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Sample records for aircrew integrated helmet

  1. Aircrew helmet design and manufacturing enhancements through the use of advanced technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadogan, David P.; George, Alan E.; Winkler, Edward R.

    1993-12-01

    With the development of helmet mounted displays (HMD) and night vision systems (NVS) for use in military and civil aviation roles, new methods of helmet development need to be explored. The helmet must be designed to provide the user with the most lightweight, form fitting system, while meeting other system performance requirements. This can be achieved through a complete analysis of the system requirements. One such technique for systems analysis, a quality function deployment (QFD) matrix, is explored for this purpose. The advanced helmet development process for developing aircrew helmets includes the utilization of several emerging technologies such as laser scanning, computer aided design (CAD), computer generated patterns from 3-D surfaces, laser cutting of patterns and components, and rapid prototyping (stereolithography). Advanced anthropometry methods for helmet development are also available for use. Besides the application of advanced technologies to be used in the development of helmet assemblies, methods of mass reduction are also discussed. The use of these advanced technologies will minimize errors in the development cycle of the helmet and molds, and should enhance system performance while reducing development time and cost.

  2. Aircrew helmet protection against potential cerebral concussion in low-magnitude impacts.

    PubMed

    Norman, R W; Bishop, P J; Pierrynowski, M R; Pezzack, J C

    1979-06-01

    The response of the Gentex DH-151 (contact type) and Gentex 411 (suspension type) aircrew helmets to low-magnitude impacts, such as those sometimes encountered during cockpit buffeting, in ejection, and in parachute landings, was studied to augment the data base on helmet performance. The helmets, mounted on a Hodgson headform, were dropped on the crown and rear at impact velocities up to 4.97 m/s. Acceleration time histories were tape recorded and digitized and Gadd Severity Indices (GSI), among others, were calculated from the resultant acceleration curve. Both helmets kept the GSI below predicted concussion thresholds at 4.97 m/s and were considered to perform well on initial impacts. On second impacts, the GSI rose considerably because the shell and liner of the DH-151 cracked and the suspension of the "141" stretched during the first blow. Improvement of the multiple impact performance of both helmets appears desirable, although the suspension helmet performed slightly better than the contact helmet with respect to the criterion used. PMID:475701

  3. Advanced helmet vision system (AHVS) integrated night vision helmet mounted display (HMD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashcraft, Todd W.; Atac, Robert

    2012-06-01

    Gentex Corporation, under contract to Naval Air Systems Command (AIR 4.0T), designed the Advanced Helmet Vision System to provide aircrew with 24-hour, visor-projected binocular night vision and HMD capability. AHVS integrates numerous key technologies, including high brightness Light Emitting Diode (LED)-based digital light engines, advanced lightweight optical materials and manufacturing processes, and innovations in graphics processing software. This paper reviews the current status of miniaturization and integration with the latest two-part Gentex modular helmet, highlights the lessons learned from previous AHVS phases, and discusses plans for qualification and flight testing.

  4. Integral Face Shield Concept for Firefighter's Helmet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abeles, F.; Hansberry, E.; Himel, V.

    1982-01-01

    Stowable face shield could be made integral part of helmet worn by firefighters. Shield, made from same tough clear plastic as removable face shields presently used, would be pivoted at temples to slide up inside helmet when not needed. Stowable face shield, being stored in helmet, is always available, ready for use, and is protected when not being used.

  5. Helmet-Mounted Display Research Capabilities of the NASA/Army Rotorcraft Aircrew Systems Concepts Airborne Laboratory (RASCAL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobsen, R. A.; Bivens, C. C.; Rediess, N. A.; Hindson, W. S.; Aiken, E. W.; Aiken, Edwin W. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The Rotorcraft Aircrew Systems Concepts Airborne Laboratory (RASCAL) is a UH-60A Black Hawk helicopter that is being modified by the US Army and NASA for flight systems research. The principal systems that are being installed in the aircraft are a Helmet Mounted Display (HMD) and imaging system, and a programmable full authority Research Flight Control System (RFCS). In addition, comprehensive instrumentation of both the rigid body of the helicopter and the rotor system is provided. The paper will describe the capabilities of these systems and their current state of development. A brief description of initial research applications is included. The wide (40 X 60 degree) field-of-view HMD system has been provided by Kaiser Electronics. It can be configured as a monochromatic system for use in bright daylight conditions, a two color system for darker ambients, or a full color system for use in night viewing conditions. Color imagery is achieved using field sequential video and a mechanical color wheel. In addition to the color symbology, high resolution computer-gene rated imagery from an onboard Silicon Graphics Reality Engine Onyx processor is available for research in virtual reality applications. This synthetic imagery can also be merged with real world video from a variety of imaging systems that can be installed easily on the front of the helicopter. These sensors include infrared or tv cameras, or potentially small millimeter wave radars. The Research Flight Control System is being developed for the aircraft by a team of contractors led by Boeing Helicopters. It consists of a full authority high bandwidth fly-by-wire actuators that drive the main rotor swashplate actuators and the tail rotor actuator in parallel. This arrangement allows the basic mechanical flight control system of the Black Hawk to be retained so that the safety pilot can monitor the operation of the system through the action of his own controls. The evaluation pilot will signal the fly

  6. 40° image intensifier tubes in an integrated helmet system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreyer, Herbert; Boehm, Hans-Dieter V.; Svedevall, B.

    1993-12-01

    EUROCOPTER has been under contract to the French and German ministries of defence for five years to develop the TIGER, a second generation anti-tank helicopter. A piloting thermal imager has been installed on a steerable platform in the helicopter nose in order to achieve the possibility of flying round the clock. In addition to this sensor, which is sensitive at a wavelength of 10 micrometers , the German side has proposed using an Integrated Helmet System in the PAH 2. This helmet, manufactured by GEC-Marconi Avionics, incorporates two cathode ray tubes (CRT) and two image intensifier tubes which allow the pilot to use an additional sensor in the visible and near infrared spectrum. The electronic part will be built by Teldix. EUROCOPTER DEUTSCHLAND has received the first demonstrator of this helmet for testing in the EUROCOPTER Visionics Laboratory. Later, the C-prototype will be integrated into a BK 117 helicopter (AVT Avionik Versuchstrager). This new helmet has a field of view of 40 degree(s), and exit pupil of 15 mm and improved possibilities of adjusting the optical part. Laboratory tests have been carried out to test important parameters like optical resolution under low light level conditions, field of view, eye relief or exit pupil. The CRT channels have been tested for resolution, distortion, vignetting and homogeneity. The requirements and the properties of the helmet, test procedures and the results of these tests are presented in the paper.

  7. The effect of a monocular helmet-mounted display on aircrew health: a 10-year prospective cohort study of Apache AH MK 1 pilots: study midpoint update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiatt, Keith L.; Rash, Clarence E.; Watters, Raymond W.; Adams, Mark S.

    2009-05-01

    A collaborative occupational health study has been undertaken by Headquarters Army Aviation, Middle Wallop, UK, and the U.S. Army Aeromedical Research Laboratory, Fort Rucker, Alabama, to determine if the use of the Integrated Helmet and Display Sighting System (IHADSS) monocular helmet-mounted display (HMD) in the Apache AH Mk 1 attack helicopter has any long-term (10-year) effect on visual performance. The test methodology consists primarily of a detailed questionnaire and an annual battery of vision tests selected to capture changes in visual performance of Apache aviators over their flight career (with an emphasis on binocular visual function). Pilots using binocular night vision goggles serve as controls and undergo the same methodology. Currently, at the midpoint of the study, with the exception of a possible colour discrimination effect, there are no data indicating that the long-term use of the IHADSS monocular HMD results in negative effects on vision.

  8. Research pilots at NASA Dryden tested a prototype helmet during the summer and fall of 2002. The obj

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Research pilots from the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif., tested a prototype two-part helmet. Built by Gentex Corp., Carbondale, Pa., the helmet was evaluated by five NASA pilots during the summer and fall of 2002. The objective was to obtain data on helmet fit, comfort and functionality. The inner helmet of the modular system is fitted to the individual crewmember. The outer helmet features a fully integrated spectral mounted helmet display and a binocular helmet mounted display. The helmet will be adaptable to all flying platforms. The Dryden evaluation was overseen by the Center's Life Support office. Assessments have taken place during normal proficiency flights and some air-to-air combat maneuvering. Evaluation platforms included the F-18, B-52 and C-12. The prototype helmet is being developed by the Naval Air Science and Technology Office and the Aircrew Systems Program Office, Patuxent River, Md.

  9. A review of US Army aircrew-aircraft integration research programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Key, D. C.; Aiken, E. W.

    1984-01-01

    If the U.S. Army's desire to develop a one crew version of the Light Helicopter Family (LHX) helicopter is to be realized, both flightpath management and mission management will have to be performed by one crew. Flightpath management, the helicopter pilot, and the handling qualities of the helicopter were discussed. In addition, mission management, the helicopter pilot, and pilot control/display interface were considered. Aircrew-aircraft integration plans and programs were reviewed.

  10. CO2 and O2 concentrations in integral motorcycle helmets.

    PubMed

    Brühwiler, P A; Stämpfli, R; Huber, R; Camenzind, M

    2005-09-01

    Inhaling air which contains excess CO2 and/or is oxygen-deficient is known to present health risks and to diminish human cognitive abilities. The average CO2 concentrations relevant to a motorcyclist wearing an integral helmet were measured 20 years ago and found to be alarmingly large. The purpose of the present study was to examine gas concentrations typically inhaled by a motorcyclist. Average concentrations of CO2 near the upper lip for persons (n = 4) wearing integral motorcycle helmets were measured in the laboratory and the field to facilitate comparison to previous work, and similarly high average concentrations were found: above 2% when stationary, well below 1% for speeds of 50 km/h or more. Very good agreement was obtained between laboratory and field measurements. Detailed measurements of the time-dependent CO2 concentrations passing through a mouthpiece for mouth-breathing showed inhaled levels slightly over half of the corresponding average concentrations, including 1.3+/-0.3% at standstill, though higher concentrations (4% or more) were inhaled at the beginning of each breath. Opening the visor at standstill had on average no effect. At a speed of 50 km/h the inhaled CO2 concentration resembles that for a person without a helmet in still air, at about 0.2%. The oxygen deficiency is generally equal to the CO2 concentration, and could also contribute negatively to a motorcyclist's cognitive abilities. PMID:15893291

  11. Aircrew-aircraft integration - A summary of U.S. Army research programs and plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Key, D. L.; Aiken, E. W.

    1984-01-01

    A review of selected programs which illustrate the research efforts of the U.S. Army Aeromechanics Laboratory in the area of aircrew-aircraft integration is presented. Plans for research programs to support the development of future military rotorcraft are also described. The crew of a combat helicopter must, in general, perform two major functions during the conduct of a particular mission: flightpath control and mission management. Accordingly, the research programs described are being conducted in the same two major categories: (1) flightpath control, which encompasses the areas of handling qualities, stability and control, and displays for the pilot's control of the rotorcraft's flightpath, and (2) mission management, which includes human factors and cockpit integration research topics related to performance of navigation, communication, and aircraft systems management tasks.

  12. Aircrew-aircraft integration: A summary of US Army research programs and plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Key, D. L.; Aiken, E. W.

    1984-01-01

    A review of selected programs which illustrate the research efforts of the U.S. Army Aeromechanics Laboratory in the area of aircrew-aircraft integration is presented. Plans for research programs to support the development of future military rotorcraft are also described. The crew of a combat helicopter must, in general, perform two major functions during the conduct of a particular mission: flightpath control and mission management. Accordingly, the research programs described are being conducted in the same two major categories: (1) flightpath control, which encompasses the areas of handling qualities, stability and control, and displays for the pilot's control of the rotorcraft's flightpath, and (2) mission management, which includes human factors and cockpit integration research topics related to performance of navigation, communication, and aircraft systems management tasks.

  13. Visual issues associated with the use of the integrated helmet and display sighting system (IHADSS) in the Apache helicopter: three decades in review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiatt, Keith L.; Rash, Clarence E.; Heinecke, Kevin

    2008-04-01

    In the late 1970s the U.S. Army developed the Integrated Helmet and Display Sighting System (IHADSS), which is a helmet-mounted display (HMD) for use in the AH-64 Apache helicopter. The helicopter and the system were designed with the Cold War in mind such that the Apache would be able to stand off far from the frontlines and attack deep target-primarily tanks-before they could engage our ground forces. The design used a right-sided monocular display optical system that was intended to reduce head-supported weight. This novel monocular design introduced a number of issues that had the potential of causing visual perception problems for pilots. Since the initial fielding of the Apache in the early 1980s, numerous reports have appeared in the literature that evaluated realized visual complaints voiced by Apache aircrew. In this review, the authors provide a summary of seminal reports, surveys, and experiments conducted over the past three decades. The extant literature described investigated these visual issues as the Apache's mission has evolved from the stand-off engagement tactics of the Cold War to the new Apache missions of close air support, deep attack, and raids currently occurring in the Global War on Terrorism.

  14. Integration and test of a high-resolution helmet-mounted display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, Sion A.; Swail, Carl P.; Craig, Greg; Lasnier, S.

    1999-07-01

    This paper describes the integration and proposed flight test of the Simulation Program for Improved Rotorcraft Integration Technology (SPIRIT) II helmet-mounted display on the National Research Council of Canada Bell 205 Airborne Simulator. The helmet-mounted display is a wide field-of-view (80 degrees H X 41 degrees V with a 30 degree binocular overlap) high resolution display (1280 X 960 pixels in each eye). Colors are displayed using a field sequential process, whereby green and red laser light is pulsed and directed onto the surface of a reflective ferro-electric liquid crystal display. The prototype helmet-mounted display overlays red, amber, or green symbology on monochrome green imagery obtained from high resolution daylight cameras. The optical design of the display does not form an exit pupil. This allows the wearer greater freedom in movement and comfort due to looser helmet fit tolerances. The helmet-mounted display was integrated with a head tracker and camera platform to form a visually coupled system on the National Research Council of Canada Bell 205. The integration process and flight test plan will be discussed.

  15. Integrated helmet mounted display concepts for air combat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Joseph W.

    1995-01-01

    A piloted simulation study was conducted in a dome simulator to evaluate several Helmet Mounted Display (HMD) formats developed as part of the NASA High Alpha Technology Program (HATP). The display formats conveyed energy management, spatial orientation, and weapons management information. The HMD format was compared to a generic Heads Up Display (HUD) typical of current operational fighter aircraft. Pilots were tasked to spend as much time in a weapon solution as possible, to have the correct weapon selected for the envelope they were in, and to avoid the adversary's weapon envelope as much as possible. Several different displays were tested individually and simultaneously to see how separate display concepts coexisted. Objective results showed that the ability for the pilot to select the correct weapon for the envelope he was in increased by 50% in a moderate workload condition and 90% in a high workload condition with the HMD format. In the post-test comments pilots generally favored the helmet display formats over the HUD formats with a few instances where pilots preferred a simple numeric readout of the parameter. Short term exposure effects of the HMD on visual acuity were also measured and showed no advers results.

  16. Helmets: conventional to cueing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedillo, Michael R.; Dixon, Sharon A.

    2003-09-01

    Aviation helmets have always served as an interface between technology and flyers. The functional evolution of helmets continued with the advent of radio when helmets were modified to accept communication components and later, oxygen masks. As development matured, interest in safety increased as evident in more robust designs. Designing helmets became a balance between adding new capabilities and reducing the helmet's weight. As the research community better defined acceptable limits of weight-tolerances with tools such as the "Knox Box" criteria, system developers added and subtracted technologies while remaining within these limits. With most helmet-mounted technologies being independent of each other, the level of precision in mounting these technologies was not as significant a concern as it is today. The attachment of new components was acceptable as long as the components served their purpose. However this independent concept has become obsolete with the dawn of modern helmet mounted displays. These complex systems are interrelated and demand precision in their attachment to the helmet. The helmets' role now extends beyond serving as a means to mount the technologies to the head, but is now instrumental in critical visual alignment of complex night vision and missile cueing technologies. These new technologies demand a level of helmet fit and component alignment previously not seen in past helmet designs. This paper presents some of the design, integration and logistical issues gleaned during the development of the Joint Helmet Mounted Cueing System (JHMCS) to include the application of head-track technologies in forensic investigations.

  17. Solutions to helmet-mounted display visual correction compatibility issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rash, Clarence E.; Kalich, Melvyn E.; van de Pol, Corina

    2002-08-01

    To meet the goal of 24-hour, all-weather operation, U.S. Army aviation uses a number of imaging sensor systems on its aircraft. Imagery provided by these systems is presented on helmet-mounted displays (HMDs). Fielded systems include the Integrated Helmet Display Sighting System (IHADSS) used on the AH-64 Apache. Proposed future HMD systems such as the Helmet Integrated Display Sighting System (HIDSS) and the Microvision, Inc., Aircrew Integrated Helmet System (AIHS) scanning laser system are possible choices for the Army's RAH-66 Comanche helicopter. Ever present in current and future HMD systems is the incompatibility problem between the design-limited physical eye relief of the HMD and the need to provide for the integration of laser and nuclear, biological and chemical (NBC) protection, as well as the need to address the changing optical and vision requirements of the aging aviator. This paper defines the compatibility issue, reviews past efforts to solve this problem (e.g., contact lenses, NBC masks, optical inserts, etc.), and identifies emerging techniques (e.g., refractive surgery, adaptive optics, etc.) that require investigation.

  18. Visual perceptual issues of the integrated helmet and display sighting system (IHADSS): four expert perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rash, Clarence E.; Heinecke, Kevin; Francis, Gregory; Hiatt, Keith L.

    2008-04-01

    The Integrated Helmet and Display Sighting System (IHADSS) helmet-mounted display (HMD) has been flown for over a quarter of a century on the U.S. Army's AH-64 Apache Attack Helicopter. The aircraft's successful deployment in both peacetime and combat has validated the original design concept for the IHADSS HMD. During its 1970s development phase, a number of design issues were identified as having the potential of introducing visual perception problems for aviators. These issues include monocular design, monochromatic imagery, reduced field-of-view (FOV), sensor spectrum, reduced resolution (effective visual acuity), and displaced visual input eye point. From their diverse perspectives, a panel of four experts - an HMD researcher, a cognitive psychologist, a flight surgeon, and a veteran AH-64 aviator - discuss the impact of the design issues on visual perception and related performance.

  19. Army-NASA aircrew/aircraft integration program (A3I) software detailed design document, phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banda, Carolyn; Chiu, Alex; Helms, Gretchen; Hsieh, Tehming; Lui, Andrew; Murray, Jerry; Shankar, Renuka

    1990-01-01

    The capabilities and design approach of the MIDAS (Man-machine Integration Design and Analysis System) computer-aided engineering (CAE) workstation under development by the Army-NASA Aircrew/Aircraft Integration Program is detailed. This workstation uses graphic, symbolic, and numeric prototyping tools and human performance models as part of an integrated design/analysis environment for crewstation human engineering. Developed incrementally, the requirements and design for Phase 3 (Dec. 1987 to Jun. 1989) are described. Software tools/models developed or significantly modified during this phase included: an interactive 3-D graphic cockpit design editor; multiple-perspective graphic views to observe simulation scenarios; symbolic methods to model the mission decomposition, equipment functions, pilot tasking and loading, as well as control the simulation; a 3-D dynamic anthropometric model; an intermachine communications package; and a training assessment component. These components were successfully used during Phase 3 to demonstrate the complex interactions and human engineering findings involved with a proposed cockpit communications design change in a simulated AH-64A Apache helicopter/mission that maps to empirical data from a similar study and AH-1 Cobra flight test.

  20. Web-based survey of visual symptoms reported by Apache aviators using the integrated helmet and display sighting system (IHADSS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rash, Clarence E.; Suggs, Christie L.

    2002-08-01

    A web-based study was conducted to determine the continuing presence and frequency of visual complaints reported by pilots using the monocular Integrated Helmet and Display Sighting System (IHADSS) helmet-mounted display (HMD) of the AH-64 Apache helicopter. A total of 216 pilots responded to the survey, which addressed areas of visual symptoms experienced during and/or after flight, helmet fit, and acoustics. Ninety-two percent of the pilots responding to the survey reported at least one visual symptom. The most frequently reported symptom for both during and after flight was visual discomfort. One out of four respondents reported having some difficulty in purposefully alternating between visual inputs to the two eyes. Approximately two-thirds of the pilots responding expressed reasonable satisfaction with their current helmet fit.

  1. Integration, development, and qualification of the helmet-mounted sight and display on the Rooivalk Attack Helicopter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mace, Timothy K.; Van Zyl, Petrus H.; Cross, Trevor

    2001-08-01

    The Rooivalk Attack Helicopter is designed and manufactured by Denel Aviation of South Africa, and in service with the South African Air Force. The Helmet Mounted Sight and Display (HMSD) hardware is manufactured by Sextant Avionique of France. The HMSD symbology is developed by Denel Aviation and is specific to the weapons and roles of the aircraft. The HMSD has visor projected NVG and PNVS images, and Flight and Weapon Symbology incorporating head slaved weapon aiming, helmet-to-helmet cueing, and helmet to main sight cueing. The NVG/PNVS image selection and main image controls are incorporated in the flight controls. The paper gives an overview of the aircraft visionic design and describes the integration process. The development of the displayed flight and weapon symbols is discussed. Aeronautical Design Standard 33E was chosen as a basis for the qualification process, and the development of the qualification criteria and the flight testing program are discussed.

  2. Aircrew team management program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margerison, Charles; Mccann, Dick; Davies, Rod

    1987-01-01

    The key features of the Aircrew Team Management Workshop which was designed for and in consultation with Trans Australia Airlines are outlined. Five major sections are presented dealing with: (1) A profile of the airline and the designers; (2) Aircrew consultation and involvement; (3) Educational design and development; (4) Implementation and instruction; and (5) Evaluation and assessment. These areas are detailed.

  3. Smart army helmet: a glance in what soldier helmets can become in the near future by integrating present technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betancur, J. Alejandro; Osorio-Gómez, Gilberto; Mejía, Alejandro; Rodriguez, Carlos A.

    2014-05-01

    Nowadays, technologies like improved reality systems, sensing systems and communication systems, are moving forward with a high rate. This situation is very convenient for military groups that are trying to access modern technologies. According to that, it is very feasible to propose the development of electronic devices that increase the possibilities for soldiers to be alive during an armed conflict, providing them with information that can bring strategic benefits on the combat field, which is the main goal of this research. Therefore, it is proposed in this paper the early design stages of a smart army helmet, focusing in their low cost production; however, all the electronics stages specified here are proposed as prototypes.

  4. Development of adaptive helicopter seat systems for aircrew vibration mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yong; Wickramasinghe, Viresh; Zimcik, David G.

    2008-03-01

    Helicopter aircrews are exposed to high levels of whole body vibration during flight. This paper presents the results of an investigation of adaptive seat mount approaches to reduce helicopter aircrew whole body vibration levels. A flight test was conducted on a four-blade helicopter and showed that the currently used passive seat systems were not able to provide satisfactory protection to the helicopter aircrew in both front-back and vertical directions. Long-term exposure to the measured whole body vibration environment may cause occupational health issues such as spine and neck strain injuries for aircrew. In order to address this issue, a novel adaptive seat mount concept was developed to mitigate the vibration levels transmitted to the aircrew body. For proof-of-concept demonstration, a miniature modal shaker was properly aligned between the cabin floor and the seat frame to provide adaptive actuation authority. Adaptive control laws were developed to reduce the vibration transmitted to the aircrew body, especially the helmet location in order to minimize neck and spine injuries. Closed-loop control test have been conducted on a full-scale helicopter seat with a mannequin configuration and a large mechanical shaker was used to provide representative helicopter vibration profiles to the seat frame. Significant vibration reductions to the vertical and front-back vibration modes have been achieved simultaneously, which verified the technical readiness of the adaptive mount approach for full-scale flight test on the vehicle.

  5. Army-NASA aircrew/aircraft integration program. Phase 5: A3I Man-Machine Integration Design and Analysis System (MIDAS) software concept document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banda, Carolyn; Bushnell, David; Chen, Scott; Chiu, Alex; Neukom, Christian; Nishimura, Sayuri; Prevost, Michael; Shankar, Renuka; Staveland, Lowell; Smith, Greg

    1992-01-01

    This is the Software Concept Document for the Man-machine Integration Design and Analysis System (MIDAS) being developed as part of Phase V of the Army-NASA Aircrew/Aircraft Integration (A3I) Progam. The approach taken in this program since its inception in 1984 is that of incremental development with clearly defined phases. Phase 1 began in 1984 and subsequent phases have progressed at approximately 10-16 month intervals. Each phase of development consists of planning, setting requirements, preliminary design, detailed design, implementation, testing, demonstration and documentation. Phase 5 began with an off-site planning meeting in November, 1990. It is expected that Phase 5 development will be complete and ready for demonstration to invited visitors from industry, government and academia in May, 1992. This document, produced during the preliminary design period of Phase 5, is intended to record the top level design concept for MIDAS as it is currently conceived. This document has two main objectives: (1) to inform interested readers of the goals of the MIDAS Phase 5 development period, and (2) to serve as the initial version of the MIDAS design document which will be continuously updated as the design evolves. Since this document is written fairly early in the design period, many design issues still remain unresolved. Some of the unresolved issues are mentioned later in this document in the sections on specific components. Readers are cautioned that this is not a final design document and that, as the design of MIDAS matures, some of the design ideas recorded in this document will change. The final design will be documented in a detailed design document published after the demonstrations.

  6. Color Helmet Mounted Display System with Real Time Computer Generated and Video Imagery for In-Flight Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawyer, Kevin; Jacobsen, Robert; Aiken, Edwin W. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    NASA Ames Research Center and the US Army are developing the Rotorcraft Aircrew Systems Concepts Airborne Laboratory (RASCAL) using a Sikorsky UH-60 helicopter for the purpose of flight systems research. A primary use of the RASCAL is in-flight simulation for which the visual scene will use computer generated imagery and synthetic vision. This research is made possible in part to a full color wide field of view Helmet Mounted Display (HMD) system that provides high performance color imagery suitable for daytime operations in a flight-rated package. This paper describes the design and performance characteristics of the HMD system. Emphasis is placed on the design specifications, testing, and integration into the aircraft of Kaiser Electronics' RASCAL HMD system that was designed and built under contract for NASA. The optical performance and design of the Helmet mounted display unit will be discussed as well as the unique capabilities provided by the system's Programmable Display Generator (PDG).

  7. Development of the STAR evaluation system for football helmets: integrating player head impact exposure and risk of concussion.

    PubMed

    Rowson, Steven; Duma, Stefan M

    2011-08-01

    In contrast to the publicly available data on the safety of automobiles, consumers have no analytical mechanism to evaluate the protective performance of football helmets. The objective of this article is to fill this void by introducing a new equation that can be used to evaluate helmet performance by integrating player head impact exposure and risk of concussion. The Summation of Tests for the Analysis of Risk (STAR) equation relates on-field impact exposure to a series of 24 drop tests performed at four impact locations and six impact energy levels. Using 62,974 head acceleration data points collected from football players, the number of impacts experienced for one full season was translated to 24 drop test configurations. A new injury risk function was developed from 32 measured concussions and associated exposure data to assess risk of concussion for each impact. Finally, the data from all 24 drop tests is combined into one number using the STAR formula that incorporates the predicted exposure and injury risk for one player for one full season of practices and games. The new STAR evaluation equation will provide consumers with a meaningful metric to assess the relative performance of football helmets. PMID:21553135

  8. Helmet feedport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kothe, E. (Inventor)

    1967-01-01

    A helmet design is described which encapsules the head of the wearer, is capable of being pressurized and provides a means for gaining internal access for the purpose of eating. A mechanically actuated valve that combines the purging of carbon dioxide and feeding operations by a simple movement of a mechanical lever obviates problems that are attendant in the type of feed and purge ports previously incorporated in pressurized helmets.

  9. Helmet blastometer

    DOEpatents

    Moss, William C; King, Michael J

    2015-03-24

    A helmet blastometer for characterizing the direction, speed, magnitude, and duration of a blast event to determine the likelihood of blast-induced traumatic brain injury (biTBI). Time of arrival (TOA) gage sensors are mounted on a rigid outer shell of the helmet each producing a TOA signal in response to a fast rising blast induced positive pressure change above a predetermined threshold. A receiver analyzes the positive pressure changes from the gages to determine direction, speed, and magnitude of a blast. Other TOA gauge sensors can be used to produce a TOA signal in response to a negative pressure change below a predetermined threshold. The positive and negative pressure change TOA signals are used to determine blast duration. A second set of internal contact pressure sensors is connected to an inner liner of the helmet to detect contact pressure on a user's head to determine if biTBI has been sustained.

  10. Noise induced hearing loss in military helicopter aircrew--a review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Owen, J P

    1995-06-01

    Noise Induced Hearing Loss (NIHL) has been recognised for some time. In the military environment one group of personnel at risk are Army helicopter aircrew who are exposed to continuous noise levels of up to 100 dB(A) in flight. The evidence for the damaging effect of this occupational noise is reviewed and some of the difficulties in drawing conclusions are highlighted. The current protection offered for the Mk 4 helmet is discussed and the incorporation of Active Noise Reduction (ANR) is suggested as a likely way of ensuring that the in-flight noise exposure in Army aircrew is kept as low as possible. PMID:7562746

  11. Advanced helmet tracking technology developments for naval aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brindle, James H.

    1996-06-01

    There is a critical need across the Services to improve the effectiveness of aircrew within the crewstation by capitalizing on the natural psycho-motor skills of the pilot through the use of a variety of helmet-mounted visual display and control techniques. This has resulted in considerable interest and significant ongoing research and development efforts on the part of the Navy, as well as the Army and the Air Force, in the technology building blocks associated with this area, such as advanced head position sensing or head tracking technologies, helmet- mounted display optics and electronics, and advanced night vision or image intensification technologies.

  12. Joint helmet-mounted cueing system (JHMCS) helmet qualification testing requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orf, Garry W.

    1998-08-01

    The Joint Helmet-Mounted Cueing System (JHMCS) program will provide capability to cue high off-boresight (HOBS) weapons to the operator's line of sight and to confirm weapon sensor LOS for the US Air Force and US Navy (USN) aircrew. This capability will ensure the USAF and USN pilots a first shot opportunity. The JHMCS incorporates an ejection-compatible helmet-mounted display system that will be installed on F- 15, F-16, F/A-18, and F-22 aircraft. The JHMCS includes a flight helmet with display optics, miniature cathode ray tube, magnetic receiver unit, miniature camera, automatic brightness control sensor, and microcontroller. The flight helmet for JHMCS is based on the new lightweight HGU-55A/P. This paper describes the requirements for the helmet qualification tests including: windblast, ejection tower, hanging harness, centrifuge, mass properties, energy attenuation and penetration resistance, noise attenuation, visor characteristics, compatibility demonstration, sled/in- flight ejection, water survival, standard conditions and environment. The test objective, success criteria, equipment configuration, and data collection requirements for each test is discussed.

  13. Development of a helmet/helmet-display-unit alignment tool (HAT) for the Apache helmet and display unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLean, William; Statz, Jonathan; Estes, Victor; Booms, Shawn; Martin, John S.; Harding, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    Project Manager (PM) Apache Block III contacted the U.S. Army Aeromedical Research Laboratory (USAARL), Fort Rucker, Alabama, requesting assistance to evaluate and find solutions to a government-developed Helmet Display Unit (HDU) device called the Mock HDU for helmet alignment of the Apache Advanced Integrated Helmet (AAIH). The AAIH is a modified Head Gear Unit No. 56 for Personnel (HGU-56/P) to replace the current Integrated Helmet and Sighting System (IHADSS). The current flashlight-based HDU simulator for helmet/HDU alignment was no longer in production or available. Proper helmet/HDU alignment is critical to position the right eye in the small HDU eye box to obtain image alignment and full field of view (FOV). The initial approach of the PM to developing a helmet/HDU fitting device (Mock HDU) was to duplicate the optical characteristics of the current tactical HDU using less complex optics. However, the results produced questionable alignment, FOV, and distortion issues, with cost and development time overruns. After evaluating the Mock HDU, USAARL proposed a cost effective, less complex optical design called the Helmet/HDU Alignment Tool (HAT). This paper will show the development, components, and evaluations of the HAT compared to the current flashlight HDU simulator device. The laboratory evaluations included FOV measurements and alignment accuracies compared to tactical HDUs. The Apache helmet fitter technicians and Apache pilots compared the HAT to the current flashlight based HDU and ranked the HAT superior.

  14. Dermatitis and aircrew.

    PubMed

    Leggat, Peter A; Smith, Derek R

    2006-01-01

    Dermatitis is a common problem both in the workplace and in the general community. Airline personnel represent a novel occupational group as they are also exposed to a wide range of potential chemical irritants and other aggravating factors, such as low relative humidity and airborne pollutants. Common skin irritants include dielectric fluids from electrodischarge machining, 'prepreg' materials and sealants in aircraft manufacture, kerosene and various jet-fuel components. Commercial jet fuel is a complex mixture of aliphatic and aromatic compounds, and there is potential for dermal exposure among refueling and maintenance crew. Low relative humidity appears to exacerbate dermatitis amongst aircrew, especially on longer flight durations. Pilots may also be exposed to additional skin irritants outside of the cabin environment, such as ethylene glycol, hydraulic fluid or jet fuel, all of which may be encountered during routine inspections of aircraft before and after flight. Given these factors, preventive measures must carefully consider the undoubted potential for contact with irritants and allergens, which may lead to dermatitis in airline personnel. PMID:16426285

  15. Vista Sabre II: integration of helmet-mounted tracker/display and high off-boresight missile seeker into F-15 aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merryman, Ron F. K.

    1994-06-01

    Future air battles will increasingly rely on aircraft capable of directing their advanced weapons with greater accuracy and at larger off-boresight angles. Analysis of current threats indicate that potential adversaries include this enhanced technology in their aircraft today. Helmet-mounted Tracker/Displays (HMT/D) provide a ready and capable response to that threat. These pilot- friendly systems allow the pilot to lock-on to targets and fire missiles at much greater angles than normally allowed in the head up display (HUD). Vista Sabre II is a congressionally mandated special project to evaluate a helmet-mounted display in an operational environment. The program effort involves the installation of two helmet-mounted tracker/display systems on two operational F-15C aircraft for demonstrating the capabilities of this technology in air-to-air combat. The system will provide the pilot with weapon status, targeting information, and other important, time critical, information necessary for effective air-to-air engagements at any head orientation without having to look into the cockpit or through the head up display (HUD). Also integrated into the system is a Navy high off-boresight missile seeker (HOBS) with extended range capability to track targets at high angles off the aircraft's boresight. The helmet display and HOBS will help the pilot lock a missile faster and simulate the missile launch. During the period of demonstration flights, the system will be evaluated through all aspects of the close-in, visual air-to-air combat arena, as well as investigating the human factors issues unique to helmet-mounted systems.

  16. An integrated helmet and neck support (iHANS) for racing car drivers: a biomechanical feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Newman, James A; Withnall, Christopher; Wonnacott, Michael

    2012-10-01

    A new form of head and neck protection for racing car drivers is examined. The concept is one whereby the helmet portion of the system is attached, by way of a quick release clamp, to a collar-like platform which is supported on the driver's shoulders. The collar, which encircles the back and sides of the driver's neck, is held in place by way of the on-board restraint belts. The interior of the helmet portion of the assembly is large enough to provide adequate volitional head motion. The overall objective of the design is to remove the helmet from the wearer's head and thereby to mitigate the deleterious features of helmet wearing such as neck fatigue, poor ventilation and aerodynamic buffeting. Just as importantly, by transferring the weight of the helmet and all attendant reaction forces associated with inertial and impact loads to the shoulder complex (instead of to the neck), reduced head and neck injury probability should be achievable. This paper describes the concept development and the evolution of various prototype designs. Prototypes have been evaluated on track and sled tested in accordance with contemporary head neck restraint systems practice. Also discussed is a series of direct impact tests. In addition, low mass high velocity ballistic tests have been conducted and are reviewed herein. It is concluded that this new concept indeed does address most of the drawbacks of the customary helmet and that it generally can reduce the probability of head and neck injury. PMID:23625570

  17. Idiopathic hypersomnia in an aircrew member.

    PubMed

    Withers, B G; Loube, D I; Husak, J P

    1999-08-01

    In aviation, it is essential that all aircrew members remain alert and contribute, by their observations and actions, to flight safety. Especially in helicopter operations, crewmembers riding in the rear of the aircraft play an integral role in many aspects of flight, such as take-offs, landings, turns, formation flights, hazard avoidance, situational awareness, military operations, and crew coordination. We present the case of a helicopter crew chief with idiopathic hypersomnia, briefly review the disorder, and give the recent U.S. military aviation experience with sleep disorders. Flight surgeons and aeromedical examiners should be active in considering and diagnosing sleep-related disorders as the aviator or crewmember may not be aware of the disease or may not volunteer the history. A directed history is important in making the diagnosis, as are reports from family and other aircrew members. Referral to a sleep specialist is required in performing objective sleep studies, establishing the diagnosis, recommending treatment, and providing a prognosis. Many sleep disorders are treatable and aeromedically waiverable. PMID:10447054

  18. Impact attenuation properties of new and used lacrosse helmets.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Thomas G; Breedlove, Katherine M; Breedlove, Evan L; Dodge, Thomas M; Nauman, Eric A

    2015-11-01

    The National Operating Committee on Standards for Athletic Equipment (NOCSAE) has developed impact attenuation thresholds that protective helmets worn in sport must meet to be commercially available in an attempt to prevent injury. It remains unknown how normal helmet use in athletic activity alters the force attenuation ability of lacrosse helmets. We tested 3 new and 3 randomly selected used helmets from 2 popular lacrosse models (Cascade Pro7, Cascade CPXR). All used helmets had been worn for 3 collegiate seasons prior to testing and had never been refurbished. Helmets were drop-tested using 3 prescribed impact velocities at 6 locations according to the NOCSAE lacrosse helmet standard, and we compared the Gadd Severity Index (GSI) scores between new and used helmets using a repeated measure ANOVA with location as the repeated variable and data separated by impact velocity. All 12 helmets passed the NOCSAE GSI threshold for all testing conditions; however 1 used helmet shell cracked resulting in a failed test. We found a significant main effect for helmet age at the low (F5,50=2.98, P=.02), medium (F5,50=3.71, P=.006), and high (F5,50=2.70, P=.03) velocities. We suspect that helmet use can degrade materials under some conditions, but improve performance in others due to changes in helmet composition from use. The clinical implications of the differences in GSI scores noted remain unclear. Because one helmet shell cracked resulting in a failed test, used helmets should be regularly inspected for cracks or other signs of mechanical fatigue that may weaken helmet integrity. PMID:26429768

  19. Bike Racing Helmet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    In 1985, the U.S. Cycling Federation ruled that all racing bikers must wear helmets that meet American National Safety Institute Standards. Existing helmets were hot and heavy. Jim Gentes, president of Giro Sport Design, Inc. turned to Raymond Hicks an aerodynamicist at Ames Research Center for a design for a cool, lightweight helmet. Hicks created an aerodynamic helmet shape using technology from a NACA airfoil section. Air vents make the air flow laminar and reduce drag. Since 1986, Giro helmets have evolved and expanded. One was worn by the 1989 Tour de France winner.

  20. Assessment of a visually coupled system (VCS) using a binocular helmet-mounted display (BHMD) and a steerable FLIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longman, Peter J.; How, Thomas C.; Hudson, Craig; Clarkson, Geoffrey J. N.

    2001-08-01

    The Defence Evaluation Research Agency carried out an airborne demonstration and evaluation of a fast-jet Visually Coupled System (VCS) installed in ZD902, the Tornado Integrated Avionics Research Aircraft for the UK MOD. The installed VCS used a Head Steered Forward Looking Infra-Red (HSFLIR) sensor and a Head Tracking system to provide the pilot with an image of the outside world projected onto a Binocular Helmet Mounted Display. In addition to the sensor image, information such as aircraft altitude, attitude, and airspeed were also presented to the pilot through the HMD to eliminate the need to look inside the cockpit for critical flight data. The aim of the VIVIAN trial was to demonstrate by day and night the benefits of a fast-jet integrated HSFLIR and HMD as an aid to low level flight, navigation, target acquisition, take-off and landing. The outcome of this flight test program was very encouraging and, although testing has identified that improvements are necessary, in particular to HSFLIR image quality, Auto Gain Control performance, helmet fit and symbology design, test aircrew endorse the acceptability of a VCS.

  1. Liquid cooled helmet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elkins, William (Inventor); Williams, Bill A. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    Liquid cooled helmet comprising a cap of flexible material adapted to fit the head of a person, cooling panels mounted inside the cap forming passageways for carrying a liquid coolant, the panels being positioned to engage the cranium and neck of a person wearing the helmet, inlet and outlet lines communicating with the passageways, and releasable straps for securing the helmet about the neck of the wearer.

  2. Army-NASA aircrew/aircraft integration program: Phase 4 A(3)I Man-Machine Integration Design and Analysis System (MIDAS) software detailed design document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banda, Carolyn; Bushnell, David; Chen, Scott; Chiu, Alex; Constantine, Betsy; Murray, Jerry; Neukom, Christian; Prevost, Michael; Shankar, Renuka; Staveland, Lowell

    1991-01-01

    The Man-Machine Integration Design and Analysis System (MIDAS) is an integrated suite of software components that constitutes a prototype workstation to aid designers in applying human factors principles to the design of complex human-machine systems. MIDAS is intended to be used at the very early stages of conceptual design to provide an environment wherein designers can use computational representations of the crew station and operator, instead of hardware simulators and man-in-the-loop studies, to discover problems and ask 'what if' questions regarding the projected mission, equipment, and environment. This document is the Software Product Specification for MIDAS. Introductory descriptions of the processing requirements, hardware/software environment, structure, I/O, and control are given in the main body of the document for the overall MIDAS system, with detailed discussion of the individual modules included in Annexes A-J.

  3. Simulation and flight trials of a simple helmet-mounted sight system incorporating an optical helmet tracking system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robbins, Steven J.

    1999-07-01

    British Aerospace (BAe) have been involved in a number of Helmet Mounted Display programs over some twenty years. The continuing trials around the globe are indicative of the growing interest in Helmet Mounted Displays and recognition that today's Helmet Systems technology is becoming 'fit for purpose.' In 1997 BAe initiated a series of Simulation and Flight Trials of the latest Helmet System Technology for combat fixed wing aircraft. The focus of the R&D is to evaluate the Helmet System as an integrated part of the aircraft weapon system by establishing quantitative measures of operational performance. The comparison between different levels of sophistication of both aircraft integration and helmet capability in terms of the resultant operational performance will provide hard evidence to ensure that appropriate levels of Helmet System technology are matched to different platform capability. The basis of the 1997 trial was an assessment of the operational effectiveness of a simple Helmet Mounted Sight (HMS) system in short range air-to-air combat applicable to high off-boresight missiles such as ASRAAM and was carried out in a BAe Hawk 200 against Hawk target aircraft. Although Helmet Mounted Sights have been flight-tested in the past, the available information has generally been limited to the integration aspects and a qualitative assessment of the technology and less attention was paid towards a quantification of the system operational effectiveness. The 1997 program produced a strong foundation for assessing the cost-benefit of various capabilities of Helmet System planned for subsequent trials. The Flight Trial aircraft incorporated the Pilkington Optronics-Kentron GuardianTM Helmet Mounted Sight System and of particular interest, the Helmet System included the latest Optical Helmet Tracking System technology. The trials included an assessment of the Helmet System technology and specifically, the integration aspects and performance of the Optical Helmet

  4. Communication variations and aircrew performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanki, Barbara G.; Folk, Valerie G.; Irwin, Cheryl M.

    1991-01-01

    The relationship between communication variations and aircrew performance (high-error vs low-error performances) was investigated by analyzing the coded verbal transcripts derived from the videotape records of 18 two-person air transport crews who participated in a high-fidelity, full-mission flight simulation. The flight scenario included a task which involved abnormal operations and required the coordinated efforts of all crew members. It was found that the best-performing crews were characterized by nearly identical patterns of communication, whereas the midrange and poorer performing crews showed a great deal of heterogeneity in their speech patterns. Although some specific speech sequences can be interpreted as being more or less facilitative to the crew-coordination process, predictability appears to be the key ingredient for enhancing crew performance. Crews communicating in highly standard (hence predictable) ways were better able to coordinate their task, whereas crews characterized by multiple, nonstandard communication profiles were less effective in their performance.

  5. Aircrew wives and the intermittent husband syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rigg, R C; Cosgrove, M P

    1994-07-01

    A survey of commercial airline wives compared aircrew with groundcrew families, using a simple self-rating questionnaire. Aircrew wives were found to have slept significantly less well the night before completion of the questionnaire than groundcrew wives (poorer vs. better: 16/41 aircrew, 5/59 groundcrew, p = 0.02), although aircrew wives showed no difference in sleep during the preceding week. Aircrew wives had a lower sense of well-being than groundcrew wives (poorer vs. better: 12/45 wives, 6/58 groundcrew, p = 0.06), and those less than 40 years of age had a poorer mood (poorer vs. better: 7/21 aircrew, 2/28 groundcrew p = 0.05). The similarities with the intermittent husband syndrome described in oil workers (being like a one-parent family, difficulty in involving the husband in things he has missed whilst away, isolation, and feeling upset and rejected when the husband returns and is tired,) are discussed. The effect on aviator stress, flight safety, and the implications for the general practitioner and airline industry are described. General practitioners need to be aware of the possibility that an aviator's spouse is presenting in the office due to the stresses of her husband's occupation on her life. Airlines need to consider how to minimize the effect of frequent separations on their aircrews' wives and families: in particular using forward planning, not changing rosters at the last moment and encouraging a closer relationship with the airline through involvement in the aviators' work. PMID:7945135

  6. Fire fighter helmet ventilation analysis.

    PubMed

    Reischl, U

    1986-09-01

    A series of wind tunnel tests was conducted on selected fire fighter helmets to identify design factors which affect helmet ventilation at various air velocities and head orientation angles. Biomedical heat flux transducers were mounted on the surface of an electrically heated mannequin head to monitor convective heat loss. Under the experimental conditions, specific helmet design features were identified which can contribute to improved helmet ventilation and thus improve body metabolic heat loss. Attention to helmet design and helmet suspension systems is recommended to reduce fire fighter heat stress. PMID:3766398

  7. Protective helmet assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawn, Frederic S. (Inventor); Weiss, Fred R. (Inventor); Eck, John D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    The invention is a protective helmet assembly with improved safety and impact resistance, high resistance to ignition and combustion, and reduced offgassing. The assembly comprises a hard rigid ballistic outer shell with one or more impact absorbing pads fitted to the interior surface. The pads are made of open cell flexible polyimide foam material, each of which is attached to the inner surface of the ballistic outer shell by cooperative VELCRO fastener strips of hook-and-loop material affixed respectively to the rigid outer shell and the impact absorbing pads. The helmet assembly with shell and pads is sized to fit relatively close over a wearer's head.

  8. Dynamics Control Approaches to Improve Vibratory Environment of the Helicopter Aircrew

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickramasinghe, Viresh Kanchana

    Although helicopter has become a versatile mode of aerial transportation, high vibration levels leads to poor ride quality for its passengers and aircrew. Undesired vibration transmitted through the helicopter seats have been known to cause fatigue and discomfort to the aircrew in the short-term as well as neck strain and back pain injuries due to long-term exposure. This research study investigated the use of novel active as well as passive methodologies integrated in helicopter seats to mitigate the aircrew exposure to high vibration levels. Due to significantly less certification effort required to modify the helicopter seat structure, application of novel technologies to the seat is more practical compared to flight critical components such as the main rotor to reduce aircrew vibration. In particular, this research effort developed a novel adaptive seat mount approach based on active vibration control technology. This novel design that incorporated two stacked piezoelectric actuators as active struts increases the bending stiffness to avoid the low frequency resonance while generating forces to counteract higher harmonic vibration peaks. A real-time controller implemented using a feed-forward algorithm based on adaptive notches counteracted the forced vibration peaks while a robust feedback control algorithm suppressed the resonance modes. The effectiveness of the adaptive seat mount system was demonstrated through extensive closed-loop control tests on a full-scale helicopter seat using representative helicopter floor vibration profiles. Test results concluded that the proposed adaptive seat mount approach based on active control technology is a viable solution for the helicopter seat vibration control application. In addition, a unique flight test using a Bell-412 helicopter demonstrated that the aircrew is exposed to high levels of vibration during flight and that the whole body vibration spectrum varied substantially depending on operating conditions as

  9. Night vision goggle-induced neck pain in military helicopter aircrew: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Michael F; Coffey, Brendan; Albert, Wayne J; Fischer, Steven L

    2015-01-01

    Neck pain occurs at a significant rate in the military helicopter community. It is often attributed to the use of night vision goggles (NVG) and to a number of additional factors such as anthropometrics, posture, vibration, mission length, physical fitness, and helmet fit or load. A number of research studies have addressed many aspects of this epidemic, but an up-to-date and comprehensive review of the literature is not currently available. This paper reviews the spinal anatomy in general and then summarizes what is known about the incidence and prevalence of neck injuries, how the operational environments and equipment may contribute to these injuries, and what can be done to address them from a prevention and/or rehabilitation perspective. Harrison MF, Coffey B, Albert WJ, Fischer SL. Night vision goggle-induced neck pain in military helicopter aircrew: a literature review. PMID:25565533

  10. Injury Control Recommendations for Bicycle Helmets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of School Health, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Presents guidelines for organizations planning head injury prevention programs for bicyclists. The guidelines examine the magnitude of the problem and potential impact of helmet use, characteristics of helmets, barriers to increasing helmet use, and approaches to increasing helmet use. Bicycle helmet legislation and community educational campaigns…

  11. Risk compensation and bicycle helmets.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Ross Owen; Fyhri, Aslak; Sagberg, Fridulv

    2011-08-01

    This study investigated risk compensation by cyclists in response to bicycle helmet wearing by observing changes in cycling behavior, reported experience of risk, and a possible objective measure of experienced risk. The suitability of heart rate variability (HRV) as an objective measure of experienced risk was assessed beforehand by recording HRV measures in nine participants watching a thriller film. We observed a significant decrease in HRV in line with expected increases in psychological challenge presented by the film. HRV was then used along with cycling pace and self-reported risk in a field experiment in which 35 cyclist volunteers cycled 0.4 km downhill, once with and once without a helmet. Routine helmet users reported higher experienced risk and cycled slower when they did not wear their helmet in the experiment than when they did wear their helmet, although there was no corresponding change in HRV. For cyclists not accustomed to helmets, there were no changes in speed, perceived risk, or any other measures when cycling with versus without a helmet. The findings are consistent with the notion that those who use helmets routinely perceive reduced risk when wearing a helmet, and compensate by cycling faster. They thus give some support to those urging caution in the use of helmet laws. PMID:21418079

  12. Low back pain: considerations for rotary-wing aircrew.

    PubMed

    Gaydos, Steven John

    2012-09-01

    Low back pain remains a significant issue among helicopter aircrew. There is a considerable body of scientific literature devoted to the problem, including epidemiologic and experimental studies addressing prevalence, characteristics, primary etiology, and contributing factors. It is endemic and multinational, with a prevalence ranging from 50-92%. Archetypal pain begins with flight or within hours of flight, is mostly targeted in the low back/lumbar region and/or buttocks, is transient, and is commonly described as dull and achy. A minority develop chronic, persistent pain that is variously described with dissimilar characteristics. The pernicious effects of back pain or discomfort while piloting may affect flight performance and safety, including reduced operational effectiveness and lost duty time, occupational attrition, curtailed or cancelled missions, compromised emergency egress, and performance deficits during critical phases of flight. The majority of etiologic studies have focused on the pathophysical posture adopted by pilots for aircraft control and exposure to whole body vibration. With more evidence for the former, it remains likely that both, as well as other factors, may have a contributory and perhaps integrative or concerted role. Corrective and mitigation strategies have addressed lumbar support, seat and cockpit ergonomic redesign, and improved aircrew health. Flight surgeons should be familiar with this prevalent issue and future research must address longitudinal cohort studies with clear definitions, relevant and valid exposure data, dose-response detail, and control for contributing factors and confounders. PMID:22946352

  13. An analysis of aircrew communication patterns and content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oser, Randall L.; Prince, Carolyn; Morgan, Ben B., Jr.; Simpson, Steven S.

    1991-09-01

    The findings reported here represent a detailed analysis of tactical rotary-wing aircrew communication patterns and content. This research is part of an extensive effort to investigate the nature of tactical aircrew coordination and to develop effective mission-oriented aircrew coordination training. The primary objectives of this research were to answer the following questions: (1) What specific communication patterns and content are demonstrated by different helicopter crewmembers (i.e., Helicopter Aircraft Commander - HAC and Helicopter 2nd Pilot - H2P)? (2) Do tactical aircrew communication patterns and content vary as a function of the performance demands and requirements of different flight conditions (i.e., routine and non-routine)? (3) Are the communication patterns and content of more effective aircrews different from those of less effective aircrews? (4) What similarities exist between the communication patterns and content of military rotary-wing aircrews and commercial fixed-wing aircrews? and (5) Can the results of the communication analyses have an impact on aircrew coordination training?

  14. A multifunctional helmet for noninvasive neuromonitoring.

    PubMed

    Litscher, G

    1998-04-01

    Simultaneous and continuous recording and processing of different noninvasive neuromonitoring parameters were carried out, including spontaneous and evoked bioelectrical brain activities obtained by new "active electrodes," transcranial Doppler sonographic measurements using robotic probes, a multiscan principle for three-dimensional transcranial Doppler imaging, and recording of near-infrared spectroscopic data. The recording and processing were carried out over periods of some hours with a new recording technique integrated in a helmet construction. PMID:9559771

  15. Protective capability of bicycle helmets.

    PubMed Central

    Mills, N J

    1990-01-01

    Cycle helmets that meet UK and US standards have been tested. The mechanisms of energy absorption for frontal and side impacts have been analysed. A good helmet should protect the wearer for impacts up to 15 mph into a rigid flat surface. PMID:2350670

  16. Improved Helmet-Padding Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawn, Frederic S.; Weiss, Fred R.; Eck, John D.

    1994-01-01

    Polyimide foamed into lightweight padding material for use in helmets. Exhibits increased resistance to ignition, combustion, and impact, and it outgasses less. Foam satisfies offgassing and toxicity requirements of NASA/JSC criteria (NHB80601B). Helmets containing this improved padding material used by firefighters, police, offshore drilling technicians, construction workers, miners, and race-car drivers.

  17. A survey of hearing loss in Army aircrew.

    PubMed

    Owen, M J

    1996-02-01

    Military aircrew are exposed to excessive noise at work, with the concurrent risks of acquiring Noise Induced Hearing Loss (NIHL). Past studies have related aircrew NIHL to a variety of factors; however, no clear causal relationship has been shown. The difficulty of establishing NIHL due to flying remains when many other confounders are present, especially age and exposure to firearms noise in the military environment. A cross sectional prevalence study of hearing loss in Army Air Corps aircrew has been undertaken. One hundred and twenty one aircrew who had more than ten years flying experience were studied and the results show that there appears to be a threshold shift in excess of that expected from the ISO levels for otologically normal males of the same age. The hearing threshold shift was found to correlate with the number of years flying and aircrew age, with the number of flying hours being less significant. PMID:8672796

  18. An analysis of aircrew procedural compliance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schofield, J. E.; Giffin, W. C.

    1981-01-01

    This research examines the relationships between aircrew compliance with procedures and operator errors. The data for this analysis were generated by reexamination of a 1976 experiment in full mission simulation conducted by Dr. H. P. Ruffell Smith (1979) for the NASA-Ames Research Center. The character of individual operators, the chemistry of crew composition, and complex aspects of the operational environment affected procedural compliance by crew members. Associations between enumerated operator errors and several objective indicators of crew coordination were investigated. The correspondence among high operator error counts and infrequent compliance with specific crew coordination requirements was most notable when copilots were accountable for control of flight parameters.

  19. Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Requests (TASAR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballin, Mark G.; Wing, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Under Instrument Flight Rules, pilots are not permitted to make changes to their approved trajectory without first receiving permission from Air Traffic Control (ATC). Referred to as "user requests," trajectory change requests from aircrews are often denied or deferred by controllers because they have awareness of traffic and airspace constraints not currently available to flight crews. With the introduction of Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) and other information services, a rich traffic, weather, and airspace information environment is becoming available on the flight deck. Automation developed by NASA uses this information to aid flight crews in the identification and formulation of optimal conflict-free trajectory requests. The concept of Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Requests (TASAR) combines ADS-B and airborne automation to enable user-optimal in-flight trajectory replanning and to increase the likelihood of ATC approval for the resulting trajectory change request. TASAR may improve flight efficiency or other user-desired attributes of the flight while not impacting and potentially benefiting the air traffic controller. This paper describes the TASAR concept of operations, its enabling automation technology which is currently under development, and NASA s plans for concept assessment and maturation.

  20. Galactic and solar radiation exposure to aircrew during a solar cycle.

    PubMed

    Lewis, B J; Bennett, L G I; Green, A R; McCall, M J; Ellaschuk, B; Butler, A; Pierre, M

    2002-01-01

    An on-going investigation using a tissue-equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) has been carried out to measure the ambient dose equivalent rate of the cosmic radiation exposure of aircrew during a solar cycle. A semi-empirical model has been derived from these data to allow for the interpolation of the dose rate for any global position. The model has been extended to an altitude of up to 32 km with further measurements made on board aircraft and several balloon flights. The effects of changing solar modulation during the solar cycle are characterised by correlating the dose rate data to different solar potential models. Through integration of the dose-rate function over a great circle flight path or between given waypoints, a Predictive Code for Aircrew Radiation Exposure (PCAIRE) has been further developed for estimation of the route dose from galactic cosmic radiation exposure. This estimate is provided in units of ambient dose equivalent as well as effective dose, based on E/H x (10) scaling functions as determined from transport code calculations with LUIN and FLUKA. This experimentally based treatment has also been compared with the CARI-6 and EPCARD codes that are derived solely from theoretical transport calculations. Using TEPC measurements taken aboard the International Space Station, ground based neutron monitoring, GOES satellite data and transport code analysis, an empirical model has been further proposed for estimation of aircrew exposure during solar particle events. This model has been compared to results obtained during recent solar flare events. PMID:12430961

  1. Aircrew decision-making behavior in hazardous weather avoidance.

    PubMed

    Lee, A T

    1991-02-01

    In-flight encounters with hazardous weather represent one of the most significant safety issues in civil aviation operations. Aircrew judgment is often cited as the probable cause of incidents and accidents involving weather, although lack of information is also a factor. The present study examines how information, presented at different times and in different forms, affects the awareness and decision-making behavior of aircrews in a flight simulation study of a recent microburst/windshear incident. In order to examine the influence of enhanced information transfer on aircrew behavior, intracrew communications and approach-to-land decisions were evaluated with conventional ATC communications and with automated cockpit alerting and display of weather information. Results of the study revealed that aircrews provided only with conventional ATC transmissions of weather information had difficulty discriminating conditions conducive to microburst events from less hazardous windshear events. Improved situation awareness for microburst events was found when ground-based convective weather information was provided in real time to aircrews. Avoidance decision-making was found to be less efficient with conventional ATC alert transmissions when compared to the performance of crews provided with a visual display of microburst events. The importance of information transfer on aircrew situation awareness and decision-making in hazardous weather avoidance is discussed. PMID:2001213

  2. Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Requests (TASAR) Concept of Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Aircrews submit trajectory change requests to air traffic control (ATC) to better achieve the operator's preferred business trajectory. Requests are currently made with limited information and are often denied because the change is not compatible with traffic. Also, request opportunities can be overlooked due to lack of automation that advises aircrews of trajectory changes that improve flight time, fuel burn, and other objectives. The Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Requests (TASAR) concept leverages Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) surveillance information to advise the aircrew of beneficial trajectory changes that are probed for traffic compatibility prior to issuing the request to ATC. This document describes the features, benefits, and limitations of TASAR automation hosted on an Electronic Flight Bag. TASAR has two modes: (1) auto mode that continuously assesses opportunities for improving the performance of the flight and (2) manual mode that probes trajectory changes entered by aircrews for conflicts and performance objectives. The roles and procedures of the aircrew and ATC remain unchanged under TASAR.

  3. Qualification of the scorpion helmet cueing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atac, Robert; Bugno, Tony

    2011-06-01

    Gentex Corporation won the Helmet Mounted Integrated Targeting (HMIT) contract with the Air National Guard and Air Force Reserve in May 2010 along with Raytheon Technical Services Corporation as the prime contractor. The HMIT program involves qualification and installation of the Scorpion HMCS Color HMD in both the A-10C and F-16C Block 30 aircraft types. Qualification tests include all aspects from ejection safety, to NVG and pilot compatibility as well as performance testing. This paper will review the qualification testing results and program status along with any lessons learned.

  4. The Cognitive Pilot Helmet: enabling pilot-aware smart avionics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnell, Thomas; Melzer, James E.; Robbins, Steve J.

    2009-05-01

    We hypothesize that human-aware helmet display systems can drastically improve situation awareness (SA), reduce workload, and become the cognitive gateway to two-way human-systems information. We designed a ruggedized prototype helmet liner that was fitted with active electroencephalogram (EEG) electrodes and pulse oxymetry sensor. This liner was integrated into a helmet that was fitted with a binocular SR-100A helmet mounted display. We modified the SR-100A to include dual-eye tracking capability. The resulting system is able to pick up physiological signals from the wearer in real-time for cognitive state characterization by the Cognitive Avionics Tool Set (CATS). We conducted a preliminary test of the cognitive state estimation system in a simulated close-air-support task in the laboratory and found that workload throughout the mission could be gauged using physiological parameters. Cognitively-linked helmet systems can increase situation awareness by metering the amount of information based on available cognitive bandwidth and eventually, we feel that they will be able to provide anticipatory information to the user by means of cognitive intent recognition. Considerable design challenges lie ahead to create robust models of cognitive state characterization and intent recognition. However, the rewards of such efforts could be systems that allow a dramatic increase in human decision making ability and productivity in dynamical complex situations such as air combat or surface warfare.

  5. Cognitive impairment and associated loss in brain white microstructure in aircrew members exposed to engine oil fumes.

    PubMed

    Reneman, Liesbeth; Schagen, Sanne B; Mulder, Michel; Mutsaerts, Henri J; Hageman, Gerard; de Ruiter, Michiel B

    2016-06-01

    Cabin air in airplanes can be contaminated with engine oil contaminants. These contaminations may contain organophosphates (OPs) which are known neurotoxins to brain white matter. However, it is currently unknown if brain white matter in aircrew is affected. We investigated whether we could objectify cognitive complaints in aircrew and whether we could find a neurobiological substrate for their complaints. After medical ethical approval from the local institutional review board, informed consent was obtained from 12 aircrew (2 females, on average aged 44.4 years, 8,130 flying hours) with cognitive complaints and 11 well matched control subjects (2 females, 43.4 years, 233 flying hours). Depressive symptoms and self-reported cognitive symptoms were assessed, in addition to a neuropsychological test battery. State of the art Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) techniques were administered that assess structural and functional changes, with a focus on white matter integrity. In aircrew we found significantly more self-reported cognitive complaints and depressive symptoms, and a higher number of tests scored in the impaired range compared to the control group. We observed small clusters in the brain in which white matter microstructure was affected. Also, we observed higher cerebral perfusion values in the left occipital cortex, and reduced brain activation on a functional MRI executive function task. The extent of cognitive impairment was strongly associated with white matter integrity, but extent of estimated number of flight hours was not associated with cognitive impairment nor with reductions in white matter microstructure. Defects in brain white matter microstructure and cerebral perfusion are potential neurobiological substrates for cognitive impairments and mood deficits reported in aircrew. PMID:26063438

  6. Lightweight Helmet For Eye/Balance Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcstravick, M. Catherine; Proctor, David R.; Wood, Scott J.

    1988-01-01

    Lightweight helmet serves as mounting platform for stimulus and sensor modules in experiments on role of vestibulo-ocular reflex in motion sickness and space-adaptation syndrome. Fitted liner and five inflatable air bladders stabilize helmet with respect to subject's head. Personal bite board attached to chin-bar assembly makes hard palate in subject's mouth serve as final position reference for helmet.

  7. Helmet-Mounted Liquid-Crystal Display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Steve; Plough, Alan; Clarke, Robert; Mclean, William; Fournier, Joseph; Marmolejo, Jose A.

    1991-01-01

    Helmet-mounted binocular display provides text and images for almost any wearer; does not require fitting for most users. Accommodates users from smallest interpupillary distance to largest. Two liquid-crystal display units mounted in helmet. Images generated seen from any position head can assume inside helmet. Eyes directed to position for best viewing.

  8. Parenting influences on bicycle helmet rules and estimations of children's helmet use.

    PubMed

    Ross, Lisa Thomson; Brinson, Margaret Kay; Ross, Thomas P

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the potential relationship between parenting variables and estimations of children's bicycle helmet use. Parents (N = 121) completed surveys asking about parental monitoring and questions about their bicycle habits and attitudes, as well as their expectations for their children to wear a helmet and their estimation of how often their children wear a helmet. Parents reported stronger helmet rules for their children who are beginning cyclists rather than experienced cyclists, and rules for experienced cyclists were more strongly endorsed among parents who reported more parental monitoring as well. Parents who wear helmets themselves endorsed stronger helmet rules for their experienced riders, compared to parents who do not wear helmets. Parents without helmet rules reported more peer pressure in that they were more likely to agree that their friends do not make their kids wear helmets and that their child's friends do not wear helmets. In addition, believing other parents do not wear helmets and believing one's child's friends do not wear helmets were both associated with a lower likelihood that their children wear a helmet. This appears to be the first study linking perceptions of parental peer pressure with helmet rules and use. For public health reasons, it is imperative to examine parental factors that may establish children's helmet wearing. PMID:24684079

  9. A prototype urine collection device for female aircrew

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bisson, Roger U.; Delger, Karlyna L.

    1993-01-01

    Women are gaining increased access to small military cockpits. This shift has stimulated the search for practical urine containment and disposal methods for female aircrew. There are no external urine collection devices (UCD) for women that are comfortable, convenient, and leak free. We describe a prototype UCD that begins to meet this need. Materials used to make custom aviator masks were adapted to mold a perineal mask. First, a perineal cast (negative) was used to make a mold (positive). Next, a perineal mask made of wax was formed to fit the positive mold. Finally, a soft, pliable perineal mask was fabricated using the wax model as a guide. The prototype was tested for comfort, fit, and leakage. In the sitting position, less than 5 cc of urine leakage occurred with each 600 cc of urine collected. Comfort was mostly satisfactory, but ambulation was limited and the outlet design could lead to kinking and obstruction. We concluded that a perineal mask may serve as a comfortable and functional external UCD acceptable for use by females in confined environments. Changes are needed to improve comfort, fit, and urine drainage. Integration into cockpits, pressure suits, chemical defense gear, and environments where access to relief facilities is restricted is planned.

  10. Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Requests (TASAR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wing, David J.

    2014-01-01

    The Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Request (TASAR) concept offers onboard automation for the purpose of advising the pilot of traffic compatible trajectory changes that would be beneficial to the flight. A fast-time simulation study was conducted to assess the benefits of TASAR to Alaska Airlines. The simulation compares historical trajectories without TASAR to trajectories developed with TASAR and evaluated by controllers against their objectives. It was estimated that between 8,000 and 12,000 gallons of fuel and 900 to 1,300 minutes could be saved annually per aircraft. These savings were applied fleet-wide to produce an estimated annual cost savings to Alaska Airlines in excess of $5 million due to fuel, maintenance, and depreciation cost savings. Switching to a more wind-optimal trajectory was found to be the use case that generated the highest benefits out of the three TASAR use cases analyzed. Alaska TASAR requests peaked at four to eight requests per hour in high-altitude Seattle center sectors south of Seattle-Tacoma airport..

  11. Aircrew cooperation in the Royal Air Force

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adcock, C. B.

    1987-01-01

    The progressive introduction of modern, high performance aircraft, coupled with a significant increase in the complexity of the operational environment, has highlighted crew co-operation as a critical factor in aircraft safety. Investigation into recent MAC aircraft accidents supports the conclusion reached by NASA and other U.S. research institutions that a positive training program is required to improve resource management in the cockpit and prevent a breakdown under stress of the crew process. Past training and regulation has concentrated on the attainment of individual flying skills, but group skills have been neglected through lack of knowledge and understanding of the group process. This long-standing deficiency is now being addressed in the U.S. by the progressive and widespread introduction of theoretical and practical training programs to improve crew co-operation. The RAF should provide similar training for its aircrews through the adaptation and development of existing training resources. Better crew co-operation would not only reduce the number of RAF aircraft accidents but also improve the morale of the Service.

  12. Investigating Helmet Promotion for Cyclists: Results from a Randomised Study with Observation of Behaviour, Using a Semi-Automatic Video System

    PubMed Central

    Constant, Aymery; Messiah, Antoine; Felonneau, Marie-Line; Lagarde, Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Half of fatal injuries among bicyclists are head injuries. While helmet use is likely to provide protection, their use often remains rare. We assessed the influence of strategies for promotion of helmet use with direct observation of behaviour by a semi-automatic video system. Methods We performed a single-centre randomised controlled study, with 4 balanced randomisation groups. Participants were non-helmet users, aged 18–75 years, recruited at a loan facility in the city of Bordeaux, France. After completing a questionnaire investigating their attitudes towards road safety and helmet use, participants were randomly assigned to three groups with the provision of “helmet only”, “helmet and information” or “information only”, and to a fourth control group. Bikes were labelled with a colour code designed to enable observation of helmet use by participants while cycling, using a 7-spot semi-automatic video system located in the city. A total of 1557 participants were included in the study. Results Between October 15th 2009 and September 28th 2010, 2621 cyclists' movements, made by 587 participants, were captured by the video system. Participants seen at least once with a helmet amounted to 6.6% of all observed participants, with higher rates in the two groups that received a helmet at baseline. The likelihood of observed helmet use was significantly increased among participants of the “helmet only” group (OR = 7.73 [2.09–28.5]) and this impact faded within six months following the intervention. No effect of information delivery was found. Conclusion Providing a helmet may be of value, but will not be sufficient to achieve high rates of helmet wearing among adult cyclists. Integrated and repeated prevention programmes will be needed, including free provision of helmets, but also information on the protective effect of helmets and strategies to increase peer and parental pressure. PMID:22355384

  13. G-tolerance standards for aircrew training and selection.

    PubMed

    Gillingham, K K

    1987-10-01

    G tolerance widely among individuals. It stands to reason that aircrew with higher G tolerance are less likely to experience symptoms of G stress in flight than are those with lower G tolerance, and that they can fly highly maneuverable aircraft with greater safety and effectiveness. To assure that aircrew with abnormally low G tolerance are not assigned to aircraft that operate in the high-G environment, a G-tolerance standard and the means to implement that standard are necessary. Since 1977, for human centrifuge operations, the USAF School of Aerospace Medicine has used an informal G-tolerance standard for selecting experimental subjects, evaluating medically disqualified aircrew, and ensuring efficacy of high-G training for aircrew. That standard consists of the subject's being able to sustain a rapidly applied +7-Gz load for 15 s, without totally losing peripheral vision or losing consciousness, while wearing a functioning anti-G suit, performing an anti-G straining maneuver, and sitting in a conventionally configured fighter aircraft seal. Inability to tolerate a 7-G, 15-s, rapid-onset G profile in a centrifuge is also the basis of internationally recognized (NATO, ASCC) definitions of low G tolerance. The rationale for choosing the 7-G, 15-s standard is discussed. Experience with use of this standard, and the equivalent standard of 8 G for 15 s when the F-16-configured seat is used, reveals that fewer than 1% of actively flying aircrew are unable to meet the standard. Eventually a formal, more stringent, G-tolerance standard may become a valuable component of the means of selecting and training aircrew for high-performance fighter aircraft. PMID:3675463

  14. Emotional reactions to cycle helmet use.

    PubMed

    Fyhri, Aslak; Phillips, Ross O

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that the safety benefits of bicycle helmets are limited by risk compensation. The current article tests if previous helmet use influences the response to helmets as a safety intervention. This was investigated in a field experiment where pace and psychophysiological load were measured. We found that after having removed their helmets, routine helmet users cycled more slowly and demonstrated increased psychophysiological load. However, for non-users there was no significant change in either cycling behaviour or psychophysiological load. We discuss the implications of these results for a hypothesis of risk compensation in response to helmet use. We also show that heart rate variability is a promising measure of psychophysiological load in real-world cycling, at least in situations where there is limited physical demand. PMID:22975366

  15. Emergency space-suit helmet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, H. A. (Inventor)

    1970-01-01

    A frusto-conically shaped distensible component is described which inflates to encircle a portion of the wearer's head and carries a collapsible member which automatically extends over the remaining portion of the head. A pulley arrangement secured between the walls of the distensible component automatically extends and retracts the collapsible member. When deflated, the unit is carried on the back of the wearer so as to provide an automatic emergency space suit helmet.

  16. Raster graphic helmet-mounted display study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beamon, William S.; Moran, Susanna I.

    1990-01-01

    A design of a helmet mounted display system is presented, including a design specification and development plan for the selected design approach. The requirements for the helmet mounted display system and a survey of applicable technologies are presented. Three helmet display concepts are then described which utilize lasers, liquid crystal display's (LCD's), and subminiature cathode ray tubes (CRT's), respectively. The laser approach is further developed in a design specification and a development plan.

  17. [Where are all the Viking helmets?].

    PubMed

    Wester, K

    2001-06-30

    Based on archaeological finds and old Norse literature, this article describes the Scandinavian helmet tradition from the Bronze Age to the Viking Age, as well as the Viking culture, with special emphasis on weaponry, burial customs, and head protection. Contrary to what is commonly believed, metal helmets must have been used very infrequently by the Vikings. Only one Viking helmet has been retrieved in Scandinavia. Possible reasons for the wide-spread misunderstanding that the Vikings wore helmets are discussed. The archaeological profession must partly bear the responsibility for not correcting this misunderstanding. PMID:11875899

  18. The mystery of the missing Viking helmets.

    PubMed

    Wester, K

    2000-11-01

    Based on archaeological finds and old Norse literature, this study describes the Scandinavian helmet tradition from the Bronze Age to the Viking Age, as well as the Viking culture, with special emphasis on weaponry and head protection. Contrary to what is commonly believed, the study shows that metal helmets must have been used very infrequently by the Vikings. In fact, only one Viking helmet has been retrieved in Scandinavia. Possible reasons for the widespread misconception that the Vikings wore helmets are discussed, and the responsibility for not correcting this misunderstanding is placed with the archaeological profession. PMID:11063116

  19. Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Requests (TASAR) Analysis and Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, Sharon E.

    2016-01-01

    This document is the final report and deliverable 30 of Contract No. NNL12AA06C, the Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Requests (TASAR) contract awarded via the NASA Research Announcement (NRA). It documents the accomplishments of the contract, the evolution of its role in the overall TASAR project, and lessons learned from its execution.

  20. Reducing the Risks of Military Aircrew Training through Simulation Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrow, Douglas R.

    1982-01-01

    This discussion of the types of risks associated with military aircrew training and the varieties of training devices and techniques currently utilized to minimize those risks includes an examination of flight trainer simulators and complex mission simulators for coping with military aviation hazards. Four references are listed. (Author/MER)

  1. Preliminary Benefits Assessment of Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Requests (TASAR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Jeff; Idris, Husni; Wing, David J.

    2012-01-01

    While en route, aircrews submit trajectory change requests to air traffic control (ATC) to better meet their objectives including reduced delays, reduced fuel burn, and passenger comfort. Aircrew requests are currently made with limited to no information on surrounding traffic. Consequently, these requests are uninformed about a key ATC objective, ensuring traffic separation, and therefore less likely to be accepted than requests informed by surrounding traffic and that avoids creating conflicts. This paper studies the benefits of providing aircrews with on-board decision support to generate optimized trajectory requests that are probed and cleared of known separation violations prior to issuing the request to ATC. These informed requests are referred to as traffic aware strategic aircrew requests (TASAR) and leverage traffic surveillance information available through Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) In capability. Preliminary fast-time simulation results show increased benefits with longer stage lengths since beneficial trajectory changes can be applied over a longer distance. Also, larger benefits were experienced between large hub airports as compared to other airport sizes. On average, an aircraft equipped with TASAR reduced its travel time by about one to four minutes per operation and fuel burn by about 50 to 550 lbs per operation depending on the objective of the aircrew (time, fuel, or weighted combination of time and fuel), class of airspace user, and aircraft type. These preliminary results are based on analysis of approximately one week of traffic in July 2012 and additional analysis is planned on a larger data set to confirm these initial findings.

  2. Night vision imaging systems design, integration, and verification in military fighter aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabatini, Roberto; Richardson, Mark A.; Cantiello, Maurizio; Toscano, Mario; Fiorini, Pietro; Jia, Huamin; Zammit-Mangion, David

    2012-04-01

    rear cockpits at the various stages of the test campaign. This process allowed a considerable enhancement of the TORNADO NVIS configuration, giving a good medium-high level NVG operational capability to the aircraft. Further developments also include the design, integration and test of internal/external lighting for the Italian TORNADO "Mid Life Update" (MLU) and other programs, such as the AM-X aircraft internal/external lights modification/testing and the activities addressing low-altitude NVG operations with fast jets (e.g., TORNADO, AM-X, MB-339CD), a major issue being the safe ejection of aircrew with NVG and NVG modified helmets. Two options have been identified for solving this problem: namely the modification of the current Gentex HGU-55 helmets and the design of a new helmet incorporating a reliable NVG connection/disconnection device (i.e., a mechanical system fully integrated in the helmet frame), with embedded automatic disconnection capability in case of ejection.

  3. Bicycle helmet efficacy: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Attewell, R G; Glase, K; McFadden, M

    2001-05-01

    Bicycle helmet efficacy was quantified using a formal meta-analytic approach based on peer-reviewed studies. Only those studies with individual injury and helmet use data were included. Based on studies from several countries published in the period 1987-1998, the summary odds ratio estimate for efficacy is 0.40 (95% confidence interval 0.29, 0.55) for head injury, 0.42 (0.26, 0.67) for brain injury, 0.53 (0.39, 0.73) for facial injury and 0.27 (0.10, 0.71) for fatal injury. This indicates a statistically significant protective effect of helmets. Three studies provided neck injury results that were unfavourable to helmets with a summary estimate of 1.36 (1.00, 1.86), but this result may not be applicable to the lighter helmets currently in use. In conclusion, the evidence is clear that bicycle helmets prevent serious injury and even death. Despite this, the use of helmets is sub-optimal. Helmet use for all riders should be further encouraged to the extent that it is uniformly accepted and analogous to the use of seat belts by motor vehicle occupants. PMID:11235796

  4. Helmet system broadcasts electroencephalograms of wearer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westbrook, R. M.; Zuccaro, J. J.

    1966-01-01

    EEG monitoring system consisting of nonirritating sponge-type electrodes, amplifiers, and a battery-powered wireless transmitter, all mounted in the subjects helmet, obtains electroencephalograms /EEGs/ of pilots and astronauts performing tasks under stress. After a quick initial fitting, the helmet can be removed and replaced without adjustments.

  5. Protecting Helmets And Visors From Chemicals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosmo, Joseph J.; Dawn, Frederic

    1991-01-01

    Thin layer of polysulfone on polycarbonate safety helmets and visors protects them from attack by chemicals. Useful in industrial safety helmets. Highly resistant to creep under tension load. Retains dimensional stability when exposed to moisture. Does not adversely affect optical properties of polycarbonate visors. Configuration varied to accommodate such special requirements as high impact strength or protection against moving particles and debris.

  6. Disparity in motorcycle helmet use in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The dispersion of motorcycle related injuries and deaths might be a result of disparity in motorcycle helmet use. This study uses national roadside survey data, injury sentinel surveillance data and other national data sets in 2010 of Thailand, a country with high mortality related to motorcycle injuries, to explore the disparity in helmet use, explanatory factors of the disparity. It also assessed potential agreement and correlation between helmet use rate reported by the roadside survey and the injury sentinel surveillance. This report revealed helmet use rate of 43.7%(95% CI:43.6,43.9) nationwide with the highest rate (81.8%; 95% CI: 44.0,46.4) in Bangkok. Helmet use rate in drivers (53.3%; 95% CI: 53.2,53.8) was 2.5 times higher than that in passengers (19.3%; 95% CI:18.9,19.7). In relative terms (highest-to-lowest ratio,HLR), geographical disparity in helmet use was found to be higher in passengers (HLR=28.5). Law enforcement activities as indicated by the conviction rate of motorcyclists were significantly associated with the helmet use rate (spline regression coefficient = 3.90, 95% CI: 0.48,7.33). Together with the finding of HLR for conviction rate of 87.24, it is suggested that more equitable improvement in helmet use could be achieved by more equitable distribution of the police force. Finally, we found poor correlation (r=0.01; p value = 0.76) and no agreement (difference = 34.29%; 95% CI:13.48%, 55.09%) between roadside survey and injury sentinel surveillance in estimating helmet use rate. These findings should be considered a warning for employing injury surveillance to monitor policy implementation of helmet use. PMID:24119233

  7. The application of holographic optical waveguide technology to the Q-Sight family of helmet-mounted displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, Alex

    2009-05-01

    to those users currently struggling with cumbersome legacy CRT using conventional glass optical lenses. Q-SightTM is configured to fit onto any aircrew helmet in service today, the large eye motion box permitting flexible installation onto loose fitting helmets. The Q-SightTM approach results in design solutions which are fully compatible with all in-service Night Vision Googles (NVGs) and does not require any adaptation to the NVG or its mounting bracket. This approach has distinct advantages that at night the user gets unimpaired Night Vision performance with very high quality symbology.

  8. Finite element modeling of human brain response to football helmet impacts.

    PubMed

    Darling, T; Muthuswamy, J; Rajan, S D

    2016-10-01

    The football helmet is used to help mitigate the occurrence of impact-related traumatic (TBI) and minor traumatic brain injuries (mTBI) in the game of American football. While the current helmet design methodology may be adequate for reducing linear acceleration of the head and minimizing TBI, it however has had less effect in minimizing mTBI. The objectives of this study are (a) to develop and validate a coupled finite element (FE) model of a football helmet and the human body, and (b) to assess responses of different regions of the brain to two different impact conditions - frontal oblique and crown impact conditions. The FE helmet model was validated using experimental results of drop tests. Subsequently, the integrated helmet-human body FE model was used to assess the responses of different regions of the brain to impact loads. Strain-rate, strain, and stress measures in the corpus callosum, midbrain, and brain stem were assessed. Results show that maximum strain-rates of 27 and 19 s(-1) are observed in the brain-stem and mid-brain, respectively. This could potentially lead to axonal injuries and neuronal cell death during crown impact conditions. The developed experimental-numerical framework can be used in the study of other helmet-related impact conditions. PMID:26867124

  9. 2013 aircrew, avionics, and operations survey, part 1.

    PubMed

    Greene, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Air medical transport services (AMTS) depend on the teamwork of aviation professionals, medical caregivers, communications specialists, maintenance staff, and administrative personnel to facilitate the safe medical transportation and care to critically ill and injured patients across the world. Consisting of respondents based in the United States, this 2013 survey revisits contemporary AMTS aircrew (pilot, aviator) experience, compensation, benefits, training, and safety in the industry compared to a survey conducted in 2000. PMID:24182879

  10. Parental knowledge and children's use of bicycle helmets.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Jill D; Harper, Mark A; Pardi, Lisa A; Christopher, Norman C

    2003-10-01

    Helmet use protects against head injury. Our objective was to assess whether parental knowledge of helmet safety is associated with helmet use in children, and whether a relationship exists between helmet ownership and other safety behaviors. Three hundred forty-one surveys were distributed to parents of third through fifth graders; 97% of parents believed that a helmet confers protection; 49% of parents reported that their child owns a helmet. Of the helmet owners, 27% reported that the child wears it more than 75% of the time. Seat belt usage was associated with helmet ownership (p=0.02) and frequency of wearing a helmet (p=0.04). Although parents are aware of the benefits, a barrier between helmet ownership and usage exists. PMID:14601915

  11. The inertial and geometrical properties of helmets.

    PubMed

    Njus, G O; Liu, Y K; Nye, T A

    1984-10-01

    The center of gravity (CG) and the principal mass moments of inertia about the CG of Army aviator, American football, and bicycle helmets were experimentally determined by a variation of the classic differential weighing and torsional pendulum techniques. In the course of these experiments, an innovative method for three-dimensional (3D) digitization was found. An electronic caliper, which measured length, was used with a computer algorithm to achieve 3D digitization. The results of the above measurements show that the weight of the helmet and the distances from the CG to the orthogonal coordinate axes intercepts with the outer shell surface were highly correlated with its principal mass moments of inertia. A set of regression equations was derived on theoretical considerations and served to unify the experimentally obtained data. Our results indicate that the principal mass moments of inertia of helmets vary linearly with its mass but nonlinearly with size and shape. For a helmet, given its weight and certain geometrical distances, the regression equations estimate the principal mass moments of inertia to within 5% of its experimentally-determined values. For the helmets studied in this series, a modified linear-regression relationship between the principal mass moments of inertia and its mass was found. This result is reasonable because the mass distribution of the current generation of helmets are set primarily by the head size and secondarily by helmet size, shape, and materials. PMID:6513769

  12. Helmet-based physiological signal monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youn Sung; Baek, Hyun Jae; Kim, Jung Soo; Lee, Haet Bit; Choi, Jong Min; Park, Kwang Suk

    2009-02-01

    A helmet-based system that was able to monitor the drowsiness of a soldier was developed. The helmet system monitored the electrocardiogram, electrooculogram and electroencephalogram (alpha waves) without constraints. Six dry electrodes were mounted at five locations on the helmet: both temporal sides, forehead region and upper and lower jaw strips. The electrodes were connected to an amplifier that transferred signals to a laptop computer via Bluetooth wireless communication. The system was validated by comparing the signal quality with conventional recording methods. Data were acquired from three healthy male volunteers for 12 min twice a day whilst they were sitting in a chair wearing the sensor-installed helmet. Experimental results showed that physiological signals for the helmet user were measured with acceptable quality without any intrusions on physical activities. The helmet system discriminated between the alert and drowsiness states by detecting blinking and heart rate variability (HRV) parameters extracted from ECG. Blinking duration and eye reopening time were increased during the sleepiness state compared to the alert state. Also, positive peak values of the sleepiness state were much higher, and the negative peaks were much lower than that of the alert state. The LF/HF ratio also decreased during drowsiness. This study shows the feasibility for using this helmet system: the subjects' health status and mental states could be monitored without constraints whilst they were working. PMID:19002707

  13. Children and cycle helmets -- the case against.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, M

    1996-03-01

    Much of the literature on child cycling accidents appears to blame the child as a victim, as though children's activities of playing and travelling were somehow wrong and that children are at fault when an adult drives a car over them. This adult-centred approach then leads to the idea that children should protect themselves with helmets, and that they are to blame if they are injured. However, adults who continue to hold the fantasy that helmets might be of value should know that the British Standard for cycle helmets protects only in a vertical fall of 1 m -- certainly not motor vehicle crashes. Thicker motor cycle helmets would give better protection but, of course, are heavier (and therefore unsaleable). Yet even with compulsory wearing helmets, more motor cyclists still die of head injuries than pedal cyclists. In the Newcastle study, five times as many child pedestrians died of road accidents as child cyclists. Convinced helmeteers should recommend all children playing or travelling in the streets to wear helmets (presumably heavy motor-cycle helmets). Slightly more sceptical proponents might prefer half of them -- in a randomized controlled trial. Car driving appears to have as serious health consequences as tobacco, alcohol and drugs, and to be as addictive (McCarthy 1992). Helmets are similar to filters in cigarettes -- they give the illusion of safety to both consumer and producer of the product, but the illusion is fatal. Yet, for their cardiovascular and mental health, children should have the freedom to cycle in safety around where they live. A profound change in the habits of adults is needed, rather than suits of armour for children. PMID:8820015

  14. Anomalous Cases of Astronaut Helmet Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolph, Chester; Moore, Andrew J.; Schubert, Matthew; Woodell, Glenn

    2015-01-01

    An astronaut's helmet is an invariant, rigid image element that is well suited for identification and tracking using current machine vision technology. Future space exploration will benefit from the development of astronaut detection software for search and rescue missions based on EVA helmet identification. However, helmets are solid white, except for metal brackets to attach accessories such as supplementary lights. We compared the performance of a widely used machine vision pipeline on a standard-issue NASA helmet with and without affixed experimental feature-rich patterns. Performance on the patterned helmet was far more robust. We found that four different feature-rich patterns are sufficient to identify a helmet and determine orientation as it is rotated about the yaw, pitch, and roll axes. During helmet rotation the field of view changes to frames containing parts of two or more feature-rich patterns. We took reference images in these locations to fill in detection gaps. These multiple feature-rich patterns references added substantial benefit to detection, however, they generated the majority of the anomalous cases. In these few instances, our algorithm keys in on one feature-rich pattern of the multiple feature-rich pattern reference and makes an incorrect prediction of the location of the other feature-rich patterns. We describe and make recommendations on ways to mitigate anomalous cases in which detection of one or more feature-rich patterns fails. While the number of cases is only a small percentage of the tested helmet orientations, they illustrate important design considerations for future spacesuits. In addition to our four successful feature-rich patterns, we present unsuccessful patterns and discuss the cause of their poor performance from a machine vision perspective. Future helmets designed with these considerations will enable automated astronaut detection and thereby enhance mission operations and extraterrestrial search and rescue.

  15. Helmet-mounted uncooled FPA camera for buried object detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, John L.; Duvoisin, Herbert A., III; Wiltsey, George

    1997-08-01

    Software neural nets hosted on a parallel processor can analyze input from an IR imager to evaluate the likelihood of a buried object. However, it is only recently that low weight, staring LWIR sensors have become available in uncooled formats at sensitivities that provide enough information for useful man-portable helmet mounted applications. The images from the IR are presented to a human user through a see-through display after processing and highlighting by a neural net housed in a fanny-pack. This paper describes the phenomenology of buried object detection in the infrared, the neural net based image processing, the helmet mounted IR sensor and the ergonomics of mounting a sensor to head gear. The maturing and commercialization of uncooled focal plane arrays and high density electronics enables lightweight, low cost, small camera packages that can be integrated with hard hats and military helmets. The head gear described has a noise equivalent delta temperature (NEDT) of less than 50 milliKelvin, consumes less than 10 watts and weighs about 1.5 kilograms.

  16. Motorcycle helmets: What about their coating?

    PubMed

    Schnegg, Michaël; Massonnet, Geneviève; Gueissaz, Line

    2015-07-01

    In traffic accidents involving motorcycles, paint traces can be transferred from the rider's helmet or smeared onto its surface. These traces are usually in the form of chips or smears and are frequently collected for comparison purposes. This research investigates the physical and chemical characteristics of the coatings found on motorcycles helmets. An evaluation of the similarities between helmet and automotive coating systems was also performed.Twenty-seven helmet coatings from 15 different brands and 22 models were considered. One sample per helmet was collected and observed using optical microscopy. FTIR spectroscopy was then used and seven replicate measurements per layer were carried out to study the variability of each coating system (intravariability). Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) were also performed on the infrared spectra of the clearcoats and basecoats of the data set. The most common systems were composed of two or three layers, consistently involving a clearcoat and basecoat. The coating systems of helmets with composite shells systematically contained a minimum of three layers. FTIR spectroscopy results showed that acrylic urethane and alkyd urethane were the most frequent binders used for clearcoats and basecoats. A high proportion of the coatings were differentiated (more than 95%) based on microscopic examinations. The chemical and physical characteristics of the coatings allowed the differentiation of all but one pair of helmets of the same brand, model and color. Chemometrics (PCA and HCA) corroborated classification based on visual comparisons of the spectra and allowed the study of the whole data set at once (i.e., all spectra of the same layer). Thus, the intravariability of each helmet and its proximity to the others (intervariability) could be more readily assessed. It was also possible to determine the most discriminative chemical variables based on the study of the PCA loadings. Chemometrics

  17. Helmets or not? Use science correctly.

    PubMed

    Trégouët, Paul

    2015-08-01

    In a recent article, Hooper and Spicer make several arguments against legislation that would mandate the use of bicycle helmets. While they present reasonable objections to the utilitarian as well as the justice defence of such legislation, their review of the empirical evidence contains inaccuracies, omissions and a bias in the selection of empirical data. While there are legitimate reasons to argue against mandating helmet legislation, these arguments should still be based on clinically and scientifically sound evidence. PMID:23760575

  18. A Systems Approach to C-130E Aircrew Transitional Training. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valverde, Horace H.; Burkett, Bob P.

    The report describes the development and evaluation of a Tactical Air Command (TAC) C-130E transitional aircrew training program based on a systems approach. The systems approach to training emphasizes the importance of specifying objectives derived from a task analysis of the aircrew member's job. A training program was prepared to develop…

  19. Aircrew Survival Equipmentman 1 and C. NAVPERS 10360-D. Rate Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    A guide for advancement and training in the Aircrew Survival Equipmentman rating for enlisted personnel of the Regular Navy and the Naval Reserve is provided in this training manual. The chapters outline the qualifications necessary and the responsibilities of Aircrew Survival Equipmentmen involved in blueprint reading and the development of…

  20. Military aircrew and noise-induced hearing loss: prevention and management.

    PubMed

    Rajguru, Renu

    2013-12-01

    Modern-day high performance aircraft are more powerful, more efficient, and, unfortunately, frequently produce high noise levels, resulting in noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) in military aircrew. Military pilots are required to perform many flight duties correctly in the midst of many challenges that may affect mission completion as well as aircraft and aircrew safety. NIHL can interfere with successful mission completion. NIHL may also require aircrew to be downgraded from flying duties, with the incumbent re-training costs for downgraded personnel and training costs for new/replacement aircrew. As it is not possible to control the source of the noise without compromising the efficiency of the engine and aircraft, protecting the aircrew from hazards of excessive noise and treating NIHL are of extreme importance. In this article we discuss various personal hearing protection devices and their efficacy, and pharmacological agents for prevention and management of NIHL. PMID:24459798

  1. The Bicycle Helmet Attitudes Scale: Using the Health Belief Model to Predict Helmet Use among Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Thomas P.; Ross, Lisa Thomson; Rahman, Annalise; Cataldo, Shayla

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examined bicycle helmet attitudes and practices of college undergraduates and developed the Bicycle Helmet Attitudes Scale, which was guided by the Health Belief Model (HBM; Rosenstock, 1974, in Becker MH, ed. "The Health Belief Model and Personal Health Behavior". Thorofare, NJ: Charles B. Slack; 1974:328-335) to predict…

  2. Ski patrollers: Reluctant role models for helmet use

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Bruce; Gervais, Jack T.; Heard, Kennon; Valley, Morgan; Lowenstein, Steven R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Ski helmets reduce the risk of traumatic brain injury (TBI), but usage rates are low. Ski patrollers could serve as role models for helmet use, but little is known about their practices and beliefs. Design A written survey was distributed to ski patrollers attending continuing education conferences. Questions addressed helmet use rates; prior TBI experiences; perceptions of helmet risks and benefits; and willingness to serve as safety role models for the public. To assess predictors of helmet use, odds ratios were calculated, after adjusting for skiing experience. Subjects Ninety-three ski patrollers participated. Main Outcome Self-reported helmet use of 100% while patrolling. Results Helmet use was 23% (95% CI 15–32%). Common reasons for non-use included impaired hearing (35%) and discomfort (29%). Most patrollers believed helmets prevent injuries (90%; 95% CI 84–96%) and that they are safety role models (92%; 95% CI 86–98%). However, many believed helmets encourage recklessness (39%; 95% CI 29–49%) and increase injury risks (16%; 95% CI 7–25%). Three factors predicted 100% helmet use: perceived protection from exposure (OR = 9.68; 95% CI 3.14–29.82) or cold (OR = 5.68; 95% CI 1.27–25.42); and belief that role modeling is an advantage of helmets (OR = 4.06; 95% CI 1.29–12.83). Patrollers who believed helmets encourage recklessness were 8 times less likely to wear helmets (OR = 0.13; 95% CI 0.03–0.58). Conclusions Ski patrollers know helmets reduce serious injury and believe they are role models for the public, but most do not wear helmets regularly. To increase helmet use, manufacturers should address hearing- and comfort-related factors. Education programs should address the belief that helmets encourage recklessness and stress role modeling as a professional responsibility. PMID:19225971

  3. Simulation-based assessment for construction helmets.

    PubMed

    Long, James; Yang, James; Lei, Zhipeng; Liang, Daan

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a concerted effort for greater job safety in all industries. Personnel protective equipment (PPE) has been developed to help mitigate the risk of injury to humans that might be exposed to hazardous situations. The human head is the most vulnerable to impact as a moderate magnitude can cause serious injury or death. That is why industries have required the use of an industrial hard hat or helmet. There have only been a few articles published to date that are focused on the risk of head injury when wearing an industrial helmet. A full understanding of the effectiveness of construction helmets on reducing injury is lacking. This paper presents a simulation-based method to determine the threshold at which a human will sustain injury when wearing a construction helmet and assesses the risk of injury for wearers of construction helmets or hard hats. Advanced finite element, or FE, models were developed to study the impact on construction helmets. The FE model consists of two parts: the helmet and the human models. The human model consists of a brain, enclosed by a skull and an outer layer of skin. The level and probability of injury to the head was determined using both the head injury criterion (HIC) and tolerance limits set by Deck and Willinger. The HIC has been widely used to assess the likelihood of head injury in vehicles. The tolerance levels proposed by Deck and Willinger are more suited for finite element models but lack wide-scale validation. Different cases of impact were studied using LSTC's LS-DYNA. PMID:23495784

  4. Development and usage of helmet-mounted displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarkson, Geoffrey J. N.; Karavis, A.

    1990-10-01

    An account is given of RAE's comprehensive approach to enhancing the capabilities of fast-jets specifically in the air combat role by utilising helmet-mounted equipment. Ground rigs, simulators and aircraft were employed in the development of the devices and their integration with the weapons system. The paper concludes that although ground and simulator trials are a necessary prelude, airborne assessment is essential. By adopting this comprehensive approach to the problem, RAE have established a solid founthtion of experience, covering the design, flight clearance and use of these devices.

  5. VISTA/NF-16D programmable helmet-mounted display system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, Alexander A.

    1997-06-01

    The VISTA/NV-16D is currently the newest in-flight simulator in the USAF inventory. This unique research aircraft will be fitted with the GEC-Marconi Avionics Programmable Display System. This equipment provides the capability to rapidly develop display concepts on both helmet-mounted display and head up displays in a dynamic flight test environment. The equipment provided includes an enhanced Viper II Helmet Mounted Display fitted to the HGU-86/P helmet. Display drive is provided by a very capable graphics generation system which also provides display drive to the standard F-16 Head Up Display. The system provides real time reprogrammable stroke and stroke on raster symbology on the HUD and on the HMD. The system is initially configured with monocular Stroke only HMD drive, but growth to dual HMD, stroke on video and binocular HMDs is available. The Honeywell Advanced Metal Tolerant Helmet Tracker System is integrated within the HMD Programmable Display System providing very accurate helmet orientation information to the graphics generator which is used for the display of space stabilized symbology when required. A fail safe backup display generator provides reversionary display on the HUD. This paper provides a detailed description of this equipment and also address some of the design techniques involved in developing this high performance system.

  6. Taking a Bike Ride? Don't Forget Your Helmet

    MedlinePlus

    ... researchers at the Cleveland Clinic. When buying a bicycle helmet, look for a U.S. Consumer Product Safety ... They will be more likely to use it. Bicycle helmets can also be worn when in-line ...

  7. Pricier Football Helmets Don't Offer Extra Protection

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157538.html Pricier Football Helmets Don't Offer Extra Protection: Report Lab ... and laboratory ratings don't indicate whether a football helmet is better at protecting high school players ...

  8. Attenuation of noise by motorcycle safety helmets.

    PubMed

    Młyński, Rafał; Kozłowski, Emil; Zera, Jan

    2009-01-01

    For workers such as police motorcyclists or couriers, traffic and engine noise reaching the ears is an important factor contributing to the overall condition of their work. This noise can be reduced with motorcycle helmets. In this study, insertion loss of motorcycle helmets was measured with the microphone-in-real-ear technique and sound attenuation with the real-ear-at-threshold method. Results for 3 Nolan helmets show essentially no protection against external noise in the frequency range <250 Hz. In the frequency range >500 Hz, attenuation increases linearly at a rate of 8-9 dB per octave, to ~30 dB at 8 kHz. Lack of attenuation in the low-frequency range may cause annoying effects. In addition, high attenuation in the high-frequency range may decrease intelligibility of speech signals for a rider in a helmet. Attenuation measured in this study does not take into account noise generated by turbulent wind around the helmet. Thus, the measured values of attenuation represent a motorcycle rider's best conditions of hearing. PMID:19744370

  9. Helmet-mounted display human factor engineering design issues: past, present, and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Licina, Joseph R.; Rash, Clarence E.; Mora, John C.; Ledford, Melissa H.

    1999-07-01

    An often overlooked area of helmet-mounted display (HMD) design is that of good human factors engineering. Systems which pass bench testing with flying colors can often find less enthusiastic acceptance during fielding when good human factors engineering principles are not adhered to throughout the design process. This paper addresses lessons learned on the fielding of the AH-64 Apache Integrated Helmet and Display Sight System (IHADSS) and the Aviator's Night Vision Imaging System (ANVIS). These lessons are used to develop guidance for future HMDs in such diverse areas as: user adjustments, anthropometry, fit and comfort, manpower and personnel requirements, and equipment compatibility.

  10. Modelling of aircrew radiation exposure during solar particle events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Anid, Hani Khaled

    In 1990, the International Commission on Radiological Protection recognized the occupational exposure of aircrew to cosmic radiation. In Canada, a Commercial and Business Aviation Advisory Circular was issued by Transport Canada suggesting that action should be taken to manage such exposure. In anticipation of possible regulations on exposure of Canadian-based aircrew in the near future, an extensive study was carried out at the Royal Military College of Canada to measure the radiation exposure during commercial flights. The radiation exposure to aircrew is a result of a complex mixed-radiation field resulting from Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs) and Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs). Supernova explosions and active galactic nuclei are responsible for GCRs which consist of 90% protons, 9% alpha particles, and 1% heavy nuclei. While they have a fairly constant fluence rate, their interaction with the magnetic field of the Earth varies throughout the solar cycles, which has a period of approximately 11 years. SEPs are highly sporadic events that are associated with solar flares and coronal mass ejections. This type of exposure may be of concern to certain aircrew members, such as pregnant flight crew, for which the annual effective dose is limited to 1 mSv over the remainder of the pregnancy. The composition of SEPs is very similar to GCRs, in that they consist of mostly protons, some alpha particles and a few heavy nuclei, but with a softer energy spectrum. An additional factor when analysing SEPs is the effect of flare anisotropy. This refers to the way charged particles are transported through the Earth's magnetosphere in an anisotropic fashion. Solar flares that are fairly isotropic produce a uniform radiation exposure for areas that have similar geomagnetic shielding, while highly anisotropic events produce variable exposures at different locations on the Earth. Studies of neutron monitor count rates from detectors sharing similar geomagnetic shielding properties

  11. Finite element modelling of equestrian helmet impacts exposes the need to address rotational kinematics in future helmet designs.

    PubMed

    Forero Rueda, M A; Cui, L; Gilchrist, M D

    2011-12-01

    Jockey head injuries, especially concussions, are common in horse racing. Current helmets do help to reduce the severity and incidences of head injury, but the high concussion incidence rates suggest that there may be scope to improve the performance of equestrian helmets. Finite element simulations in ABAQUS/Explicit were used to model a realistic helmet model during standard helmeted rigid headform impacts and helmeted head model University College Dublin Brain Trauma Model (UCDBTM) impacts. Current helmet standards for impact determine helmet performance based solely on linear acceleration. Brain injury-related values (stress and strain) from the UCDBTM showed that a performance improvement based on linear acceleration does not imply the same improvement in head injury-related brain tissue loads. It is recommended that angular kinematics be considered in future equestrian helmet standards, as angular acceleration was seen to correlate with stress and strain in the brain. PMID:20665294

  12. Motorcycle Helmet Laws: A Case Study of Consumer Protection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dardis, Rachel; Lefkowitz, Camille

    1987-01-01

    The study examines societal losses from 1976 federal legislation on state motorcycle helmet laws. Comprehensive state helmet laws would have had cost-benefit ratios ranging from 0.05 to 0.18. The fact that 31 states did not have comprehensive helmet laws in 1981 raises questions concerning whether society should intervene on behalf of consumers.…

  13. Rates of bicycle helmet use in an affluent Michigan County.

    PubMed Central

    Jacques, L B

    1994-01-01

    Bicycle helmet use in the United States has remained low despite clear demonstration of its beneficial effect on reducing the incidence of serious head injury. Several interventions have been reported, with variable results and costs. Much of the recent literature has focused on child cyclists and on demographic factors associated with helmet use. This paper reports on helmet use by children and adults in a sample of 652 riders in an affluent southeast Michigan region, chosen to minimize the effect of previously recognized socioeconomic negative predictors that are not readily changed by intervention. Subjects were classified by age, sex, location, riding surface, type of bicycle, child bicycle seat use, child bicycle trailer use, and helmet use by companions. Overall helmet use was 24 percent; infants and toddlers had the highest rate of helmet use at 61 percent, followed by adults at 26 percent and school-aged children at 17 percent. The strongest predictor of helmet use in all age categories was the presence of a helmeted companion. Adult helmet use was also positively predicted by riding in the street and by riding a racing-type bicycle. The use of a city-type bicycle negatively predicted helmet use. For non-adults, female sex and the use of a child seat or trailer were positive predictors. Fostering peer pressure to increase helmet use may be an effective yet relatively inexpensive way to achieve the goal of widespread use of bicycle helmets. PMID:8153282

  14. The impact absorption characteristics of cricket batting helmets.

    PubMed

    Stretch, R A

    2000-12-01

    To determine whether the helmets currently used by cricket batsmen offer sufficient protection against impacts of a cricket ball, the impact absorption characteristics of six helmets were measured using the drop test at an impact velocity equivalent to a cricket ball with a release speed of 160 km x h(-1) (44.4 m x s(-1)). An accelerometer transducer attached to a 5.0 kg striker was dropped from a height of 3.14 m onto the batting helmets to measure the impact characteristics at the three different impact sites: right temple, forehead and back of the helmet. These data were further expressed as a percentage above (-) or below (+) the recommended safety standard of 300 g. The results indicate that the force absorption characteristics of the helmets showed inter- and intra-helmet variations, with 14 of the 18 impact sites (66.7%) assessed meeting the recommended safety standards. Helmets 1, 2 and 4 succeeded in meeting the safety standards at all impact sites; helmets 5 and 6 both failed at the back and forehead, while helmet 3 failed at all impact sites. These differences were due to the structure and composition of the inner protective layer of the helmets. The helmets that succeeded in meeting the standards were made with a moulded polystyrene insert, a heat-formed ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) insert, or EVA with a relatively high density that allows a minimal amount of movement of the helmet at ball impact. PMID:11138985

  15. Evaluation of New Zealand's bicycle helmet law.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Colin F

    2012-02-10

    The New Zealand helmet law (all ages) came into effect on 1 January 1994. It followed Australian helmet laws, introduced in 1990-1992. Pre-law (in 1990) cyclist deaths were nearly a quarter of pedestrians in number, but in 2006-09, the equivalent figure was near to 50% when adjusted for changes to hours cycled and walked. From 1988-91 to 2003-07, cyclists' overall injury rate per hour increased by 20%. Dr Hillman, from the UK's Policy Studies Institute, calculated that life years gained by cycling outweighed life years lost in accidents by 20 times. For the period 1989-1990 to 2006-2009, New Zealand survey data showed that average hours cycled per person reduced by 51%. This evaluation finds the helmet law has failed in aspects of promoting cycling, safety, health, accident compensation, environmental issues and civil liberties. PMID:22327159

  16. X-31 helmet-mounted visual and audio display (HMVAD) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehmer, Steven C.

    1994-06-01

    Agile aircraft (X-29, X-31, F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle and F-16 Multi-Axis Thrust Vector) test pilots, while flying at high angles of attack, experience difficulty predicting their flight path trajectory. To compensate for the loss of this critical element of situational awareness, the X-31 International Test Organization (ITO) installed and evaluated a helmet mounted display (HMD) system into an X-31 aircraft and simulator. Also investigated for incorporation within the HMD system and flight evaluation was another candidate technology for improving situational awareness -three dimensional audio. This was the first flight test evaluating the coupling of visual and audio cueing for aircrew aiding. The focus of the endeavor, which implemented two visual and audio formats, was to examine the extent visual and audio orientation cueing enhanced situational awareness and improved pilot performance during tactical flying. This paper provides an overview of the X-31 HMVAD system, describes the visual and audio symbology, presents a summary of the pilots' subjective evaluation of the system following its use in simulation and flight test, and outlines the future plans for the X-31 HMVAD system.

  17. Observation of motorcycle helmet use rates in Michigan after partial repeal of the universal motorcycle helmet law.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Lisa; Bingham, C Raymond; Flannagan, Carol A; Carter, Patrick M; Almani, Farideh; Cicchino, Jessica B

    2016-10-01

    Motorcycle crashes result in a significant health burden, including many fatal injuries and serious non-fatal head injuries. Helmets are highly effective in preventing such trauma, and jurisdictions that require helmet use of all motorcyclists have higher rates of helmet use and lower rates of head injuries among motorcyclists. The current study examines helmet use and characteristics of helmeted operators and their riding conditions in Michigan, following a weakening of the state's universal motorcycle helmet use law in April 2012. Data on police-reported crashes occurring during 2012-14 and from a stratified roadside observational survey undertaken in Southeast Michigan during May-September 2014 were used to estimate statewide helmet use rates. Observed helmet use was more common among operators of sports motorcycles, on freeways, and in the morning, and least common among operators of cruisers, on minor arterials, and in the afternoon. The rate of helmet use across the state was estimated at 75%, adjusted for roadway type, motorcycle class, and time of day. Similarly, the helmet use rate found from examination of crash records was 73%. In the observation survey, 47% of operators wore jackets, 94% wore long pants, 54% wore boots, and 80% wore gloves. Protective clothing of jackets and gloves was most often worn by sport motorcycle operators and long pants and boots most often by riders of touring motorcycles. Findings highlight the much lower rate of helmet use in Michigan compared with states that have a universal helmet use law, although the rate is higher than observed in many states with partial helmet laws. Targeted interventions aimed at specific groups of motorcyclists and situations where helmet use rates are particularly low should be considered to increase helmet use. PMID:27448519

  18. Helmet use among cyclists in New York City.

    PubMed

    Basch, Corey H; Zagnit, Emily A; Rajan, Sonali; Ethan, Danna; Basch, Charles E

    2014-10-01

    Lack of helmet use while bicycling can have deleterious effects on health. Despite evidence that helmets can greatly reduce the risk of head injury, the prevalence of helmet use among riders, including those in urban bicycle-share programs, has been shown to be very low. Building upon the authors' previous work, this study's aim was to assess prevalence of helmet use among cyclists riding on widely used New York City (NYC) bike lanes. Across a 2-month period, cyclists were filmed in five NYC locations with bike lanes. Filming took place at two separate time periods (recreation and commute) at each location. Helmet use was coded for each cyclist. A total of 1,921 riders were observed across 10 h. Overall, half (50.0 %) of all riders were observed wearing a helmet. Rates of using a helmet were consistent across all five locations. In addition, only 21.7 % of Citi Bike users and 15.3 % of other bicycle rentals were observed wearing helmets while cycling. The prevalence of helmet use was significantly higher among males than females (z = 4.48, p < .001). Cyclists observed during the recreational time period were also less likely than those observed during the commuting time period to be wearing a helmet (z = 7.17, p < .001). The results of this study contribute to the growing literature about cyclist helmet use in urban areas. PMID:24532308

  19. Communication as group process media of aircrew performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanki, B. G.; Foushee, H. C.

    1989-01-01

    This study of group process was motivated by a high-fidelity flight simulator project in which aircrew performance was found to be better when the crew had recently flown together. Considering recent operating experience as a group-level input factor, aspects of the communication process between crewmembers (Captain and First Officer), were explored as a possible mediator to performance. Communication patterns were defined by a speech act typology adapted for the flightdeck setting and distinguished crews that had previously flown together (FT) from those that had not flown together (NFT). A more open communication channel with respect to information exchange and validation and greater First Officer participation in task-related topics was shown by FT crews while NFT crews engaged in more non-task discourse, a speech mode less structured by roles and probably serving a more interpersonal function. Relationships between the speech categories themselves, representing linguistic, and role-related interdependencies provide guidelines for interpreting the primary findings.

  20. Aircrew laser eye protection: visual consequences and mission performance.

    PubMed

    Thomas, S R

    1994-05-01

    Battlefield laser proliferation poses a mounting risk to aircrew and ground personnel. Laser eye protection (LEP) based on current mature, mass-producible technologies absorbs visible light and can impact visual performance and color identification. These visual consequences account for many of the mission incompatibilities associated with LEP. Laboratory experiments and field investigations that examined the effects of LEP on visual performance and mission compatibility are reviewed. Laboratory experiments assessed the ability of subjects to correctly read and identify the color of head-down display symbology and tactical pilotage charts (TPC's) with three prototype LEP visors. Field investigations included Weapons Systems Trainer (WST), ground, and flight tests of the LEP visors. Recommendations for modifying aviation lighting systems to improve LEP compatibility are proposed. Issues concerning flight safety when using LEP during air operation are discussed. PMID:8018069

  1. Subjective stress factors in centrifuge training for military aircrews.

    PubMed

    Lin, Pei-Chun; Wang, Jenhung; Li, Shih-Chin

    2012-07-01

    This study investigates stress-influence factors perceived by military aircrews undergoing centrifuge training, which lowers the incidence of G-induced loss of consciousness (G-LOC) for the crews of high-performance combat aircrafts. We used questionnaires to assess the subjective stress-influence factors of crews undergoing centrifuge training. Professionals in aviation physiology identified attributes measuring the perceived stress induced by centrifuge training, which were segmented into three constructs by factor analysis, theory lecture, centrifuge equipment, and physical fitness. Considerable interpenetration was discernible between these factors and military rank, age, length of service, flight hours accrued, and type of aircraft piloted. Identifying and quantifying the perceived stressors experienced in human-use centrifuge training enables aviators, astronauts, and air forces of the world to determine which constructs perceptibly increase or alleviate the perceived stress undergone by trainees when partaking in centrifuge training. PMID:22036449

  2. Nocturnal sleep and daytime alertness of aircrew after transmeridian flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholson, Anthony N.; Pascoe, Peta A.; Spencer, Michael B.; Stone, Barbara M.; Green, Roger L.

    1986-01-01

    The nocturnal sleep and daytime alertness of aircrew were studied by electroencephalography and the multiple sleep latency test. After a transmeridian flight from London To San Francisco, sleep onset was faster and, although there was increased wakefulness during the second half of the night, sleep duration and efficiency over the whole night were not changed. The progressive decrease in sleep latencies observed normally in the multiple sleep latency test during the morning continued throughout the day after arrival. Of the 13 subjects, 12 took a nap of around 1-h duration in the afternoon preceding the return flight. These naps would have been encouraged by the drowsiness at this time and facilitated by the departure of the aircraft being scheduled during the early evening. An early evening departure had the further advantage that the circadian increase in vigilance expected during the early part of the day would occur during the latter part of the return flight.

  3. The Cobra helmet mounted display system for Gripen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsson, Jörgen; Blomqvist, Tommy

    2008-04-01

    Selected to meet the stringent requirements of the Gripen swing-role combat aircraft, the Cobra Helmet Mounted Display System, has been integrated as a key component to the Gripen weapon delivery system. Saab Aerosystems has since 2003 together with BAE System been developing the Cobra HMD and in parallel integrating the system in Gripen for South Africa. Work is currently done to prepare other customer for the Cobra HMDS. This paper will highlight some technical challenges and experiences with integrating a HMDS in a small cockpit environment as in Gripen and present an overview of the Cobra HMD design and installation. Furthermore the paper will discuss the importance of having the pilots and users involved during the design phase and throughout the development.

  4. Eurofighter helmet-mounted display: status update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Stephen J.; Cameron, Alexander A.

    2000-06-01

    BAE SYSTEMS are developing a high performance Helmet Mounted Display system for the Eurofighter/Typhoon combat aircraft. This paper presents an overview of the design solutions, as well as details of the development program status. Finally, it gives some indicators as to future growth applications.

  5. Children and cycle helmets: the case for.

    PubMed

    Sibert, J R

    1996-03-01

    The question of cycle helmets for children should be an easy one for society to decide upon. There is good experimental evidence from case control studies that they help prevent injuries (Thompson, Rivara & Thompson 1989; Spaite et al. 1991; McDermott et al. 1993; Malmaris et al. 1994; Thomas et al. 1994). Commonsense also suggests that they should be effective. So why has there been so much controversy? I suggest that there are three reasons for this. Many cyclists feel that their cycling is part of their personal freedom. They also feel that cycling, with the exercise that it gives, is healthy. Therefore, anything that cyclists see as discouraging people from taking exercise and enjoying personal freedom is wrong. Many cyclists view helmets as a major discouragement to cycling and therefore something to be opposed. There is also the mis-apprehension that each injury needs one preventive solution. Therefore, anyone who is for helmets is against bicycle lanes and separation of bicycles from traffic. This is not the case with other injuries that children receive. For instance, no one would seriously suggest that just because a house has a smoke alarm that there should be no flame-resistant upholstery. Neither would anyone seriously suggest that just because one has traffic calming there should be no additional work carried out against drivers who consume too much alcohol. There is also the mistaken belief that any injury control solution should be completely effective. No one expects seat belts to completely stop injuries to car passengers, so why should be expect helmets to completely prevent cycle injuries. We have personal experience in the difficulties experienced during cycle helmet campaigns in our work in Wales. We used cycle helmets as our first campaign in our Safe Child Penarth initiative (Kemp, Gibbs & Silbert 1994). However, every time we published a piece in the local paper we had letters from Penarth cyclists saying that helmets were unnecessary. These

  6. Equilibrium and Stability of Coronal Helmet Streamers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glukhov, Vyacheslav Sergeevich

    1997-05-01

    Equilibrium states and stability of partially open magentic field structures in the solar corona are studied. Soft X-ray observations of the birth and evolution of a giant coronal helmet streamer suggest that the energy source responsible for the X-ray manifestation of the structure is most probably located in the lower corona. The downward heat flux is the indication that a significant part of the source's energy is transported to the top of the structure and converted there to a disposable form. It is shown that by applying the thermodynamic equilibrium model of the corona to the two-dimensional X-ray data it is possible to reconstruct the three-dimensional form of the coronal helmet. The general significance of the projective geometry effects for the observation of the solar corona is discussed. The hypothesis of thermal pressure increase as the cause of the observed helmet expansion is verified numerically. It is shown that in the solar corona a relatively small variations of the pressure distribution in the closed field region can cause huge variations in the geometry of a coronal helmet streamer. Numerical simulations of the morphology and energy accumulation in helmet-like structures subject to photospheric shear motion show that the magnetic field surrounding a partially open structure can inhibit catastrophic expansion of the structure as its energy grows. Stability of a coronal streamer in the framework of the neutral current sheet model is studied theoretically. It is shown that effects of viscosity and the finite Larmor radius dominate effects of inertial fluid motion in the tearing mode instability of a neutral current sheet. Two new regimes of the instability are discovered. It is proven that in the solar corona the rates of growth of the neutral current sheet instability are much smaller than previously believed. Implications of the obtained results are discussed.

  7. The health impact of mandatory bicycle helmet laws.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Piet

    2012-05-01

    This article seeks to answer the question whether mandatory bicycle helmet laws deliver a net societal health benefit. The question is addressed using a simple model. The model recognizes a single health benefit--reduced head injuries--and a single health cost-increased morbidity due to foregone exercise from reduced cycling. Using estimates suggested in the literature on the effectiveness of helmets, the health benefits of cycling, head injury rates, and reductions in cycling leads to the following conclusions. In jurisdictions where cycling is safe, a helmet law is likely to have a large unintended negative health impact. In jurisdictions where cycling is relatively unsafe, helmets will do little to make it safer and a helmet law, under relatively extreme assumptions, may make a small positive contribution to net societal health. The model serves to focus the mandatory bicycle helmet law debate on overall health. PMID:22462680

  8. Advanced rotorcraft helmet display sighting system optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raynal, Francois; Chen, Muh-Fa

    2002-08-01

    Kaiser Electronics' Advanced Rotorcraft Helmet Display Sighting System is a Biocular Helmet Mounted Display (HMD) for Rotary Wing Aviators. Advanced Rotorcraft HMDs requires low head supported weight, low center of mass offsets, low peripheral obstructions of the visual field, large exit pupils, large eye relief, wide field of view (FOV), high resolution, low luning, sun light readability with high contrast and low prismatic deviations. Compliance with these safety, user acceptance and optical performance requirements is challenging. The optical design presented in this paper provides an excellent balance of these different and conflicting requirements. The Advanced Rotorcraft HMD optical design is a pupil forming off axis catadioptric system that incorporates a transmissive SXGA Active Matrix liquid Crystal Display (AMLCD), an LED array backlight and a diopter adjustment mechanism.

  9. Is helmet use beneficial to motorcyclists?

    PubMed

    Wagle, V G; Perkins, C; Vallera, A

    1993-01-01

    This study included 83 motorcyclists, helmeted and nonhelmeted, involved in crashes. All these patients were flown to a major trauma center in the Northeast (Hartford Hospital, Connecticut) directly from the scene by a helicopter ambulance service (LifeStar). The study showed that the majority of these patients were male and under the age of 30 years. Twenty-seven had blood alcohol levels above the legal limit. Sixty-nine percent were nonhelmeted and, statistically, a significant number in this category had a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of 8 or under. Cervical spine injuries were discovered in only six patients. Nine of the ten patients declared dead on arrival (DOA) were nonhelmeted. We conclude that helmets provide protection and certainly do not increase the incidence of cervical spine injuries. PMID:8437177

  10. Holographic Helmet-Mounted Display Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burley, James R., II; Larussa, Joseph A.

    1995-01-01

    Helmet-mounted display unit designed for use in testing innovative concepts for display of information to aircraft pilots. Operates in conjunction with computers generating graphical displays. Includes two ocular subunits containing miniature cathoderay tubes and optics providing 40 degrees vertical, 50 degrees horizontal field of view to each eye, with or without stereopsis. In future color application, each ocular subunit includes trichromatic holographic combiner tuned to red, green, and blue wavelengths of phosphors used in development of miniature color display devices.

  11. Noise-Canceling Helmet Audio System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seibert, Marc A.; Culotta, Anthony J.

    2007-01-01

    A prototype helmet audio system has been developed to improve voice communication for the wearer in a noisy environment. The system was originally intended to be used in a space suit, wherein noise generated by airflow of the spacesuit life-support system can make it difficult for remote listeners to understand the astronaut s speech and can interfere with the astronaut s attempt to issue vocal commands to a voice-controlled robot. The system could be adapted to terrestrial use in helmets of protective suits that are typically worn in noisy settings: examples include biohazard, fire, rescue, and diving suits. The system (see figure) includes an array of microphones and small loudspeakers mounted at fixed positions in a helmet, amplifiers and signal-routing circuitry, and a commercial digital signal processor (DSP). Notwithstanding the fixed positions of the microphones and loudspeakers, the system can accommodate itself to any normal motion of the wearer s head within the helmet. The system operates in conjunction with a radio transceiver. An audio signal arriving via the transceiver intended to be heard by the wearer is adjusted in volume and otherwise conditioned and sent to the loudspeakers. The wearer s speech is collected by the microphones, the outputs of which are logically combined (phased) so as to form a microphone- array directional sensitivity pattern that discriminates in favor of sounds coming from vicinity of the wearer s mouth and against sounds coming from elsewhere. In the DSP, digitized samples of the microphone outputs are processed to filter out airflow noise and to eliminate feedback from the loudspeakers to the microphones. The resulting conditioned version of the wearer s speech signal is sent to the transceiver.

  12. Evaluation of Helmet Mounted Display Alerting Symbology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeMaio, Joe; Rutkowski, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Proposed helicopter helmet mounted displays will be used to alert the pilot to a variety of conditions, from threats to equipment problems. The present research was performed under the NASA Safe All-weather Flight Operations Research (SAFOR) program supported by a joint Army/NASA research agreement. The purpose of the research was to examine ways to optimize the alerting effectiveness of helmet display symbology. The research used two approaches to increasing the effectiveness of alerts. One was to increase the ability of the alert to attract attention by using the entire display surface. The other was to include information about the required response in the alert itself. The investigation was conducted using the NASA Ames Research Center's six-degree-of-freedom vertical motion simulator (VMS) with a rotorcraft cockpit. Helmet display symbology was based on the AH-64's pilot night vision system (PNVS), cruise mode symbology. A standardized mission was developed, that consisted of 11 legs. The mission included four tasks, which allowed variation in the frequency of alerts. The general trend in the data points to a small benefit from both the full-screen alert and the partial information alert.

  13. External Foam Layers to Football Helmets Reduce Head Impact Severity

    PubMed Central

    Nakatsuka, Austin S

    2014-01-01

    Current American football helmet design has a rigid exterior with a padded interior. Softening the hard external layer of the helmet may reduce the impact potential of the helmet, providing extra head protection and reducing its use as an offensive device. The objective of this study is to measure the impact reduction potential provided by external foam. We obtained a football helmet with built-in accelerometer-based sensors, placed it on a boxing mannequin and struck it with a weighted swinging pendulum helmet to mimic the forces sustained during a helmet-to-helmet strike. We then applied layers of 1.3 cm thick polyolefin foam to the exterior surface of the helmets and repeated the process. All impact severity measures were significantly reduced with the application of the external foam. These results support the hypothesis that adding a soft exterior layer reduces the force of impact which may be applicable to the football field. Redesigning football helmets could reduce the injury potential of the sport. PMID:25157327

  14. Purchasing a cycle helmet: are retailers providing adequate advice?

    PubMed Central

    Plumridge, E.; McCool, J.; Chetwynd, J.; Langley, J. D.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the selling of cycle helmets in retail stores with particular reference to the adequacy of advice offered about the fit and securing of helmets. METHODS: All 55 retail outlets selling cycle helmets in Christchurch, New Zealand were studied by participant observation. A research entered each store as a prospective customer and requested assistance to purchase a helmet. She took detailed field notes of the ensuing encounter and these were subsequently transcribed, coded, and analysed. RESULTS: Adequate advice for helmet purchase was given in less than half of the stores. In general the sales assistants in specialist cycle shops were better informed and gave more adequate advice than those in department stores. Those who have good advice also tended to be more good advice also tended to be more active in helping with fitting the helmet. Knowledge about safety standards was apparent in one third of sales assistants. Few stores displayed information for customers about the correct fit of cycle helmets. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the advice and assistance being given to ensure that cycle helmets fit properly is often inadequate and thus the helmets may fail to fulfil their purpose in preventing injury. Consultation between retailers and policy makers is a necessary first step to improving this situation. PMID:9346053

  15. External foam layers to football helmets reduce head impact severity.

    PubMed

    Nakatsuka, Austin S; Yamamoto, Loren G

    2014-08-01

    Current American football helmet design has a rigid exterior with a padded interior. Softening the hard external layer of the helmet may reduce the impact potential of the helmet, providing extra head protection and reducing its use as an offensive device. The objective of this study is to measure the impact reduction potential provided by external foam. We obtained a football helmet with built-in accelerometer-based sensors, placed it on a boxing mannequin and struck it with a weighted swinging pendulum helmet to mimic the forces sustained during a helmet-to-helmet strike. We then applied layers of 1.3 cm thick polyolefin foam to the exterior surface of the helmets and repeated the process. All impact severity measures were significantly reduced with the application of the external foam. These results support the hypothesis that adding a soft exterior layer reduces the force of impact which may be applicable to the football field. Redesigning football helmets could reduce the injury potential of the sport. PMID:25157327

  16. Aerosinusitis: pathophysiology, prophylaxis, and management in passengers and aircrew.

    PubMed

    Weitzel, Erik K; McMains, K Christopher; Rajapaksa, Suresh; Wormald, Peter-John

    2008-01-01

    Patients presenting before flight with an upper respiratory infection are at risk for aerosinusitis. Prophylaxis of this condition consists of an oral decongestant before flight and nasal decongestant spray during the flight just prior to descent. Evaluation of the patient presenting with aerosinusitis consists of a careful physical exam with emphasis on diagnosing treatable nasal and sinus pathology. Categorization of the patient into the Weissman classification is important for determining prognostic factors for recovery. Management of this condition is based on the Weissman stage. Stage I or II lesions are generally treated conservatively with a 1-wk course of topical sprays, analgesics, a tapering course of steroids, and oral decongestants. Use of antibiotics is reserved for those cases initiated by bacterial sinusitis. Additionally, antihistamines are reserved for cases where allergies were the inciting cause. Stage III lesions are rarely seen in civilian air travelers due to the relatively low fluctuations in ambient air pressure. Aircrew that suffer Stage III aerosinusitis are at risk for recurrent sinus barotrauma that may require an expertly performed functional endoscopic sinus surgery to successfully manage it. PMID:18225779

  17. Sleep and wakefulness in aircrew before and after transoceanic flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dement, William C.; Seidel, Wesley F.; Cohen, Suzanne A.; Carskadon, Mary A.; Bliwise, Nancy G.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of rapid transmeridian flight on sleep and wakefulness were studied in aircrew members before and after flying one of two routes: San Francisco (SFO) to London (LHR) or SFO to Tokyo. After an adaptation night, sleep and daytime sleepiness were measured objectively in SFO and during the first layover (L/O) of the target trip, using the 'core measures' described by Graeber et al. (1986) and respiration parameters, and the Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT) described by Carscadon (1982); postsleep questionnaires provided subjective assessments. It was found that baseline sleep is not an ideal basis for subsequent comparison; nevertheless, there was an indication that L/O sleep periods tended to provide either less total sleep or less efficient sleep. During baseline, there was significant midday sleepiness tendency as measured by the MSLT; this tendency occurred at almost the same time on the second L/O day in LHR. Recommendations are offered for the adjustment of flight times and for scheduling times of permitted napping as accommodations for the periods of sleepiness tendency.

  18. Measurement of Impact Acceleration: Mouthpiece Accelerometer Versus Helmet Accelerometer

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Michael; Halstead, P. David; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn; Barlow, David

    2007-01-01

    Context: Instrumented helmets have been used to estimate impact acceleration imparted to the head during helmet impacts. These instrumented helmets may not accurately measure the actual amount of acceleration experienced by the head due to factors such as helmet-to-head fit. Objective: To determine if an accelerometer attached to a mouthpiece (MP) provides a more accurate representation of headform center of gravity (HFCOG) acceleration during impact than does an accelerometer attached to a helmet fitted on the headform. Design: Single-factor research design in which the independent variable was accelerometer position (HFCOG, helmet, MP) and the dependent variables were g and Severity Index (SI). Setting: Independent impact research laboratory. Intervention(s): The helmeted headform was dropped (n = 168) using a National Operating Committee on Standards for Athletic Equipment (NOCSAE) drop system from the standard heights and impact sites according to NOCSAE test standards. Peak g and SI were measured for each accelerometer position during impact. Main Outcome Measures: Upon impact, the peak g and SI were recorded for each accelerometer location. Results: Strong relationships were noted for HFCOG and MP measures, and significant differences were seen between HFCOG and helmet g measures and HFCOG and helmet SI measures. No statistically significant differences were noted between HFCOG and MP g and SI measures. Regression analyses showed a significant relationship between HFCOG and MP measures but not between HFCOG and helmet measures. Conclusions: Upon impact, MP acceleration (g) and SI measurements were closely related to and more accurate in measuring HFCOG g and SI than helmet measurements. The MP accelerometer is a valid method for measuring head acceleration. PMID:17597937

  19. Helmet-mounted tracker and display (HMT/D) interfaces: developing a standardized helmet-vehicle interface (HVI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocian, Dean F.

    1998-08-01

    The successful integration of technology and human factors meets its ultimate challenge in the area of military performance. Nowhere are the stakes so high and the competition so rigorous as in the arena of combat. This paper documents the attempt to define, develop, and test a 'standardized' interface for helmet-mounted tracker and displays as these systems begin to phase into the military inventory as standard equipment for USAF and USN fighter aircraft. The design that has been evolved is based upon active use and refinement in an environment that is as close to combat conditions, as resources permit. Many of the design ideas and lessons-learned covered in this paper came either directly or indirectly from pilots and support personnel of the USAF 422 Test and Evaluation Squadron located at Nellis AFB, NV.

  20. Lightweight high-brightness helmet-mounted head-up display system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Mathieu; North, Thibault; Bourquin, Stéphane; Kilcher, Lucio

    2016-03-01

    We present a compact binocular head-up display for integration in a motorcycle helmet. A 2D MEMS-mirror reflecting laser beams enables the formation of a bright image superimposed on the user vision by means of retinal scanning. A 3d-printed prototype including the required optical components is presented and characterized. It fits the morphology of most users thanks to several degrees of freedom accessible to the user for fine-tuning.

  1. The Effects of Helmet Weight on Hybrid III Head and Neck Responses by Comparing Unhelmeted and Helmeted Impacts.

    PubMed

    Jadischke, Ron; Viano, David C; McCarthy, Joe; King, Albert I

    2016-10-01

    Most studies on football helmet performance focus on lowering head acceleration-related parameters to reduce concussions. This has resulted in an increase in helmet size and mass. The objective of this paper was to study the effect of helmet mass on head and upper neck responses. Two independent test series were conducted. In test series one, 90 pendulum impact tests were conducted with four different headform and helmet conditions: unhelmeted Hybrid III headform, Hybrid III headform with a football helmet shell, Hybrid III headform with helmet shell and facemask, and Hybrid III headform with the helmet and facemask with mass added to the shell (n = 90). The Hybrid III neck was used for all the conditions. For all the configurations combined, the shell only, shell and facemask, and weighted helmet conditions resulted in 36%, 43%, and 44% lower resultant head accelerations (p < 0.0001), respectively, when compared to the unhelmeted condition. Head delta-V reductions were 1.1%, 4.5%, and 4.4%, respectively. In contrast, the helmeted conditions resulted in 26%, 41%, and 49% higher resultant neck forces (p < 0.0001), respectively. The increased neck forces were dominated by neck tension. In test series two, testing was conducted with a pneumatic linear impactor (n = 178). Fourteen different helmet makes and models illustrate the same trend. The increased neck forces provide a possible explanation as to why there has not been a corresponding reduction in concussion rates despite improvements in helmets ability to reduce head accelerations. PMID:27456840

  2. 77 FR 48105 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Motorcycle Helmets

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-13

    ...\\ Final Rule, Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Motorcycle Helmets, 76 FR 28132 (May 13, 2011). Two... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards... rule amended the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard for motorcycle helmets. Specifically, the...

  3. One-piece transparent shell improves design of helmet assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. L.; Okane, J. H.

    1966-01-01

    One-piece transparent helmet shell made of polycarbonate is equipped with a helmet protection pad, a visor assembly, a communications skull cap, and an emergency oxygen supply. This design offers improvements over previous designs in weight, visual field, comfort and protection.

  4. Adaptive sensor array algorithm for structural health monitoring of helmet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Xiaotian; Tian, Ye; Wu, Nan; Sun, Kai; Wang, Xingwei

    2011-04-01

    The adaptive neural network is a standard technique used in nonlinear system estimation and learning applications for dynamic models. In this paper, we introduced an adaptive sensor fusion algorithm for a helmet structure health monitoring system. The helmet structure health monitoring system is used to study the effects of ballistic/blast events on the helmet and human skull. Installed inside the helmet system, there is an optical fiber pressure sensors array. After implementing the adaptive estimation algorithm into helmet system, a dynamic model for the sensor array has been developed. The dynamic response characteristics of the sensor network are estimated from the pressure data by applying an adaptive control algorithm using artificial neural network. With the estimated parameters and position data from the dynamic model, the pressure distribution of the whole helmet can be calculated following the Bazier Surface interpolation method. The distribution pattern inside the helmet will be very helpful for improving helmet design to provide better protection to soldiers from head injuries.

  5. Helmet-Mounted Visual Display For Flight Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Anthony M.

    1990-01-01

    Helmet-mounted visual display system provides pilot with broad range of visual information for flight simulation. Offers nearly unlimited field of regard. Optical fibers transmit wide-angle images in response to motions of head. Two "pancake" lenses mounted on lightweight helmet. Cable of optical fibers carries images to each lens. "Light-valve" projectors deliver computer-generated binocular images to cables.

  6. The Effect of Bicycle Helmet Legislation on Bicycling Fatalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Darren; Rutner, Stephen M.

    2004-01-01

    A number of states passed legislation in the 1990s requiring youths to wear helmets when riding bicycles. The effect of this legislation on bicycling fatalities is examined by subjecting data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System to a panel analysis, using a control-group methodology. A helmet law reduces fatalities by about 15 percent in…

  7. Helmet-Cam: tool for assessing miners’ respirable dust exposure

    PubMed Central

    Cecala, A.B.; Reed, W.R.; Joy, G.J.; Westmoreland, S.C.; O’Brien, A.D.

    2015-01-01

    Video technology coupled with datalogging exposure monitors have been used to evaluate worker exposure to different types of contaminants. However, previous application of this technology used a stationary video camera to record the worker’s activity while the worker wore some type of contaminant monitor. These techniques are not applicable to mobile workers in the mining industry because of their need to move around the operation while performing their duties. The Helmet-Cam is a recently developed exposure assessment tool that integrates a person-wearable video recorder with a datalogging dust monitor. These are worn by the miner in a backpack, safety belt or safety vest to identify areas or job tasks of elevated exposure. After a miner performs his or her job while wearing the unit, the video and dust exposure data files are downloaded to a computer and then merged together through a NIOSH-developed computer software program called Enhanced Video Analysis of Dust Exposure (EVADE). By providing synchronized playback of the merged video footage and dust exposure data, the EVADE software allows for the assessment and identification of key work areas and processes, as well as work tasks that significantly impact a worker’s personal respirable dust exposure. The Helmet-Cam technology has been tested at a number of metal/nonmetal mining operations and has proven to be a valuable assessment tool. Mining companies wishing to use this technique can purchase a commercially available video camera and an instantaneous dust monitor to obtain the necessary data, and the NIOSH-developed EVADE software will be available for download at no cost on the NIOSH website. PMID:26380529

  8. Use of external orthotic helmet therapy in positional plagiocephaly.

    PubMed

    Ho, Joyce P K; Mallitt, Kylie-Ann; Jacobson, Erica; Reddy, Rajesh

    2016-07-01

    Positional plagiocephaly is the most common type of cranial asymmetry affecting infants. We aimed to investigate the effectiveness of helmet therapy compared to no helmet therapy in treating positional plagiocephaly in infants under the age of 1year. This retrospective review was conducted in an Australian paediatric hospital and included 171 patients recruited from outpatient clinics. Only 30 patients had positional plagiocephaly scores recorded at first and final consultations while 39 patients had diagonal measurements recorded at both visits. The mean age was 7.38months at initial consultation with a mean follow-up duration of 5.85months. Those who had helmet therapy had a significantly greater reduction in diagonal difference than those who did not use helmets (p=0.011). Therefore, there may be a role for helmet therapy in the treatment of severe positional plagiocephaly. PMID:26947339

  9. A system for quantifying the cooling effectiveness of bicycle helmets.

    PubMed

    Reid, J; Wang, E L

    2000-08-01

    This article describes the design and development of a system that is capable of quantifying the thermal comfort of bicycle helmets. The motivation for the development of the system stems from the desire both to increase helmet use and to provide the designer with a quantitative method of evaluating the thermal comfort of a helmet. The system consists of a heated mannequin head form, a heated reference sphere, a small wind tunnel, and a data acquisition system. Both the head form and the reference sphere were instrumented with thermocouples. The system is capable of simulating riding speeds ranging from 4.5-15.5 m/s. A cooling effectiveness, C1, that is independent of both ambient conditions and wind velocity is defined as a measure of how well the helmet ventilates as compared to the reference sphere. The system was validated by testing six commercially available bicycle helmets manufactured between approximately 1992 and 1998. PMID:11036573

  10. Middle School Students and Bicycle Helmet Use: Knowledge, Attitudes, Beliefs, and Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liller, Karen D.; Morissette, Brenda; Noland, Virginia; McDermott, Robert J.

    1998-01-01

    Examined middle school students' knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors regarding bicycle helmet use. Surveys indicated that most rode bicycles but did not use helmets, despite understanding their protective capabilities, because of poor peer support and helmet design. There was a positive relationship between helmet ownership and use. Most…

  11. Promoting Use of Bicycle Helmets among Children: A School and Community-Based Effort.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liller, Karen D.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    A community-wide and preschool bicycle helmet program was developed to educate the public about the importance of helmets for children and to offer helmets at reduced prices. Results of the project showed that education efforts in conjunction with an incentive component led to increases in the purchasing of helmets. (SM)

  12. Disruption of Helmet Streamers by Current Emergence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, W. P.; Wu, S. T.; Tandberg-Hanssen, E.

    1996-01-01

    We have investigated the dynamic response of a coronal helmet streamer to the emergence from below of a current with its magnetic field in a direction opposite to the overlying streamer field. Once the emerging current moves into the closed region of the streamer, a current sheet forms between the emerging field and the streamer field, because the preexisting field and the newly emerging field have opposite polarities. Thus magnetic reconnection will occur at the flanks of the emerged structure where the current density is maximum. If the emerging current is large enough, the energy contained in the current and the reconnection will promptly disrupt the streamer. If the emerging current is small, the streamer will experience a stage of slow evolution. In this stage, slow magnetic reconnection occurring at the flanks of the emerged structure leads to the degeneration of the emerged current to a neutral point. Above this point, a new magnetic bubble will form. The resulting configuration resembles an inverse-polarity prominence. Depending on the initial input energy of the current, the resulting structure will either remain in situ, forming a quasi-static structure, or move upward, forming a coronal transient similar to coronal jets. The numerical method used in this paper can be used to construct helmet streamers containing a detached magnetic structure in their closed field region. The quasi-static solution may serve as a preevent corona for studying coronal mass ejection initiation.

  13. Helmet-Mounted Display Design Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Richard L.; Greeley, Kevin W.

    1997-01-01

    Helmet Mounted Displays (HMDs) present flight, navigation, and weapon information in the pilot's line of sight. The HMD was developed to allow the pilot to retain aircraft and weapon information while looking off boresight. This document reviews current state of the art in HMDs and presents a design guide for the HMD engineer in identifying several critical HMD issues: symbol stabilization, inadequate definitions, undefined symbol drive laws, helmet considerations, and Field Of View (FOV) vs. resolution tradeoff requirements. In particular, display latency is a key issue for HMDs. In addition to requiring further experimental studies, it impacts the definition and control law issues. Symbol stabilization is also critical. In the case of the Apache helicopter, the lack of compensation for pilot head motion creates excessive workload during hovering and Nap Of the Earth (NOE) flight. This translates into excessive training requirements. There is no agreed upon set of definitions or descriptions for how HMD symbols are driven to compensate for pilot head motion. A set of definitions is proposed to address this. There are several specific areas where simulation and flight experiments are needed: development of hover and NOE symbologies which compensate for pilot head movement; display latency and sampling, and the tradeoff between FOV, sensor resolution and symbology.

  14. Aircrew Training Devices: Utility and Utilization of Advanced Instructional Features (Phase IV--Summary Report).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polzella, Donald J.; And Others

    Modern aircrew training devices (ATDs) are equipped with sophisticated hardware and software capabilities, known as advanced instructional features (AIFs), that permit a simulator instructor to prepare briefings, manage training, vary task difficulty/fidelity, monitor performance, and provide feedback for flight simulation training missions. The…

  15. 14 CFR 142.37 - Approval of flight aircrew training program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES TRAINING CENTERS Aircrew Curriculum and... the Administrator for training program approval. (b) A curriculum approved under SFAR 58 of part 121... application for training program approval must indicate— (1) Which courses are part of the core curriculum...

  16. Aircrew Survival Equipmentman 3 & 2; Naval Training Command Rate Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Training Command, Pensacola, FL.

    The training manual is one of a series prepared for enlisted personnel of the Regular Navy and the Naval Reserve who are training for performance proficiency and studying for advancement in the Aircrew Survival Equipmentman (PR) rating. The illustrated and indexed manual focuses on the personnel parachute and other related survival equipment.…

  17. Human factor requirements of helmet trackers for HMDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinsen, Gary L.; Havig, Paul R.; Post, David L.; Reis, George A.; Simpson, Matthew A.

    2003-09-01

    A helmet tracker is a critical element in the path that delivers targeting and other sensor data to the user of a helmet-mounted display (HMD) in a military aircraft. The original purpose of an HMD was to serve as a helmet-mounted sight and provide a means to fully utilize the capabilities of off-boresight munitions. Recently, the role of the HMD has evolved from being strictly a targeting tool to providing detailed flight path and situation awareness information. These changes, however, have placed even greater value on the visual information that is transferred through the helmet tracker to the HMD. Specifically, the timeliness and accuracy of the information, which is of critical importance when the HMD is used as a targeting aid, is of even greater importance when the HMD is used to display flight reference information. This is especially relevant since it has been proposed to build new military aircraft without a physical head-up display (HUD) and display HUD information virtually with an HMD. In this paper, we review the current state of helmet tracker technology with respect to use in military aviation. We also identify the parameters of helmet trackers that offer the greatest risk when using an HMD to provide information beyond targeting data to the user. Finally, we discuss the human factors limitations of helmet tracker systems for delivering both targeting and flight reference information to a military pilot.

  18. Heat loss variations of full-face motorcycle helmets.

    PubMed

    Bogerd, C P; Brühwiler, P A

    2009-03-01

    Heat loss of 27 full-face motorcycle helmets was studied using a thermal manikin headform. The headform was electrically heated and positioned at the exit of a wind tunnel, so that the air stream flowed onto its front side. All helmets were measured in three sessions in which all the vents were opened or closed consecutively in random order. Average heat loss was calculated from a steady state period, under controlled environmental conditions of 22+/-0.05 degrees C, 50+/-1% RH and 50.4+/-1.1 km h(-1) (14.0+/-0.3 ms(-1)) wind speed. The results show large variations in heat loss among the different helmets, ranging from 0 to 4 W for the scalp section of the headform and 8 to 18 W for the face section of the headform. Opening all the vents showed an increase in heat loss of more than 1 W (2 W) for four (two) helmets in the scalp section and six (one) helmets in the face section. These levels of heat transfer have been shown to be the thresholds for human sensitivity in scalp and face sections. Furthermore, helmet construction features which could be identified as important for heat loss of motorcycle helmets were identified. PMID:18452890

  19. Archaeometallurgical characterization of the earliest European metal helmets

    PubMed Central

    Mödlinger, Marianne; Piccardo, Paolo; Kasztovszky, Zsolt; Kovács, Imre; Szőkefalvi-Nagy, Zoltán; Káli, György; Szilágyi, Veronika

    2013-01-01

    Archaeometric analyses on conical and decorated cap helmets from the Bronze Age are presented. The helmets are dated to the 14–12th century BC according to associated finds in hoards. Alloy composition, material structure and manufacturing processes are determined and shed light on the earliest development of weaponry production in Central and Eastern Europe. Analyses were carried out using light and dark field microscopy, SEM–EDXS, PIXE, TOF-ND and PGAA. The results allowed reconstructing the manufacturing process, the differences between the cap of the helmets and their knobs (i.e. alloy composition) and the joining technique of the two parts. PMID:26523114

  20. Optimization of injury prevention outreach for helmet safety.

    PubMed

    Adams, Christy; Drake, Christiana; Dang, Michelle; Le-Hinds, Nho

    2014-01-01

    Injury prevention initiatives are an effective strategy to reduce pediatric morbidity and mortality, but resource constraints can limit hospital-based prevention programs' capacity for carrying out such initiatives. Partnerships that leverage hospital leadership roles and promote collaborative outreach may provide a less resource-intensive means to expand prevention program capacity. One hospital piloted a collaborative helmet safety initiative, partnering with a nursing school and a local school district. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the resulting student nurse-administered school helmet safety program in improving use, knowledge, and attitudes toward helmets among school-age children. PMID:24828777

  1. Factors associated with bicycle helmet use among young adolescents in a multinational sample

    PubMed Central

    Klein, K; Thompson, D; Scheidt, P; Overpeck, M; Gross, L; the, H

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine factors associated with variation in bicycle helmet use by youth of different industrialized countries. Design: A multinational cross sectional nationally representative survey of health behaviors including symptoms, risk taking, school setting, and family context. Setting: School based survey of 26 countries. Subjects: School students, ages 11, 13, and 15 years totaling 112 843. Outcome measures: Reported frequency of bicycle helmet use among bicycle riders. Results: Reported helmet use varied greatly by country from 39.2% to 1.9%, with 12 countries reporting less than 10% of the bicycle riders as frequent helmet users and 14 countries more than 10%. Reported helmet use was highest at 11 years and decreased as children's age increased. Use was positively associated with other healthy behaviors, with parental involvement, and with per capita gross domestic product of the country. It is negatively associated with risk taking behaviors. Countries reported to have interventions promoting helmet use, exemplified by helmet giveaway programmes, had greater frequency of reported helmet use than those without programmes. Conclusions: Bicycle helmet use among young adolescents varies greatly between countries; however, helmet use does not reach 50% in any country. Age is the most significant individual factor associated with helmet for helmet using countries. The observation that some helmet promotion programmes are reported for countries with relatively higher student helmet use and no programmes reported for the lowest helmet use countries, suggests the possibility of a relation and the need for objective evaluation of programme effectiveness. PMID:16203837

  2. A history of helmet mounted displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foote, Bob; Melzer, James

    2015-05-01

    In more than 40 years of development, the Helmet-Mounted Display (HMD) has become a key part of the equipment for fixed and rotary wing pilots and ground soldiers, proving to be a force multiplier and reducing user workload. Rockwell Collins has been a key player in the development of modern HMD technology and is currently fielding major HMDs supporting pilots around the world including the Joint Hemet Mounted Cueing System (JHMCS) and Strike Eye. This paper will outline the history of HMDs over the last 40 years for fixed wing, rotorcraft and soldiers and discuss Rockwell Collins' role. We will discuss the development and testing required for introduction of HMDs into the modern pilot environment. Within the paper we will point out some of the misconceptions, facts and legends of HMDS.

  3. Self-Powered Safety Helmet Based on Hybridized Nanogenerator for Emergency.

    PubMed

    Jin, Long; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Binbin; Deng, Weili; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Haitao; Huang, Xi; Zhu, Minhao; Yang, Weiqing; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-08-23

    The rapid development of Internet of Things and the related sensor technology requires sustainable power sources for their continuous operation. Scavenging and utilizing the ambient environmental energy could be a superior solution. Here, we report a self-powered helmet for emergency, which was powered by the energy converted from ambient mechanical vibration via a hybridized nanogenerator that consists of a triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) and an electromagnetic generator (EMG). Integrating with transformers and rectifiers, the hybridized nanogenerator can deliver a power density up to 167.22 W/m(3), which was demonstrated to light up 1000 commercial light-emitting diodes (LEDs) instantaneously. By wearing the developed safety helmet, equipped with rationally designed hybridized nanogenerator, the harvested vibration energy from natural human motion is also capable of powering a wireless pedometer for real-time transmitting data reporting to a personal cell phone. Without adding much extra weight to a commercial one, the developed wearing helmet can be a superior sustainable power source for explorers, engineers, mine-workers under well, as well as and disaster-relief workers, especially in remote areas. This work not only presents a significant step toward energy harvesting from human biomechanical movement, but also greatly expands the applicability of TENGs as power sources for self-sustained electronics. PMID:27391273

  4. 21. NBS SUIT LAB. THREE GLOVES, HELMET, AND SCREW DRIVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. NBS SUIT LAB. THREE GLOVES, HELMET, AND SCREW DRIVER TORQUE WRENCH FOR ASSEMBLY AND REPAIR OF BOTH. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Neutral Buoyancy Simulator Facility, Rideout Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  5. Effect of legislation on the use of bicycle helmets

    PubMed Central

    LeBlanc, John C.; Beattie, Tricia L.; Culligan, Christopher

    2002-01-01

    Background About 50 Canadian children and adolescents die each year from bicycle-related injuries, and 75% of all bicycle-related deaths are due to head injuries. Although the use of helmets can reduce the risk of head injury by 85%, the rate of voluntary helmet use continues to be low in many North American jurisdictions. We measured compliance before, during and after 1997, when legislation making the use of helmets mandatory for cyclists was enacted in Nova Scotia. Methods In the summers and autumns of 1995 through 1999, trained observers who had a direct view of oncoming bicycle traffic recorded helmet use, sex and age group of cyclists in Halifax on arterial, residential and recreational roads. Sampling was done during peak traffic times of sunny days. We abstracted data from the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program database on bicycle-related injuries treated during the same period at the Emergency Department of the IWK Health Centre, Halifax. Results The rate of helmet use rose dramatically after legislation was enacted, from 36% in 1995 and 38% in 1996, to 75% in 1997, 86% in 1998 and 84% in 1999. The proportion of injured cyclists with head injuries in 1998/99 was half that in 1995/96 (7/443 [1.6%] v. 15/416 [3.6%]) (p = 0.06). Police carried out regular education and enforcement. There were no helmet-promoting mass media education campaigns after 1997. Interpretation: Rates of helmet use rose rapidly following the introduction of legislation mandating the use of helmets while bicycling. The increased rates were sustained for 2 years afterward, with regular education and enforcement by police. PMID:11898937

  6. Using social marketing to increase the use of helmets among bicyclists.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Timothy D; Buchholz, Chris; Clarke, Steven W

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigated a social marketing intervention to increase the use of bicycle helmets on a university campus in the southeastern United States. Focus groups of students developed a bicycle helmet program slogan and logo (ie, "The Grateful Head"). The authors trained student bicyclists who already used helmets (n=15) as peer agents. These agents provided bicycle helmet information and asked fellow bicyclists to sign a pledge card to wear a helmet. They gave a coupon for a free helmet to those who pledged to wear a helmet. The authors received a total of 379 pledge cards and distributed 259 helmets. Bicycle helmet use rose from a baseline mean of 27.6% to a mean of 49.3% by the last week of the intervention. PMID:16050328

  7. Measuring compliance with Viet Nam's mandatory motorcycle helmet legislation.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Ha Trong; Passmore, Jonathon; Cuong, Pham Viet; Nguyen, Nam Phuong

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this roadside observational study was to monitor helmet wearing among motorcycle riders and passengers in three provinces (Yen Bai, Da Nang and Binh Duong) in the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam, before and after a mandatory helmet law took effect on 15 December 2007. A total of 665,428 motorcycle riders and passengers were observed between November 2007 and February 2011 at 45 randomly selected sites covering the entire road network. Across all locations and time periods, correct helmet wearing averaged 40.1% before the law and 92.5% after; however, there were significant differences between time points and locations. The Viet Nam Government's decision to require all motorcycle riders and passengers to wear helmets has been thoroughly implemented nation wide and the results show that high wearing has been sustained. Further study is required on how high helmet wearing has and will translate into a reduction in motorcycle head injuries; however, Viet Nam's motorcycle helmet legislation should be seen as an important policy example for other low- and middle-income countries with a high utilization of motorcycles for personal transport. PMID:22849321

  8. Measurement of Gamma Knife registered helmet factors using MOSFETs

    SciTech Connect

    Kurjewicz, Laryssa; Berndt, Anita

    2007-03-15

    The relative dose rate for the different Gamma Knife registered helmets (4, 8, 14, and 18 mm) is characterized by their respective helmet factors. Since the plateau of the dose profile for the 4 mm helmet is at most 1 mm wide, detector choices are limited. Traditionally helmet factors have been measured using 1x1x1 mm{sup 3} thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs). However, these are time-consuming, cumbersome measurements. This article investigates the use of metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) (active area of 0.2x0.2 mm{sup 2}) as a more accurate and convenient dosimeter. Their suitability for these measurements was confirmed by basic characterization measurements. Helmet factors were measured using both MOSFETs and the established TLD approach. A custom MOSFET cassette was designed in analogy to the Elekta TLD cassette (Elekta Instruments AB) for use with the Elekta dosimetry sphere. Although both dosimeters provided values within 3% of the manufacturer's suggestion, MOSFETs provided superior accuracy and precision, in a fraction of the time required for the TLD measurements. Thus, MOSFETs proved to be a reasonable alternative to TLDs for performing helmet factor measurements.

  9. Effect of an aerodynamic helmet on head temperature, core temperature, and cycling power compared with a traditional helmet.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joshua F; Brown, Skyler R; Lange, Andrew P; Brothers, R Matthew

    2013-12-01

    Nonvented "aerodynamic helmets" reduce wind resistance but may increase head (Th) and gastrointestinal (Tgi) temperature and reduce performance when worn in hot conditions. This study tested the hypothesis that Th and Tgi would be greater during low-intensity cycling (LIC) in the heat while wearing an aero helmet (AERO) vs. a traditional vented racing helmet (REG). This study also tested the hypothesis that Th, Tgi, and finish time would be greater, and power output would be reduced during a self-paced time trial in the heat with AERO vs. REG. Ten highly trained heat-acclimated endurance athletes conducted LIC (50% V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, LIC) and a high-intensity 12-km self-paced time trial (12-km TT) on a cycle ergometer in 39° C on 2 different days (AERO and REG), separated by >48 hours. During LIC, Th was higher at minute 7.5 and all time points thereafter in AERO vs. REG (p < 0.05). Similarly, during the 12-km TT, Th was higher at minutes 12.5, 15, and 17.5 in AERO vs. REG (p < 0.05). Heart rate (HR) and Tgi increased during LIC and during 12-km TT (both p < 0.001); however, no significant interaction (helmet × time) existed for HR or Tgi at either intensity (all p > 0.05). No group differences existed for finish time or power output during the 12-km TT (both p > 0.05). In conclusion, Th becomes elevated during cycling in the heat with an aero helmet compared with a traditional vented racing helmet during LIC and high-intensity cycling, yet Tgi and HR responses are similar irrespective of helmet type and Th. Furthermore, the higher Th that develops when an aero helmet is worn during cycling in the heat does not affect power output or cycling performance during short-duration high-intensity events. PMID:23539083

  10. Role of helmet in the mechanics of shock wave propagation under blast loading conditions.

    PubMed

    Ganpule, S; Gu, L; Alai, A; Chandra, N

    2012-01-01

    The effectiveness of helmets in extenuating the primary shock waves generated by the explosions of improvised explosive devices is not clearly understood. In this work, the role of helmet on the overpressurisation and impulse experienced by the head were examined. The shock wave-head interactions were studied under three different cases: (i) unprotected head, (ii) head with helmet but with varying head-helmet gaps and (iii) head covered with helmet and tightly fitting foam pads. The intensification effect was discussed by examining the shock wave flow pattern and verified with experiments. A helmet with a better protection against shock wave is suggested. PMID:21806412

  11. Quest Airlock Reflected in STS-113 Astronaut Herrington's Helmet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In this photograph, STS-113 astronaut and mission specialist John B. Herrington participates in the mission's first space walk. The opened hatch of the Quest Airlock can be seen reflected in Herrington's helmet visor. The airlock, located on the starboard side of the Unity Node I on the International Space Station (ISS), makes it easier to perform space walks, and allows both Russian and American space suits to be worn when the Shuttle is not docked with the ISS. American suits will not fit through Russian airlocks at the Station. STS-113, the 16th American assembly flight and 112th overall American flight to the ISS, launched on November 23, 2002 from Kennedy's launch pad 39A aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour. The main mission objective was the installation and activation of the Port 1 Integrated Truss Assembly (P1). The first major component installed on the left side of the Station, the P1 truss provides an additional three External Thermal Control System radiators. Weighing in at 27,506 pounds, the P1 truss is 45 feet (13.7 meters) long, 15 feet (4.6 meters) wide, and 13 feet (4 meters) high. Three space walks, aided by the use of the Robotic Manipulator Systems of both the Shuttle and the Station, were performed in the installation of P1.

  12. Performance of the EPD-N2 dosemeter for monitoring aircrew doses.

    PubMed

    Scherpelz, R I; Cezeaux, J R

    2015-03-01

    United States Air Force (USAF) aircrew fly at altitudes and for durations where doses from cosmic radiation are significant enough to warrant monitoring. This study evaluated a candidate radiological monitoring system for USAF aircrew, the Thermo Scientific electronic personnel dosemeter (EPD-N2). The evaluation consisted of characterising the device in a well-characterised radiation field at a European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) accelerator, and aboard an USAF aircraft. The performance of the EPDs was evaluated by comparison with accepted values for dose at the CERN facility, comparison with the value calculated by flight dose software and comparison with the value estimated by a tissue-equivalent proportional counter aboard the aircraft. This study recommends that a correction factor of 1/CF = 1/3.9 be applied to EPD-N2 measurements aboard aircraft flights. The uncertainty in this correction factor is 11.8 %. PMID:25108394

  13. The impact response of traditional and BMX-style bicycle helmets at different impact severities.

    PubMed

    DeMarco, Alyssa L; Chimich, Dennis D; Gardiner, John C; Siegmund, Gunter P

    2016-07-01

    Bicycle helmets reduce the frequency and severity of severe to fatal head and brain injuries in bicycle crashes. Our goal here was to measure the impact attenuation performance of common bicycle helmets over a range of impact speeds. We performed 127 drop tests using 13 different bicycle helmet models (6 traditional style helmets and 7 BMX-style helmets) at impact speeds ranging from 1 to 10m/s onto a flat anvil. Helmets were struck on their left front and/or right front areas, a common impact location that was at or just below the test line of most bicycle helmet standards. All but one of the 10 certified helmet models remained below the 300g level at an impact speed of 6m/s, whereas none of the 3 uncertified helmets met this criterion. We found that the helmets with expanded polystyrene liners performed similarly and universally well. The single certified helmet with a polyurethane liner performed below the level expected by the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) standard at our impact location and the helmet structure failed during one of two supplemental tests of this helmet above the test line. Overall, we found that increased liner thickness generally reduced peak headform acceleration, particularly at higher impact speeds. PMID:27077273

  14. Measurement of the Space Radiation Dose for the Flight Aircrew at High-Altitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jaewon; Park, Inchun; Kim, Junsik; Lee, Jaejin; Hwang, Junga; Kim, Young-chul

    2014-03-01

    This paper describes an experimental approach to evaluate the effective doses of space radiations at high-altitude by combining the measured data from the Liulin-6K spectrometer loaded onto the air-borne RC-800 cockpit and the calculated data from CARI-6M code developed by FAA. In this paper, 15 exposed dose experiments for the flight missions at a highaltitude above 10 km and 3 experiments at a normal altitude below 4 km were executed over the Korean Peninsula in 2012. The results from the high-altitude flight measurements show a dramatic change in the exposed doses as the altitude increases. The effective dose levels (an average of 15.27 mSv) of aircrew at the high-altitude are an order of magnitude larger than those (an average of 0.30 mSv) of the normal altitude flight. The comparison was made between the measure dose levels and the calculated dose levels and those were similar each other. It indicates that the annual dose levels of the aircrew boarding RC- 800 could be above 1 mSv. These results suggest that a proper procedure to manage the exposed dose of aircrew is required for ROK Air Force.

  15. STS-113 Paul Lockhart adjusts his helmet during suitup before launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- STS-113 Paul Lockhart adjusts his helmet during suitup before launch. Lockhart will be making his second Shuttle flight. The primary mission is bringing the Expedition 6 crew to the Station and returning the Expedition 5 crew to Earth. The major objective of the mission is delivery of the Port 1 (P1) Integrated Truss Assembly, which will be attached to the port side of the S0 truss. Three spacewalks are planned to install and activate the truss and its associated equipment. Launch of Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-113 is scheduled for Nov. 11 at 12:58 a.m. EST.

  16. Helmet slippage during visual tracking: the effect of voluntary head movements.

    PubMed

    Neary, C; Bate, I J; Heller, L F; Williams, M

    1993-07-01

    The influence of visual tracking on head movement and on the head/helmet system was investigated for two different helmets (a motorcycle helmet and a flying helmet) under static laboratory conditions. Subjects visually refixated between pairs of illuminated targets located at various horizontal (up to 160 degrees) and vertical (up to 90 degrees) distances apart while head position and helmet slippage were measured in azimuth, pitch, roll, X, Y, and Z using a double magnetic coil system. Results showed that for both helmets, root mean square (RMS) head movement increased with refixation distance, especially in the main axis of refixation, and that RMS helmet slippage can be a function of RMS head motion. Further, large individual differences in the degree of head motion were found. These findings may have implications for designers and investigators of helmet-mounted avionics. PMID:8357316

  17. Proof of principle for helmet-mounted display image quality tester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Sheng-Jen; Harding, Thomas H.; Rash, Clarence E.; Beasley, Howard H.; Martin, John S.

    2003-09-01

    Helmet mounted displays (HMDs) provide essential pilotage and fire control imagery information for pilots. To maintain system integrity and readiness, there is a need to develop an image quality-testing tool for HMDs. There is currently no such tool. A framework for development of an image quality tester for the Integrated Helmet and Display Sighting System (IHADSS) used in the U.S. Army's AH-64 was proposed in Hsieh et al. This paper presents the prototype development, summarizes the bench test findings using three IHADSS helmet display units (HDUs), and concludes with recommendations for future directions. The prototype consists of hardware (two cameras, sensors, image capture/data acquisition cards, battery pack, HDU holder, moveable rack and handle, and computer) and software algorithms for image capture and analysis. Two cameras with different apertures were mounted in parallel on a rack facing the HDU holder. A handle was designed to allow users to position the HDU in front of the two cameras. The HMD test pattern was then captured. Sensors are used to detect the position of the holder and whether the HDU was angled correctly in relation to the camera. Two sets of unified algorithms were designed to detect features presented by the two cameras. These features include focus, orientation, displacement, field-of-view, and number of gray-shades. Images of test pattern were captured and analyzed, and used to develop a specification for each inspection feature. Experiments were conducted to verify the robustness of the algorithms. A worst-case scenario for factors such as clock-wise and counterclockwise tilt, degree of focus, magnitude of brightness and contrast, and shifted images were set up and evaluated. Bench testing of three field-quality HDUs indicate that the image analysis algorithms are robust and able to detect the desired image features. Suggested future work includes development of a learning algorithm to automatically develop or revise feature

  18. Using Social Marketing to Increase the Use of Helmets among Bicyclists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludwig, Timothy D.; Buchholz, Chris; Clarke, Steven W.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigated a social marketing intervention to increase the use of bicycle helmets on a university campus in the southeastern United States. Focus groups of students developed a bicycle helmet program slogan and logo (ie, "The Grateful Head"). The authors trained student bicyclists who already used helmets (n = 15) as…

  19. Impact of a Comprehensive Safety Program on Bicycle Helmet Use among Middle-School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Houten, Ron; Van Houten, Joy; Malenfant, J. E. Louis

    2007-01-01

    A bicycle helmet program was evaluated in three middle schools using a multiple baseline across schools design. Two of the three schools had histories of enforcement of helmet use. During baseline many students riding their bikes to and from school did not wear their helmets or wore them incorrectly. A program that consisted of peer data…

  20. 42 CFR 84.199 - Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum... DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.199 Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements. Facepieces, hoods, and helmets shall be designed and constructed to provide adequate vision...

  1. 42 CFR 84.176 - Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum... DEVICES Non-Powered Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.176 Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements. Facepieces, hoods, and helmets shall be designed and constructed to...

  2. 42 CFR 84.1136 - Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum... and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1136 Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements. (a) Facepieces, hoods, and helmets shall be designed and constructed to provide adequate vision...

  3. 42 CFR 84.199 - Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum... DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.199 Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements. Facepieces, hoods, and helmets shall be designed and constructed to provide adequate vision...

  4. 42 CFR 84.1136 - Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum... and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1136 Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements. (a) Facepieces, hoods, and helmets shall be designed and constructed to provide adequate vision...

  5. 42 CFR 84.176 - Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum... DEVICES Non-Powered Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.176 Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements. Facepieces, hoods, and helmets shall be designed and constructed to...

  6. Angles of entry of ultraviolet radiation into welding helmets.

    PubMed

    Tenkate, T S; Collins, M J

    1997-01-01

    To investigate the angles of entry of ultraviolet (UV) radiation into welding helmets, a UV detector was placed in the eye socket of a head form that was then fitted with a range of welding helmets. The head form was exposed to a collimated beam of UV radiation from various orientations, and the amount of infiltration was measured. Radiation was found to be reflected from the filter plate and into the detector (eye) after entering through (1) an opening between the edge of the shield and the side of the face, and (2) an opening between the top edge of the shield and the top of the head. These results have significance for UV exposure when welding is performed in highly reflective and enclosed situations, and for the design of welding helmets. PMID:9018838

  7. Helmet-Mounted Display Of Clouds Of Harmful Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diner, Daniel B.; Barengoltz, Jack B.; Schober, Wayne R.

    1995-01-01

    Proposed helmet-mounted opto-electronic instrument provides real-time stereoscopic views of clouds of otherwise invisible toxic, explosive, and/or corrosive gas. Display semitransparent: images of clouds superimposed on scene ordinarily visible to wearer. Images give indications on sizes and concentrations of gas clouds and their locations in relation to other objects in scene. Instruments serve as safety devices for astronauts, emergency response crews, fire fighters, people cleaning up chemical spills, or anyone working near invisible hazardous gases. Similar instruments used as sensors in automated emergency response systems that activate safety equipment and emergency procedures. Both helmet-mounted and automated-sensor versions used at industrial sites, chemical plants, or anywhere dangerous and invisible or difficult-to-see gases present. In addition to helmet-mounted and automated-sensor versions, there could be hand-held version. In some industrial applications, desirable to mount instruments and use them similarly to parking-lot surveillance cameras.

  8. Effects of bicycle helmet laws on children's injuries.

    PubMed

    Markowitz, Sara; Chatterji, Pinka

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, many states and localities in the USA have enacted bicycle helmet laws. We estimate the effects of these laws on injuries requiring emergency department treatment. Using hospital-level panel data and triple difference models, we find helmet laws are associated with reductions in bicycle-related head injuries among children. However, laws also are associated with decreases in non-head cycling injuries, as well as increases in head injuries from other wheeled sports. Thus, the observed reduction in bicycle-related head injuries may be due to reductions in bicycle riding induced by the laws. PMID:24115375

  9. Minimally Invasive Suturectomy and Postoperative Helmet Therapy : Advantages and Limitations

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Sangjoon; Wang, Kyu-Chang; Phi, Ji Hoon; Lee, Ji Yeoun

    2016-01-01

    Various operative techniques are available for the treatment of craniosynostosis. The patient's age at presentation is one of the most important factors in the determination of the surgical modality. Minimally invasive suturectomy and postoperative helmet therapy may be performed for relatively young infants, whose age is younger than 6 months. It relies upon the potential for rapid brain growth in this age group. Its minimal invasiveness is also advantageous. In this article, we review the advantages and limitations of minimally invasive suturectomy followed by helmet therapy for the treatment of craniosynostosis. PMID:27226853

  10. Teenagers' attitudes towards bicycle helmets three years after the introduction of mandatory wearing.

    PubMed Central

    Finch, C. F.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES AND SETTING: To address helmet wearing by 13-17 year olds this study posed the following research questions: 'Do education programs continue to be necessary even after the community wearing rate has increased?' and 'Are helmet laws more effective in encouraging wearing among certain age groups?' Victoria was the first place in the world to introduce bicycle helmet legislation. Experiences in Victoria therefore provide a good model for the introduction of similar legislation in other areas. This study is the first to examine teenagers' attitudes towards helmet wearing after the introduction of compulsory helmet wearing legislation. METHODS: A survey of 1240 year 9 and year 10 students, aged 13-17 years, from 14 secondary schools in the outer south eastern suburbs of Melbourne, was conducted in September 1993. Information about bicycle use, helmet wearing, and attitudes towards helmets was obtained by a self report questionnaire. RESULTS: Bicycles are a popular form of wheeled recreation/self transport among teenagers. 65% of teenagers reported that they owned a helmet but only one third wore a helmet the last time they rode a bicycle. Fewer than 25% of students always wore a helmet when they rode a bicycle, despite compulsory helmet wearing legislation. Major factors leading to teenagers not wanting to wear a helmet were appearance and comfort. Both safety considerations and parental pressures were factors that influenced a teenager to wear a helmet. CONCLUSIONS: The major areas that need to be addressed are low helmet wearing rates; the low priority given to safety issues compared with comfort and peer acceptance; an ignorance of the need for helmets in all riding situations; and a perception that the legislation would not be enforced. PMID:9346076

  11. Traumatic brain injury risk while parachuting: comparison of the personnel armor system for ground troops helmet and the advanced combat helmet.

    PubMed

    Ivins, Brian J; Crowley, John S; Johnson, Jeffrey; Warden, Deborah L; Schwab, Karen A

    2008-12-01

    Military paratroopers are inherently at risk for a variety of injuries when they jump, including traumatic brain injuries (TBIs). U.S. Army paratroopers rely on their ballistic helmets for protection against TBIs when jumping. Currently, two different helmets are available to Army paratroopers, that is, the personnel armor system for ground troops helmet and the advanced combat helmet. This study compared the incidence of self-reported, jump-related TBIs in a small sample of paratroopers (N = 585) using each type of helmet. Data were obtained from surveys of soldiers at Fort Bragg, North Carolina. The overall relative risk of sustaining a TBI while jumping was 2.3 times (95% confidence interval, 1.3-4.3) higher for personnel armor system for ground troops helmet users. Most of the increase in risk was accounted for by the most-minor TBIs (American Academy of Neurology grade 1 or 2 concussion). PMID:19149333

  12. Helmet-mounted display accuracy in the aircraft cockpit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulholland, Fred F.

    2002-08-01

    When a Helmet-Mounted Display (HMD) system is used in an aircraft cockpit, the usual intent is to overlay symbols or images in the display on their real-world object counterparts. The HMD system determines a pointing angle (in aircraft coordinates) to the real-world object. This pointing angle is sent to the Mission Computer (MC) for use by other aircraft systems and is used by the HMD to position symbology in the HMD image. The accuracy of the HMD is defined as the error of the pointing angle sent to the MC versus the real-world angle to the object. This error is usually given in terms of milli-radians (mrad). Note that having the symbol in the HMD image overlay the corresponding object in the real world does not necessarily ensure an accurate pointing angle. One example of HMD use is to position an aiming cross in the display over an aircraft in the sky. The pointing angle to that aircraft is sent via the MC to another sensor (radar, missile, targeting pod) which then locks onto that aircraft or object. The accuracy requirement is to get the other sensor pointed at an angle to detect the same aircraft. There are aircraft integration issues to ensure target acquisition, but these will not be covered in this paper. One component of the HMD system is a tracker system, and the tracker system's accuracy is often looked at as the HMD accuracy. However, the accuracy of the tracker system is only one piece of the total HMD system accuracy, and as trackers get better, they may not even be the largest error component. This paper identifies the various error components of the HMD system installed in the aircraft cockpit and discusses the techniques used for minimizing errors and improving accuracy.

  13. Low-cost helmet-mounted camera/display system for field testing teleoperator tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Robert E.; Ikehara, Curtis S.; Merritt, John O.

    1992-06-01

    A low cost helmet-mounted stereoscopic color viewing system designed for field testing teleoperator tasks is described. A stereo camera pair was mounted on a helmet to allow testing of a helmet-mounted display with real time video input. The display consisted of a pair of LCD color monitors viewed through a modified Wheatstone mirror system. The components were arranged on a stable platform that was attached to a hard plastic helmet. The helmet weight (9.5 pounds) was supported by a modified backpack. This backpack also contained support electronics and batteries. Design, construction, and evaluation tests of this viewing system are discussed.

  14. Low-cost color LCD helmet display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leinenwever, Roger; Best, Leonard G.; Ericksen, Bryce J.

    1992-10-01

    The goal of this helmet-mounted display (HMD) project was development and demonstration of a low-cost color display incorporating see-through optics. A full field-of-regard visual presentation was to be provided through the use of a head-tracker system and the HMD was to be suitable for use with low-cost cockpit trainers. The color imaging devices selected for the project are commercially available liquid crystal display (LCD) panels. The LCDs are 3.0 inch (diagonal) thin film transistor (TFT) types using a delta format for the red, green, blue (RGB) matrix. Fiber optic light panels mounted behind the LCDs provide a cool light source of greater than 3400 foot-lamberts (ft-L). Approximately 3 percent of the applied light source is emitted by the LCD image source. The video displayed is in a 3:4 format representing a 30 degree(s) vertical by 40 degree(s) horizontal biocular instantaneous field-of-view (IFOV) visual image from a graphic image generation system and is controlled in a full field of regard based on positional information from a head-tracker system. The optical elements of the HMD are designed as an exit pupil forming, see-through system and require the eye to be in a 15 mm volume for viewing the scene. The beam splitting function of the optics allows the user to see through the optics for reading cockpit instrumentation, while viewing outside the cockpit reveals the out-the-window (OTW) scene. The optic design allows for the IFOV to be displayed through a set of field lens, relay lens, folding mirror, beam splitter and spherical mirror system. The beam splitters and spherical mirrors for both optical paths are coated for approximately 50 percent transmission and reflectance. This approach, combined with the losses through the rest of the optical path, provides a theoretical maximum of 10.9 percent of the LCD image source intensity arriving at the eye. Initial tests of image intensity at the eye for a full white scene have measured at approximately 11 ft-L.

  15. Identifying psychological and socio-economic factors affecting motorcycle helmet use.

    PubMed

    Haqverdi, Mahdi Quchaniyan; Seyedabrishami, Seyedehsan; Groeger, John A

    2015-12-01

    Sixty percent of motorcyclist fatalities in traffic accidents of Iran are due to head injuries, but helmet use is low, despite it being a legal requirement. This study used face-to-face interviews to investigate the factors associated with helmet use among motorcycle riders in Mashhad city, the second largest city in Iran. Principal component analysis (PCA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were used for data reduction and identification of consistent features of the data. Ordered and multinomial logit analyses were used to quantify the influences on helmet use and non-use. The data show that 47% of the sample used a helmet, but a substantial proportion of these did not wear their helmet properly. In addition, 5% of motorcyclists believed that helmets reduced their safety. Norms, attitudes toward helmet use, risky traffic behavior and awareness of traffic rules were found to be the key determinants of helmet use, but perceptions of enforcement lacked influence. Duration of daily motorcycle trips, riding experience and type of job also affected helmet use. Results indicate that motorcyclist training, safety courses for offending motorcyclists and social programs to improve social norms and attitudes regarding helmet use are warranted, as are more effective law enforcement techniques, in order to increase proper use of helmets in Iranian motorcyclists. In addition, special safety courses should be considered for motorcyclists who have committed traffic violations. PMID:26410724

  16. Injuries of the head from backface deformation of ballistic protective helmets under ballistic impact.

    PubMed

    Rafaels, Karin A; Cutcliffe, Hattie C; Salzar, Robert S; Davis, Martin; Boggess, Brian; Bush, Bryan; Harris, Robert; Rountree, Mark Steve; Sanderson, Ellory; Campman, Steven; Koch, Spencer; Dale Bass, Cameron R

    2015-01-01

    Modern ballistic helmets defeat penetrating bullets by energy transfer from the projectile to the helmet, producing helmet deformation. This deformation may cause severe injuries without completely perforating the helmet, termed "behind armor blunt trauma" (BABT). As helmets become lighter, the likelihood of larger helmet backface deformation under ballistic impact increases. To characterize the potential for BABT, seven postmortem human head/neck specimens wearing a ballistic protective helmet were exposed to nonperforating impact, using a 9 mm, full metal jacket, 124 grain bullet with velocities of 400-460 m/s. An increasing trend of injury severity was observed, ranging from simple linear fractures to combinations of linear and depressed fractures. Overall, the ability to identify skull fractures resulting from BABT can be used in forensic investigations. Our results demonstrate a high risk of skull fracture due to BABT and necessitate the prevention of BABT as a design factor in future generations of protective gear. PMID:25039407

  17. Impact of TGF for aircrew dosimetry: analysis of continuous onboard measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trompier, Francois; Fuller, Nicolas; Bonnotte, Frank; Desmaris, Gérard; Musso, Angelica; Cale, Eric; Bottollier-Depois, Jean-François

    2014-05-01

    The actual assessment of the occupational exposure of aircrew to cosmic radiation is performed in routine by software based on the crossing of route flight data with dose rate maps of the atmosphere obtained by simulation or elaborated with model based on measured data. In addition of the galactic component, some of these softwares take into account also the possible increase of dose from solar flares. In several publications, terrestrial gamma-rays flashes (TGF) are also investigated as a possible source of exposure of aircrew. Up to now, the evaluation of the impact of TGF in terms of dose onboard aircraft has been performed only by calculation. According to these publications, if the airplane is located in or near the high-field region during the lightning discharge, doses could reach the order of 100 of mSv, which far exceed the annual dose limit for workers (1). To our knowledge, no measured data has been yet reported for such phenomena that could confirm or not the order of magnitude of dose from TGF or the frequency or the probability of occurrence of such phenomena. To investigate further the TGF effect, it is recommended to perform measurements onboard airplanes. Since the beginning of 2013, the Institute of Radiation Protection and nuclear Safety (IRSN) in cooperation with Air France is running a campaign of continuous measurements with active devices aiming to measure effect on dose rate of solar flare. These measurements are used to improve models used to estimate the doses from Ground Level Event (GLE). In addition, passive dosimeters were historically installed in Air France airplanes and read out every three months constituting a very large database of dose measurements. All these data will be analyzed to better characterize the possible influence on dose from TGF. The statistical analysis of these data offers the possibility to estimate the order of magnitude of possible additional doses to aircrew due to TGF and/or to evaluate the probability of

  18. 49 CFR 571.218 - Standard No. 218; Motorcycle helmets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY STANDARDS Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.218 Standard No. 218; Motorcycle helmets. S1. Scope. This standard... destroy it and replace it.” (4) Any additional relevant safety information should be applied at the...

  19. The effects of dynamic friction in oblique motorcycle helmet impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonugli, Enrique

    The purpose of this study was to determine the frictional properties between the exterior surface of a motorcycle helmet and 'typical' roadway surfaces. These values were compared to abrasive papers currently recommended by government helmet safety standards and widely used by researchers in the field of oblique motorcycle helmet impacts. A guided freefall test fixture was utilized to obtain nominal impact velocities of 5, 7 and 9 m/s. The impacting surfaces were mounted to an angled anvil to simulate off-centered oblique collision. Head accelerations and impact forces were measured for each test. Analysis of the normal and tangential forces imparted to the contact surface indicated that the frictional properties of abrasive papers differ from asphalt and cement in magnitude, duration and onset. Reduction in head acceleration, both linear and angular, were observed when asphalt and cement were used as the impacting surface. Roofing shingle was determined to be a more suitable material to simulate 'typical' roadway surfaces however, this may not be ideal for use in a controlled laboratory setting. In a laboratory setting, the author recommends cement as a best-fit material to simulate roadway surface for use in oblique motorcycle helmet impacts since this material displayed characteristics that closely resemble asphalt and is currently used as a roadway construction material.

  20. Oronasal mask versus helmet in acute hypercapnic respiratory failure.

    PubMed

    Pisani, Lara; Mega, Chiara; Vaschetto, Rosanna; Bellone, Andrea; Scala, Raffaele; Cosentini, Roberto; Musti, Muriel; Del Forno, Manuela; Grassi, Mario; Fasano, Luca; Navalesi, Paolo; Nava, Stefano

    2015-03-01

    The choice of the interface for noninvasive ventilation (NIV) is a key factor in NIV success. We hypothesised that a new helmet specifically design to improve performance in hypercapnic patients would be clinically equivalent to a standard oronasal mask. In a multicentre, short-term, physiological, randomised trial in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients facing an acute hypercapnic respiratory failure episode, we compared the changes in arterial blood gases (ABGs) and tolerance score obtained using the helmet or mask, and, as secondary end-points, dyspnoea, vital signs, early NIV discontinuation and rate of intubation. 80 patients were randomly assigned to receive NIV either with the helmet (n=39) or mask (n=41), using an intensive care unit ventilator. Compared with baseline, in the first 6 h, NIV improved ABGs, dyspnoea and respiratory rate (p<0.05) in both groups. Changes in ABGs and discomfort were similar with the two groups, while dyspnoea decreased more (p<0.005) using the mask. The rate of intubation and the need for interface change during the whole period of NIV were very low and not different between groups. The new helmet may be a valid alternative to a mask in improving ABGs and achieving a good tolerance during an episode of acute hypercapnic respiratory failure. PMID:25504992

  1. Mandatory helmet legislation and the print media in Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Hill, Peter S; Ngo, Anh D; Khuong, Tuan A; Dao, Huong L; Hoang, Hanh T M; Trinh, Hang T; Nguyen, Lien T N; Nguyen, Phong H

    2009-07-01

    With motorcycle ownership high and rising in Viet Nam, and motorcycle riders vulnerable to both fatal and non-fatal injury, the re-introduction of mandatory helmet legislation in 2007 has been a priority for the Vietnamese government. The paper uses a qualitative analysis of web-based versions of the eight most popular newspapers in Viet Nam to track reporting over four phases of the implementation of the legislation, identifying codes and constructing the dominant themes of the media coverage. The study documents the justification and promotion of the legislation, and the mechanisms for preparing for its implementation at a national and local level, developing solutions and encouraging the replication of successful strategies. It records opposition and obstacles to helmet use, and concerns raised around the quality of helmets purchased. In return, the press notes the response of the market in innovative solutions to these problems. With the successful implementation of the legislation, the functions of the print media in promulgating and promoting the legislation, together with the reporting of ongoing resistance to the process, serve to enable a dialogue between the State and population around expressed concerns. In highlighting quality control of helmets as a key issue, the media have identified a potential ongoing role in monitoring the state's initiative in reducing the road toll from traumatic brain injury in motorcyclists. PMID:19540968

  2. 49 CFR 571.218 - Standard No. 218; Motorcycle helmets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard No. 218; Motorcycle helmets. 571.218 Section 571.218 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY STANDARDS Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards §...

  3. Helmet-Mounted Display Symbology and Stabilization Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Richard L.

    1995-01-01

    The helmet-mounted display (HMD) presents flight, sensor, and weapon information in the pilot's line of sight. The HMD was developed to allow the pilot to retain aircraft and weapon information and to view sensor images while looking off boresight.

  4. Comfortable, lightweight safety helmet holds radio transmitter, receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atlas, N. D.

    1964-01-01

    For two-way radio communication where safety gear is required, a lightweight helmet with few protrusions has been designed. The electronics components and power supply are mounted between the inner and outer shells, and resilient padding is used for the lining.

  5. 76 FR 28131 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Motorcycle Helmets

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... procedures for better enforcement of the performance requirements. \\9\\ 73 FR 57297, Docket NHTSA-2008-0157... performance requirements for motorcycle helmets to reduce traumatic brain injury and other types of head... the 1997 Levels 2. Motorcyclist Head Injuries 3. NHTSA's Comprehensive Motorcycle Safety Plan and...

  6. Evaluation of evaporative heat transfer characteristics of helmets.

    PubMed

    Liu, X; Holmér, I

    1997-05-01

    The prime purpose of a safety helmet is to protect against occupational hazards. However, thermal comfort is one important ergonomics requirement for a helmet to be accepted by its wearer. To design and manufacture a thermally comfortable helmet, a method for testing and evaluating the thermal properties is essential. Research has long focused on the evaluation of dry heat transfer (conduction, convection and radiation). Evaporative heat transfer was not much addressed. In order to analyze the wet heat transfer (evaporation) component, a sweating thermal head manikin has been used. In this study the method has been further improved by constructing a new sweating head manikin. The surface of the head manikin is divided into five zones which can provide more detailed information about the environmental effects on the heat transfer from the head when a helmet is worn. Water supply (simulated sweating) is also improved by use of an electronic pumping system which provides a steady and adjustable flow rate of water to the head manikin. Experiments were conducted within a climatic chamber with this improved method under different test conditions: the ambient temperature and the head manikin surface temperature are set at the same level: 34 +/- 0.5 degrees C; two levels of head surface wettedness: 0.44 and 1.0; two levels of ambient humidity: 30% and 60%; and two levels of wind speed: 0.4 m/s and 1.0 m/s. Seven different helmets were used in the experiments. The results showed that the improved method revealed more detailed information about the evaporative heat transfer; it is easier to use and control; less error is involved with the measurement. PMID:9230523

  7. Factors associated with bicycle-helmet use among 8-16 years aged Turkish children: a questionnaire survey.

    PubMed

    Secginli, Selda; Cosansu, Gulhan; Nahcivan, Nursen O

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional, descriptive study was to assess the rates of helmet and to examine variables related to bicycle helmet use in a sample of 8-16 year old Turkish children. Data were collected from a purposive sample of 1180 students who self-identified as cyclists and 1128 parents or guardians in two state primary schools in two urban municipalities in the northern part of Istanbul, Turkey. Results showed that self-reported helmet use was found prevalent in 4.4% of the children. The most cited reasons for not wearing a helmet were: 'don't own one', 'helmets are uncool', and 'uncomfortable'. Significant differences between helmet users and non-users correlated to gender, age, owning a bicycle helmet, wearing a friend's bicycle helmet and parents or guardian's bicycle helmet use while riding. Only three variables--helmet ownership (OR = 10.028, 95% CI 5.08, 19.79), parents' helmet use (OR = 2.62, 95% CI 1.22, 5.66) and friends' helmet use (OR = 0.16, 95% CI 0.07, 0.37) emerged as significant predictors of the likelihood of helmet use. The relatively low helmet use prevalence points to an urgent need for a multipronged campaign, including strategies such as raising awareness, educating primarly parents and friends, and distributing bicycle helmets for free or at a reduced cost. PMID:24107078

  8. Motorcyclists, full-face helmets and neck injuries: can you take the helmet off safely, and if so, how?

    PubMed Central

    Branfoot, T

    1994-01-01

    Injured motorcyclists may have a damaged and unstable cervical spine (C-spine). This paper looks at whether a helmet can be safely removed, how and when should this be done? The literature is reviewed and the recommendations of the Trauma Working party of the Joint Colleges Ambulance Liaison Committee are presented. PMID:7921566

  9. Neck pain in military helicopter aircrew and the role of exercise therapy.

    PubMed

    Salmon, Danielle M; Harrison, Michael F; Neary, J Patrick

    2011-10-01

    Neck pain is a growing aeromedical concern for military forces on an international scale. Neck pain prevalence in the global military helicopter community has been reported in the range of 56.6-84.5%. Despite this high prevalence, historically, research examining helicopter aircrews has focused predominantly on low back pain. A number of recent studies have emerged examining flight-related factors that are hypothesized to contribute to the development of flight-related neck pain. Loading factors such as the posture adopted during flight, use of night vision goggles, and vibration have all been found to contribute to neck pain and muscular fatigue. Prolonged or repeated exposureto these loading factors has been hypothesized to perpetuate or contribute to the development of neck pain. Despite the high number of helicopter aircrew personnel that suffer from neck pain, very few individuals seek treatment for the disorder. The focus of medical personnel should, therefore, be directed toward a solution that addresses not only the issue of muscular fatigue, but the hesitancy to seek treatment. Previous research in military and civilian populations have used exercise therapy as a treatment modality for neck pain and have found improved endurance capacity in the neck musculature and reduced self-reported neck pain. PMID:21961403

  10. Visual performance with night vision goggles (NVGs) measured in U.S. Air Force aircrew members

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeVilbiss, Carita A.; Ercoline, William R.; Antonio, Joseph C.

    1994-06-01

    Since vision is by far the most important sensory input for spatial orientation, it is important to obtain the best visual performance possible from any device. To determine whether current devices were being properly adjusted, visual performance data were obtained from USAF NVG aircrew members after they (1) adjusted the goggle using their usual method of adjustment, (2) used the NVG resolution chart to augment their usual method, and (3) used goggle-adjustment procedures learned in the training class. Results show that without a standard target or procedures, aircrew members were not able to obtain optimal goggle performance - the average visual performance was 20/53 for the 218 aviators in this study. For the 158 aviators who also used the standard target with their usual procedure, there was a significant improvement (average of 20/47). Finally, significantly better goggle performance (average of 20/37) was obtained when 48 aviators adjusted their goggles using procedures learned in the adjustment training class. While these data support the importance of preflight adjustment of NVGs, they represent visual performance under optimal, controlled conditions. It is important to remember that visual performance under actual flight conditions can be significantly impaired with reduced illumination, low contrast levels, improper cockpit lighting, and poor transmissivity of infrared energy through the transparencies.

  11. Detection of coronary artery disease in asymptomatic aircrew members with thallium-201 scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Uhl, G S; Kay, T N; Hickman, J R; Montgomery, M A; McGranahan, G M

    1980-11-01

    Thallium-201 exercise myocardial perfusion scintigraphy was accomplished in 130 aircrew members prior to their undergoing coronary angiography. Most were undergoing cardiac catheterization for an abnormal exercise response to treadmill testing. Of these, 22 men had arteriographic evidence of obstructive coronary disease of at least 50% narrowing in a single vessel. All had abnormal myocardial scintigrams. There were 12 other aviators who had minimal degrees of coronary artery disease with lesions less than 50% as the maximum degree of obstruction. Of these, 8 had abnormal thallium scans showing a perfusion defect in the area of the myocardium, presumably supplied by the diseased coronary artery. Of the 96 men with normal angiograms, only 4 had abnormal myocardial scintigraphy. An abnormal myocardial scintigram was often associated with significant obstructive disease. A normal scan accurately ruled out the presence of high-grade obstructive lesions and missed only four cases of minimal coronary disease. The application of gated thallium myocardial perfusion scans in the practice of aerospace cardiology has important significant applications for followup of therapeutic modalities as well as screening for evidence of myocardial ischemia in apparently healthy aircrew members. PMID:7213273

  12. Does human cognition allow Human Factors (HF) certification of advanced aircrew systems?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macleod, Iain S.; Taylor, Robert M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper has examined the requirements of HF specification and certification within advanced or complex aircrew systems. It suggests reasons for current inadequacies in the use of HF in the design process, giving some examples in support, and suggesting an avenue towards the improvement of the HF certification process. The importance of human cognition to the operation and performance of advanced aircrew systems has been stressed. Many of the shortfalls of advanced aircrew systems must be attributed to over automated designs that show little consideration on either the mental limits or the cognitive capabilities of the human system component. Traditional approaches to system design and HF certification are set within an over physicalistic foundation. Also, traditionally it was assumed that physicalistic system functions could be attributed to either the human or the machine on a one to one basis. Moreover, any problems associated with the parallel needs, or promoting human understanding alongside system operation and direction, were generally equated in reality by the natural flexibility and adaptability of human skills. The consideration of the human component of a complex system is seen as being primarily based on manifestations of human behavior to the almost total exclusion of any appreciation of unobservable human mental and cognitive processes. The argument of this paper is that the considered functionality of any complex human-machine system must contain functions that are purely human and purely cognitive. Human-machine system reliability ultimately depends on human reliability and dependability and, therefore, on the form and frequency of cognitive processes that have to be conducted to support system performance. The greater the demand placed by an advanced aircraft system on the human component's basic knowledge processes or cognition, rather than on skill, the more insiduous the effects the human may have on that system. This paper discusses one

  13. Evolution of bicycle helmet use and its determinants in France: 2000-2010.

    PubMed

    Richard, Jean-Baptiste; Thélot, Bertrand; Beck, François

    2013-11-01

    This paper aims to analyse helmet use in France, as a voluntary behaviour rather than a legal requirement, promoted by public awareness campaigns. It aims to investigate the determinants of helmet wearing and to explore its evolution from 2000 to 2010. The analysis relies on data from a series of general population surveys called "Health Barometers": 2000 (n=13,163), 2005 (n=25,651) and 2010 (n=8573). Multivariate logistic regressions were used to identify factors associated with helmet use and time trends. Nearly half of the 15-75 year olds surveyed reported that they rode a bicycle, and among these cyclists, 22.0% reported that they wore a helmet on their last ride. Further analysis by gender reveals that twice as many men than women wore helmets. Over the last decade, helmet use among cyclists has clearly increased, from 7.3% in 2000 to 22.0% in 2010, whereas the influence of social and economic factors, such as unemployment and wage disparities, appears to have decreased. Several determinants of bicycle helmet use were highlighted. To improve the effectiveness of further public information campaigns on helmet use, the key target groups should include women, under 25 year olds and people living in urban areas. Promoting the wearing of helmets among families should also be enhanced, given the higher rate of helmet use by parents as well as children. PMID:24041598

  14. A proposal for the mandatory inclusion of helmets with new children's bicycles.

    PubMed

    Dannenberg, A L; Vernick, J S

    1993-05-01

    To reduce bicycle-related head injuries in children, we propose new regulations be established that mandate the inclusion of approved helmets with the sale of all new children's bicycles. Currently, purchasing a helmet is a separate economic decision that acts as a barrier to helmet ownership and use. The inclusion of a helmet with the bicycle would markedly increase helmet ownership. The increased demand would reduce the manufacturing cost per helmet, so the cost of the bicycle with the helmet would be lower than the current retail price of the two separately. This proposal could potentially be implemented by federal or state legislation, a Consumer Product Safety Commission regulation, or voluntary adoption of a practice or standard by bicycle manufacturers. Increased helmet ownership is necessary but not sufficient to raise helmet use rates. The increased ownership generated by this proposal, complemented by enhanced educational, promotional, and legal interventions, is probably the most practical and cost-effective public health strategy available to increase helmet usage and prevent bicycle-related head injuries in children. PMID:8484441

  15. Instructor/Operator Station Design Handbook for Aircrew Training Devices. Final Technical Report for Period March 1982-December 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, H. D.

    Human engineering guidelines for the design of instructor/operator stations (IOSs) for aircrew training devices are provided in this handbook. These guidelines specify the preferred configuration of IOS equipment across the range of the anticipated user sizes and performance capabilities. The guidelines are consolidated from various human…

  16. Training Reflective Processes in Military Aircrews through Holistic Debriefing: The Importance of Facilitator Skills and Development of Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moldjord, Christian; Hybertsen, Ingunn Dahler

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores how Holistic Debrief, a new concept in the field of debriefing and reflective processes, can contribute to restitution, reflection and learning in professional teams following stressful events and routine tasks. Interviews were conducted with Norwegian military aircrew mission commanders following deployment to Afghanistan in…

  17. Tests with an integrated helmet system for the TIGER helicopter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehm, Hans-Dieter V.; Evers, Carl; Stenner, K.-H.

    1998-08-01

    The TIGER helicopter is under development by the MODs of France and Germany for their armies. The initial German requirement was for anti-tank missions only. This task has been extended to support missions which resulted in an upgrade to the German 'UH-TIGER' variant. German MOD is planning to procure 212 UH-TIGER helicopters armed with TRIGAT-, HOT anti-tank missiles, STINGER air-to-air missiles, 68 mm rockets and a gun pod with a 12.7 mm gun.

  18. Comanche Helmet-Mounted Display Heading-Tape Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turpin, Terry; Dowell, Susan; Atencio, Adolph

    2006-01-01

    The Aeroflightdynamics Directorate (AMRDEC) conducted a simulation to assess the performance associated with a Contact Analog, world-referenced heading tape as implemented on the Comanche Helmet Integrated Display Sight System (HIDSS) when compared with a Compressed heading tape similar to that specified by the former Military Standard (MIL-STD) 1295. Six experienced pilots flew three modified Aeronautical Design Standards (ADS)-33 maneuvers (Hover Turn, Bob-up, Transient Turn) and a precision traffic pattern in the NASA Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS). Analysis of the pilot objective performance data and subjective handling qualities ratings (HQRs) showed the following: Compressed symbology in the Velocity Stabilization (VelStab) flight mode generally produced the most precise performances over Contact Analog symbology with respect to the heading, altitude, position, and time criteria specified for the maneuvers tested. VelStab outperformed the Automatic Flight Control System (AFCS) on all maneuvers achieving desired performance on most maneuvers for both symbol sets. Performance in the AFCS mode was generally desirable to adequate for heading and altitude and did not meet adequate standards for hover position and time for the Hover Turn and Bob-up maneuvers. VelStab and AFCS performance were nearly the same for the Transient Turn. Pilot comments concerning the Contact Analog heading-tape implementation were generally unfavorable in spite of the achieved levels of performance. HQRs showed Compressed symbology in the VelStab flight mode produced the lowest mean HQR, encompassing mixed ratings of satisfactory handling and needing improvement. All other symbology/flight-mode combinations yielded higher HQRs, which characterized opinions that deficiencies in aircraft handling due to HMD symbology would need improvement. Contact Analog heading tape and other symbology require improvement, especially when operating in the AFCS mode. NASA-TLX rated Compressed symbology

  19. Motorcycle helmet use in Mar del Plata, Argentina: prevalence and associated factors.

    PubMed

    Ledesma, Rubén D; López, Soledad S; Tosi, Jeremías; Poó, Fernando M

    2015-01-01

    Injuries resulting from motorcycle crashes constitute a growing problem in Argentina and other Latin American countries. The problem is aggravated because helmet use is not widespread. This observational study analysed the prevalence of helmet use and related factors in a city in Argentina. The sample consisted of 2542 observations of motorcyclists. The results show an incidence of helmet use of 69.8% for drives and 43.4% for passengers. Helmet use was greater among women. Environmental and temporal conditions were related with the rate of helmet use. The findings indicate a considerable increase in helmet use with respect to prior years, providing evidence in favour of government policies. However, the number of motorcycles in circulation has tripled in the past five years, and therefore, the public health impact of injuries due to motorcycle crashes persists. PMID:24499339

  20. Does Promoting Bicycle-Helmet Wearing Reduce Childhood Head Injuries?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farley, Celine; Vaez, Marjan; Laflamme, Lucie

    2004-01-01

    The objectives of the study are to assess the impact of a community-based bicycle-helmet program aimed at children aged 5-12 years (about 140,000). A quasi-experimental design, including a control group, was used. Sex- and age-group-based changes in the risk of bicycle-related head injury leading to hospitalisation were measured, using rate…

  1. 49 CFR 571.218 - Standard No. 218; Motorcycle helmets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... medium headform. A helmet with a manufacturer's designated discrete size or size range which exceeds 71/2... (136.1 kg), the outer surface of which consists of a steel plate with minimum thickness of 1 inch (2.5... Test headform size Weight range 1—lb kg) Small 7.6-8.0 (3.4-3.6) Medium 10.8-11.2 (4.9-5.1) Large...

  2. Cockpit to helmet optical wireless link: prototype hardware demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, M. A.; White, H. J.; Aldridge, N. B.; Lam, J.; Atkinson, R.

    2009-09-01

    This paper describes recent progress in developing a wireless optical link between the fuselage of a cockpit and an aviation helmet. Such a link is desired to replace the physical umbilical cable existing in current cockpit systems, for reasons of potential bandwidth, immunity to EM interference, and freedom from physical constraints within the cockpit. The link concept consists of multiple transmitters embedded in the cockpit fuselage, each sending video (or symbology) data out in a cone of light over free space, which is detected by an array of receivers positioned on the helmet - the data is then sent to the eyepieces or visor of the pilot (after any intermediate processing). The design is such that one of these links is always maintained throughout possible movement of the head. In a recent proof-of-principle demonstration we showed uncompressed, 100 Mbps video data streamed live from the fuselage of a cockpit simulator to an angled cluster of silicon-based receivers mounted on the helmet, via a pair of ~1 Watt free-space lasers operating at 810 nm. Fast Ethernet media converters were used here for convenience and cost. The bespoke optical and electrical link components were developed in close collaboration with suppliers. The system performance arises from: the high dynamic range of the receivers (up to 25 dB), which are equipped with optical antennae to magnify the optical gain; the high power of the lasers; and the switching electronics used to control the signal path on the helmet. Future potential improvements to the technology are discussed, with an indication of wireless link requirements for relevant BAE Systems applications.

  3. Helmet-mounted uncooled FPA camera for use in firefighting applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Cheng; Feng, Shengrong; Li, Kai; Pan, Shunchen; Su, Junhong; Jin, Weiqi

    2000-05-01

    From the concept and need background of firefighters to the thermal imager, we discuss how the helmet-mounted camera applied in the bad environment of conflagration, especially at the high temperature, and how the better matching between the thermal imager with the helmet will be put into effect in weight, size, etc. Finally, give a practical helmet- mounted IR camera based on the uncooled focal plane array detector for in firefighting.

  4. Utilizing computed tomography scans for analysis of motorcycle helmets in real-world crashes - biomed 2011.

    PubMed

    Loftis, Kathryn L; Moreno, Daniel P; Tan, Joshua; Gabler, Hampton C; Stitzel, Joel D

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, there were more than 5,000 motorcycle crash fatalities in the United States. Many states have motorcycle helmet laws that are meant to protect riders during a crash. After recruiting motorcycle occupants injured in crashes, a protocol was established to scan three different types of motorcycle helmets commonly worn (cap, ¾ shield, and full face shield) using a computed tomography (CT) scanner. The protocol developed was for a GE 64 slice PET/CT Discovery VCT scanner with axial images from anterior to posterior helmet acquired in helical mode. It had 512x512 resolution and the full face and ¾ face shield helmets were scanned with greater voxels in the axial plane compared to the skull cap helmets. New helmets were scanned as exemplary images for comparison with helmets involved in motorcycle crashes. After CT scans were gathered, three-dimensional reconstructions were made to visualize scratches and impacts to the exterior of the helmets. Initial work was also conducted in analyzing interior components, and a trend was seen in decreased thickness between the interior foam and shell with sides of the exterior helmet thought to have contacted roadside barriers or the ground during motorcycle crashes. These helmet analysis methods have been established, and will be used to investigate multiple motorcycle crashes in conjunction with occupant injuries and direct head impacts to improve helmet design and the understanding of head injuries. This work also establishes the basis for development of finite element models of three of the most common helmet types. PMID:21525626

  5. Laminated helmet materials characterization by terahertz kinetics spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Anis; Rahman, Aunik K.

    2015-05-01

    High speed acquisition of reflected terahertz energy constitutes a kinetics spectrum that is an effective tool for layered materials' deformation characterization under ballistic impact. Here we describe utilizing the kinetics spectrum for quantifying a deformation event due to impact in material used for Soldier's helmet. The same technique may be utilized for real-time assessment of trauma by measuring the helmet wore by athletes. The deformation of a laminated material (e.g., a helmet) is dependent on the nature of impact and projectile; thus can uniquely characterize the impact condition leading to a diagnostic procedure based on the energy received by an athlete during an impact. We outline the calibration process for a given material under ballistic impact and then utilize the calibration for extracting physical parameters from the measured kinetics spectrum. Measured kinetics spectra are used to outline the method and rationale for extending the concept to a diagnosis tool. In particular, captured kinetics spectra from multilayered plates subjected to ballistic hit under experimental conditions by high speed digital acquisition system. An algorithm was devised to extract deformation and deformation velocity from which the energy received on the skull was estimated via laws of nonrelativistic motion. This energy is assumed to be related to actual injury conditions, thus forming a basis for determining whether the hit would cause concussion, trauma, or stigma. Such quantification may be used for diagnosing a Soldier's trauma condition in the field or that of an athlete's.

  6. Effectiveness of Collision-Involved Motorcycle Helmets in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Wobrock, Jesse; Smith, Terry; Kasantikul, Vira; Whiting, William

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze variables present in selected motorcycle crashes involving helmeted riders to find the best injury predictors. The helmets used in this study were collected from motorcycle crashes in Thailand. Pertinent data were collected, a conventional helmet impact drop test apparatus was used to quantify the head impact forces, and stepwise multiple regression analyses were performed. The results indicate that the geometry of the object impacting the head and GSI were the best predictors for MAIS (R2=.875) while geometry of the object, liner thickness and impact energy were the best predictors for ISS (R2=.911). Analysis of motor vehicle crashes in the United States in the year 2001 reveals that motorcyclist fatalities increased 7.2%, from 2,862 fatalities in 2000 to 3,067 in 2001 [NHTSA 2002]. In 2001, 59,000 motorcyclists were injured, which represents an increase of 2.0% from 2000. These statistics are indicative of the risk that motorcycle riders face in the traffic environment and warrant the need for further research focusing on injury potential in motorcycle crashes. PMID:12941212

  7. Bicycle helmets are highly effective at preventing head injury during head impact: head-form accelerations and injury criteria for helmeted and unhelmeted impacts.

    PubMed

    Cripton, Peter A; Dressler, Daniel M; Stuart, Cameron A; Dennison, Christopher R; Richards, Darrin

    2014-09-01

    Cycling is a popular form of recreation and method of commuting with clear health benefits. However, cycling is not without risk. In Canada, cycling injuries are more common than in any other summer sport; and according to the US National Highway and Traffic Safety Administration, 52,000 cyclists were injured in the US in 2010. Head injuries account for approximately two-thirds of hospital admissions and three-quarters of fatal injuries among injured cyclists. In many jurisdictions and across all age levels, helmets have been adopted to mitigate risk of serious head injuries among cyclists and the majority of epidemiological literature suggests that helmets effectively reduce risk of injury. Critics have raised questions over the actual efficacy of helmets by pointing to weaknesses in existing helmet epidemiology including selection bias and lack of appropriate control for the type of impact sustained by the cyclist and the severity of the head impact. These criticisms demonstrate the difficulty in conducting epidemiology studies that will be regarded as definitive and the need for complementary biomechanical studies where confounding factors can be adequately controlled. In the bicycle helmet context, there is a paucity of biomechanical data comparing helmeted to unhelmeted head impacts and, to our knowledge, there is no data of this type available with contemporary helmets. In this research, our objective was to perform biomechanical testing of paired helmeted and unhelmeted head impacts using a validated anthropomorphic test headform and a range of drop heights between 0.5m and 3.0m, while measuring headform acceleration and Head Injury Criterion (HIC). In the 2m (6.3m/s) drops, the middle of our drop height range, the helmet reduced peak accelerations from 824g (unhelmeted) to 181g (helmeted) and HIC was reduced from 9667 (unhelmeted) to 1250 (helmeted). At realistic impact speeds of 5.4m/s (1.5m drop) and 6.3m/s (2.0m drop), bicycle helmets changed the

  8. Helmet Use Amongst Equestrians: Harnessing Social and Attitudinal Factors Revealed in Online Forums.

    PubMed

    Haigh, Laura; Thompson, Kirrilly

    2015-01-01

    Equestrian activities pose significant head injury risks to participants. Yet, helmet use is not mandatory in Australia outside of selected competitions. Awareness of technical countermeasures and the dangers of equestrian activities has not resulted in widespread adoption of simple precautionary behaviors like helmet use. Until the use of helmets whilst riding horses is legislated in Australia, there is an urgent need to improve voluntary use. To design effective injury prevention interventions, the factors affecting helmet use must first be understood. To add to current understandings of these factors, we examined the ways horse riders discussed helmet use by analyzing 103 posts on two helmet use related threads from two different Australian equestrian forums. We found evidence of social influence on helmet use behaviors as well as three attitudes that contributed towards stated helmet use that we termed: "I Can Control Risk", "It Does Not Feel Right" and "Accidents Happen". Whilst we confirm barriers identified in previous literature, we also identify their ability to support helmet use. This suggests challenging but potentially useful complexity in the relationship between risk perception, protective knowledge, attitudes, decision-making and behavior. Whilst this complexity is largely due to the involvement of interspecies relationships through which safety, risk and trust are distributed; our findings about harnessing the potential of barriers could be extended to other high risk activities. PMID:26479375

  9. Adult headform impact tests of three Japanese child bicycle helmets into a vehicle.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Koji; Ito, Daisuke; Yoshida, Ryoichi; Masuda, Hiroyuki; Okada, Hiroshi; Nomura, Mitsunori; Fujii, Chikayo

    2014-12-01

    The head is the body region that most frequently incurs fatal and serious injuries of cyclists in collisions against vehicles. Many research studies investigated helmet effectiveness in preventing head injuries using accident data. In this study, the impact attenuation characteristics of three Japanese child bicycle helmets were examined experimentally in impact tests into a concrete surface and a vehicle. A pedestrian adult headform with and without a Japanese child bicycle helmet was dropped onto a concrete surface and then propelled into a vehicle at 35 km/h in various locations such as the bonnet, roof header, windshield and A-pillar. Accelerations were measured and head injury criterion (HIC) calculated. In the drop tests using the adult headform onto a concrete surface from the height of 1.5m, the HIC for a headform without a child helmet was 6325, and was reduced by around 80% when a child helmet was fitted to the headform. In the impact tests, where the headform was fired into the vehicle at 35 km/h at various locations on a car, the computed acceleration based HIC varied depending on the vehicle impact locations. The HIC was reduced by 10-38% for impacts headforms with a child helmet when the impact was onto a bonnet-top and roof header although the HIC was already less than 1000 in impacts with the headform without a child helmet. Similarly, for impacts into the windshield (where a cyclist's head is most frequently impacted), the HIC using the adult headform without a child helmet was 122; whereas when the adult headform was used with a child helmet, a higher HIC value of more than 850 was recorded. But again, the HIC values are below 1000. In impacts into the A-pillar, the HIC was 4816 for a headform without a child helmet and was reduced by 18-38% for a headform with a child helmet depending on the type of Japanese child helmet used. The tests demonstrated that Japanese child helmets are effective in reducing accelerations and HIC in a drop test using

  10. [Craniocerebral trauma in fall from bicycles--what is the effect of a protective helmet?].

    PubMed

    Kelsch, G; Helber, M U; Ulrich, C

    1996-03-01

    A prospective study was performed to analyze the particular injuries of 76 cyclists who required in-patient treatment in our department in 1994. There were 50 male and 26 female cyclists, with a median age of 33 years (range: 4-87 years). The most frequent diagnosis, in 50% (n = 38), was head injury. The series included 63 cyclist (83%) who had not been wearing helmets, and 33 of these sustained a head injury; in the helmet group head injury was found in only 38% (5 out of 13). It is remarkable that more serious head injuries did not occur in the helmet group. In 24 of these 33 head-injured patients (73%) without helmets additional intra- and extracranial diagnoses were made: pathologic EEG in 18 patients (55%), skull fracture in 13 patients (39%), intracerebral haemorrhagic contusion in 4 patients (12%) and an increase in intracerebral pressure (edema) in 3 patients (9%). In contrast to these findings, only 2 of the 5 head-injured patients (40%) in the helmet group showed slight changes in the EEG. In our opinion the bicycle helmet can reduce the incidence and the grade severity of head injuries significantly, particularly as we had 2 deaths in the non-helmet group and none in the helmet group. The use of a bicycle helmet is therefore strongly advocated. PMID:8685726

  11. Evaluation of the protective capacity of baseball helmets for concussive impacts.

    PubMed

    Post, Andrew; Karton, Clara; Blaine Hoshizaki, T; Gilchrist, Michael D; Bailes, Julian

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine how four different types of baseball helmets perform for baseball impacts when performance was measured using variables associated with concussion. A helmeted Hybrid III headform was impacted by a baseball, and linear and rotational acceleration as well as maximum principal strain were measured for each impact condition. The method was successful in distinguishing differences in design characteristics between the baseball helmets. The results indicated that there is a high risk of concussive injury from being hit by a ball regardless of helmet worn. PMID:25855861

  12. Critical testing for helmet-mounted displays: a tracking system accuracy test for the joint helmet mounted cueing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renner, Adam P.

    2012-06-01

    Helmet mounted displays have not been supported with adequate methods and materials to validate and verify the performance of the underlying tracking systems when tested in a simulated or operational environment. Like most electronic systems on aircraft, HMDs evolve over the lifecycle of the system due to requirements changes or diminishing manufacturing sources. Hardware and software bugs are often introduced as the design evolves and it is necessary to revalidate a systems performance attributes over the course of these design changes. An on-aircraft test has been developed and refined to address this testing gap for the Joint Helmet Mounted Cueing System (JHMCS) on F-16 aircraft. This test can be readily ported to other aircraft systems which employ the JHMCS, and has already been ported to the F-18. Additionally, this test method could provide an added value in the testing of any HMD that requires accurate cueing, whether used on fixed or rotary wing aircraft.

  13. Comparative study of target acquisition performance between an eye-slaved helmet display and unaided human vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viljoen, Gerrit T.

    1998-08-01

    This paper presents the results of a comparative study on the target acquisition performance of an eye-slaved helmet display system and unaided human vision. A teleoperated visual sensor system records the visual information that the human visual system can sense at a remote site, transmits the information to a remote operator, and reconstructs the information in real time on an eye-slaved helmet display system. The display system design is based on the following: the physiology of the eye shows that the density of cone cells responsible for scotopic vision reduces drastically with off-coresight angle, as well as the corresponding resolution. The human visual system can be adequately stimulated over a 60 degree field of view with only two video channels, a wide field of view for peripheral vision and a narrow field of view for foveal vision. The wide-field and narrow-field information can be displayed into separate eyes with the human brain doing the integration between the two pictures. This paper provides experimental proof of this hypothesis. The narrow field display can be made to track the human eyeball during target acquisition tasks, without unduly distracting natural vision. During target search tasks the human eye movement exhibits rapid saccadic movements after which it fixates on some feature on the picture. During and for a small time after the saccadic movement,the neural activity of the eye is inhibited. This inhabitation period can be used by a machine to track the eyeball and to slave the picture to the eyeball through a set of mirrors, without injecting conflicting information to the human visual system during the saccade. An eye-slaved helmet display system was built with a simulated monochrome target scenario. The final experiment evaluates the target acquisition performance of a number of subjects with both the eye-slaved helmet display system and direct vision on the same pre-recorded scenario. The experimental design used two different target

  14. Analysis of Operational Hazards and Safety Requirements for Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Requests (TASAR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koczo, Stefan, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Safety analyses of the Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Requests (TASAR) Electronic Flight Bag (EFB) application are provided to establish its Failure Effects Classification which affects certification and operational approval requirements. TASAR was developed by NASA Langley Research Center to offer flight path improvement opportunities to the pilot during flight for operational benefits (e.g., reduced fuel, flight time). TASAR, using own-ship and network-enabled information concerning the flight and its environment, including weather and Air Traffic Control (ATC) system constraints, provides recommended improvements to the flight trajectory that the pilot can choose to request via Change Requests to ATC for revised clearance. This study reviews the Change Request process of requesting updates to the current clearance, examines the intended function of TASAR, and utilizes two safety assessment methods to establish the Failure Effects Classification of TASAR. Considerable attention has been given in this report to the identification of operational hazards potentially associated with TASAR.

  15. Direct and indirect ophthalmoscopy for a more accurate baseline evaluation in aircrew members.

    PubMed

    Blount, W C

    1977-03-01

    The currently required Federal Aviation Agency visual evaluation for commercial and airline pilots often does not detect quiescent retinal disease, unless there is a specific history or a current change in visual acuity which dictates the need for a dilated ophthalmoscopic evaluation. Statistics indicate that there may be a significant number of undetected retinal changes which can cause sudden and irreversible alterations in visual acuity during an airman's career. The requirements for an ophthalmoscopic examination should include, at the time of entry as an aircrew member into the aviation industry, a dilated fundus examination by the binocular indirect and direct ophthalmoscopic methods. In addition, documentary photography, visual fields, and other specific studies as indicated for these patients would be accomplished. These studies should be required by both the Federal Aviation Agency and the military services just as baseline ECG's chest films, SMA 12, and other laboratory studies are utilized. PMID:857802

  16. Comparison of standard and nonstandard helmets and variants influencing the choice of helmets: A preliminary report of cross-sectional prospective analysis of 100 cases

    PubMed Central

    Amirjamshidi, Abbas; Ardalan, Ali; Nainei, Kourosh Holakouie; Sadeghi, Sadegh; Pahlevani, Mehrdad; Zarei, Mohammad Reza

    2011-01-01

    Background: The literature does not offer the rate of protection provided by different types of helmets used, especially as it applies to developing countries. We hypothesize that standard versus nonstandard types of helmets might differ in the rate of complications of head and neck trauma occurring in victims of motorcycle accidents. Here we report the rate of occurrence, the type of injuries and differences thereof in standard and nonstandard helmet bearers, and its relevance to protection from serious injury. Methods: The data were gathered from a data set of motorcycle accident victims admitted to the emergency department of Sina Hospital (Teheran/Iran). A cross-sectional study was designed for a 6-month period of time, June to December 2007. Variants analyzed included: demographics, types of helmets used, level of education of the victims (as in: being trained for using helmets and status of holding a valid driving license). The latter variants were evaluated for possibly influencing the outcome of the injured motorcyclists using either kind of helmets. Results: Among a total of 576 injured motorcyclists who had head, face, or neck injuries, 432 (75%) were using some kind of helmet. A total of 144 (25%) of the injured patients were admitted to the neurosurgical emergency service. There were 100 patients whose data sheets contained all variables which could be included in the pilot analysis of this cohort. Discussion: All 100 subjects were male patients with the age range of 32 ± 11 years. Twenty-five percent were using standard helmets at the time of accident, 43% had no cranio-facio-cervical injury except very mild skin abrasions, and 23% had facial injury, including skin lacerations needing sutures, two nasal bone fractures, and no maxillofacial damage. Among the patients using standard helmets, 44% had head injuries which needed to be taken care of (mostly nonoperatively), while 61% using nonstandard helmets had head trauma (P > 0.05). The other variables

  17. An efficient method of measuring the 4 mm helmet output factor for the Gamma Knife

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Lijun; Li, X. Allen; Yu, Cedric X.

    2000-03-01

    It is essential to have accurate measurements of the 4 mm helmet output factor in the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia patients using the Gamma Knife. Because of the small collimator size and the sharp dose gradient at the beam focus, this measurement is generally tedious and difficult. We have developed an efficient method of measuring the 4 mm helmet output factor using regular radiographic films. The helmet output factor was measured by exposing a single Kodak XV film in the standard Leksell spherical phantom using the 18 mm helmet with 30-40 of its plug collimators replaced by the 4 mm plug collimators. The 4 mm helmet output factor was measured to be 0.876 ± 0.009. This is in excellent agreement with our EGS4 Monte Carlo simulated value of 0.876 ± 0.005. This helmet output factor value also agrees with more tedious TLD, diode and radiochromic film measurements that were each obtained using two separate measurements with the 18 mm helmet and the 4 mm helmet respectively. The 4 mm helmet output factor measured by the diode was 0.884 ± 0.016, and the TLD measurement was 0.890 ± 0.020. The radiochromic film measured value was 0.870 ± 0.018. Because a single-exposure measurement was performed instead of a double-exposure measurement, most of the systematic errors that appeared in the double-exposure measurements due to experimental setup variations were cancelled out. Consequently, the 4 mm helmet output factor is more precisely determined by the single-exposure approach. Therefore, routine measurement and quality assurance of the 4 mm helmet output factor of the Gamma Knife could be efficiently carried out using the proposed single-exposure technique.

  18. Flight Evaluation of the Army/NASA Variable Stability Fly-by-Wire Rotorcraft Aircrew Systems Concept Airborne Laboratory (RASCAL) JUH-60A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arterburn, Dave

    2002-01-01

    NASA Ames Research Center and the U.S. Army Aeroflightdynamics Directorate (AFDD) have performed initial flight evaluations of the Research Flight Control System (RFCS) integrated into the Army/NASA Rotorcraft Aircrew Systems Concepts Airborne Laboratory (RASCAL) JUH-60A. The highly modified JUH-6OA Black Hawk helicopter is a full authority, high bandwidth, variable stability, in-flight simulator designed to support development of advanced flight control, sensor, and integrated display and control technologies in a fail safe environment. Preparation for flight test required an extensive hazard analysis and ground testing to ensure proper system operation. A hardware in the loop development facility was utilized to evaluate control law stability following software changes, assess servo hardover upset conditions during manual and monitor disengagements and provide pilot familiarization of test techniques and software changes prior to flight. First engagement of the RFCS was conducted on 31 Aug 2001. RFCS transfer system operation, envelope expansion and a limited rate monitor evaluation have been completed with low bandwidth and model following control laws.

  19. Preventing Mental Retardation through Use of Bicycle Helmets. ARC Q&A #101-48.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arc, Arlington, TX.

    This fact sheet uses a question-and-answer format to summarize what is known about preventing mental retardation through use of bicycle helmets. Questions and answers address the following topics: the importance of bicycle helmets; the number of bike riders injured or killed each year in bicycle crashes (about 1,000 killed, over 500,000 people…

  20. The effect of a helmet on cognitive performance is, at worst, marginal: a controlled laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Bogerd, Cornelis P; Walker, Ian; Brühwiler, Paul A; Rossi, René M

    2014-05-01

    The present study looked at the effect of a helmet on cognitive performance under demanding conditions, so that small effects would become more detectible. Nineteen participants underwent 30 min of continuous visual vigilance, tracking, and auditory vigilance (VTT + AVT), while seated in a warm environment (27.2 (±0.6) °C, humidity 41 (±1)%, and 0.5 (±0.1) m s(-1) wind speed). The participants wore a helmet in one session and no helmet in the other, in random order. Comfort and temperature perception were measured at the end of each session. Helmet-wearing was associated with reduced comfort (p = 0.001) and increased temperature perception (p < 0.001), compared to not wearing a helmet. Just one out of nine cognitive parameters showed a significant effect of helmet-wearing (p = .032), disappearing in a post-hoc comparison. These results resolve previous disparate studies to suggest that, although helmets can be uncomfortable, any effect of wearing a helmet on cognitive performance is at worst marginal. PMID:24157241

  1. The protective effect of a helmet in three bicycle accidents--A finite element study.

    PubMed

    Fahlstedt, Madelen; Halldin, Peter; Kleiven, Svein

    2016-06-01

    There is some controversy regarding the effectiveness of helmets in preventing head injuries among cyclists. Epidemiological, experimental and computer simulation studies have suggested that helmets do indeed have a protective effect, whereas other studies based on epidemiological data have argued that there is no evidence that the helmet protects the brain. The objective of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of a helmet in single bicycle accident reconstructions using detailed finite element simulations. Strain in the brain tissue, which is associated with brain injuries, was reduced by up to 43% for the accident cases studied when a helmet was included. This resulted in a reduction of the risk of concussion of up to 54%. The stress to the skull bone went from fracture level of 80 MPa down to 13-16 MPa when a helmet was included and the skull fracture risk was reduced by up to 98% based on linear acceleration. Even with a 10% increased riding velocity for the helmeted impacts, to take into account possible increased risk taking, the risk of concussion was still reduced by up to 46% when compared with the unhelmeted impacts with original velocity. The results of this study show that the brain injury risk and risk of skull fracture could have been reduced in these three cases if a helmet had been worn. PMID:26974030

  2. The Helmet Fit Index--An intelligent tool for fit assessment and design customisation.

    PubMed

    Ellena, Thierry; Subic, Aleksandar; Mustafa, Helmy; Pang, Toh Yen

    2016-07-01

    Helmet safety benefits are reduced if the headgear is poorly fitted on the wearer's head. At present, there are no industry standards available to assess objectively how a specific protective helmet fits a particular person. A proper fit is typically defined as a small and uniform distance between the helmet liner and the wearer's head shape, with a broad coverage of the head area. This paper presents a novel method to investigate and compare fitting accuracy of helmets based on 3D anthropometry, reverse engineering techniques and computational analysis. The Helmet Fit Index (HFI) that provides a fit score on a scale from 0 (excessively poor fit) to 100 (perfect fit) was compared with subjective fit assessments of surveyed cyclists. Results in this study showed that quantitative (HFI) and qualitative (participants' feelings) data were related when comparing three commercially available bicycle helmets. Findings also demonstrated that females and Asian people have lower fit scores than males and Caucasians, respectively. The HFI could provide detailed understanding of helmet efficiency regarding fit and could be used during helmet design and development phases. PMID:26995049

  3. The Theory of Planned Behavior and Helmet Use among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Lisa Thomson; Ross, Thomas P.; Farber, Sarah; Davidson, Caroline; Trevino, Meredith; Hawkins, Ashley

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To assess undergraduate helmet use attitudes and behaviors in accordance with the theory of planned behavior (TPB). We predicted helmet wearers and nonwearers would differ on our subscales. Methods: Participants (N = 414, 69% female, 84% white) completed a survey. Results: Principal component analysis and reliability analysis guided…

  4. 42 CFR 84.136 - Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum... DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.136 Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements... attached to the facepiece to provide easy access to the external surface of the eyepiece for cleaning....

  5. 42 CFR 84.136 - Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum... DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.136 Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements... attached to the facepiece to provide easy access to the external surface of the eyepiece for cleaning....

  6. 42 CFR 84.136 - Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum... DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.136 Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements... attached to the facepiece to provide easy access to the external surface of the eyepiece for cleaning....

  7. Prevalence of helmet use among motorcycle users in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Kauky, Cosmas George; Kishimba, Rogath Saika; Urio, Loveness John; Abade, Ahmed Mohammed; Mghamba, Janneth Maridadi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to determine prevalence of helmet use among motorcyclists as one of the preventive measures for road traffic injuries. Methods A cross sectional observational survey was conducted in the 3 Districts (Kinondoni, Ilala and Temeke) that make Dar es Salaam. Tanzania. A standardized line-listing form and checklist were used to record the drivers and passengers use of helmet as observed by study investigators. Data for helmet use was collected on one weekday and one weekend day. Time for observation was during the rush hour in the morning, noon and evening. Then data were entered into Epi Info 3.5.1 analysis Results A total of 7,678 motorcycle drivers and 4,328 passengers observed in this study. Drivers were almost male (98.8%) and 73.2% of all passengers were males. The prevalence use of helmet use among motorcyclist's riders was 82.1% and among passengers was 22.5%. Proportion of helmet use in drivers and passengers observed were relatively similar during weekday and weekend day and time of observation. Conclusion This study showed the relative high helmet use among motorcyclist riders though very low in passengers. This study recommends increased community awareness on helmet use among passengers and enforcement and revival of road safety laws of passengers and motorcyclists on helmet use. PMID:26309470

  8. 42 CFR 84.140 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.140 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. Noise levels generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or...

  9. 42 CFR 84.1139 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1139 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. Noise levels generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or...

  10. 42 CFR 84.202 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.202 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. Noise levels generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or...