission sources in acrylonitrile plants. The sources are: (1) absorber vent gas streams,...

78

Air Pollution and Human Health  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reviews studies statistically relating air pollution to mortality and morbidity rates for respiratory, and cardiovascular diseases, cancer and infant mortality. Some data recalculated. Estimates 50 percent air pollution reduction will save 4.5 percent (2080 million dollars per year) of all economic loss (hospitalization, income loss) associated…

Lave, Lester B.; Seskin, Eugene P.

1970-01-01

79

Buffalo Air Pollutant Emission Inventory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The results of an emission inventory of air pollutant sources in the Buffalo, New York Metropolitan Area is presented. The objectives of the study were to determine the total quantities of the various air pollutants emitted and to estimate their seasonal ...

G. M. Duggan J. C. Fensterstock

1968-01-01

80

Global Air Quality and Pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of global air pollution on climate and the environment is a new focus in atmospheric science. Intercontinental transport and hemispheric air pollution by ozone jeopardize agricultural and natural ecosystems worldwide and have a strong effect on climate. Aerosols, which are spread globally but have a strong regional imbalance, change global climate through their direct and indirect effects on

Hajime Akimoto

2003-01-01

81

Children, Pediatricians, and Polluted Air.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explored are children's vulnerability and the pediatrician's role in relation to the problems posed by air pollution. Research is noted to have included a search of biomedical literature over the past 10 years; attendance at medical meetings; conferences with air pollution researchers, environmental protection administrators, and specialists in…

Kane, Dorothy Noyes

82

PLANT RESPONSE TO AIR POLLUTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Air pollutants have a negative impact on plant growth, primarily through interfering with resource accumulation. ince leaves are in close contact with the atmosphere, many air pollutants, such as O3 and NOx, affect the metabolic function of the leaves and interfere with net carbo...

83

Allergic diseases and air pollution  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of allergic diseases has been increasing rapidly, especially in developing countries. Various adverse health outcomes such as allergic disease can be attributed to rapidly increasing air pollution levels. Rapid urbanization and increased energy consumption worldwide have exposed the human body to not only increased quantities of ambient air pollution, but also a greater variety of pollutants. Many studies clearly demonstrate that air pollutants potently trigger asthma exacerbation. Evidence that transportation-related pollutants contribute to the development of allergies is also emerging. Moreover, exposure to particulate matter, ozone, and nitrogen dioxide contributes to the increased susceptibility to respiratory infections. This article focuses on the current understanding of the detrimental effects of air pollutants on allergic disease including exacerbation to the development of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and eczema as well as epigenetic regulation.

Lee, Suh-Young; Chang, Yoon-Seok

2013-01-01

84

Air-pollution effects on biodiversity  

SciTech Connect

To address the issues of air pollution impacts on biodiversity, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Environmental Research Laboratory in Corvallis, OR, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service National Fisheries Research Center in Leetown, and the Electric Power Research Institute convened a workshop to evaluate current knowledge, identify information gaps, provide direction to research and assess policy issues. In order to obtain the most current and authoritative information possible, air pollution and biodiversity experts were invited to participate in a workshop and author the papers that make up this report. Each paper was presented and discussed, then collected in this document. The material has been organized into four parts: an introduction, an overview of air pollution exposure and effects, the consequences of air pollution on biodiversity, and policy issues and research needs.

Barker, J.R.; Tingey, D.T.

1992-04-01

85

Air pollution: Impact and prevention  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Air pollution is becoming a major health problem that affects millions of people worldwide. In support of this observation, the World Health Organization estimates that every year, 2.4 million people die because of the effects of air pollution on health. Mitigation strategies such as changes in diesel engine technology could result in fewer premature mortalities, as suggested by the US Environmental Protection Agency. This review: (i) discusses the impact of air pollution on respiratory disease; (ii) provides evidence that reducing air pollution may have a positive impact on the prevention of disease; and (iii) demonstrates the impact concerted polices may have on population health when governments take actions to reduce air pollution.

SIERRA-VARGAS, MARTHA PATRICIA; TERAN, LUIS M

2012-01-01

86

Air pollution: impact and prevention.  

PubMed

Air pollution is becoming a major health problem that affects millions of people worldwide. In support of this observation, the World Health Organization estimates that every year, 2.4 million people die because of the effects of air pollution on health. Mitigation strategies such as changes in diesel engine technology could result in fewer premature mortalities, as suggested by the US Environmental Protection Agency. This review: (i) discusses the impact of air pollution on respiratory disease; (ii) provides evidence that reducing air pollution may have a positive impact on the prevention of disease; and (iii) demonstrates the impact concerted polices may have on population health when governments take actions to reduce air pollution. PMID:22726103

Sierra-Vargas, Martha Patricia; Teran, Luis M

2012-10-01

87

Rapid guide to hazardous air pollutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concise and easy to use, this book brings together a wealth of hard-to-gather information in one compact pocket guide. It offers--in alphabetical order--detailed profiles of the 189 elements and compounds determined to be hazardous air pollutants by the 1990 Amendments of the Clean Air Act. The profile for each pollutant includes: fundamental identification data (CAS number, molecular formula, formula weight,

H. J. Beim; J. Spero; L. Theodore

1998-01-01

88

Air Pollution Risk Estimates: Determinants of Heterogeneity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information on risk to health for particular populations may be critical for motivating air pollution control, setting air quality standards, and evaluating control measures. This article considers the application of associated risk estimates from one or more external populations to a specific population. This concept is termed “transportability,” and the degree of transportability of a risk estimate may be limited

Jonathan M. Samet

2008-01-01

89

A Field-based Database Management Method for City Air Pollutants Information System A FIELD-BASED DATABASE MANAGEMENT METHOD FOR CITY AIR POLLUTANTS INFORMATION SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the last decades, GIS software technology has made tremendous development and applied to many special fields when their targets are relevant to geographical locations. Along with the wide and deep use of information technology, many important characteristics of advanced computing applications are changing the way GIS softwares interact with computers. Much research has focused on how to impose the

HUANG Fengru; Wang Xuesong; CHEN Bin; FANG Yu

90

Air Pollution Affects Community Health  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Community Health and Environmental Surveillance System (CHESS), a nationwide program relating community health to environmental quality, is designed to evaluate existing environmental standards, obtain health intelligence for new standards, and document health benefits of air pollution control. (BL)|

Shy, Carl M.; Finklea, John F.

1973-01-01

91

Remote Measurement of Air Pollutants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes progress on a program to develop advanced electro-optical techniques for the remote measurement of gaseous air pollutants. The major effort is devoted to analysis and optimization of the infrared DIAL system. Other activities involve...

E. R. Murray E. K. Proctor R. L. Byer

1975-01-01

92

Air pollution and community health  

SciTech Connect

This book provides a background for understanding the fundamental conflict between the intense drive for environmental cost effectiveness vs. new epidemiological studies showning adverse effects of air pollution on human health.

Lipfert, F.W.

1994-12-31

93

Western forests and air pollution  

SciTech Connect

The book addresses the relationships between air pollution in the western United States and trends in the growth and condition of Western coniferous forests. The major atmospheric pollutants to which forest in the region are exposed are sulfur and nitrogen compounds and ozone. The potential effects of atmospheric pollution on these forests include foliar injury, alteration of growth rates and patterns, soil acidification, shifts in species composition, and modification of the effects of natural stresses.

Olson, R.K.; Binkley, D.; Boehm, M.

1992-01-01

94

Air pollution injury to plants  

SciTech Connect

The injuries to plants by oxidant air pollution can be used as biological indicators of pollution episodes. Bel W3 tobacco is often used as an indicator organism. Dogwood is another potential indicator organism. Specific growing procedures used for indicator organisms are described, as are diagnostic criteria for the type and extent of injuries.

Seibert, R.J.

1986-01-01

95

Christmas trees and air pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the mountainous Appalachian regions of Maryland and West Virginia commercial Christmas tree growers have been experiencing increasing air pollution injury in their plantations, especially to pines. Types of injuries included chlorosis and necrotic spotting of needles, as well as loss of needles and tree buds. Chronic needle injury generally follows long-term, low-level exposure to the pollutants. Damaged trees have

Dochinger

1973-01-01

96

Air pollution and allergic disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past several decades, there has been increased awareness of the health effects of air pollution and much debate regarding\\u000a the role of global warming. The prevalence of asthma and allergic disease has risen in industrialized countries, and most\\u000a epidemiologic studies focus on possible causalities between air pollution and these conditions. This review examines salient\\u000a articles and summarizes findings

Haejin Kim; Jonathan A. Bernstein

2009-01-01

97

The status of indoor air pollution.  

PubMed Central

Indoor air pollution, specifically restricted in its meaning to chemicals in home indoor air environment, presents a new and probably an important challenge to the researchers of the air pollution field. The general overview of this topic suggests that the voluminous data generated in the past ten or so years have only defined the rudiments of the problem, and significant areas of research still exist. Among the important areas where information is lacking, the exposures to contaminants generated by the use of consumer products and through hobbies and crafts represent perhaps the most urgent need for substantial research.

Esmen, N A

1985-01-01

98

Monographs on organic air pollutants. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of the study were to: (1) construct a Master List of organic air pollutants. (2) Prioritize the Master List to aid in the selection of monograph candidates. The study was limited to the Master List of 893 organic air pollutants that included 740 ambient air pollutants and 153 site specific air pollutants. The Master List was obtained from

Kelsey

1983-01-01

99

Models for Prediction of Air Pollution.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Modeling techniques are discussed for providing solutions to long-range air pollution planning problems. Current air pollution prediction models which do not allow for transformations and loss of the pollutants are discussed along with considerations for ...

J. R. Mahoney

1971-01-01

100

AIR POLLUTION AND RESPIRATORY DISEASE  

EPA Science Inventory

Concern about polluted air in our urban and industrial areas began gathering momentum shortly after World War II. At that time it seemed obvious that clean air, like clean water, clean food, and a clean body, was a worth while goal in itself, requiring no further justification. B...

101

Urban Air Pollution Modelling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A simple but physically realistic model of the ground level concentration distribution resulting from area sources of pollution is presented. It is shown that the results are not greatly dependent upon the form of the vertical concentration distribution. ...

F. A. Gifford S. R. Hanna

1970-01-01

102

Impacts of Air Pollutants on Vegetation in Developing Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The predicted increases in emissions of primary pollutants in many rapidly industrializing countries may have severe consequences for the health and productivity of forest trees and agricultural crops. This paper presents a review of air pollution impacts on vegetation in developing countries by summarising information describing the direct impacts to vegetation caused by a number of air pollutants (sulphur dioxide

L. D. Emberson; M. R. Ashmore; F. Murray; J. C. I. Kuylenstierna; K. E. Percy; T. Izuta; Y. Zheng; H. Shimizu; B. H. Sheu; C. P. Liu; M. Agrawal; A. Wahid; N. M. Abdel-Latif; M. van Tienhoven; L. I. de Bauer; M. Domingos

2001-01-01

103

Economic Impact of Air Pollutants on Plants. Volume II.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report includes estimated losses due to ozone, PAN, and oxides of nitrogen for sixty-eight cops that are sensitive to those air pollutants. The information is presented for 525 counties in which the level of air pollution from those pollutants was con...

H. M. Benedict R. E. Olson

1970-01-01

104

Air pollution mapping: relationship between satellite- made observations and air quality parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mapping of air quality over the city of Strasbourg and its vicinity requires an increase of the number of measurements aiming at spatializing information about air pollutants concentrations. A methodology based on a multisource approach for mapping air pollutants concentrations over the city was presented in previous communications. One step of the methodology is the estimation of pollutants concentrations

Anthony UNG; Lucien WALD; Thierry RANCHIN; Christiane WEBER; Jacky HIRSCH; Gilles PERRON; Joseph KLEINPETER

2003-01-01

105

Air Pollution in the World's Megacities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reports findings of the Global Environment Monitoring System study concerning air pollution in the world's megacities. Discusses sources of air pollution, air pollution impacts, air quality monitoring, air quality trends, and control strategies. Provides profiles of the problem in Beijing, Los Angeles, Mexico City, India, Cairo, Sao Paulo, and…

Richman, Barbara T., Ed.

1994-01-01

106

[Air pollution and cardiovascular disease].  

PubMed

Cardiovascular atherothrombosis is the most common cause of death globally, with several well-known risk factors. Air pollution is a byproduct of fuel combustion by motor vehicles, power plants and industrial factories. It is composed of gases, fluids and particulate matter (PM) of different sizes, which include basic carbon, organic carbonic molecules and metals such as vanadium, nickel, zinc and iron. These particles are subdivided by their median size, a major contributing factor for their capability to enter the human body through the respiratory system. Most of the epidemiological studies have shown correlation between acute and long-term exposure to air pollution elements and cardiovascular morbidity in general, and angina pectoris and acute myocardial infarction specifically. Physiological studies have found different arrhythmias as the etiologic cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality following exposure to air pollution. A major finding was a decline in heart rate variability, a phenomenon known as endangering for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, especially in patients after acute myocardial infarction. To date, several pathways have been proposed, including a hypercoagulable state following an inflammatory response, cardiac nervous autonomic disequilibrium, endothelial dysfunction with blood vessel contraction and direct toxic impact on cardiac muscle. Additional research is needed for clarifying the pathophysiological pathways by which air pollution affects the cardiovascular system. That might allow forthcoming with preventive measures and correct treatment, and hence a decrease in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Another important target is dose-outcome correlation curves for safety threshold calculation as a basis for air pollution regulations. PMID:17990383

Haber, Guy; Witberg, Guy; Danenberg, Haim

2007-10-01

107

Eye discomfort and air pollution.  

PubMed

Discomfort eye syndrome (DES) comprises a series of 'minor' subjective symptoms in patients where no relevant clinical signs are observed suggesting ocular disease. Our study includes 100 DES patients, excluding video terminal users, selected from the First Aid Service of our Department over two peak periods in both winter and summer time. The Schirmer test I, ferning test, breakup time and conjunctival cytology (scraping and imprint) were performed and data were related to sex, age and air pollution indexes, recorded in the patients' living zones. Our results demonstrate that: (i) the ocular surface cytology and the analysis of tear film changes provide significant information in those patients where no other clinical signs are evident; (ii) DES symptoms are more frequent in women than in men (ratio about 2:1), both with ages over 51 years; (iii) DES is significantly associated with ocular surface inflammation, as detected by cytological methods, and (iv) ocular surface subclinical inflammation and ocular dryness are related to high concentrations of atmospheric polluters, in both sexes. PMID:9885386

Versura, P; Profazio, V; Cellini, M; Torreggiani, A; Caramazza, R

1999-01-01

108

Coping with air pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protecting and improving air quality has long been a major concern of the hydrocarbon processing industry (HPI). The industry also believes that regulations should be scientifically sound and that benefits should balance costs. During the last decade significant expenditures were made for equipment to reduce air emissions from petroleum refineries and petrochemical plants. These efforts focused on controlling hydrocarbons, sulfur

A. A. Siddigi; J. W. Tenini

1984-01-01

109

Volcanic Air Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The phenomenon is a series of photographs of 'vog' or volcanic smog caused by the long-lasting eruption of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii. Text included with the images describes how vog is created. An additional digitally enhanced map shows effects of trade winds on pollution concentration.

110

Mercury and Air Pollution: A Bibliography With Abstracts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Air Pollution Technical Information Center (APTIC) of the Office of Air Programs has selected and compiled this bibliography of abstracts on mercury and air pollution. The abstracted documents are considered representative of available literature, although not all-inclusive. They are grouped into eleven categories: (1) Emission Sources, (2)…

Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Air Programs.

111

Mercury and Air Pollution: A Bibliography With Abstracts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Air Pollution Technical Information Center (APTIC) of the Office of Air Programs has selected and compiled this bibliography of abstracts on mercury and air pollution. The abstracted documents are considered representative of available literature, although not all-inclusive. They are grouped into eleven categories: (1) Emission Sources, (2)…

Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Air Programs.

112

Air pollution and plant life  

SciTech Connect

The publication of this volume could hardly have been more timely, for concern about the damage to plants from air pollution has grown rapidly in the last few years. The book comprises eighteen chapters by contributors of high repute. Three early chapters deal with Dispersion and Fate of Atmospheric Pollutants, Long Range Transport and Monitoring Levels and Effects of Air Pollutants. They provide essential reading for those working on effects in the field, and they set the scene for a contribution from the Volume Editor on the problems of diagnosis. The central chapters (7 to 11) provide, in considerable depth, a summary of the knowledge of the mechanism of action of pollutants on plants, in terms of physiology, biochemistry, and ultrastructure. Particularly valuable is the essay entitled Impact of Air Pollutant Combinations on Plants, which concludes that even though few generalizations are possible, there is now sufficient evidence to suggest that interactions between some pollutants (e.g. SO/sub 2/ and O/sub 3/, SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub 2/) may seriously damage some plants.

Treshow, M.

1984-01-01

113

HANDBOOK: CONTROL TECHNIQUES FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

This manual is a revision of the first (1986) edition of the Handbook: Control Technologies for Hazardous Air Pollutants, which incorporated information from numerous sources into a single, self-contained reference source focusing on the design and cost of VOC and partic...

114

Coping with air pollution  

SciTech Connect

Protecting and improving air quality has long been a major concern of the hydrocarbon processing industry (HPI). The industry also believes that regulations should be scientifically sound and that benefits should balance costs. During the last decade significant expenditures were made for equipment to reduce air emissions from petroleum refineries and petrochemical plants. These efforts focused on controlling hydrocarbons, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, particulates, and carbon monoxide using technologies developed to meet regulatory requirements.

Siddigi, A.A.; Tenini, J.W.

1984-11-01

115

Leaves and Air Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students investigate the effects of automobile pollution on plant growth by making measurements on two populations of leaves, one from within 10 meters of a busy road and a population of the same species situated more than 20 meters away. They will choose a method for measuring the leaves, create a table for their data, and test their hypotheses by performing a t-test.

Laposata, Matt

116

Solid Waste, Air Pollution and Health  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article examines the relationships among solid waste disposal, air pollution, and human disease. It is estimated that solid waste disposal contributes 9.7 percent of the total air pollution and 9.9 percent of the total air pollution health effect. Certain disposal-resource recovery systems can be implemented to meet air quality standards.…

Kupchik, George J.; Franz, Gerald J.

1976-01-01

117

Assessing health effects of air pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Controlled exposure of human volunteers to air pollutants is discussed in relation to air quality regulatory policy decisions. Methods are presented for exposure studies. The basic equipment required for exposure studies includes a source of purified air, a method of adding experimental pollutants to the purified air, a means of monitoring pollutant concentrations, and a facility for exposing subjects to

Jack D. Hackney; William S. Linn; Edward L. Avol

1984-01-01

118

In Brief: Air pollution app  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new smartphone application takes advantage of various technological capabilities and sensors to help users monitor air quality. Tapping into smartphone cameras, Global Positioning System (GPS) sensors, compasses, and accelerometers, computer scientists with the University of Southern California's (USC) Viterbi School of Engineering have developed a new application, provisionally entitled “Visibility.” Currently available for the Android telephone operating system, the application is available for free download at http://robotics.usc.edu/˜mobilesensing/Projects/AirVisibilityMonitoring. An iPhone application may be introduced soon. Smartphone users can take a picture of the sky and then compare it with models of sky luminance to estimate visibility. While conventional air pollution monitors are costly and thinly deployed in some areas, the smartphone application potentially could help fill in some blanks in existing air pollution maps, according to USC computer science professor Gaurav Sukhatme.

Showstack, Randy

2010-10-01

119

Air Pollution Control, Part II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book contains five major articles in areas of current importance in air pollution control. They are written by authors who are actively participating in the areas on which they report. It is the aim of each article to completely cover theory, experimentation, and practice in the field discussed. The contents are as follows: Emissions,…

Strauss, Werner, Ed.

120

Air Pollution. Part A: Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Two facets of the engineering control of air pollution (the analysis of possible problems and the application of effective controls) are covered in this two-volume text. Part A covers Analysis, and Part B, Prevention and Control. (This review is concerned with Part A only.) This volume deals with the terminology, methodology, and symptomatology…

Ledbetter, Joe O.

121

Health Effects of Air Pollution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes health hazards associated with air pollution, highlighting the difficulty in establishing acceptable thresholds of exposure. Respiratory disease, asthma, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and other problems are addressed. Indicates that a wide range of effects from any one chemical exists and that there are differences in sensitivity to…

Environmental Education Report and Newsletter, 1985

1985-01-01

122

Health Effects of Air Pollution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Summarizes health hazards associated with air pollution, highlighting the difficulty in establishing acceptable thresholds of exposure. Respiratory disease, asthma, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and other problems are addressed. Indicates that a wide range of effects from any one chemical exists and that there are differences in sensitivity to…

Environmental Education Report and Newsletter, 1985

1985-01-01

123

Nasal responses to air pollutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The upper respiratory tract, including the nose, nasal pharynx, and paranasal sinuses, is the major interface for initial contact of air pollutants with the respiratory system. The upper airway provides important physiologic functions, including warming, humidification, and cleansing of the airstream that is ultimately delivered to the lungs. The warming, humidification, and cleansing are carried out by control of the

Jane Q. Koenig; William E. Pierson

1984-01-01

124

Air pollution problems in nurseries  

Microsoft Academic Search

As urbanization and industrialization intensify, harmful gaseous and particulate emissions will continue to affect nursery and ornamental plantings. Although efforts are being made to control emissions at their sources, plant damage will increase because of our inability to curb chronic air pollution. Nursery crops are injured primarily by ozone, fluorides, and sulfur dioxide, but other phytotoxicants, such as hydrogen chloride,

Dochinger

1974-01-01

125

Air pollution and lung cancer  

SciTech Connect

Epidemiological evidence proves conclusively that lung cancer correlates with air pollution. However, data on lung cancer death rates and smoking show that mankind accepts the risk of long-term and low-level exposure to carcinogens. As a rule, immediate benefits are sought and remote hazards ignored. Fear of atmospheric contamination by radioactive fallout seems to be the main factor for awareness of air pollution. Experimental works help us to understand physics of particle deposition in the lungs (inertial impactation, sedimentation, Brownian movement), shed light on carcinogenesis (eg, bay region theory in case of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and surface charge changes regarding asbestos), show that atmospheric particulates accepted as harmless may act as co-carcinogens (eg, iron and benzo(a)pyrene) and stress the importance of in vitro research (bacterial mutation tests, organ cultures, sister chromatid exchange system) to screen pollutants for their malignant potential and study their pathogenesis.

Boehm, G.M.

1982-01-01

126

The Transportation Air Pollution Studies (TAPS) System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes the Transportation Air Pollution Studies (TAPS) Data Base and the Software System which has been developed in association with it. The TAPS Data Base will be used to store the transportation air pollution data (including emissions, me...

D. S. Prerau P. J. Downey

1974-01-01

127

Exposure Information in Environmental Health Research: Current Opportunities and Future Directions for Particulate Matter, Ozone, and Toxic Air Pollutants  

EPA Science Inventory

In September 2006, scientists from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) along with scientists from the academic community and state health departments convened a symposium on air pollution exposure and health in ord...

128

Responses of plants to air pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

This volume details the effects of air pollutants both individually and synergistically on the higher and lower plant groups. Discussions range from the subcellular level to entire ecosystems, and cover anatomy, pathology and biochemistry of plants in relation to air pollution. Sources and costs of air pollution are overviewed, as are the mechanisms of injury. SOâ, ozone, fluorides, PAN, nitrogen

J. B. Mudd; T. T. Kozlowski

1975-01-01

129

The Crisis in Air Pollution Manpower Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Three studies conducted by the National Air Pollution Manpower Development Advisory Committee concluded there is a crisis in air pollution manpower development within the United States today. The studies investigated the existing federal manpower program, air pollution educational requirements and the quality of graduate level university…

Moeller, Dade W.

1974-01-01

130

Adverse health effects of outdoor air pollutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much research on the health effects of outdoor air pollution has been published in the last decade. The goal of this review is to concisely summarize a wide range of the recent research on health effects of many types of outdoor air pollution. A review of the health effects of major outdoor air pollutants including particulates, carbon monoxide, sulfur and

Luke Curtis; William Rea; Patricia Smith-Willis; Ervin Fenyves; Yaqin Pan

2006-01-01

131

Impact of air pollutants on plant populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Only recently have the potential lingering, insidious decline of whole forests and alterations of entire agronomic and natural plant populations imposed by air pollutants received recognition. Pathogenic air pollutants in many geographic areas of the world already impose a greater economic hazard to agriculture than do climatic or insect pathogens. The treatment of air pollutants to watershed species may be

Treshow

1968-01-01

132

Disparities in the Impact of Air Pollution  

MedlinePLUS

... Your Zip Code: Disparities in the Impact of Air Pollution The burden of air pollution is not evenly shared. Poorer people and some ... studies have explored the differences in harm from air pollution to racial or ethnic groups and people who ...

133

REGIONAL AIR POLLUTION STUDY, EMISSION INVENTORY SUMMARIZATION  

EPA Science Inventory

As part of the Regional Air Pollution Study (RAPS), data for an air pollution emission inventory are summarized for point and area sources in the St. Louis Air Quality Control Region. Data for point sources were collected for criteria and noncriteria pollutants, hydrocarbons, sul...

134

HOW AIR POLLUTION IS DETECTED.  

PubMed

Dr Marjorie Clifton describes the classification of gaseous and nongaseous constituents of air pollution and then outlines the methods of measuring these. The National Survey embraced 150 towns of all sizes throughout England and Wales and provided data on smoke and sulphur dioxide in relation to climate, topography, industrialization, population density, fuel utilization and urban development.Dr W C Turner discusses the relationship between air pollution and mortality from respiratory conditions, and particularly the incidence of chronic bronchitis. He postulates a theory that such respiratory conditions arise as an allergy to the spores of certain moulds, spore formation being encouraged by the air humidity in Greatv Britain and overcrowded and damp living conditions. He describes the results of a twenty-week study undertaken in 1962-3, showing associations between respiratory disease and levels of air pollution.Dr Stuart Carne undertook a survey in general practice to plot the patterns of respiratory illness in London during the winter of 1962-3. There were two peaks of respiratory illnesses coinciding with the fog at the beginning of December and the freeze-up from the end of December until the beginning of March. PMID:14178955

CLIFTON, M

1964-07-01

135

Air Pollution Abstracts, Volume 4, Number 1, January 1973, 25049-25573.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This periodical is publishd to inform air pollution personnel of technical literature recently accessioned by the Air Pollution Technical Information Center (APTIC). For each accession, abstract number, APTIC accession number, bibliographic citation, and ...

1973-01-01

136

Risk Assessment for Toxic Air Pollutants: A Citizen's Guide  

MedlinePLUS

... Air Pollutants: A Citizen's Guide Risk Assessment for Toxic Air Pollutants: A Citizen's Guide Originally published as ... 3-90-024 March 1991 INTRODUCTION What are Toxic Air Pollutants? Toxic air pollutants are poisonous substances ...

137

QUANTIFYING SUBGRID POLLUTANT VARIABILITY IN EULERIAN AIR QUALITY MODELS  

EPA Science Inventory

In order to properly assess human risk due to exposure to hazardous air pollutants or air toxics, detailed information is needed on the location and magnitude of ambient air toxic concentrations. Regional scale Eulerian air quality models are typically limited to relatively coar...

138

APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 2: Computer Operator's Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Computer Operator's Manual is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The information in the manual is sufficiently basic…

Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

139

APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 2: Computer Operator's Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Computer Operator's Manual is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The information in the manual is sufficiently…

Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

140

Air Pollution Manual, Part 1--Evaluation. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Due to the great increase in technical knowledge and improvement in procedures, this second edition has been prepared to update existing information. Air pollution legislation is reviewed. Sources of air pollution are examined extensively. They are treated in terms of natural sources, man-made sources, metropolitan regional emissions, emission…

Giever, Paul M., Ed.

141

Influence of vegetation in the urban environment on air pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of arguments are made for using plants as air pollution abatement devices in urban areas. A series of recommendations are made. They are: that appropriate Federal agencies undertake studies to assess the potentials for reducing air pollution in the urban environment by plantings of vegetation, that information and technical assistance be made available by a designated Federal agency

Carl Lamanna

1970-01-01

142

Air pollution and infant health: Lessons from New Jersey  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the impact of three “criteria” air pollutants on infant health in New Jersey in the 1990s by combining information about mother's residential location from birth certificates with information from air quality monitors. Our work offers three important innovations. First, we use the exact addresses of mothers to select those closest to air monitors to improve the accuracy of

Janet Currie; Matthew J. Neidell; Johannes F. Schmieder

2009-01-01

143

A Field-based Database Management Method for City Air Pollutants Information System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Along with the wide and deep use of information technology, much research has focused on how to impose the technology of databases to handle geographic data also in terms of temporal features. Recently, field databases emerge as an important research issue in order to deal with complex phenomena in real world, and to develop better approaches to store and manage

Fengru Huang; Xuesong Wang; Bin Chen; Yu Fang

2008-01-01

144

Transboundary air Pollution in Peruvian Amazonia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biomass burning in the tropics is an important source of pollution to the atmosphere with different and not well understood consequences to the climate and the atmospheric chemistry. Burning over Amazonia is related mainly to land use cover change. During the dry season (May to November) high amount of fires are produced in Amazonia. The resulting pollutants under some conditions could produce tropospheric ozone, which reaches long distances far from the sources, the same occurs with aerosols, both could be detected by ground and satellite measurements. The work focused on the transboundary air pollution between Brazil and Peru during the last years. In this sense, this research determines the seasonal variations and the spatial coverage of this pollution in Peruvian Amazonia. We used satellite data and ground measurements to make a detailed evaluation of the transport and production of pollutants (tropospheric ozone and aerosols) related to biomass burning in order to quantify the levels of pollution based on tropospheric ozone and aerosol index and optical depth. Also, we evaluate the climatology of fires detected by satellites. It is expected that the results will provide basic information to policy makers about possible effects of this pollution in the natural resources of Peru. Also, we will provide the scientific basis for the National Program for Prevention of Forest Fires.

Luis, S.; Luis, C.

2007-05-01

145

Minimizing the Effects of Outdoor Air Pollution  

MedlinePLUS

... Air Pollution Everyone is adversely affected by poor air quality; however, individuals who suffer from pulmonary problems are ... avoid exposure to, and complications from, poor outdoor air quality. Avoid exposure to noxious fumes The Environmental Protection ...

146

Air Pollution Controls for Urban Transportation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Eight reports are presented which deal with problems of air quality and air pollution controls relating to urban transportation, such as: the process for incorporating air quality considerations into the transportation planning and decision-making process...

S. J. Bellomo A. M. Voorhees

1973-01-01

147

Air Pollution Episode Emergency Action Planning Manual.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This manual is a guide for air quality program planners responsible for the design and implementation of episode avoidance actions. An episode is defined as the occurrence of stagnant air masses during which air pollutants accumulate, so that the populati...

1968-01-01

148

Environmental Chemistry: Air and Water Pollution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This is a book about air and water pollution whose chapters cover the topics of air pollution--general considerations, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons and photochemical oxidants, sulfur oxides, particulates, temperature inversions and the greenhouse effect; and water pollution--general considerations, mercury, lead, detergents,…

Stoker, H. Stephen; Seager, Spencer L.

149

Effects of air pollutants on vegetation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The various kinds of injuries a plant can sustain from air pollutants are described. The kinds of injury caused by, and the sources of, various air pollutants are described and discussed. Among the pollutants discussed are sulfur dioxide, fluorides, ozone, peroxyacetyl nitrate, nitrogen dioxide, chlorine, and particulates. Species differences in sensitivity are discussed, and strategies for the prevention of phytotoxic

Linzon

1970-01-01

150

Plants as air-pollution indicators  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the use of plants as biological indicators of air pollution. The author acquaints the reader with some sensitive methods of air pollution monitoring which are based on the use of plants. Some of the pollutants considered are sulfur dioxide, ozone, fluorides, chlorine, ethylene, and carbon dioxide. Some of the indicator plants discussed are alfalfa, buckwheat, clovers,

Meeuse

2009-01-01

151

A PROPOSED UNIFORM AIR POLLUTION INDEX  

EPA Science Inventory

A uniform air pollution index for the U.S. is proposed. The index was developed from ten criteria identified in a survey of all the air pollution indices currently in use in the U.S. and Canada. The proposed index, named the Pollutant Standards Index (PSI), was designed to overco...

152

Toxic air pollution. A comprehensive study of non-criteria air pollutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This text contains a description of the Airborne Toxic Element and Organic Substances (ATEOS) project's design, results, and conclusions. The ATEOS project was a cooperative study conducted for the state of New Jersey to establish quantitative information relating to human exposure to toxic air pollutants. The book is a compilation of six chapters written by the individual participating researchers about

P. J. Lioy; J. M. Daisey

1987-01-01

153

Air pollution and congenital heart defects.  

PubMed

Environmental factors such as ambient air pollution have been associated with congenital heart defects. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between gestational exposure to air pollution and the risk of congenital heart defects. We conducted a registry-based cohort study with a total of 135,527 live- and still-births in the Tel-Aviv region during 2000-2006. We used a Geographic Information System-based spatiotemporal approach with weekly inverse distance weighting modeling to evaluate associations between gestational exposure to ambient air pollution during weeks 3-8 of pregnancy and the risk for congenital heart defects. The following pollutants were studied: carbon monoxide, nitrogen-dioxide, ozone, sulfur-dioxide and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 ?m and 2.5 ?m (PM10, PM2.5 respectively). Logistic models, adjusted for socio-demographic covariates were used to evaluate the associations. We found that maternal exposure to increased concentrations of PM10 was associated with multiple congenital heart defects (adjusted OR 1.05, 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.10 for 10 ?g/m(3) increment). An inverse association was observed between concentrations of PM2.5 and isolated patent ductus arteriosus (adjusted OR 0.78, 95% CI: 0.68 to 0.91 for 5 µg/m(3) increment). Sensitivity analyses showed that results were consistent. Generally there were no evidence for an association between gaseous air pollutants and congenital heart defects.Our results for PM10 and congenital heart defects confirm results from previous studies. The results for PM2.5 need further investigations. PMID:23623715

Agay-Shay, Keren; Friger, Michael; Linn, Shai; Peled, Ammatzia; Amitai, Yona; Peretz, Chava

2013-04-25

154

EXPOSURE MEASUREMENT FOR AIR POLLUTION EPIDEMIOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

The chapter describes the evolution of air pollution epidemiology over a period when changes in pollution technologies have both lowered total exposures and dispersed them over vastly greater areas. Since personal exposure and microenvironmental measurements are expensive, studie...

155

Latex allergen in respirable particulate air pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Urban air samples contain numerous irregular respirable black particles, which may be airborne tire fragments. A major component of tires is natural latex. Proteins of natural latex can act as adjuvants and as antigens capable of eliciting immediate hypersensitivity, making their presence in particulate air pollution an important clinical issue. Methods: Particulate air pollutants were collected by volumetric sampling

P. Brock Williams; Martin P. Buhr; Richard W. Weber; Micheal A. Volz; Jerald W. Koepke; John C. Selner

1995-01-01

156

Outdoor and Indoor Air Pollution in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Outdoor and Indoor air pollution in China is mainly due to direct combustion of coal for domestic heating and cooking purposes. In general, air pollution levels are more severe in the northern parts of the country, during the cold season and cooking hours than in the southern parts, during the warm season and non-cooking hours. The direct impact of air

S Niu

1987-01-01

157

The Petroleum Industries’ Air Pollution Control Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The American Petroleum Institute sponsored a research project to investigate the problem of air pollution in urban areas. This was a long-range basic study designed to find out just what chemicals go into the air and what happens to them after they become a part of the environment and how these facts relate to air pollution. The nature of chemicals

G. A. Lloyd

1961-01-01

158

A novel air pollution index based on the relative risk of daily mortality associated with short-term exposure to common air pollutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Communication of the complex relationship between air pollutant exposure and ill health is essential to an air pollution information system. We propose a novel air pollution index (API) system based on the relative risk of the well-established increased daily mortality associated with short-term exposure to common air pollutants: particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5), sulphur dioxide, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and carbon monoxide.To

Eugene K. Cairncross; Juanette John; Mark Zunckel

2007-01-01

159

MODELING POPULATION EXPOSURES TO OUTDOOR SOURCES OF HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Accurate assessment of human exposures is an important part of environmental health effects research. However, most air pollution epidemiology studies rely upon imperfect surrogates of personal exposures, such as information based on available central-site outdoor concentration ...

160

AIRS (AEROMETRIC INFORMATION RETRIEVAL SYSTEM)  

EPA Science Inventory

AIRS (Aerometric Information Retrieval System) is a computer-based repository of information about airborne pollution in the United States and various World Health Organization (WHO) member countries. The system is administered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), O...

161

Exposure estimates in assessing helath effects of air pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air pollution has been associated with adverse health effects. Difficulties in interpreting studies of health effects of exposure to air pollution arise in estimating exposure. Until recently, studies of effects of air pollution have relied on pollution exposure measurements obtained from fixed location air pollution stations monitoring outside air (to evaluate compliance with air quality standards, rather than to examine

F. Silverman; L. D. Pengelly; S. Mintz; A. T. Kerigan; H. R. Hosein; P. Corey; C. H. Goldsmith

1982-01-01

162

Perspective on Air Pollution: The Canadian Scene  

PubMed Central

Despite the large ratio of land mass to population, Canada has significant air pollution problems, some being due to our cold climate, the long arctic nights, and a mineral-based economy. Routes of intoxication include the respiration of polluted air and the secondary contamination of food and water. Although pollution is often measured in terms of industrial emissions, the physician must be concerned rather with the dose of pollutants to which the individual is exposed. The principal air pollutants, in terms of emitted tonnage, are carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrocarbons, particulates, and oxides of nitrogen. Sources of these various materials are discussed.

Shephard, R. J.

1975-01-01

163

new priorities in air pollution control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent federal air pollution control laws and regulations have required significant changes in the “game plan” for developing regulations to limit emissions and achieve acceptable air quality. Major elements of the so called “Air Resource Management” concept have been found, in practice, to be meaningless and\\/or unworkable. Experiences in designating “air quality control regions,” interpreting “air quality criteria” and adopting

Victor H. Sussman

1971-01-01

164

Air pollution and health: a statement by the American Thoracic Society committee on air pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationships between air pollution and human health are reviewed and discussed. The effects of specific pollutants and the environmental parameters that precipitate acute pollution events are also discussed.

J. R. Goldsmith; L. Greenburg; A. P. Altshuller; W. S. Jr. Spicer; E. J. Cassell; H. E. Landsberg

1966-01-01

165

AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH (AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)  

EPA Science Inventory

Fundamental and applied combustion research has been conducted by the Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division's Air Pollution Technology Branch (APTB)and its predecessors since EPA's inception. APTB has been instrumental in the development and successful application of flue...

166

The link between symptoms of office building occupants and in-office air pollution: the Indoor Air Pollution Index.  

PubMed

The lack of an effective indoor air quality (IAQ) metric causes communication concerns among building tenants (the public), building managers (decision-makers), and IAQ investigators (engineers). The Indoor Air Pollution Index (IAPI) is developed for office buildings to bridge this communication discord. The index, simple and easily understood, employs the range of pollutant concentrations and concentrations in the subject building to estimate a unitless single number, the IAPI, between 0 (lowest pollution level and best IAQ) and ten (highest pollution level and worst IAQ). The index provides a relative measure of indoor air pollution for office buildings and ranks office indoor air pollution relative to the index distribution of the US office building population. Furthermore, the index associates well with occupant symptoms, percentage of occupants with persistent symptoms. A tree-structured method is utilized in conjunction with the arithmetic mean as the aggregation function. The hierarchical structure of the method renders not only one index value, but also several sub-index values that are critical in the study of an office air environment. The use of the IAPI for IAQ management is illustrated with an example. The decomposition of the index leads to the ranking of sampled pollutants by their relative contribution to the index and the identification of dominant pollutant(s). This information can be applied to design an effective strategy for reducing in-office air pollution. PMID:14636227

Sofuoglu, S C; Moschandreas, D J

2003-12-01

167

Aerometric Information Retrieval System (AIRS) Data Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Environmental Protection Agency's Aerometric Information Retrieval System (AIRS) Data Maps provide data on pollutants for which the EPA has established national standards. The data come in ready-to-view national maps, or the AIRS Graphics page allows users generate their own maps and charts by specifying criteria such as dates, locations, and pollutant names. Two main types of data include air quality measurements and pollution emission estimates.

Radiation., United S.

168

Hazardous air pollutants and asthma.  

PubMed Central

Asthma has a high prevalence in the United States, and persons with asthma may be at added risk from the adverse effects of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). Complex mixtures (fine particulate matter and tobacco smoke) have been associated with respiratory symptoms and hospital admissions for asthma. The toxic ingredients of these mixtures are HAPs, but whether ambient HAP exposures can induce asthma remains unclear. Certain HAPs are occupational asthmagens, whereas others may act as adjuncts during sensitization. HAPs may exacerbate asthma because, once sensitized, individuals can respond to remarkably low concentrations, and irritants lower the bronchoconstrictive threshold to respiratory antigens. Adverse responses after ambient exposures to complex mixtures often occur at concentrations below those producing effects in controlled human exposures to a single compound. In addition, certain HAPs that have been associated with asthma in occupational settings may interact with criteria pollutants in ambient air to exacerbate asthma. Based on these observations and past experience with 188 HAPs, a list of 19 compounds that could have the highest impact on the induction or exacerbation of asthma was developed. Nine additional compounds were identified that might exacerbate asthma based on their irritancy, respirability, or ability to react with biological macromolecules. Although the ambient levels of these 28 compounds are largely unknown, estimated exposures from emissions inventories and limited air monitoring suggest that aldehydes (especially acrolein and formaldehyde) and metals (especially nickel and chromium compounds) may have possible health risk indices sufficient for additional attention. Recommendations for research are presented regarding exposure monitoring and evaluation of biologic mechanisms controlling how these substances induce and exacerbate asthma.

Leikauf, George D

2002-01-01

169

[Air pollution and the lung: epidemiological approach].  

PubMed

Epidemiological evidence has concurred with clinical and experimental evidence to correlate current levels of ambient air pollution, both indoors and outdoors, with respiratory effects. In this respect, the use of specific epidemiological methods has been crucial. Common outdoor pollutants are particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds and ozone. Short-term effects of outdoor air pollution include changes in lung function, respiratory symptoms and mortality due to respiratory causes. Increase in the use of health care resources has also been associated with short-term effects of air pollution. Long-term effects of cumulated exposure to urban air pollution include lung growth impairment, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), lung cancer, and probably the development of asthma and allergies. Lung cancer and COPD have been related to a shorter life expectancy. Common indoor pollutants are environmental tobacco smoke, particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds and biological allergens. Concentrations of these pollutants can be many times higher indoors than outdoors. Indoor air pollution may increase the risk of irritation phenomena, allergic sensitisation, acute and chronic respiratory disorders and lung function impairment. Recent conservative estimates have shown that 1.5-2 million deaths per year worldwide could be attributed to indoor air pollution. Further epidemiological research is necessary to better evaluate the respiratory health effects of air pollution and to implement protective programmes for public health. PMID:16828033

Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Dab, William

170

A Guide for Reducing Automotive Air Pollution.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A guide is presented which is designed to aid transportation professionals and state air pollution control agencies in selecting transportation controls suggested in the regulations pursuant to the Clean Air Act of 1970. Actions considered here emphasize ...

1971-01-01

171

Air pollution forecast in cities by an air pollution index highly correlated with meteorological variables  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are many different air pollution indexes which represent the global urban air pollution situation. The daily index studied here is also highly correlated with meteorological variables and this index is capable of identifying those variables that significantly affect the air pollution. The index is connected with attention levels of NO2, CO and O3 concentrations. The attention levels are fixed

Euro Cogliani

2001-01-01

172

APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 21: Legal References: Air Pollution Control Regulations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Legal References: Air Pollution Control Regulations Manual is the last in a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The manual…

Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

173

Reduction of Air Pollution Potential through Environmental Planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amelioration of the air pollution problem, whether the result of mobile or stationary source emissions, will depend primarily upon mechanical controls and fuel and process changes. Urban and transportation planning, however, may provide supplementary means for reducing both emissions of pollutants and the exposure of persons to undesirably high ambient concentrations. The body of information in this paper is directed

J. C. Fensterstock; J. A. Kurtzweg; G. Ozolins

1971-01-01

174

Models for human exposure to air pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four models for human exposure to air pollution are discussed and compared. Simple microenvironment monitoring measures pollutant concentrations at fixed locations, regarded as proxies for similar locations or microenvironments. This model does not require pollutant measurements on the individual level, therefore is easy to implement. However, the model can be used only to estimate the average exposure in a population

N. Duan

1982-01-01

175

Law, property rights, and air pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The legal aspects of air pollution are discussed as the initiation of overt acts of aggression against persons or property are viewed as taking the form of pollution. The initiator of such actions must be strictly liable for damages against the victim provided that: (a) the polluter has not previously established a homestead easement; (b) the plaintiff must prove actual

Rothbard

2009-01-01

176

Exposure to air pollutants in English homes  

Microsoft Academic Search

BRE has conducted a national representative survey of air pollutants in 876 homes in England, designed to increase knowledge of baseline pollutant levels and factors associated with high concentrations. Homes were monitored for carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), formaldehyde and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In the majority of the homes, concentrations of the measured pollutants were low. However, some

Gary J Raw; Sara K D Coward; Veronica M Brown; Derrick R Crump; Crump

2004-01-01

177

Air pollution and cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

Air pollution is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Recent experimental and epidemiologic studies show that particulate matter (PM) air pollution with PM10 or inhalable (thoracic) particles (mean aerodynamic diameter < 10 microm) is most consistently linked with acute and chronic cardiovascular effects. Fine (PM2.5) and ultrafine (PM0.1) particles (aerodynamic diameter < 2.5 and < 0.1 microm) are able to reach the small airways and terminal alveoli, and PM0.1 can also be translocated directly into the systemic circulation. PM2.5 and PM0.1 are mainly formed by fossil fuel combustion and are the main components of exhaust emissions from motor vehicles. A variety of biological mechanisms responsible for adverse cardiovascular outcomes associated with PM have been described, including the release of pro-oxidative and pro-inflammatory mediators from the lungs into the circulation, autonomic nervous system imbalance, and the direct actions on the heart and vasculature of ultrafine particles translocated into the systemic circulation. The induction of oxidative stress by these particles may be central to all of these putative pathways that trigger coagulation and thrombosis, increased heart rate and reduced heart rate variability, endothelial dysfunction, arterial vasoconstriction, apoptosis, and hypertension. In chronic exposures these alterations favor the development and progression of atherosclerosis and possibly of hypertension in the long term, and in the short term acute exposures contribute to plaque instability, affect various traditional risk factors and trigger acute cardiovascular events (myocardial ischemia and infarction, stroke, heart failure, arrhythmias, and sudden death), particularly in high-risk subjects. There are currently also significant concerns with the risks of engineered nanoparticles. PMID:19697799

Nogueira, J Braz

2009-06-01

178

Air pollution modeling over Europe using WRFchem  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to model air pollution for entire Switzerland with a very high spatial resolution. For the first time a several year period of air pollution is modeled for entire Switzerland. The high resolution domain of Switzerland is nested into a coarser European domain with a horizontal resolution of 50 km, extending from south of Spain

Mathias Ritter; Mathias Müller

2010-01-01

179

Transport and Urban Air Pollution in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid growth in motor vehicle activity in India and other rapidly industrializing low-income countries is contributing to high levels of urban air pollution, among other adverse socioeconomic, environmental, health, and welfare impacts. This paper first discusses the local, regional, and global impacts associated with air pollutant emissions resulting from motor vehicle activity, and the technological, behavioral, and institutional factors

Madhav G. Badami

2005-01-01

180

Visualizing Air Pollutants through Image Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a new method to visualize air pollutant through image processing. In order to achieve a realistic effect, we further enhance thus above obtained images in spatial domain. In the proposed method we map the densities of air pollutants to different gray levels, and visualize them by blending those gray levels with background images. The proposed

Wang Demin; Zhang Caiming; Huang Yan; Li Weitao

2010-01-01

181

Solid Waste, Air Pollution and Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

While much has been written on each individual subject, very little has been published that attempts to clarify the direct and indirect associations among the incidence of air pollutant related disease, the emission of air pollutants, and their relation to solid waste generation and disposal. This study attempts to clarify these relationships. After the appropriate literature is surveyed, clarification of

George J. Kupchik; Gerald J. Franz

1976-01-01

182

Air Pollution in the Locality of Buildings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Concentrations of air pollutants at any point in a city are due to contributions from the background level of the inflowing 'rural' air, the 'overall' urban pollution, and the sources 'local' to the point in question. The influence of buildings on the ove...

R. A. McCormick

1971-01-01

183

Air pollution transport modeling. Master's thesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research effort addresses modeling of the transportation of air pollution in the atmosphere and the numerical analysis of the partial differential equations used in such modeling. Three Gaussian models are examined and compared using example problems. Several finite difference schemes are developed to solve the partial differential equations used in air pollution transport modeling. This study examines three Gaussian

Paal

1993-01-01

184

Air Pollution and Its Control, Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A concise appraisal of our contemporary status and future prospects with regard to air pollution and its control are offered in this text for concerned laymen. What air pollution is, how it endangers health, the cost of controlling it, what is being done about it now, and what should be done are some of the basic questions considered. Topics…

Sproull, Wayne T.

185

Expanding Blast Furnace Slag Without Air Pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expansion of blast furnace slag causes emissions of hydrogen sulfide, creating an air pollution problem common throughout the steel industry. This paper describes a new process, called pelletizing which eliminates the air pollution problem while at the same time producing a superior slag product.

Richard Jablin

1972-01-01

186

Measurement of Air Pollutants in the Troposphere  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article describes the principles, applications and performances of methods to measure gas-phase air pollutants that either utilise passive or active sampling with subsequent laboratory analysis or involve automated "in situ" sampling and analysis. It focuses on air pollutants that have adverse impacts on human health (nitrogen dioxide,…

Clemitshaw, Kevin C.

2011-01-01

187

Sensor Grids For Air Pollution Monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe the use of sensor grids within Discovery Net to construct a distributed system for urban air pollution monitoring and control. We present the background to urban air pollution monitoring and describe the high throughput sensors developed within this project to address the problem. We differentiate between the concepts of sensor networks and sensor grids and

M. Ghanem; Y. Guo; J. Hassard; M. Osmond; M. Richards

188

[Air pollution and lung diseases in adults].  

PubMed

Short-time exposure to air pollutants and in particular to sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and photochemical oxidants may cause respiratory symptoms similar to acute bronchial asthma. In healthy adults however the concentrations required to evoke significant bronchial obstruction lie still above the level of atmospheric air pollution usually observed in our country. In contrast patients with preexisting pulmonary diseases or with impaired bronchopulmonary defense mechanisms may show harmful reactions even at concentrations which actually occur in urban and rural atmospheres. In addition there is evidence of on increased prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases in countries with high chemical pollution indicating that long-term exposure of ambient air pollution may cause chronic illness as well. Since air pollution is accepted to produce adverse health effects, emergent efforts are required to improve air quality in order to avoid further injuries in man. PMID:3962495

Keller, R

1986-01-01

189

Cancer risk of air pollution: epidemiological evidence.  

PubMed Central

Epidemiological studies on the effect of urban air pollution on lung cancer were surveyed. Overall, the studies from many countries point to a smoking-adjusted risk in urban areas over countryside areas that is higher by a factor of up to 1.5. The extent to which urban air pollution contributes to this excess remains unknown. Studies on diesel-exposed occupational groups show that urban air pollution may have a causative role in lung cancer. Model calculations on unit risk factors of known human carcinogens were carried out to rank carcinogens according to their current ambient air concentrations.

Hemminki, K; Pershagen, G

1994-01-01

190

Ambient air pollution and respiratory health effects in mail carriers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mail carriers represent an occupational group suffering from respiratory symptoms and lung function impairment. Although environmental conditions may play role, information on the effects of air pollution exposure in this population is lacking.The present study was conducted in Athens, Greece, in order to investigate the adverse effects of long-term air pollution exposure on respiratory outcomes in mail carriers.A total of

A. Karakatsani; F. Kapitsimadis; M. Pipikou; M. C. Chalbot; I. G. Kavouras; D. Orphanidou; S. Papiris; K. Katsouyanni

2010-01-01

191

Ambient air pollution and population health: overview.  

PubMed

In November 2003 approximately 200 researchers, stakeholders, and policymakers from more than 40 countries gathered to discuss the science and policy implications of air pollution and human health as part of the AIRNET/NERAM Strategies for Clean Air and Health initiative. The purpose of this paper is to review the more than 35 research posters presented at the conference, including exposure, toxicological, and epidemiological studies of air pollution. Collectively, these papers support previous evidence that both short- and long-term exposures to particulate air pollution have adverse population health impacts, including effects on children. Cellular studies also suggest that air pollution can cause mutagenic and oxidative effects, raising concerns about carcinogenicity and cellular regeneration. Studies of biomarkers, such as Clara-cell proteins and lymphocyte damage assessment, provide further evidence of air pollution effects at the cellular level. Other studies have focused on improvements to measurement and sources of air pollution. These studies suggest that particle mass rather than particle composition may be a more useful indicator of potential human health risk. It is well known that emissions from transportation sources are a major contributor to ambient air pollution in large urban centres. Epidemiologic researchers are able to reduce bias due to misclassification and improve exposure assessment models by allocating air pollution exposure according to distance from traffic sources or land-use patterns. The close association between traffic patterns and air pollution concentrations provides a potential basis for the development of transport policies and regulations with population health improvements as a primary objective. The results of the research presented here present opportunities and challenges for the development of policies for improvements to air quality and human health. However, there remains the challenge of how best to achieve these reductions. PMID:17365590

Krewski, Daniel; Rainham, Daniel

2007-02-01

192

Clean Air For Less: Exploiting Tradeoffs Between Different Air Pollutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Administration's Clear Skies initiative and all competing legislative proposals take a pollutant-by-pollutant approach to address air pollution problems caused by emissions of both nitrogen oxides (NOx) and sulfur dioxide (SO2). Randall Lutter and Dallas Burtraw argue that as a result they miss an important opportunity to cut compliance costs without reducing expected environmental protection. For a scenario where firms

Dallas Burtraw; Randall Lutter

2003-01-01

193

The burden of disease from indoor air pollution in developing countries: comparison of estimates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four different methods have been applied to estimate the burden of disease due to indoor air pollution from household solid fuel use in developing countries (LDCs). The largest number of estimates involves applying exposure-response information from urban ambient air pollution studies to estimate indoor exposure concentrations of particulate air pollution. Another approach is to construct child survival curves using the

Kirk R. Smith; Sumi Mehta

2003-01-01

194

Controlling Sources of Indoor Air Pollution through Pollution Prevention.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper is an overview of EPA research into controlling sources of indoor air pollution through pollution prevention (P2). The research focused on four approaches for P2: (1) developing methods and tools that can be used by others to evaluate emissions ...

K. W. Leovic D. Whitaker C. Brockmann C. Bayer P. Sojka M. Plesniak

1998-01-01

195

POLLUTANT VARIABILITY IN THE REGIONAL AIR POLLUTION STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

Pollutant variability in the area represented by a stationary point monitoring site causes an uncertainty in representative sampling. This uncertainty has been determined for selected sites in the Regional Air Pollution Study (RAPS) in St. Louis by using portable sampling and mon...

196

Air pollution risk estimates: determinants of heterogeneity.  

PubMed

Information on risk to health for particular populations may be critical for motivating air pollution control, setting air quality standards, and evaluating control measures. This article considers the application of associated risk estimates from one or more external populations to a specific population. This concept is termed "transportability," and the degree of transportability of a risk estimate may be limited by (1) sources and characteristics of the local air pollution mixture, (2) pattern of exposures to the population, and (3) population characteristics determining susceptibility. For any particular estimate in a particular study or in compilations of study findings, multiple potential determinants affect its value, including biological factors, aspects of study methodology, and bias introduced by study design and analysis and by the publication process. Each limitation is discussed in light of current research, and solutions are proposed for addressing these limitations. These include (1) a full description of key aspects of study design and analysis; (2) systematic capture of published risk estimates using large databases; (3) use of multicity study models such as NMMAPS and APHEA; and (4) development of protocols for empirical analyses at the local level to support the rigorous estimation of risk in a broader, international context. PMID:18569629

Samet, Jonathan M

2008-01-01

197

Impact of Air Pollution on Allergic Diseases  

PubMed Central

The incidence of allergic diseases in most industrialized countries has increased. Although the exact mechanisms behind this rapid increase in prevalence remain uncertain, a variety of air pollutants have been attracting attention as one causative factor. Epidemiological and toxicological research suggests a causative relationship between air pollution and the increased incidence of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and other allergic disorders. These include ozone, nitrogen dioxide and, especially particulate matter, produced by traffic-related and industrial activities. Strong epidemiological evidence supports a relationship between air pollution and the exacerbation of asthma and other respiratory diseases. Recent studies have suggested that air pollutants play a role in the development of asthma and allergies. Researchers have elucidated the mechanisms whereby these pollutants induce adverse effects; they appear to affect the balance between antioxidant pathways and airway inflammation. Gene polymorphisms involved in antioxidant pathways can modify responses to air pollution exposure. While the characterization and monitoring of pollutant components currently dictates pollution control policies, it will be necessary to identify susceptible subpopulations to target therapy/prevention of pollution-induced respiratory diseases.

2011-01-01

198

Air pollution and respiratory viral infection.  

PubMed

Despite current regulations, which limit the levels of certain air pollutants, there are still a number of adverse health effects that result from exposure to these agents. Numerous epidemiological studies have noted an association between the levels of air pollution and hospital admissions for a variety of different health reasons, including a number of respiratory diseases, as well as increased morbidity and mortality associated with various respiratory conditions and diseases. Because of the large impact respiratory virus infections have on morbidity and even mortality, it is important to understand whether and how exposure to common air pollutants could exacerbate the susceptibility to and severity of respiratory virus infections. This review focuses on current epidemiological and experimental studies, which have examined the association between and effect of air pollutants and respiratory viral infections, as well as potential mechanisms associated with these effects. Examined in this review are U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) "criteria" pollutants nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)), ozone (O(3)), and particulate matter (PM), as well as indoor pollutants such as environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and combustion products of biomass fuels. Although a number of studies indicate associations between exposure to air pollutants and increased risk for respiratory virus infections, potential mechanisms mediating these effects are largely unexplored. Therefore, additional studies, both epidemiologic and mechanistic, are necessary to increase our understanding of how exposure to air pollutants could affect respiratory virus infections, especially in populations already at risk of developing significant morbidity/mortality after infections with respiratory viruses. PMID:17987465

Ciencewicki, Jonathan; Jaspers, Ilona

2007-11-01

199

Air pollution and the respiratory system.  

PubMed

Over the past 250 years-since the Industrial Revolution accelerated the process of pollutant emission, which, until then, had been limited to the domestic use of fuels (mineral and vegetal) and intermittent volcanic emissions-air pollution has been present in various scenarios. Today, approximately 50% of the people in the world live in cities and urban areas and are exposed to progressively higher levels of air pollutants. This is a non-systematic review on the different types and sources of air pollutants, as well as on the respiratory effects attributed to exposure to such contaminants. Aggravation of the symptoms of disease, together with increases in the demand for emergency treatment, the number of hospitalizations, and the number of deaths, can be attributed to particulate and gaseous pollutants, emitted by various sources. Chronic exposure to air pollutants not only causes decompensation of pre-existing diseases but also increases the number of new cases of asthma, COPD, and lung cancer, even in rural areas. Air pollutants now rival tobacco smoke as the leading risk factor for these diseases. We hope that we can impress upon pulmonologists and clinicians the relevance of investigating exposure to air pollutants and of recognizing this as a risk factor that should be taken into account in the adoption of best practices for the control of the acute decompensation of respiratory diseases and for maintenance treatment between exacerbations. PMID:23147058

Arbex, Marcos Abdo; Santos, Ubiratan de Paula; Martins, Lourdes Conceição; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Pereira, Luiz Alberto Amador; Braga, Alfésio Luis Ferreira

200

Report of Ad Hoc Task Force on Indoor Air Pollution.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The quality of air within a man-made structure is likely to be affected by energy conserving modifications made on that structure. Information was reviewed on indoor air pollution and the potential impact on human health of energy conservation measures, p...

C. S. Dudney P. J. Walsh

1981-01-01

201

RESEARCH AREA -- ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE CONTROL (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Air Pollution Technology Branch (APTB) of NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division in Research Triangle Park, NC, has conducted several research projects for evaluating the use of artificial intelligence (AI) to improve the control of pollution control systems an...

202

Indoor air pollution: an edifice complex.  

PubMed

The collision of escalating technological sophistication and surging environmental awareness has caused the reexamination of many societal paradigms. Horror stories about lethal chemical exposures involving isolated cases of ignorance, carelessness or greed have caused the public to demand constant vigilance to prevent exposure to potentially hazardous substances. Accordingly, much time and resource has been expanded by the U.S. government and citizens to abate and prevent air and water pollution. While these efforts have met with measurable success, there is increasing public concern about a new generation of pollution-related human illness in office, home and transportation environments. New instances of Sick Building Syndrome or Building Related Illness are reported daily by the popular press. Human health effects such as cancer, infectious disease, allergy and irritation have been ascribed to indoor air pollution. The clinical aspects of indoor air pollution are often discounted by consulting engineers and industrial hygienists involved in indoor air quality. Physicians and clinically-trained scientists have received a "Macedonian call" to sift clinical relevance from the emotional aspects of indoor air quality problems. Point sources of pollutants, associated human health effects, and problem solving approaches associated with indoor air pollution are described. Regulatory and litigational aspects of indoor air pollution are also discussed. PMID:1920571

Brooks, B O; Utter, G M; DeBroy, J A; Schimke, R D

1991-01-01

203

The changing paradigm of air pollution monitoring.  

PubMed

The air pollution monitoring paradigm is rapidly changing due to recent advances in (1) the development of portable, lower-cost air pollution sensors reporting data in near-real time at a high-time resolution, (2) increased computational and visualization capabilities, and (3) wireless communication/infrastructure. It is possible that these advances can support traditional air quality monitoring by supplementing ambient air monitoring and enhancing compliance monitoring. Sensors are beginning to provide individuals and communities the tools needed to understand their environmental exposures with these data individual and community-based strategies can be developed to reduce pollution exposure as well as understand linkages to health indicators. Each of these areas as well as corresponding challenges (e.g., quality of data) and potential opportunities associated with development and implementation of air pollution sensors are discussed. PMID:23980922

Snyder, Emily G; Watkins, Timothy H; Solomon, Paul A; Thoma, Eben D; Williams, Ronald W; Hagler, Gayle S W; Shelow, David; Hindin, David A; Kilaru, Vasu J; Preuss, Peter W

2013-10-03

204

Clean fuel vehicles: The air pollution solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clean fuels for cars and trucks can do more for air quality, and do it sooner, than any other alternative on the drawing boards today. In much of the country, vehicles are the single biggest cause of air pollution. It`s not the industrial smoke stacks, but the tail pipes on cars that foul the air. Ninety percent of the carbon

Meotti

1995-01-01

205

A New Model for Investigating the Mortality Effects of Multiple Air Pollutants in Air Pollution Mortality Time-Series Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency regulates air pollutants independently, the majority of time-series studies on air pollution and mortality have focused on estimating the adverse health effects of a single pollutant. However, due to the sometimes high correlation between air pollutants, the results from studies that focus on a single air pollutant can be difficult to interpret. In addition,

Steven Roberts

2006-01-01

206

Winds of change: reducing transboundary air pollutants.  

PubMed Central

Sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds, persistent organic pollutants, particulate matter, and heavy metals---air pollutants once thought to be problems that could be solved locally, where the effects occur---are all currently being discussed in international forums. A spate of meetings and agreements in recent months has shown many international governments to be more willing than ever to try to limit the amount of their air pollution that drifts into other countries. Prompting this policy shift are increasing emissions in some parts of the world, better monitoring, and an improved understanding of air pollution transport and the effects of air pollution. In most regions of the world, however, no international agreements on air pollution exist at all, while in others, many overlapping local, multilateral, and global agreements address the problem simultaneously. According to the World Health Organization, air pollution causes nearly 3 million deaths per year, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency estimates that ground-level ozone causes damage to U.S. crops totaling $1-2 billion each year.

Reuther, C G

2000-01-01

207

Thanksgiving 1966 Air Pollution Episode in the Eastern United States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report has documented the Thanksgiving 1966 Air Pollution Episode in the Eastern United States in terms of the daily meteorology and ambient air quality. Analysis of the available air quality data indicates that the Air Pollution Potential Forecast P...

J. C. Fensterstock R. K. Fankhauser

1968-01-01

208

Fractal Analysis of Air Pollutant Concentrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Air pollution poses significant threats to human health and the environment throughout the developed and developing countries. This work focuses on fractal analysis of pollutant concentration in Salamanca, Mexico. The city of Salamanca has been catalogued as one of the most polluted cities in Mexico. The main causes of pollution in this city are fixed emission sources, such as chemical industry and electricity generation. Sulphur Dioxide (SO2) and Particulate Matter less than 10 micrometer in diameter (PM10) are the most important pollutants in this region. Air pollutant concentrations were investigated by applying the box counting method in time series obtained of the Automatic Environmental Monitoring Network (AEMN). One year of time series of hourly average concentrations were analyzed in order to characterize the temporal structures of SO2 and PM10.

Cortina-Januchs, M. G.; Barrón-Adame, J. M.; Vega-Corona, A.; Andina, D.

2010-05-01

209

Plant response to air pollution. Book chapter  

SciTech Connect

Air pollutants have a negative impact on plant growth, primarily through interfering with resource accumulation. Since leaves are in close contact with the atmosphere, many air pollutants, such as O3 and NOx, affect the metabolic function of the leaves and interfere with net carbon fixation by the plant canopy. Air pollutants that are first deposited on the soil, such as heavy metals, first affect the functioning of roots and interfere with soil resource capture by the plant. These reductions in resource capture (production of carbohydrate through photosynthesis, mineral nutrient uptake and water uptake from the soil) will affect plant growth through changes in resource allocation to the various plant structures. When air pollution stress co-occurs with other stresses, e.g. water stress, the outcome on growth will depend on a complex interaction of processes within the plant. In agroecosystems, these changes may be manifest in reduced economic yield.

Weber, J.A.; Tingey, D.T.; Andersen, C.P.

1993-01-01

210

Effects of Air Pollutants on Man's Health.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is a study on smog which looks into the relationships between air pollution and acute respectively chronic diseases. For this purpose a compilation of literature was carried through. A literature analysis is to document the current state of knowledge...

G. Kloiber

1985-01-01

211

Vulnerability to air pollution health effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionAmbient air pollution can have adverse effects on the health of exposed populations, but individuals or groups are not equally vulnerable, and pollution reduction benefits are likely to be unevenly distributed within a population. While the use of total-population risks is a valid approach for public health protection, it is increasingly recognized that more attention on vulnerable groups is necessary.

Anna Makri; Nikolaos I. Stilianakis

2008-01-01

212

Air pollution in Europe: international policy responses  

SciTech Connect

The 1979 Geneva convention on acid rain set the framework for international cooperation in controlling transboundary air pollution in Europe. Initially, the acid rain treaty focused on sulfur oxide emissions. It has since evolved to address other problems and pollutants as well. A final meeting to draft a nitrogen oxide emissions protocol will be held in February 1988.

Sand, P.H.

1987-12-01

213

Interaction between Air Pollutants and Passive Sensitization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although there is epidemiological evidence that an increase in allergic diseases such as asthma may be linked to air pollution, there is little experimental data to address this issue. The aim of this study was thus to investigate the interaction between passive sensitization and exposure to pollutants in human isolated airways. We have examined ( 1 ) the effect of

ETIENNE ROUX; JEAN-MARC HYVELIN; JEAN-PIERRE SAVINEAU; ROGER MARTHAN

214

ASTM Validates Air Pollution Test Methods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) has validated six basic methods for measuring pollutants in ambient air as the first part of its Project Threshold. Aim of the project is to establish nationwide consistency in measuring pollutants; determining precision, accuracy and reproducibility of 35 standard measuring methods. (BL)|

Chemical and Engineering News, 1973

1973-01-01

215

Assessing health effects of air pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure to elevated concentrations of ambient air pollutants causes adverse human health effects. Two modes or methods of study are generally relied on to quantify the relationships between pollutants and specific effects. These are: human clinical experiments and epidemiological (or community exposure) studies. (Animal toxicological studies can be used to indicate the existence of an effect, but not the rate

Jane V. Hall

1996-01-01

216

Effects of air pollutants on pollen  

Microsoft Academic Search

In vivo and in vitro pollen germination and pollen tube growth are affected by air pollutants. The stimulation and inhibition of these pollen characteristics depend on the pollen species as well as on the pollutant and its concentration, the exposure time, the relative humidity during exposure and some other factors. Mitosis, gas exchange, size and chemistry of pollen can also

J. H. B. Wolters; M. J. M. Martens

2009-01-01

217

Airplanes on Air Pollution: Discover-AQ  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA's launching a new mission, summer 2011, designed to gather data on air pollution and help expand our understanding of how it affects us, and that could allow pollutants to be monitored more precisely from space. This airplane-assisted field study, coined "Discover-AQ," will take place over the Baltimore/DC region on select days this summer.

gsfcvideo

2011-06-28

218

System and process for controlling air pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system and process are described for controlling air pollution that basically relates to a photochemical method of removing contaminant compounds, such as sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides, from polluted effluent gas systems. Such contaminant compounds are first formed into complexes (such as an electron donor-acceptor molecular complexes) and clusters. After the contaminant compounds become associated with these complexes and

1976-01-01

219

Ambient air pollution exposure and cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiologic evidence on the relation between ambient air pollution exposure and cancer is reviewed. The well-documented urban\\/rural difference in lung cancer incidence and the detection of known carcinogens in the atmosphere gave rise to the hypothesis that long-term exposure to air pollution may have an effect on lung cancer risk. However, problems inherent in assessing adequately the exposure of interest

K. Katsouyanni; G. Pershagen

1997-01-01

220

Air pollution from ships: Recent developments  

Microsoft Academic Search

All developments on air pollution by ships are fairly recent. Annex VI of the international Marpol-convention, regulating\\u000a the emissions of CFCs, Halons, Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) from cargoes, emissions from incinerators and exhaust gas\\u000a emissions from engines (NOx and SOx) entered into force in May 2005. The International Maritime Organization is currently discussing an upgrade of the air pollution\\u000a issues

Alexander P. Burgel

2007-01-01

221

Air pollution and vegetation damage functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary objective of this paper is to review critically the current state of research in the field of air pollution and its effect on vegetation and to derive, through existing data and documentation, a set of integrated economic damage functions of air pollution on various kinds of vegetation, for the purpose of prediction.

Economic damage functions of vegetation were

B. C. Liu; E. S. H. Yu

1977-01-01

222

Indoor air pollution and airway disease.  

PubMed

Scientific interest in indoor pollution has been increasing since the second half of the 1980s. Growing scientific evidence has shown that because people generally spend the majority of their time indoors, indoor pollution plays a significant role in affecting health and is thus an important health issue. Indoor environments include dwellings, workplaces, schools and day care centres, bars, discotheques and vehicles. Common indoor pollutants are environmental tobacco smoke, particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds and biological allergens. In developing countries, relevant sources of indoor pollution include biomass and coal burning for cooking and heating. Concentrations of these pollutants can be many times higher indoors than outdoors. Indoor air pollution may increase the risk of irritation phenomena, allergic sensitisation, acute and chronic respiratory disorders and lung function impairment. Recent conservative estimates have shown that 1.5-2 million deaths per year worldwide could be attributed to indoor air pollution. Approximately 1 million of these deaths occur in children aged under 5 years due to acute respiratory infections, and significant proportions of deaths occur due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer in women. Today, indoor air pollution ranks tenth among preventable risk factors contributing to the global burden of disease. Further research is necessary to better evaluate the respiratory health effects of indoor pollution and to implement protective programmes for public health. PMID:15636485

Viegi, G; Simoni, M; Scognamiglio, A; Baldacci, S; Pistelli, F; Carrozzi, L; Annesi-Maesano, I

2004-12-01

223

Air pollution assessment on city of Tirana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Air pollution is one of the hot topics on nowadays studies. This problem is often encountered on urban centers, especially on metropolitan areas. These areas are usually characterized by densely population, heavy traffic rates and the presence of many industrial plants on their suburbs. Problems regarding to air pollution on these areas are more evident over metropolitan areas in developing countries. Air pollution is mostly related to health effects, especially in outdoor environments. These effects regards primarily on respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Air pollution assessment on a specific area requires not only the estimation of pollutant concentrations in that area, but also determination of their principal sources as well as prediction of eventual scenarios on the area under investigation. This study is focused on air pollution assessment on the city of Tirana, which is the major urban centre and the capital city of Albania. This city has about one million inhabitants. During the last 20 years, its population has grown about four fold, and it is still growing. Because of Albania is a developing country, its capital city is involved on serious environmental problems. Considering these facts, we have conducted continuous monitoring campaigns on several sites of Tirana. These monitoring campaigns consist on measurement of several pollutant gases (SO2, CO, CO2, NOx, etc.) and particulate matter over a period of 20 months. In this paper there are obtained diurnal and annual variations of pollutant concentrations, there is modeled their spatial distributions over the area of the city, and there are estimated the potential contributions of principal sources like traffic and industrial plants. During the entire monitoring campaign there are recorded also meteorological parameters, like temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind speed, wind direction, precipitations, etc. In this way we have tried to obtain the correlations between pollutant concentrations and meteorological parameters, and so to estimate their contribution on air pollution situation in this city. Overall measurement results indicate a critical situation of air pollution in this city, where pollutant concentrations exceed international recommendations. Because of in Albania these types of studies are very rare; the air pollution assessment in the capital city Tirana has an enormous importance not only for this city but also in general for entire the country.

Mandija, F.; Zoga, P.

2012-04-01

224

A Study of the Effects of Air Pollution on Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An investigation of the possible effects of air pollution on the absenteeism of elementary school children showed that a greater percent of absences occurred in the test group than in a comparable group. There is little question as to the importance that such information should have for educators, informed parents, and other adults in community…

Bury, Irene B.

1970-01-01

225

The effects of air pollution on children.  

PubMed Central

Air pollutants have been documented to be associated with a wide variety of adverse health impacts in children. These include increases in mortality in very severe episodes; an increased risk of perineonatal mortality in regions of higher pollution, and an increased general rate of mortality in children; increased acute respiratory disease morbidity; aggravation of asthma, as shown by increased hospital emergency visits or admissions as well as in longitudinal panel studies; increased prevalence of respiratory symptoms in children, and infectious episodes of longer duration; lowered lung function in children when pollutants increase; lowered lung function in more polluted regions; increased sickness rates as indicated by kindergarten and school absences; the adverse effects of inhaled lead from automobile exhaust. These impacts are especially severe when high levels of outdoor pollution (usually from uncontrolled coal burning) are combined with high levels of indoor pollution. In developed countries, where indoor pollution levels are lower, increasing traffic density and elevated NO2 levels with secondary photochemical and fine particulate pollution appear to be the main contemporary problem. By virtue of physical activity out of doors when pollution levels may be high, children may experience higher exposures than adults. Air pollution is likely to have a greater impact on asthmatic children if they are without access to routine medical care.

Bates, D V

1995-01-01

226

Air Pollution and Health: A New Focus on Sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 Almost everyone agrees that breathing polluted air is harmful. But what really is the impact of air pollution on health, and what types of air pollution are most hazardous? Answers to these questions are central to formulating an air pollution control policy that most directly benefits public health. Being both a pulmonary physician and an epidemiologist has allowed me

Sverre Vedal

227

Daily air pollution time series analysis of Isfahan City  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different time series analysis of daily air pollution of Isfahan city were performed in this study. Descriptive analysis showed different long-term variation of daily air pollution. High persistence in daily air pollution time series were identified using autocorrelation function except for SO2 which seemed to be short memory. Standardized air pollution index (SAPI) time series were also calculated to compare

R. Modarres; A. Khosravi Dehkordi

2005-01-01

228

Supplement B to Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors, Volume 1. Stationary Point and Area Sources.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document contains emission factors and process information for more than 200 air pollution source categories. This Supplement to AP-42 addresses pollutant-generating activity from Bituminous And Subbituminous Coal Combustion, Anthracite Coal Combusti...

1996-01-01

229

BIOINDICATORS IN AIR POLLUTION RESEARCH: APPLICATIONS AND CONSTRAINTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Physical and chemical measurements of air pollutants provide a precise measure of pollutant exposure which is frequently used to estimate probable biological impacts. Bioindicators may be classified as either accumulators of the pollutant or reactors to the pollutant. The ultimat...

230

St. Louis Air Pollutant Emission Inventory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the results of an emission inventory of air pollutant sources in the St. Louis metropolitan area, based primarily on the rapid survey technique. The objectives of this study were to determine the total quantities of the various air po...

M. McGraw K. Bakke J. Fensterstock G. Duggan

1968-01-01

231

Combustion-generated indoor air pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The indoor air quality of residential buildings was characterized to determine the types, rates of emissions, and fates of gaseous and particulate air pollutants from typical indoor combustion appliances. Measurements were conducted in occupied residential buildings and during controlled laboratory experiments with combustion appliances. The SO, NO, NO, O, CO, and CO concentrations and aerosol size distribution were determined on

C. D. Hollowell; G. W. Traynor

1978-01-01

232

Lake Effects on Air Pollution Dispersion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Local wind regimes induced by a lake or a shoreline may have a major influence on air pollution dispersion. Pressure differences due to differential heating of the air, e.g., that due to differences in surface characteristics, are the driving forces of lake and land breeze circulations and slope and valley winds. Differences in roughness between land and lake surfaces will

E. Wendell Hewson; Lars E. Olsson

1967-01-01

233

AEROMETRIC INFORMATION RETRIEVAL SYSTEM (AIRS) - GRAPHICS  

EPA Science Inventory

Aerometric Information Retrieval System (AIRS) is a computer-based repository of information about airborne pollution in the United States and various World Health Organization (WHO) member countries. AIRS is administered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and runs on t...

234

AEROMETRIC INFORMATION RETRIEVAL SYSTEM - AIRS FACILITY SUBSYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

Aerometric Information Retrieval System (AIRS) is a computer-based repository of information about airborne pollution in the United States and various World Health Organization (WHO) member countries. AIRS is administered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and runs on t...

235

AEROMETRIC INFORMATION RETRIEVAL SYSTEM (AIRS) EXECUTIVE  

EPA Science Inventory

Aerometric Information Retrieval System (AIRS) is a computer-based repository of information about airborne pollution in the United States and various World Health Organization (WHO) member countries. AIRS is administered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and runs on t...

236

Instrumentation for Air Pollution Monitoring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the techniques which form the basis of current commercial instrumentation for monitoring five major gaseous atmospheric pollutants (sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, oxidants, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons). (JR)|

Hollowell, Craig D.; McLaughlin, Ralph D.

1973-01-01

237

Using Mobile Monitoring to Assess Spatial Variability in Urban Air Pollution Levels: Opportunities and Challenges (Invited)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measuring air pollution concentrations from a moving platform is not a new idea. Historically, however, most information on the spatial variability of air pollutants have been derived from fixed site networks operating simultaneously over space. While this approach has obvious advantages from a regulatory perspective, with the increasing need to understand ever finer scales of spatial variability in urban pollution

T. Larson

2010-01-01

238

Development of a distributed air pollutant dry deposition modeling framework.  

PubMed

A distributed air pollutant dry deposition modeling system was developed with a geographic information system (GIS) to enhance the functionality of i-Tree Eco (i-Tree, 2011). With the developed system, temperature, leaf area index (LAI) and air pollutant concentration in a spatially distributed form can be estimated, and based on these and other input variables, dry deposition of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)), sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), and particulate matter less than 10 microns (PM10) to trees can be spatially quantified. Employing nationally available road network, traffic volume, air pollutant emission/measurement and meteorological data, the developed system provides a framework for the U.S. city managers to identify spatial patterns of urban forest and locate potential areas for future urban forest planting and protection to improve air quality. To exhibit the usability of the framework, a case study was performed for July and August of 2005 in Baltimore, MD. PMID:22858662

Hirabayashi, Satoshi; Kroll, Charles N; Nowak, David J

2012-08-02

239

60 FR 62930 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants; Final Standards for Hazardous Air...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...CFR Parts 9 and 63 Final Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions From Wood Furniture Manufacturing...AD-FRL-5336-2] National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants; Final Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions From Wood Furniture...

1995-12-07

240

63 FR 14182 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants; Proposed Standards for Hazardous Air...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...63 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants; Proposed Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Emissions for the Portland Cement...2060-AE78 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants; Proposed Standards for...

1998-03-24

241

63 FR 18754 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants; Proposed Standards for Hazardous Air...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...63 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants; Proposed Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Chemical Recovery Combustion...2060-AD03 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants; Proposed Standards for...

1998-04-15

242

61 FR 27132 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants; Final Standards for Hazardous Air...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...CFR Parts 9 and 63 Final Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions from the Printing and Publishing...2060-AD95 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants; Final Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions From the Printing and...

1996-05-30

243

Plant damage due to air pollution and the use of plants as indicators of air pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants are, without doubt, the best indicators of a large number of different types of air pollution, but only as far as gaseous impurities are concerned. Plants will record damaging concentrations of air pollutants any time they are growing. Only a minimum of apparatus is needed to grow plants. Each toxic gas has its own specific symptoms, and different plants

Went

1958-01-01

244

Air pollution and its influence on vegetation: Causes - Effects - Prophylaxis and therapy  

SciTech Connect

This book presents a survey about air pollution from power stations, industry, traffic and other anthroponegic sources together with its effects on vegetation. It provides information on chronic and acute effects of air pollution in agriculture, horticulture, and forestry (including soil and animals), on symptoms of damage, immission tolerance, bioindication, methods of air and plant analysis and especially on prophylaxis and therapy in air polluted areas and on landscape planning.

Dassler, H.G.; Bortitz, S.

1988-01-01

245

Modelling Concentrations of and Human Exposure to Air Pollution in Danish Cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Mathematical transport-chemistry models are strong tools for evaluation of emission reduction strategies, for providing information to the public, and as the central part of models for human exposure to air pollution. NERI's recently developed AirGIS is an example of such a system. An air pollution forecasting system THOR has been established and provides 72-h air pollution forecasts two to

Ole Hertel; Steen Solvang Jensen; Ruwim Berkowicz; Jørgen Brandt; Jesper Christensen

246

Mixing layer height and air pollution levels in urban area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ceilometers are applied by KIT/IMK-IFU to detect layering of the lower atmosphere continuously. This is necessary because not only wind speed and direction but also atmospheric layering and especially the mixing layer height (MLH) influence exchange processes of ground level emissions. It will be discussed how the ceilometer monitoring information is used to interpret the air pollution near the ground. The information about atmospheric layering is continuously monitored by uninterrupted remote sensing measurements with the Vaisala ceilometer CL51 which is an eye-safe commercial mini-lidar system. Special software for this ceilometer provides routine retrievals of lower atmosphere layering from vertical profiles of laser backscatter data. An intensive measurement period during the winter 2011/2012 is studied. The meteorological influences upon air pollutant concentrations are investgated and the correlations of air pollutant concentrations with ceilometer MLH are determined. Benzene was detected by department of Applied Climatology and Landscape Ecology, University of Duisburg-Essen (UDE) with a gas chromatograph during the measurement period. The meteorological data are collected by UDE and the monitoring station Essen of the German national meteorological service DWD. The concentrations of the air pollutants NO, NO2 and PM10 are provided by the national air pollution network LANUV.

Schäfer, Klaus; Wagner, Patrick; Emeis, Stefan; Jahn, Carsten; Muenkel, Christoph; Suppan, Peter

2012-10-01

247

BIOASSAY OF COMPLEX MIXTURES OF INDOOR AIR POLLUTANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Indoor air pollution is a complex mixture of chemicals originating from outdoor air and indoor sources. oxicology studies of these mixtures are limited by difficulties in obtaining indoor air samples or appropriately simulated exposures. he concentration of pollutants from indoor...

248

Air pollution monitoring for on-line warning and alarm.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The publication deals with a concept on air pollution monitoring. The Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU) has been involved in the establishment of air pollution monitoring and modeling for warning and alarm systems during accidental releases and ...

B. Sivertsen

1994-01-01

249

Indoor Air Pollution and Asthma in Children  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this article is to review indoor air pollution factors that can modify asthma severity, particularly in inner-city environments. While there is a large literature linking ambient air pollution and asthma morbidity, less is known about the impact of indoor air pollution on asthma. Concentrating on the indoor environments is particularly important for children, since they can spend as much as 90% of their time indoors. This review focuses on studies conducted by the Johns Hopkins Center for Childhood Asthma in the Urban Environment as well as other relevant epidemiologic studies. Analysis of exposure outcome relationships in the published literature demonstrates the importance of evaluating indoor home environmental air pollution sources as risk factors for asthma morbidity. Important indoor air pollution determinants of asthma morbidity in urban environments include particulate matter (particularly the coarse fraction), nitrogen dioxide, and airborne mouse allergen exposure. Avoidance of harmful environmental exposures is a key component of national and international guideline recommendations for management of asthma. This literature suggests that modifying the indoor environment to reduce particulate matter, NO2, and mouse allergen may be an important asthma management strategy. More research documenting effectiveness of interventions to reduce those exposures and improve asthma outcomes is needed.

Breysse, Patrick N.; Diette, Gregory B.; Matsui, Elizabeth C.; Butz, Arlene M.; Hansel, Nadia N.; McCormack, Meredith C.

2010-01-01

250

Ambient air pollution- a cause for COPD?  

PubMed

The role of ambient air pollution in the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is considered to be uncertain. We review the evidence in the light of recent studies.Eight morbidity and six mortality studies were identified. These were heterogeneous in design, characterization of exposure to air pollution, and methods of outcome definition. Six morbidity studies with objectively defined COPD (FEV1/FVC ratio) were cross-sectional analyses. One longitudinal study defined incidence of COPD as the first hospitalization due to COPD. However, neither mortality nor hospitalization studies can unambiguously distinguish acute from long-term effects on the development of the underlying patho-physiological changes.Most studies were based on within-communities exposure contrasts which mainly assess traffic-related air pollution. Overall, evidence of chronic effects of air pollution on the prevalence and incidence of COPD among adults was suggestive but not conclusive despite plausible biologic mechanisms and good evidence that air pollution affects lung development in childhood and triggers exacerbations in COPD patients. To fully integrate this evidence in the assessment, the life-time course of COPD should be better defined. Larger studies with longer follow-up periods, specific definitions of COPD phenotypes, and more refined and source-specific exposure assessments are needed. PMID:23471349

Schikowski, Tamara; Mills, Inga C; Anderson, H Ross; Cohen, Aaron; Hansell, Anna; Kauffmann, Francine; Krämer, Ursula; Marcon, Alessandro; Perez, Laura; Sunyer, Jordi; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Künzli, Nino

2013-03-01

251

Light Pollution, Air Pollution and Mount Wilson Observatory  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss a simple extension of our night sky brightness program to include a layer of polluted air ('smog'). Two possibilities are discussed, a layer with density decreasing exponentially with height above the ground, and a layer of constant density and finite thickness. The ground level density is determined by the visibility. We check our models against observations in Cincinnati

R. H. Garstang

1998-01-01

252

Arctic air pollution: origins and impacts.  

PubMed

Notable warming trends have been observed in the Arctic. Although increased human-induced emissions of long-lived greenhouse gases are certainly the main driving factor, air pollutants, such as aerosols and ozone, are also important. Air pollutants are transported to the Arctic, primarily from Eurasia, leading to high concentrations in winter and spring (Arctic haze). Local ship emissions and summertime boreal forest fires may also be important pollution sources. Aerosols and ozone could be perturbing the radiative budget of the Arctic through processes specific to the region: Absorption of solar radiation by aerosols is enhanced by highly reflective snow and ice surfaces; deposition of light-absorbing aerosols on snow or ice can decrease surface albedo; and tropospheric ozone forcing may also be contributing to warming in this region. Future increases in pollutant emissions locally or in mid-latitudes could further accelerate global warming in the Arctic. PMID:17363665

Law, Kathy S; Stohl, Andreas

2007-03-16

253

Air pollutant penetration through airflow leaks into buildings  

SciTech Connect

The penetration of ambient air pollutants into the indoor environment is of concern owing to several factors: (1) epidemiological studies have shown a strong association between ambient fine particulate pollution and elevated risk of human mortality; (2) people spend most of their time in indoor environments; and (3) most information about air pollutant concentration is only available from ambient routine monitoring networks. A good understanding of ambient air pollutant transport from source to receptor requires knowledge about pollutant penetration across building envelopes. Therefore, it is essential to gain insight into particle penetration in infiltrating air and the factors that affect it in order to assess human exposure more accurately, and to further prevent adverse human health effects from ambient particulate pollution. In this dissertation, the understanding of air pollutant infiltration across leaks in the building envelope was advanced by performing modeling predictions as well as experimental investigations. The modeling analyses quantified the extent of airborne particle and reactive gas (e.g., ozone) penetration through building cracks and wall cavities using engineering analysis that incorporates existing information on building leakage characteristics, knowledge of pollutant transport processes, as well as pollutant-surface interactions. Particle penetration is primarily governed by particle diameter and by the smallest dimension of the building cracks. Particles of 0.1-1 {micro}m are predicted to have the highest penetration efficiency, nearly unity for crack heights of 0.25 mm or higher, assuming a pressure differential of 4 Pa or greater and a flow path length of 3 cm or less. Supermicron and ultrafine particles (less than 0.1 {micro}m) are readily deposited on crack surfaces by means of gravitational settling and Brownian diffusion, respectively. The fraction of ozone penetration through building leaks could vary widely, depending significantly on its reactivity with the adjacent surfaces, in addition to the crack geometry and pressure difference. Infiltrating air can also travel through wall cavities, where the penetration of particles and ozone is predicted to vary substantially, depending mainly on whether air flow passes through fiberglass insulation. For ozone, its reactivity with the insulation materials is also an important factor. The overall pollutant penetration factor is governed by the flow-weighted average from all air leakage pathways. Large building leaks would strongly influence the overall penetration factor, because they permit much larger flow.

Liu, De-Ling

2002-09-01

254

Respiratory Effects of Air Pollutants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The evaluation of the effects of long-term exposure and 24 hr exposure to SO sub 2 and particles is based mainly on epidemiological data. Together with other pollutants SO sub 2 and particles can produce an increased incidence of acute and chronic symptom...

P. Camner L. Ewetz T. Lindvall

1983-01-01

255

Air Quality  

MedlinePLUS

... the air we breathe. For more information about air pollution from mobile sources: Office of Transportation and Air ... ambient air quality standards, to prevent or alleviate air pollution emergencies, to observe pollution trends throughout regions, and ...

256

Particulate air pollution in Lanzhou China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of total suspended particles (TSP) and PM10 in Lanzhou China have been kept high for the past two decades. Data collected during the intensive observational period from October 1999 to April 2001 show high TSP and PM10 concentrations. Starting from November, the PM10 pollution intensifies, and reaches mid to high alert level of air pollution, continues until April next year,

Peter C. Chu; Yuchun Chen; Shihua Lu; Zhenchao Li; Yaqiong Lu

2008-01-01

257

Impacts of air pollution on forest ecosystems  

SciTech Connect

Phytotoxic air pollutants that threaten forest ecosystems will be with us for a long time, posing a problem of enormous importance and complexity. Coping with this problem will require better application of what is already known about pollution and much additional research on plant responses at the cellular, whole plant, and ecosystem level. Studies are needed under controlled environmental conditions as well as in the field.

Kozlowski, T.T.

1980-02-01

258

Effects of air pollutants on pollen  

Microsoft Academic Search

In vivo and in vitro pollen germination and pollen tube growth are affected by air pollutants. The stimulation and inhibition\\u000a of these pollen characteristics depend on the pollen species as well as on the pollutant and its concentration, the exposure\\u000a time, the relative humidity during exposure and some other factors. Mitosis, gas exchange, size and chemistry of pollen can\\u000a also

J. H. B. Wolters; M. J. M. Martens

1987-01-01

259

Dependence of urban air pollutants on meteorology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dependence of air pollutants on meteorology is presented with the aim of understanding the governing processes pollutants phase interaction. Intensive measurements of particulate matter (PM10) and gaseous materials (e.g., CO, NO2, SO2, and O3) are carried out regularly in 2002 at 14 measurement sites distributed over the whole territory of Great Cairo by the Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency to assess

Hamdy K. Elminir

2005-01-01

260

Integrated systems for forecasting urban meteorology, air pollution and population exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban air pollution is associated with significant adverse health effects. Model-based abatement strategies are required and developed for the growing urban populations. In the initial development stage, these are focussed on ex- ceedances of air quality standards caused by high short-term pollutant concentrations. Prediction of health effects and im- plementation of urban air quality information and abatement systems require accurate

A. Baklanov; L. H. Slørdal; J. Kukkonen; N. Bjergene; B. Fay; S. Finardi; S. C. Hoe; M. Jantunen; A. Karppinen; A. Rasmussen; A. Skouloudis; R. S. Sokhi; J. H. Sørensen; V. Ødegaard

2007-01-01

261

Integrated systems for forecasting urban meteorology, air pollution and population exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban air pollution is associated with significant adverse health effects. Model-based abatement strategies are required and developed for the growing urban populations. In the initial development stage, these are focussed on exceedances of air quality standards caused by high short-term pollutant concentrations. Prediction of health effects and implementation of urban air quality information and abatement systems require accurate forecasting of

A. Baklanov; O. Hänninen; L. H. Slørdal; J. Kukkonen; N. Bjergene; B. Fay; S. Finardi; S. C. Hoe; M. Jantunen; A. Karppinen; A. Rasmussen; A. Skouloudis; R. S. Sokhi; J. H. Sørensen

2006-01-01

262

Air Pollution in the Pacific Northwest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to measuring and identifying sources of air pollution, as well as how environmental engineers try to control and limit the amount of air pollution. In Part 1, students are introduced to nitrogen dioxide as an air pollutant and how it is quantified. Major sources are identified, using EPA bar graphs. Students identify major cities and determine their latitudes and longitudes. They estimate NO2 values from color maps showing monthly NO2 averages from two sources: a NASA satellite and the WSU forecast model AIRPACT. In Part 2, students continue to estimate NO2 values from color maps and use Excel to calculate differences and ratios to determine the modelâs performance. They gain experience working with very large numbers written in scientific notation, as well as spreadsheet application capabilities.

Culturally Relevant Engineering Application in Mathematics GK-12 Program,

263

Urban air pollution and solar energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design and performance of solar energy systems for many potential applications (industrial/residential heat, electricity generation by solar concentration and photovoltaics) will be critically affected by local insolation conditions. The effects of urban air pollution are considered and reviewed. A study of insolation data for Alhambra, California (9 km south of Pasadena) shows that, during a recent second-stage photochemical smog alert (greater than or equal to 0.35 ppm ozone), the direct-beam insolation at solar noon was reduced by 40%, and the total global by 15%, from clean air values. Similar effects have been observed in Pasadena, and are attributable primarily to air pollution. Effects due to advecting smog have been detected 200 km away, in the Mojave Desert. Preliminary performance and economic simulations of solar thermal and photovoltaic power systems indicate increasing nonlinear sensitivity of life cycle plant cost to reductions in insolation levels due to pollution.

Gammon, R. B.; Huning, J. R.; Reid, M. S.; Smith, J. H.

1981-10-01

264

Dependence of urban air pollutants on meteorology.  

PubMed

Dependence of air pollutants on meteorology is presented with the aim of understanding the governing processes pollutants phase interaction. Intensive measurements of particulate matter (PM10) and gaseous materials (e.g., CO, NO2, SO2, and O3) are carried out regularly in 2002 at 14 measurement sites distributed over the whole territory of Great Cairo by the Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency to assess the characteristics of air pollutants. The discussions in this work are based upon measurements performed at Abbassiya site as a case study. The nature of the contributing sources has been investigated and some attempts have been made to indicate the role played by neighboring regions in determining the air quality at the site mentioned. The results hint that, wind direction was found to have an influence not only on pollutant concentrations but also on the correlation between pollutants. As expected, the pollutants associated with traffic were at highest ambient concentration levels when wind speed was low. At higher wind speeds, dust and sand from the surrounding desert was entrained by the wind, thus contributing to ambient particulate matter levels. We also found that, the highest average concentration for NO2 and O3 occurred at humidity

Elminir, Hamdy K

2005-11-01

265

Stochastic microenvironment models for air pollution exposure  

SciTech Connect

Exposure assessment is a crucial link in air pollution risk assessment and management. With the recent advances in instrumentation, it has become possible to measure air pollution exposures in the vicinity of the individual human subjects, using either personal monitoring or microenvironment monitoring. For many important pollutants such as CO, NO2, and VOC, the air pollution exposure depends crucially on the location and activity of the individual: indoor versus outdoor, smoking versus not smoking, etc. The stochastic microenvironment models were developed to relate air pollution exposure to the location and activity. We review the two major existing models, the Cartesianization method and SHAPE, and compare their assumptions and implications. We also propose a new model, the variance components model, which includes both Cartesianization and SHAPE as special cases. The variance components model considers both long-term average concentrations and short-term fluctuations. The Cartesianization focuses on long-term averages, while SHAPE focuses on short-term fluctuations. We propose to choose among the three models by examining the variance function which relates variability to averaging time. The theory is applied to the data collected from U.S. EPA's Washington CO Study, with the variance function estimated using Carroll and Ruppert's transform-both-sides regression model and Duan's smearing estimate. For the microenvironment in transit, both long-term averages and short-term fluctuations are important.

Duan, N. (RAND Corporation, Santa Monica, CA (United States))

1991-04-01

266

Integrated assessment of European air pollution emission control strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The RAINS (Regional Air Pollution Information and Simulation) model (Alcamo et al., 1990. The RAINS Model of Acidification. Science and Strategies in Europe. Kluwer, Dordrecht) was developed at IIASA as an integrated assessment tool to assist policy advisors in evaluating options for reducing acid rain. Such models help to build consistent frameworks for the analysis of abatement strategies. They combine

Wolfgang Schöpp; Markus Amann; Janusz Cofala; Chris Heyes; Zbigniew Klimont

1998-01-01

267

Waste-to-energy plants air pollution control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book identifies and describes the available approaches to air pollution control for Waste-to-Energy facilities on a comparative basis. It discusses limits of performance together with costs in detail and provides a single ''road map'' on the entire subject designed to save time and money in research. The book covers a wealth of technical information geared toward overcoming the stumbling

1987-01-01

268

Harvard's indoor air pollution/health study  

SciTech Connect

An indoor air pollution/acute respiratory health study is being conducted by researchers at the Harvard University School of Public Health. Upper and lower respiratory symptoms of 300 children living in Watertown, Massachusetts, have been recorded on a daily diary by a parent. Every two weeks the parent is called for the illness/wellness history. At the end of the month the calendar is returned by mail. Families participated in the survey from the time of induction (after September 1, 1984) to August 31, 1985. Coincident with the symptom survey, indoor air pollution measurements are made in each home and in the elementary schools of the participating student.

Spengler, J.D.; Reed, M.P.; Leberet, E.; Chang, B.H.; Ware, J.H.

1986-06-01

269

Air Pollution Abstracts. Volume 4, Number 8, August 1973, 28523-29147.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Presented are abstracts of technical literature recently accessioned by Air Pollution Technical Information Center (APTIC). The subject fields are: Emission Sources; Control Methods; Measurement Methods; Air Quality Measurements; Atmospheric Interactions;...

1973-01-01

270

VENTILATION RESEARCH (INDOOR ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)  

EPA Science Inventory

The ventilation research program conducts research on heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems to determine the impact of these systems on human exposure to indoor air pollutants. The emphasis of the program is on determining emissions from ventilation systems. Inform...

271

Outdoor air pollution and lung cancer.  

PubMed Central

In the 1950s evidence of an ongoing epidemic of lung cancer in the United States and Western Europe led researchers to examine the role of outdoor air pollution, which was considered by some to be a likely cause. Although epidemiologic research quickly identified the central role of cigarette smoking in this epidemic, and despite progress in reducing outdoor air pollution in Western industrialized countries, concerns that ambient air pollution is causing lung cancer have persisted to the present day. This concern is based on the fact that known carcinogens continue to be released into outdoor air from industrial sources, power plants, and motor vehicles, and on a body of epidemiologic research that provides some evidence for an association between outdoor air pollution and lung cancer. This article reviews the epidemiologic evidence for this association and discusses the limitations of current studies for estimating the lung cancer risk in the general population. It also identifies research needs and suggests possible approaches to addressing outstanding questions.

Cohen, A J

2000-01-01

272

Impact of air pollutants on athletic performance  

SciTech Connect

Human controlled and observational studies both lead to the conclusion of air pollution adversely affecting athletic performance during training and competition. The dosage of various air pollutants during exercise is much higher due to the marked increase in ventilatory rate and concomitant nasal and oral breathing. This is particularly true for sulfur dioxide which is a highly water-soluble gas and is normally absorbed in the upper airway during nasal breathing. With heavy exercise, oral pharyngeal breathing is the predominant mode of breathing and much larger amounts of sulfur dioxide are delivered to the lower airway resulting in significant impact upon the lower respiratory tract. More recently, several controlled human studies have shown that a combination of exercise and air pollutants such as ozone (O3) or sulfur dioxides (SO2) cause a significant increase in bronchoconstriction and air flow obstruction when compared to the same exposure at rest. In strenuous athletic competition such as the Olympic Games where small increments of time often determine the ultimate success of athletes, the impact of air pollutants and subsequent adverse ventilatory changes can affect athletic performance. 62 references.

Pierson, W.E. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle (USA))

1989-05-01

273

Controlling Air Pollution; A Primer on Stationary Source Control Techniques.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This companion document to "Air Pollution Primer" is written for the nonexpert in air pollution; however, it does assume a familiarity with air pollution problems. This work is oriented toward providing the reader with knowledge about current and proposed air quality legislation and knowledge about available technology to meet these standards for…

Corman, Rena

274

Source Book on Air Pollution Topics for Grade and High School Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This publication provides background information and activity suggestions on air pollution and related environmental topics. Student projects and experiments which can be adapted at both elementary and secondary levels are also provided. Information is organized in three parts. Part I covers basic facts about air pollutants including the types,…

Brennan, Eileen G., Ed.; McGovern, John J., Ed.

275

Ambient Air Pollution and Oxygen Saturation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the association between fine particulate air pollu- tion and oxygen saturation as measured with a peripheral oxygen saturation monitor during a 12-week repeated-measures study of 28 older Boston residents. Oxygen saturation and air pollution par- ticulates with a mean diameter less than or equal to 2.5 m were measured continuously during a protocol of rest, standing, exercise, postexercise

Dawn L. DeMeo; Antonella Zanobetti; Augusto A. Litonjua; Brent A. Coull; Joel Schwartz; Diane R. Gold

2004-01-01

276

Health damages from air pollution in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluates air pollution-related health impacts on the Chinese economy by using an expanded version of the Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis model. We estimated that marginal welfare impact to the Chinese economy of ozone and particulate-matter concentrations above background levels increased from 1997 US$22 billion in 1975 to 1997 US$112 billion in 2005, despite improvements in overall air

Kira Matus; Kyung-Min Nam; Noelle E. Selin; Lok N. Lamsal; John M. Reilly; Sergey Paltsev

277

Photochemical Air Pollution. Part II  

SciTech Connect

Part II of this paper reviews the morphological effects of photochemical oxidants in animal models. Cost benefit estimates for controlling photochemical oxidant pollution are also presented. Some experts consider the costs (which are said to be as much as $5 billion/yr) to exceed the benefits. However, because the public has been willing to pay for intangible benefits such as diminished sensory discomfort and the increased pleasure of a cleaner environment, levels have stabilized or diminished in some areas. 98 references, 4 figures.

Goldstein, E.; Dungworth, D.; Ricci, P.F.

1985-04-01

278

Indoor air pollution: a global health concern.  

PubMed

Indoor air pollution is ubiquitous, and takes many forms, ranging from smoke emitted from solid fuel combustion, especially in households in developing countries, to complex mixtures of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds present in modern buildings. This paper reviews sources of, and health risks associated with, various indoor chemical pollutants, from a historical and global perspective. Health effects are presented for individual compounds or pollutant mixtures based on real-world exposure situations. Health risks from indoor air pollution are likely to be greatest in cities in developing countries, especially where risks associated with solid fuel combustion coincide with risk associated with modern buildings. Everyday exposure to multiple chemicals, most of which are present indoors, may contribute to increasing prevalence of asthma, autism, childhood cancer, medically unexplained symptoms, and perhaps other illnesses. Given that tobacco consumption and synthetic chemical usage will not be declining at least in the near future, concerns about indoor air pollution may be expected to remain. PMID:14757719

Zhang, Junfeng; Smith, Kirk R

2003-01-01

279

Is the air pollution health research community prepared to support a multipollutant air quality management framework?  

PubMed

Ambient air pollution is always encountered as a complex mixture, but past regulatory and research strategies largely focused on single pollutants, pollutant classes, and sources one-at-a-time. There is a trend toward managing air quality in a progressively "multipollutant" manner, with the idealized goal of controlling as many air contaminants as possible in an integrated manner to achieve the greatest total reduction of adverse health and environmental impacts. This commentary considers the current ability of the environmental air pollution exposure and health research communities to provide evidence to inform the development of multipollutant air quality management strategies and assess their effectiveness. The commentary is not a literature review, but a summary of key issues and information gaps, strategies for filling the gaps, and realistic expectations for progress that could be made during the next decade. The greatest need is for researchers and sponsors to address air quality health impacts from a truly multipollutant perspective, and the most limiting current information gap is knowledge of personal exposures of different subpopulations, considering activities and microenvironments. Emphasis is needed on clarifying the roles of a broader range of pollutants and their combinations in a more forward-looking manner; that is not driven by current regulatory structures. Although advances in research tools and outcome data will enhance progress, the greater need is to direct existing capabilities toward strategies aimed at placing into proper context the contributions of multiple pollutants and their combinations to the health burdens, and the relative contributions of pollutants and other factors influencing the same outcomes. The authors conclude that the research community has very limited ability to advise multipollutant air quality management and assess its effectiveness at this time, but that considerable progress can be made in a decade, even at current funding levels, if resources and incentives are shifted appropriately. PMID:20462389

Mauderly, Joe L; Burnett, Richard T; Castillejos, Margarita; Ozkaynak, Halûk; Samet, Jonathan M; Stieb, David M; Vedal, Sverre; Wyzga, Ronald E

2010-06-01

280

Human health effects of air pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hazardous chemicals escape to the environment by a number of natural and\\/or anthropogenic activities and may cause adverse effects on human health and the environment. Increased combustion of fossil fuels in the last century is responsible for the progressive change in the atmospheric composition. Air pollutants, such as carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile organic compounds

Marilena Kampa; Elias Castanas

2008-01-01

281

Harvard's indoor air pollution\\/health study  

Microsoft Academic Search

An indoor air pollution\\/acute respiratory health study is being conducted by researchers at the Harvard University School of Public Health. Upper and lower respiratory symptoms of 300 children living in Watertown, Massachusetts, have been recorded on a daily diary by a parent. Every two weeks the parent is called for the illness\\/wellness history. At the end of the month the

J. D. Spengler; M. P. Reed; E. Leberet; B. H. Chang; J. H. Ware

1986-01-01

282

Adverse cardiovascular effects of air pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air pollution is increasingly recognized as an important and modifiable determinant of cardiovascular disease in urban communities. Acute exposure has been linked to a range of adverse cardiovascular events including hospital admissions with angina, myocardial infarction, and heart failure. Long-term exposure increases an individual's lifetime risk of death from coronary heart disease. The main arbiter of these adverse health effects

Ken Donaldson; Paddy W Hadoke; Nicholas A Boon; William MacNee; Flemming R Cassee; Thomas Sandström; Anders Blomberg; David E Newby; Nicholas L Mills

2008-01-01

283

Indoor Air Pollution: An Energy Management Problem?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Energy conservation measures have led to airtight buildings and reduced levels of ventilation resulting in indoor air pollution. Five kinds of contaminants--tobacco smoke, combustion products, microorganisms, organic compounds, and radon--are described, their hazards considered, and countermeasures outlined. (MLF)|

Cousins, David M.; Kulba, John W.

1987-01-01

284

Air pollution: group and individual obligations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The individual motorist often defends his unwillingness to change his driving habits in the face of air pollution by pointing out that a change in his actions would be insignificant. The environmentalist responds by asking what would happen if everyone did change. In this paper the author defends the environmentalist's response. He argues that we can appeal to the following

2009-01-01

285

Impaired visibility: the air pollution people see  

Microsoft Academic Search

Almost every home and office contains a portrayal of a scenic landscape whether on a calendar, postcard, photograph, or painting. The most sought after locations boast a scenic landscape right outside their window. No matter what the scene – mountains, skyscrapers, clouds, or pastureland – clarity and vividness are essential to the image. Air pollution can degrade scenic vistas, and

Nicole Pauly Hyslop

2009-01-01

286

HARVARD'S INDOOR AIR POLLUTION/HEALTH STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

An indoor air pollution/acute respiratory health study is being conducted by researchers at the Harvard University School of Public Health. Upper and lower respiratory symptoms of 300 children living in Watertown, Massachusetts, have been recorded on a daily diary by a parent. Ev...

287

Air pollution effects on plant growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The volume discusses new avenues of research from those who represent the second and third generations of scientists working in the field of oxidant air pollution effects. Eleven papers discuss topics which include: plant-environment interaction, effects of ozone on cell permeability, reaction of ozone with lysozyme, alterations of metabolite pools, ozone injury to cell membranes, pigmentation and physiology of plant

1974-01-01

288

Air pollution control at a DOE facility  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) plutonium production program Produced some of the greatest scientific and engineering accomplishments of all time. It is remarkable to consider the accomplishments of the Manhattan Project. The Reactor on the Hanford Site, the first production reactor in the world, began operation only 13 months after the start of construction. The DOE nuclear production program was also instrumental in pioneering other fields such as health physics an radiation monitoring. The safety record of these installations is remarkable considering that virtually every significant accomplishment was on the technological threshold of the time. One other area that the DOE Facilities pioneered was the control of radioactive particles and gases emitted to the atmosphere. The high efficiency particulate air filter (HEPA) was a development that provided high collection efficiencies of particulates to protect workers and the public. The halogen and noble gases also were of particular concern. Radioactive iodine is captured by adsorption on activated carbon or synthetic zeolites. Besides controlling radioncuclide air pollution, DOE facilities are concerned with other criteria pollutants and hazardous air pollutant emissions. The Hanford Site encompasses all those air pollution challenges.

Curn, B.L.

1995-11-01

289

Human health effects of air pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past three or four decades, there have been important advances in the understanding of the actions, exposure-response characteristics, and mechanisms of action of many common air pollutants. A multidisciplinary approach using epidemiology, animal toxicology, and controlled human exposure studies has contributed to the database. This review will emphasize studies of humans but will also draw on findings from

Folinsbee

1993-01-01

290

EVALUATING SOURCES OF INDOOR AIR POLLUTION  

EPA Science Inventory

The article discusses a three-phase approach, employing environmental chambers, indoor air quality (IAQ) models, and test house experiments, that is effective in linking sources of indoor pollutants to measured concentrations. mission factors developed in test chambers can be use...

291

Associations between criteria air pollutants and asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evidence that asthma is increasing in prevalence is becoming increasingly compelling. This trend has been demonstrated in the United States, the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Australia, and several other Western countries. In the US, the increase is largest in the group under 18 years of age. There is mounting evidence that certain environmental air pollutants are involved in exacerbating

H. Koren

1995-01-01

292

Minor Sources Of Air Pollutant Emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emission source inventories for air pollutants have considered major categories such as transportation, domestic heating, electric power generation, refuse burning, industrial fuel consumption and process emissions, as well as commercial, institutional, and governmental space heat fuel burning. Not considered in such emission inventories are sources such as aerosol spray cans, ground dust, leaf burning, cosmic dust, crop dusting, perfumes, smoking,

Vincent J. Marchesani; Thomas Towers; Henry C. Wohlers

1970-01-01

293

URBAN AIR POLLUTION MODELING WITHOUT COMPUTERS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report was the basis for a series of three lectures by the author on urban air pollution modeling, and represents a condensed version of selected topics from a recent monograph by him. The emphasis is on simple but efficient models that often can be used without resorting to...

294

Airport Vicinity Air Pollution Model User Guide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes in detail the computer code of the Airport Vicinity Air Pollution (AVAP) model and the variables required to exercise the model. The AVAP model is a computerizing comprehensive airport simulation model which can serve as a tool in ev...

I. T. Wang L. A. Conley D. M. Rote

1975-01-01

295

Control Techniques for Particulate Air Pollutants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Included is a comprehensive review of the approaches commonly recommended for controlling the sources of particulate air pollution. Not all possible combinations of control techniques that might bring about more stringent control of each individual source are reviewed. The many agricultural, commercial, domestic, industrial, and municipal…

National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

296

Regional emissions of air pollutants in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the China-MAP program, sponsored by the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration, regional inventories of air pollutants emitted in China are being characterized, in order that the atmospheric chemistry over China can be more fully understood and the resulting ambient concentrations in Chinese cities and the deposition levels to Chinese ecosystems be determined with better confidence. In

Streets

1998-01-01

297

REGIONAL AIR POLLUTION STUDY: HEAT EMISSION INVENTORY  

EPA Science Inventory

As part of the St. Louis Regional Air Pollution Study (RAPS), a heat emission inventory has been assembled. Heat emissions to the atmosphere originate, directly or indirectly, from the combustion of fossil fuels (there are no nuclear plants in the St. Louis AQCR). With the except...

298

Motor Vehicles, Air Pollution, and Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite years of technical progress, motor vehicles continue to be a leading cause of environmental damage in the United States. For example, today's cars and trucks are the largest source of air pollution in many urban areas. US motor vehicles also account for 25 percent of the nation's carbon emissions, more than most countries emit from all sources combined. Fortunately,

Jason Mark

2000-01-01

299

Associations between criteria air pollutants and asthma  

SciTech Connect

The evidence that asthma is increasing in prevalence is becoming increasingly compelling. This trend has been demonstrated in the United States, the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Australia, and several other Western countries. In the US, the increase is largest in the group under 18 years of age. There is mounting evidence that certain environmental air pollutants are involved in exacerbating asthma. This is based primarily on epidemiologic studies and more recent clinical studies. The U.S. Clean Air Act of 1970 provides special consideration to the class of outdoor air pollutants referred to as criteria pollutants, including O{sub 3}, sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), particulate matter (PM), NO{sub x}, CO, and Pb. Standards for these pollutants are set by the US EPA with particular concern for populations at risk. Current evidence suggests that asthmatics are more sensitive to the effects of O{sub 3}, SO{sub 2} PM, and NO{sub 2}, and are therefore at risk. High SO{sub 2} and particulate concentrations have been associated with short-term increases in morbidity and mortality in the general population during dramatic air pollution episodes in the past. Controlled exposure studies have clearly shown that asthmatics are sensitive to low levels of SO{sub 2}. Exercising asthmatics exposed to SO{sub 2} develop bronchoconstriction within minutes, even at levels of 0.25 ppm. Responses are modified by air temperature, humidity, and exercise level. Recent epidemiologic studies have suggested that exposure to Pm is strongly associated with morbidity and mortality in the general population and that hospital admissions for bronchitis and asthma were associated with PM{sub 10} levels. In controlled clinical studies, asthmatics appear to be no more reactive to aerosols than healthy subjects. Consequently, it is difficult to attribute the increased mortality observed in epidemiologic studies to specific effects demonstrated in controlled human studies. 106 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Koren, H.S. [Environmental Protection Agency, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

1995-09-01

300

Air pollution modifies floral scent trails  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Floral hydrocarbons provide essential signals to attract pollinators. As soon as they are emitted to the atmosphere, however, hydrocarbons are destroyed by chemical reactions involving pollutants such as ozone. It is therefore likely that increased air pollution interferes with pollinator attracting hydrocarbon signals. To test this hypothesis, a Lagrangian diffusion model was used to determine the position of air parcels away from hydrocarbon sources and to estimate the rate of chemical destruction of hydrocarbons as air parcels moved across the landscape. The hydrocarbon compounds linalool, ?-myrcene, and ?-ocimene were chosen because they are known to be common scents released from flowers. The suppressed ambient abundances of volatile organic compounds were determined in response to increased regional levels of ozone, hydroxyl, and nitrate radicals. The results indicate that the documented increases in air pollution concentrations, from pre-industrial to present times, can lead to reductions in volatile compound concentrations insects detect as they pollinate flowers. For highly reactive volatiles the maximum downwind distance from the source at which pollinators can detect the scents may have changed from kilometers during pre-industrial times to <200 m during the more polluted conditions of present times. The increased destruction of floral signals in polluted air masses may have important implications for both pollinators and signaling plants. When patches of flowers are further apart than the visual range of pollinators, such as in fragmented landscapes, the loss of scent signals may mean that pollinators spend more time searching for patches and less time foraging. This decrease in pollinator foraging efficiency will simultaneously decrease the pollinator's reproductive output and the amount of pollen flow in flowering plants.

McFrederick, Quinn S.; Kathilankal, James C.; Fuentes, Jose D.

301

Air Pollution Survey. Report 2. Meteorology and Air Pollution in the Delaware Valley.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Region, for purposes of this study, encompasses the three metropolitan areas of Philadelphia-Camden, Trenton, and Wilmington, located in Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Delaware respectively. The study of meteorology and air pollution in the 11-county lo...

J. R. Mather

1967-01-01

302

Air  

MedlinePLUS

... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

303

A Review of Methods for Predicting Air Pollution Dispersion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Air pollution modeling, and problem areas in air pollution dispersion modeling were surveyed. Emission source inventory, meteorological data, and turbulent diffusion are discussed in terms of developing a dispersion model. Existing mathematical models of ...

J. J. Mathis W. L. Grose

1973-01-01

304

Systems Analysis of the Effects of Air Pollution on Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes research concerned with determining the economic effects of air pollution on materials. The research results constitute an important first step in providing economic justification for setting air pollution control standards and for im...

R. L. Salmon

1970-01-01

305

40 CFR 52.274 - California air pollution emergency plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false California air pollution emergency plan. 52.274 ...APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.274 California air pollution emergency plan. (a)...

2009-07-01

306

40 CFR 52.274 - California air pollution emergency plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false California air pollution emergency plan. 52.274 ...APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.274 California air pollution emergency plan. (a)...

2010-07-01

307

THE STATUS OF INDOOR AIR POLLUTION RESEARCH 1976  

EPA Science Inventory

Numerous research projects have examined the occurrences of air pollution in outdoor and workplace environments. A smaller, newer body of research has examined air pollution in nonworkplace, indoor environments. A new emphasis on measures to conserve energy in buildings, curbing ...

308

AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION - HOME PAGE  

EPA Science Inventory

The Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division (APPCD), located in Research Triangle Park, NC, is part of the National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL), which is headquartered in Cincinnati, OH. APPCD researches, develops, and demonstrates air pollution prevention a...

309

RESEARCH AREA -- MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)  

EPA Science Inventory

The municipal waste combustion (MWC) program supports the development of revised rules for air pollutant emissions from the MWC source category. Basic research is performed on MWC pollutant formation and control mechanisms for acid gas, trace organic, and trace metal emissions. T...

310

From diagnosis to prognosis for forecasting air pollution using neural networks: Air pollution monitoring in Bilbao  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work focuses on the prediction of hourly levels up to 8h ahead for five pollutants (SO2, CO, NO2, NO and O3) and six locations in the area of Bilbao (Spain). To that end, 216 models based on neural networks (NNs) were built. The database used to fit the NNs were historical records of the traffic, meteorological and air pollution

Gabriel Ibarra-berastegi; Ana Elias; Astrid Barona; Jon Saenz; Agustin Ezcurra; Javier Diaz De Argandoña

2008-01-01

311

Air pollution detection by satellites: The transport and deposition of air pollutants over oceans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research is continuing towards the possible detection of air pollution by remote sensing techniques, and satellite imagery has been examined to find evidence of cross-Atlantic transport of air pollution. Pollution masses from industrial areas are often carried out over the Atlantic Ocean by tropospheric winds. However, the pollution mass is generally steered by convergent flows and fronts of extra-tropical cyclones, and wet deposition and scavenging of air pollutants within clouds occur primarily over the cold ocean, especially during the occlusion stage of a cyclone. As a result, the oceanic area from Cape Hatteras to 1500 km ENE of Newfoundland (the SW sector of the Icelandic low area) is often a 'dumping ground' (sink region) for air pollution from N America. However, a dust cloud generated by a volcanic eruption and a smoke plume from large-forest fires in western N America have been observed near the W coast of Europe. Saharan dust carried to N America by trade winds have been identified on satellite imagery. The massive smoke generation by large forest fires in Siberia is also identified in the present study. The results of research on forest fire smoke are currently being used by scientists studying the atmospheric effects of a large-scale nuclear war. It is suggested that the area between the S of Japan and the SW section of the Aleutian low is another principal sink of air pollutants and dust originating from NE Asia.

Chung, Y. S.

312

NIOSH Comments to DOL on the Occupational Safety and Health Administration Request for Information on Occupational Exposure to Indoor Air Pollutants by R. W. Niemeier, January 21, 1992.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The testimony concerns the work of NIOSH conducted in the area of indoor air pollution in nonindustrial workplaces such as offices, schools, public buildings and other locations over the past decade. A wide variety of health problems has been identified w...

1992-01-01

313

RESPONSE OF STEM GROWTH AND FUNCTION TO AIR POLLUTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Exposure to air pollutants can result in reduced stem growth, changes in wood density, and/or deposition of pollutants in the stem. everal recent reviews summarize the known effects of air pollutants on plant growth and function including trees. ir pollutants may also change the ...

314

Web Agents for Spatial Mining on Air Pollution Meteorology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an agent framework to support spatial data mining of air pollution data. A Web-based solution, APMF (Air Pollution Mining Framework), is developed to investigate the effect of meteorological and air pollutant elements on air pollution. It makes use of three types of agents: collect agents, coordinate agents and query\\/mining agents. Query\\/mining agents interact with the user, receive

Vincent T. Y. Ng; Stephen Chi-fai Chan; Sandra Au

2001-01-01

315

Sources of Indoor Air Pollution- Improving Indoor Air Quality  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There are three basic strategies to improve indoor air quality: source control, improved ventilation, and air cleaners. This site offers the reader some insights to improving air quality through increased ventilation, air cleaners for particle removal, and other common sense methods that may be employed. Many times the quality of the air in our homes and public or office buildings is marginal at best. The sources of indoor pollution may be outside of our ability to rectify or it may be as simple as adjusting the flame on our furnace or kitchen stove or maybe something as simple as opening a door or window. However, in many instances we have no control over the air quality because of the materials used in the construction of the building.

2007-01-21

316

Geographical information system and environmental epidemiology: a cross-sectional spatial analysis of the effects of traffic-related air pollution on population respiratory health  

PubMed Central

Background Traffic-related air pollution is a potential risk factor for human respiratory health. A Geographical Information System (GIS) approach was used to examine whether distance from a main road (the Tosco-Romagnola road) affected respiratory health status. Methods We used data collected during an epidemiological survey performed in the Pisa-Cascina area (central Italy) in the period 1991-93. A total of 2841 subjects participated in the survey and filled out a standardized questionnaire on health status, socio-demographic information, and personal habits. A variable proportion of subjects performed lung function and allergy tests. Highly exposed subjects were defined as those living within 100 m of the main road, moderately exposed as those living between 100 and 250 m from the road, and unexposed as those living between 250 and 800 m from the road. Statistical analyses were conducted to compare the risks for respiratory symptoms and diseases between exposed and unexposed. All analyses were stratified by gender. Results The study comprised 2062 subjects: mean age was 45.9 years for men and 48.9 years for women. Compared to subjects living between 250 m and 800 m from the main road, subjects living within 100 m of the main road had increased adjusted risks for persistent wheeze (OR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.08-2.87), COPD diagnosis (OR = 1.80, 95% CI = 1.03-3.08), and reduced FEV1/FVC ratio (OR = 2.07, 95% CI = 1.11-3.87) among males, and for dyspnea (OR = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.13-2.27), positivity to skin prick test (OR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.11-3.00), asthma diagnosis (OR = 1.68, 95% CI = 0.97-2.88) and attacks of shortness of breath with wheeze (OR = 1.67, 95% CI = 0.98-2.84) among females. Conclusion This study points out the potential effects of traffic-related air pollution on respiratory health status, including lung function impairment. It also highlights the added value of GIS in environmental health research.

2011-01-01

317

Changing perspectives on air-pollution stress  

SciTech Connect

As more has been learned about the nature of air pollution and more sophisticated techniques have been developed for measurement, it has become apparent that acid rain is only one of an interrelated array of airshed-watershed problems. Despite important reductions in some pollutant emissions, the authors believe the situation today is worse than it appeared to be 15 years ago. Recently scientists have reported data showing that in some locations dry deposition of hydrogen ion, sulfur, and nitrogen in coarse and fine particles and vapors may exceed the same substances measured in bulk precipitation. As scientists learned about acid rain, they also became more aware of photochemical oxidant pollution. Symptoms of ozone damage on crops and natural vegetation have been found in a majority of states. As understanding and measurement ability have increased, estimates of the magnitude of the air pollution problem have grown. The recent measurements of dry deposition, cloud-water deposition, and photochemical oxidant concentrations have greatly increased estimates of airborne pollutants reaching ecosystems. They have shown that the photochemical oxidant problem cannot be separated from the acid-rain problem and that the combined effects may be both episodic and long-term. These findings indicate that regional air pollution is more severe than it was perceived to be 15 years ago. Solving the problem will be extremely difficult and expensive both in terms of monitoring and assessing effects on ecosystems under realistic conditions. The longer the delays in setting an official policy of comprehensive correctional measures, the more environmental damage may occur. Extensive damage, in turn, would increase the cost of measures for protection and recovery.

Bormann, F.H.; Likens, G.E.

1987-06-01

318

Ozone, air pollution, and respiratory health.  

PubMed Central

Of the outdoor air pollutants regulated by the Clean Air Act of 1970 (and recently revised in 1990), ozone has been the one pollutant most difficult to control within the federal standards. The known human health effects are all on the respiratory system. At concentrations of ozone which occur during summer air-pollution episodes in many urban metropolitan areas of the United States, a portion of the healthy population is likely to experience symptoms and reversible effects on lung function, particularly if exercising heavily outdoors. More prolonged increase in airway responsiveness and the presence of inflammatory cells and mediators in the airway lining fluid may also result from these naturally occurring exposures. Serial exposures to peak levels of ozone on several consecutive days are more characteristic of pollution episodes in the Northeast United States and may be associated with recurrent symptoms. No "high-risk" or more sensitive group has been found, in contrast to the case of sulfur dioxide, to which asthmatics are more susceptible than normals. The occurrence of multiple exposure episodes within a single year over many years in some areas of California has led to studies looking for chronic effects of ozone exposure on the lung. To date, no conclusive studies have been reported, although further work is under way. Much of what we know about the effects of this gas on the lung are based on controlled exposures to pure gas within an environmental exposure laboratory. Interactions between substances which commonly co-occur in air-pollution episodes are also under investigation.

Beckett, W. S.

1991-01-01

319

Air pollution vulnerabiity of 22 midwestern parks  

SciTech Connect

Air pollution increases in United States national parks as sources grow closer. As this happens, biota will be increasingly affected. Can it be determined in advance which parks will be more impacted by these air pollutants that others? This study of 22 park units in the midwestern United States attempted to answer this question. Plant lists were compiled for the 22 parks, relative abundances of all species (common, intermediate, rare) estimated, their sensitivities from their life cycle types (annual, perennial-deciduous, perennial-evergreen) determined, and overall vulnerability as the average product of the two was calculated using a 3-2-1 scale for weighting the abundances. Scotts Bluff National Monument in western Nebraska was the most vulnerable park in the region, while Isle Royale National Park in Lake Superior was the least. This difference was due to the higher abundances of annual plant species in Scotts Bluff. Changing the values used for abundances changed the order of park vulnerabilites. Three air pollutants (ozone, sulfur dioxide, and sulfate) were found to increase from west to east in the midwest. Overlaying these patterns on the park vulnerabilities, and a customer analysis of the data, resulted in a determination of the air pollution risks to groups of parks. The parks most at risk (high vulnerability+high pollution levels) were two in Ohio (Hopewell Culture National Historical Park and Cuyahoga Valley National Recreation Area) and one in Indiana (Lincoln Boyhood National Memorial). Ten parks were grouped at lowest risk in an arc from Lake Superior, northern Minnesota, and Wisconsin through Nebraska and Kansas. Of three different surrogate methods tested for a relationship with overall vulnerability, only one appeared to be useful. Vulnerability could be directly calculated if a park`s vegetative structure was known without assembling the complete flora. 22 refs., 7 figs., 9 tabs.

Bennett, J.P.; Banerjee, N. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

1995-08-01

320

Ozone, air pollution, and respiratory health  

SciTech Connect

Of the outdoor air pollutants regulated by the Clean Air Act of 1970 (and recently revised in 1990), ozone has been the one pollutant most difficult to control within the federal standards. The known human health effects are all on the respiratory system. At concentrations of ozone which occur during summer air-pollution episodes in many urban metropolitan areas of the United States, a portion of the healthy population is likely to experience symptoms and reversible effects on lung function, particularly if exercising heavily outdoors. More prolonged increase in airway responsiveness and the presence of inflammatory cells and mediators in the airway lining fluid may also result from these naturally occurring exposures. Serial exposures to peak levels of ozone on several consecutive days are more characteristic of pollution episodes in the Northeast United States and may be associated with recurrent symptoms. No 'high-risk' or more sensitive group has been found, in contrast to the case of sulfur dioxide, to which asthmatics are more susceptible than normals. The occurrence of multiple exposure episodes within a single year over many years in some areas of California has led to studies looking for chronic effects of ozone exposure on the lung. To date, no conclusive studies have been reported, although further work is under way. Much of what we know about the effects of this gas on the lung are based on controlled exposures to pure gas within an environmental exposure laboratory. Interactions between substances which commonly co-occur in air-pollution episodes are also under investigation.22 references.

Beckett, W.S. (Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (Unites States))

1991-03-01

321

Air quality and pollution control in Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to limited land and great emphasis on economic growth in the past, Taiwan has an extremely heavy environmental burden. Population density, factory density, as well as densities of motor vehicles are several times higher than those in the United States and Japan. According to the statistics of 1991, the Pollutant Standards Index (PSI) fell mostly in the "moderate" category, i.e., in the range of 50-100. There were 16.25% of the monitored days with PSI above 100, and 0.51% with PSI beyond 200. Suspended particulates were the major pollutant responsible for PSI above 100, followed by carbon monoxide, ozone, and sulfur dioxide. The measures adopted to control air pollution can be divided into four categories, namely law and regulations, control measures on stationary sources, mobile sources and construction projects. The latest amended Air Pollution Control Act was promulgated on 1 February 1992. Several major revisions were introduced to make the amended Act much more stringent than the 1982 amendment, especially on the offenses likely to endanger public health and welfare. In regard to stationary sources, a permit system was enacted to regulate the establishment and alteration of stationary sources. Designated stationary sources are required to be equipped with automatic monitoring facilities. An inspection and enforcement program have expanded to cover more than 10,000 factories. Major control measures for motor vehicles include introducing stringent emission standards for gasoline-fueled vehicles and diesel cars, setting up ratification and approval program for new vehicle model, promoting the inspection/maintenance program on in-used motorcycles and encouraging the use of unleaded and low sulfur fuels. In order to control the pollution caused by construction work, constructors are required to use low-pollution machinery and engineering methods and incorporate pollution prevention into the construction budget.

Fang, Shu-Hwei; Chen, Hsiung-Wen

322

POLUTE. Forest Air Pollutant Uptake Model  

SciTech Connect

POLUTE is a computer model designed to estimate the uptake of air pollutants by forests. The model utilizes submodels to describe atmospheric diffusion immediately above and within the canopy, and into the sink areas within or on the trees. The program implementing the model is general and can be used, with only minor changes, for any gaseous pollutant. The model provides an estimate describing the response of the vegetarian-atmosphere system to the environment as related to three types of processes: atmospheric diffusion, diffusion near and inside the absorbing plant, and the physical and chemical processes at the sink on or within the plant.

Murphy, C.E. Jr. [Savannah River Plant, Aiken, SC (United States); Sinclair, T.R. [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States)

1992-02-13

323

Chemiluminescent detection of organic air pollutants  

SciTech Connect

Chemiluminescent reactions can be used for specific and highly sensitive detection of a number of air pollutants. Among these are chemiluminescent reactions of ozone with NO or organics and reactions of luminol with a variety of oxidants. Reported here are studies exploring (1) the use of the temperature dependence of the chemiluminescent reactions of ozone with organic pollutants as a means of differentiating types of hydrocarbon classes and (2) the use of luminol techniques to monitor atmospheric concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) and organic oxidants, specifically peroxyacyl nitrates (PANs). Coupling gas chromatography to the chemiluminescent detectors allows the measurement of individual species at very low concentrations.

Marley, N.A.; Gaffney, J.S.; Chen, Yu-Harn

1996-04-01

324

Air pollution: An environmental factor contributing to intestinal disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The health impacts of air pollution have received much attention and have recently been subject to extensive study. Exposure to air pollutants such as particulate matter (PM) has been linked to lung and cardiovascular disease and increases in both hospital admissions and mortality. However, little attention has been given to the effects of air pollution on the intestine.The recent discovery

Leigh A. Beamish; Alvaro R. Osornio-Vargas; Eytan Wine

2011-01-01

325

Design of Cohort Studies for Air Pollution Health Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides an overview of recent U.S. cohort studies on air pollution and health and discusses design issues related to the study hypothesis, exposure assessment, confounder assessment, and effect modification. The article argues that, given the potential long-term effects of air pollution on survival and the enormous costs of achieving further air pollution reductions, it would be shortsighted not

Bert Brunekreef

2003-01-01

326

Polluted air: potent new selective force in forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of some of the known acute and chronic effects of gaseous air pollutants on forest trees with particular reference to ozone damage to pines, leads to perception of polluted air as a new selective force in temperature zone forests. This force is amplified by known interactions of air pollutants (as predisposing agents) with tree pests such as bark

Sinclair

1969-01-01

327

URBAN VS. RURAL AIR POLLUTION IN NORTHERN VIETNAM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air pollution affects not only the cities but also many rural areas of Vietnam, which has been experiencing a high rate of economic growth over the last years. The comparison of air pollution in urban and rural areas, therefore, will provide insights into the sources and properties of air pollutants, especially those affecting large areas in the region. For this

P. D. Hien; V. T. Bac; N. T. H. Thinh; D. T. Lam

2005-01-01

328

40 CFR 49.137 - Rule for air pollution episodes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false Rule for air pollution episodes. 49.137 Section...Region 10 § 49.137 Rule for air pollution episodes. (a) What is the...to prevent the occurrence of an air pollution emergency within the Indian...

2009-07-01

329

40 CFR 49.137 - Rule for air pollution episodes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Rule for air pollution episodes. 49.137 Section...Region 10 § 49.137 Rule for air pollution episodes. (a) What is the...to prevent the occurrence of an air pollution emergency within the Indian...

2010-07-01

330

Assessing Health Effects of Air Pollution in Developing Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health effects of air pollution in Asia have been assessed as part of a programme on Regional Air Pollution in Developing Countries. The impacts of air pollution on health have been studied in North America and Europe for many decades, but research on effects on health in developing countries is less advanced. A key question is whether the dose-response models

Frank Murray; Gordon McGranahan; Johan C. I. Kuylenstierna

2001-01-01

331

Health effects of air pollution measured by outpatient visits  

Microsoft Academic Search

An association between air pollution and various diseases has been demonstrated over the last three decades by examining vital statistics, epidemiologic surveys, and hospital data. This study examines the association between air pollutants and diagnoses made at outpatient visits to a family practice center during an acute episode of air pollution. A strong positive correlation was found between average weekly

1983-01-01

332

New archive of coastal meteorological and air pollutant measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new data archive, recently made available to interested researchers, provide users with data suitable for evaluating air pollution models. Included in the archive are low-level wind, temperature, humidity, and air pollutant measurements from the South Central Coast Cooperative Aerometric Monitoring Program (SCCCAMP). SCCCAMP was a major study of coastal meteorology and air pollutants in an area of Southern California

Endlich

1988-01-01

333

40 CFR 49.137 - Rule for air pollution episodes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Rule for air pollution episodes. 49.137 Section 49...Region 10 § 49.137 Rule for air pollution episodes. (a) What is the purpose...intended to prevent the occurrence of an air pollution emergency within the Indian...

2013-07-01

334

30 CFR 780.15 - Air pollution control plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Air pollution control plan. 780.15 Section 780...AND OPERATION PLAN § 780.15 Air pollution control plan. (a) For all surface...the application shall contain an air pollution control plan which includes the...

2013-07-01

335

30 CFR 784.26 - Air pollution control plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Air pollution control plan. 784.26 Section 784...AND OPERATION PLAN § 784.26 Air pollution control plan. For all surface operations...the application shall contain an air pollution control plan which includes the...

2013-07-01

336

A REVIEW OF AIR POLLUTANT DAMAGE TO MATERIALS  

EPA Science Inventory

Report prepared as U.S. contribution to Panel 3 of NATO Committee on Challenges of Modern Society Pilot Study on Air Pollution Control Strategies and Impact Modeling. Panel 3 focuses on air pollutant impact and will publish 4 reports on air pollutants effects; this is the first i...

337

Air Pollution and Acid Rain, Report 8. Effects of air pollution and acid rain on fish, wildlife, and their habitats: arctic tundra and alpine meadows  

SciTech Connect

This report on arctic tundra and alpine meadow ecosystems is part of a series synthesizing the results of scientific research related to the effects of air pollution and acid deposition on fish and wildlife resources. Recently performed research reveals the growing air pollution problem in arctic tundra and alpine meadow ecosystems once thought to be relatively unpolluted. The ecosystem features which determine sensitivity to air pollution are described. Data related to the effects of air pollutants on biota and whole ecosystems are reviewed. Because very little work has been done on the effects of air pollution specifically in arctic and alpine ecosystems this report includes relevant information based on studies in other ecosystems. Suggestions are made for areas of further research. 68 references, 2 figures.

Olson, J.E.; Adler, D.

1982-06-01

338

Projection of hazardous air pollutant emissions to future years.  

PubMed

Projecting a hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emission inventory to future years can provide valuable information for air quality management activities such as prediction of program successes and helping to assess future priorities. We have projected the 1999 National Emission Inventory for HAPs to numerous future years up to 2020 using the following tools and data: the Emissions Modeling System for Hazardous Air Pollutants (EMS-HAP), the National Mobile Inventory Model (NMIM), emission reduction information resulting from national standards and economic growth data. This paper discusses these projection tools, the underlying data, limitations and the results. The results presented include total HAP emissions (sum of pollutants) and toxicity-weighted HAP emissions for cancer and respiratory noncancer effects. Weighting emissions by toxicity does not consider fate, transport, or location and behavior of receptor populations and can only be used to estimate relative risks of direct emissions. We show these projections, along with historical emission trends. The data show that stationary source programs under Section 112 of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and mobile source programs which reduce hydrocarbon and particulate matter emissions, as well as toxic emission performance standards for reformulated gasoline, have contributed to and are expected to continue to contribute to large declines in air toxics emissions, in spite of economic and population growth. We have also analyzed the particular HAPs that dominate the source sectors to better understand the historical and future year trends and the differences across sectors. PMID:16448686

Strum, Madeleine; Cook, Rich; Thurman, James; Ensley, Darrell; Pope, Anne; Palma, Ted; Mason, Richard; Michaels, Harvey; Shedd, Stephen

2006-01-30

339

Methodological issues in studies of air pollution and reproductive health.  

PubMed

In the past decade there have been an increasing number of scientific studies describing possible effects of air pollution on perinatal health. These papers have mostly focused on commonly monitored air pollutants, primarily ozone (O(3)), particulate matter (PM), sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), carbon monoxide (CO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)), and various indices of perinatal health, including fetal growth, pregnancy duration, and infant mortality. While most published studies have found some marker of air pollution related to some types of perinatal outcomes, variability exists in the nature of the pollutants and outcomes associated. Synthesis of the findings has been difficult for various reasons, including differences in study design and analysis. A workshop was held in September 2007 to discuss methodological differences in the published studies as a basis for understanding differences in study findings and to identify priorities for future research, including novel approaches for existing data. Four broad topic areas were considered: confounding and effect modification, spatial and temporal exposure variations, vulnerable windows of exposure, and multiple pollutants. Here we present a synopsis of the methodological issues and challenges in each area and make recommendations for future study. Two key recommendations include: (1) parallel analyses of existing data sets using a standardized methodological approach to disentangle true differences in associations from methodological differences among studies; and (2) identification of animal studies to inform important mechanistic research gaps. This work is of critical public health importance because of widespread exposure and because perinatal outcomes are important markers of future child and adult health. PMID:19215915

Woodruff, Tracey J; Parker, Jennifer D; Darrow, Lyndsey A; Slama, Rémy; Bell, Michelle L; Choi, Hyunok; Glinianaia, Svetlana; Hoggatt, Katherine J; Karr, Catherine J; Lobdell, Danelle T; Wilhelm, Michelle

2009-02-11

340

Air Pollution Survey. Report 1. Air Pollution Emissions in the Delaware Valley for 1965.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The problem of air pollution is studied in the vast 11-county, tri-state region centered on Philadelphia. This study effort ventures to solve a common problem. The end objective of the study is to define the requirements for the development of an air reso...

H. C. Wohlers W. E. Jackson

1968-01-01

341

Cleaning products and air fresheners: exposure to primary and secondary air pollutants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Building occupants, including cleaning personnel, are exposed to a wide variety of airborne chemicals when cleaning agents and air fresheners are used in buildings. Certain of these chemicals are listed by the state of California as toxic air contaminants (TACs) and a subset of these are regulated by the US federal government as hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). California's Proposition 65 list of species recognized as carcinogens or reproductive toxicants also includes constituents of certain cleaning products and air fresheners. In addition, many cleaning agents and air fresheners contain chemicals that can react with other air contaminants to yield potentially harmful secondary products. For example, terpenes can react rapidly with ozone in indoor air generating many secondary pollutants, including TACs such as formaldehyde. Furthermore, ozone-terpene reactions produce the hydroxyl radical, which reacts rapidly with organics, leading to the formation of other potentially toxic air pollutants. Indoor reactive chemistry involving the nitrate radical and cleaning-product constituents is also of concern, since it produces organic nitrates as well as some of the same oxidation products generated by ozone and hydroxyl radicals. Few studies have directly addressed the indoor concentrations of TACs that might result from primary emissions or secondary pollutant formation following the use of cleaning agents and air fresheners. In this paper, we combine direct empirical evidence with the basic principles of indoor pollutant behavior and with information from relevant studies, to analyze and critically assess air pollutant exposures resulting from the use of cleaning products and air fresheners. Attention is focused on compounds that are listed as HAPs, TACs or Proposition 65 carcinogens/reproductive toxicants and compounds that can readily react to generate secondary pollutants. The toxicity of many of these secondary pollutants has yet to be evaluated. The inhalation intake of airborne organic compounds from cleaning product use is estimated to be of the order of 10 mg d -1 person -1 in California. More than two dozen research articles present evidence of adverse health effects from inhalation exposure associated with cleaning or cleaning products. Exposure to primary and secondary pollutants depends on the complex interplay of many sets of factors and processes, including cleaning product composition, usage, building occupancy, emission dynamics, transport and mixing, building ventilation, sorptive interactions with building surfaces, and reactive chemistry. Current understanding is sufficient to describe the influence of these variables qualitatively in most cases and quantitatively in a few.

Nazaroff, William W.; Weschler, Charles J.

342

Models for human exposure to air pollution  

SciTech Connect

Four models for human exposure to air pollution are discussed and compared. Simple microenvironment monitoring measures pollutant concentrations at fixed locations, regarded as proxies for similar locations or microenvironments. This model does not require pollutant measurements on the individual level, therefore is easy to implement. However, the model can be used only to estimate the average exposure in a population and does not provide any estimate of the variability and distribution of individual exposures. Replicated microenvironment monitoring provides some estimates of the variability and distribution. However, because of the possible discrepancy between the microenvironment concentration distribution and the individual concentration distribution, some adjustment might be necessary. Integrated personal monitoring allows direct estimation of the average exposure as well as the variability and distribution of individual exposures. Coupled with the appropriate time budget data, a regression analysis can be applied to estimate the contribution from each microenvironment type.

Duan, N.

1982-07-01

343

Air pollution exposure prediction approaches used in air pollution epidemiology studies.  

PubMed

Epidemiological studies of the health effects of outdoor air pollution have traditionally relied upon surrogates of personal exposures, most commonly ambient concentration measurements from central-site monitors. However, this approach may introduce exposure prediction errors and misclassification of exposures for pollutants that are spatially heterogeneous, such as those associated with traffic emissions (e.g., carbon monoxide, elemental carbon, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter). We review alternative air quality and human exposure metrics applied in recent air pollution health effect studies discussed during the International Society of Exposure Science 2011 conference in Baltimore, MD. Symposium presenters considered various alternative exposure metrics, including: central site or interpolated monitoring data, regional pollution levels predicted using the national scale Community Multiscale Air Quality model or from measurements combined with local-scale (AERMOD) air quality models, hybrid models that include satellite data, statistically blended modeling and measurement data, concentrations adjusted by home infiltration rates, and population-based human exposure model (Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation, and Air Pollutants Exposure models) predictions. These alternative exposure metrics were applied in epidemiological applications to health outcomes, including daily mortality and respiratory hospital admissions, daily hospital emergency department visits, daily myocardial infarctions, and daily adverse birth outcomes. This paper summarizes the research projects presented during the symposium, with full details of the work presented in individual papers in this journal issue. PMID:23632992

Ozkaynak, Halûk; Baxter, Lisa K; Dionisio, Kathie L; Burke, Janet

2013-05-01

344

The Distribution and Enforcement of Air Polluting Facilities in New Jersey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the spatial distribution and enforcement of air polluting facilities in the state of New Jersey, as listed in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Aerometric Information Retrieval System. Results show that air-polluting facilities tend to concentrate near minority neighborhoods, although this relationship is partially explained by factors of population density, manufacturing employment, and land use. Other results suggest

Jeremy L. Mennis

2005-01-01

345

Estimation of Citywide Air Pollution in Beijing  

PubMed Central

There has been discrepancies between the daily air quality reports of the Beijing municipal government, observations recorded at the U.S. Embassy in Beijing, and Beijing residents’ perceptions of air quality. This study estimates Beijing’s daily area PM2.5 mass concentration by means of a novel technique SPA (Single Point Areal Estimation) that uses data from the single PM2.5 observation station of the U.S Embassy and the 18 PM10 observation stations of the Beijing Municipal Environmental Protection Bureau. The proposed technique accounts for empirical relationships between different types of observations, and generates best linear unbiased pollution estimates (in a statistical sense). The technique extends the daily PM2.5 mass concentrations obtained at a single station (U.S. Embassy) to a citywide scale using physical relations between pollutant concentrations at the embassy PM2.5 monitoring station and at the 18 official PM10 stations that are evenly distributed across the city. Insight about the technique’s spatial estimation accuracy (uncertainty) is gained by means of theoretical considerations and numerical validations involving real data. The technique was used to study citywide PM2.5 pollution during the 423-day period of interest (May 10, 2010 to December 6, 2011). Finally, a freely downloadable software library is provided that performs all relevant calculations of pollution estimation.

Wang, Jin-Feng; Hu, Mao-Gui; Xu, Cheng-Dong; Christakos, George; Zhao, Yu

2013-01-01

346

Air Pollution Exposure--A Trigger for Myocardial Infarction?  

PubMed Central

The association between ambient air pollution exposure and hospitalization for cardiovascular events has been reported in several studies with conflicting results. A case-crossover design was used to investigate the effects of air pollution in 660 first-time myocardial infarction cases in Stockholm in 1993–1994, interviewed shortly after diagnosis using a standard protocol. Air pollution data came from central urban background monitors. No associations were observed between the risk for onset of myocardial infarction and two-hour or 24-hour air pollution exposure. No evidence of susceptible subgroups was found. This study provides no support that moderately elevated air pollution levels trigger first-time myocardial infarction.

Berglind, Niklas; Ljungman, Petter; Moller, Jette; Hallqvist, Johan; Nyberg, Fredrik; Rosenqvist, Marten; Pershagen, Goran; Bellander, Tom

2010-01-01

347

Atmospheric chemistry and physics of air pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book is divided into six major subject areas. The first section consists of two chapters that describe the qualitative nature of tropospheric air pollution and its many effects. The second major section consists of three chapters describing gas-phase, solution-phase, and mass-transfer aspects of atmospheric chemistry. The third major section is an introduction to aerosol chemistry and physics. The fourth

J. H. Seinfeld

1986-01-01

348

Characterizing Uncertainty in Air Pollution Damage Estimates  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study uses Monte Carlo methods to characterize the uncertainty associated with per-ton damage estimates for 100 power plants in the contiguous United States (U.S.) This analysis focuses on damage estimates produced by an Integrated Assessment Model (IAM) for emissions of two local air pollutants: sulfur dioxide (SO2) and .ne particulate matter (PM2:5). For each power plant, the Monte Carlo

Nicholas Z. Muller; Yan N. Oak

2009-01-01

349

Health effects of air pollution in Dublin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  A STUDY of the relationship between air pollution and specific health indicators in Dublin 1970–73 was undertaken using partial\\u000a correlation analysis. Deaths and hospital admissions from cardiovascular and respiratory disease showed significant correlations\\u000a with levels of sulphur dioxide and smoke in the winter months (October to March). Implications for community health and the\\u000a need for further study are discussed.

John Kevany; Michael Rooney; John Kennedy

1975-01-01

350

Valuing the Benefits of Air Pollution Abatement  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the course of past decades, India has undergone economic development. Real gross national product has grown at an average\\u000a rate of more than 6% in the last decade. This economic growth was fuelled by processes of industrialization, urbanization,\\u000a and population growth and was not achieved without sacrifices. Air pollution must be counted among those sacrifices, and the\\u000a levels of

Surender Kumar; Shunsuke Managi

351

Air pollution potential of solar technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air pollution associated with fabrication or operation of solar energy devices is considered. Impacts include: the release from cooling towers of liquid spray (called drift) containing dissolved substances; the emission of PH3, POCl3, and HF during silicon cell fabrication; possible release of As2O3 if a centralized GaAs array catches fire; and escape of gas from gasification units. The possibility that

J. G. Holmes; P. E. Mihlmester; S. G. Miller; T. L. Super; J. B. Thomasian

1977-01-01

352

Personal exposure of children to air pollution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changes over recent decades in outdoor concentrations of air pollutants are well documented. However, the impacts of air pollution on an individual's health actually relate not to these outdoor concentrations but to their personal exposure in the different locations in which they spend time. Assessing how personal exposures differ from outdoor concentrations, and how they have changed over recent decades, is challenging. This review focuses on the exposure of children, since they are a particularly sensitive group. Much of children's time is spent indoors, and childhood exposure is closely related to concentrations in the home, at school, and in transport. For this reason, children's personal exposures to air pollutants differ significantly from both those of adults and from outdoor concentrations. They depend on a range of factors, including urbanisation, energy use, building design, travel patterns, and activity profiles; analysis of these factors can identify a wider range of policy measures to reduce children's exposure than direct emission control. There is a very large variation in personal exposure between individual children, caused by differences in building design, indoor and outdoor sources, and activity patterns. Identifying groups of children with high personal exposure, and their underlying causes, is particularly important in regions of the world where emissions are increasing, but there are limited resources for environmental and health protection. Although the science of personal exposure assessment, with the associated measurement and modelling techniques, has developed to maturity in North America and western Europe over the last 50 years, there is an urgent need to apply this science in other parts of the world where the effects of air pollution are now much more serious.

Ashmore, M. R.; Dimitroulopoulou, C.

353

A Mobile GPRS-Sensors Array for Air Pollution Monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

An online GPRS-Sensors Array for air pollution monitoring has been designed, implemented, and tested. The proposed system consists of a Mobile Data-Acquisition Unit (Mobile-DAQ) and a fixed Internet-Enabled Pollution Monitoring Server (Pollution-Server). The Mobile-DAQ unit integrates a single-chip microcontroller, air pollution sensors array, a General Packet Radio Service Modem (GPRS-Modem), and a Global Positioning System Module (GPS-Module). The Pollution-Server is

A. R. Al-Ali; Imran Zualkernan; Fadi Aloul

2010-01-01

354

Population Dynamics and Air Pollution: The Impact of Demographics on Health Impact Assessment of Air Pollution  

PubMed Central

Objective. To explore how three different assumptions on demographics affect the health impact of Danish emitted air pollution in Denmark from 2005 to 2030, with health impact modeled from 2005 to 2050. Methods. Modeled air pollution from Danish sources was used as exposure in a newly developed health impact assessment model, which models four major diseases and mortality causes in addition to all-cause mortality. The modeling was at the municipal level, which divides the approximately 5.5?M residents in Denmark into 99 municipalities. Three sets of demographic assumptions were used: (1) a static year 2005 population, (2) morbidity and mortality fixed at the year 2005 level, or (3) an expected development. Results. The health impact of air pollution was estimated at 672,000, 290,000, and 280,000 lost life years depending on demographic assumptions and the corresponding social costs at 430.4?M€, 317.5?M€, and 261.6?M€ through the modeled years 2005–2050. Conclusion. The modeled health impact of air pollution differed widely with the demographic assumptions, and thus demographics and assumptions on demographics played a key role in making health impact assessments on air pollution.

B?nl?kke, Jakob; Br?nnum-Hansen, Henrik

2013-01-01

355

Air pollution operating permit program update. Key features and benefits  

SciTech Connect

Each year in the United States, industrial operations emit nearly 100 million tons of pollutants into the air. In 1990, Congress established an innovative program under Title V of the Clean Air Act Amendments. The operating permit program streamlines the way federal, state, tribal, and local authorities regulate air pollution by consolidating all air pollution control requirements into a single, comprehensive `operating permit` that covers all aspects of source`s year-to-year air pollution activities. The program is designed to make it easier for sources to understand and comply with control requirements, and results in improved air quality.

NONE

1998-02-01

356

Air quality interventions and spatial dynamics of air pollution in Delhi and its surroundings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper examines the spatial distribution of air pollution in response to recent air quality regulations in Delhi, India. Air pollution was monitored at 113 sites spread across Delhi and its surrounding areas from July-December 2003. From the analysis of these data three important findings emerge. First, air pollution levels in Delhi and its surroundings were significantly higher than that

Naresh Kumar; Andrew D. Foster

2009-01-01

357

On coupling air pollution transport models of different scales  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of coupling a coarse-grid and a fine-grid air pollution transport model (by one-way interaction) is investigated. For this, the application of ‘coarse’ boundary values (provided by a coarse-grid model) in the fine-grid model is discussed theoretically and demonstrated by test calculations. It turns out that one should always prefer applying coarse information about external (with respect to the

Ulrich Damrath; Ralph Lehmann

1988-01-01

358

Pollutants and asthma: role of air toxics.  

PubMed Central

Asthma is a disease characterized by intermittent bronchoconstriction due to increased airway reactivity to both allergic and nonallergic stimuli. Most asthma exacerbations that result in hospitalization are associated with viral upper respiratory tract infections. Such infections typically induce T-helper type 1 (T(H)1) responses in the airway, involving activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-Kappa B). However, a more recently appreciated cause of asthma exacerbation is exposure to pollutants, including ozone and various components of particulate matter (PM), including transition metals, diesel exhaust, and biologicals such as endotoxin. Although the role of air toxics in asthma pathogenesis remains incompletely examined, many components of PM that are active exacerbants of asthma are also prominent air toxics (metal ions and organic residues). These agents have been observed to activate NF-Kappa B. Reviewed in this article are the actions of specific air pollutants on airway inflammation in humans and potential common response pathways for ozone, PM, and several air toxics.

Peden, David B

2002-01-01

359

Air Pollution Aspects of Odorous Compounds.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report deals with the less ubiquitous, but potentially harmful, contaminants that are in our atmosphere. Thirty such pollutants have been identified and available information has been summarized in a series of reports describing their sources, distribution, effects, and control technology for their abatement. A total of 27 reports have been…

Sullivan, Ralph J.

360

Effective Stack Design in Air Pollution Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Stack design problems fall into two general caterories--(1) those of building re-entry, and (2) those of general area pollution. Extensive research has developed adequate information, available in the literature, to permit effective stack design. A major roadblock to effective design has been the strong belief by architects and engineers that…

Clarke, John H.

1968-01-01

361

Air Pollution and Heart Rate Variability  

PubMed Central

Background Outdoor air pollution and lead exposure can disturb cardiac autonomic function, but the effects of both these exposures together have not been studied. Methods We examined whether higher cumulative lead exposures, as measured by bone lead, modified cross-sectional associations between air pollution and heart rate variability among 384 elderly men from the Normative Aging Study. We used linear regression, controlling for clinical, demographic, and environmental covariates. Results We found graded, significant reductions in both high-frequency and low-frequency powers of heart rate variability in relation to ozone and sulfate across the quartiles of tibia lead. Interquartile range increases in ozone and sulfate were associated respectively, with 38% decrease (95% confidence interval = -54.6% to -14.9%) and 22% decrease (-40.4% to 1.6%) in high frequency, and 38% decrease (-51.9% to -20.4%) and 12% decrease (-28.6% to 9.3%) in low frequency, in the highest quartile of tibia lead after controlling for potential confounders. We observed similar but weaker effect modification by tibia lead adjusted for education and cumulative traffic (residuals of the regression of tibia lead on education and cumulative traffic). Patella lead modified only the ozone effect on heart rate variability. Conclusions People with long-term exposure to higher levels of lead may be more sensitive to cardiac autonomic dysfunction on high air pollution days. Efforts to understand how environmental exposures affect the health of an aging population should consider both current levels of pollution and history of lead exposure as susceptibility factors.

Park, Sung Kyun; O'Neill, Marie S.; Vokonas, Pantel S.; Sparrow, David; Wright, Robert O.; Coull, Brent; Nie, Huiling; Hu, Howard; Schwartz, Joel

2009-01-01

362

Monitoring of pyrocatechol indoor air pollution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spectrophotometric and electrochemical methods for monitoring of pyrocatechol (PC) indoor air pollution have been investigated. Spectrophotometric determination was performed using Fe(III) and iodine methods. The adherence to Beer's law was found in the concentration range between 0 and 12 ?g ml - for iodine method at pH = 5.7 measuring absorbance at 725 nm, and in the range 0-30 ?g ml - for Fe(III) method at pH = 9.5 measuring absorbance at 510 nm. The former method showed greater sensitivity than the latter one. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and chronoamperometric (CA) detection in flow injection analysis (FIA) using carbon paste electrode in phosphate buffer solution of pH = 6.5 was also used for pyrocatechol determination. The electrochemical methods allowed pyrocatechol quantitation in submicromolar concentration level with an overall reproducibility of ± 1%. The efficiency of pyrocatechol sampling collection was investigated at two temperatures (27 and 40°C) in water, 0.1 M NaOH and 0.1 M HCl solutions. Solution of 0.1 M HCl gave the best collection efficiency (95.5-98.5%). A chamber testing simulating the indoor pollution has been performed. In order to check the reliability of the proposed methods for monitoring of the indoor pyrocatechol pollution, the air in working premises with pyrocatechol released from meteorological charts during mapping and paper drying was analyzed using proposed methods. The concentration of pyrocatechol in the air during mapping was found to be 1.8 mg m -3 which is below the hygienic standard of permissible exposure of 20 mg m -3 (? 5 ppm). The release of pyrocatechol from the paper impregnated with pyrocatechol standing at room temperature during one year was also measured. The proposed methods can be used for indoor pyrocatechol pollution monitoring in working premises of photographic, rubber, oil and dye industries, fur and furniture dyeing and cosmetic or pharmaceutical premises where pyrocatechol and related compounds are in use.

Eškinja, I.; Grabari?, Z.; Grabari?, B. S.

363

Managing Marine Pollution Data and Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Ocean Pollution Data and Information Network (OPDIN), composed of a central office in Washington, D.C. and five regional offices in key coastal locations, has been proposed to ensure timely and useful availability of marine pollution data and information. The National Oceanographic Data Center recently convened the Workshop on Marine Pollution Information Management as a first step in defining system

K. Hughes

1981-01-01

364

Indoor Air Pollutants and Health in the United Arab Emirates  

PubMed Central

Background: Comprehensive global data on the health effects of indoor air pollutants are lacking. There are few large population-based multi–air pollutant health assessments. Further, little is known about indoor air health risks in the Middle East, especially in countries undergoing rapid economic development. Objectives: To provide multifactorial indoor air exposure and health data, we conducted a population-based study of indoor air pollution and health in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study in a population-based sample of 628 households in the UAE. Indoor air pollutants [sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), formaldehyde (HCHO), carbon monoxide (CO), and particulate matter] were measured using passive samplers over a 7-day period. Health information was collected from 1,590 household members via in-person interviews. Results: Participants in households with quantified SO2, NO2, and H2S (i.e., with measured concentrations above the limit of quantification) were twice as likely to report doctor-diagnosed asthma. Participants in homes with quantified SO2 were more likely to report wheezing symptoms {ever wheezing, prevalence odds ratio [POR] 1.79 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05, 3.05]; speech-limiting wheeze, POR 3.53 (95% CI: 1.06, 11.74)}. NO2 and H2S were similarly associated with wheezing symptoms. Quantified HCHO was associated with neurologic symptoms (difficulty concentrating POR 1.47; 95% CI: 1.02, 2.13). Burning incense daily was associated with increased headaches (POR 1.87; 95% CI: 1.09, 3.21), difficulty concentrating (POR 3.08; 95% CI: 1.70, 5.58), and forgetfulness (POR 2.68: 95% CI: 1.47, 4.89). Conclusions: This study provides new information regarding potential health risks from pollutants commonly found in indoor environments in the UAE and other countries. Multipollutant exposure and health assessments in cohort studies are needed to better characterize health effects of indoor air pollutants.

El-Sadig, Mohamed; Leith, David; Kalsbeek, William; Al-Maskari, Fatma; Couper, David; Funk, William E.; Zoubeidi, Taoufik; Chan, Ronna L.; Trent, Chris B.; Davidson, Christopher A.; Boundy, Maryanne G.; Kassab, Maamoon M.; Hasan, Mohamed Y.; Rusyn, Ivan; Gibson, Jacqueline MacDonald; Olshan, Andrew F.

2012-01-01

365

Indoor air pollutants and health in the United Arab Emirates.  

PubMed

Background: Comprehensive global data on the health effects of indoor air pollutants are lacking. There are few large population-based multi-air pollutant health assessments. Further, little is known about indoor air health risks in the Middle East, especially in countries undergoing rapid economic development.Objectives: To provide multifactorial indoor air exposure and health data, we conducted a population-based study of indoor air pollution and health in the United Arab Emirates (UAE).Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study in a population-based sample of 628 households in the UAE. Indoor air pollutants [sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), formaldehyde (HCHO), carbon monoxide (CO), and particulate matter] were measured using passive samplers over a 7-day period. Health information was collected from 1,590 household members via in-person interviews.Results: Participants in households with quantified SO2, NO2, and H2S (i.e., with measured concentrations above the limit of quantification) were twice as likely to report doctor-diagnosed asthma. Participants in homes with quantified SO2 were more likely to report wheezing symptoms {ever wheezing, prevalence odds ratio [POR] 1.79 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05, 3.05]; speech-limiting wheeze, POR 3.53 (95% CI: 1.06, 11.74)}. NO2 and H2S were similarly associated with wheezing symptoms. Quantified HCHO was associated with neurologic symptoms (difficulty concentrating POR 1.47; 95% CI: 1.02, 2.13). Burning incense daily was associated with increased headaches (POR 1.87; 95% CI: 1.09, 3.21), difficulty concentrating (POR 3.08; 95% CI: 1.70, 5.58), and forgetfulness (POR 2.68: 95% CI: 1.47, 4.89).Conclusions: This study provides new information regarding potential health risks from pollutants commonly found in indoor environments in the UAE and other countries. Multipollutant exposure and health assessments in cohort studies are needed to better characterize health effects of indoor air pollutants. PMID:22357138

Yeatts, Karin B; El-Sadig, Mohamed; Leith, David; Kalsbeek, William; Al-Maskari, Fatma; Couper, David; Funk, William E; Zoubeidi, Taoufik; Chan, Ronna L; Trent, Chris B; Davidson, Christopher A; Boundy, Maryanne G; Kassab, Maamoon M; Hasan, Mohamed Y; Rusyn, Ivan; Gibson, Jacqueline MacDonald; Olshan, Andrew F

2012-02-03

366

Protecting Human Health from Air Pollution: Shifting from a Single-Pollutant to a Multi-pollutant Approach  

PubMed Central

To date, the assessment of public health consequences of air pollution has largely focused on a single-pollutant approach aimed at estimating the increased risk of adverse health outcomes associated with the exposure to a single air pollutant, adjusted for the exposure to other air pollutants. However, air masses always contain many pollutants in differing amounts, depending on the types of emission sources and atmospheric conditions. Because humans are simultaneously exposed to a complex mixture of air pollutants, many organizations have encouraged moving towards “a multi-pollutant approach to air quality.” While there is general agreement that multi-pollutant approaches are desirable, the challenges of implementing them are vast. In this commentary, we discuss a multi-pollutant approach for controlling ambient air pollution that describes multi-pollutant concepts for different aspects of air quality management and science: (1) scientific estimation of the health risk of multiple pollutants; (2) setting of regulatory standards for multiple pollutants; and (3) simultaneously implementing compliance with regulatory standards for multiple pollutants.

Dominici, Francesca; Peng, Roger D.; Barr, Christopher D.; Bell, Michelle L.

2012-01-01

367

EFFECTIVENESS OF AIR CLEANERS FOR REDUCING RISK FROM INDOOR POLLUTANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Air cleaners may provide a cost effective way of reducing individual exposure and risk to indoor air pollutants. The effectiveness of indoor air cleaners depends on factors such as the single pass efficiency, the rate that air is circulated through the air cleaner, the air cleane...

368

Asian emissions contribute to western U.S. air pollution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As Asian countries develop, they are emitting more ozone precursors that pollute surface-level air. Many studies have documented this pollution being carried by air currents to the western United States. To learn more about the mechanisms that transport air pollution across the ocean and determine the effects of Asian air pollution on air quality in the western United States, Lin et al. analyzed in situ and satellite measurements from May to June 2010 using a global high-resolution climate chemistry model. They quantified the contribution of Asian pollution to surface ozone levels in densely populated regions such as the Los Angeles area and rural areas such as national parks. They found that Asian pollution contributes as much as 20% of total ozone during springtime pollution episodes in western U.S. surface air.

Balcerak, Ernie

2012-04-01

369

Growth of ponderosa pine seedlings as affected by air pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of air pollution on seedling survival and competitive ability is important to natural and artificial regeneration of forest trees. Although biochemical and physiological processes are sensitive indicators of pollution stress, the cumulative effects of air pollutants on seedling vigor and competitive ability may be assessed directly from whole-plant growth characteristics such as diameter, height, and photosynthetic area. A

B. Momen; P. D. Anderson; J. L. J. Houpis; J. A. Helms

2002-01-01

370

Assessment of air pollution impacts on vegetation in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field surveys and biomonitoring network experiments were conducted in selected areas in South Africa to assess possible air pollution damage to vegetation. During field surveys, atmospheric fluoride was identified as an important pollutant that damaged vegetation in residential areas north of Cape Town. Gaseous air pollutants, including acid deposition and acidic mist, probably play a major role in the development

Botha

1989-01-01

371

Associations between Mortality and Air Pollution in Central Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased mortality has been observed in association with elevated concentrations of air pollutants in European cities and in the United States. We reassessed the effects of particulate matter in Central Europe. Mortality and air pollution data were obtained for a highly polluted region of the Czech Republic and a rural region in Germany. Poisson regression analyses were conducted con- sidering

Annette Peters; Jiri Skorkovsky; Frantisek Kotesovec; Jaromir Brynda; Claudia Spix; H. Erich Wichmann; Joachim Heinrich

2000-01-01

372

Reaction of the lung to air pollutant exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiological and laboratory studies of the effects of various air pollutants on the lung are reviewed. Urban air pollutants, when administered to laboratory animals, adversely affect pulmonary structure and function. Effects include decrease in airway caliber, changes in lung elasticity, degeneration or destruction of tissue, and impaired pulmonary defense mechanisms. Urban dwellers subjected to pollutant exposures might incur similar health

R. I. Kavet; J. D. Brian

1974-01-01

373

Health effects and sources of indoor air pollution. Part I  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the early 1970s, the health effects of indoor air pollution have been investigated with increasing intensity. Consequently, a large body of literature is now available on diverse aspects of indoor air pollution: sources, concentrations, health effects, engineering, and policy. This review begins with a review of the principal pollutants found in indoor environments and their sources. Subsequently, exposure to

J. M. Samet; M. C. Marbury; J. D. Spengler

1987-01-01

374

REFERENCE GUIDE TO ODOR THRESHOLDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS LISTED IN THE CLEAN AIR ACT AMENDMENTS OF 1990.  

EPA Science Inventory

In response to numerous requests for information related to odor thresholds, this document was prepared by the Air Risk Information Support Center in its role in providing technical assistance to State and Local government agencies on risk assessment of air pollutants. iscussion ...

375

Reference guide to odor thresholds for hazardous air pollutants listed in the Clean Air Act amendments of 1990  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to numerous requests for information related to odor thresholds, this document was prepared by the Air Risk Information Support Center in its role in providing technical assistance to State and Local government agencies on risk assessment of air pollutants. A discussion of basic concepts related to olfactory function and the measurement of odor thresholds is presented. A detailed

W. S. Cain; C. R. Shoaf; S. F. Velasquez; S. Selevan; W. Victery

1992-01-01

376

Hazardous air pollutant emissions from process units in the synthetic organic chemical manufacturing industry: Background information for final standards. Volume 2E. Comments on recordkeeping, reporting, compliance and test methods. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This background information document (BID) provides summaries and responses for public comments received regarding the Hazardous Organic National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), commonly referred to as the HON. The HON will primarily affect the Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry (SOCMI). Volume 2E discusses the provisions for compliance, recordkeeping and reporting. Volume 2E also discusses issues related to the use of EPA test methods.

Not Available

1994-03-01

377

Air Pollution Emission Factors for Medical Waste Incinerators  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of an extensive literature survey and data analysis conducted to determine uncontrolled and controlled pollutant emission factors (mass pollutant emitted per mass waste incinerated) for medical waste incinerators (MWI). Pollutant emission factors were calculated separately by type of medical waste (red bag, general hospital, and pathological waste), and add-on air pollution control (APC) equipment (wet

Barry L. Walker; C. David Cooper

1992-01-01

378

Inhalation Transfer Factors for Air Pollution Health Risk Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

To facilitate routine health risk assessments, we develop the concept of an inhalation transfer factor (ITF). The ITF is defined as the pollutant mass inhaled by an exposed individual per unit pollutant mass emitted from an air pollution source. A cumulative population inhalation transfer factor (PITF) is also defined to describe the total fraction of an emitted pollutant inhaled by

Alvin C. K. Lai; Tracy L. Thatcher; William W. Nazaroff

2000-01-01

379

Cleaner air: Brightening the pollution perspective?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clean-air policies in developing countries have resulted in reduced levels of anthropogenic atmospheric aerosol pollution. Reductions in aerosol pollution is thought to result in a reduction in haze and cloud layers, leading to an increase in the amount of solar radiation reaching the surface, and ultimately, an increase in surface temperatures. There have been many studies illustrating coherent relationships between surface solar radiation and temperature however, a direct link between aerosol emissions, concentrations, and surface radiation has not been demonstrated to date. Here, we illustrate a coherence between the trends of reducing anthropogenic aerosol emissions and concentrations, at the interface between the North-East Atlantic and western-Europe, leading to a staggering increase in surface solar radiation of the order of ~20% over the last decade.

O'Dowd, Colin; Ceburnis, Darius; Vaishya, Aditya; Jennings, S. Gerard; Moran, Eoin

2013-05-01

380

Air pollution control technology - An overview  

SciTech Connect

An overview is presented of the equipment and economics of pollution control devices for industrial applications. Attention is given to the Venturi scrubber, high order pressure drops, mechanical/centrifugal, cyclonic devices, baghouses, the Hersey reverse jet blow ring, electrostatic precipitators, and flue gas desulfurization. A total of over one and 1/3 billion dollars was spent on air pollution control equipment in 1980. The development of cartridge-type filters filled with synthetic fabrics such as fiberglass mesh for baghouses is reviewed, as is the growth of installed electrostatic precipitator units, totalling 42.274 GW of installed capacity in 1980. A steady growth in the total capacity of scrubbers is foreseen with the tendency for the use of coal as a primary energy source.

Orem, S.R.

1982-03-01

381

Associations between criteria air pollutants and asthma.  

PubMed Central

The evidence that asthma is increasing in prevalence is becoming increasingly compelling. This trend has been demonstrated not only in the United States, but also in the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Australia, and several other Western countries. In the United States, the increase is largest in the group under 18 years of age. There is mounting evidence that certain environmental air pollutants are involved in exacerbating asthma. This is based primarily on epidemiologic studies and more recent clinical studies. The U.S. Clean Air Act of 1970 provides special consideration to the class of outdoor air pollutants referred to as criteria pollutants, including O3, sulfur dioxide (SO2), particulate matter (PM), NOx, CO, and Pb. Standards for these pollutants are set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency with particular concern for populations at risk. Current evidence suggests that asthmatics are more sensitive to the effects of O3, SO2, PM, and NO2, and are therefore at risk. High SO2 and particulate concentrations have been associated with short-term increases in morbidity and mortality in the general population during dramatic air pollution episodes in the past. Controlled exposure studies have clearly shown that asthmatics are sensitive to low levels of SO2. Exercising asthmatics exposed to SO2 develop bronchoconstriction within minutes, even at levels of 0.25 ppm. Responses are modified by air temperature, humidity, and exercise level. Recent epidemiologic studies have suggested that exposure to PM is strongly associated with morbidity and mortality in the general population and that hospital admissions for bronchitis and asthma were associated with PM10 levels. In controlled clinical studies, asthmatics appear to be no more reactive to aerosols than healthy subjects. Consequently, it is difficult to attribute the increased mortality observed in epidemiologic studies to specific effects demonstrated in controlled human studies. Epidemiologic studies of hospital admissions for asthma have implicated O3 as contributing to the exacerbation of asthma; however, most study designs could not separate the O3 effects from the concomitant effects of acid aerosols and SO2. Controlled human clinical studies have suggested that asthmatics have similar changes in spirometry and airway reactivity in response to O3 exposure compared to healthy adults. However, a possible role of O3 in worsening atopic asthma has recently been suggested in studies combining allergen challenge following exposure to O3. Attempts at identification of factors that predispose asthmatics to responsiveness to NO2 has produced inconsistent results and requires further investigation. In summary, asthmatics have been shown to be a sensitive subpopulation relative to several of the criteria pollutants. Further research linking epidemiologic, clinical, and toxicologic approaches is required to better understand and characterize the risk of exposing asthmatics to these pollutants.

Koren, H S

1995-01-01

382

Ambient air pollution and respiratory health effects in mail carriers.  

PubMed

Mail carriers represent an occupational group suffering from respiratory symptoms and lung function impairment. Although environmental conditions may play role, information on the effects of air pollution exposure in this population is lacking. The present study was conducted in Athens, Greece, in order to investigate the adverse effects of long-term air pollution exposure on respiratory outcomes in mail carriers. A total of 226 mail carriers and 73 office employees were enrolled. Information on respiratory symptoms, medical, occupational, residential and smoking history was obtained through a questionnaire. Flow-volume curves were performed in the workplace using a portable spirometer. Individualised personal exposure assessment has been applied based on long-term residential and occupational subject history linked with geographical air pollution distribution. Furthermore, personal measurements were obtained for forty-one mail carriers using NO(2) and O(3) passive samplers, assuming that current air pollution exposure is sufficiently representative of long-term, previous exposure to make a plausible link with current health status. The analysis based on exposures estimated on the basis of residential and work addresses showed that the most exposed to PM(10) postal workers have rhinitis at a higher rate (OR=1.67, 95% CI: 1.01-2.75). In mail carriers there is indication that those exposed to higher concentrations of Omicron(3) or PM(10) have a greater possibility to present rhinitis (OR=1.63, 95% CI: 0.93-2.88 and OR=1.70, 95% CI: 0.96-3.03, respectively). The effect of O(3) on rhinitis became even more apparent in the analysis based on exposures assessed by personal measurements (OR=6.74, 95% CI: 1.24-36.55). Exposure to NO(2) was significantly associated with decrements in lung function. For office employees the exposure to air pollutants was not associated to any adverse respiratory outcome. Our findings suggest that air pollution is a contributing factor for the occurrence of rhinitis and lung function impairment in mail carriers. PMID:20047736

Karakatsani, A; Kapitsimadis, F; Pipikou, M; Chalbot, M-C; Kavouras, I G; Orphanidou, D; Papiris, S; Katsouyanni, K

2010-01-04

383

Uso De Biorreactores Para Controlar La Contaminacion Del Aire (Using Bioreactors to Control Air Pollution).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the Spanish version of 'Using Bioreactors to Control Air Pollution'. Because of increasing fuel cost and tightening environmental regulations, alternative air pollution control technologies are being considered to replace or supplement expensive c...

2004-01-01

384

Air pollution potential: Regional study in Argentina  

SciTech Connect

Air pollution potential is a measure of the atmospheric conditions that are unable to transport and dilute pollutants into the air, independently of the existence of sources. This potential can be determined from two atmospheric parameters; mixing height and transport wind. In this paper a statistical analysis of the mixing height and transport wind, in order to determine the areas with high or poor atmospheric ventilation in Argentina, is presented. In order to achieve this, meteorological data registered during 1979--1982 at eight meteorological stations were used. Daily values of the maximum mixing height were calculated from observations of daily temperatures at different heights and maximum surface temperature. At the same time as the maximum mixing height, the values of the transport wind were determined from the surface windspeed and the characteristics of the ground in the surroundings of each meteorological station. The mean seasonal values for both parameters were obtained. Isopleths of the mean seasonal of the maximum mixing heights were drawn. The percentage of seasonal frequencies of poor ventilation conditions were calculated and the frequency isopleths were also drawn to determine areas with minor and major relative frequencies. It was found that the northeastern and central-eastern regions of Argentina had a high air pollution potential during the whole year. Unfavorable atmospheric ventilation conditions were also found in the central-western side of the country during the cold seasons (37.5% in autumn and 56.9% in winter). The region with the greatest atmospheric ventilation is located south of 40{degree}S, where the frequency of poor ventilation varies between 8.0% in summer and 10.8% in winter.

Gassmann, M.I.; Mazzeo, N.A.

2000-04-01

385

A model of air traffic assignment as part of airport air pollution management system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The critical concern of modern airports is the air pollution generated by air traffic and its impact on the airport environment. Air pollution is an unavoidable consequence of air traffic, but it can be reduced in numerous ways, including technical innovations in aircraft design and legislation. This paper presents a model of air traffic assignment as a measure to mitigate

Petar Mirosavljevi?; Slobodan Gvozdenovi?; Olja ?okorilo

2011-01-01

386

Gestational Diabetes and Preeclampsia in Association with Air Pollution at Levels below Current Air Quality Guidelines  

PubMed Central

Background: Several studies have estimated associations between air pollution and birth outcomes, but few have evaluated potential effects on pregnancy complications. Objective: We investigated whether low-level exposure to air pollution is associated with gestational diabetes and preeclampsia. Methods: High-quality registry information on 81,110 singleton pregnancy outcomes in southern Sweden during 1999–2005 was linked to individual-level exposure estimates with high spatial resolution. Modeled exposure to nitrogen oxides (NOx), expressed as mean concentrations per trimester, and proximity to roads of different traffic densities were used as proxy indicators of exposure to combustion-related air pollution. The data were analyzed by logistic regression, with and without adjusting for potential confounders. Results: The prevalence of gestational diabetes increased with each NOx quartile, with an adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 1.69 (95% CI: 1.41, 2.03) for the highest (> 22.7 µg/m3) compared with the lowest quartile (2.5–8.9 µg/m3) of exposure during the second trimester. The adjusted OR for acquiring preeclampsia after exposure during the third trimester was 1.51 (1.32, 1.73) in the highest quartile of NOx compared with the lowest. Both outcomes were associated with high traffic density, but ORs were significant for gestational diabetes only. Conclusion: NOx exposure during pregnancy was associated with gestational diabetes and preeclampsia in an area with air pollution levels below current air quality guidelines.

Jakobsson, Kristina; Tinnerberg, Hakan; Rignell-Hydbom, Anna; Rylander, Lars

2013-01-01

387

Phoenix-Tucson Metropolitan Area Air Pollutant Emission Inventory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A summary report is presented of the emission inventory for the Phoenix - Tucson Metropolitan Area, Arizona. The report provides estimates of the present levels of air pollutant emissions and status of their control. The pollutants which include sulfur ox...

C. B. Morita

1969-01-01

388

Paint Technology and Air Pollution: A Survey and Economic Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objectives were to survey the technical developments occurring within the paint industry, to identify the characteristics of pollutant attacks on exterior paints, and to estimate the annual cost of air pollutant damage to such paints. New paint formul...

F. H. Haynie J. W. Spence

1972-01-01

389

Oklahoma City Metropolitan Area Air Pollutant Emission Inventory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A summary report is presented of the emission inventory for the Oklahoma City Metropolitan Area. The report provides estimates of the present levels of air pollutant emissions and status of their control. The pollutants which include sulfur oxides, partic...

M. J. McGraw

1970-01-01

390

Factor of safety method, application to air and noise pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technical report:Air quality indexes were used to calculate air and noise pollution factors of safety for 82 U.S. cities. Pollutants considered in the safety study are: total suspended particulates, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and ozone. Mathematical models that were used to calculate the factors of safety are presented. The utilization of air quality indexes for regional planning and

A. E. S. Green; T. J. Buckley; D. E. Rio; R. Makarewicz; A. MacEachern

1980-01-01

391

POPULATION-BASED EXPOSURE AND DOSE MODELING FOR AIR POLLUTANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

This task will address EPA's need to better understand the variability in personal exposure to air pollutants for the purpose of assessing what populations are at risk for adverse health outcomes due to air pollutant exposures. To improve our understanding of exposures to air po...

392

Controlling Urban Air Pollution: A Benefit-Cost Assessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The pros and cons of air pollution control efforts are discussed. Both national and regional air pollution control plans are described. Topics of discussion include benefit-cost analysis, air quality regulation, reducing ozone in the urban areas, the Los Angeles plan, uncertainties, and policy implications. (KR)|

Krupnick, Alan J.; Portney, Paul R.

1991-01-01

393

Prospects for International Management of Intercontinental Air Pollution Transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recognition of the intercontinental transport of air pollution continues a historic trend towards greater awareness and management of air pollution over larger spatial scales. Intercontinental transport contributes to a “tightening vise” on air quality management in industrialized nations with background concentrations rising, standards becoming more stringent, local controls becoming more difficult to achieve, and emissions in other parts of

Terry J. Keating; J. Jason West; Alexander E. Farrell

394

Exposures to Air Pollutants during Pregnancy and Preterm Delivery  

PubMed Central

The association between preterm delivery (PTD) and exposure to air pollutants has recently become a major concern. We investigated this relationship in Incheon, Republic of Korea, using spatial and temporal modeling to better infer individual exposures. The birth cohort consisted of 52,113 singleton births in 2001–2002, and data included residential address, gestational age, sex, birth date and order, and parental age and education. We used a geographic information system and kriging methods to construct spatial and temporal exposure models. Associations between exposure and PTD were evaluated using univariate and multivariate log-binomial regressions. Given the gestational age, birth date, and the mother’s residential address, we estimated each mother’s potential exposure to air pollutants during critical periods of the pregnancy. The adjusted risk ratios for PTD in the highest quartiles of the first trimester exposure were 1.26 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11–1.44] for carbon monoxide, 1.27 (95% CI, 1.04–1.56) for particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ? 10 ?m, 1.24 (95% CI, 1.09–1.41) for nitrogen dioxide, and 1.21 (95% CI, 1.04–1.42) for sulfur dioxide. The relationships between PTD and exposures to CO, NO2, and SO2 were dose dependent (p < 0.001, p < 0.02, p < 0.02, respectively). In addition, the results of our study indicated a significant association between air pollution and PTD during the third trimester of pregnancy. In conclusion, our study showed that relatively low concentrations of air pollution under current air quality standards during pregnancy may contribute to an increased risk of PTD. A biologic mechanism through increased prostaglandin levels that are triggered by inflammatory mediators during exposure periods is discussed.

Leem, Jong-Han; Kaplan, Brian M.; Shim, Youn K.; Pohl, Hana R.; Gotway, Carol A.; Bullard, Stevan M.; Rogers, J. Felix; Smith, Melissa M.; Tylenda, Carolyn A.

2006-01-01

395

Air pollution and infant mortality from pneumonia  

SciTech Connect

This study examines the relationship between air pollution, measured as concentration of suspended particulates in the atmosphere, and infant mortality due to pneumonia in the metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro. Multiple linear regression (progressive or stepwise method) was used to analyze infant mortality due to pneumonia, diarrhea, and all causes in 1980, by geographic area, income level, and degree of contamination. While the variable proportion of families with income equivalent to more than two minimum wages was included in the regressions corresponding to the three types of infant mortality, the average contamination index had a statistically significant coefficient (b = 0.2208; t = 2.670; P = 0.0137) only in the case of mortality due to pneumonia. This would suggest a biological association, but, as in any ecological study, such conclusions should be viewed with caution. The authors believe that air quality indicators are essential to consider in studies of acute respiratory infections in developing countries.

Penna, M.L.; Duchiade, M.P. (Instituto de Medicina Social, Universidad del Estado del Rio de Janeiro (Brasil))

1991-03-01

396

Governmental Approaches to Air Pollution Control. A Compendium and Annotated Bibliography.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study is presented consisting of a compilation of information to be used for evaluation of present programs and development of new approaches to air pollution control. The study begins with the description and analysis of federal legislation with partic...

R. Witherspoon J. Hoicka T. Trumbull D. Infeld

1971-01-01

397

Remedial measures to reduce air pollution losses in horticulture  

SciTech Connect

Since air pollution injury to horticulture plants has not been controlled by reduction at the source, other methods of protection must, therefore, be considered. Factors influencing air pollution injury to plants are discussed. Several environmental, soil, and physiological factors influence plant response to air pollutants. Regulation of these factors may lead to the ability to reduce the plant's sensitivity to injurious gases. The effects of nutrients on the response of plants of air pollutants are described, especially the effects of nitrogen. Cultural practices, chemical protectants, cultivar sensitivity and plant breeding, all of which affect the damage caused by gaseous air pollutants, are described. Detailed and complete economic studies are needed to document losses caused by air pollutants to assess their impacts on horticulture.

Kender, W.J.; Forsline, P.L.

1983-10-01

398

Health effects of particulate air pollution: time for reassessment?  

PubMed Central

Numerous studies have observed health effects of particulate air pollution. Compared to early studies that focused on severe air pollution episodes, recent studies are more relevant to understanding health effects of pollution at levels common to contemporary cities in the developed world. We review recent epidemiologic studies that evaluated health effects of particulate air pollution and conclude that respirable particulate air pollution is likely an important contributing factor to respiratory disease. Observed health effects include increased respiratory symptoms, decreased lung function, increased hospitalizations and other health care visits for respiratory and cardiovascular disease, increased respiratory morbidity as measured by absenteeism from work or school or other restrictions in activity, and increased cardiopulmonary disease mortality. These health effects are observed at levels common to many U.S. cities including levels below current U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standards for particulate air pollution. Images Figure 1.

Pope, C A; Bates, D V; Raizenne, M E

1995-01-01

399

On marketable air-pollution permits: The case for a system of pollution offsets  

Microsoft Academic Search

After examining the properties of several alternative forms of marketable permit systems for the control of air pollution, this paper proposes a system of pollution offsets as the most promising approach. Under the pollution-offset scheme, sources of emissions are free to trade emissions permits subject to the constraint of no violations of the predetermined air-quality standard at any receptor point.

Alan J. Krupnick; Wallace E. Oates; Eric Van De Verg

1983-01-01

400

RESEARCH AREA -- FLUE GAS CLEANING (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Air Pollution Technology Branch's (APPCD, NRMRL)flue gas cleaning program supports New Source Performance Standards regulations development and has fostered the development of technologies that today are considered industry standards. These include both dry and wet flue gas d...

401

Community perceptions of air pollution and related health risks in nairobi slums.  

PubMed

Air pollution is among the leading global risks for mortality and responsible for increasing risk for chronic diseases. Community perceptions on exposure are critical in determining people's response and acceptance of related policies. Therefore, understanding people' perception is critical in informing the design of appropriate intervention measures. The aim of this paper was to establish levels and associations between perceived pollution and health risk perception among slum residents. A cross-sectional study of 5,317 individuals aged 35+ years was conducted in two slums of Nairobi. Association of perceived score and individual characteristics was assessed using linear regression. Spatial variation in the perceived levels was determined through hot spot analysis using ArcGIS. The average perceived air pollution level was higher among residents in Viwandani compared to those in Korogocho. Perceived air pollution level was positively associated with perceived health risks. The majority of respondents were exposed to air pollution in their place of work with 66% exposed to at least two sources of air pollution. Less than 20% of the respondents in both areas mentioned sources related to indoor pollution. The perceived air pollution level and related health risks in the study community were low among the residents indicating the need for promoting awareness on air pollution sources and related health risks. PMID:24157509

Egondi, Thaddaeus; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Ng, Nawi; Muindi, Kanyiva; Oti, Samuel; Vijver, Steven van de; Ettarh, Remare; Rocklöv, Joacim

2013-10-11

402

Aqei and air pollution deposition rates at Visakhapatnam, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case study for assessing the air environmental status due to air emissions is elaborated for the highly industrialised city of Visakhapatnam. The ambient air quality and rain water composition was monitored at 16 stations during post monsoon season, October ?January, 1998. These investigations of air quality status and air pollutant deposition rates predict that the city of Visakhapatnam is

Motati Suneela; Rekha Thakre

2000-01-01

403

Human health risks in megacities due to air pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluates the health risks in megacities in terms of mortality and morbidity due to air pollution. A new spreadsheet model, Risk of Mortality\\/Morbidity due to Air Pollution (Ri-MAP), is used to estimate the excess numbers of deaths and illnesses. By adopting the World Health Organization (WHO) guideline concentrations for the air pollutants SO2, NO2 and total suspended particles

B. R. Gurjar; A. Jain; A. Sharma; A. Agarwal; P. Gupta; A. S. Nagpure; J. Lelieveld

2010-01-01

404

Climate Change, Air Pollution, and the Economics of Health Impacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change and air pollution are intricately linked. The distinction between greenhouse substances and other air pollutants is resolved at least for the time being in the context of international negotiations on climate policy through the identification of CO2, CH4, N2O, SF6 and the per- and hydro- fluorocarbons as substances targeted for control. Many of the traditional air pollutant emissions

J. Reilly; T. Yang; S. Paltsev; C. Wang; R. Prinn; M. Sarofim

2003-01-01

405

Quantifying air pollution removal by green roofs in Chicago  

Microsoft Academic Search

The level of air pollution removal by green roofs in Chicago was quantified using a dry deposition model. The result showed that a total of 1675kg of air pollutants was removed by 19.8ha of green roofs in one year with O3 accounting for 52% of the total, NO2 (27%), PM10 (14%), and SO2 (7%). The highest level of air pollution

Jun Yang; Qian Yu; Peng Gong

2008-01-01

406

Athletic performance and urban air pollution.  

PubMed Central

Air pollution may affect athletic performance. In Los Angeles, contaminants include carbon monoxide, ozone, peroxyacetylnitrate (PAN) and nitrogen oxides, whereas in older European cities, such as Sarajevo, "reducing smog" of sulfur dioxide is the main hazard. The carbon monoxide and ozone levels expected in Los Angeles this summer could affect the athletes' performance in endurance events at the Olympic Games. Carbon monoxide may also impair psychomotor abilities, and PAN causes visual disturbances. The only likely physiologic consequence from reducing smog is an increase in the workload of the respiratory system and thus a decrease in endurance performance. While carbon monoxide has been blamed for myocardial infarctions, nitrogen oxides for pulmonary edema and sulfur dioxide for deaths due to respiratory failure, the only illnesses that are likely to be more frequent than usual among young athletes exposed to high levels of these pollutants are upper respiratory tract infections. Therapeutic tactics include the avoidance of pollution, the administration of oxygen, vitamin C and vitamin E, and general reassurance.

Shephard, R J

1984-01-01

407

Monitoring human exposure to urban air pollutants  

SciTech Connect

A multidisciplinary study on a general population exposed to vehicle exhaust was undertaken in Pisa in 1991. Environmental factors such as air pollution and those associated with lifestyle were studied. Meanwhile, biological and medical indicators of health condition were investigated. Chromosomal aberrations, sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs), and micronuclei in lymphocytes were included for the assessment of the genotoxic risk. Because of the large number (3800) of subjects being investigated, standardization of protocols was compulsory. The results on data reproducibility are reported. To assess the reliability of the protocol on a large scale, the population of Porto Tolle, a village located in northeast Italy, was studied and compared to a subset of the Pisa population. Preliminary results showed that probable differences between the two populations and individuals were present in terms of SCE frequencies. The study was potentially able to detect the effects of several factors such as age, smoking, genetics, and environment. The in vitro treatment of lymphocytes with diepoxybutane confirmed the presence of more responsive individuals and permitted us to investigate the genetic predisposition to genetic damage. The possible influence of environmental factors was studied by correlation analyses with external exposure to air pollutants as well as with several lifestyle factors. 10 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Barale, R.; Barrai, I.; Marrazzini, A. [Universita de Ferrara (Italy)] [and others

1993-10-01

408

Air pollution detection using MODIS data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quality of the environment has a great impact on public health while air quality is a major factor that is especially relevant for respiratory diseases. PM10 (particulate matter below 10 ?) particles are among the most dangerous pollutants, which enter the lower respiratory tract and cause serious health problems. Obtaining reliable air pollution data is limited to a number of ground measuring stations and their spatial location. We used an alternative approach and created statistical models that employed remotely sensed imageries. To establish empirical relationships, we used multi-temporal (2006-2009) MODIS aerosol optical thickness data (product MOD04, Level 2) and the PM10 ground mass concentrations. The north-western part of the Czech Republic (namely the Karlovarský and the Ustecký regions) was chosen as a test site, as all the different types of cultural landscape (forest-economical, agricultural, mining, and urban) can be found within one MODIS scene. This study was focused on the various aspects as follows (i) analysis of MODIS AOT / stationary PM10 time-series trend between 2006-2009, (ii) establishing a linear relationship between PM10 and AOT values for each station and (iii) evaluation of a spatial relationship of the annual mean AE (Ångstrom Exponent) and PM10 values.

Harbula, Jan; Kopacková, Veronika

2011-10-01

409

Regional emissions of air pollutants in China.  

SciTech Connect

As part of the China-MAP program, sponsored by the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration, regional inventories of air pollutants emitted in China are being characterized, in order that the atmospheric chemistry over China can be more fully understood and the resulting ambient concentrations in Chinese cities and the deposition levels to Chinese ecosystems be determined with better confidence. In addition, the contributions of greenhouse gases from China and of acidic aerosols that counteract global warming are being quantified. This paper presents preliminary estimates of the emissions of some of the major air pollutants in China: sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), carbon monoxide (CO), and black carbon (C). Emissions are estimated for each of the 27 regions of China included in the RAINS-Asia simulation model and are subsequently distributed to a 1{degree} x 1{degree} grid using appropriate disaggregation factors. Emissions from all sectors of the Chinese economy are considered, including the combustion of biofuels in rural homes. Emissions from larger power plants are calculated individually and allocated to the grid accordingly. Data for the period 1990-1995 are being developed, as well as projections for the future under alternative assumptions about economic growth and environmental control.

Streets, D. G.

1998-10-05

410

Impacts of Air Pollution on Health in Eastern China: Implications for future air pollution and energy policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our objective is to establish the link between energy consumption and technologies, air pollution and resulting impacts on public health in eastern China. We quantify the impacts that air pollution in the Shandong region of eastern China has on public health in 2000 and quantify the benefits in improved air quality and health that could be obtained by 2020, relative

X. Wang; D. Mauzerall

2004-01-01

411

Introduction to Indoor Air Quality  

MedlinePLUS

... Basic Information on Pollutants and Sources of Indoor Air Pollution Asbestos Biological Pollutants Carbon Monoxide (CO) Formaldehyde/Pressed ... about ventilation in buildings Top of page Indoor Air Pollution and Health Health effects from indoor air pollutants ...

412

63 FR 50280 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories: Pharmaceuticals...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories: Pharmaceuticals...National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories: Pharmaceuticals...national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) to reduce air...

1998-09-21

413

Benefit-cost analysis of air-pollution control  

SciTech Connect

The use of benefit-cost analysis in evaluating environmental-policy options recognizes that the benefits and costs occur at different times, in different forms, and affect different individuals. The book, which is intended for both economists and air-pollution-control experts, is divided into two parts: the theory of benefit-cost analysis and its application to air-pollution control. Both sections stress procedures for evaluation. Three appendices present the sources, measurement, and effects of air pollution; air-pollution-control equipment; and order-of-magnitude cost functions. 308 references, 25 figures, 27 tables.

Halvorsen, R.; Ruby, M.G.

1981-01-01

414

"Air pollution in Delhi: Its Magnitude and Effects on Health".  

PubMed

Air pollution is responsible for many health problems in the urban areas. Of late, the air pollution status in Delhi has undergone many changes in terms of the levels of pollutants and the control measures taken to reduce them. This paper provides an evidence-based insight into the status of air pollution in Delhi and its effects on health and control measures instituted. The urban air database released by the World Health Organization in September 2011 reported that Delhi has exceeded the maximum PM10 limit by almost 10-times at 198 ?g/m3. Vehicular emissions and industrial activities were found to be associated with indoor as well as outdoor air pollution in Delhi. Studies on air pollution and mortality from Delhi found that all-natural-cause mortality and morbidity increased with increased air pollution. Delhi has taken several steps to reduce the level of air pollution in the city during the last 10 years. However, more still needs to be done to further reduce the levels of air pollution. PMID:23559696

Rizwan, Sa; Nongkynrih, Baridalyne; Gupta, Sanjeev Kumar

2013-01-01

415

"Air pollution in Delhi: Its Magnitude and Effects on Health"  

PubMed Central

Air pollution is responsible for many health problems in the urban areas. Of late, the air pollution status in Delhi has undergone many changes in terms of the levels of pollutants and the control measures taken to reduce them. This paper provides an evidence-based insight into the status of air pollution in Delhi and its effects on health and control measures instituted. The urban air database released by the World Health Organization in September 2011 reported that Delhi has exceeded the maximum PM10 limit by almost 10-times at 198 ?g/m3. Vehicular emissions and industrial activities were found to be associated with indoor as well as outdoor air pollution in Delhi. Studies on air pollution and mortality from Delhi found that all-natural-cause mortality and morbidity increased with increased air pollution. Delhi has taken several steps to reduce the level of air pollution in the city during the last 10 years. However, more still needs to be done to further reduce the levels of air pollution.

Rizwan, SA; Nongkynrih, Baridalyne; Gupta, Sanjeev Kumar

2013-01-01

416

American business interests meet air pollution transport science: understanding the US response to trans-Pacific air pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the discovery of air pollution traveling from China to the US during the late 1990s, trans-Pacific air pollution (consisting of a range of non-CO2 greenhouse gases) has been an emerging global environmental issue. But how has it been addressed, how does it relate to the existing multilateral air pollution regime, and who are the interested parties? This article addresses

Owen Temby

2012-01-01

417

Does urban vegetation mitigate air pollution in northern conditions?  

PubMed

It is generally accepted that urban vegetation improves air quality and thereby enhances the well-being of citizens. However, empirical evidence on the potential of urban trees to mitigate air pollution is meager, particularly in northern climates with a short growing season. We studied the ability of urban park/forest vegetation to remove air pollutants (NO2, anthropogenic VOCs and particle deposition) using passive samplers in two Finnish cities. Concentrations of each pollutant in August (summer; leaf-period) and March (winter, leaf-free period) were slightly but often insignificantly lower under tree canopies than in adjacent open areas, suggesting that the role of foliage in removing air pollutants is insignificant. Furthermore, vegetation-related environmental variables (canopy closure, number and size of trees, density of understorey vegetation) did not explain the variation in pollution concentrations. Our results suggest that the ability of urban vegetation to remove air pollutants is minor in northern climates. PMID:23274234

Setälä, Heikki; Viippola, Viljami; Rantalainen, Anna-Lea; Pennanen, Arto; Yli-Pelkonen, Vesa

2012-12-27

418

Oxidant Air Pollution: Estimating Economic Effects on US Vegetation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In developing standards required for implementation of the Clean Air Act, increased emphasis is being placed on cost/benefit analyses. Although air pollutant effects on crops were recognized for over a century, the ability to produce accurate estimates of...

P. D. Moskowitz E. A. Coveney W. H. Medeiros S. C. Morris

1981-01-01

419

Air Pollution Levels and Regulations in the United Kingdom.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Air pollution control regulations and trends in air quality and emissions are broadly outlined, then are compared with corresponding regulations and trends in the United States. Since acid rain is the intended field of application, the reports generally d...

M. Monarch

1986-01-01

420

A Study of Air Pollutant Emission from Residential Heating Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents results of recent EPA research into the problem of air pollutant emissions from small-scale combustion systems. Major factors for controlling emission levels were found to be: excess air, residence time at high temperature, combustion ...

R. E. Hall J. H. Wasser E. E. Berkau

1974-01-01

421

INDUSTRIAL GUIDE FOR AIR POLLUTION CONTROL  

EPA Science Inventory

This manual is intended as a set of guidelines for companies that are not yet fully involved in a corporate program of environmental control. The information is presented for plant managers, engineers, and other industrial personnel responsible for plant compliance with air pollu...

422

Teacher's Guide to Indoor Air Pollutants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guide, designed for fourth- through sixth-grade classrooms, contains information teachers will need to teach an educational unit on indoor air quality. It draws on a variety of students' skills, including science, vocabulary, reasoning, math, and basic biology. Each lesson comes with suggested activities that highlight and reinforce what is…

National Safety Council, Washington, DC. Environmental Health Center.

423

Air pollution effects on the structure of Citrus aurantium leaves  

SciTech Connect

Individual air pollutants cause acute and chronic plant injury, act on stomata and affect carbon dioxide exchange as well as plant growth and development. Inhibition of photosynthesis by several air pollutants has been reported repeatedly. Besides, structural modifications of cell organelles have been reported after fumigation by SO/sub 2/. Although chlorosis and subsequent necrosis are common phenomena caused by artificial treatment with pollutants, fine structural leaf characteristics of plants exposed to long-term air pollution in natural conditions are little explored. Light microscope examination of air pollution affected leaves of plants common in natural ecosystems of Athens' metropolitan area revealed chlorosis phenomena. Electron microscope examination of the leaves of a common subshrub of greek phryganic formations grown in a heavily air polluted natural ecosystem of Athens metropolitan area revealed pronounced ultrastructural anomalies of chloroplasts, mitochondria and microbodies of the mesophyll cells. This organelle destruction of the photosynthesizing tissue as well as the minimization of the ecosystem primary productivity are attributed to the compound action of several toxic air pollutants of the photochemical smog of Athens. This work describes the long-term air pollution effects on the structural features of the leaves of Citrus aurantium, a decorative species planted throughout the heavily air polluted city of Athens.

Psaras, G.K.; Christodoulakis, N.S.

1987-09-01

424

Air Pollution, Greenhouse Gases and Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The global build up of greenhouse gases (GHGs), is the most significant environmental issue facing the planet. GHGs warm the surface and the atmosphere with significant implications for, rainfall, retreat of glaciers and sea ice, sea level, among other factors. What is less recognized, however, is a comparably major global problem dealing with air pollution. Until about ten years ago, air pollution was thought to be just an urban or a local problem. But new data have revealed that, due to fast long range transport, air pollution is transported across continents and ocean basins, resulting in trans-oceanic and trans-continental plumes of atmospheric brown clouds (ABCs) containing sub micron size particles, i.e, aerosols. ABCs intercept sunlight by absorbing as well as reflecting it, both of which lead to a large surface dimming. The dimming effect is enhanced further because aerosols nucleate more cloud drops which makes the clouds reflect more solar radiation. While the solar heating at the surface is reduced by aerosols in ABCs, the atmospheric solar heating increases due to soot solar absorption. The net difference between the dimming and the atmospheric solar heating is estimated be negative which contributes to a global cooling effect. The global cooling from this negative ABC forcing may have masked as much as 50% of the warming due to GHGs. We will identify regional and mega-city hot spots of ABCs. Long range transport from these hot spots gives rise to wide spread plumes over the adjacent oceans. Such a pattern of regionally concentrated surface dimming and atmospheric solar heating, accompanied by wide spread dimming over the oceans, gives rise to large regional effects. Only during the last decade, we have begun to comprehend the surprisingly large regional impacts. The large north-south gradient in the ABC dimming has altered the north-south gradients in sea surface temperatures, which in turn has been shown by models to decrease rainfall over the continents. The uncertainties in our understanding of the ABC effects are large, but we are discovering new ways in which human activities are changing the climate and the environment.

Ramanathan, V.

2007-12-01

425

Air Pollution, Smoking, and Plasma Homocysteine  

PubMed Central

Background Mild hyperhomocysteinemia is independently associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Air pollution exposure induces short-term inflammatory changes that may determine hyperhomocysteinemia, particularly in the presence of a preexisting proinflammatory status such as that found in cigarette smokers. Objective We examined the relation of air pollution levels with fasting and postmethionine-load total homocysteine (tHcy) in 1,213 normal subjects from Lombardia, Italy. Methods We obtained hourly concentrations of particulate matter < 10 ?m in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) and gaseous pollutants (carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, ozone) from 53 monitoring sites covering the study area. We applied generalized additive models to compute standardized regression coefficients controlled for age, sex, body mass index, smoking, alcohol, hormone use, temperature, day of the year, and long-term trends. Results The estimated difference in tHcy associated with an interquartile increase in average PM10 concentrations in the 24 hr before the study was nonsignificant [0.4%; 95% confidence interval (CI), ?2.4 to 3.3 for fasting; and 1.1%, 95% CI, ?1.5 to 3.7 for postmethionine-load tHcy]. In smokers, 24-hr PM10 levels were associated with 6.3% (95% CI, 1.3 to 11.6; p < 0.05) and 4.9% (95% CI, 0.5 to 9.6; p < 0.05) increases in fasting and postmethionine-load tHcy, respectively, but no association was seen in nonsmokers (p-interaction = 0.005 for fasting and 0.039 for postmethionine-load tHcy). Average 24-hr O3 concentrations were associated with significant differences in fasting tHcy (6.7%; 95% CI, 0.9 to 12.8; p < 0.05), but no consistent associations were found when postmethionine-load tHcy and/or 7-day average O3 concentrations were considered. Conclusions Air particles may interact with cigarette smoking and increase plasma homocysteine in healthy subjects.

Baccarelli, Andrea; Zanobetti, Antonella; Martinelli, Ida; Grillo, Paolo; Hou, Lifang; Lanzani, Guido; Mannucci, Pier Mannuccio; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Schwartz, Joel

2007-01-01

426

Air Pollution and the Triggering of Cardiac Arrhythmias  

PubMed Central

Purpose of Review The last five years have witnessed an explosion in interest regarding cardiac arrhythmias and air pollution. The data have been strongest with respect to ventricular arrhythmias but there is accumulating evidence that air pollution is also associated with supraventricular arrhythmias. Recent Findings There is clear epidemiological evidence linking air pollution and cardiac mortality. Whether the cardiac mortality was from myocardial ischemia, congestive heart failure or arrhythmic, or all of these pathways is not clear from the epidemiological data. There is a large body of evidence that air pollution can modify autonomic tone. More recent data, utilizing patients with cardiac disease and implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) has clarified the association of air pollution and arrhythmias. Data is also accumulating that air pollution may be associated with atrial arrhythmias. Summary The incremental risk of air pollution in triggering arrhythmias or other acute cardiac events is greatest for those patients with underlying cardiac disease. Cardiovascular patients and those at high risk of cardiovascular disease should be educated about the risks for triggering of arrhythmias and other cardiac events by air pollution. These patients should monitor the local forecasted Air Quality Index and follow the recommendations to reduce exposures and limit activities.

Link, Mark S.; Dockery, Douglas W.

2013-01-01

427

Effect of air-pollution control on death rates in Dublin, Ireland: an intervention study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Background Particulate air pollution episodes have been associated with increased daily death. However, there is little direct evidence that diminished particulate air pollution concentrations would lead to reductions in death rates. We assessed the effect of air pollution controls—ie, the ban on coal sales—on particulate air pollution and death rates in Dublin. Methods Concentrations of air pollution and directly-

Luke Clancy; Pat Goodman; Hamish Sinclair; Douglas W Dockery

428

Study on forming and comparing of regional air pollution control audit model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although air pollution control technology was very mature, air pollution situation in China was still serious. Air pollution control technology was not a single problem but a complex e conomic problem. Air pollution control audit has become a major work of our government audit office. But audit practices in air pollution control projects still focus on the use of funds-based?ƒ

Zhaodong Li; Lu Yan

2011-01-01

429

AIR POLLUTION MEASUREMENT BY FOURIER TRANSFORM SPECTROSCOPY  

EPA Science Inventory

Fourier transform spectroscopy substantially reduces the limitations on infrared methods of pollution measurement. EPA has used long path cells and Fourier transform spectrometers for pollutant measurement both in the laboratory and in the field. Labile pollutants are best measur...

430

Air pollution, oxidative stress, and Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia affecting millions of people worldwide and will continue to affect millions more with population aging on the rise. AD causality is multifactorial. Known causal factors include genetic predisposition, age, and sex. Environmental toxins such as air pollution (AP) have also been implicated in AD causation. Exposure to AP can lead to chronic oxidative stress (OS), which is involved in the pathogenesis of AD. Whereas AP plays a role in AD pathology, the epidemiological evidence for this association is limited. Given the significant prevalence of AP exposure combined with increased population aging, epidemiological evidence for this link is important to consider. In this paper, we examine the existing evidence supporting the relationship between AP, OS, and AD and provide recommendations for future research on the population level, which will provide evidence in support of public health interventions. PMID:22523504

Moulton, Paula Valencia; Yang, Wei

2012-03-15

431

Air Pollution, Oxidative Stress, and Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia affecting millions of people worldwide and will continue to affect millions more with population aging on the rise. AD causality is multifactorial. Known causal factors include genetic predisposition, age, and sex. Environmental toxins such as air pollution (AP) have also been implicated in AD causation. Exposure to AP can lead to chronic oxidative stress (OS), which is involved in the pathogenesis of AD. Whereas AP plays a role in AD pathology, the epidemiological evidence for this association is limited. Given the significant prevalence of AP exposure combined with increased population aging, epidemiological evidence for this link is important to consider. In this paper, we examine the existing evidence supporting the relationship between AP, OS, and AD and provide recommendations for future research on the population level, which will provide evidence in support of public health interventions.

Moulton, Paula Valencia; Yang, Wei

2012-01-01

432

Modeling population exposures to outdoor sources of hazardous air pollutants.  

PubMed

Accurate assessment of human exposures is an important part of environmental health effects research. However, most air pollution epidemiology studies rely upon imperfect surrogates of personal exposures, such as information based on available central-site outdoor concentration monitoring or modeling data. In this paper, we examine the limitations of using outdoor concentration predictions instead of modeled personal exposures for over 30 gaseous and particulate hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) in the US. The analysis uses the results from an air quality dispersion model (the ASPEN or Assessment System for Population Exposure Nationwide model) and an inhalation exposure model (the HAPEM or Hazardous Air Pollutant Exposure Model, Version 5), applied by the US. Environmental protection Agency during the 1999 National Air Toxic Assessment (NATA) in the US. Our results show that the total predicted chronic exposure concentrations of outdoor HAPs from all sources are lower than the modeled ambient concentrations by about 20% on average for most gaseous HAPs and by about 60% on average for most particulate HAPs (mainly, due to the exclusion of indoor sources from our modeling analysis and lower infiltration of particles indoors). On the other hand, the HAPEM/ASPEN concentration ratio averages for onroad mobile source exposures were found to be greater than 1 (around 1.20) for most mobile-source related HAPs (e.g. 1, 3-butadiene, acetaldehyde, benzene, formaldehyde) reflecting the importance of near-roadway and commuting environments on personal exposures to HAPs. The distribution of the ratios of personal to ambient concentrations was found to be skewed for a number of the VOCs and reactive HAPs associated with major source emissions, indicating the importance of personal mobility factors. We conclude that the increase in personal exposures from the corresponding predicted ambient levels tends to occur near locations where there are either major emission sources of HAPs or when individuals are exposed to either on- or nonroad sources of HAPs during their daily activities. These findings underscore the importance of applying exposure-modeling methods, which incorporate information on time-activity, commuting, and exposure factors data, for the purposes of assigning exposures in air pollution health studies. PMID:17878926

Ozkaynak, Halûk; Palma, Ted; Touma, Jawad S; Thurman, James

2007-09-19

433

Analysis of air pollution and greenhouse gases  

SciTech Connect

The current objective of the project Analysis of Air Pollution and Greenhouse Gases'' is to develop a study of emissions and emission sources that could easily be linked to models of economic activity. Initial studies were conducted to evaluate data currently available linking activity rates and emissions estimates. The emissions inventory developed for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) presents one of the most comprehensive data sets, and was chosen for our initial studies, which are described in this report. Over 99% of the SO{sub 2} emissions, 98% of the NO{sub x} emission and 57% of the VOC emissions from area sources are related to fuel combustion. The majority of emission from these sources are generated by the transportation sector. Activity rates for area sources are not archived with the NAPAP inventory; alternative derivations of these data will be part of the future activities of this project. The availability and completeness of the fuel heat content data in the NAPAP inventory were also studied. Approximately 10% of the SO{sub 2} emissions, 13% of the NO{sub x} emissions and 46% of the VOC emissions are generated by sources with unavailable data for fuel heat content. Initial estimates of pollutant emission rate per unit fuel heat content. Initial estimates of pollutant emission rate per unit fuel heat content were generated. Future studies for this project include the derivation of activity rates for area sources, improved explanations for the default fuel parameters defined in the NAPAP inventory and the development of links to data bases of economic activity.

Benkovitz, C.M.

1992-03-01

434

Anxiety, locus of control and appraisal of air pollution  

SciTech Connect

100 residents of Santiago de Chile took part in a study of the relationship among locus of control, trait-anxiety, and perception of air pollution. Concern over the problem of atmospheric pollution and number of antipollution measures taken was related to trait-anxiety. Locus of control was associated with variation in awareness of pollution hazard.

Navarro, P.L.; Simpson-Housley, P.; de Man, A.F.

1987-06-01

435

Examining the Impact of Demographic Factors on Air Pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study adds to the emerging literature examining empirically the link between population size, other demographic factors and pollution. We contribute by using more reliable estimation techniques and examine two air pollutants. By considering sulfur dioxide, we become the first study to explicitly examine the impact of demographic factors on a pollutant other than carbon dioxide at the cross-national level.

Matthew A. Cole; Eric Neumayer

2004-01-01

436

Mesoscale Air Pollution Transport in the Chicago Lake Breeze  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two-day field program in Chicago studied mesoscale pollution transport during typical lake breezes. Streamlines calculated from serial pibal data suggest that a nearly closed circulation cell traps pollutants emitted near a shore line. Optically tracked tetroons confirm the helical trajectory of air within the lake breeze regime. Pollutants released within the inflow layer move inland, rise in a narrow

Walter A. Lyons; Lars E. Olsson

1972-01-01

437

The Sources of Air Pollution and Their Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The problems of air pollution and its control are discussed. Major consideration is given the sources of pollution - motor vehicles, industry, power plants, space heating, and refuse disposal. Annual emission levels of five principle pollutants - carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, and particulate matter - are listed…

National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Arlington, VA.

438

Air pollution induces heritable DNA mutations.  

PubMed

Hundreds of thousands of people worldwide live or work in close proximity to steel mills. Integrated steel production generates chemical pollution containing compounds that can induce genetic damage (1, 2). Previous investigations of herring gulls in the Great Lakes demonstrated elevated DNA mutation rates near steel mills (3, 4) but could not determine the importance of airborne or aquatic routes of contaminant exposure, or eliminate possible confounding factors such as nutritional status and disease burden. To address these issues experimentally, we exposed laboratory mice in situ to ambient air in a polluted industrial area near steel mills. Heritable mutation frequency at tandem-repeat DNA loci in mice exposed 1 km downwind from two integrated steel mills was 1.5- to 2.0-fold elevated compared with those at a reference site 30 km away. This statistically significant elevation was due primarily to an increase in mutations inherited through the paternal germline. Our results indicate that human and wildlife populations in proximity to integrated steel mills may be at risk of developing germline mutations more frequently because of the inhalation of airborne chemical mutagens. PMID:12473746

Somers, Christopher M; Yauk, Carole L; White, Paul A; Parfett, Craig L J; Quinn, James S

2002-12-09

439

Traffic Air Pollution and Oxidized LDL  

PubMed Central

Background Epidemiologic studies indirectly suggest that air pollution accelerates atherosclerosis. We hypothesized that individual exposure to particulate matter (PM) derived from fossil fuel would correlate with plasma concentrations of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL), taken as a marker of atherosclerosis. We tested this hypothesis in patients with diabetes, who are at high risk for atherosclerosis. Methodology/Principal Findings In a cross-sectional study of non-smoking adult outpatients with diabetes we assessed individual chronic exposure to PM by measuring the area occupied by carbon in airway macrophages, collected by sputum induction and by determining the distance from the patient's residence to a major road, through geocoding. These exposure indices were regressed against plasma concentrations of oxidized LDL, von Willebrand factor and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1). We could assess the carbon load of airway macrophages in 79 subjects (58 percent). Each doubling in the distance of residence from major roads was associated with a 0.027 µm2 decrease (95% confidence interval (CI): ?0.048 to ?0.0051) in the carbon load of airway macrophages. Independently from other covariates, we found that each increase of 0.25 µm2 [interquartile range (IQR)] in carbon load was associated with an increase of 7.3 U/L (95% CI: 1.3 to 13.3) in plasma oxidized LDL. Each doubling in distance of residence from major roads was associated with a decrease of ?2.9 U/L (95% CI: ?5.2 to ?0.72) in oxidized LDL. Neither the carbon load of macrophages nor the distance from residence to major roads, were associated with plasma von Willebrand factor or PAI-1. Conclusions The observed positive association, in a susceptible group of the general population, between plasma oxidized LDL levels and either the carbon load of airway macrophages or the proximity of the subject's residence to busy roads suggests a proatherogenic effect of traffic air pollution.

Jacobs, Lotte; Emmerechts, Jan; Hoylaerts, Marc F.; Mathieu, Chantal; Hoet, Peter H.; Nemery, Benoit; Nawrot, Tim S.

2011-01-01

440

Air Pollution Data for Model Evaluation and Application  

EPA Science Inventory

One objective of designing an air pollution monitoring network is to obtain data for evaluating air quality models that are used in the air quality management process and scientific discovery.1.2 A common use is to relate emissions to air quality, including assessing ...

441

Air Pollution Health Effects: Toward an Integrated Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we develop a methodology for integrating the health effects from exposure to air pollution into the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model, a computable general equilibrium model of the economy that has been widely used to study climate change policy. The approach incorporates market and non-market effects of air pollution on human health, and is

Trent Yang; John Reilly; Sergey Paltsev

442

Air Pollution and Health Studies in China—Policy Implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the rapid economic development in China, ambient air pollutants in major cities, including PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ?10 ?m) and SO2 have been reduced due to various measures taken to reduce or control sources of emissions, whereas NO2 is stable or slightly increased. However, air pollution levels in China are still at the higher end of the

Bingheng Chen; Haidong Kan; Renjie Chen; Songhui Jiang; Chuanjie Hong

2011-01-01

443

Study on Winter Air Pollution Control in Lanzhou, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air pollution control is one of the most important issues in thecities of the developing countries. Based on an analysis of the local economic and technological development the paper puts forward 9 air pollution control schemes. They are 4 briquette schemes, 2 coal gas schemes, 1 centralized heating system and 2 comprehensive schemes. A comprehensive diffusion model combined with a

Lei Zhang; Changhe Chen; John Murlis

2001-01-01

444

Potential impacts of air pollution aerosols on precipitation in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been known for decades that anthropogenic air pollution downwind of urban and industrial developments affects clouds microphysics by reducing droplet size and suppressing precipitation- forming processes. Rosenfeld (2000), in confirming this with satellite-based physical measurements offered a range of case studies, including some downwind of air pollution sources in southeastern Australia. These findings prompted climatological studies that quantified

D. Rosenfeld; I. M. Lensky; J. Peterson; A. Gingis

2006-01-01

445

Indoor air pollution in four cities in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study reports the investigation of indoor air pollution carried out in four cities in China (Chengde, Shanghai, Shenyang and Wuhan). The concentrations of RP, SO2, CO and NO2 were measured in kitchens and bedrooms, both in summer and in winter. The results showed that indoor air pollution, as measured by RP, SO2, CO, was heavy when coal was used

Y. H. Qin; X. M. Zhang; H. Z. Jin; Y. Q. Liu; D. L. Fan; X. R. Yin; Z. Li; W. Fang; G. F. Wang

1991-01-01

446

Long-range transport of air pollution into the Arctic  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an overview of air pollution transport into the Arctic. The major transport processes will be highlighted, as well as their seasonal, interannual, and spatial variability. The source regions of Arctic air pollution will be discussed, with a focus on black carbon (BC) sources, as BC can produce significant radiative forcing in the Arctic. It is found that

A. Stohl; T. Berg; K. Breivik; J. F. Burkhart; S. Eckhardt; A. Fjæraa; C. Forster; A. Herber; C. Lunder; W. W. McMillan; N. None; S. Manø; S. Oltmans; M. Shiobara; K. Stebel; D. Hirdman; J. Stroem; K. Tørseth; R. Treffeisen; K. Virkkunen; K. E. Yttri; E. Andrews; D. Kowal; T. Mefford; J. A. Ogren; S. Sharma; N. Spichtinger; R. Stone; S. Hoch; C. Wehrli

2007-01-01

447

Forest fires, air pollution, and mortality in Southeast Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

I assess the population health effects in Malaysia of air pollution from a widespread series of fires that occurred in Indonesia between April and November of 1997. I describe how the fires occurred and why the associated air pollution was so widespread and long lasting. The main objective is to uncover any mortality effects and to assess how large and

Narayan Sastry

2002-01-01

448

APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 5: County Politicians' Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The County Politicians' Manual is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections, which are the same in each…

Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

449

APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 15: Developer's Manual No. 5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Developer's Manual No. 5 is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two section, which are the same in each of…

Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

450

APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 17: Developer's Manual No. 7.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Developer's Manual No. 7 is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections, which are the same in each…

Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

451

APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 13: Developer's Manual No. 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Developer's Manual No. 3 is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections, which are the same in each…

Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

452

APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 11: Developer's Manual No. 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Developer's Manual No. 1 is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections, which are the same in each…

Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

453

APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 18: City Planner's Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The City Planner's Manual is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections, which are the same in each of…

Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

454

APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 16: Developer's Manual No. 6.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Developer's Manual No. 6 is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections, which are the same in each…

Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

455

APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 14; Developer's Manual No. 4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Developer's Manual No. 4 is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections, which are the same in each…

Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

456

APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 4: City Politicians' Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The City Politicians' Manual is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections, which are the same in each…

Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

457

Air pollution in relation to green-houses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problems of air pollution-inflicted indirect damages in greenhouse production are described. The steady increase of air pollution, and especially of the dust concentrations in the Netherlands during recent years has led to increased soiling of the glass panes in greenhouses, which results in reduced production due to light attenuation. As conventional cleaning of the glass panes with water is no

Abrahamse

1970-01-01

458

The impacts of air pollution on low birth weight  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the impacts of air pollution on low birth weight by considering overtime variation in Korea in early 2000, when some parts of Korea experienced huge drop in air pollution due to regulation. The mother's exposure to ozone level above 0.12 ppm per hour during the first trimester increased the probability of low birth weight by 0.4 percentage

Seonyeong Cho; Chung-Ki Lee; Beomsoo Kim

2013-01-01

459

POPEX - RANKING AIR POLLUTION SOURCES BY POPULATION EXPOSURE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of research to develop quantitative models for relating emissions of air pollutants to their effects on people, and to use the methodology for determining the relative importance of air pollution sources. The quantitative methodology for ranking the sourc...

460

Air Pollution Monitoring Site Selection by Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis  

EPA Science Inventory

Criteria air pollutants (particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, volatile organic compounds, and carbon monoxide) as well as toxic air pollutants are a global concern. A particular scenario that is receiving increased attention in the research is the exposure to t...

461

Plug-in Sensors for Air Pollution Monitoring.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Faristors, a type of plug-in sensors used in analyzing equipment, are described in this technical report presented at the 12th Conference on Methods in Air Pollution and Industrial Hygiene Studies, University of Southern California, April, 1971. Their principles of operation, interchangeability, and versatility for measuring air pollution at…

Shaw, Manny

462

Air Pollution and Infant Mortality in Mexico City  

EPA Science Inventory

Historic air pollution episodes of the 1950s led to acute increases in infant mortality, and some recent epidemiologic studies suggest that infant or child mortality may still result from air pollution at current levels. To investigate the evidence for such an association, we con...

463

COSTS OF AIR POLLUTION ABATEMENT SYSTEMS FOR SEWAGE SLUDGE INCINERATORS  

EPA Science Inventory

Capital and annual costs were calculated for applying six different air pollution control systems to municipal sewage sludge incinerators that were using multiple-hearth furnaces. The systems involved three principal types of air pollution equipment-wet scrubbers, fabric filters,...

464

Perception of Air Pollution in a Developing Country  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study analyzed the perception of air pollution of people living in an industrial area of India. Although air pollution was perceived as a problem it was ranked less important than socio-economic problems. Differences in perception existed among the various cultural groups and among the residential zones. (MR)

Bladen, W. A.; Karan, P. P.

1976-01-01

465

Energy and Air Pollution: USA 1970-2020  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The United States power industry has entered a transitory period of major changes. Uncertainties abound about future levels of air pollution and air pollution control. Computer simulations based on the best currently available consensus can reveal patterns of possible future alternatives. Three scenarios representing probable developments are…

Smil, Vaclav

1975-01-01

466

Consistency of reported health effects of air pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three different studies have considered the relation between various mortality rates and air pollution levels. this paper evaluates the consistency of these studies and finds some evidence of a constant proportional effect on both males and females. Two of the studies indicate a relation between air pollution and total mortality rate but differ in the estimate of the effect by

S. J. Finch; S. C. Morris

2008-01-01

467

Estimating the health effects of air pollution in Bangkok, Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, there has been a growing awareness of air pollution problems in less developed countries. Unfortunately, because of resource constraints in these countries, there have been few studies that estimate the magnitude of health effects associated with exposures to air pollutants. In addition, there has been little attention focused on the specific data and epidemiologic research necessary to begin addressing

B. Ostro; R. Rowe; L. Chestnut

2008-01-01

468

Perception of Air Pollution in a Developing Country  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study analyzed the perception of air pollution of people living in an industrial area of India. Although air pollution was perceived as a problem it was ranked less important than socio-economic problems. Differences in perception existed among the various cultural groups and among the residential zones. (MR)|

Bladen, W. A.; Karan, P. P.

1976-01-01

469

Food hazards and consumer awareness: air pollution effects in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The levels of air pollutants are increasing in many 'megacities' of the developing world. Air pollution can both the yield and nutritional quality of crop plants, and is also a major source of particulate contaminants that can accumulate at toxic levels in the edible portion of crop plants grown in urban and peri-urban (UPU) areas. This paper presents new knowledge

Nigel Poole; Fiona Marshall; DS Bhupal

470

Toxicology of complex mixtures of indoor air pollutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review focuses on strategies for assessing the toxicology of indoor air pollutant mixtures. These strategies are illustrated by reviewing the current problems and approaches to the toxicology of indoor air pollutants from three indoor source categories that make a major contribution to human exposure: environmental tobacco smoke, combustion emissions, and volatile organic compound (VOC) mixtures from materials and products.

J Lewtas

1989-01-01

471

Interaction of Humidity and Air Pollutants on Vegetation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study used a humidification system which adds dry steam to open-top field chambers to determine how relative humidity affects plant responses to air pollutants in the field. There was a definite interaction between humidity and air pollution on leaf i...

C. R. Thompson D. M. Olszyk

1988-01-01

472

Inventory of anthropogenic emissions and air pollution in the USSR  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper gives data on air pollutant emissions from industrial sources and motor vehicles in the USSR. It discusses their distribution over the territory and trends during recent years. It studies methods of application of the emission data to assess air pollution.

M. E. Berlyand

1992-01-01

473

40 CFR 52.1477 - Nevada air pollution emergency plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Nevada air pollution emergency plan. 52.1477 Section 52.1477 Protection...IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Nevada § 52.1477 Nevada air pollution emergency plan. Section 6.1.5 of the...

2013-07-01

474

EFFECTS OF PARTICULATE AIR POLLUTION ON ASTHMATIC SUBJECTS  

EPA Science Inventory

While much remains to be understood, individuals with respiratory disease appear to be affected by high levels of air pollution as indicated by subjective reports, clinic and hospital visits, and morbidity. Suspended particulates make up a substantial part of urban air pollution,...

475

Spatial heterogeneity and air pollution removal by an urban forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimates of air pollution removal by the urban forest have mostly been based on mean values of forest structure variables for an entire city. However, the urban forest is not uniformly distributed across a city because of biophysical and social factors. Consequently, air pollution removal function by urban vegetation should vary because of this spatial heterogeneity. This paper presents a

Francisco J. Escobedo; David J. Nowak

2009-01-01

476

Air Pollution Abatement Costs Under the Clean Air Act: Evidence from the PACE Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses establishment-level data from the U.S. Census Bureau’s Pollution Abatement Costs and Expenditures (PACE) survey to investigate the effects of air quality regulation on the air pollution abatement capital expenditures and operating costs of manufacturing plants from 1979-1988. Results, based on some 90,000 observations, show that heavy emitters of the “criteria” air pollutants (covered under the Clean Air

Randy Becker

2001-01-01

477

Air pollution cleaning wastes: dry versus wet air pollution control systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wastes from dry air pollution control (APC) systems may not be less problematic to transport and landfill than wastes from wet APC Units, particularly the thixotropic flue gas desulfurization (FGD) sludge. FGD sludge can be converted to a soil-like, disposable material by forced oxidation, fly ash blending, or lime fixation. Dry APC wastes require dust-suppression. Dry APC wastes contain 15-23.7

1983-01-01

478

Ambient Air Pollution and Birth Defects in Brisbane, Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundBirth defects are a major public health concern as they are the leading cause of neonatal and infant mortality. Observational studies have linked environmental pollution to adverse birth outcomes, including congenital anomalies. This study examined potential associations between ambient air pollution and congenital heart defects and cleft lip or palate among births in Brisbane, Australia (1998–2004).MethodsAmbient air pollution levels were

Craig A. Hansen; Adrian G. Barnett; Bin B. Jalaludin; Geoffrey G. Morgan; Xiaoping Pan

2009-01-01

479

RESEARCH AREA -- POLLUTION PREVENTION (INDOOR ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)  

EPA Science Inventory

The strategy of NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division's Indoor Environment Management Branch (IEMB) is to apply IEMB's expertise in indoor air quality (i.e., source characterization, ventilation, filtration, modeling, biocontaminants, and sustainable buildings) to...

480

Air pollution and vulnerability: solving the puzzle of prioritization.  

PubMed

While ambient air pollution levels in excess of prescribed health standards are generally unacceptable, the exceedance is even more serious in areas where people reside. Vulnerability caused by poverty, disease, lack of education, and poor living conditions exacerbates the problem. Air quality management plans identify prioritized strategies for improved air quality independent of consideration of vulnerability. A population exposure and vulnerability risk prioritization framework comprising five themes (air pollution sources; air pollution levels; air pollution potential; community awareness, observations, perceptions, and actions; and vulnerability factors) was proposed and applied to the eThekwini Municipality (Durban, South Africa). Data were scored according to predetermined risk threshold values to ascertain at-risk communities. While those urban wards located in a known air pollution hotspot had the highest air pollution levels, a periurban ward with moderate exposure levels was most vulnerable. This framework will prove invaluable for the development of focused interventions to reduce vulnerability and air pollution-associated adverse health impacts. PMID:21306095

Wright, Caradee Y; Diab, Roseanne

481

Determinants of perceived air pollution annoyance and association between annoyance scores and air pollution (PM 2.5, NO 2) concentrations in the European EXPOLIS study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apart from its traditionally considered objective impacts on health, air pollution can also have perceived effects, such as annoyance. The psychological effects of air pollution may often be more important to well-being than the biophysical effects. Health effects of perceived annoyance from air pollution are so far unknown. More knowledge of air pollution annoyance levels, determinants and also associations with

Tuulia Rotko; Lucy Oglesby; Nino Künzli; Paolo Carrer; Mark J Nieuwenhuijsen; Matti Jantunen

2002-01-01

482

Association of traffic-related air pollution with cognitive development in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundAir pollution from traffic has been associated with cardiorespiratory diseases in children and adults, but there is little information on its potential neurotoxic effects. This study aimed to investigate the association between exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2), as a marker of traffic-related air pollution, and cognitive development in children.MethodsA population-based birth cohort from southern Spain was followed from the age

Carmen Freire; Rosa Ramos; Raquel Puertas; Maria-Jose Lopez-Espinosa; Jordi Julvez; Inmaculada Aguilera; Francisco Cruz; Mariana-Fatima Fernandez; Jordi Sunyer; Nicolas Olea

2010-01-01

483

Interaction patterns of major air pollutants in Hong Kong territory.  

PubMed

Air pollution in a metropolitan city like Hong Kong is a major obstacle to improve air quality and living environment due to the high population density and the vehicle emission increases. The high air pollutant levels impose harm to the human health and impair the city image. The characteristic analysis of air pollutants is very important and necessary to pollutant monitoring, forecasting and controlling. In this study, the interaction patterns of principle air pollutants, e.g. nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)), nitric oxide (NO), nitric oxides (NO(x)) and ozone (O(3)), a secondary pollutant, are investigated based on the measured database in four selected areas, which covers two urban types (i.e. residential area, mixed residential/commercial/industrial area) in Hong Kong, during the period of 1999-2001. The study involves analyzing the chemical and physical properties, the characteristics of air pollutants and the factors affecting such interactions using statistical method. The results reveal several routines in urban air pollutants' variations, interaction and trends from macro aspect. PMID:15081710

Lu, W Z; Wang, X K

2004-05-25

484

The global burden of disease due to outdoor air pollution.  

PubMed

As part of the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Burden of Disease Comparative Risk Assessment, the burden of disease attributable to urban ambient air pollution was estimated in terms of deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). Air pollution is associated with a broad spectrum of acute and chronic health effects, the nature of which may vary with the pollutant constituents. Particulate air pollution is consistently and independently related to the most serious effects, including lung cancer and other cardiopulmonary mortality. The analyses on which this report is based estimate that ambient air pollution, in terms of fine particulate air pollution (PM(2.5)), causes about 3% of mortality from cardiopulmonary disease, about 5% of mortality from cancer of the trachea, bronchus, and lung, and about 1% of mortality from acute respiratory infections in children under 5 yr, worldwide. This amounts to about 0.8 million (1.2%) premature deaths and 6.4 million (0.5%) years of life lost (YLL). This burden occurs predominantly in developing countries; 65% in Asia alone. These estimates consider only the impact of air pollution on mortality (i.e., years of life lost) and not morbidity (i.e., years lived with disability), due to limitations in the epidemiologic database. If air pollution multiplies both incidence and mortality to the same extent (i.e., the same relative risk), then the DALYs for cardiopulmonary disease increase by 20% worldwide. PMID:16024504

Cohen, Aaron J; Ross Anderson, H; Ostro, Bart; Pandey, Kiran Dev; Krzyzanowski, Michal; Künzli, Nino; Gutschmidt, Kersten; Pope, Arden; Romieu, Isabelle; Samet, Jonathan M; Smith, Kirk

485

Ambient air pollution and annoyance responses from pregnant women  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ObjectivesTo describe the degree of annoyance caused by air pollution and noise in pregnant women in a birth cohort; to determine the modifying factors and their relation with exposure to ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO 2). MethodsThe study population was 855 pregnant women in Valencia, Spain. Annoyance caused by air pollution and noise, and explanatory factors were obtained from 786 pregnant women through a questionnaire. NO 2 levels were determined combining measurements at 93 points within the area of study and using geostatistical techniques (kriging). ResultsIn all 7.9% of the women reported high annoyance caused by air pollution and 13.1% high annoyance caused by noise. There was a significant difference in the degree of annoyance due to both air pollution and noise depending on the area where the women lived and their working status. The degree of annoyance correlated better with measured NO 2 at the municipality level (air pollution: r=0.53; noise: r=0.44) than at the individual level (air pollution and noise: r=0.21). On multivariate analysis, being a housewife, higher NO 2 levels and high traffic density were associated with higher degrees of annoyance. ConclusionsThere was a high percentage of women who perceived medium-high annoyance due to noise and air pollution. Annoyance caused by environmental pollutants could lead to some psychological effects, which impair the quality of life, or even physiological ones, which affect prenatal development.

Llop, Sabrina; Ballester, Ferran; Estarlich, Marisa; Esplugues, Ana; Fernández-Patier, Rosalia; Ramón, Rosa; Marco, Alfredo; Aguirre, Amelia; Sunyer, Jordi; Iñiguez, Carmen; INMA-Valencia cohort

486

Health and the urban environment: air pollution and family illness. II. Two acute air pollution episodes in New York City  

Microsoft Academic Search

New York City was under an air pollution episode from November 29 to December 24, 1962 during which sulfur dioxide levels were recorded in excess of 0.3 ppm continuously for up to 40 hours. The highest reading was 2.4 ppm. Between October 14 and October 28, 1963, a second air pollution episode occurred and similar meteorologic conditions prevailed except that

W. Ingram; J. R. McCarroll; E. J. Cassell; D. Wolter

1965-01-01

487

Deposition of air pollutants to the great waters. First report to Congress  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Great Waters program is to evaluate the atmospheric deposition of air pollutants to the Great Lakes, Lake Champlain, Chesapeake Bay, and coastal waters. The report to Congress is to include information on the contribution of atmospheric deposition to pollutant loadings, the environmental or public health effects of such pollution, the source or sources of such pollution, and a description of any regulatory revisions under applicable Federal laws that may be necessary to assure protection of human health and the environment. The scientific information currently available is summarized in this report, and recommended actions are described.

Not Available

1994-05-01

488

Inhalation intake of ambient air pollution in California's South Coast Air Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reliable estimates of inhalation intake of air pollution and its distribution among a specified population are important for environmental epidemiology, health risk assessment, urban planning, and environmental policy. We computed distributional characteristics of the inhalation intake of five pollutants for a group of ˜25,000 people (˜29,000 person-days) living in California's South Coast Air Basin. Our approach incorporates four main inputs: temporally resolved information about people's location (latitude and longitude), microenvironment, and activity level; temporally and spatially explicit model determinations of ambient concentrations; stochastically determined microenvironmental adjustment factors relating the exposure concentration to the ambient concentration; and, age-, gender-, and activity-specific breathing rates. Our study is restricted to pollutants of outdoor origin, i.e. it does not incorporate intake in a microenvironment from direct emissions into that microenvironment. Median estimated inhalation intake rates (?g d -1) are 53 for benzene, 5.1 for 1,3-butadiene, 8.7×10 -4 for hexavalent chromium in fine particulate matter (Cr-PM 2.5), 30 for diesel fine particulate matter (DPM 2.5), and 68 for ozone. For the four primary pollutants studied, estimated median intake rates are higher for non-whites and for individuals in low-income households than for the population as a whole. For ozone, a secondary pollutant, the reverse is true. Accounting for microenvironmental adjustment factors, population mobility and temporal correlations between pollutant concentrations and breathing rates affects the estimated inhalation intake by 40% on average. The approach presented here could be extended to quantify the impact on intakes and intake distributions of proposed changes in emissions, air quality, and urban infrastructure.

Marshall, Julian D.; Granvold, Patrick W.; Hoats, Abigail S.; McKone, Thomas E.; Deakin, Elizabeth; W Nazaroff, William

489

14 CFR 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. 1274.926 Section 1274...Conditions § 1274.926 Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002 If...

2010-01-01

490

14 CFR 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. 1274.926 Section 1274...Conditions § 1274.926 Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002 If...