Science.gov

Sample records for air taxi service

  1. 49 CFR 37.29 - Private entities providing taxi service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Private entities providing taxi service. 37.29 Section 37.29 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Applicability § 37.29 Private entities providing taxi service. (a) Providers of taxi service are subject to...

  2. 49 CFR 37.29 - Private entities providing taxi service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Private entities providing taxi service. 37.29... INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Applicability § 37.29 Private entities providing taxi service. (a) Providers of taxi service are subject to the requirements of this part for private entities...

  3. 49 CFR 37.29 - Private entities providing taxi service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... accessible vehicles in its fleet. (c) Private entities providing taxi service shall not discriminate against... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Private entities providing taxi service. 37.29... INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Applicability § 37.29 Private entities providing taxi service....

  4. 49 CFR 37.29 - Private entities providing taxi service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... accessible vehicles in its fleet. (c) Private entities providing taxi service shall not discriminate against... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Private entities providing taxi service. 37.29... INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Applicability § 37.29 Private entities providing taxi service....

  5. 49 CFR 37.29 - Private entities providing taxi service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... accessible vehicles in its fleet. (c) Private entities providing taxi service shall not discriminate against... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Private entities providing taxi service. 37.29... INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Applicability § 37.29 Private entities providing taxi service....

  6. 14 CFR 298.52 - Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Air taxi operations by commuter air... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS FOR AIR TAXI AND COMMUTER AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS Commuter Air Carrier Authorizations § 298.52 Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers. (a) A...

  7. 14 CFR 298.52 - Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Air taxi operations by commuter air... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS FOR AIR TAXI AND COMMUTER AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS Commuter Air Carrier Authorizations § 298.52 Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers. (a) A...

  8. 14 CFR 298.52 - Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Air taxi operations by commuter air... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS FOR AIR TAXI AND COMMUTER AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS Commuter Air Carrier Authorizations § 298.52 Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers. (a) A...

  9. 14 CFR 298.52 - Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Air taxi operations by commuter air... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS FOR AIR TAXI AND COMMUTER AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS Commuter Air Carrier Authorizations § 298.52 Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers. (a) A...

  10. 14 CFR 298.52 - Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air taxi operations by commuter air... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS FOR AIR TAXI AND COMMUTER AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS Commuter Air Carrier Authorizations § 298.52 Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers. (a) A...

  11. 14 CFR 294.3 - General requirements for Canadian charter air taxi operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... air taxi operators. 294.3 Section 294.3 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS CANADIAN CHARTER AIR TAXI OPERATORS General § 294.3 General requirements for Canadian charter air taxi operators. A Canadian charter air taxi operator...

  12. Pilot Age and Error in Air-Taxi Crashes

    PubMed Central

    Rebok, George W.; Qiang, Yandong; Baker, Susan P.; Li, Guohua

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The associations of pilot error with the type of flight operations and basic weather conditions are well documented. The correlation between pilot characteristics and error is less clear. This study aims to examine whether pilot age is associated with the prevalence and patterns of pilot error in air-taxi crashes. Methods Investigation reports from the National Transportation Safety Board for crashes involving non-scheduled Part 135 operations (i.e., air taxis) in the United States between 1983 and 2002 were reviewed to identify pilot error and other contributing factors. Crash circumstances and the presence and type of pilot error were analyzed in relation to pilot age using Chi-square tests. Results Of the 1751 air-taxi crashes studied, 28% resulted from mechanical failure, 25% from loss of control at landing or takeoff, 7% from visual flight rule conditions into instrument meteorological conditions, 7% from fuel starvation, 5% from taxiing, and 28% from other causes. Crashes among older pilots were more likely to occur during the daytime rather than at night and off airport than on airport. The patterns of pilot error in air-taxi crashes were similar across age groups. Of the errors identified, 27% were flawed decisions, 26% were inattentiveness, 23% mishandled aircraft kinetics, 15% mishandled wind and/or runway conditions, and 11% were others. Conclusions Pilot age is associated with crash circumstances but not with the prevalence and patterns of pilot error in air-taxi crashes. Lack of age-related differences in pilot error may be attributable to the “safe worker effect.” PMID:19601508

  13. Air Taxi at Your Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Under an exclusive agreement with Eclipse Aviation Corporation, Williams International is manufacturing the EJ22 engine, a commercial version of the NASA/Williams FJX-2, for the Eclipse 500 aircraft. The new engine, which weighs approximately 85 pounds and delivers over 770 pounds of thrust, provides a higher thrust-to-weight ratio than any commercial turbofan ever produced. Being the smallest, quietest, and lightest commercial aircraft engine currently available, the EJ22 engine makes a whole new class of twinjet light aircraft feasible.

  14. 14 CFR 298.21 - Filing for registration by air taxi operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Filing for registration by air taxi operators. 298.21 Section 298.21 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS FOR AIR TAXI AND COMMUTER AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS Registration for Exemption by Air...

  15. 77 FR 12103 - Notice of Request for Approval of a New Information Collection: Exemptions for Air Taxi Operations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-28

    ... Notice of Request for Approval of a New Information Collection: Exemptions for Air Taxi Operations AGENCY... the following collection: Exemptions for Air Taxi Operations, responsibility for which has been... air carriers known as air taxi operators and their filing of a one-page form that enables them...

  16. 14 CFR 330.29 - What information must air taxi operators submit on Form 330 (Final) and Form 330-C?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What information must air taxi operators... COMPENSATION OF AIR CARRIERS Application Procedures § 330.29 What information must air taxi operators submit on Form 330 (Final) and Form 330-C? As an air taxi operator, you must complete Form 330 (Final)...

  17. Measuring and modeling air exchange rates inside taxi cabs in Los Angeles, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Shi; Yu, Nu; Wang, Yueyan; Zhu, Yifang

    2015-12-01

    Air exchange rates (AERs) have a direct impact on traffic-related air pollutant (TRAP) levels inside vehicles. Taxi drivers are occupationally exposed to TRAP on a daily basis, yet there is limited measurement of AERs in taxi cabs. To fill this gap, AERs were quantified in 22 representative Los Angeles taxi cabs including 10 Prius, 5 Crown Victoria, 3 Camry, 3 Caravan, and 1 Uplander under realistic driving (RD) conditions. To further study the impacts of window position and ventilation settings on taxi AERs, additional tests were conducted on 14 taxis with windows closed (WC) and on the other 8 taxis with not only windows closed but also medium fan speed (WC-MFS) under outdoor air mode. Under RD conditions, the AERs in all 22 cabs had a mean of 63 h-1 with a median of 38 h-1. Similar AERs were observed under WC condition when compared to those measured under RD condition. Under WC-MFS condition, AERs were significantly increased in all taxi cabs, when compared with those measured under RD condition. A General Estimating Equation (GEE) model was developed and the modeling results showed that vehicle model was a significant factor in determining the AERs in taxi cabs under RD condition. Driving speed and car age were positively associated with AERs but not statistically significant. Overall, AERs measured in taxi cabs were much higher than typical AERs people usually encounter in indoor environments such as homes, offices, and even regular passenger vehicles.

  18. Estimate of air carrier and air taxi crash frequencies from high altitude en route flight operations

    SciTech Connect

    Sanzo, D.; Kimura, C.Y.; Prassinos, P.G.

    1996-06-03

    In estimating the frequency of an aircraft crashing into a facility, it has been found convenient to break the problem down into two broad categories. One category estimates the aircraft crash frequency due to air traffic from nearby airports, the so-called near-airport environment. The other category estimates the aircraft crash frequency onto facilities due to air traffic from airways, jet routes, and other traffic flying outside the near-airport environment The total aircraft crash frequency is the summation of the crash frequencies from each airport near the facility under evaluation and from all airways, jet routes, and other traffic near the facility of interest. This paper will examine the problems associated with the determining the aircraft crash frequencies onto facilities outside the near-airport environment. This paper will further concentrate on the estimating the risk of aircraft crashes to ground facilities due to high altitude air carrier and air taxi traffic. High altitude air carrier and air taxi traffic will be defined as all air carrier and air taxi flights above 18,000 feet Mean Sea Level (MSL).

  19. 14 CFR Appendix C to Part 330 - Forms for Air Taxi Operators

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Forms for Air Taxi Operators C Appendix C to Part 330 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS PROCEDURES FOR COMPENSATION OF AIR CARRIERS Pt. 330, App. C Appendix C...

  20. 76 FR 65769 - Application of Friendship Airways, Inc. d/b/a Yellow Air Taxi for Commuter Authority

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Application of Friendship Airways, Inc. d/b/a Yellow Air Taxi for Commuter... Airways, Inc. d/b/a Yellow Air Taxi and deny its application to resume commuter operations, pursuant to...

  1. The Effects of Very Light Jet Air Taxi Operations on Commercial Air Traffic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jeremy C.; Dollyhigh, Samuel M.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates the potential effects of Very Light Jet (VLJ) air taxi operations adding to delays experienced by commercial passenger air transportation in the year 2025. The affordable cost relative to existing business jets and ability to use many of the existing small, minimally equipped, but conveniently located airports is projected to stimulate a large demand for the aircraft. The resulting increase in air traffic operations will mainly be at smaller airports, but this study indicates that VLJs have the potential to increase further the pressure of demand at some medium and large airports, some of which are already operating at or near capacity at peak times. The additional delays to commercial passenger air transportation due to VLJ air taxi operations are obtained from simulation results using the Airspace Concepts Evaluation System (ACES) simulator. The direct increase in operating cost due to additional delays is estimated. VLJs will also cause an increase in traffic density, and this study shows increased potential for conflicts due to VLJ operations.

  2. Acceptability testing of radioluminescent lights for VFR-night air taxi operations

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, G.A.

    1985-01-01

    Tritium-powered radioluminescent (RL) lights have been under development for remote, austere, and tactical airfield lighting applications. The State of Alaska has requested FAA approval for use of the technology as a safe alternative lighting system to meet the airfield lighting needs of air taxi operations and general aviation in the state. The tests described in this report were performed by PNL for the DOE Defense Byproducts Production and Utilization Program. These tests are a step toward gaining the required approvals.

  3. Understanding taxi travel patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Hua; Zhan, Xiaowei; Zhu, Ji; Jia, Xiaoping; Chiu, Anthony S. F.; Xu, Ming

    2016-09-01

    Taxis play important roles in modern urban transportation systems, especially in mega cities. While providing necessary amenities, taxis also significantly contribute to traffic congestion, urban energy consumption, and air pollution. Understanding the travel patterns of taxis is thus important for addressing many urban sustainability challenges. Previous research has primarily focused on examining the statistical properties of passenger trips, which include only taxi trips occupied with passengers. However, unoccupied trips are also important for urban sustainability issues because they represent potential opportunities to improve the efficiency of the transportation system. Therefore, we need to understand the travel patterns of taxis as an integrated system, instead of focusing only on the occupied trips. In this study we examine GPS trajectory data of 11,880 taxis in Beijing, China for a period of three weeks. Our results show that taxi travel patterns share similar traits with travel patterns of individuals but also exhibit differences. Trip displacement distribution of taxi travels is statistically greater than the exponential distribution and smaller than the truncated power-law distribution. The distribution of short trips (less than 30 miles) can be best fitted with power-law while long trips follow exponential decay. We use radius of gyration to characterize individual taxi's travel distance and find that it does not follow a truncated power-law as observed in previous studies. Spatial and temporal regularities exist in taxi travels. However, with increasing spatial coverage, taxi trips can exhibit dual high probability density centers.

  4. Biomarkers of occupational exposure to air pollution, inflammation and oxidative damage in taxi drivers.

    PubMed

    Brucker, Natália; Moro, Angela M; Charão, Mariele F; Durgante, Juliano; Freitas, Fernando; Baierle, Marília; Nascimento, Sabrina; Gauer, Bruna; Bulcão, Rachel P; Bubols, Guilherme B; Ferrari, Pedro D; Thiesen, Flávia V; Gioda, Adriana; Duarte, Marta M M F; de Castro, Iran; Saldiva, Paulo H; Garcia, Solange C

    2013-10-01

    Exposure to environmental pollutants has been recognised as a risk factor for cardiovascular events. 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) is a biomarker of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from traffic-related air pollution. Experimental studies indicate that PAH exposure could be associated with inflammation and atherogenesis. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the biomarker of PAH exposure is associated with biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress and if these effects modulate the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases in workers exposed to air pollution. This study included 60 subjects, comprising 39 taxi drivers and 21 non-occupationally exposed persons. Environmental PM2.5 and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) levels, in addition to biomarkers of exposure and oxidative damage, were determined. Inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, IFN-γ and hs-CRP) and serum levels of oxidised LDL (ox-LDL), auto-antibodies (ox-LDL-Ab) and homocysteine (Hcy) were also evaluated. PM2.5 and BaP exhibited averages of 12.4±6.9 μg m(-3) and 1.0±0.6 ng m(-3), respectively. Urinary 1-OHP levels were increased in taxi drivers compared to the non-occupationally exposed subjects (p<0.05) and were positively correlated with pro-inflammatory cytokines and negatively correlated with antioxidants. Furthermore, taxi drivers had elevated pro-inflammatory cytokines, biomarkers of oxidative damage, and ox-LDL, ox-LDL-Ab and Hcy levels, although antioxidant enzymes were decreased compared to the non-occupationally exposed subjects (p<0.05). In summary, our findings indicate that taxi drivers showed major exposure to pollutants, such as PAHs, in relation to non-occupationally exposed subjects. This finding was associated with higher inflammatory biomarkers and Hcy, which represent important predictors for cardiovascular events. These data suggest a contribution of PAHs to cardiovascular diseases upon occupational exposure. PMID:23872245

  5. Atherosclerotic process in taxi drivers occupationally exposed to air pollution and co-morbidities.

    PubMed

    Brucker, Natália; Charão, Mariele F; Moro, Angela M; Ferrari, Pedro; Bubols, Guilherme; Sauer, Elisa; Fracasso, Rafael; Durgante, Juliano; Thiesen, Flávia V; Duarte, Marta M; Gioda, Adriana; Castro, Iran; Saldiva, Paulo H; Garcia, Solange C

    2014-05-01

    Consistent evidence has indicated that the exposure to environmental air pollution increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. This study aimed to evaluate the possible effects of occupational exposure to air pollution, especially to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and the influence of co-morbidities on the atherosclerotic process and inflammation. For that, biomarkers of exposure such as 1-hydroxypyrene urinary, oxidative damage and markers of cardiovascular risk were determined in plasma, serum and blood. In addition, inflammation models such as carotid intima-media thickness and serum inflammatory cytokines were analyzed in 58 taxi drivers with and without co-morbidity. The results demonstrated that considering only taxi drivers without co-morbidities, 15% presented carotid intima-media thickness above reference values. For the first time it has been demonstrated that urinary 1-hydroxypyrene levels were associated with carotid intima-media thickness and with serum homocysteine levels. The multiple linear regression analysis showed that several factors may contribute to the increased carotid intima-media thickness, among which age, interleukin-6, fibrinogen and exposure to PAHs stand out. In summary, our results suggest that chronic occupational exposure to atmospheric pollution could be an additional contributor to the atherogenesis process, leading to impaired vascular health. Moreover, carotid intima-media thickness, serum homocysteine levels, fibrinogen and the total cholesterol/HDL-c ratio could be suggested as preventive measures to monitor drivers' health. PMID:24637182

  6. 14 CFR 294.30 - Scope of service and equipment authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS CANADIAN CHARTER AIR TAXI OPERATORS General Rules for... air service, and the exemption provided by this part to Canadian charter air taxi operators that... charter air taxi operator shall not use large aircraft for charter air service until it has been granted...

  7. 41 CFR 301-10.421 - How much will my agency reimburse me for a tip to a taxi, shuttle service, or courtesy...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How much will my agency reimburse me for a tip to a taxi, shuttle service, or courtesy transportation driver? 301-10.421 Section 301... tip to a taxi, shuttle service, or courtesy transportation driver? An amount which your...

  8. 41 CFR 301-10.421 - How much will my agency reimburse me for a tip to a taxi, shuttle service, or courtesy...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How much will my agency reimburse me for a tip to a taxi, shuttle service, or courtesy transportation driver? 301-10.421 Section 301... tip to a taxi, shuttle service, or courtesy transportation driver? An amount which your...

  9. 41 CFR 301-10.421 - How much will my agency reimburse me for a tip to a taxi, shuttle service, courtesy...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How much will my agency reimburse me for a tip to a taxi, shuttle service, courtesy transportation driver, or valet parking... will my agency reimburse me for a tip to a taxi, shuttle service, courtesy transportation driver,...

  10. 41 CFR 301-10.421 - How much will my agency reimburse me for a tip to a taxi, shuttle service, courtesy...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How much will my agency reimburse me for a tip to a taxi, shuttle service, courtesy transportation driver, or valet parking... will my agency reimburse me for a tip to a taxi, shuttle service, courtesy transportation driver,...

  11. 41 CFR 301-10.421 - How much will my agency reimburse me for a tip to a taxi, shuttle service, courtesy...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true How much will my agency reimburse me for a tip to a taxi, shuttle service, courtesy transportation driver, or valet parking... will my agency reimburse me for a tip to a taxi, shuttle service, courtesy transportation driver,...

  12. 41 CFR 301-10.420 - When may I use a taxi, shuttle service or other courtesy transportation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of official travel are reimbursable for the usual fare plus tip for use of a taxi, shuttle service or.... (i) From your residence or other authorized point of departure, e.g., residence to airport; (ii) To your residence or other authorized point of return, e.g., airport to residence; (iii) From...

  13. 41 CFR 301-10.420 - When may I use a taxi, shuttle service or other courtesy transportation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of official travel are reimbursable for the usual fare plus tip for use of a taxi, shuttle service or.... (i) From your residence or other authorized point of departure, e.g., residence to airport; (ii) To your residence or other authorized point of return, e.g., airport to residence; (iii) From...

  14. 41 CFR 301-10.420 - When may I use a taxi, shuttle service or other courtesy transportation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false When may I use a taxi, shuttle service or other courtesy transportation? 301-10.420 Section 301-10.420 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES 10-TRANSPORTATION...

  15. Hearing Deficit in a Birth Cohort of U.S. Male Commuter Air Carrier and Air Taxi Pilots

    PubMed Central

    Qiang, Yandong; Rebok, George W.; Baker, Susan P.; Li, Guohua

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Long-term exposure to multiple risk factors in aviation may place pilots at excess risk of developing hearing deficits. We examined the incidence and risk factors for hearing deficit in a birth cohort of male commuter and air taxi pilots. Methods The subjects (N = 3019), who were 45–54 yr of age and held Class I medical certificates in 1987, were followed up from 1987 to 1997 through the medical certification system of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). In this study, hearing deficit refers to the FAA pathology code 220 (defective hearing, deafness, not elsewhere classified). Poisson regression modeling based on generalized estimation equations was used to assess the associations between pilot characteristics and the risk of developing hearing deficit. Results The 10-yr follow-up accumulated a total of 20,671 person-years and 574 incident cases of hearing deficit, yielding an incidence rate of 27.8 per 1000 person-years. Compared with age 45–49 yr, the risk of developing hearing deficit at age 50–54 yr, 55–59 yr, and 60–64 yr increased by 12% [adjusted relative risk (RR) 1.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.98–1.30], 34% (RR 1.34, 95% CI 1.13–1.59), and 79% (RR 1.79, 95% CI 1.20–2.67), respectively. Conclusions Hearing deficit is prevalent among commuter air carrier and air taxi pilots and the risk of hearing deficit increases progressively with pilot age. Effective programs for preventing excess hearing loss in the pilot population are warranted. PMID:18998487

  16. Association of Heart Rate Variability in Taxi Drivers with Marked Changes in Particulate Air Pollution in Beijing in 2008

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shaowei; Deng, Furong; Niu, Jie; Huang, Qinsheng; Liu, Youcheng; Guo, Xinbiao

    2010-01-01

    Background Heart rate variability (HRV), a marker of cardiac autonomic function, has been associated with particulate matter (PM) air pollution, especially in older patients and those with cardiovascular diseases. However, the effect of PM exposure on cardiac autonomic function in young, healthy adults has received less attention. Objectives We evaluated the relationship between exposure to traffic-related PM with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5) and HRV in a highly exposed panel of taxi drivers. Methods Continuous measurements of personal exposure to PM2.5 and ambulatory electrocardiogram monitoring were conducted on 11 young healthy taxi drivers for a 12-hr work shift during their work time (0900–2100 hr) before, during, and after the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games. Mixed-effects regression models were used to estimate associations between PM2.5 exposure and percent changes in 5-min HRV indices after combining data from the three time periods and controlling for potentially confounding variables. Results Personal exposures of taxi drivers to PM2.5 changed markedly across the three time periods. The standard deviation of normal-to-normal (SDNN) intervals decreased by 2.2% [95% confidence interval (CI), −3.8% to −0.6%] with an interquartile range (IQR; 69.5 μg/m3) increase in the 30-min PM2.5 moving average, whereas the low-frequency and high-frequency powers decreased by 4.2% (95% CI, −9.0% to 0.8%) and 6.2% (95% CI, −10.7% to −1.5%), respectively, in association with an IQR increase in the 2-hr PM2.5 moving average. Conclusions Marked changes in traffic-related PM2.5 exposure were associated with altered cardiac autonomic function in young healthy adults. PMID:20056565

  17. The Effects of Projected Future Demand Including Very Light Jet Air-Taxi Operations on U.S. National Airspace System Delays as a Function of Next Generation Air Transportation System Airspace Capacity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jerry; Viken, Jeff; Dollyhigh, Samuel; Trani, Antonio; Baik, Hojong; Hinze, Nicholas; Ashiabor, Senanu

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results from a study which investigates the potential effects of the growth in air traffic demand including projected Very Light Jet (VLJ) air-taxi operations adding to delays experienced by commercial passenger air transportation in the year 2025. The geographic region studied is the contiguous United States (U.S.) of America, although international air traffic to and from the U.S. is included. The main focus of this paper is to determine how much air traffic growth, including VLJ air-taxi operations will add to enroute airspace congestion and determine what additional airspace capacity will be needed to accommodate the expected demand. Terminal airspace is not modeled and increased airport capacity is assumed.

  18. Perseus Taxi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Perseus proof-of-concept vehicle is seen here as it taxis on Rogers Dry Lake, adjacent the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus B is a remotely piloted aircraft developed as a design-performance testbed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Perseus is one of several flight vehicles involved in the ERAST project. A piston engine, propeller-powered aircraft, Perseus was designed and built by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia. The objectives of Perseus B's ERAST flight tests have been to reach and maintain horizontal flight above altitudes of 60,000 feet and demonstrate the capability to fly missions lasting from 8 to 24 hours, depending on payload and altitude requirements. The Perseus B aircraft established an unofficial altitude record for a single-engine, propeller-driven, remotely piloted aircraft on June 27, 1998. It reached an altitude of 60,280 feet. In 1999, several modifications were made to the Perseus aircraft including engine, avionics, and flight-control-system improvements. These improvements were evaluated in a series of operational readiness and test missions at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus is a high-wing monoplane with a conventional tail design. Its narrow, straight, high-aspect-ratio wing is mounted atop the fuselage. The aircraft is pusher-designed with the propeller mounted in the rear. This design allows for interchangeable scientific-instrument payloads to be placed in the forward fuselage. The design also allows for unobstructed airflow to the sensors and other devices mounted in the payload compartment. The Perseus B that underwent test and development in 1999 was the third generation of the Perseus design, which began with the Perseus Proof-Of-Concept aircraft. Perseus was initially developed as part of NASA's Small High-Altitude Science Aircraft (SHASA) program, which later evolved into the ERAST project. The

  19. Ag-Air Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Econ, Inc.'s agricultural aerial application, "ag-air," involves more than 10,000 aircraft spreading insecticides, herbicides, fertilizer, seed and other materials over millions of acres of farmland. Difficult for an operator to estimate costs accurately and decide what to charge or which airplane can handle which assignment most efficiently. Computerized service was designed to improve business efficiency in choice of aircraft and determination of charge rates based on realistic operating cost data. Each subscriber fills out a detailed form which pertains to his needs and then receives a custom-tailored computer printout best suited to his particular business mix.

  20. Taxi-Aware Map: Identifying and Predicting Vacant Taxis in the City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phithakkitnukoon, Santi; Veloso, Marco; Bento, Carlos; Biderman, Assaf; Ratti, Carlo

    Knowing where vacant taxis are and will be at a given time and location helps the users in daily planning and scheduling, as well as the taxi service providers in dispatching. In this paper, we present a predictive model for the number of vacant taxis in a given area based on time of the day, day of the week, and weather condition. The history is used to build the prior probability distributions for our inference engine, which is based on the naïve Bayesian classifier with developed error-based learning algorithm and method for detecting adequacy of historical data using mutual information. Based on 150 taxis in Lisbon, Portugal, we are able to predict for each hour with the overall error rate of 0.8 taxis per 1x1 km2 area.

  1. Taxi, Jitneys and Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbloom, Sandi

    1970-01-01

    Version of the paper given at The Transportation and Poverty Conference of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Argues for revival of jitneys (12-14 capacity motor vehicles, operating on fixed routes, fares zone-rated) to serve ghetto residents and provide employment, too. Taxi company competition also discussed. (KG)

  2. 41 CFR 301-10.420 - When may I use a taxi, shuttle service or other courtesy transportation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... service furnished by hotels/motels to the maximum extent possible as a first source of transportation... provided by hotels/motels between the place of lodging at the TDY station and the common carrier terminal....

  3. 41 CFR 301-10.420 - When may I use a taxi, shuttle service or other courtesy transportation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... service furnished by hotels/motels to the maximum extent possible as a first source of transportation... provided by hotels/motels between the place of lodging at the TDY station and the common carrier terminal....

  4. Paresev on Taxi Strip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    Test pilot Milton Thompson sitting in NASA Flight Research Center-built Paresev 1 (Paraglider Research Vehicle) on the taxi strip in front of the NASA Flight Research Center in 1962. In this photo the control stick can be seen coming from overhead and hanging in front of the pilot. The control system was a direct link with the wing membrane made of doped Irish linen. By maintaining simplicity during construction, it was possible to make control and configuration changes overnight and, in many instances, in minutes.

  5. 14 CFR 298.37 - Prohibition of services not covered by insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS FOR AIR TAXI AND COMMUTER AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS... insurance. An air taxi operator or commuter air carrier shall not operate in air transportation or...

  6. A study of commuter air service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belina, F. W.; Bush, L. R.

    1977-01-01

    A regionally oriented overview of the commuter air service industry is provided. A framework for an eventual assessment of potential technology directions that may be of benefit to the industry is presented. Data are provided on the industry's market characteristics, service patterns, patronage characteristics, aircraft and airport needs, economic characteristics and institutional issues. Using personal interview and literature survey methods, investigation of a considerable cross-section of the industry was made.

  7. Taxi 'sugar daddies' and taxi queens: male taxi driver attitudes regarding transactional relationships in the Western Cape, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Potgieter, Cheryl; Strebel, Anna; Shefer, Tamara; Wagner, Claire

    2012-11-01

    Media reports are emerging on the phenomenon of young girls who travel with older mini-bus taxi drivers, and who are thought to have sex with the drivers in exchange for gifts and money. The extent to which such relationships might facilitate unsafe sexual practices and increased risks for both the men and the young women, often referred to as taxi queens, remains an important question in the light of the current challenges of HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa. However, very little research has been undertaken on this issue, especially regarding the perceptions and experiences of taxi drivers. Thus this paper aims to provide some preliminary findings on taxi drivers' attitudes and beliefs about taxi queens and their relationships with taxi drivers. A 22-item questionnaire was administered to 223 male taxi drivers in two regions in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. Taxi drivers in this study largely saw the relationship between taxi drivers and the young girls who ride with them as providing status for both the girls and drivers, and there seemed to be recognition of the transactional nature of the relationship between taxi drivers and taxi queens. The stigmatisation of young girls who ride with taxi drivers was evident. Drivers had knowledge and awareness of the risks of unsafe sex and supported condom use, although there appeared to be some uncertainty and confusion about the likelihood of HIV infection between drivers and girls. While taxi drivers recognised the role of alcohol in relationships with young girls, they seemed to deny that the abuse of drugs was common. The study highlights a number of key areas that need to be explored with men in the taxi industry, in order to address risk behaviours for both taxi drivers and the girls who ride with them. PMID:23234347

  8. 14 CFR 380.11 - Payment to direct air carrier(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... carrier(s). Except for air taxi operators and commuter air carriers (which are governed by 14 CFR 298.38) and Canadian charter air taxi operators (which are governed by 14 CFR 294.32), the direct air...

  9. 14 CFR 298.31 - Scope of service and equipment authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS FOR AIR TAXI AND COMMUTER AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS... transportation, and the exemption provided by this part to air taxi operators and commuter air carriers...

  10. [Quality revision of air ambulance services].

    PubMed

    Wisborg, T

    1999-10-20

    The 14 anaesthesiologist-manned ambulance helicopters in Norway are administratively placed under the head of the nearest anaesthetic department. Routines for quality assurance vary considerably. In 1995, a total of 6,850 patients were treated by air ambulance anaesthesiologists. An enquiry to all 14 air ambulance services revealed that approximately two thirds of all medical records were reviewed for quality assurance purposes. Only half of the reviewers based their work on written treatment procedures in addition to their own sense of good clinical practice. A review of all 162 medical records for one year at one air ambulance base indicates that a thorough review of one third of all records would identify all major areas of improvement. The selection of records has to be based on local experience concerning both patients and personnel. When areas of improvement are identified, the quality assurance process can be simplified without increasing the risk of not addressing serious problems. PMID:10574052

  11. 14 CFR 71.11 - Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes. 71.11... REPORTING POINTS § 71.11 Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes. Unless otherwise specified, the following apply: (a) An Air Traffic Service (ATS) route is based on a centerline that extends from one navigation...

  12. 14 CFR 71.11 - Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes. 71.11... REPORTING POINTS § 71.11 Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes. Unless otherwise specified, the following apply: (a) An Air Traffic Service (ATS) route is based on a centerline that extends from one navigation...

  13. 14 CFR 71.11 - Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes. 71.11... (CONTINUED) AIRSPACE DESIGNATION OF CLASS A, B, C, D, AND E AIRSPACE AREAS; AIR TRAFFIC SERVICE ROUTES; AND REPORTING POINTS § 71.11 Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes. Unless otherwise specified, the following...

  14. 14 CFR 71.11 - Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes. 71.11... (CONTINUED) AIRSPACE DESIGNATION OF CLASS A, B, C, D, AND E AIRSPACE AREAS; AIR TRAFFIC SERVICE ROUTES; AND REPORTING POINTS § 71.11 Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes. Unless otherwise specified, the following...

  15. 14 CFR 71.11 - Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes. 71.11... (CONTINUED) AIRSPACE DESIGNATION OF CLASS A, B, C, D, AND E AIRSPACE AREAS; AIR TRAFFIC SERVICE ROUTES; AND REPORTING POINTS § 71.11 Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes. Unless otherwise specified, the following...

  16. Triticum aestivum L. endoxylanase inhibitor (TAXI) consists of two inhibitors, TAXI I and TAXI II, with different specificities.

    PubMed Central

    Gebruers, K; Debyser, W; Goesaert, H; Proost, P; Van Damme J; Delcour, J A

    2001-01-01

    The Triticum aestivum L. endoxylanase inhibitor (TAXI) discovered by Debyser and Delcour [(1997) Eur. Pat. filed April 1997, published as WO 98/49278] and Debyser, Derdelinckx and Delcour [(1997) J. Am. Soc. Brew. Chem. 55, 153-156] seems to be a mixture of two different endoxylanase inhibitors, called TAXI I and TAXI II. By using Aspergillus niger as well as Bacillus subtilis endoxylanases for assaying inhibition activity, both inhibitors could be purified to homogeneity from wheat (Triticum aestivum L., var. Soissons). TAXI I and TAXI II have similar molecular structures. They both have a molecular mass of approx. 40.0 kDa, are not glycosylated and occur in two molecular forms, i.e. a non-proteolytically processed one and a proteolytically processed one. However, the pI of TAXI II (at least 9.3) is higher than that of TAXI I (8.8). TAXI I and TAXI II clearly show different inhibition activities towards different endoxylanases. The N-terminal amino acid sequences of both inhibitors show a high degree of identity, which might indicate that there is an evolutionary relationship between them. PMID:11139386

  17. Moon Taxi - A European view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacaze, J. H.; Grimard, M.; Fazi, C.; Theillier, F.

    1992-08-01

    A review is conducted of transportation concepts for relatively small transfer vehicles for earth-to-lunar orbits, lunar shuttles, and earth-return vehicles. Attention is given to the use of Ariane-5 derivatives to accomplish these tasks specifically in the areas of propellant supply, and vehicle maintenance/logistics. Launcher optimization is considered for these tasks with orbital and payload considerations taken into account. A 'lunar vicinity shuttle' is proposed that can accomplish both lunar landings and returns to lunar orbit. The combination of the vehicles is named the Moon Taxi transportation system, and a preliminary feasibility study indicates the suitability of Ariane-5 products for the mass and Isp targets. Specific technological areas critical for the Moon Taxi concept are: cryogenic propellant control, restartable 10-t-thrust engines, and capsule reentry technologies.

  18. TAXI Interface Demultiplexes Proprietarily Formatted Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newnan, Bruce G.; Ahiport, Steven F.

    2001-01-01

    The 'TAXI Direct-to-Disk' interface is a special purpose interface unit for demultiplexing of data from a Racal Storeplex (or equivalent) multichannel recorder onto one or more hard disks that reside in, and/or are controlled by, a personal computer (PC). The acronym 'TAXI' signifies transparent asynchronous transceiver interface. The TAXI interface was developed for original use in capturing data from instrumentation on a test stand in a NASA rocket testing facility. The installation of the TAXI interface, in conjunction with other modifications, causes the transfer of data to take place in real time, so that the data are immediately available for review during or after the test.

  19. 77 FR 55893 - Agency Requests for Renewal of a Previously Approved Information Collection: Exemptions for Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... known as air taxi operators that offer on-demand passenger service. The regulation exempts these small... for submitting comments. Fax: 1-202-493-2251. Mail or Hand Delivery: Docket Management Facility, U.S..., between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except on Federal holidays. FOR FURTHER...

  20. Wolves and Big Yellow Taxis: How Would Be Know If the NHS Is at Death's Door?: Comment on "Who killed the English National Health Service?".

    PubMed

    Greener, Ian

    2015-10-01

    Martin Powell suggests that the death of the English National Health Service (NHS) has been announced so many times we are at risk of not noticing should it actually happen. He is right. If we 'cry wolf' too many times, we risk losing sight of what is important about the NHS and why. PMID:26673181

  1. Assessment of the market for compressed air services

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this report is to provide a comprehensive and balanced view of the market for engineering and consulting services to improve the energy efficiency of plant compressed air systems. The report is intended for use by Compressed Air Challenge and other industrial energy efficiency program operators in developing strategies to encourage the growth of the compressed air system efficiency and enhance the quality of the services it offers.

  2. Domestic Refrigeration, Freezer, and Window Air Conditioner Service. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemons, Mark

    This curriculum guide contains six units of instruction for a course in domestic refrigerator, freezer, and window air conditioner service. The units cover the following topics: (1) service fundamentals; (2) mechanical components and functions; (3) electrical components and control devices; (4) refrigerator and freezer service; (5) domestic ice…

  3. Air Conditioning. FOS: Fundamentals of Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Employment and Training Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Office of Youth Programs.

    This manual on air conditioning is one of a series of power mechanics texts and visual aids covering theory of operation, diagnosis, and repair. Information is presented for use by vocational students and teachers as well as shop servicemen and laymen. Focus is on air conditioning systems for mobile machines, but most of the information also…

  4. Pasodoble- The GMES Downstream Service Project for Air Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erbertseder, Thilo; Pasodoble Consortium

    2010-12-01

    PASODOBLE will develop and demonstrate user- driven information services for the regional and local air quality sectors by combining space-based and in-situ data with models in the following thematic service lines: (1) Health community support, (2) Public information and assessment support, (3) Compliance monitoring support for particulate matter and (4) Local forecast model evaluation support. Continuing on the achievements of the ESA GSE PROMOTE project, PASODOBLE will stimulate the development of quality-assured air quality services by increasing the implementation efficiency of demonstrated and operational services in the future for the benefit of the European citizen.

  5. Air service to small communities, directions for the future. [conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vittek, J. F., Jr. (Editor)

    1974-01-01

    The seminar on the problems of providing air service to low and medium density points is reported. National transport policies and programs are discussed along with the technology aspects. Recommendations for ATC, CAB, and FAA are included.

  6. 106. Air defense command "master plan", base map," RCA Service ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    106. Air defense command "master plan", base map," RCA Service Company tab no. F-1, sheet 1 of 2, dated 22 October, 1965. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  7. 14 CFR 23.1383 - Taxi and landing lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Taxi and landing lights. 23.1383 Section 23... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 23.1383 Taxi and landing lights. Each taxi and landing light must be designed and installed so that: (a)...

  8. 14 CFR 23.1383 - Taxi and landing lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Taxi and landing lights. 23.1383 Section 23... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 23.1383 Taxi and landing lights. Each taxi and landing light must be designed and installed so that: (a)...

  9. 14 CFR 23.1383 - Taxi and landing lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Taxi and landing lights. 23.1383 Section 23... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 23.1383 Taxi and landing lights. Each taxi and landing light must be designed and installed so that: (a)...

  10. 14 CFR 23.1383 - Taxi and landing lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Taxi and landing lights. 23.1383 Section 23... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 23.1383 Taxi and landing lights. Each taxi and landing light must be designed and installed so that: (a)...

  11. 14 CFR 23.1383 - Taxi and landing lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Taxi and landing lights. 23.1383 Section 23... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 23.1383 Taxi and landing lights. Each taxi and landing light must be designed and installed so that: (a)...

  12. Assessment and Improvement of Related Services (AIRS) Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClelland, Robert A.; Hirata, Glenn T.

    The document presents the final report of the Assessment and Improvement of Related Services (AIRS) Project, an effort to assess the impact and effectiveness of special education related services in Hawaii. Each of the four project objectives focused on accomplishment of one of the evaluation types specified in the Context-Input-Process-Product…

  13. Heating and Air Conditioning Specialist. Teacher Edition. Automotive Service Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This instructor's guide contains materials for teaching the heating and air conditioning specialist component of a competency-based instructional program for students preparing for employment in the automotive service trade. It is based on the National Institute of Automotive Service Excellence task lists. The six instructional units presented…

  14. Fine particle concentrations in buses and taxis in Florence, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fondelli, M. Cristina; Chellini, Elisabetta; Yli-Tuomi, Tarja; Cenni, Isabella; Gasparrini, Antonio; Nava, Silvia; Garcia-Orellana, Isabel; Lupi, Andrea; Grechi, Daniele; Mallone, Sandra; Jantunen, Matti

    On October 2004, a sampling survey was carried out in Florence to estimate urban fine particle exposure concentrations inside commuting vehicles during workdays characterized by heavy traffic. Portable samplers were positioned inside four regularly scheduled diesel-powered buses and four taxis during eight weekdays. Each sampler consisted of a 2.5 μm size pre-separator cyclone, a direct-reading data logging photometer (pDR-1200), and a 4 L min -1 filter sampler for the determination of PM 2.5 mass concentration. Based on reflectance analysis measurements, a PM 2.5 Black Smoke Index was determined for each filter, and the elemental composition of the PM 2.5 was analyzed by Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). PM 2.5 mass concentrations inside the vehicles correlated well with the urban ambient air PM 2.5 concentrations measured at the fixed-site monitoring stations. The PM 2.5 excess above the urban ambient level was on average 32 μg m -3 (range: 22-52 μg m -3) and 20 μg m -3 (range: 11-29 μg m -3) in buses and taxis, respectively. The PM 2.5-bound sulfur concentration was also higher in the buses than in the taxis. Based on daily Time-Microenvironment-Activity-Diary (TMAD) data, the Florentines spend on average 9.7% of their day in traffic, and the corresponding average exposure is approximately 12% of their daily PM 2.5 personal exposure. The obtained data could be used to plan interventions to minimize the PM 2.5 citizen exposures in commuting.

  15. The Effects of Taxi on Traffic Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Tie-Qiao; Li, Yan; Huang, Hai-Jun

    Taxi will come to one complete halt during the boarding/alighting period and might produce stop-and-go without passengers, so it often produces traffic interruption on the single-lane system. Tang et al. pointed out that the traffic flow model [Chin. Phys. 18, 975 (2009)] can be used to directly describe various micro phenomena resulted by traffic interruption on the single-lane system, if we properly define the traffic interruption probability, so in this paper we adopt this model to study the micro phenomena resulted by taxi on the single-lane system. The numerical results show that this model can describe the effects that taxi has on the trails of each vehicle's motion and the evolutions of the flow and the density on the single-lane system, but that these effects are relevant to the initial conditions of the whole system.

  16. 14 CFR 272.9 - Selection of a carrier to provide essential air service and payment of compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS ESSENTIAL AIR SERVICE TO... provide the proposed essential air service; (4) The impact of the proposed service on service provided...

  17. 41 CFR 301-10.134 - What is U.S. flag air carrier service?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What is U.S. flag air... Common Carrier Transportation Use of United States Flag Air Carriers § 301-10.134 What is U.S. flag air carrier service? U.S. flag air carrier service is service provided on an air carrier which holds...

  18. 41 CFR 301-10.134 - What is U.S. flag air carrier service?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What is U.S. flag air... Common Carrier Transportation Use of United States Flag Air Carriers § 301-10.134 What is U.S. flag air carrier service? U.S. flag air carrier service is service provided on an air carrier which holds...

  19. 41 CFR 301-10.134 - What is U.S. flag air carrier service?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true What is U.S. flag air... Common Carrier Transportation Use of United States Flag Air Carriers § 301-10.134 What is U.S. flag air carrier service? U.S. flag air carrier service is service provided on an air carrier which holds...

  20. 41 CFR 301-10.134 - What is U.S. flag air carrier service?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What is U.S. flag air... Common Carrier Transportation Use of United States Flag Air Carriers § 301-10.134 What is U.S. flag air carrier service? U.S. flag air carrier service is service provided on an air carrier which holds...

  1. 41 CFR 301-10.134 - What is U.S. flag air carrier service?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is U.S. flag air... Common Carrier Transportation Use of United States Flag Air Carriers § 301-10.134 What is U.S. flag air carrier service? U.S. flag air carrier service is service provided on an air carrier which holds...

  2. 47 CFR 22.805 - Channels for general aviation air-ground service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Channels for general aviation air-ground... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service General Aviation Air-Ground Stations § 22.805 Channels for general aviation air-ground service. The following channels are...

  3. 47 CFR 22.805 - Channels for general aviation air-ground service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Channels for general aviation air-ground... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service General Aviation Air-Ground Stations § 22.805 Channels for general aviation air-ground service. The following channels are...

  4. 47 CFR 22.805 - Channels for general aviation air-ground service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Channels for general aviation air-ground... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service General Aviation Air-Ground Stations § 22.805 Channels for general aviation air-ground service. The following channels are...

  5. 47 CFR 22.805 - Channels for general aviation air-ground service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Channels for general aviation air-ground... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service General Aviation Air-Ground Stations § 22.805 Channels for general aviation air-ground service. The following channels are...

  6. 47 CFR 22.805 - Channels for general aviation air-ground service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Channels for general aviation air-ground... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service General Aviation Air-Ground Stations § 22.805 Channels for general aviation air-ground service. The following channels are...

  7. Math on the Job. Taxi Driver.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This booklet is intended to help mainstreamed mentally retarded, emotionally disturbed, or learning disabled high school students acquire a basic understanding of the responsibilities and working conditions of taxi drivers and to practice basic math skills necessary in the occupation. The first section provides a brief introduction to the…

  8. Monopoly Profits: The Market for Taxi Licenses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keane, Michael

    1981-01-01

    Presents a case study dealing with open versus closed markets for use in college economics classes. Using the example of the taxi license monopoly in Dublin, Ireland, students examine how theories of supply and demand explain the characteristics of open and closed markets. (AM)

  9. 14 CFR 27.235 - Taxiing condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Taxiing condition. 27.235 Section 27.235 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Ground and Water Handling Characteristics § 27.235...

  10. 14 CFR 25.235 - Taxiing condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Taxiing condition. 25.235 Section 25.235 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Ground and Water Handling Characteristics § 25.235...

  11. Differences in cognitive process-related skills between taxi and non-taxi drivers between 50 and 70 years old.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Kai-Hsiang; Jeng, Ming-Chang; Hsu, Chun-Chia; Doong, Ji-Liang; Lin, Chih-Yung; Lai, Ching-Huei

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated differences between 50- to 70-yr.-old taxi and non-taxi drivers with respect to cognitive process-related skills. Psychological indicators associated with perceptuomotor, attentional, and spatial memory recall abilities were collected for 173 taxi drivers (7 women, 166 men; M age = 57.5 yr.) and 175 non-taxi drivers (85 women, 90 men; M age = 58.2 yr.). The taxi drivers had shorter reaction times and motor times in response to stimuli in simple stimulus-response tasks. There was an age-related decline in monocular vision detection on both sides, processing speed for fovea stimuli, and higher-level cognition for drivers. Accordingly, the frontal visual information processing speed of the taxi drivers was superior to the non-taxi drivers, but a distinct age-related decline was observed for all drivers. PMID:25153742

  12. 76 FR 2744 - Disclosure of Code-Share Service by Air Carriers and Sellers of Air Transportation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-14

    ... Office of the Secretary Disclosure of Code-Share Service by Air Carriers and Sellers of Air...-share service on Internet Web sites and elsewhere by air carriers, their agents, and third party sellers of air transportation in view of recent amendments to 49 U.S.C. 41712. FOR FURTHER...

  13. Cardiovascular Risk Factors of Taxi Drivers.

    PubMed

    Elshatarat, Rami Azmi; Burgel, Barbara J

    2016-06-01

    In the United States (U.S.), cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major leading cause of death. Despite the high mortality rate related to CVD, little is known about CVD risk factors among urban taxi drivers in the U.S. A cross-sectional design was used to identify the predictors of high cardiovascular risk factors among taxi drivers. Convenience sampling method was used to recruit 130 taxi drivers. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain the data. The sample was male (94 %), age mean (45 ± 10.75) years, married (54 %), born outside of the USA (55 %), had some college or below (61.5 %), night drivers (50.8 %), and driving on average 9.7 years and 41 h/week. About 79 % of them were eligible for CVD prevention, and 35.4 % had high CVD risk factors (4-9 risk factors). A CVD high-risk profile had a significant relationship with the subjects who were ≥55 years old; had hypertension, diabetes, or hyperlipidemia; were drinking alcohol ≥2 times/week; and had insufficient physical activity. Subjects who worked as a taxi driver for more than 10 years (OR 4.37; 95 % CI 1.82, 10.50) and had mental exertion from cab driving >5 out of 10 (OR 2.63; 95 % CI 1.05, 6.57) were more likely to have a CVD high-risk profile. As a conclusion, system-level or worksite interventions include offering healthy food at taxi dispatching locations, creating a work culture of frequent walking breaks, and interventions focusing on smoking, physical activity, and weight management. Improving health insurance coverage for this group of workers is recommended. PMID:27151321

  14. Learning at Air Navigation Services after Initial Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teperi, Anna-Maria; Leppanen, Anneli

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to find out the means used for individual, group and organizational learning at work at one air navigation service provider after the initial training period. The study also aims to find out what practices need to be improved to enhance learning at work. Design/methodology/approach: The data for the study were collected…

  15. Emission characteristics of nonmethane hydrocarbons from private cars and taxis at different driving speeds in Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, H.; Zou, S. C.; Tsai, W. Y.; Chan, L. Y.; Blake, D. R.

    2011-05-01

    Vehicular emissions are the major sources of a number of air pollutants including nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) in urban area. The emission composition and emission factors of NMHCs from vehicles are currently lacking in Hong Kong. In this study, speciation and emission factors of NMHCs emitted from gasoline-fuelled private cars and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)-fuelled taxis at different driving speeds were constructed using a chassis dynamometer. Large variations in the contributions of individual NMHC species to total emission were observed for different private cars at different driving speeds. The variations of individual NMHC emissions were relatively smaller for taxis due to their relatively homogeneous year of manufacture and mileages. Incomplete combustion products like ethane, ethene and propene were the major component of both types of vehicles, while unburned fuel component was also abundant in the exhausts of private cars and taxis (i.e. i-pentane and toluene for private car, and propane and butanes for taxi). Emission factors of major NMHCs emitted from private cars and taxis were estimated. High emission factors of ethane, n-butane, i/ n-pentanes, methylpentanes, trimethylpentanes, ethene, propene, i-butene, benzene, toluene and xylenes were found for private cars, whereas propane and i/ n-butanes had the highest values for taxis. By evaluating the effect of vehicular emissions on the ozone formation potential (OFP), it was found that the contributions of olefinic and aromatic hydrocarbons to OFP were higher than that from paraffinic hydrocarbons for private car, whereas the contributions of propane and i/ n-butanes were the highest for taxis. The total OFP value was higher at lower speeds (≤50 km h -1) for private cars while a minimum value at driving speed of 100 km h -1 was found for taxis. At the steady driving speeds, the total contribution of NMHCs emitted from LPG-fuelled taxis to the OFP was much lower than that from gasoline

  16. On-road emission characteristics of CNG-fueled bi-fuel taxis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Zhiliang; Cao, Xinyue; Shen, Xianbao; Zhang, Yingzhi; Wang, Xintong; He, Kebin

    2014-09-01

    To alleviate air pollution and lessen the petroleum demand from the motor vehicle sector in China, natural gas vehicles (NGVs) have been rapidly developed over the last several years. However, the understanding of the real-world emissions of NGVs is very limited. In this study, the emissions from 20 compressed-natural-gas-fueled bi-fuel taxis were measured using a portable emission measurement system (PEMS) under actual driving conditions in Yichang, China. The emission characteristics of the tested vehicles were analyzed, revealing that the average CO2, CO, HC and NOx emissions from the tested compressed-natural-gas (CNG) taxis under urban driving conditions were 1.6, 4.0, 2.0 and 0.98 times those under highway road conditions, respectively. The CO, HC and NOx emissions from Euro 3 CNG vehicles were approximately 40%, 55% and 44% lower than those from Euro 2 vehicles, respectively. Compared with the values for light-duty gasoline vehicles reported in the literature, the CO2 and CO emissions from the tested CNG taxis were clearly lower; however, significant increases in the HC and NOx emissions were observed. Finally, we normalized the emissions under the actual driving cycles of the entire test route to the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC)-based emissions using a VSP modes method developed by North Carolina State University. The simulated NEDC-based CO emissions from the tested CNG taxis were better than the corresponding emissions standards, whereas the simulated NEDC-based HC and NOx emissions greatly exceeded the standards. Thus, more attention should be paid to the emissions from CNG vehicles. As for the CNG-fueled bi-fuel taxis currently in use, the department of environmental protection should strengthen their inspection and supervision to reduce the emissions from these vehicles. The results of this study will be helpful in understanding and controlling emissions from CNG-fueled bi-fuel vehicles in China.

  17. Environment and air pollution: health services bequeath to grotesque menace.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Muhammad Imran; Rasli, Amran Md; Awan, Usama; Ma, Jian; Ali, Ghulam; Faridullah; Alam, Arif; Sajjad, Faiza; Zaman, Khalid

    2015-03-01

    The objective of the study is to establish the link between air pollution, fossil fuel energy consumption, industrialization, alternative and nuclear energy, combustible renewable and wastes, urbanization, and resulting impact on health services in Malaysia. The study employed two-stage least square regression technique on the time series data from 1975 to 2012 to possibly minimize the problem of endogeniety in the health services model. The results in general show that air pollution and environmental indicators act as a strong contributor to influence Malaysian health services. Urbanization and nuclear energy consumption both significantly increases the life expectancy in Malaysia, while fertility rate decreases along with the increasing urbanization in a country. Fossil fuel energy consumption and industrialization both have an indirect relationship with the infant mortality rate, whereas, carbon dioxide emissions have a direct relationship with the sanitation facility in a country. The results conclude that balancing the air pollution, environment, and health services needs strong policy vistas on the end of the government officials. PMID:25242593

  18. Effect of Surface Traffic Count on Taxi Time at Dallas-Fort Worth (DFW) International Airport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kistler, Matthew Stephen; Gupta, Gautam

    2008-01-01

    As the amount of air traffic increases over the years, most airports simply do not have the means of expanding to handle the intensified traffic on the surface that will ensue. Precise surveillance equipment and automation concepts, as well as advanced surface traffic algorithms are being developed to improve airport efficiency. These surface algorithms require inputs unique to each airport to ensure maximum efficiency, and minimal taxi delay. This study analyzes surface traffic at Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport (DFW) to determine the effect of the number of aircraft on the surface and the amount of stop and go situations they experience to the amount of additional taxi time encountered. If the surface capacity of an airport is known, minimal delay can be accomplished by limiting the number of taxiing aircraft to that capacity. This concept is related to highways, where traffic flow drastically decreases as more cars occupy the road. An attempt to minimize this effect on highways is seen with the use of metering lights at freeway on-ramps. Since the surface traffic at airports is highly regulated, and aircraft are less mobile on the ground, limiting the surface count to a certain number can greatly reduce the amount of additional taxi time encountered, as well as reduce hazardous emissions. This study will also find the regions of an airport that encounter the most additional taxi time when the number of aircraft in that area is increased. This could help surface traffic algorithms avoid congesting that area, or re-route aircraft to different runways when that area reaches its capacity. The relationship between the amount of stop and go situations an aircraft encounters and their effect on the taxi time of that aircraft will also be investigated. This will help to determine the effect of holding an aircraft on the taxiway as opposed to re-routing it. The lesser of the two should be used when developing surface traffic algorithms to further minimize the

  19. 76 FR 61245 - Provision of Aviation Insurance Coverage for Commercial Air Carrier Service in Domestic and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-03

    ... the Federal Register. (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, Washington, September 28, 2011 [FR Doc... Coverage for Commercial Air Carrier Service in Domestic and International Operations #0; #0; #0... Aviation Insurance Coverage for Commercial Air Carrier Service in Domestic and International...

  20. Artificial neural network model for identifying taxi gross emitter from remote sensing data of vehicle emission.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Jun; Guo, Hua-fang; Hu, Yue-ming

    2007-01-01

    Vehicle emission has been the major source of air pollution in urban areas in the past two decades. This article proposes an artificial neural network model for identifying the taxi gross emitters based on the remote sensing data. After carrying out the field test in Guangzhou and analyzing various factors from the emission data, the artificial neural network modeling was proved to be an advisable method of identifying the gross emitters. On the basis of the principal component analysis and the selection of algorithm and architecture, the Back-Propagation neural network model with 8-17-1 architecture was established as the optimal approach for this purpose. It gave a percentage of hits of 93%. Our previous research result and the result from aggression analysis were compared, and they provided respectively the percentage of hits of 81.63% and 75%. This comparison demonstrates the potentiality and validity of the proposed method in the identification of taxi gross emitters. PMID:17915705

  1. Taxi-cabs as Subjects for a Population Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, J. A.; Bradley, J. S.

    1972-01-01

    Describes the use of capture-recapture techniques to estimate the population of taxis in Liverpool and demonstrates the points of similarity to animal population estimation. Considers advantages of studying taxis rather than organisms in introductory studies of the techniques. (AL)

  2. 14 CFR 71.13 - Classification of Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Classification of Air Traffic Service (ATS... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRSPACE DESIGNATION OF CLASS A, B, C, D, AND E AIRSPACE AREAS; AIR TRAFFIC SERVICE ROUTES; AND REPORTING POINTS § 71.13 Classification of Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes. Unless...

  3. 14 CFR 71.13 - Classification of Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Classification of Air Traffic Service (ATS... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRSPACE DESIGNATION OF CLASS A, B, C, D, AND E AIRSPACE AREAS; AIR TRAFFIC SERVICE ROUTES; AND REPORTING POINTS § 71.13 Classification of Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes. Unless...

  4. 14 CFR 272.6 - Considerations in the determination of essential air service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... § 272.6 Considerations in the determination of essential air service. (a) In the determination of... part. (c) Nothing in this part shall be construed as providing for a level of essential air service... essential air service. 272.6 Section 272.6 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT...

  5. 14 CFR 272.6 - Considerations in the determination of essential air service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... § 272.6 Considerations in the determination of essential air service. (a) In the determination of... part. (c) Nothing in this part shall be construed as providing for a level of essential air service... essential air service. 272.6 Section 272.6 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT...

  6. Measurement error analysis of taxi meter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Hong; Li, Dan; Li, Hang; Zhang, Da-Jian; Hou, Ming-Feng; Zhang, Shi-pu

    2011-12-01

    The error test of the taximeter is divided into two aspects: (1) the test about time error of the taximeter (2) distance test about the usage error of the machine. The paper first gives the working principle of the meter and the principle of error verification device. Based on JJG517 - 2009 "Taximeter Verification Regulation ", the paper focuses on analyzing the machine error and test error of taxi meter. And the detect methods of time error and distance error are discussed as well. In the same conditions, standard uncertainty components (Class A) are evaluated, while in different conditions, standard uncertainty components (Class B) are also evaluated and measured repeatedly. By the comparison and analysis of the results, the meter accords with JJG517-2009, "Taximeter Verification Regulation ", thereby it improves the accuracy and efficiency largely. In actual situation, the meter not only makes up the lack of accuracy, but also makes sure the deal between drivers and passengers fair. Absolutely it enriches the value of the taxi as a way of transportation.

  7. Ground Taxi Navigation Problems and Training Solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, Cheryl; Walter, Kim E.; Rosekind, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Adverse weather conditions can put considerable strain on the National Airspace System. Even small decreases in visibility on the airport surface can create delays, hinder safe movement and lead to errors. Studies of Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) surface movement incidents support the need for technologies and procedures to improve ground operations in low-visibility conditions. This study examined 139 ASRS reports of low-visibility surface movement incidents at 10 major U.S. airports. Errors were characterized in terms of incident type, contributing factors and consequences. The incidents in the present sample were comprised of runway transgressions, taxiway excursions and ground conflicts. The primary contributing factors were Airport Layout and Markings, Communication and Distraction. In half the incidents the controller issued a new clearance or the flight crew took an evasive action and in the remaining half, no recovery attempt was made because the error was detected after the fact. By gaining a better understanding the factors that affect crew navigation in low visibility and the types of errors that are likely to occur, it will be possible to develop more robust technologies to aid pilots in the ground taxi task. Implications for crew training and procedure development for low-visibility ground taxi are also discussed.

  8. Standardization of databases for AMDB taxi routing functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pschierer, C.; Sindlinger, A.; Schiefele, J.

    2010-04-01

    Input, management, and display of taxi routes on airport moving map displays (AMM) have been covered in various studies in the past. The demonstrated applications are typically based on Aerodrome Mapping Databases (AMDB). Taxi routing functions require specific enhancements, typically in the form of a graph network with nodes and edges modeling all connectivities within an airport, which are not supported by the current AMDB standards. Therefore, the data schemas and data content have been defined specifically for the purpose and test scenarios of these studies. A standardization of the data format for taxi routing information is a prerequisite for turning taxi routing functions into production. The joint RTCA/EUROCAE special committee SC-217, responsible for updating and enhancing the AMDB standards DO-272 [1] and DO-291 [2], is currently in the process of studying different alternatives and defining reasonable formats. Requirements for taxi routing data are primarily driven by depiction concepts for assigned and cleared taxi routes, but also by database size and the economic feasibility. Studied concepts are similar to the ones described in the GDF (geographic data files) specification [3], which is used in most car navigation systems today. They include - A highly aggregated graph network of complex features - A modestly aggregated graph network of simple features - A non-explicit topology of plain AMDB taxi guidance line elements This paper introduces the different concepts and their advantages and disadvantages.

  9. SR-71 - Taxi on Ramp with Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This photo shows a head-on shot of NASA's SR-71A aircraft taxiing on the ramp at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, heat waves from its engines blurring the hangars in the background. Two SR-71 aircraft have been used by NASA as testbeds for high-speed and high-altitude aeronautical research. The aircraft, an SR-71A and an SR-71B pilot trainer aircraft, have been based here at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. They were transferred to NASA after the U.S. Air Force program was cancelled. As research platforms, the aircraft can cruise at Mach 3 for more than one hour. For thermal experiments, this can produce heat soak temperatures of over 600 degrees Fahrenheit (F). This operating environment makes these aircraft excellent platforms to carry out research and experiments in a variety of areas -- aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, thermal protection materials, high-speed and high-temperature instrumentation, atmospheric studies, and sonic boom characterization. The SR-71 was used in a program to study ways of reducing sonic booms or over pressures that are heard on the ground, much like sharp thunderclaps, when an aircraft exceeds the speed of sound. Data from this Sonic Boom Mitigation Study could eventually lead to aircraft designs that would reduce the 'peak' overpressures of sonic booms and minimize the startling affect they produce on the ground. One of the first major experiments to be flown in the NASA SR-71 program was a laser air data collection system. It used laser light instead of air pressure to produce airspeed and attitude reference data, such as angle of attack and sideslip, which are normally obtained with small tubes and vanes extending into the airstream. One of Dryden's SR-71s was used for the Linear Aerospike Rocket Engine, or LASRE Experiment. Another earlier project consisted of a series of flights using the SR-71 as a science camera platform for NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena

  10. AIRS Science Data Services at NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Info Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Theobald, M.; Vollmer, B.; Hua, X.; Won, Y.

    2007-12-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a very high spectral resolution passive infrared sounder with more than 2000 well-calibrated spectral channels measuring in the range of 3.74 - 15.4 micron. The AIRS instrument was successfully launched aboard the NASA Aqua spacecraft in May, 2002 and has been providing global coverage ever since. The infrared radiance data product is stable to 10 mK/year and accurate to better than 250 mK. The AIRS product is the most accurate and stable set of hyperspectral infrared radiance spectra measurements made in space to date, and its meets the criteria identified by the National Research Council for climate data records. In addition, working in tandem with an Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU-A) instrument, AIRS provides a three-dimensional view of the geophysical properties of the Earth's atmosphere. The geophysical products provide daily global temperature profiles at an accuracy of 1 K per 1 km thick layer in the troposphere and moisture profiles at an accuracy of 20% per 2 km thick layer in the lower troposphere (20% - 60% in the upper troposphere). AIRS standard swath and grid data products are available from the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC). The latest version of AIRS products (Version 5) has many improvements over previous versions including better temperature and water vapor profiles, enhanced Level 2 temperature data products over land and polar regions, first-time retrievals of carbon monoxide and methane, improvements to ozone retrievals, warning 'flags' to identify concentrations of sulfur dioxide and dust and overall improvements error and quality flag parameterization. In addition to the AIRS standard products, the swath-based AIRS products are also produced in near real time (NRT) at the GES DISC facility using the same core science algorithms as in the regular science data production but using predicted ephemeris in place of definitive ephemeris data

  11. Taxi Drivers: A Target Population for the Prevention of Transmissible Disease?

    PubMed

    Limper, Heather M; Burns, Jennifer L; Alexander, Kenneth A

    2016-04-01

    We set out to assess the feasibility and uptake of an on-site influenza vaccination campaign targeting taxi drivers in airport taxicab lots in Chicago, Illinois. Influenza vaccine was provided by the Chicago Department of Public Health as this event aligned with ongoing efforts to provide influenza vaccinations throughout the city. Clinicians and clinic support staff were volunteers recruited from the University of Chicago Medicine and incorporated nursing staff, physicians, physician residents, and administrative support. Together, this allowed for a cost-effective approach to provide free influenza vaccines to the primarily uninsured taxi driver population. During these events, 545 taxi drivers received influenza vaccine in 2012 while 354 drivers were immunized in 2013. Nearly all drivers reported uninsured or under-insured status. The ability to use volunteers and healthcare organization's desires to meet the needs of the community, in collaboration with often under-staffed but highly dedicated local health departments have the potential to offer valuable public health services to underserved members of the community. Educational initiatives targeting vaccine hesitancy and misinformation may be necessary to improve immunization coverage among this population. PMID:26472436

  12. 39 CFR 927.2 - Noncontractual air service for international and military mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... been recommended. International Network Operations will send the decision, including notice of the... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Noncontractual air service for international and... PROCEDURE RELATING TO FINES, DEDUCTIONS, AND DAMAGES § 927.2 Noncontractual air service for...

  13. 39 CFR 927.2 - Noncontractual air service for international and military mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... been recommended. International Network Operations will send the decision, including notice of the... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Noncontractual air service for international and... PROCEDURE RELATING TO FINES, DEDUCTIONS, AND DAMAGES § 927.2 Noncontractual air service for...

  14. Optical tweezers for studying taxis in parasites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Thomaz, A. A.; Fontes, A.; Stahl, C. V.; Pozzo, L. Y.; Ayres, D. C.; Almeida, D. B.; Farias, P. M. A.; Santos, B. S.; Santos-Mallet, J.; Gomes, S. A. O.; Giorgio, S.; Feder, D.; Cesar, C. L.

    2011-04-01

    In this work we present a methodology to measure force strengths and directions of living parasites with an optical tweezers setup. These measurements were used to study the parasites chemotaxis in real time. We observed behavior and measured the force of: (i) Leishmania amazonensis in the presence of two glucose gradients; (ii) Trypanosoma cruzi in the vicinity of the digestive system walls, and (iii) Trypanosoma rangeli in the vicinity of salivary glands as a function of distance. Our results clearly show a chemotactic behavior in every case. This methodology can be used to study any type of taxis, such as chemotaxis, osmotaxis, thermotaxis, phototaxis, of any kind of living microorganisms. These studies can help us to understand the microorganism sensory systems and their response function to these gradients.

  15. Taxis Toward Hydrogen Gas by Methanococcus maripaludis

    PubMed Central

    Brileya, Kristen A.; Connolly, James M.; Downey, Carey; Gerlach, Robin; Fields, Matthew W.

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of taxis (directed swimming) in the Archaea is currently expanding through identification of novel receptors, effectors, and proteins involved in signal transduction to the flagellar motor. Although the ability for biological cells to sense and swim toward hydrogen gas has been hypothesized for many years, this capacity has yet to be observed and demonstrated. Here we show that the average swimming velocity increases in the direction of a source of hydrogen gas for the methanogen, Methanococcus maripaludis using a capillary assay with anoxic gas-phase control and time-lapse microscopy. The results indicate that a methanogen couples motility to hydrogen concentration sensing and is the first direct observation of hydrogenotaxis in any domain of life. Hydrogenotaxis represents a strategy that would impart a competitive advantage to motile microorganisms that compete for hydrogen gas and would impact the C, S and N cycles. PMID:24189441

  16. Even in Taxis, Kids Belong in Safety Seats

    MedlinePlus

    ... car safety seats when traveling in a motor vehicle. But, many municipalities exempt taxis from this safety ... the risk of death or injury from motor vehicle collisions, there should be no exemptions in car ...

  17. Measurement of whole-body vibration in taxi drivers.

    PubMed

    Funakoshi, Mitsuhiko; Taoda, Kazushi; Tsujimura, Hiroji; Nishiyama, Katsuo

    2004-03-01

    In a previous epidemiological study we reported that the prevalence (45.8%) of low-back pain (LBP) and the two-year incidence (25.9%) of LBP in 284 male taxi drivers in Japan was comparable with rates reported for other occupational drivers in which LBP frequently occurs. LBP was significantly related with the level of uncomfortable road vibrations, and, importantly, increased with total mileage. The aim of this study was to measure whole-body vibration (WBV) on the driver's seat pan of 12 taxis operating under actual working conditions. The results were evaluated according to the health guidelines in International Standard ISO 2631-1:1997. Finally, the relation between total mileage and WBV was investigated. The majority of the frequency-weighted r.m.s. accelerations of the taxis fell into the "potential health risks" zone, under ISO 2631-1:1997. It was clear that the taxi drivers were exposed to serious WBV magnitudes. Therefore, occupational health and safety management should be carried out to help prevent adverse health effects in taxi drivers. In particular, reduction of WBV in taxis and shortening of driving time to reduce duration of WBV exposure should be considered. Moreover, because many taxi drivers work 18 h every other day, the shortening of working hours and taking of rest breaks while working should be considered. Frequency-weighted r.m.s. accelerations of taxis had a tendency to decrease as total mileage increased. The relation between total mileage and WBV should be investigated by taking measurements on the floor and the back rest in addition to the seat pan. PMID:15090686

  18. The Development of an Electronic Aircraft Taxi Navigation Display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andre, Anthony D.; Sridhar, Banavar (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an electronic aircraft taxi navigation display as part of NASA's Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) Program. The impetus for the development of this specific display, and the TAP program as a whole, is the current bottleneck in surface operations experienced during low-visibility operations. Simply stated, while modern aircraft are equipped to fly and land in low-visibility conditions, they lack the related technology required to allow them to efficiently and safely navigation from the runway to the gate. Pilots under such conditions consequently taxi slower, sometimes get lost and have to stop, and occasionally collide with other aircraft. Based on a review of available display and navigation sensor technologies, and a one-year information requirements study conducted aboard several commercial aircraft flights, it was determined that an electronic aircraft taxi navigation display was the most viable option for improving the efficiency of low-visibility taxi operations. Based on flight deck observations and pilot interviews, previous map display research, other taxi map display efforts, and part-task taxi map research, an advanced taxi navigation display has been developed and is currently being tested. The taxi navigation display is presented as a head-down cockpit display and includes a track-up perspective airport surface view, taxiway, gate and runway labels, ownship position, traffic icons and collision annunciation, graphical route guidance, heading indicator, rotating compass, RVR wedge, stop bars, zoom control, and datalink message window. The development and support for each of the features will be discussed in detail. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  19. Taxi Arrival of Second SR-71 to Dryden

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    One of two initial U.S. Air Force SR-71A reconnaissance aircraft that was retired from operational service and loaned to NASA for high-speed research programs taxis in to the ramp on its arrival at NASA's Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility (later Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, California in March 1990. Data from the SR-71 high speed research program will be used to aid designers of future supersonic/hypersonic aircraft and propulsion systems. Two SR-71 aircraft have been used by NASA as testbeds for high-speed and high-altitude aeronautical research. The aircraft, an SR-71A and an SR-71B pilot trainer aircraft, have been based here at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. They were transferred to NASA after the U.S. Air Force program was cancelled. As research platforms, the aircraft can cruise at Mach 3 for more than one hour. For thermal experiments, this can produce heat soak temperatures of over 600 degrees Fahrenheit (F). This operating environment makes these aircraft excellent platforms to carry out research and experiments in a variety of areas -- aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, thermal protection materials, high-speed and high-temperature instrumentation, atmospheric studies, and sonic boom characterization. The SR-71 was used in a program to study ways of reducing sonic booms or over pressures that are heard on the ground, much like sharp thunderclaps, when an aircraft exceeds the speed of sound. Data from this Sonic Boom Mitigation Study could eventually lead to aircraft designs that would reduce the 'peak' overpressures of sonic booms and minimize the startling affect they produce on the ground. One of the first major experiments to be flown in the NASA SR-71 program was a laser air data collection system. It used laser light instead of air pressure to produce airspeed and attitude reference data, such as angle of attack and sideslip, which are normally obtained with small tubes and vanes extending into the

  20. Taxi Cab Syndrome: A Review of the Extensive Genitourinary Pathology Experienced by Taxi Cab Drivers and What We Can Do to Help

    PubMed Central

    Mass, Alon Y; Goldfarb, David S; Shah, Ojas

    2014-01-01

    This review consolidates knowledge regarding the extensive genitourinary pathology experienced by taxi cab drivers. Taxi cab, livery, truck, and other drivers all objectively and subjectively may have more voiding dysfunction, infertility, urolithiasis, bladder cancer, and urinary infections as compared with nonprofessional drivers; this is called taxi cab syndrome. Together with governmental and medical assistance, simple interventions—such as education, the addition of taxi relief stations, and possibly the use of sanitary urinary collection devices—to curb the progression of genitourinary disease in taxi drivers should be prospectively studied. It is postulated that many of these interventions may also benefit other groups of occupationally related infrequent voiders. PMID:25337038

  1. 78 FR 26103 - Proposed Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) of the Aircraft Certification Service (AIR) Project...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-03

    ... Service (AIR) Project Prioritization and Resource Management ACTION: Notice of availability and request... process used to prioritize certification projects and manage certification project resources when local... Operating Procedure--Aircraft Certification Service Project Prioritization. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  2. [Comparative life cycle environmental assessment between electric taxi and gasoline taxi in Beijing].

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiao-Qing; Sun, Zhao-Xin; Li, Xiao-Nuo; Li, Jin-Xiang; Yang, Jian-Xin

    2015-03-01

    Tailpipe emission of internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV) is one of the main sources leading to atmospheric environmental problems such as haze. Substituting electric vehicles for conventional gasoline vehicles is an important solution for reducing urban air pollution. In 2011, as a pilot city of electric vehicle, Beijing launched a promotion plan of electric vehicle. In order to compare the environmental impacts between Midi electric vehicle (Midi EV) and Hyundai gasoline taxi (ICEV), this study created an inventory with local data and well-reasoned assumptions, and contributed a life cycle assessment (LCA) model with GaBi4.4 software and comparative life cycle environmental assessment by Life cycle impact analysis models of CML2001(Problem oriented) and EI99 (Damage oriented), which included the environmental impacts of full life cycle, manufacture phase, use phase and end of life. The sensitivity analysis of lifetime mileage and power structure was also provided. The results indicated that the full life cycle environmental impact of Midi EV was smaller than Hyundai ICEV, which was mainly due to the lower fossil fuel consumption. On the contrary, Midi EV exhibited the potential of increasing the environmental impacts of ecosystem quality influence and Human health influence. By CML2001 model, the results indicated that Midi EV might decrease the impact of Abiotic Depletion Potential, Global Warming Potential, Ozone Layer Depletion Potential and so on. However, in the production phase, the impact of Abiotic Depletion Potential, Acidification Potential, Eutrophication Potential, Global Warming Potential, Photochemical Ozone Creation Potential, Ozone Layer Depletion Potential, Marine Aquatic Ecotoxicity Potential, Terrestric Ecotoxicity Potential, Human Toxicity Potential of Midi EV were increased relative to Hyundai ICEV because of emissions impacts from its power system especially the battery production. Besides, in the use phase, electricity production was

  3. TAXI Direct-to-Disk Interface Demultiplexes Proprietarily Formatted Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newnan, Bruce G.; Ahlport, Steven F.

    2001-01-01

    The TAXI Direct-to-Disk interface is a special-purpose interface circuit for demultiplexing of data from a Racal Storeplex (or equivalent) multichannel recorder onto one or more hard disks that reside in, and/or are controlled by, a personal computer (PC). (The name TAXI as used here is derived from the acronym TAXI, which signifies transparent asynchronous transceiver interface.) The TAXI Direct-to-Disk interface was developed for original use in capturing data from instrumentation on a test stand in a NASA rocket-testing facility. The control, data-recording, and data-postprocessing equipment of the facility are located in a control room at a safe distance from the test stand. Heretofore, the transfer of data from the instrumentation to the postprocessing equipment has entailed post-test downloading via software, requiring many hours to days of post-test reduction before the data could be viewed in a channelized format. The installation of the TAXI Direct-to-Disk interface, in conjunction with other modifications, causes the transfer of data to take place in real time, so that the data are immediately available for review during or after the test. The instrumentation is connected to the input terminals of the signal-processing unit of multichannel recorder by standard coaxial cables. The coaxial output of the signal processing unit is converted to fiber-optic output by means of a commercial coaxial-cable/fiber-optic converter (that is, a fiber-optic transceiver) designed specifically for this application. The fiber-optic link carries the data signals to an identical fiber-optic transceiver in the control room. On the way to the TAXI Direct-to-Disk interface that is the focus of this article, the data signals are processed through a companion special purpose circuit denoted by the similar name parallel TAXI interface.

  4. [Air rescue missions at night: Data analysis of primary and secondary missions by the DRF air rescue service in 2014].

    PubMed

    Aschenbrenner, U; Neppl, S; Ahollinger, F; Schweigkofler, U; Weigt, J O; Frank, M; Zimmermann, M; Braun, J

    2015-06-01

    The advantages that are inherent to the air ambulance service are shown in a reduction in mortality of critically ill or injured patients. The air ambulance service ensures quick and efficient medical care to a patient as well as the immediate transport of patients to a suitable hospital. In addition, primary air rescue has proved to be effective as a support for the standard ground-based ambulance services in some regions of Germany during the night. Under certain conditions, such as the strict adherence to established, practiced and coordinated procedures, air rescue at night does not have a significantly higher risk compared to operations in daytime. Particular requirements should be imposed for air rescue operations at night: a strict indication system for alerting, 4-man helicopter crews solely during the night as well as pilots (and copilots) with the correct qualifications and experience in dealing with night vision devices on a regular basis. Moreover, the helicopters need to be suitable and approved for night flying including cabin upgrades and the appropriate medical technology equipment. To increase the benefits of air rescue for specific diseases and injuries, a nationwide review of the processes is needed to further develop the primary air rescue service. PMID:26013391

  5. 14 CFR 375.50 - Transit flights; scheduled international air service operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Transit flights; scheduled international... WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Transit Flights § 375.50 Transit flights; scheduled international air service operations. (a) Requirement of notice. Scheduled international air services proposed to be operated...

  6. 14 CFR 323.18 - Carriers' obligations when terminating, suspending, or reducing air service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., suspending, or reducing air service. 323.18 Section 323.18 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS TERMINATIONS, SUSPENSIONS, AND REDUCTIONS OF SERVICE § 323.18 Carriers' obligations when terminating, suspending, or reducing air...

  7. 14 CFR 71.13 - Classification of Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Classification of Air Traffic Service (ATS... ROUTES; AND REPORTING POINTS § 71.13 Classification of Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes. Unless otherwise specified, ATS routes are classified as follows: (a) In subpart A of this part: (1) Jet routes. (2)...

  8. 14 CFR 71.13 - Classification of Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification of Air Traffic Service (ATS... ROUTES; AND REPORTING POINTS § 71.13 Classification of Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes. Unless otherwise specified, ATS routes are classified as follows: (a) In subpart A of this part: (1) Jet routes. (2)...

  9. 14 CFR 375.50 - Transit flights; scheduled international air service operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Transit flights; scheduled international... WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Transit Flights § 375.50 Transit flights; scheduled international air service operations. (a) Requirement of notice. Scheduled international air services proposed to be operated...

  10. 14 CFR 375.50 - Transit flights; scheduled international air service operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Transit flights; scheduled international... WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Transit Flights § 375.50 Transit flights; scheduled international air service operations. (a) Requirement of notice. Scheduled international air services proposed to be operated...

  11. 14 CFR 375.50 - Transit flights; scheduled international air service operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Transit flights; scheduled international... WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Transit Flights § 375.50 Transit flights; scheduled international air service operations. (a) Requirement of notice. Scheduled international air services proposed to be operated...

  12. 14 CFR 375.50 - Transit flights; scheduled international air service operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transit flights; scheduled international... WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Transit Flights § 375.50 Transit flights; scheduled international air service operations. (a) Requirement of notice. Scheduled international air services proposed to be operated...

  13. 14 CFR 325.10 - Modification of the designated level of essential air service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Modification of the designated level of essential air service. 325.10 Section 325.10 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS ESSENTIAL AIR SERVICE PROCEDURES § 325.10 Modification of the designated level...

  14. pH-Taxis of Biohybrid Microsystems

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Jiang; Wright Carlsen, Rika; Sitti, Metin

    2015-01-01

    The last decade has seen an increasing number of studies developing bacteria and other cell-integrated biohybrid microsystems. However, the highly stochastic motion of these microsystems severely limits their potential use. Here, we present a method that exploits the pH sensing of flagellated bacteria to realize robust drift control of multi-bacteria propelled microrobots. Under three specifically configured pH gradients, we demonstrate that the microrobots exhibit both unidirectional and bidirectional pH-tactic behaviors, which are also observed in free-swimming bacteria. From trajectory analysis, we find that the swimming direction and speed biases are two major factors that contribute to their tactic drift motion. The motion analysis of microrobots also sheds light on the propulsion dynamics of the flagellated bacteria as bioactuators. It is expected that similar driving mechanisms are shared among pH-taxis, chemotaxis, and thermotaxis. By identifying the mechanism that drives the tactic behavior of bacteria-propelled microsystems, this study opens up an avenue towards improving the control of biohybrid microsystems. Furthermore, assuming that it is possible to tune the preferred pH of bioactuators by genetic engineering, these biohybrid microsystems could potentially be applied to sense the pH gradient induced by cancerous cells in stagnant fluids inside human body and realize targeted drug delivery. PMID:26073316

  15. Tu-144LL ramp taxi and takeoff

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    A jointly funded activity by the NASA High Speed Research (HSR) program and the Boeing Commercial Airplane Group took place to obtain experimental flight data on the Tu-144 supersonic transport built by Russia. The Tu-144 was modified by the Tupolev Aircraft Design Bureau, Moscow, Russia, in 1995-1996 into the Tu-144LL Flying Laboratory to perform flight experiments as part of the NASA HSR Program. Knowledge gained from the flights will benefit the NASA efforts to develop technology that may enable design of an efficient, environmentally friendly second-generation supersonic transport in this country. This program involved eight experiments -- six aboard the aircraft and two ground test engine experiments. Between November 1996 and February 1998 the Tu-144LL flew 19 research flights. The follow-on Tu-144LL program encompassed about eight flights, focusing on extensions of five experiments from the first project and two new experiments to measure fuel system temperatures and to define in-flight wing deflections. This 31-second clip shows the Russian Tu-144 LL supersonic transport on the ramp in Moscow, then taxiing into position and making its takeoff run, rotating from the runway and climbing away.

  16. pH-Taxis of Biohybrid Microsystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Jiang; Wright Carlsen, Rika; Sitti, Metin

    2015-06-01

    The last decade has seen an increasing number of studies developing bacteria and other cell-integrated biohybrid microsystems. However, the highly stochastic motion of these microsystems severely limits their potential use. Here, we present a method that exploits the pH sensing of flagellated bacteria to realize robust drift control of multi-bacteria propelled microrobots. Under three specifically configured pH gradients, we demonstrate that the microrobots exhibit both unidirectional and bidirectional pH-tactic behaviors, which are also observed in free-swimming bacteria. From trajectory analysis, we find that the swimming direction and speed biases are two major factors that contribute to their tactic drift motion. The motion analysis of microrobots also sheds light on the propulsion dynamics of the flagellated bacteria as bioactuators. It is expected that similar driving mechanisms are shared among pH-taxis, chemotaxis, and thermotaxis. By identifying the mechanism that drives the tactic behavior of bacteria-propelled microsystems, this study opens up an avenue towards improving the control of biohybrid microsystems. Furthermore, assuming that it is possible to tune the preferred pH of bioactuators by genetic engineering, these biohybrid microsystems could potentially be applied to sense the pH gradient induced by cancerous cells in stagnant fluids inside human body and realize targeted drug delivery.

  17. Hybrid Taxis Give Fuel Economy a Lift, Clean Cities, Fleet Experiences, April 2009 (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2009-04-01

    Clean Cities helped Boston, San Antonio, and Cambridge create hybrid taxi programs. The hybrid taxis are able to achieve about twice the gas mileage of a conventional taxi while helping cut gasoline use and fuel costs. Tax credits and other incentives are helping both company owners and drivers make the switch to hybrids. Program leaders have learned some important lessons other cities can benefit from including learning a city's taxi structure, relaying benefits to drivers, and understanding the needs of owners.

  18. Drosophila photo-taxis and odor-taxis are mediated by a shared computational pathway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihovilovic Skanata, Mirna; Gepner, Ruben; Bernat, Natalie; Kaplow, Margarita; Gershow, Marc

    In natural environments, the Drosophila larva makes navigational decisions based on variable and conflicting sensory inputs. How larvae respond to multi-modal stimuli and how their neural circuits integrate and prioritize multi-sensory information remains unknown. To identify larval navigational computations we developed a high-throughput reverse-correlation assay. We provided larvae with visual and optogenetically induced fictive olfactory stimuli and measured the correlation between the presented stimulus and evoked turn decisions. We used this technique to fit parameters of a Linear-Nonlinear-Poisson model describing computations underlying turn decisions. For uni-modal inputs, the parameterized model allowed us to predict the behavior of populations of larvae responding to novel stimulus presentations. For multi-modal inputs, our assay showed that larvae linearly combine olfactory and visual signals upstream of the decision to turn. We verified this prediction using controlled combinations of stimuli. We studied other navigational decisions that determine the size and directions of turns and found that larvae integrated odor and light according to the same rule in all cases. These results suggest that photo-taxis and odor-taxis are mediated by a shared computational pathway.

  19. Computations underlying Drosophila photo-taxis, odor-taxis, and multi-sensory integration

    PubMed Central

    Gepner, Ruben; Mihovilovic Skanata, Mirna; Bernat, Natalie M; Kaplow, Margarita; Gershow, Marc

    2015-01-01

    To better understand how organisms make decisions on the basis of temporally varying multi-sensory input, we identified computations made by Drosophila larvae responding to visual and optogenetically induced fictive olfactory stimuli. We modeled the larva's navigational decision to initiate turns as the output of a Linear-Nonlinear-Poisson cascade. We used reverse-correlation to fit parameters to this model; the parameterized model predicted larvae's responses to novel stimulus patterns. For multi-modal inputs, we found that larvae linearly combine olfactory and visual signals upstream of the decision to turn. We verified this prediction by measuring larvae's responses to coordinated changes in odor and light. We studied other navigational decisions and found that larvae integrated odor and light according to the same rule in all cases. These results suggest that photo-taxis and odor-taxis are mediated by a shared computational pathway. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06229.001 PMID:25945916

  20. Mining spatiotemporal patterns of urban dwellers from taxi trajectory data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Feng; Ji, Minhe; Liu, Ting

    2016-06-01

    With the widespread adoption of locationaware technology, obtaining long-sequence, massive and high-accuracy spatiotemporal trajectory data of individuals has become increasingly popular in various geographic studies. Trajectory data of taxis, one of the most widely used inner-city travel modes, contain rich information about both road network traffic and travel behavior of passengers. Such data can be used to study the microscopic activity patterns of individuals as well as the macro system of urban spatial structures. This paper focuses on trajectories obtained from GPS-enabled taxis and their applications for mining urban commuting patterns. A novel approach is proposed to discover spatiotemporal patterns of household travel from the taxi trajectory dataset with a large number of point locations. The approach involves three critical steps: spatial clustering of taxi origin-destination (OD) based on urban traffic grids to discover potentially meaningful places, identifying threshold values from statistics of the OD clusters to extract urban jobs-housing structures, and visualization of analytic results to understand the spatial distribution and temporal trends of the revealed urban structures and implied household commuting behavior. A case study with a taxi trajectory dataset in Shanghai, China is presented to demonstrate and evaluate the proposed method.

  1. Uncovering urban human mobility from large scale taxi GPS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jinjun; Liu, Fang; Wang, Yinhai; Wang, Hua

    2015-11-01

    Taxi GPS trajectories data contain massive spatial and temporal information of urban human activity and mobility. Taking taxi as mobile sensors, the information derived from taxi trips benefits the city and transportation planning. The original data used in study are collected from more than 1100 taxi drivers in Harbin city. We firstly divide the city area into 400 different transportation districts and analyze the origin and destination distribution in urban area on weekday and weekend. The Density-Based Spatial Clustering of Applications with Noise (DBSCAN) algorithm is used to cluster pick-up and drop-off locations. Furthermore, four spatial interaction models are calibrated and compared based on trajectories in shopping center of Harbin city to study the pick-up location searching behavior. By extracting taxi trips from GPS data, travel distance, time and average speed in occupied and non-occupied status are then used to investigate human mobility. Finally, we use observed OD matrix of center area in Harbin city to model the traffic distribution patterns based on entropy-maximizing method, and the estimation performance verify its effectiveness in case study.

  2. Analyses on influencing factors of airborne VOCS pollution in taxi cabins.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaokai; Feng, Lili; Luo, Huilong; Cheng, Heming

    2014-11-01

    Due to the long time in vehicular cabins, people have high exposure to the airborne volatile organic compounds (VOCS), which will lead to negative effects on human health. In order to analyze the influencing factors of in-car VOCS pollution concentrations, 38 taxis were investigated on the static and closed conditions. The interior air of taxis was collected through activated Tenax adsorption tubes, and the air samples were analyzed with thermally desorbed gas chromatograph. The average concentrations of in-car benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, styrene, butyl acetate, undecane, and total VOCS (TVOC) were 82.7, 212.3, 74.7, 182.3, 24.7, 33.5, 61.3, and 1,441.7 μg/m(3), respectively. Furthermore, the VOCS and TVOC concentrations increase with the rise of in-car temperature and relative humidity, and decrease with the increase of car age and total mileage. In addition, the VOCS and TVOC concentrations are higher in vehicles with small cabins than in ones with big cabins, and change with different sampling sites and various vehicular grades. Finally, according to the multiple linear regression analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis, car age is the most important factor influencing airborne VOCS and TVOC pollution concentrations in vehicular cabins, followed by interior temperature and total mileage. PMID:24972656

  3. X-Wing RSRA - 80 Knot Taxi Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    tests, flown by Ames pilot G. Warren Hall and Army Maj (soon promoted to Lt. Col.) Patrick Morris, began in May and continued until October 1984, when the RSRA vehicle returned to Ames. The project manager at Dryden for the flights was Wen Painter. These early tests were preparatory for a future X-Wing rotor flight test project to be sponsored by NASA, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), and Sikorsky Aircraft. A later derivative X-Wing flew in 1987. The modified RSRA was developed to provide a vehicle for in-flight investigation and verification of new helicopter rotor-system concepts and supporting technology. The RSRA could be configured to fly as an airplane with fixed wings, as a helicopter, or as a compound vehicle that could transition between the two configurations. NASA and DARPA selected Sikorsky in 1984 to convert one of the original RSRAs to the new demonstrator aircraft for the X-Wing concept. Developers of X-Wing technology did not view the X-Wing as a replacement for either helicopters (rotor aircraft) or fixed-wing aircraft. Instead, they envisioned it as an aircraft with special enhanced capabilities to perform missions that call for the low-speed efficiency and maneuverability of helicopters combined with the high cruise speed of fixed-wing aircraft. Some such missions include air-to-air and air-to-ground tactical operations, airborne early warning, electronic intelligence, antisubmarine warfare, and search and rescue. The follow-on X-Wing project was managed by James W. Lane, chief of the RSRA/X-Wing Project Office, Ames Research Center. Coordinating the Ames-Dryden flight effort in 1987 was Jack Kolf. The X-Wing project was a joint effort of NASA-Ames, DARPA, the U.S. Army, and Sikorsky Aircraft, Stratford, Connecticut. The modified X-Wing aircraft was delivered to Ames-Dryden by Sikorsky Aircraft on September 25, 1986. Following taxi tests, initial flights in the aircraft mode without main rotors attached took place at Dryden in

  4. Compliance and enforcement of a partial smoking ban in Lisbon taxis: an exploratory cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Research evaluating enforcement and compliance with smoking partial bans is rather scarce, especially in countries with relative weak tobacco control policies, such as Portugal. There is also scarce evidence on specific high risk groups such as vehicle workers. In January 2008, Portugal implemented a partial ban, followed by poor enforcement. The purpose of this study was to explore the effectiveness of a partial smoking ban in a pro-smoking environment, specifically transportation by taxi in the city of Lisbon. Ban effectiveness was generally defined by ban awareness and support, compliance and enforcement. Methods Exploratory cross-sectional study; purposive sampling in selected Lisbon streets. Structured interviews were conducted by trained researchers while using taxi services (January 2009-December 2010). Participants: 250 taxi drivers (98.8% participation rate). Chi-square, McNemar, Man Whitney tests and multiple logistic regression were performed. Results Of the participants, 249 were male; median age was 53.0 years; 43.6% were current smokers. Most participants (82.8%) approved comprehensive bans; 84.8% reported that clients still asked to smoke in their taxis; 16.8% allowed clients to smoke. Prior to the ban this value was 76.9% (p < 0.001). The major reason for not allowing smoking was the legal ban and associated fines (71.2%). Of the smokers, 66.1% admitted smoking in their taxi. Stale smoke smells were detected in 37.6% of the cars. None of the taxi drivers did ever receive a fine for non-compliance. Heavy smoking, night-shift and allowing smoking prior the ban predicted non-compliance. Conclusions Despite the strong ban support observed, high smoking prevalence and poor enforcement contribute to low compliance. The findings also suggest low compliance among night-shift and vehicle workers. This study clearly demonstrates that a partial and poorly-enforced ban is vulnerable to breaches, and highlights the need for clear and strong

  5. Enhancing pilot situation awareness by using an onboard taxi guidance system: an empirical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Bernd; Biella, Markus; Jakobi, Joern

    2004-08-01

    This study supplements prior and concurrent field trials testing the operational benefit of an Advanced Surface Movement Guidance and Control System (A-SMGCS). A-SMGCS comprises a range of new technologies for both the flight deck and the air traffic control tower enabling more efficient and safe airport surface movement. These technologies are expected to significantly increase the throughput at presently highly congested major airports without compromising safety. A flight deck A-SMGCS module is the onboard guidance system TARMAC-AS. This module consists of a controller pilot data link (DL) communication and an electronic moving map (EMM), which also displays airport surface traffic information to the pilot crew. TARMAC-AS is evaluated in an investigation involving twenty commercial pilots who performed a series of approach, landing and taxiing simulation trials that were completed in a fixed-base cockpit simulator. Evaluation was based on subjective questionnaires, effectiveness of taxi operation, and visual scanning strategies derived from eye-point-of-gaze measurements. Results support the notion that EMM + DL improve awareness of the global airport surface situation, particularly under conditions of low visibility, enabling more efficient and timely surface movements and avoidance of conflicting traffic. A potential negative impact of increased head-down times was not substantiated.

  6. Pan American Airways/Naval Air Transport Service/destroyer base site showing brick ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Pan American Airways/Naval Air Transport Service/destroyer base site showing brick and concrete paving of patio, and circular planters. View facing east. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Pearl City Peninsula, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  7. Pan American Airways/Naval Air Transport Service/destroyer base site showing stone ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Pan American Airways/Naval Air Transport Service/destroyer base site showing stone wall around patio. View facing east-southeast. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Pearl City Peninsula, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  8. Health and safety strategies of urban taxi drivers.

    PubMed

    Burgel, Barbara Jean; Gillen, Marion; White, Mary Castle

    2012-08-01

    This study describes health and safety concerns and self-care strategies of San Francisco taxi drivers. Focus groups and a written cross-sectional survey were done in a convenience sample of taxi drivers working in San Francisco. Sessions were audiotaped, transcribed in English, and independently coded to identify major health and safety themes, using thematic content analysis. Strategies to manage health and safety issues are the focus of this analysis. Five focus groups were held in 2009 with 36 participants. Major health and safety themes included stress, body pain, danger, vulnerable employment status, and concerns related to unhealthy working conditions. Self-care strategies included diffusion/decompression to manage stress, maintaining a positive attitude, maintaining power and control, and practicing proactive self-care. Creative self-care strategies were described by taxi drivers to keep healthy and safe at work. These data will inform future self-care interventions to reduce health and safety risks of taxi driving. PMID:22669644

  9. 14 CFR 25.491 - Taxi, takeoff and landing roll.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., takeoff and landing roll. Within the range of appropriate ground speeds and approved weights, the airplane structure and landing gear are assumed to be subjected to loads not less than those obtained when the... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Taxi, takeoff and landing roll....

  10. 14 CFR 25.491 - Taxi, takeoff and landing roll.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., takeoff and landing roll. Within the range of appropriate ground speeds and approved weights, the airplane structure and landing gear are assumed to be subjected to loads not less than those obtained when the... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Taxi, takeoff and landing roll....

  11. Even in Taxis, Kids Belong in Safety Seats

    MedlinePlus

    ... vehicle. But, many municipalities exempt taxis from this safety rule, the researchers said. Study senior investigator Dr. Ruth Milanaik is with Cohen Children's Medical Center in New Hyde Park, N.Y. "Given that car safety seats have been shown to significantly decrease the ...

  12. 77 FR 20789 - Work Group on Measuring Systems for Taxis

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Institute of Standards and Technology Work Group on Measuring Systems for Taxis AGENCY: National... Standards and Technology (NIST) is forming a Work Group (WG) to develop proposals to revise the...

  13. Controller evaluation of initial data link en route air traffic control services: Mini study 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marek, Hank; Shochet, Ephraim; Darby, Evan; Buck, Frank; Sweeney, David; Cratch, Preston

    1991-06-01

    The results of Mini Study 3 conducted November 5-9, 1990 are presented. This Mini Study was conducted at the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Technical Center utilizing the Washington Air Route Traffic Control Center (ARTCC) airspace in the Data Link test bed. Initial Data Link en route services were evaluated in order to identify service delivery methods which optimize the human computer interface. Controllers from the Air Traffic Data Link Validation Team participated in this study.

  14. Transition of AIRS Products to the National Weather Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zavodsky, Bradley

    2012-01-01

    Short-term Prediction Research and Transition Center (SPoRT) is a proven community leader for transitioning satellite products to operational end users and is working hard to bring data from Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) to forecasters. SPoRT products using AIRS data are currently or will soon be evaluated at WFOs and National Centers (1) T and q profiles: HWT, Alaska WFOs, HRD/OPC, HMT (2) Ozone profiles: HPC/OPC (3) Carbon Monoxide: Southern and Western Region WFOs SPoRT is actively evaluating differences between V5 and V6 profiles for selected cases and will continue to provide feedback to the AIRS team as V6 development efforts conclude.

  15. Injuries and absenteeism among motorcycle taxi drivers who are victims of traffic accidents.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Kevan G N; Lucas-Neto, Alfredo; Gama, Bruno D; Lima-Neto, Jose C; Lucas, Rilva Suely C C; d'Ávila, Sérgio

    2014-08-01

    Facial injuries frequently occur in traffic accidents involving motorcycles. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of facial injuries among motorcycle drivers who perform motorcycle taxi service. The study design was cross-sectional. A total of 210 participants who served as motorcycle taxi drivers in a city in northeastern Brazil completed a survey concerning their experience of accidents involving facial injuries and consequent hospitalization and absenteeism from work. The motorcycle drivers included in the study were randomly selected from a list provided by the city. Out of the respondents, 165 (78.6%) who were involved in traffic accidents in the last 12 months, 15 (9.1%) reported facial injuries. The types of facial injury most frequently reported involved soft tissues (n = 8; 53.3%), followed by simple fracture (n = 4; 26.7%) and dentoalveolar fracture (n = 3; 20%). We found an association between facial injuries and absenteeism, as well as an association between the presence of facial injury and the need for hospitalization for a period of 2 days or more. Respondents reported that they had accidents, but due to the use of full face motorcycle helmet the number of facial injuries was low. For most of them, absenteeism was observed for a period of one month or more. PMID:25066167

  16. Operational factors of air service to small communities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility of using 30-passenger jet aircraft to service low density, short haul markets was analyzed. Aircraft characteristics, market potential, and economic factors were among the areas evaluated.

  17. Aeronautical mobile satellite service: Air traffic control applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sim, Dave

    1990-01-01

    Canada's history both in aviation and in satellite communications development spans several decades. The introduction of aeronautical mobile satellite communications will serve our requirements for airspace management in areas not served by line-of-sight radio and radar facilities. The ensuing improvements in air safety and operating efficiency are eagerly awaited by the aviation community.

  18. Service the Carburetor Air Cleaner. Fuel System. Student Manual 1. Small Engine Repair Series. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Pamela

    This student manual, part of a small-engine repair series on servicing fuel systems, is designed for use by special needs students in Texas. The manual explains in pictures and short sentences, written on a low reading level, the job of servicing carburetor air cleaners. Along with the steps of this repair job, specific safety and caution…

  19. Application of AirCell Cellular AMPS Network and Iridium Satellite System Dual Mode Service to Air Traffic Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shamma, Mohammed A.

    2004-01-01

    The AirCell/Iridium dual mode service is evaluated for potential applications to Air Traffic Management (ATM) communication needs. The AirCell system which is largely based on the Advanced Mobile Phone System (AMPS) technology, and the Iridium FDMA/TDMA system largely based on the Global System for Mobile Communications(GSM) technology, can both provide communication relief for existing or future aeronautical communication links. Both have a potential to serve as experimental platforms for future technologies via a cost effective approach. The two systems are well established in the entire CONUS and globally hence making it feasible to utilize in all regions, for all altitudes, and all classes of aircraft. Both systems have been certified for air usage. The paper summarizes the specifications of the AirCell/Iridium system, as well as the ATM current and future links, and application specifications. the paper highlights the scenarios, applications, and conditions under which the AirCell/Iridium technology can be suited for ATM Communication.

  20. 41 CFR 301-10.138 - In what circumstances is foreign air carrier service deemed a matter of necessity?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... foreign air carrier service deemed a matter of necessity? 301-10.138 Section 301-10.138 Public Contracts... Air Carriers § 301-10.138 In what circumstances is foreign air carrier service deemed a matter of... issued by the Federal Aviation Administration and the Department of State. An agency determination...

  1. 41 CFR 301-10.138 - In what circumstances is foreign air carrier service deemed a matter of necessity?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... foreign air carrier service deemed a matter of necessity? 301-10.138 Section 301-10.138 Public Contracts... Air Carriers § 301-10.138 In what circumstances is foreign air carrier service deemed a matter of... issued by the Federal Aviation Administration and the Department of State. An agency determination...

  2. 41 CFR 301-10.138 - In what circumstances is foreign air carrier service deemed a matter of necessity?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... foreign air carrier service deemed a matter of necessity? 301-10.138 Section 301-10.138 Public Contracts... Air Carriers § 301-10.138 In what circumstances is foreign air carrier service deemed a matter of... issued by the Federal Aviation Administration and the Department of State. An agency determination...

  3. 41 CFR 301-10.138 - In what circumstances is foreign air carrier service deemed a matter of necessity?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... foreign air carrier service deemed a matter of necessity? 301-10.138 Section 301-10.138 Public Contracts... Air Carriers § 301-10.138 In what circumstances is foreign air carrier service deemed a matter of... issued by the Federal Aviation Administration and the Department of State. An agency determination...

  4. 41 CFR 301-10.138 - In what circumstances is foreign air carrier service deemed a matter of necessity?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... foreign air carrier service deemed a matter of necessity? 301-10.138 Section 301-10.138 Public Contracts... Air Carriers § 301-10.138 In what circumstances is foreign air carrier service deemed a matter of... issued by the Federal Aviation Administration and the Department of State. An agency determination...

  5. Comparing taxi clearance input layouts for advancements in flight deck automation for surface operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Lara W. S.

    Airport moving maps (AMMs) have been shown to decrease navigation errors, increase taxiing speed, and reduce workload when they depict airport layout, current aircraft position, and the cleared taxi route. However, current technologies are limited in their ability to depict the cleared taxi route due to the unavailability of datacomm or other means of electronically transmitting clearances from ATC to the flight deck. This study examined methods by which pilots can input ATC-issued taxi clearances to support taxi route depictions on the AMM. Sixteen general aviation (GA) pilots used a touchscreen monitor to input taxi clearances using two input layouts, softkeys and QWERTY, each with and without feedforward (graying out invalid inputs). QWERTY yielded more taxi route input errors than the softkeys layout. The presence of feedforward did not produce fewer taxi route input errors than in the non-feedforward condition. The QWERTY layout did reduce taxi clearance input times relative to the softkeys layout, but when feedforward was present this effect was observed only for the longer, 6-segment taxi clearances. It was observed that with the softkeys layout, feedforward reduced input times compared to non-feedforward but only for the 4-segment clearances. Feedforward did not support faster taxi clearance input times for the QWERTY layout. Based on the results and analyses of the present study, it is concluded that for taxi clearance inputs, (1) QWERTY remain the standard for alphanumeric inputs, and (2) feedforward be investigated further, with a focus on participant preference and performance of black-gray contrast of keys.

  6. The scaling of human mobility by taxis is exponential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Xiao; Zheng, Xudong; Lv, Weifeng; Zhu, Tongyu; Xu, Ke

    2012-03-01

    As a significant factor in urban planning, traffic forecasting and prediction of epidemics, modeling patterns of human mobility draws intensive attention from researchers for decades. Power-law distribution and its variations are observed from quite a few real-world human mobility datasets such as the movements of banking notes, trackings of cell phone users' locations and trajectories of vehicles. In this paper, we build models for 20 million trajectories with fine granularity collected from more than 10 thousand taxis in Beijing. In contrast to most models observed in human mobility data, the taxis' traveling displacements in urban areas tend to follow an exponential distribution instead of a power-law. Similarly, the elapsed time can also be well approximated by an exponential distribution. Worth mentioning, analysis of the interevent time indicates the bursty nature of human mobility, similar to many other human activities.

  7. Fuel Consumption and Emissions from Airport Taxi Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jung, Yoon

    2010-01-01

    Developed a method to calculate fuel consumption and emissions of phases of taxi operations. Results at DFW showed that up to 18% of fuel can be saved by eliminating stop-and-go situations. Developed an energy efficient and environmentally friendly surface concept: Spot and Runway Departure Advisory (SARDA) tool. The SARDA tool has been identified as a potential candidate for a technology transfer to the FAA.

  8. Talent in the taxi: a model system for exploring expertise

    PubMed Central

    Woollett, Katherine; Spiers, Hugo J.; Maguire, Eleanor A.

    2009-01-01

    While there is widespread interest in and admiration of individuals with exceptional talents, surprisingly little is known about the cognitive and neural mechanisms underpinning talent, and indeed how talent relates to expertise. Because many talents are first identified and nurtured in childhood, it can be difficult to determine whether talent is innate, can be acquired through extensive practice or can only be acquired in the presence of the developing brain. We sought to address some of these issues by studying healthy adults who acquired expertise in adulthood. We focused on the domain of memory and used licensed London taxi drivers as a model system. Taxi drivers have to learn the layout of 25 000 streets in London and the locations of thousands of places of interest, and pass stringent examinations in order to obtain an operating licence. Using neuropsychological assessment and structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging, we addressed a range of key questions: in the context of a fully developed brain and an average IQ, can people acquire expertise to an exceptional level; what are the neural signatures, both structural and functional, associated with the use of expertise; does expertise change the brain compared with unskilled control participants; does it confer any cognitive advantages, and similarly, does it come at a cost to other functions? By studying retired taxi drivers, we also consider what happens to their brains and behaviour when experts stop using their skill. Finally, we discuss how the expertise of taxi drivers might relate to the issue of talent and innate abilities. We suggest that exploring talent and expertise in this manner could have implications for education, rehabilitation of patients with cognitive impairments, understanding individual differences and possibly conditions such as autism where exceptional abilities can be a feature. PMID:19528024

  9. A Mixed Integer Linear Program for Solving a Multiple Route Taxi Scheduling Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montoya, Justin Vincent; Wood, Zachary Paul; Rathinam, Sivakumar; Malik, Waqar Ahmad

    2010-01-01

    Aircraft movements on taxiways at busy airports often create bottlenecks. This paper introduces a mixed integer linear program to solve a Multiple Route Aircraft Taxi Scheduling Problem. The outputs of the model are in the form of optimal taxi schedules, which include routing decisions for taxiing aircraft. The model extends an existing single route formulation to include routing decisions. An efficient comparison framework compares the multi-route formulation and the single route formulation. The multi-route model is exercised for east side airport surface traffic at Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport to determine if any arrival taxi time savings can be achieved by allowing arrivals to have two taxi routes: a route that crosses an active departure runway and a perimeter route that avoids the crossing. Results indicate that the multi-route formulation yields reduced arrival taxi times over the single route formulation only when a perimeter taxiway is used. In conditions where the departure aircraft are given an optimal and fixed takeoff sequence, accumulative arrival taxi time savings in the multi-route formulation can be as high as 3.6 hours more than the single route formulation. If the departure sequence is not optimal, the multi-route formulation results in less taxi time savings made over the single route formulation, but the average arrival taxi time is significantly decreased.

  10. Media Controller For Receiving Data From A TAXI(TM) Link

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stauffer, David R.; Mcmahon, Rebecca Stempski

    1995-01-01

    TAXI(TM) media controller (TMC) is interface circuit that supports operation of test equipment in diagnosis of telemetry system in which data communicated via TAXI(TM) links. TMC designed specifically for use with TAXI(TM) test adapter for monitoring and testing telemetry data signals generated by payloads and other subsystems of Space Station Freedom. Overall, TMC characterized as providing interface between output part of a TAXI(TM) receiving chip and input port of memory system in test adapter. TMC detects some abnormalities in received data stream and resynchronizes stream to locally generated clock signal.

  11. A Correlational Study of How Airline Customer Service and Consumer Perception of Airline Customer Service Affect the Air Rage Phenomenon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Joyce A.

    2007-01-01

    Between 1995 and 2000, customer service declined throughout the airline industry, as reported in February 2001 by the U.S. Department of Transportation (2001). One of the biggest problems today within the airline industry is the constant complaining from customers regarding the deterioraton of service (McCollough, Berry, & Yadav, 2000). Since 1995, unfortunately no airline has been immune from service deterioration, as reported by the Airline Quality Rating, an annual report by two airline industry experts who analyzed Department of Transportation statistics (Harrison & Kleinsasser, 1999). The airline' refusal to recognize the issue of customer service has perpetuated an environment that has become dangerous and detrimental to the traveling public as well as to airline employees, which in turn has fueled a new phenomenon, now referred to as "air rage".

  12. Understanding intra-urban trip patterns from taxi trajectory data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yu; Kang, Chaogui; Gao, Song; Xiao, Yu; Tian, Yuan

    2012-10-01

    Intra-urban human mobility is investigated by means of taxi trajectory data that are collected in Shanghai, China, where taxis play an important role in urban transportation. From the taxi trajectories, approximately 1.5 million trips of anonymous customers are extracted on seven consecutive days. The globally spatio-temporal patterns of trips exhibit a significant daily regularity. Since each trip can be viewed as a displacement in the random walk model, the distributions of the distance and direction of the extracted trips are investigated in this research. The direction distribution shows an NEE-SWW-dominant direction, and the distance distribution can be well fitted by an exponentially truncated power law, with the scaling exponent β = 1.2 ± 0.15. The observed patterns are attributed to the geographical heterogeneity of the study area, which makes the spatial distribution of trajectory stops to be non-uniform. We thus construct a model that integrates both the geographical heterogeneity and distance decay effect, to interpret the observed patterns. Our Monte Carlo simulation results closely match to the observed patterns and thus validate the proposed model. According to the proposed model, in a single-core urban area, the geographical heterogeneity and distance decay effect improve each other when influencing human mobility patterns. Geographical heterogeneity leads to a faster observed decay, and the distance decay effect makes the spatial distribution of trips more concentrated.

  13. A method for the determination of potentially profitable service patterns for commuter air carriers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ransone, R. K.; Kuhlthau, A. R.; Deptula, D. A.

    1975-01-01

    A methodology for estimating market conception was developed as a part of the short-haul air transportation program. It is based upon an analysis of actual documents which provide a record of known travel history. Applying this methodology a forecast was made of the demand for an air feeder service between Charlottesville, Virginia and Dulles International Airport. Local business travel vouchers and local travel agent records were selected to provide the documentation. The market was determined to be profitable for an 8-passenger Cessna 402B aircraft flying a 2-hour daily service pattern designed to mesh to the best extent possible with the connecting schedules at Dulles. The Charlottesville - Dulles air feeder service market conception forecast and its methodology are documented.

  14. AIRS Version 6 Products and Data Services at NASA GES DISC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, F.; Savtchenko, A. K.; Hearty, T. J.; Theobald, M. L.; Vollmer, B.; Esfandiari, E.

    2013-12-01

    The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) is the home of processing, archiving, and distribution services for data from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) mission. The AIRS mission is entering its 11th year of global observations of the atmospheric state, including temperature and humidity profiles, outgoing longwave radiation, cloud properties, and trace gases. The GES DISC, in collaboration with the AIRS Project, released data from the Version 6 algorithm in early 2013. The new algorithm represents a significant improvement over previous versions in terms of greater stability, yield, and quality of products. Among the most substantial advances are: improved soundings of Tropospheric and Sea Surface Temperatures; larger improvements with increasing cloud cover; improved retrievals of surface spectral emissivity; near-complete removal of spurious temperature bias trends seen in earlier versions; substantially improved retrieval yield (i.e., number of soundings accepted for output) for climate studies; AIRS-Only retrievals with comparable accuracy to AIRS+AMSU (Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit) retrievals; and more realistic hemispheric seasonal variability and global distribution of carbon monoxide. The GES DISC is working to bring the distribution services up-to-date with these new developments. Our focus is on popular services, like variable subsetting and quality screening, which are impacted by the new elements in Version 6. Other developments in visualization services, such as Giovanni, Near-Real Time imagery, and a granule-map viewer, are progressing along with the introduction of the new data; each service presents its own challenge. This presentation will demonstrate the most significant improvements in Version 6 AIRS products, such as newly added variables (higher resolution outgoing longwave radiation, new cloud property products, etc.), the new quality control schema, and improved retrieval yields. We will also

  15. Factors associated with crashes involving taxi owners and non-owners: A case of moral hazard and adverse selection?

    PubMed

    Tay, Richard; Choi, Jaisung

    2016-02-01

    Taxis experience a higher risk of a motor vehicle crash partly because of their much higher levels of exposure on the roads. Although several studies have been conducted to examine the factors associated with the frequency and severity of taxi collisions, little research has been conducted to examine the differences in the factors associated with owner taxis and non-owner taxis. This study finds that collisions involving non-owners are more likely to be associated with poor or risky driving behaviors than collisions involving taxi vehicle owners. This result is consistent with the economic principles of moral hazard and adverse selection. Hence, policy makers responsible for traffic safety, taxi regulation or taxi operations should consider measures to reduce these market inefficiencies and improve the safety of not only taxi drivers but all road users. PMID:26655521

  16. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  17. 3 CFR - Provision of Aviation Insurance Coverage for Commercial Air Carrier Service in Domestic and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Provision of Aviation Insurance Coverage for Commercial Air Carrier Service in Domestic and International Operations Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of September 27, 2012 Provision of Aviation Insurance Coverage for...

  18. 3 CFR - Provision of Aviation Insurance Coverage for Commercial Air Carrier Service in Domestic and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Provision of Aviation Insurance Coverage for Commercial Air Carrier Service in Domestic and International Operations Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of September 28, 2011 Provision of Aviation Insurance Coverage for...

  19. 3 CFR - Provision of Aviation Insurance Coverage for Commercial Air Carrier Service in Domestic and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Provision of Aviation Insurance Coverage for Commercial Air Carrier Service in Domestic and International Operations Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of September 29, 2010 Provision of Aviation Insurance Coverage for...

  20. 3 CFR - Provision of Aviation Insurance Coverage for Commercial Air Carrier Service in Domestic and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Provision of Aviation Insurance Coverage for Commercial Air Carrier Service in Domestic and International Operations Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of December 27, 2013 Provision of Aviation Insurance Coverage for...

  1. Pan American Airways/Naval Air Transport Service/destroyer base site at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Pan American Airways/Naval Air Transport Service/destroyer base site at the east side showing walkway and building foundation. View facing west-northwest. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Pearl City Peninsula, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  2. Getting Down to Business: Air Conditioning and Heating Service, Module 36. [Student Guide]. Entrepreneurship Training Components.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, Barbara

    This module on owning and operating an air conditioning and heating service is one of 36 in a series on entrepreneurship. The introduction tells the student what topics will be covered and suggests other modules to read in related occupations. Each unit includes student goals, a case study, and a discussion of the unit subject matter. Learning…

  3. Environmental Control System Installer/Servicer (Residential Air Conditioning Mechanic). V-TECS Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Calvin F.; Benson, Robert T.

    This guide provides job relevant tasks, performance objectives, performance guides, resources, learning activitites, evaluation standards, and achievement testing in the occupation of environmental control system installer/servicer (residential air conditioning mechanic). It is designed to be used with any chosen teaching method. The course…

  4. 75 FR 61031 - Provision of Aviation Insurance Coverage for Commercial Air Carrier Service in Domestic and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ... Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, Washington, September 29, 2010 [FR Doc. 2010-24900 Filed 9-30-10; 11:15 am... Memorandum of September 29, 2010--Provision of Aviation Insurance Coverage for Commercial Air Carrier Service...;The President ] Memorandum of September 29, 2010 Provision of Aviation Insurance Coverage...

  5. Manpower Requirements for Air Traffic Control and Flight Service Specialists in Indiana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN. Office of Manpower Studies.

    As of January 1, 1968 the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) of the United States Department of Transportation employed 6,963 controllers in airport towers, 7,617 controllers in Air Route Traffic Control Centers, and 4,459 flight service specialists at airport locations. Projected needs are as follows: (1) Controllers in airport towers:…

  6. 76 FR 52731 - On-Line Complaint Form for Service-Related Issues in Air Transportation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... aviation economic, consumer protection, and civil rights requirements. Among other things, the office is... in compliance with federal aviation consumer protection and civil rights laws and what, if any... public to electronically submit aviation service-related complaints against air carriers. DATES:...

  7. 5 CFR 9701.232 - Special transition rules for Federal Air Marshal Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special transition rules for Federal Air Marshal Service. 9701.232 Section 9701.232 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN... HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Classification Transitional Provisions §...

  8. 5 CFR 9701.232 - Special transition rules for Federal Air Marshal Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Special transition rules for Federal Air Marshal Service. 9701.232 Section 9701.232 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN... HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Classification Transitional Provisions §...

  9. AIRS Data Subsetting Service at the Goddard Earth Sciences (GES) DISC/DAAC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vicente, Gilberto A.; Qin, Jianchun; Li, Jason; Gerasimov, Irina; Savtchenko, Andrey

    2004-01-01

    The AIRS mission, as a combination of the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) and the Humidity Sounder for Brazil (HSB), brings climate research and weather prediction into 21st century. From NASA' Aqua spacecraft, the AIRS/AMSU/HSB instruments measure humidity, temperature, cloud properties and the amounts of greenhouse gases. The AIRS also reveals land and sea- surface temperatures. Measurements from these three instruments are analyzed . jointly to filter out the effects of clouds from the IR data in order to derive clear-column air-temperature profiles and surface temperatures with high vertical resolution and accuracy. Together, they constitute an advanced operational sounding data system that have contributed to improve global modeling efforts and numerical weather prediction; enhance studies of the global energy and water cycles, the effects of greenhouse gases, and atmosphere-surface interactions; and facilitate monitoring of climate variations and trends. The high data volume generated by the AIRS/AMSU/HSB instruments and the complexity of its data format (Hierarchical Data Format, HDF) are barriers to AIRS data use. Although many researchers are interested in only a fraction of the data they receive or request, they are forced to run their algorithms on a much larger data set to extract the information of interest. In order to better server its users, the GES DISC/DAAC, provider of long-term archives and distribution services as well science support for the AIRS/AMSU/HSB data products, has developed various tools for performing channels, variables, parameter, spatial and derived products subsetting, resampling and reformatting operations. This presentation mainly describes the web-enabled subsetting services currently available at the GES DISC/DAAC that provide subsetting functions for all the Level 1B and Level 2 data products from the AIRS/AMSU/HSB instruments.

  10. 76 FR 33639 - Safety Zone; New York Water Taxi 10th Anniversary Fireworks

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-09

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; New York Water Taxi 10th Anniversary... to celebrate the 10th Anniversary of New York Water Taxi. The fireworks will commence at 9 p.m. on... CFR Part 165 Harbors, Marine safety, Navigation (water), Reporting and recordkeeping...

  11. Hybrid Taxis Give Fuel Economy a Lift -Clean Cities Fleet Experiences -

    SciTech Connect

    2009-04-01

    The hybrid taxis are able to achieve about twice the gas mileage of a conventional taxi while helping cut gasoline use and fuel costs. Tax credits and other incentives are helping both company owners and drivers make the switch to hybrids.

  12. Microbial Air Quality and Bacterial Surface Contamination in Ambulances During Patient Services

    PubMed Central

    Luksamijarulkul, Pipat; Pipitsangjan, Sirikun

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We sought to assess microbial air quality and bacterial surface contamination on medical instruments and the surrounding areas among 30 ambulance runs during service. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study of 106 air samples collected from 30 ambulances before patient services and 212 air samples collected during patient services to assess the bacterial and fungal counts at the two time points. Additionally, 226 surface swab samples were collected from medical instrument surfaces and the surrounding areas before and after ambulance runs. Groups or genus of isolated bacteria and fungi were preliminarily identified by Gram’s stain and lactophenol cotton blue. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-test, and Pearson’s correlation coefficient with a p-value of less than 0.050 considered significant. Results The mean and standard deviation of bacterial and fungal counts at the start of ambulance runs were 318±485cfu/m3 and 522±581cfu/m3, respectively. Bacterial counts during patient services were 468±607cfu/m3 and fungal counts were 656±612cfu/m3. Mean bacterial and fungal counts during patient services were significantly higher than those at the start of ambulance runs, p=0.005 and p=0.030, respectively. For surface contamination, the overall bacterial counts before and after patient services were 0.8±0.7cfu/cm2 and 1.3±1.1cfu/cm2, respectively (p<0.001). The predominant isolated bacteria and fungi were Staphylococcus spp. and Aspergillus spp., respectively. Additionally, there was a significantly positive correlation between bacterial (r=0.3, p<0.010) and fungal counts (r=0.2, p=0.020) in air samples and bacterial counts on medical instruments and allocated areas. Conclusions This study revealed high microbial contamination (bacterial and fungal) in ambulance air during services and higher bacterial contamination on medical instrument surfaces and allocated areas after ambulance services compared to the start of ambulance runs

  13. System considerations, projected requirements and applications for aeronautical mobile satellite communications for air traffic services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, K. D.; Miller, C. M.; Scales, W. C.; Dement, D. K.

    1990-01-01

    The projected application and requirements in the near term (to 1995) and far term (to 2010) for aeronautical mobile services supporting air traffic control operations are addressed. The implications of these requirements on spectrum needs, and the resulting effects on the satellite design and operation are discussed. The U.S. is working with international standards and regulatory organizations to develop the necessary aviation standards, signalling protocols, and implementation methods. In the provision of aeronautical safety services, a number of critical issues were identified, including system reliability and availability, access time, channel restoration time, interoperability, pre-emption techniques, and the system network interfaces. Means for accomplishing these critical services in the aeronautical mobile satellite service (AMSS), and the various activities relating to the future provision of aeronautical safety services are addressed.

  14. Driving to Better Health: Cancer and Cardiovascular Risk Assessment among Taxi Cab Operators in Chicago

    PubMed Central

    Apantaku-Onayemi, Funmi; Baldyga, William; Amuwo, Shaffdeen; Adefuye, Adedeji; Mason, Terry; Mitchell, Robin; Blumenthal, Daniel S.

    2014-01-01

    While a number of investigations of the health of taxi cab drivers have been conducted in Europe, Asia, and Africa, virtually none have been conducted in the United States. We undertook a survey of taxi cab operators in the Chicago area to understand better their health status and health promotion practices. The survey was completed by a convenience sample of 751 Chicago taxi drivers. Taxi drivers had low rates of insurance coverage, fruit and vegetable consumption, and physical activity compared with the general Chicago population. Participation in cancer screening tests was also lower for this group. A high proportion of taxi drivers are immigrants. They tend to be highly educated and report a readiness to engage in more health-promoting behaviors. Further research is needed to develop a targeted intervention for this population. PMID:22643623

  15. AIRS Data Mining Service at the Goddard Earth Sciences (GES) DISC DAAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vicente, G. A.; Qin, J.; Pham, L.; Lynnes, C.; Eng, E.; Li, J.

    2004-05-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a high-resolution infrared (IR) sounder with 2378 spectral channels flying on the EOS Aqua platform with two operational microwave sounders, the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) and the Humidity Sounder for Brazil (HSB). Measurements from the three instruments are analyzed jointly to filter out the effects of clouds from the IR data in order to derive clear-column air-temperature profiles and surface temperatures with high vertical resolution and accuracy. Together, these three instruments constitute an advanced operational sounding data system that have contributed to improve global modeling efforts and numerical weather prediction; enhance studies of the global energy and water cycles, the effects of greenhouse gases, and atmosphere-surface interactions; and facilitate monitoring of climate variations and trends. The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center/Distributed Active Archive Center (GES DISC DAAC) provides long-term archive and distribution services for AIRS/AMSU/HSB data products as well science support to assist users in understanding, accessing and using the AIRS data products. However, the high data volume generated by the AIRS/AMSU/HSB instruments and the complexity of its data format (Hierarchical Data Format, HDF) are barriers to AIRS data use. Although many researchers are interested in only a fraction of the data they receive or request, they are forced to run their algorithms on a much larger data set to extract the information of interest. In order to address this problem, the GES DAAC is expanding its data mining system to accept AIRS user's algorithms by providing online tools for spectral channels and value added product sub-settings, as well as spatial, temporal and user defined profile sub-settings. This presentation will show details of the AIRS components of the GES DAAC data mining system including technical description, input data and returning products

  16. XB-70A during startup and ramp taxi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    The XB-70 was the world's largest experimental aircraft. Capable of flight at speeds of three times the speed of sound (2,000 miles per hour) at altitudes of 70,000 feet, the XB-70 was used to collect in-flight information for use in the design of future supersonic aircraft, military and civilian. This 35-second video shows the startup of the XB-70A airplane engines, the beginning of its taxi to the runway, and a turn on the ramp that shows the unique configuration of this aircraft.

  17. Evaluation of aero commander propeller acoustic data: Taxi operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piersol, A. G.; Wilby, E. G.; Wilby, J. F.

    1979-01-01

    The acoustic data from ground tests performed on an Aero Commander propeller driven aircraft are analyzed. An array of microphones flush mounted on the side of the fuselage were used to record data. The propeller blade passage noise during operations at several different taxi speeds is considered and calculations of the magnitude and phase of the blade passage tones, the amplitude stability of the tones, and the spatial phase and coherence of the tones are included. The measured results are compared to theoretical predictions for propeller noise and various evaluations which reveal important details of propeller noise characteristics are presented.

  18. Screening procedure to evaluate effects of air pollution on Eastern Region wildernesses cited as Class I air-quality areas. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, M.B.; Nichols, D.S.; Federer, C.A.; Jensen, K.F.; Parrott, H.

    1991-09-01

    The USDA Forest Service's Eastern Region manages eight wilderness areas that have been designated as Class I air quality areas by the Federal Clean Air Act. As part of the legislation, Federal land managers are required to consult with air pollution regulators on the potential impacts of proposed air pollution emissions on the air quality-related values (AQRV) of these wilderness areas. An interim procedure for screening applications for Prevention of Significant Deterioration permits required for Class I areas is discussed, and the AQRVs for the eight Eastern Region wilderness areas are described.

  19. An Airborne Communications Roadmap for the U.S. Federal Air Marshal Service: Overview and Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martzaklis, Konstantinos S.

    2007-01-01

    Following the events of September 11, 2001, the responsibilities, operations and numbers of the U.S. Federal Air Marshal Service (FAMS) wer e greatly expanded. With this expansion, new critical research and te chnology needs were identified, including the need for air to ground telecommunications capabilities. To address this need, the FAMS has cr eated a working group to develop, deploy and enhance aviation communi cations with respect to security and law enforcement. This paper presents the working group's progress to date in generating a FAMS air-gro und communications roadmap identifying expected communications servic es, technology maturity, and technology gaps over a timeline. The paper includes a communications preliminary requirements summary and syst em performance characteristics needed to meet identified operational needs. The system engineering process utilized is presented beginning with the identification of users, their operational needs and relevant constraints. The operational needs are translated to desired airbor ne communications services. System technical performance requirements associated with the identified services are summarized. In addition, notional communications architectures addressing the requirements are presented. Finally, future plans to identify and assess potential ca ndidate systems and their associated technical architectures, gaps and barriers to implementation are discussed. The paper addresses the cu rrent, near term (within 5 years) and far term (10 years) timeframes for such an airborne communications system.

  20. Motor vehicle accidents, fatigue and optimism bias in taxi drivers.

    PubMed

    Dalziel, J R; Job, R F

    1997-07-01

    Fatigue-related variables and their relationship with accident involvement were examined in a group of 42 Sydney metropolitan taxi drivers across a 2-year period. Advantages associated with the study of this group of road users include their important role in public transport, long hours spent on the road, job-related controls of exposure through shift patterns and the ability to verify accidents with company insurance records. Number and length of breaks, employment type, falling asleep at the wheel and a variety of other job-related and attitudinal variables were surveyed. Results provide basic data on fatigue-related aspects of the job of taxi driving. Driver time-on-the-road is often considerable: 67% of those surveyed drove at least 50 hours per week, yet time off in long shifts (up to 12 hours) was often short (as low as 3 minutes, with an average of 37 minutes). Self report of accidents proved reliable against insurance company records. A significant negative correlation between total average break time and accident rate was observed. Optimism bias was present for a variety of driving-related questions, including the ability to drive safely while fatigued. PMID:9248507

  1. 76 FR 28379 - Proposed Amendment and Establishment of Air Traffic Service Routes; Northeast United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ...This action proposes to amend five Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes and establish four new ATS routes. The existing routes that would be amended are Q-42, J-60, V-16, V-229 and V-449. The proposed new routes are Q-62, Q-406, Q-448 and Q-480. The FAA is proposing this action to increase National Airspace System (NAS) efficiency, enhance safety and reduce delays within the New York Metropolitan......

  2. Comparing rural ground and air emergency medical services: a level I trauma center's experience.

    PubMed

    von Recklinghausen, Friedrich Maximilian

    2011-01-01

    We sought to compare differences in patients transported by ground and air emergency medical services directly from the scenes of their injuries to a rural level I trauma facility. Variables examined included age, gender, vital signs, Glasgow Coma Scale score, discharge location, length of stay, and survival metrics. Student t tests and odds ratios were used for analysis. Demographics and vital signs differed between trauma patients transported by air versus those transported by ground. Generally, length of stay was longer in air-transported patients, who also had poorer survival metrics with negligible risk of death. Significant differences exist in the markers of physiology such as vital signs, expected survival, and degree of injury. PMID:22157533

  3. 14 CFR 294.84 - Air competency requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Air competency requirements. 294.84 Section... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS CANADIAN CHARTER AIR TAXI OPERATORS Terms, Conditions, and Limitations of This Part § 294.84 Air competency requirements. Registrants shall conform to the airworthiness...

  4. 14 CFR 294.84 - Air competency requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Air competency requirements. 294.84 Section... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS CANADIAN CHARTER AIR TAXI OPERATORS Terms, Conditions, and Limitations of This Part § 294.84 Air competency requirements. Registrants shall conform to the airworthiness...

  5. 14 CFR 294.84 - Air competency requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Air competency requirements. 294.84 Section... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS CANADIAN CHARTER AIR TAXI OPERATORS Terms, Conditions, and Limitations of This Part § 294.84 Air competency requirements. Registrants shall conform to the airworthiness...

  6. Application of ESE Data and Tools to Air Quality Management: Services for Helping the Air Quality Community use ESE Data (SHAirED)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falke, Stefan; Husar, Rudolf

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this REASoN applications and technology project is to deliver and use Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) data and tools in support of air quality management. Its scope falls within the domain of air quality management and aims to develop a federated air quality information sharing network that includes data from NASA, EPA, US States and others. Project goals were achieved through a access of satellite and ground observation data, web services information technology, interoperability standards, and air quality community collaboration. In contributing to a network of NASA ESE data in support of particulate air quality management, the project will develop access to distributed data, build Web infrastructure, and create tools for data processing and analysis. The key technologies used in the project include emerging web services for developing self describing and modular data access and processing tools, and service oriented architecture for chaining web services together to assemble customized air quality management applications. The technology and tools required for this project were developed within DataFed.net, a shared infrastructure that supports collaborative atmospheric data sharing and processing web services. Much of the collaboration was facilitated through community interactions through the Federation of Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP) Air Quality Workgroup. The main activities during the project that successfully advanced DataFed, enabled air quality applications and established community-oriented infrastructures were: develop access to distributed data (surface and satellite), build Web infrastructure to support data access, processing and analysis create tools for data processing and analysis foster air quality community collaboration and interoperability.

  7. A safety monitoring system for taxi based on CMOS imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhi

    2005-01-01

    CMOS image sensors now become increasingly competitive with respect to their CCD counterparts, while adding advantages such as no blooming, simpler driving requirements and the potential of on-chip integration of sensor, analogue circuitry, and digital processing functions. A safety monitoring system for taxi based on cmos imager that can record field situation when unusual circumstance happened is described in this paper. The monitoring system is based on a CMOS imager (OV7120), which can output digital image data through parallel pixel data port. The system consists of a CMOS image sensor, a large capacity NAND FLASH ROM, a USB interface chip and a micro controller (AT90S8515). The structure of whole system and the test data is discussed and analyzed in detail.

  8. Detecting Hotspots from Taxi Trajectory Data Using Spatial Cluster Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, P. X.; Qin, K.; Zhou, Q.; Liu, C. K.; Chen, Y. X.

    2015-07-01

    A method of trajectory clustering based on decision graph and data field is proposed in this paper. The method utilizes data field to describe spatial distribution of trajectory points, and uses decision graph to discover cluster centres. It can automatically determine cluster parameters and is suitable to trajectory clustering. The method is applied to trajectory clustering on taxi trajectory data, which are on the holiday (May 1st, 2014), weekday (Wednesday, May 7th, 2014) and weekend (Saturday, May 10th, 2014) respectively, in Wuhan City, China. The hotspots in four hours (8:00-9:00, 12:00-13:00, 18:00-19:00 and 23:00-24:00) for three days are discovered and visualized in heat maps. In the future, we will further research the spatiotemporal distribution and laws of these hotspots, and use more data to carry out the experiments.

  9. Human Mars Mission Performance Crew Taxi Profile. Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duaro, Vince A.

    1999-01-01

    This timeline was generated on the Integrated Mission Program (IMP). All burn events over 2 seconds are finite with IMP solving a two point boundary value setup for begin burn time, burn time and control angles. Perigee and apogee shown above are mean orbital values. Significant events are listed. Each finite thrust event has two lines. The first is the beginning time showing the initial conditions, thrust and ISP used. The second has the end burn conditions and the delta v and time of burn. This case is an abort from the 750 x 750 phasing abort, using the taxi's main engines. An abort using the Reaction Control System (RCS) was also investigated but required a large increase in RCS propellant and was abandoned.

  10. Pili-taxis: Clustering of Neisseria gonorrhoeae bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taktikos, Johannes; Zaburdaev, Vasily; Biais, Nicolas; Stark, Holger; Weitz, David A.

    2012-02-01

    The first step of colonization of Neisseria gonorrhoeae bacteria, the etiological agent of gonorrhea, is the attachment to human epithelial cells. The attachment of N. gonorrhoeae bacteria to surfaces or other cells is primarily mediated by filamentous appendages, called type IV pili (Tfp). Cycles of elongation and retraction of Tfp are responsible for a common bacterial motility called twitching motility which allows the bacteria to crawl over surfaces. Experimentally, N. gonorrhoeae cells initially dispersed over a surface agglomerate into round microcolonies within hours. It is so far not known whether this clustering is driven entirely by the Tfp dynamics or if chemotactic interactions are needed. Thus, we investigate whether the agglomeration may stem solely from the pili-mediated attraction between cells. By developing a statistical model for pili-taxis, we try to explain the experimental measurements of the time evolution of the mean cluster size, number of clusters, and area fraction covered by the cells.

  11. Suppression of radiated emission in fiscal taxi meter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Hong; Yang, Pei-pei; Su, Xing; Zhang, Da-jian; Wang, Ke-xi; Hou, Ming-feng

    2011-12-01

    This paper is based upon National Standards for EMC. For the problem that the intensity of electromagnetic radiation in the meter with the THG at 36MHz is seriously more than National Standards, by studying the theory of radiation emission and analyzing the formation mechanism of electromagnetic radiation interference, it proposes three restrain measures: 1.the improvement of the Crystal oscillator's grounding measure; 2.adding a RC filter circuit to the Crystal oscillator circuit; 3.the improvement of the tax's communication cable, solving the problem that radiation harassment the taxi meter seriously exceeds. The experimental result demonstrates that the radiation intensity of tax meter improved with the general measures meet the requirements of the national standard, making more than 32000 taxes in Tianjin install this green meter, protecting the safety of staff and normal operation of the surrounding equipment.

  12. Optimizing Air Transportation Service to Metroplex Airports. Part 1; Analysis of Historical Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donohue, George; Hoffman, Karla; Sherry, Lance; Ferguson, John; Kara, Abdul Qadar

    2010-01-01

    The air transportation system is a significant driver of the U.S. economy, providing safe, affordable, and rapid transportation. During the past three decades airspace and airport capacity has not grown in step with demand for air transportation (+4% annual growth), resulting in unreliable service and systemic delays. Estimates of the impact of delays and unreliable air transportation service on the economy range from $32B to $41B per year. This report describes the results of an analysis of airline strategic decision-making with regards to: (1) geographic access, (2) economic access, and (3) airline finances. This analysis evaluated markets-served, scheduled flights, aircraft size, airfares, and profit from 2005-2009. During this period, airlines experienced changes in costs of operation (due to fluctuations in hedged fuel prices), changes in travel demand (due to changes in the economy), and changes in infrastructure capacity (due to the capacity limits at EWR, JFK, and LGA). This analysis captures the impact of the implementation of capacity limits at airports, as well as the effect of increased costs of operation (i.e. hedged fuel prices). The increases in costs of operation serve as a proxy for increased costs per flight that might occur if auctions or congestion pricing are imposed.

  13. Using ecosystem services to inform decisions on U.S. air quality standards.

    PubMed

    Rea, Anne W; Davis, Christine; Evans, David A; Heninger, Brian T; Van Houtven, George

    2012-06-19

    The ecosystem services (ES) framework provides a link between changes in a natural system's structure and function and public welfare. This systematic integration of ecology and economics allows for more consistency and transparency in environmental decision making by enabling valuation of nature's goods and services in a manner that is understood by the public. This policy analysis (1) assesses the utility of the ES conceptual framework in the context of setting a secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS), (2) describes how economic valuation was used to summarize changes in ES affected by NOx and SOx in the review, and (3) uses the secondary NOxSOx NAAQS review as a case study to highlight the advantages and challenges of quantifying air pollutant effects on ES in a decision making context. Using an ES framework can benefit the decision making process by accounting for environmental, ecological, and social elements in a holistic manner. As formal quantitative linkages are developed between ecosystem structure and function and ES, this framework will increasingly allow for a clearer, more transparent link between changes in air quality and public welfare. PMID:22594541

  14. Increasing influenza vaccination in New York City taxi drivers: A community driven approach.

    PubMed

    Gany, Francesca; Rau-Murthy, Rohini; Mujawar, Imran

    2015-05-21

    The Healthy People 2020 influenza immunization goal is 80% for non-institutionalized adults 18-64. However, vaccination rates remain stubbornly low. Culturally tailored approaches to communities with poor vaccine uptake are necessary. Taxi drivers are at risk for influenza and its complications, could serve as vectors for influenza infection, and could be an effective vaccination target to enhance herd immunity of the urban population. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study related to influenza vaccination among taxi drivers. The NYC Taxi Network surveyed a convenience sample of 53 taxi drivers to understand vaccination barriers. Only 17% had been vaccinated. Results informed a pilot tailored workplace intervention, which resulted in vaccinations for 44% of unvaccinated drivers. The study revealed that older drivers were more likely to be vaccinated than younger drivers, while the most common barrier to immunization was that drivers thought vaccination was 'not necessary'. PMID:25850021

  15. DEVELOPMENTS IN NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE METEOROLOGICAL DATA COLLECTION PROGRAMS AS RELATED TO EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) AIR POLLUTION MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    During the next decade, the National Weather Service (NWS) will be upgrading its meteorological instrumentation and data dissemination procedures. Because these changes will affect the operation of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) air pollution models, the project...

  16. Stigma and barriers to accessing mental health services perceived by Air Force nursing personnel.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Stephen H A; Bedrick, Edward J; Parshall, Mark B

    2014-11-01

    We investigated perceptions of stigma and barriers associated with accessing mental health services among active component U.S. Air Force officer and enlisted nursing personnel (N = 211). The Britt and Hoge et al Stigma scale and Hoge et al Barriers to Care scale were administered via an anonymous, online survey. Stigma items pertained to concerns that might affect decisions to seek mental health treatment. Most of the sample agreed with the items "Members of my unit might have less confidence in me" and "My unit leadership might treat me differently." Approximately 20% to 46% agreed with the other four stigma items. Officer nursing personnel were significantly more likely than enlisted to agree that accessing mental health services would be embarrassing, harm their career, or cause leaders to blame them for the problem (p ≤ 0.03 for each comparison). Getting time off from work for treatment and scheduling appointments were perceived as barriers by 41% and 21% of respondents, respectively. We conclude that proportions of Air Force nursing personnel reporting concerns about potential stigmatizing consequences of seeking mental health care are substantial and similar to ranges previously reported by military service members screening positive for mental health problems after deployment. PMID:25373066

  17. [New possibilities in emergency medical transportation and emergency services of Polish Medical Air Rescue].

    PubMed

    Gałazkowski, Robert

    2010-01-01

    In Poland, two types of medical services are accomplished by the Medical Air Rescue (MAR) operating all over the country: emergency transport from the incident scene to hospital and inter-hospital transport. Helicopters or planes are used for this purpose. In 2009, helicopters performed 4359 flights to incidents and 1537 inter-hospital transports whereas planes performed 589 inter-hospital ambulance and 196 rescue flights. MAR operates from 17 bases of the Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (HEMS) and one airbase. Helicopters are mainly used when medical transport is emergent, within the operational region of a given base whereas planes when the distance between the present and target airports exceeds 250 km. In 2008, new modern aircraft were introduced to HEMS-helicopters EC 135. They fulfil all requirements of air transport regulations and are adjusted to visual (VFR) and instrumental (IFR) flights rules, at day and night. The medical cabin of EC 135 is ergonomic and functional considering the majority of rescue activities under life-saving circumstances. It is equipped with ventilator, defibrillator, infusion pumps etc. Defibrillators have 12-lead ECG, E(T)CO2, SpO2, NIBP, and IBP modules. Transport ventilators can work in a variety of ventilation modes including CMV, SIMV, SVV, BILEVEL, PCV, ASB, PPV and CPAP. The purchase of helicopters with modern avionic and medical configuration ensures high quality services of MAR for many years to come. PMID:21413425

  18. Taxi Time Prediction at Charlotte Airport Using Fast-Time Simulation and Machine Learning Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Hanbong

    2016-01-01

    Accurate taxi time prediction is required for enabling efficient runway scheduling that can increase runway throughput and reduce taxi times and fuel consumptions on the airport surface. Currently NASA and American Airlines are jointly developing a decision-support tool called Spot and Runway Departure Advisor (SARDA) that assists airport ramp controllers to make gate pushback decisions and improve the overall efficiency of airport surface traffic. In this presentation, we propose to use Linear Optimized Sequencing (LINOS), a discrete-event fast-time simulation tool, to predict taxi times and provide the estimates to the runway scheduler in real-time airport operations. To assess its prediction accuracy, we also introduce a data-driven analytical method using machine learning techniques. These two taxi time prediction methods are evaluated with actual taxi time data obtained from the SARDA human-in-the-loop (HITL) simulation for Charlotte Douglas International Airport (CLT) using various performance measurement metrics. Based on the taxi time prediction results, we also discuss how the prediction accuracy can be affected by the operational complexity at this airport and how we can improve the fast time simulation model before implementing it with an airport scheduling algorithm in a real-time environment.

  19. Charging Guidance of Electric Taxis Based on Adaptive Particle Swarm Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Liyong; Zhang, Di

    2015-01-01

    Electric taxis are playing an important role in the application of electric vehicles. The actual operational data of electric taxis in Shenzhen, China, is analyzed, and, in allusion to the unbalanced time availability of the charging station equipment, the electric taxis charging guidance system is proposed basing on the charging station information and vehicle information. An electric taxis charging guidance model is established and guides the charging based on the positions of taxis and charging stations with adaptive mutation particle swarm optimization. The simulation is based on the actual data of Shenzhen charging stations, and the results show that electric taxis can be evenly distributed to the appropriate charging stations according to the charging pile numbers in charging stations after the charging guidance. The even distribution among the charging stations in the area will be achieved and the utilization of charging equipment will be improved, so the proposed charging guidance method is verified to be feasible. The improved utilization of charging equipment can save public charging infrastructure resources greatly. PMID:26236770

  20. Charging Guidance of Electric Taxis Based on Adaptive Particle Swarm Optimization.

    PubMed

    Niu, Liyong; Zhang, Di

    2015-01-01

    Electric taxis are playing an important role in the application of electric vehicles. The actual operational data of electric taxis in Shenzhen, China, is analyzed, and, in allusion to the unbalanced time availability of the charging station equipment, the electric taxis charging guidance system is proposed basing on the charging station information and vehicle information. An electric taxis charging guidance model is established and guides the charging based on the positions of taxis and charging stations with adaptive mutation particle swarm optimization. The simulation is based on the actual data of Shenzhen charging stations, and the results show that electric taxis can be evenly distributed to the appropriate charging stations according to the charging pile numbers in charging stations after the charging guidance. The even distribution among the charging stations in the area will be achieved and the utilization of charging equipment will be improved, so the proposed charging guidance method is verified to be feasible. The improved utilization of charging equipment can save public charging infrastructure resources greatly. PMID:26236770

  1. 48 CFR 47.403-1 - Availability and unavailability of U.S.-flag air carrier service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... (d) For travel between a gateway airport in the United States and a gateway airport abroad, passenger service by U.S.-flag air carrier shall not be considered available if— (1) The gateway airport abroad is... least 24 hours more than travel by a foreign-flag air carrier; or (2) The gateway airport abroad is...

  2. 48 CFR 47.403-1 - Availability and unavailability of U.S.-flag air carrier service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... (d) For travel between a gateway airport in the United States and a gateway airport abroad, passenger service by U.S.-flag air carrier shall not be considered available if— (1) The gateway airport abroad is... least 24 hours more than travel by a foreign-flag air carrier; or (2) The gateway airport abroad is...

  3. 48 CFR 47.403-1 - Availability and unavailability of U.S.-flag air carrier service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... (d) For travel between a gateway airport in the United States and a gateway airport abroad, passenger service by U.S.-flag air carrier shall not be considered available if— (1) The gateway airport abroad is... least 24 hours more than travel by a foreign-flag air carrier; or (2) The gateway airport abroad is...

  4. Towards European-scale Air Quality operational services for GMES Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peuch, V.-H.; Rouil, L.; Tarrason, L.; Elbern, H.; Gems/Macc Regional Subprojects Teams

    2009-09-01

    Basing upon the experience gained in national operational or pre-operational air quality forecasting activities, as for instance Prév'Air in France or EURAD in Germany, a range of European scale services have been developing in the context of the EU-funded project GEMS (6th FP) and are now brought a step further in the new project MACC (7th FP). Within the GEMS project, analyses, hindcasts and forecasts from a range of state-of-the-art Regional Air Quality models have been performed on a quasi-operational daily basis since the beginning of 2008. The models cover Europe with horizontal resolutions ranging from 0.2° to 0.5°, and rely on ECMWF operational meteorological forecasts as well as on GEMS global "chemical weather” data, in the form of chemical boundary conditions for key medium to long-lived trace gases and aerosols. They also all consider the same high-resolution (~8km) anthropogenic and biogenic emissions inventories, developed by TNO (The Netherlands) and NKUA (Greece). Access in quasi Near-Real-Time to AQ monitoring data has been obtained for over 15 European countries through fruitful collaborations with national and regional monitoring agencies. This has provided an interesting context, unprecedented to such an extent, to jointly monitor the performances of regional Air Quality forecasts, assess uncertainties and elaborate ensemble products that build upon the models' spread and their respective skills (both in average and for the few days preceding each forecast). Also a hindcast run covering the whole year of 2003 and using chemical boundaries from GEMS global re-analysis of tropospheric reactive gases has been performed and studied. This year 2003 was indeed marked by several episodes in spring and summer (heat wave) with strong health impacts due (at least in part) to bad Air Quality. The GEMS project has ended in May 2009 and the MACC project has started. Within MACC, a stronger emphasis is put on the use of chemical data assimilation and on

  5. AIRS Data Service at NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services (GES DISC) and Its Application to Climate Change Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Won, Y.; Vollmer, B.; Theobald, M.; Hua, X.

    2008-12-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) instrument suite is designed to observe and characterize the entire atmospheric column from the surface to the top of the atmosphere in terms of surface emissivity and temperature, atmospheric temperature and humidity profiles, cloud amount and height, and the spectral outgoing infrared radiation on a global scale. It is comprised of a space-based hyperspectral infrared instrument (AIRS) and two multichannel microwave instruments, the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU-A) and the Humidity Sounder for Brazil (HSB). The AIRS instrument suite is one of several instruments onboard the Earth Observing System (EOS) Aqua spacecraft launched May 4, 2002 and has been providing global coverage ever since. A six-year record of these data are available from the GES DISC. The AIRS Data Support Team at the GES DISC provides data support to assist others in understanding, retrieving, and extracting information from the AIRS/AMSU/HSB data products. Various AIRS data products (Level-1B, Level-2 and Level-3) are available from the GES DISC. In addition, the GES DISC provides a range of value added services such as data search and access services, subsetting and format conversion services, online data visualization and analysis services. Because number of years has passed since its operation started, the amount of data has reached a certain level of maturity where we can address the climate change study utilizing the AIRS data. In this presentation, we would like to list various services we provide and to demonstrate how to utilize/apply the existing service to long-term and short term variability study.

  6. Testing and analysis of dual-mode adaptive landing gear, taxi mode test system for YF-12A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamon, M. A.

    1979-01-01

    The effectiveness of a dual mode adaptive landing gear system in reducing the dynamic response of an airplane during ground taxiing was studied. The dynamic taxi tests of the YF-12A research airplane are presented. A digital computer program which simulated the test conditions is discussed. The dual mode system as tested provides dynamic taxi response reductions of 25 percent at the cg and 30 to 45 percent at the cockpit.

  7. AIRS/AMSU-A/HSB Data On-demand Subsetting and Visualization Services at NASA GES DISC DAAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Cho, S.; Sun, D.; Qin, J.; Sharma, A. K.

    2002-12-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a high-resolution infrared sounder closely coupled with AMSU-A (Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A) and HSB (Humidity Sounder for Brazil) on EOS Aqua spacecraft launched on May 4, 2002. The data products from AIRS/AMSU-A/HSB will be archived and distributed at the Goddard Distributed Active Archive Center (GDAAC) located in the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DAAC). The ADDST is developing tools to read, visualize, analyze and reformat AIRS/AMSU-A/HSB data. The web-based AIRS on-the-fly/on-demand subsetter will be available to perform channel/variable subsetting and restructuring for Level1B (Calibrated Radiances) and Level2 (Atmospheric Retrievals) data products. One can narrow down criteria to subset data files with desired channels and variables and then download the subsetted file. AIRS QuickLook allows users to view AIRS/HSB/AMSU Level-1B data online for a specific channel prior to ordering or downloading data. Global map is also provided along with image to show geographic coverage of the granule and flight direction of the spacecraft. The Atmospheric Dynamics Data Support Team (ADDST) at the GES DISC/DAAC is providing various services to assist users in understanding, accessing, and using AIRS data product. Information on AIRS data and data analysis tools can be found at AIRS data support informational web site (http://daac.gsfc.nasa.gov/atmodyn/airs/ ) that provides access to various technical online documents, such as, readmes, user's guides, instrument guides, images from AIRS/AMSU-A/HSB data, product search and ordering interfaces, HDF-EOS format information, format conversion software, online data analysis tools, other AIRS related web links and more. Other data support services provided by the ADDST are assist with data mining, helpdesk for user questions on data and information, data ordering, and educational resources.

  8. AIRS Data Service at NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services (GES DISC) and Its Application to Climate Change Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Won, Young-In; Vollimer, Bruce; Theobald, Mike; Hua, Xin-Min

    2008-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) instrument suite is designed to observe and characterize the entire atmospheric column from the surface to the top of the atmosphere in terms of surface emissivity and temperature, atmospheric temperature and humidity profiles, cloud amount and height, and the spectral outgoing infrared radiation on a global scale. The AIRS Data Support Team at the GES DISC provides data support to assist others in understanding, retrieving and extracting information from the AIRS/AMSU/HSB data products. Because a number of years has passed since its operation started, the amount of data has reached a certain level of maturity where we can address the climate change study utilizing AIRS data, In this presentation we will list various service we provide and to demonstrate how to utilize/apply the existing service to long-term and short-term variability study.

  9. Eclipse program QF-106 aircraft taxies at airport in Mojave, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    View of QF-106 airplane for the Eclipse project taxiing on the runway at Mojave Airport, California. In 1997 and 1998, the Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards, California, supported and hosted a Kelly Space & Technology, Inc. project called Eclipse, which sought to demonstrate the feasibility of a reusable tow-launch vehicle concept. The project goal was to successfully tow, inflight, a modified QF-106 delta-wing aircraft with an Air Force C-141A transport aircraft. This would demonstrate the possibility of towing and launching an actual launch vehicle from behind a tow plane. Dryden was the responsible test organization and had flight safety responsibility for the Eclipse project. Dryden provided engineering, instrumentation, simulation, modification, maintenance, range support, and research pilots for the test program. The Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC), Edwards, California, supplied the C-141A transport aircraft and crew and configured the aircraft as needed for the tests. The AFFTC also provided the concept and detail design and analysis as well as hardware for the tow system and QF-106 modifications. Dryden performed the modifications to convert the QF-106 drone into the piloted EXD-01 (Eclipse eXperimental Demonstrator-01) experimental aircraft. Kelly Space & Technology hoped to use the results gleaned from the tow test in developing a series of low-cost, reusable launch vehicles. These tests demonstrated the validity of towing a delta-wing aircraft having high wing loading, validated the tow simulation model, and demonstrated various operational procedures, such as ground processing of in-flight maneuvers and emergency abort scenarios.

  10. [Risk factors for low back pain among taxi drivers in Japan].

    PubMed

    Funakoshi, Mitsuhiko; Tamura, Akihiko; Taoda, Kazushi; Tsujimura, Hiroji; Nishiyama, Katsuo

    2003-11-01

    We conducted a questionnaire study on low back pain (LBP) and working conditions among male taxi drivers employed in the company in Fukuoka city in order to investigate the occurrence of LBP and occupational factors related to LBP among taxi drivers. The study was undertaken through two questionnaires, the first conducted in 1999 (n = 280, first cross-sectional study), the second conducted in 2001 (n = 284, second cross-sectional study). The questionnaire results were used to conduct two analyses: 1) the one-year prevalence of LBP and the relationship between LBP and occupational factors in the second cross-sectional study, and 2) the incidence of LBP and the relationship between LBP and occupational factors from the first to the second cross-sectional study in the longitudinal study. The incidence cases were defined as subjects who met the following conditions: those who had never experienced LBP at the time of the first study but had experienced LBP during the previous year at the time of the 2nd study. The one-year prevalence (45.8%) of LBP among taxi drivers was comparable to rates reported for other occupational drivers in which LBP occurs frequently. This result indicates that LBP is an important health problem for taxi drivers, and an urgent occupational safety and health management issue. The two-year incidence of LBP among the taxi drivers was estimated at 25.9%. LBP was significantly related with the suitability of the driver's seat pan, total mileage on the taxi (total mileage), the level of uncomfortable vibrations on the road, job stress and time employed as a taxi driver. Importantly, the prevalence of LBP increased with increasing total mileage, a finding which had not previously been reported. The findings of this study also suggest that ergonomic problems with the driver's seat pan, whole-body vibration (WBV) and job stress may contribute to LBP among taxi drivers. Further study is needed to confirm how total mileage contributes to LBP. Furthermore

  11. Cost characteristics of tilt-rotor, conventional air and high speed rail short-haul intercity passenger service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoendorfer, David L.; Morlok, Edward K.

    1985-01-01

    The cost analysis done to support an assessment of the potential for a small tilt-rotor aircraft to operate in short-haul intercity passenger service is described in detail. Anticipated costs of tilt-rotor air service were compared to the costs of two alternatives: conventional air and high speed rail (HSR). Costs were developed for corridor service, varying key market characteristics including distance, passenger volumes, and minimum frequency standards. The resulting cost vs output information can then be used to compare modal costs for essentially identical service quality and passenger volume or for different service levels and volumes for each mode, as appropriate. Extensive sensitivity analyses are performed. The cost-output features of these technologies are compared. Tilt-rotor is very attractive compared to HSR in terms of costs over the entire range of volume. It also has costs not dramatically different from conventional air, but tilt-rotor costs are generally higher. Thus some of its other advantages, such as the VTOL capability, must offset the cost disadvantage for it to be a preferred or competitive mode in any given market. These issues are addressed in the companion report which considers strategies for tilt-rotor development in commercial air service.

  12. Prevalence and factors associated with road traffic crash among taxi drivers in Hanoi, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    La, Quang Ngoc; Lee, Andy H; Meuleners, Lynn B; Van Duong, Dat

    2013-01-01

    Injury due to road traffic crash is a major cause of ill health and premature deaths in developing countries. Taxis provide a main mode of public transport in Vietnam but there has been little research on the risk of crash for taxi drivers. This retrospective study collected information on taxi crashes for the period 2006-2009 by interviewing drivers from five taxi companies in Hanoi, Vietnam, using a structured questionnaire. Of the total 1214 participants recruited, 276 drivers reported at least one crash, giving an overall crash prevalence of 22.7%. Among the crashed group, 50 drivers (18.1%) were involved in two to four crashes. Logistic regression analysis further identified age of driver, type of driving licence, employment status, perceived sufficiency of income, seat-belt usage, and traffic infringement history to be significantly associated with the crash risk. Further prospective and qualitative studies are recommended to provide detailed crash characteristics as well as behaviour and perception of taxi drivers, so that an effective intervention can be developed to improve road safety and to prevent injury of these commercial drivers. PMID:22683278

  13. Benefit-cost evaluation of an intra-regional air service in the Bay area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haefner, L. E.

    1977-01-01

    Utilization of an iterative statistical model is presented to evaluate combinations of commuter airport sites and surface transportation facilities in confunction with service by a given commuter aircraft type in light of Bay Area regional growth alternatives and peak and off-peak regional travel patterns. The model evaluates such transportation options with respect to criteria of airline profitability, public acceptance, and public and private nonuser costs. It incorporates information modal split, peak and off-peak use of the air commuter fleet, terminal and airport cost, development costs and uses of land in proximity to the airport sites, regional population shifts, and induced zonal shifts in travel demand. The model is multimodal in its analytical capability, and performs exhaustive sensitivity analysis.

  14. 75 FR 22891 - Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ... Foreign Air Carrier Permits Filed under Subpart B (Formerly Subpart Q) During the Week Ending April 17... Carrier Permits were filed under Subpart B (formerly Subpart Q) of the Department of Transportation's... Airways, Inc., d/b/a Yellow Air Taxi reapplying for issuance of commuter air authority to enable...

  15. Comparison of NASA OMI and MLS Ozone Products with US Forest Service Ground-based Ozone Monitoring Data for US Forest Service Air Quality / Forest Management Decision Support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, S.; Brooks, A.; Moussa, Y.; Spencer, T.; Thompson, J.

    2013-12-01

    Tropospheric ozone, formed when nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) react with sunlight, is a significant threat to the health of US National Forests. Approximately one third of ozone is absorbed by plants during the uptake of carbon dioxide. This increases the vegetation's susceptibility to drought, beetle infestation, and wildfire. Currently the US Forest Service has ground monitoring stations sparsely located across the country. This project looks specifically at the area surrounding several Class I Wilderness Areas in the Appalachian region. These areas are the highest priority for protection from air pollutants. The Forest Service must interpolate ozone concentrations for areas between these monitoring stations. Class I Wilderness Areas are designated by the Forest Service and are defined as a total 5000 acres or greater when the Clean Air Act was passed in 1977. This Act mandated that the EPA create national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for six major air pollutants including ground-level ozone. This project assessed the feasibility of incorporating NASA ozone data into Forest Service ozone monitoring in an effort to enhance the accuracy and precision of ozone exposure measurements in Class I Wilderness Areas and other federally managed lands in order to aid in complying with the Clean Air Act of 1977. This was accomplished by establishing a method of comparison between a preliminary data product produced at the Goddard Space Flight Center that uses OMI/MLS data to derive global tropospheric ozone measurements and Forest Service ozone monitoring station measurements. Once a methodology for comparison was established, statistical comparisons of these data were performed to assess the quantitative differences.

  16. X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft on lakebed during high-speed taxi tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The NASA/McDonnell Douglas Corporation (MDC) X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft undergoes high-speed taxi tests on Rogers Dry Lake at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, on October 17, 1996. The aircraft was tested at speeds up to 85 knots. Normal takeoff speed would be 110 knots. More taxi and radio frequency tests were slated before it's first flight would be made. This took place on May 17, 1997. The NASA/Boeing X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft program successfully demonstrated the tailless fighter design using advanced technologies to improve the maneuverability and survivability of possible future fighter aircraft. The program met or exceeded all project goals. For 31 flights during 1997 at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, the project team examined the aircraft's agility at low speed / high angles of attack and at high speed / low angles of attack. The aircraft's speed envelope reached up to 206 knots (234 mph). This aircraft was very stable and maneuverable. It handled very well. The X-36 vehicle was designed to fly without the traditional tail surfaces common on most aircraft. Instead, a canard forward of the wing was used as well as split ailerons and an advanced thrust-vectoring nozzle for directional control. The X-36 was unstable in both pitch and yaw axes, so an advanced, single-channel digital fly-by-wire control system (developed with some commercially available components) was put in place to stabilize the aircraft. Using a video camera mounted in the nose of the aircraft and an onboard microphone, the X-36 was remotely controlled by a pilot in a ground station virtual cockpit. A standard fighter-type head-up display (HUD) and a moving-map representation of the vehicle's position within the range in which it flew provided excellent situational awareness for the pilot. This pilot-in-the-loop approach eliminated the need for expensive and complex autonomous flight control systems

  17. Step On It! Workplace Cardiovascular Risk Assessment of New York City Yellow Taxi Drivers.

    PubMed

    Gany, Francesca; Bari, Sehrish; Gill, Pavan; Ramirez, Julia; Ayash, Claudia; Loeb, Rebecca; Aragones, Abraham; Leng, Jennifer

    2016-02-01

    Multiple factors associated with taxi driving can increase the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in taxi drivers. This paper describes the results of Step On It!, which assessed CVD risk factors among New York City taxi drivers at John F. Kennedy International Airport. Drivers completed an intake questionnaire and free screenings for blood pressure, glucose and body mass index (BMI). 466 drivers participated. 9 % had random plasma glucose values >200 mg/dl. 77 % had elevated BMIs. Immigrants who lived in the US for >10 years had 2.5 times the odds (CI 1.1-5.9) of having high blood pressure compared to newer immigrants. Abnormalities documented in this study were significant, especially for immigrants with greater duration of residence in the US, and underscore the potential for elevated CVD risk in this vulnerable population, and the need to address this risk through frameworks that utilize multiple levels of intervention. PMID:25680879

  18. Terminal area automatic navigation, guidance, and control 1: Automatic rollout, turnoff, and taxis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pines, S.

    1981-01-01

    A study developed for the TCV B-737, designed to apply existing navigation aids plus magnetic leader cable signals and develop breaking and reverse thrust guidance laws to provide for rapid automated rollout, turnoff, and taxi to reduce runway occupation time for a wide variety of landing conditions for conventional commercial-type aircraft, is described. Closed loop guidance laws for braking and reverse thrust are derived for rollout, turnoff, and taxi, as functions of the landing speed, the desired taxi speed and the distance to go. Brake limitations for wet runway conditions and reverse thrust limitations are taken into account to provide decision rules to avoid tire skid and to choose an alternate turnoff point, farther down the runway, to accommodate extreme landing conditions.

  19. 14 CFR 93.219 - Allocation of slots for essential air service operations and applicable limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Allocation of Commuter and Air Carrier IFR Operations at High Density Traffic... or from a High Density Traffic Airport under the Department of Transportation's Essential Air...

  20. 14 CFR 93.219 - Allocation of slots for essential air service operations and applicable limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Allocation of Commuter and Air Carrier IFR Operations at High Density Traffic... or from a High Density Traffic Airport under the Department of Transportation's Essential Air...

  1. 14 CFR 93.219 - Allocation of slots for essential air service operations and applicable limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Allocation of Commuter and Air Carrier IFR Operations at High Density Traffic... or from a High Density Traffic Airport under the Department of Transportation's Essential Air...

  2. 14 CFR 93.219 - Allocation of slots for essential air service operations and applicable limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Allocation of Commuter and Air Carrier IFR Operations at High Density Traffic... or from a High Density Traffic Airport under the Department of Transportation's Essential Air...

  3. 14 CFR 93.219 - Allocation of slots for essential air service operations and applicable limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Allocation of Commuter and Air Carrier IFR Operations at High Density Traffic... or from a High Density Traffic Airport under the Department of Transportation's Essential Air...

  4. An evaluation of the Royal Air Force helicopter search and rescue services in Britain with reference to Royal Air Force Valley 1980-1989.

    PubMed Central

    Liskiewicz, W J

    1992-01-01

    The Royal Air Force (RAF) operates a helicopter Search and Rescue (SAR) service in the United Kingdom and territorial waters; it also provides a similar service in several locations abroad. A 10-year retrospective study of the SAR helicopter service operating from the RAF base at Valley on the island of Anglesey in North Wales is presented, with national SAR statistics over a similar period provided for comparison. Analysis of records kept by SAR aircrew at RAF Valley shows that their assistance had been requested on 1490 occasions during the 10-year period studied; most of these requests were the result of incidents involving holidaymakers, particularly in the mountains or along the coast. The results illustrate the versatility and life-saving potential of a highly skilled and motivated service able to work in adverse weather and dangerous locations. In the light of current debate, the value of aeromedical evacuation of seriously ill patients using helicopters is discussed. PMID:1494160

  5. Aeroassisted manned transfer vehicle (TAXI) for advanced Mars Transportation: NASA/USRA 1987 Senior Design Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    A conceptual design study of an aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicle is discussed. Nicknamed TAXI, it will ferry personnel and cargo: (1) between low Earth orbit and a spacecraft circling around the Sun in permanent orbit intersecting gravitational fields of Earth and Mars, and (2) between the cycling spacecraft and a Mars orbiting station, co-orbiting with Phobos. Crew safety and mission flexibility (in terms of ability to provide a wide range of delta-V) were given high priority. Three versions were considered, using the same overall configuration based on a low L/D aerobrake with the geometry of a raked off elliptical cone with ellipsoidal nose and a toroidal skirt. The propulsion system consists of three gimballed LOX/LH2 engines firing away from the aerobrake. The versions differ mainly in the size of the aeroshields and propellant tanks. TAXI A version resulted from an initial effort to design a single transfer vehicle able to meet all delta-V requirements during the 15-year period (2025 to 2040) of Mars mission operations. TAXI B is designed to function with the cycling spacecraft moving in a simplified, nominal trajectory. On Mars missions, TAXI B would be able to meet the requirements of all the missions with a relative approach velocity near Mars of less than 9.3 km/sec. Finally, TAXI C is a revision of TAXI A, a transfer vehicle designed for missions with a relative velocity near Mars larger than 9.3 km/sec. All versions carry a crew of 9 (11 with modifications) and a cargo of 10000 lbm. Trip duration varies from 1 day for transfer from LEO to the cycling ship to nearly 5 days for transfer from the ship to the Phobos orbit.

  6. ASME N511-19XX, Standard for periodic in-service testing of nuclear air treatment, heating, ventilating and air conditioning systems

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    A draft version of the Standard is presented in this document. The Standard covers the requirements for periodic in-service testing of nuclear safety-related air treatment, heating, ventilating, and air conditioning systems in nuclear facilities. The Standard provides a basis for the development of test programs and does not include acceptance criteria, except in cases where the results of one test influence the performance of other tests. The Standard covers general inspection and test requirements, reference values, inspection and test requirements, generic tests, acceptance criteria, in-service test requirements, testing following an abnormal incident, corrective action requirements, and quality assurance. Mandatory appendices provide a visual inspection checklist and four test procedures. Non-mandatory appendices provide additional information and guidance on mounting frame pressure leak test procedure, corrective action, challenge gas substitute selection criteria, and test program development. 8 refs., 10 tabs.

  7. Field investigation source area ST58 old Quartermaster service station, Eielson Air Force Base, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Liikala, T.L.; Evans, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    Source area ST58 is the site of the old Quartermaster service station at Eielson Air Force Base, Alaska. The source area is one of several Source Evaluation Report sites being investigated by Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the US Air Force as candidates for no further remedial action, interim removal action, or a remedial investigation/feasibility study under a Federal Facilities Agreement. The purpose of this work was to characterize source area ST58 and excavate the most contaminated soils for use in composting treatability studies. A field investigation was conducted to determine the nature and extent of soil contamination. The field investigation entailed a records search; grid node location, surface geophysical, and soil gas surveys; and test pit soil sampling. Soil excavation followed based on the results of the field investigation. The site was backfilled with clean soil. Results from this work indicate close spatial correlation between screening instruments, used during the field investigation and soil excavation, and laboratory analyses. Gasoline was identified as the main subsurface contaminant based on the soil gas surveys and test pit soil sampling. A center of contamination was located near the northcentral portion of the source area, and a center was located in the northwestern comer. The contamination typically occurred near or below a former soil horizon probably as a result of surface spills and leaks from discontinuities and/or breaks in the underground piping. Piping locations were delineated during the surface geophysical surveys and corresponded very well to unscaled drawings of the site. The high subsurface concentrations of gasoline detected in the northwestern comer of the source area probably reflect ground-water contamination and/or possibly floating product.

  8. 41 CFR 301-10.135 - When must I travel using U.S. flag air carrier service?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true When must I travel using U.S. flag air carrier service? 301-10.135 Section 301-10.135 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES 10-TRANSPORTATION EXPENSES Common...

  9. 38 CFR 3.7 - Individuals and groups considered to have performed active military, naval, or air service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Individuals and groups considered to have performed active military, naval, or air service. 3.7 Section 3.7 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General §...

  10. 38 CFR 3.7 - Individuals and groups considered to have performed active military, naval, or air service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Individuals and groups considered to have performed active military, naval, or air service. 3.7 Section 3.7 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General §...

  11. IMPACT OF AIR POLLUTION ON THE CONSUMPTION OF MEDICAL SERVICES COSTS OF HOSPITALIZATION IN THE PORTLAND METROPOLITAN AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study was undertaken to ascertain the possibility of measuring from available data the impact of air pollution on the consumption of inpatient services which patients consume per hospital stay. The study area was the Portland, Oregon metropolitan area, and the period of study...

  12. Improving Pre-Service Elementary Teachers' Education via a Laboratory Course on Air Pollution: One University's Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandrikas, Achilleas; Parkosidis, Ioannis; Psomiadis, Ploutarchos; Stoumpa, Artemisia; Chalkidis, Anthimos; Mavrikaki, Evangelia; Skordoulis, Constantine

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the structure of the "Air Pollution Course", an environmental science laboratory course developed at the Science Education Laboratory of the Faculty of Primary Education, University of Athens, as well as the findings resulting from its implementation by pre-service elementary teachers. The course proposed in this study deals…

  13. Advances of air pollution science: from forest decline to multiple-stress effects on forest ecosystem services.

    PubMed

    Paoletti, E; Schaub, M; Matyssek, R; Wieser, G; Augustaitis, A; Bastrup-Birk, A M; Bytnerowicz, A; Günthardt-Goerg, M S; Müller-Starck, G; Serengil, Y

    2010-06-01

    Over the past 20 years, the focus of forest science on air pollution has moved from forest decline to a holistic framework of forest health, and from the effects on forest production to the ecosystem services provided by forest ecosystems. Hence, future research should focus on the interacting factorial impacts and resulting antagonistic and synergistic responses of forest trees and ecosystems. The synergistic effects of air pollution and climatic changes, in particular elevated ozone, altered nitrogen, carbon and water availability, must be key issues for research. Present evidence suggests air pollution will become increasingly harmful to forests under climate change, which requires integration amongst various stressors (abiotic and biotic factors, including competition, parasites and fire), effects on forest services (production, biodiversity protection, soil protection, sustained water balance, socio-economical relevance) and assessment approaches (research, monitoring, modeling) to be fostered. PMID:20036449

  14. The world's air transportation services : data as to passengers, mail, and goods carried by American and European transportation services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1922-01-01

    This report presents detailed descriptions, statistics, and graphs on European and American air transport. The European countries listed are Belgium, Czecho-Slovakia, Denmark, France, Germany, Great Britain, Holland, and Italy.

  15. Conserved residues in the HAMP domain define a new family of proposed bipartite energy taxis receptors.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Kathryn T; Zhulin, Igor B; Stuckey, Jeanne A; DiRita, Victor J

    2009-01-01

    HAMP domains, found in many bacterial signal transduction proteins, generally transmit an intramolecular signal between an extracellular sensory domain and an intracellular signaling domain. Studies of HAMP domains in proteins where both the input and output signals occur intracellularly are limited to those of the Aer energy taxis receptor of Escherichia coli, which has both a HAMP domain and a sensory PAS domain. Campylobacter jejuni has an energy taxis system consisting of the domains of Aer divided between two proteins, CetA (HAMP domain containing) and CetB (PAS domain containing). In this study, we found that the CetA HAMP domain differs significantly from that of Aer in the predicted secondary structure. Using similarity searches, we identified 55 pairs of HAMP/PAS proteins encoded by adjacent genes in a diverse group of microorganisms. We propose that these HAMP/PAS pairs form a new family of bipartite energy taxis receptors. Within these proteins, we identified nine residues in the HAMP domain and proximal signaling domain that are highly conserved, at least three of which are required for CetA function. Additionally, we demonstrated that CetA contributes to the invasion of human epithelial cells by C. jejuni, while CetB does not. This finding supports the hypothesis that members of HAMP/PAS pairs possess the capacity to act independently of each other in cellular traits other than energy taxis. PMID:18952801

  16. Portraits of the Postmodern Person in "Taxi Driver,""Raging Bull," and "The King of Comedy."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mortimer, Barbara

    1997-01-01

    Argues that a postmodern theory of identity (i.e., the subject as coherent, integrated, discoverable self is a fiction of modernity) links Martin Scorsese's major films. Examines "Taxi Driver,""Raging Bull," and "King of Comedy." Concludes that these films articulate a major cultural shift and chronicle a distinctively masculine identity crisis,…

  17. NASA RB57F aircraft taxis to runway at Ellington field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A NASA RB57F aircraft taxis to runway at Ellington field. This type of aircraft is used by the Earth Observations Division of the NASA Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) to furnish Earth resources photographic coverage from altitudes as high as 60,000 feet.

  18. A comparative analysis of intra-city human mobility by taxi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wenjun; Pan, Lin; Yuan, Ning; Zhang, Sen; Liu, Dong

    2015-02-01

    Quantitative understanding of human movement behaviors would provide helpful insights into the mechanisms of many socioeconomic phenomena. In this paper, we investigate human mobility patterns through analyzing taxi-trace datasets collected from five metropolitan cities in two countries. We focus on three statistics for each dataset: the displacement of each occupied trip, the duration of each occupied trip, and the time interval between successive occupied trips by the same taxi (interevent time). The results indicate that the displacement distributions of human travel by taxi tend to follow exponential laws in two displacement ranges rather than power laws; the trip duration distributions can be approximated by log-normal distributions; the interevent time distributions can be well characterized by log-normal bodies followed by power law tails. For each considered measure, the rescaled distributions of all cities collapsed into a master curve. These results provide empirical evidence supporting the common regularity of intra-city human mobility. Moreover, we show that airport locations could play a role in explaining the spikes of displacement distributions of taxi trips in certain cities.

  19. [Association between psychosocial aspects of work and quality of life among motorcycle taxi drivers].

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Jules Ramon Brito; Boery, Eduardo Nagib; Casotti, Cezar Augusto; Araújo, Tânia Maria de; Pereira, Rafael; Ribeiro, Ícaro José Santos; Rios, Marcela Andrade; Amorim, Camila Rego; Moreira, Ramon Missias; Boery, Rita Narriman Silva de Oliveira; Sales, Zenilda Nogueira

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the quality of life of motorcycle taxi drivers and the association with psychosocial characteristics of their work. This was a cross-sectional epidemiological study with a sample of 400 motorcycle taxi drivers in Jequié, Bahia State, Brazil. The study used a form containing demographic and socioeconomic data, WHO Quality of Life-Bref Questionnaire (WHOQOL-Bref), and the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ). Motorcycle taxi drivers with greater decision-making control over their work showed better self-rated quality of life in the psychological domain; those with high psychological demands presented better self-rated quality of life in the social relations and environmental domains; those with high strain and active work showed better self-rated quality of life in the social and environmental domains. The psychosocial work environment and especially decision-making autonomy were thus important determinants of self-rated quality of life in this group of motorcycle taxi drivers. PMID:25715295

  20. Tools for Schools: Filtration for Improved Air Quality. Technical Services Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This product bulletin addresses air pollution control in educational facilities to enhance educational performance, provides air quality recommendations for schools, and examines the filtration needs of various school areas. The types of air particles typically present are highlighted, and the use of proper filtration to control gases and vapors…

  1. The prevalence of fatigue and associated health and safety risk factors among taxi drivers in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Lim, See Ming; Chia, Sin Eng

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Driver fatigue is one of the biggest health and safety concerns within the road transport sector. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of fatigue among taxi drivers in Singapore, to better understand the general working and health conditions of this group of people, and to determine the risk factors associated with fatigued driving. METHODS A total of 340 taxi drivers were randomly selected for participation in a self-administered questionnaire survey, which included height and weight measurements. The response rate was 68.2%. The survey consisted of four main categories: personal particulars; social habits; work patterns; and sleep profile. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale was used to estimate the level of daytime sleepiness and fatigue. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the adjusted odd ratios and 95% confidence intervals associated with risk factors related to fatigue among taxi drivers. RESULTS A high proportion of taxi drivers were obese and had self-reported hypertension, diabetes mellitus and high cholesterol. Driver fatigue was associated with very poor/poor self-rating of quality of sleep, having an additional part-time job, drinking three or more caffeinated drinks daily, and driving more than 10 hours a day. CONCLUSION We hope that the findings of the present study will improve awareness of the work and health conditions of taxi drivers, and contribute toward efforts to achieve a healthier workforce. A lower prevalence of fatigued driving may lead to lower risks of road traffic accidents, decreased economic loss, increased productivity, and safer roads for all. PMID:25532512

  2. An investigation of behavioural adaptation to airbags and antilock brakes among taxi drivers.

    PubMed

    Sagberg, F; Fosser, S; Saetermo, I A

    1997-05-01

    Previous research has indicated that safety measures may lead to behavioural adaptation (also termed risk compensation) among road users, partly or completely offsetting the intended safety effects. There is, however, limited knowledge about characteristics of safety measures possibly determining the occurrence of behavioural adaptation. The present study addresses the relationship of driving behaviour to two different kinds of in-car safety equipment, airbags and antilock braking systems (ABS). It is hypothesized that accident-reducing measures like ABS are compensated for to a larger extent than injury-reducing measures like an airbag. On-road unobtrusive measurements of speed, headway, lane occupancy, lane changes, and variability of lateral position were performed on 213 taxis, on the basis of video recordings of traffic travelling to Oslo airport. The behavioural data were matched to questionnaire information collected when the taxis arrived at the airport. In addition to information regarding ABS and airbags, the drivers reported personal background information and answered questions about driving behaviour. Taxis with ABS had significantly shorter time headways than taxis without ABS. There were no relationships with speed, possibly because dense traffic during the observation period may have prevented the drivers from driving at their preferred speed. Simple comparisons also showed fewer lane changes and a lower rate of seat-belt use among drivers of taxis with ABS. However, multiple regression analyses indicated that the latter effects might be explained by driver background factors or by car characteristics other than ABS or airbag. The headway results support the hypothesis of larger compensation for accident-reducing than for injury-reducing measures. PMID:9183467

  3. Centurion Quarter-scale Prototype Pre-flight Taxi Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    As crewmen jog and cycle alongside, a battery-powered, quarter-scale prototype of the remotely-piloted Centurion flying wing rolls across the El Mirage Dry Lake during pre-flight taxi tests. Centurion was a unique remotely piloted, solar-powered airplane developed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor (ERAST) Program at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Dryden joined with AeroVironment, Inc., Monrovia, California, under an ERAST Joint Sponsored Research Agreement, to design, develop, manufacture, and conduct flight development tests for the Centurion. The airplane was believed to be the first aircraft designed to achieve sustained horizontal flight at altitudes of 90,000 to 100,000 feet. Achieving this capability would meet the ERAST goal of developing an ultrahigh-altitude airplane that could meet the needs of the science community to perform upper-atmosphere environmental data missions. Much of the technology leading to the Centurion was developed during the Pathfinder and Pathfinder-Plus projects. However, in the course of its development, the Centurion became a prototype technology demonstration aircraft designed to validate the technology for the Helios, a planned future high-altitude, solar-powered aircraft that could fly for weeks or months at a time on science or telecommunications missions. Centurion had 206-foot-long wings and used batteries to supply power to the craft's 14 electric motors and electronic systems. Centurion first flew at Dryden Nov. 10, 1998, and followed up with a second test flight Nov. 19. On its third and final flight on Dec. 3, the craft was aloft for 31 minutes and reached an altitude of about 400 feet. All three flights were conducted over a section of Rogers Dry Lake adjacent to Dryden. For its third flight, the Centurion carried a simulated payload of more than 600 pounds--almost half the lightweight aircraft's empty weight. John Del Frate, Dryden's project manager for solar

  4. Centurion Quarter-scale Prototype Prepared for Taxi Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    As sunlight breaks over Southern California's El Mirage Dry Lake, Crew members prepare a battery-powered quarter-scale prototype of the remotely-piloted Centurion flying wing for a taxi test. Centurion was a unique remotely piloted, solar-powered airplane developed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor (ERAST) Program at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Dryden joined with AeroVironment, Inc., Monrovia, California, under an ERAST Joint Sponsored Research Agreement, to design, develop, manufacture, and conduct flight development tests for the Centurion. The airplane was believed to be the first aircraft designed to achieve sustained horizontal flight at altitudes of 90,000 to 100,000 feet. Achieving this capability would meet the ERAST goal of developing an ultrahigh-altitude airplane that could meet the needs of the science community to perform upper-atmosphere environmental data missions. Much of the technology leading to the Centurion was developed during the Pathfinder and Pathfinder-Plus projects. However, in the course of its development, the Centurion became a prototype technology demonstration aircraft designed to validate the technology for the Helios, a planned future high-altitude, solar-powered aircraft that could fly for weeks or months at a time on science or telecommunications missions. Centurion had 206-foot-long wings and used batteries to supply power to the craft's 14 electric motors and electronic systems. Centurion first flew at Dryden Nov. 10, 1998, and followed up with a second test flight Nov. 19. On its third and final flight on Dec. 3, the craft was aloft for 31 minutes and reached an altitude of about 400 feet. All three flights were conducted over a section of Rogers Dry Lake adjacent to Dryden. For its third flight, the Centurion carried a simulated payload of more than 600 pounds--almost half the lightweight aircraft's empty weight. John Del Frate, Dryden's project manager for solar

  5. Screening procedure to evaluate air pollution effects in region 1 wilderness areas, 1991. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Stanford, J.; Acheson, A.; Brakke, D.; Eversman, S.; Savig, K.

    1997-07-01

    Based on mandates contained in the 1977 and 1990 Clean Air Act amendments (Public Law 95-95) and the 1964 Wilderness Act (Public Law 88-557), 25 scientists and 15 managers discussed approaches for evaluating air pollution effects on aquatic, terrestrial, and visibility resources in wilderness areas administered by Region 1 of the Forest Service. Participants identified screening parameters that may predictably vary with changes in air quality, Criteria for those parameters were identified for assessing permit applications involving new emissions that may impact wilderness values. Region 1 participation in the multi-agency process for evaluating proposed emissions would require a monitoring program, effective analysis methodology, and proactive review and consultation.

  6. Implementation of fuel-cost reduction measures in Costa Rican private bus and taxi fleets. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-06-11

    The project focused on demonstrations of fuel-conservation measures in private bus and taxi fleets and a public information and awareness campaign. In Costa Rica, buses and taxis tend to be grouped into cooperatives and umbrella associations that provide convenient host organizations for such a project. The demonstrations were of a practical nature, and featured proven measures that would produce significant savings under actual operating conditions.

  7. Global existence of solutions and uniform persistence of a diffusive predator-prey model with prey-taxis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Sainan; Shi, Junping; Wu, Boying

    2016-04-01

    This paper proves the global existence and boundedness of solutions to a general reaction-diffusion predator-prey system with prey-taxis defined on a smooth bounded domain with no-flux boundary condition. The result holds for domains in arbitrary spatial dimension and small prey-taxis sensitivity coefficient. This paper also proves the existence of a global attractor and the uniform persistence of the system under some additional conditions. Applications to models from ecology and chemotaxis are discussed.

  8. Respiratory symptoms and lung function in garage workers and taxi drivers.

    PubMed

    Bener, A; Galadari, I; al-Mutawa, J K; al-Maskari, F; Das, M; Abuzeid, M S

    1998-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of some respiratory symptoms and possible diseases among occupationally-exposed garage workers and taxi drivers. This study involved 158 garage workers and 165 taxi drivers, matched for age, sex, nationality and duration of employment. The mean age of 158 Indian subcontinent garage workers was 34.4 +/- 10.4 years; their mean height and weight were 167.7 +/- 6.6 cm and 72.0 +/- 12.3 kg respectively, and the mean duration of employment garage workers was 8.8 +/- 7.6 years. The mean age of 165 Indian subcontinent male taxi drivers was 34.5 +/- 7.7 years; their mean height and weight were 168.7 +/- 6.1 cm and 71.3 +/- 12.6 kg respectively; and the mean duration of employment was 7.5 +/- 5.4 years. The data on chronic respiratory symptoms showed that garage workers had higher prevalence of symptoms than taxi drivers being significantly greater for chronic phlegm, (p < 0.007); dyspneoa (p < 0.001); and sinusitis (p < 0.03). A higher prevalence of all acute symptoms was recorded in garage workers than in taxi drivers, although the differences were significant only for throat (p < 0.02), hearing problems (p < 0.002); nose (dryness, bleeding and secretion) (p < 0.008); and low back pain (p < 0.05). Almost all forced spirometric tests in the exposed garage workers were lower than in taxi drivers. The results of stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that only phlegm, sinusitis, hearing problems, nasal catarrh, throat, low back pain, smoking and FEF25-75, variables were statistically significant predictors as risk factors. In conclusion, the present study suggests that a high prevalence of respiratory symptoms is associated with exposure to motor vehicle exhaust emission in garage working places. Long-term working as garage workers in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), may be associated with the development of chronic respiratory symptoms and have effects on their daily life and health. PMID:10076696

  9. A critical review of studies of the association between demands for hospital services and air pollution.

    PubMed Central

    Lipfert, F W

    1993-01-01

    Studies of the associations between air pollution and hospital admissions and emergency room use are reviewed, including studies of air pollution episodes, time-series analyses, and cross-sectional analyses. These studies encompass a variety of methods of analysis and levels of air quality. Findings from all three types of studies were generally consistent in that almost all of the studies reviewed found statistically significant associations between hospital use and air pollution; this unanimity may have resulted in part from publication bias. These associations were characterized by elasticities of the order of 0.20; i.e., a 100% change in air pollution was associated with a change in hospital use of about 20%, for specific diagnoses. Respiratory diagnoses were emphasized by most studies; cardiac diagnoses were included in five of them. The air pollutants most often associated with changes in hospital use were particulate matter, sulfur oxides, and oxidants. Apart from the major air pollution episodes, there was no obvious link between air pollution level and the significance or magnitudes of the associations. Long-term indicators of hospitalization appeared to also be influenced by medical care supply factors, including the numbers of beds and physicians per capita. These nonpathological causal factors could also have influenced the findings of the time-series studies by introducing extraneous factors in the patterns of admissions. Although consistent associations have been shown between hospital use and air pollution, further research is required to distinguish among potentially responsible pollutants and to deduce specific dose-response relationships of general utility. PMID:8243395

  10. A critical review of studies of the association between demands for hospital services and air pollution.

    PubMed

    Lipfert, F W

    1993-07-01

    Studies of the associations between air pollution and hospital admissions and emergency room use are reviewed, including studies of air pollution episodes, time-series analyses, and cross-sectional analyses. These studies encompass a variety of methods of analysis and levels of air quality. Findings from all three types of studies were generally consistent in that almost all of the studies reviewed found statistically significant associations between hospital use and air pollution; this unanimity may have resulted in part from publication bias. These associations were characterized by elasticities of the order of 0.20; i.e., a 100% change in air pollution was associated with a change in hospital use of about 20%, for specific diagnoses. Respiratory diagnoses were emphasized by most studies; cardiac diagnoses were included in five of them. The air pollutants most often associated with changes in hospital use were particulate matter, sulfur oxides, and oxidants. Apart from the major air pollution episodes, there was no obvious link between air pollution level and the significance or magnitudes of the associations. Long-term indicators of hospitalization appeared to also be influenced by medical care supply factors, including the numbers of beds and physicians per capita. These nonpathological causal factors could also have influenced the findings of the time-series studies by introducing extraneous factors in the patterns of admissions. Although consistent associations have been shown between hospital use and air pollution, further research is required to distinguish among potentially responsible pollutants and to deduce specific dose-response relationships of general utility. PMID:8243395

  11. Path-finding through flexible hierarchical road networks: An experiential approach using taxi trajectory data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qingquan; Zeng, Zhe; Zhang, Tong; Li, Jonathan; Wu, Zhongheng

    2011-02-01

    Optimal paths computed by conventional path-planning algorithms are usually not "optimal" since realistic traffic information and local road network characteristics are not considered. We present a new experiential approach that computes optimal paths based on the experience of taxi drivers by mining a huge number of floating car trajectories. The approach consists of three steps. First, routes are recovered from original taxi trajectories. Second, an experiential road hierarchy is constructed using travel frequency and speed information for road segments. Third, experiential optimal paths are planned based on the experiential road hierarchy. Compared with conventional path-planning methods, the proposed method provides better experiential optimal path identification. Experiments demonstrate that the travel time is less for these experiential paths than for paths planned by conventional methods. Results obtained for a case study in the city of Wuhan, China, demonstrate that experiential optimal paths can be flexibly obtained in different time intervals, particularly during peak hours.

  12. Supporting South Asian Taxi Drivers to Exercise through Pedometers (SSTEP) to decrease cardiovascular disease risk.

    PubMed

    Gany, Francesca; Gill, Pavan; Baser, Raymond; Leng, Jennifer

    2014-06-01

    There is considerable evidence demonstrating the positive impact of pedometers and walking programs for increasing physical activity and reducing risk for cardiovascular disease among diverse populations. However, no interventions have been targeted towards South Asian taxi drivers, a population that may be at high risk for developing cardiovascular disease. Supporting South Asian Taxi Drivers to Exercise through Pedometers (SSTEP) was a 12-week pilot study among South Asian taxi drivers to increase their daily step counts. SSTEP assessed the feasibility, acceptability, and potential impact of an exercise intervention employing pedometers, a step diary, written materials, and telephone follow-up to initiate or increase physical activity in this at-risk occupational group. Seventy-four drivers were recruited to participate at sites frequented by South Asian taxi drivers. Participant inclusion criteria were: (1) age 18 or over; (2) birthplace in India, Pakistan, or Bangladesh; (3) fluent in English, Hindi, Urdu, Punjabi, or Bengali; and (4) intention to remain in New York City for the 3-month study period. Comprehensive intake and exit questionnaires were administered to participants in their preferred languages. Intake and exit health screenings, including blood pressure, cholesterol, and glucose were completed. Daily step counts were obtained 4 days after recruitment, and at the 4-, 8-, and 12-week mark via phone calls. To measure the impact of the intervention, step counts, blood pressure, cholesterol, and body mass index were compared at intake and exit. Participants in SSTEP were sedentary at baseline. The SSTEP intervention resulted in a small increase in step counts among participants overall, and in a significant increase (>2,000 steps) among a subset ("Bigsteppers"). Drivers with higher baseline glucose values had significantly greater improvements in their step counts. Focused lifestyle interventions for drivers at high risk for cardiovascular disease may

  13. TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT CEREX ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES UV HOUND POINT SAMPLE AIR MONITOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA's National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC) Technology Testing and Evaluation Program (TTEP) is carrying out performance tests on homeland security technologies. Under TTEP, Battelle evaluated the performance of the Cerex UV Hound point sample air monitor in de...

  14. Air quality climate in the Columbia River Basin. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, S.A.

    1998-08-01

    Aspects of climate that influence air quality in the Columbia River Basin of the Northwestern United States are described. A few, relatively simple, analytical tools were developed to show the spatial and temporal patterns of mean-monthly mixing heights, precipitation scavenging, upper level and surface trajectory winds, and drought that inhibit pollution uptake. Also, potential changes in air quality from the effects of increasing greenhouse gases are discussed.

  15. New York City Taxi Drivers' Knowledge and Perceptions of the Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Gany, Francesca; Flores, Cristina; Winkel, Gary; Alam, Ishtiaq; Genoff, Margaux; Leng, Jennifer

    2015-12-01

    This study was conducted to assess New York City taxi drivers' knowledge and perceptions of the Affordable Care Act (ACA). A cross-sectional street-intercept study design was used to assess drivers' knowledge about the ACA. A 146-item questionnaire was administered from September 12 to December 6, 2013 to 175 yellow taxi and for-hire vehicle drivers. 91 % of drivers were foreign-born; 50 % were uninsured. Mean knowledge about the ACA was quite low; 78 % of the sample either knew nothing or only a little bit about the ACA. 77 % wanted more information about the ACA. Greater English proficiency, more years driving a taxi, and knowledge of having or not having a pre-existing health condition (vs. not knowing) were related to higher ACA knowledge levels. Knowledge of a pre-existing condition (whether they had one or not) compared to those who lacked such knowledge was also an important predictor of the perception of whether the ACA would have a positive impact. To facilitate enrollment, efforts should focus on occupationally-focused initiatives that educate drivers at their places of work and leisure, to raise the overall knowledge levels and enrollment of the community. PMID:25976215

  16. Effect of fee-for-service air-conditioning management in balancing thermal comfort and energy usage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chen-Peng; Hwang, Ruey-Lung; Shih, Wen-Mei

    2014-02-01

    Balancing thermal comfort with the requirement of energy conservation presents a challenge in hot and humid areas where air-conditioning (AC) is frequently used in cooling indoor air. A field survey was conducted in Taiwan to demonstrate the adaptive behaviors of occupants in relation to the use of fans and AC in a school building employing mixed-mode ventilation where AC use was managed under a fee-for-service mechanism. The patterns of using windows, fans, and AC as well as the perceptions of students toward the thermal environment were examined. The results of thermal perception evaluation in relation to the indoor thermal conditions were compared to the levels of thermal comfort predicted by the adaptive models described in the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers Standard 55 and EN 15251 and to that of a local model for evaluating thermal adaption in naturally ventilated buildings. A thermal comfort-driven adaptive behavior model was established to illustrate the probability of fans/AC use at specific temperature and compared to the temperature threshold approach to illustrate the potential energy saving the fee-for-service mechanism provided. The findings of this study may be applied as a reference for regulating the operation of AC in school buildings of subtropical regions.

  17. Effect of fee-for-service air-conditioning management in balancing thermal comfort and energy usage.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen-Peng; Hwang, Ruey-Lung; Shih, Wen-Mei

    2014-11-01

    Balancing thermal comfort with the requirement of energy conservation presents a challenge in hot and humid areas where air-conditioning (AC) is frequently used in cooling indoor air. A field survey was conducted in Taiwan to demonstrate the adaptive behaviors of occupants in relation to the use of fans and AC in a school building employing mixed-mode ventilation where AC use was managed under a fee-for-service mechanism. The patterns of using windows, fans, and AC as well as the perceptions of students toward the thermal environment were examined. The results of thermal perception evaluation in relation to the indoor thermal conditions were compared to the levels of thermal comfort predicted by the adaptive models described in the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers Standard 55 and EN 15251 and to that of a local model for evaluating thermal adaption in naturally ventilated buildings. A thermal comfort-driven adaptive behavior model was established to illustrate the probability of fans/AC use at specific temperature and compared to the temperature threshold approach to illustrate the potential energy saving the fee-for-service mechanism provided. The findings of this study may be applied as a reference for regulating the operation of AC in school buildings of subtropical regions. PMID:24510118

  18. Guidelines for evaluating air-pollution impacts on Class I wilderness areas in the Pacific Northwest. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, J.; Schmoldt, D.; Peterson, D.; Eilers, J.; Fisher, R.

    1992-05-01

    Forest Service air resource managers in the Pacific Northwest are responsible for protecting class 1 wilderness areas from air pollution. To do this, they need scientifically defensible information to determine critical concentrations of air pollution having the potential to impact class 1 wilderness values. This report documents the results of a workshop where current information on air pollution effects on aquatic and terrestrial resources and visibility was gathered from participating scientists and managers. Critical air pollution concentrations were determined for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and ozone. Critical values for sulfur and nitrogen deposition to forest ecosystems are listed.

  19. Requirements for regional short-haul air service and the definition of a flight program to determine neighborhood reactions to small transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feher, K.; Bollinger, L.; Bowles, J. V.; Waters, M. H.

    1978-01-01

    An evaluation of the current status and future requirements of an intraregional short haul air service is given. A brief definition of the different types of short haul air service is given. This is followed by a historical review of previous attempts to develop short haul air service in high density urban areas and an assessment of the current status. The requirements for intraregional air service, the need for economic and environmental viability and the need for a flight research program are defined. A detailed outline of a research program that would determine urban community reaction to frequent operations of small transport aircraft is also given. Both the operation of such an experiment in a specific region (San Francisco Bay area) and the necessary design modifications of an existing fixed wing aircraft which could be used in the experiment are established. An estimate is made of overall program costs.

  20. X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft on lakebed during high-speed taxi tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The NASA/McDonnell Douglas Corporation (MDC) X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft undergoes high-speed taxi tests on Rogers Dry Lake at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, on October 17, 1996. The aircraft was tested at speeds up to 85 knots. Normal takeoff speed would be 110 knots. The NASA/Boeing X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft program successfully demonstrated the tailless fighter design using advanced technologies to improve the maneuverability and survivability of possible future fighter aircraft. The program met or exceeded all project goals. For 31 flights during 1997 at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, the project team examined the aircraft's agility at low speed / high angles of attack and at high speed / low angles of attack. The aircraft's speed envelope reached up to 206 knots (234 mph). This aircraft was very stable and maneuverable. It handled very well. The X-36 vehicle was designed to fly without the traditional tail surfaces common on most aircraft. Instead, a canard forward of the wing was used as well as split ailerons and an advanced thrust-vectoring nozzle for directional control. The X-36 was unstable in both pitch and yaw axes, so an advanced, single-channel digital fly-by-wire control system (developed with some commercially available components) was put in place to stabilize the aircraft. Using a video camera mounted in the nose of the aircraft and an onboard microphone, the X-36 was remotely controlled by a pilot in a ground station virtual cockpit. A standard fighter-type head-up display (HUD) and a moving-map representation of the vehicle's position within the range in which it flew provided excellent situational awareness for the pilot. This pilot-in-the-loop approach eliminated the need for expensive and complex autonomous flight control systems and the risks associated with their inability to deal with unknown or unforeseen phenomena in flight. Fully fueled the X

  1. 76 FR 54528 - Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) of the Aircraft Certification Service (AIR) Process for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ... (AIR) Process for the Sequencing of Certification and Validation Projects AGENCY: Federal Aviation...: Comments Invited You are invited to comment on the SOP for the sequencing of certification and validation... used for sequencing new certification and validation projects worked in its Aircraft...

  2. 76 FR 77939 - Proposed Provision of Navigation Services for the Next Generation Air Transportation System...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-15

    ...The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) seeks comments on a proposed transition of the U.S. National Airspace System (NAS) navigation infrastructure to enable performance-based navigation (PBN) as part of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). The FAA plans to transition from defining airways, routes and procedures using VHF Omni-directional Range (VOR) and other legacy......

  3. Signal balancing by the CetABC and CetZ chemoreceptors controls energy taxis in Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Reuter, Mark; van Vliet, Arnoud H M

    2013-01-01

    The coupling of environmental sensing to flagella-mediated directed motility allows bacteria to move to optimum environments for growth and survival, either by sensing external stimuli (chemotaxis) or monitoring internal metabolic status (energy taxis). Sensing is mediated by transducer-like proteins (Tlp), either located in the membrane or in the cytoplasm, which commonly influence motility via the CheA-CheY chemotaxis pathway. In this study we have investigated the role of PAS-domain-containing intracellular Tlp-sensors in energy taxis of the food-borne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni, using plate- and tube-based assays utilising the conversion of the redox indicator dyes triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) and resazurin. Inactivation of the genes encoding the Campylobacter Energy Taxis system (CetA (Tlp9) and CetB (Aer2)) in C. jejuni strain NCTC 11168 resulted in reduced taxis. Inactivation of the cj1191c gene, encoding the CetB homolog CetC (Aer1), did not affect taxis per se, but the cetC gene complemented a cetB mutant in trans, indicating that CetC can form a functional signal transduction complex with CetA in the absence of CetB. Inactivation of both CetB and CetC resulted in greatly reduced taxis confirming the role of CetC in energy taxis. Inactivation of the cj1110c gene, encoding Tlp8 (CetZ), a cytoplasmic sensor with two PAS-domains, resulted in increased taxis, a phenotype opposite to that of CetAB. Inactivation of the cheA gene resulted in the same overall phenotype as the cetAB mutant in both wild-type and cetZ backgrounds, suggesting that both systems use the CheA system for signal transduction. Absence of both CetAB and CetZ resulted in the cetAB taxis phenotype, suggesting that CetZ is subordinate to CetAB. In conclusion, we present evidence that C. jejuni balances the input from two counteracting PAS-domain-containing sensory systems to position itself for optimal usage of energy resources. PMID:23382896

  4. Signal Balancing by the CetABC and CetZ Chemoreceptors Controls Energy Taxis in Campylobacter jejuni

    PubMed Central

    Reuter, Mark; van Vliet, Arnoud H. M.

    2013-01-01

    The coupling of environmental sensing to flagella-mediated directed motility allows bacteria to move to optimum environments for growth and survival, either by sensing external stimuli (chemotaxis) or monitoring internal metabolic status (energy taxis). Sensing is mediated by transducer-like proteins (Tlp), either located in the membrane or in the cytoplasm, which commonly influence motility via the CheA-CheY chemotaxis pathway. In this study we have investigated the role of PAS-domain-containing intracellular Tlp-sensors in energy taxis of the food-borne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni, using plate- and tube-based assays utilising the conversion of the redox indicator dyes triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) and resazurin. Inactivation of the genes encoding the Campylobacter Energy Taxis system (CetA (Tlp9) and CetB (Aer2)) in C. jejuni strain NCTC 11168 resulted in reduced taxis. Inactivation of the cj1191c gene, encoding the CetB homolog CetC (Aer1), did not affect taxis per se, but the cetC gene complemented a cetB mutant in trans, indicating that CetC can form a functional signal transduction complex with CetA in the absence of CetB. Inactivation of both CetB and CetC resulted in greatly reduced taxis confirming the role of CetC in energy taxis. Inactivation of the cj1110c gene, encoding Tlp8 (CetZ), a cytoplasmic sensor with two PAS-domains, resulted in increased taxis, a phenotype opposite to that of CetAB. Inactivation of the cheA gene resulted in the same overall phenotype as the cetAB mutant in both wild-type and cetZ backgrounds, suggesting that both systems use the CheA system for signal transduction. Absence of both CetAB and CetZ resulted in the cetAB taxis phenotype, suggesting that CetZ is subordinate to CetAB. In conclusion, we present evidence that C. jejuni balances the input from two counteracting PAS-domain-containing sensory systems to position itself for optimal usage of energy resources. PMID:23382896

  5. A Monetary Repayment Model for Recoupment of the Educational Costs of Air Force Sponsored Graduate Education in Lieu of Completion of an Active Duty Service Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangold, Sanford Dangler

    The study develops a model which enables the Air Force to initiate recoupment action against any officer, who is separating from active service prior to the completion of a graduate education Active Duty Service Commitment (ADSC). It is set up to determine the amount of money owed by the early existing officer, at any point in the ADSC. The…

  6. Cross-Cultural Perspectives of Service Quality and Risk in Air Transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, Lawrence F.; Young, Clifford E.; Lee, Moonkyu

    2002-01-01

    This study compares US and Korean customers in terms of their perceptions of airline service quality based on SERVPERF and industry-based measures, as well as their perceptions of risks involved in the airline choice. SERVPERF is a set of multi-dimensional measures of customer evaluations of service quality. The results indicate that: (1) US passengers are generally more satisfied with their airline service than Korean customers on most of the SERVPERF dimensions; (2) Koreans are generally more satisfied with the bumping procedures whereas US participants feel more satisfied with the airline's baggage handling, operations/safety, and connections; and (3) US participants perceive higher levels of performance and financial risks whereas Koreans feel greater social risk in choosing an airline. This study also examines the SERVPERF, industry-based measure, and perceived risk in predicting customer satisfaction with, and intention to repatronize the airline. The results suggest that US customers consider service reliability, in-flight comfort, and connections as the key factors determining satisfaction with airline service whereas Korean passengers generally regard reliability, assurance, and risk factors as predictors of satisfaction. The determining factors of customer intention to repatronize the airline are reliability and empathy for US, and reliability and overall risk for Korean customers. The study demonstrates the applicability of SERVPERF as a cross-cultural tool and indicates the importance of perceived risk in cross-cultural studies.

  7. F-15 HiDEC taxi on ramp at sunrise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    NASA's highly modified F-15A (Serial #71-0287) used for digital electronic flight and engine control systems research, at sunrise on the ramp at the Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards, California. The F-15 was called the HIDEC (Highly Integrated Digital Electronic Control) flight facility. Research programs flown on the testbed vehicle have demonstrated improved rates of climb, fuel savings, and engine thrust by optimizing systems performance. The aircraft also tested and evaluated a computerized self-repairing flight control system for the Air Force that detects damaged or failed flight control surfaces. The system then reconfigures undamaged control surfaces so the mission can continue or the aircraft is landed safely.

  8. Lichens as bioindicators of air quality. Forest Service general technical report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Stolte, K.; Doty, R.; Mangis, D.; Tonnessen, K.; Huckaby, L.S.

    1993-03-01

    The report is the result of a workshop held in Denver, Colorado on April 9-11, 1991. It summarizes the current literature and techniques for using lichens to monitor air quality. Experts in lichenology and ecology contributed information on lichen floristics, characterization of monitoring sites, lichen species and communities, identifying lichen species sensitive to pollutants, active monitoring with transplants, chemical analysis of lichens, and case studies as examples of lichen biomonitoring scenarios.

  9. 41 CFR 301-10.306 - What will I be reimbursed if authorized to use a POV instead of a taxi between my residence and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What will I be reimbursed if authorized to use a POV instead of a taxi between my residence and office to a common carrier... taxi between my residence and office to a common carrier terminal, or from my residence directly to...

  10. Optimizing Air Transportation Service to Metroplex Airports. Par 2; Analysis Using the Airline Schedule Optimization Model (ASOM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donoue, George; Hoffman, Karla; Sherry, Lance; Ferguson, John; Kara, Abdul Qadar

    2010-01-01

    The air transportation system is a significant driver of the U.S. economy, providing safe, affordable, and rapid transportation. During the past three decades airspace and airport capacity has not grown in step with demand for air transportation; the failure to increase capacity at the same rate as the growth in demand results in unreliable service and systemic delay. This report describes the results of an analysis of airline strategic decision-making that affects geographic access, economic access, and airline finances, extending the analysis of these factors using historic data (from Part 1 of the report). The Airline Schedule Optimization Model (ASOM) was used to evaluate how exogenous factors (passenger demand, airline operating costs, and airport capacity limits) affect geographic access (markets-served, scheduled flights, aircraft size), economic access (airfares), airline finances (profit), and air transportation efficiency (aircraft size). This analysis captures the impact of the implementation of airport capacity limits, as well as the effect of increased hedged fuel prices, which serve as a proxy for increased costs per flight that might occur if auctions or congestion pricing are imposed; also incorporated are demand elasticity curves based on historical data that provide information about how passenger demand is affected by airfare changes.

  11. 5 CFR 9701.374 - Special transition rules for Federal Air Marshal Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Marshal Service. 9701.374 Section 9701.374 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Transitional...

  12. 77 FR 50420 - Proposed Provision of Navigation Services for the Next Generation Air Transportation System...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-21

    ... published a Federal Register Notice (76 FR 77939) requesting comments on the FAA's plans for providing PBN... discontinuance of VOR navigation services. Comment #21: Comments from military and general aviation expressed... stakeholders, and the FAA will ] engage stakeholders in the discontinuance process. Comment #23: Military...

  13. 5 CFR 9701.374 - Special transition rules for Federal Air Marshal Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Transitional Provisions... Security Administration (TSA) to another organization within DHS, DHS may cover those positions under a pay... Marshal Service. 9701.374 Section 9701.374 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY...

  14. 5 CFR 9701.232 - Special transition rules for Federal Air Marshal Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Administration (TSA) to another organization within DHS, DHS may cover those positions under a classification... Marshal Service. 9701.232 Section 9701.232 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN... HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Classification Transitional Provisions §...

  15. 5 CFR 9701.374 - Special transition rules for Federal Air Marshal Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Transitional Provisions... Security Administration (TSA) to another organization within DHS, DHS may cover those positions under a pay... Marshal Service. 9701.374 Section 9701.374 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY...

  16. 5 CFR 9701.374 - Special transition rules for Federal Air Marshal Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Transitional Provisions... Security Administration (TSA) to another organization within DHS, DHS may cover those positions under a pay... Marshal Service. 9701.374 Section 9701.374 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY...

  17. 5 CFR 9701.232 - Special transition rules for Federal Air Marshal Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Administration (TSA) to another organization within DHS, DHS may cover those positions under a classification... Marshal Service. 9701.232 Section 9701.232 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN... HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Classification Transitional Provisions §...

  18. 5 CFR 9701.232 - Special transition rules for Federal Air Marshal Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Administration (TSA) to another organization within DHS, DHS may cover those positions under a classification... Marshal Service. 9701.232 Section 9701.232 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN... HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Classification Transitional Provisions §...

  19. Using Ecosystem Services to Inform Decisions on U.S. Air Quality Standards

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ecosystem services (ES) framework provides a link between changes in a natural system’s structure and function and public welfare. This systematic integration of ecology and economics allows for more consistency and transparency in environmental decision making by enab...

  20. 5 CFR 9701.374 - Special transition rules for Federal Air Marshal Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Marshal Service. 9701.374 Section 9701.374 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Transitional...

  1. A Graphic Analysis of the Instructional Service Function of Academic Departments. AIR Forum 1980 Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichard, Donald J.; And Others

    A modified form of vector analysis is examined that was applied to graphs depicting the number of undergraduate student credit hours taken by majors and nonmajors in each of 18 arts and sciences departments. The analysis permitted the identification of instructional service strategies adopted by various academic units and the evaluation of the…

  2. Health risk equations and risk assessment of airborne benzene homologues exposure to drivers and passengers in taxi cabins.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaokai; Feng, Lili; Luo, Huilong; Cheng, Heming

    2016-03-01

    Interior air environment and health problems of vehicles have attracted increasing attention, and benzene homologues (BHs) including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, and styrene are primary hazardous gases in vehicular cabins. The BHs impact on the health of passengers and drivers in 38 taxis is assessed, and health risk equations of in-car BHs to different drivers and passengers are induced. The health risk of in-car BHs for male drivers is the highest among all different receptors and is 1.04, 6.67, and 6.94 times more than ones for female drivers, male passengers, and female passengers, respectively. In-car BHs could not lead to the non-cancer health risk to all passengers and drivers as for the maximal value of non-cancer indices is 0.41 and is less than the unacceptable value (1.00) of non-cancer health risk from USEPA. However, in-car BHs lead to cancer health risk to drivers as for the average value of cancer indices is 1.21E-04 which is 1.21 times more than the unacceptable value (1.00E-04) of cancer health risk from USEPA. Finally, for in-car airborne benzene concentration (X, μg/m(3)) to male drivers, female drivers, male passengers, and female passengers, the cancer health risk equations are Y = 1.48E-06X, Y = 1.42E-06X, Y = 2.22E-07X, and Y = 2.13E-07X, respectively, and the non-cancer health risk equations are Y = 1.70E-03X, Y = 1.63E-03X, Y = 2.55E-04X, and Y = 2.45E-04X, respectively. PMID:26538262

  3. Personal exposures to airborne metals in London taxi drivers and office workers in 1995 and 1996.

    PubMed

    Pfeifer, G D; Harrison, R M; Lynam, D R

    1999-09-01

    In 1995, a petroleum marketer introduced a diesel fuel additive in the UK containing Mn as MMT (methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl). A small study of personal exposures to airborne Mn in London was conducted before and after introduction of the additive to identify any major impact of the additive on exposures. In 1995, personal exposures to Mn were measured in two groups, taxi drivers and office workers (10 subjects per group) for two consecutive 7-day periods. A similar study was carried out in 1996 to determine if exposures had changed. Samples were also analyzed for Ca, Al, Mg and Pb. In 1996, exposures to aerosol mass as total suspended particulates (TSP) and PM2.5 were measured in addition to the metals. Manganese exposures in this cohort did not increase as a result of introduction of the additive. However, a significant source of Mn exposure was discovered during the conduct of these tests. The mean exposure to Mn was higher among the office workers in both years than that of the taxi drivers. This was due to the fact that approximately half of the office workers commuted via the underground railway system where airborne dust and metal concentrations are significantly elevated over those in the general environment. Similar results have been noted in other cities having underground rail systems. Exposure to Mn, Pb, Ca, and Mg were not significantly different between the 2 years. Taxi drivers had higher exposures than office workers to Mg and Pb in both years. Commuting via the underground also had a significant impact on exposures to TSP, PM2.5, Al, and Ca, but had little effect on exposures to Mg. The aerosol in the underground was particularly enriched in Mn, approximately 10-fold, when compared to the aerosol in the general environment. There are several possible sources for this Mn, including mechanical wear of the steel wheels on the steel rais, vaporization of metal from sparking of the third rail, or brake wear. PMID:10535124

  4. Very-High-Cycle-Fatigue of in-service air-engine blades, compressor and turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanyavskiy, A. A.

    2014-01-01

    In-service Very-High-Cycle-Fatigue (VHCF) regime of compressor vane and turbine rotor blades of the Al-based alloy VD-17 and superalloy GS6K, respectively, was considered. Surface crack origination occurred at the lifetime more than 1500 hours for vanes and after 550 hours for turbine blades. Performed fractographic investigations have shown that subsurface crack origination in vanes took place inspite of corrosion pittings on the blade surface. This material behavior reflected lifetime limit that was reached by the criterion VHCF. In superalloy GS6K subsurface fatigue cracking took place with the appearance of flat facet. This phenomenon was discussed and compared with specimens cracking of the same superalloy but prepared by the powder technology. In turbine blades VHCF regime appeared because of resonance of blades under the influenced gas stream. Both cases of compressor-vanes and turbine blades in-service cracking were discussed with crack growth period and stress equivalent estimations. Recommendations to continue aircrafts airworthiness were made for in-service blades.

  5. Factors associated with drug use among male motorbike taxi drivers in urban Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Huy Van; Vu, Thinh Toan; Pham, Ha Nguyen

    2014-08-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 291 male motorbike taxi drivers (MMTDs) recruited through social mapping technique in Hanoi, Vietnam, for face-to-face interviews to examine factors associated with drug use among MMTDs using Information-Motivation-Behavioral skills (IMB) model. Among 291 MMTDs, 17.18% reported drug use sometime in their lives, 96% of whom were drug injectors. Being depressed, being originally borne in urban cities, currently residing in rural areas, having a longer time living apart from their wives/lovers, using alcohol, following Buddhism, and reporting lower motivation of HIV prevention predict significantly higher odds of uptaking drugs. PMID:24601783

  6. Study of cross-correlation in a self-affine time series of taxi accidents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zebende, G. F.; da Silva, P. A.; Machado Filho, A.

    2011-05-01

    We study in this paper the cross-correlation between self-affine time series of real variables recorded simultaneously in cases of taxi accidents. For this purpose, we apply the DCCA method and show that the cross-correlation can be divided into three distinct groups, if we look for the detrended covariance function, i.e., long-range cross-correlations, short-range cross-correlations and no cross-correlations. Finally, it will be seen that the detrended covariance function is robust, if compared with other methods, in identifying these types of cross-correlations.

  7. A lightweight neighbor-info-based routing protocol for no-base-station taxi-call system.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xudong; Wang, Jinhang; Chen, Yunchao

    2014-01-01

    Since the quick topology change and short connection duration, the VANET has had unstable routing and wireless signal quality. This paper proposes a kind of lightweight routing protocol-LNIB for call system without base station, which is applicable to the urban taxis. LNIB maintains and predicts neighbor information dynamically, thus finding the reliable path between the source and the target. This paper describes the protocol in detail and evaluates the performance of this protocol by simulating under different nodes density and speed. The result of evaluation shows that the performance of LNIB is better than AODV which is a classic protocol in taxi-call scene. PMID:24737984

  8. A Lightweight Neighbor-Info-Based Routing Protocol for No-Base-Station Taxi-Call System

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xudong; Wang, Jinhang; Chen, Yunchao

    2014-01-01

    Since the quick topology change and short connection duration, the VANET has had unstable routing and wireless signal quality. This paper proposes a kind of lightweight routing protocol-LNIB for call system without base station, which is applicable to the urban taxis. LNIB maintains and predicts neighbor information dynamically, thus finding the reliable path between the source and the target. This paper describes the protocol in detail and evaluates the performance of this protocol by simulating under different nodes density and speed. The result of evaluation shows that the performance of LNIB is better than AODV which is a classic protocol in taxi-call scene. PMID:24737984

  9. Shuttle Endeavour Mated to 747 SCA Taxi to Runway for Delivery to Kennedy Space Center, Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    NASA's 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft No. 911, with the space shuttle orbiter Endeavour securely mounted atop its fuselage, taxies to the runway to begin the ferry flight from Rockwell's Plant 42 at Palmdale, California, where the orbiter was built, to the Kennedy Space Center, Florida. At Kennedy, the space vehicle was processed and launched on orbital mission STS-49, which landed at NASA's Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility (later redesignated Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, California, 16 May 1992. NASA 911, the second modified 747 that went into service in November 1990, has special support struts atop the fuselage and internal strengthening to accommodate the added weight of the orbiters. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay

  10. NASA Turbulence Technologies In-Service Evaluation: Delta Air Lines Report-Out

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amaral, Christian; Dickson, Steve; Watts, Bill

    2007-01-01

    Concluding an in-service evaluation of two new turbulence detection technologies developed in the Turbulence Prediction and Warning Systems (TPAWS) element of the NASA Aviation Safety and Security Program's Weather Accident Prevention Project (WxAP), this report documents Delta's experience working with the technologies, feedback gained from pilots and dispatchers concerning current turbulence techniques and procedures, and Delta's recommendations regarding directions for further efforts by the research community. Technologies evaluated included an automatic airborne turbulence encounter reporting technology called the Turbulence Auto PIREP System (TAPS), and a significant enhancement to the ability of modern airborne weather radars to predict and display turbulence of operational significance, called E-Turb radar.

  11. Perseus B Taxi Tests in Preparation for a New Series of Flight Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Perseus B remotely piloted aircraft taxis on the runway at Edwards Air Force Base, California, before a series of development flights at NASA's Dryden flight Research Center. The Perseus B is the latest of three versions of the Perseus design developed by Aurora Flight Sciences under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program. Perseus B is a remotely piloted aircraft developed as a design-performance testbed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Perseus is one of several flight vehicles involved in the ERAST project. A piston engine, propeller-powered aircraft, Perseus was designed and built by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia. The objectives of Perseus B's ERAST flight tests have been to reach and maintain horizontal flight above altitudes of 60,000 feet and demonstrate the capability to fly missions lasting from 8 to 24 hours, depending on payload and altitude requirements. The Perseus B aircraft established an unofficial altitude record for a single-engine, propeller-driven, remotely piloted aircraft on June 27, 1998. It reached an altitude of 60,280 feet. In 1999, several modifications were made to the Perseus aircraft including engine, avionics, and flight-control-system improvements. These improvements were evaluated in a series of operational readiness and test missions at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus is a high-wing monoplane with a conventional tail design. Its narrow, straight, high-aspect-ratio wing is mounted atop the fuselage. The aircraft is pusher-designed with the propeller mounted in the rear. This design allows for interchangeable scientific-instrument payloads to be placed in the forward fuselage. The design also allows for unobstructed airflow to the sensors and other devices mounted in the payload compartment. The Perseus B that underwent test and development in 1999 was the third generation of the Perseus

  12. Superstition, risk-taking and risk perception of accidents among South African taxi drivers.

    PubMed

    Peltzer, Karl; Renner, Walter

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate taxi drivers' superstition and risk perception of accidents as well as risk-taking in an urban area in South Africa. One hundred and thirty drivers of minibuses, so-called "taxis" were interviewed on the basis of: (1) a superstition scale; (2) a risk-taking scale; (3) a list of perceived causes of road traffic accidents. Drivers showed largely superstitious attitudes and expressed a high degree of risk-taking behavior. Superstition was positively correlated with the number of self-reported accidents the drivers had been involved in and the number of accidents they had witnessed. Path analysis revealed a direct path from superstition to accident involvement while the influence of formal education was negligible. Risk-taking was inversely correlated with driving experience and the number of accidents witnessed but not so with the number of accidents involved in. There was no clear pattern of associations between superstition and risk-taking and perceived causes of accidents. Superstition and risk-taking were slightly and inversely correlated with each other. It is concluded that superstition represents an attitude that is associated with a driver's accident risk, and further research on superstitious attitudes among South African drivers is advocated. PMID:12729825

  13. Transposon mutagenesis of Campylobacter jejuni identifies a bipartite energy taxis system required for motility.

    PubMed

    Hendrixson, D R; Akerley, B J; DiRita, V J

    2001-04-01

    Campylobacter jejuni constitutes the leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in the United States and a major cause of diarrhoea worldwide. Little is known about virulence mechanisms in this organism because of the scarcity of suitable genetic tools. We have developed an efficient system of in vitro transposon mutagenesis using a mariner-based transposon and purified mariner transposase. Through in vitro transposition of C. jejuni chromosomal DNA followed by natural transformation of the transposed DNA, large random transposon mutant libraries consisting of approximately 16 000 individual mutants were generated. The first genetic screen of C. jejuni using a transposon-generated mutant library identified 28 mutants defective for flagellar motility, one of the few known virulence determinants of this pathogen. We developed a second genetic system, which allows for the construction of defined chromosomal deletions in C. jejuni, and demonstrated the requirement of sigma28 and sigma54 for motility. In addition, we show that sigma28 is involved in the transcription of flaA and that sigma54 is required for transcription of three other flagellar genes, flaB and flgDE. We also identified two previously uncharacterized genes required for motility encoding proteins that we call CetA and CetB, which mediate energy taxis responses. Through our analysis of the Cet proteins, we propose a unique mechanism for sensing energy levels and mediating energy taxis in C. jejuni. PMID:11298288

  14. Assessment and cleanup of the Taxi Strip waste storage area at LLNL (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Buerer, A.

    1983-01-26

    In September 1982 the Hazards Control Department of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) began a final radiological survey of a former low-level radioactive waste storage area called the Taxi Strip so that the area could be released for construction of an office building. Collection of soil samples at the location of a proposed sewer line led to the discovery of an old disposal pit containing soil contaminated with low-level radioactive waste and organic solvents. The Taxi Strip area was excavated leading to the discovery of three additional small pits. The clean-up of Pit No. 1 is considered to be complete for radioactive contamination. The results from the chlorinated solvent analysis of the borehole samples and the limited number of samples analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry indicate that solvent clean-up at this pit is complete. This is being verified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of a few additional soil samples from the bottom sides and ends of the pit. As a precaution, samples are also being analyzed for metals to determine if further excavation is necessary. Clean-up of Pits No. 2 and No. 3 is considered to be complete for radioactive and solvent contamination. Results of analysis for metals will determine if excavation is complete. Excavation of Pit No. 4 which resulted from surface leakage of radioactive contamination from an evaporation tray is complete.

  15. [Prevention of cervical and breast cancer in health services and non-governmental organizations in the city of Buenos Aires].

    PubMed

    Ponce, Marisa

    2013-08-01

    The article analyzes actions for the prevention of cervical and breast cancer in public, private, and employment-based health services and in non-governmental organizations in the city of Buenos Aires. The article seeks to reflect on the reach and limitations of the approaches implemented in the three subsectors of the health care system and the community to prevent women from suffering or eventually dying as a consequence of these diseases, in the fragmented context of a health system with great heterogeneity in access and deep social inequalities in the use of preventive actions. The study utilizes a broad definition of prevention which integrates education, awareness-building and early detection of pre-carcinogenic and carcinogenic lesions, among other medical and non-medical components. The results were obtained using semi-structured interviews with subjects from public hospitals, employment-based health care services, private medical companies and non-governmental organizations with work in cancer prevention. These results show that contrary to a comprehensive approach, each institution limits its actions to only one aspect of prevention, implementing predominately isolated or disconnected actions inadequate to generate an autonomous and well-informed demand for treatment and health care among women. PMID:23989627

  16. Discrepancy analysis of driving performance of taxi drivers and non-professional drivers for red-light running violation and crash avoidance at intersections.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiawei; Yan, Xuedong; Radwan, Essam

    2016-06-01

    Due to comfort, convenience, and flexibility, taxis have become increasingly more prevalent in China, especially in large cities. However, many violations and road crashes that occurred frequently were related to taxi drivers. This study aimed to investigate differences in driving performance between taxi drivers and non-professional drivers from the perspectives of red-light running violation and potential crash involvement based on a driving simulation experiment. Two typical scenarios were established in a driving simulator, which includes the red-light running violation scenario and the crash avoidance scenario. There were 49 participants, including 23 taxi drivers (14 males and 9 females) and 26 non-professional drivers (13 males and 13 females) recruited for this experiment. The driving simulation experiment results indicated that non-professional drivers paid more attention to red-light running violations in comparison to taxi drivers who had a higher probability of red-light running violation. Furthermore, it was found that taxi drivers were more inclined to turn the steering wheel in an attempt to avoid a potential collision and non-professional drivers had more abrupt deceleration behaviors when facing a potential crash. Moreover, the experiment results showed that taxi drivers had a smaller crash rate compared to non-professional drivers and had a better performance in terms of crash avoidance at the intersection. PMID:26945471

  17. The xylanase inhibitor TAXI-III counteracts the necrotic activity of a Fusarium graminearum xylanase in vitro and in durum wheat transgenic plants.

    PubMed

    Moscetti, Ilaria; Faoro, Franco; Moro, Stefano; Sabbadin, Davide; Sella, Luca; Favaron, Francesco; D'Ovidio, Renato

    2015-08-01

    The xylanase inhibitor TAXI-III has been proven to delay Fusarium head blight (FHB) symptoms caused by Fusarium graminearum in transgenic durum wheat plants. To elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying the capacity of the TAXI-III transgenic plants to limit FHB symptoms, we treated wheat tissues with the xylanase FGSG_03624, hitherto shown to induce cell death and hydrogen peroxide accumulation. Experiments performed on lemmas of flowering wheat spikes and wheat cell suspension cultures demonstrated that pre-incubation of xylanase FGSG_03624 with TAXI-III significantly decreased cell death. Most interestingly, a reduced cell death relative to control non-transgenic plants was also obtained by treating, with the same xylanase, lemmas of TAXI-III transgenic plants. Molecular modelling studies predicted an interaction between the TAXI-III residue H395 and residues E122 and E214 belonging to the active site of xylanase FGSG_03624. These results provide, for the first time, clear indications in vitro and in planta that a xylanase inhibitor can prevent the necrotic activity of a xylanase, and suggest that the reduced FHB symptoms on transgenic TAXI-III plants may be a result not only of the direct inhibition of xylanase activity secreted by the pathogen, but also of the capacity of TAXI-III to avoid host cell death. PMID:25346411

  18. Operation of a soil vapor extraction and air sparging system at a former gasoline service station

    SciTech Connect

    Gromicko, G.J.; Klingensmith, R.C.; Simpson, D.K.

    1995-12-31

    Closure activities for three underground storage tanks (USTs) were conducted at Quaker State Corporation`s (QSC) former service station in Conneaut, Pennsylvania as part of a property transfer during July, 1991. The facility, formerly owned by QSC, was operated from construction (early 1960`s) through the sale of the property (early 1980`s). Subsequent to sale of the facility, the property has been resold and the building reconfigured several times. The facility is located on a comer lot located along state highway Route 322 in the business district of Conneaut Lake as shown in Figure 1. Across the highway to the north, is Conneaut lake. The site is bordered by a residential property to the south and commercial properties on the east and west. A Pennsylvania State Game Commission Game Lands, is located approximately 150 feet southeast of the property Quaker State again became involved with the property in 1991 when the cur-rent owner attempted to sell the property and the lender for the prospective purchaser identified the presence of USTs. Subsequent to the confirmation of the USTS, UST closure activities were initiated. Subsurface investigations were conducted to delineate the extent of potential petroleum impacts and corrective actions were initiated which are on-going today.

  19. Three Types of Taxis Used in the Response of Acidovorax sp. Strain JS42 to 2-Nitrotoluene

    PubMed Central

    Rabinovitch-Deere, Christine A.

    2012-01-01

    Acidovorax sp. strain JS42 is able to utilize 2-nitrotoluene (2NT) as its sole carbon, nitrogen, and energy source. We report here that strain JS42 is chemotactic to 2NT and that the response is increased when cells are grown on compounds such as 2NT that are known to induce the first step of 2NT degradation. Assays with JS42 mutants unable to oxidize 2NT showed that the first step of 2NT metabolism was required for the induced response, but not for a portion of the constitutive response, indicating that 2NT itself is an attractant. The 2NT metabolite nitrite was shown to be a strong attractant for strain JS42, and sufficient nitrite was produced during the taxis assay to account for a large part of the induced response. A mutant with an inactivated ntdY gene, which is located adjacent to the 2NT degradation genes and codes for a putative methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein, showed a defect in taxis toward 2NT that may involve a reduced response to nitrite. Responses of a mutant defective for the energy-taxis receptor, Aer, indicated that a functional aer gene is required for a substantial part of the wild-type induced response to 2NT. In summary, strain JS42 utilizes three types of taxis to sense and respond to 2NT: constitutive 2NT-specific chemotaxis to directly sense 2NT, metabolism-dependent nitrite-specific chemotaxis that may be mediated by NtdY, and energy taxis mediated by Aer. PMID:22286989

  20. Tractor-Maintenance: Operation & Daily Care [and] Servicing Air Cleaner & Lubrication. Student Materials. V. A. III. [V-C-1 through V-C-4].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

    Designed for use by students in vocational agricultural classes, this manual deals with tractor maintenance. Operation and daily care are the topics of the first section. Safety is also covered. In the final part of the manual, servicing the air cleaner and lubricating the engine are discussed. Both sections conclude with a quiz. (PLB)

  1. The Correlation between Sex, Age, Educational Background, and Hours of Service on Vigilance Level of ATC Officers in Air Nav Surabaya, Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saleh, Lalu Muhammad; Suwandi, Tjipto; Hamidah

    2016-01-01

    The vigilance of an Air Traffic Control (ATC) officer determines aviation safety. The number of aviation accidents tends to be increasing in recent years. Aviation accidents may be caused by human errors (i.e. errors made by pilot or ATC officer) or unsafe work condition. Sex, age, educational background, and hours of service might affect…

  2. Occupational Structures and Profiles in Italy in the Field of Environmental Protection in the Public Service Sector with Reference to Air Pollution Control. CEDEFOP Panorama. National Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mannocci, Virgilio; And Others

    A study examined the knowledge and job skills required of persons employed in air pollution control (APC)-related occupations in Italy's public service sector. First, Italian legislation on APC and the functions/powers of Italy's public agencies responsible for APC were reviewed. The organization/operation of the public structures involved in…

  3. Flight crew fatigue III: North Sea helicopter air transport operations.

    PubMed

    Gander, P H; Barnes, R M; Gregory, K B; Graeber, R C; Connell, L J; Rosekind, M R

    1998-09-01

    We studied 32 helicopter pilots before, during, and after 4-5 d trips from Aberdeen, Scotland, to service North Sea oil rigs. On duty days, subjects awoke 1.5 h earlier than pretrip or posttrip, after having slept nearly an hour less. Subjective fatigue was greater posttrip than pretrip. By the end of trip days, fatigue was greater and mood more negative than by the end of pretrip days. During trips, daily caffeine consumption increased 42%, reports of headache doubled, reports of back pain increased 12-fold, and reports of burning eyes quadrupled. In the cockpits studied, thermal discomfort and high vibration levels were common. Subjective workload during preflight, taxi, climb, and cruise was related to the crewmembers' ratings of the quality of the aircraft systems. During descent and approach, workload was affected by weather at the landing site. During landing, it was influenced by the quality of the landing site and air traffic control. Beginning duty later, and greater attention to aircraft comfort and maintenance, should reduce fatigue in these operations. PMID:9749937

  4. Positive taxis and sustained responsiveness to water motions in larval zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Groneberg, Antonia H.; Herget, Ulrich; Ryu, Soojin; De Marco, Rodrigo J.

    2015-01-01

    Larval zebrafish (Danio rerio) have become favored subjects for studying the neural bases of behavior. Here, we report a highly stereotyped response of zebrafish larvae to hydrodynamic stimuli. It involves positive taxis, motion damping and sustained responsiveness to flows derived from local, non-stressful water motions. The response depends on the lateral line and has a high sensitivity to stimulus frequency and strength, sensory background and rearing conditions—also encompassing increased threshold levels of response to parallel input. The results show that zebrafish larvae can use near-field detection to locate sources of minute water motions, and offer a unique handle for analyses of hydrodynamic sensing, sensory responsiveness and arousal with accurate control of stimulus properties. PMID:25798089

  5. Taxiing, Take-Off, and Landing Simulation of the High Speed Civil Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reaves, Mercedes C.; Horta, Lucas G.

    1999-01-01

    The aircraft industry jointly with NASA is studying enabling technologies for higher speed, longer range aircraft configurations. Higher speeds, higher temperatures, and aerodynamics are driving these newer aircraft configurations towards long, slender, flexible fuselages. Aircraft response during ground operations, although often overlooked, is a concern due to the increased fuselage flexibility. This paper discusses modeling and simulation of the High Speed Civil Transport aircraft during taxiing, take-off, and landing. Finite element models of the airframe for various configurations are used and combined with nonlinear landing gear models to provide a simulation tool to study responses to different ground input conditions. A commercial computer simulation program is used to numerically integrate the equations of motion and to compute estimates of the responses using an existing runway profile. Results show aircraft responses exceeding safe acceptable human response levels.

  6. Comparison of Ozone and Water Vapor Retrieved From Airbus In-Service Aircraft (MOZAIC) and AIRS data over Delhi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, R. P.; Bhattacharjee, P. S.

    2010-12-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a key trace gas in tropospheric photochemistry and controls the oxidizing capacity in the troposphere. On oxidation with OH radicals, in turn, could perturb the growth rates of many greenhouse gases such as CH4 and O3. We have used Carbon Monoxide (CO in ppbv), Water (H2O) and ozone (O3) mixing ratio data from Measurement of Ozone and Water Vapor by Airbus In-Service Aircraft (MOZAIC) over Delhi centrally located in the northern part of India. We have analyzed more than 100 aircraft profile data measured by flights to and from Delhi during period 2003 - 2006. CO from Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and Measurement of Pollution in the atmosphere (MOPITT), is compared with MOZAIC data. Satellite derived data are found to be be in good agreement with the aircraft data, although the satellite overpass time are not concurrent with aircraft descending/ascending time. CO, H2O and O3 all show prominent seasonal variations and a climatology is produced from the observation data. The seasonal effect on the trace gas concentrations and effect of dust show characteristic behavior.

  7. Soyuz missions and taxi flights. New opportunities for technology development. An example: The ENEIDE mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortezza, R.; Pontetti, G.; Martinelli, E.; Lo Castro, F.; Di Natale, C.; D'Amico, A.

    2006-07-01

    The Soyuz vehicle represents today a key Spacecraft: it provides astronaut transfer from the ground to the ISS and it ensures, at the same time, the possibility to escape from it. A Soyuz capsule therefore has to remain always attached to the ISS to be potentially used as Crew Escape Vehicle in case of need. To maintain the full operability the Soyuz needs to be replaced every six months by a new one. The mission aimed to launch a new spacecraft and to retrieve the "used" one is called Taxi Flight. The Russians, since few years, offer commercial seat available during this mission on the bases of commercial contracts. Several Space Tourists already made use of this opportunity like Dennis Tito or Mark Shuttleworth. But a Taxi Flight is not only a good opportunity for Space Flight; it could represent also a unique chance for scientist and engineers to find new flight opportunities to carry out experiments. It is possible to fly a piece of equipment onboard ISS for up 10 days, with the possibility to have also other resources available, like crew time, telemetry, commanding, etc. Of course to exploit such an opportunity and to develop space hardware, a company willing to carry out its own experiment need to have in-house resource to support the mission. Often the resources are not enough or the specific know-how for a space mission is missing. But today to help the users, very often represented by a SME, there is in ESA a dedicated team, supported by national user support centers, able to transform an idea into a consolidated flying experiment. The paper is aimed at presenting the reference scenario, the approach and methodologies used and offer a guide for future users. The example of three experiments flown in the Soyuz 10S mission is presented together with the strategy used to pass from the idea to the results in less than nine months.

  8. Changes in functional connectivity dynamics associated with vigilance network in taxi drivers.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hui; Li, Zhenfeng; Qin, Jian; Liu, Qiang; Wang, Lubin; Zeng, Ling-Li; Li, Hong; Hu, Dewen

    2016-01-01

    An increasing number of neuroimaging studies have suggested that the fluctuations of low-frequency resting-state functional connectivity (FC) are not noise but are instead linked to the shift between distinct cognitive states. However, there is very limited knowledge about whether and how the fluctuations of FC at rest are influenced by long-term training and experience. Here, we investigated how the dynamics of resting-state FC are linked to driving behavior by comparing 20 licensed taxi drivers with 20 healthy non-drivers using a sliding window approach. We found that the driving experience could be effectively decoded with 90% (p<0.001) accuracy by the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations in some specific connections, based on a multivariate pattern analysis technique. Interestingly, the majority of these connections fell within a set of distributed regions named "the vigilance network". Moreover, the decreased amplitude of the FC fluctuations within the vigilance network in the drivers was negatively correlated with the number of years that they had driven a taxi. Furthermore, temporally quasi-stable functional connectivity segmentation revealed significant differences between the drivers and non-drivers in the dwell time of specific vigilance-related transient brain states, although the brain's repertoire of functional states was preserved. Overall, these results suggested a significant link between the changes in the time-dependent aspects of resting-state FC within the vigilance network and long-term driving experiences. The results not only improve our understanding of how the brain supports driving behavior but also shed new light on the relationship between the dynamics of functional brain networks and individual behaviors. PMID:26363345

  9. Energy Taxis Drives Campylobacter jejuni toward the Most Favorable Conditions for Growth ▿

    PubMed Central

    Vegge, Christina S.; Brøndsted, Lone; Li, Yi-Ping; Bang, Dang D.; Ingmer, Hanne

    2009-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a serious food-borne bacterial pathogen in the developed world. Poultry is a major reservoir, and C. jejuni appears highly adapted to the gastrointestinal tract of birds. Several factors are important for chicken colonization and virulence, including a taxis mechanism for environmental navigation. To explore the mechanism of chemotaxis in C. jejuni, we constructed mutants with deletions of five putative mcp (methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein) genes (tlp1, tlp2, tlp3, docB, and docC). Surprisingly, the deletions did not affect the chemotactic behavior of the mutants compared to that of the parental strain. However, the tlp1, tlp3, docB, and docC mutant strains displayed a 10-fold decrease in the ability to invade human epithelial and chicken embryo cells, hence demonstrating that the corresponding proteins affect the host interaction. l-Asparagine, formate, d-lactate, and chicken mucus were identified as new attractants of C. jejuni, and we observed that chemical substances promoting tactic attraction are all known to support the growth of this organism. The attractants could be categorized as carbon sources and electron donors and acceptors, and we furthermore observed a correlation between an attractant's potency and its efficiency as an energy source. The tactic attraction was inhibited by the respiratory inhibitors HQNO (2-n-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline N-oxide) and sodium azide, which significantly reduce energy production by oxidative phosphorylation. These findings strongly indicate that energy taxis is the primary force in environmental navigation by C. jejuni and that this mechanism drives the organism toward the optimal chemical conditions for energy generation and colonization. PMID:19542337

  10. SUMMARY OF ELECTRIC SERVICE COSTS FOR TOTALLY AIR CONDITIONED SCHOOLS PREPARED FOR HOUSTON INDEPENDENT SCHOOL DISTRICT, MAY 31, 1967.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WHITESIDES, M.M.

    THIS REPORT IS A COMPILATION OF DATA ON ELECTRIC AIR CONDITIONING COSTS, OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE. AIR CONDITIONING UNITS ARE COMPARED IN TERMS OF ELECTRIC VERSUS NON-ELECTRIC, AUTOMATIC VERSUS OPERATED, AIR COOLED VERSUS WATER COOLED, RECIPROCATING VERSUS CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSORS, SPACE AND NOISE, REHEAT, MAINTENANCE AND ORIGINAL COST. DATA ARE…

  11. Shuttle Endeavour Mated to 747 SCA Taxi to Runway for Delivery to Kennedy Space Center, Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    NASA's 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft No. 911, with the space shuttle orbiter Endeavour securely mounted atop its fuselage, taxies to the runway to begin the ferry flight from Rockwell's Plant 42 at Palmdale, California, where the orbiter was built, to the Kennedy Space Center, Florida. At Kennedy, the space vehicle was processed and launched on orbital mission STS-49, which landed at NASA's Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility (later redesignated Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, California, 16 May 1992. NASA 911, the second modified 747 that went into service in November 1990, has special support struts atop the fuselage and internal strengthening to accommodate the added weight of the orbiters. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay

  12. Needs and workflow assessment prior to implementation of a digital pathology infrastructure for the US Air Force Medical Service

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Jonhan; Aridor, Orly; Glinski, David W.; Saylor, Christopher D.; Pelletier, Joseph P.; Selby, Dale M.; Davis, Steven W.; Lancia, Nicholas; Gerlach, Christopher B.; Newberry, Jonathan; Anthony, Leslie; Pantanowitz, Liron; Parwani, Anil V.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Advances in digital pathology are accelerating integration of this technology into anatomic pathology (AP). To optimize implementation and adoption of digital pathology systems within a large healthcare organization, initial assessment of both end user (pathologist) needs and organizational infrastructure are required. Contextual inquiry is a qualitative, user-centered tool for collecting, interpreting, and aggregating such detailed data about work practices that can be employed to help identify specific needs and requirements. Aim: Using contextual inquiry, the objective of this study was to identify the unique work practices and requirements in AP for the United States (US) Air Force Medical Service (AFMS) that had to be targeted in order to support their transition to digital pathology. Subjects and Methods: A pathology-centered observer team conducted 1.5 h interviews with a total of 24 AFMS pathologists and histology lab personnel at three large regional centers and one smaller peripheral AFMS pathology center using contextual inquiry guidelines. Findings were documented as notes and arranged into a hierarchal organization of common themes based on user-provided data, defined as an affinity diagram. These data were also organized into consolidated graphic models that characterized AFMS pathology work practices, structure, and requirements. Results: Over 1,200 recorded notes were grouped into an affinity diagram composed of 27 third-level, 10 second-level, and five main-level (workflow and workload distribution, quality, communication, military culture, and technology) categories. When combined with workflow and cultural models, the findings revealed that AFMS pathologists had needs that were unique to their military setting, when compared to civilian pathologists. These unique needs included having to serve a globally distributed patient population, transient staff, but a uniform information technology (IT) structure. Conclusions: The contextual

  13. Sphingomonas taxi, Isolated from Cucurbita pepo, Proves to Be a DDE-Degrading and Plant Growth-Promoting Strain.

    PubMed

    Eevers, Nele; Van Hamme, Jonathan D; Bottos, Eric M; Weyens, Nele; Vangronsveld, Jaco

    2015-01-01

    The draft genome of Sphingomonas taxi, a strain of the Sphingomonadaceae isolated from Cucurbita pepo root tissue, is presented. This Gram-negative bacterium shows 2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene (DDE)-degrading potential and plant growth-promoting capacities. An analysis of its 3.9-Mb draft genome will enhance the understanding of DDE-degradation pathways and phytoremediation applications for DDE-contaminated soils. PMID:25977415

  14. Sphingomonas taxi, Isolated from Cucurbita pepo, Proves to Be a DDE-Degrading and Plant Growth-Promoting Strain

    PubMed Central

    Eevers, Nele; Van Hamme, Jonathan D.; Bottos, Eric M.; Weyens, Nele

    2015-01-01

    The draft genome of Sphingomonas taxi, a strain of the Sphingomonadaceae isolated from Cucurbita pepo root tissue, is presented. This Gram-negative bacterium shows 2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene (DDE)-degrading potential and plant growth-promoting capacities. An analysis of its 3.9-Mb draft genome will enhance the understanding of DDE-degradation pathways and phytoremediation applications for DDE-contaminated soils. PMID:25977415

  15. "Dammed Taxi Cab"--How Silent Communication in Questionnaires Can Be Understood and Used to Give Voice to Children's Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alerby, E.; Kostenius, C.

    2011-01-01

    "Dammed taxi cab"--a 12-year-old boy wrote these words in the margins of a questionnaire, and within this paper they will serve as a point of departure for the discussion of the use of questionnaires as a way to voice children's experiences. The overall aim of this paper is to enable understanding of and discuss the use of questionnaires as a way…

  16. Air resources

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This section describes the ambient (surrounding) air quality of the TVA region, discusses TVA emission contributions to ambient air quality, and identifies air quality impacts to human health and welfare. Volume 2 Technical Document 2, Environmental Consequences, describes how changes in TVA emissions could affect regional air quality, human health, environmental resources, and materials. The primary region of the affected environment is broadly defined as the state of Tennessee, as well as southern Kentucky, western Virginia, southern West Virginia, western North Carolina, and northern Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi. This area represents the watershed of the Tennessee River and the 201 counties of the greater TVA service area. Emissions from outside the Tennessee Valley region contribute to air quality in the Valley. Also, TVA emissions are transported outside the Valley and have some impact on air quality beyond the primary study area. Although the study area experiences a number of air quality problems, overall air quality is good.

  17. Targeted axonal import (TAxI) peptide delivers functional proteins into spinal cord motor neurons after peripheral administration.

    PubMed

    Sellers, Drew L; Bergen, Jamie M; Johnson, Russell N; Back, Heidi; Ravits, John M; Horner, Philip J; Pun, Suzie H

    2016-03-01

    A significant unmet need in treating neurodegenerative disease is effective methods for delivery of biologic drugs, such as peptides, proteins, or nucleic acids into the central nervous system (CNS). To date, there are no operative technologies for the delivery of macromolecular drugs to the CNS via peripheral administration routes. Using an in vivo phage-display screen, we identify a peptide, targeted axonal import (TAxI), that enriched recombinant bacteriophage accumulation and delivered protein cargo into spinal cord motor neurons after intramuscular injection. In animals with transected peripheral nerve roots, TAxI delivery into motor neurons after peripheral administration was inhibited, suggesting a retrograde axonal transport mechanism for delivery into the CNS. Notably, TAxI-Cre recombinase fusion proteins induced selective recombination and tdTomato-reporter expression in motor neurons after intramuscular injections. Furthermore, TAxI peptide was shown to label motor neurons in the human tissue. The demonstration of a nonviral-mediated delivery of functional proteins into the spinal cord establishes the clinical potential of this technology for minimally invasive administration of CNS-targeted therapeutics. PMID:26888285

  18. TrajGraph: A Graph-Based Visual Analytics Approach to Studying Urban Network Centralities Using Taxi Trajectory Data.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaoke; Zhao, Ye; Yang, Jing; Zhang, Chong; Ma, Chao; Ye, Xinyue

    2016-01-01

    We propose TrajGraph, a new visual analytics method, for studying urban mobility patterns by integrating graph modeling and visual analysis with taxi trajectory data. A special graph is created to store and manifest real traffic information recorded by taxi trajectories over city streets. It conveys urban transportation dynamics which can be discovered by applying graph analysis algorithms. To support interactive, multiscale visual analytics, a graph partitioning algorithm is applied to create region-level graphs which have smaller size than the original street-level graph. Graph centralities, including Pagerank and betweenness, are computed to characterize the time-varying importance of different urban regions. The centralities are visualized by three coordinated views including a node-link graph view, a map view and a temporal information view. Users can interactively examine the importance of streets to discover and assess city traffic patterns. We have implemented a fully working prototype of this approach and evaluated it using massive taxi trajectories of Shenzhen, China. TrajGraph's capability in revealing the importance of city streets was evaluated by comparing the calculated centralities with the subjective evaluations from a group of drivers in Shenzhen. Feedback from a domain expert was collected. The effectiveness of the visual interface was evaluated through a formal user study. We also present several examples and a case study to demonstrate the usefulness of TrajGraph in urban transportation analysis. PMID:26529696

  19. Targeted axonal import (TAxI) peptide delivers functional proteins into spinal cord motor neurons after peripheral administration

    PubMed Central

    Sellers, Drew L.; Bergen, Jamie M.; Johnson, Russell N.; Back, Heidi; Ravits, John M.; Horner, Philip J.; Pun, Suzie H.

    2016-01-01

    A significant unmet need in treating neurodegenerative disease is effective methods for delivery of biologic drugs, such as peptides, proteins, or nucleic acids into the central nervous system (CNS). To date, there are no operative technologies for the delivery of macromolecular drugs to the CNS via peripheral administration routes. Using an in vivo phage-display screen, we identify a peptide, targeted axonal import (TAxI), that enriched recombinant bacteriophage accumulation and delivered protein cargo into spinal cord motor neurons after intramuscular injection. In animals with transected peripheral nerve roots, TAxI delivery into motor neurons after peripheral administration was inhibited, suggesting a retrograde axonal transport mechanism for delivery into the CNS. Notably, TAxI-Cre recombinase fusion proteins induced selective recombination and tdTomato-reporter expression in motor neurons after intramuscular injections. Furthermore, TAxI peptide was shown to label motor neurons in the human tissue. The demonstration of a nonviral-mediated delivery of functional proteins into the spinal cord establishes the clinical potential of this technology for minimally invasive administration of CNS-targeted therapeutics. PMID:26888285

  20. Taxi drivers' views on risky driving behavior in Tehran: a qualitative study using a social marketing approach.

    PubMed

    Shams, Mohsen; Shojaeizadeh, Davoud; Majdzadeh, Reza; Rashidian, Arash; Montazeri, Ali

    2011-05-01

    The use of the social marketing approach for public health issues is increasing. This approach uses marketing concepts borrowed from the principles of commercial marketing to promote beneficial health behaviors. In this qualitative study, four focus groups involving 42 participants were used in consumer research to explore taxi drivers' views on the driving situation and the determinants of risky driving behaviors in Tehran, as well as to gather their ideas for developing a social marketing program to reduce risky driving behaviors among taxi drivers in Tehran, Iran. Participants were asked to respond to questions that would guide the development of a marketing mix, or four Ps (product, price, place and promotion). The discussions determined that the program product should involve avoiding risky driving behaviors through increased attention to driving. They pointed out that developing and communicating with a well-designed persuasive message meant to draw their attention to driving could affect their driving behaviors. In addition, participants identified price, place and promotion strategies. They offered suggestions for marketing nonrisky driving to the target audience. The focus group discussions generated important insights into the values and the motivations that affect consumers' decisions to adopt the product. The focus group guided the development of a social marketing program to reduce risky driving behaviors in taxi drivers in Tehran, Iran. PMID:21376850

  1. Orbital Transfer Vehicle (space taxi) with aerobraking at Earth and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    This report shall cover all major aspects of the design of an Aeroassisted Manned Transfer Vehicle (or TAXI) for use as part of advanced manned Mars missions based on a cycling ship concept. Along with the heliocentric orbiting Cycling Spacecraft, such a TAXI would be a primary component of a long-term transportation system for Mars exploration. The Aeroassisted Manned Transfer Vehicle (AMTV) design developed shall operate along transfer trajectories between Earth and a Cycling Spacecraft (designed by the University of Michigan) and Mars. All operations of the AMTV shall be done primarily within the sphere of influence of the two planets. Maximum delta-V's for the vehicle have been established near 9 km/sec, with transfer durations of about 3 days. Acceleration deltaV's will be accomplished using 3 SSME-based hydrogen-oxygen chemical rockets (l(sub sp) = 485 sec & Thrust greater than = 300,00 Ib(sub f)/engine) with a thrust vector directly opposite the aerobraking deceleration vector. The aerobraking deceleration portion of an AMTV mission would be accomplished in this design by a moderate L/D aeroshield of an ellipsoidally-blunt, raked-off, elliptic cone (EBROEC) shape. The reusable thermal protection material comprising the shield will consist of a flexible, multi-layer, ceramic fabric stretched over a lightweight, rigid, shape - defining truss structure. Behind this truss, other components, including the engine supports, would be attached and protected from heating during aerobraking passes. Among these other components would be 2 LOX tanks and 4 LH2 tanks (and their support frames) holding over 670,000 lbm of propellant necessary to impart the required delta-V to the 98,000 lbm burnout mass vehicle. A 20,000 lbm crew module with docking port (oriented parallel to the accel./decel. axis) will provide accommodations for 9 crew members (11 under extreme conditions) for durations up to seven days, thus allowing extra time for emergency situations. This AMTV will be

  2. 5 CFR 842.811 - Deposits for second-level supervisory air traffic controller service performed before February 10...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... RETIREMENT SYSTEM-BASIC ANNUITY Law Enforcement Officers, Firefighters, and Air Traffic Controllers Regulations Pertaining to Noncodified Statutes § 842.811 Deposits for second-level supervisory air traffic... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deposits for second-level supervisory...

  3. Autonomous taxis could greatly reduce greenhouse-gas emissions of US light-duty vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenblatt, Jeffery B.; Saxena, Samveg

    2015-09-01

    Autonomous vehicles (AVs) are conveyances to move passengers or freight without human intervention. AVs are potentially disruptive both technologically and socially, with claimed benefits including increased safety, road utilization, driver productivity and energy savings. Here we estimate 2014 and 2030 greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions and costs of autonomous taxis (ATs), a class of fully autonomous shared AVs likely to gain rapid early market share, through three synergistic effects: (1) future decreases in electricity GHG emissions intensity, (2) smaller vehicle sizes resulting from trip-specific AT deployment, and (3) higher annual vehicle-miles travelled (VMT), increasing high-efficiency (especially battery-electric) vehicle cost-effectiveness. Combined, these factors could result in decreased US per-mile GHG emissions in 2030 per AT deployed of 87-94% below current conventionally driven vehicles (CDVs), and 63-82% below projected 2030 hybrid vehicles, without including other energy-saving benefits of AVs. With these substantial GHG savings, ATs could enable GHG reductions even if total VMT, average speed and vehicle size increased substantially. Oil consumption would also be reduced by nearly 100%.

  4. Epidemiological study of low back pain and occupational risk factors among taxi drivers.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Masabumi; Konno, Shunsuke; Gembun, Yoshikazu; Liu, Xinyu; Minami, Kazufumi; Ito, Hiromoto

    2008-04-01

    A survey of taxi drivers was conducted to determine the actual situation of drivers' low back pain (LBP). The survey was carried out in October 2002, the target drivers were asked to complete a questionnaire which contains questions regarding physique of drivers, demographic features, working conditions, office environment, health conditions, the presence of low back pain, the level of low back pain based on Visual Analogue Scale and Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire score. As a result, the total number of valid responses was 1,334 and the response rate was 71 percent, and the 1-wk prevalence of LBP was 20.5 percent of respondents. Regarding 275 subjects with LBP, Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) averaged 4.3. There was a positive weak correlation between VAS and Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire score (R=0.41). And Logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the relationship between LBP and occupational factors, the results suggested following items as risk factors; such as history of LBP, suffering from fatigue, diseases other than LBP and smoking habit. PMID:18413963

  5. Predictors of whole-body vibration levels among urban taxi drivers.

    PubMed

    Chen, J C; Chang, W R; Shih, T S; Chen, C J; Chang, W P; Dennerlein, J T; Ryan, L M; Christiani, D C

    2003-09-15

    To identify a set of important WBV predictors that could be used to develop a statistical instrument for exposure assessment in a large epidemiologic study, a total of 432 WBV measures were taken from a sample of 247 male drivers in Taipei City, Taiwan. In accordance with the ISO 2631-1 (1997) methods, we measured the frequency-weighted vertical acceleration (z-axis) over drivers' seat surface, under conditions representing different types of rides (vacant vs. short vs. long) assigned to random destinations. Mixed effect models were used to analyse the WBV data including repeated measures. For this group of urban taxi drivers regularly exposed to WBV of low intensity (mean = 0.31 ms( - 2), ranging from 0.17 to 0.55 ms( - 2) r.m.s.), our analyses indicated that average driving speed was the primary predictor (p < 0.0001). As average driving speed increased, measured vertical acceleration increased in a quadratic-linear manner (p < 0.0001). Other WBV predictors, after adjusting for the effects of other covariates, included automobile manufacturer (p = 0.02), engine size (p = 0.04), body weight (p = 0.002), age (p = 0.02), use of seat cushion (p = 0.03), and traffic period (p = 0.02). Our study suggests that a similar statistical approach could be employed in future studies to improve the quality and efficiency of WBV exposure assessment in professional drivers. PMID:12850932

  6. The Detection of Transport Land-Use Data Using Crowdsourcing Taxi Trajectory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ai, T.; Yang, W.

    2016-06-01

    This study tries to explore the question of transport land-use change detection by large volume of vehicle trajectory data, presenting a method based on Deluanay triangulation. The whole method includes three steps. The first one is to pre-process the vehicle trajectory data including the point anomaly removing and the conversion of trajectory point to track line. Secondly, construct Deluanay triangulation within the vehicle trajectory line to detect neighborhood relation. Considering the case that some of the trajectory segments are too long, we use a interpolation measure to add more points for the improved triangulation. Thirdly, extract the transport road by cutting short triangle edge and organizing the polygon topology. We have conducted the experiment of transport land-use change discovery using the data of taxi track in Beijing City. We extract not only the transport land-use area but also the semantic information such as the transformation speed, the traffic jam distribution, the main vehicle movement direction and others. Compared with the existed transport network data, such as OpenStreet Map, our method is proved to be quick and accurate.

  7. TaxI: a software tool for DNA barcoding using distance methods

    PubMed Central

    Steinke, Dirk; Vences, Miguel; Salzburger, Walter; Meyer, Axel

    2005-01-01

    DNA barcoding is a promising approach to the diagnosis of biological diversity in which DNA sequences serve as the primary key for information retrieval. Most existing software for evolutionary analysis of DNA sequences was designed for phylogenetic analyses and, hence, those algorithms do not offer appropriate solutions for the rapid, but precise analyses needed for DNA barcoding, and are also unable to process the often large comparative datasets. We developed a flexible software tool for DNA taxonomy, named TaxI. This program calculates sequence divergences between a query sequence (taxon to be barcoded) and each sequence of a dataset of reference sequences defined by the user. Because the analysis is based on separate pairwise alignments this software is also able to work with sequences characterized by multiple insertions and deletions that are difficult to align in large sequence sets (i.e. thousands of sequences) by multiple alignment algorithms because of computational restrictions. Here, we demonstrate the utility of this approach with two datasets of fish larvae and juveniles from Lake Constance and juvenile land snails under different models of sequence evolution. Sets of ribosomal 16S rRNA sequences, characterized by multiple indels, performed as good as or better than cox1 sequence sets in assigning sequences to species, demonstrating the suitability of rRNA genes for DNA barcoding. PMID:16214755

  8. Effect of steady and unsteady flow on chemoattractant plume formation and sperm taxis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Allison F.; Crimaldi, John P.

    2015-08-01

    The formation of chemoattractant plumes around benthic invertebrate eggs in steady and unsteady shear flows is investigated for a range of shear rates, and the ability of sperm to navigate within these plumes is assessed using several chemotactic strategies. Although many of the details of sperm taxis remain uncertain, we investigate the role of basic processes using a toy model in two dimensions. Search strategies in 2D are intrinsically less complex than 3D, but many of the basic components are similar, and the simplified geometry permits an understanding and identification of the key factors of navigation tactics. Numerical simulations are used to model the advection and diffusion of the chemoattractant within the different flows, using three different sperm swimming behaviors. A Monte-Carlo approach is then used to determine the probability of a sperm reaching an egg for a range of flow conditions, initial conditions, and swimming behaviors. The spatial structure of chemoattractant plumes at the scale of the gametes is also investigated. Success rates for locating an egg decrease monotonically with increasing shear rates, and a definitive hierarchical ordering of the tested swimming strategies is identified. A conceptual framework to study and identify important aspects of this fundamental process to support further studies is provided.

  9. 48 CFR 47.403-1 - Availability and unavailability of U.S.-flag air carrier service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... In determining availability of a U.S.-flag air carrier, the following scheduling principles shall be followed unless their application would result in the last or first leg of travel to or from the...

  10. 48 CFR 47.403-1 - Availability and unavailability of U.S.-flag air carrier service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... In determining availability of a U.S.-flag air carrier, the following scheduling principles shall be followed unless their application would result in the last or first leg of travel to or from the...

  11. Guidelines for evaluating air pollution impacts on Class I wilderness areas in California. Forest Service general technical report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, D.L.; Schmoldt, D.L.; Eilers, J.M.; Fisher, R.W.; Doty, R.D.

    1992-11-01

    ;Contents: In Brief; Glossary of Acronyms; Introduction; Legal Background of Managing Air Quality in Class I Wilderness; Effects on Terrestrial Resources; Effects on Aquatic Resources; Effects on Visibility; References.

  12. Thermal Gradient Behavior of TBCs Subjected to a Laser Gradient Test Rig: Simulating an Air-to-Air Combat Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, Rogerio S.; Marple, Basil R.; Marcoux, P.

    2016-01-01

    A computer-controlled laser test rig (using a CO2 laser) offers an interesting alternative to traditional flame-based thermal gradient rigs in evaluating thermal barrier coatings (TBCs). The temperature gradient between the top and back surfaces of a TBC system can be controlled based on the laser power and a forced air back-face cooling system, enabling the temperature history of complete aircraft missions to be simulated. An air plasma spray-deposited TBC was tested and, based on experimental data available in the literature, the temperature gradients across the TBC system (ZrO2-Y2O3 YSZ top coat/CoNiCrAlY bond coat/Inconel 625 substrate) and their respective frequencies during air-to-air combat missions of fighter jets were replicated. The missions included (i) idle/taxi on the runway, (ii) take-off and climbing, (iii) cruise trajectory to rendezvous zone, (iv) air-to-air combat maneuvering, (v) cruise trajectory back to runway, and (vi) idle/taxi after landing. The results show that the TBC thermal gradient experimental data in turbine engines can be replicated in the laser gradient rig, leading to an important tool to better engineer TBCs.

  13. Factors associated with HIV testing among male motorbike taxi drivers in urban Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Huy, Nguyen Van; Khuyen, Le Thi; Ha, Pham Nguyen

    2015-01-01

    Using the Attitude-Skills-Knowledge (ASK) model, this study examined the prevalence of, and factors associated with, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing among male motorbike taxi drivers (MMTDs). In a cross-sectional design, using quantitative approaches, 291 MMTDs were recruited from 135 sites across 13 districts in Hanoi, Vietnam, for a face-to-face interview. Applying the ASK model modified as a central theory, logistic regression was used to identify determinants of HIV testing. Although many MMTDs engaged in multiple risk behaviours for HIV, only 20.6% had been tested for HIV during the past 12 months. The tested model included one factor of the ASK model, HIV prevention knowledge (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 4.76; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.12-10.7) and five additional factors: being married (AOR = 3.13; 95% CI = 1.25-4.78), preferring sex with men or with both men and women (AOR = 8.72; 95% CI = 1.48-51.5), having lower number of lifetime sex partners (AOR = 0.66; 95% CI = 0.49-0.88), higher number of past year sex partners (AOR = 2.97: 95% CI = 1.21-7.31) and discussing condom use when having sex with partners (AOR = 0.08; 95% CI = 0.01-7.31). This modified ASK model provided better fit than the ASK model, as it explained more variance in HIV testing (47 vs. 29.8%). Recognising factors associated with HIV testing among MMTDs enables us to create suitable public health intervention strategies. PMID:25415855

  14. Magnetostratigraphy of the Northern Tian Shan foreland, Taxi He section, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chuanxin; Dupont-Nivet, Guillaume; Guo, Zhaojie

    2010-05-01

    The Tian Shan range formed in the late Cenozoic in response to the northward propagation of deformation related to the India-Eurasia continental collision. Precise timing of the Tian Shan uplift is required to understand possible mechanisms of continental lithosphere deformation and interactions between climate, tectonism and erosion. Here, we provide magnetostratigraphic age control on the northern Chinese Tian Shan foreland successions. A thorough rock magnetic analysis identifies hematite and magnetite bearing alluvial deposits in the upper portion of the sampled stratigraphy as more reliable paleomagnetic recorders than magnetite bearing fluvial and lacustrine deposits that are often maghemitized in the lower part of the record. As a result, a robust correlation to the geomagnetic polarity time scale is obtained from 6 Ma to 2 Ma while a tentative correlation is proposed from 6 to 16 Ma. Sediment accumulation rates increase from 155 to 260 m/Myr at 3.9+/-0.4 Ma. This change coincides with a gradual lithologic transition from fluvial (sandstone dominated) to alluvial (conglomerate dominated). Theis change is so drastic that it more likely corresponds to an approaching erosional source associated to tectonically increased subsidence rather than differential compaction alone. Clear evidences for growth strata starting at an estimated age of ca. 2 Ma provide a minimum age for the folding. These results are compared to previous magneotstratigraphic studies from the same and other section of the northern Tian Shan foreland deposits. This enables critical assessment of the reliability of magnetostratigraphic dating and the significance of sediment accumulation rate variations with respect to facies variations and growth strata. Our results in the Taxi He section provide a sequence of events that is consistent with enhanced tectonic forcing starting at ~4 Ma although a climatic contribution must be considered given the close relationship of these ages with the Pliocene

  15. 41 CFR 301-10.135 - When must I travel using U.S. flag air carrier service?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... use of the U.S. flag air carrier would at least double your en route travel time; or (g) When the... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When must I travel using... Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE TRAVEL...

  16. 41 CFR 301-10.135 - When must I travel using U.S. flag air carrier service?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... use of the U.S. flag air carrier would at least double your en route travel time; or (g) When the... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false When must I travel using... Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE TRAVEL...

  17. 41 CFR 301-10.135 - When must I travel using U.S. flag air carrier service?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... use of the U.S. flag air carrier would at least double your en route travel time; or (g) When the... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false When must I travel using... Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE TRAVEL...

  18. 41 CFR 301-10.135 - When must I travel using U.S. flag air carrier service?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... use of the U.S. flag air carrier would at least double your en route travel time; or (g) When the... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false When must I travel using... Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE TRAVEL...

  19. The 1980 Guide to the Evaluation of Educational Experiences in the Armed Services. [Volume] 1: Air Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Eugene J.; And Others

    For more than 35 years, this Guide has been the standard reference work for recognizing learning acquired in military life. All the courses offered by the Air Force are listed and briefly described. Each course description includes the course title and number: the length of the course, and where and when it was offered; the course objectives; the…

  20. Guide to the Evaluation of Educational Experiences in the Armed Services. The 1978 Guide. 1: Air Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Council on Education, Washington, DC. Office on Educational Credit.

    Postsecondary educational credit recommendations for formal courses offered by the Air Force and the Department of Defense are provided in this first of a three-volume guide. (Other volumes cover courses offered by the Army and by the Coast Guard, Marine Corps, and Navy. See note.) Following brief sections on use of the guide, the formal course…

  1. Screening procedure to evaluate air pollution effects on Class I wilderness areas. Forest Service general technical report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, D.G.; Bartuska, A.M.; Byrne, J.G.; Cowling, E.; Fisher, R.

    1989-03-01

    The screening procedure is intended to help wilderness managers conduct Adverse impact determinations as part of Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) applications for sources that emit air pollutants that might impact class I wildernesses. The process provides an initial estimate of susceptibility to critical loadings for sulfur, nitrogen, and ozone. It also provides a basis for requesting necessary additional information where potential adverse impacts are identified.

  2. Building Air Monitoring Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1977

    1977-01-01

    The different components of air monitoring networks, the status of air monitoring in the United States, and the services and activities of the three major American network builders are detailed. International air monitoring networks and alert systems are identified, with emphasis on the Dutch air monitoring network. (BT)

  3. Characterization of CetA and CetB, a bipartite energy taxis system in Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Kathryn T; Dirita, Victor J

    2008-09-01

    The energy taxis receptor Aer, in Escherichia coli, senses changes in the redox state of the electron transport system via an flavin adenine dinucleotide cofactor bound to a PAS domain. The PAS domain (a sensory domain named after three proteins Per, ARNT and Sim, where it was first identified) is thought to interact directly with the Aer HAMP domain to transmit this signal to the highly conserved domain (HCD) found in chemotaxis receptors. An apparent energy taxis system in Campylobacter jejuni is composed of two proteins, CetA and CetB, that have the domains of Aer divided between them. CetB has a PAS domain, while CetA has a predicted transmembrane region, HAMP domain and the HCD. In this study, we examined the expression of cetA and cetB and the biochemical properties of the proteins they encode. cetA and cetB are co-transcribed independently of the flagellar regulon. CetA has two transmembrane helices in a helical hairpin while CetB is a peripheral membrane protein tightly associated with the membrane. CetB levels are CetA dependent. Additionally, we demonstrated that both CetA and CetB participate in complexes, including a likely CetB dimer and a complex that may include both CetA and CetB. This study provides a foundation for further characterization of signal transduction mechanisms within CetA/CetB. PMID:18631239

  4. Energy Taxis toward Host-Derived Nitrate Supports a Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1-Independent Mechanism of Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Rivera-Chávez, Fabian; Lopez, Christopher A.; Zhang, Lillian F.; García-Pastor, Lucía; Chávez-Arroyo, Alfredo; Lokken, Kristen L.; Tsolis, Renée M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium can cross the epithelial barrier using either the invasion-associated type III secretion system (T3SS-1) or a T3SS-1-independent mechanism that remains poorly characterized. Here we show that flagellum-mediated motility supported a T3SS-1-independent pathway for entering ileal Peyer’s patches in the mouse model. Flagellum-dependent invasion of Peyer’s patches required energy taxis toward nitrate, which was mediated by the methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein (MCP) Tsr. Generation of nitrate in the intestinal lumen required inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which was synthesized constitutively in the mucosa of the terminal ileum but not in the jejunum, duodenum, or cecum. Tsr-mediated invasion of ileal Peyer’s patches was abrogated in mice deficient for Nos2, the gene encoding iNOS. We conclude that Tsr-mediated energy taxis enables S. Typhimurium to migrate toward the intestinal epithelium by sensing host-derived nitrate, thereby contributing to invasion of Peyer’s patches. PMID:27435462

  5. Health Risk Assessment of Ambient Air Concentrations of Benzene, Toluene and Xylene (BTX) in Service Station Environments

    PubMed Central

    Edokpolo, Benjamin; Yu, Qiming Jimmy; Connell, Des

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive evaluation of the adverse health effects of human exposures to BTX from service station emissions was carried out using BTX exposure data from the scientific literature. The data was grouped into different scenarios based on activity, location and occupation and plotted as Cumulative Probability Distributions (CPD) plots. Health risk was evaluated for each scenario using the Hazard Quotient (HQ) at 50% (CEXP50) and 95% (CEXP95) exposure levels. HQ50 and HQ95 > 1 were obtained with benzene in the scenario for service station attendants and mechanics repairing petrol dispensing pumps indicating a possible health risk. The risk was minimized for service stations using vapour recovery systems which greatly reduced the benzene exposure levels. HQ50 and HQ95 < 1 were obtained for all other scenarios with benzene suggesting minimal risk for most of the exposed population. However, HQ50 and HQ95 < 1 was also found with toluene and xylene for all scenarios, suggesting minimal health risk. The lifetime excess Cancer Risk (CR) and Overall Risk Probability for cancer on exposure to benzene was calculated for all Scenarios and this was higher amongst service station attendants than any other scenario. PMID:24945191

  6. 38 CFR 3.7 - Individuals and groups considered to have performed active military, naval, or air service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 3.7, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which... incurred such disability in active service. (2) The injury or disease must be due to some factor relating..., Illinois, Howard University, Washington, D.C., Camp Perry, Ohio, and Camp Hancock, Georgia, from July...

  7. Fusarium graminearum produces different xylanases causing host cell death that is prevented by the xylanase inhibitors XIP-I and TAXI-III in wheat.

    PubMed

    Tundo, Silvio; Moscetti, Ilaria; Faoro, Franco; Lafond, Mickaël; Giardina, Thierry; Favaron, Francesco; Sella, Luca; D'Ovidio, Renato

    2015-11-01

    To shed light on the role of Xylanase Inhibitors (XIs) during Fusarium graminearum infection, we first demonstrated that three out of four F. graminearum xylanases, in addition to their xylan degrading activity, have also the capacity to cause host cell death both in cell suspensions and wheat spike tissue. Subsequently, we demonstrated that TAXI-III and XIP-I prevented both the enzyme and host cell death activities of F. graminearum xylanases. In particular, we showed that the enzymatic inhibition by TAXI-III and XIP-I was competitive and only FGSG_11487 escaped inhibition. The finding that TAXI-III and XIP-I prevented cell death activity of heat inactivated xylanases and that XIP-I precluded the cell death activity of FGSG_11487 - even if XIP-I does not inhibit its enzyme activity - suggests that the catalytic and the cell death activities are separated features of these xylanases. Finally, the efficacy of TAXI-III or XIP-I to prevent host cell death caused by xylanases was confirmed in transgenic plants expressing separately these inhibitors, suggesting that the XIs could limit F. graminearum infection via direct inhibition of xylanase activity and/or by preventing host cell death. PMID:26475196

  8. Indirect enzyme-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for quantification of TAXI and XIP type xylanase inhibitors in wheat and other cereals.

    PubMed

    Beaugrand, Johnny; Gebruers, Kurt; Ververken, Cedric; Fierens, Ellen; Dornez, Emmie; Goddeeris, Bruno M; Delcour, Jan A; Courtin, Christophe M

    2007-09-19

    To quantify Triticum aestivum xylanase inhibitor (TAXI) and xylanase inhibiting protein (XIP) type proteins in cereals in general and wheat ( T. aestivum) in particular, a robust enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using an uncommon enzyme-antibody sandwich format was developed. Bacillus subtilis glycoside hydrolase family (GH) 11 and Aspergillus oryzae GH 10 xylanases were selected for coating ELISA plate wells to capture TAXI and XIP, respectively, prior to probing with antibodies. The detection threshold of the developed ELISA was much lower than that of the currently used xylanase inhibitor assay and the recently described Western blot approach. Because of its broad dynamic range (TAXI, 30-600 ng/mL, and XIP, 3-60 ng/mL), one proper standard extract dilution can be used for analyzing different wheat varieties, whereas for the currently used colorimetric assay, often different dilutions need to be analyzed. The TAXI ELISA for wheat was successfully adapted for barley ( Hordeum vulgare) and could also be used for other cereals. PMID:17715986

  9. Heave-pitch-roll analysis and testing of air cushion landing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boghani, A. B.; Captain, K. M.; Wormley, D. N.

    1978-01-01

    The analytical tools (analysis and computer simulation) needed to explain and predict the dynamic operation of air cushion landing systems (ACLS) is described. The following tasks were performed: the development of improved analytical models for the fan and the trunk; formulation of a heave pitch roll analysis for the complete ACLS; development of a general purpose computer simulation to evaluate landing and taxi performance of an ACLS equipped aircraft; and the verification and refinement of the analysis by comparison with test data obtained through lab testing of a prototype cushion. Demonstration of simulation capabilities through typical landing and taxi simulation of an ACLS aircraft are given. Initial results show that fan dynamics have a major effect on system performance. Comparison with lab test data (zero forward speed) indicates that the analysis can predict most of the key static and dynamic parameters (pressure, deflection, acceleration, etc.) within a margin of a 10 to 25 percent.

  10. Aging and service wear of air-operated valves used in safety-related systems at nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, D.F.; McElhaney, K.L.; Staunton, R.H.

    1995-05-01

    Air-operated valves (AOVs) are used in a variety of safety-related applications at nuclear power plants. They are often used where rapid stroke times are required or precise control of the valve obturator is required. They can be designed to operate automatically upon loss of power, which is often desirable when selecting components for response to design basis conditions. The purpose of this report is to examine the reported failures of AOVs and determine whether there are identifiable trends in the failures related to predictable causes. This report examines the specific components that comprise a typical AOV, how those components fail, when they fail, and how such failures are discovered. It also examines whether current testing frequencies and methods are effective in predicting such failures.

  11. Impact of a variational objective analysis scheme on a regional area numerical model: The Italian Air Force Weather Service experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonavita, M.; Torrisi, L.

    2005-03-01

    A new data assimilation system has been designed and implemented at the National Center for Aeronautic Meteorology and Climatology of the Italian Air Force (CNMCA) in order to improve its operational numerical weather prediction capabilities and provide more accurate guidance to operational forecasters. The system, which is undergoing testing before operational use, is based on an “observation space” version of the 3D-VAR method for the objective analysis component, and on the High Resolution Regional Model (HRM) of the Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD) for the prognostic component. Notable features of the system include a completely parallel (MPI+OMP) implementation of the solution of analysis equations by a preconditioned conjugate gradient descent method; correlation functions in spherical geometry with thermal wind constraint between mass and wind field; derivation of the objective analysis parameters from a statistical analysis of the innovation increments.

  12. PERFORMANCE AND DURABILITY OF THE PSA PEUGEOT CITROEN'S DPF SYSTEM ON A TAXI FLEET IN THE PARIS AREA

    SciTech Connect

    COROLLER, P; PLASSAT, G

    2003-08-24

    The use of Diesel engines has strongly increased during the last years and now represents 40% of the sales in Europe and up to 50% of the number of cars in circulation for some countries. This success is linked not only to the economical aspect of the use of such vehicles, but also to the recent technological improvements of these engines. The new technical solutions (high pressure direct injection, turbocharger) have indeed allowed the increase of these engine performances while decreasing their fuel consumption, pollutant emissions and noise level. From an environment point of view, Diesel engines are nevertheless penalized by their particulates and NOx emissions. The study and the treatment of the particulate, highly criticized for their potential impact on health, are the subject of numerous works of characterizations and developments. PSA Peugeot Citroen has recently (2000) launched its particulate filter technology on several types of vehicles (500,000 vehicles with DPF have been sold today). In order to evaluate the durability of this technology over a long period of time, a study program has been set-up by ADEME (French Environmental Agency), IFP Powertrain, PSA Peugeot Citroen and Taxis G7 (a Parisian taxis Company). The objective is to study the evolution of five taxis and their after-treatment system performances over 80,000km mileage--which corresponds to the recommended mileage before the first DPF maintenance--in hard urban driving conditions, as well over 120,000km, after the DPF maintenance and remanufacturing. More specifically, the following evaluations are being performed at regular intervals (around 20,000km): regulated gaseous pollutant emissions on NEDC cycle, particulate emissions and unregulated pollutant emissions. The results obtained until now have not shown any degradation of the particulate filter efficiency (more than 90%). This paper presents the methodology set-up, and the explanation of the first results obtained. Indeed, a more

  13. Large-scale functional brain network changes in taxi drivers: evidence from resting-state fMRI.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lubin; Liu, Qiang; Shen, Hui; Li, Hong; Hu, Dewen

    2015-03-01

    Driving a car in the environment is a complex behavior that involves cognitive processing of visual information to generate the proper motor outputs and action controls. Previous neuroimaging studies have used virtual simulation to identify the brain areas that are associated with various driving-related tasks. Few studies, however, have focused on the specific patterns of functional organization in the driver's brain. The aim of this study was to assess differences in the resting-state networks (RSNs) of the brains of drivers and nondrivers. Forty healthy subjects (20 licensed taxi drivers, 20 nondrivers) underwent an 8-min resting-state functional MRI acquisition. Using independent component analysis, three sensory (primary and extrastriate visual, sensorimotor) RSNs and four cognitive (anterior and posterior default mode, left and right frontoparietal) RSNs were retrieved from the data. We then examined the group differences in the intrinsic brain activity of each RSN and in the functional network connectivity (FNC) between the RSNs. We found that the drivers had reduced intrinsic brain activity in the visual RSNs and reduced FNC between the sensory RSNs compared with the nondrivers. The major finding of this study, however, was that the FNC between the cognitive and sensory RSNs became more positively or less negatively correlated in the drivers relative to that in the nondrivers. Notably, the strength of the FNC between the left frontoparietal and primary visual RSNs was positively correlated with the number of taxi-driving years. Our findings may provide new insight into how the brain supports driving behavior. PMID:25338709

  14. Lévy-taxis: a novel search strategy for finding odor plumes in turbulent flow-dominated environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasternak, Zohar; Bartumeus, Frederic; Grasso, Frank W.

    2009-10-01

    Locating chemical plumes in aquatic or terrestrial environments is important for many economic, conservation, security and health related human activities. The localization process is composed mainly of two phases: finding the chemical plume and then tracking it to its source. Plume tracking has been the subject of considerable study whereas plume finding has received little attention. We address here the latter issue, where the searching agent must find the plume in a region often many times larger than the plume and devoid of the relevant chemical cues. The probability of detecting the plume not only depends on the movements of the searching agent but also on the fluid mechanical regime, shaping plume intermittency in space and time; this is a basic, general problem when exploring for ephemeral resources (e.g. moving and/or concealing targets). Here we present a bio-inspired search strategy named Lévy-taxis that, under certain conditions, located odor plumes significantly faster and with a better success rate than other search strategies such as Lévy walks (LW), correlated random walks (CRW) and systematic zig-zag. These results are based on computer simulations which contain, for the first time ever, digitalized real-world water flow and chemical plume instead of their theoretical model approximations. Combining elements of LW and CRW, Lévy-taxis is particularly efficient for searching in flow-dominated environments: it adaptively controls the stochastic search pattern using environmental information (i.e. flow) that is available throughout the course of the search and shows correlation with the source providing the cues. This strategy finds natural application in real-world search missions, both by humans and autonomous robots, since it accomodates the stochastic nature of chemical mixing in turbulent flows. In addition, it may prove useful in the field of behavioral ecology, explaining and predicting the movement patterns of various animals searching for

  15. Air ambulance and hospital services for critically ill and injured in Greenland, Iceland and the Faroe Islands: how can we improve?

    PubMed Central

    Gunnarsson, Björn; Jensen, Niels S Kieler; Garði, Tummas i; Harðardóttir, Helga; Stefánsdóttir, Lilja; Heimisdóttir, María

    2015-01-01

    The Nordic Atlantic Cooperation (NORA) is an intergovernmental organization under the auspices of the Nordic Council of Ministers. The NORA region comprises Greenland, Iceland, Faroe Islands and western coastal areas of Norway. Historical, cultural and institutional links bind these nations together in multiple ways, and regional co-operation has in recent years become a focus of interest. This commentary addresses air medical services (AMSs) and available advanced hospital services in the 3 smallest NORA countries challenged sparse populations, hereafter referred to as the region. It seems likely that strengthened regional co-operation can help these countries to address common challenges within health care by exchanging know-how and best practices, pooling resources and improving the efficiency of care delivery. The 4 largest hospitals in the region, Dronning Ingrids Hospital in Nuuk (Greenland), Landspítali in Reykjavík and Sjúkrahúsið á Akureyri, (both in Iceland) and Landssjúkrahúsið Tórshavn on the Faroe Islands, have therefore undertaken the project Network for patient transport in the North-West Atlantic (in Danish: Netværk for patienttransport i Vest-Norden). The goal of the project, and of this article, is to exchange information and provide an overview of current AMSs and access to acute hospital care for severely ill or injured patients in the 3 participating countries. Of equal importance is the intention to highlight the need for increased regional co-operation to optimize use of limited resources in the provision of health care services. PMID:26066019

  16. Can car air filters be useful as a sampling medium for air pollution monitoring purposes?

    PubMed

    Katsoyiannis, Athanasios; Birgul, Askin; Ratola, Nuno; Cincinelli, Alessandra; Sweetman, Andy J; Jones, Kevin C

    2012-11-01

    Urban air quality and real human exposure to chemical environmental stressors is an issue of high scientific and political interest. In an effort to find innovative and inexpensive means for air quality monitoring, the ability of car engine air filters (CAFs) to act as efficient samplers collecting street level air, to which people are exposed to, was tested. In particular, in the case of taxis, air filters are replaced after regular distances, the itineraries are almost exclusively urban, cruising mode is similar and, thus, knowledge of the air flow can provide with an integrated city air sample. The present pilot study focused on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), the most important category of organic pollutants associated with traffic emissions. Concentrations of ΣPAHs in CAFs ranged between 650 and 2900 μg CAF(-1), with benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene and indeno[123-cd]pyrene being the most abundant PAHs. Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) ranged between 110 and 250 μg CAF(-1), accounting regularly for 5-15% of the total carcinogenic PAHs. The CAF PAH loads were used to derive road-level atmospheric PAH concentrations from a standard formula relating to the CAF air flow. Important parameters/assumptions for these estimates are the cruising speed and the exposure duration of each CAF. Based on information obtained from the garage experts, an average 'sampled air volume' of 48,750 m(3) per CAF was estimated, with uncertainty in this calculation estimated to be about a factor of 4 between the two extreme scenarios. Based on this air volume, ΣPAHs ranged between 13 and 56 ng m(-3) and BaP between 2.1 and 5.0 ng m(-3), suggesting that in-traffic BaP concentrations can be many times higher than the limit values set by the UK (0.25 ng m(-3)) and the European Union (1.0 ng m(-3)), or from active sampling stations normally cited on building roof tops or far from city centres. Notwithstanding the limitations of this approach, the very low cost, the continuous

  17. Potential Use of the Australian Satellite Communications System for School of the Air and Enhanced Educational Services. Report Prepared for the Commonwealth/State Advisory Committee on the Educational Use of Communications Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, N. G.; Gillam, J. A.

    This report considers the potential for the use of the Australian Communications Satellite System (ACSS) for the Australian Schools of the Air (SOTAs) and the delivery of enhanced educational services, and develops the concept of all SOTAs operating through one transponder in a national beam. An evolutionary introduction of satellite transmission…

  18. Occupational Structures and Profiles in the Federal Republic of Germany in the Field of Environmental Protection in the Public Service Sector with Reference to Air Pollution Control. CEDEFOP Panorama. National Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nitschke, Christoph; Funderich, Kirk

    A study examined the knowledge and job skills required of persons employed in air pollution control-related occupations in Germany's public service sector. In all, 18 persons from 11 offices in 10 public institutions were interviewed. In seven cases, two people from the same institution (one performing managerial duties and the other directly…

  19. Effects of air injection on a turbocharged Teledyne Continental Motors TSIO-360-C engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosgrove, D. V.; Kempke, E. E.

    1979-01-01

    Results are presented for tests performed to assess the effects of exhaust manifold injection air flow rate on emissions and on exhaust gas temperature and turbine inlet temperature for a range of engine operating conditions (speed, torque, and fuel-air ratios) of a fuel-injected turbocharged six-cylinder air-cooled Teledyne Continental Motors TSIO-360-C engine. Air injection into the exhaust gas at 80 F resulted in a decrease in hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide while exceeding the maximum recommended turbine inlet temperature of 1650 F at the full rich mixture of the engine. The EPA standards could be met within present turbine inlet temperature limits using commercially available air pumps, provided that the fuel-air ratios were leaned in the taxi, climb, and approach modes.

  20. Dynamic heave-pitch analysis of air cushion landing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Captain, K. M.; Boghani, A. B.; Wormley, D. N.

    1975-01-01

    A program to develop analytical tools for evaluating the dynamic performance of Air Cushion Landing Systems (ACLS) is described. The heave (vertical) motion of the ACLS was analyzed, and the analysis was extended to cover coupled heave-pitch motions. The mathematical models developed are based on a fundamental analysis of the body dynamics and fluid mechanics of the aircraft-cushion-runway interaction. The air source characteristics, flow losses in the feeding ducts, trunk and cushion, the effects of fluid compressibility, and dynamic trunk deflections, including ground contact are considered. A computer program, based on the heave-pitch analysis, was developed to simulate the dynamic behavior of an ACLS during landing impact and taxi over an irregular runway. The program outputs include ACLS motions, loadings, pressures, and flows as a function of time. To illustrate program use, three basic types of simulations were carried out. The results provide an initial indication of ACLS performance during (1) a static drop, (2) landing impact, and (3) taxi over a runway irregularity.

  1. Prevalence and Factors Associated with Road Traffic Crash among Taxi Drivers in Mekelle Town, Northern Ethiopia, 2014: A Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Asefa, Nigus Gebremedhin; Ingale, Lalit; Shumey, Ashenafi; Yang, Hannah

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The 2013 World Health Organization Status Report on Road Safety estimated that approximately 1.24 million deaths occur annually due to road traffic crashes with most of the burden falling on low- and middle-income countries. The objective of this research is to study the prevalence of road traffic crashes in Mekelle, Tigray, Northern Ethiopia and to identify risk factors with the ultimate goal of informing prevention activities and policies. Methods This study used a cross-sectional design to measure the prevalence and factors associated with road traffic crashes among 4-wheeled minibus (n = 130) and 3-wheeled Bajaj (n = 582) taxi drivers in Mekelle, Ethiopia. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression were used to evaluate the association between risk factors and drivers’ involvement in a road traffic crash within the 3 years prior to the survey. Findings Among the 712 taxi drivers, 26.4% (n = 188) of them reported involvement in a road traffic crash within the past 3 years. Drivers who listened to mass media had decreased likelihood of road traffic crash involvement (AOR = 0.51, 0.33–0.78), while speedy driving (AOR = 4.57, 3.05–7.44), receipt of a prior traffic punishment (AOR = 4.57, 2.67–7.85), and driving a mechanically faulty taxi (AOR = 4.91, 2.81–8.61) were strongly associated with road traffic crash involvement. Receiving mobile phone calls while driving (AOR = 1.91, 1.24–2.92) and history of alcohol use (AOR = 1.51, 1.00–2.28) were also associated with higher odds of road traffic crash involvement. Conclusion The results of this study show that taxi drivers in Mekelle habitually place themselves at increased risk of road traffic crashes by violating traffic laws, especially related to speedy driving, mobile phone use, and taxi maintenance. This research can be used to support re-evaluation of the type, severity, and enforcement of traffic violation penalties. PMID:25781940

  2. Jobs, food, taxis and journals: complexities of implementing Stepping Stones and Creating Futures in urban informal settlements in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Andrew; Jewkes, Rachel; Mbatha, Nompumelelo; Washington, Laura; Willan, Samantha

    2014-01-01

    This paper seeks to refocus debates on structural interventions away from 'assessing' their effectiveness towards understanding processes around how such interventions are implemented. Implementation Science is focused on understanding potential challenges of translating interventions from highly controlled conditions into 'real life' settings. Using the case study of Stepping Stones and Creating Futures a structural and behavioural intervention to reduce intimate partner violence and HIV risk behaviours amongst young women and men in urban informal settlements, we explore the challenges of implementing such an approach. We move beyond simply describing challenges of implementing, to understand how these challenges had an impact on the safe social space the intervention seeks to create as its underlying theory of change. We identify four major challenges of implementation: taxi fares, food provided during the intervention, young people's ongoing need to work and journals provided during the intervention. We suggest that, in different ways, these factors all impinged on the emergence of a safe social space. Understanding the challenges of implementing the intervention is critical for reflecting on scaling up interventions. Central to this is the need to work with participants to help them negotiate the challenges of participating in interventions. PMID:25174633

  3. Executive summary: Benefit-cost evaluation of an intra-regional air service in the Bay Area and a technology assessment of transportation system investments. [regional planning for the San Francisco Bay area of California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haefner, L. E.

    1978-01-01

    The benefits and costs that would result from an intra-regional air service operation in the San Francisco Bay area were determined by utilizing an iterative statistical decision model to evaluate combinations of commuter airport sites and surface transportation facilities in conjunction with service by a given commuter aircraft type in light of area regional growth alternatives and peak and off-peak regional travel patterns. The model evaluates such transportation option with respect to criteria of airline profitability, public acceptance, and public and private non-user costs. In so doing, it incorporates information on modal split, peak and off-peak use of the air commuter fleet, terminal and airport costs, development costs and uses of land in proximity to the airport sites, regional population shifts, and induced zonal shifts in travel demand. The model is multimodal in its analytic capability, and performs exhaustive sensitivity analysis.

  4. Air Cargo Marketing Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kersey, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    The factors involved in developing a market for air cargo services are discussed. A comparison is made between the passenger traffic problems and those of cargo traffic. Emphasis is placed on distribution analyses which isolates total distribution cost, including logistical costs such as transportation, inventory, materials handling, packaging, and processing. Specific examples of methods for reducing air cargo costs are presented.

  5. Service to Small Communities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lazarus, M.

    1973-01-01

    The problems involved in the operation of low cost local service air carriers are analyzed. Four specific situations which created the operating difficulties of the local air carriers are defined. Proposals of federal and local subsidies for short haul air transportation are presented.

  6. Perseus B Taxi Tests in Preparation for a New Series of Flight Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Perseus B remotely piloted aircraft on the runway at Edwards Air Force Base, California at the conclusion of a development flight at NASA's Dryden flight Research Center. The Perseus B is the latest of three versions of the Perseus design developed by Aurora Flight Sciences under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program. Perseus B is a remotely piloted aircraft developed as a design-performance testbed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Perseus is one of several flight vehicles involved in the ERAST project. A piston engine, propeller-powered aircraft, Perseus was designed and built by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia. The objectives of Perseus B's ERAST flight tests have been to reach and maintain horizontal flight above altitudes of 60,000 feet and demonstrate the capability to fly missions lasting from 8 to 24 hours, depending on payload and altitude requirements. The Perseus B aircraft established an unofficial altitude record for a single-engine, propeller-driven, remotely piloted aircraft on June 27, 1998. It reached an altitude of 60,280 feet. In 1999, several modifications were made to the Perseus aircraft including engine, avionics, and flight-control-system improvements. These improvements were evaluated in a series of operational readiness and test missions at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus is a high-wing monoplane with a conventional tail design. Its narrow, straight, high-aspect-ratio wing is mounted atop the fuselage. The aircraft is pusher-designed with the propeller mounted in the rear. This design allows for interchangeable scientific-instrument payloads to be placed in the forward fuselage. The design also allows for unobstructed airflow to the sensors and other devices mounted in the payload compartment. The Perseus B that underwent test and development in 1999 was the third generation of the Perseus

  7. Air ambulance medical transport advertising and marketing.

    PubMed

    2011-01-01

    The National Association of EMS Physicians (NAEMSP), the American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP), the Air Medical Physician Association (AMPA), the Association of Air Medical Services (AAMS), and the National Association of State EMS Officials (NASEMSO) believe that patient care and outcomes are optimized by using air medical transport services that are licensed air ambulance providers with robust physician medical director oversight and ongoing quality assessment and review. Only air ambulance medical transport services with these credentials should advertise/market themselves as air ambulance services. PMID:21226561

  8. Quantifying the benefits of vehicle pooling with shareability networks

    PubMed Central

    Santi, Paolo; Resta, Giovanni; Szell, Michael; Sobolevsky, Stanislav; Strogatz, Steven H.; Ratti, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Taxi services are a vital part of urban transportation, and a considerable contributor to traffic congestion and air pollution causing substantial adverse effects on human health. Sharing taxi trips is a possible way of reducing the negative impact of taxi services on cities, but this comes at the expense of passenger discomfort quantifiable in terms of a longer travel time. Due to computational challenges, taxi sharing has traditionally been approached on small scales, such as within airport perimeters, or with dynamical ad hoc heuristics. However, a mathematical framework for the systematic understanding of the tradeoff between collective benefits of sharing and individual passenger discomfort is lacking. Here we introduce the notion of shareability network, which allows us to model the collective benefits of sharing as a function of passenger inconvenience, and to efficiently compute optimal sharing strategies on massive datasets. We apply this framework to a dataset of millions of taxi trips taken in New York City, showing that with increasing but still relatively low passenger discomfort, cumulative trip length can be cut by 40% or more. This benefit comes with reductions in service cost, emissions, and with split fares, hinting toward a wide passenger acceptance of such a shared service. Simulation of a realistic online system demonstrates the feasibility of a shareable taxi service in New York City. Shareability as a function of trip density saturates fast, suggesting effectiveness of the taxi sharing system also in cities with much sparser taxi fleets or when willingness to share is low. PMID:25197046

  9. Quantifying the benefits of vehicle pooling with shareability networks.

    PubMed

    Santi, Paolo; Resta, Giovanni; Szell, Michael; Sobolevsky, Stanislav; Strogatz, Steven H; Ratti, Carlo

    2014-09-16

    Taxi services are a vital part of urban transportation, and a considerable contributor to traffic congestion and air pollution causing substantial adverse effects on human health. Sharing taxi trips is a possible way of reducing the negative impact of taxi services on cities, but this comes at the expense of passenger discomfort quantifiable in terms of a longer travel time. Due to computational challenges, taxi sharing has traditionally been approached on small scales, such as within airport perimeters, or with dynamical ad hoc heuristics. However, a mathematical framework for the systematic understanding of the tradeoff between collective benefits of sharing and individual passenger discomfort is lacking. Here we introduce the notion of shareability network, which allows us to model the collective benefits of sharing as a function of passenger inconvenience, and to efficiently compute optimal sharing strategies on massive datasets. We apply this framework to a dataset of millions of taxi trips taken in New York City, showing that with increasing but still relatively low passenger discomfort, cumulative trip length can be cut by 40% or more. This benefit comes with reductions in service cost, emissions, and with split fares, hinting toward a wide passenger acceptance of such a shared service. Simulation of a realistic online system demonstrates the feasibility of a shareable taxi service in New York City. Shareability as a function of trip density saturates fast, suggesting effectiveness of the taxi sharing system also in cities with much sparser taxi fleets or when willingness to share is low. PMID:25197046

  10. Bangkok and its air pollution problem

    SciTech Connect

    Panich, S.

    1995-12-31

    Bangkok is the city on a former river delta and is a very flat area. The topography is unremarkable but being only a few kilometers (about 20) from the sea in the Gulf of Bangkok, the City experiences the sea breeze every afternoon and evening. The natural phenomenon is caused by the uplifting of hot air from the sun-baked ground and heat generation in the city, to be replaced by the cooler air from the sea, which is to the south. During the nighttime the sea breeze ceases to operate as the ground temperature cools down. The late night and early morning is characterized by the calm or no wind. With 2.1 million vehicles, the city has a serious problem of carbon monoxide from the gasoline vehicles stuck in the traffic on start and stop cycles, while particulate matter is the result of diesel vehicles. Hydrocarbons mainly result from two-stroke motorcycles and tuk-tuk (three-wheeled) taxis. Air pollution in Bangkok and major cities of Thailand is the result of emissions from gasoline, diesel, and LPG fueled vehicles, which contribute to the observed levels of carbon monoxide, lead, particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone and hydrocarbons. The industrial activities contribute smaller share due to tall stacks and more efficient combusting processes and pollution control.

  11. 14 CFR 294.21 - Procedure on receipt of registration form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS CANADIAN CHARTER AIR TAXI OPERATORS Registration for Exemption... person objecting to the registration of a Canadian charter air taxi operator shall file an objection...

  12. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, ... a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  13. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  14. Landing performance of an air cushion landing system installed on a 1/10-scale dynamic model on the C-8 Buffalo airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, W. C.

    1973-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to evaluate the landing behavior of a 1/10-scale dynamic model of the C-8 Buffalo airplane equipped with an air-cushion landing system (ACLS) on a variety of surfaces including both calm and rough water and a smooth hard surface. Taxi runs were made on the hard surface over several obstacles. Landings were made with the model at various pitch and roll attitudes and vertical velocities and at one nominal horizontal velocity. Data from the landings include time histories of the trunk and air-cushion pressures and accelerations at selected locations on the model.

  15. Pyramiding PvPGIP2 and TAXI-III But Not PvPGIP2 and PMEI Enhances Resistance Against Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Tundo, Silvio; Kalunke, Raviraj; Janni, Michela; Volpi, Chiara; Lionetti, Vincenzo; Bellincampi, Daniela; Favaron, Francesco; D'Ovidio, Renato

    2016-08-01

    Plant protein inhibitors counteract the activity of cell wall-degrading enzymes (CWDEs) secreted by pathogens to breach the plant cell-wall barrier. Transgenic plants expressing a single protein inhibitor restrict pathogen infections. However, since pathogens secrete a number of CWDEs at the onset of infection, we combined more inhibitors in a single wheat genotype to reinforce further the cell-wall barrier. We combined polygalacturonase (PG) inhibiting protein (PGIP) and pectin methyl esterase inhibitor (PMEI), both controlling the activity of PG, one of the first CWDEs secreted during infection. We also pyramided PGIP and TAXI-III, a xylanase inhibitor that controls the activity of xylanases, key factors for the degradation of xylan, a main component of cereal cell wall. We demonstrated that the pyramiding of PGIP and PMEI did not contribute to any further improvement of disease resistance. However, the presence of both pectinase inhibitors ensured a broader spectrum of disease resistance. Conversely, the PGIP and TAXI-III combination contributed to further improvement of Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance, probably because these inhibitors target the activity of different types of CWDEs, i.e., PGs and xylanases. Worth mentioning, the reduction of FHB symptoms is accompanied by a reduction of deoxynivalenol accumulation with a foreseen great benefit to human and animal health. PMID:27366923

  16. Audiology Services Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallaudet Coll., Washington, DC. Pre-College Programs.

    The manual describes audiology services offered at the Model Secondary School for the Deaf (MSSD). Components are listed for diagnostic services, instructional services, program development, training, and publications. Testing and reporting procedures for MSSD students are outlined. Testing includes pure-tone air conduction testing, tympanometry,…

  17. ERAST Program Proteus Aircraft Taxiing on Runway at Mojave Airport in Mojave, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    A frontal view of the Proteus high-altitude aircraft on the ramp at the Mojave Airport in Mojave, California in July 1999. In the Proteus Project, NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, is assisting Scaled Composites, Inc., Mojave, California, in developing a sophisticated station-keeping autopilot system and a Satellite Communications (SATCOM)-based uplink-downlink data system for aircraft and payload data under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. The ERAST Project is sponsored by the Office of Aero-Space Technology at NASA Headquarters, and is managed by the Dryden Flight Research Center. The Proteus is a unique aircraft, designed as a high-altitude, long-duration telecommunications relay platform with potential for use on atmospheric sampling and Earth-monitoring science missions. The aircraft is designed to be flown by two pilots in a pressurized cabin, but also has the potential to perform its missions semiautonomously or be flown remotely from the ground. Flight testing of the Proteus, beginning in the summer of 1998 at Mojave Airport through the end of 1999, included the installation and checkout of the autopilot system, including the refinement of the altitude hold and altitude change software. The SATCOM equipment, including avionics and antenna systems, had been installed and checked out in several flight tests. The systems performed flawlessly during the Proteus's deployment to the Paris Airshow in 1999. NASA's ERAST project funded development of an Airborne Real-Time Imaging System (ARTIS). Developed by HyperSpectral Sciences, Inc., the small ARTIS camera was demonstrated during the summer of 1999 when it took visual and near-infrared photos over the Experimental Aircraft Association's 'AirVenture 99' Airshow at Oshkosh, Wisconsin. The images were displayed on a computer monitor at the show only moments after they were taken. This was the second successful demonstration of the ARTIS camera

  18. The 1998 Guide to the Evaluation of Educational Experiences in the Armed Services. 3: Air Force, Coast Guard, Department of Defense, Marine Corps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Council on Education, Washington, DC.

    This guide is the standard reference work for recognizing learning acquired by military personnel for conversion to academic credit in degree work at colleges and universities. This volume contains recommendations for formal courses offered by the Air Force, the Coast Guard, the Marine Corps, and the Department of Defense in 1990 and later years.…

  19. Articulated, Performance-Based Instruction Objectives Guide for Air Conditioning, Refrigeration, and Heating (Environmental Control System Installer/Servicer). Edition I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, William Edward, Jr., Ed.

    This articulation guide contains 17 units of instruction for the first year of a two-year vocational program designed to prepare the high school graduate to install, maintain, and repair various types of residential and commercial heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration equipment. The units are to introduce the student to fundamental theories…

  20. Study of low density air transportation concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, H. M.

    1972-01-01

    Low density air transport refers to air service to sparsely populated regions. There are two major objectives. The first is to examine those characteristics of sparsely populated areas which pertain to air transportation. This involves determination of geographical, commercial and population trends, as well as those traveler characteristics which affect the viability of air transport in the region. The second objective is to analyze the technical, economic and operational characteristics of low density air service. Two representative, but diverse arenas, West Virginia and Arizona, were selected for analysis: The results indicate that Arizona can support air service under certain assumptions whereas West Virginia cannot.

  1. Air Abrasion

    MedlinePlus

    ... delivered directly to your desktop! more... What Is Air Abrasion? Article Chapters What Is Air Abrasion? What Happens? The Pros and Cons Will I Feel Anything? Is Air Abrasion for Everyone? print full article print this ...

  2. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: SITE CHARACTERIZATION ANALYSIS PENETROMETER SYSTEM (SCAPS) LIF SENSOR - U.S. ARMY, NAVY, AND AIR FORCE (TRI-SERVICES)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Tri-Services Site Characterization Analysis Penetrometer System (SCAPS) was developed by the U.S. Army (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Waterways Experiment Station [WES] and the Army Environmental Center [AEC]), Navy (Naval Command, Control and Ocean Surveillance Center), and ...

  3. 19 CFR 122.165 - Air cabotage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... provided for in 14 CFR 121.153, and those aircraft used exclusively in the service of any government. (b... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Air cabotage. 122.165 Section 122.165 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Penalties § 122.165 Air cabotage. (a) The air cabotage law (49 U.S.C....

  4. 19 CFR 122.165 - Air cabotage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... provided for in 14 CFR 121.153, and those aircraft used exclusively in the service of any government. (b... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Air cabotage. 122.165 Section 122.165 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Penalties § 122.165 Air cabotage. (a) The air cabotage law (49 U.S.C....

  5. 19 CFR 122.165 - Air cabotage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... provided for in 14 CFR 121.153, and those aircraft used exclusively in the service of any government. (b... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Air cabotage. 122.165 Section 122.165 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Penalties § 122.165 Air cabotage. (a) The air cabotage law (49 U.S.C....

  6. 19 CFR 122.165 - Air cabotage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... provided for in 14 CFR 121.153, and those aircraft used exclusively in the service of any government. (b... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Air cabotage. 122.165 Section 122.165 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Penalties § 122.165 Air cabotage. (a) The air cabotage law (49 U.S.C....

  7. 19 CFR 122.165 - Air cabotage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... provided for in 14 CFR 121.153, and those aircraft used exclusively in the service of any government. (b... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Air cabotage. 122.165 Section 122.165 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Penalties § 122.165 Air cabotage. (a) The air cabotage law (49 U.S.C....

  8. Human Mars Mission: SEP Architecture Crew Taxi Propulsion Stage Study and Design and Technology for Reaction and Control System. Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Archie

    1999-01-01

    The Mars exploration is a candidate pathway to expand human presence and useful activities in the solar system. There are several propulsion system options being considered to place the Mars payload on its inter-planetary transfer trajectory. One propulsion option is the use of Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) to spiral out with the Mars payload from an initial Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to an elliptical High Earth Orbit (HEO). This report, presented in annotated facing page format, describes the work completed on the design of a crew taxi propulsion stage used in conjunction with the SEP. Transportation system/mission analysis topics covered in this report include sub-system analysis, trajectory profile description, mass performance and crew taxi stage sizing, stage configuration, stage cost, and Trans-Mars Injection (TMI) launch window. The high efficiency of SEP is used to provide the major part of the TMI propulsion maneuver. Orbital energy is continuously added over a period of approximately twelve months. The SEP and Mars payload follow a spiral trajectory from an initial LEO to a final elliptical HEO. A small chemical stage is then used to provide the final part of the TMI. The now unloaded SEP returns to LEO to repeat another spiral trajectory with payload to HEO. The spiral phase of the SEP's trajectory takes several months to reach HEO, thus significantly increasing the exposure time of the crew to zero-gravity. In order to minimize the long zero-gravity effects, a high thrust chemical stage delivers the crew to the SEP's HEO. The crew rendezvous with the Mars payload in HEO. After a checkout period the Mars payload with the crew is injected onto a Trans-Mars Trajectory by a small chemical stage.

  9. Human Mars Mission: SEP Architecture, Crew Taxi Propulsion Stage Study and Design and Technology for Reaction and Control System. Pt. 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Archie

    1999-01-01

    The Mars exploration is a candidate pathway to expand human presence and useful activities in the solar system. There are several propulsion system options being considered to place the Mars payload on its interplanetary transfer trajectory. One propulsion option is the use of Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) to spiral out with the Mars payload from an initial Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to an elliptical High Earth Orbit (HEO). This report, presented in annotated facing page format, describes the work completed on the design of a crew taxi propulsion stage used in conjunction with the SEP. Transportation system/mission analysis topics covered in this report include sub-system analysis, trajectory profile description, mass performance and crew taxi stage sizing, stage configuration, stage cost, and Trans-Mars Injection (TMI) launch window. The high efficiency of SEP is used to provide the major part of the TMI propulsion maneuver. Orbital energy is continuously added over a period of approximately twelve months. The SEP and Mars payload follow a spiral trajectory from an initial LEO to a final elliptical HEO. A small chemical stage is then used to provide the final part of the TMI. The now unloaded SEP returns to LEO to repeat another spiral trajectory with payload to HEO. The spiral phase of the SEP's trajectory takes several months to reach HEO, thus significantly increasing the exposure time of the crew to zero-gravity. In order to minimize the long zero-gravity effects, a high thrust chemical stage delivers the crew to the SEP's HEO. The crew rendezvous with the Mars payload in HEO. After a checkout period the Mars payload with the crew is injected onto a Trans-Mars Trajectory by a small chemical stage.

  10. Air/Water Purification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    After 18 years of research into air/water pollution at Stennis Space Center, Dr. B. C. Wolverton formed his own company, Wolverton Environmental Services, Inc., to provide technology and consultation in air and water treatment. Common houseplants are used to absorb potentially harmful materials from bathrooms and kitchens. The plants are fertilized, air is purified, and wastewater is converted to clean water. More than 100 U.S. communities have adopted Wolverton's earlier water hyacinth and artificial marsh applications. Catfish farmers are currently evaluating the artificial marsh technology as a purification system.

  11. An Agent-Based Model for Analyzing Control Policies and the Dynamic Service-Time Performance of a Capacity-Constrained Air Traffic Management Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conway, Sheila R.

    2006-01-01

    Simple agent-based models may be useful for investigating air traffic control strategies as a precursory screening for more costly, higher fidelity simulation. Of concern is the ability of the models to capture the essence of the system and provide insight into system behavior in a timely manner and without breaking the bank. The method is put to the test with the development of a model to address situations where capacity is overburdened and potential for propagation of the resultant delay though later flights is possible via flight dependencies. The resultant model includes primitive representations of principal air traffic system attributes, namely system capacity, demand, airline schedules and strategy, and aircraft capability. It affords a venue to explore their interdependence in a time-dependent, dynamic system simulation. The scope of the research question and the carefully-chosen modeling fidelity did allow for the development of an agent-based model in short order. The model predicted non-linear behavior given certain initial conditions and system control strategies. Additionally, a combination of the model and dimensionless techniques borrowed from fluid systems was demonstrated that can predict the system s dynamic behavior across a wide range of parametric settings.

  12. Air Quality in Mexico City: Policies Implemented for its Improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paramo, V.

    2007-12-01

    stringent emission levels of the gasoline fleet; update the detention of pollutant vehicles program; partial exemption of the inspection and maintenance program for cleaner and or highly efficient vehicles; substitution of 3,000 microbuses, 40,000 taxis and 1,200 buses; commissioning of the first Bus Rapid Transit system; implementation of a program for the emissions reduction for the 300 most polluted industrial facilities; and continuous update of the air quality environmental management programs. To continue improving the air quality in the MCMA, the environmental authorities will continue the implementation of the 2002-2010 Air Quality Improvement Program. In 2007 the Green Program was started, this includes those actions that have proven to be effective reduction of pollutant emissions and incorporates new actions for the reduction of local and global pollutant emissions. The most important of these new actions are: substitution of 9,500 microbuses; renewal of all the taxis fleet; commissioning of 10 Bus Rapid Transit lines; commissioning of Line 12 of the underground system; schedules and routes limitations to the cargo fleet; increase 5 percent the number of non-motorized trips (bicycling and walking); regulation of the private public transport passenger stops; requirement of private schools to provide school transport; regulation of non-occupied taxis in circulation; modifications to the circulation of 350 critical crossing points in the city; adoption of intelligent traffic lights systems; complete substitution of the local government vehicle's fleet; implement the inspection and maintenance of the cargo fleet; introduction of low- sulfur diesel, among other measures.

  13. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilpin, Alan

    A summary of one of our most pressing environmental problems, air pollution, is offered in this book by the Director of Air Pollution Control for the Queensland (Australia) State Government. Discussion of the subject is not restricted to Queensland or Australian problems and policies, however, but includes analysis of air pollution the world over.…

  14. 78 FR 50138 - Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ... PanAir requesting a foreign air carrier permit to operate charter air transportation of property..., whether or not it constitutes part of a continuous operation that includes service to Panama. PanAir...

  15. Apprentice Food Service Specialist (AFSC 62230).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Air Univ., Gunter AFS, Ala. Extension Course Inst.

    This two-volume student text is designed for use by Air Force personnel enrolled in a self-study extension course for apprentice food service specialists. Covered in the first volume are fundamentals of food preparation and service (careers in food service, food service sanitation, principles of food preparation and service, and baking…

  16. 32 CFR 1602.17 - Military service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Military service. 1602.17 Section 1602.17 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.17 Military service. The term military service includes service in the Army, the Navy, the Air...

  17. 32 CFR 1602.17 - Military service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Military service. 1602.17 Section 1602.17 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.17 Military service. The term military service includes service in the Army, the Navy, the Air...

  18. 32 CFR 1602.17 - Military service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Military service. 1602.17 Section 1602.17 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.17 Military service. The term military service includes service in the Army, the Navy, the Air...

  19. 32 CFR 1602.17 - Military service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Military service. 1602.17 Section 1602.17 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.17 Military service. The term military service includes service in the Army, the Navy, the Air...

  20. 32 CFR 1602.17 - Military service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Military service. 1602.17 Section 1602.17 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.17 Military service. The term military service includes service in the Army, the Navy, the Air...

  1. America's Service Academies, Your Service Academies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Born, Dana H.; Phillips, Andrew T.; Trainor, Timothy E.

    2012-01-01

    The United States Air Force Academy, United States Naval Academy, and United States Military Academy are America's three largest service academies. They are "the" primary undergraduate institutions and commissioning sources that educate and develop the officers who are expected to lead this nation's armed forces. They are special places that have…

  2. National Air and Space Museum Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pietropaoli, Frank A.

    1986-01-01

    A branch of Smithsonian Institution Libraries, the National Air and Space Museum Library provides materials and services to support research programs of National Air and Space Museum. Brief histories of museum and its library and summary of museum programs provide background for overview of current library users, resources, and services.…

  3. A convoy of specialized support vehicles follow the Space Shuttle Endeavour as it is towed up a taxi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    A convoy of specialized support vehicles follow the Space Shuttle Endeavour as it is towed up a taxiway at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center on Edwards Air Force Base, California, after landing on May 1, 2001. The two largest vehicles trailing the shuttle provide electrical power and air conditioning to the shuttle's systems during post-flight recovery operations. The Endeavour had just completed mission STS-100, an almost 12-day mission to install the Canadarm 2 robotic arm and deliver some three tons of supplies and experiments to the International Space Station. The landing was the 48th shuttle landing at Edwards since shuttle flights began in 1981. After post-flight processing, the Endeavour was mounted atop one of NASA's modified Boeing 747 shuttle carrier aircraft and ferried back to the Kennedy Space Center in Florida on May 8, 2001.

  4. Wolves and Big Yellow Taxis: How Would Be Know If the NHS Is at Death’s Door?

    PubMed Central

    Greener, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Martin Powell suggests that the death of the English National Health Service (NHS) has been announced so many times we are at risk of not noticing should it actually happen. He is right. If we ‘cry wolf’ too many times, we risk losing sight of what is important about the NHS and why. PMID:26673181

  5. THE PROFITS AND PERILS OF PUBLICITY: ALLGEMEINE LITERATUR- ZEITUNG, THE THURN UND TAXIS POST, AND THE PERIODICAL TRADE AT THE END OF THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY.

    PubMed

    Broman, Thomas

    2015-09-20

    Recent historiography on the growth of periodical publishing has emphasized newspapers and journals as constituents of an emergent communications system in early modern Europe. This system comprised the newspapers, journals and other publications that contributed its content, and also the postal systems that were the principal method of distributing that content. This article describes how the growth of this system in central Europe was supported in large measure by financial incentives that it offered to both constituents. First, in contrast with postal systems in France and the UK, the Thurn und Taxis Reichspost inserted itself as a middleman in the sale of periodicals, which gave the Reichspost an incentive to promote the trade. Second, the financial conditions for periodical publication made their costs depend more heavily on costs that were scalable to circulation than is true today, which resulted in the viability of publications with a lower circulation. The same cost structure also made it possible for certain prominent periodicals of the era to earn considerable profits for their publishers, as illustrated in this article by Allgemeine Literatur-Zeitung, which was published in Jena from 1785. PMID:26495577

  6. 42 CFR 84.142 - Air supply source; hand-operated or motor driven air blowers; Type A supplied-air respirators...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air supply source; hand-operated or motor driven air blowers; Type A supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. 84.142 Section 84.142 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL...

  7. 47 CFR 22.857 - Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service Commercial Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.857 Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground systems. The 849-851 MHz and 894-896...

  8. 47 CFR 22.859 - Incumbent commercial aviation air-ground systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Incumbent commercial aviation air-ground... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service Commercial Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.859 Incumbent commercial aviation air-ground systems. This section contains rules...

  9. 47 CFR 22.859 - Incumbent commercial aviation air-ground systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Incumbent commercial aviation air-ground... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service Commercial Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.859 Incumbent commercial aviation air-ground systems. This section contains rules...

  10. 47 CFR 22.857 - Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service Commercial Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.857 Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground systems. The 849-851 MHz and 894-896...

  11. 47 CFR 22.859 - Incumbent commercial aviation air-ground systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Incumbent commercial aviation air-ground... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service Commercial Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.859 Incumbent commercial aviation air-ground systems. This section contains rules...

  12. 47 CFR 22.859 - Incumbent commercial aviation air-ground systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Incumbent commercial aviation air-ground... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service Commercial Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.859 Incumbent commercial aviation air-ground systems. This section contains rules...

  13. 47 CFR 22.859 - Incumbent commercial aviation air-ground systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incumbent commercial aviation air-ground... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service Commercial Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.859 Incumbent commercial aviation air-ground systems. This section contains rules...

  14. 47 CFR 22.857 - Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service Commercial Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.857 Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground systems. The 849-851 MHz and 894-896...

  15. 47 CFR 22.857 - Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service Commercial Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.857 Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground systems. The 849-851 MHz and 894-896...

  16. 47 CFR 22.807 - General aviation air-ground application requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false General aviation air-ground application... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service General Aviation Air-Ground Stations § 22.807 General aviation air-ground application requirements. In addition to the...

  17. Impact of Hong Kong's Voluntary Catalytic Converter Replacement Programme on Roadside Air Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, I. J.; Guo, H.; Louie, P. K. K.; Luk, C.; Lyu, X.; Meinardi, S.; Yam, Y. S.; Blake, D. R.

    2015-12-01

    As part of its ongoing policies to improve roadside air quality, in 2013 the Hong Kong government launched an incentive programme to replace catalytic converters and oxygen sensors in taxis and light buses mainly fueled by liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). The majority of replacements occurred from October 2013 to April 2014, with 75% of eligible vehicles participating in the programme, or 16,472 vehicles. Based on taxi exhaust measurements at a Hong Kong vehicle testing facility, the concentrations of n-butane, propane and i-butane (the primary components of LPG) decreased by 97% following the replacements. To determine the impact of the programme on roadside air quality, long-term measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were analyzed before, during and after the replacement programme, mainly at a busy roadside location in Mong Kok, Hong Kong. A clear decrease in the levels of major pollutants associated with LPG vehicle exhaust was observed at the roadside. For example, average (± 1 standard deviation) n-butane levels from October to April decreased from 13.0 ± 3.6 and 13.9 ± 2.6 ppbv in the two years preceding the programme, to 9.2 ± 2.9 ppbv during the programme, to 6.2 ± 1.7 ppbv the year after the programme. By contrast, compounds such as i-pentane that are not strongly associated with LPG or with LPG exhaust remained steady, averaging 0.90 ± 0.34, 1.01 ± 0.31, 0.93 ± 0.37, and 0.91 ± 0.42 ppbv from October to April of 2011/12, 2012/13, 2013/14 and 2014/15, respectively. Impacts of the programme on roadside levels of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and ozone (O3) will also be discussed. Because many taxis are high mileage vehicles that travel several hundred kilometers daily, their catalytic converters need to be replaced approximately every 18 months. Therefore ongoing vehicle maintenance will be required in order to preserve the gains made from this initial subsidy programme.

  18. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Donald L.

    1989-01-01

    Materials related to air pollution are reviewed for the period January 1987, to October 1988. The topics are pollution monitoring, air pollution, and environmental chemistry. The organization consists of two major analytical divisions: (1) gaseous methods; and (2) aerosol and particulate methods. (MVL)

  19. Air Pollution.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air quality is affected by many types of pollutants that are emitted from various sources, including stationary and mobile. These sources release both criteria and hazardous air pollutants, which cause health effects, ecological harm, and material damage. They are generally categ...

  20. Engine bleed air reduction in DC-10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, W. H.; Viele, M. R.

    1980-01-01

    An 0.8 percent fuel savings was achieved by a reduction in engine bleed air through the use of cabin air recirculation. The recirculation system was evaluated in revenue service on a DC-10. The cabin remained comfortable with reductions in cabin fresh air (engine bleed air) as much as 50 percent. Flight test verified the predicted fuel saving of 0.8 percent.

  1. Mechanically refuelable zinc/air electric vehicle cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noring, J.; Gordon, S.; Maimoni, A.; Spragge, M.; Cooper, J. F.

    1992-12-01

    Refuelable zinc/air batteries have long been considered for motive as well as stationary power because of a combination of high specific energy, low initial cost, and the possibility of mechanical recharge by electrolyte exchange and additions of metallic zinc. In this context, advanced slurry batteries, stationary packed bed cells, and batteries offering replaceable cassettes have been reported recently. The authors are developing self-feeding, particulate-zinc/air batteries for electric vehicle applications. Emissionless vehicle legislation in California motivated efforts to consider a new approach to providing an electric vehicle with long range (400 km), rapid refueling (10 minutes) and highway safe acceleration - factors which define the essential functions of common automobiles. Such an electric vehicle would not compete with emerging secondary battery vehicles in specialized applications (commuting vehicles, delivery trucks). Rather, different markets would be sought where long range or rapid range extension are important. Examples are: taxis, continuous-duty fork-lift trucks and shuttle busses, and general purpose automobiles having modest acceleration capabilities. In the long range, a mature fleet would best use regional plants to efficiently recover zinc from battery reaction products. One option would be to use chemical/thermal reduction to recover the zinc. The work described focuses on development of battery configurations which efficiently and completely consume zinc particles, without clogging or changing discharge characteristics.

  2. Mechanically refuelable zinc/air electric vehicle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Noring, J.; Gordon, S.; Maimoni, A.; Spragge, M.; Cooper, J.F.

    1992-12-01

    Refuelable zinc/air batteries have long been considered for motive as well as stationary power because of a combination of high specific energy, low initial cost, and the possibility of mechanical recharge by electrolyte exchange and additions of metallic zinc. In this context, advanced slurry batteries, stationary packed bed cells and batteries offering replaceable cassettes have been reported recently. The authors are developing self-feeding, particulate-zinc/air batteries for electric vehicle applications. Emissionless vehicle legislation in California motivated efforts to consider a new approach to providing an electric vehicle with long range (400 km), rapid refueling (10 minutes) and highway safe acceleration -- factors which define the essential functions of common automobiles. Such a electric vehicle would not compete with emerging secondary battery vehicles in specialized applications (commuting vehicles, delivery trucks). Rather, different markets would be sought where long range or rapid range extension are important. Examples are: taxis, continuous-duty fork-lift trucks and shuttle busses, and general purpose automobiles having modest acceleration capabilities. In the long range, a mature fleet would best use regional plants to efficiently recover zinc from battery reaction products. One option would be to use chemical/thermal reduction to recover the zinc. The work described in this report focuses on development of battery configurations which efficiently and completely consume zinc particles, without clogging or changing discharge characteristics.

  3. 14 CFR 298.1 - Applicability of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS FOR AIR TAXI AND COMMUTER AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS General § 298.1 Applicability of part. This part establishes classifications of air carriers known as “air taxi operators” and “commuter...

  4. 14 CFR 298.24 - Cancellation of the registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS FOR AIR TAXI AND COMMUTER AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS Registration for Exemption by Air Taxi Operators § 298.24 Cancellation of the registration. The registration of an air...

  5. ElectroTaxis-on-a-Chip (ETC): an integrated quantitative high-throughput screening platform for electrical field-directed cell migration†

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Siwei; Zhu, Kan; Zhang, Yan; Zhu, Zijie; Xu, Zhengping

    2015-01-01

    Both endogenous and externally applied electrical stimulation can affect a wide range of cellular functions, including growth, migration, differentiation and division. Among those effects, the electrical field (EF)-directed cell migration, also known as electrotaxis, has received broad attention because it holds great potential in facilitating clinical wound healing. Electrotaxis experiment is conventionally conducted in centimetre-sized flow chambers built in Petri dishes. Despite the recent efforts to adapt microfluidics for electrotaxis studies, the current electrotaxis experimental setup is still cumbersome due to the needs of an external power supply and EF controlling/monitoring systems. There is also a lack of parallel experimental systems for high-throughput electrotaxis studies. In this paper, we present a first independently operable microfluidic platform for high-throughput electrotaxis studies, integrating all functional components for cell migration under EF stimulation (except microscopy) on a compact footprint (the same as a credit card), referred to as ElectroTaxis-on-a-Chip (ETC). Inspired by the R–2R resistor ladder topology in digital signal processing, we develop a systematic approach to design an infinitely expandable microfluidic generator of EF gradients for high-throughput and quantitative studies of EF-directed cell migration. Furthermore, a vacuum-assisted assembly method is utilized to allow direct and reversible attachment of our device to existing cell culture media on biological surfaces, which separates the cell culture and device preparation/fabrication steps. We have demonstrated that our ETC platform is capable of screening human cornea epithelial cell migration under the stimulation of an EF gradient spanning over three orders of magnitude. The screening results lead to the identification of the EF-sensitive range of that cell type, which can provide valuable guidance to the clinical application of EF-facilitated wound healing

  6. ElectroTaxis-on-a-Chip (ETC): an integrated quantitative high-throughput screening platform for electrical field-directed cell migration.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Siwei; Zhu, Kan; Zhang, Yan; Zhu, Zijie; Xu, Zhengping; Zhao, Min; Pan, Tingrui

    2014-11-21

    Both endogenous and externally applied electrical stimulation can affect a wide range of cellular functions, including growth, migration, differentiation and division. Among those effects, the electrical field (EF)-directed cell migration, also known as electrotaxis, has received broad attention because it holds great potential in facilitating clinical wound healing. Electrotaxis experiment is conventionally conducted in centimetre-sized flow chambers built in Petri dishes. Despite the recent efforts to adapt microfluidics for electrotaxis studies, the current electrotaxis experimental setup is still cumbersome due to the needs of an external power supply and EF controlling/monitoring systems. There is also a lack of parallel experimental systems for high-throughput electrotaxis studies. In this paper, we present a first independently operable microfluidic platform for high-throughput electrotaxis studies, integrating all functional components for cell migration under EF stimulation (except microscopy) on a compact footprint (the same as a credit card), referred to as ElectroTaxis-on-a-Chip (ETC). Inspired by the R-2R resistor ladder topology in digital signal processing, we develop a systematic approach to design an infinitely expandable microfluidic generator of EF gradients for high-throughput and quantitative studies of EF-directed cell migration. Furthermore, a vacuum-assisted assembly method is utilized to allow direct and reversible attachment of our device to existing cell culture media on biological surfaces, which separates the cell culture and device preparation/fabrication steps. We have demonstrated that our ETC platform is capable of screening human cornea epithelial cell migration under the stimulation of an EF gradient spanning over three orders of magnitude. The screening results lead to the identification of the EF-sensitive range of that cell type, which can provide valuable guidance to the clinical application of EF-facilitated wound healing

  7. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... tobacco smoke. How is air pollution linked to climate change? While climate change is a global process, it ... ozone levels are also a concern. Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health in the United States: A ...

  8. Air Apparent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbster, David A.

    1988-01-01

    Explains the principle upon which a barometer operates. Describes how to construct two barometric devices for use in the classroom that show air's changing pressure. Cites some conditions for predicting weather. (RT)

  9. Aviation weather services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sprinkle, C. H.

    1983-01-01

    The primary responsibilities of the National Weather Service (NWS) are to: provide warnings of severe weather and flooding for the protection of life and property; provide public forecasts for land and adjacent ocean areas for planning and operation; and provide weather support for: production of food and fiber; management of water resources; production, distribution and use of energy; and efficient and safe air operations.

  10. Association of monthly frequencies of diverse diseases in the calls to the public emergency service of the city of Buenos Aires during 1999-2004 with meteorological variables and seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, P.

    2013-01-01

    This work aims to study associations between monthly averages of meteorological variables and monthly frequencies of diverse diseases in the calls to the public ambulance emergency service of the city of Buenos Aires during the years 1999-2004. Throughout this time period no changes were made in the classification codes of the illnesses. Heart disease, arrhythmia, heart failure, cardiopulmonary arrest, angina pectoris, psychiatric diseases, stroke, transient ischemic attack, syncope and the total number of calls were analyzed against 11 weather variables and the four seasons. All illnesses exhibited some seasonal behavior, except cardiorespiratory arrest and angina pectoris. The largest frequencies of illnesses that exhibited some association with the meteorological variables used to occur in winter, except the psychiatric cases. Heart failure, stroke, psychiatric diseases and the total number of calls showed significant correlations with the 11 meteorological variables considered, and the largest indices (absolute values above 0.6) were found for the former two pathologies. On the other side, cardiorespiratory arrest and angina pectoris revealed no significant correlations and nearly null indices. Variables associated with temperature were the meteorological proxies with the largest correlations against diseases. Pressure and humidity mostly exhibited positive correlations, which is the opposite of variables related to temperature. Contrary to all other diseases, psychiatric pathologies showed a clear predominance of positive correlations. Finally, the association degree of the medical dataset with recurrent patterns was further evaluated through Fourier analysis, to assess the presence of statistically significant behavior. In the Northern Hemisphere high morbidity and mortality rates in December are usually assigned to diverse factors in relation to the holidays, but such an effect is not observed in the present analysis. There seems to be no clearly preferred

  11. 76 FR 72239 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Requests for Comments; Clearance of Renewed Approval of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-22

    ... of Renewed Approval of Information Collection: Exemptions for Air Taxi and Commuter Air Carrier... necessity from the DOT, with the exception of air taxi and commuter air operators. DATES: Written comments.... Title: Exemptions for Air Taxi and Commuter Air Carrier Operations. Form Numbers: OST Form 4507. Type...

  12. 14 CFR 298.11 - Exemption authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS FOR AIR TAXI AND COMMUTER AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS Exemptions § 298.11 Exemption authority. Air taxi operators and commuter air carriers are hereby relieved from the following provisions of... imposed herein, and to the extent necessary to permit them to conduct air taxi or commuter air...

  13. 14 CFR 19-4 - Service classes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... classifications shall be reported, as applicable: U.S. Air Carriers: V—Nonscheduled Services (L+N+P+R) L—Nonscheduled Civilian Passenger/Cargo P—Nonscheduled Civilian Cargo N—Nonscheduled Military Passenger/Cargo R... the operating entity: U.S. Air Carriers: Z—All Services (V+K)...

  14. Air surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

  15. The air-ambulance: Orkney's experience

    PubMed Central

    Collacott, R. A.

    1984-01-01

    The paramount problem for the delivery of the medical services in the Orkneys has been that of effective transport. The development of an efficient air-ambulance service has had a major impact on medical care. The service started in 1934, but was abolished at the outset of the Second World War and did not recommence until 1967. This paper examines the evolution of the air-ambulance service in the Orkney Islands, and describes alternative proposals for the use of aircraft in this region. PMID:6368814

  16. 14 CFR 294.40 - Aircraft accident liability insurance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aircraft accident liability insurance....40 Aircraft accident liability insurance requirements. No Canadian charter air taxi operator shall engage in charter air service unless such carrier has and maintains in effect aircraft accident...

  17. 14 CFR 294.40 - Aircraft accident liability insurance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... engage in charter air service unless such carrier has and maintains in effect aircraft accident liability... on file with the Department's Office of International Aviation, Special Authorities Division, at all... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS CANADIAN CHARTER AIR TAXI OPERATORS Insurance Requirements §...

  18. 14 CFR 294.40 - Aircraft accident liability insurance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... engage in charter air service unless such carrier has and maintains in effect aircraft accident liability... on file with the Department's Office of International Aviation, Special Authorities Division, at all... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS CANADIAN CHARTER AIR TAXI OPERATORS Insurance Requirements §...

  19. Emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants from commercial aircraft at international airports in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Sang-Keun; Shon, Zang-Ho

    2012-12-01

    The emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and air pollutants from aircraft in the boundary layer at four major international airports in Korea over a two-year period (2009-2010) were estimated using the Emissions and Dispersion Modeling System (EDMS) (i.e. activity-based (Landing/Take-Off (LTO) cycle) methodology). Both domestic and international LTOs and ground support equipment at the airports were considered. The average annual emissions of GHGs (CO2, N2O, CH4 and H2O) at all four airports during the study period were 1.11 × 103, 1.76 × 10-2, -1.85 × 10-3 and 3.84 × 108 kt yr-1, respectively. The emissions of air pollutants (NOx, CO, VOCs and particulate matter) were 5.20, 4.12, 7.46 × 10-1 and 3.37 × 10-2 kt yr-1, respectively. The negative CH4 emission indicates the consumption of atmospheric CH4 in the engine. The monthly and daily emissions of GHGs and air pollutants showed no significant variations at all airports examined. The emissions of GHGs and air pollutants for each aircraft operational mode differed considerably, with the largest emission observed in taxi-out mode.

  20. 14 CFR 298.35 - Limitations on carriage of mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS FOR AIR TAXI AND COMMUTER AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS Limitations and Conditions on Exemptions and Operations § 298.35 Limitations on carriage of mail. An air taxi operator...

  1. 14 CFR 298.22 - Processing by the Department.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS FOR AIR TAXI AND COMMUTER AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS Registration for Exemption by Air Taxi Operators § 298.22 Processing by the Department. After examination of the OST...

  2. 75 FR 18940 - Notice of Intent To Request Revision From the Office of Management and Budget of a Currently...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-13

    ... data collected from air taxi and commercial operators are required for the calculation of air carrier...: Enplanement data collected from air taxi and commercial operators are required for the calculation of...

  3. High-risk motorcycle taxi drivers in the HIV/AIDS era: a respondent-driven sampling survey in Kampala, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Lindan, Christina P; Anglemyer, Andrew; Hladik, Wolfgang; Barker, Joseph; Lubwama, George; Rutherford, George; Ssenkusu, John; Opio, Alex; Campbell, James

    2015-04-01

    We evaluated motorcycle taxi ('boda-boda') drivers in Kampala for the prevalence of HIV/sexually transmitted infections. We used respondent-driven sampling to recruit a cross-sectional sample of boda-boda drivers. We collected data through audio computer-assisted self-administered interviews. Men were tested for HIV, syphilis serology using Rapid Plasma Reagin and enzyme immunoassay, and Chlamydia and gonorrhoea using urine polymerase chain reaction. We recruited 683 men. Median age was 26 years; 59.4% were single. The prevalence of HIV was 7.5% (95% CI 5.2-10.0), of positive syphilis serology was 6.1% (95% CI 4.3-8.1), of Chlamydia was 1.1% (95% CI 0.4-2.0), and of gonorrhoea was 1.2% (95% CI 0.1-1.2). Many men (67.8%) had both casual and regular partners, sex with other men (8.7%), and commercial sex (33.1%). Factors associated with having HIV included reporting a genital ulcer (odds ratio [OR] =2.4, 95% CI 1.4-4.4), drinking alcohol during last sex (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.1-3.7), having 4-6 lifetime partners (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.0-4.8), and having one's last female partner be >24 years of age (OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.2-6.6). Independent predictors of HIV included age ≥31 (adjusted OR (aOR) 5.8, 95% CI 1.5-48.5), having 4-6 partners (aOR 2.2, 95%CI 1.0-5.1), and self-report of a genital ulcer (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.2-4.1). Only 39.2% of men were circumcised, and 36.9% had been HIV tested in the past. Male boda-boda drivers have a higher prevalence of HIV than the general population, and low frequency of preventive behaviours, such as circumcision and HIV testing. Targeted and intensified interventions for this group are warranted. PMID:24970473

  4. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scorer, Richard S.

    The purpose of this book is to describe the basic mechanisms whereby pollution is transported and diffused in the atmosphere. It is designed to give practitioners an understanding of basic mechanics and physics so they may have a correct basis on which to formulate their decisions related to practical air pollution control problems. Since many…

  5. /Air Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emami, Samar; Sohn, Hong Yong; Kim, Hang Goo

    2014-08-01

    Molten magnesium oxidizes rapidly when exposed to air causing melt loss and handling difficulties. The use of certain additive gases such as SF6, SO2, and CO2 to form a protective MgO layer over a magnesium melt has been proposed. The oxidation behavior of molten magnesium in air containing various concentrations of SF6 was investigated. Measurements of the kinetics of the oxide layer growth at various SF6 concentrations in air and temperatures were made. Experiments were performed using a thermogravimetric analysis unit in the temperature range of 943 K to 1043 K (670 °C to 770 °C). Results showed that a thin, coherent, and protective MgF2 layer was formed under SF6/Air mixtures, with a thickness ranging from 300 nm to 3 μm depending on SF6 concentration, temperature, and exposure time. Rate parameters were calculated and a model for the process was developed. The morphology and composition of the surface films were studied using scanning electron microscope and energy-dispersive spectroscope.

  6. Air Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Clifton, Marjorie

    1964-01-01

    Dr Marjorie Clifton describes the classification of gaseous and nongaseous constituents of air pollution and then outlines the methods of measuring these. The National Survey embraced 150 towns of all sizes throughout England and Wales and provided data on smoke and sulphur dioxide in relation to climate, topography, industrialization, population density, fuel utilization and urban development. Dr W C Turner discusses the relationship between air pollution and mortality from respiratory conditions, and particularly the incidence of chronic bronchitis. He postulates a theory that such respiratory conditions arise as an allergy to the spores of certain moulds, spore formation being encouraged by the air humidity in Greatv Britain and overcrowded and damp living conditions. He describes the results of a twenty-week study undertaken in 1962-3, showing associations between respiratory disease and levels of air pollution. Dr Stuart Carne undertook a survey in general practice to plot the patterns of respiratory illness in London during the winter of 1962-3. There were two peaks of respiratory illnesses coinciding with the fog at the beginning of December and the freeze-up from the end of December until the beginning of March. PMID:14178955

  7. Air Trafficco

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasunic, Kevin

    1970-01-01

    The work of the 14,000 air traffic controllers can be both challenging and nerve-racking. Concentration, steady nerves, and a clear voice are required to remember the routing and identification of the maze of aircraft and to instruct each of them accurately. Controllers must have a high school diploma and three years work experience or a college…

  8. MOBILE AIR CONDITIONER REFRIGERANT EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses an evaluation of refrigerant from mobile air conditioners. The data gathered indicate that CFC-l2 refrigerant does not degrade significantly with use. Furthermore, while small amounts of contaminant are removed with the refrigerant during servicing, most of th...

  9. Our Air: Unfit for Trees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dochinger, Leon S.

    To help urban, suburban, and rural tree owners know about air pollution's effects on trees and their tolerance and intolerance to pollutants, the USDA Forest Service has prepared this booklet. It answers the following questions about atmospheric pollution: Where does it come from? What can it do to trees? and What can we do about it? In addition,…

  10. 47 CFR 22.857 - Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground systems. 22.857 Section 22.857 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service Commercial Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.857 Channel plan...

  11. COMPOSITION CHANGES IN REFRIGERANT BLENDS FOR AUTOMOTIVE AIR CONDITIONING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three refrigerant blends used to replace CFC-12 in automotive air conditioners were evaluated for composition changes due to typical servicing and leakage. When recommended service procedures were followed, changes in blend compositions were relatively small. Small changes in b...

  12. Landing impact studies of a 0.3-scale model air cushion landing system for a Navy fighter airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leland, T. J. W.; Thompson, W. C.

    1975-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted in order to determine the landing-impact behavior of a 0.3-scale, dynamically (but not physically) similar model of a high-density Navy fighter equipped with an air cushion landing system. The model was tested over a range of landing contact attitudes at high forward speeds and sink rates on a specialized test fixture at the Langley aircraft landing loads and traction facility. The investigation indicated that vertical acceleration at landing impact was highly dependent on the pitch angle at ground contact, the higher acceleration of approximately 5g occurring near zero body-pitch attitude. A limited number of low-speed taxi tests were made in order to determine model stability characteristics. The model was found to have good pitch-damping characteristics but stability in roll was marginal.

  13. 14 CFR 205.4 - Filing of evidence of insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... commuter air carriers and air taxi operators, and OST Form 6411 for foreign air carriers, including Canadian air taxi operators. The Department may return the certificate or self-insurance plan to the... Headquarters, AAL-230, 222 West 7th Avenue, Box 14, Anchorage, Alaska 99513. For Canadian air taxis, the...

  14. HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lennox Industries, Inc., Marshalltown, IA.

    INCREASED MOTIVATION, INCREASED INITIAL COMPREHENSION, AND INCREASED RETENTION ARE THE PRIME GOALS OF THE LENNOX HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING EDUCATION PROGRAM. IT IS A COMPLETE PROGRAM WITH ALL THE TEACHING TOOLS REQUIRED TO PRODUCE A KNOWLEDGEABLE HEATING AND AIR-CONDITIONING INSTALLER OR SERVICE MAN. THIS INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAM IS DESIGNED…

  15. Troubleshooting the residential air conditioning system

    SciTech Connect

    Puzio, H.

    1996-01-01

    In order to effectively diagnose problems in a residential air conditioning system, the technician should develop and follow a logical step-by-step troubleshooting procedure. A list of problems, along with possible causes and solutions, that a technician may encounter when servicing a residential air conditioner is presented.

  16. Impact of aircraft plume dynamics on airport local air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, Steven R. H.; Britter, Rex E.; Waitz, Ian A.

    2013-08-01

    Air quality degradation in the locality of airports poses a public health hazard. The ability to quantitatively predict the air quality impacts of airport operations is of importance for assessing the air quality and public health impacts of airports today, of future developments, and for evaluating approaches for mitigating these impacts. However, studies such as the Project for the Sustainable Development of Heathrow have highlighted shortcomings in understanding of aircraft plume dispersion. Further, if national or international aviation environmental policies are to be assessed, a computationally efficient method of modeling aircraft plume dispersion is needed. To address these needs, we describe the formulation and validation of a three-dimensional integral plume model appropriate for modeling aircraft exhaust plumes at airports. We also develop a simplified concentration correction factor approach to efficiently account for dispersion processes particular to aircraft plumes. The model is used to explain monitoring station results in the London Heathrow area showing that pollutant concentrations are approximately constant over wind speeds of 3-12 m s-1, and is applied to reproduce empirically derived relationships between engine types and peak NOx concentrations at Heathrow. We calculated that not accounting for aircraft plume dynamics would result in a factor of 1.36-2.3 over-prediction of the mean NOx concentration (depending on location), consistent with empirical evidence of a factor of 1.7 over-prediction. Concentration correction factors are also calculated for aircraft takeoff, landing and taxi emissions, providing an efficient way to account for aircraft plume effects in atmospheric dispersion models.

  17. [Air pollution].

    PubMed

    Bauters, Christophe; Bauters, Gautier

    2016-01-01

    Short-term exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution is associated with an increased cardiovascular mortality. Chronic exposure to PM is also associated with cardiovascular risk. Myocardial infarction and heart failure are the most common cardiovascular events associated with PM pollution. The pathophysiological mechanisms related to PM pollution are inflammation, thrombosis, vasomotion abnormalities, progression of atherosclerosis, increased blood pressure, and cardiac remodeling. A decrease in PM exposure may be particularly beneficial in subjects with a high cardiovascular risk. PMID:26547674

  18. Air filtering device

    SciTech Connect

    Backus, A.L.

    1992-07-28

    This patent describes a room air cleaning device. It comprises: a box housing having an air inlet and an air outlet provided therein; a vertical baffle coupled to the box housing opposite the air outlet and spaced form the box housing such that an air egress outlet is formed between the vertical baffle and the box housing; air cleansing means substantially disposed within the box housing and cleansing air passing into the inlet and out of the air egress outlet; a fan disposed within the box housing, the fan providing air movement through the air inlet and the air egress outlet; wherein air exits the room air cleaning device through the air egress outlet as a vertical plane of moving air; and wherein formation of the vertical plane of moving air contributes to the formation of a low pressure area drawing impure air toward the air inlet.

  19. Reference Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunge, Charles A.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses library reference services. Topics include the historical development of reference services; instruction in library use, particularly in college and university libraries; guidance; information and referral services and how they differ from traditional question-answering service; and future concerns, including user fees and the planning…

  20. Manual on indoor air quality

    SciTech Connect

    Diamond, R.C.; Grimsrud, D.T.

    1983-12-01

    This reference manual was prepared to assist electric utilities in helping homeowners, builders, and new home buyers to understand a broad range of issues related to indoor air quality. The manual is directed to technically knowledgeable persons employed by utility companies - the customer service or marketing representative, applications engineer, or technician - who may not have specific expertise in indoor air quality issues. In addition to providing monitoring and control techniques, the manual summarizes the link between pollutant concentrations, air exchange, and energy conservation and describes the characteristics and health effects of selected pollutants. Where technical information is too lengthy or complex for inclusion in this volume, reference sources are given. Information for this manual was gathered from technical studies, manufacturers' information, and other materials from professional societies, institutes, and associations. The aim has been to provide objective technical and descriptive information that can be used by utility personnel to make informed decisions about indoor air quality issues.

  1. Enabling Mobile Air Quality App Development with an AirNow API

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dye, T.; White, J. E.; Ludewig, S. A.; Dickerson, P.; Healy, A. N.; West, J. W.; Prince, L. A.

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) AirNow program works with over 130 participating state, local, and federal air quality agencies to obtain, quality control, and store real-time air quality observations and forecasts. From these data, the AirNow system generates thousands of maps and products each hour. Each day, information from AirNow is published online and in other media to assist the public in making health-based decisions related to air quality. However, an increasing number of people use mobile devices as their primary tool for obtaining information, and AirNow has responded to this trend by publishing an easy-to-use Web API that is useful for mobile app developers. This presentation will describe the various features of the AirNow application programming interface (API), including Representational State Transfer (REST)-type web services, file outputs, and RSS feeds. In addition, a web portal for the AirNow API will be shown, including documentation on use of the system, a query tool for configuring and running web services, and general information about the air quality data and forecasts available. Data published via the AirNow API includes corresponding Air Quality Index (AQI) levels for each pollutant. We will highlight examples of mobile apps that are using the AirNow API to provide location-based, real-time air quality information. Examples will include mobile apps developed for Minnesota ('Minnesota Air') and Washington, D.C. ('Clean Air Partners Air Quality'), and an app developed by EPA ('EPA AirNow').

  2. 14 CFR 302.720 - Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Service. 302.720 Section 302.720... Processing Contracts for the Carriage of Mail in Foreign Air Transportation § 302.720 Service. A copy of each... scheduled mail services between any pair of points between which mail is to be transported pursuant to...

  3. 14 CFR 302.720 - Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Service. 302.720 Section 302.720... Processing Contracts for the Carriage of Mail in Foreign Air Transportation § 302.720 Service. A copy of each... scheduled mail services between any pair of points between which mail is to be transported pursuant to...

  4. 14 CFR 302.720 - Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Service. 302.720 Section 302.720... Processing Contracts for the Carriage of Mail in Foreign Air Transportation § 302.720 Service. A copy of each... scheduled mail services between any pair of points between which mail is to be transported pursuant to...

  5. 14 CFR 302.720 - Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Service. 302.720 Section 302.720... Processing Contracts for the Carriage of Mail in Foreign Air Transportation § 302.720 Service. A copy of each... scheduled mail services between any pair of points between which mail is to be transported pursuant to...

  6. 14 CFR 302.720 - Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Service. 302.720 Section 302.720... Processing Contracts for the Carriage of Mail in Foreign Air Transportation § 302.720 Service. A copy of each... scheduled mail services between any pair of points between which mail is to be transported pursuant to...

  7. 40 CFR 65.106 - Standards: Valves in gas/vapor service and in light liquid service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards: Valves in gas/vapor service and in light liquid service. 65.106 Section 65.106 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONSOLIDATED FEDERAL AIR RULE Equipment Leaks § 65.106 Standards: Valves in gas/vapor service and...

  8. International Air Transport and Federal Policy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binder, R. H.

    1972-01-01

    The Federal policy which establishes guidelines for future U.S. participation in the international air transportation industry is discussed. The policy issues discussed include the following: (1) aircraft hijacking, both foreign and domestic, (2) relationship of scheduled services and charter services, (3) capacity problems, and (4) rate regulation.

  9. 77 FR 1913 - Notice of Meeting of the Agricultural Air Quality Task Force

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-12

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Natural Resources Conservation Service Notice of Meeting of the Agricultural Air Quality Task Force AGENCY: Natural Resources Conservation Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of Meeting..., Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service, Post Office Box 2890, Washington, DC...

  10. 75 FR 8917 - Notice of a Meeting of the Agricultural Air Quality Task Force

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... Natural Resources Conservation Service Notice of a Meeting of the Agricultural Air Quality Task Force AGENCY: Natural Resources Conservation Service, Department of Agriculture. ACTION: Notice of a meeting..., Natural Resources Conservation Service, 1400 Independence Avenue, SW., Room 6165 South...

  11. Megacities, air quality and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baklanov, Alexander; Molina, Luisa T.; Gauss, Michael

    2016-02-01

    The rapid urbanization and growing number of megacities and urban complexes requires new types of research and services that make best use of science and available technology. With an increasing number of humans now living in urban sprawls, there are urgent needs of examining what the rising number of megacities means for air pollution, local climate and the effects these changes have on global climate. Such integrated studies and services should assist cities in facing hazards such as storm surge, flooding, heat waves, and air pollution episodes, especially in changing climates. While important advances have been made, new interdisciplinary research studies are needed to increase our understanding of the interactions between emissions, air quality, and regional and global climates. Studies need to address both basic and applied research and bridge the spatial and temporal scales connecting local emissions and air pollution and local weather, global atmospheric chemistry and climate. This paper reviews the current status of studies of the complex interactions between climate, air quality and megacities, and identifies the main gaps in our current knowledge as well as further research needs in this important field of research.

  12. Taxis through Computer Simulation Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, David

    1983-01-01

    Describes a sequence of five computer programs (listings for Apple II available from author) on tactic responses (oriented movement of a cell, cell group, or whole organism in reponse to stimuli). The simulation programs are useful in helping students examine mechanisms at work in real organisms. (JN)

  13. 47 CFR 24.55 - Antenna structures; air navigation safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Antenna structures; air navigation safety. 24... SERVICES PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Technical Standards § 24.55 Antenna structures; air navigation safety. Licensees that own their antenna structures must not allow these antenna structures to become...

  14. 47 CFR 27.56 - Antenna structures; air navigation safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Antenna structures; air navigation safety. 27... SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Technical Standards § 27.56 Antenna structures; air navigation safety. A licensee that owns its antenna structure(s) must not allow such antenna structure(s)...

  15. 47 CFR 24.55 - Antenna structures; air navigation safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Antenna structures; air navigation safety. 24... SERVICES PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Technical Standards § 24.55 Antenna structures; air navigation safety. Licensees that own their antenna structures must not allow these antenna structures to become...

  16. 47 CFR 27.56 - Antenna structures; air navigation safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Antenna structures; air navigation safety. 27... SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Technical Standards § 27.56 Antenna structures; air navigation safety. A licensee that owns its antenna structure(s) must not allow such antenna structure(s)...

  17. 47 CFR 24.55 - Antenna structures; air navigation safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Antenna structures; air navigation safety. 24... SERVICES PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Technical Standards § 24.55 Antenna structures; air navigation safety. Licensees that own their antenna structures must not allow these antenna structures to become...

  18. 47 CFR 27.56 - Antenna structures; air navigation safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Antenna structures; air navigation safety. 27... SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Technical Standards § 27.56 Antenna structures; air navigation safety. A licensee that owns its antenna structure(s) must not allow such antenna structure(s)...

  19. 47 CFR 27.56 - Antenna structures; air navigation safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna structures; air navigation safety. 27... SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Technical Standards § 27.56 Antenna structures; air navigation safety. A licensee that owns its antenna structure(s) must not allow such antenna structure(s)...

  20. 47 CFR 24.55 - Antenna structures; air navigation safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Antenna structures; air navigation safety. 24... SERVICES PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Technical Standards § 24.55 Antenna structures; air navigation safety. Licensees that own their antenna structures must not allow these antenna structures to become...