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Sample records for air research sst

  1. Overview of atmospheric ionizing radiation (AIR) research: SST-present

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Goldhagen, P.; Rafnsson, V.; Clem, J. M.; De Angelis, G.; Friedberg, W.

    2003-01-01

    The Supersonic Transport (SST) program, proposed in 1961, first raised concern for the exposure of pregnant occupants by solar energetic particles (SEP), and neutrons were suspected to have a main role in particle propagation deep into the atmosphere. An eight-year flight program confirmed the role of SEP as a significant hazard and of the neutrons as contributing over half of the galactic cosmic ray exposures, with the largest contribution from neutrons above 10 MeV. The FAA Advisory Committee on the Radiobiological Aspects of the SST provided operational requirements. The more recent lowering of ICRP-recommended exposure limits (1990) with the classification of aircrew as "radiation workers" renewed interest in GCR background exposures at commercial flight altitudes and stimulated epidemiological studies in Europe, Japan, Canada and the USA. The proposed development of a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) required validation of the role of high-energy neutrons, and this resulted in ER-2 flights at solar minimum (June 1997) and studies on effects of aircraft materials on interior exposures. Recent evaluation of health outcomes of DOE nuclear workers resulted in legislation for health compensation in year 2000 and recent European aircrew epidemiological studies of health outcomes bring renewed interest in aircraft radiation exposures. As improved radiation models become available, it is imperative that a corresponding epidemiological program of US aircrew be implemented. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  2. Summary of Atmospheric Ionizing AIR Research: SST-Present

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Goldhagen, P.; Rafnsson, V.; deAngelis, G.; Friedberg, W.; Clem, J. M.

    2003-01-01

    The Supersonic Transport (SST) program, proposed in 1961, first raised concern for the exposure of pregnant occupants by solar energetic particles (SEP), and neutrons were suspected to have a main role in particle propagation deep into the atmosphere. An eight-year flight program confirmed the role of SEP as a significant hazard and of the neutrons as contributing over half of the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) exposures, with the largest contribution from neutrons above 10 MeV. The FAA Advisory Committee on the Radiobiological Aspects of the SST provided operational requirements. The more recent lowering of the radiation exposure limits by the International Commission on Radiological Protection with the classification of aircrew as radiation workers renewed interest in GCR background exposures at commercial flight altitudes and stimulated epidemiological studies in Europe, Japan, Canada and the USA. The proposed development of a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) required validation of the role of high-energy neutrons, and this resulted in ER-2 flights at solar minimum (June 1997) and studies on effects of aircraft materials on interior exposures. Recent evaluation of health outcomes of DOE nuclear workers resulted in legislation for health compensation in year 2000 and recent European aircrew epidemiological studies of health outcomes bring renewed interest in aircraft radiation exposures. As improved radiation models become available, it is imperative that a corresponding epidemiological program of US aircrew be implemented.

  3. Overview of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation (AIR) Research: SST - Present

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Goldhagen, P.; Rafnsson, V.; Clem, J. M.; DeAngelis, G.; Friedberg, W.

    2002-01-01

    The Supersonic Transport (SST) program, proposed in 1961, first raised concern for the exposure of pregnant occupants by solar energetic particles (SEP), and neutrons were suspected to have a main role in particle propagation deep into the atmosphere. An eight-year flight program confirmed the role of SEP as a significant hazard and of the neutrons as contributing over half of the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) exposures, with the largest contribution from neutrons above 10 MeV. The FAA Advisory Committee on the Radiobiological Aspects of the SST provided operational requirements. The more recent (1990) lowering of recommended exposure limits by the International Commission on Radiological Protection with the classification of aircrew as "radiation workers" renewed interest in GCR background exposures at commercial flight altitudes and stimulated epidemiological studies in Europe, Japan, Canada and the USA. The proposed development of a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) required validation of the role of high-energy neutrons, and this resulted in ER-2 flights at solar minimum (June 1997) and studies on effects of aircraft materials on interior exposures. Recent evaluation of health outcomes of DOE nuclear workers resulted in legislation for health compensation in year 2000 and recent European aircrew epidemiological studies of health outcomes bring renewed interest in aircraft radiation exposures. As improved radiation models become available, it is imperative that a corresponding epidemiological program of US aircrew be implemented.

  4. Overview of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation (AIR) research: SST-present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, J.; Goldhagen, P.; Rafnson, V.; Clem, J.; Deangelis, G.

    The Super Sonic Transport (SST) program, proposed in 1961, first raised concern for the exposure of pregnant passengers and crew by solar energetic particles (SEP), and neutrons were suspected to have a main role in effects due to particle propagation deep into the atmosphere. An eight-year flight program confirmed the role of SEP as a significant hazard and of the neutrons as contributing over half of the galactic cosmic ray exposures, with the largest contribution from neutrons above 10 MeV. The FAA Standing Committee provided recommendations on SST radiobiological issues and operational requirements. The lowering of ICRP-recommended exposure limits (1990) with the classification of aircrew as "radiation workers" renewed interest in GCR background exposures at commercial flight altitudes and stimulated epidemiological studies in Europe, Japan, Canada and the USA. The proposed development of a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) required validation of the role of high-energy neutrons, and this resulted in ER-2 flights at solar minimum (June 1997) and studies of effects of aircraft materials on interior exposures. Recent evaluation of health outcomes of DOE nuclear workers resulted in legislation for health compensation in 2000 and more recent European aircrew epidemiological studies of health outcomes brings renewed interest in aircraft radiation exposures. As improved radiation models become available, it is imperative that a corresponding epidemiological program of US aircrew be implemented.

  5. Overview of atmospheric ionizing radiation (AIR) Research: SST-present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Goldhagen, P.; Rafnsson, V.; Clem, J. M.; De Angelis, G.; Friedberg, W.

    The Supersonic Transport (SST) program proposed in 1961, first raised concern for the exposure of pregnant occupants by solar energetic particles (SEP), and neutrons were suspected to have a main role in particle propagation deep into the atmosphere. An eight-year flight program confirmed the role of SEP as a significant hazard and of the neutrons as contributing over half of the galactic cosmic ray exposures, with the largest contribution from neutrons above 10 MeV. The FAA Advisory Committee on the Radiobiological Aspects of the SST provided operational requirements. The more recent lowering of ICRP-recommended exposure limits 1990 with the classification of aircrew as "radiation workers" renewed interest in GCR background exposures at commercial flight altitudes and stimulated epidemiological studies in Europe, Japan, Canada and the USA. The proposed development of a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) required validation of the role of high-energy neutrons, and this resulted in ER-2 flights at solar minimum June 1997 and studies on effects of aircraft materials on interior exposures. Recent evaluation of health outcomes of DOE nuclear workers resulted in legislation for health compensation in year 2000 and recent European aircrew epidemiological studies of health outcomes bring renewed interest in aircraft radiation exposures. As improved radiation models become available, it is imperative that a corresponding epidemiological program of US aircrew be implemented.

  6. Impact of Air Temperature and SST Variability on Cholera Incidence in Southeastern Africa, 1971-2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paz, Shlomit

    2010-05-01

    The most important climatic parameter related to cholera outbreaks is the temperature, especially of the water bodies and the aquatic environment. This factor governs the survival and growth of V. cholerae, since it has a direct influence on its abundance in the environment, or alternatively, through its indirect influence on other aquatic organisms to which the pathogen is found to attach. Thus, the potential for cholera outbreaks may rise, parallel to the increase in ocean surface temperature. Indeed, recent studies indicate that global warming might create a favorable environment for V. cholerae and increase its incidence in vulnerable areas. Africa is vulnerable to climate variability. According to the recent IPCC report on Africa, the air temperature has indicated a significant warming trend since the 1960s. In recent years, most of the research into disease vectors in Africa related to climate variability has focused on malaria. The IPCC indicated that the need exists to examine the vulnerabilities and impacts of climatic factors on cholera in Africa. In light of this, the study uses a Poisson Regression Model to analyze the possible association between the cholera rates in southeastern Africa and the annual variability of air temperature and sea surface temperature (SST) at regional and hemispheric scales, for the period 1971-2006. Data description is as follows: Number of cholera cases per year in Uganda, Kenya, Rwanda, Burundi, Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia and Mozambique. Source: WHO Global Health Atlas - cholera. Seasonal and annual temperature time series: Regional scale: a) Air temperature for southeastern Africa (30° E-36° E, 5° S-17° S), source: NOAA NCEP-NCAR; b) Sea surface temperature, for the western Indian Ocean (0-20° S, 40° E-45° E), source: NOAA, Kaplan SST dataset. Hemispheric scale (for the whole Southern Hemisphere): a) Air temperature anomaly; b) Sea surface temperature anomaly. Source: CRU, University of East Anglia. The following

  7. Mechanisms controlling the SST air-sea heat flux feedback and its dependence on spatial scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hausmann, Ute; Czaja, Arnaud; Marshall, John

    2016-05-01

    The turbulent air-sea heat flux feedback (α , in {W m}^{-2}{ K}^{-1} ) is a major contributor to setting the damping timescale of sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies. In this study we compare the spatial distribution and magnitude of α in the North Atlantic and the Southern Ocean, as estimated from the ERA-Interim reanalysis dataset. The comparison is rationalized in terms of an upper bound on the heat flux feedback, associated with "fast" atmospheric export of temperature and moisture anomalies away from the marine boundary layer, and a lower bound associated with "slow" export. It is found that regions of cold surface waters (≤ 10° C) are best described as approaching the slow export limit. This conclusion is not only valid at the synoptic scale resolved by the reanalysis data, but also on basin scales. In particular, it applies to the heat flux feedback acting as circumpolar SST anomaly scales are approached in the Southern Ocean, with feedbacks of ≤ 10 {W m}^{-2}{ K}^{-1} . In contrast, the magnitude of the heat flux feedback is close to that expected from the fast export limit over the Gulf Stream and its recirculation with values on the order of ≈40 {W m}^{-2}{ K}^{-1} . Further analysis suggests that this high value reflects a compensation between a moderate thermodynamic adjustment of the boundary layer, which tends to weaken the heat flux feedback, and an enhancement of the surface winds over warm SST anomalies, which tend to enhance the feedback.

  8. Tu-144LL SST Flying Laboratory on Taxiway at Zhukovsky Air Development Center near Moscow, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The sleek lines of the Tupolev Tu-144LL are evident as it sits on the taxiway at the Zhukovsky Air Development Center near Moscow, Russia. NASA teamed with American and Russian aerospace industries for an extended period in a joint international research program featuring the Russian-built Tu-144LL supersonic aircraft. The object of the program was to develop technologies for a proposed future second-generation supersonic airliner to be developed in the 21st Century. The aircraft's initial flight phase began in June 1996 and concluded in February 1998 after 19 research flights. A shorter follow-on program involving seven flights began in September 1998 and concluded in April 1999. All flights were conducted in Russia from Tupolev's facility at the Zhukovsky Air Development Center near Moscow. The centerpiece of the research program was the Tu 144LL, a first-generation Russian supersonic jetliner that was modified by its developer/builder, Tupolev ANTK (aviatsionnyy nauchno-tekhnicheskiy kompleks-roughly, aviation technical complex), into a flying laboratory for supersonic research. Using the Tu-144LL to conduct flight research experiments, researchers compared full-scale supersonic aircraft flight data with results from models in wind tunnels, computer-aided techniques, and other flight tests. The experiments provided unique aerodynamic, structures, acoustics, and operating environment data on supersonic passenger aircraft. Data collected from the research program was being used to develop the technology base for a proposed future American-built supersonic jetliner. Although actual development of such an advanced supersonic transport (SST) is currently on hold, commercial aviation experts estimate that a market for up to 500 such aircraft could develop by the third decade of the 21st Century. The Tu-144LL used in the NASA-sponsored research program was a 'D' model with different engines than were used in production-model aircraft. Fifty experiments were proposed

  9. Intense air-sea exchange and heavy rainfall: impact of the northern Adriatic SST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stocchi, P.; Davolio, S.

    2016-02-01

    Over the northern Adriatic basin, intense air-sea interactions are often associated with heavy precipitation over the mountainous areas surrounding the basin. In this study, a high-resolution mesoscale model is employed to simulate three severe weather events and to evaluate the effect of the sea surface temperature on the intensity and location of heavy rainfall. The sensitivity tests show that the impact of SST varies among the events and it mainly involves the modification of the PBL characteristics and thus the flow dynamics and its interaction with the orography.

  10. Research Pilot C. Gordon Fullerton in Cockpit of TU-144LL SST Flying Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    NASA Research pilot C. Gordon Fullerton sits in cockpit of TU-144LL SST Flying Laboratory. Fullerton was one of two NASA pilots who flew the aircraft as part of a joint high speed research program. NASA teamed with American and Russian aerospace industries for an extended period in a joint international research program featuring the Russian-built Tu-144LL supersonic aircraft. The object of the program was to develop technologies for a proposed future second-generation supersonic airliner to be developed in the 21st Century. The aircraft's initial flight phase began in June 1996 and concluded in February 1998 after 19 research flights. A shorter follow-on program involving seven flights began in September 1998 and concluded in April 1999. All flights were conducted in Russia from Tupolev's facility at the Zhukovsky Air Development Center near Moscow. The centerpiece of the research program was the Tu 144LL, a first-generation Russian supersonic jetliner that was modified by its developer/builder, Tupolev ANTK (aviatsionnyy nauchno-tekhnicheskiy kompleks-roughly, aviation technical complex), into a flying laboratory for supersonic research. Using the Tu-144LL to conduct flight research experiments, researchers compared full-scale supersonic aircraft flight data with results from models in wind tunnels, computer-aided techniques, and other flight tests. The experiments provided unique aerodynamic, structures, acoustics, and operating environment data on supersonic passenger aircraft. Data collected from the research program was being used to develop the technology base for a proposed future American-built supersonic jetliner. Although actual development of such an advanced supersonic transport (SST) is currently on hold, commercial aviation experts estimate that a market for up to 500 such aircraft could develop by the third decade of the 21st Century. The Tu-144LL used in the NASA-sponsored research program was a 'D' model with different engines than were used in

  11. Russian Tu-144LL SST Roll-Out for Joint NASA Research Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The modified Tu-144LL supersonic flying laboratory is rolled out of its hangar at the Zhukovsky Air Development Center near Moscow, Russia in March 1996 at the beginning of a joint U.S. - Russian high-speed flight research program. The 'LL' stands for Letayuschaya Laboratoriya, which means Flying Laboratory. NASA teamed with American and Russian aerospace industries for an extended period in a joint international research program featuring the Russian-built Tu-144LL supersonic aircraft. The object of the program was to develop technologies for a proposed future second-generation supersonic airliner to be developed in the 21st Century. The aircraft's initial flight phase began in June 1996 and concluded in February 1998 after 19 research flights. A shorter follow-on program involving seven flights began in September 1998 and concluded in April 1999. All flights were conducted in Russia from Tupolev's facility at the Zhukovsky Air Development Center near Moscow. The centerpiece of the research program was the Tu 144LL, a first-generation Russian supersonic jetliner that was modified by its developer/builder, Tupolev ANTK (aviatsionnyy nauchno-tekhnicheskiy kompleks-roughly, aviation technical complex), into a flying laboratory for supersonic research. Using the Tu-144LL to conduct flight research experiments, researchers compared full-scale supersonic aircraft flight data with results from models in wind tunnels, computer-aided techniques, and other flight tests. The experiments provided unique aerodynamic, structures, acoustics, and operating environment data on supersonic passenger aircraft. Data collected from the research program was being used to develop the technology base for a proposed future American-built supersonic jetliner. Although actual development of such an advanced supersonic transport (SST) is currently on hold, commercial aviation experts estimate that a market for up to 500 such aircraft could develop by the third decade of the 21st Century. The

  12. Russian Tu-144LL SST Roll-out for Joint NASA Research Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    U.S. Ambassador Pickering addresses Russian and American dignitaries, industry representatives and members of the press during a roll-out ceremony for the modified Tu-144LL supersonic flying laboratory. The ceremony was held at the Zhukovsky Air Development Center near Moscow, Russia, on March 17, 1996. The 'LL' designation for the aircraft stands for Letayuschaya Laboratoriya, which means Flying Laboratory in Russian. NASA teamed with American and Russian aerospace industries for an extended period in a joint international research program featuring the Russian-built Tu-144LL supersonic aircraft. The object of the program was to develop technologies for a proposed future second-generation supersonic airliner to be developed in the 21st Century. The aircraft's initial flight phase began in June 1996 and concluded in February 1998 after 19 research flights. A shorter follow-on program involving seven flights began in September 1998 and concluded in April 1999. All flights were conducted in Russia from Tupolev's facility at the Zhukovsky Air Development Center near Moscow. The centerpiece of the research program was the Tu 144LL, a first-generation Russian supersonic jetliner that was modified by its developer/builder, Tupolev ANTK (aviatsionnyy nauchno-tekhnicheskiy kompleks-roughly, aviation technical complex), into a flying laboratory for supersonic research. Using the Tu-144LL to conduct flight research experiments, researchers compared full-scale supersonic aircraft flight data with results from models in wind tunnels, computer-aided techniques, and other flight tests. The experiments provided unique aerodynamic, structures, acoustics, and operating environment data on supersonic passenger aircraft. Data collected from the research program was being used to develop the technology base for a proposed future American-built supersonic jetliner. Although actual development of such an advanced supersonic transport (SST) is currently on hold, commercial aviation

  13. Tu-144LL SST Flying Laboratory Lifts off Runway on a High-Speed Research Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Tupolev Tu-144LL lifts off from the Zhukovsky Air Development Center near Moscow, Russia, on a 1998 test flight. NASA teamed with American and Russian aerospace industries for an extended period in a joint international research program featuring the Russian-built Tu-144LL supersonic aircraft. The object of the program was to develop technologies for a proposed future second-generation supersonic airliner to be developed in the 21st Century. The aircraft's initial flight phase began in June 1996 and concluded in February 1998 after 19 research flights. A shorter follow-on program involving seven flights began in September 1998 and concluded in April 1999. All flights were conducted in Russia from Tupolev's facility at the Zhukovsky Air Development Center near Moscow. The centerpiece of the research program was the Tu 144LL, a first-generation Russian supersonic jetliner that was modified by its developer/builder, Tupolev ANTK (aviatsionnyy nauchno-tekhnicheskiy kompleks-roughly, aviation technical complex), into a flying laboratory for supersonic research. Using the Tu-144LL to conduct flight research experiments, researchers compared full-scale supersonic aircraft flight data with results from models in wind tunnels, computer-aided techniques, and other flight tests. The experiments provided unique aerodynamic, structures, acoustics, and operating environment data on supersonic passenger aircraft. Data collected from the research program was being used to develop the technology base for a proposed future American-built supersonic jetliner. Although actual development of such an advanced supersonic transport (SST) is currently on hold, commercial aviation experts estimate that a market for up to 500 such aircraft could develop by the third decade of the 21st Century. The Tu-144LL used in the NASA-sponsored research program was a 'D' model with different engines than were used in production-model aircraft. Fifty experiments were proposed for the program and

  14. AIRS radiometric calibration validation for climate research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aumann, Hartmut H.; Pagano, Thomas S.; Elliott, Denis; Gaiser, Steve; Gregorich, Dave; Broberg, Steve

    2005-01-01

    Climate research using data from satellite based radiometers makes extreme demands on the traceability and stability of the radiometric calibration. The selection of a cooled grating array spectrometer for the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder, AIRS, is key, but does not ensured that AIRS data will be of climate quality. Additional design features, plus additional pre-launch testing, and extensive on-orbit calibration subsystem monitoring beyond what would suffice for application of the data to weather forecasting were required to ensure the radiometric data quality required for climate research. Validation that climate data quality are being generated makes use of the sea surface skin temperatures (SST and (obs-calc).

  15. High-resolution simulations of heavy precipitation events: role of the Adriatic SST and air-sea interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davolio, Silvio; Stocchi, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    Strong Bora and Sirocco winds over the Adriatic Sea favour intense air-sea interactions and are often associated with heavy rainfall that affects the mountainous areas surrounding the basin. A convection-permitting model (MOLOCH) has been implemented at high resolution (2 km) in order to analyse several precipitation events over northern Italy, occurred during different seasons of the year and presenting different rainfall characteristics (stratiform, convective, orographic), and to possibly identify the relevant physical mechanisms involved. With the aim of assessing the impact of the sea surface temperature (SST) and surface fluxes on the intensity and location of the rainfall, sensitivity experiments have been performed taking into account the possible variability of SST analysis for model initialization. The model has been validated and specific diagnostic tools have been developed and applied to evaluate the vertically integrated moisture fluxes feeding the precipitating system or to compute a water balance in the atmosphere over the sea. The results show that the Adriatic Sea plays a role in determining the boundary layer characteristics through exchange of heat and moisture thus modifying the low-level flow dynamics and its interaction with the orography. This in turn impacts on the rainfall. Although the results vary among the analysed events, the precise definition of the SST and its evolution can be relevant for accurate precipitation forecasting.

  16. Measured and Calculated Neutron Spectra and Dose Equivalent Rates at High Altitudes; Relevance to SST Operations and Space Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foelsche, T.; Mendell, R. B.; Wilson, J. W.; Adams, R. R.

    1974-01-01

    Results of the NASA Langley-New York University high-altitude radiation study are presented. Measurements of the absorbed dose rate and of secondary fast neutrons (1 to 10 MeV energy) during the years 1965 to 1971 are used to determine the maximum radiation exposure from galactic and solar cosmic rays of supersonic transport (SST) and subsonic jet occupants. The maximum dose equivalent rates that the SST crews might receive turn out to be 13 to 20 percent of the maximum permissible dose rate (MPD) for radiation workers (5 rem/yr). The exposure of passengers encountering an intense giant-energy solar particle event could exceed the MPD for the general population (0.5 rem/yr), but would be within these permissible limits if in such rare cases the transport descends to subsonic altitude; it is in general less than 12 percent of the MPD. By Monte Carlo calculations of the transport and buildup of nucleons in air for incident proton energies E of 0.02 to 10 GeV, the measured neutron spectra were extrapolated to lower and higher energies and for galactic cosmic rays were found to continue with a relatively high intensity to energies greater than 400 MeV, in a wide altitude range. This condition, together with the measured intensity profiles of fast neutrons, revealed that the biologically important fast and energetic neutrons penetrate deep into the atmosphere and contribute approximately 50 percent of the dose equivalant rates at SST and present subsonic jet altitudes.

  17. Southern Ocean air-sea heat flux, SST spatial anomalies, and implications for multi-decadal upper ocean heat content trends.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamsitt, V. M.; Talley, L. D.; Mazloff, M. R.

    2014-12-01

    The Southern Ocean displays a zonal dipole (wavenumber one) pattern in sea surface temperature (SST), with a cool zonal anomaly in the Atlantic and Indian sectors and a warm zonal anomaly in the Pacific sector, associated with the large northward excursion of the Malvinas and southeastward flow of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC). To the north of the cool Indian sector is the warm, narrow Agulhas Return Current (ARC). Air-sea heat flux is largely the inverse of this SST pattern, with ocean heat gain in the Atlantic/Indian, cooling in the southeastward-flowing ARC, and cooling in the Pacific, based on adjusted fluxes from the Southern Ocean State Estimate (SOSE), a ⅙° eddy permitting model constrained to all available in situ data. This heat flux pattern is dominated by turbulent heat loss from the ocean (latent and sensible), proportional to perturbations in the difference between SST and surface air temperature, which are maintained by ocean advection. Locally in the Indian sector, intense heat loss along the ARC is contrasted by ocean heat gain of 0.11 PW south of the ARC. The IPCC AR5 50 year depth-averaged 0-700 m temperature trend shows surprising similarities in its spatial pattern, with upper ocean warming in the ARC contrasted by cooling to the south. Using diagnosed heat budget terms from the most recent (June 2014) 6-year run of the SOSE we find that surface cooling in the ARC is balanced by heating from south-eastward advection by the current whereas heat gain in the ACC is balanced by cooling due to northward Ekman transport driven by strong westerly winds. These results suggest that spatial patterns in multi-decadal upper ocean temperature trends depend on regional variations in upper ocean dynamics.

  18. Air Research Program: Key Pathways research track

    EPA Science Inventory

    The pathways research track applies animal, cellular, and human studies to discern whether there is a common molecular mechanism (e.g. production of oxidative stress, phosphatase inhibition, disruption of iron homeostasis) through which air pollutants induce toxicity of air pollu...

  19. Sea fog observed by simultaneous radiosonde launches by three research vessels over a SST frontal region in the Kuroshio Extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishikawa, H.; Tachibana, Y.; Kawai, Y.; Yoshioka, M. K.; Nakamura, H.

    2013-12-01

    In 2012 July, 3-ship simultaneous GPS radiosonde observation was carried out over sea surface temperature (SST) front of the Kuroshio Extension. The 3-ships were located at a cold SST side (i.e., north side), over the SST front and a warm SST side (i.e. south side) respectively along 143E. We launched GPS radiosonde at the same time from each ship every hour or every other hour for about five days. The spatial and temporal changes of atmospheric fields on a latitude-altitude cross section were successfully captured. Such observation has not been carried out in this area. In the northwestern part of the North Pacific, it is known that sea fog frequently forms from spring to summer. During the 3-ship simultaneous observation, sea fog was observed several times only at the cold SST area and over the SST front. Over the warm SST side, no foggy conditions were observed during the observation period. All the observational data were separated into foggy and non-foggy cases. In the foggy cases, larger difference of the sea level pressure (SLP) between the cold and warm sides was overall observed than in the no foggy cases. This north-south pressure difference was seen from the sea level to about 1000m, whereas there was little difference of the pressure between the cold side and the warm side in the non-foggy case. We also compare this observational finding to numerical simulation results of CReSS (Cloud Resolving Storm Simulator) -NHOES (NonHydrostatic Ocean model for ES).

  20. Application of Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) Data to Climate Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aumann, Hartmut H.; Gregorich, David; Gaiser, Steve; Chahine, Moustafa T.

    2004-01-01

    The application of hyper spectral radiometric data to climate research requires very high absolute radiometric accuracy and stability. We use cloud-free tropical ocean data from the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIR) Calibration Data Subset (ADCS) to show that the radiometric precision and stability required climate applications has been achieved. The sea surface skin temperatures derived from the AIRS 2616cm-1 super window channel are stable relative to the RTG.SST at the better than 8 mK/year level, and the spectral calibration is stable at the 1 ppm/year level. The excellent stability and accuracy are the result of the implementation of AIRS as a grating array spectrometer, which is cooled and stabilized within 10 mK at 155 K. Analysis of daily measurements of the temperature gradient between the surface and 7 km altitude show that the AIRS Calibration Data Subset has applications which extend its original intent for calibration support to climate research. The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on the EOS Aqua satellite was launched into polar orbit in May 2002. AIRS covers the spectral region from 640 to 2700 cm-1 with 2378 independent channels and represents the first of a new generation of hyper spectral resolution sounders in support of global sounding data for weather forecasting and climate research.

  1. Combined MODIS/AMSR-E SST Composites for Regional Weather Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jedlovec, Gary; Vazquez, Jorge; Armstrong, Ed; Haines, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    Recent applications of a high resolution MODlS composite SST product have clearly shown the importance of developing high-resolution SST data sets for coastal applications and modeling. In general, coupling between the oceans and atmospheres has been closely linked to SST gradients and fronts, indicating a need for high resolution SSTs, specifically in the areas of large gradients associated with coastal regions. Thus an accurate determination of SST gradients has become critical for determining the appropriate air-sea coupling and the influence on ocean modeling. Recent research is focused on improving the accuracy and spatial coverage of the current operational MODIS SST composite product provided by the Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPORT) project and distributed to the community. GHRSST-PP MODlS data and microwave AMSR-E data are being combined to produce composite data sets for both the West Coast and East Coast of the United States, including the Gulf of Mexico. The use of 1 km MODIS data has explicit advantages over other SST products including its global coverage and high resolution. The AMSR-E data will reduce the latency of the composites. A strategy for utilizing the error characteristics contained in the GHRSST data has been developed. This strategy will include using the error characteristics directly to calculate weights in the SST composites, uncertainty maps based on the composite biases and RMS errors, and latency products calculated in the compositing process. Recent accomplishments include the development of an enhanced compositing approach based on the error-weighted combination of recent clear MODIS SST values, where the error contributions come from measurement error, potential cloud contamination, and data latency sources. Future plans call for the inclusion of AMSR-E SST values with appropriate weights based upon measurement accuracy, MODIS-AMSR-E SST bias, and latency.

  2. Northeast China summer temperature and North Atlantic SST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Renguang; Yang, Song; Liu, Shi; Sun, Li; Lian, Yi; Gao, Zongting

    2011-08-01

    A previous study revealed a close relationship between interannual variations of northeast China (NEC) summer temperature and a tripole sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly pattern in the North Atlantic in preceding spring. The present study investigates the change in the above relationship and the plausible causes for the change. A tripole SST index is defined with its positive value corresponding to positive SST anomalies in the tropics and midlatitudes and negative SST anomalies in the subtropics. The tripole SST anomaly pattern has a weak correlation with NEC summer temperature during the 1950s through the mid-1970s, in sharp contrast to the 1980s and 1990s. This change is related to the difference in the persistence of the tripole SST pattern. Before the late 1970s, the tripole SST pattern weakened from spring to summer, and thus, the spring North Atlantic tripole SST pattern had a weak connection with NEC summer temperature. On the contrary, after the late 1970s, the tripole SST pattern displayed a tendency of persistence from spring to summer, contributing to circulation changes that affected NEC summer temperature. There are two factors for the persistence of the tripole SST pattern from spring to summer. One is the North Atlantic air-sea interaction, and the other is the persistence of SST anomalies in the eastern equatorial Pacific during the decay of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). It is shown that the North Atlantic SST anomalies can have an impact on NEC summer temperature independent of ENSO.

  3. Workshop on indoor air quality research needs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Workshop participants report on indoor air quality research needs including the monitoring of indoor air quality, report of the instrumentation subgroup of indoor air quality, health effects, and the report of the control technology session. Risk analysis studies addressing indoor environments were also summarized. (DLS)

  4. Air Traffic Management Research at NASA Ames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    The Aviation Systems Division at the NASA Ames Research Center conducts leading edge research in air traffic management concepts and technologies. This overview will present concepts and simulation results for research in traffic flow management, safe and efficient airport surface operations, super density terminal area operations, separation assurance and system wide modeling and simulation. A brief review of the ongoing air traffic management technology demonstration (ATD-1) will also be presented. A panel discussion, with Mr. Davis serving as a panelist, on air traffic research will follow the briefing.

  5. Experimental research on air propellers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durand, William F

    1918-01-01

    The purposes of the experimental investigation on the performance of air propellers described in this report are as follows: (1) the development of a series of design factors and coefficients drawn from model forms distributed with some regularity over the field of air-propeller design and intended to furnish a basis of check with similar work done in other aerodynamic laboratories, and as a point of departure for the further study of special or individual types and forms; (2) the establishment of a series of experimental values derived from models and intended for later use as a basis for comparison with similar results drawn from certain selected full-sized forms and tested in free flight.

  6. Responses of Precipitation and Hydrologic Processes to Tropical SST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sui, C.-H.; Lau, K.-M.; Li, X.

    2001-01-01

    The goal of the research is to identify the mechanisms in the response of tropical precipitation and atmospheric hydrologic cycle to sea surface temperature (SST) variability at seasonal-to-interannual time scales, and to utilize the knowledge for better understanding of climate feedback processes relevant to global change. As a first step to achieve the goal, we characterize the inter-relationship among convective/stratiform rain, ice/water clouds water vapor, and SST using TRMM satellite data and a cloud-resolving model. We examined the daily hydrologic variables [column water vapor (PW), cloud liquid water (CW), rainfall rates (RR)] as a function of SST using high-resolution data (0.25 x 0.25, daily) derived from TRMM satellite measurements. Comparing the winter of 97/98 (El Nino condition) against the winter of 99/00 (La Nina condition), area-mean values of all four hydrologic variables in cloudy areas within the tropical Pacific are higher in the El Nino winter than in the La Nina winter. This is consistent with previous observational analyses and SST warming experiments (idealized or ENSO-like) that showed the interaction between hydrologic cyclic and radiation at the seasonal to interannual time scales leads to intensified tropical circulation and hydrologic cycle. However, there is evidence that the enhanced hydrologic cycle over the warm pool is accompanied by an expansion of radiatively -driven subsidence in response to a stronger SST gradient between warm pool and surrounding cold pool. The expanding subsidence effectively reduces cloud amounts over the warm pool. Our analysis of daily variability further indicates a more vigorous water cycle characterized by higher PW, CW, and RR in response to overall warming. This is expected from the Clausius Clapeyron relation as a thermodynamic response to warming. However cloudy areas decrease in response to overall warming. This may be due to factors that are fundamentally different. One possibility is that in a

  7. Air Research Program: Susceptibility Research Track

    EPA Science Inventory

    The susceptibility research track is focused on susceptibility due to life stage, disease state, and genetics. For each aspect, wherever possible an integrative cross-disciplinary approach is used that combines in vitro mechanistic studies with animal models and human clinical an...

  8. Tidal cooling effect on SST and its influence on typhoon simulation over the East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zong, H.; WU, H.

    2013-12-01

    Each summer, tropical cyclones (including typhoon) frequently travel across the East China Sea (ECS), beating the surrounding regions with massive damages. Therefore, it is very important to predict their intensities and tracks by using numerical models, so as to advise people to evacuate from the possible affected area. Unfortunately, forecasting the typhoon is still a big challenge since a couple of reasons. To numerically predict the typhoons, an atmosphere-ocean coupling model is often required. Researchers have done many efforts on the atmosphere part to improve the accuracy, while the ocean part was often treated simply. For example, many operational forecasting models simply set the SST as climatological values. As the ocean motion is energetic and the sea conditions vary significantly with time, this brief setting could result in some error. Some other models include an ocean model that considering the air-sea exchange of heat and momentum, as well as large-scale ocean motions like circulation. However, in the shallow coastal oceans like the ECS, tidal forcing also plays an important role that modulate the vertical exchange to adjust the SST. So far no atmosphere-ocean coupling model in this region consider the tide. In this study, we have found that 1) Accuracy of SST is essential to correctly predict the intensity and track of typhoons; 2) It is important to include the tide to correctly simulate the SST in the shallow oceans like the ECS. We setup an Advanced Research Hurricane WRF (WRF-AHW) model in the ECS and simulated typhoon Muifa (No. 201109). The 6-hourly data of the NCEP FNL Global Analyses was used as the initial and lateral boundary conditions in the model. Firstly, We run the model only with NCEP FNL Global Analyses data. The simulated track was very similar to China forecasted one, which was more than 200 kilometers far from the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) provided typhoon location at 0:00 am, 6 August, 2011. Then, We run the model

  9. Air Traffic Management Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, Todd

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. air transportation system is the most productive in the world, moving far more people and goods than any other. It is also the safest system in the world, thanks in part to its venerable air traffic control system. But as demand for air travel continues to grow, the air traffic control systems aging infrastructure and labor-intensive procedures are impinging on its ability to keep pace with demand. And that impinges on the growth of our economy. Part of NASA's current mission in aeronautics research is to invent new technologies and procedures for ATC that will enable our national airspace system to accommodate the increasing demand for air transportation well into the next generation while still maintaining its excellent record for safety. It is a challenging mission, as efforts to modernize have, for decades, been hamstrung by the inability to assure safety to the satisfaction of system operators, system regulators, and/or the traveling public. In this talk, we'll provide a brief history of air traffic control, focusing on the tension between efficiency and safety assurance, and we'll highlight some new NASA technologies coming down the pike.

  10. High Resolution Wind and SST Coupling: Impacts on Ekman Upwelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourassa, M. A.; Hughes, P. J.

    2014-12-01

    Satellite observations have revealed a small-scale (< 1000 km) air-sea coupling in regions of strong sea surface temperature (SST) fronts (e.g., currents, eddies, and tropical instability waves), where the surface wind and wind stress are altered by the underlying SST. Surface winds and wind stresses are persistently higher over the warm side of the SST front compared to the cool side, causing perturbations in the dynamically and thermodynamically curl and divergence fields. Capturing this small-scale SST-wind variability is important because it can significantly impact both local and remote (i.e., large scale) oceanic and atmospheric processes. The SST-wind relationship is not well represented in numerical weather prediction (NWP) and climate models, and the relative importance of the physical processes that are proposed to be responsible for this relationship is actively and vehemently debated. This study focuses on the physical mechanisms that are primarily responsible for the SST-induced changes in surface wind and wind stress, and on the physical implication on ocean forcing through Ekman pumping. This study shows that the baroclinic-related changes in Ekman pumping are significant (first-order) over a seasonal (2003 winter season) time scale and that the meso-scale impacts are quite important over larger spatial scales. These findings highlight the need to consider the small-scale SST-wind relationship even in coarser resolution model simulation, which may be feasible to parameterize because of the linear nature of the baroclinic-related effect.

  11. Air Traffic Management Research at NASA Ames Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Katharine

    2005-01-01

    Since the late 1980's, NASA Ames researchers have been investigating ways to improve the air transportation system through the development of decision support automation. These software advances, such as the Center-TRACON Automation System (eTAS) have been developed with teams of engineers, software developers, human factors experts, and air traffic controllers; some ASA Ames decision support tools are currently operational in Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) facilities and some are in use by the airlines. These tools have provided air traffic controllers and traffic managers the capabilities to help reduce overall delays and holding, and provide significant cost savings to the airlines as well as more manageable workload levels for air traffic service providers. NASA is continuing to collaborate with the FAA, as well as other government agencies, to plan and develop the next generation of decision support tools that will support anticipated changes in the air transportation system, including a projected increase to three times today's air-traffic levels by 2025. The presentation will review some of NASA Ames' recent achievements in air traffic management research, and discuss future tool developments and concepts currently under consideration.

  12. Air Force Research Laboratory Cryocooler Technology Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Thomas M.; Smith, D. Adam; Easton, Ryan M.

    2004-06-01

    This paper presents an overview of the cryogenic refrigerator and cryogenic integration programs in development and characterization under the Cryogenic Cooling Technology Group, Space Vehicles Directorate of the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL). The vision statement for the group is to support the space community as the center of excellence for developing and transitioning space cryogenic thermal management technologies. This paper will describe the range of Stirling, pulse tube; reverse Brayton, and Joule-Thomson cycle cryocoolers currently under development to meet current and future Air Force and Department of Defense requirements. Cooling requirements at 10K, 35K, 60K, 95K, and multistage cooling requirements at 35/85K are addressed. In order to meet these various requirements, the Air Force Research Laboratory, Space Vehicles Directorate is pursuing various strategic cryocooler and cryogenic integration options. The Air Force Research Laboratory, working with industry partners, is also developing several advanced cryogenic integration technologies that will result in the reduction in current cryogenic system integration penalties and design time. These technologies include the continued development of gimbaled transport systems, 35K and 10K thermal storage units, heat pipes, cryogenic straps, and thermal switches.

  13. COOPERATIVE RESEARCH (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division's Air Pollution Technology Branch (APTB) is always interested in the potential for cooperative research if overlap occurs between the research goals of external organizations and APTB's research goals.APTB has participated i...

  14. Seasonal prediction of Indian summer monsoon: Sensitivity to persistent SST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Sukanta Kumar; Deb, Sanjib Kumar; Kishtawal, C. M.; Pal, Pradip Kumar

    2013-10-01

    In the present study, the assessment of the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM) developed at National Centre for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) for seasonal forecasting of Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) with different persistent SST is reported. Towards achieving the objective, 30-year model climatology has been generated using observed SST. Upon successful simulation of climatological features of ISM, the model is tested for the simulation of ISM 2011 in forecast mode. Experiments have been conducted in three different time-phases, viz., April, May and June; using different sets of initial conditions (ICs) and the persistent SSTs of the previous months of the time-phases. The spatial as well as temporal distribution of model simulated rainfall suggest a below normal monsoon condition throughout the season in all the experiments. However, the rainfall anomaly shows some positive signature over north-east part of India in the month of June and August whereas the central Indian landmass had positive anomaly during August and September. The monthly accumulated All-India rainfall (AIR) over land for June to September 2011 are predicted to be 101% (17.6 cm), 86% (24.3 cm), 83% (21.0 cm) and 95% (15.5 cm) of normal AIR, respectively. This makes the seasonal accumulated AIR 78.4 cm which is 11% below the normal rainfall of 87.6 cm. The model prediction for the months of June and July is comparable with the observation; however, the simulation would not be able to capture the high rainfall during August and September. The intention behind this work is to assess the shortcomings in the CAM model prediction, which can later be improved for future monsoon forecast experiments.

  15. Impact of High Resolution SST Data on Regional Weather Forecasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jedlovec, Gary J.; Case, Jonathon; LaFontaine, Frank; Vazquez, Jorge; Mattocks, Craig

    2010-01-01

    Past studies have shown that the use of coarse resolution SST products such as from the real-time global (RTG) SST analysis[1] or other coarse resolution once-a-day products do not properly portray the diurnal variability of fluxes of heat and moisture from the ocean that drive the formation of low level clouds and precipitation over the ocean. For example, the use of high resolution MODIS SST composite [2] to initialize the Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) (ARW) [3] has been shown to improve the prediction of sensible weather parameters in coastal regions [4][5}. In an extend study, [6] compared the MODIS SST composite product to the RTG SST analysis and evaluated forecast differences for a 6 month period from March through August 2007 over the Florida coastal regions. In a comparison to buoy data, they found that that the MODIS SST composites reduced the bias and standard deviation over that of the RTG data. These improvements led to significant changes in the initial and forecasted heat fluxes and the resulting surface temperature fields, wind patterns, and cloud distributions. They also showed that the MODIS composite SST product, produced for the Terra and Aqua satellite overpass times, captured a component of the diurnal cycle in SSTs not represented in the RTG or other one-a-day SST analyses. Failure to properly incorporate these effects in the WRF initialization cycle led to temperature biases in the resulting short term forecasts. The forecast impact was limited in some situations however, due to composite product inaccuracies brought about by data latency during periods of long-term cloud cover. This paper focuses on the forecast impact of an enhanced MODIS/AMSR-E composite SST product designed to reduce inaccuracies due data latency in the MODIS only composite product.

  16. THE STATUS OF INDOOR AIR POLLUTION RESEARCH 1976

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numerous research projects have examined the occurrences of air pollution in outdoor and workplace environments. A smaller, newer body of research has examined air pollution in nonworkplace, indoor environments. A new emphasis on measures to conserve energy in buildings, curbing ...

  17. Subtropical Indian Ocean SST dipole events and southern African rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reason, C. J. C.

    An atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) is used to examine how the regional atmospheric circulation and rainfall over southern Africa respond to a recently observed dipole in subtropical sea surface temperature (SST) over the South Indian Ocean. Observations suggest that when SST is warm to the south of Madagascar and cool off Western Australia, increased summer rains occur over large areas of southeastern Africa. The model results suggest that this SST pattern leads to increased rainfall via enhanced convergence of moister than average air over the region. Increased evaporation occurs over the warm pole in the South West Indian Ocean and this moist air is advected towards Mozambique and eastern South Africa as a result of the low pressure anomaly generated over this pole which strengthens the onshore flow.

  18. Assimilating Satellite SST Observations into a Diurnal Cycle Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pimentel, S.; Haines, K.; Nichols, N. K.

    2006-12-01

    The wealth of satellite sea surface temperature (SST) data now available opens the possibility of large improvements in SST estimation. However the use of such data is not straight forward; a major difficulty in assimilating satellite observations is that they represent a near surface temperature, whereas in ocean models the top level represents the temperature at a greater depth. During the day, under favourable conditions of clear skies and calm winds, the near surface temperature is often seen to have a diurnal cycle that is picked up in satellite observations. Current ocean models do not have the vertical or temporal resolution to adequately represent this daytime warming. The usual approach is to discard daytime observations as they are considered diurnally `corrupted'. A new assimilation technique is developed here that assimilates observations into a diurnal cycle model. The diurnal cycle of SSTs are modelled using a 1-D mixed layer model with fine near surface resolution and 6 hourly forcing from NWP analyses. The accuracy of the SST estimates are hampered by uncertainties in the forcing data. The extent of diurnal SST warming at a particular location and time is predominately governed by a non-linear response to cloud cover and sea surface wind speeds which greatly affect the air-sea fluxes. The method proposed here combines infrared and microwave SST satellite observations in order to derive corrections to the cloud cover and wind speed values over the day. By adjusting the forcing, SST estimation and air-sea fluxes should be improved and are at least more consistent with each other. This new technique for assimilating SST data can be considered a tool for producing more accurate diurnal warming estimates.

  19. VENTILATION RESEARCH: A REVIEW OF RECENT INDOOR AIR QUALITY LITERATURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a literature review, conducted to survey and summarize recent and ongoing engineering research into building ventilation, air exchange rate, pollutant distribution and dispersion, and other effects of heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) s...

  20. 33 CFR 334.700 - Choctawhatchee Bay, aerial gunnery ranges, Air Proving Ground Center, Air Research and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... gunnery ranges, Air Proving Ground Center, Air Research and Development Command, Eglin Air Force Base, Fla... gunnery ranges, Air Proving Ground Center, Air Research and Development Command, Eglin Air Force Base, Fla... regulations in this section shall be enforced by the Commander, Air Proving Ground Center, Eglin AFB, and...

  1. Pesticides in Air: New Challenges in Agricultural Air Quality Research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As agricultural and urban communities have become more intertwined, and the average size of agricultural production operations have increased substantially, issues of air quality have emerged as an area of increasing regulatory pressure for farmers in many countries. The science of measuring emissi...

  2. Statistical Engineering in Air Traffic Management Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Sara R.

    2015-01-01

    NASA is working to develop an integrated set of advanced technologies to enable efficient arrival operations in high-density terminal airspace for the Next Generation Air Transportation System. This integrated arrival solution is being validated and verified in laboratories and transitioned to a field prototype for an operational demonstration at a major U.S. airport. Within NASA, this is a collaborative effort between Ames and Langley Research Centers involving a multi-year iterative experimentation process. Designing and analyzing a series of sequential batch computer simulations and human-in-the-loop experiments across multiple facilities and simulation environments involves a number of statistical challenges. Experiments conducted in separate laboratories typically have different limitations and constraints, and can take different approaches with respect to the fundamental principles of statistical design of experiments. This often makes it difficult to compare results from multiple experiments and incorporate findings into the next experiment in the series. A statistical engineering approach is being employed within this project to support risk-informed decision making and maximize the knowledge gained within the available resources. This presentation describes a statistical engineering case study from NASA, highlights statistical challenges, and discusses areas where existing statistical methodology is adapted and extended.

  3. POLLUTION PREVENTION FOR CLEANER AIR: EPA'S AIR AND ENERGY ENGINEERING RESEARCH LABORATORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The article discusses the role of EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory (AEERL) in pollution prevention research for cleaner air. For more than 20 years, AEERL has been conducting research to identify control approaches for the pollutants and sources which contribu...

  4. RESEARCH OVERVIEW: SOURCES OF INDOOR AIR POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper briefly traces the history of air quality problems in residential, office, and public access buildings to show the evolution of indoor air quality (IAQ) concerns. It then briefly discusses sources of IAQ problems--both known and suspected--then reviews the current state...

  5. AIR TOXICS MODELING RESEARCH PROGRAM: AN OVERVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    This product is a Microsoft Powerpoint slide presentation which was given at the joint EPA Region 3 - Mid-Atlantic Regional Air Management Association (MARAMA) Air Toxic Summit in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania held from October 18, 2005 through October 20, 2005. The slide presentat...

  6. Research review: Indoor air quality control techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, W.J.

    1986-10-01

    Techniques for controlling the concentration of radon, formaldehyde, and combustion products in the indoor air are reviewed. The most effective techniques, which are generally based on limiting or reducing indoor pollutant source strengths, can decrease indoor pollutant concentrations by a factor of 3 to 10. Unless the initial ventilation rate is unusually low, it is difficult to reduce indoor pollutant concentrations more than approximately 50% by increasing the ventilation rate of an entire building. However, the efficiency of indoor pollutant control by ventilation can be enhanced through the use of local exhaust ventilation near concentrated sources of pollutants, by minimizing short circuiting of air from supply to exhaust when pollutant sources are dispersed and, in some situations, by promoting a displacement flow of air and pollutants toward the exhaust. Active air cleaning is also examined briefly. Filtration and electrostatic air cleaning for removal of particles from the indoor air are the most practical and effective currently available techniques of air cleaning. 49 refs., 7 figs.

  7. 33 CFR 334.700 - Choctawhatchee Bay, aerial gunnery ranges, Air Proving Ground Center, Air Research and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Choctawhatchee Bay, aerial gunnery ranges, Air Proving Ground Center, Air Research and Development Command, Eglin Air Force Base, Fla... gunnery ranges, Air Proving Ground Center, Air Research and Development Command, Eglin Air Force Base,...

  8. The numerical modeling the sensitivity of coastal wind and ozone concentration to different SST forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Hyun-Jung; Lee, Hwa Woon; Jeon, Won-Bae; Lee, Soon-Hwan

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated an atmospheric and air quality model of the spatial variability in low-level coastal winds and ozone concentration, which are affected by sea surface temperature (SST) forcing with different thermal gradients. Several numerical experiments examined the effect of sea surface SST forcing on the coastal atmosphere and air quality. In this study, the RAMS-CAMx model was used to estimate the sensitivity to two different resolutions of SST forcing during the episode day as well as to simulate the low-level coastal winds and ozone concentration over a complex coastal area. The regional model reproduced the qualitative effect of SST forcing and thermal gradients on the coastal flow. The high-resolution SST derived from NGSST-O (New Generation Sea Surface Temperature Open Ocean) forcing to resolve the warm SST appeared to enhance the mean response of low-level winds to coastal regions. These wind variations have important implications for coastal air quality. A higher ozone concentration was forecasted when SST data with a high resolution was used with the appropriate limitation of temperature, regional wind circulation, vertical mixing height and nocturnal boundary layer (NBL) near coastal areas.

  9. The Use of Neural Networks in Identifying Error Sources in Satellite-Derived Tropical SST Estimates

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yung-Hsiang; Ho, Chung-Ru; Su, Feng-Chun; Kuo, Nan-Jung; Cheng, Yu-Hsin

    2011-01-01

    An neural network model of data mining is used to identify error sources in satellite-derived tropical sea surface temperature (SST) estimates from thermal infrared sensors onboard the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES). By using the Back Propagation Network (BPN) algorithm, it is found that air temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed variation are the major factors causing the errors of GOES SST products in the tropical Pacific. The accuracy of SST estimates is also improved by the model. The root mean square error (RMSE) for the daily SST estimate is reduced from 0.58 K to 0.38 K and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) is 1.03%. For the hourly mean SST estimate, its RMSE is also reduced from 0.66 K to 0.44 K and the MAPE is 1.3%. PMID:22164030

  10. The atmospheric frontal response to SST perturbations in the Gulf Stream region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parfitt, Rhys; Czaja, Arnaud; Minobe, Shoshiro; Kuwano-Yoshida, Akira

    2016-03-01

    The link between sea surface temperature (SST) gradients and atmospheric fronts is explored in a general circulation model across the Gulf Stream (GS) region from December to February 1981-2000. Two model experiments are analyzed, one with a realistic control SST distribution and one with a spatially smoothed SST distribution. The analysis shows a noticeable change in regional atmospheric frontal frequency between the two experiments (up to 30%), with the distribution of change exhibiting a clear imprint of the GS SST front. Further analysis of the surface sensible heat flux gradient across cold fronts reveals the pattern of change to be mediated by a thermal interaction between the oceanic and atmospheric fronts ("thermal damping and strengthening"). These results not only emphasize the significance of the GS SST gradient for storm development in the North Atlantic but also highlight the importance of resolution in assessing the role of frontal air-sea interaction in midlatitude climate variability.

  11. The use of neural networks in identifying error sources in satellite-derived tropical SST estimates.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yung-Hsiang; Ho, Chung-Ru; Su, Feng-Chun; Kuo, Nan-Jung; Cheng, Yu-Hsin

    2011-01-01

    An neural network model of data mining is used to identify error sources in satellite-derived tropical sea surface temperature (SST) estimates from thermal infrared sensors onboard the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES). By using the Back Propagation Network (BPN) algorithm, it is found that air temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed variation are the major factors causing the errors of GOES SST products in the tropical Pacific. The accuracy of SST estimates is also improved by the model. The root mean square error (RMSE) for the daily SST estimate is reduced from 0.58 K to 0.38 K and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) is 1.03%. For the hourly mean SST estimate, its RMSE is also reduced from 0.66 K to 0.44 K and the MAPE is 1.3%. PMID:22164030

  12. RESEARCH AREA -- ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE CONTROL (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Air Pollution Technology Branch (APTB) of NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division in Research Triangle Park, NC, has conducted several research projects for evaluating the use of artificial intelligence (AI) to improve the control of pollution control systems an...

  13. Subtype selective interactions of somatostatin and somatostatin analogs with sst1, sst2, and sst5 in BON-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Ludvigsen, Eva; Stridsberg, Mats; Taylor, John E; Culler, Michael D; Oberg, Kjell; Janson, Eva T

    2004-01-01

    Somatostatin is a polypeptide hormone acting as an inhibitor of pituitary, pancreatic, and gastrointestinal secretion through specific membrane receptors of which five subtypes have been cloned (sst(1-5)). Somatostatin analogs are used in the clinic to treat patients with excessive hormone production due to a neuroendocrine tumor. The aim of this study was to investigate the biological activity of three new somatostatin receptor subtype selective analogs (BIM-23926, sst(1)-selective; BIM-23120, sst(2)-selective; and BIM-23206, sst(5)-selective) in the human neuroendocrine tumor cell line, BON-1, which expresses sst(1), sst(2), and sst(5) natively. Somatostatin-14 and octreotide were used as reference substances. Forskolin-induced cAMP accumulation and chromogranin A (CgA) secretion were inhibited by BIM-23120, BIM-23206, and somatostatin-14 in a dose-dependent manner. Cholecystokinin (CCK-8) stimulated activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase was inhibited by BIM-23120 and BIM-23206, while BIM-23926 stimulated the activity. Selective BIM analogs showed a more efficient inhibitory effect on cAMP accumulation, CgA secretion, and MAP kinase activity than octreotide in BON-1 cells. This may be explained by the differences in affinity of the ligand to the receptor or by interaction between different sst subtypes. We conclude that increasing knowledge about sst physiology and expression in malignant disease indicates a need for new analogs that can be incorporated into the therapeutic arsenal. PMID:15456957

  14. Mutual information between SSH and SST fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le goff, Clément; Chapron, Bertrand; Fablet, Ronan; Tandeo, Pierre; Autret, Emmanuelle; Ailliot, Pierre

    2015-04-01

    Mutual information between SST and SSH Investigations to relate satellite SST and SSH measurements in the Agulhas return current region are presented. In this study, we focus on the use of SSH and SST maps obtained during the year 2004, corresponding to a particularly well-sampled period for altimetry. The SST and SSH anomalies are then obtained as high-pass filtered fields, to analyze scales smaller than approximately 300km. As revealed, we clearly distinguish different regimes. During the winter months, a marked strong correlation between fields of SSH and SST anomalies is clearly revealed. During the summer months, a much lower correlation is found. Further conditioning the analysis to separate the areas of positive and negative SSH anomalies, it is then obtained, for both summer and winter periods, that aeras of negative SSH anomalies always correspond with areas of negative SST anomalies. This high correspondance also applies in winter but only for areas of positive SSH anomalies, which indeed well match with areas of positive SST anomalies. In summer, this high correspondance is lost, and areas with positive SSH anomalies do not necessarily correspond to positive SST anomalies. Accordingly, such an effect affects and weakens the overall SST/SSH correlation during the summer months. Yet, the areas of positive SSH anomalies are not fully disconnected from the areas of positive SST anomalies. For these cases, observations and results demonstrate a systematic spatial shift between them. This suggests the influence of the mixed layer depth and wind speed to control the spatial correspondance between SST and SSH anomalies, especially below regions of positive SSH anomalies. In such cases, the upper layer SST anomalies are certainly advected by the interior flow to also provide means to relate surface observations and interior dynamics.

  15. The first experiments in SST-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, S.; Khan, Z.; Tanna, V. L.; Sharma, A. N.; Doshi, K. J.; Prasad, U.; Masand, H.; Kumar, Aveg; Patel, K. B.; Bhandarkar, M. K.; Dhongde, J. R.; Shukla, B. K.; Mansuri, I. A.; Varadarajulu, A.; Khristi, Y. S.; Biswas, P.; Gupta, C. N.; Sharma, D. K.; Raval, D. C.; Srinivasan, R.; Pandya, S. P.; Atrey, P. K.; Sharma, P. K.; Patel, P. J.; Patel, H. S.; Santra, P.; Parekh, T. J.; Dhanani, K. R.; Paravastu, Y.; Pathan, F. S.; Chauhan, P. K.; Khan, M. S.; Tank, J. K.; Panchal, P. N.; Panchal, R. N.; Patel, R. J.; George, S.; Semwal, P.; Gupta, P.; Mahesuriya, G. I.; Sonara, D. P.; Jayswal, S. P.; Sharma, M.; Patel, J. C.; Varmora, P. P.; Patel, D. J.; Srikanth, G. L. N.; Christian, D. R.; Garg, A.; Bairagi, N.; Babu, G. R.; Panchal, A. G.; Vora, M. M.; Singh, A. K.; Sharma, R.; Raju, D.; Kulkarni, S. V.; Kumar, M.; Manchanda, R.; Joisa, S.; Tahiliani, K.; Pathak, S. K.; Patel, K. M.; Nimavat, H. D.; Shah, P. R.; Chudasma, H. H.; Raval, T. Y.; Sharma, A. L.; Ojha, A.; Parghi, B. R.; Banaudha, M.; Makwana, A. R.; Chowdhuri, M. B.; Ramaiya, N.; kumar, A.; Raval, J. V.; Gupta, S.; Purohit, S.; Kaur, R.; Adhiya, A. N.; Jha, R.; Kumar, S.; Nagora, U. C.; Siju, V.; Thomas, J.; Chaudhari, V. R.; Patel, K. G.; Ambulkar, K. K.; Dalakoti, S.; Virani, C. G.; Parmar, P. R.; Thakur, A. L.; Das, A.; Bora, D.; the SST-1 Team

    2015-10-01

    A steady state superconducting tokamak (SST-1) has been commissioned after the successful experimental and engineering validations of its critical sub-systems. During the ‘engineering validation phase’ of SST-1; the cryostat was demonstrated to be leak-tight in all operational scenarios, 80 K thermal shields were demonstrated to be uniformly cooled without regions of ‘thermal runaway and hot spots’, the superconducting toroidal field magnets were demonstrated to be cooled to their nominal operational conditions and charged up to 1.5 T of the field at the major radius. The engineering validations further demonstrated the assembled SST-1 machine shell to be a graded, stress-strain optimized and distributed thermo-mechanical device, apart from the integrated vacuum vessel being validated to be UHV compatible etc. Subsequently, ‘field error components’ in SST-1 were measured to be acceptable towards plasma discharges. A successful breakdown in SST-1 was obtained in SST-1 in June 2013 assisted with electron cyclotron pre-ionization in the second harmonic mode, thus marking the ‘first plasma’ in SST-1 and the arrival of SST-1 into the league of contemporary steady state devices. Subsequent to the first plasma, successful repeatable plasma start-ups with E ˜ 0.4 V m-1, and plasma current in excess of 70 kA for 400 ms assisted with electron cyclotron heating pre-ionization at a field of 1.5 T have so far been achieved in SST-1. Lengthening the plasma pulse duration with lower hybrid current drive, confinement and transport in SST-1 plasmas and magnetohydrodynamic activities typical to large aspect ratio SST-1 discharges are presently being investigated in SST-1. In parallel, SST-1 has uniquely demonstrated reliable cryo-stable high field operation of superconducting TF magnets in the two-phase cooling mode, operation of vapour-cooled current leads with cold gas instead of liquid helium and an order less dc joint resistance in superconducting magnet winding

  16. Pacific SST influence on spring precipitation in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eden, J. M.; Widmann, M.; Wild, S.; Evans, G. R.; Hughes, J. G.

    2012-04-01

    In Ethiopia and other parts of East Africa, interannual variability of seasonal precipitation is dependent on variations in sea surface temperature (SST) and atmospheric circulation on both regional and global scales. The majority of research into large-scale atmospheric controls and predictability has focused on the heavier summer rains and the establishment of links to large-scale modes of climate variability such as ENSO. By contrast, relatively little work has focused on the potential for predictability of rainfall during the spring months, which is of great importance to much of southern Ethiopia. Additionally, failure of the spring rains may have important agricultural implications, particularly for crops requiring the full extent of the spring-summer growing season. Here, we analyse the links between Pacific SST and precipitation in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia for a century-long period (1900-2004). A tripole correlation pattern between spring precipitation and SST is found in the Pacific basin. We develop regression-based models to estimate spring precipitation from Pacific SST with a lead time of 2-3 months. When subject to a rigorous cross-validation, models based on principal component multiple linear regression (PC-MLR) calibrated on Pacific SST during December show good skill in reproducing observed temporal variability in Addis Ababa precipitation during February (r = 0.48) and March (r = 0.40), and the period spanning February to April (r = 0.44). Reconstructed precipitation is correlated with temperature and specific humidity in the surrounding region; estimates of heavy spring precipitation are associated with anomalously warm, moist conditions across the western Indian Ocean. Our findings suggest that inclusion of Pacific SST in predictive models may benefit drought forecasting across Ethiopia. The relationships identified provide a potential basis for forecasting models for spring rainfall and further analysis may focus on drought forecasting using ROC

  17. Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research, 1985

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrell, Frederick R. (Compiler)

    1987-01-01

    Air transportation research being carried on at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Princeton University, and Ohio University is discussed. Global Positioning System experiments, Loran-C monitoring, inertial navigation, the optimization of aircraft trajectories through severe microbursts, fault tolerant flight control systems, and expert systems for air traffic control are among the topics covered.

  18. ORIMULSION(R) RESEARCH STUDY (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In response to a 1998 Congressional request, the Air Pollution Technology Branch (APTB) of NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division began research as part of a study to evaluate the environmental impacts of Orimulsion(R). Orimulsion(R)is a fossil fuel composed of 70%...

  19. RESEARCH AREA -- CHLOROFLUOROCARBON (CFC) DESTRUCTION (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Six thermal oxidation (incineration) processes were approved by the Montreal Protocol for the disposal of CFCs and other ozone depleting substances. The Air Pollution Technology Branch of NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division in Research Triangle Park, NC, has eva...

  20. INVENTORY OF CURRENT INDOOR AIR QUALITY-RELATED RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Inventory lists a total of 171 current or recently completed projects relating to indoor air quality. It covers six specific areas of research: monitoring, instrumentation, health effects, control technology, risk assessment and pollutant characterization. It is cross-referen...

  1. Relationship between SST in the equatorial Eastern Pacific and TC frequency that affects Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Ki-Seon; Cha, Yu-Mi; Kang, Sung-Dae; Kim, Hae-Dong

    2015-07-01

    This study analyzed that there was a strong negative correlation between sea surface temperature (SST) in the equatorial Eastern Pacific and tropical cyclone (TC) frequency that affects Korea in summer season in 1951 to 2012. Then, 12 years that had the highest region-averaged SST values in the equatorial Eastern Pacific (warm SST years) and 12 years that had the lowest SST values (cold SST years) were selected, followed by analyzing average difference between two groups to identify any causes of possible correlation between SST in the equatorial Eastern Pacific and TC frequency. In the warm SST years, not only TC frequency that affected Korea but also TC genesis frequency was low, as well as TC intensity. A difference of 500 and 850 hPa streamlines between two groups showed that anomalous northwesterlies were strengthened in Korea due to anomalous cyclonic circulations developed in the mid-latitude region in East Asia, so that such anomalous steering flows played a role in preventing TCs from moving to Korea. Furthermore, anomalous anticyclonic circulations were strengthened in the east of Taiwan, which was related to weakening of the monsoon trough, thereby causing lowering TC genesis frequency in the warm SST years. In addition, as anomalous cyclonic circulations were strengthened in the southeast quadrant of the tropical and subtropical western North Pacific, it created high TC genesis frequency in the sea in the warm SST years. Low TC frequency, low TC genesis frequency, and low TC intensity that affected Korea in the warm SST years were clearly seen by the analysis of differences between two groups with respect to 500 and 850 hPa air temperature, 600 hPa relative humidity, precipitable water, 200-850 hPa vertical wind shear, and sea surface temperature.

  2. Relationship between SST in the equatorial Eastern Pacific and TC frequency that affects Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, K. S.; Kim, B. J.

    2014-12-01

    This study analyzed that there was a strong negative correlation between sea surface temperature (SST) in the equatorial eastern Pacific and tropical cyclone (TC) frequency that affects Korea in summer season in 1951 to 2012. Then, 12 years that had the highest region-averaged SST values in the equatorial eastern Pacific (warm SST years) and 12 years that had the lowest SST values (cold SST years) were selected followed by analyzing average difference between two groups to identify any causes of possible correlation between SST in the equatorial eastern Pacific and TC frequency.In the warm SST years, not only TC frequency that affected Korea but also TC genesis frequency was low as well as TC intensity. A difference of 500 hPa and 850 hPa streamlines between two groups showed that anomalous northwesterlies were strengthened in Korea due to anomalous cyclonic circulations developed in the mid-latitude region in East Asia so that such anomalous steering flows played a role in preventing TCs from moving to Korea. Furthermore, anomalous anticyclonic circulations were strengthened in the east of Taiwan, which was related to weakening of the monsoon trough thereby causing lowering TC genesis frequency in the warm SST years. In addition, as anomalous cyclonic circulations were strengthened in the southeast quadrant of the tropical and subtropical western North Pacific, it created high TC genesis frequency in the sea in the warm SST years. Low TC frequency, low TC genesis frequency, and low TC intensity that affected Korea in the warm SST years were clearly seen by the analysis of differences between two groups with respect to 500 hPa and 850 hPa air temperature, 600 hPa relative humidity, precipitable water, 200-850 hPa vertical wind shear and sea surface temperature.

  3. Possibilities and goals for the future SST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferri, A.

    1977-01-01

    An analysis and evaluation of the social value of the SST project are presented. It is emphasized that the means of civil mass transportation reaching the same range available to military decrease the tension among neighboring nations and reduce human fatigue. The present status of the SST in the United States, together with the future goals, are described.

  4. Research on Air Flow Measurement and Optimization of Control Algorithm in Air Disinfection System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bing-jie, Li; Jia-hong, Zhao; Xu, Wang; Amuer, Mohamode; Zhi-liang, Wang

    2013-01-01

    As the air flow control system has the characteristics of delay and uncertainty, this research designed and achieved a practical air flow control system by using the hydrodynamic theory and the modern control theory. Firstly, the mathematical model of the air flow distribution of the system is analyzed from the hydrodynamics perspective. Then the model of the system is transformed into a lumped parameter state space expression by using the Galerkin method. Finally, the air flow is distributed more evenly through the estimation of the system state and optimal control. The simulation results show that this algorithm has good robustness and anti-interference ability

  5. SELECT RESEARCH GROUP IN AIR POLLUTION METEOROLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Six individual investigators, who have conducted different but related meteorological research, present in-depth technical reviews of their work. Prime conclusions are that (1) a scale analysis shows that different models are necessary for meteorological processes on urban, regio...

  6. First Operational Results with the SST-1 Superconducting Magnet & its Cryogenics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, S.; Tanna, V.; Sharma, A.; Khan, Z.; Prasad, U.; Doshi, K.; Khristi, Y.; Parghi, B.; Banoudha, M.; Mahesuria, G.; Patel, R.; Panchal, P.; Panchal, R.; Tank, J.; Sonara, D.; Sharma, D.; Vora, M.; Varadarajulu, A.

    The Steady State Superconducting Tokamak (SST-1) at the Institute for Plasma Research was commissioned in 2013 with the successful experimental validations of its magnets and cryogenic systems. Subsequently, the first plasma in SST-1 has been obtained on June 20, 2013. Since then, the cryo-magnetic systems of SST-1 have been operating reliably, in successive plasma campaigns. Unlike other contemporary cable-in-conduit-conductor (CICC) based superconducting Tokamak magnets, SST-1 CICC in Toroidal Field (TF) winding packs are cooled with two phase helium from a dedicated 1.3 kW helium refrigerator liquefier plant. The TF magnets in SST-1 together with other magnets have been supporting creditable plasma operational scenarios since then, with the TF magnets being charged up to a maximum of 2.0 T on the plasma major radius so far. The vapour cooled current leads of SST-1 are also uniquely operated with cooled helium vapour all along, instead of liquid helium being stored in the lower superconducting sections. The operational experiences with SST-1 TF magnets, PF magnets, and the supporting 5 K and 80 K cryogenic systems contributing towards successful operations of SST-1 plasma experiments are elaborated in this paper.

  7. Review of Air Force Job Satisfaction Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, R. Bruce

    A comprehensive plan for job satisfaction research has been developed as an outgrowth of the USAF Occupational Survey Program. The long-range goal of the plan is retention of qualified military personnel. This document reviews the basic steps of the plan and discusses projects and findings to date. Discussion centers on the following: (1) an…

  8. POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH FOR ORGANIC AIR EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives an overview of the U.S. EPA's pollution prevention (P2) research in three areas: (1) Surface Coating, such as wood furniture finishing, printing, and the use of adhesives and radiation-cured coatings; (2) Solvent Cleaning, such as vapor degreasing, process equipme...

  9. SUMMARY OF INDOOR AIR QUALITY RESEARCH THROUGH 1984

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report reviews indoor air quality research from 1980 through December 1984. It is also a compilation of two documents that review relevant literature on the subject and summarize the efforts of leading research scientists. The first effort involved: (1) a review of journal ar...

  10. NASA Wallops Flight Facility Air-Sea Interaction Research Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, Steven R.

    1992-01-01

    This publication serves as an introduction to the Air-Sea Interaction Research Facility at NASA/GSFC/Wallops Flight Facility. The purpose of this publication is to provide background information on the research facility itself, including capabilities, available instrumentation, the types of experiments already done, ongoing experiments, and future plans.

  11. Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research, 1982

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A summary of the research on air transportation is addressed including navigation; guidance, control and display concepts; and hardware, with special emphasis on applications to general aviation aircraft. Completed works and status reports are presented also included are annotated bibliographies of all published research sponsored on these grants since 1972.

  12. Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research, 1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrell, Frederick R. (Compiler)

    1988-01-01

    The research conducted under the NASA/FAA sponsored Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research is summarized. The Joint University Program is a coordinated set of three grants sponsored by NASA and the FAA, one each with the Mass. Inst. of Tech., Ohio Univ., and Princeton Univ. Completed works, status reports, and bibliographies are presented for research topics, which include computer science, guidance and control theory and practice, aircraft performance, flight dynamics, and applied experimental psychology. An overview of activities is presented.

  13. Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research, 1989-1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrell, Frederick R. (Compiler)

    1990-01-01

    Research conducted during the academic year 1989-90 under the NASA/FAA sponsored Joint University Program for Air Transportation research is discussed. Completed works, status reports and annotated bibliographies are presented for research topics, which include navigation, guidance and control theory and practice, aircraft performance, human factors, and expert systems concepts applied to airport operations. An overview of the year's activities for each university is also presented.

  14. Air Force research in human sensory feedback for telepresence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Julian, Ronald G.

    1993-01-01

    Telepresence operations require high quality information transfer between the human master and the remotely located slave. Present Air Force research focuses on the human aspects of the information needed to complete the control/feedback loop. Work in three key areas of human sensory feedback for manipulation of objects are described. Specific projects in each key area are outlined, including research tools (hardware), planned research, and test results. Nonmanipulative feedback technologies are mentioned to complete the advanced teleoperation discussions.

  15. Tu-144LL SST Flying Laboratory in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Tupolev Tu-144LL supersonic flying laboratory shows off its sleek lines in a low-level pass over the Zhukovsky Air Development Center near Moscow, Russia, on a 1998 research flight. NASA teamed with American and Russian aerospace industries for an extended period in a joint international research program featuring the Russian-built Tu-144LL supersonic aircraft. The object of the program was to develop technologies for a proposed future second-generation supersonic airliner to be developed in the 21st Century. The aircraft's initial flight phase began in June 1996 and concluded in February 1998 after 19 research flights. A shorter follow-on program involving seven flights began in September 1998 and concluded in April 1999. All flights were conducted in Russia from Tupolev's facility at the Zhukovsky Air Development Center near Moscow. The centerpiece of the research program was the Tu 144LL, a first-generation Russian supersonic jetliner that was modified by its developer/builder, Tupolev ANTK (aviatsionnyy nauchno-tekhnicheskiy kompleks-roughly, aviation technical complex), into a flying laboratory for supersonic research. Using the Tu-144LL to conduct flight research experiments, researchers compared full-scale supersonic aircraft flight data with results from models in wind tunnels, computer-aided techniques, and other flight tests. The experiments provided unique aerodynamic, structures, acoustics, and operating environment data on supersonic passenger aircraft. Data collected from the research program was being used to develop the technology base for a proposed future American-built supersonic jetliner. Although actual development of such an advanced supersonic transport (SST) is currently on hold, commercial aviation experts estimate that a market for up to 500 such aircraft could develop by the third decade of the 21st Century. The Tu-144LL used in the NASA-sponsored research program was a 'D' model with different engines than were used in production

  16. Future directions in air quality research: economic issues.

    PubMed

    Adams, Richard M; Horst, Robert L

    2003-06-01

    Our challenge was to address future directions in air quality research that involve economic issues. The paper outlines the role of economics in the evaluation of air pollution impacts on environmental systems and describes existing research. We identify studies that address economic effects in the agricultural sector, in the commercial forest sector, and in unmanaged natural systems. Effects related to ozone exposure are highlighted. The summary of available research is followed by a discussion of research recommendations. Several short-term recommendations are identified that can augment some of the new research being considered by scientists. A more ambitious, long-term research project is outlined for valuing air pollution impacts in unmanaged natural environments. Specifically, the paper describes possible advantages of an 'integrated assessment' framework that more formally brings together the complex relationships that exist in both ecological and economic systems. A final section contains thoughts on the importance of education (i.e., information transfer) in the research process, especially in relation to policy. It is further noted that education should be inclusive of all members of the research team, throughout all stages of the research process. PMID:12676216

  17. Air Quality Research and Applications Using AURA OMi Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhartia, P.K.; Gleason, J.F.; Torres, O.; Levelt, P.; Liu, X.; Ziemke, J.; Chandra, S.; Krotkov, N.

    2007-01-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on EOS Aura is a new generation of satellite remote sensing instrument designed to measure trace gas and aerosol absorption at the UV and blue wavelengths. These measurements are made globally at urban scale resolution with no inter-orbital gaps that make them potentially very useful for air quality research, such as the determination of the sources and processes that affect global and regional air quality, and to develop applications such as air quality forecast. However, the use of satellite data for such applications is not as straight forward as satellite data have been for stratospheric research. There is a need for close interaction between the satellite product developers, in-situ measurement programs, and the air quality research community to overcome some of the inherent difficulties in interpreting data from satellite-based remote sensing instruments. In this talk we will discuss the challenges and opportunities in using OMI products for air quality research and applications. A key conclusion of this work is that to realize the full potential of OMI measurements it will be necessary to combine OMI data with data from instruments such as MLS, MODIS, AIRS, and CALIPSO that are currently flying in the "A-train" satellite constellation. In addition similar data taken by satellites crossing the earth at different local times than the A-train (e.g., the recently MetOp satellite) would need to be processed in a consistent manner to study diurnal variability, and to capture the effects on air quality of rapidly changing events such as wild fires.

  18. Tu-144LL SST Flying Laboratory in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The delta wing of the Tupolev Tu-144LL supersonic flying laboratory is evident in this view from underneath the aircraft during a 1998 test flight at the Zhukovsky Air Development Center near Moscow, Russia. NASA teamed with American and Russian aerospace industries for an extended period in a joint international research program featuring the Russian-built Tu-144LL supersonic aircraft. The object of the program was to develop technologies for a proposed future second-generation supersonic airliner to be developed in the 21st Century. The aircraft's initial flight phase began in June 1996 and concluded in February 1998 after 19 research flights. A shorter follow-on program involving seven flights began in September 1998 and concluded in April 1999. All flights were conducted in Russia from Tupolev's facility at the Zhukovsky Air Development Center near Moscow. The centerpiece of the research program was the Tu 144LL, a first-generation Russian supersonic jetliner that was modified by its developer/builder, Tupolev ANTK (aviatsionnyy nauchno-tekhnicheskiy kompleks-roughly, aviation technical complex), into a flying laboratory for supersonic research. Using the Tu-144LL to conduct flight research experiments, researchers compared full-scale supersonic aircraft flight data with results from models in wind tunnels, computer-aided techniques, and other flight tests. The experiments provided unique aerodynamic, structures, acoustics, and operating environment data on supersonic passenger aircraft. Data collected from the research program was being used to develop the technology base for a proposed future American-built supersonic jetliner. Although actual development of such an advanced supersonic transport (SST) is currently on hold, commercial aviation experts estimate that a market for up to 500 such aircraft could develop by the third decade of the 21st Century. The Tu-144LL used in the NASA-sponsored research program was a 'D' model with different engines than were

  19. Status Report [Air Pollution Research Advisory Committee of the Coordinating Research Council].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coordinating Research Council, New York, NY. Air Pollution Research Advisory Committee.

    Research projects sponsored by the Coordinating Research Council, Air Pollution Research Advisory Committee, and dealing with vehicle emissions and their wide ranging effects on the environment are compiled in this status report. Spanning the range of problems associated with reducing emissions, they are divided into three main areas of research:…

  20. Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research, 1991-1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrell, Frederick R. (Compiler)

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the research conducted during the academic year 1991-1992 under the FAA/NASA sponsored Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research. The year end review was held at Ohio University, Athens, Ohio, June 18-19, 1992. The Joint University Program is a coordinated set of three grants sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration and NASA Langley Research Center, one each with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (NGL-22-009-640), Ohio University (NGR-36-009-017), and Princeton University (NGL-31-001-252). Completed works, status reports, and annotated bibliographies are presented for research topics, which include navigation, guidance and control theory and practice, intelligent flight control, flight dynamics, human factors, and air traffic control processes. An overview of the year's activities for each university is also presented.

  1. Impacts of sea ice / SST changes for the observed climate change -GREENICE project-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Fumiaki; Gao, Yongqi; Keenlyside, Noel; Koenigk, Torben; Semenov, Vladimir; Suo, Lingling; Yang, Shuting; Wang, Tao

    2016-04-01

    Under the recent global warming, melting of arctic sea-ice in recent decades could have contributed to recent climate changes including its long-term trend and extreme weather events. While the climatic response to the sea-ice loss have been studied recently, it is still an open question to what extent the sea-ice change has influenced recent climate change. Other factors, such as for example, SST could also have had an influence. A main objective of GREENICE research project is to show what extent of the observed climate trend as well as observed weather extremes could be explained by the change and variability in sea ice and SST, respectively. In this project, we designed two atmospheric general circulation model experiments: In both experiments observed daily sea ice cover variations are prescribed, while for SST, one experiment uses observed daily variations and the other the observed climatology. The experiment is performed by several different state-of-the-art AGCMs. Our preliminary results show that the observed wintertime temperature trend near the surface is poorly reproduced in our hindcast experiments using observed SIC and SST. The impact of SIC variation seems to be confined near the surface, while SST variation seems a key for temperature trend above. It suggests a necessity to consider the atmospheric poleward energy transport associated with SST variation to understand the observed arctic amplification. Other aspects of SIC/SST impact on the observed circulation change such as NAO shall also be discussed.

  2. EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) RESEARCH ON INDOOR AIR QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses EPA's research program on indoor air quality. Now in its third year, it is a broad-based program that includes: field surveys of pollutant concentrations in homes, characterization of emissions from sources, health studies of genotoxic and irritant/neurobehavi...

  3. COMPREHENSIVE INDOOR AIR QUALITY RESEARCH STRATEGY, JANUARY 1, 1985

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the Department of Housing and Urban Development-Independent Agencies 1984 House Appropriation Report, EPA was directed to expand indoor air research planning into a long-term comprehensive strategy. This strategy was developed and coordinated through the Interagency Committee ...

  4. Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research, 1984

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrell, Frederick R. (Compiler)

    1987-01-01

    The research conducted during 1984 under the NASA/FAA sponsored Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research is summarized. The Joint University Program is a coordinated set of three grants sponsored by NASA Langley Research Center and the Federal Aviation Administration, one each with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Ohio University, and Princeton University. Completed works, status reports, and bibliographies are presented for research topics, which include navigation, guidance, control and display concepts. An overview of the year's activities for each of the schools is also presented.

  5. Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research, 1988-1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrell, Frederick R. (Compiler)

    1990-01-01

    The research conducted during 1988 to 1989 under the NASA/FAA-sponsored Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research is summarized. The Joint University Program is a coordinated set of three grants sponsored by NASA Langley Research Center and the Federal Aviation Administration, one each with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Ohio University, and Princeton University. Completed works, status reports, and annotated bibliographies are presented for research topics, which include computer science, guidance and control theory and practice, aircraft performance, flight dynamics, and applied experimental psychology. An overview of the year's activities for each university is also presented.

  6. Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research, 1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrell, Frederick R. (Compiler)

    1987-01-01

    The research conducted during 1983 under the NASA/FAA sponsored Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research is summarized. The material was presented at a conference held at the Federal Aviation Administration Technical Center, Altantic City, New Jersey, December 16, 1983. The Joint University Program is a coordinated set of three grants sponsored by NASA Langley Research Center and the Federal Aviation Administration, one each with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Ohio University, and Princeton University. Completed works, status reports, and bibliographies are presented for research topics, which include navigation, guidance, control, and display concepts. An overview of the year's activities for each of the universities is also presented.

  7. RESEARCH AREA -- MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The municipal waste combustion (MWC) program supports the development of revised rules for air pollutant emissions from the MWC source category. Basic research is performed on MWC pollutant formation and control mechanisms for acid gas, trace organic, and trace metal emissions. T...

  8. Relative roles of differential SST warming, uniform SST warming and land surface warming in determining the Walker circulation changes under global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lei; Li, Tim

    2016-04-01

    Most of CMIP5 models projected a weakened Walker circulation in tropical Pacific, but what causes such change is still an open question. By conducting idealized numerical simulations separating the effects of the spatially uniform sea surface temperature (SST) warming, extra land surface warming and differential SST warming, we demonstrate that the weakening of the Walker circulation is attributed to the western North Pacific (WNP) monsoon and South America land effects. The effect of the uniform SST warming is through so-called "richest-get-richer" mechanism. In response to a uniform surface warming, the WNP monsoon is enhanced by competing moisture with other large-scale convective branches. The strengthened WNP monsoon further induces surface westerlies in the equatorial western-central Pacific, weakening the Walker circulation. The increase of the greenhouse gases leads to a larger land surface warming than ocean surface. As a result, a greater thermal contrast occurs between American Continent and equatorial Pacific. The so-induced zonal pressure gradient anomaly forces low-level westerly anomalies over the equatorial eastern Pacific and weakens the Walker circulation. The differential SST warming also plays a role in driving low-level westerly anomalies over tropical Pacific. But such an effect involves a positive air-sea feedback that amplifies the weakening of both east-west SST gradient and Pacific trade winds.

  9. Indispensable Resources for Institutional Researchers: An Analysis of AIR Publication Topics Since 1974. AIR 1997 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volkwein, J. Fredericks

    This study identified and classified the Association for Institutional Research (AIR) publication topics and authors since 1973 in order to provide a reference resource for institutional researchers. The study reviewed the following AIR publication collections: "Research in Higher Education"; "New Directions for Institutional Research"; "Resources…

  10. SST-1 Refurbishment Progress: an Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subrata, Pradhan; SST-1 Mission Team

    2013-02-01

    Refurbishment of steady state tokamak (SST-1) primarily focused at addressing the issues and bottle-necks involving various subsystems of SST-1 as observed during earlier commissioning attempts, have progressed significantly. Under the refurbishment spectrum, all joints in the superconducting magnet system have been re-fabricated as low DC leak tight joint resistances, all toroidal field (TF) magnets have been equipped with 5 K radiation shields on the inner side and successfully tested for their rated parameters in cold under nominal currents, all vessel sectors and modules have been baked and tested under representative conditions, supporting helium and nitrogen cryogenic facilities have been made > 99% reliable in various envisaged operating scenarios of SST-1. The reassemblies of the critical subsystems of the SST-1 machine shell have progressed aggressively and are nearing completion. Auxiliaries such as the baking facility for the vacuum vessel and first wall components, current leads assembly distributions, synchronized timing system, reliable data acquisition and plasma control systems as well as essential diagnostics have also been readied towards the first plasma. A detailed engineering validation of the assembled SST-1 machine shell including field error measurements has been planned prior to first plasma attempts.

  11. Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research, 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrell, Frederick R. (Compiler)

    1989-01-01

    The research conducted during 1987 under the NASA/FAA sponsored Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research is summarized. The Joint University Program is a coordinated set of 3 grants sponsored by NASA-Langley and the FAA, one each with the MIT, Ohio Univ., and Princeton Univ. Completed works, status reports, and annotated bibliographies are presented for research topics, which include computer science, guidance and control theory and practice, aircraft performance, flight dynamics, and applied experimental psychology. An overview of the year's activities for each university is also presented.

  12. [RESEARCH AMONG PSYCHIATRISTS IN TRAINING IN CIUDAD DE BUENOS AIRES].

    PubMed

    Peskin, Viviana A; Berrío Cuartas, Diana M; Villafañe, Claudia I; Pereyra, Walter D; Martínez Didolich, Laura C; Cesoni, Oscar M; Uriarte, Martín A

    2015-01-01

    Research is a cornerstone in the training of medical doctors in any specialty, whereas it substantially contributes to good clinical practice. The aim of this study is to determine the importance of research among psychiatrists in training in Ciudad de Buenos Aires. A cross sectional descriptive study using a paper survey, which was voluntary and anonymous, was sent to psychiatrists in training in different training centers between October-November 2013. 76.6% considered research training deficient; 27.8% participated in a research project during their psychiatric training and only 21.5% presented their results at a scientific activity. 95.6% participants considered important to include research in their training. In summary, a small proportion of psychiatrists in training who participated in this study conducted research and we observed limited experience in the area, as opposed to the interest in being trained in this field. PMID:26966750

  13. Impact of SST resolution on cyclone activity over the Kuroshio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iizuka, S.; Kawamura, R.

    2012-12-01

    The impact of high resolution sea surface temperature (SST) data on the winter time cyclone activity around Japan is investigated using a WRF model with a horizontal resolution of 20 km. A fine scale SST and a smoothed one of that SST are used as the lower boundary condition in the experiments. Generally, a fine scale SST is warmer in the south of the Polar Front over the Japan Sea, the Kuroshio/Oyashio extension, and the coastal regions around Japan comparing with the smoothed SST because the former resolves the small scale features in the SST related to ocean currents. In comparison, the smoothed SST weakened the simulated cyclones passing over the Kuroshio near the Ryukyu Islands. This may be due to the weaker surface baroclinicity associated with the smoothed SST. The similar features are found around the Polar Front over the Japan Sea. The results imply a potential impact of SST gradients on cyclone activity.

  14. The series of siemens SST-200 to SST-900 steam turbines in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasilov, V. F.

    2015-04-01

    The chronology of cooperation between the transnational German concern Siemens and Russia is given. The designs of the SST-200-SST-900 series of industrial steam turbines for electrical capacities ranging from 10 to 180 MW that were installed at thermal power plants and industrial facilities of Russia in the period 2004-2014 are reviewed. The design features of the SST-600 steam turbine used as part of the PGU-200 combined-cycle plant installed at the Southwest cogeneration station are considered.

  15. NAS Report Reveals Dangers From SST

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Jo Ann V.

    1973-01-01

    Reported are some harmful effects of supersonic travel on humans and other living organisms. Slight decreases in ozone concentration as a result of emissions from the SST aircrafts reduce absorption of ultraviolet radiation. Effects of this may include skin cancer, distort balance of activity in cells and have a deleterious effect on insects and…

  16. Practical application of air-quality research incorporated in CMHC's research house.

    PubMed

    Rafuse, J

    1995-04-15

    The Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation has been looking at ways to improve indoor air quality since 1984 and now hopes to interest house designers and manufacturers in the results of its research. Its flagship project has been the construction of a proto-type research house for environmentally hypersensitive people. PMID:7736379

  17. Practical application of air-quality research incorporated in CMHC's research house.

    PubMed Central

    Rafuse, J

    1995-01-01

    The Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation has been looking at ways to improve indoor air quality since 1984 and now hopes to interest house designers and manufacturers in the results of its research. Its flagship project has been the construction of a proto-type research house for environmentally hypersensitive people. PMID:7736379

  18. A Perspective on NASA Ames Air Traffic Management Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroeder, Jeffery A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes past and present air-traffic-management research at NASA Ames Research Center. The descriptions emerge from the perspective of a technical manager who supervised the majority of this research for the last four years. Past research contributions built a foundation for calculating accurate flight trajectories to enable efficient airspace management in time. That foundation led to two predominant research activities that continue to this day - one in automatically separating aircraft and the other in optimizing traffic flows. Today s national airspace uses many of the applications resulting from research at Ames. These applications include the nationwide deployment of the Traffic Management Advisor, new procedures enabling continuous descent arrivals, cooperation with industry to permit more direct flights to downstream way-points, a surface management system in use by two cargo carriers, and software to evaluate how well flights conform to national traffic management initiatives. The paper concludes with suggestions for prioritized research in the upcoming years. These priorities include: enabling more first-look operational evaluations, improving conflict detection and resolution for climbing or descending aircraft, and focusing additional attention on the underpinning safety critical items such as a reliable datalink.

  19. Research in Observations of Oceanic Air/Sea Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, David G.; Arnold, David V.

    1995-01-01

    The primary purpose of this research has been: (1) to develop an innovative research radar scatterometer system capable of directly measuring both the radar backscatter and the small-scale and large-scale ocean wave field simultaneously and (2) deploy this instrument to collect data to support studies of air/sea interaction. The instrument has been successfully completed and deployed. The system deployment lasted for six months during 1995. Results to date suggest that the data is remarkably useful in air/sea interaction studies. While the data analysis is continuing, two journal and fifteen conference papers have been published. Six papers are currently in review with two additional journal papers scheduled for publication. Three Master's theses on this research have been completed. A Ph.D. student is currently finalizing his dissertation which should be completed by the end of the calendar year. We have received additional 'mainstream' funding from the NASA oceans branch to continue data analysis and instrument operations. We are actively pursuing results from the data expect additional publications to follow. This final report briefly describes the instrument system we developed and results to-date from the deployment. Additional detail is contained in the attached papers selected from the bibliography.

  20. SST variability in the East Asian marginal sea: mechanisms for local and remote atmospheric impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, H.

    2015-12-01

    The Japan/East Sea (JES), a part of East Asian Marginal Seas, is a semi-enclosed sea located upstream of the North Pacific storm track. SST variability in the JES and the ensuing air-sea process are important for local winter atmospheric condition. It is believed that the marginal sea processes also influence the storm track evolution far downstream. Dynamical processes leading to local and remote atmospheric circulation response to leading JES SST anomaly patterns are investigated using a hemispheric WRF atmospheric model with two-way multi-nesting capabilities. The atmospheric circulation in direct contact with anomalous diabatic forcing exhibits a linear baroclinic response with respect to sign of SST anomalies; that is, the northwesterly surface wind is strengthened (weakened) and the local precipitin is enhanced (reduced) over the warm (cold) SSTs. The linearity of the local response confirms the importance of fine-scale SST patterns to the predictability of regional weather and climate conditions. The downstream response, in contrast, is nonlinear, with an enhanced intraseasonal equivalent barotropic ridge emerging in the Gulf of Alaska irrespective of the polarity of JES SST anomalies. This downstream blocking high response is maintained by the positive low-frequency height tendency due to transient eddy vorticity flux convergence associated with altered storm track. The significant remote response in the North Pacific storm track and the blocking suggests that the marginal sea process is an active part of the North Pacific climate variability.

  1. VENTILATION RESEARCH (INDOOR ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ventilation research program conducts research on heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems to determine the impact of these systems on human exposure to indoor air pollutants. The emphasis of the program is on determining emissions from ventilation systems. Inform...

  2. New research on bioregenerative air/water purification systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Anne H.; Ellender, R. D.; Watkins, Paul J.

    1991-01-01

    For the past several years, air and water purification systems have been developed and used. This technology is based on the combined activities of plants and microorganisms as they function in a natural environment. More recently, researchers have begun to address the problems associated with indoor air pollution. Various common houseplants are currently being evaluated for their abilities to reduce concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCS) such as formaldehyde and benzene. With development of the Space Exploration Initiative, missions will increase in duration, and problems with resupply necessitates implementation of regenerative technology. Aspects of bioregenerative technology have been included in a habitat known as the BioHome. The ultimate goal is to use this technology in conjunction with physicochemical systems for air and water purification within closed systems. This study continued the risk assessment of bioregenerative technology with emphasis on biological hazards. In an effort to evaluate the risk for human infection, analyses were directed at enumeration of fecal streptococci and enteric viruses with the BioHome waste water treatment system.

  3. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  4. Boreal winter Arctic Oscillation as an indicator of summer SST anomalies over the western tropical Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Dao-Yi; Guo, Dong; Gao, Yongqi; Yang, Jing; Mao, Rui; Qu, Jingxuan; Gao, Miaoni; Li, Sang; Kim, Seong-Joong

    2016-06-01

    The inter-annual relationship between the boreal winter Arctic Oscillation (AO) and summer sea surface temperature (SST) over the western tropical Indian Ocean (TIO) for the period from 1979 to 2015 is investigated. The results show that the January-February-March AO is significantly correlated with the June-July-August SST and SST tendency. When both El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) variance are excluded, the winter AO is significantly correlated with the regional mean SST of the western TIO (40° -60° E and 10° S-10° N), r=0.71 . The multi-month SST tendency, i.e., the SST difference of June-July-August minus April-May, is correlated with the winter AO at r=0.75 . Composite analysis indicates similar warming over the western TIO. Two statistical models are established to predict the subsequent summer's SST and SST tendency. The models use the winter AO, the winter ENSO and the autumn-winter IOD indexes as predictors and explain 65 and 62 % of the variance of the subsequent summer's SST and SST tendency, respectively. Investigation of the regional air-sea fluxes and oceanic dynamics reveals that the net surface heat flux cannot account for the warming, whereas the oceanic Rossby wave plays a predominant role. During positive AO winters, the enhanced Arabian High causes stronger northern winds in the northern Indian Ocean and leads to anomalous cross-equatorial air-flow. The Ekman pumping in association with the anomalous wind stress curl in the central TIO generates a significantly deeper thermocline and above-normal sea surface height at 60° -75° E and 5° -10° S. The winter AO-forced Rossby wave propagates westward and arrives at the western coast in summer, resulting in the significant SST increase. Forced by the observed winter AO-related wind stress anomalies over the Indian Ocean, the ocean model reasonably reproduces the Rossby wave as well as the resulting surface ocean warming over the western TIO in the

  5. Boreal winter Arctic Oscillation as an indicator of summer SST anomalies over the western tropical Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Dao-Yi; Guo, Dong; Gao, Yongqi; Yang, Jing; Mao, Rui; Qu, Jingxuan; Gao, Miaoni; Li, Sang; Kim, Seong-Joong

    2016-06-01

    The inter-annual relationship between the boreal winter Arctic Oscillation (AO) and summer sea surface temperature (SST) over the western tropical Indian Ocean (TIO) for the period from 1979 to 2015 is investigated. The results show that the January-February-March AO is significantly correlated with the June-July-August SST and SST tendency. When both El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) variance are excluded, the winter AO is significantly correlated with the regional mean SST of the western TIO (40°-60°E and 10° S-10° N), r=0.71 . The multi-month SST tendency, i.e., the SST difference of June-July-August minus April-May, is correlated with the winter AO at r=0.75 . Composite analysis indicates similar warming over the western TIO. Two statistical models are established to predict the subsequent summer's SST and SST tendency. The models use the winter AO, the winter ENSO and the autumn-winter IOD indexes as predictors and explain 65 and 62 % of the variance of the subsequent summer's SST and SST tendency, respectively. Investigation of the regional air-sea fluxes and oceanic dynamics reveals that the net surface heat flux cannot account for the warming, whereas the oceanic Rossby wave plays a predominant role. During positive AO winters, the enhanced Arabian High causes stronger northern winds in the northern Indian Ocean and leads to anomalous cross-equatorial air-flow. The Ekman pumping in association with the anomalous wind stress curl in the central TIO generates a significantly deeper thermocline and above-normal sea surface height at 60° -75° E and 5° -10° S. The winter AO-forced Rossby wave propagates westward and arrives at the western coast in summer, resulting in the significant SST increase. Forced by the observed winter AO-related wind stress anomalies over the Indian Ocean, the ocean model reasonably reproduces the Rossby wave as well as the resulting surface ocean warming over the western TIO in the

  6. Airborne mass spectrometers: four decades of atmospheric and space research at the Air Force research laboratory.

    PubMed

    Viggiano, A A; Hunton, D E

    1999-11-01

    Mass spectrometry is a versatile research tool that has proved to be extremely useful for exploring the fundamental nature of the earth's atmosphere and ionosphere and in helping to solve operational problems facing the Air Force and the Department of Defense. In the past 40 years, our research group at the Air Force Research Laboratory has flown quadrupole mass spectrometers of many designs on nearly 100 sounding rockets, nine satellites, three Space Shuttles and many missions of high-altitude research aircraft and balloons. We have also used our instruments in ground-based investigations of rocket and jet engine exhaust, combustion chemistry and microwave breakdown chemistry. This paper is a review of the instrumentation and techniques needed for space research, a summary of the results from many of the experiments, and an introduction to the broad field of atmospheric and space mass spectrometry in general. PMID:10548806

  7. Overview of NASA's Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swenson, Harry N.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation is an overview of the research for the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). Included is a review of the current air transportation system and the challenges of air transportation research. Also included is a review of the current research highlights and significant accomplishments.

  8. Readying technology for a super SST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, R. H.; Driver, C.

    1985-01-01

    A technology readiness evaluation is made of the configurational, propulsion system, avionics, and materials/manufacturing methods which could be integrated to produce an economically viable SST by the year 2000. Aerodynamically, promising results are noted in the cases of arrow-wing planforms and blended wing/body cross sections, as well as in vortex flaps. In structures, metal matrix composites with high specific strength at high temperatures and thermoplastically formed/diffusion-bonded titanium alloy sandwich structures are identified as being of primary importance. Performance improvement prospects are also noted for engine efficiencies and sonic boom overpressures. The various technologies are envisaged as the bases for a two-engine, two-crew cockpit, 250-seat arrow-winged SST.

  9. Looking back and looking forwards: Historical and future trends in sea surface temperature (SST) in the Indo-Pacific region from 1982 to 2100

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalil, Idham; Atkinson, Peter M.; Challenor, Peter

    2016-03-01

    The ocean warming trend is a well-known global phenomenon. As early as 2001, and then reiterated in 2007, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reported that the global average sea surface temperature (SST) will increase by about 0.2 °C per decade. To date, however, only a limited number of studies have been published reporting the spatio-temporal trends in SST in the Indo-Pacific region, one the richest marine ecosystems on Earth. In this research, the monthly 1° spatial resolution NOAA Optimum Interpolation (OI) sea surface temperature (SST) V2 dataset (OISSTv2) derived from measurements made by the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and in situ measurements, were used to examine the spatio-temporal trends in SST in the region. The multi-model mean SST from the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP2.6) mitigation scenario of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) was also used to forecast future SST from 2020 to 2100, decadally. Three variables from the OISSTv2, namely maximum (MaxSST), mean (MeanSST) and minimum (MinSST) monthly mean SST, were regressed against time measured in months from 1982 to 2010 using linear regression. Results revealed warming trends detected for all three SST variables. In the Coral Triangle a warming trend with a rate of 0.013 °C year-1, 0.017 °C year-1, and 0.019 °C year-1 was detected over 29 years for MaxSST, MeanSST and MinSST, respectively. In the SCS, the warming rate was 0.011 °C year-1, (MaxSST), 0.012 °C year-1 (MeanSST) and 0.015 °C year-1 (MinSST) over 29 years. The CMIP5 RCP2.6 forecast suggested a future warming rate to 2100 of 0.004 °C year-1 for both areas, and for all three SST variables. The warming trends reported in this study provide useful insights for improved marine-related management.

  10. Research Lasers and Air Traffic Safety: Issues, Concerns and Responsibilities of the Research Community

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nessler, Phillip J., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    The subject of outdoor use of lasers relative to air traffic has become a diverse and dynamic topic. During the past several decades, the use of lasers in outdoor research activities have increased significantly. Increases in the outdoor use of lasers and increases in air traffic densities have changed the levels of risk involved. To date there have been no documented incidents of air traffic interference from research lasers; however, incidents involving display lasers have shown a marked increase. As a result of the national response to these incidents, new concerns over lasers have arisen. Through the efforts of the SAE G-10T Laser Safety Hazards Subcommittee and the ANSI Z136.6 development committee, potential detrimental effects to air traffic beyond the traditional eye damage concerns have been identified. An increased emphasis from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), the Center for Devices and Radiological Hazards (CDRH), and the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) along with increased concern by the public have resulted in focused scrutiny of potential hazards presented by lasers. The research community needs to rethink the traditional methods of risk evaluation and application of protective measures. The best current approach to assure adequate protection of air traffic is the application of viable hazard and risk analysis and the use of validated protective measures. Standards making efforts and regulatory development must be supported by the research community to assure that reasonable measures are developed. Without input, standards and regulations can be developed that are not compatible with the needs of the research community. Finally, support is needed for the continued development and validation of protective measures.

  11. O the Genesis of Anomalous SST and Rainfall Patterns Over the Tropical Atlantic Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobre, Paulo

    Empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs), correlation, and composite analyses are used to investigate the evolution of phenomena associated with sea surface temperature (SST) and rainfall variability over the tropical Atlantic. The most important findings in this research are as follows. 1. The well known droughts over northeastern Brazil (Nordeste) are a local manifestation of a much larger -scale anomalies pattern encompassing the whole equatorial Atlantic and Amazon region. 2. The large-scale dipole-like anomalous rainfall pattern over the equatorial Atlantic and Amazon in March, April, and May (MAM), which is the rainy season for Nordeste region, is a consequence of meridional displacements of the inter-tropical convergence zone (ITCZ). In particular, negative rainfall anomalies to the south of the equator during MAM are related to an early withdrawal of ITCZ towards the warm SST anomalies over the northern tropical Atlantic. Concurrent with the rainfall anomaly dipole, there are large-scale patterns of SST and wind stress over the tropical Atlantic Ocean which also show a prominent dipole-like structure. The dipole patterns of SST and surface wind stress are the most dominant mode of interannual variability. Weaker trade winds are associated with warmer SST; stronger trade winds with cooler SST. 3. The spatial structure of (dipole-like) anomalous SST, rainfall and surface wind stress during MAM are clearly a modulation of the annual cycle for that season. The similarity between the patterns of interannual variability and MAM seasonal anomalies (departure from the annual mean) is quite remarkable. 4. Previous work has suggested the direct influence of the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on the southern Atlantic. This study brings observational evidence that ENSO effect over the northern Atlantic may happen through teleconnection patterns into higher latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. The teleconnection effects over the northern Atlantic are out of phase

  12. AIR CLEANER RESEARCH (INDOOR ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using air cleaners to remove pollutants from indoor air is part an integrated indoor air quality strategy. Air cleaners can be used either alone or in combination with other control options when source control and improvements in ventilation are insufficient, impractical, or oth...

  13. Commentary: Is the Air Pollution Health Research Community Prepared to Support a Multipollutant Air Quality Management Framework?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ambient air pollution is always encountered as a complex mixture, but past regulatory and research strategies largely focused on single pollutants, pollutant classes, and sources one-at-a-time. There is a trend toward managing air quality in a progressively “multipollutant” manne...

  14. Evaluation of VIIRS SST fields through the analysis of overlap regions between consecutive orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cayula, Jean-François P.; May, Douglas A.; Arnone, Robert A.; Vandermeulen, Ryan A.

    2015-05-01

    Full-swath Sea Surface Temperature (SST) derived from data acquired by the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) sensor on-board the Suomi-National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite produces significant overlap between consecutive orbits at all latitudes. In this study, we use those overlap regions to evaluate VIIRS SST, as inconsistencies between SST values from consecutive orbits are indications of likely degraded quality. The studies investigate two sources of inconsistencies: those resulting from the response of the SST equations when observing a scene from differing view angles and those caused by undetected data contamination. This study will present results for two VIIRS SST products: one from the Naval Oceanographic Office (NAVOCEANO), which is assimilated in the Navy Ocean Models, and the Advanced Clear-Sky Processor for Oceans (ACSPO) product from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Center for Satellite Applications and Research (STAR). Global statistics based on drifting buoys for both NAVOCEANO and NOAA products complete the analysis.

  15. Investigation and validation of MODIS SST in the northern Persian Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanea, Mohsen; Moradi, Masoud; Kabiri, Keivan; Mehdinia, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Validation of satellite derived sea surface temperature (SST) is necessary since satellite minus buoy SST (= bias) relies on atmospheric and oceanographic conditions and time periods. This research validates MODIS (Terra and Aqua) satellite daytime SST with buoy SST at the northern Persian Gulf. Sixteen dates during June 2011 to June 2015 were selected for validation. The buoy-satellite matchups were gained within one image pixel (1 km at nadir) and ±6 h in time. For most matchups, time interval was ±3 h. Effects of total column water vapor, aerosol optical depth, wind speed, glint, and satellite zenith angle on bias are then investigated. These parameters are classified based on root mean square (RMS) difference between satellite and buoy SST. Final results represent a near-perfect R2 (>0.989) for both satellites. The bias was 0.07 ± 0.53 °C and -0.06 ± 0.44 °C for MODIS-Aqua and -Terra, respectively.

  16. "INSIDE IAQ" -- EPA'S INDOOR AIR QUALITY RESEARCH UPDATE (INDOOR ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL).

    EPA Science Inventory

    "Inside IAQ" is published twice a year and highlights indoor air quality (IAQ) research conducted by EPA's National Risk Management Research Laboratory's Indoor Environment Management Branch and other parts of EPA's Office of Research and Development.To view previous issues of ...

  17. Air Breathing Propulsion Controls and Diagnostics Research at NASA Glenn Under NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garg, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    The Intelligent Control and Autonomy Branch (ICA) at NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio, is leading and participating in various projects in partnership with other organizations within GRC and across NASA, the U.S. aerospace industry, and academia to develop advanced controls and health management technologies that will help meet the goals of the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) Programs. These efforts are primarily under the various projects under the Advanced Air Vehicles Program (AAVP), Airspace Operations and Safety Program (AOSP) and Transformative Aeronautics Concepts Program (TAC). The ICA Branch is focused on advancing the state-of-the-art of aero-engine control and diagnostics technologies to help improve aviation safety, increase efficiency, and enable operation with reduced emissions. This paper describes the various ICA research efforts under the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Programs with a summary of motivation, background, technical approach, and recent accomplishments for each of the research tasks.

  18. Superconducting CICC for SST-1 tokamak magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Pradhan, S.; Saxena, Y.C.

    1995-12-31

    The SST-1 tokamak is being designed for steady state operation with plasma durations in the range of 100--1,000s. Both the toroidal field coils (TFC) and the poloidal field coils (PFC) in the SST-1 tokamak are superconducting. TF coils are required to produce a magnetic field of 3 T at 1.05 m from machine axis. The maximum field seen by the TF coil conductor will be {le} 4.3 T. The cable for the TF coils has, therefore, been designed for a field of 5 T at the conductor. The PFC are used for plasma shaping and equilibrium and the magnetic field on the PFC conductor is estimated to be {le} 3.2 T. Hence a cable designed for 5 T operation will be suitable for PFC also subjected to the stability against the disturbances generated by the current ramping in the PFC. The authors have designed two Cable-in-conduit-conductor (CICC) type cables, one with copper conduit (to be preferably used with the TFC) and the other with Stainless Steel conduit to be used with PFC. They describe some design aspects of these cables and discuss the stability of these cables against disturbances.

  19. Seasonal differences of model predictability and the impact of SST in the Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, X. M.; Wang, H. J.

    2005-01-01

    Both seasonal potential predictability and the impact of SST in the Pacific on the forecast skill over China are investigated by using a 9-level global atmospheric general circulation model developed at the Institute of Atmospheric Physics under the Chinese Academy of Sciences (IAP9L-ACCM). For each year during 1970 to 1999, the ensemble consists of seven integrations started from consecutive observational daily atmospheric fields and forced by observational monthly SST. For boreal winter, spring and summer, the variance ratios of the SST-forced variability to the total variability and the differences in the spatial correlation coefficients of seasonal mean fields in special years versus normal years are computed respectively. It follows that there are slightly inter-seasonal differences in the model potential predictability in the Tropics. At northern middle and high latitudes, prediction skill is generally low in spring and relatively high either in summer for surface air temperature and middle and upper tropospheric geopotential height or in winter for wind and precipitation. In general, prediction skill rises notably in western China, especially in northwestern China, when SST anomalies (SSTA) in the Ni (n) over tildeo-3 region are significant. Moreover, particular attention should be paid to the SSTA in the North Pacific (NP) if one aims to predict summer climate over the eastern part of China, i.e., northeastern China, North China and southeastern China.

  20. ESTABLISHING PRIORITIES IN THE U.S. EPA'S INDOOR AIR ENGINEERING RESEARCH PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of consultations by participants in the U.S. EPA's Indoor Air Engineering Research Program with a panel of key researchers and planners within government, industry, and academia to help identify priority program areas for indoor air research. rogram elemen...

  1. Perspective on One Decade of Laser Propulsion Research at Air Force Research Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, C. William

    2008-04-01

    The Air Force Laser Propulsion Program spanned nearly 10-years and included about 35-weeks of experimental research with the Pulsed Laser Vulnerability Test System of the High Energy Laser Systems Test Facility at White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, WSMR/HELSTF/PLVTS. PLVTS is a pulsed CO2 laser that produces up to 10 kW of power in ˜10 cm2 spot at wavelength of 10.6 microns. The laser is capable of a pulse repetition rate up to 25 Hz, with pulse durations of about 20 microseconds. During the program basic research was conducted on the production of propulsion thrust from laser energy through heating of air and ablation of various candidate rocket propellant fuels. Flight tests with an ablation fuel (Delrin) and air were accomplished with a model Laser Lightcraft vehicle that was optimized for propulsion by the PLVTS at its maximum power output, 10 kW at 25 Hz, 400 J/pulse. Altitudes exceeding 200-feet were achieved with ablation fuels. The most recent contributions to the technology included development of a mini-thruster standard for testing of chemically enhanced fuels and theoretical calculations on the performance of formulations containing ammonium nitrate and Delrin. Results of these calculations will also be reported here.

  2. Perspective on One Decade of Laser Propulsion Research at Air Force Research Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, C. William

    2008-04-28

    The Air Force Laser Propulsion Program spanned nearly 10-years and included about 35-weeks of experimental research with the Pulsed Laser Vulnerability Test System of the High Energy Laser Systems Test Facility at White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, WSMR/HELSTF/PLVTS. PLVTS is a pulsed CO2 laser that produces up to 10 kW of power in {approx}10 cm{sup 2} spot at wavelength of 10.6 microns. The laser is capable of a pulse repetition rate up to 25 Hz, with pulse durations of about 20 microseconds. During the program basic research was conducted on the production of propulsion thrust from laser energy through heating of air and ablation of various candidate rocket propellant fuels. Flight tests with an ablation fuel (Delrin) and air were accomplished with a model Laser Lightcraft vehicle that was optimized for propulsion by the PLVTS at its maximum power output, 10 kW at 25 Hz, 400 J/pulse. Altitudes exceeding 200-feet were achieved with ablation fuels. The most recent contributions to the technology included development of a mini-thruster standard for testing of chemically enhanced fuels and theoretical calculations on the performance of formulations containing ammonium nitrate and Delrin. Results of these calculations will also be reported here.

  3. microRNAs: Implications for Air Pollution Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this review is to provide an update of the current understanding on the role of microRNAs in mediating genetic responses to air pollutants and to contemplate on how these responses ultimately control susceptibility to ambient air pollution. Morbidity and mortality ...

  4. [Medical research in the US Armed Forces. (Report 5). The US Air Force and Coast Guard].

    PubMed

    Agapitov, A A; Aleĭnikov, S I; Bolekhan, V N; Ivchenko, E V; Krassiĭ, A B; Nagibovich, O A; Petrov, S V; Rezvantsev, M V; Soldatov, E A; Shalakhin, R A; Sheppli, E V

    2013-02-01

    The present article is the last part of the review dedicated to organization and management of medical research in the US Armed Forces. The first through fourth parts were published in the previous issues of the journal. Specifically this article is dedicated to organization and management of medical research in the US Air Force and Coast Guard. It is shown that in the US Air Force the medical research is conducted in the Air Force Research Laboratory and in the US Coast Guard--in its Research and Development Center. The particular research programs conducted in the above mentioned units are discussed. PMID:23808204

  5. CFD simulation research on residential indoor air quality.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li; Ye, Miao; He, Bao-Jie

    2014-02-15

    Nowadays people are excessively depending on air conditioning to create a comfortable indoor environment, but it could cause some health problems in a long run. In this paper, wind velocity field, temperature field and air age field in a bedroom with wall-hanging air conditioning running in summer are analyzed by CFD numerical simulation technology. The results show that wall-hanging air conditioning system can undertake indoor heat load and conduct good indoor thermal comfort. In terms of wind velocity, air speed in activity area where people sit and stand is moderate, most of which cannot feel wind flow and meet the summer indoor wind comfort requirement. However, for air quality, there are local areas without ventilation and toxic gases not discharged in time. Therefore it is necessary to take effective measures to improve air quality. Compared with the traditional measurement method, CFD software has many advantages in simulating indoor environment, so it is hopeful for humans to create a more comfortable, healthy living environment by CFD in the future. PMID:24365517

  6. Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) research highlights, September--October 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    New AFOSR-sponsored research shows that exhausts from solid-fueled rocket motors have very limited impact on stratospheric ozone. The research provides the Air Force with hard data to support continued access to space using the existing fleet of rockets and rocket technology. This basic research data allows the Air Force to maintain a strongly proactive environmental stance, and to meet federal guidelines regarding environmental impacts. Long-standing conjecture within the international rocket community suggests that chlorine compounds and alumina particulates produced in solid rocket motor (SRM) exhausts could create localized, temporary ozone toss in rocket plumes following launches. The extent of a local depletion of ozone and its environmental impact depends on details of the composition and chemistry in these plumes. Yet direct measurements of plume composition and plume chemistry in the stratosphere had never been made. Uncertainty about these details left the Air Force and commercial space launch capability potentially vulnerable to questions about the environmental impact of rocket launches. In 1995, APOSR and the Space and Missiles Systems Center Launch Programs Office (SMC/CL) jointly began the Rocket Impacts on Stratospheric Ozone (RISO) program to make the first-ever detailed measurements of rocket exhaust plumes. These measurements were aimed at understanding how the exhaust from large rocket motors effect the Earth`s stratospheric ozone layer. The studies determined: the size distribution of alumina particles in these exhausts, the amount of reactive chlorine in SRM exhaust, and the size and duration of localized ozone toss in the rocket plumes.

  7. Ventilation research: A review of recent indoor air quality literature. Final report, October 1993-March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Van Osdell, D.W.

    1994-09-01

    Building ventilation and air conditioning systems have traditionally been designed and controlled to maintain occupant thermal comfort at acceptable capital and operating costs, an indoor air quality (IAQ) has not been a primary concern. A literature review was conducted to survey and summarize recent and on-going engineering research into building ventilation, air exchange rate, pollutant distribution and dispersion, and other effects of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems on IAQ. The ventilation-related engineering literature was divided into seven major categories: (1) pollutant transport to and into the building envelope; (2) air cleaning systems; (3) flow and pollutant dispersion, (4) room and building flow/dispersion research; (5) HVAC/building design, operation, and control strategies; (6) applied microbial research; and (7) building performance. The significance and status of ventilation-related IAQ research was summarized by research category, and research opportunities were identified within each category.

  8. BIOINDICATORS IN AIR POLLUTION RESEARCH: APPLICATIONS AND CONSTRAINTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Physical and chemical measurements of air pollutants provide a precise measure of pollutant exposure which is frequently used to estimate probable biological impacts. Bioindicators may be classified as either accumulators of the pollutant or reactors to the pollutant. The ultimat...

  9. Overview of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation (AIR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Maiden, D. L.; Goldhagen, P.; Tai, H.; Shinn, J. L.

    2003-01-01

    The SuperSonic Transport (SST) development program within the US was based at the Langley Research Center as was the Apollo radiation testing facility (Space Radiation Effects Laboratory) with associated radiation research groups. It was natural for the issues of the SST to be first recognized by this unique combination of research programs. With a re-examination of the technologies for commercial supersonic flight and the possible development of a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT), the remaining issues of the SST required resolution. It was the progress of SST radiation exposure research program founded by T. Foelsche at the Langley Research Center and the identified remaining issues after that project over twenty-five years ago which became the launch point of the current atmospheric ionizing radiation (AIR) research project. Added emphasis to the need for reassessment of atmospheric radiation resulted from the major lowering of the recommended occupational exposure limits, the inclusion of aircrew as radiation workers, and the recognition of civil aircrew as a major source of occupational exposures. Furthermore, the work of Ferenc Hajnal of the Environmental Measurements Laboratory brought greater focus to the uncertainties in the neutron flux at high altitudes. A re-examination of the issues involved was committed at the Langley Research Center and by the National Council on Radiation Protection (NCRP). As a result of the NCRP review, a new flight package was assembled and flown during solar minimum at which time the galactic cosmic radiation is at a maximum (June 1997). The present workshop is the initial analysis of the new data from that flight. The present paper is an overview of the status of knowledge of atmospheric ionizing radiations. We will re-examine the exposures of the world population and examine the context of aircrew exposures with implications for the results of the present research. A condensed version of this report was given at the 1998

  10. Unmanned air vehicle (UAV) ultra-persitence research

    SciTech Connect

    Dron, S. B.

    2012-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and Northrop Grumman Corporation Integrated Systems, Unmanned Systems (NGIS UMS) collaborated to further ultra-persistence technologies for unmanned air vehicles (UAVs). The greatest shortfalls in UAV capabilities have been repeatedly identified as (1) insufficient flight persistence or 'hang time,' (2) marginal electrical power for running higher power avionics and payload systems, and (3) inadequate communications bandwidth and reach. NGIS UMS requested support from Sandia to develop an ultra-persistent propulsion and power system (UP3S) for potential incorporation into next generation UAV systems. The team members tried to determine which energy storage and power generation concepts could most effectively push UAV propulsion and electrical power capabilities to increase UAV sortie duration from days to months while increasing available electrical power at least two-fold. Primary research and development areas that were pursued included these goals: perform general system engineering and integration analyses; develop initial thermal and electrical power estimates; provide mass, volume, dimensional, and balance estimates; conduct preliminary safety assessments; assess logistics support requirements; perform, preliminary assessments of any security and safeguards; evaluate options for removal, replacement, and disposition of materials; generally advance the potential of the UP3S concept. The effort contrasted and compared eight heat sources technologies, three power conversion, two dual cycle propulsion system configurations, and a single electrical power generation scheme. Overall performance, specific power parameters, technical complexities, security, safety, and other operational features were successfully investigated. Large and medium sized UAV systems were envisioned and operational flight profiles were developed for each concept. Heat source creation and support challenges for domestic and expeditionary operations were

  11. Mexico City Air Quality Research Initiative; Volume 5, Strategic evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    1994-03-01

    Members of the Task HI (Strategic Evaluation) team were responsible for the development of a methodology to evaluate policies designed to alleviate air pollution in Mexico City. This methodology utilizes information from various reports that examined ways to reduce pollutant emissions, results from models that calculate the improvement in air quality due to a reduction in pollutant emissions, and the opinions of experts as to the requirements and trade-offs that are involved in developing a program to address the air pollution problem in Mexico City. The methodology combines these data to produce comparisons between different approaches to improving Mexico City`s air quality. These comparisons take into account not only objective factors such as the air quality improvement or cost of the different approaches, but also subjective factors such as public acceptance or political attractiveness of the different approaches. The end result of the process is a ranking of the different approaches and, more importantly, the process provides insights into the implications of implementing a particular approach or policy.

  12. Epidemiologic evidence for asthma and exposure to air toxics: linkages between occupational, indoor, and community air pollution research.

    PubMed Central

    Delfino, Ralph J

    2002-01-01

    Outdoor ambient air pollutant exposures in communities are relevant to the acute exacerbation and possibly the onset of asthma. However, the complexity of pollutant mixtures and etiologic heterogeneity of asthma has made it difficult to identify causal components in those mixtures. Occupational exposures associated with asthma may yield clues to causal components in ambient air pollution because such exposures are often identifiable as single-chemical agents (e.g., metal compounds). However, translating occupational to community exposure-response relationships is limited. Of the air toxics found to cause occupational asthma, only formaldehyde has been frequently investigated in epidemiologic studies of allergic respiratory responses to indoor air, where general consistency can be shown despite lower ambient exposures. The specific volatile organic compounds (VOCs) identified in association with occupational asthma are generally not the same as those in studies showing respiratory effects of VOC mixtures on nonoccupational adult and pediatric asthma. In addition, experimental evidence indicates that airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposures linked to diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) have proinflammatory effects on airways, but there is insufficient supporting evidence from the occupational literature of effects of DEPs on asthma or lung function. In contrast, nonoccupational epidemiologic studies have frequently shown associations between allergic responses or asthma with exposures to ambient air pollutant mixtures with PAH components, including black smoke, high home or school traffic density (particularly truck traffic), and environmental tobacco smoke. Other particle-phase and gaseous co-pollutants are likely causal in these associations as well. Epidemiologic research on the relationship of both asthma onset and exacerbation to air pollution is needed to disentangle effects of air toxics from monitored criteria air pollutants such as particle mass

  13. SST, cloud classification and surface irradiances derived from operational satellite data during SOFIA/ASTEX and SEMAPHORE

    SciTech Connect

    Brisson, A.; LeBorgne, P.; Marsouin, A.; Moreau, T.

    1994-12-31

    SOFIA is the French component of ASTEX which was organized in the Azores region in June 1992. The scientific objectives of SOFIA during ASTEX were the study of energy transfer between the sea surface and the atmospheric boundary layer at various scales. SEMAPHORE was organized in the same region in October and November 1993 and was centered on the study of mesoscale ocean circulation and air/sea interactions. During those experiments, the Centre de Meteorologie Spatiale produced in real time satellite estimates of Sea Surface Temperature (SST), cloud type, surface solar and longwave irradiance fields over the area (27N-40N, 15W-30W). This presentation will review briefly the methods which have been used to calculate these parameters. During both campaigns, in situ measurements were made by buoys (SST) and aboard the IFREMER ship Suroit (SST, surface solar and longwave irradiance). The results of the comparison of the calculations with the in situ measurements will also be presented.

  14. Research on the net amount of air traffic network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jun; Wu, Zhenya

    2013-03-01

    As accurate prediction of traffic flow states could reduce the congestion possibility, the theoretical study of air traffic was how to determinate the next time the state with fluid mechanics based on random condition. Then, a novel depicting method of air traffic flow is proposed, which calculated the change of net amount in flow conservation equation with discrete time loss queuing, further, it could determine the relationship between flow and density. Compared to the existing general algorithm, the threshold of net amount was presented in the method, and it had good adaptability.

  15. [Structure and functioning of research ethics committees in the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires and Greater Buenos Aires].

    PubMed

    Sabio, María Fernanda; Bortz, Jaime Elías

    2015-06-01

    Given the few existing studies on research ethics committees (RECs) in Argentina, this paper aims to describe the structure and functioning of institutional RECs in the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires and Greater Buenos Aires. A descriptive, qualitative and quantitative research study was carried out using a survey conducted between March and July 2012. The sample was made up of 46 RECs. Forty percent of committee members were doctors and the age and sex distribution met standards. Inadequate numbers of methodologists, community representatives, lawyers and members external to the institution were identified, as well as shortcomings regarding administrative staff, fixed locations for meetings, budgets adequate to expenditures and training in research ethics. Some of those surveyed reported problems in their relationship with the institution and with researchers, in addition to difficulties regarding the time available to perform tasks. PMID:26172100

  16. The effect of SST and soil moisture anomalies on GLA model simulations of the 1988 U.S. summer drought

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atlas, R.; Wolfson, N.; Terry, J.

    1993-01-01

    A series of simulations of the late spring and early summer of 1988 were conducted in order to study the relative importance of different boundary forcings to the Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheres (GLA) model's simulation of the heat wave and drought over the Great Plains of the United States during this time period. Separate 60-day simulations were generated from 10, 20, and 30 May 1988 with a variety of boundary condition datasets. For the control experiment, climatological boundary conditions were used. This was followed by experiments in which either the observed 1988 sea surface temperatures (SST) or derived 1988 soil moisture values, or both, were used in place of the climatological fields. Additional experiments were conducted in which only tropical or midlatitude SST anomalies were used. The impact of the different boundary forcings was evaluated relative to the control simulations of the precipitation and surface air temperature over the Great Plains. It was found that the tropical SST anomalies had a significant effect in reducing precipitation in this area, while the midlatitude anomalies did not. Due to the prescribed climatological soil moistures for the SST experiments, a significant increase in surface temperature did not occur in these simulations. In contrast, the simulations with the anomalous 1988 soil moistures produced both a larger reduction of precipitation and a significant increase in surface temperature over the Great Plains. The simulations with both anomalous SST and soil moisture showed only a slight augmentation of the heat wave and drought relative to the experiments with anomalous soil moisture alone.

  17. Air pollution control system research: An iterative approach to developing affordable systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watt, Lewis C.; Cannon, Fred S.; Heinsohn, Robert J.; Spaeder, Timothy A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes a Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) funded project led jointly by the Marine Corps Multi-Commodity Maintenance Centers, and the Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory (AEERL) of the USEPA. The research focuses on paint booth exhaust minimization using recirculation, and on volatile organic compound (VOC) oxidation by the modules of a hybrid air pollution control system. The research team is applying bench, pilot and full scale systems to accomplish the goals of reduced cost and improved effectiveness of air treatment systems for paint booth exhaust.

  18. INDOOR AIR ASSESSMENT - AN INVENTORY OF INDOOR AIR QUALITY RESEARCH IN THE U.S.: 1989-1990

    EPA Science Inventory

    A survey of indoor air quality research projects in the United States was undertaken using a standard form and keyword list. n response to the request for participation, 110 completed forms were received from 69 principal investigators at 34 institutions. Universities had the lar...

  19. Communication Theory and Research in Air Force Education and Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kline, John A.

    The United States Air Force is unique among the armed services in placing all its professional military education (PME) and professional continuing education (PCE) under a single command. Furthermore, most of the schools and courses are in the same geographical location at the Maxwell/Gunter complex in Montgomery, Alabama. There are basic…

  20. Cookstoves Research: Improving Air Quality and Slowing Climate Change

    EPA Science Inventory

    Household air pollution, mainly from solid-fuel cookstoves in the developing world, is estimated to cause approximately 4 million premature deaths per year, and emissions of black carbon and other pollutants from cookstoves affect regional and global climate. The Global Alliance...

  1. Identification of Phosphorylation Sites Regulating sst3 Somatostatin Receptor Trafficking.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Andreas; Kliewer, Andrea; Günther, Thomas; Nagel, Falko; Schulz, Stefan

    2016-06-01

    The human somatostatin receptor 3 (sst3) is expressed in about 50% of all neuroendocrine tumors and hence a promising target for multireceptor somatostatin analogs. The sst3 receptor is unique among ssts in that it exhibits a very long intracellular C-terminal tail containing a huge number of potential phosphate acceptor sites. Consequently, our knowledge about the functional role of the C-terminal tail in sst3 receptor regulation is very limited. Here, we have generated a series of phosphorylation-deficient mutants that enabled us to determine crucial sites for its agonist-induced β-arrestin mobilization, internalization, and down-regulation. Based on this information, we generated phosphosite-specific antibodies for C-terminal Ser(337)/Thr(341), Thr(348), and Ser(361) that enabled us to investigate the temporal patterns of sst3 phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. We found that the endogenous ligand somatostatin induced a rapid and robust phosphorylation that was completely blocked by the sst3 antagonist NVP-ACQ090. The stable somatostatin analogs pasireotide and octreotide promoted clearly less phosphorylation compared with somatostatin. We also show that sst3 phosphorylation occurred within seconds to minutes, whereas dephosphorylation of the sst3 receptor occurred at a considerable slower rate. In addition, we also identified G protein-coupled receptor kinases 2 and 3 and protein phosphatase 1α and 1β as key regulators of sst3 phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, respectively. Thus, we here define the C-terminal phosphorylation motif of the human sst3 receptor that regulates its agonist-promoted phosphorylation, β-arrestin recruitment, and internalization of this clinically relevant receptor. PMID:27101376

  2. RESEARCH AREA -- FLUE GAS CLEANING (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Air Pollution Technology Branch's (APPCD, NRMRL)flue gas cleaning program supports New Source Performance Standards regulations development and has fostered the development of technologies that today are considered industry standards. These include both dry and wet flue gas d...

  3. SST and SS changes during Saemangeum seawall construction using Landsat TM and ETM imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jong-Hwa; Na, Sang-il

    2010-10-01

    Saemangeum, located on the southwest coast of the Korean peninsula, is a 40 100 ha ongoing "reclamation" project in South Korea, concomitance damming the estuaries of the Mangyong and Dongjin rivers, replacing vast tidal land and sea-shallows with land and a huge freshwater reservoir. In 1991, the South Korean government announced that a seawall (dyke) would be constructed to link two headlands just south of the South Korean industrial port city of Gunsan and Buan, 270 kilometers southwest of Seoul, to create 400 km2 of farmland and a freshwater reservoir. Started in 1991, the 33km long seawall was finally completed on April 2006. Chlorophyll-a concentration, Suspended solids (SS), Sea surface temperature (SST), and turbidity are four important water quality variables, among other environmental factors such as salinity and pH, for tidal land production in Saemangeum. Change detection of the SST and SS during Saemangeum seawall construction was carried out by using LANDSAT TM and ETM imagery data. The spatial and temporal distribution of SST and SS are estimated and mapped with various degrees of success in Saemangeum area. Here we assessed the potential of these data to derive water quality parameters in a reclaimed estuary environment. We found that the evolution of the estuary, coastline, delta, and change detection results derived from LANDSAT TM and ETM images recorded in 1989, 2001 and 2008, respectively. Due to the limitations of image acquisition and noise, many researchers have employed the image processing technique to improve satellite data in order to assess water quality. The interpolation approach is a useful tool for the analyses and assessment on SST and SS on the basis of available satellite imagery data. Ordinary kriging (OK) were used to improve the SST and SS images in the study area. Results indicate that sedimentary transport, SS, and SST in Saemangeum has significantly changed during the past 20 years, with a dramatic increase in the amount of

  4. Experimental research of reaction blading on air turbine VT-400

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimko, Marek; Okresa, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    The article deals with testing a reaction blading on an experimental air turbine VT-400, which is situated at the Department of Power System Engineering at University of West Bohemia. Experiments were carried out in cooperation with an industrial partner Doosan Skoda Power. The outputs of these measurements are for example: results of the stage efficiency depending on the speed ratio u/c, the course of reaction, the input and output angles and profile losses along a blade.

  5. INITIAL SINGLE SHELL TANK (SST) SYSTEM PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT OF THE HANFORD SITE

    SciTech Connect

    JARAYSI, M.N.

    2007-01-08

    The ''Initial Single-Shell Tank System Performance Assessment for the Hanford Site [1] (SST PA) presents the analysis of the long-term impacts of residual wastes assumed to remain after retrieval of tank waste and closure of the SST farms at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. The SST PA supports key elements of the closure process agreed upon in 2004 by DOE, the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The SST PA element is defined in Appendix I of the ''Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (HFFACO) (Ecology et al. 1989) [2], the document that establishes the overall closure process for the SST and double-shell tank (DST) systems. The approach incorporated in the SST PA integrates substantive features of both hazardous and radioactive waste management regulations into a single analysis. The defense-in-depth approach used in this analysis defined two major engineering barriers (a surface barrier and the grouted tank structure) and one natural barrier (the vadose zone) that will be relied on to control waste release into the accessible environment and attain expected performance metrics. The analysis evaluates specific barrier characteristics and other site features that influence contaminant migration by the various pathways. A ''reference'' case and a suite of sensitivity/uncertainty cases are considered. The ''reference case'' evaluates environmental impacts assuming central tendency estimates of site conditions. ''Reference'' case analysis results show residual tank waste impacts on nearby groundwater, air resources; or inadvertent intruders to be well below most important performance objectives. Conversely, past releases to the soil, from previous tank farm operations, are shown to have groundwater impacts that re significantly above most performance objectives. Sensitivity/uncertainty cases examine single and multiple parameter variability along with plausible alternatives

  6. Causes of Indoor Air Quality Problems in Schools: Summary of Scientific Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayer, Charlene W.; Crow, Sidney A.; Fischer, John

    Research show that one in five U.S. schools has indoor air quality (IAQ) problems; 36 percent have inadequate heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems; and there appears to be a correlation between IAQs and the proportion of a school's students coming from low-income households. This report examines the IAQ issue in U.S. public…

  7. INDOOR AIR QUALITY AND FURNITURE PROCUREMENT IN EPA'S NEW RESEARCH TRIANGLE CAMPUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses various aspects of the EPA's new 1.2 million square foot building in Research Triangle Park that pertain to indoor air, with a particular focus on the process EPA used to select furniture to meet its indoor air guidelines. In keeping with its mission of protec...

  8. The ASTRI SST-2M prototype for the Cherenkov Telescope Array: primary mirror characterization by deflectometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sironi, Giorgia; Canestrari, Rodolfo

    2015-09-01

    In 2014 the ASTRI Collaboration, led by the Italian National Institute for Astrophysics, has constructed an end-to-end prototype of a dual-mirror imaging air Cherenkov telescope, proposed for the small size class of telescopes for the Cherenkov Telescope Array. The prototype, named ASTRI SST-2M, has been installed at the observing station located at Serra La Nave (Italy). In this project the Brera Astronomical Observatory was responsible for the production and the testing of the primary mirror. The ASTRI SST-2M telescope's primary mirror has an aperture of ~ 4 m, a polynomial design, and consists of 18 individual hexagonal facets. These characteristics require the production and testing of panels with a typical size of ~1 m vertex-to-vertex and with an aspheric component of up to several millimetres. The mirror segments were produced assembling a sandwich of thin glass foils bent at room temperature to reach the desired shape. For the characterization of the mirrors we developed an ad-hoc deflectometry facility that works as an inverse Ronchi test in combination with a ray-tracing code. In this contribution we report the results of the deflectometric measurements performed on the primary mirror segments of the ASTRI SST-2M dual mirror telescope. The expected point spread function and the contributions to the degradation of the image quality are studied.

  9. Structural Simluation Toolkit (SST) V 2.0

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2009-12-04

    The SST provides a parallel framework to perform system simulation of computer architectures to determine their performance and power consumption. Additionally, the SST contains basic models of a computer processor, and interconnect and can connect to an external memory simulator (DRAMSim II). The SST framework provides a simple interface by which other computer simulation models can be combined under a common parallel discrete event-based simulation environment. This allows design exploration of future architectures, analysis ofmore » how current computer programs will function on future architectures. The SST provides a parallel discrete event simulation framework, including partitioning and object distribution over MPI. It also provides a mechanism by which components can report their power consumption for analysis.« less

  10. National Air Quality Forecast Capability: Status and Research Needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stajner, I.; McQueen, J.; Lee, P.; Draxler, R. R.; Tong, D.; Pan, L.; Huang, J. P.; Shafran, P.; Dickerson, P.; Upadhayay, S.

    2014-12-01

    Operational air quality predictions for the United States (U. S.) are provided by National Air Quality Forecasting Capability (NAQFC), which is being built by NOAA in partnership with the U.S. EPA. NAQFC provides nationwide operational predictions of ozone, smoke from wildfires, as well as dust from dust storms for the contiguous 48 states. Predictions are produced beyond midnight of the following day at 12 km resolution and 1 hour time intervals and distributed at http://airquality.weather.gov. Ozone predictions and developmental testing of aerosol predictions combine the NOAA National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) operational North American Mesoscale (NAM) weather predictions with the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. Predictions of smoke and dust storms use the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model. Routine verification of ozone and developmental aerosol predictions relies on AIRNow observations, whereas smoke and dust predictions rely on satellite retrievals. Recent updates to operational ozone prediction at NOAA have focused on mobile emissions, which were updated using the projections of mobile sources for 2012. Satellite and ground observations were used to derive NOx trends, which were compared with the emissions data used by NAQFC indicating improved agreement over large metropolitan areas in the US. Updates to the chemical mechanism are being tested for operational implementation. Recent testing of PM2.5 predictions is relying on National Emission Inventory (NEI) inputs augmented by real time sources from wildfires and dust storms. Testing of PM2.5 predictions continues to exhibit seasonal biases - overprediction in the winter and underprediction in the summer. Current efforts are focusing on inclusion of bias correction and development of linkages with global atmospheric composition predictions.

  11. Improving the global SST record: estimates of biases from engine room intake SST using high quality satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carella, Giulia; Kent, Elizabeth C.; Berry, David I.; Morak-Bozzo, Simone; Merchant, Christopher J.

    2016-04-01

    Sea Surface Temperature (SST) is the marine component of the global surface temperature record, a primary metric of climate change. SST observations from ships form one of the longest instrumental records of surface marine climate. However, over the years several different methods of measuring SST have been used, each with different bias characteristics. The estimation of systematic biases in the SST record is critical for climatic decadal predictions, and uncertainties in long-term trends are expected to be dominated by uncertainties in biases introduced by changes of instrumentation and measurement practices. Although the largest systematic errors in SST observations relate to the period before about 1940, where SST measurements were mostly made using buckets, there are also issues with modern data, in particular when the SST reported is the temperature of the engine-room cooling water intake (ERI). Physical models for biases in ERI SSTs have not been developed as the details of the individual setup on each ship are extremely important, and almost always unknown. Existing studies estimate that the typical ERI biases are around 0.2°C and most estimates of the mean bias fall between 0.1°C and 0.3°C, but there is some evidence of much larger differences. However, these analyses provide only broad estimates, being based only on subsamples of the data and ignoring ship-by-ship differences. Here we take advantage of a new, high spatial resolution, gap-filled, daily SST for the period 1992-2010 from the European Space Agency Climate Change Initiative (ESA CCI) for SST dataset version 1.1. In this study, we use a Bayesian statistical model to characterise the uncertainty in reports of ERI SST for individual ships using the ESA CCI SST as a reference. A Bayesian spatial analysis is used to model the differences of the observed SST from the ESA CCI SST for each ship as a constant offset plus a function of the climatological SST. This was found to be an important term

  12. Thirty years of research and development of air cushion vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertelsen, William R.

    This paper describes the conception of the air cushion vehicle (ACV) from experiments with the ground effect of a VTOL aircraft model. Then it describes the evolution of the ultimate ACV drive system through building and testing many models and 16 full-scale ACV to arrive at complete controllability. Adequate control of the frictionless craft, which are without inherent yaw stability, requires control force of the order of magnitude of propulsion. The derived gimbal fans provide such control force in the form of direct thrust, which is instantly available in any of 360 degrees, meterable, instantly cancelable, and reversible.

  13. Research of autonomous landing control of unmanned combat air vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shaoyan; Chen, Zongji

    2003-09-01

    This paper is to present a robust controller design method for developing autonomous landing systems of Unmanned Combat Air Vehicle (UCAV). We first analyze the characteristic of autonomous landing of UCAV, and put forward its landing performance specifications. Structure singular value μ| synthesis is used to develop autonomous landing systems to accurately follow the pre-designed ideal landing track or online generated optimal landing track. The robust performance of system is analyzed. The simulation results demonstrate that the designed autonomous landing system satisfies the performance requirements of autonomous landing of UCAV when there are uncertainties of UCAV aircraft model, measurement noises and exogenous disturbances.

  14. Tu-144LL SST Flying Laboratory Front View with Nose Dropped for Takeoff and Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    A front view of the Tupolev Tu-144LL supersonic flying laboratory at the Zhukovsky Air Development Center near Moscow, Russia. The plane's nose droops down for take off and landing and is then raised for high-speed flight. NASA teamed with American and Russian aerospace industries for an extended period in a joint international research program featuring the Russian-built Tu-144LL supersonic aircraft. The object of the program was to develop technologies for a proposed future second-generation supersonic airliner to be developed in the 21st Century. The aircraft's initial flight phase began in June 1996 and concluded in February 1998 after 19 research flights. A shorter follow-on program involving seven flights began in September 1998 and concluded in April 1999. All flights were conducted in Russia from Tupolev's facility at the Zhukovsky Air Development Center near Moscow. The centerpiece of the research program was the Tu 144LL, a first-generation Russian supersonic jetliner that was modified by its developer/builder, Tupolev ANTK (aviatsionnyy nauchno-tekhnicheskiy kompleks-roughly, aviation technical complex), into a flying laboratory for supersonic research. Using the Tu-144LL to conduct flight research experiments, researchers compared full-scale supersonic aircraft flight data with results from models in wind tunnels, computer-aided techniques, and other flight tests. The experiments provided unique aerodynamic, structures, acoustics, and operating environment data on supersonic passenger aircraft. Data collected from the research program was being used to develop the technology base for a proposed future American-built supersonic jetliner. Although actual development of such an advanced supersonic transport (SST) is currently on hold, commercial aviation experts estimate that a market for up to 500 such aircraft could develop by the third decade of the 21st Century. The Tu-144LL used in the NASA-sponsored research program was a 'D' model with different

  15. POPULATION-BASED EXPOSURE MODELING FOR AIR POLLUTANTS AT EPA'S NATIONAL EXPOSURE RESEARCH LABORATORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) has been developing, applying, and evaluating population-based exposure models to improve our understanding of the variability in personal exposure to air pollutants. Estimates of population variability are needed for E...

  16. Evaluating Membrane Processes for Air Conditioning; Highlights in Research and Development, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-01

    This NREL Highlight discusses a recent state-of-the-art review of membrane processes for air conditioning that identifies future research opportunities. This highlight is being developed for the June 2015 S&T Alliance Board meeting.

  17. Variability of winter extreme precipitation in Southeast China: contributions of SST anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ling; Sielmann, Frank; Fraedrich, Klaus; Zhu, Xiuhua; Zhi, Xiefei

    2015-11-01

    Tropical SST anomalies are among the largest drivers of circulation regime changes on interannual time scales due to its characteristic heat capacity decay time scales. The circulation anomalies associated with extreme precipitation and the corresponding atmospheric response to SST anomalies are derived from ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalysis data by employing composite analysis and lagged maximum covariance analysis. Our results show that interannual variability of extreme winter precipitation in Southeast China is in close accordance with the interannual variability of total winter precipitation. Both are associated with similar abnormal circulation regimes, but for extreme precipitation events the circulation anomalies and moisture transport channels are significantly intensified. Two main moisture transport channels are captured: one extends from the North Indian Ocean through India and the Bay of Bengal to South China, and the other from the West Pacific Ocean through Maritime Continent and South China Sea towards South China, which are related to the preceding autumn SST patterns, El Niño and the Indian Ocean dipole (IOD), respectively. El Niño (La Niña) SST anomalies induce anomalous anticyclonic (cyclonic) circulation over Philippine Sea, which is favorable (unfavorable) to warm and humid air transport to South China from the tropical West Pacific by southwesterly (northeasterly) anomalies. Under these circulations, northeasterlies of East Asian Winter Monsoon are weakened (strengthened) resulting in extreme precipitation to be more (less) frequent in Southeast China. During the positive (negative) IOD phase, abundant (reduced) moisture transport to South China from tropical regions through India and Bay of Bengal is observed due to weakened (strengthened) Walker circulations and abnormal anticyclonic (cyclonic) circulation over India, leading to a higher (lower) likelihood for extreme precipitation events in Southeast China. The underlying physical mechanisms

  18. Identifying and Investigating the Late-1960s Interhemispheric SST Shift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, A. R.; Lee, S. Y.; Liu, Y.; Chiang, J. C. H.

    2014-12-01

    The global north-south interhemispheric sea surface temperature (SST) difference experienced a pronounced and rapid decrease in the late 1960s, which has been linked to drying in the Sahel, South Asia, and East Asia. However, some basic questions about the interhemispheric SST shift remain unresolved, including its scale and whether the constituent changes in different basins were coordinated. In this study, we systematically investigate the spatial and temporal behavior of the late-1960s interhemispheric SST shift using ocean surface and subsurface observations. We also evaluate potential mechanisms using control and specific-forcing CMIP5 simulations. Using a regime shift detection technique, we identify the late-1960s shift as the most prominent in the historical observational SST record. We additionally examine the corresponding changes in upper-ocean heat content and salinity associated with the shift. We find that there were coordinated upper-ocean cooling and freshening in the subpolar North Atlantic, the region of the largest-magnitude SST decrease during the interhemispheric shift. These upper-ocean changes correspond to a weakened North Atlantic thermohaline circulation (THC). However, the THC decrease does not fully account for the rapid global interhemispheric SST shift, particularly the warming in the extratropical Southern Hemisphere.

  19. Aeronautical Communications Research and Development Needs for Future Air Traffic Management Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.

    2002-01-01

    Continuing growth in regional and global air travel has resulted in increasing traffic congestion in the air and on the ground. In spite of occasional temporary downturns due to economic recessions and catastrophic events, average growth rates of air travel have remained high since the 1960s. The resulting congestion, which constrains expansion of the air transportation industry, inflicts schedule delays and decreases overall system efficiency, creating a pressing need to develop more efficient methods of air traffic management (ATM). New ATM techniques, procedures, air space automation methods, and decision support tools are being researched and developed for deployment in time frames stretching from the next few years to the year 2020 and beyond. As these methods become more advanced and increase in complexity, the requirements for information generation, sharing and transfer among the relevant entities in the ATM system increase dramatically. However, current aeronautical communications systems will be inadequate to meet the future information transfer demands created by these advanced ATM systems. Therefore, the NASA Glenn Research Center is undertaking research programs to develop communication, methods and key technologies that can meet these future requirements. As part of this process, studies, workshops, testing and experimentation, and research and analysis have established a number of research and technology development needs. The purpose of this paper is to outline the critical research and technology needs that have been identified in these activities, and explain how these needs have been determined.

  20. Bioindicators in air-pollution research: applications and constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Tingey, D.T.

    1988-05-01

    Physical and chemical measurements of air pollutants provide a precise measure of pollutant exposure frequently used to estimate probable biological impacts. Bioindicators may be classified as either accumulators of the pollutant or reactors to the pollutant. The ultimate selection of a bioindicator depends on the pollutant and the ultimate use of the data. A bioindicator should: (1) provide a readily detectable response to the pollutant; (2) be easy and efficient to use; (3) be readily related to the response of interest; and (4) have a distinctive syndrome not readily confused with other causes. Bioindicators clearly have value in assessing environmental problems, but, at most, they are only indicators of a problem. Corrective or mitigative actions require additional data.

  1. Recent Research in Compression Refrigeration Cycle Air Source Heat Pumps.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arai, Akira; Senshu, Takao

    The most important theme for heat pump air conditioners is the improvement of energy saving and comfort. Recently, cycle components, especially compressores and heat exchangers have been improved greatly in their performance and efficiency. As for compressors, large progress in their efficiencies have been made by detailed analysises such as mechanical losses and by the development of a new type compression mechanism. As for heat exchangers, various high heat transfer surfaces have been developed together with the improvement of the production technologies for them. Further, the effect of the capacity-modulated cycle is evaluated quantitatively through the improvements of static and transient cycle simulation technologies. And in order to realize this cffect, the electrically driven expansion valves heve been marketed. This review introduces the trends of these energy-saving technologies as well as comfort improvement studies.

  2. ASBESTOS EXPOSURE RESEARCH - AIR, SOIL AND BULK MATERIAL SCENARIOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presently, asbestos and other mineral fibers are monitored in the workplace and in the environment using several basic analytical techniques, based primarily upon observing the fiber by either optical or electron microscopy. EPA is conducting research to determine which sampling ...

  3. Land Surface Process and Air Quality Research and Applications at MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale; Khan, Maudood

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides an overview of land surface process and air quality research at MSFC including atmospheric modeling and ongoing research whose objective is to undertake a comprehensive spatiotemporal analysis of the effects of accurate land surface characterization on atmospheric modeling results, and public health applications. Land use maps as well as 10 meter air temperature, surface wind, PBL mean difference heights, NOx, ozone, and O3+NO2 plots as well as spatial growth model outputs are included. Emissions and general air quality modeling are also discussed.

  4. The telescope control of the ASTRI SST-2M prototype for the Cherenkov telescope Array: hardware and software design architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antolini, Elisa; Cascone, Enrico; Schwarz, Joseph; Stringhetti, Luca; Tanci, Claudio; Tosti, Gino; Aisa, Damiano; Aisa, Simone; Bagaglia, Marco; Busatta, Andrea; Campeggi, Carlo; Cefala, Marco; Farnesini, Lucio; Giacomel, Stefano; Marchiori, Gianpiero; Marcuzzi, Enrico; Nucciarelli, Giuliano; Piluso, Antonfranco

    2014-07-01

    ASTRI (Astrofisica con Specchi a Tecnologia Replicante Italiana) is a flagship project of the Italian Ministry of Research and led by the Italian National Institute of Astrophysics (INAF). One of its aims is to develop, within the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) framework, an end-to-end small-sized telescope prototype in a dual-mirror configuration (SST-2M) in order to investigate the energy range E ~ 1-100 TeV. A long-term goal of the ASTRI program is the production of an ASTRI/CTA mini-array composed of seven SST-2M telescopes. The prototype, named ASTRI SST-2M, is seen as a standalone system that needs only network and power connections to work. The software system that is being developed to control the prototype is the base for the Mini-Array Software System (MASS), which has the task to make possible the operation of both the ASTRI SST-2M prototype and the ASTRI/CTA mini-array. The scope of this contribution is to give an overview of the hardware and software architecture adopted for the ASTRI SST- 2M prototype, showing how to apply state of the art industrial technologies to telescope control and monitoring systems.

  5. Understanding Energy Impacts of Oversized Air Conditioners; NREL Highlights, Research & Development, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-01

    This NREL highlight describes a simulation-based study that analyzes the energy impacts of oversized residential air conditioners. Researchers found that, if parasitic power losses are minimal, there is very little increase in energy use for oversizing an air conditioner. The research demonstrates that new residential air conditioners can be sized primarily based on comfort considerations, because capacity typically has minimal impact on energy efficiency. The results of this research can be useful for contractors and homeowners when choosing a new air conditioner or heat pump during retrofits of existing homes. If the selected unit has a crankcase heater, performing proper load calculations to be sure the new unit is not oversized will help avoid excessive energy use.

  6. Catastrophe Theory in Higher Education Research. AIR Forum 1981 Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staman, E. Michael

    The applicability of catastrophe theory to research in higher education is considered, with several problems that typically appear in the literature presented in a theoretical framework. A catastrophe model is attempted for each. The nature of mathematical modeling and the relationship between modeling continuous systems and discontinuous systems…

  7. Using full-mission simulation for human factors research in air transport operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orlady, Harry W.; Hennessy, Robert W.; Obermayer, Richard; Vreuls, Donald; Murphy, Miles R.

    1988-01-01

    This study examined state-of-the-art mission oriented simulation and its use in human factors research. Guidelines were developed for doing full-mission human factors research on crew member behavior during simulated air transport operations. The existing literature was reviewed. However, interviews with experienced investigators provided the most useful information. The fundamental scientific and practical issues of behavioral research in a simulation environment are discussed. Guidelines are presented for planning, scenario development, and the execution of behavioral research using full-mission simulation in the context of air transport flight operations . Research is recommended to enhance the validity and productivity of full-mission research by: (1) validating the need for high-fidelity simulation of all major elements in the operational environment, (2) improving methods for conducting full-mission research, and (3) examining part-task research on specific problems through the use of vehicles which contain higher levels of abstraction (and lower fidelity) of the operational environment.

  8. ERA-40 SST and Sea Ice Concentration Data

    SciTech Connect

    Fiorino, M

    2001-08-27

    The lower boundary condition of sea surface temperature (SST) and sea-ice concentration (sic) is a critical forcing of the lower frequencies in multi-decadal global atmospheric reanalyses such as ERA-40. Partly in response to the ERA-40 project, new SST/sic data sets have been developed that are considerably improved over those available to the first-generation reanalyses. This paper documents the input SST/sic data sets and the processing that created the daily SST/sic specification for the ERA-40 period 1956-2001. The source data are: (1) the monthly mean HadISST data set from the UKMO Hadley Centre for 1956-1981; and (2) the weekly NCEP 2DVAR data for 1982-present. Both data sets are reanalyses of satellite and conventional SST/sic observations. The principal reason for the higher quality of these source data sets is the use of a common consensus sic and a common sic-SST relationship in the sea ice margins. The use of a common sic resulted in a very smooth transition between HadISST and NCEP 2DVAR, despite differences in data assimilation techniques and monthly versus weekly analyses. No special action was required to insure consistency at the transition unlike as was necessary for the AMIP II experiment (Fiorino, 1997). The only special processing was application of the AMIP II mid-month calculation (Taylor et al., 2000) for the interpolation of monthly mean data to daily values. This scheme insures that the monthly mean of the daily-interpolated data is nearly identical to the input monthly mean. Detailed comparisons of the SST and sic during the HadISST-NCEP transition, and other long time series, are given. We also compare the NCEP 2DVAR (circa 2000) to a newer version of the OISST (V2, circa 2001) and demonstrate that the small differences should have no impact on the ERA-40 atmosphere reanalyses.

  9. Russian Tu-144LL SST Joint NASA Flying Laboratory - Flight November 29, 1996

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The modified Tupolev Tu-144LL supersonic flying laboratory during a test flight from the Zhukovsky Airfield near Moscow, Russia. The 'LL' stands for Letayuschaya Laboratoriya, which means Flying Laboratory. NASA teamed with American and Russian aerospace industries for an extended period in a joint international research program featuring the Russian-built Tu-144LL supersonic aircraft. The object of the program was to develop technologies for a proposed future second-generation supersonic airliner to be developed in the 21st Century. The aircraft's initial flight phase began in June 1996 and concluded in February 1998 after 19 research flights. A shorter follow-on program involving seven flights began in September 1998 and concluded in April 1999. All flights were conducted in Russia from Tupolev's facility at the Zhukovsky Air Development Center near Moscow. The centerpiece of the research program was the Tu 144LL, a first-generation Russian supersonic jetliner that was modified by its developer/builder, Tupolev ANTK (aviatsionnyy nauchno-tekhnicheskiy kompleks-roughly, aviation technical complex), into a flying laboratory for supersonic research. Using the Tu-144LL to conduct flight research experiments, researchers compared full-scale supersonic aircraft flight data with results from models in wind tunnels, computer-aided techniques, and other flight tests. The experiments provided unique aerodynamic, structures, acoustics, and operating environment data on supersonic passenger aircraft. Data collected from the research program was being used to develop the technology base for a proposed future American-built supersonic jetliner. Although actual development of such an advanced supersonic transport (SST) is currently on hold, commercial aviation experts estimate that a market for up to 500 such aircraft could develop by the third decade of the 21st Century. The Tu-144LL used in the NASA-sponsored research program was a 'D' model with different engines than were

  10. Prediction of Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall: A comparison of SST indices in the Indo-Pacific region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boschat, Ghyslaine; Terray, Pascal; Masson, Sébastien

    2010-05-01

    The focus of this study is to document and discuss the variability and predictability of the Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) rainfall at interannual time scales. Various SST indices have already been proposed in literature in order to understand the variability of ISM rainfall (Ashok et al. 2004; Goswami et al. 2005, Terray et al. 2007; Yang et al. 2007). However, the forecast skills and dynamics of these different indices have never been compared in detail. The present analysis is based on monthly mean rainfall fields from the CPC Merged Analysis of precipitation (CMAP), SST fields from the Hadley Centre Global Sea Surface Temperature data set (HadISST), and atmospheric data from NCEP-DOE Reanalysis 2, for the period 1979-2007. Four SST indices are computed in different regions of the Indian and Pacific oceans - Nino3.4 SST index in December-January, South East Indian Ocean SST (SEIO) in February-March, the Indian Ocean Basin Mode (IOB) in April-May, the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) averaged from September to November - and compared through composite analyses of SST and atmospheric fields, and correlation with ISM rainfall, onset and withdrawal. The results show that SEIO SSTs during late boreal winter or IOB SSTs during boreal spring are significant precursors for both the late ISM (August-September) and withdrawal of the monsoon, while the early part of the monsoon (June-July) and the monsoon onset are mostly influenced by a late ENSO withdrawal and equatorial Pacific variability during spring. Furthermore, correlation and regression analyses show that the IOB index is associated with the decay of ENSO events in one hand, while the SEIO index is linked to developing El Nino/La Nina episodes on the other. Despite different spatio-temporal definitions and relationships with ENSO, IOB and SEIO SSTs can thus both impact ISM rainfall, mainly through air-sea interactions within the Indian Ocean. With comparable predicting skills, the choice of the better index then hinges on

  11. Impact of new technology weapons on SAC (Strategic Air Command) conventional air operations. Research report

    SciTech Connect

    Bodenheimer, C.E.

    1983-06-01

    Chapter I introduces the issue of conventional-response capability. The point stressed first is that the strategic bomber's primary mission is in support of the single integrated operations plan (SIOP) as a nuclear weapons delivery vehicle. However, as cited by Secretary of Defense Caspar Weinberger, we must have a rapid deployment conventional capability to areas where there are small if any U.S. forces present. The SAC strategic projection force (SPF) is available but with gravity weapons of World War II vintage. New technology can provide answers to the problem by providing highly accurate long-range conventional standoff weapons. Chapter II gives a basic historical perspective on the use of the strategic bomber in past wars. It discusses the development of strategy, weapons, and targets in World War II, Korean War, and Vietnam War. Chapter III presents a very brief look at current US policy, strategy, and guidance. Chapter IV covers the aircraft attrition issue in today's highly lethal defensive environment. Chapter V describes the development of air-to-ground weapons. Chapter VI addresses the potential for the future in the shifting balance of Soviet and US technology. The final chapter makes the point that a decision must be made on weapons-acquisition programs and bomber force structure. New technology-standoff conventional weapons could make AAA and SAM defenses a modern Maginot Line.

  12. Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research, 1990-1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrell, Frederick R. (Compiler)

    1991-01-01

    The goals of this program are consistent with the interests of both NASA and the FAA in furthering the safety and efficiency of the National Airspace System. Research carried out at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Ohio University, and Princeton University are covered. Topics studied include passive infrared ice detection for helicopters, the cockpit display of hazardous windshear information, fault detection and isolation for multisensor navigation systems, neural networks for aircraft system identification, and intelligent failure tolerant control.

  13. Local-Scale Air Quality Modeling in Support of Human Health and Exposure Research (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isakov, V.

    2010-12-01

    Spatially- and temporally-sparse information on air quality is a key concern for air-pollution-related environmental health studies. Monitor networks are sparse in both space and time, are costly to maintain, and are often designed purposely to avoid detecting highly localized sources. Recent studies have shown that more narrowly defining the geographic domain of the study populations and improvements in the measured/estimated ambient concentrations can lead to stronger associations between air pollution and hospital admissions and mortality records. Traditionally, ambient air quality measurements have been used as a primary input to support human health and exposure research. However, there is increasing evidence that the current ambient monitoring network is not capturing sharp gradients in exposure due to the presence of high concentration levels near, for example, major roadways. Many air pollutants exhibit large concentration gradients near large emitters such as major roadways, factories, ports, etc. To overcome these limitations, researchers are now beginning to use air quality models to support air pollution exposure and health studies. There are many advantages to using air quality models over traditional approaches based on existing ambient measurements alone. First, models can provide spatially- and temporally-resolved concentrations as direct input to exposure and health studies and thus better defining the concentration levels for the population in the geographic domain. Air quality models have a long history of use in air pollution regulations, and supported by regulatory agencies and a large user community. Also, models can provide bidirectional linkages between sources of emissions and ambient concentrations, thus allowing exploration of various mitigation strategies to reduce risk to exposure. In order to provide best estimates of air concentrations to support human health and exposure studies, model estimates should consider local-scale features

  14. Review and Implications of Job Satisfaction and Work Motivation Theories for Air Force Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuttle, Thomas C.; Hazel, Joe T.

    The purpose of this report is to: (a) review certain major theories of work motivation, particularly as related to job satisfaction, (b) distill from such theories and other research, implications for an Air Force job satisfaction research program, and (c) provide a comprehensive bibliography of satisfaction/retention studies. The theoretical…

  15. HUMAN EXPOSURE AIR MONITORING: EXAMPLES FROM THE NATIONAL EXPOSURE RESEARCH LABORATORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US-EPA and North Carolina Central University (NCCU) have a cross-pollination agenda to help share research opportunities between the two institutions. This presentation provides NCCU with an understanding of current air monitoring research the US EPA is involved in and some o...

  16. RESEARCH AREA -- RADON MITIGATION (INDOOR ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In prior years, NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division's Indoor Environment Management Branch (IEMB) conducted a significant amount of research on the subject of reducing indoor radon levels in homes, schools, and other large buildings. This research is no longer a...

  17. Decadal-Interdecadal SST Variability and Regional Climate Teleconnections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, William K. M.; Weng, H.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Dominant modes of decadal and interdecadal SST variability and their impacts on summertime rainfall variability over East Asia and the North America are studied. Two dominant modes of interdecadal SST variability, one associated with El Nino-like warming in the global oceans and one with an east-west seesaw variation in the equatorial Pacific have been identified. The first mode is associated in part with a long-term warming trend in the topical oceans and cooling over the northern Pacific. The second mode suggests an westward shift and strengthening of the Walker circulation from 1960s to the 1980s. Over East Asian, the first SST mode is correlated with reduced rainfall in northern China and excessive rainfall in central China. This SST mode is also associated with the tendency for increased rainfall over the midwest region, and reduced rainfall over the east Coast of the US. The results suggest a teleconnection pattern which links the occurrences of drought and floods over the Asian monsoon and the US summertime time climate. This teleconnection is likely to be associated with decadal variability of the East Asian jetstream, which are affected by strong land surface heating over the Siberian region, as well as El Nino-like SST forcings. The occurrences of major droughts and floods in the East Asian and US continent in recent decades are discussed in light of the above teleconnection patterns.

  18. Short-haul CTOL aircraft research. [on reduced energy for commercial air transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, L. J.

    1978-01-01

    The results of the reduced energy for commercial air transportation studies on air transportation energy efficiency improvement alternatives are reviewed along with subsequent design studies of advanced turboprop powered transport aircraft. The application of this research to short-haul transportation is discussed. The results of several recent turboprop aircraft design are included. The potential fuel savings and cost savings for advanced turboprop aircraft appear substantial, particularly at shorter ranges.

  19. Influence of SST biases on future climate change projections

    SciTech Connect

    Ashfaq, Moetasim; Skinner, Chris B; Cherkauer, Keith

    2010-01-01

    We use a quantile-based bias correction technique and a multi-member ensemble of the atmospheric component of NCAR CCSM3 (CAM3) simulations to investigate the influence of sea surface temperature (SST) biases on future climate change projections. The simulations, which cover 1977 1999 in the historical period and 2077 2099 in the future (A1B) period, use the CCSM3-generated SSTs as prescribed boundary conditions. Bias correction is applied to the monthly time-series of SSTs so that the simulated changes in SST mean and variability are preserved. Our comparison of CAM3 simulations with and without SST correction shows that the SST biases affect the precipitation distribution in CAM3 over many regions by introducing errors in atmospheric moisture content and upper-level (lower-level) divergence (convergence). Also, bias correction leads to significantly different precipitation and surface temperature changes over many oceanic and terrestrial regions (predominantly in the tropics) in response to the future anthropogenic increases in greenhouse forcing. The differences in the precipitation response from SST bias correction occur both in the mean and the percent change, and are independent of the ocean atmosphere coupling. Many of these differences are comparable to or larger than the spread of future precipitation changes across the CMIP3 ensemble. Such biases can affect the simulated terrestrial feedbacks and thermohaline circulations in coupled climate model integrations through changes in the hydrological cycle and ocean salinity. Moreover, biases in CCSM3-generated SSTs are generally similar to the biases in CMIP3 ensemble mean SSTs, suggesting that other GCMs may display a similar sensitivity of projected climate change to SST errors. These results help to quantify the influence of climate model biases on the simulated climate change, and therefore should inform the effort to further develop approaches for reliable climate change projection.

  20. Observations of SST diurnal variability in the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Qianguang; Pan, Delu; Hao, Zengzhou; Chen, Jianyu

    2015-10-01

    In this study, a 3-hourly time resolution gap free sea surface temperature (SST) analysis is generated to resolve the diurnal cycle in the South China Sea (SCS, 0°-25°N, 100°-125°E).It takes advantage of hourly geostationary satellite MTSAT observations and combines three infrared and two microwave polar satellite observations at different local times. First, all the data are classified into eight SST datasets at 3 hour intervals and then remapped to 0.05°resolution grids. A series of critical quality control is done to remove the outliers.Then bias adjustment is applied to the polar satellite observations with reference to the MTSAT data. Finally, the six satellites SST data are blended by using the optimal interpolated algorithm. The 3-hourly blended SST is compared against buoy measurements. It shows a good agreement that the biases do not exceed 0.2 °C and root mean square errors range from 0.5 to 0.65 °C. A typical diurnal cycle similar to sine wave is observed. The minimum SST occurs at around 0600h and warming peak occurring between 1300h and 1500h local solar time and then decrease in the late afternoon, tapering off at night on March 13, 2008 for example. The frequency of diurnal warming events derived from four years of the blended SST provides solid statistics to investigate the seasonal and spatial distributions of the diurnal warming in the SCS. The sea surface diurnal warming tends to appear more easily in spring, especially in the coastal regions than other seasons and the central regions.

  1. The relationship between clear sky water vapor and SST anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Thomas C.; Vonder Haar, Thomas H.

    1992-01-01

    The relationship between clear sky water vapor anomalies and the SST anomalies (SSTAs) was investigated with the purpose of providing data for evaluating the clear sky greenhouse effect predicted in many global warming scenarios, by statistically analyzing anomaly data sets of SST and the water vapor anomaly data (obtained by subtracting the mean value of the six years of data for a given month from the observed values). Results show that clear sky water vapor anomalies increase in association with increases in SSTAs. The clear sky water vapor anomalies high in the troposphere were also found to increase with increasing SSTA.

  2. FLAMMABLE GAS DIFFUSION THROUGH SINGLE SHELL TANK (SST) DOMES

    SciTech Connect

    MEACHAM, J.E.

    2003-11-10

    This report quantified potential hydrogen diffusion through Hanford Site Single-Shell tank (SST) domes if the SSTs were hypothetically sealed airtight. Results showed that diffusion would keep headspace flammable gas concentrations below the lower flammability limit in the 241-AX and 241-SX SST. The purpose of this document is to quantify the amount of hydrogen that could diffuse through the domes of the SSTs if they were hypothetically sealed airtight. Diffusion is assumed to be the only mechanism available to reduce flammable gas concentrations. The scope of this report is limited to the 149 SSTs.

  3. SST Variability over the Southern South China Sea: Local effects and Remote forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, B.; Tkalich, P.

    2012-04-01

    The South China Sea (SCS) is one of the largest semi-enclosed marginal seas in the world ocean. The SCS is connected to the East China Sea through the Taiwan Strait to the northeast and the Pacific Ocean in the east through the Luzon Strait, laying between the Luzon and Taiwan Islands. To the south, SCS is connected to the Indonesian Sea (IS) through the Karimata and Gaspar Straits, and to the Indian Ocean though the Malacca Strait. The large-scale circulation and SST over the SCS is dominantly influenced by the seasonal reversal of the monsoon winds. Beyond the seasonal time scale, the circulation and temperature variability over the SCS demonstrate strong relationship with the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events in the Pacific Ocean. The present study addresses the inter-annual variability of Sea Surface Temperature (SST) over the southern South China Sea with special emphasis on the ENSO and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) events during the period 1993 to 2009. Due to its geographical location, the dynamics and thermodynamics of the southern SCS is largely influenced by the anomalous events occurring in the Pacific and Indian Oceans. A high resolution, three-dimensional sigma co-ordinate, regional ocean general circulation model (ROMS) configured for the South China Sea and Bay of Bengal region is used for the analysis. The model has been forced by 12-hourly varying surface wind, air temperature, relative humidity, surface downward solar and longwave radiation and precipitation fields obtained from the ERA-interim re-analysis data set as well as space- and time-dependent lateral fluxes of temperature, salinity, currents and sea level. Detailed analysis has been done to identify the roles of the surface heat fluxes, and the water mass advection from the Java Sea and northern South China Sea in driving the SST variability over the region. The surface heat flux data set (NOC v2.0) developed by the National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, is also used to

  4. The Conference Proceedings of the 2003 Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) World Conference, Volume 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Gudmundsson, Sveinn (Editor); Oum, Tae (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    The UNO Aviation Institute Monograph Series began in 1994 as a key component of the education outreach and information transfer missions of the Aviation Institute and the NASA Nebraska Space Grant & EPSCoR Programs. The series is an outlet for aviation materials to be indexed and disseminated through an efficient medium. Publications are welcome in all aspects of aviation. Publication formats may include, but are not limited to, conference proceedings, bibliographies, research reports, manuals, technical reports, and other documents that should be archived and indexed for future reference by the aviation and world wide communities. The Conference proceedings of the 2003 Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) world conference, volume 5 is presented. The topics include: 1) The Temporal Configuration of Airline Networks in Europe; 2) Determination and Applications of Environmental Costs at Different Sized Airports-Aircraft Noise and Engine Emissions; 3) Cost Effective Measures to Reduce CO2 Emissions in the Air Freight Sector; 4) An Assessment of the Sustainability of Air Transport System: Quantification of Indicators; 5) Regulation, Competition and Network Evolution in Aviation; 6) Regulation in the Air: Price and Frequency Cap; 7) Industry Consolidation and Future Airline Network Structures in Europe; 8) Application of Core Theory to the U.S. Airline Industry; 9) Air Freight Transshipment Route Choice Analysis; 10) A Fuzzy Approach of the Competition on Air Transport Market; and 11) Developing Passenger Demand Models for International Aviation from/to Egypt: A Case Study of Cairo Airport and Egyptair.

  5. A Distributed Simulation Facility to Support Human Factors Research in Advanced Air Transportation Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amonlirdviman, Keith; Farley, Todd C.; Hansman, R. John, Jr.; Ladik, John F.; Sherer, Dana Z.

    1998-01-01

    A distributed real-time simulation of the civil air traffic environment developed to support human factors research in advanced air transportation technology is presented. The distributed environment is based on a custom simulation architecture designed for simplicity and flexibility in human experiments. Standard Internet protocols are used to create the distributed environment, linking all advanced cockpit simulator, all Air Traffic Control simulator, and a pseudo-aircraft control and simulation management station. The pseudo-aircraft control station also functions as a scenario design tool for coordinating human factors experiments. This station incorporates a pseudo-pilot interface designed to reduce workload for human operators piloting multiple aircraft simultaneously in real time. The application of this distributed simulation facility to support a study of the effect of shared information (via air-ground datalink) on pilot/controller shared situation awareness and re-route negotiation is also presented.

  6. NASA Langley and NLR Research of Distributed Air/Ground Traffic Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballin, Mark G.; Hoekstra, Jacco M.; Wing, David J.; Lohr, Gary W.

    2002-01-01

    Distributed Air/Ground Traffic Management (DAG-TM) is a concept of future air traffic operations that proposes to distribute information, decision-making authority, and responsibility among flight crews, the air traffic service provider, and aeronautical operational control organizations. This paper provides an overview and status of DAG-TM research at NASA Langley Research Center and the National Aerospace Laboratory of The Netherlands. Specific objectives of the research are to evaluate the technical and operational feasibility of the autonomous airborne component of DAG-TM, which is founded on the operational paradigm of free flight. The paper includes an overview of research approaches, the airborne technologies under development, and a summary of experimental investigations and findings to date. Although research is not yet complete, these findings indicate that free flight is feasible and will significantly enhance system capacity and safety. While free flight cannot alone resolve the complex issues faced by those modernizing the global airspace, it should be considered an essential part of a comprehensive air traffic management modernization activity.

  7. Mexico City air quality research initiative. Volume 2, Problem definition, background, and summary of prior research

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    Air pollution in Mexico City has increased along with the growth of the city, the movement of its population, and the growth of employment created by industry. The main cause of pollution in the city is energy consumption. Therefore, it is necessary to take into account the city`s economic development and its prospects when considering the technological relationships between well-being and energy consumption. Air pollution in the city from dust and other particles suspended in the air is an old problem. However, pollution as we know it today began about 50 years ago with the growth of industry, transportation, and population. The level of well-being attained in Mexico City implies a high energy use that necessarily affects the valley`s natural air quality. However, the pollution has grown so fast that the City must act urgently on three fronts: first, following a comprehensive strategy, transform the economic foundation of the city with nonpolluting activities to replace the old industries, second, halt pollution growth through the development of better technologies; and third, use better fuels, emission controls, and protection of wooded areas.

  8. The effect of SST emissions on the earth's ozone layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitten, R. C.; Turco, R. P.

    1974-01-01

    The work presented here is directed toward assessment of environmental effects of the supersonic transport (SST). The model used for the purpose includes vertical eddy transport and the photochemistry of the O-H-N system. It is found that the flight altitude has a pronounced effect on ozone depletion. The largest ozone reduction occurs for NO deposition above an altitude of 20 km.

  9. Air pollutant interactions with vegetation: research needs in data acquisition and interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Lindberg, S. E.; McLauglin, S. B.

    1980-01-01

    The objective of this discussion is to consider problems involved in the acquisition, interpretation, and application of data collected in studies of air pollutant interactions with the terrestrial environment. Emphasis will be placed on a critical evaluation of current deficiencies and future research needs by addressing the following questions: (1) which pollutants are either sufficiently toxic, pervasive, or persistent to warrant the expense of monitoring and effects research; (2) what are the interactions of multiple pollutants during deposition and how do these influence toxicity; (3) how de we collect, report, and interpret deposition and air quality data to ensure its maximum utility in assessment of potential regional environmental effects; (4) what processes do we study, and how are they measured to most efficiently describe the relationship between air quality dose and ultimate impacts on terrestrial ecosystems; and (5) how do we integrate site-specific studies into regional estimates of present and potential environmental degradation (or benefit).

  10. Merging of multi-temporal SST data at South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, H. G.; MatJafri, M. Z.; Abdullah, K.; Lim, H. S.

    2008-10-01

    The sea surface temperature (SST) mapping could be performed with a wide spatial and temporal extent in a reasonable time limit. The space-borne sensor of AVHRR was widely used for the purpose. However, the current SST retrieval techniques for infrared channels were limited only for the cloud-free area, because the electromagnetic waves in the infrared wavelengths could not penetrate the cloud. Therefore, the SST availability was low for the single image. To overcome this problem, we studied to produce the composite of three day's SST map. The diurnal changes of SST data are quite stable through a short period of time if no abrupt natural disaster occurrence. Therefore, the SST data of three consecutive days with nearly coincident daily time were merged in order to create a three day's composite SST data. The composite image could increase the SST availability. In this study, we acquired the level 1b AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) images from Malaysia Center of Remote Sensing (MACRES). The images were first preprocessed and the cloud and land areas were masked. We made some modifications on the technique of obtaining the threshold value for cloud masking. The SST was estimated by using the day split MCSST algorithm. The cloud free water pixels availability were computed and compared. The mean of SST for three day's composite data were calculated and a SST map was generated. The cloud free water pixels availability were computed and compared. The SST data availability was increased by merging the SST data.

  11. FAA/NASA Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research, 1992-1993

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrell, Frederick R. (Compiler)

    1994-01-01

    The research conducted during the academic year 1992-1993 under the FAA/NASA sponsored Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research is summarized. The year end review was held at Ohio University, Athens, Ohio, 17-18 June 1993. The Joint University Program is a coordinated set of three grants sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration and NASA Langley Research Center, one each with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Ohio University, and Princeton University. Completed works, status reports, and annotated bibliographies are presented for research topics, which include navigation, guidance, and control theory and practice, aircraft performance, human factors and air traffic management. An overview of the year's activities for each university is also presented.

  12. Assessment of SMOS Salinity and SST in the Aegean Sea (Greece) and correlations with MODIS SST measurements. Exploring the SSS and SST correlation to 137Cs inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sykioti, Olga; Florou, Heleni

    2014-05-01

    A program concept has been developed to utilize sea surface salinity (SSS) and sea surface temperature (SST) information for the inventory of artificial radionuclides, which are conservative and part of the sea salinity. As a pilot study, activity concentrations of 137Cs in the Aegean Sea (Greece) are combined to SMOS and other satellite data so as to develop an innovative tool for the remote radioactivity detection either for routine observations and emergency recordings. The presented first results are a part of an effort to attempt for the integration in space and time of field measurements to the respective satellite observations of salinity variations by model simulations, which might be also applicable for the prediction of the radiological impact of potential accidental events. The presented results involve the first assessment of SMOS SSS and SST measurements over the Aegean Sea. SMOS measurements are averaged over a surface of 40x40 sq km at an average distance of 100 km from the coastline. For this reason, totally thirty nine pixels from SMOS Level 2 data cover part of the Aegean Sea. Two time series are created that include all available measurements spanning December 2011 to current date, from descending and ascending passes, each one representing an acquisition frequency of about three days. The average SSS values in the Aegean Sea are 37-38psu following no distinct seasonal pattern. A general trend of increasing values is observed from north to south. Noise and uncertainty in the measurements are most probably due to land and RFI contamination. High island density is combined with radiofrequency interferences generated by illegal man-made emissions. The latter is a detected common issue in specific areas worldwide, such as the Mediterranean Sea. On the other hand, SST follows a clear typical seasonal variation pattern with maximum values observed in August and minimum ones around March and a general trend of increasing values from north to south

  13. STEAM ENHANCED REMEDIATION RESEARCH FOR DNAPL IN FRACTURED ROCK, LORING AIR FORCE BASE, LIMESTONE, MAINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report details a research project on Steam Enhanced Remediation (SER) for the recovery of volatile organic compounds from fractured limestone that was carried out at the Quarry at the former Loring Air Force Base in Limestone, Maine. This project was carried out by USEPA, Ma...

  14. The Eighth Annual Air Pollution Medical Research Conference, Los Angeles, March 2-4, 1966.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archives of Environmental Health, 1967

    1967-01-01

    Papers read before the Eighth Annual American Medical Association Air Pollution Medical Research Conference, Los Angeles, California, March 2-4, 1966, are presented in this document. Topics deal with basic approaches to the study of the effects of inhaled irritants on the lung; environmental parameters in relation to host responses; biological…

  15. 75 FR 9894 - Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-04

    .... This designation is made under the provisions of 40 CFR part 53, as amended on November 12, 2008 (73 FR... AGENCY Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of One New Equivalent Method AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice of...

  16. 75 FR 22126 - Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    ... November 12, 2008 (73 FR 67057-67059). The new equivalent method for O 3 is an automated method that... AGENCY Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of One New Equivalent Method AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice of...

  17. 75 FR 45627 - Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ... of 40 CFR part 53, as amended on November 12, 2008 (73 FR 67057-67059). The new equivalent method for... AGENCY Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of One New Equivalent Method AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice of...

  18. 75 FR 51039 - Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ... provisions of 40 CFR Part 53, as amended on November 12, 2008 (73 FR 67057-67059). The new PM 10 equivalent... AGENCY Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of Two New Equivalent Methods AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice of...

  19. 76 FR 62402 - Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... provisions of 40 CFR part 53, as amended on June 22, 2010 (75 FR 35597). The new O 3 equivalent method is an... AGENCY Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods; Designation of One New Equivalent Method AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice of...

  20. Progress in aeronautical research and technology applicable to civil air transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bower, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    Recent progress in the aeronautical research and technology program being conducted by the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration is discussed. Emphasis is on computational capability, new testing facilities, drag reduction, turbofan and turboprop propulsion, noise, composite materials, active controls, integrated avionics, cockpit displays, flight management, and operating problems. It is shown that this technology is significantly impacting the efficiency of the new civil air transports. The excitement of emerging research promises even greater benefits to future aircraft developments.

  1. The ASTRI SST-2M prototype for the Cherenkov Telescope Array: prototype technologies goals and strategies for the future SST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchiori, Gianpietro; Busatta, Andrea; Giacomel, Stefano; Folla, Ivan; Valsecchi, Marco; Canestrari, Rodolfo; Bonnoli, Giacomo; Cascone, Enrico; Conconi, Paolo; Fiorini, Mauro; Giro, Enrico; La Palombara, Nicola; Pareschi, Giovanni; Perri, Luca; Rodeghiero, Gabriele; Sironi, Giorgia; Stringhetti, Luca; Toso, Giorgio; Tosti, Gino; Pellicciari, Carlo

    2014-07-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) observatory will represent the next generation of Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescope. Using a combination of large-, medium-, and small-scale telescopes (LST, MST, SST, respectively), it will explore the Very High Energy domain from a few tens of GeVup to about few hundreds of TeV with unprecedented sensitivity, angular resolution and imaging quality. In this framework, the Italian ASTRI program, led by the Italian National Institute of Astrophysics (INAF) developed a 4-meter class telescope, which will adopt an aplanatic, wide-field, double-reflection optical layout in a Schwarzschild- Couder configuration. Within this program INAF assigned to the consortium between Galbiati Group and EIE Group the construction, assembly and tests activities of the prototype named ASTRI SST-2M. On the basis of the lesson learnt from the prototype, other telescopes will be produced, starting from a re-design phase, in order to optimize performances and the overall costs and production schedule for the CTA-SST telescope. This paper will firstly give an overview of the concept for the SST prototype mount structure. In this contest, the technologies adopted for the design, manufacturing and tests of the entire system will be presented. Moreover, a specific focus on the challenges of the prototype and the strategies associated with it will be provided, in order to outline the near future performance goals for this type of Cherenkov telescopes employed for Gamma ray science.

  2. A Review of Epidemiological Research on Adverse Neurological Effects of Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiaohui; Ha, Sandie Uyen; Basnet, Rakshya

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing body of epidemiological research reporting the neurological effects of ambient air pollution. We examined current evidence, identified the strengths and weaknesses of published epidemiological studies, and suggest future directions for research in this area. Studies were identified through a systematic search of online scientific databases, in addition to a manual search of the reference lists from the identified papers. Despite being a relatively new area of investigation, overall, there is mounting evidence implicating adverse effects of air pollution on neurobehavioral function in both adults and children. Further research is needed to expand our understanding of these relationships, including improvement in the accuracy of exposure assessments; focusing on specific toxicants and their relationships to specific health endpoints, such as neurodevelopmental disorders and neurodegenerative diseases; investigating the combined neurological effects of multiple air pollutants; and further exploration of genetic susceptibility for neurotoxicity of air pollution. In order to achieve these goals collaborative efforts are needed from multidisciplinary teams, including experts in toxicology, biostatistics, geographical science, epidemiology, and neurology. PMID:27547751

  3. A Review of Epidemiological Research on Adverse Neurological Effects of Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaohui; Ha, Sandie Uyen; Basnet, Rakshya

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing body of epidemiological research reporting the neurological effects of ambient air pollution. We examined current evidence, identified the strengths and weaknesses of published epidemiological studies, and suggest future directions for research in this area. Studies were identified through a systematic search of online scientific databases, in addition to a manual search of the reference lists from the identified papers. Despite being a relatively new area of investigation, overall, there is mounting evidence implicating adverse effects of air pollution on neurobehavioral function in both adults and children. Further research is needed to expand our understanding of these relationships, including improvement in the accuracy of exposure assessments; focusing on specific toxicants and their relationships to specific health endpoints, such as neurodevelopmental disorders and neurodegenerative diseases; investigating the combined neurological effects of multiple air pollutants; and further exploration of genetic susceptibility for neurotoxicity of air pollution. In order to achieve these goals collaborative efforts are needed from multidisciplinary teams, including experts in toxicology, biostatistics, geographical science, epidemiology, and neurology. PMID:27547751

  4. Evaluation of ocean data assimilation in CAS-ESM-C: Constraining the SST field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Xiao; Lin, Renping; Zhu, Jiang; Lu, Zeting

    2016-07-01

    A weakly coupled assimilation system, in which SST observations are assimilated into a coupled climate model (CASESM-C) through an ensemble optimal interpolation scheme, was established. This system is a useful tool for historical climate simulation, showing substantial advantages, including maintaining the atmospheric feedback, and keeping the oceanic fields from drifting far away from the observation, among others. During the coupled model integration, the bias of both surface and subsurface oceanic fields in the analysis can be reduced compared to unassimilated fields. Based on 30 model years of output from the system, the climatology and interannual variability of the climate system were evaluated. The results showed that the system can reasonably reproduce the climatological global precipitation and SLP, but it still suffers from the double ITCZ problem. Besides, the ENSO footprint, which is revealed by ENSO-related surface air temperature, geopotential height and precipitation during El Niño evolution, is basically reproduced by the system. The system can also simulate the observed SST-rainfall relationships well on both interannual and intraseasonal timescales in the western North Pacific region, in which atmospheric feedback is crucial for climate simulation.

  5. Air Enquirer's multi-sensor boxes as a tool for High School Education and Atmospheric Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morguí, Josep-Anton; Font, Anna; Cañas, Lidia; Vázquez-García, Eusebi; Gini, Andrea; Corominas, Ariadna; Àgueda, Alba; Lobo, Agustin; Ferraz, Carlos; Nofuentes, Manel; Ulldemolins, Delmir; Roca, Alex; Kamnang, Armand; Grossi, Claudia; Curcoll, Roger; Batet, Oscar; Borràs, Silvia; Occhipinti, Paola; Rodó, Xavier

    2016-04-01

    An educational tool was designed with the aim of making more comprehensive the research done on Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) in the ClimaDat Spanish network of atmospheric observation stations (www.climadat.es). This tool is called Air Enquirer and it consist of a multi-sensor box. It is envisaged to build more than two hundred boxes to yield them to the Spanish High Schools through the Education department (www.educaixa.com) of the "Obra Social 'La Caixa'", who funds this research. The starting point for the development of the Air Enquirers was the experience at IC3 (www.ic3.cat) in the CarboSchools+ FP7 project (www.carboschools.cat, www.carboschools.eu). The Air Enquirer's multi-sensor box is based in Arduino's architecture and contains sensors for CO2, temperature, relative humidity, pressure, and both infrared and visible luminance. The Air Enquirer is designed for taking continuous measurements. Every Air Enquirer ensemble of measurements is used to convert values to standard units (water content in ppmv, and CO2 in ppmv_dry). These values are referred to a calibration made with Cavity Ring Down Spectrometry (Picarro®) under different temperature, pressure, humidity and CO2 concentrations. Multiple sets of Air Enquirers are intercalibrated for its use in parallel during the experiments. The different experiments proposed to the students will be outdoor (observational) or indoor (experimental, in the lab) focusing on understanding the biogeochemistry of GHGs in the ecosystems (mainly CO2), the exchange (flux) of gases, the organic matter production, respiration and decomposition processes, the influence of the anthropogenic activities on the gases (and particles) exchanges, and their interaction with the structure and composition of the atmosphere (temperature, water content, cooling and warming processes, radiative forcing, vertical gradients and horizontal patterns). In order to ensure Air Enquirers a high-profile research performance the experimental designs

  6. Remotely-sensed sea surface temperatuares (SST) of Northeaster Pacific Coastal Zones

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sea surface temperature (SST) is an important indicator of long-term trends and geographical temperature patterns; however there have been relatively few long-term records of SST in near-coastal habitats. In situ SST measurements are irregular in both space and time. Therefore, w...

  7. Air Breathing Propulsion Controls and Diagnostics Research at NASA Glenn Under NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garg, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    The Intelligent Control and Autonomy Branch (ICA) at NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio, is leading and participating in various projects in partnership with other organizations within GRC and across NASA, the U.S. aerospace industry, and academia to develop advanced controls and health management technologies that will help meet the goals of the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) Programs. These efforts are primarily under the various projects under the Fundamental Aeronautics Program (FAP) and the Aviation Safety Program (ASP). The ICA Branch is focused on advancing the state-of-the-art of aero-engine control and diagnostics technologies to help improve aviation safety, increase efficiency, and enable operation with reduced emissions. This paper describes the various ICA research efforts under the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Programs with a summary of motivation, background, technical approach, and recent accomplishments for each of the research tasks.

  8. Air pollution and watershed research in the central Sierra Nevada of California: nitrogen and ozone.

    PubMed

    Hunsaker, Carolyn; Bytnerowicz, Andrzej; Auman, Jessica; Cisneros, Ricardo

    2007-01-01

    Maintaining healthy forests is the major objective for the Forest Service scientists and managers working for the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Air pollution, specifically ozone (O3) and nitrogenous (N) air pollutants, may severely affect the health of forest ecosystems in the western U.S. Thus, the monitoring of air pollution concentration and deposition levels, as well as studies focused on understanding effects mechanisms, are essential for evaluation of risks associated with their presence. Such information is essential for development of proper management strategies for maintaining clean air, clean water, and healthy ecosystems on land managed by the Forest Service. We report on two years of research in the central Sierra Nevada of California, a semi-arid forest at elevations of 1100-2700 m. Information on O3 and N air pollutants is obtained from a network of 18 passive samplers. We relate the atmospheric N concentration to N concentrations in streams, shallow soil water, and bulk deposition collectors within the Kings River Experimental Watershed. This watershed also contains an intensive site that is part of a recent Forest Service effort to calculate critical loads for N, sulfur, and acidity to forest ecosystems. The passive sampler design allows for extensive spatial measurements while the watershed experiment provides intensive spatial data for future analysis of ecosystem processes. PMID:17450299

  9. The NASA High-Speed Research Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beam, Sherilee F.

    1992-01-01

    Since its inception, one of NASA's commitments has been to develop the technology to advance aeronautics. As such, a new High-Speed Research Program was activated to develop the technology for industry to build a High-Speed Civil Transport - a second generation Supersonic Transport (SST). The baseline for this program is the British Concorde, a major technological achievement for its time, but an aircraft which is now both technologically and economically outdated. Therefore, a second generation SST must satisfy environmental concerns and still be economically viable. In order to do this, it must have no significant effect on the ozone layer, meet Federal Air Regulation 36, Stage 3 for community noise, and have no perceptible sonic boom over populated areas. These three concerns are the focus of the research efforts in Phase 1 of the program and are the specific areas covered in the technical video report.

  10. Technique for atmospheric rate chemistry calculations. [of SST exhaust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matloff, G. L.

    1976-01-01

    The possibility that predictions of atmospheric photochemistry/transport models are sensitive to uncertainties in reaction rates and other inputs stresses the need for rapid numerical integration schemes in rate photochemistry problems. Reducing the computational burden has a major merit in facilitating sensitivity studies to assess the effect of uncertainties on predicted ozone diminutions from NOx (NO + NO2) in the exhaust plume of SST engines. The paper discusses the validity of an algorithmic approach to integration of rate chemistry problems in combustion, developed by Rubel and Baronti for an approximate calculation of the production rate of the i-th chemical species involved. An analysis of two projected SST engines confirms the validity of the proposed algorithm. Because of the relative arithmetical simplicity, it may be easier to treat diffusion rate chemistry calculations using the Rubel and Baronti approximation than would be possible by other approaches.

  11. Soluble suppression of tumorigenicity 2 (sST2), but not galactin-3, adds to prognostication in patients with systemic AL amyloidosis independent of NT-proBNP and troponin T.

    PubMed

    Dispenzieri, Angela; Gertz, Morie A; Saenger, Amy; Kumar, Shaji K; Lacy, Martha Q; Buadi, Francis K; Dingli, David; Leung, Nelson; Zeldenrust, Steven; Hayman, Suzanne R; Kapoor, Prashant; Grogan, Martha; Hwa, Lisa; Russell, Stephen J; Go, Ronald S; Rajkumar, S Vincent; Kyle, Robert A; Jaffe, Allan

    2015-06-01

    The use of soluble cardiac biomarkers such as N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and troponin has revolutionized prognostication for patients with AL amyloidosis. Soluble ST2 (sST2) and galectin-3 have also been reported to have prognostic value in other cardiac patient populations. We identified 502 patients with AL amyloidosis, who provided a research sample and consent to review their medical records between 1/1/2006-12/31/2010 within 90 days of their diagnosis. Samples were assayed for sST2 and galectin-3. Within this AL amyloidosis population, overall survival (OS) was 25.5 months (95% CI 18, 35.7 months). Receiver operating curve analyses were done to detect the best cut-points for sST2 and galectin-3 to predict both 1- and 5-year OS. The respective cut points for sST2 were 30 and 29.7 ng/mL, while the median sST2 for the entire population was 31 ng/mL (IQR 19.8, 53.6). The respective cut points for galectin-3 were 11 and 10.4 ng/mL while the median for the entire population was 16.6 ng/mL (IQR 11.5, 24.0). Although on univariate analysis, both sST2 and galectin-3 were prognostic, upon multivariate analysis, only sST2 was independent of troponin, NT-proBNP, serum immunoglobulin free light chain, and blood pressure. Not only did sST2 add to previously reported prognostication systems, but a novel prognostication 5-point system including sST2 was possible. The addition of sST2 - but not galectin-3 - to existing prognostication systems for patients with AL amyloidosis strengthens the ability to predict for death. PMID:25753178

  12. MIL-STD-1553B system design in SST application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Ying

    2001-06-01

    In this paper, we will first introduce what is MIL-STD-1553B and why we choose it. Then we will analyze the characteristics and the reliability of this standard. When we use this protocol to implement our SDU system in the SST, we also need to describe the whole system in which the 1553 standard is used. Finally, we will put our most attention on the system design, including hardware interconnection and software program.

  13. Operational and troubleshooting experiences in the SST-1 cryogenic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahesuria, G.; Panchal, P.; Panchal, R.; Patel, R.; Sonara, D.; Gupta, N. C.; Srikanth, G. L. N.; Christian, D.; Garg, A.; Bairagi, N.; Patel, K.; Shah, P.; Nimavat, H.; Sharma, R.; Patel, J. C.; Tank, J.; Tanna, V. L.; Pradhan, S.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the cooldown and current charging campaign have been carried out towards the demonstration of the first successful plasma discharge in the steady state superconducting Tokomak (SST-1). The SST-1 machine consists of cable-in-conduit wound superconducting toroidal as well as poloidal coils, cooled using 1.3 kW at 4.5 K helium refrigerator -cum- liquefier (HRL) system. The cryo system provides the two-phase helium at 0.13 MPa at 4.5 K as well as forced-flow pressurized helium at 0.4 MPa and in addition to 7 g-s-1 liquefaction capacity required for the current leads and other cold mass at 4.5 K. The entire integrated cold masses having different thermo hydraulic resistances cooled with the SST-1 HRL in optimised process parameters. In order to maintain different levels of temperatures and to facilitate smooth and reliable cooldown, warm-up, normal operations as well as to handle abnormal events such as, quench or utilities failures etc., exergy efficient process are adopted for the helium refrigerator-cum-liquefier (HRL) with an installed equivalent capacity of 1.3 kW at 4.5 K. Using the HRL, the cold mass of about 40 tons is being routinely cooled down from ambient temperature to 4.5 K with an average cooldown rate of 0.75 - 1 K-h-1. Long-term cryogenic stable conditions were obtained within 15 days in the superconducting coils and their connecting feeders. Afterwards, all of the cold mass is warmed-up in a controlled manner to ambient temperature. In this paper, we report the recent operational results of the cryogenic system during the first plasma discharge in SST-1 as well as the troubleshooting experiences of the cryogenic plant related hardware.

  14. SST Variation Due to Interactive Convective-Radiative Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, W.-K.; Shie, C.-L.; Johnson, D.; Simpson, J.; Li, X.; Sui, C.-H.

    2000-01-01

    The recent linking of Cloud-Resolving Models (CRMs) to Ocean-Mixed Layer (OML) models has provided a powerful new means of quantifying the role of cloud systems in ocean-atmosphere coupling. This is due to the fact that the CRM can better resolve clouds and cloud systems and allow for explicit cloud-radiation interaction. For example, Anderson (1997) applied an atmospheric forcing associated with a CRM simulated squall line to a 3-D OML model (one way or passive interaction). His results suggested that the spatial variability resulting from the squall forcing can last at least 24 hours when forced with otherwise spatially uniform fluxes. In addition, the sea surface salinity (SSS) variability continuously decreased following the forcing, while some of the SST variability remained when a diurnal mixed layer capped off the surface structure. The forcing used in the OML model, however, focused on shorter time (8 h) and smaller spatial scales (100-120 km). In this study, the 3-D Goddard Cumulus Ensemble Model (GCE; 512 x 512 x 23 cu km, 2-km horizontal resolution) is used to simulate convective active episodes occurring in the Western Pacific warm pool and Eastern Atlantic regions. The model is integrated for seven days, and the simulated results are coupled to an OML model to better understand the impact of precipitation and changes in the planetary boundary layer upon SST variation. We will specifically examine and compare the results of linking the OML model with various spatially-averaged outputs from GCE simulations (i.e., 2 km vs. 10-50 km horizontal resolutions), in order to help understand the SST sensitivity to multi-scale influences. This will allow us to assess the importance of explicitly simulated deep and shallow clouds, as well as the subgrid-scale effects (in coarse-model runs) upon SST variation. Results using both 1-D and 2-D OML models will be evaluated to assess the effects of horizontal advection.

  15. Stratospheric ozone - Fragile shield. [SST exhausts and Freons impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffert, M. I.; Stewart, R. W.

    1975-01-01

    Atmospheric models that have been used in major studies on the possible impact of SST exhausts and Freons on stratospheric ozone are discussed and compared. An overview is given of ozone-reduction estimates that they produce, together with an assessment of possible effects of atmospheric testing of thermonuclear bombs in an attempt to find direct observational evidence for ozone depletion resulting from human activities. It is concluded that clear validation of atmospheric-model predictions is lacking.

  16. Using SST, PDO and SOI for Streamflow Reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bukhary, S. S.; Kalra, A.; Ahmad, S.

    2015-12-01

    Recurring droughts in southwestern U.S. particularly California, have strained the existing water reserves of the region. Frequency, severity and duration of these recurring drought events may not be captured by the available instrumental records. Thus streamflow reconstruction becomes imperative to identify the historic hydroclimatic extremes of a region and assists in developing better water management strategies, vital for sustainability of water reserves. Tree ring chronologies (TRC) are conventionally used to reconstruct streamflows, since tree rings are representative of climatic information. Studies have shown that sea surface temperature (SST) and climate indices of southern oscillation index (SOI) and pacific decadal oscillation (PDO) influence U.S. streamflow volumes. The purpose of this study was to improve the traditional reconstruction methodology by incorporating the oceanic-atmospheric variables of PDO, SOI, and Pacific Ocean SST, alongwith TRC as predictors in a step-wise linear regression model. The methodology of singular value decomposition was used to identify teleconnected regions of streamflow and SST. The approach was tested on eleven gage stations in Sacramento River Basin (SRB) and San Joaquin River Basin (JRB). The reconstructions were successfully generated from 1800-1980, having an overlap period of 1932-1980. Improved results were exhibited when using the predictor variable of SST along with TRC (calibration r2=0.6-0.91) compared to when using TRC in combination with SOI and PDO (calibration r2=0.51-0.78) or when using TRC by itself (calibration r2=0.51-0.86). For future work, this approach can be replicated for other watersheds by using the oceanic-atmospheric climate variables influencing that region.

  17. Tropical inter-annual SST oscillations and Southern Ocean swells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Yalin; Rogers, Erick; Jensen, Tommy

    2016-04-01

    The possibility of teleconnections between Southern Ocean swells and sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies on inter-annual time scales in the Eastern Pacific Niño3 region and southeastern Indian Ocean is investigated using numerical wave models. Two alternative parameterizations for swell dissipation are used. It is found that swell dissipation in the models is not directly correlated with large inter-annual variations such as the El Nino - Southern Oscillation (ENSO) or Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD). However, using one of the two swell dissipation parameterizations, a correlation is found between observed SST anomalies and the modification of turbulent kinetic energy flux (TKEF) by Southern Ocean swells due to the damping of short wind waves: modeled reduction of TKEF is in opposite phase with the SST anomalies in the Niño-3 region, indicating a potential positive feedback. The modeled bi-monthly averaged TKEF reduction in the southeastern Indian Ocean is also well correlated with the IOD mode.

  18. Future Directions of Supersonic Combustion Research: Air Force/NASA Workshop on Supersonic Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tishkoff, Julian M.; Drummond, J. Philip; Edwards, Tim; Nejad, Abdollah S.

    1997-01-01

    The Air Force Office of Scientific Research, the Air Force Wright Laboratory Aero Propulsion and Power Directorate, and the NASA Langley Research Center held a joint supersonic combustion workshop on 14-16 May 1996. The intent of this meeting was to: (1) examine the current state-of-the-art in hydrocarbon and/or hydrogen fueled scramjet research; (2) define the future direction and needs of basic research in support of scramjet technology; and (3) when appropriate, help transition basic research findings to solve the needs of developmental engineering programs in the area of supersonic combustion and fuels. A series of topical sessions were planned. Opening presentations were designed to focus and encourage group discussion and scientific exchange. The last half-day of the workshop was set aside for group discussion of the issues that were raised during the meeting for defining future research opportunities and directions. The following text attempts to summarize the discussions that took place at the workshop.

  19. Investigating the Physical Basis of Aquarius/SAC-D Salinity Retrievals' Regional SST Bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, J. P.; Meissner, T.; Wentz, F. J.

    2014-12-01

    Sea-surface temperature (SST) plays an important, and yet to be fully understood, role in sea-surface sailinty (SSS) retrievals. The Version-3 release of Aquarius/SAC-D salinity retrievals applied an empirically derived adjustment to SSS that is a function of SST. This adjustment was derived after noticing regional salinity biases relative to modeled and in situ salinity observations. These SSS biases correlate well with climatological SST maps. While the ΔSSS(SST) adjustment has already been implemented in the ADPS standard processing, there is great value in determining the physical basis of this bias adjustment. Understanding the root causes of this adjustment will enable improved Aquarius's salinity retrievals, as well as ensure that no true SSS-SST correlations or variability are being removed by the adjustment. There are several factors contributing to the ΔSSS(SST) adjustment, which may be classified into direct, correlated, and indirect effects. Direct effects include the dependence of the sea-water dielectric constant on SST and the dependence of the roughness model on SST. Correlated effects include a small mis-modeling of the atmospheric oxygen absorption, which correlates with SST. Indirect effects include other errors sources such as reflected galactic radiation and RFI that produce ocean-basin-wide anomalies that are being misinterpreted as an SST effect. This presentation will demonstrate how the ΔSSS(SST) adjustment was derived, as well as present our findings regarding the physical basis of this adjustment.

  20. North American Tropical Cyclone Landfall and SST: A Statistical Model Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Timothy; Yonekura, Emmi

    2013-01-01

    A statistical-stochastic model of the complete life cycle of North Atlantic (NA) tropical cyclones (TCs) is used to examine the relationship between climate and landfall rates along the North American Atlantic and Gulf Coasts. The model draws on archived data of TCs throughout the North Atlantic to estimate landfall rates at high geographic resolution as a function of the ENSO state and one of two different measures of sea surface temperature (SST): 1) SST averaged over the NA subtropics and the hurricane season and 2) this SST relative to the seasonal global subtropical mean SST (termed relSST). Here, the authors focus on SST by holding ENSO to a neutral state. Jackknife uncertainty tests are employed to test the significance of SST and relSST landfall relationships. There are more TC and major hurricane landfalls overall in warm years than cold, using either SST or relSST, primarily due to a basinwide increase in the number of storms. The signal along the coast, however, is complex. Some regions have large and significant sensitivity (e.g., an approximate doubling of annual major hurricane landfall probability on Texas from -2 to +2 standard deviations in relSST), while other regions have no significant sensitivity (e.g., the U.S. mid-Atlantic and Northeast coasts). This geographic structure is due to both shifts in the regions of primary TC genesis and shifts in TC propagation.

  1. Comparison of Profiling Microwave Radiometer, Aircraft, and Radiosonde Measurements From the Alliance Icing Research Study (AIRS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reehorst, Andrew L.

    2001-01-01

    Measurements from a profiling microwave radiometer are compared to measurements from a research aircraft and radiosondes. Data compared is temperature, water vapor, and liquid water profiles. Data was gathered at the Alliance Icing Research Study (AIRS) at Mirabel Airport outside Montreal, Canada during December 1999 and January 2000. All radiometer measurements were found to lose accuracy when the radome was wet. When the radome was not wetted, the radiometer was seen to indicate an inverted distribution of liquid water within a cloud. When the radiometer measurements were made at 15 deg. instead of the standard zenith, the measurements were less accurate.

  2. The effect of hypophysectomy and growth hormone replacement on sst1 and sst2 somatostatin receptor subtype messenger ribonucleic acids in the arcuate nucleus.

    PubMed

    Guo, F; Beaudet, A; Tannenbaum, G S

    1996-09-01

    Although considerable evidence indicates that somatostatin (SRIF) exerts direct actions on GH-releasing hormone-containing arcuate neurons within the hypothalamus to modulate hypophyseal GH secretion, the underlying mechanism(s) remains to be elucidated. We recently demonstrated high levels of expression of the messenger RNAs (mRNAs) coding for two prototypic receptors of the recently cloned SRIF receptor (sst) family, sst1 and sst2, in the arcuate nucleus of the rat hypothalamus. However, information on the biological roles of these receptor subtypes and the factors regulating their expression is lacking. In the present study, we hypothesized that perturbations in GH would influence sst mRNA levels in cells of the arcuate nucleus in vivo. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effects of hypophysectomy (HPX) and HPX with GH replacement, on sst1 and sst2 mRNA levels in the brains of adult male rats by in situ hybridization using 35S-labeled antisense riboprobes. The number of labeled cells and the density of silver grains per cell were quantified using a computer-assisted image analysis system. Two weeks after HPX, there was a 50-60% reduction in both the number and labeling density of sst1 and sst2 mRNA-expressing cells in the arcuate nucleus compared to those in sham-operated control rats. Administration of recombinant human GH (200 micrograms/day for 7 days by continuous sc infusion using osmotic minipumps) to HPX rats augmented both the cell number (P < 0.05) and labeling density (P < 0.01) of sst1 mRNA in the arcuate nucleus, but did not significantly alter sst2 mRNA levels compared to those in HPX rats infused with H2O. There were no significant changes in sst1 and sst2 mRNA levels in extra-arcuate areas, including the cerebral cortex and medial habenula, or in suprachiasmatic, medial preoptic, and magnocellular preoptic nuclei after either HPX or GH replacement. These results indicate that the expression of both sst1 and sst2 SRIF receptor subtypes in

  3. Air Breathing Propulsion Controls and Diagnostics Research at NASA Glenn Under NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garg, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    This lecture will provide an overview of the aircraft turbine engine control research at NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Glenn Research Center (GRC). A brief introduction to the engine control problem is first provided with a description of the current state-of-the-art control law structure. A historical aspect of engine control development since the 1940s is then provided with a special emphasis on the contributions of GRC. The traditional engine control problem has been to provide a means to safely transition the engine from one steady-state operating point to another based on the pilot throttle inputs. With the increased emphasis on aircraft safety, enhanced performance and affordability, and the need to reduce the environmental impact of aircraft, there are many new challenges being faced by the designers of aircraft propulsion systems. The Controls and Dynamics Branch (CDB) at GRC is leading and participating in various projects in partnership with other organizations within GRC and across NASA, other government agencies, the U.S. aerospace industry, and academia to develop advanced propulsion controls and diagnostics technologies that will help meet the challenging goals of NASA programs under the Aeronautics Research Mission. The second part of the lecture provides an overview of the various CDB technology development activities in aircraft engine control and diagnostics, both current and some accomplished in the recent past. The motivation for each of the research efforts, the research approach, technical challenges and the key progress to date are summarized. The technologies to be discussed include system level engine control concepts, gas path diagnostics, active component control, and distributed engine control architecture. The lecture will end with a futuristic perspective of how the various current technology developments will lead to an Intelligent and Autonomous Propulsion System requiring none to very minimum pilot interface

  4. Tu-144LL SST Flying Laboratory Side View of Nose, with a TU-144D on Ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    A Tupolev Tu-144D supersonic jetliner is framed by the drooped nose and forward fuselage of the Tu-144LL supersonic flying laboratory at the Zhukovsky Air Development Center near Moscow, Russia, in 1998. NASA teamed with American and Russian aerospace industries for an extended period in a joint international research program featuring the Russian-built Tu-144LL supersonic aircraft. The object of the program was to develop technologies for a proposed future second-generation supersonic airliner to be developed in the 21st Century. The aircraft's initial flight phase began in June 1996 and concluded in February 1998 after 19 research flights. A shorter follow-on program involving seven flights began in September 1998 and concluded in April 1999. All flights were conducted in Russia from Tupolev's facility at the Zhukovsky Air Development Center near Moscow. The centerpiece of the research program was the Tu 144LL, a first-generation Russian supersonic jetliner that was modified by its developer/builder, Tupolev ANTK (aviatsionnyy nauchno-tekhnicheskiy kompleks-roughly, aviation technical complex), into a flying laboratory for supersonic research. Using the Tu-144LL to conduct flight research experiments, researchers compared full-scale supersonic aircraft flight data with results from models in wind tunnels, computer-aided techniques, and other flight tests. The experiments provided unique aerodynamic, structures, acoustics, and operating environment data on supersonic passenger aircraft. Data collected from the research program was being used to develop the technology base for a proposed future American-built supersonic jetliner. Although actual development of such an advanced supersonic transport (SST) is currently on hold, commercial aviation experts estimate that a market for up to 500 such aircraft could develop by the third decade of the 21st Century. The Tu-144LL used in the NASA-sponsored research program was a 'D' model with different engines than were used

  5. Research Reactor Preparations for the Air Shipment of Highly Enriched Uranium from Romania

    SciTech Connect

    K. J. Allen; I. Bolshinsky; L. L. Biro; M. E. Budu; N. V. Zamfir; M. Dragusin; C. Paunoiu; M. Ciocanescu

    2010-03-01

    In June 2009 two air shipments transported both unirradiated (fresh) and irradiated (spent) Russian-origin highly enriched uranium (HEU) nuclear fuel from two research reactors in Romania to the Russian Federation for conversion to low enriched uranium. The Institute for Nuclear Research at Pitesti (SCN Pitesti) shipped 30.1 kg of HEU fresh fuel pellets to Dimitrovgrad, Russia and the Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN-HH) shipped 23.7 kilograms of HEU spent fuel assemblies from the VVR S research reactor at Magurele, Romania, to Chelyabinsk, Russia. Both HEU shipments were coordinated by the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return Program (RRRFR) as part of the U.S. Department of Energy Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI), were managed in Romania by the National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control (CNCAN), and were conducted in cooperation with the Russian Federation State Corporation Rosatom and the International Atomic Energy Agency. Both shipments were transported by truck to and from respective commercial airports in Romania and the Russian Federation and stored at secure nuclear facilities in Russia until the material is converted into low enriched uranium. These shipments resulted in Romania becoming the 3rd country under the RRRFR program and the 14th country under the GTRI program to remove all HEU. This paper describes the research reactor preparations and license approvals that were necessary to safely and securely complete these air shipments of nuclear fuel.

  6. The assessment of contributions of SST anomalies to the interannual variability of winter extreme precipitation in Southeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Fraedrich, K.; Zhu, X.; Sielmann, F.; Zhi, X.

    2014-12-01

    Tropical SST anomalies are among the largest drivers of circulation regime changes on interannual time scales due to its characteristic heat capacity decay time scales. The with extreme precipitation associated circulation anomalies and the corresponding atmospheric response to SST anomalies are derived from ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalysis data by employing composite analysis and lagged maximum covariance analysis (MCA). The results show that the interannual variability of extreme winter precipitation in Southeast China is in close accordance with the interannual variability of total winter precipitation. Both are associated with similar abnormal circulation regimes, but for extreme precipitation events the circulation anomalies are significantly intensified. In addition, two main moisture transport channels are captured: one extends from the North Indian Ocean through India and the Bay of Bengal to South China, and the other from the West Pacific Ocean through Maritime Continent and South China Sea towards South China, which are related to the preceding autumn SST patterns, El Niño and the Indian Ocean dipole (IOD), respectively. El Niño (La Niña) SST anomalies induce anomalous anticyclonic (cyclonic) circulation over Philippine Sea, which is favorable (unfavorable) to warm and humid air transport to South China from the tropical West Pacific by southwesterly (northeasterly) anomalies. Under these circulations, northeasterlies of East Asian Winter Monsoon are weakened (strengthened) resulting in extreme precipitation to be more (less) frequent in Southeast China. During the positive (negative) IOD phase, abundant (reduced) moisture transport to South China from tropical regions through India and Bay of Bengal is observed due to the weakened (strengthened) Walker circulations and abnormal anticyclonic (cyclonic) circulation over India, leading to a higher (lower) likelihood for extreme precipitation events in Southeast China.

  7. The Aqua-planet Experiment (APE): Response to Changed Meridional SST Profile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williamson, David L.; Blackburn, Michael; Nakajima, Kensuke; Ohfuchi, Wataru; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki O.; Hayashi, Yoshi-Yuki; Nakamura, Hisashi; Ishiwatari, Masaki; Mcgregor, John L.; Borth, Hartmut; Wirth, Volkmar; Frank, Helmut; Bechtold, Peter; Wedi, Nils P.; Tomita, Hirofumi; Satoh, Masaki; Zhao, Ming; Held, Isaac M.; Suarez, Max J.; Lee, Myong-In; Watanabe, Masahiro; Kimoto, Masahide; Liu, Yimin; Wang, Zaizhi; Molod, Andrew; RajenDran, Kavirajan; Kitoh, Akio; Stratton, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the sensitivity of Atmospheric General Circulation Model (AGCM) simulations to changes in the meridional distribution of sea surface temperature (SST). The simulations are for an aqua-planet, a water covered Earth with no land, orography or sea- ice and with specified zonally symmetric SST. Simulations from 14 AGCMs developed for Numerical Weather Prediction and climate applications are compared. Four experiments are performed to study the sensitivity to the meridional SST profile. These profiles range from one in which the SST gradient continues to the equator to one which is flat approaching the equator, all with the same maximum SST at the equator. The zonal mean circulation of all models shows strong sensitivity to latitudinal distribution of SST. The Hadley circulation weakens and shifts poleward as the SST profile flattens in the tropics. One question of interest is the formation of a double versus a single ITCZ. There is a large variation between models of the strength of the ITCZ and where in the SST experiment sequence they transition from a single to double ITCZ. The SST profiles are defined such that as the equatorial SST gradient flattens, the maximum gradient increases and moves poleward. This leads to a weakening of the mid-latitude jet accompanied by a poleward shift of the jet core. Also considered are tropical wave activity and tropical precipitation frequency distributions. The details of each vary greatly between models, both with a given SST and in the response to the change in SST. One additional experiment is included to examine the sensitivity to an off-equatorial SST maximum. The upward branch of the Hadley circulation follows the SST maximum off the equator. The models that form a single precipitation maximum when the maximum SST is on the equator shift the precipitation maximum off equator and keep it centered over the SST maximum. Those that form a double with minimum on the equatorial maximum SST shift the double

  8. Research into acetone removal from air by biofiltration using a biofilter with straight structure plates

    PubMed Central

    Baltrėnas, Pranas; Zagorskis, Alvydas; Misevičius, Antonas

    2015-01-01

    The biological air treatment method is based on the biological destruction of organic compounds using certain cultures of microorganisms. This method is simple and may be applied in many branches of industry. The main element of biological air treatment devices is a filter charge. Tests were carried out using a new-generation laboratory air purifier with a plate structure. This purifier is called biofilter. The biofilter has a special system for packing material humidification which does not require additional energy inputs. In order to extend the packing material's durability, it was composed of thermally treated birch fibre. Pollutant (acetone) biodegradation occurred on thermally treated wood fibre in this research. According to the performed tests and the received results, the process of biodestruction was highly efficient. When acetone was passed through biofilter's packing material at 0.08 m s−1 rate, the efficiency of the biofiltration process was from 70% up to 90%. The species of bacteria capable of removing acetone vapour from the air, i.e. Bacillus (B. cereus, B. subtilis), Pseudomonas (P. aeruginosa, P. putida), Stapylococcus (S. aureus) and Rhodococcus sp., was identified in this study during the process of biofiltration. Their amount in the biological packing material changed from 1.6 × 107 to 3.7 × 1011 CFU g−1. PMID:26019659

  9. IMPACT OF AN OZONE GENERATOR AIR CLEANER ON STYRENE CONCENTRATIONS IN AN INDOOR AIR QUALITY RESEARCH CHAMBER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of an investigation of the impact of an ozone generator air cleaner on vapor-phase styrene concentrations in a full-scale indoor air quality test chamber. The time history of the concentrations of styrene and ozone is well predicted by a simulation model u...

  10. Atmospheric and oceanographic research review, 1978. [global weather, ocean/air interactions, and climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Research activities related to global weather, ocean/air interactions, and climate are reported. The global weather research is aimed at improving the assimilation of satellite-derived data in weather forecast models, developing analysis/forecast models that can more fully utilize satellite data, and developing new measures of forecast skill to properly assess the impact of satellite data on weather forecasting. The oceanographic research goal is to understand and model the processes that determine the general circulation of the oceans, focusing on those processes that affect sea surface temperature and oceanic heat storage, which are the oceanographic variables with the greatest influence on climate. The climate research objective is to support the development and effective utilization of space-acquired data systems in climate forecast models and to conduct sensitivity studies to determine the affect of lower boundary conditions on climate and predictability studies to determine which global climate features can be modeled either deterministically or statistically.

  11. FAA/NASA Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research: 1993-1994

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hueschen, Richard M. (Compiler)

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the research conducted during the academic year 1993-1994 under the NASA/FAA sponsored Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research. The year end review was held at Ohio University, Athens, Ohio, July 14-15, 1994. The Joint University Program is a coordinated set of three grants sponsored by NASA Langley Research Center and the Federal Aviation Administration, one each with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (NGL-22-009-640), Ohio University (NGR-36-009-017), and Princeton University (NGL-31-001-252). Completed works, status reports, and annotated bibliographies are presented for research topics which include navigation, guidance and control theory and practice, aircraft performance, human factors, and expert systems concepts applied to aircraft and airport operations. An overview of the year's activities for each university is also presented.

  12. Air Traffic Management Technology Demostration: 1 Research and Procedural Testing of Routes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Sara R.; Kibler, Jennifer L.; Hubbs, Clay E.; Smail, James W.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Air Traffic Management Technology Demonstration-1 (ATD-1) will operationally demonstrate the feasibility of efficient arrival operations combining ground-based and airborne NASA technologies. The ATD-1 integrated system consists of the Traffic Management Advisor with Terminal Metering which generates precise time-based schedules to the runway and merge points; Controller Managed Spacing decision support tools which provide controllers with speed advisories and other information needed to meet the schedule; and Flight deck-based Interval Management avionics and procedures which allow flight crews to adjust their speed to achieve precise relative spacing. Initial studies identified air-ground challenges related to the integration of these three scheduling and spacing technologies, and NASA's airborne spacing algorithm was modified to address some of these challenges. The Research and Procedural Testing of Routes human-in-the-loop experiment was then conducted to assess the performance of the new spacing algorithm. The results of this experiment indicate that the algorithm performed as designed, and the pilot participants found the airborne spacing concept, air-ground procedures, and crew interface to be acceptable. However, the researchers concluded that the data revealed issues with the frequency of speed changes and speed reversals.

  13. Forest models: their development and potential applications for air pollution effects research

    SciTech Connect

    Shugart, H.H.; McLaughlin, S.B.; West, D.C.

    1980-01-01

    As research tools for evaluating the effects of chronic air pollution stress, forest simulation models offer one means of integrating forest growth and development data with generalized indices of pollution stress. This approach permits consideration of both the competitive interactions of trees in the forest stand and the influences of the stage of stand development on sensitivity of component species. A review of forest growth models, including tree, stand, and gap models, is provided as a means of evaluating relative strengths, weaknesses, and limits of applicability of representative examples of each type. Data from recent simulations with a gap model of eastern deciduous forest responses to air pollution stress are presented to emphasize the potential importance of competition in modifying individual species' responses in a forest stand. Recent developments in dendroecology are discussed as a potential mechanism for model validation and extended application.

  14. The Conference Proceedings of the 1998 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG) of the WCTR Society. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oum, Tae Hoon (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    This report (Volume 1) is comprised of 5 sessions of the Air Transport Research Group (ATRG) Conference held in Antwerp, Belgium, July 1998. The sessions contain 3-4 papers (presentations) each. The session numbers and their respective headings are: (1) Airline alliances; (2) Airline Competition and Market Structure; (4) Liberalization, Open Skies, and Policy Issues; (5) Yield Management and Other Models; and (11) Air Traffic Control (ATC) and Air Navigational Systems (ANS).

  15. The Relationships between Tropical Pacific and Atlantic SST and Northeast Brazil Monthly Precipitation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertacchi Uvo, Cintia; Repelli, Carlos A.; Zebiak, Stephen E.; Kushnir, Yochanan

    1998-04-01

    The monthly patterns of northeast Brazil (NEB) precipitation are analyzed in relation to sea surface temperature (SST) in the tropical Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, using singular value decomposition. It is found that the relationships between precipitation and SST in both basins vary considerably throughout the rainy season (February-May). In January, equatorial Pacific SST is weakly correlated with precipitation in small areas of southern NEB, but Atlantic SST shows no significant correlation with regional precipitation. In February, Pacific SST is not well related to precipitation, but south equatorial Atlantic SST is positively correlated with precipitation over the northern Nordeste, the latter most likely reflecting an anomalously early (or late) southward migration of the ITCZ precipitation zone. During March, equatorial Pacific SST is negatively correlated with Nordeste precipitation, but no consistent relationship between precipitation and Atlantic SST is found. Atlantic SST-precipitation correlations for April and May are the strongest found among all months or either ocean. Precipitation in the Nordeste is positively correlated with SST in the south tropical Atlantic and negatively correlated with SST in the north tropical Atlantic. These relationships are strong enough to determine the structure of the seasonal mean SST-precipitation correlations, even though the corresponding patterns for the earlier months of the season are quite different. Pacific SST-precipitation correlations for April and May are similar to those for March. Extreme wet (dry) years for the Nordeste occur when both Pacific and Atlantic SST patterns for April and May occur simultaneously. A separate analysis reinforces previous findings in showing that SST in the tropical Pacific and the northern tropical Atlantic are positively correlated and that tropical Pacific-south Atlantic correlations are negligible.Time-lagged analyses show the potential for forecasting either seasonal mean

  16. Emerging research on real-time air pollution sensing with the United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: Air pollution research ranges broadly at the US EPA and includes the characterization of pollutant emissions from a wide array of sources, studying post-emission transport and transformation in the atmosphere, and evaluating the linkages between air pollution and advers...

  17. Indoor Air Pollution in Developing Countries: Research and Implementation Needs for Improvements in Global Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Gall, Elliott T.; Carter, Ellison M.; Matt Earnest, C.

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to indoor air pollution (IAP) from the burning of solid fuels for cooking, heating, and lighting accounts for a significant portion of the global burden of death and disease, and disproportionately affects women and children in developing regions. Clean cookstove campaigns recently received more attention and investment, but their successes might hinge on greater integration of the public health community with a variety of other disciplines. To help guide public health research in alleviating this important global environmental health burden, we synthesized previous research on IAP in developing countries, summarized successes and challenges of previous cookstove implementation programs, and provided key research and implementation needs from structured discussions at a recent symposium. PMID:23409891

  18. Indoor air pollution in developing countries: research and implementation needs for improvements in global public health.

    PubMed

    Gall, Elliott T; Carter, Ellison M; Earnest, C Matt; Stephens, Brent

    2013-04-01

    Exposure to indoor air pollution (IAP) from the burning of solid fuels for cooking, heating, and lighting accounts for a significant portion of the global burden of death and disease, and disproportionately affects women and children in developing regions. Clean cookstove campaigns recently received more attention and investment, but their successes might hinge on greater integration of the public health community with a variety of other disciplines. To help guide public health research in alleviating this important global environmental health burden, we synthesized previous research on IAP in developing countries, summarized successes and challenges of previous cookstove implementation programs, and provided key research and implementation needs from structured discussions at a recent symposium. PMID:23409891

  19. EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) Indoor-Air Quality Implementation Plan. A report to Congress under Title IV of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986: radon gas and indoor air-quality research. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-06-01

    The EPA Indoor Air Quality Implementation Plan provides information on the direction of EPA's indoor air program, including the Agency's policy on indoor air and priorities for research and information dissemination over the next two years. EPA submitted the report to Congress on July 2, 1987 as required by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986. There are five appendices to the report: Appendix A--Preliminary Indoor Air Pollution Information Assessment; Appendix B--FY 87 Indoor Air Research Program; Appendix C--EPA Radon Program; Appendix D--Indoor Air Resource History (Published with Appendix C); Appendix E--Indoor Air Reference Data Base.

  20. An Improved In Situ and Satellite SST Analysis for Climate.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, Richard W.; Rayner, Nick A.; Smith, Thomas M.; Stokes, Diane C.; Wang, Wanqiu

    2002-07-01

    A weekly 1° spatial resolution optimum interpolation (OI) sea surface temperature (SST) analysis has been produced at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) using both in situ and satellite data from November 1981 to the present. The weekly product has been available since 1993 and is widely used for weather and climate monitoring and forecasting. Errors in the satellite bias correction and the sea ice to SST conversion algorithm are discussed, and then an improved version of the OI analysis is developed. The changes result in a modest reduction in the satellite bias that leaves small global residual biases of roughly 0.03°C. The major improvement in the analysis occurs at high latitudes due to the new sea ice algorithm where local differences between the old and new analysis can exceed 1°C. Comparisons with other SST products are needed to determine the consistency of the OI. These comparisons show that the differences among products occur on large time- and space scales with monthly rms differences exceeding 0.5°C in some regions. These regions are primarily the mid- and high-latitude Southern Oceans and the Arctic where data are sparse, as well as high-gradient areas such as the Gulf Stream and Kuroshio where the gradients cannot be properly resolved on a 1° grid. In addition, globally averaged differences of roughly 0.05°C occur among the products on decadal scales. These differences primarily arise from the same regions where the rms differences are large. However, smaller unexplained differences also occur in other regions of the midlatitude Northern Hemisphere where in situ data should be adequate.

  1. A GIS Approach to Wind,SST(Sea Surface Temperature) and CHL(Chlorophyll) variations in the Caspian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirkhalili, Seyedhamzeh

    2016-07-01

    Chlorophyll is an extremely important bio-molecule, critical in photosynthesis, which allows plants to absorb energy from light. At the base of the ocean food web are single-celled algae and other plant-like organisms known as Phytoplankton. Like plants on land, Phytoplankton use chlorophyll and other light-harvesting pigments to carry out photosynthesis. Where Phytoplankton grow depends on available sunlight, temperature, and nutrient levels. In this research a GIS Approach using ARCGIS software and QuikSCAT satellite data was applied to visualize WIND,SST(Sea Surface Temperature) and CHL(Chlorophyll) variations in the Caspian Sea.Results indicate that increase in chlorophyll concentration in coastal areas is primarily driven by terrestrial nutrients and does not imply that warmer SST will lead to an increase in chlorophyll concentration and consequently Phytoplankton abundance.

  2. EMERGING TECHNOLOGY BULLETIN: VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND REMOVAL FROM AIR STREAMS BY MEMBRANES SEPARATION MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGY AND RESEARCH, INC.

    EPA Science Inventory

    This membrane separation technology developed by Membrane Technology and Research (MTR), Incorporated, is designed to remove volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from contaminated air streams. In the process, organic vapor-laden air contacts one side of a membrane that is permeable ...

  3. Pharmacological characterisation of the goldfish somatostatin sst5 receptor.

    PubMed

    Nunn, Caroline; Feuerbach, Dominik; Lin, Xinwei; Peter, Richard; Hoyer, Daniel

    2002-02-01

    Somatostatin (somatotropin release inhibiting factor, SRIF), exerts its effects via specific G protein coupled receptors of which five subtypes have been cloned (sst1-5). Recently, SRIF receptors have also been cloned from fish tissues. In this study, goldfish sst5 receptors (gfsst5) were expressed and characterised in the Chinese hamster lung fibroblast cell line, that harbours the luciferase reporter gene driven by the serum responsive element (CCL39-SRE-Luci). The agonist radioligands [125I]-LTT-SRIF-28 ([Leu8, DTrp22, 125I-Tyr25]SRIF-28) and [125I][Tyr10]cortistatin-14 labelled similar receptor densities with high affinity and in a saturable manner (pKd: 9.99-9.71; Bmax: 300-350 fmol mg-1). 5'-Guanylyl-imidodiphosphate inhibited radioligand binding to some degree (38.5-57.9%). In competition binding studies, the pharmacological profile of SRIF binding sites defined with [125I]LTT-SRIF-28 and [125I][Tyr10]cortistatin-14 correlated significantly (r2=0.97, n=20). Pharmacological profiles of human and mouse sst5 receptors expressed in CCL39 cells correlated markedly less with those of the gfsst5 profile (r2=0.52-0.78, n > or = b16). Functional expression of the gfsst5 receptor was examined by measurement of agonist-induced luciferase expression and stimulation of [35S]GTPgammaS ([35S]guanosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) binding. Profiles were similar to those achieved in radioligand binding studies (r2=0.81-0.93, n=20), although relative potency (pEC50) was reduced compared to pKd values. Relative efficacy profiles of luciferase expression and [35S]GTPgammaS binding, were rather divergent (r2=0.48, n=20) with peptides showing full agonism at one pathway and absence of agonism at the other. BIM 23056 (D-Phe-Phe-Tyr-D-Trp-Lys-Val-Phe-D-Nal-NH2) acted as an antagonist on the effects of SRIF-14 (pKB=6.74 +/- 0.23) on stimulation of [35S]GTPgammaS binding. Pertussis toxin abolished the effect of SRIF-14 on luciferase expression and [35S]GTPgammaS binding suggesting

  4. Air-Quality Data from NARSTO (North American Research Strategy for Tropospheric Ozone)

    DOE Data Explorer

    NARSTO is a public/private partnership dedicated to improving management of air quality in North America. It was established on February 13, 1995 when representatives of Canada, the United States, and Mexico signed the NARSTO Charter in a ceremony at the White House. The Department of Energy is one of the charter members providing funding. The central programmatic goal of NARSTO is to provide data and information for use in the determination of workable, efficient, and effective strategies for local and regional ozone and fine particle management. Since its founding, NARSTO has completed three major scientific Assessments of critical air quality management issues. NARSTO maintains the Quality Systems Science Center and the NARSTO Data Archive for storing data from NARSTO Affiliated Research Activities and making these data available to the scientific community. NARSTO also facilitates activities, such as the Reactivity Research Working Group, which provide critical reviews of the state of the science in areas of interest to air quality policy makers. In January 1997, the U.S. Department of Energy's Environmental Sciences Division announced their sponsorship of the NARSTO Quality Systems Science Center (QSSC). The QSSC is located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory within the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC). Quality Assurance and Data Management assistance and guidelines are provided by the QSCC, along with access to data files. The permanent data archive is maintained by the NASA EOSDIS Distributed Active Archive Center at the Langley Research Center. The archived data can be reached by a link from the QSSC.(Specialized Interface) See also the NARSTO web site at http://www.narsto.org/

  5. Air pollution control system research: An iterative approach to developing affordable systems

    SciTech Connect

    Watt, L.C.; Cannon, F.S.; Heinsohn, R.J.; Spaeder, T.A.; Darvin, C.H.

    1993-12-31

    The research will be accomplished on lab scale, pilot scale, and production air pollution control systems (APCS). The production system, to be installed at Marine Corps Logistics Base (MCLB) Barstow, CA, will treat the exhaust from three paint booths which will be modified to recirculate a large percentage of their exhaust. These recirculation systems are, themselves, a critical element in the overall R and D effort. The goal of the program is to conduct an R and D effort which will improve and demonstrate a combination of technologies intended to make VOC treatment both effective and affordable. The US Marine Corps, the other services and industry will each benefit.

  6. Some possibilities of using gas mixtures other than air in aerodynamic research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, Dean R

    1956-01-01

    A study is made of the advantages that can be realized in compressible-flow research by employing a substitute heavy gas in place of air. The present report is based on the idea that by properly mixing a heavy monatomic gas with a suitable heavy polyatomic gas, it is possible to obtain a heavy gas mixture which has the correct ratio of specific heats and which is nontoxic, nonflammable, thermally stable, chemically inert, and comprised of commercially available components. Calculations were made of wind-tunnel characteristics for 63 gas pairs comprising 21 different polyatomic gases properly mixed with each of three monatomic gases (argon, krypton, and zenon).

  7. PLANNING OF HEALTH EFFECTS RESEARCH ON HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS AND APPLICATION TO RISK ASSESSMENT PROBLEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Clean Air Act Amendment of 1990 designated a set of compounds as hazardous air pollutants or "air toxics" which may be released into the air from a variety of sources including stationary, mobile and indoor air sources. Determination of the risks to human health from exposur...

  8. Land, sea, and air unmanned systems research and development at SPAWAR Systems Center Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Hoa G.; Laird, Robin; Kogut, Greg; Andrews, John; Fletcher, Barbara; Webber, Todd; Arrieta, Rich; Everett, H. R.

    2009-05-01

    The Space and Naval Warfare (SPAWAR) Systems Center Pacific (SSC Pacific) has a long and extensive history in unmanned systems research and development, starting with undersea applications in the 1960s and expanding into ground and air systems in the 1980s. In the ground domain, we are addressing force-protection scenarios using large unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) and fixed sensors, and simultaneously pursuing tactical and explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) operations with small man-portable robots. Technology thrusts include improving robotic intelligence and functionality, autonomous navigation and world modeling in urban environments, extended operational range of small teleoperated UGVs, enhanced human-robot interaction, and incorporation of remotely operated weapon systems. On the sea surface, we are pushing the envelope on dynamic obstacle avoidance while conforming to established nautical rules-of-the-road. In the air, we are addressing cooperative behaviors between UGVs and small vertical-takeoff- and-landing unmanned air vehicles (UAVs). Underwater applications involve very shallow water mine countermeasures, ship hull inspection, oceanographic data collection, and deep ocean access. Specific technology thrusts include fiber-optic communications, adaptive mission controllers, advanced navigation techniques, and concepts of operations (CONOPs) development. This paper provides a review of recent accomplishments and current status of a number of projects in these areas.

  9. Mississippi State University Center for Air Sea Technology FY95 Research Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeske, Lanny; Corbin, James H.

    1995-01-01

    The Mississippi State University (MSU) Center for Air Sea Technology (CAST) evolved from the Institute for Naval Oceanography's (INO) Experimental Center for Mesoscale Ocean Prediction (ECMOP) which was started in 1989. MSU CAST subsequently began operation on 1 October 1992 under an Office of Naval Research (ONR) two-year grant which ended on 30 September 1994. In FY95 MSU CAST was successful in obtaining five additional research grants from ONR, as well as several other research contracts from the Naval Oceanographic Office via NASA, the Naval Research Laboratory, the Army Corps of Engineers, and private industry. In the past, MSU CAST technical research and development has produced tools, systems, techniques, and procedures that improve efficiency and overcome deficiency for both the operational and research communities residing with the Department of Defense, private industry, and university ocean modeling community. We continued this effort with the following thrust areas: to develop advanced methodologies and tools for model evaluation, validation and visualization, both oceanographic and atmospheric; to develop a system-level capability for conducting temporally and ; spatially scaled ocean simulations driven by or are responsive to ocean models, and take into consideration coupling to atmospheric models; to continue the existing oceanographic/atmospheric data management task with emphasis on distributed databases in a network environment, with database optimization and standardization, including use of Mosaic and World Wide Web (WWW) access; and to implement a high performance parallel computing technology for CAST ocean models

  10. Modeling the surface heat flux response to long-lived SST anomalies in the North Atlantic

    SciTech Connect

    Power, S.B.; Kleeman, R.; Colman, R.A.

    1995-09-01

    An atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM), a simplified atmospheric model (SAM) of surface heat flux, and various idealized analytic models have been used to investigate the atmospheric response over the North Atlantic to SST anomalies, including a general cooling associated with a weakened thermohaline circulation. Latent heating dominates the surface heat flux response, while sensible heating plays an important secondary role. The total heat flux response is weaker than presumed in recent studies using ocean models under highly idealized surface boundary conditions. This implies that stability of the thermohaline circulation to high-latitude freshening in more sophisticated coupled systems (that incorporate either AGCMs or models like SAM) will be increased. All three kinds of atmospheric models exhibit nonrestorative behavior away from the anomaly peak that is primarily associated with the advection of cooled air eastward. This simple picture is complicated in the AGCM by the fact that the winds weaken over the SST anomaly, which helps to moderate the response. Analytic models for atmospheric temperature forced using imposed surface temperature anomalies highlight conditions under which a nonrestorative response can arise. Previous work has shown that the length scale of spatially periodic anomalies partially determines the magnitude of the response in a diffusive atmosphere. Here the authors show that this scale dependence has much wider applicability by considering more localized anomalies and by the inclusion of advective transport processes. The modification of the response by sea ice changes and the absence of any statistically significant change in the basin-averaged hydrological cycle are also discussed. 62 refs., 19 figs.

  11. Global climate sensitivity derived from ~784,000 years of SST data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, T.; Timmermann, A.; Tigchelaar, M.; Elison Timm, O.; Ganopolski, A.

    2015-12-01

    Global mean temperatures will increase in response to future increasing greenhouse gas concentrations. The magnitude of this warming for a given radiative forcing is still subject of debate. Here we provide estimates for the equilibrium climate sensitivity using paleo-proxy and modeling data from the last eight glacial cycles (~784,000 years). First of all, two reconstructions of globally averaged surface air temperature (SAT) for the last eight glacial cycles are obtained from two independent sources: one mainly based on a transient model simulation, the other one derived from paleo- SST records and SST network/global SAT scaling factors. Both reconstructions exhibit very good agreement in both amplitude and timing of past SAT variations. In the second step, we calculate the radiative forcings associated with greenhouse gas concentrations, dust concentrations, and surface albedo changes for the last 784, 000 years. The equilibrium climate sensitivity is then derived from the ratio of the SAT anomalies and the radiative forcing changes. Our results reveal that this estimate of the Charney climate sensitivity is a function of the background climate with substantially higher values for warmer climates. Warm phases exhibit an equilibrium climate sensitivity of ~3.70 K per CO2-doubling - more than twice the value derived for cold phases (~1.40 K per 2xCO2). We will show that the current CMIP5 ensemble-mean projection of global warming during the 21st century is supported by our estimate of climate sensitivity derived from climate paleo data of the past 784,000 years.

  12. Air infiltration and interzonal airflow measurements in research houses: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nagda, N.L.

    1988-08-01

    Four different but complementary methods--the tracer gas dilution method, single tracer constant concentration, passive perfluorocarbon tracers (constant release), and constant release of multiple halocarbon tracers with real-time analysis--were used to obtain detailed information on air infiltration and interzonal airflow rates in two bilevel research houses. The study included measurements of seasonal variations and differences between the houses, one of which was retrofitted in a previous EPRI study to reduce the air leakage area. Measurements showed that there had been little change in whole house infiltration rates during the 4 years since the retrofit. Differences between the houses with respect to whole house air infiltration rates were primarily the result of differences in downstairs air infiltration rates between the two houses. Zone-specific measurements indicated that downstairs infiltration rates were three to nine times higher than upstairs; infiltration rates were 30 to 60 percent lower in the downstairs of the retrofitted house than in the other house. The impact of the retrofit was also reflected by lower rates of airflow from the garage into the downstairs and from the upstairs to the attic. Airflows between the upstairs and downstairs of the houses exhibited seasonal variation due to stack effect action and operation of the central heating and cooling systems. Short-term interzonal airflow rates were as much as an order of magnitude higher than week-long average rates. Results of measurements with the different methods are also compared and discussed as they relate to advantages, limitations, and applicability of the methods in utility-sponsored measurement programs. 30 refs., 22 figs., 16 tabs.

  13. Tropical SST and Sahel rainfall: A non-stationary relationship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Losada, T.; Rodriguez-Fonseca, B.; Mohino, E.; Bader, J.; Janicot, S.; Mechoso, C. R.

    2012-06-01

    Sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the tropical Atlantic have been associated with precipitation anomalies in West Africa that form a dipole pattern with centers over the Sahel and the Gulf of Guinea. Whilst this was clear before the 1970's, the dipole pattern almost disappeared after that date, as the anti-correlation between rainfall anomalies in the Sahel and Guinea dropped abruptly. Simultaneously, the anti-correlations between Sahel rainfall and tropical Pacific SSTs strengthened. It has been posited that these changes after the 1970's developed as rainfall over West Africa started to co-vary with SSTs in the global tropics. In this co-variability, enhanced summer rainfall over West Africa with a monopole pattern corresponds to warmer SSTs in the tropical Atlantic and Maritime Continent, and colder SSTs in the tropical Pacific and western Indian Oceans. The present paper describes the hitherto unexplored seasonal evolution of this co-variability and the physical mechanisms at work. Sensitivity experiments with two atmospheric general circulation models demonstrate that, after the 1970's, the impacts of SST anomalies in the Indo-Pacific counteract those in the Atlantic in terms of generating rainfall anomalies over the Sahel, and that this superposition of effects is primarily linear. Therefore, at interannual timescales, the change in the patterns of co-variability between West African rainfall and tropical SSTs can explain the non-stationary relationship between the anomalies in these two fields.

  14. SST dependence of convective aggregation in three General Circulation Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bony, Sandrine; Becker, Tobias; Coppin, David; Medeiros, Brian; Reed, Kevin; Stevens, Bjorn; Voigt, Aiko

    2015-04-01

    Studies using cloud-resolving models or simple models have shown that under certain conditions, the radiative-convective equilibrium state becomes unstable to large-scale overturning circulations, and leads to the phenomenon of self-aggregation of moist convection. Modeling and observational studies suggest that the degree of aggregation of moist convection can influence the large-scale atmospheric state (e.g. humidity, clouds) and its energy budget. The question thus arises as to what extent the aggregation of convection may rectify the Earth's climate, including the large-scale atmospheric circulation, hydrological sensitivity and climate feedbacks. We explore these issues by running three General Circulation Models (IPSL-CM5A-LR, ECHAM6, CAM5) in radiative-convective equilibrium, i.e. a non-rotating aqua-planet configuration forced by a globally-uniform insolation and sea surface temperature (SST). We show that in these conditions, all three models can predict the spontaneous emergence of a large-scale convective organization and overturning circulation, and that the equilibrium aggregation state depends on SST and cloud-radiative effects. We will explore the reasons why the equilibrium aggregation state depends on temperature, and the impact of convective aggregation on the global mean state. Robust behaviors will be highlighted, as well as inter-model differences. The implications of these results will be discussed.

  15. Can Indian Ocean SST anomalies influence South American rainfall?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taschetto, Andréa S.; Ambrizzi, Tércio

    2012-04-01

    In this study we examine the impact of Indian Ocean sea surface temperature (SST) variability on South American circulation using observations and a suite of numerical experiments forced by a combination of Indian and Pacific SST anomalies. Previous studies have shown that the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) mode can affect climate over remote regions across the globe, including over South America. Here we show that such a link exists not only with the IOD, but also with the Indian Ocean basin-wide warming (IOBW). The IOBW, a response to El Niño events, tends to reinforce the South American anomalous circulation in March-to-May associated with the warm events in the Pacific. This leads to increased rainfall in the La Plata basin and decreased rainfall over the northern regions of the continent. In addition, the IOBW is suggested to be an important factor for modulating the persistence of dry conditions over northeastern South America during austral autumn. The link between the IOBW and South American climate occurs via alterations of the Walker circulation pattern and through a mid-latitude wave-train teleconnection.

  16. SST/Wind stress mesoscale coupling in the South East Pacific : what drives its spatial and temporal variations ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oerder, Véra; Colas, François; Echevin, Vincent; Masson, Sebastien; Hourdin, Christophe; Jullien, Swen; Lemarié, Florian

    2015-04-01

    Air-sea interaction studies show that, on the large-scale, the ocean is primarily forced by the atmosphere. However, it has also been evidenced that mesoscale (~10-100 km) oceanic structures, e.g. fronts and eddies, induce an atmospheric response which also affect in return the oceanic mesoscale. In this study we focus on the oceanic feedback on the surface wind stress (SWS) in the Peru-Chile region. Understanding the dynamics of eastern boundary upwelling systems such as the Peru-Chile region is of major interest as these regions host an intense biological activity. These regions are generally poorly represented in global climate models partly because of a misrepresentation of mesoscale processes. The mesoscale activity has been studied quite extensively with ocean models which generally do not take into account the feedback of the ocean mesoscale on the atmospheric forcing. In the Peru-Chile region, mesoscale air-sea interactions studies are needed to evaluate the importance of this feedback. We use a regional coupled model (WRF-NEMO) at ˜ 9 km horizontal resolution to characterize the interaction between sea surface temperature (SST) and SWS. We compare this coupling to observed values. The SST-SWS interaction presents spatial and temporal variations. Spatial variations appear to be related to the large-scale fields (wind steadiness and intensity). We discuss the seasonal variations of the coupling characteristics by examining the underlying mechanisms. We show that here the key mechanism is the momentum vertical mixing response to SST anomalies. This response is mainly modulated by the seasonal variations of the large-scale wind vertical shear.

  17. La Plata basin precipitation variability in spring: role of remote SST forcing as simulated by GCM experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherchi, Annalisa; Carril, Andrea F.; Menéndez, Claudio G.; Zamboni, Laura

    2014-01-01

    An ensemble of nine experiments with the same interannually varying sea surface temperature (SST), as boundary forcing, and different initial conditions is used to investigate the role of tropical oceans in modulating precipitation variability in the region of La Plata Basin (LPB). The results from the ensemble are compared with a twentieth-century experiment performed with a coupled ocean-atmosphere model, sharing the same atmospheric component. A rotated empirical orthogonal functions analysis of South America precipitation shows that the dominant mode of variability in spring is realistically captured in both experiments. Its principal component (RPC1) correlated with global SST and atmospheric fields identifies the pattern related to El Niño Southern Oscillation and its large-scale teleconnections. Overall the pattern is well simulated in the tropical southern Pacific Ocean, mainly in the ensemble, but it is absent or too weak in other oceanic areas. The coupled model experiment shows a more realistic correlation in the subtropical South Atlantic where air-sea interactions contribute to the relationship between LPB precipitation and SST. The correspondence between model and data is much improved when the composite analysis of SST and atmospheric fields is done over the ensemble members having an RPC1 in agreement with the observations: the improvement relies on avoiding climate noise by averaging only over members that are statistically similar. Furthermore, the result suggests the presence of a high level of uncertainty due to internal atmospheric variability. The analysis of some individual years selected from the model and data RPC1 comparison reveals interesting differences among rainy springs in LPB. For example, 1982, which corresponds to a strong El Niño year, represents a clean case with a distinct wave train propagating from the central Pacific and merging with another one from the eastern tropical south Indian Ocean. The year 2003 is an example of a

  18. La Plata basin precipitation variability in spring: role of remote SST forcing as simulated by GCM experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherchi, Annalisa; Carril, Andrea F.; Menéndez, Claudio G.; Zamboni, Laura

    2013-04-01

    An ensemble of nine experiments with the same interannually varying sea surface temperature (SST), as boundary forcing, and different initial conditions is used to investigate the role of tropical oceans in modulating precipitation variability in the region of La Plata Basin (LPB). The results from the ensemble are compared with a twentieth-century experiment performed with a coupled ocean-atmosphere model, sharing the same atmospheric component. A rotated empirical orthogonal functions analysis of South America precipitation shows that the dominant mode of variability in spring is realistically captured in both experiments. Its principal component (RPC1) correlated with global SST and atmospheric fields identifies the pattern related to El Niño Southern Oscillation and its large-scale teleconnections. Overall the pattern is well simulated in the tropical southern Pacific Ocean, mainly in the ensemble, but it is absent or too weak in other oceanic areas. The coupled model experiment shows a more realistic correlation in the subtropical South Atlantic where air-sea interactions contribute to the relationship between LPB precipitation and SST. The correspondence between model and data is much improved when the composite analysis of SST and atmospheric fields is done over the ensemble members having an RPC1 in agreement with the observations: the improvement relies on avoiding climate noise by averaging only over members that are statistically similar. Furthermore, the result suggests the presence of a high level of uncertainty due to internal atmospheric variability. The analysis of some individual years selected from the model and data RPC1 comparison reveals interesting differences among rainy springs in LPB. For example, 1982, which corresponds to a strong El Niño year, represents a clean case with a distinct wave train propagating from the central Pacific and merging with another one from the eastern tropical south Indian Ocean. The year 2003 is an example of a

  19. Benchmarking, Research, Development, and Support for ORNL Automated Image and Signature Retrieval (AIR/ASR) Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, K.W.

    2004-06-01

    This report describes the results of a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with Applied Materials, Inc. (AMAT) of Santa Clara, California. This project encompassed the continued development and integration of the ORNL Automated Image Retrieval (AIR) technology, and an extension of the technology denoted Automated Signature Retrieval (ASR), and other related technologies with the Defect Source Identification (DSI) software system that was under development by AMAT at the time this work was performed. In the semiconductor manufacturing environment, defect imagery is used to diagnose problems in the manufacturing line, train yield management engineers, and examine historical data for trends. Image management in semiconductor data systems is a growing cause of concern in the industry as fabricators are now collecting up to 20,000 images each week. In response to this concern, researchers at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) developed a semiconductor-specific content-based image retrieval method and system, also known as AIR. The system uses an image-based query-by-example method to locate and retrieve similar imagery from a database of digital imagery using visual image characteristics. The query method is based on a unique architecture that takes advantage of the statistical, morphological, and structural characteristics of image data, generated by inspection equipment in industrial applications. The system improves the manufacturing process by allowing rapid access to historical records of similar events so that errant process equipment can be isolated and corrective actions can be quickly taken to improve yield. The combined ORNL and AMAT technology is referred to hereafter as DSI-AIR and DSI-ASR.

  20. Supersonic Cruise Research 1979, part 2. [airframe structures and materials, systems integration, economic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Advances in airframe structure and materials technology for supersonic cruise aircraft are reported with emphasis on titanium and composite structures. The operation of the Concorde is examined as a baseline for projections into the future. A market survey of U.S. passenger attitudes and preferences, the impact of advanced air transport technology and the integration of systems for the advanced SST and for a smaller research/business jet vehicle are also discussed.

  1. Air-bearing-based satellite attitude dynamics simulator for control software research and development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Brij N.; Rasmussen, Richard E.

    2001-08-01

    A Satellite Attitude Dynamics Simulator (SADS) has been developed to facilitate the research and development of spacecraft flight attitude control software at the Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, CA. The simulator provides a real-time 3 degree of freedom (3DOF) synthetic spacecraft hardware-in-the-loop environment, that includes realistic angular motions, sensor-effector delays, and control torque profiles. Control software, entered into a notebook PC mounted on the equipment platform, is input as high level object oriented code, allowing rapid code development and thorough post-test analysis. Three flight-like reaction wheels and eight cold-gas thrusters that are mounted to the SADS equipment platform provide motion simulation torque. The equipment platform is suspended in air by a spherical segment air bearing. This virtually frictionless suspension allows free rotation of the equipment platform about any rotation axis. Three separate sets of sensors, three single-axis rate gyros, a three-axis magnetometer, and a two-axis sun sensor monitor SADS platform motion. This paper discusses the SADS design, and the practical uses of this simulator for satellite attitude control system software research and development.

  2. The observational influence of the North Atlantic SST tripole on the early spring atmospheric circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Zhe; Luo, Feifei; Wan, Jianghua

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated the forcing of the North Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST) tripole on the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO)-like circulation in early spring (February-April) in observations. Corresponding to an SST tripole forcing in early spring, the atmospheric circulation is very weak and insignificant. However, further analyses indicate that the observational effect of the SST anomalies on the NAO-like circulation is disturbed by the concomitant sea ice anomalies. With the linear effects of sea ice anomalies removed, there is an equivalent barotropic NAO-like circulation in early spring related to a North Atlantic SST tripole.

  3. Trend Detection in Regional-Mean Temperature Series: Maximum, Minimum, Mean, Diurnal Range, and SST.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xiaogu; Basher, Reid E.; Thompson, Craig S.

    1997-02-01

    .10°C decade1. Similar diurnal range behavior in other regions has been tentatively attributed to increasing cloudiness. The trend in a regional SST series for 1928-94, 0.07°C decade1, is about half the trend in AT for the same period. The trend in the difference, SST-AT, 0.06°C decade1, is statistically significant. This implies the existence of an atmospheric warming source for the additional air temperature trend, and may mean that the heat fluxes between the atmosphere and ocean in the New Zealand region are subject to a large trend, with the direction of flux change being toward the ocean. The results of the study are consistent with the IPCC predictions of climate change.

  4. Large-scale atmospheric response to eastern Mediterranean summer-autumn SST anomalies and the associated regional impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Serrano, J.; Polo, I.; Rodríguez-Fonseca, B.; Losada, T.

    2013-11-01

    Since the Mediterranean Sea is halfway between subtropical and middle latitudes, and it represents a marginal oceanic region, research has tended to focus on how large-scale modes of atmospheric variability modulate its surface temperature. Conversely, the present study examines the potential influence of the Mediterranean Sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies on the Northern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation. In particular, this work explores the large-scale changes in the global circulation forced/influenced by the eastern Mediterranean summer-autumn SST pattern. To isolate the atmospheric response, AGCM sensitivity experiments with prescribed SST over the Mediterranean Sea and climatology elsewhere are analysed. Observational diagnostics upon the period used to define the boundary conditions (1979-2002) are also interpreted. Our results support the hypothesis of an atmospheric pattern initiated in the Mediterranean basin, pointing out both a local baroclinic response and a barotropic circumglobal anomaly. This atmospheric teleconnection pattern projects onto a hemispheric wave-like structure, reflecting the waveguide effect of the westerly jets. Results suggest, thereby, that the recurrent summer-autumn circumglobal teleconnection pattern can be excited locally by changes in the atmosphere over the Mediterranean region. A linear behaviour is found upon a regional impact over northeastern Africa. The remote impacts present however a nonlinear signature: anomalous warm conditions influencing on northern Europe and Euro-Asia, whereas anomalous cold conditions impacting more on the North Pacific basin. Limitations in our model setup are also discussed.

  5. Nonlinear responses of southern African rainfall to forcing from Atlantic SST in a high-resolution regional climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, C.; Kniveton, D.; Layberry, R.

    2009-04-01

    It is increasingly accepted that any possible climate change will not only have an influence on mean climate but may also significantly alter climatic variability. A change in the distribution and magnitude of extreme rainfall events (associated with changing variability), such as droughts or flooding, may have a far greater impact on human and natural systems than a changing mean. This issue is of particular importance for environmentally vulnerable regions such as southern Africa. The subcontinent is considered especially vulnerable to and ill-equipped (in terms of adaptation) for extreme events, due to a number of factors including extensive poverty, famine, disease and political instability. Rainfall variability is a function of scale, so high spatial and temporal resolution data are preferred to identify extreme events and accurately predict future variability. In this research, high resolution satellite derived rainfall data from the Microwave Infra-Red Algorithm (MIRA) are used as a basis for undertaking model experiments using a state-of-the-art regional climate model. The MIRA dataset covers the period from 1993-2002 and the whole of southern Africa at a spatial resolution of 0.1 degree longitude/latitude. Once the model's ability to reproduce extremes has been assessed, idealised regions of sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies are used to force the model, with the overall aim of investigating the ways in which SST anomalies influence rainfall extremes over southern Africa. In this paper, results from sensitivity testing of the regional climate model's domain size are briefly presented, before a comparison of simulated daily rainfall from the model with the satellite-derived dataset. Secondly, simulations of current climate and rainfall extremes from the model are compared to the MIRA dataset at daily timescales. Finally, the results from the idealised SST experiments are presented, suggesting highly nonlinear associations between rainfall extremes

  6. Mesoscale SST-wind stress coupling in the Peru-Chile current system: Which mechanisms drive its seasonal variability?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oerder, Vera; Colas, François; Echevin, Vincent; Masson, Sebastien; Hourdin, Christophe; Jullien, Swen; Madec, Gurvan; Lemarié, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Satellite observations and a high-resolution regional ocean-atmosphere coupled model are used to study the air/sea interactions at the oceanic mesoscale in the Peru-Chile upwelling current system. Coupling between mesoscale sea surface temperature (SST) and wind stress (WS) intensity is evidenced and characterized by correlations and regression coefficients. Both the model and the observations display similar spatial and seasonal variability of the coupling characteristics that are stronger off Peru than off Northern Chile, in relation with stronger wind mean speed and steadiness. The coupling is also more intense during winter than during summer in both regions. It is shown that WS intensity anomalies due to SST anomalies are mainly forced by mixing coefficient anomalies and partially compensated by wind shear anomalies. A momentum balance analysis shows that wind speed anomalies are created by stress shear anomalies. Near-surface pressure gradient anomalies have a negligible contribution because of the back-pressure effect related to the air temperature inversion. As mixing coefficients are mainly unchanged between summer and winter, the stronger coupling in winter is due to the enhanced large-scale wind shear that enables a more efficient action of the turbulent stress perturbations. This mechanism is robust as it does not depend on the choice of planetary boundary layer parameterization.

  7. On the effect of the East/Japan Sea SST variability on the North Pacific atmospheric circulation in a regional climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Hyodae; Kwon, Young-Oh; Park, Jong-Jin

    2014-01-01

    The East/Japan Sea (EJS) is a semi-enclosed marginal sea located in the upstream of the North Pacific storm track, where the leading modes of wintertime interannual variability in sea surface temperature (SST) are characterized by the basin-wide warming-cooling and the northeast-southwest dipole. Processes leading to local and remote atmospheric responses to these SST anomalies are investigated using the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model. The atmosphere in direct contact with anomalous diabatic forcing exhibits a linear and symmetric response with respect to the sign, pattern, and magnitude of SST anomalies, producing increased (decreased) wind speed and precipitation response over warm (cold) SSTs. This local response is due to modulation of both the vertical stability of the marine atmospheric boundary layer and the adjustment of sea level pressure, although the latter provides a better explanation of the quadrature relationship between SST and wind speed. The linearity in the local response suggests the importance of fine-scale EJS SSTs to predictability of the regional weather and climate variability. The remote circulation response, in contrast, is strongly nonlinear. An intraseasonal equivalent barotropic ridge emerges in the Gulf of Alaska as a common remote response independent of EJS SST anomalies. This downstream blocking response is reinforced by the enhanced storm track variability east of Japan via transient eddy vorticity flux convergence. Strong nonlinearity in remote response implies that detailed EJS SST patterns may not be critical to this downstream ridge response. Overall, results demonstrate a remarkably far-reaching impact of the EJS SSTs on the atmospheric circulation.

  8. Absolute Thermal SST Measurements over the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Good, W. S.; Warden, R.; Kaptchen, P. F.; Finch, T.; Emery, W. J.

    2010-12-01

    Climate monitoring and natural disaster rapid assessment require baseline measurements that can be tracked over time to distinguish anthropogenic versus natural changes to the Earth system. Disasters like the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill require constant monitoring to assess the potential environmental and economic impacts. Absolute calibration and validation of Earth-observing sensors is needed to allow for comparison of temporally separated data sets and provide accurate information to policy makers. The Ball Experimental Sea Surface Temperature (BESST) radiometer was designed and built by Ball Aerospace to provide a well calibrated measure of sea surface temperature (SST) from an unmanned aerial system (UAS). Currently, emissive skin SST observed by satellite infrared radiometers is validated by shipborne instruments that are expensive to deploy and can only take a few data samples along the ship track to overlap within a single satellite pixel. Implementation on a UAS will allow BESST to map the full footprint of a satellite pixel and perform averaging to remove any local variability due to the difference in footprint size of the instruments. It also enables the capability to study this sub-pixel variability to determine if smaller scale effects need to be accounted for in models to improve forecasting of ocean events. In addition to satellite sensor validation, BESST can distinguish meter scale variations in SST which could be used to remotely monitor and assess thermal pollution in rivers and coastal areas as well as study diurnal and seasonal changes to bodies of water that impact the ocean ecosystem. BESST was recently deployed on a conventional Twin Otter airplane for measurements over the Gulf of Mexico to access the thermal properties of the ocean surface being affected by the oil spill. Results of these measurements will be presented along with ancillary sensor data used to eliminate false signals including UV and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR

  9. A USCLVAR Multi-Model Assessment of the Impact of SST Anomalies and Land-Atmosphere Feedbacks on Drought

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, Siegfried

    2009-01-01

    noteworthy and to some extent unexpected results. These include a seasonal dependence of the precipitation response that is characterized by signal-to-noise ratios that peak in spring, and surface temperature signal-to-noise ratios that are both lower and show less agreement among the models than those found for the precipitation response. Another interesting result concerns what appears to be a substantially different character in the surface temperature response over the U.S. to the Pacific forcing by the only model examined here that was developed for use in numerical weather prediction. The response to the positive SST trend forcing pattern is an overall surface warming over the world's land areas with substantial regional variations that are in part reproduced in runs forced with a globally uniform SST trend forcing. The precipitation response to the trend forcing is weak in all the models. It is hoped that these early results will serve to stimulate further analysis of these simulations, as well as suggest new research on the physical mechanisms contributing to hydroclimatic variability and change throughout the world.

  10. The Symposium Proceedings of the 1998 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG). Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds-Feighan, Aisling (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    The Air Transport Research Group of the World Conference on Transportation Research (WCTR) Society was formally launched as a special interest group at the 7th Triennial WCTR in Sydney, Australia in 1995. Since then, our membership base has expanded rapidly, and now includes over 400 active transportation researchers, policy-makers, industry executives, major corporations and research institutes from 28 countries. It became a tradition that the ATRG would hold an international conference at least once a year. In 1998, the ATRG organized a consecutive stream of 14 aviation sessions at the 8th Triennial WCTR Conference (July 12-17: Antwerp). Again, on 19-21 July, 1998, the ATRG Symposium was organized and executed very successfully by Dr. Aisling Reynolds-Feighan of the University College of Dublin. The Aviation Institute at the University of Nebraska at Omaha has published the Proceedings of the 1998 ATRG Dublin Symposium (being co-edited by Dr. Aisling Reynolds-Feighan and Professor Brent Bowen), and the Proceedings of the 1998 WCTR-ATRG Conference (being co-edited by Professors Tae H. Oum and Brent Bowen).

  11. Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) Research Data from the Nevada Desert FACE Facility (NDFF)

    DOE Data Explorer

    DOE has conducted trace gas enrichment experiments since the mid 1990s. The FACE Data Management System is a central repository and archive for Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment (FACE) data, as well as for the related open-top chamber (OTC) experiments. FACE Data Management System is located at the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC). While the data from the various FACE sites, each one a unique user facility, are centralized at CDIAC, each of the FACE sites presents its own view of its activities and information. For that reason, DOE Data Explorer users are advised to see both the central repository at http://public.ornl.gov/face/index.shtml and the individual home pages of each site. NDFF whole-ecosystem manipulation is a flagship experiment of the Terrestrial Carbon Process (TCP) research program of the US Dept. of Energy. It is also a core project of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program (IGBP) and a contribution to the US Global Change Research Program. The NDFF was developed in conjunction with the National Science Foundation (NSF) and DOE-EPSCoR programs. FACE (Free-Air-Carbon dioxide-Enrichment) technology allows researchers to elevate the carbon dioxide level in large study plots while minimizing ecosystem disturbance. At the NDFF the concentration of CO2 was elevated by 50 percent above the present atmospheric levels in three plots in the Mojave Desert ecosystem, while six other plots remained at the current level. This experimental design provided a large area in which integrated teams of scientists could describe and quantify processes regulating carbon, nutrient, and water balances in desert ecosystems.

  12. NASA Langley's Formal Methods Research in Support of the Next Generation Air Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Ricky W.; Munoz, Cesar A.

    2008-01-01

    This talk will provide a brief introduction to the formal methods developed at NASA Langley and the National Institute for Aerospace (NIA) for air traffic management applications. NASA Langley's formal methods research supports the Interagency Joint Planning and Development Office (JPDO) effort to define and develop the 2025 Next Generation Air Transportation System (NGATS). The JPDO was created by the passage of the Vision 100 Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act in Dec 2003. The NGATS vision calls for a major transformation of the nation s air transportation system that will enable growth to 3 times the traffic of the current system. The transformation will require an unprecedented level of safety-critical automation used in complex procedural operations based on 4-dimensional (4D) trajectories that enable dynamic reconfiguration of airspace scalable to geographic and temporal demand. The goal of our formal methods research is to provide verification methods that can be used to insure the safety of the NGATS system. Our work has focused on the safety assessment of concepts of operation and fundamental algorithms for conflict detection and resolution (CD&R) and self- spacing in the terminal area. Formal analysis of a concept of operations is a novel area of application of formal methods. Here one must establish that a system concept involving aircraft, pilots, and ground resources is safe. The formal analysis of algorithms is a more traditional endeavor. However, the formal analysis of ATM algorithms involves reasoning about the interaction of algorithmic logic and aircraft trajectories defined over an airspace. These trajectories are described using 2D and 3D vectors and are often constrained by trigonometric relations. Thus, in many cases it has been necessary to unload the full power of an advanced theorem prover. The verification challenge is to establish that the safety-critical algorithms produce valid solutions that are guaranteed to maintain separation

  13. Investigating Indoor Air Quality Using a Community-based Participatory Research Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collier, A. M.; Ware, G. E.; Iwasaki, P. G.; Main, D.; Billingsley, L. R.; Pandya, R.; Hannigan, M.

    2015-12-01

    Our project seeks to expand scientific knowledge of air pollutant screening methods while also gathering data a community group can use to improve local health outcomes. Working with Taking Neighborhood Health to Heart (TNH2H), a Denver-based neighborhood group with significant experience doing community-based participatory research (CBPR) related to improving individual and community health, we designed a project to help residents test their homes for two contaminants of interest: radon and perchloroethylene. Radon is naturally occurring and commonly found across Colorado. Perchloroethylene contamination has been discovered in other parts of Denver and residents of Northeast Denver would like to learn more about its possible presence in their neighborhood. Additionally while radon is simple to test for, the same cannot be said for perchloroethylene. This project provides an opportunity to pilot a low-cost sampling method for perchloroethylene, apply TNH2H's CBPR model to an environmental health issue, adapt it for the geosciences, and engage the community in education around air quality issues. Data collected during the project will be shared with participating homes and the larger community. Community members will also participate in understanding and interpreting the data, and together community members and scientists will plan possible next steps, which may involve conducting further research, taking community action, or recommending changes in policy and practice. Beyond the local impacts, we are testing an air quality sampling method that could make sampling more accessible to a broader range of communities. We are also learning more about how communities and scientists can best work together and what additional resources can help facilitate and ensure successful implementation of these types of projects. Our partner, the Thriving Earth Exchange, will use what we learn to facilitate scientist-community partnerships like this in other communities around the

  14. Research Opportunities for Cancer Associated with Indoor Air Pollution from Solid-Fuel Combustion

    PubMed Central

    Ghazarian, Armen A.; DeMarini, David M.; Sapkota, Amir; Jack, Darby; Lan, Qing; Winn, Deborah M.; Birnbaum, Linda S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Indoor air pollution (IAP) derived largely from the use of solid fuels for cooking and heating affects about 3 billion people worldwide, resulting in substantial adverse health outcomes, including cancer. Women and children from developing countries are the most exposed populations. A workshop was held in Arlington, Virginia, 9–11 May 2011, to better understand women’s and children’s potential health effects from IAP in developing countries. Workshop participants included international scientists, manufacturers, policy and regulatory officials, community leaders, and advocates who held extensive discussions to help identify future research needs. Objectives: Our objective was to identify research opportunities regarding IAP and cancer, including research questions that could be incorporated into studies of interventions to reduce IAP exposure. In this commentary, we describe the state of the science in understanding IAP and its associations with cancer and suggest research opportunities for improving our understanding of the issues. Discussion: Opportunities for research on IAP and cancer include studies of the effect of IAP on cancers other than lung cancer; studies of genetic factors that modify susceptibility; studies to determine whether the effects of IAP are mediated via germline, somatic, and/or epigenetic changes; and studies of the effects of IAP exposure via dermal and/or oral routes. Conclusions: IAP from indoor coal use increases the risk of lung cancer. Installing chimneys can reduce risk, and some genotypes, including GSTM1-null, can increase risk. Additional research is needed regarding the effects of IAP on other cancers and the effects of different types of solid fuels, oral and dermal routes of IAP exposure, genetic and epigenetic mechanisms, and genetic susceptibility. PMID:22846419

  15. Pseudo Aircraft Systems - A multi-aircraft simulation system for air traffic control research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weske, Reid A.; Danek, George L.

    1993-01-01

    Pseudo Aircraft Systems (PAS) is a computerized flight dynamics and piloting system designed to provide a high fidelity multi-aircraft real-time simulation environment to support Air Traffic Control research. PAS is composed of three major software components that run on a network of computer workstations. Functionality is distributed among these components to allow the system to execute fast enough to support real-time operation. PAS workstations are linked by an Ethernet Local Area Network, and standard UNIX socket protocol is used for data transfer. Each component of PAS is controlled and operated using a custom designed Graphical User Interface. Each of these is composed of multiple windows, and many of the windows and sub-windows are used in several of the components. Aircraft models and piloting logic are sophisticated and realistic and provide complex maneuvering and navigational capabilities. PAS will continually be enhanced with new features and improved capabilities to support ongoing and future Air Traffic Control system development.

  16. Australian Air Breathing Propulsion Research for Hypersonic, Beamed Energy-Propelled Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froning, David

    2010-05-01

    A three year laser-propelled vehicle analysis and design investigation has been begun in June, 2009 by Faculty and graduate students at the University of Adelaide under a Grant/Cooperative Agreement Award to the University of Adelaide by the Asian Office of Aerospace Research and Development (AOARD). The major objectives of thsis investigation are: (a) development of hypersonic, air breathing "lightcraft" with innovative air inlets that enable acceptable airflow capture and combustion, and acceptable cowl-lip heating rates during hot, high-speed, high angle-of-attack hypersonic flight; (b) yest of the most promising lightcraft and inlet design in the high power laser beam that is part of the shock tunnel facility at CTO Instituto in Brazil; and (c) plan a series of laser guided and propelled flights that achieve supersonic or higher speed at the Woomera Test Facility (WTF) in South Australia—using the existing WTF launching and tracking facilities and sponsor-provided laser pointing and tracking and illumination systems.

  17. Turbulent Drag Reduction with Surfactant Additives — Basic Research and Application to an Air Conditioning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawaguchi, Y.; Li, F. C.; Yu, B.; Wei, J. J.

    It is well known that a small amount of chemicals such as water-soluble polymers or surfactants dramatically suppresses turbulence when they are added to liquid flow at large Reynolds number. In the last two decades, the application of surfactants to heat transportation systems such as district heating and cooling systems has attracted much interest among researchers. It has been revealed that 70% of the pumping power used to drive hot water in primary pipelines or district heating systems was saved by adding only a few hundred ppm of surfactant into the circulating water. The technological achievement requires a new design strategy for pipeline networks and heat exchangers to handle the drag reducing liquid flow. In the case of a Newtonian fluid such as water or air, the knowledge for designing fluid systems has been accumulated and the accuracy of numerical prediction is sufficient. On the other hand, the design system for surfactant solutions is not mature because drag-reducing flow phenomena are much more complicated than for Newtonian flow, for example, the friction factor for a surfactant solution depends not only on Reynolds number but also pipe diameter. In order to provide a design strategy for heat transportation systems using surfactant additives, we are now carrying out both experimental and numerical studies for surfactant solutions. In this lecture, experimental and numerical studies on the turbulence structure in drag reducing flow will be introduced. The result of an application study relating to the air conditioning system will be also shown.

  18. The Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) - Article in National Ambient Air Quality Status and Trends through 2007

    EPA Science Inventory

    A research study that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency conducted in Detroit, Michigan, named the Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS), will help develop data that improves our understanding of human exposure to various air pollutants in our environment.

  19. AFHRL/FT [Air Force Human Resources Laboratory/Flight Training] Capabilities in Undergraduate Pilot Training Simulation Research: Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matheny, W. G.; And Others

    The document presents a summary description of the Air Force Human Resource Laboratory's Flying Training Division (AFHRL/FT) research capabilities for undergraduate pilot training. One of the research devices investigated is the Advanced Simulator for Undergraduate Pilot Training (ASUPT). The equipment includes the ASUPT, the instrumented T-37…

  20. Laser-communication cooperative research and development agreement between Air Force Phillips Lab and Ball Aerospace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Begley, David L.; Kehr, Robert L.; Sarto, Anthony W.; Casey, William; Coffelt, Everett L.; Goodrich, Alan; Thompson, William E.

    1997-04-01

    This paper presents an overview of a cooperative research and development program between Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corp. and the Air Force Phillips Laboratory for laser communications. This effort employs hardware and equipment originally developed to support the crosslinking between geostationary Defense Support Program surveillance satellites. This joint activity modifies the existing hardware for ground based demonstrations and simulations focuses at risk reduction for future applications and technology insertion into operational architectures meeting future commercial, civil, and DOD communications requirements. The ultimate goal of the program is to produce hardware for a near term flight demonstration. A brief overview of the capabilities of the existing hardware will be presented followed by a status of the development efforts and future plans.

  1. Expanding AirSTAR Capability for Flight Research in an Existing Avionics Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laughter, Sean A.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research (AirSTAR) project is an Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) test bed for experimental flight control laws and vehicle dynamics research. During its development, the test bed has gone through a number of system permutations, each meant to add functionality to the concept of operations of the system. This enabled the build-up of not only the system itself, but also the support infrastructure and processes necessary to support flight operations. These permutations were grouped into project phases and the move from Phase-III to Phase-IV was marked by a significant increase in research capability and necessary safety systems due to the integration of an Internal Pilot into the control system chain already established for the External Pilot. The major system changes in Phase-IV operations necessitated a new safety and failsafe system to properly integrate both the Internal and External Pilots and to meet acceptable project safety margins. This work involved retrofitting an existing data system into the evolved concept of operations. Moving from the first Phase-IV aircraft to the dynamically scaled aircraft further involved restructuring the system to better guard against electromagnetic interference (EMI), and the entire avionics wiring harness was redesigned in order to facilitate better maintenance and access to onboard electronics. This retrofit and harness re-design will be explored and how it integrates with the evolved Phase-IV operations.

  2. The Conference Proceedings of the 1997 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG) of the WCTR Society. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Own, Tae Hoon (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    The Aviation Institute University of Nebraska at Omaha (UNO) Monograph series has published the Conference Proceedings of the 1997 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG) of the World Conference on Transportation Research Society (WCTR) volume 1, number 3. The topics included in this document are: 1) Industrial Reform and Air Transport Development in China; 2) The Economic Effects of Airline Deregulation and the Open-Sky Policy of Korea; 3) The Economic Effects of Airline Deregulation and the Open-Sky Policy of Korea; 4) "Open Skies" in India-Is the policy succeeding? 5) The Japanese Domestic Air Fares under the Regulatory Regime: What will be expected after the revision of current charging system? 6) The Competitive Position of Airline Networks; and 7) Air Transport and Regional Economic Development in the European Union.

  3. Return glider radiosonde for in situ upper-air research measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kräuchi, Andreas; Philipona, Rolf

    2016-06-01

    Upper-air balloon soundings for weather predictions have been made since the beginning of the 20th century. New radiosonde instruments for in situ humidity-, radiation- and gas-profile measurements in the troposphere and the lower stratosphere, were introduced in recent years for atmospheric research and climate monitoring, but such instruments are often expensive and it is desired they be reused on multiple flights. Recovering instruments that freely descend with parachutes is time consuming, sometimes difficult and even dangerous. Here, we introduce the return glider radiosonde (RGR), which enables flying and retrieving valuable in situ upper-air instruments. The RGR is lifted with weather balloons similar to traditional radiosondes to a preset altitude, at which time a release mechanism cuts the tether string, and a built-in autopilot flies the glider autonomously back to the launch site or a desired preprogrammed location. Once the RGR reaches the landing coordinates it circles down and releases a parachute 100 m above ground for landing. The motivation for this project was to measure radiation profiles throughout the atmosphere with the same instrument multiple times and with a rapid turn-around time. The paper describes technical aspects of the return glider radiosonde and the built-in radiation instruments and shows test flights up to 24 km altitude that are analyzed in terms of flight performance and maximal distances covered. Several successive flights measuring radiation profiles demonstrate the reliability and the operational readiness of the RGR, allowing new ways for atmospheric in situ research and monitoring with payloads up to several kg depending on the specific size of the glider.

  4. Error Estimation in an Optimal Interpolation Scheme for High Spatial and Temporal Resolution SST Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rigney, Matt; Jedlovec, Gary; LaFontaine, Frank; Shafer, Jaclyn

    2010-01-01

    Heat and moisture exchange between ocean surface and atmosphere plays an integral role in short-term, regional NWP. Current SST products lack both spatial and temporal resolution to accurately capture small-scale features that affect heat and moisture flux. NASA satellite is used to produce high spatial and temporal resolution SST analysis using an OI technique.

  5. Meteorological Research Needs for Improved Air Quality Forecasting: Report of the 11th Prospectus Development Team of the U.S. Weather Research Program*.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabberdt, Walter F.; Carroll, Mary Anne; Baumgardner, Darrel; Carmichael, Gregory; Cohen, Ronald; Dye, Tim; Ellis, James; Grell, Georg; Grimmond, Sue; Hanna, Steven; Irwin, John; Lamb, Brian; Madronich, Sasha; McQueen, Jeff; Meagher, James; Odman, Talat; Pleim, Jonathan; Schmid, Hans Peter; Westphal, Douglas L.

    2004-04-01

    The U.S. Weather Research Program convenes expert working groups on a one-time basis to identify critical research needs in various problem areas. The most recent expert working group was charged to “identify and delineate critical meteorological research issues related to the prediction of air quality.” In this context, “prediction” is denoted as “forecasting” and includes the depiction and communication of the present chemical state of the atmosphere, extrapolation or nowcasting, and numerical prediction and chemical evolution on time scales up to several days. Emphasis is on the meteorological aspects of air quality.The problem of air quality forecasting is different in many ways from the problem of weather forecasting. The latter typically is focused on prediction of severe, adverse weather conditions, while the meteorology of adverse air quality conditions frequently is associated with benign weather. Boundary layer structure and wind direction are perhaps the two most poorly determined meteorological variables for regional air quality prediction. Meteorological observations are critical to effective air quality prediction, yet meteorological observing systems are designed to support prediction of severe weather, not the subtleties of adverse air quality. Three-dimensional meteorological and chemical observations and advanced data assimilation schemes are essential. In the same way, it is important to develop high-resolution and self-consistent databases for air quality modeling; these databases should include land use, vegetation, terrain elevation, and building morphology information, among others. New work in the area of chemically adaptive grids offers significant promise and should be pursued. The quantification and effective communication of forecast uncertainty are still in their early stages and are very important for decision makers; this also includes the visualization of air quality and meteorological observations and forecasts. Research

  6. Repair of Corrosion in Air Supply Piping at the NASA Glenn Research Center's 1 by 1 Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, Michael

    2000-01-01

    During a test at the NASA Glenn Research Center's 1 x 1 Supersonic Wing Tunnel, it was discovered that particles entrained in the air flow were damaging the pressure sensitive paint on a test article. An investigation found the source of the entrained particles to be rust on the internal surfaces of the air supply piping. To remedy the situation, the air supply line components made from carbon steel were either refurbished or replaced with new stainless steel components. The refurbishment process included various combinations of chemical cleaning, bead blasting, painting and plating.

  7. Effect of Radiative Cooling on Cloud-SST Relationship within the Tropical Pacific Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sui, Chung-Hsiung; Ho, Chang-Hoi; Chou, Ming-Dah; Lau, Ka-Ming; Li, Xiao-Fan; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A recent analysis found a negative correlation between the area-mean cloud amount and the corresponding mean Sea Surface Temperature (SST) within the cloudy areas. The SST-cloud relation becomes more evident when the SST contrast between warm pool and surrounding cold pool (DSST) in the tropical Pacific is stronger than normal. The above feature is related to the finding that the strength of subsidence over the cold pool is limited by radiative cooling because of its small variability. As a result, the area of radiatively-driven subsidence must expand in response to enhanced low-boundary forcing due to SST warming or enhanced basin-scale DSST. This leads to more cloud free regions and less cloudy regions. The increased ratio of cloud-free areas to cloudy areas leads to more high SST areas (>29.50C) due to enhanced solar radiation.

  8. Aerosol-stratocumulus-radiation Interactions over Southeast Pacific and Their Implications to SST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, G.; Wang, W. C.

    2014-12-01

    Aerosol-stratocumulus-radiation interactions over Southeast Pacific and their implications to SST CMIP5 models commonly simulate warmer sea surface temperatures (SSTs) over stratocumulus-topped regions (e.g., Southeast Pacific, SEP), which is consistent with the underestimation of radiative forcing by stratocumulus. Recently we used WRF model together with VOCALS observations to illustrate that the aerosol-cloud-radiation interactions may lessen the SST bias. However, that study used prescribed SST and thus did not allow proper atmosphere-ocean coupling, which past studies have shown to be important. Here we further examine the aerosol-cloud-radiation interaction by allowing SST feedback, using the WRF model coupled with a simple ocean-mixed layer scheme.The study will provide insight into the importance of SST feedback to the aerosol-cloud-radiation interaction.

  9. Relationships of Upper Tropospheric Water Vapor, Clouds and SST: MLS Observations, ECMWF Analyses and GCM Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Hui; Waliser, Duane E.; Jiang, Jonathan H.; Li, Jui-lin; Read, William G.; Waters, Joe W.; Tompkins, Adrian M.

    2006-01-01

    The relationships of upper tropospheric water vapor (UTWV), cloud ice and sea surface temperature (SST) are examined in the annual cycles of ECMWF analyses and simulations from 15 atmosphere-ocean coupled models which were contributed to the IPCC AR4. The results are compared with the observed relationships based on UTWV and cloud ice measurements from MLS on Aura. It is shown that the ECMWF analyses produce positive correlations between UTWV, cloud ice and SST, similar to the MLS data. The rate of the increase of cloud ice and UTWV with SST is about 30% larger than that for MLS. For the IPCC simulations, the relationships between UTWV, cloud ice and SST are qualitatively captured. However, the magnitudes of the simulated cloud ice show a considerable disagreement between models, by nearly a factor of 10. The amplitudes of the approximate linear relations between UTWV, cloud ice and SST vary by a factor up to 4.

  10. QUANTITATIVE EVALUATION OF AIR FILTRATION SYSTEMS IN USE AT ASBESTOS ABATEMENT SITES: RESEARCH IN PROGRESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filtration systems serve as the principal engineering control to remove asbestos particulate from airstreams at abatement projects. owever, little quantitative information is available on the integrity of these air filtration systems in prev...

  11. Meteorological Processes Affecting Air Quality – Research and Model Development Needs

    EPA Science Inventory

    Meteorology modeling is an important component of air quality modeling systems that defines the physical and dynamical environment for atmospheric chemistry. The meteorology models used for air quality applications are based on numerical weather prediction models that were devel...

  12. RESEARCH AREA -- POLLUTION PREVENTION (INDOOR ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The strategy of NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division's Indoor Environment Management Branch (IEMB) is to apply IEMB's expertise in indoor air quality (i.e., source characterization, ventilation, filtration, modeling, biocontaminants, and sustainable buildings) to...

  13. ONE ATMOSPHERE MODELING FOR AIR QUALITY: BUILDING PARTNERSHIPS THAT TRANSITION RESEARCH INTO APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Community Miultiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system is a "one atmosphere" chemical transport model that simulates the transport and fate of air pollutants from urban to continental scales and from daily to annual time intervals.

  14. SST algorithms in ACSPO reanalysis of AVHRR GAC data from 2002-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrenko, B.; Ignatov, A.; Kihai, Y.; Zhou, X.; Stroup, J.

    2014-05-01

    In response to a request from the NOAA Coral Reef Watch Program, NOAA SST Team initiated reprocessing of 4 km resolution GAC data from AVHRRs flown onboard NOAA and MetOp satellites. The objective is to create a longterm Level 2 Advanced Clear-Sky Processor for Oceans (ACSPO) SST product, consistent with NOAA operations. ACSPO-Reanalysis (RAN) is used as input in the NOAA geo-polar blended Level 4 SST and potentially other Level 4 SST products. In the first stage of reprocessing (reanalysis 1, or RAN1), data from NOAA-15, -16, -17, -18, -19, and Metop-A and -B, from 2002-present have been processed with ACSPO v2.20, and matched up with quality controlled in situ data from in situ Quality Monitor (iQuam) version 1. The ~12 years time series of matchups were used to develop and explore the SST retrieval algorithms, with emphasis on minimizing spatial biases in retrieved SSTs, close reproduction of the magnitudes of true SST variations, and maximizing temporal, spatial and inter-platform stability of retrieval metrics. Two types of SST algorithms were considered: conventional SST regressions, and recently developed incremental regressions. The conventional equations were adopted in the EUMETSAT OSI-SAF formulation, which, according to our previous analyses, provide relatively small regional biases and well-balanced combination of precision and sensitivity, in its class. Incremental regression equations were specifically elaborated to automatically correct for model minus observation biases, always present when RTM simulations are employed. Improved temporal stability was achieved by recalculation of SST coefficients from matchups on a daily basis, with a +/-45 day window around the current date. This presentation describes the candidate SST algorithms considered for the next round of ACSPO reanalysis, RAN2.

  15. Experience with helium leak and thermal shocks test of SST-1 cryo components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Rajiv; Nimavat, Hiren; Srikanth, G. L. N.; Bairagi, Nitin; Shah, Pankil; Tanna, V. L.; Pradhan, S.

    2012-11-01

    A steady state superconducting Tokamak SST-1 is presently under its assembly stage at the Institute for Plasma Research. The SST-1 machine is a family of Superconducting SC coils for both Toroidal field and Poloidal Field. An ultra high vacuum compatible vacuum vessel, placed in the bore of the TF coils, houses the plasma facing components. A high vacuum cryostat encloses all the SC coils and the vacuum vessel. Liquid Nitrogen (LN2) cooled thermal shield between the vacuum vessel & SC coils as well as between cryostat and the SC coils. There are number of crucial cryogenic components as Electrical isolators, 80 K thermal shield, Cryogenic flexible hose etc., which have to be passed the performance validation tests as part of fulfillment of the stringent QA/QC before incorporated in the main assembly. The individual leak tests of components at RT as well as after thermal cycle from 300 K to 77 K ensure us to make final overall leak proof system. These components include, Large numbers of Electrical Isolators for Helium as well as LN2 services, Flexible Bellows and Hoses for Helium as well as LN2 services, Thermal shock tests of large numbers of 80 K Bubble shields In order to validate the helium leak tightness of these components, we have used the calibrated mass spectrometer leak detector (MSLD) at 300 K, 77 K and 4.2. Since it is very difficult to locate the leaks, which are appearing at rather lower temperatures e.g. less than 20 K, We have invented different approaches to resolve the issue of such leaks. This paper, in general describes the design of cryogenic flexible hose, assembly, couplings for leak testing, test method and techniques of thermal cycles test at 77 K inflow conditions and leak testing aspects of different cryogenic components. The test results, the problems encountered and its solutions techniques are discussed.

  16. Causes of Indoor Air Quality Problems in Schools: Summary of Scientific Research. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayer, Charlene W.; Crow, Sidney A.; Fischer, John

    Understanding the primary causes of indoor air quality (IAQ) problems and how controllable factors--proper heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) system design, allocation of adequate outdoor air, proper filtration, effective humidity control, and routine maintenance--can avert problems may help all building owners, operators, and…

  17. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) evaluation of the carcinogenicity of outdoor air pollution: focus on China

    PubMed Central

    Loomis, Dana; Huang, Wei; Chen, Guosheng

    2014-01-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified outdoor air pollution and the particulate matter (PM) in outdoor air pollution as carcinogenic to humans, as based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in humans and experimental animals and strong support by mechanistic studies. The data with important contributions to the evaluation are reviewed, highlighting the data with particular relevance to China, and implications of the evaluation with respect to China are discussed. The air pollution levels in Chinese cities are among the highest observed in the world today and frequently exceed health-based national and international guidelines. Data from high-quality epidemiologic studies in Asia, Europe, and North America consistently show positive associations between lung cancer and PM exposure and other indicators of air pollution, which persist after adjustment for important lung cancer risk factors, such as tobacco smoking. Epidemiologic data from China are limited but nevertheless indicate an increased risk of lung cancer associated with several air pollutants. Excess cancer risk is also observed in experimental animals exposed to polluted outdoor air or extracted PM. The exposure of several species to outdoor air pollution is associated with markers of genetic damage that have been linked to increased cancer risk in humans. Numerous studies from China, especially genetic biomarker studies in exposed populations, support that the polluted air in China is genotoxic and carcinogenic to humans. The evaluation by IARC indicates both the need for further research into the cancer risks associated with exposure to air pollution in China and the urgent need to act to reduce exposure to the population. PMID:24694836

  18. Causes of Indoor Air Quality Problems in Schools: Summary of Scientific Research

    SciTech Connect

    Bayer, C.W.

    2001-02-22

    chemical sensitivity versus bioaerosols (aerosolized microbes), or the contribution of the microorganisms to the chemical sensitivities, is not yet understood. If the inhabitants of a building exhibit similar symptoms of a clearly defined disease with a nature and time of onset that can be related to building occupancy, the disease is generally referred to as ''building-related illness.'' Once the SBS has been allowed to elevate to this level, buildings are typically evacuated and the costs associated with disruption of the building occupants, identification of the source of the problem, and eventual remediation can be significant. Understanding the primary causes of IAQ problems and how controllable factors--proper HVAC system design, allocation of adequate outdoor air, proper filtration, effective humidity control, and routine maintenance--can avert the problems may help all building owners, operators, and occupants to be more productive (Arens and Baughman 1996). This paper provides a comprehensive summary of IAQ research that has been conducted in various types of facilities. However, it focuses primarily on school facilities because, for numerous reasons that will become evident, they are far more susceptible to developing IAQ problems than most other types of facilities; and the occupants, children, are more significantly affected than adults (EPA 1998).

  19. Research Data Alliance's Interest Group on "Weather, Climate and Air Quality"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretonnière, Pierre-Antoine; Benincasa, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    Research Data Alliance's Interest Group on "Weather, Climate and Air Quality" More than ever in the history of Earth sciences, scientists are confronted with the problem of dealing with huge amounts of data that grow continuously at a rate that becomes a challenge to process and analyse them using conventional methods. Data come from many different and widely distributed sources, ranging from satellite platforms and in-situ sensors to model simulations, and with different degrees of openness. How can Earth scientists deal with this diversity and big volume and extract useful information to understand and predict the relevant processes? The Research Data Alliance (RDA, https://rd-alliance.org/), an organization that promotes and develops new data policies, data standards and focuses on the development of new technical solutions applicable in many distinct areas of sciences, recently entered in its third phase. In this framework, an Interest Group (IG) comprised of community experts that are committed to directly or indirectly enable and facilitate data sharing, exchange, or interoperability in the fields of weather, climate and air quality has been created recently. Its aim is to explore and discuss the challenges for the use and efficient analysis of large and diverse datasets of relevance for these fields taking advantage of the knowledge generated and exchanged in RDA. At the same time, this IG intends to be a meeting point between members of the aforementioned communities to share experiences and propose new solutions to overcome the forthcoming challenges. Based on the collaboration between several research meteorological and European climate institutes, but also taking into account the input from the private (from the renewable energies, satellites and agriculture sectors for example) and public sectors, this IG will suggest practical and applicable solutions for Big Data issues, both at technological and policy level, encountered by these communities. We

  20. Time-Resolved Optical Measurements of Fuel-Air Mixedness in Windowless High Speed Research Combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Quang-Viet

    1998-01-01

    Fuel distribution measurements in gas turbine combustors are needed from both pollution and fuel-efficiency standpoints. In addition to providing valuable data for performance testing and engine development, measurements of fuel distributions uniquely complement predictive numerical simulations. Although equally important as spatial distribution, the temporal distribution of the fuel is an often overlooked aspect of combustor design and development. This is due partly to the difficulties in applying time-resolved diagnostic techniques to the high-pressure, high-temperature environments inside gas turbine engines. Time-resolved measurements of the fuel-to-air ratio (F/A) can give researchers critical insights into combustor dynamics and acoustics. Beginning in early 1998, a windowless technique that uses fiber-optic, line-of-sight, infrared laser light absorption to measure the time-resolved fluctuations of the F/A (refs. 1 and 2) will be used within the premixer section of a lean-premixed, prevaporized (LPP) combustor in NASA Lewis Research Center's CE-5 facility. The fiber-optic F/A sensor will permit optical access while eliminating the need for film-cooled windows, which perturb the flow. More importantly, the real-time data from the fiber-optic F/A sensor will provide unique information for the active feedback control of combustor dynamics. This will be a prototype for an airborne sensor control system.

  1. Weather Research and Forecasting Model Wind Sensitivity Study at Edwards Air Force Base, CA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Leela R.; Bauman, William H., III

    2008-01-01

    NASA prefers to land the space shuttle at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). When weather conditions violate Flight Rules at KSC, NASA will usually divert the shuttle landing to Edwards Air Force Base (EAFB) in Southern California. But forecasting surface winds at EAFB is a challenge for the Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) forecasters due to the complex terrain that surrounds EAFB, One particular phenomena identified by SMG is that makes it difficult to forecast the EAFB surface winds is called "wind cycling". This occurs when wind speeds and directions oscillate among towers near the EAFB runway leading to a challenging deorbit bum forecast for shuttle landings. The large-scale numerical weather prediction models cannot properly resolve the wind field due to their coarse horizontal resolutions, so a properly tuned high-resolution mesoscale model is needed. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model meets this requirement. The AMU assessed the different WRF model options to determine which configuration best predicted surface wind speed and direction at EAFB, To do so, the AMU compared the WRF model performance using two hot start initializations with the Advanced Research WRF and Non-hydrostatic Mesoscale Model dynamical cores and compared model performance while varying the physics options.

  2. Weather Research and Forecasting Model Wind Sensitivity Study at Edwards Air Force Base, CA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Leela R.; Bauman, William H., III; Hoeth, Brian

    2009-01-01

    This abstract describes work that will be done by the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) in assessing the success of different model configurations in predicting "wind cycling" cases at Edwards Air Force Base, CA (EAFB), in which the wind speeds and directions oscillate among towers near the EAFB runway. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model allows users to choose among two dynamical cores - the Advanced Research WRF (ARW) and the Non-hydrostatic Mesoscale Model (NMM). There are also data assimilation analysis packages available for the initialization of the WRF model - the Local Analysis and Prediction System (LAPS) and the Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Data Analysis System (ADAS). Having a series of initialization options and WRF cores, as well as many options within each core, creates challenges for local forecasters, such as determining which configuration options are best to address specific forecast concerns. The goal of this project is to assess the different configurations available and determine which configuration will best predict surface wind speed and direction at EAFB.

  3. Air Force Research Laboratory Spacecraft Cryocooler Endurance Evaluation Facility Closing Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, J.; Martin, K. W.; Fraser, T.

    2015-12-01

    The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Spacecraft Component Thermal Research Group has been devoted to evaluating lifetime performance of space cryocooler technology for over twenty years. Long-life data is essential for confirming design lifetimes for space cryocoolers. Continuous operation in a simulated space environment is the only accepted method to test for degradation. AFRL has provided raw data and detailed evaluations to cryocooler developers for advancing the technology, correcting discovered deficiencies, and improving cryocooler designs. At AFRL, units of varying design and refrigeration cycles were instrumented in state-of-the-art experiment stands to provide spacelike conditions and were equipped with software data acquisition to track critical cryocooler operating parameters. This data allowed an assessment of the technology's ability to meet the desired lifetime and documented any long-term changes in performance. This paper will outline a final report of the various flight cryocoolers tested in our laboratory. The data summarized includes the seven cryocoolers tested during 2014-2015. These seven coolers have a combined total of 433,326 hours (49.5 years) of operation.

  4. Research on precise modeling of buildings based on multi-source data fusion of air to ground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yongqiang; Niu, Lubiao; Yang, Shasha; Li, Lixue; Zhang, Xitong

    2016-03-01

    Aims at the accuracy problem of precise modeling of buildings, a test research was conducted based on multi-source data for buildings of the same test area , including top data of air-borne LiDAR, aerial orthophotos, and façade data of vehicle-borne LiDAR. After accurately extracted the top and bottom outlines of building clusters, a series of qualitative and quantitative analysis was carried out for the 2D interval between outlines. Research results provide a reliable accuracy support for precise modeling of buildings of air ground multi-source data fusion, on the same time, discussed some solution for key technical problems.

  5. OVERVIEW OF HANFORD SINGLE SHELL TANK (SST) STRUCTURAL INTEGRITY - 12123

    SciTech Connect

    RAST RS; RINKER MW; WASHENFELDER DJ; JOHNSON JB

    2012-01-25

    To improve the understanding of the single-shell tanks (SSTs) integrity, Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS), the USDOE Hanford Site tank contractor, developed an enhanced Single-Shell Tank Integrity Project in 2009. An expert panel on SST integrity, consisting of various subject matters experts in industry and academia, was created to provide recommendations supporting the development of the project. This panel developed 33 recommendations in four main areas of interest: structural integrity, liner degradation, leak integrity and prevention, and mitigation of contamination migration. Seventeen of these recommendations were used to develop the basis for the M-45-10-1 Change Package for the Hanford Federal Agreement and Compliance Order, which is also known as the Tri-Party Agreement. The structural integrity of the tanks is a key element in completing the cleanup mission at the Hanford Site. There are eight primary recommendations related to the structural integrity of Hanford SSTs. Six recommendations are being implemented through current and planned activities. The structural integrity of the Hanford SSTs is being evaluated through analysis, monitoring, inspection, materials testing, and construction document review. Structural evaluation in the form of analysis is performed using modern finite element models generated in ANSYS{reg_sign} The analyses consider in-situ, thermal, operating loads and natural phenomena such as earthquakes. Structural analysis of 108 of 149 Hanford SSTs has concluded that the tanks are structurally sound and meet current industry standards. Analyses of the remaining Hanford SSTs are scheduled for FY2013. Hanford SSTs are monitored through a dome deflection program. The program looks for deflections of the tank dome greater than 1/4 inch. No such deflections have been recorded. The tanks are also subjected to visual inspection. Digital cameras record the interior surface of the concrete tank domes, looking for cracks and

  6. Simulation Based Low-Cost Composite Process Development at the US Air Force Research Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, Brian P.; Lee, C. William; Curliss, David B.

    2003-01-01

    Low-cost composite research in the US Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Organic Matrix Composites Branch has focused on the theme of affordable performance. Practically, this means that we use a very broad view when considering the affordability of composites. Factors such as material costs, labor costs, recurring and nonrecurring manufacturing costs are balanced against performance to arrive at the relative affordability vs. performance measure of merit. The research efforts discussed here are two projects focused on affordable processing of composites. The first topic is the use of a neural network scheme to model cure reaction kinetics, then utilize the kinetics coupled with simple heat transport models to predict, in real-time, future exotherms and control them. The neural network scheme is demonstrated to be very robust and a much more efficient method that mechanistic cure modeling approach. This enables very practical low-cost processing of thick composite parts. The second project is liquid composite molding (LCM) process simulation. LCM processing of large 3D integrated composite parts has been demonstrated to be a very cost effective way to produce large integrated aerospace components specific examples of LCM processes are resin transfer molding (RTM), vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM), and other similar approaches. LCM process simulation is a critical part of developing an LCM process approach. Flow simulation enables the development of the most robust approach to introducing resin into complex preforms. Furthermore, LCM simulation can be used in conjunction with flow front sensors to control the LCM process in real-time to account for preform or resin variability.

  7. Analysis of the Effects of SST and Model Resolutions on the Identification of the 1993 Superstorm Using an Ocean-Atmosphere Coupled Regional System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aktas, D.; Velissariou, P.; Chassignet, E.; Bourassa, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    The non-tropical storm, the 12-14 March 1993 Superstorm, which called the Storm of the Century had a wide reaching effect on the Northern Gulf of Mexico region and the East Coast of the United States. Previous studies show that the initial development of the storm could not be simulated accurately enough to represent the intensity and the evolution of the storm over the Gulf of Mexico region. The aim of this study is to identify the effects of the air-sea fluxes, the sea surface temperature (SST) and the model resolution on determining the intensity and the track of the storm more accurately. To this end, the outputs from two-way coupled model runs were examined to analyze the storm characteristics. Model configurations have been set within a coupled system framework that includes the atmospheric model Weather Research & Forecasting Model (WRF) and the ocean model Regional Ocean Model (ROMS). Three WRF domains assigned 15 km, 5 km and ~1.6 km resolutions, respectively and an 8 km resolution ROMS domain were used in the coupled system. The initial and boundary conditions for WRF were extracted from the NCEP Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) products and the Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) generated SSTs while, the conditions for ROMS were extracted from HYCOM. Comparisons were performed against NOAA buoys and GridSAT brightness temperatures. Minimum mean sea level pressure (MSLP), maximum wind speed and storm locations were examined. Time series for MSLP and wind speed were used to illustrate how air-sea interaction and resolution changes storm intensity along the track. The results showing the RMS differences on the storm location and intensity of the storm are also presented.

  8. Networking Multiple Autonomous Air and Ocean Vehicles for Oceanographic Research and Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGillivary, P. A.; Borges de Sousa, J.; Rajan, K.

    2013-12-01

    Autonomous underwater and surface vessels (AUVs and ASVs) are coming into wider use as components of oceanographic research, including ocean observing systems. Unmanned airborne vehicles (UAVs) are now available at modest cost, allowing multiple UAVs to be deployed with multiple AUVs and ASVs. For optimal use good communication and coordination among vehicles is essential. We report on the use of multiple AUVs networked in communication with multiple UAVs. The UAVs are augmented by inferential reasoning software developed at MBARI that allows UAVs to recognize oceanographic fronts and change their navigation and control. This in turn allows UAVs to automatically to map frontal features, as well as to direct AUVs and ASVs to proceed to such features and conduct sampling via onboard sensors to provide validation for airborne mapping. ASVs can also act as data nodes for communication between UAVs and AUVs, as well as collecting data from onboard sensors, while AUVs can sample the water column vertically. This allows more accurate estimation of phytoplankton biomass and productivity, and can be used in conjunction with UAV sampling to determine air-sea flux of gases (e.g. CO2, CH4, DMS) affecting carbon budgets and atmospheric composition. In particular we describe tests in July 2013 conducted off Sesimbra, Portugal in conjunction with the Portuguese Navy by the University of Porto and MBARI with the goal of tracking large fish in the upper water column with coordinated air/surface/underwater measurements. A thermal gradient was observed in the infrared by a low flying UAV, which was used to dispatch an AUV to obtain ground truth to demonstrate the event-response capabilities using such autonomous platforms. Additional field studies in the future will facilitate integration of multiple unmanned systems into research vessel operations. The strength of hardware and software tools described in this study is to permit fundamental oceanographic measurements of both ocean

  9. Diagnosing southeast tropical Atlantic SST and ocean circulation biases in the CMIP5 ensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhao; Chang, Ping; Richter, Ingo; Kim, Who; Tang, Guanglin

    2014-12-01

    Warm sea-surface temperature (SST) biases in the southeastern tropical Atlantic (SETA), which is defined by a region from 5°E to the west coast of southern Africa and from 10°S to 30°S, are a common problem in many current and previous generation climate models. The Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) ensemble provides a useful framework to tackle the complex issues concerning causes of the SST bias. In this study, we tested a number of previously proposed mechanisms responsible for the SETA SST bias and found the following results. First, the multi-model ensemble mean shows a positive shortwave radiation bias of ~20 W m-2, consistent with models' deficiency in simulating low-level clouds. This shortwave radiation error, however, is overwhelmed by larger errors in the simulated surface turbulent heat and longwave radiation fluxes, resulting in excessive heat loss from the ocean. The result holds for atmosphere-only model simulations from the same multi-model ensemble, where the effect of SST biases on surface heat fluxes is removed, and is not sensitive to whether the analysis region is chosen to coincide with the maximum warm SST bias along the coast or with the main SETA stratocumulus deck away from the coast. This combined with the fact that there is no statistically significant relationship between simulated SST biases and surface heat flux biases among CMIP5 models suggests that the shortwave radiation bias caused by poorly simulated low-level clouds is not the leading cause of the warm SST bias. Second, the majority of CMIP5 models underestimate upwelling strength along the Benguela coast, which is linked to the unrealistically weak alongshore wind stress simulated by the models. However, a correlation analysis between the model simulated vertical velocities and SST biases does not reveal a statistically significant relationship between the two, suggesting that the deficient coastal upwelling in the models is not simply related to the

  10. Sea surface temperature anomalies, planetary waves, and air-sea feedback in the middle latitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frankignoul, C.

    1985-01-01

    Current analytical models for large-scale air-sea interactions in the middle latitudes are reviewed in terms of known sea-surface temperature (SST) anomalies. The scales and strength of different atmospheric forcing mechanisms are discussed, along with the damping and feedback processes controlling the evolution of the SST. Difficulties with effective SST modeling are described in terms of the techniques and results of case studies, numerical simulations of mixed-layer variability and statistical modeling. The relationship between SST and diabatic heating anomalies is considered and a linear model is developed for the response of the stationary atmosphere to the air-sea feedback. The results obtained with linear wave models are compared with the linear model results. Finally, sample data are presented from experiments with general circulation models into which specific SST anomaly data for the middle latitudes were introduced.

  11. Design of multipulse Thomson scattering diagnostic for SST-1 tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ajai; Chavda, Chhaya; Saxena, Y. C.; Singh, Ranjeet; Thakar, Aruna; Thomas, Jinto; Patel, Kiran; Pandya, Kaushal; Bedakihale, Vijay

    2007-04-01

    A multipulse Nd:YAG (Yttrium aluminum garnet) Thomson scattering (TS) system is designed and developed for measuring electron temperature (Te) and density (ne) profiles of SST-1 tokamak. The system operates at vertical, divertor, and horizontal (midplane) regions of plasma and measures the electron temperature of 20eVto1.5keV and density of 1018-1019m-3. Six Nd:YAG lasers synchronized with external control is used to get three different temporal resolutions (30Hz, 180Hz, and 1kHz). The entire system is laboratory tested for the stability of alignment and performance over a distance of 30m. Different imaging lens assemblies are designed to image the scattered photons from each of the scattering region to an array of optical fibers. A low cost and compact five-channel interference filter polychromator is designed, fabricated, and tested for its image quality and the filter transmission characteristics. Detection system with an avalanche photodiode and required signal conditioning electronics is developed for detecting the scattered photons. A data acquisition and control module operating on PXI bus is developed for the real time data acquisition and system control. A detailed description of design and testing of TS subsystems is presented in this article.

  12. 42GHz ECRH assisted Plasma Breakdown in tokamak SST-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, B. K.; Pradhan, S.; Patel, Paresh; Babu, Rajan; Patel, Jatin; Patel, Harshida; Dhorajia, Pragnesh; Tanna, V.; Atrey, P. K.; Manchanda, R.; Gupta, Manoj; Joisa, Shankar; Gupta, C. N.; Danial, Raju; Singh, Prashant; Jha, R.; Bora, D.

    2015-03-01

    In SST-1, 42GHz ECRH system has been commissioned to carry out breakdown and heating experiments at 0.75T and 1.5T operating toroidal magnetic fields. The 42GHz ECRH system consists of high power microwave source Gyrotron capable to deliver 500kW microwave power for 500ms duration, approximately 20 meter long transmission line and a mirror based launcher. The ECRH power in fundamental O-mode & second harmonic X-mode is launched from low field side (radial port) of the tokamak. At 0.75T operation, approximately 300 kW ECH power is launched in second harmonic X-mode and successful ECRH assisted breakdown is achieved at low loop_voltage ~ 3V. The ECRH power is launched around 45ms prior to loop voltage. The hydrogen pressure in tokamak is maintained ~ 1×10-5mbar and the pre-ionized density is ~ 4×1012/cc. At 1.5T operating toroidal magnetic field, the ECH power is launched in fundamental O-mode. The ECH power at fundamental harmonic is varied from 100 kW to 250 kW and successful breakdown is achieved in all ECRH shots. In fundamental harmonic there is no delay in breakdown while at second harmonic ~ 40ms delay is observed, which is normal in case of second harmonic ECRH assisted breakdown.

  13. Regime shift of the South China Sea SST in the late 1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Bijoy; Tkalich, Pavel; Malanotte-Rizzoli, Paola

    2016-05-01

    Decadal variability of the South China Sea (SCS) sea surface temperature (SST) during 1982-2014 is investigated using observations and ocean reanalysis datasets. The SCS SST shows an abrupt transition from a cold-to-warm regime in the late 1990s. Based on the long-term SST variability two epochs are defined, 1982-1996 and 2000-2014 as cold and warm regimes respectively, spanning on either side of the 1997-1999 SCS warming. Despite the occurrence of strong El Nino induced warming events, the SST anomalies tend to be negative in the cold regime. Conversely during the warm regime, the positive SST anomalies have dominated over the La Nina driven cooling events. The cold (warm) SST regime is marked by net heat gain (loss) by the SCS. The long-term variations of net surface heat flux are mainly driven by the latent heat flux anomalies while the short wave flux plays a secondary role. Low-frequency variability of the South China Sea throughflow (SCSTF) appears to be closely related to the SCS SST regime shift. The SCSTF shows reversing trends during the cold and warm epochs. The weakened SCSTF in the warm regime has promoted the SCS warming by limiting the outward flow of warm water from the SCS. Meanwhile, enhanced SCSTF during the cold regime acts as a cooling mechanism and lead to persistent negative SST anomalies. The change in trend of the SCSTF and SST regime shift coincides with the switching of pacific decadal oscillation from a warm to cold phase in the late 1990s.

  14. How much of the interannual variability of East Asian summer rainfall is forced by SST?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Chao; Wu, Bo; Li, Chunhui; Lin, Ailan; Gu, Dejun; Zheng, Bin; Zhou, Tianjun

    2016-07-01

    It is widely accepted that the interannual variability of East Asian summer rainfall is forced by sea surface temperature (SST), and SST anomalies are widely used as predictors of East Asian summer rainfall. But it is still not very clear what percentage of the interannual rainfall variability is contributed by SST anomalies. In this study, Atmospheric general circulation model simulations forced by observed interannual varying SST are compared with those forced by the fixed annual cycle of SST climatology, and their ratios of interannual variance (IAV) are analyzed. The output of 12 models from the 5th Phase of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) are adopted, and idealized experiments are done by Community Atmosphere Model version 4 (CAM4). Both the multi-model median of CMIP5 models and CAM4 experiments show that only about 18 % of the IAV of rainfall over East Asian land (EAL) is explained by SST, which is significantly lower than the tropical western Pacific, but comparable to the mid-latitude western Pacific. There is no significant difference between the southern part and the northern part of EAL in the percentages of SST contribution. The remote SST anomalies regulates rainfall over EAL probably by modulating the horizontal water vapor transport rather than the vertical motion, since the horizontal water vapor transport into EAL is strongly modulated by SST but the vertical motion over EAL is not. Previous studies argued about the relative importance of tropical Indian Ocean and tropical Pacific Ocean to East Asian summer rainfall anomalies. Our idealized experiments performed by CAM4 suggest that the contributions from these two ocean basins are comparable to each other, both of which account for approximately 6 % of the total IAV of rainfall over EAL.

  15. Near real time SST retrievals from Himawari-8 at NOAA using ACSPO system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramar, M.; Ignatov, A.; Petrenko, B.; Kihai, Y.; Dash, P.

    2016-05-01

    Japanese Himawari-8 (H8) satellite was launched on October 7, 2014 and placed into a geostationary orbit at ~ 140.7°E. The Advanced Himawari Imager (AHI) onboard H8 provides full-disk (FD) observations every 10 minutes, in 16 solar reflectance and thermal infrared (IR) bands, with spatial resolution at nadir of 0.5-1 km and 2 km, respectively. The NOAA Advanced Clear-Sky Processor for Ocean (ACSPO) SST system, previously used with several polar-orbiting sensors, was adapted to process the AHI data. The AHI SST product is routinely validated against quality controlled in situ SSTs available from the NOAA in situ SST Quality monitor (iQuam). The product performance is monitored in the NOAA SST Quality Monitor (SQUAM) system. Typical validation statistics show a bias within +/-0.2 K and standard deviation of 0.4-0.6 K. The ACSPO H8 SST is also compared with the NOAA heritage SST produced at OSPO from the Multifunctional Transport Satellite (MTSAT-2; renamed Himawari-7, or H7 after launch) and with another H8 SST produced by JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency). This paper describes the ACSPO AHI SST processing and results of validation and comparisons. Work is underway to generate a reduced volume ACSPO AHI SST product L2C (collated in time; e.g., 1-hr instead of current 10-min) and/or L3C (additionally gridded in space). ACSPO AHI processing chain will be applied to the data of the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI), which will be flown onboard the next generation US geostationary satellite, GOES-R, scheduled for launch in October 2016.

  16. How much of the interannual variability of East Asian summer rainfall is forced by SST?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Chao; Wu, Bo; Li, Chunhui; Lin, Ailan; Gu, Dejun; Zheng, Bin; Zhou, Tianjun

    2015-10-01

    It is widely accepted that the interannual variability of East Asian summer rainfall is forced by sea surface temperature (SST), and SST anomalies are widely used as predictors of East Asian summer rainfall. But it is still not very clear what percentage of the interannual rainfall variability is contributed by SST anomalies. In this study, Atmospheric general circulation model simulations forced by observed interannual varying SST are compared with those forced by the fixed annual cycle of SST climatology, and their ratios of interannual variance (IAV) are analyzed. The output of 12 models from the 5th Phase of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) are adopted, and idealized experiments are done by Community Atmosphere Model version 4 (CAM4). Both the multi-model median of CMIP5 models and CAM4 experiments show that only about 18 % of the IAV of rainfall over East Asian land (EAL) is explained by SST, which is significantly lower than the tropical western Pacific, but comparable to the mid-latitude western Pacific. There is no significant difference between the southern part and the northern part of EAL in the percentages of SST contribution. The remote SST anomalies regulates rainfall over EAL probably by modulating the horizontal water vapor transport rather than the vertical motion, since the horizontal water vapor transport into EAL is strongly modulated by SST but the vertical motion over EAL is not. Previous studies argued about the relative importance of tropical Indian Ocean and tropical Pacific Ocean to East Asian summer rainfall anomalies. Our idealized experiments performed by CAM4 suggest that the contributions from these two ocean basins are comparable to each other, both of which account for approximately 6 % of the total IAV of rainfall over EAL.

  17. "Air Toxics under the Big Sky": Examining the Effectiveness of Authentic Scientific Research on High School Students' Science Skills and Interest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Tony J.; Delaloye, Naomi; Adams, Earle Raymond; Ware, Desirae; Vanek, Diana; Knuth, Randy; Hester, Carolyn Laurie; Marra, Nancy Noel; Holian, Andrij

    2016-01-01

    "Air Toxics Under the Big Sky" is an environmental science outreach/education program that incorporates the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) 8 Practices with the goal of promoting knowledge and understanding of authentic scientific research in high school classrooms through air quality research. This research explored: (1)…

  18. A Mini Review of Dolphin Carbohydrate Metabolism and Suggestions for Future Research Using Exhaled Air

    PubMed Central

    Ridgway, Sam H.

    2013-01-01

    In the 1960s, I explored some aspects of carbohydrate metabolism in healthy bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). Their physiological picture resembled what had been described for hyperthyroid diabetics. Dolphins have elevated thyroid hormone turnover, and fasting dolphins maintain a relatively high level of plasma glucose. After dolphins ingest glucose, plasma levels remain high for many hours. Interestingly, plasma glucose must exceed 300 mg/dL (about twice as high as the human threshold) before glucose appears in urine. Due to their diabetes-like states, trainability, and unique natural respiratory anatomy and physiology, dolphins may offer useful clues to metabolites in the breath that may be used to non-invasively monitor diabetes in humans. Dolphins take very rapid and deep breaths that are four or five times as deep as humans and other terrestrial mammals, making them ideal for physiological assessment using non-invasive exhaled air. Avenues for successfully identifying breath-based markers for metabolic disease and physiology in dolphins can be done with both modern technology and the evolutionarily advantageous canine nose. This review summarizes aspects of dolphin metabolism previously learned and offers new directions for diabetes research that may benefit both dolphin and human health. PMID:24379802

  19. Spacecraft environmental interactions: A joint Air Force and NASA research and technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pike, C. P.; Purvis, C. K.; Hudson, W. R.

    1985-01-01

    A joint Air Force/NASA comprehensive research and technology program on spacecraft environmental interactions to develop technology to control interactions between large spacecraft systems and the charged-particle environment of space is described. This technology will support NASA/Department of Defense operations of the shuttle/IUS, shuttle/Centaur, and the force application and surveillance and detection missions, planning for transatmospheric vehicles and the NASA space station, and the AFSC military space system technology model. The program consists of combined contractual and in-house efforts aimed at understanding spacecraft environmental interaction phenomena and relating results of ground-based tests to space conditions. A concerted effort is being made to identify project-related environmental interactions of concern. The basic properties of materials are being investigated to develop or modify the materials as needed. A group simulation investigation is evaluating basic plasma interaction phenomena to provide inputs to the analytical modeling investigation. Systems performance is being evaluated by both groundbased tests and analysis.

  20. Future research needs associated with the assessment of potential human health risks from exposure to toxic ambient air pollutants.

    PubMed Central

    Möller, L; Schuetzle, D; Autrup, H

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents key conclusions and future research needs from a Workshop on the Risk Assessment of Urban Air, Emissions, Exposure, Risk Identification, and Quantification, which was held in Stockholm during June 1992 by 41 participants from 13 countries. Research is recommended in the areas of identification and quantification of toxics in source emissions and ambient air, atmospheric transport and chemistry, exposure level assessment, the development of improved in vitro bioassays, biomarker development, the development of more accurate epidemiological methodologies, and risk quantification techniques. Studies are described that will be necessary to assess and reduce the level of uncertainties associated with each step of the risk assessment process. International collaborative research efforts between industry and government organizations are recommended as the most effective way to carry out this research. PMID:7529703

  1. The Design of Research Laboratories. Part I: A General Assessment. Part II: Air Conditioning and Conditioned Rooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legget, R. F.; Hutcheon, N. B.

    Design factors in the planning of research laboratories are described which include--(1) location, (2) future expansion, (3) internal flexibility, (4) provision of services, (5) laboratory furnishing, (6) internal traffic, (7) space requirements, and (8) building costs. A second part discusses air-conditioning and conditioned rooms--(1)…

  2. Methodological and Ethical Dilemmas Encountered during Field Research of Family Violence Experienced by Adolescent Women in Buenos Aires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luxardo, Natalia; Colombo, Graciela; Iglesias, Gabriela

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine some obstacles and dilemmas related to methodological strategies and ethical considerations that arose during the fieldwork of research focused on family violence during the stages of pregnancy and childbirth in adolescent females in Buenos Aires during 2007. From this study, we are able to contribute some…

  3. Current research in NRMRL on the mitigation of near-road air pollution by vegetative and structural barriers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numerous research studies published in scientific literature have shown that people living, working, and going to school near large roads experience increased adverse health effects. In addition, studies show that air pollution is worse in close proximity to major roadways (e.g....

  4. ADVANCED EMISSIONS SPECIATION METHODOLOGIES FOR THE AUTO/OIL AIR QUALITY IMPROVEMENT RESEARCH PROGRAM - II. ALDEHYDES, KETONES, AND ALCOHOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Analytical methods for determining individual aldehyde, ketone, and alcohol emissions from gasoline-, methanol-, and variable-fueled vehicles are described. These methods were used in the Auto/Oil Air quality Improvement Research Program to provide emission data for comparison of...

  5. The Conference Proceedings of the 1997 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG) of the WCTR Society. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oum, Tae Hoon (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    The UNO Aviation Institute has published the 1997 Proceedings of the Air Transport Research Group of the World Conference on Transportation Research (WCTR) Society. Items published in this three volume, seven monograph series were presented at the triennial ATRG Conference held at the University of British Columbia, June 25-27, 1997. A wide variety of policy issues are discussed including the following: open- skies agreements, liberalization, globalization, airline competition, airport performance, pricing, hubs, and safety, among others.

  6. Temperature and Humidity Independent Control Research on Ground Source Heat Pump Air Conditioning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, G.; Wang, L. L.

    Taking green demonstration center building air conditioning system as an example, this paper presents the temperature and humidity independent control system combined with ground source heat pump system, emphasis on the design of dry terminal device system, fresh air system and ground source heat pump system.

  7. Healthier Schools: A Review of State Policies for Improving Indoor Air Quality. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Tobie

    Existing indoor air quality (IAQ) policies for schools reflect the variety of institutional, political, social, and economic contexts that exist within individual states. The purpose of this report is to provide a better understanding of the types of policy strategies used by states in addressing general indoor air quality problems. The policies…

  8. Research report on the physiological effects of air ions and their significance as environmental factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varga, A.

    1978-01-01

    The series of experiments performed have shown that small air ions generated artificially using radioactive materials produced physiological effects in all test subjects, which are described. These results show that the air ions were important climatic factors in the production of comfortable and healthy room climates.

  9. EPA RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS -- MODELS-3/CMAQ OFFERS COMPREHENSIVE APPROACH TO AIR QUALITY MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Regional and global coordinated efforts are needed to address air quality problems that are growing in complexity and scope. Models-3 CMAQ contains a community multi-scale air quality modeling system for simulating urban to regional scale pollution problems relating to troposphe...

  10. IMPACTS OF AIR POLLUTION AND CLIMATE CHANGE ON FOREST ECOSYSTEMS - EMERGING RESEARCH NEEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Outcomes from the 22nd meeting for Specialists in Air Pollution Effects on Forest Ecosystems "Forests under Anthropogenic Pressure - Effects of Air Pollution, Climate Change and Urban Development", September 10-16, 2006, Riverside, CA, USA are summarized. Tropospheric ozone is st...

  11. Cooperative Research and Development Agreement between the California Air Resources Board and Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, G.H.

    1998-04-01

    This report summarizes the activities under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Lockheed-Martin Idaho Technologies Company (LMITCO) and the California Air Resources Board (CARB). The activities were performed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) between June 1995 and December 1997. Work under this agreement was concentrated in two task areas as defined in the California Air Resources Board`s contract number 94-908 having an approval date of June 9, 1995: Task 1--EV and HEV Vehicle Testing and Assessment and Task 4--Advanced Battery Testing.

  12. Design analysis of an aluminum-air battery for vehicle operations. Transportation systems research

    SciTech Connect

    Behrin, E.; Wood, R.L.; Salisbury, J.D.; Whisler, D.J.; Hudson, C.L.

    1983-03-18

    The objective of the study reported was to perform a detailed configuration analysis of an aluminum-air battery, evaluate various automobile propulsion systems utilizing the Al-air battery, and estimate the performance and cost of vehicles incorporating these propulsion systems. A preliminary engineering design is performed. A physical model and a cell-performance model of a conceptual mass-produced Al-air battery were constructed and work together to characterize the battery system. The physical battery model is based on a specific battery design concept and defines the mass and volume of a complete Al-air battery system. The cell-performance model simulates the electrical and electrochemical characteristics of the battery. The physical model and two versions of the cell-performance model - near-term and optimistic - were used in a vehicle-conversion analysis to evaluate three automotive propulsion systems - Al-air battery only, Al-air battery/secondary battery, and Al-air battery/flywheel. (LEW)

  13. [Experimental research on combined water and air backwashing reactor technology for biological activated carbon].

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhi-Gang; Qiu, Xue-Min; Zhao, Yan-Ling

    2012-01-01

    To proper control the backwashing process of biological activated carbon (BAC) reactor and improve the overall operation performance, the evaluative indexes such as backwashing wastewater turbidity, organic pollutants removal rate of pre and post-backwashing, and the variation of biomass and biological activity in carbon column are used to compare and analyze the effect of three different combined water and air backwashing methods on the operation of BAC reactor. The result shows that intermittent combined water and air backwashing method is most suitable to BAC reactor. The biological activaty obviously increases by 62.5% after intermittent combined water and air backwashing process. While, the biological activaty using the backwashing method of air plus water and the backwashing method of water and air compounded plus water washing increases by 55.6%, 38.5%, respectively. After backwashing 308h, the reactor recovered to its normal function after intermittent combined water and air backwashing process with the removal rate of UV254 reaching to 60.0%. The fulvic-like fluorescence peak of backwashing water are very weak, and are characterized by low-excitation wavelength tryptophan like (peak S) and high excitation wavelength of tryptophan (peak T), which are caused by the microbial debris washed down. The three-dimensional fluorescence spectra also show that microbial fragments are easy to be washed clean with intermittent combined water and air backwashing. PMID:22452199

  14. Multi-model ensemble analysis of Pacific and Atlantic SST variability in unperturbed climate simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanchettin, D.; Bothe, O.; Rubino, A.; Jungclaus, J. H.

    2016-08-01

    We assess internally-generated climate variability expressed by a multi-model ensemble of unperturbed climate simulations. We focus on basin-scale annual-average sea surface temperatures (SSTs) from twenty multicentennial pre-industrial control simulations contributing to the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project. Ensemble spatial patterns of regional modes of variability and ensemble (cross-)wavelet-based phase-frequency diagrams of corresponding paired indices summarize the ensemble characteristics of inter-basin and regional-to-global SST interactions on a broad range of timescales. Results reveal that tropical and North Pacific SSTs are a source of simulated interannual global SST variability. The North Atlantic-average SST fluctuates in rough co-phase with the global-average SST on multidecadal timescales, which makes it difficult to discern the Atlantic Multidecadal Variability (AMV) signal from the global signal. The two leading modes of tropical and North Pacific SST variability converge towards co-phase in the multi-model ensemble, indicating that the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) results from a combination of tropical and extra-tropical processes. No robust inter- or multi-decadal inter-basin SST interaction arises from our ensemble analysis between the Pacific and Atlantic oceans, though specific phase-locked fluctuations occur between Pacific and Atlantic modes of SST variability in individual simulations and/or periods within individual simulations. The multidecadal modulation of PDO by the AMV identified in observations appears to be a recurrent but not typical feature of ensemble-simulated internal variability. Understanding the mechanism(s) and circumstances favoring such inter-basin SST phasing and related uncertainties in their simulated representation could help constraining uncertainty in decadal climate predictions.

  15. Pre- analysis assessment of Sea Surface Temperature (SST) products in the region of Malaysian coastal water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aziz, M. A. H.; Omar, K. M.; Din, A. H. M.; Reba, M. N. M.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents the pre-analysis of validation between the acquisition satellite data and in situ data. To carry out this assessment, Sea Surface Temperature (SST) data are acquired to be regressed with SST In situ. With the launch of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite with a sensor on the Terra spacecraft, data sets of the global distribution of sea surface temperature are retrieved, and need to be validated and analyzed. Radar Altimeter Database System (RADS) also has an archived data of Optimal Interpolation SST (OISST) that can be retrieved based on satellite track of altimeter. The aim of this paper is to present intercomparison study between pixel based (MODIS SST) and point based (RADS SST). The value of root mean square error (rmse) is computed to see the performance of the data product. It is an assessment and evaluation to see the performance for both data. The objective of this paper is to evaluate Malaysian coastal area through validation with in situ data. To achieve the objective, we perform pre-analysis study of the MODIS products and RADS SST to see the performance of both data in terms of spatial value during seasonal changes. However, the scope of this analysis covers only on the spatial MODIS pixel value and the OISST point value during the southwest monsoon daytime. From the result, RADS SST/RADS show higher root mean square error (rmse) at 0.731/0.677 (before calibration) and 0.6951/0.476 (after calibration). From the rmse result, we could deduce that the RADS SST has random error arising from the fact that the interpolated points are based on the track.

  16. Seasonal trends of ACSPO VIIRS SST product characterized by the differences in orbital overlaps for various water types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnone, Robert; Vandermeulen, Ryan; Ignatov, Alexander; Cayula, Jean François

    2015-05-01

    The uncertainty of the Advanced Clear-Sky Processor for Oceans (ACSPO) Sea Surface Temperature (SST) products from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) satellite is examined using consecutive orbital overlaps in coastal waters of the Gulf of Mexico. The overlapping region on the left and right side of the VIIRS swath at 23-35 degree latitude covers approximately 500 pixels, which occur within 100 minutes and can provide a total of 4 SST products (2 day and 2 night) per day. By assuming the ocean SST should be similar on each side of the swath in this short time period, diel changes are examined and the uncertainty of SST retrieval is determined by comparing with buoy-derived SST. The VIIRS ACSPO product from NOAA STAR was used to determine the difference in SST within the overlapping regions. These SST changes are evaluated between consecutive orbits to validate the accuracy of SST algorithms on each side of the swath at high sensor angles. The SST product differences across the swath can result from surface glint, sensor angular impacts and sensor characteristics such as half angle mirror side (HAM) and calibration. The absolute diurnal SST changes that can occur within 100 minutes are evaluated with the buoy and VIIRS-derived SST. Sensitivity of the SST to water types is evaluated by measuring diurnal differences for open ocean, shelf and coastal waters. The 100 minute VIIRS SST overlap shows the capability to monitor the diurnal ocean heating and cooling which are associated with water mass optical absorption. The seasonal trends of the difference in SST at the overlaps for these water masses were tracked on a monthly basis. The unique capability of using the same VIIRS sensor for self-characterization can provide a method to define the uncertainty of ocean products and characterize the diurnal changes for different water types.

  17. The control, monitor, and alarm system for the ICT equipment of the ASTRI SST-2M telescope prototype for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gianotti, Fulvio; Fioretti, Valentina; Tanci, Claudio; Conforti, Vito; Tacchini, Alessandro; Leto, Giuseppe; Gallozzi, Stefano; Bulgarelli, Andrea; Trifoglio, Massimo; Malaguti, Giuseppe; Zoli, Andrea

    2014-07-01

    ASTRI is an Italian flagship project whose first goal is the realization of an end-to-end telescope prototype, named ASTRI SST-2M, for the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). The prototype will be installed in Italy during Fall 2014. A second goal will be the realization of the ASTRI/CTA mini-array which will be composed of seven SST-2M telescopes placed at the CTA Southern Site. The Information and Communication Technology (ICT) equipment necessary to drive the infrastructure for the ASTRI SST-2M prototype is being designed as a complete and stand-alone computer center. The design goal is to obtain basic ICT equipment that might be scaled, with a low level of redundancy, for the ASTRI/CTA mini-array, taking into account the necessary control, monitor and alarm system requirements. The ICT equipment envisaged at the Serra La Nave observing station in Italy, where the ASTRI SST-2M telescope prototype will operate, includes computers, servers and workstations, network devices, an uninterruptable power supply system, and air conditioning systems. Suitable hardware and software tools will allow the parameters related to the behavior and health of each item of equipment to be controlled and monitored. This paper presents the proposed architecture and technical solutions that integrate the ICT equipment in the framework of the Observatory Control System package of the ASTRI/CTA Mini- Array Software System, MASS, to allow their local and remote control and monitoring. An end-toend test case using an Internet Protocol thermometer is reported in detail.

  18. Improved SST estimates for AVHRR from ATSR data through a neural network approach

    SciTech Connect

    Arulmani, C.; Gurney, R.J.

    1997-08-01

    Many applications such as weather forecasting, oceanography and to determine the possible climate change need frequent data such as Sea Surface Temperature (SST) with wider spatial coverage and reliable accurate estimates. Even though the sampling requirements for SST`s can be met from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data, the accuracy required from these SSTs remains a challenge. The Along Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) retrieved SST`s offer better estimates than the AVHRR Multichannel Sea Surface Temperature (MCSST) algorithm, but the swath width of the ATSR is 512 km and the repetition cycle is approximately 3 days. In this study an attempt has been made to generate a new SST retrieval model for AVHRR using the SST`s retrieved from ATSR data. A multilayer neural network approach is employed to generate the model parameters. The new approach for the retrieval of SST for AVHRR data using the neural network yields the residual error within {plus_minus} 0.24{degrees}C when compared with the ATSR derived SSTs.

  19. The Met Office's new operational analysis system for diurnally varying skin-SST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    While, James; Mao, Chongyuan; Martin, Matthew; Good, Simon; Sykes, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Diurnal variations in skin Sea Surface Temperature (skin SST), which can be as large as several degrees, play an important role in determining the heat flux between the ocean and atmosphere. As such, since February 2015 the Met Office, as part of the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service (CMEMS), has been producing an operational analysis of the diurnal cycle of skin SST. This product consists of three components: an underlying 'foundation' SST (based on the OSTIA analysis), a warm layer where solar heating is important, and a cool skin where cooling due to long wave radiation dominates. A major development in this system is the use of a 4D-Var data assimilation technique with multiple outer-loops to improve estimates of the warm layer. Observations assimilated come from the SEVIRI, GOES-W, MTSAT2, and NOAA-AVHRR infra-red satellite instruments. Through their assimilation, the observations act to update the applied heat and wind flux such that the diurnal cycle in the warm layer is improved. In this presentation we describe the analysis system and how it produces a skin SST product. Particular attention is paid to the data assimilation aspects and on the observation processing. We also present results from a three month validation period showing that the system is well able to reproduce a drifter based climatology of the diurnal cycle in SST. A direct validation of our diurnal SST output against near surface Argo data is also given.

  20. Role of SST meridional structure in coupling the Kelvin and Rossby waves of the intraseasonal oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fei; Huang, Gang; Yan, Mi

    2015-08-01

    The intraseasonal oscillation (ISO) is one of the most important modes of the tropical atmosphere, which influences global livelihood of hundreds of millions of people. The meridional structure of sea surface temperature (SST) has been found to be important for the ISO simulation in general circulation models (GCMs). Using a theoretical frictional skeleton model for the ISO, we investigate the effects of different SST structures on the ISO in this study. The model results show that the observed Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO), boreal summer ISO (BSISO) and quasi-biweekly oscillation can be simulated in this model with different SST structures. The Ekman pumping of the boundary layer associated with equatorially trapped SST favors the growth of eastward propagating Kelvin waves and prefers the fast eastward propagating signal. A broad SST provides a strong instability source for the Rossby waves, which will slow down the MJO. In the boreal summer, the high SST center in the off-equatorial region can trigger strong off-equatorial moisture pumping from the boundary layer, which enhances the Rossby waves and can simulate the northwest-southeast tilted rain band associated with the BSISO. When the Rossby component overwhelms the Kelvin component, the low-frequency westward component of the BSISO and the higher-frequency quasi-biweekly oscillation can be simulated.

  1. Air pollution control technology for municipal solid waste-to-energy conversion facilities: capabilities and research needs

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, J F; Young, J C

    1980-09-01

    Three major categories of waste-to-energy conversion processes in full-scale operation or advanced demonstration stages in the US are co-combustion, mass incineration, and pyrolysis. These methods are described and some information on US conversion facilities is tabulated. Conclusions and recommendations dealing with the operation, performance, and research needs for these facilities are given. Section II identifies research needs concerning air pollution aspects of the waste-to-energy processes and reviews significant operating and research findings for the co-combustion, mass incinceration, and pyrolysis waste-to-energy systems.

  2. Optimization research on the structure of horizontally-arranged indirect air-cooling tower under strong wind condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guoyong; Gu, Hongfang; Wang, Haijun; Qin, Yongbo

    2013-07-01

    Strong wind has a significant impact on the heat radiation of the air-cooling system. In this research, a numerical calculation model of 2×1000MW horizontally arranged air-cooling tower is established to simulate the flow distribution and heat exchanging capability of three different structures-horizontally-arranged indirect air-cooling tower, tower with guide wall outside, and tower with a cross wall inside-under high-speed wind and extreme-speed wind conditions. The result reveals that the structure with the guide wall outside the tower only works under strong wind condition while the structure with cross wall inside shows the anti-wind capability under both high-speed wind and extreme-speed wind conditions.

  3. Rapid evolution of air pollution sensor technology for research and consumer product applications

    EPA Science Inventory

    Outdoor air pollution measurement approaches have historically been conducted using stationary shelters that require significant space, power, and expertise to operate. The cost and logistical requirements to conduct monitoring have limited the number of locations with continuou...

  4. GREENHOUSE GAS RESEARCH AREAS (ATMOSPHERIC PROTECTION BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The emissions programs in the Atmospheric Protection Branch (APB) of NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division are primarily dedicated to anthropogenic (human-influenced) sources of methane and high-global-warming refrigerants, though some work addresses carbon dioxid...

  5. Technology base research on the slurry-zinc/air battery system: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sierra Alcazar, H.B.; Nguyen, P.D.; Pinoli, A.A.

    1988-08-01

    The slurry-Zn/air battery system has received renewed R and D interest because it does not have the shape-change problems of batteries with Zn-plate electrodes and can sustain higher current densities and specific peak power than other metal-air battery systems. Additional advantages of the slurry-Zn/air battery include safety, low environmental impact, potential low cost, and separation of energy density from power density functions for design purposes. In this work we present results obtained at the individual cell level as a basis to estimate the performance of a secondary slurry-Zn/air battery system. The expected specific energy of such systems has been increased as a result of the use of capacity-extension additives, which has been one of the major thrusts of this work. 8 refs., 20 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. The Role of Unmanned Aerial Systems-Sensors in Air Quality Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of unmanned aerial systems (UASs) and miniaturized sensors for a variety of scientific and security purposes has rapidly increased. UASs include aerostats (tethered balloons) and remotely controlled, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) including lighter-than-air vessels, fix...

  7. The Conference Proceedings of the 2003 Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) World Conference, Volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Gudmundsson, Sveinn (Editor); Oum, Tae (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    Volume 3 of the 2003 Air Transport Reserch Society (ATRS) World Conference includes papers on topics relevant to airline operations worldwide. Specific topics include: European Union and civil aviation regimens;simulating decision making in airline operations, passenger points of view on convenient airports; route monopolies and nonlinear pricing; cooperation among airports in Europe; fleet modernizaiton in Brazil;the effects of deregulation on the growth of air transportation in Europe and the United States.

  8. The Research of Membrane-sorption System with Increased Pressure Stream for Enriching Air with Oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korolev, M. V.; Laguntsov, N. I.; Kurchatov, I. M.

    Numerical study of single-hybrid membrane-sorption air separation system for enriching the air with oxygen were conducted. The effectiveness of such a system was analyzed, depending on selective sorbents and membranes under specified pressure ratio. A comparison of various modes membrane sorption system was done. The conclusion regarding the choice of the membrane and a sorbent for the system with a pressurized product stream was drawn.

  9. Exposure information in environmental health research: Current opportunities and future directions for particulate matter, ozone, and toxic air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    McKone, Thomas E.; Ryan, P. Barry; Ozkaynak, Haluk

    2007-02-01

    Understanding and quantifying outdoor and indoor sources of human exposure are essential but often not adequately addressed in health-effects studies for air pollution. Air pollution epidemiology, risk assessment, health tracking and accountability assessments are examples of health-effects studies that require but often lack adequate exposure information. Recent advances in exposure modeling along with better information on time-activity and exposure factors data provide us with unique opportunities to improve the assignment of exposures for both future and ongoing studies linking air pollution to health impacts. In September 2006, scientists from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) along with scientists from the academic community and state health departments convened a symposium on air pollution exposure and health in order to identify, evaluate, and improve current approaches for linking air pollution exposures to disease. This manuscript presents the key issues, challenges and recommendations identified by the exposure working group, who used cases studies of particulate matter, ozone, and toxic air pollutant exposure to evaluate health-effects for air pollution. One of the over-arching lessons of this workshop is that obtaining better exposure information for these different health-effects studies requires both goal-setting for what is needed and mapping out the transition pathway from current capabilities to meeting these goals. Meeting our long-term goals requires definition of incremental steps that provide useful information for the interim and move us toward our long-term goals. Another over-arching theme among the three different pollutants and the different health study approaches is the need for integration among alternate exposure assessment approaches. For example, different groups may advocate exposure indicators, biomonitoring, mapping methods (GIS), modeling, environmental media

  10. Biomarker as a Research Tool in Linking Exposure to Air Particles and Respiratory Health

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Some of the environmental toxicants from air pollution include particulate matter (PM10), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), and ultrafine particles (UFP). Both short- and long-term exposure could result in various degrees of respiratory health outcomes among exposed persons, which rely on the individuals' health status. Methods. In this paper, we highlight a review of the studies that have used biomarkers to understand the association between air particles exposure and the development of respiratory problems resulting from the damage in the respiratory system. Data from previous epidemiological studies relevant to the application of biomarkers in respiratory system damage reported from exposure to air particles are also summarized. Results. Based on these analyses, the findings agree with the hypothesis that biomarkers are relevant in linking harmful air particles concentrations to increased respiratory health effects. Biomarkers are used in epidemiological studies to provide an understanding of the mechanisms that follow airborne particles exposure in the airway. However, application of biomarkers in epidemiological studies of health effects caused by air particles in both environmental and occupational health is inchoate. Conclusion. Biomarkers unravel the complexity of the connection between exposure to air particles and respiratory health. PMID:25984536

  11. Seamless Meteorology-Chemistry Modelling: Status and Relevance for Numerical Weather Prediction, Air Quality and Climate Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baklanov, Alexander; EuMetChem Team

    2015-04-01

    Online coupled meteorology atmospheric chemistry models have undergone a rapid evolution in recent years. Although mainly developed by the air quality modelling community, these models are also of interest for numerical weather prediction and climate modelling as they can consider not only the effects of meteorology on air quality, but also the potentially important effects of atmospheric composition on weather. Two ways of online coupling can be distinguished: online integrated and online access coupling. Online integrated models simulate meteorology and chemistry over the same grid in one model using one main timestep for integration. Online access models use independent meteorology and chemistry modules that might even have different grids, but exchange meteorology and chemistry data on a regular and frequent basis. This paper is an overall outcome of the European COST Action ES1004: European Framework for Online Integrated Air Quality and Meteorology Modelling (EuMetChem) and conclusions from the recently organized Symposium on Coupled Chemistry-Meteorology/Climate Modelling: Status and Relevance for Numerical Weather Prediction, Air Quality and Climate Research. It offers a review of the current research status of online coupled meteorology and atmospheric chemistry modelling, a survey of processes relevant to the interactions between atmospheric physics, dynamics and composition; and highlights selected scientific issues and emerging challenges that require proper consideration to improve the reliability and usability of these models for the three scientific communities: air quality, numerical meteorology modelling (including weather prediction) and climate modelling. It presents a synthesis of scientific progress and provides recommendations for future research directions and priorities in the development, application and evaluation of online coupled models.

  12. Overview of Hanford Single Shell Tank (SST) Structural Integrity

    SciTech Connect

    Rast, Richard S.; Washenfelder, Dennis J.; Johnson, Jeremy M.

    2013-11-14

    To improve the understanding of the single-shell tanks (SSTs) integrity, Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS), the USDOE Hanford Site tank contractor, developed an enhanced Single-Shell Tank Integrity Project (SSTIP) in 2009. An expert panel on SST integrity, consisting of various subject matters experts in industry and academia, was created to provide recommendations supporting the development of the project. This panel developed 33 recommendations in four main areas of interest: structural integrity, liner degradation, leak integrity and prevention, and mitigation of contamination migration, Seventeen of these recommendations were used to develop the basis for the M-45-10-1 Change Package for the Hanford Federal Agreement and Compliance Order, which is also known as the Tri-Party Agreement. The structural integrity of the tanks is a key element in completing the cleanup mission at the Hanford Site. There are eight primary recommendations related to the structural integrity of Hanford Single-Shell Tanks. Six recommendations are being implemented through current and planned activities. The structural integrity of the Hanford is being evaluated through analysis, monitoring, inspection, materials testing, and construction document review. Structural evaluation in the form of analysis is performed using modern finite element models generated in ANSYS. The analyses consider in-situ, thermal, operating loads and natural phenomena such as earthquakes. Structural analysis of 108 of 149 Hanford Single-Shell Tanks has concluded that the tanks are structurally sound and meet current industry standards. Analysis of the remaining Hanford Single-Shell Tanks is scheduled for FY2014. Hanford Single-Shell Tanks are monitored through a dome deflection program. The program looks for deflections of the tank dome greater than 1/4 inch. No such deflections have been recorded. The tanks are also subjected to visual inspection. Digital cameras record the interior surface of

  13. Reflective and antireflective coatings for the optical chain of the ASTRI SST-2M prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnoli, Giacomo; Canestrari, Rodolfo; Catalano, Osvaldo; Pareschi, Giovanni; Perri, Luca; Stringhetti, Luca

    2013-09-01

    ASTRI is a Flagship Project of the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research, led by the Italian National Institute of Astrophysics, INAF. One of the main aims of the ASTRI Project is the design, construction and on-field verification of a dual mirror (2M) end-to-end prototype for the Small Size Telescope (SST) envisaged to become part of the Cherenkov Telescope Array. The ASTRI SST-2M prototype is designed according to the Schwarzschild-Couder optical scheme, and adopts a camera based on Silicon Photo Multipliers (SiPM); it will be assembled at the INAF astronomical site of Serra La Nave on mount Etna (Catania, Italy) in the second half of 2014, and will start scientific validation phase soon after. With its 4m wide primary dish, the telescope will be sensitive to multi-TeV Very High Energy (VHE) gamma rays up to 100 TeV and above, with a point spread function of ~2 arcminutes and a wide (semiaperture 4.8°) corrected field of view. The peculiarities of the optical design and of the SiPM bandpass pushed towards specifically optimized choices in terms of reflective coatings for both the primary and the secondary mirror. Fully dielectric multi-layer coatings have been developed and tested as an option for the primary mirror, aiming to filter out the large Night Sky Background contamination at wavelengths λ>~700 nm. On the other hand, for the large monolithic secondary mirror a simpler design with quartz-overcoated aluminium has been optimized for incidences far from normality. The conformation of the ASTRI camera in turn pushed towards the design of a reimaging system based on thin pyramidal light guides, that could be optionally integrated in the focal surface, aiming to increase the fill factor. An anti-reflective coating optimized for a wide range of incident angles faraway from normality was specifically developed to enhance the UV-optical transparency of these elements. The issues, strategy, simulations and experimental results are thoroughly

  14. Air Force space power technology development at the Phillips research site

    SciTech Connect

    Reinhardt, K.; Radzykewycz, D.; James, W.R.; Donet, C.; Mayberry, C.

    1998-07-01

    the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) have the potential to increase EPS specific power to 10 W/kg by FY2000 and 13 W/kg by FY2005. Examples of these technologies include multijunction solar cells with up to 1/3 higher efficiency of state-of-the-art (SOA) GaAs and GaInP2/GaAs/Ge cells, energy storage batteries and flywheels with three times the energy density of SOA batteries, high efficiency power electronics that reduce thermal control loads, and a solar thermal system with integrated (non-photovoltaic) energy generation and (non-electrochemical) energy storage.

  15. Mexico City air quality research initiative, volume 3, modeling and simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Mauzy, A.

    1994-06-01

    The objective of the modeling and simulation task was to develop, test, and apply an appropriate set of models that could translate emission changes into air quality changes. Specifically, we wanted to develop models that could describe how existing measurements of ozone (O{sub 3}), carbon monoxide (CO), and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) would be expected to change if their emissions were changed. The modeling must be able to address the effects of difference in weather conditions and changes in land use as well as the effects of changes in emission levels. It must also be able to address the effects of changes in the nature and distribution of the emissions as well as changes in the total emissions. A second objective was to provide an understanding of the conditions that lead to poor air quality in Mexico City. We know in a general sense that Mexico City`s poor air quality is the result of large quantities of emissions in a confined area that is subject to light winds, but we did not know much about many aspects of the problem. For example, is the air quality on a given day primarily the result of emissions on that day...or is there an important carryover from previous nights and days? With a good understanding of the important meteorological circumstances that lead to poor air quality, we learn what it take duce an accurate forecast of impending quality so that we can determine the advisability of emergency measures.

  16. AIR SHIPMENT OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL FROM THE BUDAPEST RESEARCH REACTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Dewes, J.

    2014-02-24

    The shipment of spent nuclear fuel is usually done by a combination of rail, road or sea, as the high activity of the SNF needs heavy shielding. Air shipment has advantages, e.g. it is much faster than any other shipment and therefore minimizes the transit time as well as attention of the public. Up to now only very few and very special SNF shipments were done by air, as the available container (TUK6) had a very limited capacity. Recently Sosny developed a Type C overpack, the TUK-145/C, compliant with IAEA Standard TS-R-1 for the VPVR/M type Skoda container. The TUK-145/C was first used in Vietnam in July 2013 for a single cask. In October and November 2013 a total of six casks were successfully shipped from Hungary in three air shipments using the TUK-145/C. The present paper describes the details of these shipments and formulates the lessons learned.

  17. Pasireotide and octreotide antiproliferative effects and sst2 trafficking in human pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor cultures.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Amira; Blanchard, Marie-Pierre; Albertelli, Manuela; Barbieri, Federica; Brue, Thierry; Niccoli, Patricia; Delpero, Jean-Robert; Monges, Genevieve; Garcia, Stephane; Ferone, Diego; Florio, Tullio; Enjalbert, Alain; Moutardier, Vincent; Schonbrunn, Agnes; Gerard, Corinne; Barlier, Anne; Saveanu, Alexandru

    2014-10-01

    Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs) raise difficult therapeutic problems despite the emergence of targeted therapies. Somatostatin analogs (SSA) remain pivotal therapeutic drugs. However, the tachyphylaxis and the limited antitumoral effects observed with the classical somatostatin 2 (sst2) agonists (octreotide and lanreotide) led to the development of new SSA, such as the pan sst receptor agonist pasireotide. Our aim was to compare the effects of pasireotide and octreotide on cell survival, chromogranin A (CgA) secretion, and sst2 phosphorylation/trafficking in pancreatic NET (pNET) primary cells from 15 tumors. We established and characterized the primary cultures of human pancreatic tumors (pNETs) as powerful preclinical models for understanding the biological effects of SSA. At clinically relevant concentrations (1-10 nM), pasireotide was at least as efficient as octreotide in inhibiting CgA secretion and cell viability through caspase-dependent apoptosis during short treatments, irrespective of the expression levels of the different sst receptors or the WHO grade of the parental tumor. Interestingly, unlike octreotide, which induces a rapid and persistent partial internalization of sst2 associated with its phosphorylation on Ser341/343, pasireotide did not phosphorylate sst2 and induced a rapid and transient internalization of the receptor followed by a persistent recycling at the cell surface. These results provide the first evidence, to our knowledge, of striking differences in the dynamics of sst2 trafficking in pNET cells treated with the two SSAs, but with similar efficiency in the control of CgA secretion and cell viability. PMID:25012983

  18. Overview of USEPA/NERL Cooperative Agreement Research Program on Air Pollution Exposure and Health

    EPA Science Inventory

    USEPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) recently initiated a two-year Cooperative Agreement Research Program between EPA and three academic institutions: Emory University, Rutgers University and University of Washington. Under this EPA/NERL sponsored research, nov...

  19. Design and construction of cage environments for air ion and electric field research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yost, M. G.; Kellogg, E. W.

    1987-06-01

    This report describes the design and construction of cage environments suitable for chronic exposures of large groups of mice to air ions and electric fields. These environments provide defined and reproducible ion densities, ion flux, DC electric fields, sound levels, air temperature and air quality. When used during a 2 year study, these cage environments served as a durable and reliable continuous exposure system. Three environmental chambers (cubicles) housed a total of 12 cages and provided control of air temperature, air purity and lighting. Exposure cages had grounded metal exterior walls, a plexiglass door and interior walls lined with formica. An internal isolated field plate supplemented with guard wires, energized with ca 1000 VDC, created about a 2 kV/m electric field at the grounded cage floor. Air ions resulted from the beta emission of sealed tritium foils mounted on the field plate. Cages provided high ion (1.3×105 ions/cc), low ion (1.6×103 ions/cc) and field only (ion depleted < 50 ions/cc) conditions for both polarities with similar electric fields in ionized and field only cages. Detailed mapping of the floor level ion flux using 100 cm2 flat probes gave average fluxes of 880 fA cm-2 in high ion cages and 10 fA cm-2 in low ion cages. Whole body currents measured using live anesthethized mice in high ion cages averaged 104±63 pA. Both ion flux and whole body currents remained constant over time, indicating no charge accumulation on body fur or cage wall surfaces in this exposure system.

  20. Settlement Reached in Air Gun Use in Ocean-based Seismic Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    The U.S. National Science Foundation and the Center for Biological Diversity have settled a lawsuit brought against NSF that had threatened to scuttle the use of air gun arrays for use in NSF-sponsored seismic and geological studies at sea. The parties agreed to a 14 April dismissal of the suit. The CBD, an environmental organization based in Idyllwild, California, brought the suit in the U.S. District Court in San Francisco out of concern that the use of the air gun arrays may harm some marine mammals. CBD also claimed that NSF was not in compliance with several U.S. federal environmental regulations.

  1. The Symposium Proceedings of the 1998 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG). Volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds-Feighan, Aisling (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    Contents include the following: airline deregulation in Australia: a medium term assessment; why can't Japan deregulate the airline industry and open the sky immediately?; toward a market-oriented air transport system?: present developments in Russian civil aviation performance and policy; the asian economic crisis and its implications for aviation policy in asia pacific: industry outlook approaching the next millennium; a tale of two airlines: the post privatization performance of two caribbean airlines: the role of capital productivity in British Airways' financial recovery; airline privatization: does it matter?; airfright demand: responding to new developments in logistics; and air cargo business relationships.

  2. A research on analysis method of land environment big data storage based on air-earth-life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yanling; Li, Jingwen

    2015-12-01

    Many problems of land environment in urban development, with the support of 3S technology, the research of land environment evolved into the stage of spatial-temporal scales. This paper combining space, time and attribute features in land environmental change, with elements of "air-earth-life" framework for the study of pattern, researching the analysis method of land environment big data storage due to the limitations of traditional processing method in land environment spatial-temporal data, to reflect the organic couping relationship among the multi-dimensional elements in land environment and provide the theory basis of data storage for implementing big data analysis application platform in land environment.

  3. An inventory of aeronautical ground research facilities. Volume 2: Air breathing engine test facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pirrello, C. J.; Hardin, R. D.; Heckart, M. V.; Brown, K. R.

    1971-01-01

    The inventory covers free jet and direct connect altitude cells, sea level static thrust stands, sea level test cells with ram air, and propulsion wind tunnels. Free jet altitude cells and propulsion wind tunnels are used for evaluation of complete inlet-engine-exhaust nozzle propulsion systems under simulated flight conditions. These facilities are similar in principal of operation and differ primarily in test section concept. The propulsion wind tunnel provides a closed test section and restrains the flow around the test specimen while the free jet is allowed to expand freely. A chamber of large diameter about the free jet is provided in which desired operating pressure levels may be maintained. Sea level test cells with ram air provide controlled, conditioned air directly to the engine face for performance evaluation at low altitude flight conditions. Direct connect altitude cells provide a means of performance evaluation at simulated conditions of Mach number and altitude with air supplied to the flight altitude conditions. Sea level static thrust stands simply provide an instrumented engine mounting for measuring thrust at zero airspeed. While all of these facilities are used for integrated engine testing, a few provide engine component test capability.

  4. Evaluating the performance of low cost chemical sensors for air pollution research.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Alastair C; Lee, James D; Edwards, Peter M; Shaw, Marvin D; Evans, Mat J; Moller, Sarah J; Smith, Katie R; Buckley, Jack W; Ellis, Matthew; Gillot, Stefan R; White, Andrew

    2016-07-18

    Low cost pollution sensors have been widely publicized, in principle offering increased information on the distribution of air pollution and a democratization of air quality measurements to amateur users. We report a laboratory study of commonly-used electrochemical sensors and quantify a number of cross-interferences with other atmospheric chemicals, some of which become significant at typical suburban air pollution concentrations. We highlight that artefact signals from co-sampled pollutants such as CO2 can be greater than the electrochemical sensor signal generated by the measurand. We subsequently tested in ambient air, over a period of three weeks, twenty identical commercial sensor packages alongside standard measurements and report on the degree of agreement between references and sensors. We then explore potential experimental approaches to improve sensor performance, enhancing outputs from qualitative to quantitative, focusing on low cost VOC photoionization sensors. Careful signal handling, for example, was seen to improve limits of detection by one order of magnitude. The quantity, magnitude and complexity of analytical interferences that must be characterised to convert a signal into a quantitative observation, with known uncertainties, make standard individual parameter regression inappropriate. We show that one potential solution to this problem is the application of supervised machine learning approaches such as boosted regression trees and Gaussian processes emulation. PMID:27104223

  5. Research Opportunities for Cancer Associated with Indoor Air Pollution from Solid-Fuel Combustion

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Indoor air pollution (IAP) derived largely from the use of solid fuels for cooking and heating affects about 3 billion people worldwide, resulting in substantial adverse health outcomes, including cancer. Women and children from developing countries are the most expos...

  6. Contributions to Climate Research Using the AIRS Science Team Version-5 Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel; Molnar, Gyula; Iredell, Lena

    2011-01-01

    This paper compares recent spatial anomaly time series of OLR (Outgoing Longwave Radiation) and OLRCLR (Clear Sky OLR) as determined using CERES and AIRS observations over the time period September 2002 through June 2010. We find excellent agreement in OLR anomaly time series of both data sets in almost every detail, down to the 1 x 1 spatial grid point level. This extremely close agreement of OLR anomaly time series derived from observations by two different instruments implies that both sets of results must be highly stable. This agreement also validates to some extent the anomaly time series of the AIRS derived products used in the computation of the AIRS OLR product. The paper then examines anomaly time series of AIRS derived products over the extended time period September 2002 through April 2011. We show that OLR anomalies during this period are closely in phase with those of an El Nino index, and that recent global and tropical mean decreases in OLR and OLR(sub CLR) are a result of a transition from an El Nino condition at the beginning of the data record to La Nina conditions toward the end of the data period. This relationship can be explained by temporal changes of the distribution of mid-tropospheric water vapor and cloud cover in two spatial regions that are in direct response to El Nino/La Nina activity which occurs outside these spatial regions

  7. The Complexities of Air Pollution Regulation: The need for an intergrated research and regulatory perspective

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Clean Air Act mandates the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to periodically reassess existing and new science that underlie the regulation of major ambient pollutants -- particulate matter (PM) and tropospheric ozone being most notable. While toxic effects have been ascri...

  8. CHOOSING A CHEMICAL MECHANISM FOR REGULATORY AND RESEARCH AIR QUALITY MODELING APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are numerous, different chemical mechanisms currently available for use in air quality models, and new mechanisms and versions of mechanisms are continually being developed. The development of Morphecule-type mechanisms will add a near-infinite number of additional mecha...

  9. Integrating research on wildland fires and air quality: needs and recommendations

    EPA Science Inventory

    A summary is presented that integrates general information on the causes and effects of wildland fires and emissions with various ecological impacts of forest fires and air pollution in forests and other ecosystems. We also synthesize information on the regional effects of wildl...

  10. STATUS OF RESEARCH ON AIR QUALITY: MERCURY, TRACE ELEMENTS, AND PARTICULATE MATTER. (R827649)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Air Quality Conference reviewed the state of science and policy on the pollutants mercury, trace elements, and particulate matter (PM) in the environment. Critical issues dealing with impacts on health and ecosystems, emission prevention and control, measurement methods, a...

  11. The Role of Unmanned Aerial Systems/Sensors in Air Quality Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of unmanned aerial systems (UASs) for a variety of scientific and security purposes has rapidly increased. UASs include aerostats (tethered balloons) and remotely controlled, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) including lighter-than-air vessels, fixed wing airplanes, and he...

  12. Homologous upregulation of sst2 somatostatin receptor expression in the rat arcuate nucleus in vivo.

    PubMed

    Tannenbaum, G S; Turner, J; Guo, F; Videau, C; Epelbaum, J; Beaudet, A

    2001-07-01

    In vitro studies using various cell systems have provided conflicting results regarding homologous regulation of somatostatin (SRIH) receptors, and information on whether SRIH regulates the expression of its own receptors in vivo is lacking. In the present study we examined, by in situ hybridization, the effects of pretreatment with the sst2-preferring SRIH analog, octreotide, in vivo, on mRNA levels of two SRIH receptor subtypes, sst1 and sst2, in rat brain and pituitary. (125)I-[DTrp(8)]-SRIH binding was also measured in these regions. Three hours after the iv injection of 50 microg octreotide to conscious adult male rats, there was a 46% increase (p < 0.01) in the labeling density of sst2 mRNA-expressing cells in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus compared to normal saline-pretreated controls, but not in any of the other brain regions examined. Computer-assisted image analysis revealed that 3 h exposure to octreotide significantly (p < 0.01) augmented both the number and labeling density of sst2 mRNA-expressing cells in the arcuate nucleus, compared to those in saline-treated controls. By contrast, within the anterior pituitary gland, in vivo exposure to octreotide did not affect the expression of sst2 mRNA. No changes in sst1 mRNA-expressing cells were observed after octreotide treatment in any of the regions measured, indicating that the observed effects were homologous, i.e. specific of the receptor subtype stimulated. Octreotide pretreatment was also without effect on the density of (125)I-[DTrp(8)]-SRIH binding in either the arcuate nucleus or pituitary. These results demonstrate, for the first time, that SRIH preexposure in vivo upregulates the expression of a subtype of its own receptors, sst2, within the central nervous system. They further suggest that pretreatment with SRIH in vivo does not cause sst2 receptor desensitization in arcuate nucleus and pituitary. Such homologous regulatory mechanisms may play an important role in the neuroendocrine control

  13. Identifying role of subtropical southeast Pacific SST anomalies on precipitation dynamics in Central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozkurt, D.; Garreaud, R.

    2014-12-01

    Central Chile (CC, western South America coasts, 28°S- 38°S) is the heartland of Chile with the highest population and important economic activities. The region is characterized by semiarid Mediterranean climate with a marked precipitation gradient along the coast from north to south, mostly due to the positioning of the South Pacific Subtropical Anticyclone and the midlatitude westerlies belt. Although there are several diagnostic studies that focus on the impact of tropical Pacific SST on CC precipitation variability via atmospheric teleconnections, less attention has been placed on impacts of subtropical southeast (SE) Pacific SST on precipitation. The later region is immediately adjacent to CC and it interferes with the overpassing atmospheric systems. In particular we want to assess the impact of a consistent cooling over the SE Pacific during the last 30 years. This study is being tackled by a combination of observational and reanalysis datasets together with numerical simulations. Observational dataset includes gridded dataset of CRU, TRMM and GPCP. Moreover, Reynolds SST data V2 based on AVHRR infrared satellite SST data is used for analyzing spatial and temporal changes in SST. Current modelling experiment includes a control simulation, used as reference, and sensitivity simulation that involves perturbations to SST over subtropical SE Pacific for a normal year austral winter (2001) season. A number of simulations with different initial conditions have been carried out by employing ICTP-RegCM4. The domain for simulations was centered at 82oW and 32oW with 288x288 grid cells on 20 km spatial resolution. Preliminary results indicate that the response of precipitation in CC to SST anomalies in the subtropical SE Pacific exhibits more or less linear behavior. In the colder SST experiments, drier conditions dominate over CC, which is possibly related with the intensification of South Pacific Subtropical Anticyclone (SPSA) or a reduction in the available

  14. AirLab: a cloud-based platform to manage and share antibody-based single-cell research.

    PubMed

    Catena, Raúl; Özcan, Alaz; Jacobs, Andrea; Chevrier, Stephane; Bodenmiller, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Single-cell analysis technologies are essential tools in research and clinical diagnostics. These methods include flow cytometry, mass cytometry, and other microfluidics-based technologies. Most laboratories that employ these methods maintain large repositories of antibodies. These ever-growing collections of antibodies, their multiple conjugates, and the large amounts of data generated in assays using specific antibodies and conditions makes a dedicated software solution necessary. We have developed AirLab, a cloud-based tool with web and mobile interfaces, for the organization of these data. AirLab streamlines the processes of antibody purchase, organization, and storage, antibody panel creation, results logging, and antibody validation data sharing and distribution. Furthermore, AirLab enables inventory of other laboratory stocks, such as primers or clinical samples, through user-controlled customization. Thus, AirLab is a mobile-powered and flexible tool that harnesses the capabilities of mobile tools and cloud-based technology to facilitate inventory and sharing of antibody and sample collections and associated validation data. PMID:27356760

  15. Aeorodynamic characteristics of an air-exchanger system for the 40- by 80-foot wind tunnel at Ames Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossow, V. J.; Schmidt, G. I.; Meyn, L. A.; Ortner, K. R.; Holmes, R. E.

    1986-01-01

    A 1/50-scale model of the 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel at Ames Research Center was used to study various air-exchange configurations. System components were tested throughout a range of parameters, and approximate analytical relationships were derived to explain the observed characteristics. It is found that the efficiency of the air exchanger could be increased (1) by adding a shaped wall to smoothly turn the incoming air downstream, (2) by changing to a contoured door at the inlet to control the flow rate, and (3) by increasing the size of the exhaust opening. The static pressures inside the circuit then remain within the design limits at the higher tunnel speeds if the air-exchange rate is about 5% or more. Since the model is much smaller than the full-scale facility, it is not possible to completely duplicate the tunnel, and it will be necessary to measure such characteristics as flow rate and tunnel pressures during implementation of the remodeled facility. The aerodynamic loads estimated for the inlet door and for nearby walls are also presented.

  16. Prediction skill of monthly SST in the North Atlantic Ocean in NCEP Climate Forecast System version 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zeng-Zhen; Kumar, Arun; Huang, Bohua; Wang, Wanqiu; Zhu, Jieshun; Wen, Caihong

    2013-06-01

    This work evaluates the skill of retrospective predictions of the second version of the NCEP Climate Forecast System (CFSv2) for the North Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST) and investigates the influence of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) on the prediction skill over this region. It is shown that the CFSv2 prediction skill with 0-8 month lead displays a "tripole"-like pattern with areas of higher skills in the high latitude and tropical North Atlantic, surrounding the area of lower skills in the mid-latitude western North Atlantic. This "tripole"-like prediction skill pattern is mainly due to the persistency of SST anomalies (SSTAs), which is related to the influence of ENSO and NAO over the North Atlantic. The influences of ENSO and NAO, and their seasonality, result in the prediction skill in the tropical North Atlantic the highest in spring and the lowest in summer. In CFSv2, the ENSO influence over the North Atlantic is overestimated but the impact of NAO over the North Atlantic is not well simulated. However, compared with CFSv1, the overall skills of CFSv2 are slightly higher over the whole North Atlantic, particularly in the high latitudes and the northwest North Atlantic. The model prediction skill beyond the persistency initially presents in the mid-latitudes of the North Atlantic and extends to the low latitudes with time. That might suggest that the model captures the associated air-sea interaction in the North Atlantic. The CFSv2 prediction is less skillful than that of SSTA persistency in the high latitudes, implying that over this region the persistency is even better than CFSv2 predictions. Also, both persistent and CFSv2 predictions have relatively low skills along the Gulf Stream.

  17. Operational use of high-resolution sst in a coupled sea ice-ocean model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albretsen, A.

    2003-04-01

    A high-latitude, near real time, sea surface temperature (SST) product with 10 km resolution is developed at the Norwegian Meteorological Institute (met.no) through the EUMETSAT project OSI-SAF (Ocean and Sea Ice Satellite Application Facility). The product covers the Atlantic Ocean from 50N to 90N and is produced twice daily. A digitized SST and sea ice map is produced manually once a week at the Ice Mapping Service at met.no using all available information from the previous week. This map is the basis for a daily SST analysis, in which the most recent OSI-SAF SST products are successively overlaid. The resulting SST analysis field is then used in a simple data assimilation scheme in a coupled ice-ocean model to perform daily 10 days forecasts of ocean and sea ice variables. Also, the associated OSI-SAF sea ice concentration product, built from different polar orbiting satellites, is assimilated into the sea ice model. Preliminary estimates of impact on forecast skill and error statistics will be presented.

  18. Spring Indian Ocean-western Pacific SST contrast and the East Asian summer rainfall anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Jie; Lu, Riyu; Hu, Jinming; Wang, Hai

    2013-11-01

    After studying the relationship between SST in the tropical Indian Ocean (TIO), tropical western Pacific (TWP), and tropical eastern Pacific (TEP) and East Asian summer rainfall (EASR), using data provided by NOAA/OAR/ESRL PSD and the National Climate Center of China for the period 1979-2008, an index, SSTDI, was defined to describe the SST difference between the TIO and TWP. In comparison with the winter ENSO, the spring SST contrast between the TIO and TWP was found to be more significantly associated with summer rainfall in East Asia, especially along the EASR band and in Northeast China. This spring SST contrast can persist into summer, resulting in a more significant meridional teleconnection pattern of lower-tropospheric circulation anomalies over the western North Pacific and East Asia. These circulation anomalies are dynamically consistent with the summer rainfall anomaly along the EASR band. When the SSTDI is higher (lower) than normal, the EASR over the Yangtze River valley, Korea, and central and southern Japan is heavier (less) than normal. The present results suggest that this spring SST contrast can be used as a new and better predictor of EASR anomalies.

  19. The south-eastern Europe winter precipitation variability in relation to the North Atlantic SST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatzaki, Maria; Wu, Renguang

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between the North Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST) and the winter precipitation of south-eastern Europe is investigated and possible changes of this relationship in the past are explored, as such changes may be of significant importance for understanding the impacts of global warming on regional climate. The data used involve observational winter precipitation of 54 stations for the period 1959-2000 and the University of Delaware (UDel) gridded global precipitation, together with the NOAA Extended Reconstruction SST with 2.0° × 2.0° resolution and NCEP/NCAR reanalyses. The study focuses on interannual variations and a harmonic analysis is applied to the time series to exclude possible contamination of interannual relationship by interdecadal changes. The empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis on winter precipitation data shows that the first EOF, explaining about 44% of interannual variability, indicates a uniform behavior over the whole examined area and is highly correlated with the tropical North Atlantic SST anomalies with a time lead reaching up to two seasons. The observed relationship between tropical North Atlantic SST and south-eastern Europe winter precipitation can be attributed to a Rossby wave type response to tropical SST anomalies featuring a wave pattern from western tropical Atlantic to Europe.

  20. Empirical prediction of Indian summer monsoon rainfall with different lead periods based on global SST anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pai, D. S.; Rajeevan, M.

    2006-02-01

    The main objective of this study was to develop empirical models with different seasonal lead time periods for the long range prediction of seasonal (June to September) Indian summer monsoon rainfall (ISMR). For this purpose, 13 predictors having significant and stable relationships with ISMR were derived by the correlation analysis of global grid point seasonal Sea-Surface Temperature (SST) anomalies and the tendency in the SST anomalies. The time lags of the seasonal SST anomalies were varied from 1 season to 4 years behind the reference monsoon season. The basic SST data set used was the monthly NOAA Extended Reconstructed Global SST (ERSST) data at 2° × 2° spatial grid for the period 1951 2003. The time lags of the 13 predictors derived from various areas of all three tropical ocean basins (Indian, Pacific and Atlantic Oceans) varied from 1 season to 3 years. Based on these inter-correlated predictors, 3 predictor sub sets A, B and C were formed with prediction lead time periods of 0, 1 and 2 seasons, respectively, from the beginning of the monsoon season. The selected principal components (PCs) of these predictor sets were used as the input parameters for the models A, B and C, respectively. The model development period was 1955 1984. The correct model size was derived using all-possible regressions procedure and Mallow’s “Cp” statistics.

  1. Air-sea coupling in the Hawaiian Archipelago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, J. M.; Powell, B.; Mattheus, D.

    2014-12-01

    A coupled numerical model is used to investigate the ocean-atmosphere interaction in the lee of the Hawaiian archipelago. The wind curl generated by the island blocking of the trade winds is known to give rise to ocean eddies; however, the impact of the sea surface temperature (SST) and velocity fronts associated with these eddies on the atmosphere is less understood. The main coupling mechanisms are: (i) changes in the near-surface stability and surface stress, (ii) vertical transfer of momentum from higher atmospheric levels to the ocean surface due to an increase of the turbulence in the boundary layer, (iii) secondary circulations associated with perturbations in the surface atmospheric pressure over the SST fronts, and (iv) the impact of the oceanic eddy currents on the net momentum transferred between the atmosphere and the ocean. To assess the relative contribution from each process, a coupled simulation between the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) and the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) models is conducted for the main Hawaiian Islands. The impact of the coupling, the perturbation of the mean wind pattern, and the different spatial scales involved in the air-sea exchanges of momentum and heat are explored.

  2. RESEARCH ON IMPACT OF OZONE GENERATORS ON INDOOR AIR QUALITY (INDOOR ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ozone-generating air cleaners are marketed to homeowners as well as business establishments ostensibly to remove odors and other contaminants from indoor air. A typical air cleaner consists of an ozone generator, fan, housing, and controls. Units may also employ filters to remov...

  3. Progress report on Bertelsen research and development of an air cushion crawler all-terrain vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertelsen, W. R.

    1987-06-01

    The ACV is an exceptional amphibian but it is not, nor is any other existing craft, an all-terrain vehicle (ATV). Using the best elements of the ACV in an air-cushion crawler tractor, a true ATV can be attained. A conventional crawler drive train will propel two tracks as pressurized, propulsive pontoons. The key to a successful ATV is in perfecting efficient, durable, sliding seals to allow the belt to move in its orbit around the track unit and maintain its internal pressure. After deriving the adequate seal, a 12 inch wide x 86 inch long endless rubber belt was fitted bilateral seals and slide plates with internal guide wheels fore and aft with a 21 inch wheel base. From this approximately one-quarter scale model, full-scale air track crawlers, true ATVs, of any size and capacity can be produced.

  4. Research on inert gas narcosis and air velocity effects on metabolic performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The effects of air velocity on metabolic performance are studied by using high forced airflow in a closed environment as a mechanism to control the concentration of volatile animal wastes. Air velocities between 100 and 200 ft/min are without significant effects on the metabolism of rats. At velocities of 200 ft/min and above, oxygen consumption and CO2 production as well as food consumption increase. In most instances, the changes are on the order of 5-10%. At the same time, the RQ for the animals increases slightly and generally correlates well with oxygen consumption and CO2 production. Experiments on the nature of inert gas narcosis show that halothane and methoxyflurane are rather potent inhibitors of the NADH:O2 oxidoreductase system in rats. These experiments suggest that the mechanism of inert gas narcosis is not mandatorily related to a membrane surface phenomenon.

  5. Industry market research, China: Pollution control-air pollution. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The market survey covers the air pollution control equipment and instruments market in China. The analysis contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users; receptivity of Chinese consumers to U.S. products; the competitive situation, and market access (tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes, distribution channels). It also contains key contact information and information on upcoming trade events related to the industry.

  6. Experimental Research on Induction Systems of an Air-breathing Valveless Pulse Detonation Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhi-wu; Chen, Xinggu; Zheng, Long-xi; Peng, Changxin; Yan, Chuan-jun

    2012-06-01

    An air-breathing valveless PDE model was designed and manufactured, which was made up of subsonic inlet, mixing chamber, ignition chamber, detonation chamber. The total pressure recovery coefficient, flux coefficient and intake resistance with six different induction systems were measured by a semi free subsonic flow field. The proof-of-principle experiments of PDE model with different induction systems were all successfully carried out, by using liquid gasoline-air mixture with low-energy system (total stored energy less than 50 mJ). The measured detonation wave pressure ratio was very close to that of C-J detonation. The air-breathing PDE model was easy to initiate and worked in good condition. The deflagration to detonation transition (DDT) and operation frequency effect on pressure traces were also investigated by experiments. The results indicated the oscillation of pressure peak at P6 enhanced with the operation frequency increased. DDT accomplished before P6 and the DDT distance was about 0.9 m (from the ignitor).

  7. Current state and prospects of researches on the control of turbulent boundary layer by air blowing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornilov, V. I.

    2015-07-01

    The paper presents the analytical review of the current state of the investigations and development trends on the problem of turbulent friction and aerodynamic drag reduction in simple model configurations, which is among key ones in modern aeromechanics. Under consideration is the modern fast progressing method of the turbulent flow control by air- and other gases (micro)blowing through a permeable surface, which is utilized in incompressible and compressible turbulent boundary layers. Several computational results to understand the essential flow physics are also included. The problem of simulation of the flow over a perforated wall where some ambiguities, in particular, at the permeable/impermeable boundary being still remained is discussed. Special attention is paid to the analysis of most important experimental and numerical results obtained with the air blowing through a finely-perforated surface, analysis of the physical peculiarities and regularities of the flow with the blowing, probability to describe the properties of such a flow within simple approach frameworks, evaluation of the efficiency of this control method, as well as the trends and opportunities of this method progress in view of state-of-the-art achievements. Although this technology has a penalty for developing the effective turbulent-flow control method, some modifications of the air blowing are an attractive alternative for real applications.

  8. Aerosol optical properties observed during Campaign of Air Quality Research in Beijing 2006 (CAREBeijing-2006): Characteristic differences between the inflow and outflow of Beijing city air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garland, R. M.; Schmid, O.; Nowak, A.; Achtert, P.; Wiedensohler, A.; Gunthe, S. S.; Takegawa, N.; Kita, K.; Kondo, Y.; Hu, M.; Shao, M.; Zeng, L. M.; Zhu, T.; Andreae, M. O.; PöSchl, U.

    2009-01-01

    Ground-based measurements of aerosol optical properties were conducted during Campaign of Air Quality Research in Beijing 2006 (CAREBeijing-2006) (11 August to 9 September 2006) at a suburban site ˜30 km south of Beijing. Averaged over the measurement campaign (arithmetic mean ± standard deviation), the total scattering coefficients (σs) were 469 ± 374 Mm-1 (450 nm), 361 ± 295 Mm-1 (550 nm), and 249 ± 206 Mm-1 (700 nm) and the absorption coefficient (σa) was 51.8 ± 36.5 Mm-1 (532 nm). The average Ångström exponent was 1.42 ± 0.19 (450 nm/700 nm) and the average single scattering albedo (ω532) was 0.86 ± 0.07 (532 nm) with minimum values as low as 0.5. Pronounced diurnal cycles were observed in σs, σa, and ω532 and can be explained by boundary layer mixing effects. Additionally, an enhancement of absorbing particles in the early morning (0500-0800 local time) was observed; this may be attributed to soot emissions from traffic activity. When the measured air masses originated in the north and passed over Beijing, the single scattering albedo was generally low (ω532 < 0.8), which indicates that the local emissions of particulate matter in Beijing were dominated by primary particles from combustion sources (soot). The southerly inflow to Beijing had typically very high σs and higher than average ω532 values, suggesting a large amount of secondary aerosol (e.g., sulfate and oxidized organics). Overall, the results suggest that a majority of the particle pollution in Beijing is transported into the city from the south.

  9. The Practice of Institutional Research: Toward an Operational Definition. AIR Forum 1982 Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichard, Donald J.; And Others

    The nature of activities in which institutional researchers are involved in different institutional and organizational settings was studied. In order to characterize the practice of institutional research in various institutional settings, a taxonomy of institutional research activity areas was developed. A 114-item taxonomy was developed that was…

  10. Application and comparison of SST model in numerical simulation of the axial compressors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Song; Jin, Donghai; Gui, Xingmin; Zhu, Fang

    2010-08-01

    The shear-stress transport (SST) turbulence model is incorporated into Navier-Stokes equations to simulate a turbomachinery flowfield. A staggered finite volume method is used to make the mean flow equations and turbulence model equations strongly coupled and enhance the stability of the numerical computation. The implicit treatment of the source terms is applied to the SST model. A steady state solution is obtained using five-stage Runge-Kutta time-stepping scheme with local time stepping and residual smoothing to accelerate convergence. The wall distance d, a key parameter in the SST model, is solved by a partial differential equation. The validations of the code are conducted on rotor 37, wp11 at design and off-design conditions by comparison with measurements and the Spalart-Allmaras (SA) turbulence model. The flow within the tip is calculated with a multi-block grid.

  11. A simulation for gravity fine structure recovery from high-low GRAVSAT SST data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, R. H.; Lancaster, E. R.

    1976-01-01

    Covariance error analysis techniques were applied to investigate estimation strategies for the high-low SST mission for accurate local recovery of gravitational fine structure, considering the aliasing effects of unsolved for parameters. Surface density blocks of 5 deg x 5 deg and 2 1/2 deg x 2 1/2 deg resolution were utilized to represent the high order geopotential with the drag-free GRAVSAT configured in a nearly circular polar orbit at 250 km. altitude. GEOPAUSE and geosynchronous satellites were considered as high relay spacecraft. It is demonstrated that knowledge of gravitational fine structure can be significantly improved at 5 deg x 5 deg resolution using SST data from a high-low configuration with reasonably accurate orbits for the low GRAVSAT. The gravity fine structure recoverability of the high-low SST mission is compared with the low-low configuration and shown to be superior.

  12. Two Distinct Roles of Atlantic SSTs in ENSO Variability: North Tropical Atlantic SST and Atlantic Nino

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ham, Yoo-Geun; Kug, Jong-Seong; Park, Jong-Yeon

    2013-01-01

    Two distinct roles of the Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs), namely, the North Tropical Atlantic (NTA) SST and the Atlantic Nino, on the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) variability are investigated using the observational data from 1980 to 2010 and coupled model experiments. It appears that the NTA SST and the Atlantic Nino can be used as two independent predictors for predicting the development of ENSO events in the following season. Furthermore, they are likely to be linked to different types of El Nino events. Specifically, the NTA SST cooling during February, March, and April contributes to the central Pacific warming at the subsequent winter season, while the negative Atlantic Nino event during June, July, and August contributes to enhancing the eastern Pacific warming. The coupled model experiments support these results. With the aid of a lagged inverse relationship, the statistical forecast using two Atlantic indices can successfully predict various ENSO indices.

  13. Summer Sahel-ENSO teleconnection and decadal time scale SST variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janicot, S.; Trzaska, S.; Poccard, I.

    The correlation between Sahel rainfall and El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in the northern summer has been varying for the last fifty years. We propose that the existence of periods of weak or strong relationship could result from an interaction with the global decadal scale sea surface temperature (SST) background. The main modes of SST variability have been extracted through a principal component analysis with Varimax rotation. The correlations between a July-September Sahel rainfall index and these SST modes have been computed on a 20-year running window between 1945 and 1993. The correlations with the interannual ENSO-SST mode are negative, not significant in the 1960s during the transition period from the wet climate phasis to the long-running drought in the Sahel, but then were significant since 1976. During the former period, the correlations between the Sahel rainfall index and the other SST modes (expressing mostly on quasi and multi-decadal scales) are the highest, in particular correlations with the tropical Atlantic ``dipole''. Correlations between Sahel and Guinea Coast rainfall are also significantly negative. After 1970, the Sahel-Guinea Coast rainfall correlations are no longer significant, and the ENSO-SST mode becomes the only one significantly correlated with Sahel rainfall, especially due to the impact of warm events. The partial correlations between the ENSO-SST mode and the Sahel rainfall index, when the influence of the other SST modes are eliminated, are significant over all the 20-year running periods between 1945 and 1993, suggesting that this summer teleconnection could be modulated by the decadal scale SST background. The NCEP/NCAR reanalyses reproduce accurately the interannual variability of the atmospheric circulation after 1968. In particular a regional West African Monsoon Index (WAMI), combining wind speed anomalies at 925 and 200hPa, is highly correlated with the July-September Sahel rainfall index. A warm ENSO event is

  14. Improved calibration of organic SST proxies via community-driven Bayesian, spatially-varying regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tierney, J. E.; Tingley, M.

    2013-12-01

    Improving the calibration of SST proxies is fundamental to providing accurate estimates of past changes in sea-surface temperatures. Existing calibrations assume spatially and temporally constant regression terms, but this may not adequately capture the influence of both known and unknown secondary environmental factors on proxy response. As an alternative, we propose a BAYesian, SPAtially-varying Regression model (BAYSPAR) for general application to marine organic geochemical SST proxies. The calibration model treats regression parameters as slowly-varying functions in space and allows for a full propagation of errors in both the proxy and the SST field. Initial application of the technique to the TEX86 proxy demonstrates that it yields better-behaved residuals than previous calibrations and therefore improves SST estimates in certain regions. Two different prediction models allow users to apply to the calibration to either Neogene or "deep-time" data, the latter of which uses an analog approach. Traditionally, calibrations for SST proxies are updated incrementally via individual publications over a period of many years, and in some cases the coretop collections that form these calibrations are left unarchived. To facilitate both up-to-date prediction and data archiving, BAYSPAR will be designed to reflect community-based improvements in knowledge and data in real time via a semi-autonomous updating process. Users may enter new coretop data into a portal on the web, and after a screening procedure, the data will be added to the calibration model, which will then be autonomously updated and made available to the users. In this way, calibration of SST proxies becomes a community-driven process.

  15. Filamin-A is required to mediate SST2 effects in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours.

    PubMed

    Vitali, Eleonora; Cambiaghi, Valeria; Zerbi, Alessandro; Carnaghi, Carlo; Colombo, Piergiuseppe; Peverelli, Erika; Spada, Anna; Mantovani, Giovanna; Lania, Andrea G

    2016-03-01

    Somatostatin receptor type 2 (SST2) is the main pharmacological target of somatostatin (SS) analogues widely used in patients with pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (P-NETs), this treatment being ineffective in a subset of patients. Since it has been demonstrated that Filamin A (FLNA) is involved in mediating GPCR expression, membrane anchoring and signalling, we investigated the role of this cytoskeleton protein in SST2 expression and signalling, angiogenesis, cell adhesion and cell migration in human P-NETs and in QGP1 cell line. We demonstrated that FLNA silencing was not able to affect SST2 expression in P-NET cells in basal conditions. Conversely, a significant reduction in SST2 expression (-43 ± 21%, P < 0.05 vs untreated cells) was observed in FLNA silenced QGP1 cells after long term SST2 activation with BIM23120. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of BIM23120 on cyclin D1 expression (-46 ± 18%, P < 0.05 vs untreated cells), P-ERK1/2 levels (-42 ± 14%; P < 0.05 vs untreated cells), cAMP accumulation (-24 ± 3%, P < 0.05 vs untreated cells), VEGF expression (-31 ± 5%, P < 0.01 vs untreated cells) and in vitro release (-40 ± 24%, P < 0.05 vs untreated cells) was completely lost after FLNA silencing. Interestingly, BIM23120 promoted cell adhesion (+86 ± 45%, P < 0.05 vs untreated cells) and inhibited cell migration (-24 ± 2%, P < 0.00001 vs untreated cells) in P-NETs cells and these effects were abolished in FLNA silenced cells. In conclusion, we demonstrated that FLNA plays a crucial role in SST2 expression and signalling, angiogenesis, cell adhesion and cell migration in P-NETs and in QGP1 cell line, suggesting a possible role of FLNA in determining the different responsiveness to SS analogues observed in P-NET patients. PMID:26733502

  16. Observed Local Soil Moisture-Atmosphere Feedbacks within the Context of Remote SST Anomalies: Lessons From Recent Droughts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tawfik, A. B.; Dirmeyer, P.; Lawrence, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    The existence and possible transition from positive to negative soil moisture-atmosphere feedbacks is explored in this presentation using collocated flux tower measurements (Ameriflux) and atmospheric profiles from reanalysis. The focus is on the series of physical processes that lead to these local feedbacks connecting remote sea surface temperature changes (SST anomalies) to local soil moisture and boundary layer responses. Seasonal and Agricultural droughts are particularly useful test beds for examining these feedback processes because they are typically characterized by prolonged stretches of rain-free days followed by some termination condition. To quantify the full process-chain across these distinct spatial scales, complimentary information from several well-established land-atmosphere coupling metrics are used including, but not limited to, Mixing Diagram approaches, Soil Moisture Memory, and the Heated Condensation Framework. Preliminary analysis shows that there may be transitions from negative and positive soil moisture-atmosphere feedbacks as droughts develop. This is largely instigated by persistent atmospheric forcing that initially promotes increased surface latent heat flux, which limits boundary layer depth and dry air entrainment. However, if stagnant synoptic conditions continue eventually soil moisture is depleted to the point of shutting off surface latent heat flux producing deep boundary layers and increased dry air entrainment thus deepening drought stress. A package of standardized Fortran 90 modules called the Coupling Metrics Toolkit (CoMeT; https://github.com/abtawfik/coupling-metrics) used to calculate these land-atmosphere coupling metrics is also briefly presented.

  17. West African Monsoon dynamics in idealized simulations: the competitive roles of SST warming and CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaetani, Marco; Flamant, Cyrille; Hourdin, Frederic; Bastin, Sophie; Braconnot, Pascale; Bony, Sandrine

    2015-04-01

    The West African Monsoon (WAM) is affected by large climate variability at different timescales, from interannual to multidecadal, with strong environmental and socio-economic impacts associated to climate-related rainfall variability, especially in the Sahelian belt. State-of-the-art coupled climate models still show poor ability in correctly simulating the WAM past variability and also a large spread is observed in future climate projections. In this work, the July-to-September (JAS) WAM variability in the period 1979-2008 is studied in AMIP-like simulations (SST-forced) from CMIP5. The individual roles of global SST warming and CO2 concentration increasing are investigated through idealized experiments simulating a 4K warmer SST and a 4x CO2 concentration, respectively. Results show a dry response in Sahel to SST warming, with dryer conditions over western Sahel. On the contrary, wet conditions are observed when CO2 is increased, with the strongest response over central-eastern Sahel. The precipitation changes are associated to modifications in the regional atmospheric circulation: dry (wet) conditions are associated with reduced (increased) convergence in the lower troposphere, a southward (northward) shift of the African Easterly Jet, and a weaker (stronger) Tropical Easterly Jet. The co-variability between global SST and WAM precipitation is also investigated, highlighting a reorganization of the main co-variability modes. Namely, in the 4xCO2 simulation the influence of Tropical Pacific is dominant, while it is reduced in the 4K simulation, which also shows an increased coupling with the eastern Pacific and the Indian Ocean. The above results suggest a competitive action of SST warming and CO2 increasing on the WAM climate variability, with opposite effects on precipitation. The combination of the observed positive and negative response in precipitation, with wet conditions in central-eastern Sahel and dry conditions in western Sahel, is consistent with the

  18. Next-generation air monitoring – an overview of EPA research to develop real-time instrumentation packages for stationary and mobile monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract. Air pollution measurement technology is advancing rapidly towards small-scale, real-time, wireless detectors, with a potential to significantly change the landscape of air pollution monitoring. The U.S. EPA Office of Research and Development is evaluating and developi...

  19. AIR 1981-82. Forum 1981 Proceedings: Toward 2001: The IR Perspective (Minneapolis, Minnesota, May 17-20). The Association for Institutional Research Directory, 1981-82.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Institutional Research.

    Proceedings of the 1981 Association for Institutional Research (AIR) Forum and the 1981-82 AIR Directory are presented in a single volume. General session addresses and authors from the forum are as follows: "Some Possible Revolutions by 2001" (Michael Marien); "Information, the Non-Depletive Resource" (John W. Lacey); "What's Higher about Higher…

  20. U.S.-Soviet seismology research funds switched to air force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simarski, Lynn Teo

    Department of Defense funding for seismology research has seen some changes in both amount and administration. While Congress increased the budget of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) by almost $1.4 billion this year, about 13% over last year (as reported October 30 in the Washington Post), it also rescinded DARPA's authority to manage funding of the Soviet Union program of the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS).

  1. Research Update: Direct conversion of amorphous carbon into diamond at ambient pressures and temperatures in air

    SciTech Connect

    Narayan, Jagdish Bhaumik, Anagh

    2015-10-01

    We report on fundamental discovery of conversion of amorphous carbon into diamond by irradiating amorphous carbon films with nanosecond lasers at room-temperature in air at atmospheric pressure. We can create diamond in the form of nanodiamond (size range <100 nm) and microdiamond (>100 nm). Nanosecond laser pulses are used to melt amorphous diamondlike carbon and create a highly undercooled state, from which various forms of diamond can be formed upon cooling. The quenching from the super undercooled state results in nucleation of nanodiamond. It is found that microdiamonds grow out of highly undercooled state of carbon, with nanodiamond acting as seed crystals.

  2. Mexico City air quality research initiative. Volume IV. Characterization and measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Mauzy, A.

    1994-04-01

    This volume describes the methods and the data gathered in an attempt to measure and characterize the meteorological factors and the concentration of different pollutants in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area. The main objective of this document was to provide input for the simulation models and to obtain information that could be used to test and improve the models` performance. Four field campaigns were conducted, as well as routine monitoring, in order to obtain a database of atmospheric dynamics and air pollution characteristics. Sections include Airborne measurements, Remote sensing measurements, and Traditional (in situ) measurements.

  3. 1987 status report - United States Air Force electric propulsion research and development

    SciTech Connect

    Meya, R.D.; Nguyen, T.H.Q.

    1987-05-01

    The Air Force Astronautics Laboratory (AFAL) is currently developing electric propulsion technology to meet USAF and DOD requirements for military space missions. The AFAL's three-tiered RandD program is presented. In order of priority, the first tier is the space demonstration of a space-qualified 30-kWe-class arcjet propulsion system, while the second tier is the continued industrial development of arcjet technology to increase specific impulse and lifetime; the third tier is the continued university development of steady-state multimegawatt MPD thrusters to guarantee the availability of MPD technology upon USAF deployment of operational multimegawatt space power supplies. 12 references.

  4. Effects of transportation on energy and air quality. Transportation research record

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    Partial Contents: Alternative Fuel Vehicle Programs: Applicability of Government Incentives; Transitional Alternative Fuels and Vehicles Model; Forecasting Cost Path of Electric Vehicle Drive System: Monte Carlo Experience Curve Simulation; Another Way to Go. Some Implications of Light-duty Diesel Strategy; Use of Episodic Controls to Reduce Frequency and Severity of Air Pollution Events; Conformity: Long-Term Prognoses for Selected Ozone Nonattainment Areas in California; Development of Comprehensive Modal Emissions Model: Operating Under Hot-Stabilized Conditions; and Implications of Transient Mode Duration for Spatially Disaggregated High-Resolution Emission Inventory Studies.

  5. Energy Savings Potential and Research, Development, & Demonstration Opportunities for Commercial Building Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Systems

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2011-09-01

    This report covers an assessment of 182 different heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) technologies for U.S. commercial buildings to identify and provide analysis on 17 priority technology options in various stages of development. The analyses include an estimation of technical energy-savings potential, description of technical maturity, description of non-energy benefits, description of current barriers for market adoption, and description of the technology’s applicability to different building or HVAC equipment types. From these technology descriptions, are suggestions for potential research, development and demonstration (RD&D) initiatives that would support further development of the priority technology options.

  6. Energy Savings Potential and Research, Development, & Demonstration Opportunities for Residential Building Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Goetzler, William; Zogg, Robert; Young, Jim; Schmidt, Justin

    2012-10-01

    This report is an assessment of 135 different heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) technologies for U.S. residential buildings to identify and provide analysis on 19 priority technology options in various stages of development. The analyses include an estimation of technical energy-savings potential, descriptions of technical maturity, descriptions of non-energy benefits, descriptions of current barriers for market adoption, and descriptions of the technology's applicability to different building or HVAC equipment types. From these technology descriptions, are suggestions for potential research, development and demonstration (RD&D) initiatives that would support further development of the priority technology options.

  7. Energy and environmental research emphasizing low-rank coal -- Task 2.4, Air toxic fine particulate control

    SciTech Connect

    Dunham, G.E.; Heidt, M.K.; Miller, S.J.

    1995-03-01

    Emission from coal-fired boilers is an issue because of the current concern over atmospheric air toxics, which contain high concentrations of trace elements. The best method of minimizing the emission of these air toxic trace elements to the atmosphere is to install high-efficiency fine-particle control devices. After collection, the dust must be removed from the filter bags or electrostatic precipitator (ESP) plates and transferred to the hopper without significant redispersion. Since it is more difficult to collect fine particles, the extent to which the dust is redispersed into its original particle-size distribution will have a major impact on the overall fine-particle collection efficiency of the filter or ESP and, subsequently, the collection efficiency of air toxic metals. The goal of Task 2.4 was to evaluate redispersion of dust in particulate control devices so that the appropriate methods to minimize redispersion can be implemented. The primary objective was to determine the extent that fly ash is redispersed as individual particles upon cleaning of the filters or ESP plates. The current research was to determine if the level of redispersion of fly ash correlates with measurable cohesive dust properties. This will contribute to the long-term project goal of developing models to the point where they can be used to help design particulate control devices for the lowest level of fine-particle emissions at a reasonable cost.

  8. Application environmental epidemiology to vehicular air pollution and health effects research.

    PubMed

    Patil, Rajan R; Chetlapally, Satish Kumar; Bagvandas, M

    2015-01-01

    Vehicular pollution is one of the major contributors to the air pollution in urban areas and perhaps and accounts for the major share of anthropogenic green-house gases such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides. Knowledge of human health risks related to environmental exposure to vehicular pollution is a current concern. Analyze the range health effects are attributed varied constituents of vehicular air pollution examine evidence for a causal association to specific health effect. In many instances scenario involves exposure to very low doses of putative agents for extended periods, sometimes the period could mean over a lifetime of an individual and yet may result in small increase in health risk that may be imperceptible. Secondary data analysis and literature review. In environmental exposures, traditional epidemiological approaches evaluating mortality and morbidity indicators display many limiting factors such as nonspecificity of biological effects latency time between exposure and magnitude of the effect. Long latency period between exposure and resultant disease, principally for carcinogenic effects and limitation of epidemiological studies for detecting small risk increments. The present paper discusses the methodological challenges in studying vehicular epidemiology and highlights issues that affect the validity of epidemiological studies in vehicular pollution. PMID:26023265

  9. Application environmental epidemiology to vehicular air pollution and health effects research

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Rajan R.; Chetlapally, Satish Kumar; Bagvandas, M.

    2015-01-01

    Vehicular pollution is one of the major contributors to the air pollution in urban areas and perhaps and accounts for the major share of anthropogenic green-house gases such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides. Knowledge of human health risks related to environmental exposure to vehicular pollution is a current concern. Analyze the range health effects are attributed varied constituents of vehicular air pollution examine evidence for a causal association to specific health effect. In many instances scenario involves exposure to very low doses of putative agents for extended periods, sometimes the period could mean over a lifetime of an individual and yet may result in small increase in health risk that may be imperceptible. Secondary data analysis and literature review. In environmental exposures, traditional epidemiological approaches evaluating mortality and morbidity indicators display many limiting factors such as nonspecificity of biological effects latency time between exposure and magnitude of the effect. Long latency period between exposure and resultant disease, principally for carcinogenic effects and limitation of epidemiological studies for detecting small risk increments. The present paper discusses the methodological challenges in studying vehicular epidemiology and highlights issues that affect the validity of epidemiological studies in vehicular pollution. PMID:26023265

  10. Linking Learning Style Theory with Retention Research: The TRAILS Project. AIR Professional File.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalsbeek, David H.

    The Trucking Retention and Academic Integration by Learning Style (TRAILS) research project at St. Louis University, which is designed to incorporate information on learning style in ongoing enrollment research and improve campus retention, is described. Learning style and the Tinto Model of student attrition are discussed, along with the…

  11. Improving the Research Capacity of the Universities in Semi-Industrialized Countries. AIR Forum 1980 Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deniozos, Demetris

    The need for research capacity in developing countries and the traditional role and structure of universities in Greece are considered. A scientific and technological research capacity is viewed as a prerequisite for economic development. Until now universities have been highly specialized teaching institutions directly subordinate to the…

  12. University Management of Research: A Data-Based Policy and Planning. AIR 1989 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strubbe, J.

    The development of an appropriate research policy for a university as well as for the national and international levels can be accomplished only if quantitative data and qualitative evaluations (scientific contribution, results, goal-achievement) are made available to illustrate research activities. A database is described that would enable…

  13. A Case Study of Qualitative Research: Methods and Administrative Impact. AIR 1983 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoen, Jane; Warner, Sean

    A case study in program evaluation that demonstrates the effectiveness of qualitative research methods is presented. Over a 5-year period, the Union for Experimenting Colleges and Universities in Ohio offered a baccalaureate program (University Without Walls) to local employees of a national manufacturing firm. The institutional research office…

  14. Teaching and Research Quality Indicators and the Shaping of Higher Education. AIR 1997 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Elizabeth C.; Patrick, William J.

    Two important sets of performance indicators for institutions of higher education have become established in the United Kingdom: research quality ratings and teaching quality ratings. The research quality ratings and, to a lesser extent, the teaching quality ratings influence the level of government funding provided to higher education…

  15. Ten Years of OMI Observations: A Unique Contribution to Air Quality, Ozone Layer and Climate Research from Space.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levelt, P.; Veefkind, J. P.; Bhartia, P. K.; Joiner, J.; Tamminen, J.

    2014-12-01

    On July 15, 2004 the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) was successfully launched on board of NASA's EOS-Aura spacecraft. OMI is the first of a new generation of UV/VIS nadir solar backscatter imaging spectrometers, which provides nearly global coverage in one day with an unprecedented spatial resolution of 13 x 24 km2. OMI measures solar irradiance and Earth radiances in the wavelength range of 270 to 500 nm with a spectral resolution of about 0.5 nm. OMI is designed and built by the Netherlands and Finland, and is also a third party mission of ESA. The major step that was made in the OMI instrument compared to its predecessors is the use of 2-dimensional detector arrays (CCDs) in a highly innovative small optical design. These innovations enable the combination of a high spatial resolution and a good spectral resolution with daily global coverage. OMI measures a range of trace gases (O3, NO2, SO2, HCHO, BrO, OClO, H2O), clouds and aerosols. Albeit OMI is already 5 years over its design lifetime, the instrument is still fully operational. The successor of OMI is TROPOMI (TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument) on the Copernicus Sentinel-5 precursor mission, planned for launch in 2016. OMI's unique capabilities rely in measuring tropospheric trace gases with a small footprint and daily global coverage. The unprecedented spatial resolution of the instrument revealed for the first time tropospheric pollution maps on a daily basis with urban scale resolution leading to improved air quality forecasts. The OMI measurements also improve our understanding of air quality and the interaction between air quality and climate change by combining measurements of air pollutants and aerosols. In recent years the data are also used for obtaining high-resolution global emission maps using inverse modelling or related techniques, challenging the bottom-up inventories based emission maps. In addition to scientific research, OMI also contributes to several operational services, including

  16. GREEN REACTION CHEMISTRIES PERFORMED IN THE SST REACTOR

    EPA Science Inventory


    The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and Kreido Laboratories have established a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) collaboration, to develop and commercialize green and sustainable chemistries in the area of industrial chemical synthesis. Uti...

  17. The ASTRI SST-2M telescope prototype for the Cherenkov Telescope Array: camera DAQ software architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conforti, Vito; Trifoglio, Massimo; Bulgarelli, Andrea; Gianotti, Fulvio; Fioretti, Valentina; Tacchini, Alessandro; Zoli, Andrea; Malaguti, Giuseppe; Capalbi, Milvia; Catalano, Osvaldo

    2014-07-01

    ASTRI (Astrofisica con Specchi a Tecnologia Replicante Italiana) is a Flagship Project financed by the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research, and led by INAF, the Italian National Institute of Astrophysics. Within this framework, INAF is currently developing an end-to-end prototype of a Small Size dual-mirror Telescope. In a second phase the ASTRI project foresees the installation of the first elements of the array at CTA southern site, a mini-array of 7 telescopes. The ASTRI Camera DAQ Software is aimed at the Camera data acquisition, storage and display during Camera development as well as during commissioning and operations on the ASTRI SST-2M telescope prototype that will operate at the INAF observing station located at Serra La Nave on the Mount Etna (Sicily). The Camera DAQ configuration and operations will be sequenced either through local operator commands or through remote commands received from the Instrument Controller System that commands and controls the Camera. The Camera DAQ software will acquire data packets through a direct one-way socket connection with the Camera Back End Electronics. In near real time, the data will be stored in both raw and FITS format. The DAQ Quick Look component will allow the operator to display in near real time the Camera data packets. We are developing the DAQ software adopting the iterative and incremental model in order to maximize the software reuse and to implement a system which is easily adaptable to changes. This contribution presents the Camera DAQ Software architecture with particular emphasis on its potential reuse for the ASTRI/CTA mini-array.

  18. Kinetic analysis and molecular modeling of the inhibition mechanism of roneparstat (SST0001) on human heparanase

    PubMed Central

    Pala, Daniele; Rivara, Silvia; Mor, Marco; Milazzo, Ferdinando Maria; Roscilli, Giuseppe; Pavoni, Emiliano; Giannini, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Heparanase is a β-d-glucuronidase which cleaves heparan sulfate chains in the extracellular matrix and on cellular membranes. A dysregulated heparanase activity is intimately associated with cell invasion, tumor metastasis and angiogenesis, making heparanase an attractive target for the development of anticancer therapies. SST0001 (roneparstat; Sigma-Tau Research Switzerland S.A.) is a non-anticoagulant 100% N-acetylated and glycol-split heparin acting as a potent heparanase inhibitor, currently in phase I in advanced multiple myeloma. Herein, the kinetics of heparanase inhibition by roneparstat is reported. The analysis of dose-inhibition curves confirmed the high potency of roneparstat (IC50 ≈ 3 nM) and showed, at higher concentrations, a Hill coefficient consistent with the engagement of two molecules of inhibitor. A homology model of human heparanase GS3 construct was built and used for docking experiments with inhibitor fragments. The model has high structural similarity with the recently reported crystal structure of human heparanase. Different interaction schemes are proposed, which support the hypothesis of a complex binding mechanism involving the recruitment of one or multiple roneparstat chains, depending on its concentration. In particular, docking solutions were obtained in which (i) a single roneparstat molecule interacts with both heparin-binding domains (HBDs) of heparanase or (ii) two fragments of roneparstat interact with either HBD-1 or HBD-2, consistent with the possibility of different inhibitor:enzyme binding stoichiometries. This study provides unique insights into the mode of action of roneparstat as well as clues of its interaction with heparanase at a molecular level, which could be exploited to design novel potential inhibitor molecules. PMID:26762172

  19. Kinetic analysis and molecular modeling of the inhibition mechanism of roneparstat (SST0001) on human heparanase.

    PubMed

    Pala, Daniele; Rivara, Silvia; Mor, Marco; Milazzo, Ferdinando Maria; Roscilli, Giuseppe; Pavoni, Emiliano; Giannini, Giuseppe

    2016-06-01

    Heparanase is a β-d-glucuronidase which cleaves heparan sulfate chains in the extracellular matrix and on cellular membranes. A dysregulated heparanase activity is intimately associated with cell invasion, tumor metastasis and angiogenesis, making heparanase an attractive target for the development of anticancer therapies. SST0001 (roneparstat; Sigma-Tau Research Switzerland S.A.) is a non-anticoagulant 100% N-acetylated and glycol-split heparin acting as a potent heparanase inhibitor, currently in phase I in advanced multiple myeloma. Herein, the kinetics of heparanase inhibition by roneparstat is reported. The analysis of dose-inhibition curves confirmed the high potency of roneparstat (IC50 ≈ 3 nM) and showed, at higher concentrations, a Hill coefficient consistent with the engagement of two molecules of inhibitor. A homology model of human heparanase GS3 construct was built and used for docking experiments with inhibitor fragments. The model has high structural similarity with the recently reported crystal structure of human heparanase. Different interaction schemes are proposed, which support the hypothesis of a complex binding mechanism involving the recruitment of one or multiple roneparstat chains, depending on its concentration. In particular, docking solutions were obtained in which (i) a single roneparstat molecule interacts with both heparin-binding domains (HBDs) of heparanase or (ii) two fragments of roneparstat interact with either HBD-1 or HBD-2, consistent with the possibility of different inhibitor:enzyme binding stoichiometries. This study provides unique insights into the mode of action of roneparstat as well as clues of its interaction with heparanase at a molecular level, which could be exploited to design novel potential inhibitor molecules. PMID:26762172

  20. Recent trends of SST in the Western Mediterranean basins from AVHRR Pathfinder data (1985-2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López García, M. J.; Camarasa Belmonte, A. M.

    2011-08-01

    Climate change in the Mediterranean region cannot be understood without taking into account changes in the Mediterranean Sea, which is an important source of moisture and heat for the Mediterranean climate system. Many research papers have been published in the last two decades increasing our knowledge about long-term trends and inter-annual variability of temperature and salinity in the Western Mediterranean. Although recent changes have been better documented, there remain uncertainties because different results are obtained depending on the period of time analyzed or the geographic region selected. This paper analyses the regional, seasonal and decadal variability of sea surface temperature in the Western Mediterranean basins (Northern (Ligurian Sea and Gulf of Lions), Balearic, Algerian and Alboran) by means of thermal satellite images. Monthly data from the PO.DAAC (Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center) have been processed for the period 1985-2007. Results show an averaged warming linear trend of 0.03 °C/yr. This rate is higher during the spring (0.06 °C/yr) in all the basins and the highest values were registered in the Northern basin in June. The study suggests that an early warming of the Sea is occurring in all the basins during the spring, with an increment of 0.5-1 °C in the mean SST of April, May and June over the two decades studied. The analysis of thermal anomalies confirms the warming trend with a dominance of negative anomalies during 1985-1996 and a dominance of positive anomalies during the last decade (1997-2007). Intense anomalies are more frequent in the Northern basin.

  1. CLOUDS, AEROSOLS, RADIATION AND THE AIR-SEA INTERFACE OF THE SOUTHERN OCEAN: ESTABLISHING DIRECTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Robert; Bretherton, Chris; McFarquhar, Greg; Protat, Alain; Quinn, Patricia; Siems, Steven; Jakob, Christian; Alexander, Simon; Weller, Bob

    2014-09-29

    A workshop sponsored by the Department of Energy was convened at the University of Washington to discuss the state of knowledge of clouds, aerosols and air-sea interaction over the Southern Ocean and to identify strategies for reducing uncertainties in their representation in global and regional models. The Southern Ocean plays a critical role in the global climate system and is a unique pristine environment, yet other than from satellite, there have been sparse observations of clouds, aerosols, radiation and the air-sea interface in this region. Consequently, much is unknown about atmospheric and oceanographic processes and their linkage in this region. Approximately 60 scientists, including graduate students, postdoctoral fellows and senior researchers working in atmospheric and oceanic sciences at U.S. and foreign universities and government laboratories, attended the Southern Ocean Workshop. It began with a day of scientific talks, partly in plenary and partly in two parallel sessions, discussing the current state of the science for clouds, aerosols and air-sea interaction in the Southern Ocean. After the talks, attendees broke into two working groups; one focused on clouds and meteorology, and one focused on aerosols and their interactions with clouds. This was followed by more plenary discussion to synthesize the two working group discussions and to consider possible plans for organized activities to study clouds, aerosols and the air-sea interface in the Southern Ocean. The agenda and talk slides, including short summaries of the highlights of the parallel session talks developed by the session chars, are available at http://www.atmos.washington.edu/socrates/presentations/SouthernOceanPresentations/.

  2. Summary of research and development effort on air and water cooling of gas turbine blades

    SciTech Connect

    Fraas, A.P.

    1980-03-01

    The review on air- and water-cooled gas turbines from the 1904 Lemale-Armengaud water-cooled gas turbine, the 1948 to 1952 NACA work, and the program at GE indicates that the potential of air cooling has been largely exploited in reaching temperatures of 1100/sup 0/C (approx. 2000/sup 0/F) in utility service and that further increases in turbine inlet temperature may be obtained with water cooling. The local heat flux in the first-stage turbine rotor with water cooling is very high, yielding high-temperature gradients and severe thermal stresses. Analyses and tests indicate that by employing a blade with an outer cladding of an approx. 1-mm-thick oxidation-resistant high-nickel alloy, a sublayer of a high-thermal-conductivity, high-strength, copper alloy containing closely spaced cooling passages approx. 2 mm in ID to minimize thermal gradients, and a central high-strength alloy structural spar, it appears possible to operate a water-cooled gas turbine with an inlet gas temperature of 1370/sup 0/C. The cooling-water passages must be lined with an iron-chrome-nickel alloy must be bent 90/sup 0/ to extend in a neatly spaced array through the platform at the base of the blade. The complex geometry of the blade design presents truly formidable fabrication problems. The water flow rate to each of many thousands of coolant passages must be metered and held to within rather close limits because the heat flux is so high that a local flow interruption of only a few seconds would lead to a serious failure.Heat losses to the cooling water will run approx. 10% of the heat from the fuel. By recoverying this waste heat for feedwater heating in a command cycle, these heat losses will give a degradation in the power plant output of approx. 5% relative to what might be obtained if no cooling were required. However, the associated power loss is less than half that to be expected with an elegant air cooling system.

  3. A comparison of Argo nominal surface and near-surface temperature for validation of AMSR-E SST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zenghong; Chen, Xingrong; Sun, Chaohui; Wu, Xiaofen; Lu, Shaolei

    2016-06-01

    Satellite SST (sea surface temperature) from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for the Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) is compared with in situ temperature observations from Argo profiling floats over the global oceans to evaluate the advantages of Argo NST (near-surface temperature: water temperature less than 1 m from the surface). By comparing Argo nominal surface temperature (~5 m) with its NST, a diurnal cycle caused by daytime warming and nighttime cooling was found, along with a maximum warming of 0.08±0.36°C during 14:00-15:00 local time. Further comparisons between Argo 5-m temperature/Argo NST and AMSR-E SST retrievals related to wind speed, columnar water vapor, and columnar cloud water indicate warming biases at low wind speed (<5 m/s) and columnar water vapor >28 mm during daytime. The warming tendency is more remarkable for AMSR-E SST/Argo 5-m temperature compared with AMSR-E SST/Argo NST, owing to the effect of diurnal warming. This effect of diurnal warming events should be excluded before validation for microwave SST retrievals. Both AMSR-E nighttime SST/Argo 5-m temperature and nighttime SST/Argo NST show generally good agreement, independent of wind speed and columnar water vapor. From our analysis, Argo NST data demonstrated their advantages for validation of satellite-retrieved SST.

  4. New international long-term ecological research on air pollution effects on the Carpathian Mountain forests, Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Bytnerowicz, Andrzej; Badea, Ovidiu; Barbu, Ion; Fleischer, Peter; Fraczek, Witold; Gancz, Vladimir; Godzik, Barbara; Grodzińska, Krystyna; Grodzki, Wojciech; Karnosky, David; Koren, Milan; Krywult, Marek; Krzan, Zbigniew; Longauer, Roman; Mankovska, Blanka; Manning, William J; McManus, Michael; Musselman, Robert C; Novotny, Julius; Popescu, Flaviu; Postelnicu, Daniela; Prus-Głowacki, Wiesław; Skawiński, Paweł; Skiba, Stefan; Szaro, Robert; Tamas, Stefan; Vasile, Cristian

    2003-06-01

    An international cooperative project on distribution of ozone in the Carpathian Mountains, Central Europe was conducted from 1997 to 1999. Results of that project indicated that in large parts of the Carpathian Mountains, concentrations of ozone were elevated and potentially phytotoxic to forest vegetation. That study led to the establishment of new long-term studies on ecological changes in forests and other ecosystems caused by air pollution in the Retezat Mountains, Southern Carpathians, Romania and in the Tatra Mountains, Western Carpathians on the Polish-Slovak border. Both of these important mountain ranges have the status of national parks and are Man & the Biosphere Reserves. In the Retezat Mountains, the primary research objective was to evaluate how air pollution may affect forest health and biodiversity. The main research objective in the Tatra Mountains was to evaluate responses of natural and managed Norway spruce forests to air pollution and other stresses. Ambient concentrations of ozone (O(3)), sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) as well as forest health and biodiversity changes were monitored on densely distributed research sites. Initial monitoring of pollutants indicated low levels of O(3), SO(2), and NO(x) in the Retezat Mountains, while elevated levels of O(3) and high deposition of atmospheric sulfur (S) and nitrogen (N) have characterized the Tatra Mountains. In the Retezat Mountains, air pollution seems to have little effect on forest health; however, there was concern that over a long time, even low levels of pollution may affect biodiversity of this important ecosystem. In contrast, severe decline of Norway spruce has been observed in the Tatra Mountains. Although bark beetle seems to be the immediate cause of that decline, long-term elevated levels of atmospheric N and S depositions and elevated O(3) could predispose trees to insect attacks and other stresses. European and US scientists studied pollution deposition, soil and

  5. On the use of a coupled ocean-atmosphere-wave model during an extreme cold air outbreak over the Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricchi, Antonio; Miglietta, Mario Marcello; Falco, Pier Paolo; Benetazzo, Alvise; Bonaldo, Davide; Bergamasco, Andrea; Sclavo, Mauro; Carniel, Sandro

    2016-05-01

    An intense cold air outbreak affected the northern Adriatic Sea during winter 2012, determining an exceptional persistence of northeasterly Bora wind over the basin, which lasted for about 3 weeks. The cold air coming from the Balkans produced icing in the Venice lagoon and very intense snowfall in the Apennines Mountains and even near the coasts. In order to understand the importance and role of air-sea interactions for the evolution of the atmospheric fields, simulations with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model encompassing the whole period have been performed using sea surface temperature (SST) fields with an increasing level of complexity. Starting from a large-scale static sea temperature, the SST in the initial and boundary conditions has been progressively made more realistic. First, a more refined field, retrieved from a satellite radiometer was used; then, the same field was updated every 6 h. Next, the effect of including a simplified 1D ocean model reproducing the Oceanic Mixed Layer (OML) evolution has been tested. Finally, the potential improvements coming from a coupled description of atmosphere-ocean and atmosphere-ocean-waves interactions have been explored within the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave Sediment Transport (COAWST) modeling system. Results highlight that the energy exchange between air and sea does not significantly impact the atmospheric fields, in particular 10 m wind and 2 m temperature, also because of the geography of the basin and the predominance of synoptic-scale flow in intense events of Bora, in the northern Adriatic. However, when sensible and latent heat fluxes, which are dependent on atmospheric and oceanic variables, are analyzed, the more realistic representation of SST drastically improves the model performances.

  6. Mexico City air quality research initiative: An overview and some statistical aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Waller, R.A.; Streit, G.E. ); Guzman, F. )

    1991-01-01

    The Mexican Petroleum Institute (Institute Mexicano del Petroleo, IMP) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are in the first year of a three-year jointly funded project to examine the air quality in Mexico City and to provide techniques to evaluate the impact of proposed mitigation options. The technical tasks include modeling and simulation; monitoring and characterization; and strategic evaluation. Extensive measurements of the atmosphere, climate, and meteorology are being made as part of the study. This presentation provides an overview of the total project plan, reports on the current status of the technical tasks, describes the data collection methods, presents examples of the data analysis and graphics, and suggest roles for statistical analysis in this and similar environmental studies. 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) Research Data from the Aspen FACE Experiment (FACTS II)

    DOE Data Explorer

    DOE has conducted trace gas enrichment experiments since the mid 1990s. The FACE Data Management System is a central repository and archive for Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment (FACE) data, as well as for the related open-top chamber (OTC) experiments. FACE Data Management System is located at DOE’s Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC). While the data from the various FACE sites, each one a unique user facility, are centralized at CDIAC, each of the FACE sites presents its own view of its activities and information. For that reason, DOE Data Explorer users are advised to see both the central repository at http://public.ornl.gov/face/index.shtml and the individual home pages of each site. FACTS II, the Aspen FACE Experiment is a multidisciplinary study to assess the effects of increasing tropospheric ozone and carbon dioxide levels on the structure and function of northern forest ecosystems. The Aspen FACE facility is located at the Harshaw Experimental Forest near Rhinelander, Wisconsin. It consists of twelve 30m rings in which the concentrations of carbon dioxide and tropospheric ozone can be controlled. The design provides the ability to assess the effects of these gasses alone, and in combination, on many ecosystem attributes, including growth, leaf development, root characteristics, and soil carbon. Each ring consists of a series of vertical ventpipes which disperse carbon dioxide, ozone or normal air into the center of the ring. This computer controlled system uses signal feedback technology to adjust gas release each second in order to maintain a stable, elevated concentration of carbon dioxide and/or ozone throughout the experimental plot. Because there is no confinement, there is no significant change in the natural, ambient environment other than elevating these trace gas concentrations. [copied from http://aspenface.mtu.edu/index.html] Ring maps, lists of publications, data from the experiments, newsletters, protocol and performance

  8. Technology base research on zinc/air battery systems: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sierra Alcazar, H.B.; Nguyen, P.D.; Pinoli, A.A.

    1987-09-01

    The capacity extension of additives was tested in a 200 cm/sup 2/bi-cell and a Zn powder moving-bed slurry. It was found that for the Type A additives in 12 M KOH, 25 g/l of silicate provided higher capacity than stannate, titanate and aluminate additives. The optimum concentration of sorbitol (a Type B additive that stabilizes polymeric chains involving ZnO) was found to be 15 g/l in 12 M KOH. A silicate and sorbitol combination added to Zn powder slurry in 12 M KOH provided a 20% increase in discharge capacity (195 Ah/l at 200 A/cm/sup 2/) compared to the maximum capacity obtained with silicate alone. A much lower capacity (74 Ah/l) was realized with silicate as Type C additive (precipitation of ZnO away from the Zn surface, for low KOH concentrations). The mechanisms of passivation and capacity extension were discussed and a model presented. The cell voltage and power densities were determined for the discharge process as a function of (a) current densities, (b) cathode depolarizer (air or oxygen), and (c) type of slurry (Zn powder or Zn coated polymeric bead). Air depolarization was observed to decrease the maximum power densities of both slurry types. The power densities obtained with Zn powder slurries were higher at all current densities investigated than those obtained with Zn coated polymeric beads (Zn-powder peak power densities more than doubled peak power densities obtained with Zn coated polymeric beads). The recharge process was studied with a planar electrode and with a rotating cylinder electrode. The current efficiency and cathode potentials were determined for glassy carbon and Mg cathodes. The dendritic Zn deposits were mechanically removed from the rotating cylinder electrode with fixed blades. Mechanical removal proved to be unsatisfactory in the embodiment investigated due to preferential dendritic growth on the baldes. Further investigations of discharge cell designs are underway. 19 refs., 40 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Organic air pollutants: setting priorities for long term research needs. A workshop sponsored by the United States Department of Energy, April 19-23, 1982, Gettysburg, PA

    SciTech Connect

    Gaffney, J.S.

    1982-04-01

    The workshop attempted to outline and prioritize current and future research dealing with the environmental and biomedical concern of organic air pollutants. The meeting addressed the following four main areas of research: chemical and physical characterization of source emissions and ambient levels of organic pollutants; atmospheric chemical and physical transformations (homogeneous and heterogeneous) of organic pollutants; biochemical testing procedures to determine potential biological and human health impacts; and air quality - dispersion simulation and source/receptor modeling as tools in assessing potential biomedical and geophysical impacts of organic air pollutants. Details of each discussion group's deliberations and recommendations are summarized.

  10. Tropospheric Airborne Meteorological Data Reporting (TAMDAR) Icing Sensor Performance During the 2003 Alliance Icing Research Study (AIRS II)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, John J.; Schaffner, Philip R.; Minnis, Patrick; Nguyen, Louis; Delnore, Victor E.; Daniels, Taumi S.; Grainger, C. A.; Delene, D.; Wolff, C. A.

    2004-01-01

    The Tropospheric Airborne Meteorological Data Reporting (TAMDAR) sensor was deployed onboard the University of North Dakota Citation II aircraft in the Alliance Icing Research Study (AIRS II) from Nov 19 through December 14, 2003. TAMDAR is designed to measure and report winds, temperature, humidity, turbulence and icing from regional commercial aircraft (Daniels et. al., 2004). TAMDAR icing sensor performance is compared to a) in situ validation data from the Citation II sensor suite, b) Current Icing Potential products developed by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) and available operationally on the NOAA Aviation Weather Center s Aviation Digital Data Server (ADDS) and c) NASA Advanced Satellite Aviation-weather Products (ASAP) cloud microphysical products.

  11. A summary of NASA/Air Force Full Scale Engine Research programs using the F100 engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deskin, W. J.; Hurrell, H. G.

    1979-01-01

    This paper summarizes a joint NASA/Air Force Full Scale Engine Research (FSER) program conducted with the F100 engine during the period 1974 through 1979. The program mechanism is described and the F100 test vehicles utilized are illustrated. Technology items which have been addressed in the areas of swirl augmentation, flutter phenomenon, advanced electronic control logic theory, strain gage technology, and distortion sensitivity are identified and the associated test programs conducted at the NASA-Lewis Research Center are described. Results presented show that the FSER approach, which utilizes existing state-of-the-art engine hardware to evaluate advanced technology concepts and problem areas, can contribute a significant data base for future system applications. Aerodynamic phenomenon previously not considered by current design systems have been identified and incorporated into current industry design tools.

  12. The role of linear interference in the Annular Mode response to Tropical SST forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, C. G.; Kushner, P. J.

    2010-12-01

    Sea-surface temperature (SST) anomalies in different parts of the Tropics are known to drive very different teleconnections into the extratropics on monthly-to-seasonal timescales. For example, wintertime El Nino SST warming in the tropical Pacific Ocean (TPO) is associated with an equatorward shifted subtropical jet, a weaker stratospheric polar vortex, and high pressure over the northern polar regions characteristic of the negative phase of the Northern Annular Mode (NAM). By contrast, SST warming in the Tropical Indian Ocean (TIO) has been shown to be associated with a poleward shifted subtropical jet, strengthened polar vortex, and and a positive phase NAM. This study presents a simple dynamical framework for understanding these different responses. It is shown that the sign and strength of the NAM response to tropical SST forcing is often simply related to the phasing, and hence the linear interference, between the Rossby wave response and the climatological stationary wave. The TPO (TIO) wave response reinforces (attenuates) the climatological wave and therefore weakens (strengthens) the stratospheric jet and leads to a negative (positive) NAM response. In additional simulations, it is shown that decreasing the strength of the climatological stationary wave reduces the importance of linear interference and increases the importance of nonlinearity. This work demonstrates that the simulated extratropical Annular Mode responses to climate forcings can depend sensitively on the amplitude and phase of the climatological stationary wave and the wave response.

  13. Operational experience with the supercritical helium during the TF coils tests campaign of SST-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panchal, Rohitkumar Natvarlal; Patel, Rakesh; Tank, Jignesh; Mahesuria, Gaurang; Sonara, Dashrath; Tanna, Vipul; Patel, Jayant; Srikanth, G. L. N.; Singh, Manoj; Patel, Ketan; Christian, Dikens; Garg, Atul; Bairagi, Nitn; Gupta, Manoj Kumar; Nimavat, Hiren; Shah, Pankil; Sharma, Rajiv; Pradhan, Subrata

    2012-06-01

    Under the 'SST-1 mission mandate' recently, all the sixteen Steady State Superconducting Tokamak (SST-1) Toroidal Field (TF) magnets have been successfully tested at their nominal currents of 10000 A in cold under supercritical helium (SHe) flow conditions. The TF magnets test campaign have begun in an experimental cryostat since June 2010 with the SST-1 Helium cryogenics facility, which is a 1.3 kW at 4.5 K helium refrigerator-cum-liquefier (HRL) system. The HRL provides ~300 g-s-1supercritical helium (SHe) with cold circulator (CC) as well as ~ 60 g-s-1 without cold circulator to fulfill the forced flow cooling requirements of SST- 1 magnets. In case of single TF coil tests, we can adjust HRL process parameters such that an adequate amount of required supercritical helium is available without the cold circulator. In this paper, the complete process is describing the Process Flow Diagram (PFD) of 1.3 kW at 4.5 K HRL, techniques to generate supercritical helium without using the cold-circulator and the results of the cooldown, steady state characteristics and experience of supercritical helium operations during the TF coils test campaign have been discussed.

  14. The ASTRI SST-2M prototype for the Cherenkov Telescope Array: opto-mechanical test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canestrari, Rodolfo; Giro, Enrico; Antolini, Elisa; Bonnoli, Giacomo; Cascone, Enrico; La Palombara, Nicola; Leto, Giuseppe; Pareschi, Giovanni; Scuderi, Salvo; Stringhetti, Luca; Tanci, Claudio; Tosti, Gino

    2015-09-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) observatory, with a combination of large-, medium-, and small-size telescopes (LST, MST and SST, respectively), will represent the next generation of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. It will explore the very high-energy domain from a few tens of GeV up to few hundreds of TeV with unprecedented sensitivity, angular resolution and imaging resolution. In this framework, the Italian ASTRI program, led by the Italian National Institute of Astrophysics (INAF), is currently developing a scientific and technological SST dual-mirror end-to-end prototype named ASTRI SST-2M. It is a 4-meter class telescope; it adopts an aplanatic, wide-field, double-reflection optical layout in a Schwarzschild-Couder configuration. The ASTRI SST-2M telescope structure and mirrors have been already installed at the INAF observing station at Serra La Nave, on Mt. Etna (Sicily, Italy). In this contribution we report about the on-site deployment and the latest results on the opto-mechanical performance test conducted soon after the telescope installation

  15. Current understanding ofI sperm-storage tubule (SST) function

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unlike most mammals, birds do not need to synchronize copulation with ovulation. Hens are endowed with tubular structures, the sperm-storage tubules (SST), in their oviducts which the sperm enter and survive for weeks after mating or artificial insemination. Sperm are slowly but continually releas...

  16. Different Influences on Tropical Pacific SST Gradient from Natural Forcing and Anthropogenic Forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, L.; Liu, J.; Wang, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Several simulations under natural forcing, greenhouse gas forcing, and full forcing (both natural forcing and anthropogenic forcing) over the last 2000 years using the Community Earth System Model (CESM) were used to investigate the different changes of tropical Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) gradient and corresponding mechanisms. Under the full forcing, during the present warming period (PWP; 1901-1999), Pacific SST shows larger warming over the whole tropical Pacific region than the subtropical Pacific region. This pattern is composed by an El Niño-like SST gradient due to the greenhouse gas forcing and a La Niña-like SST gradient due to the natural forcing. Two sensitivity experiments, the PWP under greenhouse gas forcing and Medieval Warming Period (MWP; 751-1250) under natural forcing, were used to examine the mechanisms. The results showed that, under the greenhouse forcing, the larger warming over eastern tropical Pacific is induced by increased surface net heat flux mainly contributed by short-wave radiation and latent heat flux. Under the natural forcing, the larger warming over western tropical Pacific is induced by changes of vertical heat transportation caused by the surface wind anomalies.

  17. SST-forced interdecadal deepening of the winter India-Burma trough since the 1950s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Bo; Ren, Hong-Li

    2016-03-01

    The winter India-Burma Trough (IBT) has undergone a pronounced interdecadal deepening since the 1950s, which led to the significant rainfall increasing over the eastern Indochina Peninsula and south China. To better understand such an observed IBT change, this study examines the responses of the IBT to the upstream subtropical jet, historical anthropogenic forcing, and tropical sea surface temperature (SST). Results show that the SST warming that occurs in the eastern tropical Indian Ocean (ETIO) is the primary cause of the observed interdecadal IBT deepening. The remarkable SST warming leads to a reduction of sea level pressure (SLP) over ETIO by diabatic heating. In association with the change of zonal SLP gradient, the westerly wind anomalies are observed. The northern flank of the westerlies further induces a cyclonic Rossby wave response over the Bay of Bengal. As a result, the winter IBT is intensified. This attribution can be supported by the simulations of atmosphere general circulation models forced by historical SST, in which the observed IBT changes are well simulated on both interdecadal and interannual time scales.

  18. Independent SST and SSS reconstructions from coral skeleton, by using Neural Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juillet-Leclerc, A.

    2009-12-01

    The Pacific Warm Pool is strongly affected by interannual climatic variability. However, few instrumental measurements document environmental changes prior to 1955, in particular in the southern hemisphere. Studies have thus to be based on few instrumental data complemented by interpolations and /or indirect tracers, such as coral skeleton. This is regarded as the best archive of tropical oceans and may provide continuous records of seasurface temperature and salinity (SST and SSS) during the past at, high resolution. However, the different approaches up to now developed do not allow independent reconstructions of SST and SSS. In addition, chemical biases caused by biological activity prevent relevant conversion of measured values into environmental factors. Our understanding of the coral skeletogenesis is sufficient to suppose that the mechanism of mineral deposition is complex, strongly impacted by biology, governed by other physical processes than that earlier considered, but not enough to establish quantified relationships taking into account all the factors involved. In this case, the use of Neural Network, well suited to non-linear processes may not be totally assimilated with a black box. This statistical treatment has been applied on a coral core collected in Yasawa (Fiji Archipelago), by considering SST and SSS measured from 1960 and 1997 as learning phase. Reconstructions performed from 1910 to 1960 indicate that only four strong ENSO occurred prior to 1960. Both SST and SSS have been impacted confirming that SPCZ migration is associated with oceanic advection.

  19. Reductions in midlatitude upwelling-favorable winds implied by weaker large-scale Pliocene SST gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Nathan P.; Tziperman, Eli

    2016-01-01

    The early-to-mid Pliocene (3-5.3 Ma) is the most recent geologic period of significant global warmth. Proxy records of Pliocene sea surface temperature (SST) indicate significant and still unexplained warm anomalies of 3°C-9°C in midlatitude eastern boundary currents, where present-day cool temperatures are maintained by wind-driven upwelling. Here we quantify the effect of large-scale Pliocene-like SST patterns on the surface wind stress around the California, Humboldt, Canary, and Benguela midlatitude coastal upwelling sites. A high-resolution atmosphere model forced with Pliocene SST simulates changes in surface winds that imply reductions of 10% to 50% in both coastal upwelling, driven by alongshore wind stress, and offshore upwelling driven by wind stress curl. These changes result primarily from a reduced meridional temperature gradient which weakens the subtropical highs, and a reduction in zonal land-sea temperature contrast which weakens geostrophic alongshore winds. These results suggest that Pliocene coastal warm anomalies may result in part from atmospheric circulation changes which reduce upwelling intensity. The coastal wind stress and offshore wind stress curl are shown to respond differently to incremental changes in SST, topography, and land surface anomalies. Significant decreases in simulated cloud fraction within the subtropical highs suggest that a weaker land-sea temperature contrast could be maintained by cloud radiative feedbacks.

  20. Orbitally-resolved SST Changes during the EOT: Results from IODP 342 Expedition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z.; He, Y.; Wilson, P. A.; Pagani, M.

    2014-12-01

    Sea surface temperature (SST) changes during the Eocene-Oligocene climate transition were characterized by substantial cooling at high latitudes and less cooling in low latitudes, with little information from mid-latitudes so far. Taking advantage of the newly retrieved drift sediments from the IODP 342 Expedition, we aim to reconstruct SST changes at the mid-latitude Newfoundland region, at an unprecedented orbital resolution from Site U1411. During the period investigated, 32-36 Ma, the alkenone UK'37 values range from 0.65 to 0.95, with values all greater than 0.80 before the transition and lower values (<0.80) occurring approximately at the eccentricity minimum nodes after the transition. No immediate cooling associated with Oi-1 glaciation was observed. During the Oligocene, SSTs during warm epochs (corresponding to eccentricity maxima) were not significantly cooler than before. Overall, SST fluctuations appear to be modulated by orbital changes throughout the record, although more apparent due to larger amplitude of SST variability after the transition. We thus hypothesize that the mid-latitude Newfoundland region was largely bathed by low-latitude warm waters during the transition and that polar waters (fronts) reached to the region occasionally at periods of eccentricity minimum nodes during the Oligocene.

  1. Air Toxics Under the Big Sky: examining the effectiveness of authentic scientific research on high school students' science skills and interest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Tony J.; Delaloye, Naomi; Adams, Earle Raymond; Ware, Desirae; Vanek, Diana; Knuth, Randy; Hester, Carolyn Laurie; Marra, Nancy Noel; Holian, Andrij

    2016-04-01

    Air Toxics Under the Big Sky is an environmental science outreach/education program that incorporates the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) 8 Practices with the goal of promoting knowledge and understanding of authentic scientific research in high school classrooms through air quality research. This research explored: (1) how the program affects student understanding of scientific inquiry and research and (2) how the open-inquiry learning opportunities provided by the program increase student interest in science as a career path. Treatment students received instruction related to air pollution (airborne particulate matter), associated health concerns, and training on how to operate air quality testing equipment. They then participated in a yearlong scientific research project in which they developed and tested hypotheses through research of their own design regarding the sources and concentrations of air pollution in their homes and communities. Results from an external evaluation revealed that treatment students developed a deeper understanding of scientific research than did comparison students, as measured by their ability to generate good hypotheses and research designs, and equally expressed an increased interest in pursuing a career in science. These results emphasize the value of and need for authentic science learning opportunities in the modern science classroom.

  2. Identification and Characterization of Key Human Performance Issues and Research in the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Paul U.; Sheridan, Tom; Poage, james L.; Martin, Lynne Hazel; Jobe, Kimberly K.

    2010-01-01

    This report identifies key human-performance-related issues associated with Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) research in the NASA NextGen-Airspace Project. Four Research Focus Areas (RFAs) in the NextGen-Airspace Project - namely Separation Assurance (SA), Airspace Super Density Operations (ASDO), Traffic Flow Management (TFM), and Dynamic Airspace Configuration (DAC) - were examined closely. In the course of the research, it was determined that the identified human performance issues needed to be analyzed in the context of NextGen operations rather than through basic human factors research. The main gaps in human factors research in NextGen were found in the need for accurate identification of key human-systems related issues within the context of specific NextGen concepts and better design of the operational requirements for those concepts. By focusing on human-system related issues for individual concepts, key human performance issues for the four RFAs were identified and described in this report. In addition, mixed equipage airspace with components of two RFAs were characterized to illustrate potential human performance issues that arise from the integration of multiple concepts.

  3. Growth and decay of the Equatorial Atlantic SST mode by means of closed heat budget in a coupled General Circulation Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polo, Irene; Lazar, Alban; Rodriguez-Fonseca, Belen; Mignot, Juliette

    2015-07-01

    Tropical Atlantic variability is strongly biased in coupled General Circulation Models (GCM). Most of the models present a mean Sea Surface Temperature (SST) bias pattern that resembles the leading mode of inter-annual SST variability. Thus, understanding the causes of the main mode of variability of the system is crucial. A GCM control simulation with the IPSL-CM4 model as part of the CMIP3 experiment has been analyzed. Mixed layer heat budget decomposition has revealed the processes involved in the origin and development of the leading inter-annual variability mode which is defined over the Equatorial Atlantic (hereafter EA mode). In comparison with the observations, it is found a reversal in the anomalous SST evolution of the EA mode: from west equator to southeast in the simulation, while in the observations is the opposite. Nevertheless, despite the biases over the eastern equator and the African coast in boreal summer, the seasonality of the inter-annual variability is well reproduced in the model. The triggering of the EA mode is found to be related to vertical entrainment at the equator as well as to upwelling along South African coast. The damping is related to the air-sea heat fluxes and oceanic horizontal terms. As in the observation, this EA mode exerts an impact on the West African and Brazilian rainfall variability. Therefore, the correct simulation of EA amplitude and time evolution is the key for a correct rainfall prediction over tropical Atlantic. In addition to that, identification of processes which are responsible for the tropical Atlantic biases in GCMs is an important element in order to improve the current global prediction systems.

  4. Updating Sea Spray Aerosol Emissions in the Community Multiscale Air Quality Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gantt, B.; Bash, J. O.; Kelly, J.

    2014-12-01

    Sea spray aerosols (SSA) impact the particle mass concentration and gas-particle partitioning in coastal environments, with implications for human and ecosystem health. In this study, the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model is updated to enhance fine mode SSA emissions, include sea surface temperature (SST) dependency, and revise surf zone emissions. Based on evaluation with several regional and national observational datasets in the continental U.S., the updated emissions generally improve surface concentrations predictions of primary aerosols composed of sea-salt and secondary aerosols affected by sea-salt chemistry in coastal and near-coastal sites. Specifically, the updated emissions lead to better predictions of the magnitude and coastal-to-inland gradient of sodium, chloride, and nitrate concentrations at Bay Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (BRACE) sites near Tampa, FL. Including SST-dependency to the SSA emission parameterization leads to increased sodium concentrations in the southeast U.S. and decreased concentrations along the Pacific coast and northeastern U.S., bringing predictions into closer agreement with observations at most Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) and Chemical Speciation Network (CSN) sites. Model comparison with California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex) observations will also be discussed, with particular focus on the South Coast Air Basin where clean marine air mixes with anthropogenic pollution in a complex environment. These SSA emission updates enable more realistic simulation of chemical processes in coastal environments, both in clean marine air masses and mixtures of clean marine and polluted conditions.

  5. On estimating decadal-scale predictability in regional climate change over river basins in response to changes in tropical SST patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Chii-Yun; Forest, Chris E.; Wagener, Thorsten

    2015-04-01

    The predictability of regional climate change is limited by uncertainties in (1) the expected forcing, (2) the response to this forcing, and (3) the internal variability of the fully coupled climate system. Of these three, we explore the second by isolating the regional response to a set of known forcings, namely the anomalous sea surface temperature (SST), that contributes to climate change over land. In so doing, we are assessing the capabilities of atmospheric general circulation models (AGCMs) to respond to SST forced changes. Through this decomposition of uncertainties, we are able to address the impact of structural differences in climate models associated with the modeled atmospheric physics. We investigate how to identify and assess teleconnection signals between anomalous patterns of SST changes and climate variables related to hydrologic impacts over different river basins. The regional climate sensitivity to tropical SST anomaly patterns is examined through a linear relationship given by the global teleconnection operator (GTO, also generally called a sensitivity matrix or an empirical Green's function). We assume that the GTO defines a multilinear relation between SST forcing and regional climate response of a target area. The sensitivities are computed based on data from a large ensemble of simulations using the NCAR Community Atmospheric Model version 3.1 (CAM 3.1). Additionallly, we will examine GTO results using more recent AGCMs including: NCAR CAM4, CAM5, and GFDL AM2.1. These can help identify the structural uncertainty associated with individual atmospheric models. To explore predictability issues, the linear approximation is evaluated by comparing the linearly reconstructed response with both the results from the full non-linear atmospheric model and observational data. We find that the linear approximation can capture regional climate variability that the CAM 3.1 AMIP-style simulations produce at seasonal scales for multiple river basins

  6. The Role of Tigris Euphrates Discharge on Coastal SST in the Arabian Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, R.; Sanders, J.

    2013-12-01

    The Tigris-Euphrates (T-E) river system provides most of the freshwater recharge into the Arabian/Persian Gulf, through the Shatt el-Arab, into the northern Gulf. Over the past decades, increased dam storage for irrigation and hydropower throughout the region has modified the characteristics of this flow. As a result, flow into the Iraqi Marshes has been reduced by at least half, with reduction in both peak and overall flow, and a corresponding decrease in flow through the Shatt el-Arab. This change in flow characteristics is observable in the waters on the Northern Gulf and in Kuwait bay. AVHRR Pathfinder v5.0 8 day data was assembled for the time period 1985-2010. Time series were extracted for sea surface temperature (SST) for locations in the Northern and Central Gulf and Kuwait Bay. These were compared with regional precipitation and GRACE water equivalent thickness variations in the upper and lower T-E basin, and published flow estimates. Results were used to examine 1) the overall impact of discharge on SST in the coastal area affected by T-E watershed discharge; 2) the impact of reduced flow years due to damming and drought years on the differences between coastal and bay SST and central Gulf SST. Annual peak flow in the period Dec-April was found to provide a lowering of coastal SST by more than 1C compared with more well mixed water in the central Gulf. This effect was not seen to be less than half during drought years (e.g. 2006-2008). Climate models predict end of century scenarios of precipitation similar to those seen during 2007-2008. The impact of this lower discharge from the Shatt el-Arab combined with predicted regional warming may result in habitat changes in coastal waters in the Northern Gulf.

  7. Novel sst(4)-selective somatostatin (SRIF) agonists. 4. Three-dimensional consensus structure by NMR.

    PubMed

    Grace, Christy Rani R; Koerber, Steven C; Erchegyi, Judit; Reubi, Jean Claude; Rivier, Jean; Riek, Roland

    2003-12-18

    The three-dimensional NMR structures of eight cyclic octapeptide analogues of somatostatin (SRIF) are described. These analogues, with the basic sequence H-c[Cys(3)-Phe(6)-Xxx(7)-Yyy(8)-Lys(9)-Thr(10)-Zzz(11)-Cys(14)]-OH (the numbering refers to the position in native SRIF), with Xxx(7) being Phe/Ala/Tyr, Yyy(8) being Trp/DTrp/D-threo-beta-Me2Nal/L-threo-beta-Me2Nal, and Zzz(11) being Phe/Ala, exhibit potent and highly selective binding to human SRIF type 4 (sst(4)) receptors. The conformations reveal that the backbones of these analogues do not have the usual type-II' beta-turn reported in the literature for sst(2)-subtype-selective analogues. Instead, the structures contain a unique arrangement of side chains of Yyy(8), Lys(9), and Phe(6) or Phe(11). The conformational preferences and results from biological analyses of these analogues (parts 1-3 of this series, Rivier et al., Erchegyi et al., and Erchegyi et al., J. Med. Chem. 2003, preceding papers in this issue) allow a detailed study of the structure-activity relationship of SRIF. The proposed consensus structural motif at the binding pocket for the sst(4)-selective analogues requires a unique set of distances between an indole/2-naphthyl ring, a lysine side chain, and another aromatic ring. This motif is necessary and sufficient to explain the binding affinities of all of the analogues studied and is distinct from the existing model suggested for sst(2)/sst(5) selectivity. PMID:14667215

  8. Internal versus SST-forced atmospheric variability as simulated by an atmospheric general circulation model

    SciTech Connect

    Harzallah, A.; Sadourny, R.

    1995-03-01

    The variability of atmospheric flow is analyzed by separating it into an internal part due to atmospheric dynamics only and an external (or forced) part due to the variability of sea surface temperature forcing. The two modes of variability are identified by performing an ensemble of seven independent long-term simulations of the atmospheric response to observed SST (1970-1988) with the LMD atmospheric general circulation model. The forced variability is defined from the analysis of the ensemble mean and the internal variability from the analysis of deviations from the ensemble mean. Emphasis is put on interannual variability of sea level pressure and 500-hPa geopotential height for the Northern Hemisphere winter. In view of the large systematic errors related to the relatively small number of realizations, unbiased variance estimators have been developed. Although statistical significance is not reached in some extratropical regions, large significant extratropical responses are found at the North Pacific-Alaska sector for SLP and over western Canada and the Aleutians for 500-hPa geopotential height. The influence of SST variations on internal variability is also examined by using a 7-year simulation using the climatological SST seasonal cycle. It is found that interannual SST changes strongly influence the geographical distribution of internal variability; in particular, it tends to increase it over oceans. EOF decompositions, showing that the model realistically simulates the leading observed variability modes. The geographical structure of internal variability patterns is found to be similar to that of total variability, although similar modes tend to evolve rather differently in time. The zonally symmetric seesaw dominates the internal variability for both observed and climatologically prescribed SST. 46 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. The mini-array of ASTRI SST-2M telescopes, precursors for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pareschi, Giovanni; Bonnoli, Giacomo; Vercellone, Stefano; ASTRI Collaboration; CTA Consortium

    2016-05-01

    In the framework of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) Observatory, the Italian National Institute of Astrophysics (INAF) has recently inaugurated in Sicily (Italy), at the Serra La Nave astronomical site on the slopes of Mount Etna, a large field of view (FoV, ~ 9.6°) dual-mirror prototype (ASTRI SST-2M) of the CTA small size class of telescopes (SST). The CTA plans to install about 70 SST in the southern site to allow the study of the gamma rays from a few TeV up to hundreds of TeV. The ASTRI SST-2M telescope prototype has been developed following an end-to-end approach, since it includes the entire system of structure, mirrors optics (primary and secondary mirrors), camera, and control/acquisition software. A remarkable performance improvement could come from the operation of the ASTRI mini-array, led by INAF in synergy with the Universidade de Sao Paulo (Brazil) and the North-West University (South Africa). The ASTRI mini-array will be composed of nine ASTRI SST-2M units and it is proposed as a precursor and initial seed of the CTA to be installed at the final CTA southern site. Apart from the assessment of a number of technological aspects related to the CTA, the ASTRI mini-array will, if compared for instance to H.E.S.S., extend the point source sensitivity up to ~ 100 TeV, also improving it above 5-10 TeV. Moreover, the unprecedented width of the FoV, with its homogeneous acceptance and angular resolution, will significantly contribute to the achievement of original results during the early CTA science phase.

  10. Persistent Multidecadal SST Variability Since 1775 AD Recorded in Multiple Corals from the Yucatan Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernando Vásquez-Bedoya, L.; Blanchon, P.; Oppo, D.; Cohen, A. L.

    2011-12-01

    Observational and modeling studies have shown that long term North Atlantic basin-averaged sea surface temperatures (SSTs) combine a CO2-forced global warming trend with a multi-decadal oscillation (the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation or AMO) that likely arose from internal variability. The AMO can mitigate or amplify regional climate change, and will likely play a significant role in modulating the projected 21st century North Atlantic SST increase. Numerical models have proven incapable of predicting future phase shifts in AMO in a deterministic manner and probability-based projections are hampered by the short duration of the instrumental record (130-150 years), which captures just 2 multidecadal oscillations. Longer records of past AMO behavior could help improve probability-based projections. In the absence of instrumental data (or direct observations) such records must be generated from proxy climate archives. Here we report SST reconstructions based on coral annual growth rates (linear extension) from multiple long-lived colonies of Siderastrea sideraea collected live at two sites on the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexican Caribbean. Yucatan is geographically well placed to capture AMO variability: instrumental SSTs over the last 150 years show a strong positive correlation with the AMO Index (R=0.68). We demonstrate that the annual linear growth rates of three coral colonies are significantly inversely correlated with SST, and the correlation is strongest on decadal timescales. We use annual linear growth rates to extend the SST record to 1775 AD. Finally, our marine-based record of multidecadal variability compare favorably with recently published records of paleo-AMO based on terrestrial proxies. Our results provide strong motivation for extending growth-based proxy records of Atlantic SST further back in time using a combination of longer-lived S. siderea at select locations, and deceased colonies that can be independently dated by Uranium-series to extend the

  11. Interactions Between the Thermohaline Circulation and Tropical Atlantic SST in a Coupled General Circulation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Ron; Jiang, Xing-Jian; Travis, Larry (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Tropical Atlantic SST shows a (statistically well-defined) decadal time scale in a 104-year simulation of unforced variability by a coupled general circulation model (CGCM). The SST anomalies superficially resemble observed Tropical Atlantic variability (TAV), and are associated with changes in the atmospheric circulation. Brazilian rainfall is modulated with a decadal time scale, along with the strength of the Atlantic trade winds, which are associated with variations in evaporation and the net surface heat flux. However, in contrast to observed tropical Atlantic variability, the trade winds damp the associated anomalies in ocean temperature, indicating a negative feedback. Tropical SST anomalies in the CGCM, though opposed by the surface heat flux, are advected in from the Southern Hemisphere mid-latitudes. These variations modulate the strength of the thermohaline circulation (THC): warm, salty anomalies at the equator sink drawing cold, fresh mid-latitude water. Upon reaching the equator, the latter inhibit vertical overturning and advection from higher latitudes, which allows warm, salty anomalies to reform, returning the cycle to its original state. Thus, the cycle results from advection of density anomalies and the effect of these anomalies upon the rate of vertical overturning and surface advection. This decadal modulation of Tropical Atlantic SST and the thermohaline circulation is correlated with ocean heat transport to the Northern Hemisphere high latitudes and Norwegian Sea SST. Because of the central role of equatorial convection, we question whether this mechanism is present in the current climate, although we speculate that it may have operated in palaeo times, depending upon the stability of the tropical water column.

  12. Assessment of Global Forecast Ocean Assimilation Model (FOAM) using new satellite SST data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ascione Kenov, Isabella; Sykes, Peter; Fiedler, Emma; McConnell, Niall; Ryan, Andrew; Maksymczuk, Jan

    2016-04-01

    There is an increased demand for accurate ocean weather information for applications in the field of marine safety and navigation, water quality, offshore commercial operations, monitoring of oil spills and pollutants, among others. The Met Office, UK, provides ocean forecasts to customers from governmental, commercial and ecological sectors using the Global Forecast Ocean Assimilation Model (FOAM), an operational modelling system which covers the global ocean and runs daily, using the NEMO (Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean) ocean model with horizontal resolution of 1/4° and 75 vertical levels. The system assimilates salinity and temperature profiles, sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface height (SSH), and sea ice concentration observations on a daily basis. In this study, the FOAM system is updated to assimilate Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2) and the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) SST data. Model results from one month trials are assessed against observations using verification tools which provide a quantitative description of model performance and error, based on statistical metrics, including mean error, root mean square error (RMSE), correlation coefficient, and Taylor diagrams. A series of hindcast experiments is used to run the FOAM system with AMSR2 and SEVIRI SST data, using a control run for comparison. Results show that all trials perform well on the global ocean and that largest SST mean errors were found in the Southern hemisphere. The geographic distribution of the model error for SST and temperature profiles are discussed using statistical metrics evaluated over sub-regions of the global ocean.

  13. Long-term variations of SST and heat content in the Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huonsou-gbo, Aubains; Servain, Jacques; Caniaux, Guy; Araujo, Moacyr; Bourlès, Bernard; Veleda, Doris

    2015-04-01

    Recent studies (eg. Wen et al. 2010; Servain et al. 2014) suggest that subsurface processes influence the interannual variability of sea surface temperature (SST) in the tropical Atlantic through the Meridional Overturning Circulation (MOC) with time lags of several months. In this study, we used observed SST and Ocean heat content to test such hypothesis during the period 1964-2013. First results indicate great similarities in the positive linear trends of monthly standardized anomalies of SST, upper ocean heat content (0-500m) and deeper ocean heat content (500-2000m) averaged over the whole Atlantic Ocean. Strong positive trends of SST and deeper heat content occurred in the equatorial Atlantic, while a strong positive trend of the upper heat content was observed in the northeast Atlantic. These positive trends were the highest during the last two decades. The lagged positive correlation patterns between upper heat content anomalies over the whole gridded Atlantic Ocean and SST anomalies averaged over the equatorial region (60°W-15°E; 10°N-10°S) show a slow temporal evolution, which is roughly in agreement with the upper MOC. More detailed works about the mechanism, as well as about the origin of the highest positive trend of the deeper heat content in the equatorial region, are presently under investigation. References Servain J., G. Caniaux, Y. K. Kouadio, M. J. McPhaden, M. Araujo (2014). Recent climatic trends in the tropical Atlantic. Climate Dynamics, Vol. 43, 3071-3089, DOI 10.1007/s00382-014-2168-7.

  14. SST phases in the open-ocean and margins of the tropical Pacific; implication on tropical climate dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiau, L.-J.; Clemens, S. C.; Chen, M.-T.; Yamamoto, M.; Yokoyama, Y.

    2014-04-01

    The tropical Pacific exerts a major effect on the global climate system and might have driven large extra-tropical climate change. We present a 320 kyr high resolution UK'37-sea surface temperature (SST) record from core MD052928 (11°17.26' S, 148°51.60' E, water depth 2250 m) located off southeastern Papua New Guinea (PNG), in the western tropical Pacific. The age model of the core is based on AMS 14C dating of planktic foraminifers and correlation of benthic to the LR04 stack. The UK'37-SST ranges from 26.5 to 29 °C, showing glacial-interglacial and millennial variations. We assess the phase of the MD052928 UK'37-SST as part of a synthesis of five other SST records from the tropical Pacific at the precession, obliquity, and eccentricity bands. The SST records can be separated into two groups when considering SST phase relative to changes in orbital forcing, ice volume and greenhouse gases (GHGs). SST maxima at open-ocean sites within primary equatorial current systems occur between obliquity maxima and methane (CH4) maxima but early relative to ice volume minima and CO2 maxima at the obliquity band. In contrast, SST maxima at continental margin sites change are in phase with ice minima and CO2 maxima, likely influenced by the slow response of continental ice sheets and GHGs. At the precession band, the early group located on the Warm Pool area indicates a direct influenced by the local insolation, and with the similar phase progress as the obliquity band. These results indicate that the decreased high-low latitudes insolation gradient and increasing low latitude local insolation resulting in tropical Pacific SST rise. Higher SST would supply more moisture resulting in increased CH4 in the tropical wetlands. This promotes increasing CO2 and deglaciation leading to increase continental and continental margin surface temperatures.

  15. Development of outdoor exposure model of traffic-related air pollution for epidemiologic research in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kanda, Isao; Ohara, Toshimasa; Nataami, Taro; Nitta, Hiroshi; Tamura, Kenji; Hasegawa, Shuichi; Shima, Masayuki; Nakai, Satoshi; Sakamoto, Kazuhiko; Yokota, Hisashi

    2013-01-01

    We developed an exposure estimation model for an epidemiological study on the effect of traffic-related air pollutants on respiratory diseases. The model estimates annual average outdoor concentration of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and elemental carbon (EC). The model is composed of three nested plume dispersion type submodels treating different spatial scales from a few meters to tens of kilometers. The emissions from road traffic was estimated at high spatial resolution along the paths of roads taking into account the effects of individual building shape and traffic signals to secure accuracy near trunk roads where most of the subjects of the epidemiological study resided. Model performance was confirmed by field measurements at permanent local government stations and purpose-built temporary stations; the latter supplemented roadside monitoring points and provided EC concentrations, which are not measured routinely. We infer that EC emissions were underestimated by using the available database because there were significant contributions to EC concentrations from sources that did not emit much NOx. An adjustment concentration yielded good agreement between model estimates and field measurements. PMID:23715083

  16. The research and development of an air pollutant monitoring system based on DOAS technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hua; Liu, Han-peng; Zheng, Ming; Meng, Xiao-feng

    2009-07-01

    This article illuminates a kind of sensor used in measuring the concentrations of the main pollutants in flue gas streams (Dust, SO2 and NOx) based on the UV-DOAS technology in air pollutant monitoring. Using the high-level embedded microprocessors and complex programmable logic device, the sensor completes system measurement, management and signal communication, and spectrum inversion and data saving are processed by PC at the same time. Differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) technology is used in the flue gas pollutant factor analysis through the sensor construction. The absorption spectra of SO2, NOx and smoke dust are inverted to reduce the interference of other factors in flue gas streams. At the same time, the effect of light source fluctuation and optical transmission ratio is considered and removed in the measurement system. The result shows that the monitoring accuracy of concentration of sulfur dioxide and smoke dust achieves +/-2%, the concentration of nitrogen oxides accuracy achieves +/-3%, which meets the requirements of the national standard. The sensor can be directly installed in a flue. As a result, process of measuring is simplified and measurement accuracy is improved. Further more, this method increases the stability of the system and reduces the maintenance costs. Measurement data is transferred through data bus between the sensor and upper PC to realize remote control and real-time measurement. Considering the severe conditions in measuring the main pollutants in flue gas streams, applications of anti-interference and anti-corrosion etc. are taken in the system design.

  17. Strategic Marketing Evaluation: A Focus Area for Institutional Research. AIR 1983 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Edward M.; Gackenbach, Rusty

    The level of awareness, knowledge, and current practices regarding strategic marketing within institutional research (IR) offices were studied for colleges in the Rocky Mountain region. Of the 18 responding offices, 9 indicated that their institutions utilized a marketing approach to planning. Of these 9 offices, 56 percent reported formal…

  18. Sex Equity Research: Keeping the Campus Out of the Courtroom. AIR 1984 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Marilyn K.; And Others

    Sex equity research efforts undertaken by the Office of Institutional Studies at the University of Maryland at College Park are discussed. A plan was developed for examining salary differences at three distinct times: time of appointment, upon promotion and/or award of tenure, and at annual salary reviews. Salaries of male and female faculty…

  19. EFFECTS OF CLOUDS AND TROPOSPHERIC AIR QUALITY ON SURFACE UV AT 6 UV RESEARCH SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document provides a summary of results of the EPA STAR funded proposal “Effects of Clouds and Tropospheric Pollution on Surface UV at six EPA UV Research Sites”. This project worked to provide high quality UV spectral solar irradiance, erythema (UV Index), oz...

  20. RESEARCH AREA -- GREENHOUSE GAS MITIGATION - ATMOSPHERIC PROTECTION BRANCH (AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Atmospheric Protection Branch conducts research projects to develop and assess new potential alternatives to ozone-depleting substances, several of which have received high priority and some of which have been commercialized.In regards to waste methane, two principal issues...

  1. Decision Support Systems: An Institutional Research Perspective. AIR Forum 1982 Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheehan, Bernard S.

    Ideas that have been developed in the decision support systems (DSS) literature that seem particularly relevant to institutional research, planning, and analysis (IRPA) are reviewed. In addition, a survey of practitioners in Canadian universities that provides new information on the rapidly changing current state of information technology,…

  2. Plan-Do-Check-Act and the Management of Institutional Research. AIR 1992 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Gerald W.; Snyder, Julie K.

    This paper describes the application of a Total Quality Management strategy called Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) to the projects and activities of an institutional research office at the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. PDCA is a cycle designed to facilitate incremental continual improvement through change. The specific steps are…

  3. The Role of Institutional Research in Program Discontinuance. AIR Forum 1979 Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, Edward A.

    Problems relating to program discontinuance and the role of institutional research are discussed, drawing on a study supported by the Exxon Foundation of 10 predominantly large public universities that have either reviewed and closed programs or have gone through recent financial difficulties. Careful analysis is necessary to know that savings are…

  4. When Somebody's Watching: Researching the Workplace Impact of Academic Audit. AIR 2002 Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palermo, Josephine

    The proposed quality assurance framework for higher education in Australia will, for the first time since the early 1990s, introduce a process of external quality monitoring through the auspices of the Australian Universities Quality Agency. There is little research that evaluates the impact of external monitoring on the experiences of staff,…

  5. Three Analytical Approaches for Predicting Enrollment at a Growing Metropolitan Research University. AIR 2002 Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armacost, Robert L.; Wilson, Alicia L.

    In a large metropolitan research university, multiple enrollment models are required to fulfill the needs of the many constituents and planning horizons. In addition, the method of predicting enrollment in a growth environment differs from that of universities in a stable environment. Three models for predicting enrollment are discussed, with a…

  6. Application Generators: Their Impact within Institutional Research and Beyond. AIR Forum 1982 Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Michael; Walleri, R. Dan

    The characteristics of application generators and the reasons they are and will be used increasingly in collegiate institutional research are addressed. The incorporation of application generators within a total institutional data and information processing network is also outlined. The analysis considers the often noted "gap" between expectations…

  7. FOREST RESPONSE PROGRAM: NATIONAL RESEARCH ON FOREST DECLINE AND AIR POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Forest Response Program (FRP) is a major research undertaking. t is fortunate to have the support of many of the nation's top scientists. he involvement of the Forest Service, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the broader scientific community gives the program a unique...

  8. Measurements of Quality in Higher Education: The Role of Institutional Research. AIR 1983 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gapen, Kaye; Morse, Suzanne

    Three areas of quality assessment in higher education are examined: students, faculty, and library resources. Types of student data that institutional researchers should address include: entrance tests scores, retention rate, student outcomes, location and recruitment of graduates, results of licensing examinations, scholarship recipients, and…

  9. Information Systems Management: A Function for Institutional Research. AIR Forum 1980 Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strenglein, Denise

    The importance of information systems management to institutional research efforts of colleges and universities is discussed. The goal of information system management is to make an institution's information system more consistent, efficient, and informative. Each of the different functions of the university, such as admissions and registration,…

  10. Using Total Quality To Better Manage an Institutional Research Office. AIR 1991 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heverly, Mary Ann

    Responding to the call for higher education to adopt a new paradigm in managing its administrative processes, an Institutional Research Office at Delaware County Community College (DCCC) in Pennsylvania made a two-year effort to use a Total Quality approach in its management. Total Quality Management is a Japanese movement based on the teachings…

  11. Decentralized and Integrated Institutional Research: A Contradiction in Terms That Works. AIR 1991 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, Susan H.

    A newly organized small college model for a decentralized institutional research office was described and evaluated. Using Hearn and Corcoran's six external or organizational forces (external environment, personalities or individual interests, management styles, power arrangements, microcomputing and telecommunications, and structural and…

  12. Coping Strategies for Job Stress among Institutional Researchers. AIR 1983 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanford, Timothy R.

    Job stress among institutional researchers and approaches to managing or coping with stress are considered. In considering different types of stressors and stress reactions, it is noted that stress from all sources is cumulative and cannot be ignored during the workday, and that both pleasant and unpleasant happenings can result in stress. One…

  13. [Papers Presented at the American Medical Association's Air Pollution Medical Research Conference (New Orleans, Louisiana, October 5-7, 1970).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Medical Association, Chicago, IL.

    This is a collection of twenty speeches presented at the American Medical Association's Air Pollution Medical Conference, October 5-7, 1970. Speeches included: Air Pollution Control: The Physician's Role; Air Pollution Problems in Nuclear Power Development; Airway Resistance and Collateral Ventilation; Asbestos Air Pollution in Urban Areas;…

  14. Advanced Air Traffic Management Research (Human Factors and Automation): NASA Research Initiatives in Human-Centered Automation Design in Airspace Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corker, Kevin M.; Condon, Gregory W. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    NASA has initiated a significant thrust of research and development focused on providing the flight crew and air traffic managers automation aids to increase capacity in en route and terminal area operations through the use of flexible, more fuel-efficient routing, while improving the level of safety in commercial carrier operations. In that system development, definition of cognitive requirements for integrated multi-operator dynamic aiding systems is fundamental. The core processes of control and the distribution of decision making in that control are undergoing extensive analysis. From our perspective, the human operators and the procedures by which they interact are the fundamental determinants of the safe, efficient, and flexible operation of the system. In that perspective, we have begun to explore what our experience has taught will be the most challenging aspects of designing and integrating human-centered automation in the advanced system. We have performed a full mission simulation looking at the role shift to self-separation on board the aircraft with the rules of the air guiding behavior and the provision of a cockpit display of traffic information and an on-board traffic alert system that seamlessly integrates into the TCAS operations. We have performed and initial investigation of the operational impact of "Dynamic Density" metrics on controller relinquishing and reestablishing full separation authority. (We follow the assumption that responsibility at all times resides with the controller.) This presentation will describe those efforts as well as describe the process by which we will guide the development of error tolerant systems that are sensitive to shifts in operator work load levels and dynamic shifts in the operating point of air traffic management.

  15. Review of research results for the photocatalytic oxidation of hazardous wastes in air

    SciTech Connect

    Nimlos, M R; Wolfrum, E J; Gratson, D A; Watt, A S; Jacoby, W A; Turchi, C

    1995-01-01

    Laboratory experiments of gas-phase photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) at NREL have focused on measurements that can help commercialize this technology for treating gaseous air streams. This effort proceeds earlier NREL work and studies conducted elsewhere which demonstrated the general applicability of PCO. The more recent work has concentrated on: (1) the kinetics of the PCO process; (2) the formation and destruction of intermediates; and (3) possible enhancements to improve the destruction rates. The results from these studies will be used to help design large scale PCO equipment and they will be used to evaluate the economics of the PCO process. For trichloroethylene and ethanol, extensive studies of the rates of destruction have yielded kinetic parameters for the destruction of intermediates as well as the substrate. The kinetics of intermediates is essential for sizing a large scale reactor, as complete conversion to carbon dioxide is often desired. The kinetic data from these laboratory studies has been used for analyzing IT`s pilot PCO reactor and has been used to suggest modifications to this unit. For compounds that are more difficult to destroy (such as the components of BTEX), rate enhancement experiments have been conducted. These compounds represent a very large market for this technology and improvement of the rate of the process should make it competitive. Towards this goal, the enhancement of the destruction of BTEX components have been studied. Experiments have demonstrated that there is a significant increase in the rates of destruction of BTEX with the addition of ozone. Preliminary economic assessments have shown that PCO with ozone may be cost competitive. Future laboratory experiments of PCO will focus on refinements of what has been learned. Rate measurements will also be expanded to include other compounds representing significant markets for the PCO technology.

  16. Zinc/air battery R and D research and development of bifunctional oxygen electrode: Tasks I and II, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, M.; Viswanathan, S.

    1986-12-01

    Studies were conducted of the bifunctional oxygen electrode. The development of a rechargeable metal-oxygen (air) cell has been hampered to a great extent by the lack of a stable and cost effective oxygen electrode capable of use during both charge and discharge. The first type of bifunctional electrode consists of two distinct catalytifc layers. The oxygen reduction catalyst layer containing a supported gold catalyst is in contact with a hydrophilic nickel layer in which evolution of oxygen takes place. Loadings of gold from 0.5 to 1.0 mg/cm/sup 2/ were investigated; carbon, graphite, metal, and spinel oxides were evaluated as substrates. The second part of the research effort was centered on developing a reversible oxygen electrode containing only one catalytic layer for both reduction and evolution of oxygen. The work was directed specifically to the study of perovskite type of oxides with the composition AA/sup 1/BO/sub 3/ where A is an element of the lanthanide series, A/sup 1/ is an alkaline earth metal and B, a first row transition element. Initial polarization data obtained in unscrubbed air gave a value of approximately 200 millivolts vs Hg/HgO reference electrode at a current density of 50 ma/cm/sup 2/. Electrodes were made both by roll-bonding and by pelletizing techniques and tested for polarization and cycle life. This study also indicates the optimum process conditions for the manufacture of oxides and fabrication of electrodes.

  17. Measured performance of the heat exchanger in the NASA icing research tunnel under severe icing and dry-air conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, W.; Vanfossen, J.; Nussle, R.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements were made of the pressure drop and thermal perfomance of the unique refrigeration heat exchanger in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) under severe icing and frosting conditions and also with dry air. This data will be useful to those planning to use or extend the capability of the IRT and other icing facilities (e.g., the Altitude Wind Tunnel-AWT). The IRT heat exchanger and refrigeration system is able to cool air passing through the test section down to at least a total temperature of -30 C (well below icing requirements), and usually up to -2 C. The system maintains a uniform temperature across the test section at all airspeeds, which is more difficult and time consuming at low airspeeds, at high temperatures, and on hot, humid days when the cooling towers are less efficient. The very small surfaces of the heat exchanger prevent any icing cloud droplets from passing through it and going through the tests section again. The IRT heat exchanger was originally designed not to be adversely affected by severe icing. During a worst-case icing test the heat exchanger iced up enough so that the temperature uniformaity was no worse than about +/- 1 deg C. The conclusion is that the heat exchanger design performs well.

  18. FACE: Free-Air CO[sub 2] Enrichment for plant research in the field

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrey, G.R.

    1992-08-01

    Research programs concerning the effects of Carbon Dioxide(CO)[sub 2] on cotton plants are described. Biological responses studied include foliage response to CO[sub 2] fluctuations; yield of cotton exposed to CO[sub 2] enrichment; responses of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance to elevated CO[sub 2] in field-grown cotton; cotton leaf and boll temperatures; root response to CO[sub 2] enrichment; and evaluations of cotton response to CO[sub 2] enrichment with canopy reflectance observations.

  19. FACE: Free-Air CO{sub 2} Enrichment for plant research in the field

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrey, G.R.

    1992-08-01

    Research programs concerning the effects of Carbon Dioxide(CO){sub 2} on cotton plants are described. Biological responses studied include foliage response to CO{sub 2} fluctuations; yield of cotton exposed to CO{sub 2} enrichment; responses of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance to elevated CO{sub 2} in field-grown cotton; cotton leaf and boll temperatures; root response to CO{sub 2} enrichment; and evaluations of cotton response to CO{sub 2} enrichment with canopy reflectance observations.

  20. The Conference Proceedings of the 2003 Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) World Conference, Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Gudmundsson, Sveinn (Editor); Oum, Tae (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    The UNO Aviation Institute Monograph Series began in 1994 as a key component of the education outreach and information transfer missions of the Aviation Institute and the NASA Nebraska Space Grant & EPSCoR Programs. The series is an outlet for aviation materials to be indexed and disseminated through an efficient medium. Publications are welcome in all aspects of aviation. Publication formats may include, but are not limited to, conference proceedings, bibliographies, research reports, manuals, technical reports, and other documents that should be archived and indexed for future reference by the aviation and world wide communities.

  1. Performance evaluation in full-mission simulation - Methodological advances and research challenges. [in air transport operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chidester, Thomas R.; Kanki, Barbara G.; Helmreich, Robert L.

    1989-01-01

    The crew-factors research program at NASA Ames has developed a methodology for studying the impact of a variety of variables on the effectiveness of crews flying realistic but high workload simulated trips. The validity of investigations using the methodology is enhanced by careful design of full-mission scenarios, performance assessment using converging sources of data, and recruitment of representative subjects. Recently, portions of this methodology have been adapted for use in assessing the effectiveness of crew coordination among participants in line-oriented flight training.

  2. Small-Scale Fronts in Ultra-High Resolution Level-4 Satellite SST: Validation and Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H.; McKinley, G. A.

    2014-12-01

    Submesoscale oceanic fronts have been implicated in the turbulent energy cascade, and in nutrient supply into and carbon export out of the euphotic zone. However, their large-scale extent is unknown due to their characteristic small spatial (1-10km) and short time (~1 day) scales that complicate observations. Current large-scale understanding of fronts from satellite SST and ocean color is limited to a climatological view of occurrence frequency in cloud-free events. We show that useful estimates of frontal spatial coverage and structure can be derived from the recently available, merged satellite Level-4 SST product (G1SST at 1km resolution) using a gradient-based detection method in the North Atlantic subtropical gyre (28o-38oN, -75o- -45oW ). G1SST fronts are validated with in-situ fronts in continuous ship measurements from the Oleander Project. At a matching distance of Δx=5km, 79% of the G1SST fronts are in-situ fronts, and 64% of the in-situ fronts are detected by G1SST; these matches up increase with larger Δx. Comparing with in-situ velocities, ~56% of the fronts are coincident with across-track velocity jets with low-pass filter at scales > 5km,and 70% at scales > 50km, indicating that fronts are in large-scale geostrophic balance. Near-surface vertical shear predicted from thermal-wind relationship is in-phase but much smaller than (<50%) observed shear, indicating large ageostrophic shear is inclined to be co-located with surface baroclinic zones, likely due to interaction between fronts and gravity waves. For the North Atlantic subtropical gyre, we find that submesoscale fronts comprise 57±4.6% of the total surface area. Fronts are found not only in the energetic Gulf Steam region, but also are surprisingly numerous in the quiescent subtropical gyre. This finding is consistent with previous modeling studies that indicate that submesoscale fronts could help to resolve the 'nutrient--primary production' balance in oligotrophic regions.

  3. Intensified impact of northern tropical Atlantic SST on tropical cyclogenesis frequency over the western North Pacific after the late 1980s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Xi; Chen, Shangfeng; Chen, Guanghua; Wu, Renguang

    2016-08-01

    Previous studies suggest that spring SST anomalies over the northern tropical Atlantic (NTA) affect the tropical cyclone (TC) activity over the western North Pacific (WNP) in the following summer and fall. The present study reveals that the connection between spring NTA SST and following summer-fall WNP TC genesis frequency is not stationary. The influence of spring NTA SST on following summer-fall WNP TC genesis frequency is weak and insignificant before, but strong and significant after, the late 1980s. Before the late 1980s, the NTA SST anomaly-induced SST anomalies in the tropical central Pacific are weak, and the response of atmospheric circulation over the WNP is not strong. As a result, the connection between spring NTA SST and following summer-fall WNP TC genesis frequency is insignificant in the former period. In contrast, after the late 1980s, NTA SST anomalies induce pronounced tropical central Pacific SST anomalies through an Atlantic-Pacific teleconnection. Tropical central Pacific SST anomalies further induce favorable conditions for WNP TC genesis, including vertical motion, mid-level relative humidity, and vertical zonal wind shear. Hence, the connection between NTA SST and WNP TC genesis frequency is significant in the recent period. Further analysis shows that the interdecadal change in the connection between spring NTA SST and following summer-fall WNP TC genesis frequency may be related to the climatological SST change over the NTA region.

  4. A decomposition of ENSO's impacts on the northern winter stratosphere: competing effect of SST forcing in the tropical Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Jian; Ren, Rongcai

    2015-09-01

    This study applies WACCM, a stratosphere-resolving model to dissect the stratospheric responses in the northern winter extratropics to the imposed ENSO-related SST anomalies in the tropics. It is found that the anomalously warmer and weaker stratospheric polar vortex during warm ENSO is basically a balance of the opposite effects between the SST anomalies in the tropical Pacific (TPO) and that over the tropical Indian Ocean basin (TIO). Specifically, the ENSO-related SST anomalies over the TIO are to induce an anomalously colder and stronger stratospheric polar vortex during warm ENSO, which acts to partially cancel out the much stronger warmer and weaker polar vortex response to the SST anomalies over the TPO. Further analysis indicates that, while the SST forcing from the TPO contributes to the anomalously positive Pacific North America (PNA) pattern in the troposphere and the enhancement of the stationary wavenumber (WN)-1 in the stratosphere during warm ENSO, the TIO SST forcing is to induce an anomalously negative PNA and a reduction of both WN-1 and WN-2 in the stratosphere. Diagnosis of E-P flux confirms that, the anomalously upward propagation of stationary waves in the extratropics mainly lies over the western coast of North America during warm ENSO, which is mainly associated with the TPO-induced positive PNA response and is partially suppressed by the effect of the accompanying TIO SST forcing.

  5. Suppressing the noise in SST retrieved from satellite infrared measurements by smoothing the differential terms in regression equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrenko, B.; Ignatov, A.; Kihai, Y.

    2015-05-01

    Multichannel regression algorithms are widely used in retrievals of sea surface temperature (SST) from infrared brightness temperatures (BTs) observed from satellites. The SST equations typically include terms dependent on the difference between BTs observed in spectral bands with different atmospheric absorption. Such terms do account for variations in the variable atmospheric attenuation, but may introduce additional noise in the retrieved SST due to amplification of the radiometric noise. Some processing systems (e.g., the EUMETSAT OSI-SAF) incorporate noise suppression algorithms, based on spatial smoothing of the differential terms in the SST equations. A similar algorithm is being tested for the potential use in the NOAA Advanced Clear-Sky Processor for Oceans (ACSPO). The ACSPO smoothing algorithm aims to preserve natural variations in SST field, while minimizing distortions in the original SST imagery, at a minimal processing time. This presentation describes the ACSPO smoothing algorithm and results of its evaluation with the SST imagery, and with the in situ matchups for NOAA and Metop AVHRRs, Terra and Aqua MODISs, and SNPP/JPSS VIIRS.

  6. Spatio-temporal variability of SST and Chlorophyll-a from MODIS data in the Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Masoud; Kabiri, Keivan

    2015-09-15

    Spatio-temporal variability of SST and Chl-a evaluated using MODIS products from 2002 to 2013 in the Persian Gulf. Wavelet Transform was utilized to analyze the spatio-temporal stability and abnormality of MODIS SST and Chl-a. The stationary level of SST decreases from west to the east during summer to early autumn, and increases from late autumn to spring. The stationary level of Chl-a is higher in the coastal areas, while its average ranged from 0.1 to 0.5mgm(-3). No meaningful major oscillating period observed in the abnormal variability of SST and Chl-a. The winter and summer peaks of SST and Chl-a were observed in the central parts and north-west regions. The timing of maximum SST was observed in August, which is not correlated with Chl-a maxima. The variability of SST and Chl-a in the whole Persian Gulf is seasonal, and related to river outflows, water circulation and climate regimes. PMID:26187398

  7. A decomposition of ENSO's impacts on the northern winter stratosphere: competing effect of SST forcing in the tropical Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Jian; Ren, Rongcai

    2016-06-01

    This study applies WACCM, a stratosphere-resolving model to dissect the stratospheric responses in the northern winter extratropics to the imposed ENSO-related SST anomalies in the tropics. It is found that the anomalously warmer and weaker stratospheric polar vortex during warm ENSO is basically a balance of the opposite effects between the SST anomalies in the tropical Pacific (TPO) and that over the tropical Indian Ocean basin (TIO). Specifically, the ENSO-related SST anomalies over the TIO are to induce an anomalously colder and stronger stratospheric polar vortex during warm ENSO, which acts to partially cancel out the much stronger warmer and weaker polar vortex response to the SST anomalies over the TPO. Further analysis indicates that, while the SST forcing from the TPO contributes to the anomalously positive Pacific North America (PNA) pattern in the troposphere and the enhancement of the stationary wavenumber (WN)-1 in the stratosphere during warm ENSO, the TIO SST forcing is to induce an anomalously negative PNA and a reduction of both WN-1 and WN-2 in the stratosphere. Diagnosis of E-P flux confirms that, the anomalously upward propagation of stationary waves in the extratropics mainly lies over the western coast of North America during warm ENSO, which is mainly associated with the TPO-induced positive PNA response and is partially suppressed by the effect of the accompanying TIO SST forcing.

  8. Contamination in Fractured-Rock Aquifers - Research at the former Naval Air Warfare Center, West Trenton, New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goode, Daniel J.; Tiedeman, Claire R.; Lacombe, Pierre J.; Imbrigiotta, Thomas E.; Shapiro, Allen M.; Chapelle, Francis H.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and cooperators are studying chlorinated solvents in a fractured sedimentary rock aquifer underlying the former Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC), West Trenton, New Jersey. Fractured-rock aquifers are common in many parts of the United States and are highly susceptible to contamination, particularly at industrial sites. Compared to 'unconsolidated' aquifers, there can be much more uncertainty about the direction and rate of contaminant migration and about the processes and factors that control chemical and microbial transformations of contaminants. Research at the NAWC is improving understanding of the transport and fate of chlorinated solvents in fractured-rock aquifers and will compare the effectiveness of different strategies for contaminant remediation.

  9. The Conference Proceedings of the 1998 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG) of the WCTR Society. Volume 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D. (Editor); Oum, Tae Hoon (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    The Air Transport Research Group of the WCTR Society was formally launched as a special interest group at the 7h Triennial WCTR in Sydney, Australia in 1995. Since then, our membership base has expanded rapidly, and now includes over 400 active transportation researchers, policy-makers, industry executives, major corporations and research institutes from 28 countries. It became a tradition that the ATRG would hold an international conference at least once a year. In 1998, the ATRG organized a consecutive stream of 14 aviation sessions at the 8th Triennial WCTR Conference (July 12-17: Antwerp). Again, on 19-21 July, 1998, the ATRG Symposium was organized and executed every successfully by Dr. Aisling Reynolds-Feighan of the University College of Dublin. The Aviation Institute at the University of Nebraska at Omaha has published the Proceedings of the 1998 ATRG Dublin Symposium (being co-edited by Dr. Aisling Reynolds-Feighan and Professor Brent Bowen), and the Proceedings of the 1998 WCTR- ATRG Conference (being co-edited by Professors Tae H. Oum and Brent Bowen).

  10. Characteristics and popular topics of latest researches into the effects of air particulate matter on cardiovascular system by bibliometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xiaofeng; Guo, Xinbiao; Li, Haicun; An, Xinying; Zhao, Yingguang

    2013-03-01

    In recent years, many epidemiological and toxicological studies have investigated the adverse effects of air particulate matter (PM) on the cardiovascular system. However, it is difficult for the researchers to have a timely and effective overall command of the latest characteristics and popular topics in such a wide field. Different from the previous reviews, in which the research characteristics and trends are empirically concluded by experts, we try to have a comprehensive evaluation of the above topics for the first time by bibliometric analysis, a quantitative tool in information exploration. This study aims to introduce the bibliometric method into the field of PM and cardiovascular system. The articles were selected by searching PubMed/MEDLINE (from 2007 to 2012) using Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms "particulate matter" and "cardiovascular system". A total of 935 eligible articles and 1895 MeSH terms were retrieved and processed by the software Thomson Data Analyzer (TDA). The bibliographic information and the MeSH terms of these articles were classified and analyzed to summarize the research characteristics. The top 200 high-frequency MeSH terms (the cumulative frequency percentage was 74.2%) were clustered for popular-topic conclusion. We summarized the characteristics of published articles, of researcher collaborations and of the contents. Ten clusters of MeSH terms are presented. Six popular topics are concluded and elaborated for reference. Our study presents an overview of the characteristics and popular topics in the field of PM and cardiovascular system in the past five years by bibliometric tools, which may provide a new perspective for future researchers. PMID:23480197

  11. Relation between Ocean SST Dipoles and Downwind Continental Croplands Assessed for Early Management Using Satellite-based Photosynthesis Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneko, Daijiro

    2015-04-01

    Crop-monitoring systems with the unit of carbon-dioxide sequestration for environmental issues related to climate adaptation to global warming have been improved using satellite-based photosynthesis and meteorological conditions. Early management of crop status is desirable for grain production, stockbreeding, and bio-energy providing that the seasonal climate forecasting is sufficiently accurate. Incorrect seasonal forecasting of crop production can damage global social activities if the recognized conditions are unsatisfied. One cause of poor forecasting related to the atmospheric dynamics at the Earth surface, which reflect the energy budget through land surface, especially the oceans and atmosphere. Recognition of the relation between SST anomalies (e.g. ENSO, Atlantic Niño, Indian dipoles, and Ningaloo Niño) and crop production, as expressed precisely by photosynthesis or the sequestrated-carbon rate, is necessary to elucidate the mechanisms related to poor production. Solar radiation, surface air temperature, and water stress all directly affect grain vegetation photosynthesis. All affect stomata opening, which is related to the water balance or definition by the ratio of the Penman potential evaporation and actual transpiration. Regarding stomata, present data and reanalysis data give overestimated values of stomata opening because they are extended from wet models in forests rather than semi-arid regions commonly associated with wheat, maize, and soybean. This study applies a complementary model based on energy conservation for semi-arid zones instead of the conventional Penman-Monteith method. Partitioning of the integrated Net PSN enables precise estimation of crop yields by modifying the semi-closed stomata opening. Partitioning predicts production more accurately using the cropland distribution already classified using satellite data. Seasonal crop forecasting should include near-real-time monitoring using satellite-based process crop models to avoid

  12. Impacts of SST Warming in tropical Indian Ocean on CMIP5 model-projected summer rainfall changes over Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yong; Zhang, Huqiang

    2016-05-01

    Based on the historical and RCP8.5 experiments from 25 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) models, the impacts of sea surface temperature (SST) warming in the tropical Indian Ocean (IO) on the projected change in summer rainfall over Central Asia (CA) are investigated. The analysis is designed to answer three questions: (1) Can CMIP5 models reproduce the observed influence of the IO sea surface temperatures (SSTs) on the CA rainfall variations and the associated dynamical processes? (2) How well do the models agree on their projected rainfall changes over CA under warmed climate? (3) How much of the uncertainty in such rainfall projections is due to different impacts of IO SSTs in these models? The historical experiments show that in most models summer rainfall over CA are positively correlated to the SSTs in the IO. Furthermore, for models with higher rainfall-SSTs correlations, the dynamical processes accountable for such impacts are much closer to what have been revealed in observational data: warmer SSTs tend to favor the development of anti-cyclonic circulation patterns at low troposphere over north and northwest of the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. These anomalous circulation patterns correspond to significantly enhanced southerly flow which carries warm and moisture air mass from the IO region up to the northeast. At the same time, there is a cyclonic flow over the central and eastern part of the CA which further brings the tropical moisture into the CA and provides essential moist conditions for its rainfall generation. In the second half of twenty-first century, although all the 25 models simulate warmed SSTs, significant uncertainty exists in their projected rainfall changes over CA: half of them suggest summer rainfall increases, but the other half project rainfall decreases. However, when we select seven models out of the 25 based on their skills in capturing the dynamical processes as observed, then the model projected changes

  13. Evaluation of a seven-year air quality simulation using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF)/Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) models in the eastern United States.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongliang; Chen, Gang; Hu, Jianlin; Chen, Shu-Hua; Wiedinmyer, Christine; Kleeman, Michael; Ying, Qi

    2014-03-01

    The performance of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF)/Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) system in the eastern United States is analyzed based on results from a seven-year modeling study with a 4-km spatial resolution. For 2-m temperature, the monthly averaged mean bias (MB) and gross error (GE) values are generally within the recommended performance criteria, although temperature is over-predicted with MB values up to 2K. Water vapor at 2-m is well-predicted but significant biases (>2 g kg(-1)) were observed in wintertime. Predictions for wind speed are satisfactory but biased towards over-prediction with 0

  14. Compendium of selected references on air emissions; health, risk, and valuation research; and environmental externalities

    SciTech Connect

    Szpunar, C.B.

    1992-07-01

    In preparing to develop a cost-benefit methodology that could be applied to potential projects abroad involving new coal-fired power plants that make use of US clean coal technologies, the author reviewed a wide variety of reference sources. These are listed in this publication. Before this review, the author had conducted a number of literature searches that identified source material in the newly rediscovered field of environmental externalities and related topics that might also be of value to other energy and environmental researchers. Those sources that appeared to be appropriate but that the author was unable to review are also listed in this document. Thus, this document serves as a comprehensive compendium of source material on these subjects, arranged alphabetically within categories.

  15. Effects of Air Pollutants on Lichens of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory National Environmental Research Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marty, R. C.; Forman, A.; Crawford, R.; Tyler, T.

    2001-12-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is a (2300 square km) National Environmental Research Park that has been used for research and operational support of nuclear power. The Park includes scattered industrial operations and provides an ideal setting to study effects of industry on semi-arid environments. One of the facilities on the Research Park is the Idaho Nuclear Technology Center (INTEC). This facility reprocessed spent nuclear fuel from the US Navy, and its operations included heating acidic solutions to convert wastes to a solid form. The conversion released nitrogen oxides, low levels of other gases (including HF), and small amounts of solid particles through a facility stack. A fossil-fuel power plant also contributed airborne contaminants including sulfur dioxide. A 1985 study identified the effects of INTEC operations on the health of lichens Xanthoria polycarpa (quantified using electrolyte leakage), on levels of trace metals in the lichens X. polycarpa and Rhizoplaca melanophthalma, and on the levels of trace metals in higher plants and soils. The study concluded that operations impacted the physiological health of X. polycarpa southwest of the plant, and that lead was significantly higher downwind of the plant relative to other locations. Effects of the plant were re-examined in 1999 as part of an Environmental Impact Statement to evaluate the environmental effects of measures available to deal with radioactive waste at INTEC. Sulfur dioxide emissions from the facility decreased from approximately 375 tonsyear to approximately 10 tonsyear between the two studies. The re-examination of lichens showed that the measure of physiological health used in the previous study (conductivity of rinsates collected from lichen thalli) correlated well to the levels of potassium measured in rinsates collected from thalli. There, however, was no correlation between the levels of potassium/conductivity of such rinsates and the levels of total

  16. Comparison of the Vector Magnetograms taken with the SFT/MTK and the SST/KSW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagino, M.; Nakatani, Y.; Ishii, T. T.; Hanaoka, Y.; Sakurai, T.; Hiei, E.; Suzuki, D.

    2009-06-01

    We carried out a detailed comparison between the vector magnetograms obtained with the Solar Flare Telescope (SFT/MTK) of the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan and those obtained with the Sextuple Solar Telescope (SST/KSW) of the Kawaguchi Science Museum (the former name is the Kawaguchi Science World). We investigated various characteristics of the errors in the Stokes parameters for each instrument. The level of noise due to seeing effects in the SST/KSW magnetograms is higher than in the SFT/MTK magnetograms. On the other hand, we found that about 60% of the data pixels have the same sign of current helicity α in these magnetograms. We will discuss the possibility and limitations of the magnetic field studies using these magnetograms.

  17. DigiCam: fully digital compact camera for SST-1M telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, J. A.; Bilnik, W.; Bogacz, L.; Bulik, T.; Christov, A.; della Volpe, D.; Dyrda, M.; Frankowski, A.; Grudzinska, M.; Grygorczuk, J.; Heller, M.; Idźkowski, B.; Janiak, M.; Jamrozy, M.; Karczewski, M.; Kasperek, J.; Lyard, E.; Marszałek, A.; Michałowski, J.; Moderski, R.; Montaruli, T.; Neronov, A.; Nicolau-Kukliński, J.; Niemiec, J.; Ostrowski, M.; Paśko, P.; Płatos, Ł.; Prandini, E.; Pruchniewicz, R.; Rafalski, J.; Rajda, P. J.; Rameez, M.; Rataj, M.; Rupiński, M.; Rutkowski, K.; Seweryn, K.; Sidz, M.; Stawarz, Ł.; Stodulska, M.; Stodulski, M.; Tokarz, M.; Toscano, S.; Troyano Pujadas, I.; Walter, R.; Wawer, P.; Wawrzaszek, R.; Wiśniewski, L.; Zietara, K.; Ziółkowski, P.; Żychowski, P.

    2014-08-01

    The single mirror Small Size Telescopes (SST-1M), being built by a sub-consortium of Polish and Swiss Institutions of the CTA Consortium, will be equipped with a fully digital camera with a compact photodetector plane based on silicon photomultipliers. The internal trigger signal transmission overhead will be kept at low level by introducing a high level of integration. It will be achieved by massively deploying state-of-the-art multi-gigabit transceivers, beginning from the ADC flash converters, through the internal data and trigger signals transmission over backplanes and cables, to the camera's server 10Gb/s Ethernet links. Such approach will allow fitting the size and weight of the camera exactly to the SST-1M needs, still retaining the flexibility of a fully digital design. Such solution has low power consumption, high reliability and long lifetime. The concept of the camera will be described, along with some construction details and performance results.

  18. Probing the earth's gravity field using Satellite-to-Satellite Tracking (SST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonbun, F. O.

    1976-01-01

    Satellite-to-Satellite (SST) tests, namely: (a) the ATS-6/GEOS-3 and (b) the ATS-6/Apollo-Soyuz experiment and some of the results obtained are described. The main purpose of these two experiments was first to track via ATS-6 the GEOS-3 as well as the Apollo-Soyuz and to use these tracking data to determine (a) both orbits, that is, ATS-6, GEOS-3 and/or the Apollo-Soyuz orbits at the same time; (b) each of these orbits alone; and (c) test the ATS-6/GEOS-3 and/or Apollo-Soyuz SST link to study local gravity anomalies; and, second, to test communications, command, and data transmission from the ground via ATS-6 to these spacecraft and back again to the ground. The Apollo-Soyuz Geodynamics Experiment is discussed in some detail.

  19. Creation of the BMA ensemble for SST using a parallel processing technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kwangjin; Lee, Yang Won

    2013-10-01

    Despite the same purpose, each satellite product has different value because of its inescapable uncertainty. Also the satellite products have been calculated for a long time, and the kinds of the products are various and enormous. So the efforts for reducing the uncertainty and dealing with enormous data will be necessary. In this paper, we create an ensemble Sea Surface Temperature (SST) using MODIS Aqua, MODIS Terra and COMS (Communication Ocean and Meteorological Satellite). We used Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA) as ensemble method. The principle of the BMA is synthesizing the conditional probability density function (PDF) using posterior probability as weight. The posterior probability is estimated using EM algorithm. The BMA PDF is obtained by weighted average. As the result, the ensemble SST showed the lowest RMSE and MAE, which proves the applicability of BMA for satellite data ensemble. As future work, parallel processing techniques using Hadoop framework will be adopted for more efficient computation of very big satellite data.

  20. The Uncertainty of Long-term Linear Trend in Global SST Due to Internal Variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian, Tao

    2016-04-01

    In most parts of the global ocean, the magnitude of the long-term linear trend in sea surface temperature (SST) is much smaller than the amplitude of local multi-scale internal variation. One can thus use the record of a specified period to arbitrarily determine the value and the sign of the long-term linear trend in regional SST, and further leading to controversial conclusions on how global SST responds to global warming in the recent history. Analyzing the linear trend coefficient estimated by the ordinary least-square method indicates that the linear trend consists of two parts: One related to the long-term change, and the other related to the multi-scale internal variation. The sign of the long-term change can be correctly reproduced only when the magnitude of the linear trend coefficient is greater than a theoretical threshold which scales the influence from the multi-scale internal variation. Otherwise, the sign of the linear trend coefficient will depend on the phase of the internal variation, or in the other words, the period being used. An improved least-square method is then proposed to reduce the theoretical threshold. When apply the new method to a global SST reconstruction from 1881 to 2013, we find that in a large part of Pacific, the southern Indian Ocean and North Atlantic, the influence from the multi-scale internal variation on the sign of the linear trend coefficient can-not be excluded. Therefore, the resulting warming or/and cooling linear trends in these regions can-not be fully assigned to global warming.