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1

Air Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This portal leads to multifaceted information about air pollution. It is divided into sections, each offering links to various topics related to air pollution. The sections are News, General/Overviews, Pictures/Diagrams, Prevention/Screening, Research, Specific Conditions/Aspects Law and Policy, Organizations and Children. Another link allows one to search MEDLINE for recent research articles on air pollution. Additional links lead to environmental health, indoor air pollution, ozone, poisoning, toxicology, and environmental health.

2

Air Pollution, A Scientists' Institute for Public Information Workbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Documentation is given on the known and potential effects of air pollution on human health, weather conditions, and biosphere. Practical applications of this information are discussed, with special reference to the Federal Air Quality Act and to the planning of urban expressways. Problems in defining standards of air quality are discussed.…

Nadler, Allen A.; And Others

3

Air Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Phoenix metropolitan area, like many large cities, has problems with air pollution at certain times of the year. You can do a simple experiment to determine some of the factors that affect air pollution.

Biology

2009-06-11

4

Six Common Air Pollutants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The EPA's site about the six common air pollutants is a great resource for the public, or for anyone studying or teaching about air pollution and other environmental issues. Air pollution trends are outlined on the site and a brief backround shows highlights of air pollutant history including the Clean Air Act and different standards. This site is a great place to find the most recent information about air pollutants and quality in the U.S.

2008-11-25

5

Air pollution  

SciTech Connect

This review is extracted from the literature from late 1984 to December 1986. A major source of information was Chemical Abstracts Selects: Pollution Monitoring. In addition journals related to air pollution and environmental chemistry were surveyed. The organization consists of two major divisions: gaseous methods, which have single letter designations after reference numbers, and aerosol and particulate methods, which have two letter designations after the reference numbers. It was not possible to have subdivisions for every compound and only some species are discussed individually. Analytical techniques may be applied to several compounds.

Fox, D.L.

1987-06-15

6

Air Pollution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Materials related to air pollution are reviewed for the period January 1987, to October 1988. The topics are pollution monitoring, air pollution, and environmental chemistry. The organization consists of two major analytical divisions: (1) gaseous methods; and (2) aerosol and particulate methods. (MVL)

Fox, Donald L.

1989-01-01

7

Air Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to the concept of air quality by investigating the composition, properties, atmospheric layers and everyday importance of air. They explore the sources and effects of visible and invisible air pollution. By learning some fundamental meteorology concepts (air pressure, barometers, prediction, convection currents, temperature inversions), students learn the impact of weather on air pollution control and prevention. Looking at models and maps, they explore the consequences of pollutant transport via weather and water cycles. Students are introduced to acids, bases and pH, and the environmental problem of acid rain, including how engineers address this type of pollution. Using simple models, they study the greenhouse effect, the impact of increased greenhouse gases on the planet's protective ozone layer and the global warming theory. Students explore the causes and effects of the Earth's ozone holes through an interactive simulation. Students identify the types and sources of indoor air pollutants in their school and home, evaluating actions that can be taken to reduce and prevent poor indoor air quality. By building and observing a few simple models of pollutant recovery methods, students explore the modern industrial technologies designed by engineers to clean up and prevent air pollution.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

8

Air Pollution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this book is to describe the basic mechanisms whereby pollution is transported and diffused in the atmosphere. It is designed to give practitioners an understanding of basic mechanics and physics so they may have a correct basis on which to formulate their decisions related to practical air pollution control problems. Since many…

Scorer, Richard S.

9

Air Pollution, Teachers' Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of three in a series about pollution, this teacher's guide for a unit on air pollution is designed for use in junior high school grades. It offers suggestions for extending the information and activities contained in the textual material for students. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of air pollution and involves students in processes of…

Lavaroni, Charles W.; O'Donnell, Patrick A.

10

Criteria air pollutants and toxic air pollutants.  

PubMed Central

This review presents a brief overview of the health effects and exposures of two criteria pollutants--ozone and particulate matter--and two toxic air pollutants--benzene and formaldehyde. These pollutants were selected from the six criteria pollutants and from the 189 toxic air pollutants on the basis of their prevalence in the United States, their physicochemical behavior, and the magnitude of their potential health threat. The health effects data included in this review primarily include results from epidemiologic studies; however, some findings from animal studies are also discussed when no other information is available. Health effects findings for each pollutant are related in this review to corresponding information about outdoor, indoor, and personal exposures and pollutant sources. Images Figure 3 Figure 8 Figure 9

Suh, H H; Bahadori, T; Vallarino, J; Spengler, J D

2000-01-01

11

Polluted Air = Polluted Lungs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To gain a better understanding of the roles and functions of components of the human respiratory system and our need for clean air, students construct model lungs that include a diaphragm and chest cavity. They see how air moving in and out of the lungs coincides with diaphragm movement. Then student teams design and build a prototype face mask pollution filter. They use their model lungs to evaluate their prototypes to design requirements.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

12

COMMUNICATING RISK INFORMATION TO STATE AND LOCAL AIR POLLUTION CONTROL AGENCIES VIA U.S. EPA'S AIR RISK INFORMATION SUPPORT CENTER (AIR RISC)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Air Risk Information Support Center (Air RISC) has been organized by U.S. EPA's offices of Air Quality Planning and Standards and Health and Environmental Assessment. The center has been developed in cooperation with the State and Territorial air Pollution Control Program Adm...

13

UK Air Pollution Bulletin  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hourly updates of levels of benzyne, 1-3 butadiene, ozone, nitric oxide, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, and particles in Britain's air are accessible at the UK Air Pollution Bulletin Website. Provided by the United Kingdom Department of Transport, Environment and the Regions, this site gives air quality information along with yearly average concentrations of the above-mentioned chemicals, graphical summaries, historical summaries, and maps and information about monitoring sites. The data pages are arranged in a versatile way so that users can view information by geographic site, pollutant, or year. Daily, weekly, and annual summaries of pollutant concentrations are available.

14

Air Pollution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pollution of the general environment, which exposes an entire population group for an indeterminate period of time, certainly constitutes a problem in public health. Serious aid pollution episodes have resulted in increased mortality and a possible relationship between chronic exposure to a polluted atmosphere and certain diseases has been…

Barker, K.; And Others

15

Air pollution in cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air quality in cities is the result of a complex interaction between natural and anthropogenic environmental conditions. Air pollution in cities is a serious environmental problem – especially in the developing countries. The air pollution path of the urban atmosphere consists of emission and transmission of air pollutants resulting in the ambient air pollution. Each part of the path is

Helmut Mayer

1999-01-01

16

The Air Pollution Threat.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: General inventory of air pollution sources and emissions; A summary of federal, state, and local air pollution laws; The quality of air in the sacramento regional area; Projections of population, vehicles, and activities to 1990; Air quality in ...

W. L. Faith

1969-01-01

17

Indoor Air Pollution  

MedlinePLUS

We usually think of air pollution as being outdoors, but the air in your house or office could also be polluted. Sources of indoor pollution include Mold and pollen Tobacco smoke Household products ...

18

The Federal Air Pollution Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described is the Federal air pollution program as it was in 1967. The booklet is divided into these major topics: History of the Federal Program; Research; Assistance to State and Local Governments; Abatement and Prevention of Air Pollution; Control of Motor Vehicle Pollution; Information and Education; and Conclusion. Federal legislation has…

National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

19

Air Pollution Primer. Revised Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This revised and updated book is written to inform the citizens on the nature, causes, and effects of air pollution. It is written in terms familiar to the layman with the purpose of providing knowledge and motivation to spur community action on clean air policies. Numerous charts and drawings are provided to support discussion of air pollution

Corman, Rena

20

Geographical information systems and air pollution simulation for Megalopolis' electric power plant in Peloponnese, Greece.  

PubMed

The growth and sophistication of geographic information systems (GIS) have propelled us into a new era of environmental analyses. Air pollution is a growing concern in populated areas as many recent studies have associated high levels of pollution with increased illnesses and mortality. The study will focus on the toxicity levels incurred by radioactive lignite-burning Power Generation facilities located in Megalopolis, Greece. An estimate of pollution emissions followed by dispersion simulations for various atmospheric conditions will be given. The exercise will be integrated with a Geographical Information System (GIS) for defining the emission sources and visualizing the dispersion of pollutants over the geographical terrain. Data samples were collected from vegetation in the surrounding areas and analyzed for radioactivity. High energy levels (up to 4-5 times higher than recommended standards, (UNCEAR, 1982) were found in several samples containing (226)Ra, (232)Th, (234)Th, (40)K and (238)U. The study concludes that air quality and vegetation of the neighbouring areas is adversely affected by industrial waste. Greater pollution controls and air quality monitoring should be applied for the benefit and health of its citizens. Radioactivity in food and water and inhaled air become very dangerous for public health thus, the levels of radioactivity should be kept within UNCEAR 1982 limits. PMID:24798903

Theophanides, Mike; Anastassopoulou, Jane; Theophanides, Theophile

2014-07-29

21

Epidemiology and Air Pollution.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report explores the scientific feasibility of conducting epidemiologic investigations of the health consequences of current and future air pollution. It assesses the limits of available epidemiologic techniques for studying air pollution problems and ...

1985-01-01

22

Air Pollution Training Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This catalog lists the universities, both supported and not supported by the Division of Air Pollution, which offer graduate programs in the field of air pollution. The catalog briefly describes the programs and their entrance requirements, the requirements, qualifications and terms of special fellowships offered by the Division of Air Pollution.…

Public Health Service (DHEW), Rockville, MD.

23

Discriminatory Air Pollution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described are the patterns of air pollution in certain large urban areas. Persons in poverty, in occupations below the management or professional level, in low-rent districts, and in black population are most heavily exposed to air pollution. Pollution paradoxically is largely produced by high energy consuming middle-and upper-class households.…

McCaull, Julian

1976-01-01

24

Intercontinental Transport of Air Pollution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of the global economy goes beyond raising our standards of living. We are in an ear of increasing environmental as well as economic interdependence. Long-range transport of anthropogenic atmospheric pollutants such as ozone, ozone precursors, airborne particles, heavy metals (such as mercury) and persistent organic pollutants are the four major types of pollution that are transported over intercontinental distances and have global environmental effects. The talk includes: 1) an overview of the international agreements related to intercontinental transport of air pollutants, 2) information needed for decision making, 3) overview of the past research on intercontinental transport of air pollutants - a North American's perspective, and 4) future research needs.

Rogers, David; Whung, Pai-Yei; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

25

[Pollution of room air].  

PubMed

In the last decade the significance of indoor air pollution to human health has increased because of improved thermal insulation of buildings to save energy: air turnover is reduced and air quality is impaired. The most frequent air pollutants are tobacco smoke, radioactive radon gas emanating from the soil, formaldehyde from furniture and insulation material, nitrogen oxides from gas stoves, as well as solvents from cleaning agents. The most important pollutants leading to health hazards are tobacco smoke and air pollutants which are emitted continuously from building materials and furniture. Such pollutants have to be eliminated by reducing the emission rate. A fresh air supply is necessary to reduce the pollutants resulting from the inhabitants and their activities, the amount depending on the number of inhabitants and the usage of the room. The carbon dioxide level should not exceed 1500 ppm. PMID:3962506

Schlatter, J

1986-01-01

26

Producing Science to Inform Policy on Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Task Force on Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (TF HTAP) was established under the Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP) to "develop a fuller understanding of the hemispheric transport of air pollution for consideration in the reviews of protocols to the Convention." A major TF HTAP activity is an international multi-model effort to quantify source-receptor relationships for air pollutants among selected northern hemispheric regions, and to assess uncertainties in these estimates. Balancing the limited time and resources that individual groups can devote to a community-wide effort with the needs of the policy community is challenging, yet the framework developed to move information from the science to the policy community can also foster the rapid exchange of ideas among the scientific community, presenting opportunities to identify research priorities to be tackled by individual groups. We will discuss the TF HTAP approach to creating usable science such that the needs of both the scientific and policy communities are met: (1) defining a set of focused policy-relevant questions, (2) engaging the scientific community in designing a set of experiments to address these questions, (3) translating science results into metrics that are directly relevant to air quality policy goals. Maintaining an open dialogue among participants is critical, and several communication avenues have been established (http://aqm.jrc.it/HTAP/). We will review lessons learned from previous model intercomparisons and then describe the initial stage of a community-wide modeling effort to estimate the tropospheric ozone response to 20% reductions in precursor emissions of NOx, CO, NMVOC, and CH4. Preliminary estimates of source-receptor relationships among North America, Europe, East Asia, and South Asia will be presented; these results will inform a 2007 review of the CLRTAP Gothenburg Protocol to abate acidification, eutrophication, and tropospheric ozone.

Fiore, A. M.; Dentener, F.; Keating, T. J.; Schultz, M. G.; Zuber, A.

2006-12-01

27

Controlling Indoor Air Pollution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the health risks posed by indoor air pollutants, such as airborne combustion products, toxic chemicals, and radioactivity. Questions as to how indoor air might be regulated. Calls for new approaches to environmental protection. (TW)

Nero, Anthony V, Jr.

1988-01-01

28

Psychological reactions to air pollution  

SciTech Connect

Interviews with a large representative sample of Los Angeles residents reveal that these citizens are somewhat aware and concerned about air pollution, but not knowledgeable about its causes. Direct behaviors to reduce causes of pollution or one's exposure to it are rare. A moderate percentage of people seek out information about air pollution or complain about it. Fewer follow state health advisories by reducing automobile driving or restricting activity during air pollution episodes. Preliminary modeling of citizen compliance with air pollution health advisories suggest that personal beliefs about negative health effects are a important predictor of compliance. Finally, modest but significant relationships are noted between ambient photochemical oxidants and anxiety symptoms. The latter finding controls for age, socioeconomic status, and temperature.

Evans, G.W.; Colome, S.D.; Shearer, D.F.

1988-02-01

29

Air pollution: brown skies research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct information on the health effects of air pollution in humans relies mainly on chamber studies and epidemiological studies. Although chamber studies have limitations they allow the acute effects of individual pollutants to be studied in well characterised subjects under controlled conditions. Most chamber studies have shown relatively small falls in lung function and relatively small increases in bronchial reactivity

A. E. Tattersfield

1996-01-01

30

Air pollution and asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of air pollution in the increased prevalence and morbidity of asthma has been widely debated, but results to date indicate that the normally encountered levels of air pollution are unlikely to contribute to a worsening of asthma. When the levels of sulphur dioxide (SO2) are exceptionally high it is possible that asthmatic patients may have increased symptoms after

P. J. Barnes

1994-01-01

31

Air Pollution and Industry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is an authoritative reference and practical guide designed to help the plant engineer identify and solve industrial air pollution problems in order to be able to meet current air pollution regulations. Prepared under the editorial supervision of an experienced chemical engineer, with each chapter contributed by an expert in his field,…

Ross, R. D., Ed.

32

Sensing Air Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about electricity and air pollution while building devices to measure volatile organic compounds (VOC) by attaching VOC sensors to prototyping boards. In the second part of the activity, students evaluate the impact of various indoor air pollutants using the devices they made.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

33

Asthma and Outdoor Air Pollution  

MedlinePLUS

Air pollution can make asthma symptoms worse and trigger attacks. If you or your child has asthma, have ... symptoms get worse when the air is polluted? Air pollution can make it harder to breathe. It can ...

34

Air pollution and human health  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quantitative effects of air pollution on human health is considered, along with the dollar benefit of pollution abatement. Data is presented showing the correlations between air pollution and several diseases. The economic cost of air pollution-caused disease is estimated, and is used as the basis of benefit cost analysis for air pollution abatement.

L. B. Lave; E. P. Seskin

1970-01-01

35

Investigating Air Pollution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an experiment using live plants and cigarette smoke to demonstrate the effects of air pollution on a living organism. Procedures include growth of the test plants in glass bottles, and construction and operation of smoking machine. (CS)

Carter, Edward J.

1977-01-01

36

AIR POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES  

EPA Science Inventory

This is a chapter for John Wiley & Son's Mechanical Engineers' Handbook, and covers issues involving air pollution control. Various technologies for controlling sulfur oxides is considered including fuel desulfurization. It also considers control of nitrogen oxides including post...

37

Air pollution from aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of fundamental problems related to jet engine air pollution and combustion were examined. These include soot formation and oxidation, nitric oxide and carbon monoxide emissions mechanisms, pollutant dispension, flow and combustion characteristics of the NASA swirl can combustor, fuel atomization and fuel-air mixing processes, fuel spray drop velocity and size measurement, ignition and blowout. A summary of this work, and a bibliography of 41 theses and publications which describe this work, with abstracts, is included.

Heywood, J. B.; Fay, J. A.; Chigier, N. A.

1979-01-01

38

Exposure information in environmental health research: Current opportunities and future directions for particulate matter, ozone, and toxic air pollutants  

SciTech Connect

Understanding and quantifying outdoor and indoor sources of human exposure are essential but often not adequately addressed in health-effects studies for air pollution. Air pollution epidemiology, risk assessment, health tracking and accountability assessments are examples of health-effects studies that require but often lack adequate exposure information. Recent advances in exposure modeling along with better information on time-activity and exposure factors data provide us with unique opportunities to improve the assignment of exposures for both future and ongoing studies linking air pollution to health impacts. In September 2006, scientists from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) along with scientists from the academic community and state health departments convened a symposium on air pollution exposure and health in order to identify, evaluate, and improve current approaches for linking air pollution exposures to disease. This manuscript presents the key issues, challenges and recommendations identified by the exposure working group, who used cases studies of particulate matter, ozone, and toxic air pollutant exposure to evaluate health-effects for air pollution. One of the over-arching lessons of this workshop is that obtaining better exposure information for these different health-effects studies requires both goal-setting for what is needed and mapping out the transition pathway from current capabilities to meeting these goals. Meeting our long-term goals requires definition of incremental steps that provide useful information for the interim and move us toward our long-term goals. Another over-arching theme among the three different pollutants and the different health study approaches is the need for integration among alternate exposure assessment approaches. For example, different groups may advocate exposure indicators, biomonitoring, mapping methods (GIS), modeling, environmental media monitoring, and/or personal exposure modeling. However, emerging research reveals that the greatest progress comes from integration among two or more of these efforts.

McKone, Thomas E.; Ryan, P. Barry; Ozkaynak, Haluk

2007-02-01

39

One family's air pollution  

SciTech Connect

The author's family pollutes directly or indirectly in five major ways: wastewater discharge; automobile exhaust; home heating oil furnace exhaust; trash disposal; and electricity usage (and the use of other consumer goods whose manufacture and transport caused some level of pollution). He decided to try to quantify how much his family contributed to pollution in one year, 1988. Four sources of air pollution were considered and are quantified: car exhausts, home heating oil exhausts, electricity, and trash disposal (through a waste-to-energy plant).

Getz, N.P.

1990-02-01

40

Respiratory Health and Air Pollution  

MedlinePLUS

... en... Favorites Delicious Digg Google Bookmarks Respiratory Health & Air Pollution Transportation-related pollutants are one of the largest ... Motor vehicles contribute to more than 50% of air pollution in urban areas. The design of communities and ...

41

Pupils' Understanding of Air Pollution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on a study of pupils' knowledge and understanding of atmospheric pollution. Specifically, the study is aimed at identifying: 1) the extent to which pupils conceptualise the term "air pollution" in a scientifically appropriate way; 2) pupils' knowledge of air pollution sources and air pollutants; and 3) pupils' knowledge of air

Dimitriou, Anastasia; Christidou, Vasilia

2007-01-01

42

Air Pollution: What's the Solution?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Through this project, students will focus on outdoor air pollution; what it is, what factors contribute to its formation and the health effects from breathing polluted air. Students will use data and animated maps from the Internet and monitor for the presence of air pollution. Students are challenged to think critically and creatively about the problems surrounding air pollution. Students will learn to describe what air pollutants are, when and how outdoor air pollution is formed, and what the health effects are from breathing polluted air, and much more.

2010-01-01

43

Air Pollution Primer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the dangers of polluted air to the health and welfare of all individuals became increasingly evident and as the complexity of the causes made responsibility for solutions even more difficult to fix, the National Tuberculosis and Respiratory Disease Association felt obligated to give greater emphasis to its clean air program. To this end they…

National Tuberculosis and Respiratory Disease Association, New York, NY.

44

Particulate Air Pollution: The Particulars  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes some of the causes and consequences of particulate air pollution. Outlines the experimental procedures for measuring the amount of particulate materials that settles from the air and for observing the nature of particulate air pollution. (JR)

Murphy, James E.

1973-01-01

45

Air pollution from household solid fuel combustion in India: an overview of exposure and health related information to inform health research priorities  

PubMed Central

Environmental and occupational risk factors contribute to nearly 40% of the national burden of disease in India, with air pollution in the indoor and outdoor environment ranking amongst leading risk factors. It is now recognized that the health burden from air pollution exposures that primarily occur in the rural indoors, from pollutants released during the incomplete combustion of solid fuels in households, may rival or even exceed the burden attributable to urban outdoor exposures. Few environmental epidemiological efforts have been devoted to this setting, however. We provide an overview of important available information on exposures and health effects related to household solid fuel use in India, with a view to inform health research priorities for household air pollution and facilitate being able to address air pollution within an integrated rural–urban framework in the future.

Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Ramaswamy, Padmavathi; Sambandam, Sankar; Thangavel, Gurusamy; Ghosh, Santu; Johnson, Priscilla; Mukhopadhyay, Krishnendu; Venugopal, Vidhya; Thanasekaraan, Vijayalakshmi

2011-01-01

46

AIR POLLUTION AND HUMMINGBIRDS  

EPA Science Inventory

A multidisciplinary team of EPA-RTP ORD pulmonary toxicologists, engineers, ecologists, and statisticians have designed a study of how ground-level ozone and other air pollutants may influence feeding activity of the ruby-throated hummingbird ( Archilochus colubris ). Be...

47

Evaluation and Application of Alternative Air Pollution Exposure Metrics in Air Pollution Epidemiology Studies  

EPA Science Inventory

ABSTRACT: Periodic review, revision and subsequent implementation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for criteria air pollutants rely upon various types of scientific air quality, exposure, toxicological dose-response and epidemiological information. Exposure assessmen...

48

Career Guide for Air Pollution Control  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide to career opportunities in air pollution control includes resource information in this area and provides a listing of colleges and universities offering environmental science programs. The guide was prepared by the S-11 Education and Training Committee of the Air Pollution Control Association. (Author/BT)

Baldwin, Lionel V.

1975-01-01

49

Air Pollution Abstracts. Volume 3, Number 10, October 1972.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The periodical is published to inform air pollution personnel of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and others, of technical literature recently accessioned by the Air Pollution Technical Information Center (APTIC). For each accession, its abstrac...

1972-01-01

50

Health Effects of Air Pollution  

MedlinePLUS

Health effects of air pollution Breathing air that is not clean can hurt your health. Sometimes you have control over how clean the air ... important to know about the health effects that air pollution can have on you and others. Once you ...

51

Fundamentals of air pollution. Third edition  

SciTech Connect

This book presents an overview of air pollution. In Part I, the history of air pollution and the basic concepts involved with air pollution such as sources, scales, definitions are covered. Part II describes how airborne pollutants damage materials, vegetation, animals, and humans. Six fundamental aspects of air pollution are included in the text: The Elements of Air Pollution; The Effects of Air Pollution; Measurement and Monitoring of Air Pollution; Meterology of Air Pollution; regulatory Control of Air Pollution; and Engineering Control of Air Pollution.

Boubel, R.W.; Fox, D.L.; Turner, D.B.; Stern, A.C.

1994-12-31

52

In Search of Air Pollution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Air pollution is no longer just a local issue; it is a global problem. The atmosphere is a very dynamic system. Pollution not only changes in chemical composition after it is emitted, but also is transported on local and global air systems hundreds and even thousands of miles away. Some of the pollutants that are major health concerns are not even…

Beckendorf, Kirk

2006-01-01

53

Air pollution needs action now  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increase in the magnitude of the quantities of pollutants being discharged into the atmosphere is associated with population growth, increasing urbanization, and progress in economic well-being. It is estimated that by 1970 the national population will reach 214 million, and that industrial output will approximately double, creating even more air pollution. Air pollution can have adverse effects upon human

1961-01-01

54

Indoor air pollution.  

PubMed

This article summarizes the health effects of indoor air pollutants and the modalities available to control them. The pollutants discussed include active and passive exposure to tobacco smoke; combustion products of carbon monoxide; nitrogen dioxide; products of biofuels, including wood and coal; biologic agents leading to immune responses, such as house dust mites, cockroaches, fungi, animal dander, and urine; biologic agents associated with infection such as Legionella and tuberculosis; formaldehyde; and volatile organic compounds. An approach to assessing building-related illness and "tight building" syndrome is presented. Finally, the article reviews recent data on hospital-related asthma and exposures to potential respiratory hazards such as antineoplastic agents, anesthetic gases, and ethylene oxide. PMID:1511550

Gold, D R

1992-06-01

55

Indoor air pollution  

SciTech Connect

This article summarizes the health effects of indoor air pollutants and the modalities available to control them. The pollutants discussed include active and passive exposure to tobacco smoke; combustion products of carbon monoxide; nitrogen dioxide; products of biofuels, including wood and coal; biologic agents leading to immune responses, such as house dust mites, cockroaches, fungi, animal dander, and urine; biologic agents associated with infection such as Legionella and tuberculosis; formaldehyde; and volatile organic compounds. An approach to assessing building-related illness and tight building' syndrome is presented. Finally, the article reviews recent data on hospital-related asthma and exposures to potential respiratory hazards such as antineoplastic agents, anesthetic gases, and ethylene oxide.88 references.

Gold, D.R. (Channing Laboratory, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (United States))

1992-06-01

56

Air pollution source identification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Techniques for air pollution source identification are reviewed, and some results obtained with them are evaluated. Described techniques include remote sensing from satellites and aircraft, on-site monitoring, and the use of injected tracers and pollutants themselves as tracers. The use of a large number of trace elements in ambient airborne particulate matter as a practical means of identifying sources is discussed in detail. Sampling and analysis techniques are described, and it is shown that elemental constituents can be related to specific source types such as those found in the earth's crust and those associated with specific industries. Source identification sytems are noted which utilize charged particle X-ray fluorescence analysis of original field data.

Fordyce, J. S.

1975-01-01

57

Remote air pollution measurement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a discussion and comparison of the Raman method, the resonance and fluorescence backscatter method, long path absorption methods and the differential absorption method for remote air pollution measurement. A comparison of the above remote detection methods shows that the absorption methods offer the most sensitivity at the least required transmitted energy. Topographical absorption provides the advantage of a single ended measurement, and differential absorption offers the additional advantage of a fully depth resolved absorption measurement. Recent experimental results confirming the range and sensitivity of the methods are presented.

Byer, R. L.

1975-01-01

58

Outdoor air pollution and asthma.  

PubMed

Traffic and power generation are the main sources of urban air pollution. The idea that outdoor air pollution can cause exacerbations of pre-existing asthma is supported by an evidence base that has been accumulating for several decades, with several studies suggesting a contribution to new-onset asthma as well. In this Series paper, we discuss the effects of particulate matter (PM), gaseous pollutants (ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and sulphur dioxide), and mixed traffic-related air pollution. We focus on clinical studies, both epidemiological and experimental, published in the previous 5 years. From a mechanistic perspective, air pollutants probably cause oxidative injury to the airways, leading to inflammation, remodelling, and increased risk of sensitisation. Although several pollutants have been linked to new-onset asthma, the strength of the evidence is variable. We also discuss clinical implications, policy issues, and research gaps relevant to air pollution and asthma. PMID:24792855

Guarnieri, Michael; Balmes, John R

2014-05-01

59

Air pollution from aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Forty-one annotated abstracts of reports generated at MIT and the University of Sheffield are presented along with summaries of the technical projects undertaken. Work completed includes: (1) an analysis of the soot formation and oxidation rates in gas turbine combustors, (2) modelling the nitric oxide formation process in gas turbine combustors, (3) a study of the mechanisms causing high carbon monoxide emissions from gas turbines at low power, (4) an analysis of the dispersion of pollutants from aircraft both around large airports and from the wakes of subsonic and supersonic aircraft, (5) a study of the combustion and flow characteristics of the swirl can modular combustor and the development and verification of NO sub x and CO emissions models, (6) an analysis of the influence of fuel atomizer characteristics on the fuel-air mixing process in liquid fuel spray flames, and (7) the development of models which predict the stability limits of fully and partially premixed fuel-air mixtures.

Heywood, J. B.; Fay, J. A.; Chigier, N. A.

1979-01-01

60

AIR POLLUTION EFFECTS ON TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents information on the effects of ozone, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, particulate matter, and acidic disposition on terrestrial ecosystems. A brief explanation of ecosystem dynamics is presented to provide a framework for discussion of air pollutant effects. D...

61

HEALTH EFFECTS ASSOCIATED WITH INDOOR AIR POLLUTANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

A state-of-information survey concerning health effects of indoor air pollutants in the categories of formaldehyde, volatile organics, radon, particulates, and combustion products has been prepared by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Criteria and Assessmen...

62

System interactions of air pollutants  

SciTech Connect

The impact of system interactions and simultaneous or sequential exposure to various air pollutants, both man-made and natural ones, requires greater concern in the interpretation of the total adverse impact of various air pollutants. It is clear that there are highly significant system interactions with exposure to various air pollutants, and these must be considered very carefully in the evaluation of their adverse health effects.

Pierson, W.E. (Northwest Asthma and Allergy Center, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle (United States))

1992-06-01

63

Use of a Geographic Information System and lichens to map air pollution in a tropical city: San José, Costa Rica.  

PubMed

There are no studies of air pollution bio-indicators based on Geographic Information Systems (GIS) for Costa Rica. In this study we present the results of a project that analyzed tree trunk lichens as bioindicators of air pollution in 40 urban parks located along the passage of wind through the city of San Jose in 2008 and 2009. The data were processed with GIS and are presented in an easy to understand color coded isoline map. Our results are consistent with the generally accepted view that lichens respond to the movement of air masses, decreasing their cover in the polluted areas. Furthermore, lichen cover matched the concentration of atmospheric nitrogen oxides from a previous study of the same area. Our maps should be incorporated to urban regulatory plans for the city of San José to zone the location of schools, hospitals and other facilities in need of clean air and to inexpensively assess the risk for breast cancer and respiratory diseases in several neighborhoods throughout the city. PMID:23885574

Bustamante, Erich Neurohr; Monge-Nájera, Julián; Méndez-Estrada, Victor Hugo

2013-06-01

64

Understanding Air: Air Pollution and Modeling Pollutants with LEGO® Bricks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students learn about the chemical reactions that release various pollutants into the atmosphere and what happens when pollutants in the air are exposed to sunlight. They model incomplete combustion using LEGO bricks, and explore the connection between air quality and environmental health.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2012-06-15

65

Explorative forecasting of air pollution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the paper a model to predict immission concentrations of PM10, SO2, O3 for a selected number of forward time steps is proposed. The proposed model (e-APFM) is an extension of the Air Pollution Forecasting Model (APFM). APFM requires historical data for a large number of points in time, particularly weather forecast, meteorological and pollution data. e-APFM additionally requires information about the wind direction in sectors and meteorological station. This information also permits pollution at meteorological stations for which we do not have the necessary data (in particular the data about pollution) to be forecast. The experimental verification of the proposed model was conducted on the data from the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management in Poland over a period of two years (between January 2011 and December 2012). Experiments show that the e-APFM method has lower deviations between the measured and predicted concentrations compared to the APFM method for the first day and similar deviations for the next two days (for hourly values) and for the first day and mostly worse for the second and third day (for daily values).

Doma?ska, D.; Wojtylak, M.

2014-08-01

66

40 CFR 49.137 - Rule for air pollution episodes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Conditions justifying the declaration of an air pollution alert, air pollution warning, or air pollution emergency...buildup of air pollutants. (ii) Air pollution alert. An air pollution alert may be declared by the Regional...

2011-07-01

67

40 CFR 49.137 - Rule for air pollution episodes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Conditions justifying the declaration of an air pollution alert, air pollution warning, or air pollution emergency...buildup of air pollutants. (ii) Air pollution alert. An air pollution alert may be declared by the Regional...

2012-07-01

68

40 CFR 49.137 - Rule for air pollution episodes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Conditions justifying the declaration of an air pollution alert, air pollution warning, or air pollution emergency...buildup of air pollutants. (ii) Air pollution alert. An air pollution alert may be declared by the Regional...

2013-07-01

69

ACRYLONITRILE PLANT AIR POLLUTION CONTROL  

EPA Science Inventory

Based on available literature, the report identifies and ranks (in terms of efficiency, cost, and energy requirements) air pollution control technologies for each of four major air pollutant emission sources in acrylonitrile plants. The sources are: (1) absorber vent gas streams,...

70

Buffalo Air Pollutant Emission Inventory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The results of an emission inventory of air pollutant sources in the Buffalo, New York Metropolitan Area is presented. The objectives of the study were to determine the total quantities of the various air pollutants emitted and to estimate their seasonal ...

G. M. Duggan J. C. Fensterstock

1968-01-01

71

Plant Response to Air Pollution.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Air pollutants have a negative impact on plant growth, primarily through interfering with resource accumulation. Since leaves are in close contact with the atmosphere, many air pollutants, such as O3 and NOx, affect the metabolic function of the leaves an...

J. A. Weber D. T. Tingey C. P. Andersen

1993-01-01

72

PLANT RESPONSE TO AIR POLLUTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Air pollutants have a negative impact on plant growth, primarily through interfering with resource accumulation. ince leaves are in close contact with the atmosphere, many air pollutants, such as O3 and NOx, affect the metabolic function of the leaves and interfere with net carbo...

73

Estimating residential air pollution exposure among citizens in Oslo 1974-1998 using a geographical information system.  

PubMed

Annual concentration fields of SO2 and NOx for the period 1974-1998 are calculated for a 22 x 18 km2-grid in Oslo. In a study of lung cancer and air pollution in Oslo, 16209 men living in Oslo have been followed from 1972/73 to 1998. This paper presents a method for estimating their annual residential air pollution exposure for SO2 and NOx. In the exposure assessment the National Population Register provided information on home addresses. Each participant was given an annual average air pollutant concentration outdoors of the address he lived the largest part of that year. Persons living close to streets with high traffic were given an additional concentration, and persons who moved outside Oslo were given a region value for each year. Due to regulations of the sulfur content in fuel oil and a general change of local heating systems to electricity or distant heating, the SO2-concentrations in Central Oslo were reduced during the period from about 60 microg m(-3) in 1974-75 to about 4 microg m(-3) in 1997-98. Due to the increasing traffic the NOx-concentrations have increased slowly, from about 40 microg m(-3) in 1974-84 to about 60 microg m(-3) in 1989. After the introduction of catalyst cars the concentrations were reduced to about 45 microg m(-3) in 1997-98. PMID:12948224

Gram, Frederick; Nafstad, Per; Håheim, Lise Lund

2003-08-01

74

Air pollution: Impact and prevention  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Air pollution is becoming a major health problem that affects millions of people worldwide. In support of this observation, the World Health Organization estimates that every year, 2.4 million people die because of the effects of air pollution on health. Mitigation strategies such as changes in diesel engine technology could result in fewer premature mortalities, as suggested by the US Environmental Protection Agency. This review: (i) discusses the impact of air pollution on respiratory disease; (ii) provides evidence that reducing air pollution may have a positive impact on the prevention of disease; and (iii) demonstrates the impact concerted polices may have on population health when governments take actions to reduce air pollution.

SIERRA-VARGAS, MARTHA PATRICIA; TERAN, LUIS M

2012-01-01

75

Using geographic information systems to assess individual historical exposure to air pollution from traffic and house heating in Stockholm.  

PubMed Central

A specific aim of a population-based case-control study of lung cancer in Stockholm, Sweden, was to use emission data, dispersion models, and geographic information systems (GIS) to assess historical exposure to several components of ambient air pollution. Data collected for 1,042 lung cancer cases and 2,364 population controls included information on residence from 1955 to the end of follow-up for each individual, 1990-1995. We assessed ambient air concentrations of pollutants from road traffic and heating throughout the study area for three points in time (1960, 1970, and 1980) using reconstructed emission data for the index pollutants nitrogen oxides (NO(x)/NO(2)) and sulfur dioxide together with dispersion modeling. NO(2) estimates for 1980 compared well with actual measurements, but no independently measured (study-external) data were available for SO(2), precluding similar validation. Subsequently, we used linear intra- and extrapolation to obtain estimates for all other years 1955-1990. Eleven thousand individual addresses were transformed into geographic coordinates through automatic and manual procedures, with an estimated error of < 100 m for 90% of the addresses. Finally, we linked annual air pollution estimates to annual residence coordinates, yielding long-term residential exposure indices for each individual. There was a wide range of individual long-term average exposure, with an 11-fold interindividual difference in NO(2) and an 18-fold difference in SO(2). The 30-year average for all study subjects was 20 microg/m(3) NO(2) from traffic and 53 microg/m(3) SO(2) from heating. The results indicate that GIS can be useful for exposure assessment in environmental epidemiology studies, provided that detailed geographically related exposure data are available for relevant time periods.

Bellander, T; Berglind, N; Gustavsson, P; Jonson, T; Nyberg, F; Pershagen, G; Jarup, L

2001-01-01

76

Air-pollution effects on biodiversity  

SciTech Connect

To address the issues of air pollution impacts on biodiversity, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Environmental Research Laboratory in Corvallis, OR, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service National Fisheries Research Center in Leetown, and the Electric Power Research Institute convened a workshop to evaluate current knowledge, identify information gaps, provide direction to research and assess policy issues. In order to obtain the most current and authoritative information possible, air pollution and biodiversity experts were invited to participate in a workshop and author the papers that make up this report. Each paper was presented and discussed, then collected in this document. The material has been organized into four parts: an introduction, an overview of air pollution exposure and effects, the consequences of air pollution on biodiversity, and policy issues and research needs.

Barker, J.R.; Tingey, D.T.

1992-04-01

77

Health effects of outdoor air pollution  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To inform family physicians about the health effects of air pollution and to provide an approach to counseling vulnerable patients in order to reduce exposure. Sources of information MEDLINE was searched using terms relevant to air pollution and its adverse effects. We reviewed English-language articles published from January 2008 to December 2009. Most studies provided level II evidence. Main message Outdoor air pollution causes substantial morbidity and mortality in Canada. It can affect both the respiratory system (exacerbating asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) and the cardiovascular system (triggering arrhythmias, cardiac failure, and stroke). The Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) is a new communication tool developed by Health Canada and Environment Canada that indicates the level of health risk from air pollution on a scale of 1 to 10. The AQHI is widely reported in the media, and the tool might be of use to family physicians in counseling high-risk patients (such as those with asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or cardiac failure) to reduce exposure to outdoor air pollution. Conclusion Family physicians can use the AQHI and its health messages to teach patients with asthma and other high-risk patients how to reduce health risks from air pollution.

Abelsohn, Alan; Stieb, Dave M.

2011-01-01

78

One family's air pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author's family pollutes directly or indirectly in five major ways: wastewater discharge; automobile exhaust; home heating oil furnace exhaust; trash disposal; and electricity usage (and the use of other consumer goods whose manufacture and transport caused some level of pollution). He decided to try to quantify how much his family contributed to pollution in one year, 1988. Four sources

Getz

1990-01-01

79

Indoor air pollution: a public health perspective.  

PubMed

Although official efforts to control air pollution have traditionally focused on outdoor air, it is now apparent that elevated contaminant concentrations are common inside some private and public buildings. Concerns about potential public health problems due to indoor air pollution are based on evidence that urban residents typically spend more than 90 percent of their time indoors, concentrations of some contaminants are higher indoors than outdoors, and for some pollutants personal exposures are not characterized adequately by outdoor measurements. Among the more important indoor contaminants associated with health or irritation effects are passive tobacco smoke, radon decay products, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde, asbestos fibers, microorganisms, and aeroallergens. Efforts to assess health risks associated with indoor air pollution are limited by insufficient information about the number of people exposed, the pattern and severity of exposures, and the health consequences of exposures. An overall strategy should be developed to investigate indoor exposures, health effects, control options, and public policy alternatives. PMID:6857273

Spengler, J D; Sexton, K

1983-07-01

80

Ok Air for the Ok State: A Report on the Appraisal of Air Pollution in Oklahoma.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There is assurance that Oklahoma is on the threshold of economic expansion that will require vigilance to prevent new air pollution. Analysis of available information reveals that there is no effective air pollution control program in existence in the sta...

J. D. McHard R. F. Wromble

1965-01-01

81

Air Pollution Affects Community Health  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Community Health and Environmental Surveillance System (CHESS), a nationwide program relating community health to environmental quality, is designed to evaluate existing environmental standards, obtain health intelligence for new standards, and document health benefits of air pollution control. (BL)

Shy, Carl M.; Finklea, John F.

1973-01-01

82

Predicting indoor air pollution levels  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes methods of predicting concentration levels of indoor air pollution in a variety of residences by using residence air-infiltration rates, residence volumes, and source terms, and by making assumptions about occupant lifestyle and pollutant distribution. The range of the maximum to minimum concentration, as well as a representative value, of each pollutant present in a residence can be predicted. The predicted values vary for some pollutants by up to three orders of magnitude. The methods can be used for predicting concentration levels in residences with and without retrofitted air-infiltration reduction measures, which are means of making the home more energy efficient. Concentration levels are predicted so that the risk of health effects from installing air-infiltration reduction measures can be assessed.

Parker, G.B.; Droppo, J.G.; Owczarski, P.C.

1982-10-01

83

WESTERN FORESTS AND AIR POLLUTION  

EPA Science Inventory

This book addresses the relationships between air pollution in western United States and trends in the growth and condition of Western coniferous forests. he major atmospheric pollutants to which forest in this region are exposed are sulfur and nitrogen compounds and ozone. The p...

84

HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANT RESEARCH (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)  

EPA Science Inventory

Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments lists 189 compounds and compound classes as hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) (also referred to as "air toxics"). The compounds include benzene, toluene, formaldehyde, mercury, arsenic, and polyaromatic hydrocarbons and are emitted fro...

85

Air pollution and allergic disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past several decades, there has been increased awareness of the health effects of air pollution and much debate regarding\\u000a the role of global warming. The prevalence of asthma and allergic disease has risen in industrialized countries, and most\\u000a epidemiologic studies focus on possible causalities between air pollution and these conditions. This review examines salient\\u000a articles and summarizes findings

Haejin Kim; Jonathan A. Bernstein

2009-01-01

86

Diagnosing Vegetation Injury Caused by Air Pollution.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This handbook explains the effects of various air pollutants on vegetation and how to diagnose the suspected injuries. It discusses the structure and function of plants in relation to air pollution injury and the different pollutants: photochemical oxidan...

D. R. Hicks

1978-01-01

87

Air Pollution and Agriculture Seminar.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On October 16, 1978, an all day conference entitled 'Air Pollution Effects on Vegetation in Northern California', was held on the Davis campus of the University of California. A second conference was held in Bakersfield on October 10, 1979, entitled 'Air ...

J. H. Black

1979-01-01

88

AIR POLLUTION AND RESPIRATORY DISEASE  

EPA Science Inventory

Concern about polluted air in our urban and industrial areas began gathering momentum shortly after World War II. At that time it seemed obvious that clean air, like clean water, clean food, and a clean body, was a worth while goal in itself, requiring no further justification. B...

89

Air Pollution in the World's Megacities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports findings of the Global Environment Monitoring System study concerning air pollution in the world's megacities. Discusses sources of air pollution, air pollution impacts, air quality monitoring, air quality trends, and control strategies. Provides profiles of the problem in Beijing, Los Angeles, Mexico City, India, Cairo, Sao Paulo, and…

Richman, Barbara T., Ed.

1994-01-01

90

Air pollution source identification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The techniques available for source identification are reviewed: remote sensing, injected tracers, and pollutants themselves as tracers. The use of the large number of trace elements in the ambient airborne particulate matter as a practical means of identifying sources is discussed. Trace constituents are determined by sensitive, inexpensive, nondestructive, multielement analytical methods such as instrumental neutron activation and charged particle X-ray fluorescence. The application to a large data set of pairwise correlation, the more advanced pattern recognition-cluster analysis approach with and without training sets, enrichment factors, and pollutant concentration rose displays for each element is described. It is shown that elemental constituents are related to specific source types: earth crustal, automotive, metallurgical, and more specific industries. A field-ready source identification system based on time and wind direction resolved sampling is described.

Fordyce, J. S.

1975-01-01

91

ECONOMICS AND PERFORMANCE MODELING (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)  

EPA Science Inventory

NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division's Air Pollution Technology Branch (APTB) is active in the development, refinement, and maintenance of economic and performance evaluation models that provide agency-wide support for estimating costs for air pollution preventio...

92

Meteorological Instruments for Air Pollution Surveys  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report, published as Informative Report No. 1 of the Air Pollution Control Association’s TA-8 Meteorological Committee, began to move through the fourteen step approval procedure in March 1964. Comments made by members of the Technical Council were used in the preparation of the final report. It is now being published as representing the \\

E. Wendell Hewson

1965-01-01

93

Mortality–Air Pollution Relationships: A Comment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports the results of an analysis of mortality–air pollution relationships for specification errors using the Ramsey specification error tests. The data for the analysis included information on the total mortality rates and the suspended particulates for 50 SMSA's for 1968 and 1969. The findings indicate that specification errors with such models can be a serious problem and will

V. Kerry Smith

1975-01-01

94

HANDBOOK: CONTROL TECHNIQUES FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

This manual is a revision of the first (1986) edition of the Handbook: Control Technologies for Hazardous Air Pollutants, which incorporated information from numerous sources into a single, self-contained reference source focusing on the design and cost of VOC and partic...

95

In Brief: Air pollution app  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new smartphone application takes advantage of various technological capabilities and sensors to help users monitor air quality. Tapping into smartphone cameras, Global Positioning System (GPS) sensors, compasses, and accelerometers, computer scientists with the University of Southern California's (USC) Viterbi School of Engineering have developed a new application, provisionally entitled “Visibility.” Currently available for the Android telephone operating system, the application is available for free download at http://robotics.usc.edu/˜mobilesensing/Projects/AirVisibilityMonitoring. An iPhone application may be introduced soon. Smartphone users can take a picture of the sky and then compare it with models of sky luminance to estimate visibility. While conventional air pollution monitors are costly and thinly deployed in some areas, the smartphone application potentially could help fill in some blanks in existing air pollution maps, according to USC computer science professor Gaurav Sukhatme.

Showstack, Randy

2010-10-01

96

Solid Waste, Air Pollution and Health  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the relationships among solid waste disposal, air pollution, and human disease. It is estimated that solid waste disposal contributes 9.7 percent of the total air pollution and 9.9 percent of the total air pollution health effect. Certain disposal-resource recovery systems can be implemented to meet air quality standards. (MR)

Kupchik, George J.; Franz, Gerald J.

1976-01-01

97

Product Guide/1972 [Air Pollution Control Association].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reprinted in this pamphlet is the fifth annual directory of air pollution control products as compiled in the "Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association" for December, 1971. The 16-page guide lists manufacturers of emission control equipment and air pollution instrumentation under product classifications as derived from McGraw-Hill's "Air

Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association, 1971

1971-01-01

98

AIR QUALITY POLLUTION DISCHARGE POINTS, NEUSE RIVER WATERSHED, NC  

EPA Science Inventory

The North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Environmental Management, Air Quality Section in cooperation with the North Carolina Center for Geographical Information and Analysis developed the digital Air Quality Pollution Discharge Poi...

99

Fluorine, Its Compounds, and Air Pollution: A Bibliography with Abstracts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Air Pollution Technical Information Center (APTIC) of EPA's Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards prepared, selected and compiled the approximately 2600 abstracts in this bibliography. The abstracts are arranged within 14 general subject catego...

1976-01-01

100

Air pollution and lung cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiological evidence proves conclusively that lung cancer correlates with air pollution. However, data on lung cancer death rates and smoking show that mankind accepts the risk of long-term and low-level exposure to carcinogens. As a rule, immediate benefits are sought and remote hazards ignored. Fear of atmospheric contamination by radioactive fallout seems to be the main factor for awareness of

1982-01-01

101

Economic analysis of air pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many urban areas are attempting to control air pollution and may well be misallocating resources in the process. Misallocation will assuredly result in the future unless economic criteria are developed to assist policy makers in their choice of abatement measures and programs. Welfare economics provides a theoretical formulation of how problems of resource allocation can be solved. A mathematical model

Ogden

1966-01-01

102

Air Pollution. Part A: Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two facets of the engineering control of air pollution (the analysis of possible problems and the application of effective controls) are covered in this two-volume text. Part A covers Analysis, and Part B, Prevention and Control. (This review is concerned with Part A only.) This volume deals with the terminology, methodology, and symptomatology…

Ledbetter, Joe O.

103

AIR POLLUTION EFFECTS ON BIODIVERSITY  

EPA Science Inventory

To address the issues of air pollution impacts on biodiversity, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Environmental Research Laboratory in Corvallis, OR, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service National Fisheries Research Center in Leetown, and the Electric Power Research Institut...

104

Indoor air pollutants  

SciTech Connect

A major contribution of the pediatrician is to help families rank the multitude of pollutants according to their known risk for child health. Elimination of household smoking and completely effective venting of indoor heating devices are beneficial to all and mandatory in homes of allergic children. Acute releases of NO/sub 2/ by gas ranges and ovens may be a significant factor in an increased incidence of respiratory infection, especially in children under two years. Despite intensive investigation, immunosuppressive and other health effects have not been defined for indoor levels of PBBs, PCBs, and related halogenated hydrocarbons. The analytic ability to determine nanomolar concentrations of numerous toxic chemicals opens a Pandora's box of inquiry. New methods, particularly immunologic, are urgently needed to quantitate the dose response to multiple combinations of chemicals and determine their significance for the health of the tight-box generation of children. 136 references.

Angle, C.R.

1988-01-01

105

Phytotoxicity of Air Pollutants  

PubMed Central

Pisum sativum L. cv Alsweet (garden pea) and Lycopersicon esculentum flacca Mill. (tomato) were used to evaluate the phytotoxicity of SO2 and O3 in the light and dark. Plants were grown in controlled environment chambers and exposed to SO2 or O3 in the light or dark at the same environmental conditions at which they were grown. The pea plants were treated with fusicoccin to ensure open stomata in the dark; the stomata of the tomato mutant remained open in the dark. Both species exhibited 64% to 80% less foliar necrosis following exposure to SO2 (0.5 to 1.0 microliter per liter for 2 hours) in the light than in the dark. The decrease in SO2 injury for light versus dark exposed plants was greater in fully expanded than expanding leaves. Both species exhibited 30% greater foliar necrosis following exposure to O3 (0.2 microliter per liter for 2 hours) in the light than dark. The increase in O3 injury in the light versus dark was similar for leaves at all stages of expansion. Leaf conductance to water vapor was 7% to 11% and 23% higher in the light than dark for fusicoccin-treated peas and tomato plants, respectively, indicating greater foliar uptake of both pollutants in the light than dark. Thus, the decreased SO2 toxicity in the light was not associated with pollutant uptake, but rather the metabolism of SO2. In contrast, the increased toxicity of O3 in the light was at least in part associated with increased uptake or could not be separated from it.

Olszyk, David M.; Tingey, David T.

1984-01-01

106

Environmental Simulation in Air Pollution Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report discusses the objectives of the National Air Pollution Control Administration in curtailing pollutant emissions on an interim basis whenever necessary to prevent or alleviate the occurrence of episodes of high pollutant concentrations. Guidelin...

G. C. Holzworth

1971-01-01

107

Pollutant Generation by Air Force Electroplating Processes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A detailed study of the pollutants generated in Air Force electroplating was performed and pollution emission factors were recommended for a variety of electroplating operations. The largest single source of pollution in the plating operation was 'dragout...

P. S. Daley

1977-01-01

108

AIR POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES (CHAPTER 65)  

EPA Science Inventory

The chapter discusses the use of technologies for reducing air pollution emissions from stationary sources, with emphasis on the control of combustion gen-erated air pollution. Major stationary sources include utility power boilers, industrial boilers and heaters, metal smelting ...

109

Disparities in the Impact of Air Pollution  

MedlinePLUS

... Your Zip Code: Disparities in the Impact of Air Pollution Living near a major roadway may expose you ... Especially Dangerous for Breathing below. The burden of air pollution is not evenly shared. Poorer people and some ...

110

Clean Air Slots Amid Atmospheric Pollution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This article investigates the mechanism for those layers in the atmosphere that are free of air borne pollution even though the air above and below them carry pollutants. Atmospheric subsidence is posed as a mechanism for this phenomenon.

Hobbs, Peter V.

2002-01-01

111

Exposure Information in Environmental Health Research: Current Opportunities and Future Directions for Particulate Matter, Ozone, and Toxic Air Pollutants  

EPA Science Inventory

In September 2006, scientists from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) along with scientists from the academic community and state health departments convened a symposium on air pollution exposure and health in ord...

112

A Study of Air Pollutants During Episodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last few months Egypt was exposed to high levels of Air Pollutants due to several factors. Meteorological conditions combined with emissions of air pollutants gave rise to high concentrations in central part of Cairo. The concentrations of different pollutants varied considerably in space and time.A national Air Quality Network has been established by Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (EEAA)

Bjarne Sivertsen; Haytham A. Ahmed; Heba F. Ahmed; Mai E. Ahmed

113

Air pollutants, oxidative stress and human health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air pollutants have, and continue to be, major contributing factors to chronic diseases and mortality, subsequently impacting public health. Chronic diseases include: chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD), cardiovascular diseases (CVD), asthma, and cancer. Byproducts of oxidative stress found in air pollutants are common initiators or promoters of the damage produced in such chronic diseases. Such air pollutants include: ozone, sulfur

Wei Yang

2009-01-01

114

The Crisis in Air Pollution Manpower Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three studies conducted by the National Air Pollution Manpower Development Advisory Committee concluded there is a crisis in air pollution manpower development within the United States today. The studies investigated the existing federal manpower program, air pollution educational requirements and the quality of graduate level university programs.…

Moeller, Dade W.

1974-01-01

115

Plant response to air pollution. Book chapter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air pollutants have a negative impact on plant growth, primarily through interfering with resource accumulation. Since leaves are in close contact with the atmosphere, many air pollutants, such as O3 and NOx, affect the metabolic function of the leaves and interfere with net carbon fixation by the plant canopy. Air pollutants that are first deposited on the soil, such as

J. A. Weber; D. T. Tingey; C. P. Andersen

1993-01-01

116

Does Concentrated Hog Production Cause Air Pollution?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The EPA is currently collecting air pollutant emissions data from large-scale livestock producers in order to evaluate how to regulate these operations under the Clean Air Act. Under this agreement, livestock producers self-report emissions of certain pollutants for clemency from past violations. The agreement shows the EPA to be concerned with livestock production's air pollution, despite its current lack of

Stacy Sneeringer

117

Guidelines for Evaluating Air Pollution Impacts on Class I Wilderness Areas in the Pacific Northwest.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Forest Service air resource managers in the Pacific Northwest are responsible for protecting class 1 wilderness areas from air pollution. To do this, they need scientifically defensible information to determine critical concentrations of air pollution hav...

J. Peterson D. Schmoldt D. Peterson J. Eilers R. Fisher

1992-01-01

118

Regional air pollution over Malaysia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the SHIVA (Stratospheric Ozone: Halogen Impacts in a Varying Atmosphere) campaign in Nov. and Dec. 2011 a number of polluted air masses were observed in the marine and terrestrial boundary layer (0 - 2 km) and in the free troposphere (2 - 12 km) over Borneo/Malaysia. The measurements include isoprene, CO, CO2, CH4, N2O, NO2, SO2 as primary pollutants, O3 and HCHO as secondary pollutants, and meteorological parameters. This set of trace gases can be used to fingerprint different sources of local and regional air pollution (e.g., biomass burning and fossil fuel burning, gas flaring on oil rigs, emission of ships and from urban areas, volcanic emissions, and biogenic emissions). Individual sources and location can be identified when the measurements are combined with a nested-grid regional scale chemical and meteorological model and lagrangian particle dispersion model (e.g., CCATT-BRAMS and FLEXPART). In the case of the former, emission inventories of the primary pollutants provide the basis for the trace gas simulations. In this region, the anthropogenic influence on air pollution seems to dominate over natural causes. For example, CO2 and CH4 often show strong correlations with CO, suggesting biomass burning or urban fossil fuel combustion dominates the combustion sources. The study of the CO/CO2 and CH4/CO ratios can help separate anthropogenic combustion from biomass burning pollution sources. In addition, these ratios can be used as a measure of combustion efficiency to help place the type of biomass burning particular to this region within the wider context of fire types found globally. On several occasions, CH4 enhancements are observed near the ocean surface, which are not directly correlated with CO enhancements thus indicating a non-combustion-related CH4 source. Positive correlations between SO2 and CO show the anthropogenic influence of oil rigs located in the South China Sea. Furthermore, SO2 enhancements are observed without any increase in CO, indicating possible volcanic emissions from the Indonesian islands to the South and East and the Philippines to the North East. The regional pollution seems to be influenced by emissions from Singapore, Philippines, Indonesia and Peninsula Malaysia, and on occasion by anthropogenic emissions from Thailand, Vietnam, Australia, and China.

Krysztofiak, G.; Catoire, V.; Dorf, M.; Grossmann, K.; Hamer, P. D.; Marécal, V.; Reiter, A.; Schlager, H.; Eckhardt, S.; Jurkat, T.; Oram, D.; Quack, B.; Atlas, E.; Pfeilsticker, K.

2012-12-01

119

Air Pollution Manual, Part 1--Evaluation. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Due to the great increase in technical knowledge and improvement in procedures, this second edition has been prepared to update existing information. Air pollution legislation is reviewed. Sources of air pollution are examined extensively. They are treated in terms of natural sources, man-made sources, metropolitan regional emissions, emission…

Giever, Paul M., Ed.

120

QUANTIFYING SUBGRID POLLUTANT VARIABILITY IN EULERIAN AIR QUALITY MODELS  

EPA Science Inventory

In order to properly assess human risk due to exposure to hazardous air pollutants or air toxics, detailed information is needed on the location and magnitude of ambient air toxic concentrations. Regional scale Eulerian air quality models are typically limited to relatively coar...

121

A PROPOSED UNIFORM AIR POLLUTION INDEX  

EPA Science Inventory

A uniform air pollution index for the U.S. is proposed. The index was developed from ten criteria identified in a survey of all the air pollution indices currently in use in the U.S. and Canada. The proposed index, named the Pollutant Standards Index (PSI), was designed to overco...

122

Global Air Pollution Crossroads over the Mediterranean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mediterranean Intensive Oxidant Study, performed in the summer of 2001, uncovered air pollution layers from the surface to an altitude of 15 kilometers. In the boundary layer, air pollution standards are exceeded throughout the region, caused by West and East European pollution from the north. Aerosol particles also reduce solar radiation penetration to the surface, which can suppress precipitation.

J. Lelieveld; H. Berresheim; S. Borrmann; P. J. Crutzen; F. J. Dentener; H. Fischer; J. Feichter; P. J. Flatau; J. Heland; R. Holzinger; R. Korrmann; M. G. Lawrence; Z. Levin; K. M. Markowicz; N. Mihalopoulos; A. Minikin; V. Ramanathan; M. de Reus; G. J. Roelofs; H. A. Scheeren; J. Sciare; H. Schlager; M. Schultz; P. Siegmund; B. Steil; E. G. Stephanou; P. Stier; M. Traub; C. Warneke; J. Williams; H. Ziereis

2002-01-01

123

EXPOSURE MEASUREMENT FOR AIR POLLUTION EPIDEMIOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

The chapter describes the evolution of air pollution epidemiology over a period when changes in pollution technologies have both lowered total exposures and dispersed them over vastly greater areas. Since personal exposure and microenvironmental measurements are expensive, studie...

124

Latex allergen in respirable particulate air pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Urban air samples contain numerous irregular respirable black particles, which may be airborne tire fragments. A major component of tires is natural latex. Proteins of natural latex can act as adjuvants and as antigens capable of eliciting immediate hypersensitivity, making their presence in particulate air pollution an important clinical issue. Methods: Particulate air pollutants were collected by volumetric sampling

P. Brock Williams; Martin P. Buhr; Richard W. Weber; Micheal A. Volz; Jerald W. Koepke; John C. Selner

1995-01-01

125

Measurement of toxic and related air pollutants '98  

SciTech Connect

Cosponsored by the EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory, the Measurement of Toxic and Related Air Pollutants '98 conference provided valuable information for anyone involved in the air pollution control industry. The two-volume proceedings features approximately 100 technical papers from sessions covering Science to Achieve Result (STAR), ambient monitoring, source methods, volatile organic compounds, mercury, indoor air, particulates, quality assurance, semi-volatiles, ozone, international issues, and Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS).

NONE

1998-07-01

126

The Particulate Air Pollution Controversy  

PubMed Central

Scientists, regulators, legislators, and segments of industry and the lay public are attempting to understand and respond to epidemiology findings of associations between measures of modern particulate air pollutants (PM) and adverse health outcomes in urban dwellers. The associations have been interpreted to imply that tens of thousands of Americans are killed annually by small daily increments in PM. These epidemiology studies and their interpretations have been challenged, although it is accepted that high concentrations of air pollutants have claimed many lives in the past. Although reproducible and statistically significant, the relative risks associated with modern PM are very small and confounded by many factors. Neither toxicology studies nor human clinical investigations have identified the components and/or characteristics of PM that might be causing the health-effect associations. Currently, a massive worldwide research effort is under way in an attempt to identify whom might be harmed and by what substances and mechanisms. Finding the answers is important, because control measures have the potential not only to be costly but also to limit the availability of goods and services that are important to public health.

Phalen, Robert F.

2004-01-01

127

Catalog of Materials as Potential Sources of Indoor Air Pollution.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper discusses a series of documents being developed by the U.S. EPA, summarizing available information on building materials and products brought into homes and office buildings as potential sources of indoor air pollution. The documents will provid...

M. B. Stockton J. S. McLean J. B. White M. D. Jackson

1991-01-01

128

Lichen sensitivity and air pollution - a review of literature data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper summarizes the estimates of epiphytic lichen sensitivity to air pollution performed by various authors. Principles and methods for unifying diverse information on lichen sensitivity are presented. The summarizing table contains data on about 250...

I. D. Insarova G. E. Insarov S. M. Semenov S. Braakenhielm S. Hultengren

1992-01-01

129

MODELING POPULATION EXPOSURES TO OUTDOOR SOURCES OF HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Accurate assessment of human exposures is an important part of environmental health effects research. However, most air pollution epidemiology studies rely upon imperfect surrogates of personal exposures, such as information based on available central-site outdoor concentration ...

130

Hazardous air pollutants and asthma.  

PubMed Central

Asthma has a high prevalence in the United States, and persons with asthma may be at added risk from the adverse effects of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). Complex mixtures (fine particulate matter and tobacco smoke) have been associated with respiratory symptoms and hospital admissions for asthma. The toxic ingredients of these mixtures are HAPs, but whether ambient HAP exposures can induce asthma remains unclear. Certain HAPs are occupational asthmagens, whereas others may act as adjuncts during sensitization. HAPs may exacerbate asthma because, once sensitized, individuals can respond to remarkably low concentrations, and irritants lower the bronchoconstrictive threshold to respiratory antigens. Adverse responses after ambient exposures to complex mixtures often occur at concentrations below those producing effects in controlled human exposures to a single compound. In addition, certain HAPs that have been associated with asthma in occupational settings may interact with criteria pollutants in ambient air to exacerbate asthma. Based on these observations and past experience with 188 HAPs, a list of 19 compounds that could have the highest impact on the induction or exacerbation of asthma was developed. Nine additional compounds were identified that might exacerbate asthma based on their irritancy, respirability, or ability to react with biological macromolecules. Although the ambient levels of these 28 compounds are largely unknown, estimated exposures from emissions inventories and limited air monitoring suggest that aldehydes (especially acrolein and formaldehyde) and metals (especially nickel and chromium compounds) may have possible health risk indices sufficient for additional attention. Recommendations for research are presented regarding exposure monitoring and evaluation of biologic mechanisms controlling how these substances induce and exacerbate asthma.

Leikauf, George D

2002-01-01

131

AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH (AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)  

EPA Science Inventory

Fundamental and applied combustion research has been conducted by the Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division's Air Pollution Technology Branch (APTB)and its predecessors since EPA's inception. APTB has been instrumental in the development and successful application of flue...

132

COOPERATIVE RESEARCH (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)  

EPA Science Inventory

NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division's Air Pollution Technology Branch (APTB) is always interested in the potential for cooperative research if overlap occurs between the research goals of external organizations and APTB's research goals. APTB has participated i...

133

PUBLICATIONS (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Air Pollution Technology Branch (APTB) of NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division produces and publishes highly specialized technical and scientific documents related to APTB's research. Areas of research covered include artificial intelligence, CFC destruction,...

134

ICT technologies and computational intelligence methods for the creation of an early warning air pollution information system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contemporary air quality management calls for effective, and in advance, AQ information dissemination. Such dis- semination requires for communication that should not be based solely on written or oral language forms, but should make use of graphical, symbolical and multimedia language communication schemes, via available communication channels. Previous experiences and published research results indicate that the content of environmental information

Kostas D. Karatzas; Anastasios Bassoukos; Dimitris Voukantsis; Fani Tzima; Kostas Nikolaou; Stavros Karathanasis

2009-01-01

135

Combined air and water pollution control system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A bioaquatic air pollution control system for controlling both water and atmospheric pollution is disclosed. The pollution control system includes an exhaust for directing polluted gases out of a furnace and a fluid circulating system which circulates fluid, such as waste water, from a source, past the furnace where the fluid flow entrains the pollutants from the furnace. The combined fluid and pollutants are then directed through a rock/plant/microbial filtering system. A suction pump pumps the treated waste water from the filter system past the exhaust to again entrain more pollutants from the furnace where they are combined with the fluid (waste water) and directed to the filter system.

Wolverton, Billy C. (inventor); Jarrell, Lamont (inventor)

1990-01-01

136

Federal government's role in air pollution: the Clean Air Act  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary purpose of the Clean Air Act, the single objective toward which all its provisions are aimed, is to enable the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare to launch a comprehensive Federal program in support of and coordinated with the air pollution control efforts of State and local agencies. In the 10 years since an identifiable air pollution program

1965-01-01

137

Hybrid regional air pollution models  

SciTech Connect

This discussion deals with a family of air quality models for predicting and analyzing the fine particulate loading in the atmosphere, for assessing the extent and degree of visibility impairment, and for determining the potential of pollutants for increasing the acidity of soils and water. The major horizontal scales of interest are from 400km to 2000km; and the time scales may vary from several hours, to days, weeks, and a few months or years, depending on the EPA regulations being addressed. First the role air quality models play in the general family of atmospheric simulation models is described. Then, the characteristics of a well-designed, comprehensive air quality model are discussed. Following this, the specific objectives of this workshop are outlined, and their modeling implications are summarized. There are significant modeling differences produced by the choice of the coordinate system, whether it be the fixed Eulerian system, the moving Lagrangian system, or some hybrid of the two. These three systems are briefly discussed, and a list of hybrid models that are currently in use are given. Finally, the PNL regional transport model is outlined and a number of research needs are listed.

Drake, R.L.

1980-03-01

138

APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 21: Legal References: Air Pollution Control Regulations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Legal References: Air Pollution Control Regulations Manual is the last in a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The manual…

Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

139

Point sources of air pollution.  

PubMed

Many people live near point sources of air pollution such as industrial sites and waste disposal operations and there are often suggestions of clusters of disease around such activities. Such alleged clusters will generate significant public concern and media interest and in many cases will warrant detailed investigation. However, the ability of current epidemiological methods to investigate such clusters is limited, particularly with regard to obtaining reliable and accurate population exposure data. In many cases, the key question is whether releases from a point source result in a significant increase in exposure or whether other sources (background exposure) give rise to the dominant exposure. This review considers some of the issues around point sources including methods of estimating exposure and briefly discusses some of the epidemiological evidence linking respiratory disease and cancer with specific industries such as coking works and incinerators. PMID:16140835

Kibble, Andrew; Harrison, Roy

2005-09-01

140

AIRS (AEROMETRIC INFORMATION RETRIEVAL SYSTEM)  

EPA Science Inventory

AIRS (Aerometric Information Retrieval System) is a computer-based repository of information about airborne pollution in the United States and various World Health Organization (WHO) member countries. The system is administered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), O...

141

Adverse respiratory effects of outdoor air pollution in the elderly.  

PubMed

Compared to the rest of the population, the elderly are potentially highly susceptible to the effects of outdoor air pollution due to normal and pathological ageing. The purpose of the present review was to gather data on the effects on respiratory health of outdoor air pollution in the elderly, on whom data are scarce. These show statistically significant short-term and chronic adverse effects of various outdoor air pollutants on cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality in the elderly. When exposed to air pollution, the elderly experience more hospital admissions for asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and higher COPD mortality than others. Previous studies also indicate that research on the health effects of air pollution in the elderly has been affected by methodological problems in terms of exposure and health effect assessments. Few pollutants have been considered, and exposure assessment has been based mostly on background air pollution and more rarely on objective measurements and modelling. Significant progress needs to be made through the development of 'hybrid' models utilising the strengths of information on exposure in various environments to several air pollutants, coupled with daily activity exposure patterns. Investigations of chronic effects of air pollution and of multi-pollutant mixtures are needed to better understand the role of air pollution in the elderly. Lastly, smoking, occupation, comorbidities, treatment and the neighbourhood context should be considered as confounders or modifiers of such a role. In this context, the underlying biological, physiological and toxicological mechanisms need to be explored to better understand the phenomenon through a multidisciplinary approach. PMID:22871325

Bentayeb, M; Simoni, M; Baiz, N; Norback, D; Baldacci, S; Maio, S; Viegi, G; Annesi-Maesano, I

2012-09-01

142

Forest decline from air pollution  

SciTech Connect

Scientists in West Germany and the USA are involved in intensive efforts to ascertain the cause or causes of the declines in their forests. Ongoing research was discussed at an October 1983 symposium on air pollution and forest productivity, held in Washington, D.C., and sponsored by the Izaak Walton League of America and Pennsylvania State University. The dieback of spruce in the Northeast is relatively well-known. It was revealed at the symposium, however, that forests in other areas of the U.S. may be showing signs of stress and damage and that species other than spruce are affected. Samuel B. McLaughlin of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) pointed out that red spruce, shortleaf pine, hickory, yellow birch, pitch pine, hemlock, and Fraser fir are declining in East Tennessee. He noted that these decline together with those in New England suggest that decreased productivity in several tree species has been occurring over a broad scale during the past two decades. One commonly held view is that acid deposition is causing the decline of forests in both Europe and the U.S. At the symposium, a number of different opinions about possible causes were expressed, ranging from drought to ozone to combinations of pollutants, including acid deposition, ozone and trace metals. Possible causes that were not subjects of active inquiry were disease and insects. Most researchers in the field believe there is little evidence that one of these is the primary damaging agent.

Hileman, B.

1984-01-01

143

Air pollution, public health, and inflation  

PubMed Central

Since the passage of the environmental legislation in the early 1970's, critics have attacked these laws as being unnecessary and for contributing significantly to the problem of inflation in the United States. This paper is an attempt to put the inflationary costs of air pollution into perspective by considering them in light of the cost, especially to public health, of not proceeding with pollution control. There is now a great deal of evidence that the concentration of certain pollutants in the air can contribute significantly to the incidence of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and to certain forms of cancer. On the basis of the results of a recent study of the impacts of pollution control on inflation, the annual reduction in purchasing power of the average family is calculated to be $31 per family. To determine the average costs of air pollution on human health, research by Lave and Seskin is utilized. First, the implications of air pollution for mortality and morbidity rates are determined. Then, the reduction in direct health costs and indirect costs (lost productivity of workers) as a result of pollution abatement is estimated. These annual health costs from pollution total approximately $250 per family. The results suggest that the inflationary costs of air pollution control are more than offset by the damages to public health from unabated air pollution.

Ostro, Bart David

1980-01-01

144

Predicting urban traffic air pollution: A gis framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a comprehensive model for the evaluation of air pollution caused by road traffic in urban areas, depending on site geometric and morphological conditions. The model is integrated in a Geographic Information System (GIS) that allows the use of spatial co-ordinates to describe the structure of urban areas, road networks, and distribution of pollutants in the atmosphere.

G. Gualtieri; M. Tartaglia

1998-01-01

145

Advances in continuous air pollution analyzers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A summary of the types of continuous air pollution analyzers as used for the past several years is presented. Examples of these analyzers and their limitations and advantages are cited. The complexity of these analyzers has demonstrated the need for small, simple, and sensitive monitors for air pollution environmental monitoring. The electrochemical detector shows particular promise for these applications. Examples

G. A. Rost; D. J. Swartz

1963-01-01

146

Air pollution and respiratory viral infection  

EPA Science Inventory

Despite current regulations, which limit the levels of certain air pollutants, there are still a number of adverse health effects that result from exposure to these agents. Numerous epidemiological studies have noted an association between the levels of air pollution and hospital...

147

Parallel matrix computations in air pollution modelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mathematical models for large-scale air pollution studies consist of systems of partial differential equations (PDEs). The number of equations in these systems of PDEs is equal to the number of chemical compounds (the number of chemical compounds involved in the current large-scale air pollution models varies from 20 to about 200). The space domain of the systems of PDEs is

Wojciech Owczarz; Zahari Zlatev

2002-01-01

148

Air Pollution Training Resource Materials List.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This listing and description of air pollution training resource materials was developed and compiled by the Air Pollution Training Institute (APTI) of the Environmental Protection Agency. The contents include APTI course descriptions and adjunct faculty in addition to a listing of films, audio cassette tapes, games and simulations, guest speakers,…

Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Air Pollution Training Inst.

149

AIR POLLUTION ASPECTS OF SLUDGE INCINERATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Incineration offers the opportunity to reduce municipal sludge to a sterile landfill and remove offensive factors, but it also has the potential to be a significant contributor to the air pollution problem in an urban community. This publication explains the air pollution problem...

150

Air Pollution and Its Control, Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A concise appraisal of our contemporary status and future prospects with regard to air pollution and its control are offered in this text for concerned laymen. What air pollution is, how it endangers health, the cost of controlling it, what is being done about it now, and what should be done are some of the basic questions considered. Topics cover…

Sproull, Wayne T.

151

Nonwhites Exposed to More Air Pollution  

MedlinePLUS

... page, please enable JavaScript. Nonwhites Exposed to More Air Pollution: Study More nitrogen dioxide from exhaust fumes, power ... Preidt Tuesday, April 15, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Page Air Pollution TUESDAY, April 15, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Nonwhite Americans ...

152

HANDBOOK: CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

This handbook was prepared to provide a methodology for determining the performance and cost of air pollution control techniques used to reduce the emissions of hazardous air pollutants from commercial/industrial sources. arious control techniques that may be applicable to differ...

153

Air Pollution and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Sudden infant death syn- drome (SIDS) affects 1 in 1000 live births and is the most common cause of infant death after the perinatal period. Objective. To determine the influence of air pollution on the incidence of SIDS. Methods. Time-series analyses were performed to compare the daily mortality rates for SIDS and the daily air pollution concentrations in each

Robert Dales; Richard T. Burnett; Marc Smith-Doiron; David M. Stieb; Jeffrey R. Brook

2009-01-01

154

Aerometric Information Retrieval System (AIRS) Data Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Environmental Protection Agency's Aerometric Information Retrieval System (AIRS) Data Maps provide data on pollutants for which the EPA has established national standards. The data come in ready-to-view national maps, or the AIRS Graphics page allows users generate their own maps and charts by specifying criteria such as dates, locations, and pollutant names. Two main types of data include air quality measurements and pollution emission estimates.

Radiation., United S.

155

Air Pollution: Mechanisms of Neuroinflammation & CNS Disease  

PubMed Central

Emerging evidence implicates air pollution as a chronic source of neuroinflammation, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and neuropathology instigating central nervous system (CNS) disease. Stroke incidence, and Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease pathology are linked to air pollution. Recent reports reveal that air pollution components reach the brain. Further, systemic effects known to impact lung and cardiovascular disease also impinge upon CNS health. While mechanisms driving air pollution-induced CNS pathology are poorly understood, new evidence suggests that activation of microglia and changes in the blood brain barrier may be key to this process. Here, we summarize recent findings detailing the mechanisms through which air pollution reaches the brain and activates the resident innate immune response to become a chronic source of pro-inflammatory factors and ROS culpable in CNS disease.

Block, Michelle L.; Calderon-Garciduenas, Lilian

2009-01-01

156

Outdoor Air Pollutants and Patient Health  

PubMed Central

Almost 160 million persons live in areas of the United States that exceed federal health-based air pollution standards. The two air pollutants that most commonly exceed standards are ozone and particulate matter. Ozone and particulate matter can harm anyone if levels are sufficiently elevated, but health risk from air pollution is greatest among vulnerable populations. Both ozone and particulate matter can cause pulmonary inflammation, decreased lung function, and exacerbation of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Particulate matter is also strongly associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Children, older adults, and other vulnerable persons may be sensitive to lower levels of air pollution. Persons who are aware of local air pollution levels, reported daily by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as the Air Quality Index, can take action to reduce exposure. These actions include simple measures to limit exertion and time spent outdoors when air pollution levels are highest, and to reduce the infiltration of outdoor air pollutants into indoor spaces.

LAUMBACH, ROBERT J.

2014-01-01

157

Air pollutant production by algal cell cultures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The production of phytotoxic air pollutants by cultures of Chlorella vulgaris and Euglena gracilis is considered. Algal and plant culture systems, a fumigation system, and ethylene, ethane, cyanide, and nitrogen oxides assays are discussed. Bean, tobacco, mustard green, cantaloupe and wheat plants all showed injury when fumigated with algal gases for 4 hours. Only coleus plants showed any resistance to the gases. It is found that a closed or recycled air effluent system does not produce plant injury from algal air pollutants.

Fong, F.; Funkhouser, E. A.

1982-01-01

158

The burden of disease from indoor air pollution in developing countries: comparison of estimates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four different methods have been applied to estimate the burden of disease due to indoor air pollution from household solid fuel use in developing countries (LDCs). The largest number of estimates involves applying exposure-response information from urban ambient air pollution studies to estimate indoor exposure concentrations of particulate air pollution. Another approach is to construct child survival curves using the

Kirk R. Smith; Sumi Mehta

2003-01-01

159

Spatial and temporal variability of air pollution in Birmingham, Alabama  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantification of the spatial and temporal variations of outdoor air pollutant concentrations provides important information for epidemiological and other air-pollution studies, many of which have relied in the past on data from a single, centrally-located air pollution monitoring site. A method is developed for combining air pollution measurements from multiple monitors and monitoring networks to generate daily air pollution concentration fields representing spatial variations over distances of approximately 1-10 km. Meteorological and co-pollutant data are used to estimate missing site measurements, yielding more realistic concentration fields as the number of monitoring locations with available data increases. Monitoring data are interpolated with weights computed from intersite pollutant correlations, which decay with distance, so distances between interpolation points and monitoring sites are factored into the interpolation weights. The approach minimizes the influence of source-oriented sites that represent limited areas, because data from such sites exhibit low intersite correlations and yield interpolation weights that decay rapidly to zero. Interpolated values represent pollutant concentrations averaged over spatial scales that depend on intersite distances and the interpolation grid, and do not delineate sharp spatial gradients associated with roadside or near-source conditions. The approach yields quantified interpolation errors the values of which depend on measurement uncertainties, intersite distances, and the representativeness of monitoring site locations. The method is illustrated using an 11-year period of measurements of ozone, PM2.5, and PM10 concentrations from Jefferson County, Alabama. The principal city is Birmingham, which is influenced by regional-scale air pollution and by local emissions from mobile sources, industrial facilities, and residential communities. Emission sources are not distributed uniformly throughout Birmingham, the ridge-and-valley topography complicates dispersion of local emissions, and monitoring data indicate that air pollutant concentrations vary spatially as well as temporally. No single monitor represents air quality across the entire study area.

Blanchard, C. L.; Tanenbaum, S.; Hidy, G. M.

2014-06-01

160

In Search of Air Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using EPA and NOAA websites, students are able to view pollution inventories (the amounts and kinds of pollution released in a given location) and follow pollution along its estimated path of travel. This inquiry based lesson guides students in the use of the websites and what data to collect while cultivating critical thinking skills.

Beckendorf, Kirk

2006-02-01

161

RESEARCH AREA -- ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE CONTROL (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Air Pollution Technology Branch (APTB) of NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division in Research Triangle Park, NC, has conducted several research projects for evaluating the use of artificial intelligence (AI) to improve the control of pollution control systems an...

162

A New Model for Investigating the Mortality Effects of Multiple Air Pollutants in Air Pollution Mortality Time-Series Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency regulates air pollutants independently, the majority of time-series studies on air pollution and mortality have focused on estimating the adverse health effects of a single pollutant. However, due to the sometimes high correlation between air pollutants, the results from studies that focus on a single air pollutant can be difficult to interpret. In addition,

Steven Roberts

2006-01-01

163

Air pollution damage to U. S. forests  

SciTech Connect

A survey was made of the perceptions and estimates by forestry and air pollution experts, using a Delphi procedure with three sequentially mailed questionnaires. Five pollutants: ozone, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides; and seven forest ecosystems in the us were included. Of the five pollutants at ambient levels, ozone is perceived as the greatest threat to forest growth. In contrast acid deposition is thought to cause growth reductions only in Appalachian high-elevation spruce-fir forests.

de Steiguer, J.E.; Pye, J.M. (Dept. of Agriculture, Research Triangle Park, NC (USA)); Love, C.S. (North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh (USA))

1990-08-01

164

Portable Spectrometric Analyzer for Air Pollutants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The research aims are stated in two parts: (a) the development of a readily portable spectrometric equipment for direct field measurement of air pollutants, sufficiently sensitive to compete with current chemical methods, and in real time; (b) to carry ou...

D. T. Williams

1970-01-01

165

ALTITUDE AS A FACTOR IN AIR POLLUTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Air pollution is affected by change in altitude. Cities with surface elevations above 1500 meters have atmospheric pressures which are approximately fifteen percent (15%) below pressures at sea level. Consequently, mobile sources designed to operate at pressures of one atmosphere...

166

Air Pollution Aspects of Hydrogen Sulfide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Hydrogen sulfide's effects on humans: (Odor threshold, Pollution occurrences); Effects on animals; Effects on plants; Effects on materials: (Effects on paint, Effects on metals); Environmental air standards; Natural occurrence; Production source...

S. Miner

1969-01-01

167

Human Health Effects of Air Pollution.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Over the past three or four decades, advances have been made in understanding the actions, exposure-response characteristics, and mechanisms of action of many common air pollutants. A multidisciplinary approach using epidemiology, animal toxicology, and c...

L. J. Folinsbee

1992-01-01

168

Using Bioreactors to Control Air Pollution.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Because of increasing fuel cost and tightening environmental regulations, alternative air pollution control technologies are being considered to replace or supplement expensive combustion control technologies. This technical bulletin addresses one of thes...

2003-01-01

169

Plant response to air pollution. Book chapter  

SciTech Connect

Air pollutants have a negative impact on plant growth, primarily through interfering with resource accumulation. Since leaves are in close contact with the atmosphere, many air pollutants, such as O3 and NOx, affect the metabolic function of the leaves and interfere with net carbon fixation by the plant canopy. Air pollutants that are first deposited on the soil, such as heavy metals, first affect the functioning of roots and interfere with soil resource capture by the plant. These reductions in resource capture (production of carbohydrate through photosynthesis, mineral nutrient uptake and water uptake from the soil) will affect plant growth through changes in resource allocation to the various plant structures. When air pollution stress co-occurs with other stresses, e.g. water stress, the outcome on growth will depend on a complex interaction of processes within the plant. In agroecosystems, these changes may be manifest in reduced economic yield.

Weber, J.A.; Tingey, D.T.; Andersen, C.P.

1993-01-01

170

GENERATION OF FUMES SIMULATING PARTICULATE AIR POLLUTANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes techniques developed for generating large quantities of reproducible, stable, inorganic, fine-particle aerosol fumes. These fumes simulated particulate air pollutants emitted from power generation, basic oxygen furnaces, electric arc furnaces, and zinc smelti...

171

China's response to the air pollution shock  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Faced with serious air pollution, China is aggressively reshaping its energy system, building on recent progress with renewables and on available supplies of gas. This should help contain global warming and provide new impetus to climate change negotiations.

Sheehan, Peter; Cheng, Enjiang; English, Alex; Sun, Fanghong

2014-05-01

172

Air pollution from ships: Recent developments  

Microsoft Academic Search

All developments on air pollution by ships are fairly recent. Annex VI of the international Marpol-convention, regulating\\u000a the emissions of CFCs, Halons, Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) from cargoes, emissions from incinerators and exhaust gas\\u000a emissions from engines (NOx and SOx) entered into force in May 2005. The International Maritime Organization is currently discussing an upgrade of the air pollution\\u000a issues

Alexander P. Burgel

2007-01-01

173

Ambient air pollution exposure and cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiologic evidence on the relation between ambient air pollution exposure and cancer is reviewed. The well-documented urban\\/rural difference in lung cancer incidence and the detection of known carcinogens in the atmosphere gave rise to the hypothesis that long-term exposure to air pollution may have an effect on lung cancer risk. However, problems inherent in assessing adequately the exposure of interest

K. Katsouyanni; G. Pershagen

1997-01-01

174

Air pollution assessment on city of Tirana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Air pollution is one of the hot topics on nowadays studies. This problem is often encountered on urban centers, especially on metropolitan areas. These areas are usually characterized by densely population, heavy traffic rates and the presence of many industrial plants on their suburbs. Problems regarding to air pollution on these areas are more evident over metropolitan areas in developing countries. Air pollution is mostly related to health effects, especially in outdoor environments. These effects regards primarily on respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Air pollution assessment on a specific area requires not only the estimation of pollutant concentrations in that area, but also determination of their principal sources as well as prediction of eventual scenarios on the area under investigation. This study is focused on air pollution assessment on the city of Tirana, which is the major urban centre and the capital city of Albania. This city has about one million inhabitants. During the last 20 years, its population has grown about four fold, and it is still growing. Because of Albania is a developing country, its capital city is involved on serious environmental problems. Considering these facts, we have conducted continuous monitoring campaigns on several sites of Tirana. These monitoring campaigns consist on measurement of several pollutant gases (SO2, CO, CO2, NOx, etc.) and particulate matter over a period of 20 months. In this paper there are obtained diurnal and annual variations of pollutant concentrations, there is modeled their spatial distributions over the area of the city, and there are estimated the potential contributions of principal sources like traffic and industrial plants. During the entire monitoring campaign there are recorded also meteorological parameters, like temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind speed, wind direction, precipitations, etc. In this way we have tried to obtain the correlations between pollutant concentrations and meteorological parameters, and so to estimate their contribution on air pollution situation in this city. Overall measurement results indicate a critical situation of air pollution in this city, where pollutant concentrations exceed international recommendations. Because of in Albania these types of studies are very rare; the air pollution assessment in the capital city Tirana has an enormous importance not only for this city but also in general for entire the country.

Mandija, F.; Zoga, P.

2012-04-01

175

THE GEOMET INDOOR-OUTDOOR AIR POLLUTION MODEL  

EPA Science Inventory

This report documents the formulation of the GEOMET Indoor-Outdoor Air Pollution (GIOAP) model. The model estimates indoor air pollutant concentrations as a function of outdoor pollutant levels, indoor pollutant generation sources rates, pollutant chemical decay rates, and air ex...

176

[Air pollution and asthma in childhood].  

PubMed

Exposure to outdoor air pollutants and passive tobacco smoke are common but avoidable worldwide risk factors for morbidity and mortality of individuals. In addition to well-known effects of pollutants on the cardiovascular system and the development of cancer, in recent years the association between air pollution and respiratory morbidity has become increasingly apparent. Not only in adults, but also in children with asthma and in healthy children a clear harmful effect of exposure towards air pollutants has been demonstrated in many studies. Among others increased pollution has been shown to result in more frequent and more severe respiratory symptoms, more frequent exacerbations, higher need for asthma medication, poorer lung function and increased visits to the emergency department and more frequent hospitalisations. While these associations are well established, the available data on the role of air pollution in the development of asthma seems less clear. Some studies have shown that increased exposure towards tobacco smoke and air pollution leads to an increase in asthma incidence and prevalence; others were not able to confirm those findings. Possible reasons for this discrepancy are different definitions of the outcome asthma, different methods for exposure estimation and differences in the populations studied with differing underlying genetic backgrounds. Regardless of this inconsistency, several mechanisms have already been identified linking air pollution with asthma development. Among these are impaired lung growth and development, immunological changes, genetic or epigenetic effects or increased predisposition for allergic sensitisation. What the exact interactions are and which asthmatic phenotypes will be influenced most by pollutants will be shown by future studies. This knowledge will then be helpful in exploring possible preventive measures for the individual and to help policy makers in deciding upon most appropriate regulations on a population level. PMID:24297855

Latzin, Philipp

2013-12-01

177

Clean Air Slots Amid Atmospheric Pollution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Layering in the Earth's atmosphere is most commonly seen where parts of the atmosphere resist the incursion of air parcels from above and below - for example, when there is an increase in temperature with height over a particular altitude range. Pollutants tend to accumulate underneath the resulting stable layers. which is why visibility often increases markedly above certain altitudes. Here we describe the occurrence of an opposite effect, in which stable layers generate a layer of remarkably clean air (we refer to these layers as clean-air 'slots') sandwiched between layers of polluted air. We have observed clean-air slots in various locations around the world, but they are particularly well defined and prevalent in southern Africa during the dry season August-September). This is because at this time in this region, stable layers are common and pollution from biomass burning is widespread.

Hobbs, Peter V.

2002-01-01

178

Estimating Air Pollution Retention Across Different Spatial Scales  

EPA Science Inventory

Air pollutant concentrations in street canyons can be described in terms of local meteorology and pollution sources. Both field and wind tunnel dispersion studies have been used to understand how air pollutant concentrations and meteorology are interrelated. However, a disconnect...

179

Instrumentation for Air Pollution Monitoring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the techniques which form the basis of current commercial instrumentation for monitoring five major gaseous atmospheric pollutants (sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, oxidants, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons). (JR)

Hollowell, Craig D.; McLaughlin, Ralph D.

1973-01-01

180

Urban Air Pollution: State of the Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the highly complex mixture of gaseous and particulate matter found in urban air. Explains progress made in the understanding of the physics and chemistry of air pollution, the effects of precursors on ozone, the role of biogenic hydrocarbons, and the principal benefit of methanol-fueled vehicles. (RT)

Seinfeld, John H.

1989-01-01

181

Asthma and ambient air pollution in Helsinki  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To study whether ambient air levels of sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), total suspended particulates (TSP), and ozone (O3) affect the number of hospital admissions for asthma. DESIGN: The associations between the daily number of admissions and air pollutants were analysed with Poisson regression, taking into account potential confounding factors by using the standardised protocol of the APHEA

A Pönkä; M Virtanen

1996-01-01

182

HOW GOOD ARE AMBIENT AIR POLLUTION MEASUREMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

In accordance with Federal regulations, state and local air pollution control agencies have, since January 1, 1981, been performing special checks of their ambient air measurement systems to assess the precision and accuracy of the monitoring data. The measurement methods involve...

183

Air pollution by concentrated animal feeding operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

With large concentrations of animals at individual facilities, animal production may be accompanied by environmental problems. One concern is whether adverse health effects may occur due to the emission of contaminants into the air. Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) emit ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, particulate matter, volatile organic compounds, and other hazardous air pollutants. Under current environmental regulations in the United

Parag Patel; Terence J. Centner

2010-01-01

184

Parking, energy consumption and air pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the impacts of different ways of parking on environmental effects, mainly vehicle emissions and air pollution. Vehicle energy consumption and the urban air quality at street level, related to location and design of parking establishments, need to be assessed and quantified. In addition, the indoor parking environment needs attention.This paper gives a description of a methodological approach

Paul G. Höglund

2004-01-01

185

Mobile Sensors and Applications for Air Pollutants  

EPA Science Inventory

Executive Summary The public has long been interested in understanding what pollutants are in the air they breathe so they can best protect their environmental health and welfare. The current air quality monitoring network consists of discrete stations with expensive equipment ...

186

Air Pollution Potential from Electroplating Operations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Measurements were made of emission rates from electroplating operations considered to have maximum air pollution potential. Sampling was performed at McClellan and additional data from a previous survey at Hill Air Force Base was used. Values obtained were extremely low. Based on existing Federal standards, no collectors are specifically required…

Diamond, Philip

187

Ambient Air Pollution and Population Health: Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

In November 2003 approximately 200 researchers, stakeholders, and policymakers from more than 40 countries gathered to discuss the science and policy implications of air pollution and human health as part of the AIRNET\\/NERAM Strategies for Clean Air and Health initiative. The purpose of this paper is to review the more than 35 research posters presented at the conference, including exposure,

Daniel Krewski; Daniel Rainham

2007-01-01

188

Measurement of toxic and related air pollutants  

SciTech Connect

A joint conference for the fifth straight year cosponsored by the Air and Waste Management Association's EM-3, EM-4, and ITF-2 technical committees, and the Atmospheric Research and Exposure Assessment Laboratory (AREAL) of the US Environmental Protection Agency, was held in Raleigh, North Carolina, May 1-4, 1990. The technical program consisted of 187 presentations, held in 20 technical sessions, on recent advances in the measurement and monitoring of toxic and related pollutants found in ambient and source atmospheres. Covering a wide range of measurement topics and supported by 66 exhibitors of instrumentation and consulting services, the symposium was attended by more than 850 professionals from the US and other countries. This overview highlights a selection of the technical presentations. A synopsis of the keynote address to the symposium is also included. Presentations include: (1) radon, (2) atmospheric chemistry and fate of toxic pollutants, (3) supercritical fluid extraction, (4) acidic deposition, (5) determination of polar and volatile organic pollutants in ambient air, (6) Delaware Superfund innovative technology evaluation (SITE) study, (7) mobile sources emissions characterization, (8) Superfund site air monitoring, (9) exposure assessment, (10) chemometrics and environmental data analysis, (11) nicotine in environmental tobacco smoke, (12) source monitoring, (13) effects of air toxics on plants, (14) measurement of volatile organic pollutants, (15) general, (16) air pollution dispersion modeling, (17) measurement of hazardous waste emissions, (18) measurement of indoor toxic air contaminants, and (19) environmental quality assurance.

Jayanty, R.K.M.; Gay, B.W. Jr.

1990-12-01

189

Analysis on the correlation of atmospheric path radiation and air pollution index  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional ground-based air pollution observations are difficult to indicate the spatial distribution of pollutant and its changes. To overcome the difficulty, this paper proposes a method which is used to monitor the distribution of urban air pollution by using remote sensing technology. The method uses surface reflectance image to extract the weak atmospheric information from MODIS data, and then generate

Zheng Cheng-Jian; Li Xian-Hua; Huang Wei; Shi Xiang-Yong; Luo Qing-Zhou

2009-01-01

190

ORIMULSION(R) RESEARCH STUDY (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)  

EPA Science Inventory

In response to a 1998 Congressional request, the Air Pollution Technology Branch (APTB) of NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division began research as part of a study to evaluate the environmental impacts of Orimulsion(R). Orimulsion(R)is a fossil fuel composed of 70%...

191

78 FR 12267 - Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Placer County Air Pollution Control...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Plan; California; Placer County Air Pollution Control District and Feather River...revision to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and...modification of stationary sources of air pollution within each District. EPA...

2013-02-22

192

78 FR 58460 - Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Placer County Air Pollution Control...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Plan; California; Placer County Air Pollution Control District and Feather River...revision to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and...modification of stationary sources of air pollution within each District. We...

2013-09-24

193

Healthy Neighborhoods: Walkability and Air Pollution  

PubMed Central

Background The built environment may influence health in part through the promotion of physical activity and exposure to pollution. To date, no studies have explored interactions between neighborhood walkability and air pollution exposure. Methods We estimated concentrations of nitric oxide (NO), a marker for direct vehicle emissions), and ozone (O3) and a neighborhood walkability score, for 49,702 (89% of total) postal codes in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. NO concentrations were estimated from a land-use regression model, O3 was estimated from ambient monitoring data; walkability was calculated based on geographic attributes such as land-use mix, street connectivity, and residential density. Results All three attributes exhibit an urban–rural gradient, with high walkability and NO concentrations, and low O3 concentrations, near the city center. Lower-income areas tend to have higher NO concentrations and walkability and lower O3 concentrations. Higher-income areas tend to have lower pollution (NO and O3). “Sweet-spot” neighborhoods (low pollution, high walkability) are generally located near but not at the city center and are almost exclusively higher income. Policy implications Increased concentration of activities in urban settings yields both health costs and benefits. Our research identifies neighborhoods that do especially well (and especially poorly) for walkability and air pollution exposure. Work is needed to ensure that the poor do not bear an undue burden of urban air pollution and that neighborhoods designed for walking, bicycling, or mass transit do not adversely affect resident’s exposure to air pollution. Analyses presented here could be replicated in other cities and tracked over time to better understand interactions among neighborhood walkability, air pollution exposure, and income level.

Marshall, Julian D.; Brauer, Michael; Frank, Lawrence D.

2009-01-01

194

Chemical air pollutants and otorhinolaryngeal toxicity  

SciTech Connect

Air pollution and the specific issue regarding the impact of airborne chemical agents to human health are familiar topics to most members of the environmental health science and environmental medicine communities. Some aspects, however, have received relatively less attention. Much has been published regarding the impact of air pollutants on the human upper and lower respiratory system, including interaction with the rhinologic (nasal) system. Relatively fewer data have been published, however, regarding the potential impact of air pollutants in reference specifically to the otologic (auditory and vestibular) and the laryngeal (larynx) system. Adverse impact to the ears, nose and throat, referred to as the otorhinolaryngeal system'', warrants attention as an important environmental health issue. Toxic interactions from exposure to many chemical air pollutants not only causes potential respiratory irritation and lung disease, but can also result in impaired hearing, balance, sense of smell, taste, and speech due to interaction with related target systems. This may be significant to environmental health risk assessment of chemical air pollutants if multi-target site models are considered.

Bisesi, M.S.; Rubin, A.M. (Medical Coll. of Ohio, Toledo, OH (United States). Occupational Health and Otolaryngology)

1994-03-01

195

Ambient air pollution: a cause of COPD?  

PubMed

The role of ambient air pollution in the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is considered to be uncertain. We review the evidence in the light of recent studies. Eight morbidity and six mortality studies were identified. These were heterogeneous in design, characterisation of exposure to air pollution and methods of outcome definition. Six morbidity studies with objectively defined COPD (forced expiratory volume in 1 s/forced vital capacity ratio) were cross-sectional analyses. One longitudinal study defined incidence of COPD as the first hospitalisation due to COPD. However, neither mortality nor hospitalisation studies can unambiguously distinguish acute from long-term effects on the development of the underlying pathophysiological changes. Most studies were based on within-community exposure contrasts, which mainly assess traffic-related air pollution. Overall, evidence of chronic effects of air pollution on the prevalence and incidence of COPD among adults was suggestive but not conclusive, despite plausible biological mechanisms and good evidence that air pollution affects lung development in childhood and triggers exacerbations in COPD patients. To fully integrate this evidence in the assessment, the life-time course of COPD should be better defined. Larger studies with longer follow-up periods, specific definitions of COPD phenotypes, and more refined and source-specific exposure assessments are needed. PMID:23471349

Schikowski, Tamara; Mills, Inga C; Anderson, H Ross; Cohen, Aaron; Hansell, Anna; Kauffmann, Francine; Krämer, Ursula; Marcon, Alessandro; Perez, Laura; Sunyer, Jordi; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Künzli, Nino

2014-01-01

196

AIR POLLUTION CONTROL ALTERNATIVES FOR SHALE OIL PRODUCTION OPERATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report consolidates, evaluates, and presents available air pollution emission data and air pollution control technology relevant to oil shale production, for use by project developers in preparing environmental impact statements and permit applications under Clean Air Act and...

197

Urban air pollution and solar energy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design and performance of solar energy systems for many potential applications (industrial/residential heat, electricity generation by solar concentration and photovoltaics) will be critically affected by local insolation conditions. The effects of urban air pollution are considered and reviewed. A study of insolation data for Alhambra, California (9 km south of Pasadena) shows that, during a recent second-stage photochemical smog alert (greater than or equal to 0.35 ppm ozone), the direct-beam insolation at solar noon was reduced by 40%, and the total global by 15%, from clean air values. Similar effects have been observed in Pasadena, and are attributable primarily to air pollution. Effects due to advecting smog have been detected 200 km away, in the Mojave Desert. Preliminary performance and economic simulations of solar thermal and photovoltaic power systems indicate increasing nonlinear sensitivity of life cycle plant cost to reductions in insolation levels due to pollution.

Gammon, R. B.; Huning, J. R.; Reid, M. S.; Smith, J. H.

1981-01-01

198

Air Pollution in the Pacific Northwest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to measuring and identifying sources of air pollution, as well as how environmental engineers try to control and limit the amount of air pollution. In Part 1, students are introduced to nitrogen dioxide as an air pollutant and how it is quantified. Major sources are identified, using EPA bar graphs. Students identify major cities and determine their latitudes and longitudes. They estimate NO2 values from color maps showing monthly NO2 averages from two sources: a NASA satellite and the WSU forecast model AIRPACT. In Part 2, students continue to estimate NO2 values from color maps and use Excel to calculate differences and ratios to determine the model's performance. They gain experience working with very large numbers written in scientific notation, as well as spreadsheet application capabilities.

CREAM GK-12 Program, Engineering Education Research Center, College of Engineering and Architecture,

199

Controlled Exposures to Air Pollutants and Risk of Cardiac Arrhythmia  

PubMed Central

Background: Epidemiological studies have reported associations between air pollution exposure and increases in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Exposure to air pollutants can influence cardiac autonomic tone and reduce heart rate variability, and may increase the risk of cardiac arrhythmias, particularly in susceptible patient groups. Objectives: We investigated the incidence of cardiac arrhythmias during and after controlled exposure to air pollutants in healthy volunteers and patients with coronary heart disease. Methods: We analyzed data from 13 double-blind randomized crossover studies including 282 participants (140 healthy volunteers and 142 patients with stable coronary heart disease) from whom continuous electrocardiograms were available. The incidence of cardiac arrhythmias was recorded for each exposure and study population. Results: There were no increases in any cardiac arrhythmia during or after exposure to dilute diesel exhaust, wood smoke, ozone, concentrated ambient particles, engineered carbon nanoparticles, or high ambient levels of air pollution in either healthy volunteers or patients with coronary heart disease. Conclusions: Acute controlled exposure to air pollutants did not increase the short-term risk of arrhythmia in participants. Research employing these techniques remains crucial in identifying the important pathophysiological pathways involved in the adverse effects of air pollution, and is vital to inform environmental and public health policy decisions. Citation: Langrish JP, Watts SJ, Hunter AJ, Shah AS, Bosson JA, Unosson J, Barath S, Lundbäck M, Cassee FR, Donaldson K, Sandström T, Blomberg A, Newby DE, Mills NL. 2014. Controlled exposures to air pollutants and risk of cardiac arrhythmia. Environ Health Perspect 122:747–753;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307337

Watts, Simon J.; Hunter, Amanda J.; Shah, Anoop S.V.; Bosson, Jenny A.; Unosson, Jon; Barath, Stefan; Lundback, Magnus; Cassee, Flemming R.; Donaldson, Ken; Sandstrom, Thomas; Blomberg, Anders; Newby, David E.; Mills, Nicholas L.

2014-01-01

200

Controlled exposures to air pollutants and risk of cardiac arrhythmia.  

PubMed

Background: Epidemiological studies have reported associations between air pollution exposure and increases in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Exposure to air pollutants can influence cardiac autonomic tone and reduce heart rate variability, and may increase the risk of cardiac arrhythmias, particularly in susceptible patient groups.Objectives: We investigated the incidence of cardiac arrhythmias during and after controlled exposure to air pollutants in healthy volunteers and patients with coronary heart disease.Methods: We analyzed data from 13 double-blind randomized crossover studies including 282 participants (140 healthy volunteers and 142 patients with stable coronary heart disease) from whom continuous electrocardiograms were available. The incidence of cardiac arrhythmias was recorded for each exposure and study population.Results: There were no increases in any cardiac arrhythmia during or after exposure to dilute diesel exhaust, wood smoke, ozone, concentrated ambient particles, engineered carbon nanoparticles, or high ambient levels of air pollution in either healthy volunteers or patients with coronary heart disease.Conclusions: Acute controlled exposure to air pollutants did not increase the short-term risk of arrhythmia in participants. Research employing these techniques remains crucial in identifying the important pathophysiological pathways involved in the adverse effects of air pollution, and is vital to inform environmental and public health policy decisions.Citation: Langrish JP, Watts SJ, Hunter AJ, Shah AS, Bosson JA, Unosson J, Barath S, Lundbäck M, Cassee FR, Donaldson K, Sandström T, Blomberg A, Newby DE, Mills NL. 2014. Controlled exposures to air pollutants and risk of cardiac arrhythmia. Environ Health Perspect 122:747-753;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307337. PMID:24667535

Langrish, Jeremy P; Watts, Simon J; Hunter, Amanda J; Shah, Anoop S V; Bosson, Jenny A; Unosson, Jon; Barath, Stefan; Lundbäck, Magnus; Cassee, Flemming R; Donaldson, Ken; Sandström, Thomas; Blomberg, Anders; Newby, David E; Mills, Nicholas L

2014-07-01

201

AEROMETRIC INFORMATION RETRIEVAL SYSTEM (AIRS) EXECUTIVE  

EPA Science Inventory

Aerometric Information Retrieval System (AIRS) is a computer-based repository of information about airborne pollution in the United States and various World Health Organization (WHO) member countries. AIRS is administered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and runs on t...

202

AEROMETRIC INFORMATION RETRIEVAL SYSTEM - AIRS FACILITY SUBSYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

Aerometric Information Retrieval System (AIRS) is a computer-based repository of information about airborne pollution in the United States and various World Health Organization (WHO) member countries. AIRS is administered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and runs on t...

203

Methods of valuing air pollution and estimated monetary values of air pollutants in various U.S. regions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Air pollutant emission values are used to determine the social costs of various technologies that cause air pollution and to estimate the benefits of emission control technologies. In this report, the authors present two methods of estimating air pollutan...

M. Q. Wang D. J. Santini S. A. Warinner

1994-01-01

204

Air Pollution in the Mexico Megacity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mexico City is a megacity whose metropolitan area includes the country federal district, 18 municipalities of the State of Mexico. In year 1992, only 16 municipalities of the State of Mexico were part of MCMA. In year 1940 the Mexico City population was 1.78 millions in an area of 118 km2, in year 2000 the population was 17.9 millions in an area of 1,500 km2. Population has grown a ten fold whereas population density has dropped 20%. Total number of private cars has grown from 2,341,731 in year 1998 to 2,967,893 in year 2004. Nowadays, people and goods travel longer at lower speed to reach school, work and selling points. In addition highly efficient public transport lost a significant share of transport demand from 19.1 in 1986 to 14.3 in 1998. Air pollution is a public concern since early eighties last century; systematic public efforts have been carried out since late eighties. Energy consumption has steadily increased in the MCMA whereas emissions have also decreased. From year 2000 to 2004, the private cars fleet increased 17% whereas CO, NOx and COV emissions decreased between 20-30%. Average concentrations of criteria pollutants have decreased The number of days that the one-hour national standard for bad air quality was exceeded in year 1990 was 160. In year 2005 was 70. Research efforts and public policies on air pollution have been focused on public health. We are now better able to estimate the cost in human lives due to air pollution, or the cost in labor lost due to illness. Little if none at all work has been carried out to look at the effect of air pollution on private and public property or onto the cultural heritage. Few reports have can be found on the impact of air pollution in rural areas, including forest and crops, around the mega city. Mexico City is in the south end of a Valley with mountain ranges higher than 1000 m above the average city altitude. In spite the heavy loss of forested areas to the city, the mountains still retain large forest under strong demographic pressure and under heavy impact of air pollution. Flow patterns induced by complex terrain in the center of Mexico induce strong interaction between the mega city and the rural areas in the Mexico Basin. In and out mesoscale transport to and from the neighboring valleys with cities already larger than one million inhabitants increase the complexity of air pollution processes. Fast urbanization in these valleys suggests even more complicated and full of concerns scenarios. Some recent results on these issues will be shown.

Ruiz-Suarez, L. G.

2007-05-01

205

Worldwide training in air pollution control  

SciTech Connect

A survey of academic training in air pollution control was recently conducted for the APCA Education Council. Questionnaires were sent to faculty at over 200 universities in the United States and 150 universities around the world. This paper lists the schools which completed the questionnaire and includes the number of both undergraduate and graduate courses available, the academic department, and the range of research projects presently underway. The findings indicate that air pollution is a subject being taught worldwide. Most schools predict that their current level of instruction will not change in the next five years.

Cota, H.M.

1984-07-01

206

Integrated systems for forecasting urban meteorology, air pollution and population exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban air pollution is associated with significant adverse health effects. Model-based abatement strategies are required and developed for the growing urban populations. In the initial development stage, these are focussed on ex- ceedances of air quality standards caused by high short-term pollutant concentrations. Prediction of health effects and im- plementation of urban air quality information and abatement systems require accurate

A. Baklanov; L. H. Slørdal; J. Kukkonen; N. Bjergene; B. Fay; S. Finardi; S. C. Hoe; M. Jantunen; A. Karppinen; A. Rasmussen; A. Skouloudis; R. S. Sokhi; J. H. Sørensen; V. Ødegaard

2007-01-01

207

Waste-to-energy plants air pollution control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book identifies and describes the available approaches to air pollution control for Waste-to-Energy facilities on a comparative basis. It discusses limits of performance together with costs in detail and provides a single ''road map'' on the entire subject designed to save time and money in research. The book covers a wealth of technical information geared toward overcoming the stumbling

1987-01-01

208

Impact of air pollutants on athletic performance  

SciTech Connect

Human controlled and observational studies both lead to the conclusion of air pollution adversely affecting athletic performance during training and competition. The dosage of various air pollutants during exercise is much higher due to the marked increase in ventilatory rate and concomitant nasal and oral breathing. This is particularly true for sulfur dioxide which is a highly water-soluble gas and is normally absorbed in the upper airway during nasal breathing. With heavy exercise, oral pharyngeal breathing is the predominant mode of breathing and much larger amounts of sulfur dioxide are delivered to the lower airway resulting in significant impact upon the lower respiratory tract. More recently, several controlled human studies have shown that a combination of exercise and air pollutants such as ozone (O3) or sulfur dioxides (SO2) cause a significant increase in bronchoconstriction and air flow obstruction when compared to the same exposure at rest. In strenuous athletic competition such as the Olympic Games where small increments of time often determine the ultimate success of athletes, the impact of air pollutants and subsequent adverse ventilatory changes can affect athletic performance. 62 references.

Pierson, W.E. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle (USA))

1989-05-01

209

Outdoor air pollution and lung cancer.  

PubMed Central

In the 1950s evidence of an ongoing epidemic of lung cancer in the United States and Western Europe led researchers to examine the role of outdoor air pollution, which was considered by some to be a likely cause. Although epidemiologic research quickly identified the central role of cigarette smoking in this epidemic, and despite progress in reducing outdoor air pollution in Western industrialized countries, concerns that ambient air pollution is causing lung cancer have persisted to the present day. This concern is based on the fact that known carcinogens continue to be released into outdoor air from industrial sources, power plants, and motor vehicles, and on a body of epidemiologic research that provides some evidence for an association between outdoor air pollution and lung cancer. This article reviews the epidemiologic evidence for this association and discusses the limitations of current studies for estimating the lung cancer risk in the general population. It also identifies research needs and suggests possible approaches to addressing outstanding questions.

Cohen, A J

2000-01-01

210

Analysis of air pollutants by PIXE: The second decade  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis of air pollution by PIXE was the earliest and one of the most successful applications of the technique. In the first decade that followed the pioneering paper of Johansson et al. in 1970 [1], many innovative programs grew up around the technique. By 1980, five of the six largest PIXE groups in the world listed analyses of air pollutants as their most numerous sample type [2], with more than 30000 analyses in the year 1979 alone. The purpose of this article is to examine the role of PIXE in air pollution in the second decade, to see to what degree the bright promises of the 1970s have been realized, to examine the reasons for the successes and the failures, and to attempt to use this information to predict the role of PIXE in the next decade.

Cahill, Thomas A.

1990-04-01

211

Control pollution by air flotation  

SciTech Connect

The factors that affect the performance of induced air flotation CEM systems are gas availibility, influent loading, chemical conditioning, and skimmer operation. The relative significance of these factors is studied. A bench-scale induced air flotation system has been designed and equipped with sampling and analysis devices to monitor performance as a function of time. It is found that absorbence declines rapidly from the time that air is inducted into the flotation cell. Equations for the rate of oil removal from the wastewater is determined. Oil Concentration factor is also studied. Finally, the use of cationic polyelectrolytes, such as polymers that aid flotation, can be implemented to enhance the polymer-interface interaction and minimize polymer-water interactions which slow down the process.

Burkhardt, C.W.

1983-05-01

212

The Role of Air Pollutants in Initiating Liver Disease  

PubMed Central

Recent episodes of severe air pollution in eastern Asia have been reported in the scientific literature and news media. Therefore, there is growing concern about the systemic effects of air pollution on human health. Along with the other well-known harmful effects of air pollution, recently, several animal models have provided strong evidence that air pollutants can induce liver toxicity and act to accelerate liver inflammation and steatosis. This review briefly describes examples where exposure to air pollutants was involved in liver toxicity, focusing on how particulate matter (PM) or carbon black (CB) may be translocated from lung to liver and what liver diseases are closely associated with these air pollutants.

Kim, Jong Won; Park, Surim; Lim, Chae Woong; Lee, Kyuhong

2014-01-01

213

[Pollution of room air by building materials].  

PubMed

Due to better insulation and airtight windows and doors, the supply of fresh air is reduced. Therefore the pollutants which are continuously emitted from different materials into the room air are considerably increased. Measurements of the formaldehyde concentrations in new buildings have shown that after a year the admissible limits are still exceeded. Stricter regulations are necessary to limit the emissions of building- and insulation materials. PMID:7158069

Kuhn, M; Wanner, H U

1982-10-01

214

Ambient Air Pollution and Oxygen Saturation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the association between fine particulate air pollu- tion and oxygen saturation as measured with a peripheral oxygen saturation monitor during a 12-week repeated-measures study of 28 older Boston residents. Oxygen saturation and air pollution par- ticulates with a mean diameter less than or equal to 2.5 m were measured continuously during a protocol of rest, standing, exercise, postexercise

Dawn L. DeMeo; Antonella Zanobetti; Augusto A. Litonjua; Brent A. Coull; Joel Schwartz; Diane R. Gold

2004-01-01

215

Source Book on Air Pollution Topics for Grade and High School Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication provides background information and activity suggestions on air pollution and related environmental topics. Student projects and experiments which can be adapted at both elementary and secondary levels are also provided. Information is organized in three parts. Part I covers basic facts about air pollutants including the types,…

Brennan, Eileen G., Ed.; McGovern, John J., Ed.

216

Health impact of air pollution to children.  

PubMed

Health impact of air pollution to children was studied over the last twenty years in heavily polluted parts of the Czech Republic during. The research program (Teplice Program) analyzed these effects in the polluted district Teplice (North Bohemia) and control district Prachatice (Southern Bohemia). Study of pregnancy outcomes for newborns delivered between 1994 and 1998 demonstrated that increase in intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) was associated with PM10 and c-PAHs exposure (carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) in the first month of gestation. Morbidity was followed in the cohort of newborns (N=1492) up to the age of 10years. Coal combustion in homes was associated with increased incidence of lower respiratory track illness and impaired early childhood skeletal growth up to the age of 3years. In preschool children, we observed the effect of increased concentrations of PM2.5 and PAHs on development of bronchitis. The Northern Moravia Region (Silesia) is characterized by high concentrations of c-PAHs due to industrial air pollution. Exposure to B[a]P (benzo[a]pyrene) in Ostrava-Radvanice is the highest in the EU. Children from this part of the city of Ostrava suffered higher incidence of acute respiratory diseases in the first year of life. Gene expression profiles in leukocytes of asthmatic children compared to children without asthma were evaluated in groups from Ostrava-Radvanice and Prachatice. The results suggest the distinct molecular phenotype of asthma bronchiale in children living in polluted Ostrava region compared to children living in Prachatice. The effect of exposure to air pollution to biomarkers in newborns was analyzed in Prague vs. Ceske Budejovice, two locations with different levels of pollution in winter season. B[a]P concentrations were higher in Ceske Budejovice. DNA adducts and micronuclei were also elevated in cord blood in Ceske Budejovice in comparison to Prague. Study of gene expression profiles in the cord blood showed differential expression of 104 genes. Specifically, biological processes related to immune and defense response were down-regulated in Ceske Budejovice. Our studies demonstrate that air pollution significantly affect child health. Especially noticeable is the increase of respiratory morbidity. With the development of molecular epidemiology, we can further evaluate the health risk of air pollution using biomarkers. PMID:23312845

Sram, Radim J; Binkova, Blanka; Dostal, Miroslav; Merkerova-Dostalova, Michaela; Libalova, Helena; Milcova, Alena; Rossner, Pavel; Rossnerova, Andrea; Schmuczerova, Jana; Svecova, Vlasta; Topinka, Jan; Votavova, Hana

2013-08-01

217

Air Quality  

MedlinePLUS

... the air we breathe. For more information about air pollution from mobile sources: Office of Transportation and Air ... ambient air quality standards, to prevent or alleviate air pollution emergencies, to observe pollution trends throughout regions, and ...

218

Earth Under Siege: From Air Pollution to Global Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lucky indeed are the students taking Richard Turco's course and using his book, Earth Under Siege: From Air Pollution to Global Change. They have an enthusiastic and communicative lecturer who is a true authority in his field and who passionately devotes his efforts to enlightening his students.The passion is evident in the text, but it never interferes with the rigor of the material presented.Earth Under Siege is based on lectures given by Turco in a popular course for undergraduate students of all stripes at the University of California at Los Angeles. Student knowledge that is provided by a high school college preparatory curriculum is assumed.The style is engagingly informal and the book is a delight to read. Sprinkled throughout are pithy comments, many humorous, that are designed to heighten student understanding and interest. They also reveal Turco's personal opinions about issues of air pollution. However, despite the title, it is clear that Turco is not an environmental zealot. He is scientifically accurate and thorough in presenting vital information about air pollution on all scales, local through global. He is also clear-eyed and nondoctrinaire in presenting social, political, and economic aspects of air pollution. His devotion is to the education of individuals who can become informed members of an environmentally aware society.

Friend, James P.

219

Air pollution, acid rain and the environment  

SciTech Connect

This book reports on the Watt Committee's working group on acid rain, which was set up in 1981. The authors consider the relationship between natural and the man-made factors and the effects of possible remedial strategies. In the first phase of the study, the group looked at the fate of airborne pollution, vegetation and soils, freshwater and remedial strategy. In this report, which contains the results of a further phase of study, these topics are included and have been brought up to date. The scope of the report is extended to include buildings and non-living materials. Consideration is given to the problem of acid rain and air pollution worldwide. Emphasis is placed on the United Kingdom. The main conclusion is that more research is necessary on some aspects of acid rain and air pollution, but that some of the reports widespread damage caused by acid rain cannot be confirmed.

Mellanby, K.

1988-01-01

220

MESOSCALE AIR POLLUTION TRANSPORT IN SOUTHEAST WISCONSIN  

EPA Science Inventory

This research program comprised a comprehensive study of mesoscale meteorological regimes on the western shore of Lake Michigan and their effect upon air pollution dispersion and transport. It is felt that the results are applicable in a generic way to other mid-latitude coastal ...

221

Breathing Easy About New Air Pollution Standards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A town meeting is the backdrop for a role-playing case about ground-level ozone air pollution. The case consists of a flier and scripts drawn from public comment records on the government mandate to reduce ground-level ozone by limiting nitrogen oxide emissions. Students play the parts of stakeholders and develop recommendations for reducing emissions.

Rowberg, Kathryn L.

2000-01-01

222

EVALUATING SOURCES OF INDOOR AIR POLLUTION  

EPA Science Inventory

The article discusses a three-phase approach, employing environmental chambers, indoor air quality (IAQ) models, and test house experiments, that is effective in linking sources of indoor pollutants to measured concentrations. mission factors developed in test chambers can be use...

223

Monitoring human exposure to urban air pollutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multidisciplinary study on a general population exposed to vehicle exhaust was undertaken in Pisa in 1991. Environmental factors such as air pollution and those associated with lifestyle were studied. Meanwhile, biological and medical indicators of health condition were investigated. Chromosomal aberrations, sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs), and micronuclei in lymphocytes were included for the assessment of the genotoxic risk. Because

R. Barale; I. Barrai; A. Marrazzini

1993-01-01

224

Changing the Paradigm of Air Pollution Monitoring  

EPA Science Inventory

Historically, approaches for monitoring air pollution generally use expensive, complex, stationary equipment,1,2 which limits who collects data, why data are collected, and how data are accessed. This paradigm is changing with the materialization of lower-cost, easy-to...

225

The economics of enforcing air pollution controls  

Microsoft Academic Search

The likely effects of alternative implementation and enforcement policies available to control agencies on the control of industrial air pollution are examined from an economic point of view. Policy alternatives studied include legal enforcement through the new source performance standards set forth by the Environmental Protection Agency and two effluent fee enforcement policies. A generalized model of the effects of

Paul B. Downing; William Watson Jr.

1974-01-01

226

Particulate air pollution and acute health effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiological studies have consistently shown an association between particulate air pollution and not only exacerbations of illness in people with respiratory disease but also rises in the numbers of deaths from cardiovascular and respiratory disease among older people. Meta-analyses of these studies indicate that the associations are unlikely to be explained by any confounder, and suggest that they represent cause

A. Seaton; D. Godden; W. MacNee; K. Donaldson

1995-01-01

227

Human Exposure to Urban Air Pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study deals with some methods of making human exposure estimates, aimed at describing the human exposure for selected air pollutants in Sweden that are suspected carcinogens. Nitrogen oxides (NOx) have been chosen as an indicator substance for estimating the concentration of the urban plume. Earlier investigations have shown that the traffic in Swedish cities contributes around 85% to the

Carl-Elis Boström; Jacob Almén; Bengt Steen; Roger Westerholm

228

Indoor Air Pollution: An Energy Management Problem?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Energy conservation measures have led to airtight buildings and reduced levels of ventilation resulting in indoor air pollution. Five kinds of contaminants--tobacco smoke, combustion products, microorganisms, organic compounds, and radon--are described, their hazards considered, and countermeasures outlined. (MLF)

Cousins, David M.; Kulba, John W.

1987-01-01

229

Control Techniques for Particulate Air Pollutants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Included is a comprehensive review of the approaches commonly recommended for controlling the sources of particulate air pollution. Not all possible combinations of control techniques that might bring about more stringent control of each individual source are reviewed. The many agricultural, commercial, domestic, industrial, and municipal…

National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

230

Air Pollution Exposure and Immunoglobulin Levels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the study was to determine whether air pollution affects serum levels of immunoglobulins to a different degree in smokers than in nonsmokers. The sera tested were obtained from army recruits in the Chicago area, 517 smokers and 147 nonsmo...

1974-01-01

231

REGIONAL AIR POLLUTION STUDY: HEAT EMISSION INVENTORY  

EPA Science Inventory

As part of the St. Louis Regional Air Pollution Study (RAPS), a heat emission inventory has been assembled. Heat emissions to the atmosphere originate, directly or indirectly, from the combustion of fossil fuels (there are no nuclear plants in the St. Louis AQCR). With the except...

232

AIR POLLUTION EFFECTS ON SEMEN QUALITY  

EPA Science Inventory

The potential impact of exposure to periods of high air pollution on male reproductive health was examined within the framework of an international project conducted in the Czech Republic. Semen quality was evaluated in young men (age 18) living in the Teplice District who are ex...

233

76 FR 60376 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control District, Sacramento...revisions to the Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control District (SBAPCD...52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by...

2011-09-29

234

76 FR 30080 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District and Ventura County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...revisions to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD)...

2011-05-24

235

76 FR 30025 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District and Ventura County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...revisions to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD)...

2011-05-24

236

76 FR 67369 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Plan, Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District and Imperial County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District...

2011-11-01

237

Comprehensive Air Pollution Control Plan. Part 1. Data Summary: Air Pollution and Meteorology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Common air pollution complaints to the county involve commercial incineration in close proximity to residential areas, caused by careless operating procedures. Improperly operated, the 74 approved small commercial incinerators produce soot, flyash and smo...

D. B. Smith D. H. Scott

1968-01-01

238

RESEARCH AREA -- MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)  

EPA Science Inventory

The municipal waste combustion (MWC) program supports the development of revised rules for air pollutant emissions from the MWC source category. Basic research is performed on MWC pollutant formation and control mechanisms for acid gas, trace organic, and trace metal emissions. T...

239

AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION - HOME PAGE  

EPA Science Inventory

The Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division (APPCD), located in Research Triangle Park, NC, is part of the National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL), which is headquartered in Cincinnati, OH. APPCD researches, develops, and demonstrates air pollution prevention a...

240

The Status of Indoor Air Pollution Research 1976.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Numerous research projects have examined the occurrences of air pollution in outdoor and workplace environments. A smaller, newer body of research has examined air pollution in nonworkplace, indoor environments. A new emphasis on measures to conserve ener...

1977-01-01

241

Costs of Air Pollution Abatement Systems for Sewage Sludge Incinerators.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Capital and annual costs were calculated for applying six different air pollution control systems to municipal sewage sludge incinerators that were using multiple-hearth furnaces. The systems involved three principal types of air pollution equipment-wet s...

G. Annamraju Y. M. Shah M. L. Arora

1986-01-01

242

Urban air pollution and health inequities: a workshop report.  

PubMed Central

Over the past three decades, an array of legislation with attendant regulations has been implemented to enhance the quality of the environment and thereby improve the public's health. Despite the many beneficial changes that have followed, there remains a disproportionately higher prevalence of harmful environmental exposures, particularly air pollution, for certain populations. These populations most often reside in urban settings, have low socioeconomic status, and include a large proportion of ethnic minorities. The disparities between racial/ethnic minority and/or low-income populations in cities and the general population in terms of environmental exposures and related health risks have prompted the "environmental justice" or "environmental equity" movement, which strives to create cleaner environments for the most polluted communities. Achieving cleaner environments will require interventions based on scientific data specific to the populations at risk; however, research in this area has been relatively limited. To assess the current scientific information on urban air pollution and its health impacts and to help set the agenda for immediate intervention and future research, the American Lung Association organized an invited workshop on Urban Air Pollution and Health Inequities held 22-24 October 1999 in Washington, DC. This report builds on literature reviews and summarizes the discussions of working groups charged with addressing key areas relevant to air pollution and health effects in urban environments. An overview was provided of the state of the science for health impacts of air pollution and technologies available for air quality monitoring and exposure assessment. The working groups then prioritized research needs to address the knowledge gaps and developed recommendations for community interventions and public policy to begin to remedy the exposure and health inequities.

2001-01-01

243

Air pollution and multiple acute respiratory outcomes.  

PubMed

Short-term effects of air pollutants on respiratory mortality and morbidity have been consistently reported but usually studied separately. To more completely assess air pollution effects, we studied hospitalisations for respiratory diseases together with out-of-hospital respiratory deaths. A time-stratified case-crossover study was carried out in six Italian cities from 2001 to 2005. Daily particulate matter (particles with a 50% cut-off aerodynamic diameter of 10 ?m (PM10)) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) associations with hospitalisations for respiratory diseases (n = 100 690), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (n = 38 577), lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) among COPD patients (n = 9886) and out-of-hospital respiratory deaths (n = 5490) were estimated for residents aged ?35 years. For an increase of 10 ?g·m(-3) in PM10, we found an immediate 0.59% (lag 0-1 days) increase in hospitalisations for respiratory diseases and a 0.67% increase for COPD; the 1.91% increase in LRTI hospitalisations lasted longer (lag 0-3 days) and the 3.95% increase in respiratory mortality lasted 6 days. Effects of NO2 were stronger and lasted longer (lag 0-5 days). Age, sex and previous ischaemic heart disease acted as effect modifiers for different outcomes. Analysing multiple rather than single respiratory events shows stronger air pollution effects. The temporal relationship between the pollutant increases and hospitalisations or mortality for respiratory diseases differs. PMID:23314899

Faustini, Annunziata; Stafoggia, Massimo; Colais, Paola; Berti, Giovanna; Bisanti, Luigi; Cadum, Ennio; Cernigliaro, Achille; Mallone, Sandra; Scarnato, Corrado; Forastiere, Francesco

2013-08-01

244

Air quality and pollution control in Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to limited land and great emphasis on economic growth in the past, Taiwan has an extremely heavy environmental burden. Population density, factory density, as well as densities of motor vehicles are several times higher than those in the United States and Japan. According to the statistics of 1991, the Pollutant Standards Index (PSI) fell mostly in the "moderate" category, i.e., in the range of 50-100. There were 16.25% of the monitored days with PSI above 100, and 0.51% with PSI beyond 200. Suspended particulates were the major pollutant responsible for PSI above 100, followed by carbon monoxide, ozone, and sulfur dioxide. The measures adopted to control air pollution can be divided into four categories, namely law and regulations, control measures on stationary sources, mobile sources and construction projects. The latest amended Air Pollution Control Act was promulgated on 1 February 1992. Several major revisions were introduced to make the amended Act much more stringent than the 1982 amendment, especially on the offenses likely to endanger public health and welfare. In regard to stationary sources, a permit system was enacted to regulate the establishment and alteration of stationary sources. Designated stationary sources are required to be equipped with automatic monitoring facilities. An inspection and enforcement program have expanded to cover more than 10,000 factories. Major control measures for motor vehicles include introducing stringent emission standards for gasoline-fueled vehicles and diesel cars, setting up ratification and approval program for new vehicle model, promoting the inspection/maintenance program on in-used motorcycles and encouraging the use of unleaded and low sulfur fuels. In order to control the pollution caused by construction work, constructors are required to use low-pollution machinery and engineering methods and incorporate pollution prevention into the construction budget.

Fang, Shu-Hwei; Chen, Hsiung-Wen

245

Ozone, air pollution, and respiratory health.  

PubMed Central

Of the outdoor air pollutants regulated by the Clean Air Act of 1970 (and recently revised in 1990), ozone has been the one pollutant most difficult to control within the federal standards. The known human health effects are all on the respiratory system. At concentrations of ozone which occur during summer air-pollution episodes in many urban metropolitan areas of the United States, a portion of the healthy population is likely to experience symptoms and reversible effects on lung function, particularly if exercising heavily outdoors. More prolonged increase in airway responsiveness and the presence of inflammatory cells and mediators in the airway lining fluid may also result from these naturally occurring exposures. Serial exposures to peak levels of ozone on several consecutive days are more characteristic of pollution episodes in the Northeast United States and may be associated with recurrent symptoms. No "high-risk" or more sensitive group has been found, in contrast to the case of sulfur dioxide, to which asthmatics are more susceptible than normals. The occurrence of multiple exposure episodes within a single year over many years in some areas of California has led to studies looking for chronic effects of ozone exposure on the lung. To date, no conclusive studies have been reported, although further work is under way. Much of what we know about the effects of this gas on the lung are based on controlled exposures to pure gas within an environmental exposure laboratory. Interactions between substances which commonly co-occur in air-pollution episodes are also under investigation.

Beckett, W. S.

1991-01-01

246

Long-Term Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution and Mortality Due to Cardiovascular Disease and Cerebrovascular Disease in Shenyang, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe relationship between ambient air pollution exposure and mortality of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases in human is controversial, and there is little information about how exposures to ambient air pollution contribution to the mortality of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases among Chinese. The aim of the present study was to examine whether exposure to ambient-air pollution increases the risk for cardiovascular

Pengfei Zhang; Guanghui Dong; Baijun Sun; Liwen Zhang; Xi Chen; Nannan Ma; Fei Yu; Huimin Guo; Hui Huang; Yungling Leo Lee; Naijun Tang; Jie Chen

2011-01-01

247

Sources of Indoor Air Pollution- Improving Indoor Air Quality  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There are three basic strategies to improve indoor air quality: source control, improved ventilation, and air cleaners. This site offers the reader some insights to improving air quality through increased ventilation, air cleaners for particle removal, and other common sense methods that may be employed. Many times the quality of the air in our homes and public or office buildings is marginal at best. The sources of indoor pollution may be outside of our ability to rectify or it may be as simple as adjusting the flame on our furnace or kitchen stove or maybe something as simple as opening a door or window. However, in many instances we have no control over the air quality because of the materials used in the construction of the building.

2007-01-21

248

Genetic susceptibility to the respiratory effects of air pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is large variation between individuals in their response to air pollutants. This review summarises the existing evidence that genetic factors influence the mechanisms of lung injury caused by air pollutants. Genetic association studies have compared the adverse effects of air pollutants between subjects with specific genotypes in biologically relevant genes. In human studies of ozone exposure, polymorphisms in oxidative

I A Yang; K M Fong; P V Zimmerman; S T Holgate; J W Holloway

2009-01-01

249

Los Angeles air pollution and asthma in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indices of air pollution, meteorological conditions and airborne allergens were correlated with emergency room census and hospitalizations for asthma at the Childrens Hospital of Los Angeles (CHLA) during a six-month period encompassing high and low periods of air pollution. In addition, patients in residence at the Sunair Home for Asthmatic Children (SHAC) were studied during a 10-day peak air pollution

W. Richards; S. P. Azen; J. Weiss; S. Stocking; J. Church

1981-01-01

250

A REVIEW OF AIR POLLUTANT DAMAGE TO MATERIALS  

EPA Science Inventory

Report prepared as U.S. contribution to Panel 3 of NATO Committee on Challenges of Modern Society Pilot Study on Air Pollution Control Strategies and Impact Modeling. Panel 3 focuses on air pollutant impact and will publish 4 reports on air pollutants effects; this is the first i...

251

30 CFR 784.26 - Air pollution control plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Air pollution control plan. 784.26 Section 784...AND OPERATION PLAN § 784.26 Air pollution control plan. For all surface operations...the application shall contain an air pollution control plan which includes the...

2013-07-01

252

30 CFR 780.15 - Air pollution control plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Air pollution control plan. 780.15 Section 780...AND OPERATION PLAN § 780.15 Air pollution control plan. (a) For all surface...the application shall contain an air pollution control plan which includes the...

2013-07-01

253

Air pollution and stock returns in the US  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health related research documents that air pollution has negative mood effects. Experimental works in psychology relate bad mood to increased risk aversion. Studies in financial economics report an observed link between mood effects and stock market returns. This study therefore investigates whether the mood effects caused by air pollution can have economic implications. It examines the relationship between air pollution

Tamir Levy; Joseph Yagil

2011-01-01

254

Urban Air Pollution in Russia: Observations and Assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban air pollution is actual topic because of its influence on air quality and climate processes on both regional and global scale. There is a lack of up-to-date information about real state of air quality in Russian cities because of very few contemporary observations. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics possesses significant database of automated measurements of air composition including data of train-based TROICA experiments in 1995-2010 as well as permanent observations in Moscow since 2002. In general numerous crosses of about 100 urban settlements of different size and location have been performed that allowed us to compose detailed pattern of urban air pollution in Russia nowadays. All cities were separated at three groups: megacities (more then 500 000 citizens), middle cities (50 000-500 000 citizens) and little cities (less then 50 000 citizens). Each urban settlement has been divided into railway station area, urban zone and city (or town) surroundings. Concentrations of main polluting gases (NO, NO2, CO, SO2, NMHC, O3) and aerosols have been averaged for each settlement as well as for each group of urban settlements for day and night, and for winter and summer. Main features of air urban pollution in Russia are presented. Variations of main pollutants including anthropogenic VOCs because of daytime and seasons, as well as temperature vertical structure are studied. Concentrations of O3, CO, SO2 and NMHC are usually below MPC level. NO2 is often enhanced especially near auto-roads. In general, polluting gases have greater concentrations in winter time due to heating and stronger temperature inversions. Particulate matter is likely to be the most persistent pollutant that determines more than 90% of pollution cases. Strong pollution cases are often caused by extraordinary situations like fires, industrial pollution under unfavorable meteorological conditions. High ozone photochemical generation is quite rare. Spatial pollution structure is usually in good agreement with so called "heat islands" revealed over cities due to mobile observations. From 50 to 75% of all cases temperature growth over cities makes up from 0 to 1 ° C, while in large cities there is substantial proportion of higher values of temperature growth - from 4 to 12% is in the range 2-3 ° C of the temperature rise, and almost as many (from 4 to 9%) cases reveal temperature increase of more than 3 ° C. Air quality level was assessed on base of new approach elaborated at OIAP to assess air quality in Russian cities. It accounts for both world famous methods and official Russian legislation. General level of air pollution in Russian cities is low or moderate mostly due to favorable location and climate conditions. Extreme concentrations can happen in warm period because of wild and anthropogenic fires and other severe pollution cases. Most of high concentrations within cities during TROICA campaigns were observed near railway stations where influence of local pollution sources (diesel trains, train stoves, boiler rooms and so on) is very large.

Skorokhod, Andrey; Elansky, Nikolai; Lavrova, Olga; Pankratova, Natalia; Belikov, Igor; Falaleeva, Victoria; Mel'nikova, Irina; Remizov, Andrey; Sitnikova, Irina

2013-04-01

255

Multiobjective air pollution monitoring network design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The methodologies currently available to optimize the locations of air pollutant monitoring stations typically include a single pollutant and a single objective. In this paper, multiple objective functions are introduced that provide performance measures describing the spatial coverage of the network and its ability to detect violations of standards for multiple pollutants. An additional objective regarding the effect of data validity in the design is also considered. The objective functions are cast in a manner that permits considerable flexibility in the model formulation. The numerical difficulties associated with the formulation are discussed as are extensions of the basic framework. The basic model and its extensions have been applied to the design of a monitoring network for Tarragona, Spain.

Trujillo-Ventura, Arturo; Hugh Ellis, J.

256

Air  

MedlinePLUS

... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

257

Opportunities for using spatial property assessment data in air pollution exposure assessments  

PubMed Central

Background Many epidemiological studies examining the relationships between adverse health outcomes and exposure to air pollutants use ambient air pollution measurements as a proxy for personal exposure levels. When pollution levels vary at neighbourhood levels, using ambient pollution data from sparsely located fixed monitors may inadequately capture the spatial variation in ambient pollution. A major constraint to moving toward exposure assessments and epidemiological studies of air pollution at a neighbourhood level is the lack of readily available data at appropriate spatial resolutions. Spatial property assessment data are widely available in North America and may provide an opportunity for developing neighbourhood level air pollution exposure assessments. Results This paper provides a detailed description of spatial property assessment data available in the Pacific Northwest of Canada and the United States, and provides examples of potential applications of spatial property assessment data for improving air pollution exposure assessment at the neighbourhood scale, including: (1) creating variables for use in land use regression modelling of neighbourhood levels of ambient air pollution; (2) enhancing wood smoke exposure estimates by mapping fireplace locations; and (3) using data available on individual building characteristics to produce a regional air pollution infiltration model. Conclusion Spatial property assessment data are an extremely detailed data source at a fine spatial resolution, and therefore a source of information that could improve the quality and spatial resolution of current air pollution exposure assessments.

Setton, Eleanor M; Hystad, Perry W; Keller, C Peter

2005-01-01

258

Effects of particulate air pollution on asthmatics  

SciTech Connect

Twenty-four asthmatic subjects in Denver were followed from January through March 1979, a three-month period in which Denver air pollution levels are generally high and variable. Dichotomous, virtual impactor samplers provided daily measurements (micrograms/m3) of inhaled particulate matter (total mass, sulfates, and nitrates) for coarse (2.5--15 micrograms in aerodynamic diameter) and fine fractions (less than 2.5 micrometers). Carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, ozone, temperature, and barometric pressure were also measured. Twice daily measurements of each subject's peak expiratory flow rates, use of as-needed aerosolized bronchodilators, and report of airways obstruction symptoms characteristic of asthma were tested for relationships to air pollutants using a random effects model across subjects. During the time actually observed, there were very few days in which high levels of suspended particulates were recorded. Of the environmental variables studied, only fine nitrates were associated with increased symptom reports and increased aerosolized bronchodilator usage.

Perry, G.B.; Chai, H.; Dickey, D.W.; Jones, R.H.; Kinsman, R.A.; Morrill, C.G.; Spector, S.L.; Weiser, P.C.

1983-01-01

259

Health effects of air pollution in southern Europe: Are there interacting factors?  

SciTech Connect

Recent results suggest that adverse health effects of air pollution exist at levels of pollutants around or even below air quality standards set by national and international institutions. Furthermore, there are indications that air pollution effects on health may be partly determined by specific mixtures of air pollutants and may be altered by other environmental, behavioral, and social patterns. Southern European countries share some common characteristics in terms of climate, geography, and life activity patterns. Results from studies undertaken in France, Greece, Italy, Portugal, and Spain investigating short- and long-term air pollution health effects are presented and their consistency demonstrated. These results provide adequate evidence that health effects-particularly short-term-of the currently measured urban air pollution levels exist. However, information available so far does not allow an assessment of regional differences in the health effects of air pollution as far as the Mediterranean region of Europe is concerned, It is suggested that the interaction between the traditional pollution (mainly characterized by high levels of black smoke and SO{sub 2}) and photochemical pollution must be investigated in this area, as well as the possible interaction between air pollution and high temperature and other meteorologic factors. In addition, measurements of individual exposure to different pollutants, affected by the pollutant`s levels in specific microenvironments and the individual`s time-activity pattern, must be undertaken for a better understanding of the air pollution-health link. Finally, the importance the reported air pollution health effects in terms of public health must be addressed more closely. 33 refs., 1 tab.

Katsouyanni, K. [Univ. of Athens Medical School (Greece)

1995-03-01

260

Air pollution exposure prediction approaches used in air pollution epidemiology studies.  

PubMed

Epidemiological studies of the health effects of outdoor air pollution have traditionally relied upon surrogates of personal exposures, most commonly ambient concentration measurements from central-site monitors. However, this approach may introduce exposure prediction errors and misclassification of exposures for pollutants that are spatially heterogeneous, such as those associated with traffic emissions (e.g., carbon monoxide, elemental carbon, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter). We review alternative air quality and human exposure metrics applied in recent air pollution health effect studies discussed during the International Society of Exposure Science 2011 conference in Baltimore, MD. Symposium presenters considered various alternative exposure metrics, including: central site or interpolated monitoring data, regional pollution levels predicted using the national scale Community Multiscale Air Quality model or from measurements combined with local-scale (AERMOD) air quality models, hybrid models that include satellite data, statistically blended modeling and measurement data, concentrations adjusted by home infiltration rates, and population-based human exposure model (Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation, and Air Pollutants Exposure models) predictions. These alternative exposure metrics were applied in epidemiological applications to health outcomes, including daily mortality and respiratory hospital admissions, daily hospital emergency department visits, daily myocardial infarctions, and daily adverse birth outcomes. This paper summarizes the research projects presented during the symposium, with full details of the work presented in individual papers in this journal issue. PMID:23632992

Özkaynak, Halûk; Baxter, Lisa K; Dionisio, Kathie L; Burke, Janet

2013-01-01

261

Chemical climatology of air pollutants at Pico Mountain Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pico Mountain Observatory (PMO) was established in 2001 on top of Pico Mountain (38.47°N, 28.40°W, 2,225 m a.s.l.) in the Azores Islands. PMO frequently samples free troposphere air over the Central North Atlantic. Long-range transport from neighboring continents impacts the concentration of air pollutants at PMO, but North American outflows have the most frequent influence due to predominantly westerly wind in mid-latitude regions of the Northern Hemisphere. This study summarizes observations of gases and aerosol since the station was established and combines transport patterns simulated by FLEXPART with observations to investigate chemical signatures of transport patterns. As the first step, FLEXPART backward retroplumes released from PMO will be created for the periods covered by our observation datasets. These results will be used to determine and classify sources of the transported air for long time periods. Seasonal variations in sources and transport pathways will be examined. This information is critical to understand variations in air pollutant observations at PMO, because sources and transport trajectories define age and composition of air plumes that arrive at PMO. In the second step, transport associated with certain chemical signatures, e.g., elevated ozone combined with depressed CO, will be extracted, and transport patterns will be identified for each classified chemical signature. The analysis will reveal correlations between transport patterns and elevation of air pollutants at PMO, which will help to understand measurement datasets of multiple air pollutants. Impacts of anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions on CO concentration at PMO will also be determined through multiplying retroplumes with emission inventories. Long-term trends in impacts from both sources will be examined to find potential correlations with recently implemented air quality regulations, occurrence of wildfires, and global climate change.

Zhang, B.; Owen, R. C.; Perlinger, J. A.; Val Martin, M.; Fialho, P. J.; Mazzoleni, L. R.

2013-12-01

262

Estimation of Citywide Air Pollution in Beijing  

PubMed Central

There has been discrepancies between the daily air quality reports of the Beijing municipal government, observations recorded at the U.S. Embassy in Beijing, and Beijing residents’ perceptions of air quality. This study estimates Beijing’s daily area PM2.5 mass concentration by means of a novel technique SPA (Single Point Areal Estimation) that uses data from the single PM2.5 observation station of the U.S Embassy and the 18 PM10 observation stations of the Beijing Municipal Environmental Protection Bureau. The proposed technique accounts for empirical relationships between different types of observations, and generates best linear unbiased pollution estimates (in a statistical sense). The technique extends the daily PM2.5 mass concentrations obtained at a single station (U.S. Embassy) to a citywide scale using physical relations between pollutant concentrations at the embassy PM2.5 monitoring station and at the 18 official PM10 stations that are evenly distributed across the city. Insight about the technique’s spatial estimation accuracy (uncertainty) is gained by means of theoretical considerations and numerical validations involving real data. The technique was used to study citywide PM2.5 pollution during the 423-day period of interest (May 10, 2010 to December 6, 2011). Finally, a freely downloadable software library is provided that performs all relevant calculations of pollution estimation.

Wang, Jin-Feng; Hu, Mao-Gui; Xu, Cheng-Dong; Christakos, George; Zhao, Yu

2013-01-01

263

Critical issues in air pollution epidemiology.  

PubMed Central

The epidemiological studies which have had significant impact on the setting of National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQSs) were performed more than twenty years ago. Most of the more recent studies have been seriously flawed in their design and/or execution because they neglected to account for important variables such as: pollutant exposures other than those from ambient air; the influence of personal activity on pollutant uptake; host responsiveness; and the separate contributions of recent transient peak exposures and long-term chronic exposures on the effects endpoints. For particulate pollutants, the influence of composition and size distribution has also received too little consideration. In order to address these deficiencies, research and methods development are needed on: indices for particulate exposures; identification of exposures relevant to the effects; improved indices of effects; acquisition of response data; identification of exposed populations; and identification of susceptible subgroups. Approaches to these needs are discussed, along with brief reviews of several recent studies that have focused on critical issues of concern, made the necessary efforts to characterize the relevant exposures of the populations being studied, and demonstrated human responses to ambient pollutants at current exposure levels.

Lippmann, M; Lioy, P J

1985-01-01

264

Personal exposure of children to air pollution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changes over recent decades in outdoor concentrations of air pollutants are well documented. However, the impacts of air pollution on an individual's health actually relate not to these outdoor concentrations but to their personal exposure in the different locations in which they spend time. Assessing how personal exposures differ from outdoor concentrations, and how they have changed over recent decades, is challenging. This review focuses on the exposure of children, since they are a particularly sensitive group. Much of children's time is spent indoors, and childhood exposure is closely related to concentrations in the home, at school, and in transport. For this reason, children's personal exposures to air pollutants differ significantly from both those of adults and from outdoor concentrations. They depend on a range of factors, including urbanisation, energy use, building design, travel patterns, and activity profiles; analysis of these factors can identify a wider range of policy measures to reduce children's exposure than direct emission control. There is a very large variation in personal exposure between individual children, caused by differences in building design, indoor and outdoor sources, and activity patterns. Identifying groups of children with high personal exposure, and their underlying causes, is particularly important in regions of the world where emissions are increasing, but there are limited resources for environmental and health protection. Although the science of personal exposure assessment, with the associated measurement and modelling techniques, has developed to maturity in North America and western Europe over the last 50 years, there is an urgent need to apply this science in other parts of the world where the effects of air pollution are now much more serious.

Ashmore, M. R.; Dimitroulopoulou, C.

265

Asthma severity and susceptibility to air pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exacerbations of asthma have been associated with exposure to ozone or particles with a 50% cut-off aerodynamic diameter of 10 µm (PM10). We postu- lated in this study that the association of summertime air pollution (i.e. ozone and PM10) with acute respiratory symptoms, medication use and peak expiratory flow differs among patients grouped according to asthma severity. During the summer

T. J. N. Hiltermann; J. Stolk; S. C. van der Zee; B. Brunekreef; Bruijne de C. R; P. H. Fischer; C. B. Ameling; P. J. Sterk; P. S. Hiemstra; L. van Bree

1998-01-01

266

#61 Particulate air pollution and lung cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: To evaluate the association between particulate air pollution and lung cancer in a retrospective study in Connecticut, Utah and southern Idaho.METHODS: We collected detailed residence histories from 1,474 pathologically confirmed lung cancer cases and 1,811 population controls selected with randomized recruitment. Analysis was limited to the 3,073 participants who lived only in Connecticut, Utah and Idaho during the period

W Sanasuttipun; DP Sandler; CR Weinberg; DL Shore; CM Shy; DP Loomis

2002-01-01

267

Physiological effects on man of air pollutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physiological effects of air pollutants are reviewed. The average city contains 60-200 micrograms\\/cu m of particulates, compared to 10-20 micrograms\\/cu m in a rural area. The mass median diameter of the average city particle is about 0.4 micron. As particle size decreases from 0.5 to 0.01 micron in diameter, the pulmonary retention rate increases. Particles stimulate alveolar macrophages, have

1974-01-01

268

Air pollutants effects on forest ecosystems  

SciTech Connect

This book presents the papers given at a conference on the effects of acid rain on forests. The conference was sponsored by the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP). Topics considered at the conference included the status of US research on acid deposition and its effects contributing factors to the decline of forests, evidence for effects on ecosystems, the effects of air pollutants on forest ecosystems in North America and Europe, forest management, and future scientific research programs and management approaches.

Not Available

1985-01-01

269

Air pollution effects on Attica's natural ecosystems  

SciTech Connect

During the last decade Athens, the capital of Greece has experienced the results of tremendous and uncontrolled growth. Almost 4 million people, 40% of the total population of the country live in Athens. Traffic jams are very common, while the quality of air has been getting worse year after year. This paper presents data on productivity and diversity of six sites in the Athens metropolitan area, selected according to their pollution load.

Margaris, N.S.; Arianoutsou, M.; Tselas, S.; Loukas, L.

1985-02-01

270

Effects of particulate air pollution on asthmatics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-four asthmatic subjects in Denver were followed from January through March 1979, a three-month period in which Denver air pollution levels are generally high and variable. Dichotomous, virtual impactor samplers provided daily measurements (micrograms\\/m3) of inhaled particulate matter (total mass, sulfates, and nitrates) for coarse (2.5--15 micrograms in aerodynamic diameter) and fine fractions (less than 2.5 micrometers). Carbon monoxide, sulfur

G. B. Perry; H. Chai; D. W. Dickey; R. H. Jones; R. A. Kinsman; C. G. Morrill; S. L. Spector; P. C. Weiser

1983-01-01

271

Place-based stressors associated with industry and air pollution.  

PubMed

Exposure to air pollution and its sources is increasingly viewed as a psychosocial stress, however its nature is not understood. This article explores the role of the concept of place on risk perception and community stress within data collected from eight focus groups in Philadelphia, USA. Discussions focused on air pollution, a nearby oil refinery, health, and a proposal for air monitoring. We present a framework of place-based elements of risk perception that includes place identity, stigma and social control. Our findings indicate that air pollution contributes to physical and psychosocial conditions that act as community-level social stressors. Findings also suggest that programs which seek to change behaviors and gather or spread information on issues such as pollution and other environmental concerns will be challenged unless they directly address: (1) the public?s identification with a place or industry, (2) immediate environmental stressors such as abandonment, waste and odors, and (3) public perceptions of lack of social control and fear of displacement. PMID:24721738

Kondo, Michelle C; Gross-Davis, Carol Ann; May, Katlyn; Davis, Lauren O; Johnson, Tyiesha; Mallard, Mable; Gabbadon, Alice; Sherrod, Claudia; Branas, Charles C

2014-07-01

272

Satellite data for air pollution mapping over a city - Virtual stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atmospheric pollution becomes a critical factor of anticipated deaths, which concerns ambient air quality as well as air quality in houses and places of work. For the well being of human and for the popula- tion information, we need to evaluate the actual exposure of persons to ambient pollution. One way to per- form it is to evaluate the space

A. Ung; L. Wald; T. Ranchin; C. Weber; J. Hirsch; G. Perron; J. Kleinpeter

2001-01-01

273

Joint EPA/UMTA/FEA Strategy for Urban Transportation and Air Quality. Volume 4. Information Data Base: Status of Urban Congestion, Air Pollution, and Energy Use.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the study is to formulate a basis for the design of a joint program which would simultaneously improve urban mobility and air quality and conserve petroleum resources. This fourth volume contains INTERPLAN's initial definition of the tran...

R. Krzyczkowski S. S. Henneman E. S. Putnam T. W. Usowicz

1974-01-01

274

A Mobile GPRS-Sensors Array for Air Pollution Monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

An online GPRS-Sensors Array for air pollution monitoring has been designed, implemented, and tested. The proposed system consists of a Mobile Data-Acquisition Unit (Mobile-DAQ) and a fixed Internet-Enabled Pollution Monitoring Server (Pollution-Server). The Mobile-DAQ unit integrates a single-chip microcontroller, air pollution sensors array, a General Packet Radio Service Modem (GPRS-Modem), and a Global Positioning System Module (GPS-Module). The Pollution-Server is

A. R. Al-Ali; Imran Zualkernan; Fadi Aloul

2010-01-01

275

Geospatial Modeling of Asthma Population in Relation to Air Pollution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current observations indicate that asthma is growing every year in the United States, specific reasons for this are not well understood. This study stems from an ongoing research effort to investigate the spatio-temporal behavior of asthma and its relatedness to air pollution. The association between environmental variables such as air quality and asthma related health issues over Mississippi State are investigated using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) tools and applications. Health data concerning asthma obtained from Mississippi State Department of Health (MSDH) for 9-year period of 2003-2011, and data of air pollutant concentrations (PM2.5) collected from USEPA web resources, and are analyzed geospatially to establish the impacts of air quality on human health specifically related to asthma. Disease mapping using geospatial techniques provides valuable insights into the spatial nature, variability, and association of asthma to air pollution. Asthma patient hospitalization data of Mississippi has been analyzed and mapped using quantitative Choropleth techniques in ArcGIS. Patients have been geocoded to their respective zip codes. Potential air pollutant sources of Interstate highways, Industries, and other land use data have been integrated in common geospatial platform to understand their adverse contribution on human health. Existing hospitals and emergency clinics are being injected into analysis to further understand their proximity and easy access to patient locations. At the current level of analysis and understanding, spatial distribution of Asthma is observed in the populations of Zip code regions in gulf coast, along the interstates of south, and in counties of Northeast Mississippi. It is also found that asthma is prevalent in most of the urban population. This GIS based project would be useful to make health risk assessment and provide information support to the administrators and decision makers for establishing satellite clinics in future.

Keithireddy, Swatantra R.; Tchounwou, Paul B.; Young, John H.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Alhamdan, Mohammad

2013-01-01

276

Air pollution modeling over Europe using WRFchem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study is to model air pollution for entire Switzerland with a very high spatial resolution. For the first time a several year period of air pollution is modeled for entire Switzerland. The high resolution domain of Switzerland is nested into a coarser European domain with a horizontal resolution of 50 km, extending from south of Spain to south of Finland. So far only the framework for the European domain exists and therefore we focus on the method and first results of this particular domain. The state-of-the-art "Weather Research and Forecasting" (WRF) model with a chemistry extension (WRFchem) is used to simulate air pollutants. It is one of the first times that these two "online" coupled models are applied for entire Europe. Gas phase chemistry is modeled with the "Carbon bond mechanism version Z" (CBMZ) with 67 prognostic chemical species and 164 chemical reactions. Aerosols are treated by the "Model for Simulating Aerosol Interactions and Chemistry" (MOSAIC) using 4 sectional aerosol bins. The meteorological initial and boundary conditions are derived from the NCEP Reanalysis 2 and GFS data. The anthropogenic emissions are taken from the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP), which have a horizontal resolution of 50 km and are divided into 11 SNAP-sectors (Selected Nomenclature for reporting of Air Pollutants). According to these different sectors and the countries the data could be disaggregated into hourly emissions according to the GENEMIS project. To use this dataset also a spatial conversion with the inverse next neighbor method and a vertical disaggregation as well as a re-apportioning of different chemical species were applied. Biogenic emissions are computed during runtime using the Guenther Scheme. We noticed that chemical initial conditions are not needed as they are mainly driven by emissions. Hence a spin-up of at least five days is used. For verification purposes correlations with European ground-based measurements (O3, NO2, SO2, PM10) are analyzed. As expected, better results are achieved using the GFS instead of the Reanalysis 2 dataset as meteorological input. As boundary conditions the performance of monthly mean values (1997-2001) from the LMDZ-INCA model and idealized profiles from the NALROM chemistry model were evaluated, but no significant differences could be found. The outcome of the model is comparable or better than other models used over entire Europe. Overall the European simulations show encouraging results for observed air pollutants, with ozone being the most and PM10 being the least satisfying, respectively.

Ritter, Mathias; Müller, Mathias

2010-05-01

277

Improving estimates of air pollution exposure through ubiquitous sensing technologies  

PubMed Central

Traditional methods of exposure assessment in epidemiological studies often fail to integrate important information on activity patterns, which may lead to bias, loss of statistical power or both in health effects estimates. Novel sensing technologies integrated with mobile phones offer potential to reduce exposure measurement error. We sought to demonstrate the usability and relevance of the CalFit smartphone technology to track person-level time, geographic location, and physical activity patterns for improved air pollution exposure assessment. We deployed CalFit-equipped smartphones in a free living-population of 36 subjects in Barcelona, Spain. Information obtained on physical activity and geographic location was linked to space-time air pollution mapping. For instance, we found on average travel activities accounted for 6% of people’s time and 24% of their daily inhaled NO2. Due to the large number of mobile phone users, this technology potentially provides an unobtrusive means of collecting epidemiologic exposure data at low cost.

de Nazelle, Audrey; Seto, Edmund; Donaire-Gonzalez, David; Mendez, Michelle; Matamala, Jaume; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Jerrett, Michael

2013-01-01

278

Effective Stack Design in Air Pollution Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stack design problems fall into two general caterories--(1) those of building re-entry, and (2) those of general area pollution. Extensive research has developed adequate information, available in the literature, to permit effective stack design. A major roadblock to effective design has been the strong belief by architects and engineers that high…

Clarke, John H.

1968-01-01

279

Indoor Air Pollutants and Health in the United Arab Emirates  

PubMed Central

Background: Comprehensive global data on the health effects of indoor air pollutants are lacking. There are few large population-based multi–air pollutant health assessments. Further, little is known about indoor air health risks in the Middle East, especially in countries undergoing rapid economic development. Objectives: To provide multifactorial indoor air exposure and health data, we conducted a population-based study of indoor air pollution and health in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study in a population-based sample of 628 households in the UAE. Indoor air pollutants [sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), formaldehyde (HCHO), carbon monoxide (CO), and particulate matter] were measured using passive samplers over a 7-day period. Health information was collected from 1,590 household members via in-person interviews. Results: Participants in households with quantified SO2, NO2, and H2S (i.e., with measured concentrations above the limit of quantification) were twice as likely to report doctor-diagnosed asthma. Participants in homes with quantified SO2 were more likely to report wheezing symptoms {ever wheezing, prevalence odds ratio [POR] 1.79 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05, 3.05]; speech-limiting wheeze, POR 3.53 (95% CI: 1.06, 11.74)}. NO2 and H2S were similarly associated with wheezing symptoms. Quantified HCHO was associated with neurologic symptoms (difficulty concentrating POR 1.47; 95% CI: 1.02, 2.13). Burning incense daily was associated with increased headaches (POR 1.87; 95% CI: 1.09, 3.21), difficulty concentrating (POR 3.08; 95% CI: 1.70, 5.58), and forgetfulness (POR 2.68: 95% CI: 1.47, 4.89). Conclusions: This study provides new information regarding potential health risks from pollutants commonly found in indoor environments in the UAE and other countries. Multipollutant exposure and health assessments in cohort studies are needed to better characterize health effects of indoor air pollutants.

El-Sadig, Mohamed; Leith, David; Kalsbeek, William; Al-Maskari, Fatma; Couper, David; Funk, William E.; Zoubeidi, Taoufik; Chan, Ronna L.; Trent, Chris B.; Davidson, Christopher A.; Boundy, Maryanne G.; Kassab, Maamoon M.; Hasan, Mohamed Y.; Rusyn, Ivan; Gibson, Jacqueline MacDonald; Olshan, Andrew F.

2012-01-01

280

Air pollution and sports performance in Beijing.  

PubMed

The Beijing Olympics will begin in August 2008 and athletes will face an unpredictable challenge. Based on present data, Beijing is one of the most polluted megacities in the world; the air concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO), ozone, nitrogen oxides (NO and NO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2) and particulate matter approach or exceed the current limits established by U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Although the athletes who will be competing in Beijing are physiologically very different to the participants in most published studies, and it is therefore difficult to predict individual responses, there is little doubt that the presence of these air pollutants might be detrimental to athletic performance due to the marked increase (up to 20-fold) in ventilatory rate and concomitant nasal and oral breathing. Moreover, mouth breathing often bypasses the noise during strenuous exercise, increasing the deleterious effects of pollutants on health and athletic performance. Although limited, each decrement in athletic performance would have a potentially deleterious impact on top-class athletes competing in the next Olympics in China. Several Olympic records are regularly broken during the Olympics. Will this be the case for Beijing? PMID:18512178

Lippi, G; Guidi, G C; Maffulli, N

2008-08-01

281

Hematological and hemorheological effects of air pollution  

SciTech Connect

Selected hematological parameters and erythrocyte deformability indexes for 16 young male military students were compared before and after a period of exposure to heavy pollution. These students lived in Ankara, which has a serious air pollution problem. The mean sulfur dioxide levels measured at a station proximal to the campus where the students lived were 188 micrograms/m3 and 201 micrograms/m3 during first and second measurements, respectively. During the period between the two measurements, the mean sulfur dioxide level was 292 micrograms/m3. Significant erythropoiesis was indicated by increased erythrocyte counts and hemoglobin and hematocrit levels. Methemoglobin percentage was increased to 2.37 +/- 0.49% (mean +/- standard error) from 0.51 +/- 0.23%. Sulfhemoglobinemia was present in six subjects after the period of pollution, but it was not present in any student prior to this period. Significant increases in erythrocyte deformability indexes were observed after the period of pollution, i.e., from 1.13 +/- 0.01 to 1.21 +/0 0.02, implying that erythrocytes were less flexible, which might impair tissue perfusion.

Baskurt, O.K.; Levi, E.; Caglayan, S.; Dikmenoglu, N.; Kutman, M.N. (Univ. of Hacettepe, Ankara (Turkey))

1990-07-01

282

Health and Economic Impact of Air Pollution in Jakarta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jakarta is one of the most polluted cities in the world. Air pollution in Jakarta is above the safe limits specified by the World Health Organization. It is estimated that the health cost of Jakarta's air pollution in 1999 reached $US220 million. In 2001 the government planned to launch a program to control vehicle emissions. This paper aims to estimate

BUDY P. RESOSUDARMO; LUCENTEZZA NAPITUPULU

2004-01-01

283

The Global Burden of Disease Due to Outdoor Air Pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Burden of Disease Comparative Risk Assessment, the burden of disease attributable to urban ambient air pollution was estimated in terms of deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). Air pollution is associated with a broad spectrum of acute and chronic health effects, the nature of which may vary with the pollutant constituents.

Aaron J. Cohen; H. Ross Anderson; Bart Ostro; Kiran Dev Pandey; Michal Krzyzanowski; Nino Künzli; Kersten Gutschmidt; Arden Pope; Isabelle Romieu; Jonathan M. Samet; Kirk Smith

2005-01-01

284

EFFECTIVENESS OF AIR CLEANERS FOR REDUCING RISK FROM INDOOR POLLUTANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Air cleaners may provide a cost effective way of reducing individual exposure and risk to indoor air pollutants. The effectiveness of indoor air cleaners depends on factors such as the single pass efficiency, the rate that air is circulated through the air cleaner, the air cleane...

285

Inhalation Transfer Factors for Air Pollution Health Risk Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

To facilitate routine health risk assessments, we develop the concept of an inhalation transfer factor (ITF). The ITF is defined as the pollutant mass inhaled by an exposed individual per unit pollutant mass emitted from an air pollution source. A cumulative population inhalation transfer factor (PITF) is also defined to describe the total fraction of an emitted pollutant inhaled by

Alvin C. K. Lai; Tracy L. Thatcher; William W. Nazaroff

2000-01-01

286

Satellite-aided evaluation of population exposure to air pollution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The evaluation of population exposure to air pollution through the computer processing of Landsat digital land use data, along with total suspended particulate estimates and population data by census tracts, is demonstrated. Digital image processing was employed to analyze simultaneously data from Landsat MSS bands 4 through 7 in order to extract land use and land cover information. The three data sets were spatially registered in a digital format, compatible with integrated computer processing, and cross-tabulated. A map illustrating relative air quality by 2-sq km cells for the residential population in the Portland, Oregon area is obtained.

Todd, W. J.; George, A. J., Jr.; Bryant, N. A.

1979-01-01

287

Ambient air pollution and respiratory health effects in mail carriers.  

PubMed

Mail carriers represent an occupational group suffering from respiratory symptoms and lung function impairment. Although environmental conditions may play role, information on the effects of air pollution exposure in this population is lacking. The present study was conducted in Athens, Greece, in order to investigate the adverse effects of long-term air pollution exposure on respiratory outcomes in mail carriers. A total of 226 mail carriers and 73 office employees were enrolled. Information on respiratory symptoms, medical, occupational, residential and smoking history was obtained through a questionnaire. Flow-volume curves were performed in the workplace using a portable spirometer. Individualised personal exposure assessment has been applied based on long-term residential and occupational subject history linked with geographical air pollution distribution. Furthermore, personal measurements were obtained for forty-one mail carriers using NO(2) and O(3) passive samplers, assuming that current air pollution exposure is sufficiently representative of long-term, previous exposure to make a plausible link with current health status. The analysis based on exposures estimated on the basis of residential and work addresses showed that the most exposed to PM(10) postal workers have rhinitis at a higher rate (OR=1.67, 95% CI: 1.01-2.75). In mail carriers there is indication that those exposed to higher concentrations of Omicron(3) or PM(10) have a greater possibility to present rhinitis (OR=1.63, 95% CI: 0.93-2.88 and OR=1.70, 95% CI: 0.96-3.03, respectively). The effect of O(3) on rhinitis became even more apparent in the analysis based on exposures assessed by personal measurements (OR=6.74, 95% CI: 1.24-36.55). Exposure to NO(2) was significantly associated with decrements in lung function. For office employees the exposure to air pollutants was not associated to any adverse respiratory outcome. Our findings suggest that air pollution is a contributing factor for the occurrence of rhinitis and lung function impairment in mail carriers. PMID:20047736

Karakatsani, A; Kapitsimadis, F; Pipikou, M; Chalbot, M-C; Kavouras, I G; Orphanidou, D; Papiris, S; Katsouyanni, K

2010-04-01

288

REFERENCE GUIDE TO ODOR THRESHOLDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS LISTED IN THE CLEAN AIR ACT AMENDMENTS OF 1990.  

EPA Science Inventory

In response to numerous requests for information related to odor thresholds, this document was prepared by the Air Risk Information Support Center in its role in providing technical assistance to State and Local government agencies on risk assessment of air pollutants. iscussion ...

289

Effects of Exposure Measurement Error in the Analysis of Health Effects from Traffic-Related Air Pollution  

EPA Science Inventory

In large epidemiological studies, many researchers use surrogates of air pollution exposure such as geographic information system (GIS)-based characterizations of traffic or simple housing characteristics. It is important to validate these surrogates against measured pollutant co...

290

Phoenix-Tucson Metropolitan Area Air Pollutant Emission Inventory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A summary report is presented of the emission inventory for the Phoenix - Tucson Metropolitan Area, Arizona. The report provides estimates of the present levels of air pollutant emissions and status of their control. The pollutants which include sulfur ox...

C. B. Morita

1969-01-01

291

Air System Information Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

I flew to Washington last week, a trip rich in distributed information management. Buying tickets, at the gate, in flight, landing and at the baggage claim, myriad messages about my reservation, the weather, our flight plans, gates, bags and so forth flew among a variety of travel agency, airline and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) computers and personnel. By and large, each kind of information ran on a particular application, often specialized to own data formats and communications network. I went to Washington to attend an FAA meeting on System-Wide Information Management (SWIM) for the National Airspace System (NAS) (http://www.nasarchitecture.faa.gov/Tutorials/NAS101.cfm). NAS (and its information infrastructure, SWIM) is an attempt to bring greater regularity, efficiency and uniformity to the collection of stovepipe applications now used to manage air traffic. Current systems hold information about flight plans, flight trajectories, weather, air turbulence, current and forecast weather, radar summaries, hazardous condition warnings, airport and airspace capacity constraints, temporary flight restrictions, and so forth. Information moving among these stovepipe systems is usually mediated by people (for example, air traffic controllers) or single-purpose applications. People, whose intelligence is critical for difficult tasks and unusual circumstances, are not as efficient as computers for tasks that can be automated. Better information sharing can lead to higher system capacity, more efficient utilization and safer operations. Better information sharing through greater automation is possible though not necessarily easy.

Filman, Robert E.

2004-01-01

292

40 CFR Appendix L to Part 51 - Example Regulations for Prevention of Air Pollution Emergency Episodes  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Conditions justifying the proclamation of an air pollution alert, air pollution warning, or air pollution emergency...forecast of stagnant atmospheric condition. (b) Alert: The Alert level is that concentration of pollutants at which...

2011-07-01

293

40 CFR Appendix L to Part 51 - Example Regulations for Prevention of Air Pollution Emergency Episodes  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Conditions justifying the proclamation of an air pollution alert, air pollution warning, or air pollution emergency...forecast of stagnant atmospheric condition. (b) Alert: The Alert level is that concentration of pollutants at which...

2013-07-01

294

EPA issues offshore air pollution regulations  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that the Environmental Protection Agency has issued regulations equalizing offshore air pollution rules with onshore standards except in the Gulf of Mexico. The rules hold platforms and drilling rigs within 25 miles of states' seaward boundaries to the same state, local, and federal requirements as if they were located in the corresponding onshore areas. If EPA finds state regulations are adequate, it will delegate to the coastal state the implementation and enforcement authority for the OCS rules. Air emissions sources more than 25 miles offshore will be subject only to federal requirements. EPA said within 2 years the rules will result in significant benefits to certain onshore areas currently violating smog standards.

Not Available

1992-08-31

295

Air pollution and infant mortality from pneumonia  

SciTech Connect

This study examines the relationship between air pollution, measured as concentration of suspended particulates in the atmosphere, and infant mortality due to pneumonia in the metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro. Multiple linear regression (progressive or stepwise method) was used to analyze infant mortality due to pneumonia, diarrhea, and all causes in 1980, by geographic area, income level, and degree of contamination. While the variable proportion of families with income equivalent to more than two minimum wages was included in the regressions corresponding to the three types of infant mortality, the average contamination index had a statistically significant coefficient (b = 0.2208; t = 2.670; P = 0.0137) only in the case of mortality due to pneumonia. This would suggest a biological association, but, as in any ecological study, such conclusions should be viewed with caution. The authors believe that air quality indicators are essential to consider in studies of acute respiratory infections in developing countries.

Penna, M.L.; Duchiade, M.P. (Instituto de Medicina Social, Universidad del Estado del Rio de Janeiro (Brasil))

1991-03-01

296

Measurement of air pollution in Bahrain  

SciTech Connect

In the present study data from air monitoring station situated in North Sitra industrial area have been collected and analyzed in an attempt to assess air quality in Bahrain, and use the data as a baseline for future analysis. The parameters monitored during the period November 1986-May 1987 were: H/sub 2/S, NO/sub x/, NO/sub 2/, NO, SO/sub 2/, O/sub 3/, CO, CH/sub 4/, nonmethylated hydrocarbon (NMHC), as well as wind direction (WD) and wind speed (WS). The study shows that most pollutants are at lower levels compared to standards accepted by different countries, with the exception of CH/sub 4/ and NMHC. This could be attributed to the location of the station in the proximity of the power and desalination plants as well as a petrochemical industry.

Madany, I.M.; Danish, S.

1988-01-01

297

Health Effects Associated With Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The World Health Organization has identified ambient air pollution as a high public health priority, based on estimates of air pollution related death and disability-adjusted life years derived in its Global Burden of Disease initiative. The NERAM Colloquium Series on Health and Air Quality was initiated to strengthen the linkage between scientists, policymakers, and other stakeholders by reviewing the current

Jonathan Samet; Daniel Krewski

2007-01-01

298

Air pollution “holiday effect” resulting from the Chinese New Year  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our study was an attempt to conduct a comprehensive and systematical examination of the holiday effect, defined as the difference in air pollutant concentrations between holiday and non-holiday periods. This holiday effect can be applied to other countries with similar national or cultural holidays. Hourly and daily surface measurements of six major air pollutants from thirteen air quality monitoring stations

Pei-Hua Tan; Chia Chou; Jing-Yi Liang; Charles C.-K. Chou; Chein-Jung Shiu

2009-01-01

299

Factor of safety method, application to air and noise pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technical report:Air quality indexes were used to calculate air and noise pollution factors of safety for 82 U.S. cities. Pollutants considered in the safety study are: total suspended particulates, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and ozone. Mathematical models that were used to calculate the factors of safety are presented. The utilization of air quality indexes for regional planning and

A. E. S. Green; T. J. Buckley; D. E. Rio; R. Makarewicz; A. MacEachern

1980-01-01

300

Analytical Techniques Used in Monitoring of Atmospheric Air Pollutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The air pollution monitoring is one of the most pressing environmental problems today. The paper describes common air pollutants, their interaction and impact on the environment, and classifies the techniques and methods applied in air studies. Furthermore, the review characterizes the selected collection and sampling techniques used for gas sample analysis. Finally, the schematic diagrams of typical designs of systems

Magdalena Michulec; Waldemar Wardencki; Monika Partyka; Jacek Namie?nik

2005-01-01

301

Controlling Urban Air Pollution: A Benefit-Cost Assessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The pros and cons of air pollution control efforts are discussed. Both national and regional air pollution control plans are described. Topics of discussion include benefit-cost analysis, air quality regulation, reducing ozone in the urban areas, the Los Angeles plan, uncertainties, and policy implications. (KR)

Krupnick, Alan J.; Portney, Paul R.

1991-01-01

302

THE CHALLENGES OF AIR POLLUTION AND RESIDUAL RISK ASSESSMENT (EDITORIAL)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Clean Air Act (CAA), a comprehensive federal law that regulates air pollution from stationary and mobile sources, was first passed in 1963. The act has provided the primary framework for protecting human health and the environment. The CAA divides air pollutants into "criteri...

303

POPULATION-BASED EXPOSURE AND DOSE MODELING FOR AIR POLLUTANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

This task will address EPA's need to better understand the variability in personal exposure to air pollutants for the purpose of assessing what populations are at risk for adverse health outcomes due to air pollutant exposures. To improve our understanding of exposures to air po...

304

Air pollution measurements in traffic tunnels.  

PubMed Central

Air pollution measurements during April 1991 are reported from the Craeybeckx highway tunnel in Antwerp, Belgium. The tunnel was used daily by an average of 45,000 vehicles, of which 60% were gasoline fueled passenger cars, 20% diesel cars, and 20% trucks. Of the gasoline cars, only 3% had three-way catalysts. Tunnel air concentrations of nitrogen oxides, sulphur dioxide, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nonmethane hydrocarbons, volatile organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and lead are presented. The traffic emissions in the tunnel are calculated by the carbon balance method, which uses the increase of the total carbon concentration in the tunnel air as the reference quantity. Division of the concentration of any pollutant by the total carbon concentration gives emission factors per kilogram of carbon. These emission factors can be converted directly to emissions relative to fuel consumption or per kilometer. The fraction of diesel used in the tunnel was derived from sulphur to carbon ratios in tunnel air. A calculation procedure with breakdown of emission factors according to vehicle categories was used to estimate countrywide emissions. The estimated emissions were compared to results from the Flanders Emissions Inventory [Emissie Inventaris Vlaamse Regio (EIVR)] and calculated emissions according to the emission factors proposed by the European Commissions CORINAIR Working Group. For NOx there is excellent agreement. For carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons, the tunnel data produced higher emissions than the CORINAIR model would predict but lower than the official EIVR statistics. The estimated lead emissions from traffic are found to be 22 to 29% of the lead in gasoline.

De Fre, R; Bruynseraede, P; Kretzschmar, J G

1994-01-01

305

Gestational Diabetes and Preeclampsia in Association with Air Pollution at Levels below Current Air Quality Guidelines  

PubMed Central

Background: Several studies have estimated associations between air pollution and birth outcomes, but few have evaluated potential effects on pregnancy complications. Objective: We investigated whether low-level exposure to air pollution is associated with gestational diabetes and preeclampsia. Methods: High-quality registry information on 81,110 singleton pregnancy outcomes in southern Sweden during 1999–2005 was linked to individual-level exposure estimates with high spatial resolution. Modeled exposure to nitrogen oxides (NOx), expressed as mean concentrations per trimester, and proximity to roads of different traffic densities were used as proxy indicators of exposure to combustion-related air pollution. The data were analyzed by logistic regression, with and without adjusting for potential confounders. Results: The prevalence of gestational diabetes increased with each NOx quartile, with an adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 1.69 (95% CI: 1.41, 2.03) for the highest (> 22.7 µg/m3) compared with the lowest quartile (2.5–8.9 µg/m3) of exposure during the second trimester. The adjusted OR for acquiring preeclampsia after exposure during the third trimester was 1.51 (1.32, 1.73) in the highest quartile of NOx compared with the lowest. Both outcomes were associated with high traffic density, but ORs were significant for gestational diabetes only. Conclusion: NOx exposure during pregnancy was associated with gestational diabetes and preeclampsia in an area with air pollution levels below current air quality guidelines.

Jakobsson, Kristina; Tinnerberg, Hakan; Rignell-Hydbom, Anna; Rylander, Lars

2013-01-01

306

RESEARCH AREA -- FLUE GAS CLEANING (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Air Pollution Technology Branch's (APPCD, NRMRL)flue gas cleaning program supports New Source Performance Standards regulations development and has fostered the development of technologies that today are considered industry standards. These include both dry and wet flue gas d...

307

POINTS-OF-CONTACT (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Air Pollution Technology Branch's (APTB) Point-of-Contact page lists APTB research areas along with the name, telephone number, and e-mail address for each responsible person. APTB's research areas include NOx Control, Hazardous Waste Incineration, Municipal Waste Combustion,...

308

A Canadian federal viewpoint on the regulatory process for air pollution control  

SciTech Connect

The Canadian federal air pollution program is discussed. Summarized are the purpose of air quality regulations/ the need for cooperation from industry/ the current philosophy of containment of air pollution at the source/ the importance of balancing environmental concerns with other socioeconomic goals/ and provision for public participation and freedom of information without hampering the decision-making process. The need to view environmental protection as a normal cost of businessa view commonly rejected by industryis emphasized.

Rivers, M.E.

1980-11-01

309

A model of air traffic assignment as part of airport air pollution management system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The critical concern of modern airports is the air pollution generated by air traffic and its impact on the airport environment. Air pollution is an unavoidable consequence of air traffic, but it can be reduced in numerous ways, including technical innovations in aircraft design and legislation. This paper presents a model of air traffic assignment as a measure to mitigate

Petar Mirosavljevi?; Slobodan Gvozdenovi?; Olja ?okorilo

2011-01-01

310

Health effects of particulate air pollution: time for reassessment?  

PubMed Central

Numerous studies have observed health effects of particulate air pollution. Compared to early studies that focused on severe air pollution episodes, recent studies are more relevant to understanding health effects of pollution at levels common to contemporary cities in the developed world. We review recent epidemiologic studies that evaluated health effects of particulate air pollution and conclude that respirable particulate air pollution is likely an important contributing factor to respiratory disease. Observed health effects include increased respiratory symptoms, decreased lung function, increased hospitalizations and other health care visits for respiratory and cardiovascular disease, increased respiratory morbidity as measured by absenteeism from work or school or other restrictions in activity, and increased cardiopulmonary disease mortality. These health effects are observed at levels common to many U.S. cities including levels below current U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standards for particulate air pollution. Images Figure 1.

Pope, C A; Bates, D V; Raizenne, M E

1995-01-01

311

Athletic performance and urban air pollution.  

PubMed Central

Air pollution may affect athletic performance. In Los Angeles, contaminants include carbon monoxide, ozone, peroxyacetylnitrate (PAN) and nitrogen oxides, whereas in older European cities, such as Sarajevo, "reducing smog" of sulfur dioxide is the main hazard. The carbon monoxide and ozone levels expected in Los Angeles this summer could affect the athletes' performance in endurance events at the Olympic Games. Carbon monoxide may also impair psychomotor abilities, and PAN causes visual disturbances. The only likely physiologic consequence from reducing smog is an increase in the workload of the respiratory system and thus a decrease in endurance performance. While carbon monoxide has been blamed for myocardial infarctions, nitrogen oxides for pulmonary edema and sulfur dioxide for deaths due to respiratory failure, the only illnesses that are likely to be more frequent than usual among young athletes exposed to high levels of these pollutants are upper respiratory tract infections. Therapeutic tactics include the avoidance of pollution, the administration of oxygen, vitamin C and vitamin E, and general reassurance.

Shephard, R J

1984-01-01

312

AIR POLLUTION IN A CITY STREET  

PubMed Central

Measurements of the concentrations of smoke, lead, and five polycyclic hydrocarbons in the air have been made in the City of London in the middle of a busy street and at two control sites. Samples were taken only throughout the daytime hours on weekdays to enable us to assess the maximum contribution made by traffic to the pollution in the street. The results showed that during these periods the air in the middle of the street contained three times as much smoke, four times as much lead, and 1·7 times as much 3:4-benzpyrene as were present in the general atmosphere of the City of London as estimated from samples taken at the control sites. One of these sites was chosen because it was only 150 feet away from the street; analyses yielded no evidence that the traffic contributed to the pollution sampled there. Sulphur dioxide concentrations were determined in the early part of the study and the results showed that traffic appeared to add little to the background level. The concentrations of lead found were below those held to be safe by many authorities. Carbon monoxide concentrations, reported in greater detail elsewhere, sometimes reached the accepted industrial maximum allowable concentration of 100 p.p.m.

Waller, R. E.; Commins, B. T.; Lawther, P. J.

1965-01-01

313

Regional emissions of air pollutants in China.  

SciTech Connect

As part of the China-MAP program, sponsored by the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration, regional inventories of air pollutants emitted in China are being characterized, in order that the atmospheric chemistry over China can be more fully understood and the resulting ambient concentrations in Chinese cities and the deposition levels to Chinese ecosystems be determined with better confidence. In addition, the contributions of greenhouse gases from China and of acidic aerosols that counteract global warming are being quantified. This paper presents preliminary estimates of the emissions of some of the major air pollutants in China: sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), carbon monoxide (CO), and black carbon (C). Emissions are estimated for each of the 27 regions of China included in the RAINS-Asia simulation model and are subsequently distributed to a 1{degree} x 1{degree} grid using appropriate disaggregation factors. Emissions from all sectors of the Chinese economy are considered, including the combustion of biofuels in rural homes. Emissions from larger power plants are calculated individually and allocated to the grid accordingly. Data for the period 1990-1995 are being developed, as well as projections for the future under alternative assumptions about economic growth and environmental control.

Streets, D. G.

1998-10-05

314

Effects of particulate air pollution on asthmatics  

SciTech Connect

Twenty-four asthmatic subjects in Denver were followed from January through March 1979, a three-month period in which Denver air pollution levels are generally high and variable. Dichotomous, virtual impactor samplers provided daily measurements (..mu..g/m/sup 3/) of inhaled particulate matter (total mass, sulfates, and nitrates) for coarse (2.5-15 ..mu..m in aerodynamic diameter) and fine fractions (<2.5 ..mu..m). Carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, ozone, temperature, and barometric pressure were also measured. Twice daily measurements of each subject's peak expiratory flow rates, use of as-needed aerosolized bronchodilators, and report of airways obstruction symptoms characteristic of asthma were tested for relationships to air pollutants using a random effects model across subjects. During the time period actually observed, there were very few days in which high levels of suspended particulates were recorded. Of the environmental variables studied, only fine nitrates were associated with increased symptom reports and increased aerosolized bronchodilator usage.

Perry, G.B. (Univ. of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver); Chai, H.; Dickey, D.W.; Jones, R.H.; Kinsman, R.A.; Morrill, C.G.; Spector, S.L.; Weiser, P.C.

1983-01-01

315

Monitoring human exposure to urban air pollutants  

SciTech Connect

A multidisciplinary study on a general population exposed to vehicle exhaust was undertaken in Pisa in 1991. Environmental factors such as air pollution and those associated with lifestyle were studied. Meanwhile, biological and medical indicators of health condition were investigated. Chromosomal aberrations, sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs), and micronuclei in lymphocytes were included for the assessment of the genotoxic risk. Because of the large number (3800) of subjects being investigated, standardization of protocols was compulsory. The results on data reproducibility are reported. To assess the reliability of the protocol on a large scale, the population of Porto Tolle, a village located in northeast Italy, was studied and compared to a subset of the Pisa population. Preliminary results showed that probable differences between the two populations and individuals were present in terms of SCE frequencies. The study was potentially able to detect the effects of several factors such as age, smoking, genetics, and environment. The in vitro treatment of lymphocytes with diepoxybutane confirmed the presence of more responsive individuals and permitted us to investigate the genetic predisposition to genetic damage. The possible influence of environmental factors was studied by correlation analyses with external exposure to air pollutants as well as with several lifestyle factors. 10 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Barale, R.; Barrai, I.; Marrazzini, A. [Universita de Ferrara (Italy)] [and others

1993-10-01

316

Monitoring human exposure to urban air pollutants  

PubMed Central

A multidisciplinary study on a general population exposed to vehicle exhaust was undertaken in Pisa in 1991. Environmental factors such as air pollution and those associated with lifestyle were studied. Meanwhile, biological and medical indicators of health condition were investigated. Chromosomal aberrations, sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs), and micronuclei in lymphocytes were included for the assessment of the genotoxic risk. Because of the large number (3800) of subjects being investigated, standardization of protocols was compulsory. The results on data reproducibility are reported. To assess the reliability of the protocol on a large scale, the population of Porto Tolle, a village located in northeast Italy, was studied and compared to a subset of the Pisa population. Preliminary results showed that probable differences between the two populations and invididuals were present in terms of SCE frequencies. The study was potentially able to detect the effects of several factors such as age, smoking, genetics, and environment. The in vitro treatment of lymphocytes with diepoxybutane confirmed the presence of more responsive individuals and permitted us to investigate the genetic predisposition to genetic damage. The possible influence of environmental factors was studied by correlation analyses with external exposure to air pollutants as well as with several lifestyle factors.

Barale, R.; Barrai, I.; Sbrana, I.; Migliore, L.; Marrazzini, A.; Scarcelli, V.; Bacci, E.; Di Sibio, A.; Tessa, A.; Cocchi, L.; Lubrano, V.; Vassalle, C.; He, J.

1993-01-01

317

SOURCE CHARACTERIZATION (INDOOR ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Source Characterization Team (SCT) develops, directs, and conducts research on sources of indoor air pollution and their interactions with indoor surfaces (i.e., sinks). Source and sink characterization studies provide quantitative information on the temporal impact of source...

318

Floristic summary of North American plant species in the air pollution literature  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Notes are given on a project to create a database of bibliographic information, abstracts and keywords for publications on the biological effects of gaseous and heavy metal air pollution on plants and lichens.

Bennett, J. P.

2000-01-01

319

Climate Change, Air Pollution, and the Economics of Health Impacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change and air pollution are intricately linked. The distinction between greenhouse substances and other air pollutants is resolved at least for the time being in the context of international negotiations on climate policy through the identification of CO2, CH4, N2O, SF6 and the per- and hydro- fluorocarbons as substances targeted for control. Many of the traditional air pollutant emissions

J. Reilly; T. Yang; S. Paltsev; C. Wang; R. Prinn; M. Sarofim

2003-01-01

320

The public health relevance of air pollution abatement  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: Assuming a causal relationship between current levels of air pollution and morbidity\\/mortality, it is crucial to estimate the public health relevance of the problem. The derivation of air pollution attributable cases faces inherent uncertainties and requires,influential assumptions. Based on,the results of the trinational impact assessment study of Austria, France, and Switzerland, where prudent estimates of the air pollution attributable

N. Kunzli

2002-01-01

321

Motor Vehicles, Air Pollution, and Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite years of technical progress, motor vehicles continue to be a leading cause of environmental damage in the United States. For example, today's cars and trucks are the largest source of air pollution in many urban areas. US motor vehicles also account for 25 percent of the nation's carbon emissions, more than most countries emit from all sources combined. Fortunately, a host of technical improvements are emerging that could go a long ways towards taking vehicles out of the pollution picture. In the near-term, improving on the century-old internal combustion engine can deliver much-needed incremental gains. But electric drive vehicles--whether powered by batteries, small engines in hybrid configuration, or fuel cells--ultimately offer the greatest promise. Such technologies could dramatically reduce energy use, greenhouse gas emissions, and key air pollutants. The bulk of technical attention in recent years has been focused on improving the passenger vehicle, which will be the dominant energy consumer in the transportation sector for years to come. But freight trucks are also of growing concern, both because their contribution to global warming is on the rise and because serious questions are being raised about the public health impact of diesel technology. As a result, heavy trucks are emerging as a priority issue. Capitalizing on the opportunity presented by new technologies will not only require continued technical innovation but also policy action. As research into improved engines, fuels, and drive systems bears fruit over the coming years, aggressive and prudent policies will ensure that these new options make it onto the road and deliver on their environmental promise.

Mark, Jason

2000-04-01

322

Satellite-aided evaluation of population exposure to air pollution  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977 set schedules for states to implement regional, spatial assessments of air quality impacts. Accordingly, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency recently published guidelines for quantifying population exposure to adverse air quality impact by using air quality and population data by census tracts. Our research complements the EPA guidelines in that it demonstrates the ability to determine population exposure to air pollution through computer processing that utilizes Landsat satellite-derived land use information. Three variables-a 1985 estimate of total suspended particulates for 2-km2 grid cells, Landsat-derived residential land cover data for 0.45-ha cells, and population totals for census tracts-were spatially registered and cross-tabulated to produce tabular and map products illustrating relative air quality exposure for residential population by 2-km2 cells. It would cost $20,000 to replicate our analysis for an area similar in size to the 4000-km2 Portland area. Once completed, the spatially fine, computer-compatible air quality and population data are amenable to the timely and efficient generation of population-at-risk tabular and map information on a continuous or periodic basis.

Todd, William J.; George, Jr., A. J.; Bryant, N. A.

1979-01-01

323

Community Perceptions of Air Pollution and Related Health Risks in Nairobi Slums  

PubMed Central

Air pollution is among the leading global risks for mortality and responsible for increasing risk for chronic diseases. Community perceptions on exposure are critical in determining people’s response and acceptance of related policies. Therefore, understanding people’ perception is critical in informing the design of appropriate intervention measures. The aim of this paper was to establish levels and associations between perceived pollution and health risk perception among slum residents. A cross-sectional study of 5,317 individuals aged 35+ years was conducted in two slums of Nairobi. Association of perceived score and individual characteristics was assessed using linear regression. Spatial variation in the perceived levels was determined through hot spot analysis using ArcGIS. The average perceived air pollution level was higher among residents in Viwandani compared to those in Korogocho. Perceived air pollution level was positively associated with perceived health risks. The majority of respondents were exposed to air pollution in their place of work with 66% exposed to at least two sources of air pollution. Less than 20% of the respondents in both areas mentioned sources related to indoor pollution. The perceived air pollution level and related health risks in the study community were lowamong the residents indicating the need for promoting awareness on air pollution sources and related health risks.

Egondi, Thaddaeus; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Ng, Nawi; Muindi, Kanyiva; Oti, Samuel; van de Vijver, Steven; Ettarh, Remare; Rocklov, Joacim

2013-01-01

324

THE RAPS (REGIONAL AIR POLLUTION STUDY) HELICOPTER AIR POLLUTION MEASUREMENT PROGRAM, ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI, 1974-76  

EPA Science Inventory

This research program was initiated with the overall objective of providing measurement of air pollution and temperature gradient over the St. Louis, Missouri/Illinois, metropolitan area to complement surface measurements of air pollution by the Regional Air Monitoring System (RA...

325

[What is the role of outdoor air pollution in asthma?].  

PubMed

Strong scientific evidence has shown that ordinary peaks of outdoor air pollution worsen the symptoms and control of asthma. As for chronic exposure, elevated mean level of local, near-road air pollution may cause increased incidence of asthma among children, and probably also among adults. By contrast, while there is no doubt that air pollution worsens allergic inflammatory processes, it is not clearly established that it may increase allergic sensitization among the general population. In this regard, more research is needed, particularly on the effects of outdoor air pollution in the early periods of life. PMID:23240300

Rochat, T; Bridevaux, P-O; Gerbase, M; Probst-Hensch, N; Künzli, N

2012-11-21

326

"Air pollution in Delhi: Its Magnitude and Effects on Health"  

PubMed Central

Air pollution is responsible for many health problems in the urban areas. Of late, the air pollution status in Delhi has undergone many changes in terms of the levels of pollutants and the control measures taken to reduce them. This paper provides an evidence-based insight into the status of air pollution in Delhi and its effects on health and control measures instituted. The urban air database released by the World Health Organization in September 2011 reported that Delhi has exceeded the maximum PM10 limit by almost 10-times at 198 ?g/m3. Vehicular emissions and industrial activities were found to be associated with indoor as well as outdoor air pollution in Delhi. Studies on air pollution and mortality from Delhi found that all-natural-cause mortality and morbidity increased with increased air pollution. Delhi has taken several steps to reduce the level of air pollution in the city during the last 10 years. However, more still needs to be done to further reduce the levels of air pollution.

Rizwan, SA; Nongkynrih, Baridalyne; Gupta, Sanjeev Kumar

2013-01-01

327

PARTICULATE AIR POLLUTION AND MORBIDITY IN THE CALIFORNIA CENTRAL VALLEY: A HIGH PARTICULATE POLLUTION REGION  

EPA Science Inventory

The study collected data from monitoring of PM and criteria pollutants (PM10, PM2.5, CO, NO2, ozone, etc.) and mobidity data from Kaiser Permanente. The study then examined the relationship between air pollutants and hospital admissions. ...

328

Recent climate and air pollution impacts on Asian agriculture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impacts of climate change on agricultural production have important ramifications for food security and policy from local to global scales. Recent research investigating these impacts has focused on the roles of temperature and precipitation on yield. However, regional climate changes are due to both global emissions of long-lived greenhouse gases (LLGHGs) as well as local emissions of aerosols and other short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs). SLCPs can impact plant growth both directly (e.g., ozone) and indirectly, by altering regional temperature, precipitation, and surface radiation. Existing estimates of the effects of SLCPs on crop yields have been drawn from field experiments and cultivar-specific dose-response relationships; no research has as yet examined the historic role of the direct and the indirect effects of SLCPs on yields. I will present results from a statistical model of the impact of climate and air pollution on wheat and rice yields in Asia over the past 3 decades (1980-2008). This builds on work we completed for India, which was the first such analysis combining the effects of climate, aerosols, and tropospheric ozone into a statistical model. Yields across Asia in 2008 were lower for wheat and rice than they otherwise would have been, absent climate and pollutant emissions trends. Most of these losses were due to SLCPs as opposed to longer-run temperature and precipitation trends, indicating that gains from addressing regional air pollution could significantly help in offsetting expected future losses due to rising temperatures and precipitation changes. This new insight into the relative importance of these climate and air pollution factors can help inform both climate policy discussions and agricultural adaptation efforts in this critical food security region.

Burney, J. A.

2012-12-01

329

77 FR 214 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...and air districts for evaluating air pollution control economics. 3....

2012-01-04

330

77 FR 62452 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Arizona; Prevention of Air Pollution...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...State of Arizona; Prevention of Air Pollution Emergency Episodes AGENCY: Environmental...address the requirements regarding air pollution emergency episodes in Clean Air...address the requirements regarding air pollution emergency episodes in CAA...

2012-10-15

331

76 FR 5277 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control District, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District, Ventura County Air Pollution Control District and Placer County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY:...

2011-01-31

332

77 FR 21911 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Arizona; Prevention of Air Pollution...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...State of Arizona; Prevention of Air Pollution Emergency Episodes AGENCY: Environmental...address the requirements regarding air pollution emergency episodes in Clean Air...regarding authority to address air pollution emergency episodes and...

2012-04-12

333

76 FR 5319 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control District, Placer County Air Pollution Control District, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District, and Ventura County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY:...

2011-01-31

334

Does urban vegetation mitigate air pollution in northern conditions?  

PubMed

It is generally accepted that urban vegetation improves air quality and thereby enhances the well-being of citizens. However, empirical evidence on the potential of urban trees to mitigate air pollution is meager, particularly in northern climates with a short growing season. We studied the ability of urban park/forest vegetation to remove air pollutants (NO2, anthropogenic VOCs and particle deposition) using passive samplers in two Finnish cities. Concentrations of each pollutant in August (summer; leaf-period) and March (winter, leaf-free period) were slightly but often insignificantly lower under tree canopies than in adjacent open areas, suggesting that the role of foliage in removing air pollutants is insignificant. Furthermore, vegetation-related environmental variables (canopy closure, number and size of trees, density of understorey vegetation) did not explain the variation in pollution concentrations. Our results suggest that the ability of urban vegetation to remove air pollutants is minor in northern climates. PMID:23274234

Setälä, Heikki; Viippola, Viljami; Rantalainen, Anna-Lea; Pennanen, Arto; Yli-Pelkonen, Vesa

2013-12-01

335

American business interests meet air pollution transport science: understanding the US response to trans-Pacific air pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the discovery of air pollution traveling from China to the US during the late 1990s, trans-Pacific air pollution (consisting of a range of non-CO2 greenhouse gases) has been an emerging global environmental issue. But how has it been addressed, how does it relate to the existing multilateral air pollution regime, and who are the interested parties? This article addresses

Owen Temby

2012-01-01

336

INDUSTRIAL GUIDE FOR AIR POLLUTION CONTROL  

EPA Science Inventory

This manual is intended as a set of guidelines for companies that are not yet fully involved in a corporate program of environmental control. The information is presented for plant managers, engineers, and other industrial personnel responsible for plant compliance with air pollu...

337

Air Pollution, Greenhouse Gases and Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The global build up of greenhouse gases (GHGs), is the most significant environmental issue facing the planet. GHGs warm the surface and the atmosphere with significant implications for, rainfall, retreat of glaciers and sea ice, sea level, among other factors. What is less recognized, however, is a comparably major global problem dealing with air pollution. Until about ten years ago, air pollution was thought to be just an urban or a local problem. But new data have revealed that, due to fast long range transport, air pollution is transported across continents and ocean basins, resulting in trans-oceanic and trans-continental plumes of atmospheric brown clouds (ABCs) containing sub micron size particles, i.e, aerosols. ABCs intercept sunlight by absorbing as well as reflecting it, both of which lead to a large surface dimming. The dimming effect is enhanced further because aerosols nucleate more cloud drops which makes the clouds reflect more solar radiation. While the solar heating at the surface is reduced by aerosols in ABCs, the atmospheric solar heating increases due to soot solar absorption. The net difference between the dimming and the atmospheric solar heating is estimated be negative which contributes to a global cooling effect. The global cooling from this negative ABC forcing may have masked as much as 50% of the warming due to GHGs. We will identify regional and mega-city hot spots of ABCs. Long range transport from these hot spots gives rise to wide spread plumes over the adjacent oceans. Such a pattern of regionally concentrated surface dimming and atmospheric solar heating, accompanied by wide spread dimming over the oceans, gives rise to large regional effects. Only during the last decade, we have begun to comprehend the surprisingly large regional impacts. The large north-south gradient in the ABC dimming has altered the north-south gradients in sea surface temperatures, which in turn has been shown by models to decrease rainfall over the continents. The uncertainties in our understanding of the ABC effects are large, but we are discovering new ways in which human activities are changing the climate and the environment.

Ramanathan, V.

2007-12-01

338

AIR POLLUTION MEASUREMENT BY FOURIER TRANSFORM SPECTROSCOPY  

EPA Science Inventory

Fourier transform spectroscopy substantially reduces the limitations on infrared methods of pollution measurement. EPA has used long path cells and Fourier transform spectrometers for pollutant measurement both in the laboratory and in the field. Labile pollutants are best measur...

339

Introduction to Indoor Air Quality  

MedlinePLUS

... Basic Information on Pollutants and Sources of Indoor Air Pollution Asbestos Biological Pollutants Carbon Monoxide (CO) Formaldehyde/Pressed ... about ventilation in buildings Top of page Indoor Air Pollution and Health Health effects from indoor air pollutants ...

340

Air Pollution and the Triggering of Cardiac Arrhythmias  

PubMed Central

Purpose of Review The last five years have witnessed an explosion in interest regarding cardiac arrhythmias and air pollution. The data have been strongest with respect to ventricular arrhythmias but there is accumulating evidence that air pollution is also associated with supraventricular arrhythmias. Recent Findings There is clear epidemiological evidence linking air pollution and cardiac mortality. Whether the cardiac mortality was from myocardial ischemia, congestive heart failure or arrhythmic, or all of these pathways is not clear from the epidemiological data. There is a large body of evidence that air pollution can modify autonomic tone. More recent data, utilizing patients with cardiac disease and implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) has clarified the association of air pollution and arrhythmias. Data is also accumulating that air pollution may be associated with atrial arrhythmias. Summary The incremental risk of air pollution in triggering arrhythmias or other acute cardiac events is greatest for those patients with underlying cardiac disease. Cardiovascular patients and those at high risk of cardiovascular disease should be educated about the risks for triggering of arrhythmias and other cardiac events by air pollution. These patients should monitor the local forecasted Air Quality Index and follow the recommendations to reduce exposures and limit activities.

Link, Mark S.; Dockery, Douglas W.

2013-01-01

341

Air pollution exposure indicator for Greece  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European Environment Agency (EEA) calculates the air pollution exposure indicator (CSI 004) for Greece using data from only one monitoring station, which is located in Athens. The present work presents an alternative approach for calculating such an indicator. This new approach is based on data from several monitoring stations in the metropolitan areas of Athens and Thessaloniki and takes into account the population living within a particular monitoring district. The assessment focuses on particulate matter (PM 10), nitrogen dioxide and ozone for the period from 2001-2008. Comparisons between exposures estimated by the current procedure and those estimated by the EEA methodology indicate that the latter procedure can produce large over-estimates of exposure.

Dimitroulopoulou, C.; Plemmenos, V.; Kyrios, T.; Ziomas, I. C.

2011-04-01

342

Modelling traffic air pollution in road tunnels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents two models for the description of air pollutant concentrations in road tunnels due to traffic. Turbulence is assumed to depend on both atmospheric turbulence and vehicle's motion. Emissions are calculated with the COPERT90 methodology (Eggleston et al., 1991). Up to 34 different vehicle categories can be considered at the same time, with an arbitrary number of vehicles travelling inside the tunnel. Emissions are calculated as a function of the position inside the tunnel and of the time. Three pollutants can be simulated with the current version of the models, CO, NO x and VOC. It is also possible to consider vehicles with null emissions. The models are able to consider the effects of an arbitrary number of sinks. Flow rates and outdoor concentrations are a function of the time for each sink. The equation of conservation of mass has been solved with the control volumes method. Particular attention has been given to the formulation of stability conditions. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to verify the model answer to different input parameters such as initial concentration, boundary concentrations and vehicle-induced turbulence. Examples of application are given for a tunnel with urban traffic regime, including passenger cars with different fuels, light duty trucks, heavy duty trucks and motorbikes, and for an underground railway. Simulations have been carried out for the five working days of the week.

Bellasio, Roberto

343

Effects of Air Pollutants on Childhood Asthma  

PubMed Central

Epidemiologic studies have suggested the association between environmental exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the increased risk of incurring asthma. Yet there is little data regarding the relationship between personal exposure to air pollution and the incidence of asthma in children. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of exposure to air pollution on children with asthma by using exposure biomarkers. We assessed the exposure level to VOCs by measuring urinary concentrations of hippuric acid and muconic acid, and PAHs by 1-OH pyrene and 2-naphthol in 30 children with asthma and 30 children without asthma (control). The mean level of hippuric acid was 0.158 ± 0.169 µmol/mol creatinine in the asthma group and 0.148 ± 0.249 µmol/mol creatinine in the control group, with no statistical significance noted (p=0.30). The mean concentration of muconic acid was higher in the asthma group than in the control group (7.630 ± 8.915 µmol/mol creatinine vs. 3.390 ± 4.526 µmol/mol creatinine p=0.01). The mean level of urinary 1-OHP was higher in the asthma group (0.430 ± 0.343 µmol/mol creatinine) than the control group (0.239 ± 0.175 µmol/mol creatinine), which was statistically significant (p=0.03). There was no difference in the mean concentration of 2-NAP between the two groups (9.864 ± 10.037 µmol/mol in the asthma group vs. 9.157 ± 9.640 µmol/mol in the control group, p=0.96). In conclusion, this study suggests that VOCs and PAHs have some role in asthma.

Kim, Jeong-Hee; Kim, Ja-Kyoung; Son, Byong-Kwan; Oh, Ji-Eun; Lee, Kwan-Hee; Hong, Youn-Chol; Cho, Sung-Il

2005-01-01

344

Examining the Impact of Demographic Factors on Air Pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study adds to the emerging literature examining empirically the link between population size, other demographic factors and pollution. We contribute by using more reliable estimation techniques and examine two air pollutants. By considering sulfur dioxide, we become the first study to explicitly examine the impact of demographic factors on a pollutant other than carbon dioxide at the cross-national level.

Matthew A. Cole; Eric Neumayer

2004-01-01

345

Microbial responses of forest soil to moderate anthropogenic air pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a need to introduce soil microbiological methods into long term ecological monitoring programs. For this purpose we studied the impact of moderate anthropogenic air pollution in polluted and less polluted area districts, forest site types Calluna (CT), Vaccinium (VT) and Myrtillus (MT) and the amount of organic matter, measured as carbon content on the soil respiration activity and

Pekka Vanhala; Oili Kiikkilä; Hannu Fritze

1996-01-01

346

A novel air pollution index based on the relative risk of daily mortality associated with short-term exposure to common air pollutants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Communication of the complex relationship between air pollutant exposure and ill health is essential to an air pollution information system. We propose a novel air pollution index (API) system based on the relative risk of the well-established increased daily mortality associated with short-term exposure to common air pollutants: particulate matter (PM 10, PM 2.5), sulphur dioxide, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and carbon monoxide. To construct our index system, the total incremental daily mortality risk of exposure to these pollutants was associated with an index value ranging from 0 to 10. The index scale is linear with respect to incremental risk. The index is open ended, although, for convenience, an index of 10 is assigned for exposures yielding indices ?10. To illustrate the application of this API system, a set of published relative risk factors are used to calculate sub-index values for each pollutant, in the range of air pollutant concentrations commonly experienced in urban areas. To account for the reality of ubiquitous simultaneous exposure to a mixture of the common air pollutants, the final API is the sum of the normalised values of the individual indices for PM 10, PM 2.5, sulphur dioxide, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and carbon monoxide. This establishes a self-consistent index system where a given index value corresponds to the same daily mortality risk associated with the combined exposure to the common air pollutants. To facilitate health-risk communication, index values are colour coded and associated with broad health-risk descriptors. The utility of the proposed API is illustrated by applying it to monitored ambient concentration data for the City of Cape Town, South Africa.

Cairncross, Eugene K.; John, Juanette; Zunckel, Mark

347

Air pollution exposure assessment methods utilized in epidemiological studies.  

PubMed

The assessment of personal exposure to air pollution is a critical component of epidemiological studies associating air pollution and health effects. This paper critically reviewed 157 studies over 29 years that utilized one of five categories of exposure methods (proximity, air dispersion, hybrid, human inhalation, and biomarkers). Proximity models were found to be a questionable technique as they assume that closer proximity equates to greater exposure. Inhalation models and biomarker estimates were the most effective in assessing personal exposure, but are often cost prohibitive for large study populations. This review suggests that: (i) factors such as uncertainty, validity, data availability, and transferability related to exposure assessment methods should be considered when selecting a model; and (ii) although an entirely discreet new class of approach is not necessary, significant progress could be made through the development of a 'hybrid' model utilizing the strengths of several existing methods. Future work should systematically evaluate the performance of hybrid models compared to other individual exposure assessment methods utilizing geospatial information technologies (e.g. geographic information systems (GIS) and remote sensing (RS)) to more robustly refine estimates of ambient exposure and quantify the linkages and differences between outdoor, indoor and personal exposure estimates. PMID:19280026

Zou, Bin; Wilson, J Gaines; Zhan, F Benjamin; Zeng, Yongnian

2009-03-01

348

APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 14; Developer's Manual No. 4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Developer's Manual No. 4 is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections, which are the same in each of…

Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

349

COSTS OF AIR POLLUTION ABATEMENT SYSTEMS FOR SEWAGE SLUDGE INCINERATORS  

EPA Science Inventory

Capital and annual costs were calculated for applying six different air pollution control systems to municipal sewage sludge incinerators that were using multiple-hearth furnaces. The systems involved three principal types of air pollution equipment-wet scrubbers, fabric filters,...

350

Heart rate variability associated with particulate air pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Epidemiologic studies have linked fine particulate air pollution with cardiopulmonary mortality, yet underlying biologic mechanisms remain unknown. Changes in heart rate variability (HRV) may reflect changes in cardiac autonomic function and risk of sudden cardiac death. This study evaluated changes in mean heart rate and HRV in human beings associated with changes in exposure to particulate air pollution. Methods:

C. Arden Pope; Richard L. Verrier; Eric G. Lovett; Andrew C. Larson; Mark E. Raizenne; Richard E. Kanner; Joel Schwartz; G. Martin Villegas; Diane R. Gold; Douglas W. Dockery

1999-01-01

351

Urban air pollution and atmospheric diffusion research in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air pollution has become a serious problem in China as a result of that country's efforts in the last 30 years to become a great industrial power. The burning of coal, which currently provides over 70% of all China's energy needs, is a major source of air pollution. Because Chinese coal is high in sulfur and ash content and because

Datong Ning; Joseph B. Whitney; David Yap

1987-01-01

352

Air pollutant effects on fetal and early postnatal development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerical research on the health effects of air pollution has been pub- lished in the last decade. Epidemiological studies have shown that child- ren's exposure to air pollutants during fetal development and early post- natal life is associated with many types of health problems including abnormal development (low birth weight (LBW), very low birth weight (VLBW), preterm birth (PTB), intrauterine

Lei Wang; Kent E. Pinkerton

2007-01-01

353

Plug-in Sensors for Air Pollution Monitoring.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Faristors, a type of plug-in sensors used in analyzing equipment, are described in this technical report presented at the 12th Conference on Methods in Air Pollution and Industrial Hygiene Studies, University of Southern California, April, 1971. Their principles of operation, interchangeability, and versatility for measuring air pollution at…

Shaw, Manny

354

Methodological issues in studies of air pollution and reproductive health  

EPA Science Inventory

In the past decade there have been an increasing number of scientific studies describing possible effects of air pollution on perinatal health. These papers have mostly focused on commonly monitored air pollutants, primarily ozone (O3), particulate matter (PM), sulfur dioxide (S...

355

EFFECTS OF PARTICULATE AIR POLLUTION ON ASTHMATIC SUBJECTS  

EPA Science Inventory

While much remains to be understood, individuals with respiratory disease appear to be affected by high levels of air pollution as indicated by subjective reports, clinic and hospital visits, and morbidity. Suspended particulates make up a substantial part of urban air pollution,...

356

Implications of air pollution effects on athletic performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both controlled human studies and observational studies suggest that air pollution adversely affects athletic performance during both training and competition. The air pollution dosage during exercise is much higher than during rest because of a higher ventilatory rate and both nasal and oral breathing in the former case. For example, sulfur dioxide, which is a highly water-soluble gas, is almost

WILLIAM E. PIERSON; JANE Q. KOENIG; TSUKASA NAMEKATA; YOON SHIN KIM

1986-01-01

357

Children's Asthma Linked to Air Pollution in 2nd Trimester  

MedlinePLUS

... page, please enable JavaScript. Children's Asthma Linked to Air Pollution in 2nd Trimester: Study Preliminary research finds timing ... Dallas Monday, May 19, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Air Pollution Asthma in Children Fetal Health and Development MONDAY, ...

358

Urban air pollution in megacities of the world  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban air pollution is a major environmental problem in the developing countries of the world. WHO and UNEP created an air pollution monitoring network as part of the Global Environment Monitoring System. This network now covers over 50 cities in 35 developing and developed countries throughout the world. The analyses of the data reported by the network over the past

David Mage; Guntis Ozolins; Peter Peterson; Anthony Webster; Rudi Orthofer; Veerle Vandeweerd; Michael Gwynne

1996-01-01

359

Urban air pollution and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is consistency in the findings that relate the acute increases in urban air pollution (mainly the particulate matter) and the short-term health effects (i.e. mortality and hospital admissions) on patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Beyond the acute effects, a relevant public health and scientific question is to what extent chronic exposure to air pollution is related

J. Sunyer

2001-01-01

360

Air Pollution and Infant Mortality in Mexico City  

EPA Science Inventory

Historic air pollution episodes of the 1950s led to acute increases in infant mortality, and some recent epidemiologic studies suggest that infant or child mortality may still result from air pollution at current levels. To investigate the evidence for such an association, we con...

361

40 CFR 52.1477 - Nevada air pollution emergency plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Nevada air pollution emergency plan. 52.1477 Section 52.1477 Protection...IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Nevada § 52.1477 Nevada air pollution emergency plan. Section 6.1.5 of the...

2013-07-01

362

Discover-AQ flies in Calif. to study air pollution  

... title:  Discover-AQ flies in Calif. to study air pollution     See the Full Video ... one as close as 1,000 feet to the ground -- to measure air pollution. They are part of a five-year NASA science campaign called ...

2013-04-25

363

Daily concentrations of air pollution and plasma fibrinogen in London  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESThe reason for the association between air pollution and risk of cardiovascular diseases is unknown. The hypothesis was examined that daily concentrations of air pollution are associated with daily concentrations of fibrinogen, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease.METHODSData on concentrations of plasma fibrinogen for 4982 male and 2223 female office workers, collected in a cross sectional survey in London between

J Pekkanen; E J Brunner; H R Anderson; P Tiittanen; R W Atkinson

2000-01-01

364

Air Pollution Health Effects: Toward an Integrated Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we develop a methodology for integrating the health effects from exposure to air pollution into the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model, a computable general equilibrium model of the economy that has been widely used to study climate change policy. The approach incorporates market and non-market effects of air pollution on human health, and is

Trent Yang; John Reilly; Sergey Paltsev

365

UNDERSTANDING THE EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTION ON HUMAN HEALTH  

EPA Science Inventory

Modern air pollution regulation is first and foremost motivated by concerns about the effects of air pollutants on human health and secondarily by concerns about its effects on ecosystems, cultural artifacts, and quality of life values such as visibility. This order of priority ...

366

RESEARCH AREA -- POLLUTION PREVENTION (INDOOR ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)  

EPA Science Inventory

The strategy of NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division's Indoor Environment Management Branch (IEMB) is to apply IEMB's expertise in indoor air quality (i.e., source characterization, ventilation, filtration, modeling, biocontaminants, and sustainable buildings) to...

367

Impact Of Air Pollution On Reproductive Health In Northern Bohemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of environmental pollution on reproductive outcomes has been studied in the context of an inter-disciplinary research\\u000a program analyzing the impact of air pollution on human health in the Czech Republic.\\u000a \\u000a Semen quality was evaluated in young men living in the Teplice District of Northern Bohemia where they are exposed to episodes\\u000a of high air pollution during the winter

J. Rubes; S. G. Selevan; R. J. Sram; D. P. Evenson; S. D. Perreault

368

The effect of air pollution on asthma and allergy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air pollution exposure is associated with increased asthma and allergy morbidity and is a suspected contributor to the increasing\\u000a prevalence of allergic conditions. Observational studies continue to strengthen the association between air pollution and\\u000a allergic respiratory disease, whereas recent mechanistic studies have defined the prominent role of oxidative stress in the\\u000a proallergic immunologic effects of particulate and gaseous pollutants. The

Marc A. Riedl

2008-01-01

369

Computational challenges in large-scale air pollution modelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many difficulties must be overcome when large-scale air pollution models are treated numerically, because the physical and chemical processes in the atmosphere are very fast. This is why it is necessaryto use a large space domain in order to be able to study long-range transport, of pollutants in the atmosphere,to describe adequately all important processes when an air pollution model

Tzvetan Ostromsky; Wojciech Owczarz; Zahari Zlatev

2001-01-01

370

Effects of air pollution on biogenic volatiles and ecological interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical signals play important roles in ecological interactions but are vulnerable to perturbation by air pollution. In polluted\\u000a air masses, signals may travel shorter distances before being destroyed by chemical reactions with pollutants, thus losing\\u000a their specificity. To determine which scent-mediated interactions are likely to be affected, we review existing literature\\u000a to build a picture of what chemicals are commonly

Quinn S. McFrederick; Jose D. Fuentes; T’ai Roulston; James C. Kathilankal; Manuel Lerdau

2009-01-01

371

Environmental economics: capital expenditures for air and water pollution control  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey showed that in the period 1970-76, capital expenditures by industries and utilities for air pollution abatement of stationary sources was $19.8 billion compared with $12.9 billion for water pollution control. During the 1977-85 period, capital expenditures by industries and utilities for air pollution abatement are expected to total over $36 billion, of which $6.75 billion will be for

de la Rue

1977-01-01

372

Air pollution assessment of Salé's city (Morocco)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four sites were selected in Sale's city in Morocco in order to contribute in air pollution level assessment and determination of its effects on public health. The sites were selected so that they are close to the most important industrialized areas, they have a very high demographic density and they cover a heavy traffic. Two approaches of air sampling and subsequent analysis methods of elements in atmospheric aerosols have been performed. The first is a classical approach, which consists in sampling total airborne materials with a High Volume Sampler and analysing the samples using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). The second is having its interest for studies relating effects of particles on human health. It consists in employing a Dichotomous Sampler to collect inhalable particles and the X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) for elemental analysis. With such system, it was possible to collect separately respirable and inhalable aerosols. The ED-XRF analysis method used is appropriate for monitoring airborne polluants in living and working areas with advantage of simple preparation, nondestructive nature, rapidity and suitable limits of detection. Using this method, it was possible to identify and quantify S, Ca, CI, Fe, Cu, and Pb. With Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy Analysis Method, we quantified Cd. This study have been completed by measuring NOx SO2 and solid suspended particles or airborne particulate matter (APM).

Bounakhla, M.; Fatah, A.; Embarch, K.; Ibn Majah, M.; Azami, R.; Sabir, A.; Nejjar, A.; Cherkaoui, R.; Gaudry, A.

2003-05-01

373

Air Pollution Exposure and Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Ambient air pollution (AAP) and particulate matters (PM) have been closely associated with adverse health effects such as respiratory disease and cardiovascular diseases. Previous studies have examined the adverse health effects associated with short- and long-term exposure to AAP and outdoor PM on respiratory disease. However, the effect of PM size (PM2.5 and PM10) on cardiovascular disease has not been well studied. Thus, it remains unclear how the size of the inhalable particles (coarse, fine, or ultrafine) affects mortality and morbidity. Airborne PM concentrations are commonly used for ambient air quality management worldwide, owing to the known effects on cardiorespiratory health. In this article, we assess the relationship between cardiovascular diseases and PM, with a particular focus on PM size. We discuss the association of PM2.5 and PM10, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and elemental carbon with mortality and morbidity due to cardiovascular diseases, stroke, and altered blood pressure, based on epidemiological studies. In addition, we provide evidence that the adverse health effects of AAP and PM are more pronounced among the elderly, children, and people with preexisting cardiovascular and respiratory conditions. Finally, we critically summarize the literature pertaining to cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis and stroke, and introduce potential studies to better understand the health significance of AAP and PM on cardiovascular disease.

Lee, Byeong-Jae; Kim, Bumseok

2014-01-01

374

PRECOMBUSTION REMOVAL OF HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANT PRECURSORS  

SciTech Connect

In response to growing environmental concerns reflected in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA), the United States Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored several research and development projects in late 1995 as part of an initiative entitled Advanced Environmental Control Technologies for Coal-Based Power Systems. The program provided cost-shared support for research and development projects that could accelerate the commercialization of affordable, high-efficiency, low-emission, coal-fueled electric generating technologies. Clean coal technologies developed under this program would serve as prototypes for later generations of technologies to be implemented in the industrial sector. In order to identify technologies with the greatest potential for commercial implementation, projects funded under Phase I of this program were subject to competitive review by DOE before being considered for continuation funding under Phase II. One of the primary topical areas identified under the DOE initiative relates to the development of improved technologies for reducing the emissions of air toxics. Previous studies have suggested that many of the potentially hazardous air pollutant precursors (HAPPs) occur as trace elements in the mineral matter of run-of-mine coals. As a result, these elements have the potential to be removed prior to combustion at the mine site by physical coal cleaning processes (i.e., coal preparation). Unfortunately, existing coal preparation plants are generally limited in their ability to remove HAPPs due to incomplete liberation of the mineral matter and high organic associations of some trace elements. In addition, existing physical coal cleaning plants are not specifically designed or optimized to ensure that high trace element rejections may be achieved.

Unknown

2000-10-09

375

Ambient air pollution and allergic diseases in children  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of allergic diseases has increased worldwide, a phenomenon that can be largely attributed to environmental effects. Among environmental factors, air pollution due to traffic is thought to be a major threat to childhood health. Residing near busy roadways is associated with increased asthma hospitalization, decreased lung function, and increased prevalence and severity of wheezing and allergic rhinitis. Recently, prospective cohort studies using more accurate measurements of individual exposure to air pollution have been conducted and have provided definitive evidence of the impact of air pollution on allergic diseases. Particulate matter and ground-level ozone are the most frequent air pollutants that cause harmful effects, and the mechanisms underlying these effects may be related to oxidative stress. The reactive oxidative species produced in response to air pollutants can overwhelm the redox system and damage the cell wall, lipids, proteins, and DNA, leading to airway inflammation and hyper-reactivity. Pollutants may also cause harmful effects via epigenetic mechanisms, which control the expression of genes without changing the DNA sequence itself. These mechanisms are likely to be a target for the prevention of allergies. Further studies are necessary to identify children at risk and understand how these mechanisms regulate gene-environment interactions. This review provides an update of the current understanding on the impact of air pollution on allergic diseases in children and facilitates the integration of issues regarding air pollution and allergies into pediatric practices, with the goal of improving pediatric health.

Kim, Byoung-Ju

2012-01-01

376

Evaluating impacts of air pollution in China on public health: Implications for future air pollution and energy policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our objective is to establish the link between energy consumption and technologies, air pollution concentrations, and resulting impacts on public health in eastern China. We use Zaozhuang, a city in eastern China heavily dependent on coal, as a case study to quantify the impacts that air pollution in eastern China had on public health in 2000 and the benefits in

Xiaoping Wang; Denise L. Mauzerall

2006-01-01

377

Capitalizing on the Success of the Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP) Regime to Address Global Transboundary Air Pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper will explore viable ways of expanding LRTAP to create a global agreement to reduce transboundary air pollution which will permit all signatories to meet their economic and social needs and other international commitments. LRTAP and its eight protocols, though originally regional in scope, offer adequate structure to address transboundary air pollution on a global scale. Three options to

Megan V. Brachtl

378

Air pollution and population health: a global challenge.  

PubMed

"Air pollution and population health" is one of the most important environmental and public health issues. Economic development, urbanization, energy consumption, transportation/motorization, and rapid population growth are major driving forces of air pollution in large cities, especially in megacities. Air pollution levels in developed countries have been decreasing dramatically in recent decades. However, in developing countries and in countries in transition, air pollution levels are still at relatively high levels, though the levels have been gradually decreasing or have remained stable during rapid economic development. In recent years, several hundred epidemiological studies have emerged showing adverse health effects associated with short-term and long-term exposure to air pollutants. Time-series studies conducted in Asian cities also showed similar health effects on mortality associated with exposure to particulate matter (PM), sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) and ozone (O(3)) to those explored in Europe and North America. The World Health Organization (WHO) published the "WHO Air Quality Guidelines (AQGs), Global Update" in 2006. These updated AQGs provide much stricter guidelines for PM, NO(2), SO(2) and O(3). Considering that current air pollution levels are much higher than the WHO-recommended AQGs, interim targets for these four air pollutants are also recommended for member states, especially for developing countries in setting their country-specific air quality standards. In conclusion, ambient air pollution is a health hazard. It is more important in Asian developing countries within the context of pollution level and population density. Improving air quality has substantial, measurable and important public health benefits. PMID:19568887

Chen, Bingheng; Kan, Haidong

2008-03-01

379

Deposition of air pollutants to the great waters. First report to Congress  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Great Waters program is to evaluate the atmospheric deposition of air pollutants to the Great Lakes, Lake Champlain, Chesapeake Bay, and coastal waters. The report to Congress is to include information on the contribution of atmospheric deposition to pollutant loadings, the environmental or public health effects of such pollution, the source or sources of such pollution, and a description of any regulatory revisions under applicable Federal laws that may be necessary to assure protection of human health and the environment. The scientific information currently available is summarized in this report, and recommended actions are described.

Not Available

1994-05-01

380

An integrated fuzzy-stochastic modeling approach for assessing health-impact risk from air pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

High concentrations of air pollutants in the ambient environment can result in breathing problems with human communities.\\u000a Effective assessment of health-impact risk from air pollution is important for supporting decisions of the related detection,\\u000a prevention, and correction efforts. However, the quality of information available for environmental\\/health risk assessment\\u000a is often not satisfactory enough to be presented as deterministic numbers. Stochastic

Heng L. Li; Guo H. Huang; Yun Zou

2008-01-01

381

Climate Change, Air Pollution, and the Economics of Health Impacts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change and air pollution are intricately linked. The distinction between greenhouse substances and other air pollutants is resolved at least for the time being in the context of international negotiations on climate policy through the identification of CO2, CH4, N2O, SF6 and the per- and hydro- fluorocarbons as substances targeted for control. Many of the traditional air pollutant emissions including for example CO, NMVOCs, NOx, SO2, aerosols, and NH3 also directly or indirectly affect the radiative balance of the atmosphere. Among both sets of gases are precursors of and contributors to pollutants such as tropopospheric ozone, itself a strong greenhouse gas, particulate matter, and other pollutants that affect human health. Fossil fuel combustion, production, or transportation is a significant source for many of these substances. Climate policy can thus affect traditional air pollution or air pollution policy can affect climate. Health effects of acute or chronic exposure to air pollution include increased asthma, lung cancer, heart disease and bronchitis among others. These, in turn, redirect resources in the economy toward medical expenditures or result in lost labor or non-labor time with consequent effects on economic activity, itself producing a potential feedback on emissions levels. Study of these effects ultimately requires a fully coupled earth system model. Toward that end we develop an approach for introducing air pollution health impacts into the Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model, a component of the MIT Integrated Global Systems Model (IGSM) a coupled economics-chemistry-atmosphere-ocean-terrestrial biosphere model of earth systems including an air pollution model resolving the urban scale. This preliminary examination allows us to consider how climate policy affects air pollution and consequent health effects, and to study the potential impacts of air pollution policy on climate. The novel contribution is the effort to endogenize air pollution impacts within the EPPA model, allowing us to study potential economic effects and feedbacks. We find strong interaction between air pollution and economies, although precise estimates of the effects require further investigation and refined resolution of the urban scale chemistry model.

Reilly, J.; Yang, T.; Paltsev, S.; Wang, C.; Prinn, R.; Sarofim, M.

2003-12-01

382

Inhalation intake of ambient air pollution in California's South Coast Air Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reliable estimates of inhalation intake of air pollution and its distribution among a specified population are important for environmental epidemiology, health risk assessment, urban planning, and environmental policy. We computed distributional characteristics of the inhalation intake of five pollutants for a group of ˜25,000 people (˜29,000 person-days) living in California's South Coast Air Basin. Our approach incorporates four main inputs: temporally resolved information about people's location (latitude and longitude), microenvironment, and activity level; temporally and spatially explicit model determinations of ambient concentrations; stochastically determined microenvironmental adjustment factors relating the exposure concentration to the ambient concentration; and, age-, gender-, and activity-specific breathing rates. Our study is restricted to pollutants of outdoor origin, i.e. it does not incorporate intake in a microenvironment from direct emissions into that microenvironment. Median estimated inhalation intake rates (?g d -1) are 53 for benzene, 5.1 for 1,3-butadiene, 8.7×10 -4 for hexavalent chromium in fine particulate matter (Cr-PM 2.5), 30 for diesel fine particulate matter (DPM 2.5), and 68 for ozone. For the four primary pollutants studied, estimated median intake rates are higher for non-whites and for individuals in low-income households than for the population as a whole. For ozone, a secondary pollutant, the reverse is true. Accounting for microenvironmental adjustment factors, population mobility and temporal correlations between pollutant concentrations and breathing rates affects the estimated inhalation intake by 40% on average. The approach presented here could be extended to quantify the impact on intakes and intake distributions of proposed changes in emissions, air quality, and urban infrastructure.

Marshall, Julian D.; Granvold, Patrick W.; Hoats, Abigail S.; McKone, Thomas E.; Deakin, Elizabeth; W Nazaroff, William

383

E-Alerts: Environmental pollution and control (air pollution and control). E-mail newsletter  

SciTech Connect

Topics of discussion include the following: Air pollution from flue gases, exhaust gases, odors, dust, smog, microorganisms, etc.; Control techniques and equipment; Sampling and analytical techniques, and equipment; Waste gas recovery; Biological and ecological effects; Air pollution chemistry; Acid precipitation; Atmospheric motion; Laws, legislation, and regulations; Public administration; Economics; Land use.

NONE

1999-04-01

384

76 FR 42052 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries AGENCY: Environmental Protection...Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries. EPA is now providing final...Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries, and the signed rule...

2011-07-18

385

76 FR 21692 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Primary Lead Smelting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Primary Lead Smelting AGENCY: Environmental Protection...Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Primary Lead Smelting (76 FR 9410). The EPA...Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Primary Lead Smelting, was published...

2011-04-18

386

76 FR 14636 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Primary Lead Smelting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Primary Lead Smelting AGENCY: Environmental Protection...Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Primary Lead Smelting (76 FR 9410). The EPA...Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Primary Lead Smelting, was published...

2011-03-17

387

78 FR 23677 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD) portion...California including San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District...

2013-04-22

388

76 FR 26192 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Northern Sonoma County Air Pollution...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Plan, Northern Sonoma County Air Pollution Control District (NSCAPCD) and...to the Northern Sonoma County Air Pollution Control District (NSCAPCD) and...52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by...

2011-05-06

389

76 FR 14839 - Delegation of National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...California, Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...and to the Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control District on July 30...and the Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control District. In the...

2011-03-18

390

75 FR 60623 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...2008) \\2\\; and Ventura County Air Pollution Control District (VCAPCD)...

2010-10-01

391

75 FR 13468 - Disapproval of California State Implementation Plan Revisions, Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Revisions, Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...revision to the Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution Control District (MBAPCD) portion...52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Intergovernmental...

2010-03-22

392

76 FR 28944 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District and Feather River...submitted for the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and...for new and modified sources of air pollution. If EPA finalizes the...

2011-05-19

393

75 FR 45082 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...revisions to the Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control District (SBCAPCD) portion...52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Intergovernmental...

2010-08-02

394

76 FR 71886 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District and Sacramento...revisions to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and...52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by...

2011-11-21

395

75 FR 3996 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District (SJVAPCD or...Planning, San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District; letter...

2010-01-26

396

76 FR 298 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...for San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District Rules 4402...

2011-01-04

397

77 FR 66429 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by...

2012-11-05

398

76 FR 45212 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...approve San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District...

2011-07-28

399

75 FR 24406 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District, Sacramento...District, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District, and South Coast...revisions to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District...

2010-05-05

400

76 FR 40660 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...0 for the following terms: Air Pollution Control Officer, Board,...

2011-07-11

401

75 FR 1284 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Ventura County Air Pollution Control District  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Implementation Plan, Ventura County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...revisions to the Ventura County Air Pollution Control District (VCAPCD) portion...52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by...

2010-01-11

402

76 FR 44809 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District and Feather River...submitted for the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and...modified major stationary sources of air pollution. We are approving local...

2011-07-27

403

75 FR 8008 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD) portion...SCAQMD), San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District...

2010-02-23

404

75 FR 57862 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by...

2010-09-23

405

75 FR 69002 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD) portion...and San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District...

2010-11-10

406

77 FR 24883 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Intergovernmental...

2012-04-26

407

78 FR 6736 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...revisions to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) portion...rules, however, provide for Air Pollution Control Officer (APCO)...

2013-01-31

408

76 FR 52623 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Intergovernmental...

2011-08-23

409

76 FR 67366 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District and Sacramento...revisions to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and...52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by...

2011-11-01

410

77 FR 73322 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution Control...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Implementation Plan, Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...revisions to the Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution Control District (MBUAPCD) portion...52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by...

2012-12-10

411

77 FR 50021 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...of San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...tailored to the nature of the air pollution sources in each state. The...

2012-08-20

412

76 FR 26615 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD) AGENCY...revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District portion of the...requirements and exemptions for various air pollution sources. We are approving...

2011-05-09

413

76 FR 37044 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Intergovernmental...

2011-06-24

414

77 FR 25109 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD) portion...of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Air pollution control, Environmental...

2012-04-27

415

76 FR 56706 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Intergovernmental...

2011-09-14

416

78 FR 37130 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Diego Air Pollution Control District  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Implementation Plan, San Diego Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...approve a revision to the San Diego Air Pollution Control District (SDAPCD) portion...52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by...

2013-06-20

417

76 FR 7142 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD) portion...permitting requirements, for various air pollution sources. We are taking...

2011-02-09

418

78 FR 21542 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control District and South Coast...revisions to the Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control District (SBCAPCD) and...52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by...

2013-04-11

419

76 FR 14807 - Delegation of National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...California, Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...Department and the Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control District within the past...to delegate to State or local air pollution control agencies the...

2011-03-18

420

76 FR 26609 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...v. San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (No....

2011-05-09

421

75 FR 28509 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...v. San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District, No....

2010-05-21

422

77 FR 66548 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District's Rule...

2012-11-06

423

75 FR 24544 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District, Sacramento...District, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District, and South Coast...revisions to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District...

2010-05-05

424

75 FR 56889 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Diego County Air Pollution Control...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Implementation Plan, San Diego County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...revisions to the San Diego County Air Pollution Control District (SDCAPCD) portion...52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by...

2010-09-17

425

75 FR 2796 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District portion of the...topcoats; and that Ventura County Air Pollution Control District's...

2010-01-19

426

76 FR 54993 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...revisions to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) portion...52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Intergovernmental...

2011-09-06

427

14 CFR 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. 1274.926 Section 1274...Conditions § 1274.926 Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002 If...

2010-01-01

428

14 CFR 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. 1274.926 Section 1274...Conditions § 1274.926 Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002 If...

2009-01-01

429

40 CFR 52.11 - Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes. 52.11... § 52.11 Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes. (a) Each subpart identifies portions of the air pollution emergency episode...

2013-07-01

430

40 CFR 52.1639 - Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes. 52.1639 Section...Mexico § 52.1639 Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes. (a) The...Environmental Improvement Board, entitled Air Pollution Episode Contingency Plan for...

2013-07-01

431

76 FR 39303 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control District, Kern County Air Pollution Control District, and Ventura County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency...

2011-07-06

432

76 FR 39357 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control District, Kern County Air Pollution Control District, and Ventura County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency...

2011-07-06

433

Biological Pollutants  

MedlinePLUS

... Pollutants An Introduction to Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Biological Pollutants Basic Information on Pollutants and Sources of ... collects may accumulate biological contaminants. Health Effects From Biological Contaminants Some biological contaminants trigger allergic reactions, including ...

434

Communicating Air Pollution Science to the Public and Politicians  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Air pollution is a problem that involves a large number of chemical species and complex reactions between them. At the beginning of the 21st century, both, the public and politicians still find the science difficult to understand, and so, often mistrust the presentation of data and the scientific principles behind air quality. Yet, there are a range of important issues associated with air pollution that concern lay people and policy makers. These issues hence have to be presented in a clear and simple way so that informed judgements can be made. Traditionally, the media was the main way to disseminate scientific discovery, but novel methods for engaging scientists in the transfer of scientific know-how to politicians and the general public have emerged in recent years. Scientists receive relatively little training in the area of communication, and often find engaging in more public debates difficult. These including V.I.P. meetings, Public Open Forum, Cafe Scientifique and various games and role plays. Such outreach events expose us to new challenges, and the skills required to communicate to non-scientists become an increasingly important part of being a scientist. Here, we present some examples of evolving best practice in the European Network of Excellence on Atmospheric Composition Change (ACCENT).

Schuepbach, E.; Brimblecombe, P.

2008-12-01

435

Hydrocarbons and Air Pollution: An Annotated Bibliography. Part I., Categories A to E and Part II., Categories F to M and Indexes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This two-part bibliography represents an effort to collect, condense, and organize the literature on the hydrocarbons in relation to air pollution. The approximately 2,300 documents abstracted are all included in the information storage and retrieval system of the National Air Pollution Control Administration's (NAPCA) Air Pollution Technical…

National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Raleigh, NC.

436

Enforcement Economics in Air Pollution Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effects of alternative enforcement strategies on the pollution control activities of the firm are investigated. There are a number of tradeoffs available to a firm including delay and non-compliance which allow it to minimize expected pollution contro...

P. B. Downing W. D. Watson

1973-01-01

437

Semiconducting Gas Sensors, Remote Sensing Technique and Internet GIS for Air Pollution Monitoring in Residential and Industrial Areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research aims at developing a cost-effective and real time air pollution monitoring system with high reliability and less maintenance that utilizes numerical and air dispersion modeling in conjunction with inexpensive, state-of-the-art gas sensors, remote sensing methodologies, and Internet GIS. Conventional pollution detectors, installed by the Bangkok Pollution Control Department and WO3 sensors are employed for in-situ pollution measurements. The data obtained from the satellites sensors and measurements conducted on ground are used for numerical modeling by "Multiple Regressions" and for air dispersion modeling to investigate air pollutants distribution. The correlation and distribution of the air pollutants values are transferred to wireless GIS network system using Web Map Service for rapid and simultaneous dissemination of information on pollution levels at multiple sites.

Pummakarnchana, O.; Phonekeo, V.; Vaseashta, A.

438

The impact of an air quality advisory program on voluntary mobile source air pollution reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air pollution from mobile source emissions is a major cause of air quality degradation in the Denver, Colorado, metropolitan area. The projected increase in both population and vehicle miles driven, coupled with the high altitude, predominantly clear skies, and prevalent wintertime temperature inversions aid in the formation and retention of pollutants. The Colorado Department of Public Health issues an air

Peter D. Blanken; Jennifer Dillon; Genevieve Wismann

2001-01-01

439

Human exposure to urban air pollution.  

PubMed Central

This study deals with some methods of making human exposure estimates, aimed at describing the human exposure for selected air pollutants in Sweden that are suspected carcinogens. Nitrogen oxides (NOx) have been chosen as an indicator substance for estimating the concentration of the urban plume. Earlier investigations have shown that the traffic in Swedish cities contributes around 85% to the measured NOx concentrations, and that most of the mutagenicity in urban air originates from traffic. The first section of this paper describes measurements in Stockholm of some unregulated light hydrocarbons, such as ethene, ethyne, propane, propene, butane, and isobutane. In addition, measurements of some volatile aromatic hydrocarbons are presented. Simultaneous measurements of carbon monoxide (CO) were made. The ratios between CO and the individual specific compounds were determined by linear regression analysis. By analysis of relationships between CO and NOx, NOx concentrations can be used as a tracer to describe the exposure for these specific compounds. NOx are considered to be a better tracer than CO, because NOx or NO2 values exist for many places over a long time, while CO is measured mostly in streets with high concentrations. At low concentrations, instruments that measure normal CO levels give no detectable signals. Through use of atmospheric dispersion models and models that describe how people live and work in urban areas it has been possible to describe the average exposure to NOx in cities of different sizes. The exposure to NOx for people living in the countryside has also been estimated. In this way, it has been possible to calculate the average exposure dose for NOx for the Swedish population. This figure is 23 micrograms/m3. By use of the relationships between NOx and specific compounds the average dose has been calculated for the following compounds: polyaromatic compounds (PAH); ethene, propene, and butadiene; benzene, toluene, and xylene; formaldehyde and actaldehyde; nickel, chromium (VI), arsenic, and cadmium; asbestos; and silicon.

Bostrom, C E; Almen, J; Steen, B; Westerholm, R

1994-01-01

440

Air Pollution Emissions From Jet Engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pollution emissions from three representative types of jet engines were determined. Pollutants measured included nitrogen oxides, aldehydes, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and odors. A method is presented for determining the magnitude of pollution emissions due to commercial jet aircraft operation by using basic emission factors.

Eloy R. Lozano; Walter W. Melvin Jr; Seymour ochheiser

1968-01-01

441

Air pollution, environmental tobacco smoke, radon, and lung cancer  

SciTech Connect

The health of populations in industrialized societies has been affected for many years by ambient air pollutants presenting a threat of chronic bronchitis and lung cancer. In the 1980s indoor pollutants received much needed investigation to assess their hazards to health. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and radon is now the subject of much research and concern. This review attempts to put some perspective on lung cancer that is attributable to lifetime exposure to airborne pollutants. The view is expressed that air pollution control authorities have played and are playing a major role in health improvement.

Crawford, W.A.

1988-11-01

442

Air pollutants targeted by radiocarbon dating  

SciTech Connect

Chemists at the Commerce Department's National Bureau of Standards (NBS) are answering questions about where certain atmospheric contaminants originate by refining a method best known for determining the age of archeological objects. Called radiocarbon dating, the method allows NBS scientists to examine air samples and determine whether contaminants come from naturally occurring or manmade sources-or a combination of the two. Making these distinctions is important to federal and state environmental agencies, which identify industrial sources of pollution for regulatory action. An overbalance of atmospheric carbon can cause a number of environmental problems. In methane's case, high levels are of concern to environmental agencies because of greenhouse properties. Methane also has been implicated as a possible contributor to changes in the ozone layer that protects the Earth from excessive ultraviolet light. Levels of methane have been increasing at an annual rate of about one percent over the last decade. This has caused concern in the environmental community, which hopes to determine just where the elevated levels are coming from. The NBS research is aimed at definitively pinpointing sources of methane and other atmospheric contaminants.

Not Available

1987-07-01

443

Next Challenge on the Horizon: Air Pollution Emissions from Ships  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we will discuss the air quality management issues associated with air pollution emissions produced by ocean-going vessels, using Santa Barbara County as a case study. We will begin by describing some of the geographical and economic factors that contribute to this unique problem. We will then provide context and perspective in a discussion of air quality and

Terry Dressler; Tom Murphy; Anthony Fournier

444

Cell type specificity of lung cancer associated with air pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to explore whether lung cancer associated with air pollution has cell type specificity. The air quality data (SO2, CO, O3, NOx) from the Taiwan EPA's air quality monitoring stations were collected between 1995 and 1998. Patients with lung cancer were identified through the National Cancer Registration Program operated by the Taiwanese government. Two major

Yung-Po Liaw; Tih-Fen Ting; Kuo-Kang Ho; Chin-Fen Yang

2008-01-01

445

A Cost-Benefit Approach to Air Pollution Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air pollution has plagued the urban areas of our Nation for many years, both as a serious health hazard and as a costly economic burden. Users of the air as a waste disposal medium have treated it as a free resource with no regard for the damages incurred by receptors of the dirty air. Unfortunately, no self-regulating market forces exist

Richard D. Wilson; David W. Minnotte

1969-01-01

446

Biofiltration: An Innovative Air Pollution Control Technology For VOC Emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biofiltration is a relatively recent air pollution control (APC) technology in which off-gases containing biodegradable volatile organic compounds (VOC) or inorganic air toxics are vented through a biologically active material. This technology has been successfully applied in Germany and The Netherlands in many full-scale applications to control odors, VOC and air toxic emissions from a wide range of industrial and

Gero Leson; Arthur M. Winer

1991-01-01

447

Biochemical parameters of plants as indicators of air pollution.  

PubMed

In the present study species like Mangifera indica, Linn., Cassia fistula, Linn., and Eucalyptus hybrid were exposed to different air pollution load for short duration (active biomonitoring). Variation in biochemical parameters like chlorophyll, protein, soluble sugar free amino acid, ascorbic acid, nitrate reductase, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase in the leaves were found to be pollution load dependent. These variations can be used as indicators of air pollution for early diagnosis of stress or as a marker for physiological damage to trees prior to the onset of visible injury symptoms. Just by analyzing these biochemical indicators air quality can also be assessed. PMID:17717999

Tripathi, A K; Gautam, Mukesh

2007-01-01

448

Maternal Exposure to Air Pollution and Birth Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Background The knowledge about air pollution effects on birth weight, prematurity, and small for gestational age (SGA) in low-exposure areas is insufficient. Objectives The aim of this birth cohort study was to investigate whether low-level exposure to air pollution was associated with prematurity and fetal growth and whether there are sex-specific effects. Method We combined high-quality registry information on 81,110 births with individually modeled exposure data at residence for nitrogen oxides (NOx) and proximity to roads with differing traffic density. The data were analyzed by logistic and linear regression with and without potential confounders. Results We observed an increased risk for babies being SGA when we compared highest and lowest NOx quartiles, adjusting for maternal age, smoking, sex, and year of birth. After additional adjustment for maternal country of origin and parity (which were highly intercorrelated), the increase was no longer statistically significant. However, in subgroup analyses when we compared highest and lowest NOx quartiles we still observed an increased risk for SGA for girls [odds ratio (OR) = 1.12; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.01–1.24); we also observed increased risk among mothers who had not changed residency during pregnancy (OR = 1.09; 95% CI, 1.01–1.18). The confounders with the greatest impact on SGA were parity and country of origin. Concerning prematurity, the prevalence was lower in the three higher NOx exposure quartiles compared with the lowest category. Conclusion For future studies on air pollution effects on birth outcomes, careful control of confounding is crucial.

Malmqvist, Ebba; Rignell-Hydbom, Anna; Tinnerberg, Hakan; Bjork, Jonas; Stroh, Emilie; Jakobsson, Kristina; Rittner, Ralf; Rylander, Lars

2011-01-01

449

Setting limits: Using air pollution thresholds to protect and restore US ecosystems  

USGS Publications Warehouse

More than four decades of research provide unequivocal evidence that sulfur, nitrogen, and mercury pollution have altered, and will continue to alter, our nation's lands and waters. The emission and deposition of air pollutants harm native plants and animals, degrade water quality, affect forest productivity, and are damaging to human health. Many air quality policies limit emissions at the source but these control measures do not always consider ecosystem impacts. Air pollution thresholds at which ecological effects are observed, such as critical loads, are effective tools for assessing the impacts of air pollution on essential ecosystem services and for informing public policy. U.S. ecosystems can be more effectively protected and restored by using a combination of emissions-based approaches and science-based thresholds of ecosystem damage.

Fenn, Mark E.; Lambert, Kathleen F.; Blett, Tamara F.; Burns, Douglas A.; Pardo, Linda H.; Lovett, Gary M.; Haeuber, Richard A.; Evers, David C.; Driscoll, Charles T.; Jeffries, Dean S.

2011-01-01

450

Traffic related air pollution : spatial variation, health effects and mitigation measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air pollution is probably the most intensely studied field in today’s environmental health research. The extensive body of literature on health effects associated with air pollution exposure has lead to prioritization of air pollution as public health risk factor and air quality regulations worldwide. At current levels air pollution, however, still has a significant health impact. Science could play an

M. B. A. Dijkema

2011-01-01

451

Air pollution as a risk factor in lung cancer  

SciTech Connect

Retrospective data on residential and employment history and on smoking were obtained from 417 white male lung cancer patients and 752 controls with nonrespiratory, nonneoplastic diseases, from Erie County, New York, admitted to Roswell Park Memorial Institute from 1957-1965. Total suspended particulate data and a historical review of problem point sources of pollution were used to delineate air pollution zones. The findings did not support the hypothesis that air pollution alone significantly increased risk for lung cancer. However, there was increased risk from smoking and occupational exposures if there was also long-term exposure to air pollution. The risk for heavy smokers with heavy exposure to air pollution was over four times that of men with none of the high exposure traits. The findings suggest an apparent synergistic mechanism involving smoking and air pollution and smoking and occupational exposures. The findings are consistent with previous epidemiologic studies and with biologic and experimental evidence. The limitations of the methods used here necessitate further study and replication. However, the study indicates that air pollution should not be dismissed as a risk factor in lung cancer.

Vena, J.E.

1982-07-01

452

Air pollution as a risk factor in lung cancer.  

PubMed

Retrospective data on residential and employment history and on smoking were obtained from 417 white male lung cancer patients and 752 controls with nonrespiratory, nonneoplastic diseases, from Erie County, New York, admitted to Roswell Park Memorial Institute from 1957-1965. Total suspended particulate data and a historical review of problem point sources of pollution were used to delineate air pollution zones. The findings did not support the hypothesis that air pollution alone significantly increased risk for lung cancer. However, there was increased risk from smoking and occupational exposures if there was also long-term exposure to air pollution. The risk for heavy smokers with heavy exposure to air pollution was over four times that of men with none of the high exposure traits. The findings suggest an apparent synergistic mechanism involving smoking and air pollution and smoking and occupational exposures. The findings are consistent with previous epidemiologic studies and with biologic and experimental evidence. The limitations of the methods used here necessitate further study and replication. However, the study indicates that air pollution should not be dismissed as a risk factor in lung cancer. PMID:7102655

Vena, J E

1982-07-01

453

Decision support system for the evaluation of urban air pollution control options: Application for particulate pollution in Thessaloniki, Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of strategies to control urban air pollution is a complex and multi-disciplinary process involving a wide range of scientists with different expertise and interests. This paper presents an integrated assessment methodological scheme for the evaluation of air pollution control measures that are put forward in order to reduce sufficiently air pollution levels in urban areas. Forming long-term, efficient air

Ch. Vlachokostas; Ch. Achillas; ?. Moussiopoulos; E. Hourdakis; G. Tsilingiridis; L. Ntziachristos; G. Banias; N. Stavrakakis; C. Sidiropoulos

2009-01-01

454

AEROMETRIC INFORMATION RETRIEVAL SYSTEM-AIR QUALITY SUBSYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

Aerometric Information Retrieval System (AIRS) is a computer-based repository of information about airborne pollution in the United States and various World Health Organization (WHO) member countries. AIRS is administered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and runs on t...

455

Los Angeles air pollution and asthma in children  

SciTech Connect

Indices of air pollution, meteorological conditions and airborne allergens were correlated with emergency room census and hospitalizations for asthma at the Childrens Hospital of Los Angeles (CHLA) during a six-month period encompassing high and low periods of air pollution. In addition, patients in residence at the Sunair Home for Asthmatic Children (SHAC) were studied during a 10-day peak air pollution period. Increases in asthma emergency room visits and hospitalizations correlated significantly with increases in nitric oxide, coefficient of haze, hydrocarbons, Santa Ana wind conditions and total airborne allergen counts. Significant correlations were also found with decreases in ambient levels of O3, SO2, temperature and relative humidity. Among SHAC patients morning peak flow levels were significantly lower during the 10-day peak pollution period than during two control periods of low pollution. However, neither differences in clinical symptoms experienced by these patients nor their need for additional medication were observed.

Richards, W.; Azen, S.P.; Weiss, J.; Stocking, S.; Church, J.

1981-11-01

456

Overview of Megacity Air Pollutant Emissions and Impacts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The urban metabolism that characterizes major cities consumes very large qualities of humanly produced and/or processed food, fuel, water, electricity, construction materials and manufactured goods, as well as, naturally provided sunlight, precipitation and atmospheric oxygen. The resulting urban respiration exhalations add large quantities of trace gas and particulate matter pollutants to urban atmospheres. Key classes of urban primary air pollutants and their sources will be reviewed and important secondary pollutants identified. The impacts of these pollutants on urban and downwind regional inhabitants, ecosystems, and climate will be discussed. Challenges in quantifying the temporally and spatially resolved urban air pollutant emissions and secondary pollutant production rates will be identified and possible measurement strategies evaluated.

Kolb, C. E.

2013-05-01

457

Case Studies of Transit Energy and Air Pollution Impacts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper summarizes analysis of the energy consumption and air pollution impacts of eight case studies of new or improved transit services. The case studies include (a) areawide bus service improvement programs involving route extensions, increased frequ...

J. P. Curry

1976-01-01

458

Air pollutants and sources associated with health effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides four complementary perspectives on the understanding of the risk posed to health by particular sources\\u000a of air pollution. These perspectives are based on contributions to a plenary session \\

Alberto Ayala; Michael Brauer; Joe L. Mauderly; Jonathan M. Samet

459

PILOT STUDY OF AMBIENT AIR POLLUTION AND SURVIVAL FROM CANCER  

EPA Science Inventory

The study was concerned with investigating the potential influence exerted by ambient concentrations of particulate and sulfur dioxide air pollutants upon the length of survival for diagnosed cancer patients. Monitoring data from the National Aerometric Data Bank for particulates...

460

ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION FOR AIR POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES: FINAL REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

The technical objective of the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program's Air Pollution Control Technology (APCT) Center is to verify environmental technology performance by obtaining objective quality-assured data, thus providing potential purchasers and permitters wi...

461

Air Pollution and Pediatric Asthma in the Merrimack Vally.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1998, in response to community concerns related to air pollution and breast cancer, the Massachusetts Department of Public Health (MDPH) conducted an investigation of breast cancer incidence relative to community concerns over the possible relationship...

2007-01-01

462

Air Pollution Emissions Associated with Pesticide Applications in Fresno County.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the findings in estimating the air pollution emissions associated with 1976 pesticide applications in Fresno County, California. To achieve the program objectives, this project was conducted in three parts. The primary concern of the ...

S. Leung R. Johnson T. Ling C. S. Liu R. Peter

1978-01-01

463

The Influence of Meteorological Conditions on Air Pollution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains the distribution of air pollutants as related to such meteorological conditions as temperature inversions, ground inversion, and wind velocity. Uses a power station to illustrate the effect of some of the meteorological conditions mentioned. (GS)

Campbell, N. A.; Gipps, J.

1975-01-01

464

URBAN AIR POLLUTION AND PERSISTENT EARLY LIFE ASTHMA  

EPA Science Inventory

We plan to complete recruitment and the first waves of home air pollution sampling in the coming year, followed by questionnaire administration and buccal cell collection for analysis of polymorphisms. ...

465

Investigating the Effects of Traffic on Air Pollution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the benefits of bringing scientists into the classroom to collaborate with children on environmental research projects. Describes one collaborative project that focused on the effects of traffic on air pollution. (DDR)

Taylor, Sharon

2001-01-01

466

COMPARISON OF BIOINIDICATORS OF EXPOSURE TO GENOTOXIC INDOOR AIR POLLUTANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Human exposure to complex mixtures of genotoxic indoor air pollutants can be assessed using several different bioanalytical methods. xternal exposure can be assessed using micromutagenesis methods to measure human exposure to mutagens. nternal exposure and dose can be assessed us...

467

Environmental Health Planning Guide. Air Pollution. Sewerage, Water, Housing. Refuse.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Today the explosive population growth and the continued concentration of people, production and services in metropolitan areas are making the environmental health problems still more complex and difficult. Polluted water and air, open refuse dumps, substa...

1973-01-01

468

BRONXWHITESTONE OVER THE EAST RIVER, NOTE CONSIDERABLE AIR POLLUTION OVER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

BRONX-WHITESTONE OVER THE EAST RIVER, NOTE CONSIDERABLE AIR POLLUTION OVER CITY IN BACKGROUND - Bronx-Whitestone Bridge, Spanning East River between Whitestone, Queens & the Bronx, Bronx, Bronx County, NY

469

National Air Pollutant Emission Trends, 1900-1992.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document presents the most recent estimates of national and regional emissions of the criteria air pollutants, lead, sulfur dioxide, and particulate matter. The emission trends are the net effect of many factors, including changes in the nation's eco...

1993-01-01

470

URBAN AIR POLLUTION IN CHINA: Current Status, Characteristics, and Progress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract China is rapidly developing as evidenced by enhanced urbanization and industrialization and greatly increased energy consumption. However, these have brought Chinese cities a variety of urban air pollution problems in recent decades. During the 1970s, black smoke from stacks became the characteristic of Chinese industrial cities; in the 1980s, many southern cities began to suffer serious acid rain pollution;

Kebin He; Hong Huo; Qiang Zhang

2002-01-01

471

Air pollution as a risk factor in lung cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Retrospective data on residential and employment history and on smoking were obtained from 417 white male lung cancer patients and 752 controls with nonrespiratory, nonneoplastic diseases, from Erie County, New York, admitted to Roswell Park Memorial Institute from 1957-1965. Total suspended particulate data and a historical review of problem point sources of pollution were used to delineate air pollution zones.

Vena

1982-01-01

472

Lung cancer and indoor air pollution in rural china  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: Indoor air pollution has been linked with lung cancer in China. In contrast to previous studies conducted in urban areas with high levels of industrial pollution, we undertook a lung cancer case-control study in a rural area of China, where residents live in underground dwellings. We evaluated the effects of radon, wood and coal combustion, cooking oil fumes, and

RA Kleinerman; ZY Wang; JH Lubin; SZ Zhang; C Metayer; AV Brenner

2000-01-01

473

APPLICATIONS OF DECISION THEORY TECHNIQUES IN AIR POLLUTION MODELING  

EPA Science Inventory

The study applies methods of operations research to two basic areas of air pollution modeling: (1) the generation of wind fields for use in models of regional scale transport, diffusion and chemistry; and (2) the application of models in studies of optimal pollution control strat...

474

Outdoor Air Pollution, Low Birth Weight, and Prematurity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tested the hypothesis, suggested by several recent reports, that air pollution may increase the risk of adverse birth outcomes. This study analyzed all singleton live births registered by the Czech national birth register in 1991 in 67 districts where at least one pollutant was moni- tored in 1990-1991 (n = 108,173). Maternal exposures to sulfur dioxide (SO2), total

Martin Bobak

2000-01-01

475

Air pollution and daily mortality in Rome, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To assess the relation between several daily indicators of air pollution (particulates and gases) and daily mortality in the metropolitan area of Rome and in the central part of the city. METHODS: Time series analysis. The associations between daily concentrations of pollutants (particles, SO2, NO2, CO, O3) recorded by five fixed monitors and daily total mortality in the period

P. Michelozzi; F. Forastiere; D. Fusco; C. A. Perucci; B. Ostro; C. Ancona; G. Pallotti

1998-01-01

476

Linking Urban Air Pollution to Global Tropospheric Chemistry and Climate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The two major tasks of this project are to study: (a) the impact of urban nonlinear chemistry on chemical budgets of key pollutants in non-urban areas; and (b) the influence of air pollution control strategies in selected metropolitan areas, particularly of emerging economies in East and South Asia, on tropospheric chemistry and hence on regional and global climate.

Wang, Chien

2005-01-01

477

An international urban air pollution model for the transportation sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of cities across the globe illustrates a strong relationship between vehicle kilometres of travel (VKT) and urbanised land area. As VKT can be used as a surrogate for vehicular emissions, this provides a method of estimating urban vehicular pollution. These emission rates are incorporated with simple meteorological forcing into a box model to provide a generalised urban air pollution

T. J Lyons; J. R Kenworthy; C Moy; F dos Santos

2003-01-01

478

AIR POLLUTION AND FOREST ECOSYSTEMS: A REGIONAL TO GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE  

EPA Science Inventory

Changes in atmospheric concentrations of a number of air pollutants over the last century are hallmarks of the magnitude and extent of human impact on the environment. ome of these changes are important to ecologists because many pollutants, acting singly or in combination, affec...

479

Selected Methods for the Measurement of Air Pollutants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This manual is an effort to assist in the development of uniform standard methods of analysis of air pollutants. It makes available the judgment and knowledge of a large group of chemists in the Public Health Service. Methods of determining pollutants of ...

1965-01-01

480

Infrared Photography as an Air Pollution Surveillance Instrument  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine the practicality of infrared photographic analysis to air pollution agencies, by the detection of plant damage from pollutants before they are visually identifiable. Results showed that photomicrographic imaging using infrared radiation should be considered a viable surveillance tool in similiar…

Casalinuovo, Anthony F.; Sawan, Alan

1976-01-01

481

VALMET: a valley air pollution model. Final report. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

An air quality model is described for predicting air pollution concentrations in deep mountain valleys arising from nocturnal down-valley transport and diffusion of an elevated pollutant plume, and the fumigation of the plume on the valley floor and sidewalls after sunrise. Included is a technical description of the model, a discussion of the model's applications, the required model inputs, sample calculations and model outputs, and a full listing of the FORTRAN computer program. 55 refs., 27 figs., 6 tabs.

Whiteman, C.D.; Allwine, K.J.

1985-04-01

482

Air Pollution and Lymphocyte Phenotype Proportions in Cord Blood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of air pollution on morbidity and mortality may be mediated by alterations in immune competence. In this study we examined short-term associations of air pollution exposures with lymphocyte immunophenotypes in cord blood among 1,397 deliveries in two districts of the Czech Republic. We measured fine particulate matter < 2.5 µm in diameter (PM2.5) and 12 polycyclic aro- matic hydrocarbons

Irva Hertz-Picciotto; Caroline E. W. Herr; Poh-Sin Yap; Miroslav Dostál; Robert H. Shumway; Paul Ashwood; Michael Lipsett; Jesse P. Joad; Kent E. Pinkerton; Radim J. Šrám

2005-01-01

483

Air pollution radiative forcing from specific emissions sectors at 2030  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reduction of short-lived air pollutants can contribute to mitigate global warming in the near-term with ancillary benefits to human health. However, the radiative forcings of short-lived air pollutants depend on the location and source type of the precursor emissions. We apply the Goddard Institute for Space Studies atmospheric composition-climate model to quantify near-future (2030 A1B) global annual mean radiative forcing

Nadine Unger; Drew T. Shindell; Dorothy M. Koch; David G. Streets

2008-01-01

484

The Health Effects of Air Pollution in Delhi, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

December 1997Particulate air pollution has less overall impact on nontraumatic deaths in Delhi, India, than in U.S. cities. But the deaths occur earlier in life in Delhi, which could mean a larger loss in life-years.Cropper, Simon, Alberini, and Sharma report the results of a time-series study of the impact of particulate air pollution on daily mortality in Delhi. They find:?

Anna Alberini; Maureen Cropper; Nathalie B. Simon; P. K. Sharma

1997-01-01

485

REMOTE FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED AIR POLLUTION STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

A commercial Fourier transform infrared interferometer system has been installed in a van and used to make longpath absorption and single-ended emission measurements of gaseous pollutant concentrations at a variety of pollutant sources. The interferometer system is described and ...

486

Air-pollution emission ranges consistent with the representative concentration pathways  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project uses four representative concentration pathways (RCPs) that span the literature range of total anthropogenic radiative forcing but not necessarily of each single forcing agent. We here explore a wide range of air-pollutant emissions over the twenty-first century consistent with the global CO2 paths of the RCPs, by varying assumptions on air-pollution controls and accounting for the possible phase-out of CO2-emitting sources. We show that global air-pollutant emissions in the RCPs (including ozone and aerosol precursors) compare well to and are at times higher than cases that assume an extrapolation of current and planned air-pollution legislation in the absence of new policies to improve energy access for the poor. Stringent pollution controls and clean energy policies can thus further reduce the global atmospheric air-pollution loading below the RCP levels. When assuming pollution control frozen at 2005 levels, the RCP8.5-consistent loading of all species either stabilizes or increases during the twenty-first century, in contrast to RCP4.5 and RCP2.6, which see a consistent decrease in the long term. Our results inform the possible range of global aerosol loading. However, the net aerosol forcing depends strongly on the geographical location of emissions. Therefore, a regional perspective is required to further explore the range of compatible forcing projections.

Rogelj, Joeri; Rao, Shilpa; McCollum, David L.; Pachauri, Shonali; Klimont, Zbigniew; Krey, Volker; Riahi, Keywan

2014-06-01

487

Effects of Ambient Air Pollution on Hemostasis and Inflammation  

PubMed Central

Background Air pollution has consistently been associated with increased morbidity and mortality due to respiratory and cardiovascular disease. Underlying biological mechanisms are not entirely clear, and hemostasis and inflammation are suggested to be involved. Objectives Our aim was to study the association of the variation in local concentrations of airborne particulate matter (PM) with aerodynamic diameter < 10 ?m, carbon monoxide, nitrogen monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and ozone with platelet aggregation, thrombin generation, fibrinogen, and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in healthy individuals. Methods From 40 healthy volunteers, we collected 13 consecutive blood samples within a 1-year period and measured light-transmittance platelet aggregometry, thrombin generation, fibrinogen, and CRP. We performed regression analysis using generalized additive models to study the association between the hemostatic and inflammatory variables, and local environmental concentrations of air pollutants for time lags within 24 hr before blood sampling or 24–96 hr before blood sampling. Results In general, air pollutants were associated with platelet aggregation [average, +8% per interquartile range (IQR), p < 0.01] and thrombin generation (average, +1% per IQR, p < 0.05). Platelet aggregation was not affected by in vitro incubation of plasma with PM. We observed no relationship between any of the air pollutants and fibrinogen or CRP levels. Conclusions Air pollution increased platelet aggregation as well as coagulation activity but had no clear effect on systemic inflammation. These prothrombotic effects may partly explain the relationship between air pollution and the risk of ischemic cardiovascular disease.

Rudez, Goran; Janssen, Nicole A.H.; Kilinc, Evren; Leebeek, Frank W.G.; Gerlofs-Nijland, Miriam E.; Spronk, Henri M.H.; Cate, Hugo ten; Cassee, Flemming R.; de Maat, Moniek P.M.

2009-01-01

488

Meteorological Conditions Favouring Development of Urban Air Pollution Episodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The causes of urban air pollution episodes are complex and depend on various factors including emissions, meteorological parameters, topography, atmospheric chemical processes and solar radiation. The relative importance of such factors is dependent on the geographical region, its surrounding emission source areas and the related climatic characteristics, as well as the season of the year. The key pollutants are PM10, PM2.5, O3 and NO2, as these cause the worst air quality problems in European cities. The main aim of this study realised within the MEGAPOLI project was to describe and quantify the influence of meteorological patterns on urban air pollution especially high-level concentrations air pollution episodes in megacities. Several European urban agglomerations and megacities, including the Po Valley, Helsinki, London, Paris, Moscow, Vilnius, were considered in the study. The study also carried out analysis of meteorological patterns leading to urban air pollution episodes considered by the development of suitable indicators linking particular meteorological conditions/ parameters to increased air pollution levels in the urban areas. These indicators constitute a useful tool for regulators in suggesting effective policies and mitigation measures. Finally, a combination of modelling and analysis of observations data can allow both the quality assurance of the new parameterisations as well as the verification of input emissions.

Baklanov, Alexander; Kukkonen, Jaakko; Finardi, Sandro; Beekmann, Matthias; Sokhi, Ranjeet; Mahura, Alexander; Ginsburg, Alexander; Mažeikis, Adomas

2013-04-01

489

Respiratory Health Effects of Air Pollution: Update on Biomass Smoke and Traffic Pollution  

PubMed Central

Mounting evidence suggests that air pollution contributes to the large global burden of respiratory and allergic diseases including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pneumonia and possibly tuberculosis. Although associations between air pollution and respiratory disease are complex, recent epidemiologic studies have led to an increased recognition of the emerging importance of traffic-related air pollution in both developed and less-developed countries, as well as the continued importance of emissions from domestic fires burning biomass fuels primarily in the less-developed world. Emissions from these sources lead to personal exposures to complex mixtures of air pollutants that change rapidly in space and time due to varying emission rates, distances from source, ventilation rates, and other factors. Although the high degree of variability in personal exposure to pollutants from these sources remains a challenge, newer methods for measuring and modeling these exposures are beginning to unravel complex associations with asthma and other respiratory disease. These studies indicate that air pollution from these sources is a major preventable cause of increased incidence and exacerbation of respiratory disease. Physicians can help to reduce the risk of adverse respiratory effects of exposure to biomass and traffic air pollutants by promoting awareness and supporting individual and community-level interventions.

Laumbach, Robert J.; Kipen, Howard M.

2012-01-01

490

Interior Landscape Plants for Indoor Air Pollution Abatement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this study, the leaves, roots, soil, and associated microorganisms of plants have been evaluated as a possible means of reducing indoor air pollutants. Additionally, a novel approach of using plant systems for removing high concentrations of indoor air pollutants such as cigarette smoke, organic solvents, and possibly radon has been designed from this work. This air filter design combines plants with an activated carbon filter. The rationale for this design, which evolved from wastewater treatment studies, is based on moving large volumes of contaminated air through an activated carbon bed where smoke, organic chemicals, pathogenic microorganisms (if present), and possibly radon are absorbed by the carbon filter. Plant roots and their associated microorganisms then destroy the pathogenic viruses, bacteria, and the organic chemicals, eventually converting all of these air pollutants into new plant tissue. It is believed that the decayed radon products would be taken up the plant roots and retained in the plant tissue.

Wolverton, B. C.; Johnson, Anne; Bounds, Keith

1989-01-01

491

Do current levels of air pollution kill? The impact of air pollution on population mortality in England  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current air quality limit values for airborne pollutants in the UK are low by historical standards and are at levels that are believed not to harm health. We assess whether this view is correct. We examine the relationship between common sources of airborne pollution and population mortality for England. We use data at local authority level for 1998-2005 to

Katharina Janke; Carol Propper; John Henderson

2009-01-01