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1

Water and People: Perception and Management Practices in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultural perceptions and traditions are part of the intangible aspects of water resources management. However, little attention has been given to their impact on water management issues such as access, use, or allocation, as well as the success of state water projects. This article looks at these issues through a case study of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria, drawing on interviews,

Emmanuel M. Akpabio

2011-01-01

2

Problems and issues in the financing and management of basic education in Akwa Ibom State  

Microsoft Academic Search

Determines and analyses the constraints on the financing and management of basic education in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. A survey design, developed into 17 modules and administered as interview schedules, was used to collect the data from respondents. At all levels of basic education, there was inadequate funding for the provision of physical and instructional facilities. This affected the management

George S. Ibe-Bassey

1996-01-01

3

Preventing malaria in pregnancy through community-directed interventions: evidence from Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Despite massive anti-malaria campaigns across the subcontinent, effective access to intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp) and insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) among pregnant women remain low in large parts of sub-Saharan Africa. The slow uptake of malaria prevention products appears to reflect lack of knowledge and resistance to behavioural change, as well as poor access to resources, and limited support of programmes by local communities and authorities. Methods A recent community-based programme in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria, is analysed to determine the degree to which community-directed interventions can improve access to malaria prevention in pregnancy. Six local government areas in Southern Nigeria were selected for a malaria in pregnancy prevention intervention. Three of these local government areas were selected for a complementary community-directed intervention (CDI) programme. Under the CDI programme, volunteer community-directed distributors (CDDs) were appointed by each village and kindred in the treatment areas and trained to deliver ITNs and IPTp drugs as well as basic counseling services to pregnant women. Findings Relative to women in the control area, an additional 7.4 percent of women slept under a net during pregnancy in the treatment areas (95% CI [0.035, 0.115], p-value < 0.01), and an additional 8.5 percent of women slept under an ITN after delivery and prior to the interview (95% CI [0.045, 0.122], p-value < 0.001). The effects of the CDI programme were largest for IPTp adherence, increasing the fraction of pregnant women taking at least two SP doses during pregnancy by 35.3 percentage points [95% CI: 0.280, 0.425], p-value < 0.001) relative to the control group. No effects on antenatal care attendance were found. Conclusion The presented results suggest that the inclusion of community-based programmes can substantially increase effective access to malaria prevention, and also increase access to formal health care access in general, and antenatal care attendance in particular in combination with supply side interventions. Given the relatively modest financial commitments they require, community-directed programmes appear to be a cost-effective way to improve malaria prevention; the participatory approach underlying CDI programmes also promises to strengthen ties between the formal health sector and local communities.

2011-01-01

4

Household feeding patterns and feeding habits: effects on the health of Ibibio households in Uyo Urban, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Food is one of the basic needs of man, and has a strong positive relationship with health. This article examines the impact of food consumption patterns and habits on the health of Ibibio households in Uyo, the capital of Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria. Employing a stratified random sampling framework, the study administered 368 questionnaires to respondents from both low-income and high-income households on equal proportion, and was complimented with four Focus Group Discussions (FGDs). Results indicate that the majority of households consumed foods classified under condiments/spices, stem/roots, vegetables, fat/oil, seafood, and poultry/meat on daily basis. Foods such as cereals, fruits, and bulbs were not common in their daily menu. Some respondents, especially from the low-income households, had to skip and/or forego meals for the benefit of the younger ones. The Linear Estimation System (LES) revealed deficiency in the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) and blamed this on income poverty and lack of knowledge on the nutritional values of food. To obtain good health, there are prescribed food items that must be eaten in a scientifically required mix. The study therefore recommends nutritional and health education and the creation of awareness on the nutritional values of locally produced food items that would enhance nutritional and health status of the citizenry and food security. PMID:21576067

Ikoh, Moses Udo; Emmanuel, Agness Unwana; Charles, Arit O; Charles, J O

5

Heavy Metals Accumulation by Talinum triangulare grown on Waste Dumpsites in Uyo Metropolis, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The accumulation of some heavy metals by Talinum triangulare grown on waste dumpsites in Uyo Metropolis was studied using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results obtained indicated the following ranges for the metals in dumpsite soil: Cd: 1.85-8.65 mg kg-1; Pb: 42.05-60.85 mg kg-1; Ni: 11.05-20.55 mg kg-1; Fe: 183.00-237.20 mg kg-1 and Zn: 11.35-119.30 mg kg-1, while the ranges in Talinum triangure were Cd: 0.10-0.30 mg kg-1; Pb: 0.33-1.55 mg kg-1; Ni:0.05-0.45 mg kg-1; Fe: 223.43-260.00 mg kg-1 and Zn: 2.20-29.95 mg kg-1. These results indicated higher levels of the metals in soils and plants from dumpsites than the values recorded in the Control samples. In the dumpsite soil and plant samples, Fe recorded the highest mean concentrations in both samples while Cd and Ni concentrations were the lowest in soil and plant respectively. Although, the ranges obtained for the metals in plant and soil were within the recommended limits except for Cd in soil and Fe in plant, it maybe risky to consume water leaf grown on dumpsites since it can accumulate much of these toxic metals. The results obtained also revealed that apart from Cd, the concentrations of other metals analyzed for in plant and soil correlated positively at p = 0.05. The transfer Ratio between dumpsite soil and plant samples indicated the following trend: Fe> Zn> Cd> Pb> Ni showing that the rate of metal uptake by T. triangulare was greatest with Fe, while the rate of Ni uptake was the least. Relative standard deviations in the distribution of the metals in plant and soil samples from one dumpsite to the other were also studied; results obtained showed a high degree of variability in the distributions of the metals in both samples with the locations.

Ebong, G. A.; Etuk, H. S.; Johnson, A. S.

6

Transethnic itineraries for ethnomedical therapies in Nigeria: Igbo women seeking Ibibio cures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although therapeutic itineraries have been studied in a variety of contexts, little research has investigated care-seekers’ quests for traditional medical treatments outside their own ethnic boundaries. The present study investigated 19 Igbo women seeking traditional cures from Ibibio indigenous healers in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Emerging data show that these Igbo women were uptaking Ibibio indigenous treatments primarily for health

C. Otutubikey Izugbara; I. Wilson Etukudoh; A. Sampson Brown

2005-01-01

7

Water uncertainties in Southeastern Nigeria: Why government should be interested in management  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper takes a look at the general condition of water resources availability and management practices in Akwa Ibom State, southeastern Nigeria. The paper observes high incidence of inequity and access burdens on the general population (especially the vulnerable groups) as well as reckless incidence of exploitation of the aquifer for private market. These were all linked to weak government

Emmanuel M. Akpabio; Ekanem M. Ekanem

2009-01-01

8

Distribution of Vibrio species in Shellfish and Water Samples Collected from the Atlantic Coastline of South-East Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Crayfish, lobster, and sea-water samples collected from five fishing islands on the Atlantic coast–Bight of Biafra (Bonny)–belonging to Ibaka Local Government Area of Akwa-Ibom State of Nigeria were bacteriologically evaluated on thiosulphate citrate bile-salt sucrose (TCBS) agar for Vibrio load and pathotypes. Mean log10 Vibrio counts of 7.64±2.78 cfu/g (in crayfish), 5.07±3.21 cfu/g (in lobster), and 3.06±2.27 cfu/mL (in sea-water) were obtained in rainy season (June-July) while counts in the dry season (November-December) were 6.25±1.93 cfu/g, 5.99±1.54 cfu/g, and 3.84±1.78 cfu/mL respectively. The physicochemical measurements (temperature, pH, and total dissolved solutes) of the sea-water did not vary significantly in the two seasons across all five islands. Vibrio species isolated were Vibrio cholerae (both O1 and non-O1 serotypes), V. parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus, V. mimicus, and V. fluvialis. Both Ogawa and Inaba subtypes of V. cholerae O1 serotype were found. In addition, the Hikojima subtype, which had not been previously reported in the region, was isolated in two samples. The results show that these Vibrio species are endemic in the area.

Eyisi, Onyedikachukwu A.L.; Nwodo, Uchechukwu U.

2013-01-01

9

Transethnic itineraries for ethnomedical therapies in Nigeria: Igbo women seeking Ibibio cures.  

PubMed

Although therapeutic itineraries have been studied in a variety of contexts, little research has investigated care-seekers' quests for traditional medical treatments outside their own ethnic boundaries. The present study investigated 19 Igbo women seeking traditional cures from Ibibio indigenous healers in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Emerging data show that these Igbo women were uptaking Ibibio indigenous treatments primarily for health conditions that have failed to respond to initial treatments in their places of origin, were stigmatized at their own places of origin, or and were thought to have resulted from supernatural causes. Care-seeking outside patients' ethnic borders was thus both a quest for a more effective treatment and a strategy for concealing therapeutic progress or and the nature of illness from the patients' places of origin. Findings underscore the critical role of culture and place in health-seeking behaviour and the need for health care services to be responsive to the complex nature of cultural organization involving care-seekers' and the critical ways this plays out in, flows into, and is negotiated through particular places during therapeutic quests. PMID:15550352

Izugbara, C Otutubikey; Etukudoh, I Wilson; Brown, A Sampson

2005-03-01

10

Perception and practice of female genital cutting in a rural community in southern Nigeria.  

PubMed

This study was carried out to determine the awareness and practice of FGC in a rural community in southern Nigeria. A cross sectional study was carried out among Ayadehe women in Itu, LGA Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria using a semi-structured interviewer administered questionnaire. Information obtained was analysed using SPSS version 17. A total of 218 respondents participated in the study. Majority, 215 (98.6%) were aware of the practice of FGC. Type 2 FGC was the commonest type reported by 71.2% of respondents. Prevalence of FGC was 92.7%. A total of 69.8% were circumcised at 6-12 years. Health complications experienced included excruciating pains, (36.6%), severe bleeding, (15.8%), and painful urination, (26.7%). Up to 53.5% were circumcised by traditional birth attendants. The belief that FGM should be discontinued increased with educational level. The practice of FGC was high in this community. Increased female education, community involvement and legislation are needed to reduce this practice. PMID:23444550

Johnson, Ofonime E; Okon, Rose D

2012-12-01

11

Epidemiology of human furuncular myiasis of Cordylobia anthropophaga (Grunberg) in Nigeria.  

PubMed

Two hundred people were randomly selected for myiasis infection in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria, except in some states where we did not get the stipulated number (200) to sample. In each of the six states sampled within the Niger Delta in 2009, 88% of 200 patients examined in Rivers State had the Cordylobia infection followed by Cross Rivers State (>86%), Bayelsa (>84%) while Edo, Delta, and Akwa Ibom states showed higher than 82% infection in that order. Our findings showed that women, children, and infants are commonly affected by furuncular myiasis irrespective of skin color, age, blood group, race, sex, genotype, etc. Infection due to C. anthropophaga occurs throughout the year; the rate of infection is higher during the rainy season (when humidity is normally higher) than the dry seasons. Most cases of human myiasis are not reported but treated locally. The Niger Delta populace (especially the areas sampled) consists of people with diverse occupations; some are fishermen, traders, farmers, and refuse disposers. They move from one place to another predisposed to myiasis-causing agents due to the types of work they do. Two major categories of people based on skin color (i.e., white and black skinned) are recognized for this research. People with albinism are also part of the colored African group, however, according to the data, there does not seem to be any difference between them and others. Cordylobia infection is a neglected disease of the Niger Delta region. Therefore, there was the need to know the spread and factors that promote spreading as well as populations of the myiasis-causing agent in the Niger Delta. The data presented here provides good travel information to the Niger Delta region as well as other parts of Nigeria. Human furuncular myiasis affects neonates ranging from 3 to 11 days old, children, and adults in Nigeria. C. anthropophaga maggots penetrate all types of skin; people with albinism, white skin, and black skin. Some of the factors that affect the distribution include unhygienic situations, high humidity, poverty, and use of soiled clothes. Details of our findings are presented. PMID:22861528

Ogbalu, Ogugua K; Achufusi, Ted George Ody; Orlu, Eme E

2012-08-03

12

Reducing mother-to-child transmission of HIV: findings from an early infant diagnosis program in south-south region of Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Early diagnosis of HIV in infants provides a critical opportunity to strengthen follow-up of HIV-exposed children and assure early access to antiretroviral (ARV) treatment for infected children. This study describes findings from an Early Infant Diagnosis (EID) program and the effectiveness of a prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) intervention in six health facilities in Cross-River and Akwa-Ibom states, south-south Nigeria. Methods This was a retrospective study. Records of 702 perinatally exposed babies aged six weeks to 18 months who had a DNA PCR test between November 2007 and July 2009 were reviewed. Details of the ARV regimen received to prevent mother-to-child transmission (MTCT), breastfeeding choices, HIV test results, turn around time (TAT) for results and post test ART enrolment status of the babies were analysed. Results Two-thirds of mother-baby pairs received ARVs and 560 (80%) babies had ever been breastfed. Transmission rates for mother-baby pairs who received ARVs for PMTCT was 4.8% (CI 1.3, 8.3) at zero to six weeks of age compared to 19.5% (CI 3.0, 35.5) when neither baby nor mother received an intervention. Regardless of intervention, the transmission rates for babies aged six weeks to six months who had mixed feeding was 25.6% (CI 29.5, 47.1) whereas the transmission rates for those who were exclusively breastfed was 11.8% (CI 5.4, 18.1). Vertical transmission of HIV was eight times (AOR 7.8, CI: 4.52-13.19) more likely in the sub-group of mother-baby pairs who did not receive ARVS compared with mother-baby pairs that did receive ARVs. The median TAT for test results was 47 days (IQR: 35-58). A follow-up of 125 HIV positive babies found that 31 (25%) were enrolled into a paediatric ART program, nine (7%) were known to have died before the return of their DNA PCR results, and 85 (67%) could not be traced and were presumed to be lost-to-follow-up. Conclusion Reduction of MTCT of HIV is possible with effective PMTCT interventions, including improved access to ARVs for PMTCT and appropriate infant feeding practices. Loss to follow up of HIV exposed infants is a challenge and requires strategies to enhance retention.

2012-01-01

13

Blooming States  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Population growth in successive decades has followed different trends for states across the country. While many states had early, substantial growth in percentage terms most of that population growth was quite small in numeric terms. In contrast, states with high percentage growth in more recent decades also gained very large numbers of people.

Bureau, Us C.

14

State Machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are surrounded by real-world state machines: ballpoint pen retractor mechanisms, vending machines, washing-machine controllers, digital watches. They are a trivial but underused technology that can simplify how we implement programs that must track how they got to their current state before handling a new event. However, many programmers feel that state machines are only useful when they're developing communication

Dave Thomas; Andy Hunt

2002-01-01

15

Solid State  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a webpage filled with Solid State learning objects with over 40 lessons in: Semiconductor Diodes, Rectifier Flitering and Regulation, D/A and A/D Converters, Opto Electronic Devices, Operational Amplifiers, Transistors, Thyristors, and Timers.

2012-12-28

16

Hypochondriacal states.  

PubMed

A brief historical introduction traces the evolution of the concept of hypochondriasis. It is suggested that the term should now be used only as a descriptive adjective when there is a morbid preoccupation with health or body. Social and cultural factors are outlined, as well as problems of measurement. The psychopathology, as formulated by Freud and others, is also described. Clinical aspects are discussed under the headings of general symptoms, pain, smell, bodily appearance, sexual, gastro-intestinal, cardio-respiratory, eyes, and ears, nose and throat. Psychiatric syndromes mentioned are: hypochondria as a possible primary state, personality disorders, phobic-anxiety state, neurashthenia, obsessional neurosis, hysteria, depression, paranoid psychosis and organic. In general, hypochondriacal symptoms seem to make the prognosis rather worse. Treatment is to be aimed at the primary condition, which is most commonly depression, anxiety state or conversion reaction. PMID:779913

Kenyon, F E

1976-07-01

17

MIDWEST STATES  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These links will help you to learn the Midwest States and their capitals. Follow the links in order to get the most from them. Also the quizzes and games are fun as well. Enjoy, have fun, and learn those capitals! Welcome to the Midwest States links page. Follow the links in order, and the suggestions as well to get the most from these sites. Remember to avoid the ads on the pages, stick to the content. This first link has two parts. Part one consist of flash cards. Start with BOTH ...

Amsden

2013-01-22

18

State Treasure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|When a music teacher is named Teacher of the Year for an entire state, one just know a special story awaits. The narrative of Heidi Welch, director of music at Hillsboro-Deering High School in New Hampshire, does not disappoint. Welch, who grew up in abject poverty and was often homeless, developed her love of music through memorizing and singing…

Olson, Cathy Applefeld

2013-01-01

19

State Activism and State Censorship  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent political debates prompted by the Supreme Court's flag burning decisions have once more demonstrated the depth of the nation's commitment to freedom of speech. Although the Court's determination to treat flag burning as an act of political expression, and thus to protect it from state interference, provoked a strong, hostile response from both the President and members of Congress,

Owen M Fiss

1991-01-01

20

United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

U.S. higher education borrows its structure from both the British undergraduate college and German research university, but\\u000a its character is profoundly influenced by three major philosophical beliefs that shape American public life.1 Shaped by the\\u000a Jeffersonian ideals of limited government and freedom of expression, states, religious communities, and individuals established\\u000a and maintain a range of higher education institutions and continue

Peter D. Eckel; Jacqueline E. King

21

Remote state preparation with classically correlated state  

Microsoft Academic Search

We experimentally demonstrate the first remote state preparation with no shared entanglement, employing classically correlated state (CCS). CCS is verified with quantum state tomography process, and the fidelity is 0.99. The states chosen from a special diameter of the Poincaré sphere can be remotely prepared with unit efficiency at the cost of one cbit, if one classically correlated state is

Wei Wu; Wei-Tao Liu; Bao-Quan Ou; Ping-Xing Chen; Cheng-Zu Li

2008-01-01

22

The state of solid state.  

PubMed

This talk about future communications technology is all well and good, but what about the things we already have? What's going on with current technology? And if things are going to change, what will the transition be like? For an overview, JEMS talked to a group of EMS communications experts: Bruce Jackson, president of EMSAT: Advanced Technology for EMS, in the Los Angeles area; Mark Johnson, chief of Alaska's EMS Section, chairman of the National Association of State EMS Directors' Communications Committee; and Steven Buckley, communications and facilities planning manager of the Warner Group, a public safety communications consulting company in Woodland Hills, Calif. The following summarizes their views on current issues and their projections for the near future. PMID:10132712

Marshall, L

1994-03-01

23

Remote state preparation of an entangled state  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we give a scheme for the remote state preparation of a chosen two-particle entangled state by a three-particle Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state, and propose a generalization to a chosen multiparticle entangled state. By this scheme, only one classical bit and one single-particle projective measurement are enough for the remote state preparation of some special chosen multiparticle entangled states.

Bao-Sen Shi; Akihisa Tomita

2002-01-01

24

State Land Resources and Policies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: State government organization for state land administration; Source of state land and agency authority; State land ownership; Revenues from state land use; Policies applicable to state lands.

M. A. Pearl E. E. Hughes J. M. McDonald

1970-01-01

25

State Mineral Summaries, 1993.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The State Mineral Summaries publication provides estimated data and summaries of mineral activities at the State level for 1992. Most of the estimates are based on nine months data. Individual State summaries are published separately as State Mineral Indu...

1993-01-01

26

State of the States in Developmental Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This is the latest edition of the "State of the States in Developmental Disabilities" study--a thorough and the only one of its kind investigation on public spending, revenues, and programmatic trends of intellectual and developmental programs and services within the United States since 1977. Directed by leading researcher, Dr. David Braddock,…

Braddock, David; Hemp, Richard; Rizzolo, Mary Kay

2008-01-01

27

The State of State English Standards, 2005  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The importance of state academic standards soared in January 2002 with passage of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB). Not only does that milestone law require all states to have demanding academic standards in place and to demonstrate steady student progress toward academic proficiency as set forth in those standards, it also links states'…

Stotsky, Sandra

2005-01-01

28

Probabilistic remote state preparation by W states  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we consider a scheme for probabilistic remote state preparation of a general qubit by using W states. The scheme consists of the sender, Alice and two remote receivers Bob and Carol. Alice performs a projective measurement on her qubit in the basis spanned by the state she wants to prepare and its orthocomplement. This allows either Bob

Jin-Ming Liu; Yu-Zhu Wang

2004-01-01

29

On object state testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of object state testing is illustrated through a simple example. We show that certain errors in the implementation of object state behavior cannot be readily detected by conventional structural testing, functional testing, and state testing. We describe an object state test model and outline a reverse engineering method for extracting object state behaviors from C++ source code. The

D. c. Kung; N. Suchak; J. Gao; P. Hsia; Y. Toyoshima; C. Chen

1994-01-01

30

Probabilistic remote state preparation by W states  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we consider a scheme for probabilistic remote state preparation of a general qubit by using W states. The scheme consists of the sender, Alice and two remote receivers Bob and Carol. Alice performs a projective measurement on her qubit in the basis spanned by the state she wants to prepare and its orthocomplement. This allows either Bob or Carol to reconstruct the state with finite success probability. It is shown that for some special ensembles of qubits, the remote state preparation scheme requires only two classical bits, unlike the case in the scheme of quantum teleportation where three classical bits are needed.

Liu, Jin-Ming; Wang, Yu-Zhu

2004-02-01

31

State Manual Procurement Guide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A checklist of current state manuals, for the fifty states published by official state agencies or by commerical publishers, is provided, with specific information on how to obtain them. (Author/AB)|

Cook, Frederick G.

1971-01-01

32

Discrimination between pure states and mixed states  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we discuss the problem of determining whether a quantum system is in a pure state, or in a mixed state. We apply two strategies to settle this problem: the unambiguous discrimination and the maximum confidence discrimination. We prove that the optimal versions of both strategies are equivalent. Furthermore, the scheme also provides a method to estimate the purity of quantum states, and the Schmidt number of composed systems.

Zhang Chi; Wang Guoming; Ying Mingsheng [State Key Laboratory of Intelligent Technology and Systems, Department of Computer Science and Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

2007-06-15

33

California State University, Sacramento  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|California State University, Sacramento, commonly referred to as "Sacramento State," is a booming metropolitan university located on 300 acres in the state capital of California. The university, the seventh largest in the California State University system, enrolls a multicultural student body of approximately 29,000 students. At Sacramento…

Varlotta, Lori E.

2009-01-01

34

The Pennsylvania State University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Founded in 1855 as the Farmer's High School, the Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) began as a small college in Centre County providing agricultural education to young men from regional farm families. Penn State became a land-grant university in 1863 following passage of the Morrill Act. Today, Penn State enrolls more than 83,000 students…

Burlingame, Philip J.; Dowhower, Andrea L.

2009-01-01

35

State Technologies Advancement Collaborative  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Association of State Energy Officials (NASEO), and Association of State Energy Research and Technology Transfer Institutions (ASERTTI) signed an intergovernmental agreement on November 14, 2002, that allowed states and territories and the Federal Government to better collaborate on energy research, development, demonstration and deployment (RDD&D) projects. The agreement established the State Technologies

David S. Terry

2012-01-01

36

Joint remote state preparation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alice, Bob and Charlie are three remote parties. Alice and Bob share the classical knowledge of a secret qubit state. We consider the following question: 'how can Alice and Bob jointly prepare the qubit state for Charlie?' Two different protocols are proposed for such a joint remote state preparation. The first protocol uses a single GHZ state while the second

Ba An Nguyen; Jaewan Kim

2008-01-01

37

State Appropriations: Drought Warning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|After two decades of increase, state funding for higher education is drying up because of inflation and declining state revenues due to recession. States need to reemphasize the importance of higher education. Political action may be the way to reverse the downward trend in state financing of higher education. (MLW)|

Ream, James A.

1981-01-01

38

Exploring the 50 States  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Over the course of two weeks, students will be researching a state of their choice and creating a booklet to display its history and other fun facts about that state. Before you begin your project, I want you to have a little fun and watch the 50 States song! Task: You will be choosing one of the 50 states of the U.S. and making a booklet to display the following items about your state: The cover of your booklet should include: The state's name The state's capitol A picture ...

Cara, Miss

2010-02-24

39

Acid Rain: Its State by State Impacts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report, which was released by the National Wildlife Federation in April of 1984, documents the impacts of acid rain on 21 non-New England states. Each state analysis includes information on the sources of acid rain, the acidity of monitored rainfall,...

1984-01-01

40

Are the energy states still energy states?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional energy states managed to avoid the early stages of the recent national recession, buoyed by record high crude oil and natural gas prices. Both production and exploration for crude oil and natural gas expanded rapidly in response to the spike in energy prices, propelling strong job and income gains in the energy states. But the strong performance of the

Mark C. Snead

2009-01-01

41

State Electricity Profiles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An update to the 1996 State Electricity Profiles, this report from the Energy Information Administration (EIA) is "designed to provide basic information about the electricity industry on a State-by-State basis by profiling each State and the District of Columbia with a description of its electricity industry through graphics, and tables." The data for ten states has been changed, with future updates due in the coming weeks.

42

Plymouth State Weather Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Plymouth State Weather Center offers the latest observations and forecasts for the United States and Southern Canada. By simply selecting a state, individuals can find data on the temperature, wind direction and speed, cloud cover, and other weather information for stations throughout the selected region. The website provides a state forecast as well. The map on the homepage allows users to observe the overall weather patterns throughout the continental United States and Southern Canada.

43

Doorway states and billiards  

SciTech Connect

Whenever a distinct state is immersed in a sea of complicated and dense states, the strength of the distinct state, which we refer to as a doorway, is distributed in their neighboring states. We analyze this mechanism for 2-D billiards with different geometries. One of them is symmetric and integrable, another is symmetric but chaotic, and the third has a capricious form. The fact that the doorway-state mechanism is valid for such highly diverse cases, proves that it is robust.

Franco-Villafane, J. A.; Mendez-Sanchez, R. A. [Instituto de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, P.O. Box 48-3, 62251 Cuernavaca Mor. (Mexico); Flores, J. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, P.O. Box 20-364, 01000 Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Centro Internacional de Ciencias, A. C., P.O. Box 6-101 C.P. 62131 Cuernavaca, Mor. (Mexico); Mateos, J. L. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, P.O. Box 20-364, 01000 Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Novaro, O. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, P.O. Box 20-364, 01000 Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Seligman, T. H. [Instituto de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, P.O. Box 48-3, 62251 Cuernavaca Mor. (Mexico); Centro Internacional de Ciencias, A. C., P.O. Box 6-101 C.P. 62131 Cuernavaca, Mor. (Mexico)

2010-12-23

44

States For Sale!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In a small group, you will research a state. You will then use what you learn to try to "sell" your state to the rest of the class! Directions: 1. As a group, choose a state that you would like to research. 2. Use the following websites to find interesting information about your state. Write down at least 10 facts that you think would help to "sell" the state to the rest of the class. You ...

Hoffman, Mr.

2009-10-21

45

Joint remote state preparation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alice, Bob and Charlie are three remote parties. Alice and Bob share the classical knowledge of a secret qubit state. We consider the following question: 'how can Alice and Bob jointly prepare the qubit state for Charlie?' Two different protocols are proposed for such a joint remote state preparation. The first protocol uses a single GHZ state while the second one uses a pair of EPR states as the quantum channel whose entanglement is not necessarily maximal.

Nguyen, Ba An; Kim, Jaewan

2008-05-01

46

Parts of quantum states  

SciTech Connect

It is shown that generic N-party pure quantum states (with equidimensional subsystems) are uniquely determined by their reduced states of just over half the parties; in other words, all the information in almost all N-party pure states is in the set of reduced states of just over half the parties. For N even, the reduced states in fewer than N/2 parties are shown to be an insufficient description of almost all states (similar results hold when N is odd). It is noted that real algebraic geometry is a natural framework for any analysis of parts of quantum states: two simple polynomials, a quadratic and a cubic, contain all of their structure. Algorithmic techniques are described which can provide conditions for sets of reduced states to belong to pure or mixed states.

Jones, Nick S.; Linden, Noah [Department of Mathematics, University of Bristol, University Walk, Bristol BS8 1TW (United Kingdom)

2005-01-01

47

Neuromodulation of Brain States  

PubMed Central

Switches between different behavioral states of the animal are associated with prominent changes in global brain activity, between sleep and wakefulness or from inattentive to vigilant states. What mechanisms control brain states, and what are the functions of the different states? Here we summarize current understanding of the key neural circuits involved in regulating brain states, with a particular emphasis on the subcortical neuromodulatory systems. At the functional level, arousal and attention can greatly enhance sensory processing, whereas sleep and quiet wakefulness may facilitate learning and memory. Several new techniques developed over the past decade promise great advances in our understanding of the neural control and function of different brain states.

Lee, Seung-Hee; Dan, Yang

2013-01-01

48

Stabilizer state breeding  

SciTech Connect

We present a breeding protocol that distills pure copies of any stabilizer state from noisy copies and a pool of predistilled pure copies of the same state, by means of local Clifford operations, Pauli measurements, and classical communication.

Hostens, Erik; Dehaene, Jeroen; Moor, Bart de [ESAT-SCD, K.U. Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 10, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

2006-12-15

49

States.org  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

States.org, provided by the Federation of American Research Networks (FARNET), Electronic Commerce, Law, and Information Policy Strategies (ECLIPS--Ohio Supercomputer Center), Arizona State University, and the National Science Foundation, has a simple mandate: to "[provide] a single clearinghouse for tracking state information infrastructure strategies and activities." At the heart of the site is the state database, which allows users to query by state or by category in the broad areas of: government uses and regulation of the National Information Infrastructure and advanced telecommunications; relevant local and state projects related to electronic commerce, privacy, education, and other relevant subjects; and strategic plans for NII/advanced telecommunications. States.org is a valuable meta-resource for state and local government, researchers, and citizens.

1997-01-01

50

Health, United States, 2012  

MedlinePLUS

... NCHS Home Publications & Information Products Health, United States, 2012 Health, United States is an annual report on trends in health statistics. 2012 Edition What's New! Complete Report At a Glance ...

51

States of the US  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For this project, find three sources of information in the Media Center on the state you chose. Your sources can include books, encyclopedias, or atlases. We will also explore multi-media resources to add to your reports on the states. These sites include pictures, videos, books and movies containing information on Native Americans and Explorers, Statehood, Places to visit, Famous People from your state, and games with a connection to the state. Now that you have researched your state using the books in the library, look at some web sites and add some additional knowledge and fun to your project. Look for information on Native Americans and explorers connected with your state. 50 states + songs Yahooligans 50 states + site links Also check out places to visit and famous people in ...

Bhanks

2006-11-08

52

2011 State Snapshots  

MedlinePLUS

... against national rates or best performing States. Performance Measures Summary measures of quality of care and States' performances relative ... using results from this site — what the performance measures mean, original data sources used, and factors that ...

53

7 CFR 1220.129 - State and United States.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false State and United States. 1220.129 Section 1220...SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion... Definitions § 1220.129 State and United States. The terms State...

2013-01-01

54

7 CFR 1220.615 - State and United States.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false State and United States. 1220.615 Section 1220...SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures To Request... Definitions § 1220.615 State and United States. State and United...

2013-01-01

55

Oblivious Remote State Preparation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider remote state preparation protocols for a set of pure states whose\\u000aprojectors form a basis for operators acting on the input Hilbert space. If a\\u000aprotocol (1) uses only forward communication and entanglement, (2)\\u000adeterministically prepares an exact copy of the state, and (3) does so\\u000aobliviously -- without leaking further information about the state to the\\u000areceiver

Debbie W. Leung; Peter W. Shor

2003-01-01

56

Cameron's competition state  

Microsoft Academic Search

The arguments in this article proceed from the grounded empirical observation that over the past three decades the character of the British State has transformed from an industrial welfare state into a competition state. Hence, it is argued that successive governments, regardless of their traditional ideological complexion, have increasingly assumed the characteristics of what Michael Oakeshott would term an ‘enterprise

Mark Evans

2010-01-01

57

Geometry of Thermodynamic States  

Microsoft Academic Search

the canonical distribution of classical statistical mechanics. In this scheme thermodynamic states, or equivalently, statistical mechanical states, can be characterised concisely in terms of the geometry of a submanifold M of the unit sphere S in a real Hilbert space H. The measurement of a thermodynamic variable then corresponds to the reduction of a state vector in H to an

Dorje C. Brodyand

58

Minimal State Graph Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We address the problem of generating a minimal state graph from a program, without buildingthe whole state graph. Minimality is considered here with respect to bisimulation. Ageneration algorithm is derived and illustrated. Applications concern program verificationand control synthesis in reactive program compilation.1 IntroductionThis paper concerns the problem of explicitly building a state graph from a program, a formulaor any implicit

A. Bouajjani; J C Fernandez; N. Halbwachs; P. Raymond; C. Ratel

1994-01-01

59

United States Business Responds  

Microsoft Academic Search

United States business abroad is a show case for the values, policies, and practices of the United States. To build friendly and profitable relations in Latin America, United States private enterprise active there has followed the practices of staying out of local politics, employing local people to the fullest extent possible, and assimilating the local customs and language. An atmosphere

J. Peter Grace

1961-01-01

60

State Education Governance Structures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report addresses one aspect of education governance--state-level governance structures across states. This report explores in depth the formal relationships among those holding official positions in state education governance and how such relationships have changed over time. The information in this report is derived from three sources:…

McCarthy, Martha; And Others

61

CVLC: United States Geography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are the major rivers, mountain ranges, and plains of the United States? Follow the directions in each section carefully to fill in and label a blank map of the United States. You will use only one map. Or in other words complete each section on the same map. 1. Mountain Ranges of the United States With ...

Cade

2008-09-04

62

Remote State Preparation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantum teleportation uses prior entanglement and forward classical communication to transmit one instance of an unknown quantum state. Remote state preparation (RSP) has the same goal, but the sender knows classically what state is to be transmitted. We show that the asymptotic classical communication cost of RSP is one bit per qubit -- half that of teleportation -- and even

Charles H. Bennett; David P. DiVincenzo; Peter W. Shor; John A. Smolin; Barbara M. Terhal; William K. Wootters

2001-01-01

63

Oblivious Remote State Preparation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We characterize the class of remote state preparation (RSP) protocols that use only forward classical communication and entanglement, deterministically prepare an exact copy of a general state, and do so obliviously---without leaking further information about the state to the receiver. We prove that any such protocol can be modified to require from the sender only a single specimen of the

Debbie W. Leung; Peter W. Shor

2003-01-01

64

Multiparty remote state preparation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiparty remote state preparation (MRSP) is a procedure for multiparty collaboration with each other for remote preparation of a known quantum state to a distant party. We show that it is possible to achieve a unity fidelity remote preparation of the state by properly choosing the measurement basis. This protocol may be used for converging the split information at one

Yan Xia; Jie Song; He-Shan Song

2007-01-01

65

Remote State Preparation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantum teleportation uses prior entanglement and forward classical communication to transmit one instance of an unknown quantum state. Remote state preparation (RSP) has the same goal, but the sender knows classically what state is to be transmitted. We show that the asymptotic classical communication cost of RSP is one bit per qubit-half that of teleportation-and even less when transmitting part

Charles H. Bennett; David P. Divincenzo; Peter W. Shor; John A. Smolin; Barbara M. Terhal; William K. Wootters

2001-01-01

66

Changing State Digital Libraries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Research has shown that state virtual or digital libraries are evolving into websites that are loaded with free resources, subscription databases, and instructional tools. In this article, the author explores these evolving libraries based on the following questions: (1) How user-friendly are the state digital libraries?; (2) How do state digital…

Pappas, Marjorie L.

2006-01-01

67

State Data Map  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Information can be represented in many ways; this applet allows the user to represent data about the states using color. The state with the highest data value is darkest; other states are shaded proportionally. Several sets of data are already entered and available for examination: state population, land area, representatives in Congress, gasoline usage, and more. Users can eliminate the data from any state in order to note the consequences, or enter their own data. A box plot and table accompany each map representation, showing the data in different but corresponding formats.

Nctm

2000-01-01

68

Assisted Living State Regulatory Review  

MedlinePLUS

... State Regulatory Review Webinars Assisted Living State Regulatory Review Page Content NCAL's 2009 Assisted Living State Regulatory ... address, and phone number. Assisted Living State Regulatory Reviews NCAL Releases 2013 Assisted Living State Regulatory Review ...

69

State Resource Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The State Resource Center is one of the categories of LexisOne's free Legal Internet guide, a collection of 20,000 links organized into 32 categories, up from 24 categories in July, 2000 (last mentioned in the July 14, 2000 Scout Report). For each of the fifty states, the State Resource Center provides extensive lists of links to statewide offices, the state's legal branches, its counties, its rules of court, important legal forms, and more. The site remedies the maze of many state government Web sites, making it easier to find legal materials. For legal researchers, attorneys, and law librarians looking for state information, the site is a perfect place to start. The site will also be useful for other users who want to find information on state legal systems.

2001-01-01

70

Qutrit magic state distillation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magic state distillation (MSD) is a purification protocol that plays an important role in fault-tolerant quantum computation. Repeated iteration of the steps of an MSD protocol generates pure single non-stabilizer states, or magic states, from multiple copies of a mixed resource state using stabilizer operations only. Thus mixed resource states promote the stabilizer operations to full universality. MSD was introduced for qubit-based quantum computation, but little has been known concerning MSD in higher-dimensional qudit-based computation. Here, we describe a general approach for studying MSD in higher dimensions. We use it to investigate the features of a qutrit MSD protocol based on the five-qutrit stabilizer code. We show that this protocol distils non-stabilizer magic states, and identify two types of states that are attractors of this iteration map. Finally, we show how these states may be converted, via stabilizer circuits alone, into a state suitable for state-injected implementation of a non-Clifford phase gate, enabling non-Clifford unitary computation.

Anwar, Hussain; Campbell, Earl T.; Browne, Dan E.

2012-06-01

71

State Technologies Advancement Collaborative  

SciTech Connect

The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Association of State Energy Officials (NASEO), and Association of State Energy Research and Technology Transfer Institutions (ASERTTI) signed an intergovernmental agreement on November 14, 2002, that allowed states and territories and the Federal Government to better collaborate on energy research, development, demonstration and deployment (RDD&D) projects. The agreement established the State Technologies Advancement Collaborative (STAC) which allowed the states and DOE to move RDD&D forward using an innovative competitive project selection and funding process. A cooperative agreement between DOE and NASEO served as the contracting instrument for this innovative federal-state partnership obligating funds from DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and Office of Fossil Energy to plan, fund, and implement RDD&D projects that were consistent with the common priorities of the states and DOE. DOE's Golden Field Office provided Federal oversight and guidance for the STAC cooperative agreement. The STAC program was built on the foundation of prior Federal-State efforts to collaborate on and engage in joint planning for RDD&D. Although STAC builds on existing, successful programs, it is important to note that it was not intended to replace other successful joint DOE/State initiatives such as the State Energy Program or EERE Special Projects. Overall the STAC process was used to fund, through three competitive solicitations, 35 successful multi-state research, development, deployment, and demonstration projects with an overall average non-federal cost share of 43%. Twenty-two states were awarded at least one prime contract, and organizations in all 50 states and some territories were involved as subcontractors in at least one STAC project. Projects were funded in seven program areas: (1) Building Technologies, (2) Industrial Technologies, (3) Transportation Technologies, (4) Distributed Energy Resources, (5) Hydrogen Technology Learning Centers, (6) Fossil Energy, and (7) Rebuild America.

David S. Terry

2012-01-30

72

States of Matter, States of Mind  

Microsoft Academic Search

What are the elementary constituents of matter? How is matter built up? How many states of matter are there? Our attempt to answer such fundamental questions depends, the author ascertains, on our approach to and our perception of the problems, emphasizing the role of our operational thinking and the conceptual models or images which are used to idealize or simplify

Ireneusz Strzakowski

1998-01-01

73

Degenerate Coherent Bond States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When the global number of carriers fluctuates a set of spin-singlet soliton states become exact solutions of the hopping hamiltonian. The issue of degeneracy of these states has received insufficient attention and is addressed here at length. The elementary excitations on these coherent states are analysed. The dispersions over these solitons show that they may emerge close to nested fermi surfaces when the CDW or the SDW instability for some reason is suppressed.

Chakrabarti, J.

74

StateMaster.com  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website, created by StateMaster.com, is a statistical database, which allows you to research and compare different data on US states. Information is compiled from various primary sources, such as the US Census Bureau, the FBI, and the National Center for Educational Statistics. The site also provides pie charts, maps, graphs and scatter plots. There are also map and flag images, state profiles, and correlations.

2009-03-05

75

New York State Assembly  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The New York State Assembly maintains a vt-100 telnet-based Legislative Information System on the Internet. You can read the full text of a bill, check its status in the legislative process, and even browse the sponsor's Memorandum in Support. You can also review Assembly committee and floor calendars, find out when and where public hearings are being held, and explore the state constitution and laws of New York State.

New York (State). Legislature. Assembly.

1997-01-01

76

United States Travel Challenge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Find out everything you might need (or want) to know about the states in the U.S. Students, You have been assigned two states to research as part of our United States history studies this year. Your task is to create a brochure or video that will entice people to come to your school. We will be presenting these to another grade level. Those students ...

Glover, Mrs.

2008-10-01

77

Concatenated tensor network states  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce the concept of concatenated tensor networks to efficiently describe quantum states. We show that the corresponding concatenated tensor network states can efficiently describe time evolution and possess arbitrary block-wise entanglement and long-ranged correlations. We illustrate the approach for the enhancement of matrix product states, i.e. one-dimensional (1D) tensor networks, where we replace each of the matrices of the

R. Hübener; V. Nebendahl; W. Dür

2010-01-01

78

Sleep State Switching  

PubMed Central

We take for granted the ability to fall asleep or to snap out of sleep into wakefulness, but these changes in behavioral state require specific switching mechanisms in the brain that allow well-defined state transitions. In this review, we examine the basic circuitry underlying the regulation of sleep and wakefulness, and discuss a theoretical framework wherein the interactions between reciprocal neuronal circuits enable relatively rapid and complete state transitions. We also review how homeostatic, circadian, and allostatic drives help regulate sleep state switching, and discuss how breakdown of the switching mechanism may contribute to sleep disorders such as narcolepsy.

Saper, Clifford B.; Fuller, Patrick M.; Pedersen, Nigel P.; Lu, Jun; Scammell, Thomas E.

2010-01-01

79

Oblivious remote state preparation.  

PubMed

We characterize the class of remote state preparation (RSP) protocols that use only forward classical communication and entanglement, deterministically prepare an exact copy of a general state, and do so obliviously-without leaking further information about the state to the receiver. We prove that any such protocol can be modified to require from the sender only a single specimen of the state, without increasing the classical communication cost. This implies Lo's conjectured lower bound on the cost for these protocols. We relate our RSP protocols to the private quantum channels and establish a one-to-one correspondence between them. PMID:12688903

Leung, Debbie W; Shor, Peter W

2003-03-26

80

State Energy Overview 1982  

SciTech Connect

Data are presented for the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Included are the quantities of energy produced and consumed, estimates of fuel reserves, the value of nonrenewable fuels produced by type, energy expenditures, and consumer prices. Also provided for each state are selected demographic and energy-related data that have been ranked and expressed as a percent of the national total. This overview provides a ready reference and a quick access to selected state energy information and state rankings for various socioeconomic and energy items. Methodology is detailed; a glossary is provided.

Not Available

1984-08-01

81

Remote State Preparation  

SciTech Connect

Quantum teleportation uses prior entanglement and forward classical communication to transmit one instance of an unknown quantum state. Remote state preparation (RSP) has the same goal, but the sender knows classically what state is to be transmitted. We show that the asymptotic classical communication cost of RSP is one bit per qubit -- half that of teleportation -- and even less when transmitting part of a known entangled state. We explore the tradeoff between entanglement and classical communication required for RSP, and discuss RSP capacities of general quantum channels.

Bennett, Charles H.; DiVincenzo, David P.; Shor, Peter W.; Smolin, John A.; Terhal, Barbara M.; Wootters, William K.

2001-08-13

82

Remote state preparation.  

PubMed

Quantum teleportation uses prior entanglement and forward classical communication to transmit one instance of an unknown quantum state. Remote state preparation (RSP) has the same goal, but the sender knows classically what state is to be transmitted. We show that the asymptotic classical communication cost of RSP is one bit per qubit--half that of teleportation--and even less when transmitting part of a known entangled state. We explore the tradeoff between entanglement and classical communication required for RSP, and discuss RSP capacities of general quantum channels. PMID:11497918

Bennett, C H; DiVincenzo, D P; Shor, P W; Smolin, J A; Terhal, B M; Wootters, W K

2001-07-26

83

Teleportation of quantum states  

SciTech Connect

The recent result of Bennett [ital et] [ital al]. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1895 (1993)] of teleportation of an unknown quantum state is obtained in the framework of nonlocal measurements proposed by Aharonov and Albert [Phys. Rev. D 21, 3316 (1980); 24, 359 (1981)]. The latter method is generalized to the teleportation of a quantum state of a system with continuous variables.

Vaidman, L. (School of Physics and Astronomy, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, 69978 (Israel))

1994-02-01

84

Parallel processing state alignment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes circuitry in a multiple processor system for aligning the processing states of autonomous processors interconnected by a common communication channel, the circuitry comprising means for generating successive reference signals, means, responsive to the processors, for storing quantities indicative of the next processing states as scheduled by each of the associated processors, and means, coupled to the generating

Vollaro

1989-01-01

85

Geometry of thermodynamic states  

Microsoft Academic Search

A geometric formalism for statistical estimation is applied here to the canonical distribution of classical statistical mechanics. In this scheme thermodynamic states are characterised by a submanifold M of the unit sphere in a real Hilbert space. The measurement of a thermodynamic variable corresponds to the reduction of a state vector, where the transition probability is the Boltzmann weight. We

Dorje C. Brodyand

1998-01-01

86

Indianapolis: State House  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viewed from the south side, this photograph of Indiana’s State House shows the Italian Renaissance style dome and Neoclassical facade that makes this building one of the finest example of Neoclassical architecture in the state. The building was designed by Indiana native architect Edwin May in 1878. May died in 1880, shortly after the cornerstone of the building had been

Chet Smolski; Edwin May; Adolph Sherrer

1993-01-01

87

Tribal-State Relations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This issue brief is intended to help States and Tribes find ways to work together more effectively to meet the goals of ICWA. Understanding the principles of effective practice identified here, along with the history and context for Tribal-State relations...

2006-01-01

88

Creative States and Structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the states of consciousness associated with creative work and intimations of specific structures of consciousness that develop over the life of an artist or other creative individual. Creative states are transitory phenomenological experiences that are recurrent and predictable aspects of the creative process. Collectively they form a continuum experienced in the course of a creative work. Creative

Lynne Roff

89

Psychology. New York State.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is a reference guide to the laws, rules, and regulations of the State Education Department that govern the profession of psychology in the state of New York. The requirements and procedures for obtaining licensure and first registration as a psychologist are also highlighted. General regulations for the licensed professions as well…

New York State Education Dept., Albany. Cultural Education Center.

90

Teleportation of quantum states  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent result of Bennett et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1895 (1993)] of teleportation of an unknown quantum state is obtained in the framework of nonlocal measurements proposed by Aharonov and Albert [Phys. Rev. D 21, 3316 (1980); 24, 359 (1981)]. The latter method is generalized to the teleportation of a quantum state of a system with continuous variables.

Lev Vaidman

1994-01-01

91

State Education Indicators, 1988.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This compilation of tables and a brief text on the states' educational programs emphasizes demographic and fiscal background information. Public school system characteristics by state show the following: number of school districts, number enrolled, school age population estimates, percent of persons age 5-17 years in households below the poverty…

Council of Chief State School Officers, Washington, DC.

92

State alternative route designations  

SciTech Connect

Pursuant to the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA), the Department of Transportation (DOT) has promulgated a comprehensive set of regulations regarding the highway transportation of high-level radioactive materials. These regulations, under HM-164 and HM-164A, establish interstate highways as the preferred routes for the transportation of radioactive materials within and through the states. The regulations also provide a methodology by which a state may select alternative routes. First,the state must establish a ``state routing agency,`` defined as an entity authorized to use the state legal process to impose routing requirements on carriers of radioactive material (49 CFR 171.8). Once identified, the state routing agency must select routes in accordance with Large Quantity Shipments of Radioactive Materials or an equivalent routing analysis. Adjoining states and localities should be consulted on the impact of proposed alternative routes as a prerequisite of final route selection. Lastly, the states must provide written notice of DOT of any alternative route designation before the routes are deemed effective.

Not Available

1989-07-01

93

State alternative route designations  

SciTech Connect

Pursuant to the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA), the Department of Transportation (DOT) has promulgated a comprehensive set of regulations regarding the highway transportation of high-level radioactive materials. These regulations, under HM-164 and HM-164A, establish interstate highways as the preferred routes for the transportation of radioactive materials within and through the states. The regulations also provide a methodology by which a state may select alternative routes. First,the state must establish a state routing agency,'' defined as an entity authorized to use the state legal process to impose routing requirements on carriers of radioactive material (49 CFR 171.8). Once identified, the state routing agency must select routes in accordance with Large Quantity Shipments of Radioactive Materials or an equivalent routing analysis. Adjoining states and localities should be consulted on the impact of proposed alternative routes as a prerequisite of final route selection. Lastly, the states must provide written notice of DOT of any alternative route designation before the routes are deemed effective.

Not Available

1989-07-01

94

Qubit state discrimination  

SciTech Connect

We show how one can solve the problem of discriminating between qubit states. We use the quantum state discrimination duality theorem and the Bloch sphere representation of qubits, which allows for an easy geometric and analytical representation of the optimal guessing strategies.

Deconinck, Matthieu E. [Telecom ParisTech, 37/39 rue Dareau, F-75014 Paris (France); Terhal, Barbara M. [IBM Watson Research Center, Post Office Box 218, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States)

2010-06-15

95

Offenses Against the State  

Microsoft Academic Search

Offenses against the state fall into two cate gories : conduct inimical to the very existence of government, and offenses which affect the orderly and just administration of public business. Treason, which shades into sedition or advocacy of overthrow, and espionage are examples of the for mer. Although the United States Constitution was designed to limit the definition of treason

Herbert L. Packer

1962-01-01

96

Descriptor Wiener state fuser  

Microsoft Academic Search

By the modem time series analysis method, based on the autoregressive moving average (ARMA) innovation model and white noise estimation theory, a new local descriptor Wiener state estimators are presented, and using the optimal fusion rule weighted by diagonal matrices, a distributed decoupled descriptor Wiener state fuser is presented for the linear discrete stochastic descriptor systems with multisensor. It realizes

Chenjian Ran; Zili Deng

2009-01-01

97

Superpowers and client states  

Microsoft Academic Search

Throughout the world the two superpowers often conduct their global conflict by proxy, taking different sides in regional disputes. An important question of international relations is where the balance of power lies in the superpower client state relationship-how far are the interests of the superpower subordinated to those of the client state or vice versa. Taking the two case studies

M. Efrat; J. Bercovitch

1987-01-01

98

Solid state systems concepts  

SciTech Connect

A description is given of two prototype solid-state phased array systems concepts for potential use in the Solar Power Satellite (SPS). In both concepts, the beam is centered on the rectenna by means of phase conjugation of a pilot signal emanating from the ground. Also discussed is on-going solid-state amplifier development.

Schroeder, K.G.; Petroff, I.K.

1980-01-01

99

Getting State Legislation Enacted  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|One of the most important tasks an organization can take on is assisting in getting a law passed at the state level. Many times, passing a state law can be a critical first step to passing federal legislation on the same topic. Completing the various steps to bring a law to Congress can take anywhere from five to ten years, or even longer.…

Ochs, Mike

2005-01-01

100

Optimal Remote State Preparation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We prove that it is possible to remotely prepare an ensemble of noncommuting mixed states using communication equal to the Holevo information for this ensemble. This remote preparation scheme may be used to convert between different ensembles of mixed states in an asymptotically lossless way, analogous to concentration and dilution for entanglement.

Dominic W. Berry; Barry C. Sanders

2003-01-01

101

Optimal remote state preparation.  

PubMed

We prove that it is possible to remotely prepare an ensemble of noncommuting mixed states using communication equal to the Holevo information for this ensemble. This remote preparation scheme may be used to convert between different ensembles of mixed states in an asymptotically lossless way, analogous to concentration and dilution for entanglement. PMID:12633398

Berry, Dominic W; Sanders, Barry C

2003-02-04

102

Centennial State Libraries, 1998.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document consists of 12 consecutive issues of the monthly "Centennial State Libraries" newsletter, of the Colorado Department of Education, State Library and Adult Education Office. The issues cover the year 1998. Each issue of the newsletter--except the August issue which is an Annual Report--includes some or all of the following sections:…

Parent, Kathleen D., Ed.

1998-01-01

103

Healthcare. State Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report projects education requirements linked to forecasted job growth in healthcare by state and the District of Columbia from 2010 through 2020. It complements a larger national report which projects educational demand for healthcare for the same time period. The national report shows that with or without Obamacare, the United States will…

Carnevale, Anthony P.; Smith, Nicole; Gulish, Artem; Beach, Bennett H.

2012-01-01

104

States of Consciousness  

PubMed Central

The art of psychiatry offers many different viewpoints from which to catalog behavior and thinking styles and, therefore, many physicians tend to have difficulty in conceptualizing features of behavioral medicine. A classification of states of consciousness with clinical examples of such states is presented to aid in a more clear understanding of human behavior.

Bell, Carl C.

1980-01-01

105

MEASURING STATE POLITICAL IDEOLOGY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of American politics at the state level has, in recent years, been held back by the lack of sufficient data to operationalize key concepts. In this article we assess survey, policy, and roll-call measures that may be used to operationalize one such concept, state political ideology. Each of these measures performed well on reliability and validity tests. However,

THOMAS M. HOLBROOK-PROVOW; STEVEN C. POE

1987-01-01

106

Education and fragile states  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the fragile states agendas and policies of development agencies and organisations education is of concern; education is a social service sector in which the impacts of state fragility are significant, in terms of access and quality of provision for children, working conditions and support for teachers, good governance and legitimacy for the society\\/community as a whole. However, this article

Jackie Kirk

2007-01-01

107

On the Coherent States and the Squeezed States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper the coherent and the squeezed state of the bose field is written as a universal form by means of a projector which transforms the old vacuum state to the new vacuum state. The transformed vacuum state is the coherent state or the squeed state. Our result is equivalent to the original definitions.

Yu, Zurong; C, Nelson A.

1995-06-01

108

Categorical Tensor Network States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine the use of string diagrams and the mathematics of category theory in the description of quantum states by tensor networks. This approach lead to a unification of several ideas, as well as several results and methods that have not previously appeared in either side of the literature. Our approach enabled the development of a tensor network framework allowing a solution to the quantum decomposition problem which has several appealing features. Specifically, given an n-body quantum state S, we present a new and general method to factor S into a tensor network of clearly defined building blocks. We use the solution to expose a previously unknown and large class of quantum states which we prove can be sampled efficiently and exactly. This general framework of categorical tensor network states, where a combination of generic and algebraically defined tensors appear, enhances the theory of tensor network states.

Biamonte, Jacob D.; Clark, Stephen R.; Jaksch, Dieter

109

The Triplet State  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface; List of participants; Part I. Spin-orbit Coupling and Intersystem Crossing: 1. Spin-orbit interactions in organic molecules; 2. Singlet-triplet transitions in organic molecules; 3. Triplet decay and intersystem crossing in aromatic hydrocarbons; 4. Statistical aspects of resonance energy transfer; Discussion; Part II. Magnetic Resonance and Magnetic Interactions: 5. Magnetic resonance spectra of organic molecules in triplet states in single crystals; 6. Magnetic interactions related to phosphorescence; 7. ESR investigations of naphthalene-d8:Naphthalene-h8 mixed crystals; 8. Biradicals and polyradicals in the nitroxide series; 9. Changes induced in the phosphorescent radiation of aromatic molecules by paramagnetic resonance in their metastable triplet states; 10. Paramagnetic resonance of the triplet state of tetramethylpyrazine; 11. On magnetic dipole contributions to the intrinsic S0 = T1 transition in simple aromatics; Discussion; Part III. Photochemistry: 12. The kinetics of energy transfer from the triplet state in rigid solutions; 13. Triplet states in gas-phase photochemistry; 14. Biphotonic photochemistry, involving the triplet state: polarisation of the effective T-T transition and solvent effects; 15. Direct and sensitised photo-oxidation of aromatic hydrocarbons in boric acid glass; Discussion; Part IV. Radiationless Transitions: 16. Radiationless transitions in gaseous benzene; 17. Low-lying excited triplet states and intersystem crossing in aromatic hydrocarbons; 18. De-excitation rates of triplet states in condensed media; 19. Lifetimes of the triplet state of aromatic hydrocarbons in the vapour phase; Discussion; Part V. Triplet Excitons: 20. Some comments on the properties of triplet excitons in molecular crystals; 21. Exact treatment of coherent and incoherent triplet exciton migration; 22. Magnetic susceptibility of a system of triplet excitons: Würster's Blue Perchlorate; 23. A study of triplet excitons in anthracene crystals under laser excitation; 24. The electronic states in crystaline anthracene; Discussion; Part VI. Delayed Fluorescent and Phosphorescence: 25. Delayed fluorescence of solutions; 26. The kinetics of the excited states of anthracene and phenanthrene vapor; 27. Optical investigations of the triplet states of naphthalene in different crystalline environments; 28. Excitation of the triplet states of organic molecules; 29. The delayed luminescence and triplet quantum yields of pyrene solutions; 30. Triplet state studies of some polyphenyls in rigid glasses; 31. Decay time of delayed fluorescence of anthracene as a function of temperature (2-30ºK); 32. Energy transfer between benzene and biacetyl and the lifetime of triplet benzene in the gas phase; 33. Charge transfer triplet state of molecular complexes. 34. Flash-photolytic detection of triplet acridine formed by energy transfer from biacetyl; 35. Extinction coefficients of triplet-triplet transitions between 3000 and 8800 A in anthracene; 36. Anthracene triplet-triplet annihilation rate constant; Discussion; Part VII. Triplet State Related to Biology: 37. ESR and optical studies of some triplet states of biological interest; 38. The triplet state of DNA; 39. Some characteristics of the triplet states of the nucleic bases; Discussion; Indexes.

Zahlan, A. B.

2010-01-01

110

State verification for synchronous circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the techniques of implicit traversing and state verification for sequential finite state machines (FSMs)\\u000a based of on the state collapsing of state transition graph(STG). The problems of state designing are described. In order to\\u000a achieve high state enumeration coverage, heuristic knowledge is proposed.

He Xinhua; Gong Yunzhan; Fu Qingling

1997-01-01

111

Combining programs and state machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

State machines consume and process actions complementary to programs issuing actions. State machines maintain a state and reply with a boolean response to each action in their interface. As state machines offer a service to programs, their interface is also called a service interface. State machines can be combined with several natural operators, thus giving rise to a state machine

Jan A. Bergstra; Alban Ponse

2002-01-01

112

Fourth generation bound states  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the spectrum and wave functions of q{sup '}q{sup '} bound states for heavy fourth generation quarks (q{sup '}) that have a very small mixing with the three observed generations of standard model quarks. Such bound states come with different color, spin and flavor quantum numbers. Since the fourth generation Yukawa coupling, {lambda}{sub q}{sup '}, is large we include all perturbative corrections to the potential between the heavy quark and antiquark of order {lambda}{sub q}{sup '2}N{sub c}/16{pi}{sup 2} where N{sub c} is the number of colors, as well as relativistic corrections suppressed by (v/c){sup 2}. We find that the lightest fourth generation quark masses for which a bound state exists for color octet states. For the color singlet states, which always have a bound state, we analyze the influence that the Higgs couplings have on the size and binding energy of the bound states.

Ishiwata, Koji; Wise, Mark B. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California, 91125 (United States)

2011-04-01

113

The state road map  

SciTech Connect

In the past year, electric industry restructuring has become a hot issue in virtually every state - not only those with high retail rates. So far this year, retail access legislation has been introduced in 23 states, and study bills have been introduced in another nine. Several of these states have already taken action. Oklahoma enacted the Electric Restructuring Act of 1997 in late April, mandating retail choice of generation suppliers by 2002, and legislatures in Maryland, Utah, Arkansas and Idaho adopted study bills. On the regulatory front, formal and substantive commission proceedings are moving forward in well over half the states. State legislatures and regulatory commissions around the country are keenly focused on those states which already enacted retail access legislation and are now slogging through the details of implementation. Even with new laws in place, heated debates on the issues surrounding both deregulation of generation and the evolution of the retail energy service market continue, and delays are possible. Retail energy service companies could begin competing for up to 20 million retail customers next year in Massachusetts, California, New Hampshire and Rhode Island, along with a significant number of new pilot-program customers in Pennsylvania and New York. This article gives a brief progress report on the states closest to retail choice.

Simon, K.M.; Vavro, S.L.; Shapiro, D.

1997-06-01

114

Mixed states from anomalies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are several instances where quantum anomalies of continuous and discrete classical symmetries play an important role in fundamental physics. Examples come from chiral anomalies in the Standard Model of fundamental interactions and gravitational anomalies in string theories. Their generic origin is the fact that classical symmetries may not preserve the domains of quantum operators like the Hamiltonian. In this work, we show by simple examples that anomalous symmetries can often be implemented at the expense of working with mixed states having nonzero entropies. In particular there is the result on color breaking by non-abelian magnetic monopoles. This anomaly can be rectified by using impure states. We also argue that non-abelian groups of twisted bundles are always anomalous for pure states sharpening an earlier argument of Sorkin and Balachandran [A. P. Balachandran, G. Marmo, B. S. Skagerstam, and A. Stern, Classical Topology and Quantum States (World Scientific, Singapore, 1991).]. This is the case of mapping class groups of geons [A. P. Balachandran, G. Marmo, B. S. Skagerstam, and A. Stern, Classical Topology and Quantum States (World Scientific, Singapore, 1991).] indicating that large diffeos are anomalous for pure states in the presence of geons. Nevertheless diffeo invariance may be restored by using impure states. This work concludes with examples of these ideas drawn from molecular physics. The above approach using impure states is entirely equivalent to restricting all states to the algebra of observables invariant under the anomalous symmetries. For anomalous gauge groups such as color, this would mean that we work with observables singlet under global gauge transformations. For color, this will mean that we work with color singlets, a reasonable constraint.

Balachandran, A. P.; de Queiroz, Amilcar R.

2012-01-01

115

Solid-state nanopores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The passage of individual molecules through nanosized pores in membranes is central to many processes in biology. Previously, experiments have been restricted to naturally occurring nanopores, but advances in technology now allow artificial solid-state nanopores to be fabricated in insulating membranes. By monitoring ion currents and forces as molecules pass through a solid-state nanopore, it is possible to investigate a wide range of phenomena involving DNA, RNA and proteins. The solid-state nanopore proves to be a surprisingly versatile new single-molecule tool for biophysics and biotechnology.

Dekker, Cees

2007-04-01

116

Tri-State Buffer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive presentation, created by Terry Bartelt and hosted by the Electromechanical Digital Library, discusses the tri-state buffer used in devices employing digital circuitry. A tri-state buffer is "one type of device that is used in digital circuits receiving two logic states but producing three different types of output signals." The presentation is filled with useful flash animations presenting the buffer's use. Furthermore, a series of slides presents the application of this device in different situations. Once complete, a short four-question quiz is provided to test the full understanding of the different concepts.

Bartelt, Terry L.

2009-04-20

117

State Organ Donation Legislation  

MedlinePLUS

... State Revenue Sources Legal Consent ME/C Facilitation Donation Education Living Donor Support Voluntary Contributions State-Provided Funds UAGA Version Donor Designation Registries Driver’s Lic. Schools Driver Education Tax Benefit Leave of Absence Public Private Total: ... HRSA.gov's privacy protection may not be available at the external link. The information contained in this Web site is for informational purposes only and does not constitute legal advice. Because the charts in this Web site represent only a general summary of the legislation described and because legislation in this area changes often, we recommend that you consult with your local organ procurement organization or your State Attorney General's Office ...

118

Multipartite secure state distribution  

SciTech Connect

We introduce the distribution of a secret multipartite entangled state in a real-world scenario as a quantum primitive. We show that in the presence of noisy quantum channels (and noisy control operations), any state chosen from the set of two-colorable graph states (Calderbank-Shor-Steane codewords) can be created with high fidelity while it remains unknown to all parties. This is accomplished by either blind multipartite entanglement purification, which we introduce in this paper, or by multipartite entanglement purification of enlarged states, which offers advantages over an alternative scheme based on standard channel purification and teleportation. The parties are thus provided with a secret resource of their choice for distributed secure applications.

Duer, W.; Briegel, H.-J. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Innsbruck, Technikerstrasse 25, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Institut fuer Quantenoptik und Quanteninformation der Oesterreichischen, Akademie der Wissenschaften, Innsbruck (Austria); Calsamiglia, J. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Innsbruck, Technikerstrasse 25, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

2005-04-01

119

State Infertility Insurance Laws  

MedlinePLUS

... New Jersey | New York | Ohio | Rhode Island | Texas | West Virginia If a state is not listed here , or ... Island 1989 X X Texas 1987 X X West Virginia 1977 X(8) (1) Includes a lifetime maximum ...

120

Aquaculture in Washington State,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The simply written and illustrated brochure provides an overview of culture methods used in Washington State by commercial growers of salmon and trout, oysters, clams, mussels, abalone, and nori (an edible seaweed). It also lists associations and agencies...

A. H. Bill T. Y. Nosho

1988-01-01

121

A possible ?? molecular state  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structure of the ?? state with isospin I = 1 and spin-parity J P = 3/2- is dynamically studied in both the chiral SU(3) quark model and the extended chiral SU(3) quark model by solving a resonating group method (RGM) equation. The model parameters are taken from our previous work, which gave a satisfactory description of the energies of the baryon ground states, the binding energy of the deuteron, the nucleon-nucleon ( NN scattering phase shifts, and the hyperon-nucleon ( YN cross-sections. The calculated results show that the ?? state has an attractive interaction, and in the extended chiral SU(3) quark model such an attraction can make for an ?? quasi-bound state with the binding energy of about several MeV.

Wang, W. L.; Huang, F.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Yu, Y. W.; Liu, F.

2007-06-01

122

?-nuclear bound states revisited  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The strong energy dependence of the s-wave ?N scattering amplitude at and below threshold, as evident in coupled-channels K-matrix fits and chiral models that incorporate the S11N*(1535) resonance, is included self-consistently in ?-nuclear bound-state calculations. This approach, applied recently in calculations of kaonic atoms and K¯-nuclear bound states, is found to impose stronger constraints than ever on the onset of ?-nuclear binding, with a minimum value of Rea?0.9 fm required to accommodate an ?–He4 bound state. Binding energies and widths of ?-nuclear states are calculated within several underlying ?N models for nuclei across the periodic table, including Mg?25 for which some evidence was proposed in a recent COSY experiment.

Friedman, E.; Gal, A.; Mareš, J.

2013-10-01

123

The Organic Solid State.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reviews interesting and useful electrical, magnetic, and optical properties of the organic solid state. Offers speculation as to areas of fruitful research. Discusses organic superconductors, conducting organic polymers, organic metals, and traces recent history of creation of organic metals. (JM)|

Cowan, Dwaine O.; Wlygul, Frank M.

1986-01-01

124

Coma / Vegetative State  

MedlinePLUS

... is a profound or deep state of unconsciousness (consciousness being the awareness of the self and the ... 13-15 – mild brain injury, or loss of consciousness for fewer than 20 minutes 15 – full consciousness ...

125

State Librarianship: Modular Curriculum.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This modular curriculum on state librarianship is designed to be used as a basis for a full-length library science course, instructional segments of several courses, continuing education courses, or workshops. The 20 curriculum modules cover the many face...

J. Robbins A. Powell

1976-01-01

126

Negative-ion states  

SciTech Connect

In this brief review, we discuss some of the properties of atomic and molecular negative ions and their excited states. Experiments involving photon reactions with negative ions and polar dissociation are summarized. 116 references, 14 figures.

Compton, R.N.

1982-01-01

127

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... UNITED STATES OF AMERICA ... We have control. We commit to ... the company looked at controlling for algorithm variations based on ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

128

STATE System Interactive Maps  

MedlinePLUS

... Initiative Global Tobacco Control Spotlight About GTSS GTSS Atlas Publications and Products Printed Material Videos Interagency Committee ... Reproductive Health More CDC Sites STATE System Interactive Maps ? Highlights 2012 Abstract Highlights 2012 (by section) Highlights ...

129

Ground State Spin Logic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Designing and optimizing cost functions and energy landscapes is a problem encountered in many fields of science and engineering. These landscapes and cost functions can be embedded and annealed in experimentally controllable spin Hamiltonians. Using an approach based on group theory and symmetries, we examine the embedding of Boolean logic gates into the ground-state subspace of such spin systems. We describe parameterized families of diagonal Hamiltonians and symmetry operations which preserve the ground-state subspace encoding the truth tables of Boolean formulas. The ground-state embeddings of adder circuits are used to illustrate how gates are combined and simplified using symmetry. Our work is relevant for experimental demonstrations of ground-state embeddings found in both classical optimization as well as adiabatic quantum optimization.

Whitfield, James; Faccin, Mauro; Biamonte, Jacob

2013-03-01

130

On neutrino flavor states  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review the issues associated with the construction of neutrino flavor states. We then provide a consistent proof that the flavor states are approximately well-defined only if neutrinos are ultra-relativistic or the mass differences are negligible compared to energy. However, we show that weak interactions can be consistently described by only neutrino mass eigenstates. Meanwhile, the second quantization of neutrino flavor fields generally has no physical relevance as their masses are indefinite. Therefore, the flavor states are not physical quantum states and they should simply be interpreted as definitions to denote specific linear combinations of mass eigenstates involved in weak interactions. We also briefly discuss the implication of this work for the mixing between active and heavy sterile neutrinos.

Ho, Chiu Man

2012-12-01

131

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text VersionPage 1. 317 UNITED STATES OF AMERICA DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION + + + ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

132

Globalization and State Soverignty.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The nation-state, the basis of international relations and main framework for the existence and exercise of sovereignty and democracy of modern- day human communities, has been challenged by the phenomenon of globalization. Unprecedented changes in commun...

M. Islam

2003-01-01

133

Western States Fire Mission  

NASA Website

NASA and the U.S. Forest Service successfully demonstrated technologies that improved real-time wildfire imaging and mapping capabilities during the Western States Fire Mission flight series by unmanned research aircraft from 2006 through 2009.

134

Solid State Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report covers in detail the research work of the Solid State Division at Lincoln Laboratory for the period 1 November 1993 through 31 January 1994. The topics covered are Electrooptical Devices, Quantum Electronics, Materials Research, Submicrometer ...

A. McWhorter

1994-01-01

135

The real state terrorism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Politicians and journalists have described terrorism—acts of terror by those opposed to governments—as the cancer of the modern world. In the 1970s the term international terrorism was devised to describe acts of violence committed by political groups outside the nation in which they primarily operated. At the same time, state terrorism referred to a state that made its resources—financial, political,

Wolfgang Deckers

1995-01-01

136

Geometry of thermodynamic states  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A geometric formalism for statistical estimation is applied here to the canonical distribution of classical statistical mechanics. In this scheme thermodynamic states are characterised by a submanifold M of the unit sphere in a real Hilbert space. The measurement of a thermodynamic variable corresponds to the reduction of a state vector, where the transition probability is the Boltzmann weight. We derive a set of uncertainty relations for conjugate thermodynamic variables.

Brody, Dorje C.; Hughston, Lane P.

1998-08-01

137

United States Code  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Every six years, the Office of the Law Revision Counsel, US House of Representatives, publishes the United States Code, the "codification of the general and permanent laws of the United States." The first seven titles of the 2000 code have been made available this month at GPO Access. The code can be browsed and searched, and search results include citations plus links to the full text of the legislation.

2001-01-01

138

Solid state switch  

DOEpatents

A solid state switch, with reverse conducting thyristors, is designed to operate at 20 kV hold-off voltage, 1500 A peak, 1.0 .mu.s pulsewidth, and 4500 pps, to replace thyratrons. The solid state switch is more reliable, more economical, and more easily repaired. The switch includes a stack of circuit card assemblies, a magnetic assist and a trigger chassis. Each circuit card assembly contains a reverse conducting thyristor, a resistor capacitor network, and triggering circuitry.

Merritt, Bernard T. (Livermore, CA); Dreifuerst, Gary R. (Livermore, CA)

1994-01-01

139

State Environmental Resource Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides information on Wisconsin environmental policies and assembles information and tools to help legislators make decisions on environmental issues. The State Environmental Resource Center identifies effective state policies as well as exposing anti-environmental legislative trends. Included in this site are sample bills, press clips, fact sheets, research, and other background information on a large assortment of environmental issues such as clean energy, urban issues, saving wildlands, safe air and water, children's health, land and water use, and environmental citizenship.

Wildlife, Defenders O.; The State Environmental Resource Center (SERC)

140

Optimal Remote State Preparation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We prove that it is possible to remotely prepare an ensemble of non-commuting\\u000amixed states using communication equal to the Holevo information for this\\u000aensemble. This remote preparation scheme may be used to convert between\\u000adifferent ensembles of mixed states in an asymptotically lossless way,\\u000aanalogous to concentration and dilution for entanglement.

Dominic W. Berry; Barry C. Sanders

2003-01-01

141

Categorical Tensor Network States  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the use of the mathematics of category theory in the description of quantum states by tensor networks. This approach enables the development of a categorical framework allowing a solution to the quantum decomposition problem. Specifically, given an $n$-body quantum state $\\\\ket{\\\\psi}$, we present a general method to factor $\\\\ket{\\\\psi}$ into a tensor network. Moreover, this decomposition of $\\\\ket{\\\\psi}$

Jacob D. Biamonte; Stephen R. Clark; Dieter Jaksch

2010-01-01

142

Categorical Tensor Network States  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the use of the mathematics of category theory in the description\\u000aof quantum states by tensor networks. This approach enables the development of\\u000aa categorical framework allowing a solution to the quantum decomposition\\u000aproblem. Specifically, given an $n$-body quantum state $\\\\ket{\\\\psi}$, we present\\u000aa general method to factor $\\\\ket{\\\\psi}$ into a tensor network. Moreover, this\\u000adecomposition of $\\\\ket{\\\\psi}$

Jacob D. Biamonte; Stephen R. Clark; Dieter Jaksch

2010-01-01

143

States of Matters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are the states of matter? 1. Open States of Matter Chart. This is where you will write down all the information that you learn. 2. Open Information on Solids. Write down 2 facts that you learned about solids in the chart AND draw a picture of what you think an example of a solid could be. 3. Open Information on Liquids. Write down 2 facts that you ...

Newman, Ms.

2010-11-04

144

Equidistant-state preparation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a scheme for preparing a set of bases constituted by equidistant states of a quantum system in prime dimension starting with a single entangled system-ancilla state. The required quantum correlations between the involved systems as a function of the separability constant are analyzed. A comparative analysis of errors in tomographic reconstruction process using bases of different separation is given in the frame of the Fisher information approach.

Sainz, I.; Klimov, A. B.; Roa, Luis

2013-09-01

145

Separable State Decompositions for a Class of Mixed States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study certain quantum states for which the PPT criterion is both sufficient and necessary for separability. A class of n× n bipartite mixed states is presented and the conditions of PPT for these states are derived. The separable pure state decompositions of these states are explicitly constructed when they are PPT.

Zhang, Ting-Gui; Huang, Xiaofen; Li-Jost, Xianqing; Jing, Naihuan; Fei, Shao-Ming

2013-11-01

146

Teleportation of an Unknown Quantum State via Partly Entangled States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The teleportation of an unknown quantum state from one observer to another is of great importance in quantum information. In the standard teleportation scheme, a maximally entangled state is demanded. However, it is difficult to prepare such states in practice, and real entangled states are always partly entangled. We present a scheme to teleport an unknown quantum state using two

Xun-Li Feng; Shang-Qing Gong; Zhong-Yang Wang; Zhi-Zhan Xu

2000-01-01

147

Linked-state machines  

SciTech Connect

Procedures for the analysis and design of linked state machines are developed in this report. These procedures are for the study of the finite state nondeterministic, and possibly concurrent, processes that arise in models of communication protocols, digital hardware, and computer programs. Linked state machines (LSMs) are currently used for description (for example, specification) of protocols and hardware but are not widely used for analysis and design. This study develops tools for analysis and design by formulating mathematical descriptions of LSMs, developing methods for generating different representations of LSMs, and developing a method of reduction that allows the behavior of a selected part of an LSM to be modeled. The relationship between LSMs and Petri nets is also studied. In addition, conditions that allow the synthesis of speed independent LSMs are stated and proved. The procedures developed for the analysis and design of LSMs are mostly algorithmic and can be applied to the (hand) analysis of (some) systems with several hundred states. These procedures also will serve as a basis for computer-aided analysis and design of LSMs.

Knudsen, H.K.

1983-07-01

148

Superpowers and client states  

SciTech Connect

Throughout the world the two superpowers often conduct their global conflict by proxy, taking different sides in regional disputes. An important question of international relations is where the balance of power lies in the superpower client state relationship-how far are the interests of the superpower subordinated to those of the client state or vice versa. Taking the two case studies of the US-Israel relationship and the Soviet-Syrian relationship, this book explores the perceptions by each side of the relationship and the reality. It goes on to make general conclusions about superpower-client state relationships. Contents: Introduction; In Search of a Theoretical Framework; Client-States in Superpower Perception; Superpowers in Client States' Perception; The Case of US-Israel Relations; Israel in US Perspective; The USA in Israeli Perspective; Flows of US Civilian and Military Resources to Israel; The Case of Soviet-Syrian Relations; Syria in Soviet Perspective; The USSR in Syrian Perspective; Flows of Soviet Civilian and Military Resources to Syria; Comparative Analysis and Conclusions; Overview of the two cases studies and conclusions.

Efrat, M.; Bercovitch, J.

1987-01-01

149

See Your State From Space!  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Each of the 50 States in the United States is beautiful in its own way. That beauty can be seen from a unique perspective using satellite images taken from high above the Earth. These State images were created from multiple satellite images stitched together into one seamless image for each State. Names of major cities, administrative boundaries, and State flags have been added.

Geological Survey (U.S.)

2008-01-01

150

Excited-state thermodynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last several years, the Casimir energy for a variety of (1 + 1)-dimensional integrable models has been determined from the exact S-matrix. It is shown here how to modify the boundary conditions to project out the lowest-energy state, which enables one to find excited-state energies. This is done by calculating thermodynamic expectation values of operators which generate discrete symmetries. This is demonstrated with a number of perturbed conformal field theories, including the Ising model, the three-state Potts model, Zn parafermions, Toda S-matrices, and massless goldstinos. I would like to thank Ken Intriligator, Tim Klassen, Kolya Reshetikhin and Cumrun Vafa for helpful and interesting conversations. I would also like to thank Michael Lässig for mailing me various papers, and Marcio Martins for providing numerical results which poimted out a mistake in an earlier draft.

Fendley, Paul

1992-05-01

151

State Sums and Geometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this thesis I review the definition of topological quantum field theories through state sums on triangulated manifolds. I describe the construction of state sum invariants of 3-manifolds from a graphical calculus and show how to evaluate the invariants as boundary amplitudes. I review how to define such a graphical calculus through SU(2) representation theory. I then review various geometricity results for the representation theory of SU(2), Spin(4) and SL(2,C), and define coherent boundary manifolds for state sums based on these representations. I derive the asymptotic geometry of the SU(2) based Ponzano-Regge invariant in three dimensions, and the SU(2) based Ooguri models amplitude in four dimensions. As a corollary to the latter results I derive the asymptotic behaviour of various recently proposed spin foam models motivated from the Plebanski formulation of general relativity. Finally the asymptotic geometry of the SL(2,C) based model is derived.

Hellmann, Frank

2011-02-01

152

Pfaffian States: Quantum Computation  

SciTech Connect

The Pfaffian determinant is sometimes used to multiply the Laughlin's wave function at the half filled Landau level. The square of the Pfaffian gives the ordinary determinant. We find that the Pfaffian wave function leads to four times larger energies and two times faster time. By the same logic, the Pfaffian breaks the supersymmetry of the Dirac equation. By using the spin properties and the Landau levels, we correctly interpret the state with 5/2 filling. The quantum numbers which represent the state vectors are now products of n (Landau level quantum number), l(orbital angular momentum quantum number and the spin, s |n, l, s>. In a circuit, the noise measures the resistivity and hence the charge. The Pfaffian velocity is different from that of the single-particle states and hence it has important consequences in the measurement of the charge of the quasiparticles.

Shrivastava, Keshav N. [Department of Physics, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia)

2009-09-14

153

Parallel processing state alignment  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes circuitry in a multiple processor system for aligning the processing states of autonomous processors interconnected by a common communication channel, the circuitry comprising means for generating successive reference signals, means, responsive to the processors, for storing quantities indicative of the next processing states as scheduled by each of the associated processors, and means, coupled to the generating means and the storing means, for comparing the number of the generated reference signals to the quantities and for inhibiting the generating means whenever the number is equivalent to any of the quantities.

Vollaro, J.R

1989-05-23

154

Fast decoupled state estimators  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a new framework for fast decoupled state estimators. Decoupling is not seen as zeroing coupling submatrices in the problem Jacobian, but as a two-steps procedure to solve full-Newton equations, without major approximations. In addition to presenting a sound derivation of the standard version of the fast decoupled state estimator, a new version is proposed which presents better performance when applied to systems with critical {ital r/x} ratios. Test results as well as illustrative examples are presented and discussed.

Monticelli, A.; Garcia, A. (UNICAMP, Campinas (BR))

1990-05-01

155

State Personal Income Data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Geospatial and Statistical Data Center at the University of Virginia offers a database of state personal income from 1958 to 1997. The database may be searched by ten fields including US state, personal income by major source and earnings by industry, wage and salary disbursements by industry and by year, and regional economic profiles. Users can select from a pick list of options for each field, and the accompanying helpful notes sections provide explanatory footnotes for each pick list. The database may be queried by one field or a combination of several fields.

156

Excited Charm States  

SciTech Connect

Characteristics of mass spectra and decays of orbitally excited charm mesons and baryons, expected on the basis of quark models and Heavy Quark Symmetry, are briefly described. The difficulties associated with measurements on these excited states are discussed. The accuracy and reliability of currently available experimental information is examined. The reasons, for the widely accepted spin-parity assignments to the observed excited mesons and baryons, are stated. Finally, the experimental data, with the accepted spin-parity assignments, is compared with expectations based on quark models and Heavy Quark Symmetry.

Shukla, S.

1994-12-31

157

Model equations of state  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Model equations of state determining the thermodynamic characteristics of matter in various states of aggregation are reviewed. Methods for describing the thermodynamics of gases, liquids, and plasmas are described. Quantum-mechanical models for solids and a quasiclassical model of matter are discussed. Models which can be used to study melting, evaporation, structural and electronic phase transitions in solids, and phase transitions in nonideal plasmas are also discussed. The ranges of applicability of the various methods are determined. The results of model-based calculations are compared with the experimental data available.

Bushman, A. V.; Fortov, V. E.

1983-06-01

158

Administering Our State Library Agencies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A satire on the application of scientific management principles to a state library agency. Covers relationships of the state librarian to staff, the profession, and state and federal governments. (Author/JS)|

DuFrane, Gerard

1970-01-01

159

State of Tobacco Control 2013  

MedlinePLUS

... American Lung Association. Money emerges as the core theme in "State of Tobacco Control 2013" – specifically how states fail to ... Map State Rankings Methodology Our Fight Overview Our ... Contact Us | Terms of Use | Privacy Policy © American Lung Association . All Rights ...

160

States of Matter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Take a look at a molecular level at what happens in a substance during the three phases of solid, liquid, and gas. Use interactive computer models to trace an atomÂs trajectory at a certain physical stage, and investigate how molecular behavior is responsible for the substanceÂs state.

Consortium, The C.

2011-12-11

161

Solid-State Devices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This self-study course is designed to familiarize Marine Corps enlisted personnel with the principles of solid-state devices and their functions. The course contains four study units. Each study unit begins with a general objective, which is a statement of what the student should learn from the unit. The study units are divided into numbered work…

Sutliff, Ronald D.; And Others

162

Teaching mind state control  

Microsoft Academic Search

A university lecturer describes how he used knowledge about the way the brain works to give students skills in controlling their mind states so as to perform better in a variety of educational and non-educational settings. Student evaluation was high and the method can be used in any subject area.

1999-01-01

163

Solid state heat engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A compact solid state turbine heat engine can be devised by pairing the nitinol elements. Each element is characterized by being in thermal contact with at least one hot water and one cold water bath and mechanically coupled to at least one driven pulley and driver pulley. A second nitinol element is similarly configured with a driver pulley, driven pulley,

Cory

1981-01-01

164

State Court Organization, 1998.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This volume, the fourth edition in a series, describes the highly diverse world of the state courts as of July 1, 1998, while also providing some corresponding information on the federal courts. Information distributed across 50 tables details the main fe...

C. R. Flango D. B. Rottman M. T. Cantrell N. LaFountain R. Hansen

2000-01-01

165

Adiabatic Quantum State Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of new quantum algorithms has proven to be an extremely difficult task. This paper considers a different approach to this task by studying the problem of quantum state generation. We motivate this problem by showing that the entire class of statistical zero knowledge, which contains natural candidates for efficient quantum algorithms such as graph isomorphism and lattice problems,

Dorit Aharonov; Amnon Ta-shma

2007-01-01

166

State Prison Expenditures, 1996.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For fiscal year 1996 States and the District of Columbia reported that they spent $22 billion for adult prisons--to build, staff, and maintain the facilities and to house the prisoners. The Federal Bureau of Prisons spent an additional $2.5 billion. These...

J. J. Stephan

1999-01-01

167

States of Emergency  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Given the stakes and the current economic climate, U.S. higher education officials across the country are stepping up their advocacy efforts, making their voices louder and more persistent than ever. They are vying for the attention of states struggling with increased demands for limited revenues, most choosing to divert dollars from higher…

Mayer, Caroline E.

2012-01-01

168

State Virtual Libraries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Virtual library? Electronic library? Digital library? Online information network? These all apply to the growing number of Web-based resource collections managed by consortiums of state library entities. Some, like "INFOhio" and "KYVL" ("Kentucky Virtual Library"), have been available for a few years, but others are just starting. Searching for…

Pappas, Marjorie L.

2003-01-01

169

Multimuon Final States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Multimuon final states have been detected by 3 experiments in the interactions of the muon beams of CERN (280 GeV) and FNAL (210 GeV) with heavy targets. For the first time production of J/PSI (3100) by space-like photons has been observed and its depende...

J. M. Crespo

1980-01-01

170

Keystone State of Confusion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|When high school seniors begin searching for the best school to fit their higher education goals, they may need a road map, tour guide and interpreter to help them sort through Pennsylvania's higher education universe. For sure there are seemingly endless choices--public, private, large, small, urban and rural. The Keystone State boasts nearly…

Stuart, Reginald

2009-01-01

171

New State of Leadership  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper presents how minorities break color barriers in top administrative positions at Pennsylvania institutions. Pennsylvania, the state with the sixth-largest population in the country with more than 12 million people, reportedly has more than 450 public and private colleges, universities and career and technical training schools. "Diverse"…

Ford, William J.

2009-01-01

172

When Church Meets State.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|When the debate heats up over the separation of church and state issue board members need to be keenly aware of the fine line that exists between promoting nonreligious activities in school and encouraging an antireligious sentiment. Ten reminders are given for board members and administrators to remember when addressing the issue of religion in…

Hitz, Randy; Butterfield, Paula

1994-01-01

173

Colorado State University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Colorado State University (CSU) is located in Fort Collins, which is a midsize city of 134,000 situated in Northern Colorado at the western edge of the Great Plains and at the base of the Rocky Mountains. CSU's total enrollment is approximately 25,000 students. The Division of Student Affairs comprises 30 departments organized into programmatic…

McKelfresh, David A.; Bender, Kim K.

2009-01-01

174

Colorado State Forest Service  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This public information site from Colorado State University offers sections on managing private and community forests, Colorado wildfires, fire rehabilitation, employment opportunities, and Project Learning Tree, a series of learning modules for K-12 students and educators that address current environmental topics and issues.

2002-10-16

175

Adams v. State.  

PubMed

The Supreme Court of Georgia, on 4 May 1998, held that a state statute permitting a crime victim who is significantly exposed to HIV request an HIV blood test on the person charged with the crime and arrested does not violate the Fourth Amendment right against unreasonable searches, nor does it violate privacy or equal protection rights. Malik Adams attacked and struggled with police officers during arrest. In the struggle, Adams's and an officer's hands, on which there were bleeding wounds, came in contact. Even though Adams did not have any outward AIDS symptoms, the State filed a motion to compel HIV testing. The Supreme Court of Georgia held that, because the statute compelling HIV testing serves the compelling state interest of preventing the public's exposure to HIV, the search, in this case the taking and sampling of blood, was reasonable. The statute also did not violate Adams's right to privacy or state or federal equal protection clauses. The judgment of the Superior court was affirmed. PMID:16285099

1998-01-01

176

Adams v. State.  

PubMed

Court Decision: 498 South Eastern Reporter, 2d Series 268; 1998 May 4 (date of decision). The Supreme Court of Georgia held that a state statute permitting a crime victim who is significantly exposed to HIV request an HIV blood test on the person charged with the crime and arrested does not violate the Fourth Amendment right against unreasonable searches, nor does it violate privacy or equal protection rights. Malik Adams attacked and struggled with police officers during arrest. In the struggle, Adams's and an officer's hands, on which there were bleeding wounds, came in contact. Even though Adams did not have any outward AIDS symptoms, the State filed a motion to compel HIV testing. The Supreme Court of Georgia held that, because the statute compelling HIV testing serves the compelling state interest of preventing the public's exposure to HIV, the search, in this case the taking and sampling of blood, was reasonable. The statute also did not violate Adams's right to privacy or state or federal equal protection clauses. PMID:16372437

1998-01-01

177

Bounded Finite State Controllers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a new approximation algorithm for solving partially observ- able MDPs. Our bounded policy iterationapproach searches through the space of bounded-size, stochastic finite state controllers, combining sev- eral advantages of gradient ascent (efficiency, search through restricted controller space) and policy iteration (less vulnerability to local optima).

Pascal Poupart; Craig Boutilier

2003-01-01

178

Oregon State University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Oregon State University (OSU) is located in Corvallis, a community of 53,000 people situated in the heart of the Willamette Valley between Portland and Eugene. Approximately 15,700 undergraduate and 3,400 graduate students, including 2,600 U.S. students of color and 950 international students, are currently enrolled at OSU across 11 academic…

Sanderson, Rebecca A.; Ketcham, Patricia L.

2009-01-01

179

Bound state transformation walls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In four dimensional N = 2 supergravity theories, BPS bound states near marginal stability are described by configurations of widely separated constituents with nearly parallel central charges. When the vacuum moduli can be dialed adiabatically until the central charges become anti -parallel, a paradox arises. We show that this paradox is always resolved by the existence of "bound state transformation walls" across which the nature of the bound state changes, although the index does not jump. We find that there are two distinct phenomena that can take place on these walls, which we call recombination and conjugation. The latter is associated to the presence of singularities at finite distance in moduli space. Consistency of conjugation and wall-crossing rules near these singularities leads to new constraints on the BPS spectrum. Singular loci supporting massless vector bosons are particularly subtle in this respect. We argue that the spectrum at such loci necessarily contains massless magnetic monopoles, and that bound states around them transform by intricate hybrids of conjugation and recombination.

Andriyash, Evgeny; Denef, Frederik; Jafferis, Daniel L.; Moore, Gregory W.

2012-03-01

180

Create Your State  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students are often encouraged to work together with their classmates, sometimes with other classes, occasionally with kids at other schools, but rarely with kids across the country. In this article the authors describe the Create Your State project, a collaborative nationwide project inspired by the Texas Chair Project wherein the artist, Damien…

Dunham, Kris; Melvin, Samantha

2011-01-01

181

State Farms in Ghana.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A comprehensive report is given of large scale farming in Ghana, including a history of British Colonial efforts up to 1962. Discussed is the establishment of Ghana State Farms Corporation (SFC) in June of 1962 which took over the Ministry of Agriculture'...

M. P. Miracle A. Seidman

1968-01-01

182

Protein states and proteinquakes.  

PubMed Central

After photodissociation of carbon monoxide bound to myoglobin, the protein relaxes to the deoxy equilibrium structure in a quake-like motion. Investigation of the proteinquake and of related intramolecular equilibrium motions shows that states and motions have a hierarchical glass-like structure.

Ansari, A; Berendzen, J; Bowne, S F; Frauenfelder, H; Iben, I E; Sauke, T B; Shyamsunder, E; Young, R D

1985-01-01

183

Oregon State University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Oregon State University (OSU) is located in Corvallis, a community of 53,000 people situated in the heart of the Willamette Valley between Portland and Eugene. Approximately 15,700 undergraduate and 3,400 graduate students, including 2,600 U.S. students of color and 950 international students, are currently enrolled at OSU across 11 academic…

Sanderson, Rebecca A.; Ketcham, Patricia L.

2009-01-01

184

Halo states in nuclei  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well-known that some nuclei in the vicinity of the drip lines develop a structure with a dilute mass distribution that extends very far away from the nuclear core. Such structures are referred to as nuclear halos. An overview of some recent experiments in the drip-line regions relevant for the understanding of the structure of halo states is given

B. Jonson

1998-01-01

185

Designing State Aid Formulas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper designs a new equalization-aid formula based on fiscal gaps of local communities. When states are in transition to a new local aid formula, the issue of whether and how to hold existing aid harmless poses a challenge. The authors show that some previous studies and the formulas derived from them give differential weights to existing…

Zhao, Bo; Bradbury, Katharine

2009-01-01

186

FCC State Link  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Researchers interested in telecommunications industry data and trends may download Federal Communications Commission (FCC) reports at the FCC State Link page. Archived documents are arranged by topic and may include specific information such as telephone industry revenues, rates, and market shares.

187

Free Meixner States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Free Meixner states are a class of functionals on non-commutative polynomials introduced in [Ans06]. They are characterized by a resolvent-type form for the generating function of their orthogonal polynomials, by a recursion relation for those polynomials, or by a second-order non-commutative differential equation satisfied by their free cumulant functional. In this paper, we construct an operator model for free Meixner states. By combinatorial methods, we also derive an operator model for their free cumulant functionals. This, in turn, allows us to construct a number of examples. Some of these examples are shown to be trivial, in the sense of being free products of functionals which depend on only a single variable, or rotations of such free products. On the other hand, the multinomial distribution is a free Meixner state and is not a product. Neither is a large class of tracial free Meixner states which are analogous to the simple quadratic exponential families in statistics.

Anshelevich, Michael

2007-12-01

188

State Archaeological Education Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The focus of this conference was on programs and experiences in public archaeological education in the Plains states and immediate neighbors. The contents lists the following papers: (1) "Introduction to the Symposium" (William B. Butler); (2) "Archaeological Educational Programs in Colorado" (Kevin D. Black); (3) "Statewide Archaeological…

Butler, William B., Ed.

189

Atomic entangled states  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantum communication holds a promise for absolutely secure transmission of secret messages and faithful transfer of unknown quantum states. Photonic channels appear to be very attractive for physical implementation of quantum communication. However, due to losses and decoherence in the channel, the communication fidelity decreases exponentially with the channel length. We describe a scheme that allows to implement robust quantum

L. M. Duan; M. Lukin; P. Zoller; J. I. Cirac

2002-01-01

190

Energy States of Molecules  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses molecular spectroscopy arising from transitions within rotational, vibrational, and electronic energy states. Using quantum mechanical formuli, the author describes how these spectroscopic methods can be used to determine internuclear distances, bond energies, bond angles, dipole moments, and other details. Concludes with a selected…

Hollenberg, J. Leland

1970-01-01

191

Utah State History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Utah State History website casts a broad net when they note that their mission is "to preserve and share the past for a better present and future." As a division of Utah's Department of Community and Culture, they reach out to the public through the work of this site and other entities, including the Utah State Historical Society. On their homepage, visitors will note that the site is divided into six primary sections, including "Program Areas", "Learning & Research", and "Experience History". The "Experience History" area is a good place to start, and visitors can learn about their preservation efforts and also learn about some of Utah's key historic sites. Moving on, the "Learning and Research" area provides timelines of Utah's history, access to a large online archive of photographs, and information on locating cemetery records in the state. Finally, the "Program Areas" section features information about their research center and the Utah State Historical Society and their featured publication, the Utah Historical Quarterly.

192

Cortical state and attention  

Microsoft Academic Search

The brain continuously adapts its processing machinery to behavioural demands. To achieve this, it rapidly modulates the operating mode of cortical circuits, controlling the way that information is transformed and routed. This article will focus on two experimental approaches by which the control of cortical information processing has been investigated: the study of state-dependent cortical processing in rodents and attention

Alexander Thiele; Kenneth D. Harris

2011-01-01

193

Reinforcement learning state estimator.  

PubMed

In this study, we propose a novel use of reinforcement learning for estimating hidden variables and parameters of nonlinear dynamical systems. A critical issue in hidden-state estimation is that we cannot directly observe estimation errors. However, by defining errors of observable variables as a delayed penalty, we can apply a reinforcement learning frame-work to state estimation problems. Specifically, we derive a method to construct a nonlinear state estimator by finding an appropriate feedback input gain using the policy gradient method. We tested the proposed method on single pendulum dynamics and show that the joint angle variable could be successfully estimated by observing only the angular velocity, and vice versa. In addition, we show that we could acquire a state estimator for the pendulum swing-up task in which a swing-up controller is also acquired by reinforcement learning simultaneously. Furthermore, we demonstrate that it is possible to estimate the dynamics of the pendulum itself while the hidden variables are estimated in the pendulum swing-up task. Application of the proposed method to a two-linked biped model is also presented. PMID:17298231

Morimoto, Jun; Doya, Kenji

2007-03-01

194

GIARDIASIS IN WASHINGTON STATE  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective was to determine the potential for transmission of giardiasis through approved drinking water supplies in Washington State. The project consisted of five studies: the first was conducted during trapping seasons (1976-1979) and resulted in examining of 656 beaver sto...

195

STATE/COUNTY BORDERS  

EPA Science Inventory

This data is available for the entire region. The level of detail is primarily suited for region/state/county/basin sized maps. The borders are not accurate enough for small areas like sub-basins and site areas. We use this coverage for general backgrounds and borders only. T...

196

Create Your State  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Students are often encouraged to work together with their classmates, sometimes with other classes, occasionally with kids at other schools, but rarely with kids across the country. In this article the authors describe the Create Your State project, a collaborative nationwide project inspired by the Texas Chair Project wherein the artist, Damien…

Dunham, Kris; Melvin, Samantha

2011-01-01

197

Indians of Washington State.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Maps, photographs, and illustrations are included in this introductory history of Indians in Washington state. The tribal groups of the area are classified by geographic and cultural region as Coastal, Puget Sound, and Plateau tribes, and the majority of the resource booklet provides information about the history and culture of each group.…

Washington Office of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Olympia.

198

Solid state dye laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polymer filled porous glass impregnates with dye molecules is used as an active medium. The most important feature of this medium is that its thermo-optical and mechanical parameters are determined by a matrix of silica which thermo-optical constants are better by two orders of magnitude then those of polymers. The investigation of generation characteristics of solid state dye laser on basis of Rhodamine 6G has shown the feasibility of its application in pulse coherent pumping laser systems. The generation thresholds are practically the same for solid state and ethanol solution. The yield of conversion of pumping energy into generation energy for solid state active element is up to 50%. The advantages of solid state active element based on polymer filled porous glass matrix realize at high temperature operation mode, for instance at frequency mode. The step refraction index temperature dependence for polymers results in increase of optical with increase of pumping energy. In the reported medium this effect does not occur nonuniformity up to pumping energy values exceeding the generation threshold by 40-50 times. Polymer based active media are destructed at the exposition of 50 ns pulses with energy of 1 J/cm2 while porous glass + polymer + Rhodamine 6G composition is not destructed at the exposition of energy up to 7-10 J/cm2. The introduced solid state dye laser is intended to be used in on-board systems, including vacuum under low temperature, where the application of flow systems operation is problematic. It should be emphasized, that using the synthesized compositions, the generation mode with microsecond pulse pumping becomes available. It opens the possibility for application of flashlamp for pumping.

Meshkovskii, Igor K.; Zemskii, Vladimir I.; Kolesnikov, Yuri L.

1995-04-01

199

Beyond marxist state theory: State autonomy in democratic societies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent theories of the state often draw attention to states’ autonomy from social preferences. This paper suggests that the phenomenon of public ignorance is the primary mechanism responsible for state autonomy in democratic polities. Such theorists as Skocpol and Poulantzus, who do not take account of public ignorance, either underestimate the state's autonomy or stress causal mechanisms that are necessary

Samuel DeCanio; Paul Beck; Gregory Caldeira; Stephen DeCanio; Jonathan DeCanio; Jeffrey Friedman; Morgan Marietta

2000-01-01

200

Energy and the environment: state-by-state resources  

SciTech Connect

Contacts are listed for each state and the District of Columbia who can aid citizens and citizen groups seeking information on energy and environmental issues. The chart lists the names, addresses, and telephone numbers of the state energy contact, state environmental contact, legislative contact, and the environmental education coordinator. Hotline numbers are listed for several states. (DCK)

Not Available

1981-01-01

201

The State "of" State U.S. History Standards 2011  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is the Thomas B. Fordham Institute's first review of the quality of state U.S. history standards since 2003. Key findings include: (1) A majority of states' standards are mediocre-to-awful. The average grade across "all" states is barely a D. In twenty-eight jurisdictions--a majority of states--the history standards earn Ds or below.…

Stern, Sheldon M.; Stern, Jeremy A.

2011-01-01

202

Influence of Noises on Remote State Preparation Using GHZ State  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a quantum channel consisting of a GHZ state exposed to noisy environment, we investigate how to remotely prepare an entangled state and a qubit state, respectively. By solving the master equation in the Lindblad form, the influence of the various types of noises on the GHZ state is first discussed. Then we use the fidelity to describe how close

Hua-Qiu Liang; Jin-Ming Liu

2008-01-01

203

THE STATE TOBACCO ACTIVITIES TRACKING AND EVALUATION (STATE) SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System is an electronic data warehouse containing up-to-date and historical state-level data on tobacco use prevention and control. The STATE System is designed to integrate many data sources to provide comprehensive su...

204

State of Idaho Consolidated State Application Accountability Workbook  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This workbook, submitted by the State of Idaho to the U.S. Department of Education, is for State Grants under Title IX, Part C, Section 9302 of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (Public Law 107-110). By January 31, 2003, States must complete and submit to the Department this Consolidated State Application Accountability Workbook. The…

US Department of Education, 2006

2006-01-01

205

State of Vermont Consolidated State Application Accountability Workbook. Revised  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This workbook, submitted by the State of Vermont to the U.S. Department of Education, is for State Grants under Title IX, Part C, Section 9302 of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (Public Law 107-110). It is a summary of implementation status for required elements of state accountability systems. By January 31, 2003, States must complete…

US Department of Education, 2006

2006-01-01

206

State of New Jersey Consolidated State Application Accountability Workbook. Revised  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This workbook, submitted by the State of New Jersey to the U.S. Department of Education, is for State Grants under Title IX, Part C, Section 9302 of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (Public Law 107-110). By January 31, 2003, States must complete and submit to the Department this Consolidated State Application Accountability Workbook.…

US Department of Education, 2006

2006-01-01

207

State of West Virginia Consolidated State Application Accountability Workbook. Revised  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This workbook, submitted by the State of West Virginia to the U.S. Department of Education, is for State Grants under Title IX, Part C, Section 9302 of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (Public Law 107-110). By January 31, 2003, States must complete and submit to the Department this Consolidated State Application Accountability Workbook.…

US Department of Education, 2006

2006-01-01

208

State of California Consolidated State Application Accountability Workbook. Amended  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This workbook, submitted by the State of California to the U.S. Department of Education, is for State Grants under Title IX, Part C, Section 9302 of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (Public Law 107-110). By January 31, 2003, States must complete and submit to the Department this Consolidated State Application Accountability Workbook. The…

US Department of Education, 2006

2006-01-01

209

Joint remote state preparation of a W-type state via W-type states  

Microsoft Academic Search

An all W-type state task is put forward: joint remote state preparation of a W-type state via W-type states. We propose two probabilistic yet faithful schemes for the task. The first scheme uses two arbitrary W-type states as the shared quantum resource and the second scheme exploits three such states. We show that, while the first scheme requires some additional

Qing-Qin Chen; Yan Xia; Jie Song; Nguyen Ba An

2010-01-01

210

Teleportation of A Single Qubit State via Unique W State  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a scheme for teleporting a single qubit state employing a unique three-particle W state as quantum channel. By adopting QED cavity technologies, our scheme does not involve the Bell-state measurements(BMs). An unknown state a|0> + b|1> can be probabilistically teleported by communicators' single particle measurements, unitary operations and classical communications. We can perfectly teleport quantum state ½1?2(|0> +|1>) with 100% probability.

Cao, Hai-Jing; Song, He-Shan

2007-06-01

211

Neurobiology of Aversive States  

PubMed Central

Hoebel and colleagues are often known as students of reward and how it is coded in the CNS. This article, however, attempts to focus on the significant advances by Hoebel and others in dissecting out behavioral components of distinct aversive states and in understanding the neurobiology of aversion and the link between aversive states and addictive behaviors. Reward and aversion are not necessarily dichotomous and may reflect an affective continuum contingent upon environmental conditions. Descriptive and mechanistic studies pioneered by Bart Hoebel have demonstrated that the shift in the reward-aversion spectrum may be, in part, a result of changes in central dopamine/ACh ratio, particularly in the NAc. The path to aversion appears to include a specific neurochemical signature: reduced dopamine activity and increased ACh activity in “reward centers” of the brain. Opioid receptors may have a neuromodulatory role on both of these neurotransmitters.

Umberg, Erin N.; Pothos, Emmanuel N.

2011-01-01

212

Arizona State Museum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Located at University of Arizona, the Arizona State Museum features a variety of programs and exhibits, many of which offer an introspective look into the culture of the American Indian groups in the region. One of the main highlights of the site are the several online exhibits that feature objects and photographs from recent shows. The most recent of these is the "Connections Across Generations: The Avery Collection of American Indian Paintings," which highlights selections from the exhibit that is set to open on October 4th, 2002. Also documented on the site are the numerous ongoing archaeological projects that are often joint projects between researchers at the Museum and within Arizona State University. Finally, the site also has a variety of educational resource materials for teachers planning to visit the museum, and information about joining the Museum and volunteering in one of their many programs.

2001-01-01

213

Wyoming State Geological Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This agency's mission is to study, examine, and seek an understanding of the geology, mineral resources, and physical features of the State; to prepare, publish, and distribute reports and maps of Wyoming's geology, mineral resources, and physical features; and to provide information, advice, and services related to the geology, mineral resources, and physical features of the State. This site contains details and reports about metals in Wyoming, earthquakes and other hazards, coal, industrial minerals, uranium, oil and gas. The field trip section contains details about various areas to visit with students and gives a general geologic description. There is also a searchable bibliography with publications about Wyoming geology. Links are provided for additional resources.

214

Illinois State Highway Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Most states produce detailed road maps for use by their residents, commercial firms, and the curious tourist. This nice collection of Illinois state highway maps is part of the Illinois Digital Archives and it contains dozens of maps dating back to the 1920s. Visitors can start by reading about the history of the covers of these unique items on the homepage. After that, visitors can scan through the high-resolution images here for each map. Users can zoom in and out around each map as they see fit, and there are some nice tools here for rotating the maps as well. It's a great way to learn about the expansion of the road system in Illinois over the decades, and students of the Land of Lincoln will find it most enjoyable. [KMG

215

Witnessing nonclassical multipartite states  

SciTech Connect

We investigate a witness for nonclassical multipartite states based on their disturbance under local measurements. The witness operator provides a sufficient condition for nonclassicality that coincides with a nonvanishing global quantum discord, but it does not demand an extremization procedure. Moreover, for the case of Z{sub 2}-symmetric systems, we rewrite the witness in terms of correlation functions so that classicality is found to necessarily require either vanishing magnetization in the invariant axis or isotropy of the two-point function in the transverse spin plane. We illustrate our results in quantum spin chains, where a characterization of factorized ground states (with spontaneously broken Z{sub 2} symmetry) is achieved. As a by-product, the witness is also shown to indicate a second-order quantum phase transitions, which is illustrated for both the XY and the Ashkin-Teller spin chains.

Saguia, A.; Rulli, C. C.; Oliveira, Thiago R. de; Sarandy, M. S. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Avenida General Milton Tavares de Souza s/n, Gragoata, 24210-346 Niteroi, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

2011-10-15

216

In the states.  

PubMed

In Minnesota, the Hennepin County Medical Center will be the second State hospital to offer abortions and the eighth provider of the service. Approximately 25 residents from the University of Minnesota will receive abortion training at the Center each year. In legislative action taken during January and February 1994, an Alabama Judiciary Committee supported the requirement that a parent giving consent for a daughter's abortion present a picture identification and the patient's birth certificate. Other states considering parental notification rules are Iowa, Kansas, Oklahoma, and Virginia. In Arizona, a legislative committee approved a bill requiring one-parent notification 48 hours before a minor's abortion and approved requirement of a notice to be posted in abortion clinics warning that termination of a first pregnancy increases the risk of breast cancer. Committees in Colorado, Connecticut, Florida, and Kansas considered ways to limit the number of children born in families receiving Aid to Families with Dependent Children either by limiting benefits at a 2-child level or by providing financial incentives to mothers who accept the use of a long-acting contraceptive. Committees considered changes in state funding in Missouri (to allow abortion funding in cases of medical necessity, rape, or incest), New Mexico (a prohibition of the use of state funds for most abortions was tabled), and Utah (to allow state funding in cases of rape or incest). In Hawaii, a ban on most post-20-week abortions died. This bill would also have required biased counseling and a physician-reporting requirement. Indiana rejected a prohibition against blocking abortion clinics and mandatory 24-hour delay and biased counseling requirements. In Utah, a committee is considering prohibiting the delivery of mandatory information via the telephone and requiring that abortion-seekers be offered an ultrasound prior to the procedure. California is seeking to criminalize participation in an organization whose members engage in terrorist activities such as stalking. Connecticut, on the other hand, as a response to the Supreme Court ruling in NOW vs. Scheidler which held that the anti-racketeering statutes used against abortion protesters blocking clinics do not have to prove a financial gain motive, is considering amending its anti-racketeering law to require an economic motive. Nebraska wants to prohibit obstruction of abortion clinics or approaching a person within 8 feet without their consent. This state is also considering including the use of a controlled substance while pregnant under its definition of child abuse or neglect. Missouri committees are considering action to prohibit the use of physician's offices for abortions at 14-18 weeks gestation and to require that all post-18 week abortions take place in a hospital. This state is also considering requiring abortion providers to purchase $500,000 in malpractice insurance and to follow a reporting procedure. Abortion-seekers in Missouri would have a 24-hour delay and would be provided with state-approved materials about abortion. PMID:12345515

1994-02-25

217

The Fiscal Survey of States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Findings of the 1992 Fiscal Survey of the States, published biannually are presented in this document. The survey presents aggregate and individual data on the states' general fund receipts, expenditures, and balances. Although not the totality of state spending, these funds are used to finance most broad-based state services and are the most…

National Governors' Association, Washington, DC.

218

State Capacity, Conflict and Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on an on-going project, which asks a number of questions relevant to the study of state capacity. What are the main economic and political determinants of the state?s capacity to raise revenue and support private markets? How do risks of violent conflict affect the incentives to invest in state building? Does it matter whether conflicts are external or

Timothy J. Besley; Torsten Persson

2009-01-01

219

Remote preparation of quantum states  

Microsoft Academic Search

Remote state preparation is the variant of quantum state teleportation in which the sender knows the quantum state to be communicated. The original paper introducing teleportation established minimal requirements for classical communication and entanglement but the corresponding limits for remote state preparation have remained unknown until now: previous work has shown, however, that it not only requires less classical communication

Charles H. Bennett; Patrick Hayden; Debbie W. Leung; Peter W. Shor; Andreas Winter

2003-01-01

220

Remote preparation of quantum states  

Microsoft Academic Search

Remote state preparation is the variant of quantum state teleportation in which the sender knows the quantum state to be communicated. The original paper introducing teleportation established minimal requirements for classical communication and entanglement but the corresponding limits for remote state preparation have remained unknown until now: previous work has shown, however, that it not only requires less classical com-

Charles H. Bennett; Patrick M. Hayden; Debbie W. Leung; Peter W. Shor; Andreas J. Winter

2005-01-01

221

State Government Tax Collections: 1998  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The annual Census Bureau report State Government Tax Collections Data by State presents statistics on tax collections for the 50 US state governments in HTML table, ASCII text file, and spreadsheet file formats. According to the 1998 data, individual income taxes and general sales taxes continued to be the mainstay of most state government tax systems last year.

1999-01-01

222

Expectation States Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expectation states theory is, in many ways, a textbook example of a theoretical research program. It is deductive, programmatic,\\u000a formalized mathematically, cumulative, precise, and predictive; and its propositions have been subjected to rigorous evaluation.\\u000a More importantly, however, it is a theory that illuminates core issues in social psychology and sociology more broadly. It\\u000a is fundamentally a “macro-micro-macro” explanation about one

Shelley J. Correll; Cecilia L. Ridgeway

223

Superconducting states in graphene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In spite of the remarkable electronic properties of graphene, which include the existence of massless Dirac quasiparticles, the low density of states near the Dirac points seems to conspire against the formation of new many body ground states. In this context, the search for intriscic superconductivity in graphene has involved either combining graphene with other materials [1], or else exploring ways to modify the electronic density of states at the Fermi level. In this talk, after discussing the classification of symmetry states in the honeycomb lattice and analysing the general thermodynamic properties for Dirac fermion superconductors [2], I will describe a few promissing mechanisms to induce superconductivity in graphene. In particular, I will show that in the situation where strain effects lead to a reconstruction of the vacuum into a discrete spectrum of Landau levels due to pseudo magnetic fields, which preserve overall time reversal symmetry, superconductivity is quantum critical at integer filling of the Landau levels, when the system is incompressible. At partial filling, the quenching of the kinetic energy due to the Landau levels leads to a crossover to a non-Fermi liquid regime, where the critical temperature scales linearly with the coupling in the weak coupling limit. I will show that the critical temperature can be orders of magnitude larger than in conventional weak coupling superconductors, and may be triggered by phonons.[4pt] [1] B. Uchoa, A. H. Castro Neto, Physical Review Letters 98, 146801 (2007);[0pt] [2] V. N. Kotov, B. Uchoa et al., Reviews of Modern Physics 84, 1067 (2012).

Uchoa, Bruno

2013-03-01

224

Solid-state fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid-state fermentation has emerged as a potential technology for the production of microbial products such as feed, fuel, food, industrial chemicals and pharmaceutical products. Its application in bioprocesses such as bioleaching, biobeneficiation, bioremediation, biopulping, etc. has offered several advantages. Utilisation of agro-industrial residues as substrates in SSF processes provides an alternative avenue and value-addition to these otherwise under- or non-utilised

Ashok Pandey

2003-01-01

225

A Solid state accelerator  

SciTech Connect

We present a solid state accelerator concept utilizing particle acceleration along crystal channels by longitudinal electron plasma waves in a metal. Acceleration gradients of order 100 GV/cm are theoretically possible, but channeling radiation limits the maximum attainable energy to 10/sup 5/ TeV for protons. Beam dechanneling due to multiple scattering is substantially reduced by the high acceleration gradient. Plasma wave dissipation and generation in metals are also discussed.

Chen, P.; Noble, R.J.

1986-11-06

226

The nuclear terrorist state  

Microsoft Academic Search

The atomic attacks on Hiroshima and Nagasaki are now fifty years behind us. Yet we're still struggling with the reality of the “bomb” and a U.S. nuclear national?security state that operates secretly, wielding nuclear weapons as a policy instrument. Since the Japanese bombings, the U.S. has used nuclear weapons to achieve various political ends. Most of them violate international law,

David Kauzlarich; Ronald C. Kramer

1995-01-01

227

Drought in Your State  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is part of Planet Diary and is an online exploration of droughts in the twentieth century. Students each choose a state to investigate and compare the actual Palmer Drought Severity Index (PSDI) for years 1895 to the present, with the reconstructed measurements for 1700 to 1895. Using this information students report on any trends in droughts for the area they study. This activity has an accompanying page with links for more information.

228

Tunable solid state lasers  

SciTech Connect

This book presents the papers given at a conference on solid state lasers. Topics considered at the conference included transition-metal-doped lasers, line-narrowed alexandrite lasers, NASA specification, meteorological lidars, laser materials spectroscopy, laser pumped single pass gain, vibronic laser materials growth, crystal growth methods, vibronic laser theory, cross-fertilization through interdisciplinary fields, and laser action of color centers in diamonds.

Hammerling, R.; Budgor, A.B.; Pinto, A.

1985-01-01

229

States of Matter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is intended to help students gain an understanding of the different states of matter and their properties. Introduction: What is matter? Something important? We're going to talk about a kind of matter that has to do with science. Matter is all around us. Take a look at the following video to learn what matter is. Matter video Task: Now that we know what matter is, we are going ...

Davies, Mrs.

2010-02-19

230

Spectroscopy of tetraquark states  

SciTech Connect

A complete classification of qqqq tetraquark states in terms of the spin-flavor, color, and spatial degrees of freedom was constructed. The permutation symmetry properties of both the spin-flavor and orbital parts of the qq and qq subsystems are discussed. This complete classification is general and model independent and it is useful both for model builders and experimentalists. The total wave functions are also explicitly constructed in the hypothesis of ideal mixing; this basis for tetraquark states will enable the eigenvalue problem to be solved for a definite dynamical model. An evaluation of the tetraquark spectrum was obtained from the Iachello mass formula for normal mesons, here generalized to tetraquark systems. This mass formula is a generalization of the Gell-Mann Okubo mass formula, whose coefficients have been upgraded by a study of the latest PDG data. The ground-state tetraquark nonet was identified with f{sub 0}(600),{kappa}(800),f{sub 0}(980),a{sub 0}(980). The diquark-antidiquark limit was also studied.

Santopinto, Elena; Galata, Giuseppe [INFN and Universita di Genova, via Dodecaneso 33, I-16142 Genova (Italy)

2007-04-15

231

Our Nations States and Capitals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will be researching and learning about our Nations states and capitals in a fun interactive lesson. This lesson will be a fun way to learn our 50 states and their capitals. Follow this check list to complete your assignments. 1. We will be learning the 50 States song to help us memorize all 50 States. 50 States Song Click here to learn song. 2. If your name starts ...

Hansen, Miss

2009-11-23

232

Model anisotropic quantum Hall states  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Model quantum Hall states including Laughlin, Moore-Read, and Read-Rezayi states are generalized into appropriate anisotropic form. The generalized states are exact zero-energy eigenstates of corresponding anisotropic two- or multibody Hamiltonians, and explicitly illustrate the existence of geometric degree of freedom in the fractional quantum Hall effect. These generalized model quantum Hall states can provide a good description of the quantum Hall system with anisotropic interactions. Some numeric results of these anisotropic quantum Hall states are also presented.

Qiu, R.-Z.; Haldane, F. D. M.; Wan, Xin; Yang, Kun; Yi, Su

2012-03-01

233

Tensor Network States and Geometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tensor network states are used to approximate ground states of local Hamiltonians on a lattice in D spatial dimensions. Different types of tensor network states can be seen to generate different geometries. Matrix product\\u000a states (MPS) in D=1 dimensions, as well as projected entangled pair states (PEPS) in D>1 dimensions, reproduce the D-dimensional physical geometry of the lattice model; in

G. Evenbly; G. Vidal

2011-01-01

234

Teleportations of Mixed States and Multipartite Quantum States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we propose a protocol to deterministically teleport an unknown mixed state of qubit by utilizing a maximally bipartite entangled state of qubits as quantum channel. If a non-maximally entangled bipartite pure state is employed as quantum channel, the unknown mixed quantum state of qubit can be teleported with 1-(1-C2)1/2 probability, where C is the concurrence of the quantum channel. The protocol can also be generalized to teleport a mixed state of qudit or a multipartite mixed state. More important purpose is that, on the basis of the protocol, the teleportation of an arbitrary multipartite (pure or mixed) quantum state can be decomposed into the teleportation of each subsystem by employing separate entangled states as quantum channels. In the case of deterministic teleportation, Bob only needs to perform unitary transformations on his single particles in order to recover the initial teleported multipartite quantum state.

Yu, Chang-Shui; Wang, Ya-Hong; Song, He-Shan

2007-06-01

235

Community assembly: alternative stable states or alternative transient states?  

PubMed Central

The concept of alternative stable states has long been a dominant framework for studying the influence of historical contingency in community assembly. This concept focuses on stable states, yet many real communities are kept in a transient state by disturbance, and the utility of predictions for stable states in explaining transient states remains unclear. Using a simple model of plant community assembly, we show that the conditions under which historical contingency affects community assembly can differ greatly for stable versus transient states. Differences arise because the contribution of such factors as mortality rate, environmental heterogeneity and plant-soil feedback to historical contingency changes as community assembly proceeds. We also show that transient states can last for a long time relative to immigration rate and generation time. These results argue for a conceptual shift of focus from alternative stable states to alternative transient states for understanding historical contingency in community assembly.

Fukami, Tadashi; Nakajima, Mifuyu

2011-01-01

236

Linearly independent pure-state decomposition and quantum state discrimination  

SciTech Connect

We put the pure-state decomposition mathematical property of a mixed state to a physical test. We present a protocol for preparing two known nonorthogonal quantum states with well-defined a priori probabilities. Hence we characterize all the possible decompositions of a rank-two mixed state by means of the complex overlap between the two involved states. The physical test proposes a scheme for quantum state recognition of one of the two linearly independent states that arise from the decomposition. We find that the two states associated with the balanced pure-state decomposition have the smaller overlap modulus and therefore the smallest probability of being discriminated conclusively, while in the nonconclusive process they have the highest probability of having an error. In addition, we design an experimental scheme that allows discriminating conclusively and optimally two nonorthogonal states prepared with different a priori probabilities. Thus we propose a physical implementation for this linearly independent pure-state decomposition and state discrimination test by using twin photons generated in the process of spontaneous parametric down-conversion. The information state is encoded in a one-photon polarization state, whereas the second single photon is used for heralded detection.

Roa, Luis; Alid-Vaccarezza, M.; Maldonado-Trapp, A. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile)

2011-08-15

237

State Clean Energy Policies Analysis (SCEPA): State Tax Incentives  

SciTech Connect

As a policy tool, state tax incentives can be structured to help states meet clean energy goals. Policymakers often use state tax incentives in concert with state and federal policies to support renewable energy deployment or reduce market barriers. This analysis used case studies of four states to assess the contributions of state tax incentives to the development of renewable energy markets. State tax incentives that are appropriately paired with complementary state and federal policies generally provide viable mechanisms to support renewable energy deployment. However, challenges to successful implementation of state tax incentives include serving project owners with limited state tax liability, assessing appropriate incentive levels, and differentiating levels of incentives for technologies with different costs. Additionally, state tax incentives may result in moderately higher federal tax burdens. These challenges notwithstanding, state tax incentives that consider certain policy design characteristics can support renewable energy markets and state clean energy goals.The scale of their impact though is directly related to the degree to which they support the renewable energy markets for targeted sectors and technologies. This report highlights important policy design considerations for policymakers using state tax incentives to meet clean energy goals.

Lantz, E.; Doris, E.

2009-10-01

238

State of North Carolina State Board of Education Consolidated State Application Accountability Workbook. [Revised  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This workbook, submitted by the State of North Carolina to the U.S. Department of Education, is for State Grants under Title IX, Part C, Section 9302 of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (Public Law 107-110). By January 31, 2003, States must complete and submit to the Department this Consolidated State Application Accountability Workbook.…

US Department of Education, 2006

2006-01-01

239

Realizing Controllable Quantum States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

1. Entanglement in solid states. Orbital entanglement and violation of bell inequalities in mesoscopic conductors / M. Büttiker, P. Samuelsson and E. V. Sukhoruk. Teleportation of electron spins with normal and superconducting dots / O. Sauret, D. Feinberg and T. Martin. Entangled state analysis for one-dimensional quantum spin system: singularity at critical point / A. Kawaguchi and K. Shimizu. Detecting crossed Andreev reflection by cross-current correlations / G. Bignon et al. Current correlations and transmission probabilities for a Y-shaped diffusive conductor / S. K. Yip -- 2. Mesoscopic electronics. Quantum bistability, structural transformation, and spontaneous persistent currents in mesoscopic Aharonov-Bohm loops / I. O. Kulik. Many-body effects on tunneling of electrons in magnetic-field-induced quasi one-dimensional systems in quantum wells / T. Kubo and Y. Tokura. Electron transport in 2DEG narrow channel under gradient magnetic field / M. Hara et al. Transport properties of a quantum wire with a side-coupled quantum dot / M. Yamaguchi et al. Photoconductivity- and magneto-transport studies of single InAs quantum wires / A. Wirthmann et al. Thermoelectric transports in charge-density-wave systems / H. Yoshimoto and S. Kurihara -- 3. Mesoscopic superconductivity. Parity-restricted persistent currents in SNS nanorings / A. D. Zaikin and S. V. Sharov. Large energy dependence of current noise in superconductingh/normal metal junctions / F. Pistolesi and M. Houzet. Generation of photon number states and their superpositions using a superconducting qubit in a microcavity / Yu-Xi Liu, L. F. Wei and F. Nori. Andreev interferometry for pumped currents / F. Taddei, M. Governale and R. Fazio. Suppression of Cooper-pair breaking against high magnetic fields in carbon nanotubes / J. Haruyama et al. Impact of the transport supercurrent on the Josephson effect / S. N. Shevchenko. Josephson current through spin-polarized Luttinger liquid / N. Yokoshi and S. Kurihara -- 4. Mesoscopic superconductivity with unconventional superconductor or ferromagnet. Ultraefficient microrefrigerators realized with ferromagnet-superconductor junctions / F. Giazotto et al. Anomalous charge transport in triplet superconductor junctions by the synergy effect of the proximity effect and the mid gap Andreev resonant states / Y. Tanaka and S. Kashiwaya. Paramagnetic and glass states in superconductive YBa[symbol]Cu[symbol]O[symbol] ceramics of sub-micron scale grains / H. Deguchi et al. Quantum properties of single-domain triplet superconductors / A. M. Gulian and K. S. Wood. A numerical study of Josephson current in p wave superconducting junctions / Y. Asano et al. Tilted bi-crystal sapphire substrates improve properties of grain boundary YBa[symbol]Cu[symbol]O[symbol] junctions and extend their Josephson response to THZ frequencies / E. Stepantsov et al. Circuit theory analysis of AB-plane tunnel junctions of unconventional superconductor Bi[symbol]Sr[symbol]Ca[symbol]Cu[symbol]O[symbol] / I. Shigeta et al. Transport properties of normal metal/anisotropic superconductor junctions in the eutectic system Sr[symbol]RuO[symbol]Ru / M. Kawamura et al. Macroscopic quantum tunneling in d-wave superconductor Josephson / S. Kawabata et al. Quasiparticle states of high-T[symbol] oxides observed by a Zeeman magnetic field response / S. Kashiwaya et al. Experimentally realizable devices for controlling the motion of magnetic flux quanta in anisotropic superconductors: vortex lenses, vortex diodes and vortex pumps / S. Savel'ev and F. Nori. Stability of vortex-antivortex "molecules" in mesoscopic superconducting triangles / V. R. Misko et al. Superconducting network with magnetic decoration - Hofstadter butterfly in spatially modulated magnetic field / Y. Iye et al. Observation of paramagnetic supercurrent in mesoscopic superconducting rings and disks using multiple-small-tunnel-junction method / A. Kanda et al. Guidance of vortices in high-T[stmbol] superconducting thin films with special arrangements of antidots / R. Wöerdenweber, P. Dymashevsk

Takayanagi, Hideaki; Nitta, Junsaku

240

Southern States` Routing Agency Report  

SciTech Connect

The Southern States` Routing Agency Report is a compendium of 16-southern states` routing programs and authorities for high-level radioactive materials transportation. The report includes the identification of each state`s designated routing agency and state legislation and regulations pertaining specifically to the shipment routing of high-level radioactive materials. Using information collected and compiled by the Hazardous Materials Information Group at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the report also addresses local government routing restrictions for high-level radioactive materials transportation. Whether local or state routing restrictions have been legally challenged and found to be inconsistent and preempted by the federal Hazardous Materials Transportation Act of 1974 (49 App. USC. 1801 et seq.) is noted. Finally, the state agency and contact designated by each state`s governor to receive advance notification and shipment routing information under 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Parts 71 and 73 is listed.

Not Available

1988-02-01

241

Liouville coherent states  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For a certain class of open quantum systems there exists a dynamical symmetry which connects different time-evolved density matrices. We show how to use this symmetry for dynamics in the Liouville space with time-dependent parameters. This allows us to introduce a concept of generalized coherent states in the Liouville space (i.e., for density matrices). The dynamics of this class of density matrices is characterized by robustness with respect to any time-dependent perturbations of the couplings. We study their dynamical context while focusing on common physical situations corresponding to compact and non-compact symmetries.

Ringel, Matouš; Gritsev, Vladimir

2012-07-01

242

Solid state oxygen sensor  

DOEpatents

Solid state oxygen sensors are provided with a yttria-doped zirconia as an electrolyte and use the electrochemical oxygen pumping of the zirconia electrolyte. A linear relationship between oxygen concentration and the voltage arising at a current plateau occurs when oxygen accessing the electrolyte is limited by a diffusion barrier. A diffusion barrier is formed herein with a mixed electronic and oxygen ion-conducting membrane of lanthanum-containing perovskite or zirconia-containing fluorite. A heater may be used to maintain an adequate oxygen diffusion coefficient in the mixed conducting layer. 4 figs.

Garzon, F.H.; Chung, B.W.; Raistrick, I.D.; Brosha, E.L.

1996-08-06

243

Solid state thermal engine  

SciTech Connect

An improved solid state thermal engine utilizes as a drive member a braided belt fabricated from a memory alloy such as nickel-titanium and nickel-titanium ternary alloys, copper-zinc and copper-zinc ternary alloys, and the like. The braided belt is mounted on a set of pulleys to provide passage through a hot zone where the belt contracts and develops tension, and through a cold zone where it relaxes and stretches. Since more energy is delivered by contraction than is required for relaxation, positive work output results with an efficiency of between onefifth and one-third of the carnot cycle.

Wayman, C.M.

1981-01-27

244

State of the Cryosphere  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the National Snow and Ice Data Center, the new State of the Cryosphere Website discusses the cryosphere and its close relationship to "climate variability." Cryospheric regions, or areas where water is found in solid forms, are highly sensitive to changes in temperature. This is because snow and ice "exist relatively close to their melting point and frequently change phase from solid to liquid and back again." The implications of climate change and fluctuations in Northern Hemisphere snow cover, sea ice, mountain glaciers, and sea level are explored here. The site contains helpful links, an introduction, a glossary, and references.

245

State of the Land  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This excellent new site, from the US Department of Agriculture's Natural Resources Conservation Service, "provides data on land use and change, soil erosion and soil quality, water quality, wetlands, and other issues regarding the conservation and use of natural resources on non-Federal land in the United States." The site is searchable by keyword and is organized into five main sections: People on the Land; Analysis Maps & Publications; Water Quality, Wetlands; Cropping, Grazing Land; and NRCS National Conservation Priorities. Each main section offers further information on that topic, and hyperlinks take readers to related sites.

246

Comparing welfare states  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparing Welfare States: Britain in International Context. Edited by ALLAN COCHRANE and JOHN CLARKE. London: Sage in association with the Open University, 1993. Pp.xiv + 274, index. £35 (hardback) ISBN 0–8039–8845–1, £12.95 (paperback) 0–8039–8846?X.Women Across Continents: Feminist Comparative Social Policy By LENA DOMINELLI. London: Harvester Wheatsheaf, 1991. Pp.x + 351, biblio, index. NP (hardback). ISBN 0–7450–0336–2, £12.95 (paperback), 0–7450–0939–5.Divisions of

Chris Pierson

1995-01-01

247

State electricity theft statutes  

SciTech Connect

Thefts of electric power, which may cost utilities as much as $3 billion a year, will probably increase as utility rates go up. Tennessee's statute against meter tampering and theft is one of the best because it specifically names the diversion or use of electric power to avoid charges or defraud. Some states cite theft-of-services, while others have developed a variety of statutes and penalties that range from misdemeanor to criminal prosecution and fines of three times the actual damages. (DCK)

Richardson, A.

1981-07-01

248

State v. Olivas.  

PubMed

The Supreme Court of Washington upheld the constitutionality of a state law requiring DNA testing of persons convicted of violent crimes or sex offenses in order to establish a DNA data bank for use in future prosecution of recidivist acts. The court allowed "the drawing of blood without a search warrant, probable cause or individualized suspicion." The court reasoned that it was preferable "to balance the general privacy right of persons to be free from unjustified governmental intrusion against the 'special needs beyond normal law enforcement' of the government" rather than "to balance the limited privacy rights of convicted persons against a compelling governmental interest." PMID:12041122

1993-08-12

249

Chico State Herbarium Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With over 88,000 mounted and dried specimens, the "Biological Sciences Herbarium at California State University, Chico is the most complete repository of plant specimens from northeastern California. The emphasis is on the local flora, and includes a number of rare, threatened, and endangered plant species." Samples in the Herbarium include ferns, conifers, flowering plants, lichens, bryophytes, and slime molds. The Herbarium Database is still adding specimen label information. The Database includes search fields for Genus, Species, and Subspecies. All higher academic institutions are eligible for specimen loans from the Herbarium.

2007-08-28

250

Solid state optical microscope  

DOEpatents

A solid state optical microscope wherein wide-field and high-resolution images of an object are produced at a rapid rate by utilizing conventional optics with a charge-coupled photodiode array. A galvanometer scanning mirror, for scanning in one of two orthogonal directions is provided, while the charge-coupled photodiode array scans in the other orthogonal direction. Illumination light from the object is incident upon the photodiodes, creating packets of electrons (signals) which are representative of the illuminated object. The signals are then processed, stored in a memory, and finally displayed as a video signal. 2 figs.

Young, I.T.

1983-08-09

251

Illinois State University Planetarium  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

At this website, visitors can discover the Illinois State University (ISU) Planetarium, which was created to provide a popular form of enriching entertainment, facilitate university-community relation, and recruit potential students. For astronomers, the website features a useful celestial events calendar updated at the end of each month. Educators can learn about the many programs ISU Planetarium offers for preschool through high school students. Users can learn about ISU's facilities, capabilities, and services. The website also provides links to an astronomy club, and many amateur astronomy websites.

252

Solid state oxygen sensor  

DOEpatents

Solid state oxygen sensors are provided with a yttria-doped zirconia as an electrolyte and use the electrochemical oxygen pumping of the zirconia electrolyte. A linear relationship between oxygen concentration and the voltage arising at a current plateau occurs when oxygen accessing the electrolyte is limited by a diffusion barrier. A diffusion barrier is formed herein with a mixed electronic and oxygen ion-conducting membrane of lanthanum-containing perovskite or zirconia-containing fluorite. A heater may be used to maintain an adequate oxygen diffusion coefficient in the mixed conducting layer.

Garzon, Fernando H. (Sante Fe, NM); Chung, Brandon W. (Los Alamos, NM); Raistrick, Ian D. (Los Alamos, NM); Brosha, Eric L. (Los Alamos, NM)

1996-01-01

253

Altered States of Consciousness  

PubMed Central

Medicine, sex, and religion are presented as related areas of human thought and behavior in which people traditionally have sought temporary release from daily living. In essence, these areas represent a search for altered states of consciousness. The harmful way is through drug addiction. Five common characteristics are cited for the three areas. Examples of their universality are traceable by their omnipresence and their appearance in most childhood games—especially those taking on sexual nuances—which are usually hidden from adults. If Eastern knowledge and control of bodily processes were geared to Western technology, mankind would benefit.

Butts, June Dobbs

1978-01-01

254

Southern States` Routing Agency Report  

SciTech Connect

The Southern States` Routing Agency Report is a compendium of 16-southern states` routing program for the transportation of high-level radioactive materials. The report identifies the state-designated routing agencies as defined under 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 171 and provides a reference to the source and scope of the agencies` rulemaking authority. Additionally, the state agency and contact designated by the state`s governor to receive advance notification and shipment routing information under 10 CFR Parts 71 and 73 are also listed.

Not Available

1990-03-01

255

Solid state heat engine  

SciTech Connect

A compact solid state turbine heat engine can be devised by pairing the nitinol elements. Each element is characterized by being in thermal contact with at least one hot water and one cold water bath and mechanically coupled to at least one driven pulley and driver pulley. A second nitinol element is similarly configured with a driver pulley, driven pulley, hot and cold water bath. The driver pulley associated with the first nitinol element is mechanically coupled to the driven pulley of the second nitinol element. Similarly, the driver pulley of the second nitinol element is mechanically coupled to the driven pulley of the first nitinol element. The paired nitinol elements form a compound solid state turbine engine wherein each nitinol element lies in a single plane and wherein the engine may be combined with a plurality of such pairs for increased power output. The nitinol elements may also incorporate a snubber to limit the strain on the element and the engine may further incorporate a variable radius pulley to increase the efficiency of mechanical conversion.

Cory, J.S.

1981-12-15

256

Wisconsin State Historical Society  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Founded in 1846 and chartered in 1853, the Wisconsin State Historical Society is the oldest American historical society to receive continuous public funding. Their well-designed Web site also provides a host of searchable archives that will help users find a vast array of materials contained with their collections. The first place that visitors may want to look at is the Archives Online Catalog (ArCat), which is the most comprehensive tool for searching for materials held by the Historical Society. For new users to the site, a "How do I?" section provides quick answers to using their resources, such as how to find historic sites throughout the state or how to conduct genealogical research at the Society. The site also contains numerous educational aids for teachers and students, including lesson plans and a cultural overview of the different periods in Wisconsin archaeology. Overall, the site serves as an excellent introduction to both the collections of the Historical Society and their public outreach programs.

257

State of the Union  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Upon hearing about a site dedicated to State of the Union speeches, the eyes (and mousse) of some gentle readers may gravitate elsewhere. That would be a tremendous mistake in the case of this fine site, which presents graphical representations of how specific words have been used in these speeches over the years. Created by Brad Borevitz, the site draws on a number of open resources available on the web, and attempts to Âexamine changes in the language of the State of the Union address over the past 200 years. From the homepage, visitors can move their mouse over the graph featured prominently, and in doing so, they can view a visual representation of which words were featured in each speech. Of course, visitors can also examine the grade level at which each speech was written. After clicking on a given word (such as ÂtobaccoÂ, which appears quite frequently in President TaftÂs 1911 address), visitors will learn how many times the word was mentioned and where it appeared in the address. The entire site provides an interesting and unique glimpse into one type of content analysis, and one that is historically informed and quite relevant.

Borevitz, Brad

258

State Leadership for School Improvement: An Analysis of Three States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Extant reports on states'policy differences are mostly descriptive and largely ignore the pervasive role of political culture on their educational policy-making processes. This article examines the effect of policy culture on states' policy-making mechanisms. There is evidence that a state's political culture is a significant mediating influence on its educational policy making and leadership practices at the state, district,

Karen Seashore Louis; Emanda Thomas; Molly F. Gordon; Karen S. Febey

2008-01-01

259

Decoy state quantum key distribution with modified coherent state  

SciTech Connect

To beat photon-number splitting attack, decoy state quantum key distribution (QKD) based on the coherent state has been studied widely. We present a decoy state QKD protocol with a modified coherent state (MCS). By destructive quantum interference, a MCS with fewer multiphoton events can be obtained, which may improve the key bit rate and security distance of QKD. Through numerical simulation, we show about a 2-dB increment on the security distance for Bennett-Brassard (1984) protocol.

Yin Zhenqiang; Han Zhengfu; Sun Fangwen; Guo Guangcan [Key Lab of Quantum Information, CAS, USTC (China)

2007-07-15

260

State assignment of finite state machines using a genetic algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of Genetic Algorithms for the generation of optimal state assignments forsynchronous finite state machines (FSM) is proposed. Results are presented to show that in allexamples attempted the resulting state assignments are better than or at least as good as thoseproduced by SPECTRAL, NOVA and MUSTANG and also closed partition assignments. Onaverage the genetic algorithm produced assignments with 33%

A. E. A. Almaini; J. F. Miller; P. Thomson; S. Billina

1995-01-01

261

State Government, State Education Agencies and Private Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper discusses a number of issues involving the relationship between private schools and state government. In particular, the author focuses in turn on 1) the role of private schools in American education, 2) the relationship that should exist among state governments, state education agencies, and private schools, 3) current discrepancies…

Hill, Warren G.

262

NEW STATE AND UNITED STATES RECORDS FOR ANTHOCORIDAE (HEMIPTERA: HETEROPTERA)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We summarize new state and United States records for species of Anthocoridae (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) that we have collected from the western and north-eastern United States. New U.S. records include Macrotrachelia sp. (apparently M. nigronitens (Stål)), collected in southern California, represe...

263

Quantum Key Distribution and Remote State Preparation via Cluster State  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the schemes of quantum key distribution and remote state preparation of an arbitrary two-qubit state via four-particle cluster state are proposed. The efficiency of the former is 1 and the probability of the latter is 1(1\\/4) if the coefficients are real (complex).

Guo-Fang Shi

2010-01-01

264

Toward State Tax Reform: Lessons from State Tax Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper reviews recent state tax-commission recommendations in selected states and identifies critical factors for the success of state tax-reform commissions. The paper focuses on factors linked to the process of forming a commission and generating the necessary consensus to enact tough reforms. It describes and compares comprehensive studies…

McGuire, Therese J.; Rio, Jessica E.

265

The 4th State of Matter: The Delta State  

Microsoft Academic Search

The corresponding states principle is an important concept wherein materials are interrelated. The base state of this principle, however, currently has no specific physical reality. Instead, it is a definition: a set of conditions at which the gas state reaches its maximum compression and liquid can not longer form; namely, the critical point. This article shows that a discrete, real-life,

Joel M. Williams; George H. Sprenger

1999-01-01

266

NAEP 1994 Reading State Report for Louisiana. Trial State Assessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In 1990, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) included a Trial State Assessment (TSA); for the first time in NAEP's history, voluntary state-by-state assessments were made. In 1994, TSA was expanded to include non-public school students. The 1994 reading assessment considered students' proficiency in situations that involved…

National Assessment of Educational Progress, Princeton, NJ.

267

NAEP 1994 Reading State Report for Mississippi. Trial State Assessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1990, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) included a Trial State Assessment (TSA); for the first time in NAEP's history, voluntary state-by-state assessments were made. In 1994, TSA was expanded to include non-public school students. The 1994 reading assessment considered students' proficiency in situations that involved…

National Assessment of Educational Progress, Princeton, NJ.

268

State Energy Program in Kentucky  

SciTech Connect

The State Energy Program in Kentucky summarizes the important renewable energy and energy efficiency projects and recent successes of the Kentucky Division of Energy, which is the state energy office in the Kentucky.

Not Available

2003-04-01

269

Characterizing Washington State's Supply Chains.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The UW, WSU, and WSDOT recently developed a multi-modal statewide GIS model that can help the state prioritize strategies that protect industries most vulnerable to disruptions, supporting economic activity in the state and increasing economic resilience....

A. Gagliano A. Goodchild M. Rowell

2012-01-01

270

State Response to Local Problems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The States have played one or more of three roles -- inhibitor, facilitator, and initiator -- relative to the solution of local government problems. The State, through constitutional restrictions, has acted as an inhibitor of the creation of general purpo...

J. F. Zimmerman

1981-01-01

271

State Laws and Policies: PKU  

MedlinePLUS

... Bill/Date Adopted Diet Coverage Coverage Metabolic Disorders Limitations State Formula Foods State Insurance PKU Others $ for ... limit: 21 for males, 35 for females. Food limitations: None. Connecticut HB 7040/Oct. 97, SB 524/ ...

272

Theory of Molecular Rydberg States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface; 1. Molecular Rydberg states; 2. Ab initio quantum defects; 3. Frame transformations and channel interactions; 4. Competitive fragmentation; 5. Photo-excitation; 6. Photo-ionization; 7. Manipulating Rydberg states; Appendices; Index.

Child, M. S.

2011-08-01

273

PROCEDURES GOVERNING THE COOPERATIVE STATE ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

Text Version... and State Agricultural Departments, comprising 22 ... by making the necessary corrections to their ... and III (United States Department of Agriculture ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/food/guidanceregulation

274

A Tornado in My State?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will analyze data of tornadoes throughout the United States. They will create a bar graph of the number of tornadoes for the top ten states in the country and then calculate the median and the mode of the data.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

275

Resonant states in momentum representation  

SciTech Connect

Gamow states in momentum representation are defined as solutions of a homogeneous Lippmann-Schwinger equation for purely outgoing particles. We study their properties when the potential, local or nonlocal, is such that the trace of the kernel of the Lippmann-Schwinger equation exists. It is found that, contrary to what happens in position representation, Gamow states in momentum representation are square integrable functions. A norm is defined and expressions for matrix elements of operators between arbitrary states and properly normalized resonant states are given, free of divergence difficulties. It is also shown that bound and resonant states form a biorthonormal set of functions with their adjoints and that a square integrable function may be expanded in terms of a set containing bound states, resonant states, and a continuum of scattering functions. Resonant states may be transformed from momentum to position representation modifying, in a suitable way, the usual rule.

Hernandez, E.; Mondragon, A.

1984-03-01

276

The new hidden charm states  

SciTech Connect

Many new states in the charmonium mass region were recently discovered by the BaBar, Belle and CDF Collaborations. We use the QCD Sum Rule approach to study the possible structure of some of these states.

Navarra, Fernando S.; Nielsen, Marina [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, C.P. 66318, 05389-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

2010-08-04

277

Updated Principle of Corresponding States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The rule of corresponding states, which shows the connection between the thermodynamic properties of various liquids is re-examined. The overall likeness is observed by using an updated scaling technique of Lennard-Jones corresponding states (LJ-CS).|

Ben-Amotz, Dor; Gift, Alan D.; Levine, R. D.

2004-01-01

278

The Pilot State Dissemination Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed the Pilot State Dissemination Program, undertaken as a try-out of an educational extension and retrieval system on a sufficiently large scale to derive guidelines for future projects at the state level. (Author/RK)

Sieber, Sam D.

1973-01-01

279

Quantum Teleportation of Tripartite Arbitrary State via W State  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A scheme of teleportation of a tripartite state via W state is suggested. The W state serves as quantum channels. Standard Bell-state measurements and Von Neumann measurements are performed. After the sender operates the measurements and informs the receiver her results, he can reconstruct the original state by the corresponding unitary transformation. The probability of the successful teleportation is also obtained. The project supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Education Department of Anhui Province under Granted No. 2002KJ029ZD

Xue, Zheng-Yuan; Yi, You-Min; Cao, Zhuo-Liang

2005-12-01

280

Joint remote state preparation of a W-type state via W-type states  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An all W-type state task is put forward: joint remote state preparation of a W-type state via W-type states. We propose two probabilistic yet faithful schemes for the task. The first scheme uses two arbitrary W-type states as the shared quantum resource and the second scheme exploits three such states. We show that, while the first scheme requires some additional quantum resource and technical operations from the receiver, the second scheme allows any completely unequipped party to play the role of receiver. In both schemes the classical communication cost is one bit per preparer.

Chen, Qing-Qin; Xia, Yan; Song, Jie; An, Nguyen Ba

2010-10-01

281

Organization of American States  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In 1948, 21 nations in the Western hemisphere signed the Organization of American States (OAS) Charter which was designed to affirm their commitment to a number of common goals and their respect for each nation's sovereignty. In the present day, the members of the OAS continue to work together to protect human rights, strengthen security throughout the region, and to fight corruption. On this site (last reviewed in the Scout Report on August 8, 1996), scholars and the general public can take advantage of the organization's many online resources, including the audio archives of OAS Radio, detailed information on the OAS's governing bodies, and its annual reports. From the homepage, visitors can also peruse some of their other online materials, such as online exhibits from the Art Museum of the Americas and The Children's Corner. Young people will enjoy the Children's Corner as it provides material on the culture, history, art, and folklore of South, Central and North America.

282

Anxiety States In Childhood  

PubMed Central

The up-to-date prevention and management of anxiety states in childhood is discussed with particular reference to the different presentations of anxiety and the ways in which preventive measures may be used. Anxiety creating developmental lag, mimicking other conditions, and appearing in very specific forms is mentioned. Techniques for handling are introduced together with some suggestions on the responsibility of the family doctor in this whole area of psychological medicine. In this article, the child is seen as part of a family setting; the effect of disturbances in the family constellation resulting in anxiety for the child is described. Some suggestions for ways in which the physician may be involved in patient and parent education are put forward.

Matthews, Peter C.

1978-01-01

283

Dickerson v. United States  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

During the summer of 2000, the high court released a number of momentous decisions, ruling on "partial birth abortions," the Boy Scouts's ban on gays, the Miranda warning, California's "Blanket" primary, and hate crime sentencing standards. In Dickerson v. United States, the court ruled 7-2 to uphold the Miranda warning and strike down a previously little-known 1968 law that allowed "voluntary confessions" even if they were obtained before a suspect was read their rights. (For more on this decision see the In the News from this week's Scout Report for Social Sciences). As always, the full text of the syllabi and both opinions in all of these cases can be read in HTML or .pdf format at the Legal Information Institute at Cornell Law School Supreme Court Collection site.

2000-01-01

284

Kansas State University Herbarium  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Located in Manhattan, Kansas, Kansas State University is well-known for their various agricultural outreach programs, and their Herbarium is a fascinating place for botanists and the general public. For those who can't make a trip out to Kansas, they also have a nice website. Visitors to the site can start by looking over the "Information" section, which includes information on the history of the Herbarium, along with offering up a nice answer to the question, "What is an herbarium?" Moving on, visitors can also query their online database of plant species from Kansas and learn about their forthcoming Central Great Plains Network. The site is rounded out with a list of contact information and other noteworthy links.

2006-01-01

285

Weather and emotional state  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction Given the proven effects of weather on the human organism, an attempt to examine its effects on a psychic and emotional level has been made. Emotions affect the bio-tonus, working ability and concentration, hence their significance in various domains of economic life, such as health care, education, transportation, tourism, etc. Data and methods The research has been made in Sofia City within a period of 8 months, using 5 psychological methods (Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Test for Self-assessment of the emotional state (developed by Wessman and Ricks), Test for evaluation of moods and Test "Self-confidence - Activity - Mood" (developed by the specialists from the Military Academy in Saint Petersburg). The Fiodorov-Chubukov's complex-climatic method was used to characterize meteorological conditions because of the purpose to include in the analysis a maximal number of meteorological elements. 16 weather types are defined in dependence of the meteorological elements values according to this method. Abrupt weather changes from one day to another, defined by the same method, were considered as well. Results and discussions The results obtained by t-test show that the different categories of weather lead to changes in the emotional status, which indicates a character either positive or negative for the organism. The abrupt weather changes, according to expectations, have negative effect on human emotions but only when a transition to the cloudy weather or weather type, classified as "unfavourable" has been realized. The relationship between weather and human emotions is rather complicated since it depends on individual characteristics of people. One of these individual psychological characteristics, marked by the dimension "neuroticism", has a strong effect on emotional reactions in different weather conditions. Emotionally stable individuals are more "protected" to the weather influence on their emotions, while those who are emotionally unstable have a stronger dependence to the impacts of the weather.

Spasova, Z.

2010-09-01

286

State cigarette excise taxes - United States, 2010-2011.  

PubMed

Increasing the price of cigarettes reduces the demand for cigarettes, thereby reducing youth smoking initiation and cigarette consumption and decreasing the prevalence of cigarette use in the United States overall, particularly among youths and young adults. The most common way governments have increased the price of cigarettes is by increasing cigarette excise taxes, which currently are imposed by all states and the District of Columbia. To update data on state cigarette excise taxes in 2009, CDC conducted a survey of changes in state cigarette excise taxes during 2010-2011. During that period, eight states increased their cigarette excise taxes, and one state decreased its tax; as a result, the mean state tax increased from $1.34 in 2009 to $1.46 in 2011. Previous evidence indicates that further increases in cigarette excise taxes would be expected to result in further reductions in demand for cigarettes, decreasing smoking and associated morbidity and mortality. PMID:22456118

2012-03-30

287

State and trait anxiety revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

State and trait anxiety theory and assessment are reviewed. The person (trait anxiety) and the situation are important in determining levels of state anxiety. The facet of trait anxiety and the stressful situation must be congruent in order to evoke increases in state anxiety. The multidimensional interaction model is reviewed and empirical research is presented. A discussion of anxiety viewed

Norman S Endler; Nancy L Kocovski

2001-01-01

288

State Courts and Economic Rights  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent movement among state supreme courts to affirm rights not protected by the United States Supreme Court has occasioned much favorable commentary. In one area of this new judicial federalism— economic rights protection—the response has been less enthusiastic. State courts used various clauses of their respective constitutions to protect these rights even before the Civil War and have continued

Peter J. Galie

1988-01-01

289

The Fiscal Survey of States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Nearly every state is in fiscal crisis. A slow-growing national economy, a decrease in state tax collections, and a rise in health-care costs are three of the main factors that have created massive budget shortfalls, according to this report. The 2002 edition of this annual survey presents aggregate and individual data on the states' general fund…

Von Behren, Greg, Comp.; Samuels, Nick, Comp.

290

Can the state be terrorist?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the methodological problems involved in identifying and evaluating the extent of state terrorism. It attempts the former by examining the two parts that constitute this conceptual problem (i.e., terrorism and the state) before fusing the two in a comprehensive definition of terrorism that distinguishes between the state's terrorist and nonterrorist use of violence both at home and

Peter Alan Sproat

1991-01-01

291

Deceptive Business Practices: State Regulations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although much has been done at the federal level to control deceptive advertising practices, many states have no criminal laws designed to regulate advertising, and several states recently repealed such laws. This paper examines states' efforts to balance the advertiser's freedom of speech with the consumer's need for information about products…

Rohrer, Daniel Morgan

292

Brain states and hypnosis research?,??  

PubMed Central

Research in cognitive neuroscience now considers the state of the brain prior to the task an important aspect of performance. Hypnosis seems to alter the brain state in a way which allows external input to dominate over internal goals. We examine how normal development may illuminate the hypnotic state.

Posner, Michael I.; Rothbart, Mary K.

2011-01-01

293

State of Maine's Environment 2010  

Microsoft Academic Search

The State of Maine's Environment is a regular series of reports written by senior environmental policy majors at Colby College in Waterville, Maine. The State of Maine's Environment 2010 is the sixth State of Maine's Environment report created by students enrolled in ES 493: Environmental Policy Practicum taught by Philip J. Nyhus, Environmental Studies Program. Topics in this report include

Philip J. Nyhus

2010-01-01

294

Rodriguez: The State Courts Respond.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes 16 state court decisions in 15 states concerning equity in statewide school finance systems, in the aftermath of the Supreme Court's San Antonio Independent School District v. Rodriguez" decision. Finds that some state legislatures and courts reformed their finance systems, while others let inequalities continue. (RW)

Long, David C.

1983-01-01

295

GENERAL: Controlled Remote State Preparation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a scheme for remotely preparing a state via the controls of many agents in a network. In the scheme, the agents' controls are achieved by utilizing quantum key distribution. Generally, the original state can be restored by the receiver with probability 1\\/2 if all the agents collaborate. However, for certain type of original states the restoration probability is

Zhang-Yin Wang; Yi-Min Liu; Xue-Qin Zuo; Zhan-Jun Zhang

2009-01-01

296

Efimov states in halo nuclei  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate conditions for the occurrence of Efimov states in the recently discovered halo nuclei. These states could appear in systems where one neutron is added to a pronounced one-neutron halo nucleus. Detailed calculations of the properties of the states are presented and promising candidates are discussed.

D. V. Fedorov; A. S. Jensen; K. Riisager

1994-01-01

297

Prophylactic Rules and State Constitutionalism  

Microsoft Academic Search

When the post-Warren Supreme Court began trimming back individual rights, some state courts responded by interpreting analogous or cognate state constitutional provisions to find broader protections, prompting a vigorous debate concerning the legitimacy and interpretive methodology of such state constitutionalism. How can two constitutional provisions, sharing the same language and history, mean different things? This Article looks at that question

Arthur Leavens

2011-01-01

298

State Vocational Equipment Pool Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document reports on a study conducted to determine which States use State equipment pools to share vocational education equipment. Five States--Arkansas, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, and Tennessee--indicated that they have such pools. The report consists of the original letter of request for information and replies from the five…

West Virginia Research Coordinating Unit for Vocational Education, Huntington.

299

Federal consistency and state expectations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The requirement in the Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972 that federal projects be consistent with approved state coastal zone management programs is an important incentive for states to complete their programs. As a condition of program approval, states must first consult with the federal agencies concerned and provide opportunities for comment, with the hope of avoiding conflicts. The consistency

William C. Brewer Jr

1976-01-01

300

State Definitions of Emotional Disturbance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article examines definitions state education agencies use to describe the federal education disability called "emotional disturbance." State definitions were collected so that various aspects of them could be analyzed and compared with results of similar studies completed in the 1970s and 1980s. Among results are that state definitions have…

Wery, Jessica J.; Cullinan, Douglas

2013-01-01

301

Collapse of the state vector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modifications of quantum mechanics are considered, in which the state vector of any system, large or small, undergoes a stochastic evolution. The general class of theories is described, in which the probability distribution of the state vector collapses to a sum of ? functions, one for each possible final state, with coefficients given by the Born rule.

Weinberg, Steven

2012-06-01

302

State-to-state and state-to-all-states reactive scattering angular distributions: F+H /sub 2/. -->. HF+H  

SciTech Connect

How each state-to-state reactive transition determines nonundulatory ''state-to-all-states'' angular distribution has not yet been investigated. Here we present a complete exposure of state-to-state distorted-wave Born-approximation angular distributions in order to examine how the nonoscillatory and backward-peaked state-to-all-states reactive scattering angular distribution occurs.

Emmons, R.W.; Suck, S.H.

1983-04-01

303

Phase properties of macroscopic superposition states  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phase properties of states consisting of superpositions of the states mod a) and mod -a), coherent states of a single mode quantized electromagnetic field, are studied. These states are also known as macroscopic superposition states and 'Schrodinger cat' states. After first reviewing the squeezing and antibunching properties of these states, from the density operator and the phase states we derive

E E Hach III; C. C. Gerry

1993-01-01

304

Entropic measure and hypergraph states  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate some properties of the entanglement of hypergraph states in purely hypergraph theoretical terms. We first introduce an approach for computing local entropic measure on qubit t of a hypergraph state by using the Hamming weight of the so-called t-adjacent subhypergraph. Then, we quantify and characterize the entanglement of hypergraph states in terms of local entropic measures obtained by using the above approach. Our results show that full-rank hypergraph states of more than two qubits can not be converted into any graph state under local unitary transformations.

Qu, Ri; Ma, Yi-ping; Bao, Yan-ru; Wang, Juan; Li, Zong-shang

2013-10-01

305

Fermionic projected entangled pair states  

SciTech Connect

We introduce a family of states, the fermionic projected entangled pair states (fPEPS), which describe fermionic systems on lattices in arbitrary spatial dimensions. It constitutes the natural extension of another family of states, the PEPS, which efficiently approximate ground and thermal states of spin systems with short-range interactions. We give an explicit mapping between those families, which allows us to extend previous simulation methods to fermionic systems. We also show that fPEPS naturally arise as exact ground states of certain fermionic Hamiltonians. We give an example of such a Hamiltonian, exhibiting criticality while obeying an area law.

Kraus, Christina V.; Schuch, Norbert; Cirac, J. Ignacio [Max-Planck-Institute for Quantum Optics, Hans-Kopfermann-Str. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Verstraete, Frank [Fakultaet fuer Physik, Universitaet Wien, Boltzmanngasse 5, A-1090 Wien (Austria)

2010-05-15

306

?-vibrational states in superheavy nuclei  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent experimental advances have made it possible to study excited structure in superheavy nuclei. The observed states have often been interpreted as quasiparticle excitations. We show that in superheavy nuclei collective vibrations systematically appear as low-energy excitation modes. By using the microscopic Triaxial Projected Shell Model, we make a detailed prediction on ?-vibrational states and their E2 transition probabilities to the ground state band in fermium and nobelium isotopes where active structure research is going on, and in Ds270, the heaviest isotope where decay data have been obtained for the ground-state and for an isomeric state.

Sun, Yang; Long, Gui-Lu; Al-Khudair, Falih; Sheikh, Javid A.

2008-04-01

307

Southern States' Routing Agency Report  

SciTech Connect

The Southern States' Routing Agency Report is a compendium of 16-southern states' routing program for the transportation of high-level radioactive materials. The report identifies the state-designated routing agencies as defined under 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 171 and provides a reference to the source and scope of the agencies' rulemaking authority. Additionally, the state agency and contact designated by the state's governor to receive advance notification and shipment routing information under 10 CFR Parts 71 and 73 are also listed.

Not Available

1990-03-01

308

Topics in coherent state quantum computation and state purification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation discusses mainly transmission of coherent state qubits, generation of cat states, and entanglement purification of any stabilizer state. A quantum computer is any device for computation that makes direct use of distinctively quantum mechanical phenomena, such as superposition and entanglement, to perform operations on data. The elementary carriers in quantum computation and information are the quantum bits, or qubits. In contrast to classical bits, qubits can be in every superposition of the states |0> and |1>. This means that a vector describing a qubit may be any vector in a two dimensional Hilbert space. In this dissertation, we review a method for constructing a linear optical quantum computer using coherent states of light as the qubits, developed by Ralph, Gilchrist, Milburn, Munro, and Clancy. We show how an universal set of logic operations can be performed using coherent states, beam splitters, photon counters, and a source of superpositions of coherent state, called "cat states". We also discuss the principal source of errors for this scheme and then present this author's analysis of the behavior of teleportation or Z gate when a non-maximally entangled Bell state is used. We describe several different schemes to generate cat states and make an analysis of these schemes in a realistic experimental environment subject to problems such as photon loss, detector inefficiency, and limited strength of nonlinear interactions. Next, we consider that photon loss is the principal decoherence mechanism that affects a coherent-state based qubit transmission though a long optical fiber, and show how the errors introduced during transmission can be corrected in two different ways to encode the qubit. Lastly, we present a method for multipartite entanglement purification of any stabilizer state shared by several parties. In this protocol, each party measures the stabilizer operators of an error correction code on his or her qubits, exchange their syndrome results, correct errors, and decode to obtain the desired purified state.

Vasconcelos, Hilma Helena Macedo De

309

The ultraluminous state  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We revisit the question of the nature of ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) through a detailed investigation of their spectral shape, using the highest quality X-ray data available in the XMM-Newton public archives (>~10000 counts in their EPIC spectrum). We confirm that simple spectral models commonly used for the analysis and interpretation of ULXs (power-law continuum and multicolour disc blackbody models) are inadequate in the face of such high-quality data. Instead we find two near ubiquitous features in the spectrum: a soft excess and a rollover in the spectrum at energies above 3 keV. We investigate a range of more physical models to describe these data. Slim discs which include radiation trapping (approximated by a p-free disc model) do not adequately fit the data, and several objects give unphysically high disc temperatures (kTin > 3keV). Instead, disc plus Comptonized corona models fit the data well, but the derived corona is cool and optically thick (? ~ 5-30). This is unlike the ? ~ 1 coronae seen in Galactic binaries, ruling out models where ULXs are powered by sub-Eddington accretion on to an intermediate-mass black hole despite many objects having apparently cool disc temperatures. We argue that these observed disc temperatures are not a good indicator of the black hole mass as the powerful, optically thick corona drains energy from the inner disc and obscures it. We estimate the intrinsic (corona-less) disc temperature, and demonstrate that in most cases it lies in the regime of stellar mass black holes. These objects have spectra which range from those similar to the highest mass accretion rate states in Galactic binaries (a single peak at 2-3 keV) to those which clearly have two peaks, one at energies below 1 keV (from the outer, un-Comptonized disc) and one above 3 keV (from the Comptonized, inner disc). However, a few ULXs have a significantly cooler corrected disc temperature; we suggest that these are the most extreme stellar mass black hole accretors, in which a massive wind completely envelopes the inner-disc regions, creating a cool photosphere. We conclude that ULXs provide us with an observational template for the transition between Eddington and super-Eddington accretion flows, with the latter occupying a new ultraluminous accretion state.

Gladstone, Jeanette C.; Roberts, Timothy P.; Done, Chris

2009-08-01

310

Assisted state discrimination without entanglement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is shown that the dissonance, a quantum correlation which is equal to quantum discord for separable state, is required for assisted optimal state discrimination. We find that only one side discord is required in the optimal process of assisted state discrimination, while another side discord and entanglement is not necessary. We confirm that the quantum discord, which is asymmetric depending on local measurements, is a resource for assisted state discrimination. With the absence of entanglement, we give the necessary and sufficient condition for vanishing one side discord in assisted state discrimination for a class of d nonorthogonal states. As a by-product, we find that the positive-partial-transposition condition is the necessary and sufficient condition for the separability of a class of 2×d states.

Li, Bo; Fei, Shao-Ming; Wang, Zhi-Xi; Fan, Heng

2012-02-01

311

Southern States' Routing Agency Report  

SciTech Connect

The Southern States' Routing Agency Report is a compendium of 16-southern states' routing programs and authorities for high-level radioactive materials transportation. The report includes the identification of each state's designated routing agency and state legislation and regulations pertaining specifically to the shipment routing of high-level radioactive materials. Using information collected and compiled by the Hazardous Materials Information Group at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the report also addresses local government routing restrictions for high-level radioactive materials transportation. Whether local or state routing restrictions have been legally challenged and found to be inconsistent and preempted by the federal Hazardous Materials Transportation Act of 1974 (49 App. USC. 1801 et seq.) is noted. Finally, the state agency and contact designated by each state's governor to receive advance notification and shipment routing information under 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Parts 71 and 73 is listed.

Not Available

1988-02-01

312

State financial management resource guide  

SciTech Connect

This resource guide contains almost 500 references to training sessions, workshops, and publications which have been sponsored and provided by 108 statewide financial management assistance providers in the 50 States. These include the programs of State - level Departments of Community Affairs, other State agencies, university extension services, State municipal leagues, county associations, and other professional groups. The guide can be used to provide information to local officials within a State about sources of assistance in financial management and to guide States wanting to expand or modify their local government financial management approaches. The guide is organized by State with a brief summary of the activities of the financial management assistance providers for each jurisdiction. The activities of the providers have been categorized into three levels of assistance: ongoing financial management assistance; workshops, training sessions, and seminars; and publications. A subject index serves as a reference guide as does a matrix displaying the statewide technical assistance provisions in the financial management area.

Mann, T.; Coleman, S.

1980-01-01

313

Solid state research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Solid State division of Lexington Lincoln Lab reports on its progress for this quarter. The areas of study are: Time Dye Laser Using Integrated Optics; GaP Microlenses by Mass Transport; A New OMVPE Reactor for Growth of InP and Related Alloys; Microchannel Heat Sinks for Two-Dimensional High Power-Density Diode Laser Arrays; Novel Scalloped-Mirror Diffraction-Coupled Laser Arrays; Three-Mirror Ti:Al2O3 Ring Laser Cavity; Femtosecond TiAl2O3 Injection-Seeded Laser; End-Pumped Nd:LaF3 and Nd:LaMgA11O19 Lasers; Single Frequency Mixing of Frequency Modulated Laser Radiation; Vertical Rotating Disk OMVPE Reactor; New Electron Beam Lithography System; Dry Etching Induced Damage on Vertical Sidewalls of GaAs Channels; Homoepitaxial Semiconducting Diamond; 420 X 420 CCD Frame Transfer Imager; Technique for Monolithically Integrating GaAs/AlGaAs Lasers of Different Wavelengths; Superconducting Thin Films of BiSrCaCuO; and Nb Thin Film Capacitors for Superconductive Circuits.

McWhorter, Alan L.

1989-03-01

314

Creating the United States  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As with other countries, the United States is very much a "work in progress". Of course, the nation's founders made a concerted effort to form a republic that would be able to govern effectively across a large geographic region and a plethora of different cultural traditions. This thoughtful and introspective online exhibit from the Library of Congress brings together a set of interactive resources and activities organized around themes that include "Creating the Declaration of Independence" and "Creating the Bill of Rights". Clicking on these themes will bring visitors to a brief narrative essay that sets the tone for the primary and secondary historical documents within each area. Here visitors will find such gems as an early map of the Appalachians, woodcuts of early Presidents, and the musings of Thomas Paine, among many others. Moving on, visitors should not miss the "Interactives" area. Here they can test their mettle by connecting particular phrases and ideas set down in the Declaration of Independence with the key texts that preceded it. And if visitors aren't stumped there (or even if they are), they can try the same tasks with the Constitution and the Bill of Rights. After a visit to this site, some may even find themselves dusting off their old civics textbooks or at least planning a trip to a local government facility for further edification.

315

Toroidal magnetohydrodynamic steady states  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The axisymmetric steady states of a toroidal, current-carrying magnetofluid are determined for constant, scalar viscosity and resistivity, in the presence of a dc toroidal magnetic field. Non-ideal boundary conditions are assumed at an impenetrable, dielectric-coated, conducting material wall. The current is sustained by a constant toroidal inductive electric field. Poloidal and toroidal velocity fields are required for force balance [1,2]. We use FEMLAB, a commercial software package. Here, we focus on: (1) a wall boundary layer whose properties scale with powers of the viscous Lundquist number and inside which the steepest pressure drop occurs; and (2) a flow pattern that turns out to be sensitively dependent upon the shape of the cross-section of the toroid, and can go from dipolar to monopolar, in a poloidal plane, as the cross section goes from circularly symmetric about the major axis to D-shaped. The toroidal velocity becomes more important than the poloidal as the viscous Lundquist number increases. [1] L.P.J.Kamp et al, Phys. Fluids 10, 1757 (1998) and Phys. Plasmas 10, 157 (2003). [2] J.W. Bates et al, Phys. Plasmas 5, 2649 (1998).

Kamp, L. P. J.; Montgomery, D. C.

2003-11-01

316

Balanced echo state networks.  

PubMed

This paper investigates the interaction between the driving output feedback and the internal reservoir dynamics in echo state networks (ESNs). The interplay is studied experimentally on the multiple superimposed oscillators (MSOs) benchmark. The experimental data reveals a dual effect of the output feedback strength on the network dynamics: it drives the dynamic reservoir but it can also block suitable reservoir dynamics. Moreover, the data shows that the reservoir size crucially co-determines the likelihood of generating an effective ESN. We show that dependent on the complexity of the MSO dynamics somewhat smaller networks can yield better performance. Optimizing the output feedback weight range and the network size is thus crucial for generating an effective ESN. With proper parameter choices, we show that it is possible to generate ESNs that approximate MSOs with several orders of magnitude smaller errors than those previously reported. We conclude that there appears to be still much more potential in ESNs than previously thought and sketch-out some promising future research directions. PMID:23037774

Koryakin, Danil; Lohmann, Johannes; Butz, Martin V

2012-09-11

317

Teleportation of entangled states without Bell-state measurement  

SciTech Connect

In a recent paper [Phys. Rev. A 70, 025803 (2004)] we presented a scheme to teleport an entanglement of zero- and one-photon states from a bimodal cavity to another one, with 100% success probability. Here, inspired by recent results in the literature, we have modified our previous proposal to teleport the same entangled state without using Bell-state measurements. For comparison, the time spent, the fidelity, and the success probability for this teleportation are considered.

Cardoso, Wesley B.; Baseia, B. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Goias, 74.001-970, Goiania, GO (Brazil); Avelar, A.T. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Goias, 74.001-970, Goiania, GO (Brazil); Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Brasilia, 70.919-970, Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Almeida, N.G. de [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Goias, 74.001-970, Goiania, GO (Brazil); Nucleo de Pesquisas em Fisica, Universidade Catolica de Goias, 74.605-220, Goiania, GO (Brazil)

2005-10-15

318

The 4th State of Matter: The Delta State  

Microsoft Academic Search

The corresponding states principle is an important concept wherein materials\\u000aare interrelated. The base state of this principle, however, currently has no\\u000aspecific physical reality. Instead, it is a definition: a set of conditions at\\u000awhich the gas state reaches its maximum compression and liquid can not longer\\u000aform; namely, the critical point.\\u000a This article shows that a discrete, real-life,

Joel M. Williams; George H. Sprenger

1999-01-01

319

Multi-state Quantum Teleportation via One Entanglement State  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A multi-sender-controlled quantum teleportation scheme is proposed to teleport several secret quantum states from different senders to a distance receiver based on only one Einstein Podolsky Rosen (EPR) pair with controlled-NOT (CNOT) gates. In the present scheme, several secret single-qubit quantum states are encoded into a multi-qubit entangled quantum state. Two communication modes, i.e., the detecting mode and the message mode, are employed so that the eavesdropping can be detected easily and the teleported message may be recovered efficiently. It has an advantage over teleporting several different quantum states for one scheme run with more efficiency than the previous quantum teleportation schemes.

Guo, Ying; Zeng, Gui-Hua; Moon Ho, Lee

2008-08-01

320

State of the States: Fuel Cells in America  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report from the Breakthrough Technologies Institute looks at the status of fuel cells in America in 2011. A profile of how fuel cells are being used in most U.S. states is included; the amount of data provided varies from state to state. The top five states utilizing fuel cells are identified as California, Connecticut, New York, Ohio and South Carolina. An introductory statement includes information on how the use of fuel cells may be beneficial to the U.S. economy. This document may be downloaded in PDF file format.

2012-08-28

321

Magnetic states at short distances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnetic interactions between a fermion and an antifermion of opposite electric or color charges in the S0-+1 and P0++3 states with J=0 are very attractive and singular near the origin and may allow the formation of new bound and resonance states at short distances. In the two-body Dirac equations formulated in constraint dynamics, the short-distance attraction for these states for point particles leads to a quasipotential that behaves near the origin as -?2/r2, where ? is the coupling constant. Representing this quasipotential at short distances as ?(?+1)/r2 with ?=(-1+1-4?2)/2, both S0-+1 and P0++3 states admit two types of eigenstates with drastically different behaviors for the radial wave function u=r?. One type of states, with u growing as r?+1 at small r, will be called usual states. The other type of states with u growing as r-? will be called peculiar states. Both of the usual and peculiar eigenstates have admissible behaviors at short distances. Remarkably, the solutions for both sets of S01 states can be written out analytically. The usual bound S01 states possess attributes the same as those one usually encounters in QED and QCD, with bound QED state energies explicitly agreeing with the standard perturbative results through order ?4. In contrast, the peculiar bound S01 states, yet to be observed, not only have different behaviors at the origin, but also distinctly different bound state properties (and scattering phase shifts). For the peculiar S01 ground state of fermion-antifermion pair with fermion rest mass m, the root-mean-square radius is approximately 1/m, binding energy is approximately (2-2)m, and rest mass approximately 2m. On the other hand, the (n+1)S01 peculiar state with principal quantum number (n+1) is nearly degenerate in energy and approximately equal in size with the nS01 usual states. For the P03 states, the usual solutions lead to the standard bound state energies and no resonance, but resonances have been found for the peculiar states whose energies depend on the description of the internal structure of the charges, the mass of the constituent, and the coupling constant. The existence of both usual and peculiar eigenstates in the same system leads to the non-self-adjoint property of the mass operator and two nonorthogonal complete sets. As both sets of states are physically admissible, the mass operator can be made self-adjoint with a single complete set of admissible states by introducing a new peculiarity quantum number and an enlarged Hilbert space that contains both the usual and peculiar states in different peculiarity sectors. Whether or not these newly-uncovered quantum-mechanically acceptable peculiar S01 bound states and P03 resonances for point fermion-antifermion systems correspond to physical states remains to be further investigated.

Crater, Horace W.; Wong, Cheuk-Yin

2012-06-01

322

The Fiscal Survey of States  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Released on November 25, 2002, this latest 68-page report from the National Governors Association and the National Association of State Budget Officers demonstrates that many of the 50 states face dire financial problems that are among the worst in 50 years. Some highlights from the report include information revealing that 26 states used across-the-board cuts in their budgets and "rainy-day" funds in 2002, along with the equally ominous information that 16 states experienced negative growth in the past fiscal year. The full report contains detailed charts and tables documenting, with great specificity, the nature of the budget cuts within each state, along with listing the types of programs that were curtailed or eliminated entirely. Perhaps most telling is the report's finding that state balances for the 2003 fiscal year have dropped 70 percent since they peaked in the 2000 fiscal year.

2002-01-01

323

Hyperentangled Bell-state analysis  

SciTech Connect

It is known that it is impossible to unambiguously distinguish the four Bell states encoded in pairs of photon polarizations using only linear optics. However, hyperentanglement, the simultaneous entanglement in more than one degree of freedom, has been shown to assist the complete Bell analysis of the four Bell states (given a fixed state of the other degrees of freedom). Yet introducing other degrees of freedom also enlarges the total number of Bell-like states. We investigate the limits for unambiguously distinguishing these Bell-like states. In particular, when the additional degree of freedom is qubitlike, we find that the optimal one-shot discrimination schemes are to group the 16 states into seven distinguishable classes, and that an unambiguous discrimination is possible with two identical copies.

Wei, T.-C.; Barreiro, Julio T.; Kwiat, Paul G. [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1110 West Green Street, Urbana, Illinois 61801-3080 (United States)

2007-06-15

324

New York State Museum: GIS  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from The New York State Museum features a compilation of regional and statewide geology/hydrology GIS datasets that are available in ArcInfo and ArcView formats. Datasets are separated into four categories: statewide - coverage for the whole state (may be comprised of several datasets), regional based data - coverage for a portion of the state, county based data - coverage for an entire county, and quad based data - coverage for an entire 7.5' quadrangle.

Museum, New Y.

325

Quantum Metrology with Product States  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the performance of initial product states of n-body systems in generalized quantum metrology protocols that involve estimating an unknown coupling constant in a nonlinear k-body (k n) Hamiltonian. We obtain the theoretical lower bound on the uncertainty in the estimate of the parameter. For arbitrary initial states, the lower bound scales as 1\\/n^k, and for initial product states,

Animesh Datta; Sergio Boixo; Steven Flammia; Anil Shaji; Carlton Caves; Emilio Bagan

2008-01-01

326

Generalized quantum-state sharing  

SciTech Connect

We present two quantum-state sharing protocols where the channels are not maximally entangled states. By properly choosing the measurement basis it is possible to achieve unity fidelity transfer of the state if the parties collaborate. We also show that contrary to the protocols where we have maximally entangled channels these protocols are probabilistic. We then compare the efficiency of both protocols and sketch the generalization of the protocols to N parties.

Gordon, Goren [Department of Chemical Physics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Rigolin, Gustavo [Departamento de Fisica da Materia Condensada, Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Caixa Postal 6165, CEP 13084-971, Campinas, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

2006-06-15

327

B States at the Tevatron  

SciTech Connect

The CDF and D0 experiments have produced a wealth of heavy flavor physics results since the beginning of RunII of the Fermilab Tevatron. They review recent measurements of B hadron states including excited B states (B**, B{sub s}**) and the B{sub c}{sup +} meson. They also summarize the discoveries of the {Sigma}{sub b} baryon states and the {Xi}{sub b}{sup -} baryon.

Paulini, Manfred; /Carnegie Mellon U.

2009-06-01

328

Minimum Complexity Echo State Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reservoir computing (RC) refers to a new class of state-space models with a fixed state transition structure (the reservoir) and an adaptable readout form the state space. The reservoir is supposed to be sufficiently complex so as to capture a large number of features of the input stream that can be exploited by the reservoir-to-output readout mapping. The field of

Ali Rodan; Peter Tino

2011-01-01

329

Entanglement Teleportation Through Catlike States  

Microsoft Academic Search

We first consider teleportation of entangled states shared between Claire and Alice to Bob1 and Bob2 when Alice and the two Bobs share a single copy of a GHZ-class state and where {\\\\it all} the four parties are at distant locations. We then generalize this situation to the case of teleportation of entangled states shared between Claire1, Claire2, ....., Claire(N-1)

Sibasish Ghosh; Guruprasad Kar; Anirban Roy; Debasis Sarkar; Ujjwal Sen

2000-01-01

330

Entanglement teleportation via werner states  

PubMed

Transfer of entanglement and information is studied for quantum teleportation of an unknown entangled state through noisy quantum channels. We find that the quantum entanglement of the unknown state can be lost during the teleportation even when the channel is quantum correlated. We introduce a fundamental parameter of correlation information which dissipates linearly during the teleportation through the noisy channel. Analyzing the transfer of correlation information, we show that the purity of the initial state is important in determining the entanglement of the replica state. PMID:10990654

Lee; Kim

2000-05-01

331

State observer for synchronous motors  

DOEpatents

A state observer driven by measurements of phase voltages and currents for estimating the angular orientation of a rotor of a synchronous motor such as a variable reluctance motor (VRM). Phase voltages and currents are detected and serve as inputs to a state observer. The state observer includes a mathematical model of the electromechanical operation of the synchronous motor. The characteristics of the state observer are selected so that the observer estimates converge to the actual rotor angular orientation and velocity, winding phase flux linkages or currents.

Lang, Jeffrey H. (Waltham, MA)

1994-03-22

332

Are there three ?(1950) states?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Different experiments on hadron spectroscopy have long suspected the existence of several cascade states in the 1900-2000 MeV region. They are usually labeled under the common name of ?(1950). As we argue here, there are also theoretical reasons supporting the idea of several ?(1950) resonances. In particular, we propose the existence of three ?(1950) states: one of these states would be part of a spin-parity (1)/(2)- decuplet and the other two probably would belong to the (5)/(2)+ and (5)/(2)- octets. We also identify which decay channels are more appropriate for the detection of each of the previous states.

Pavón Valderrama, M.; Xie, Ju-Jun; Nieves, J.

2012-01-01

333

Quantum tomography via equidistant states  

SciTech Connect

We study the possibility of performing quantum state tomography via equidistant states. This class of states allows us to propose a nonsymmetric informationally complete Positive Operator Valued Measure (POVM) based tomographic scheme. The scheme is defined for odd dimensions N and involves the measurement of N{sup 2} transition probabilities and an inversion, which can be analytically carried out by Fourier transform. The scheme can be modified to allow the reconstruction of states in the case of even dimensions at the expense of increasing the number of measurements to 3N{sup 2}/2.

Paiva-Sanchez, C.; Burgos-Inostroza, E.; Jimenez, O.; Delgado, A. [Center for Optics and Photonics, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 4016, Concepcion (Chile); Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion (Chile)

2010-09-15

334

State Energy Overview. [Contains glossary  

SciTech Connect

An overview of selected energy-related data for the United States, for each state, and for the District of Columbia is presented. Included are the quantities of energy produced and consumed, estimates of fuel reserves, the value of nonrenewable fuels produced by type, energy expenditures, and consumer prices. Also provided for each state are selected demographic and energy-related information that have been ranked and expressed as a percent of the national total. This overview provides a ready reference and a quick access to selected state energy information and state rankings for various socioeconomic and energy items. The State Energy Overview is arranged in five sections. The first section presents United States totals and an overview of state rankings. The second depicts data for the 50 states and the District of Columbia. The glossary presents definitions germane to this publication and the fourth section describes methodology and includes remarks concerning the information and methods used to estimate 1982 consumption numbers. The fifth section presents sources of data and information for this publication. A summary of each section is included.

Not Available

1983-10-01

335

Robust generation of superposition states  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe experimental results of the generation of superposition states in a two-level system, 4sS1/2 and 3dD5/2 states, of a single calcium ion. The generation method is based on population transfer via rapid adiabatic passage (RAP), proposed by Vitanov and Shore [Phys. Rev. A 73, 053402 (2006)]. The coherence of the generated superposition state is evaluated with a Ramsey-like interferometry method and a fringe visibility of up to 0.93 is obtained. The state generation shows strong robustness with respect to the RAP pulse parameters, including frequency chirp width and Rabi frequency.

Yamazaki, Rekishu; Kanda, Ken-Ichi; Inoue, Fumihiko; Toyoda, Kenji; Urabe, Shinji

2008-08-01

336

State coal profiles, January 1994  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of State Coal Profiles is to provide basic information about the deposits, production, and use of coal in each of the 27 States with coal production in 1992. Although considerable information on coal has been published on a national level, there is a lack of a uniform overview for the individual States. This report is intended to help fill that gap and also to serve as a framework for more detailed studies. While focusing on coal output, State Coal Profiles shows that the coal-producing States are major users of coal, together accounting for about three-fourths of total US coal consumption in 1992. Each coal-producing State is profiled with a description of its coal deposits and a discussion of the development of its coal industry. Estimates of coal reserves in 1992 are categorized by mining method and sulfur content. Trends, patterns, and other information concerning production, number of mines, miners, productivity, mine price of coal, disposition, and consumption of coal are detailed in statistical tables for selected years from 1980 through 1992. In addition, coal`s contribution to the State`s estimated total energy consumption is given for 1991, the latest year for which data are available. A US summary of all data is provided for comparing individual States with the Nation as a whole. Sources of information are given at the end of the tables.

Not Available

1994-02-02

337

Entanglement Teleportation via Werner States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transfer of entanglement and information is studied for quantum teleportation of an unknown entangled state through noisy quantum channels. We find that the quantum entanglement of the unknown state can be lost during the teleportation even when the channel is quantum correlated. We introduce a fundamental parameter of correlation information which dissipates linearly during the teleportation through the noisy channel. Analyzing the transfer of correlation information, we show that the purity of the initial state is important in determining the entanglement of the replica state.

Lee, Jinhyoung; Kim, M. S.

2000-05-01

338

State Governance and Educational Outcomes in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops an institutional theory of educational performance that extends Chubb and Moe's (1988; 1990) logic from local schools to the state level. Our analysis flows from one observation and one assumption. The observation is that the state institutions governing public education are subject to varying degrees of democratic control. The assumption, which serves as our primary research hypothesis,

Paul Mann; Diane O'Hara

339

STATE CONSTITUTIONALISM: STATE-COURT DEFERENCE OR DISSONANCE?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Article focuses on the debate concerning state constitutional expansion of criminal-procedure protections. It examines two such rights: (1) the protection against unreasonable searches and seizures; and (2) the right to the assistance of counsel in defending a criminal case. Each of these rights is embodied in both the federal and most, if not all, state constitutions. Each right is

Arthur Leavens

2011-01-01

340

State Constitutionalism: State-Court Deference or Dissonance?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Article focuses on the debate concerning state constitutional expansion of criminal-procedure protections. It examines two such rights: (1) the protection against unreasonable searches and seizures; and (2) the right to the assistance of counsel in defending a criminal case. Each of these rights is embodied in both the federal and most, if not all, state constitutions. Each right is

Arthur Leavens

2011-01-01

341

State-to-State Variations in Early Intervention Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Before the passage of P.L. 99-457 in 1986, a variety of public and private agencies were involved in providing early intervention services. Exactly how many agencies, which agencies, whom they served, and the roles they played varied from state to state (...

K. Hebbeler D. Spiker M. Wagner R. Cameto P. McKenna

1999-01-01

342

The State of Groundfish Resources off the Northeastern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the early 1960s to 1977, fishing vessels from 13 nations fished heavily off the northeastern United States. Landings of principal groundfish species rose to 780,000 tonnes in 1965 and abundance declined rapidly. Most species of groundfish were being underfished by the United States. With the passage of the Magnuson Fishery Conservation and Management Act in 1976, fishing by foreign

Vaughn C. Anthony

1993-01-01

343

Generalized coherent states as preferred states of open quantum systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the connection between quasi-classical (pointer) states and generalized coherent states (GCSs) within an algebraic approach to Markovian quantum systems (including bosons, spins, and fermions). We establish conditions for the GCS set to become most robust by relating the rate of purity loss to an invariant measure of uncertainty derived from quantum Fisher information. We find that, for damped

Sergio Boixo; Lorenza Viola; Gerardo Ortiz

2007-01-01

344

The Shadow of State Secrets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The shadow of state secrets casts itself longer than previously acknowledged. Between 2001 and 2009 the government asserted state secrets in more than 100 cases, while in scores more litigants appealed to the doctrine in anticipation of government intervention. Contractor cases ranged from breach of contract, patent disputes, and trade secrets, to fraud and employment termination. Wrongful death, personal injury,

Laura K. Donohue

2010-01-01

345

A Psychophysiology for All States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The question is asked, can the same visceral changes occur in different states of consciousness. A survey of EEG and autonomic activity found in the awake state and during the various stages of sleep leads to the conclusion that the question must be affir...

L. C. Johnson

1970-01-01

346

State Activity: Minimal Competency Testing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This chart summarizes the following categories of information about various states' minimum competency testing activities: (1) name of state; (2) legislation or ruling which requires testing; (3) name of organization which sets standards; (4) grade levels assessed; (5) skill areas assessed; (6) use of standards and of test results; and (7) other…

Pipho, Chris

347

State Governance Action Report, 2007  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper presents the State Governance Action Report for 2007. Compiled in this report are state policy developments, including legislation, commissions, and studies, affecting the structure, responsibilities, and operations of public higher education governing boards and institutionally related foundations. Governance and governance-related…

Association of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges, 2007

2007-01-01

348

Entanglement Teleportation via Werner States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transfer of entanglement and information is studied for quantum teleportation of an unknown entangled state through noisy quantum channels. We find that the quantum entanglement of the unknown state can be lost during the teleportation even when the channel is quantum correlated. We introduce a fundamental parameter of correlation information which dissipates linearly during the teleportation through the noisy channel.

Jinhyoung Lee; M. S. Kim

2000-01-01

349

Teleportation of general quantum states  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantum teleportation has been introduced by Benett et al. and dis cussed by a number of authors in the framework of the singlet state. Recentl y, a rigorous formulation of the teleportation problem of arbitrary quantum states by means of quantum channel was given in [IOS] based on the general c hannel theoretical formulation of the quantum gates introduced in

Luigi Accardi; Masanori Ohya

1999-01-01

350

New States of Quantum Matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years physicists have created new states of quantum matter -- from quark-gluon plasmas in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions to new Bose and Fermi superfluids in ultracold trapped atomic clouds. Although these systems differ in energy scales by some 20 orders of magnitude, they share many questions of physics in common. Here we review these new states and discuss

Gordon Baym

2008-01-01

351

Impurity resonance states in semiconductors  

SciTech Connect

The present-day situation in studies of localized and resonance impurity states in quantum-dimensional structures and stressed semiconductors is discussed. Resonance optical transitions caused by interaction with optical phonons are also considered. Various methods for calculating the characteristics of both donor and acceptor resonance and localized states are analyzed; a large body of experimental data is reported and discussed.

Aleshkin, V. Ya.; Gavrilenko, L. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Physics of Microstructures (Russian Federation); Odnoblyudov, M. A.; Yassievich, I. N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physicotechnical Institute (Russian Federation)], E-mail: Irina.Yassievich@mail.ioffe.ru

2008-08-15

352

State Governance Action Report, 2007  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents the State Governance Action Report for 2007. Compiled in this report are state policy developments, including legislation, commissions, and studies, affecting the structure, responsibilities, and operations of public higher education governing boards and institutionally related foundations. Governance and governance-related…

Association of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges, 2007

2007-01-01

353

UNITED STATES RENAL DATA SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The United States Renal Data System (USRDS) is a national data system that collects, analyzes, and distributes information about end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in the United States. The USRDS is funded directly by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseas...

354

Dissipative tunnelling of coherent states  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present work we study the macroscopic quantum tunnelling effect using the effective inverted Caldirola - Kanai Hamiltonian. Assuming that our system is initially prepared in a coherent state, we prove that the presence of dissipation increases the sojourn time and permits low-noise measurements of signals by squeezed states. Their corresponding wavepackets satisfy the Heisenberg uncertainty relation and move

S. Baskoutas

1996-01-01

355

Children in the States, 1997.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report from the Children's Defense Fund lists statistics on child and youth well-being for each of the states and the United States as a whole. Statistics are provided in the following categories: (1) children participating in federally subsidized programs (including Title 1 Education for the Disadvantaged, bilingual education programs,…

Children's Defense Fund, Washington, DC.

356

Cyberterrorism: Postmodern State of Chaos  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines cyberterrorism and its potential to create a postmodern state of chaos. In general, chaos refers to a state of extreme confusion and disorder. This analysis breaks new ground in that it describes chaos theory as a foundation for better understanding cyberterrorism and explains how chaos theory and game theory are tightly coupled. The author also contrasts modern,

Jonathan Matusitz

2008-01-01

357

Cyberterrorism: Postmodern State of Chaos  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines cyberterrorism and its potential to create a postmodern state of chaos. In general, chaos refers to a state of extreme confusion and disorder. This analysis breaks new ground in that it describes chaos theory as a foundation for better understanding cyberterrorism and explains how chaos theory and game theory are tightly coupled. The author also contrasts modern,

Jonathan Matusitz

2010-01-01

358

Nonmaximally entangled state quantum photolithography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many previous works on quantum photolithography have been based on maximally entangled states (MES). In this paper we generalize MES quantum photolithography to the case where two light beams share an N-photon nonmaximally entangled state. We investigate the correlations between quantum entanglement and quantum photolithography. It is shown that for nonlocal entanglement between the two light beams the amplitude of

Yan-Hui Wang; Le-Man Kuang

2003-01-01

359

Washington State 1995 Data Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document is intended to present, in tables and graphs, a diversity of information on Washington State, its people, economy, and government. The information was obtained from state and federal agencies and from private businesses. The data are organized into 11 major chapters which cover the following topics (sample subtopics in parentheses):…

Washington State Office of Financial Management, Olympia.

360

Formal State Constitutional Change Processesi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Constitutional change in democracies occurs in two ways: by altering the meaning of the document through interpretation, or by altering the text of the document through amendment or revision. For the United States Constitution, change through interpretation predominates. Review of the extensive experience of the American states with \\

Gerald Benjamin

361

Solid State Physics: An Introduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

There's a wealth of excellent textbooks on solid state physics. The author of the present book is well aware of this fact and does not attempt to write just another one. Rather, he has provided a very compact introduction to solid state physics for third-year students. As we are faced with the continuous appearance interdisciplinary fields and associated study curricula

Bernhard Jakoby

2009-01-01

362

Deterministic joint remote state preparation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We put forward a new nontrivial three-step strategy to execute joint remote state preparation via Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen pairs deterministically. At variance with all existing protocols, in ours the receiver contributes actively in both preparation and reconstruction steps, although he knows nothing about the quantum state to be prepared.

Nguyen Ba An; Cao Thi Bich; Nung Van Don

2011-01-01

363

Deterministic joint remote state preparation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We put forward a new nontrivial three-step strategy to execute joint remote state preparation via Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen pairs deterministically. At variance with all existing protocols, in ours the receiver contributes actively in both preparation and reconstruction steps, although he knows nothing about the quantum state to be prepared.

Nguyen Ba An; Cao Thi Bich; Nung Van Don

2011-01-01

364

Energy and the states: Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Alaska, energy policy simply means oil and gas. The state gets 85% of its revenue from oil and gas, and the nation gets about 25% of its domestic oil production from Alaska. Therefore, oil and gas production is important to Alaska, and the state's energy policies reflect this fact. Three separate policy initiatives comprise the strategy for realizing Alaska's

Eason

2009-01-01

365

Commercial state-sponsored bodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The commercial state-sponsered bodies comprise an important element of economic activity in Ireland. The Exchequer makes a substantial financtial contribution to these bodies. In this article the author traces the origins and rationale of the commercial state bodies, examines their performance and discusses some major policy issues arising from their operations.

Brendan M. Walsh

1987-01-01

366

Deterministic joint remote state preparation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We put forward a new nontrivial three-step strategy to execute joint remote state preparation via Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen pairs deterministically. At variance with all existing protocols, in ours the receiver contributes actively in both preparation and reconstruction steps, although he knows nothing about the quantum state to be prepared.

An, Nguyen Ba; Bich, Cao Thi; Don, Nung Van

2011-09-01

367

Functional neuroanatomy of hypnotic state  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The aim of the present study was to describe the distribution of regional cerebral blood flow during the hypnotic state (HS) in humans, using positron-emission tomography (PET) and statistical parametric mapping.Methods: The hypnotic state relied on revivification of pleasant autobiographical memories and was compared to imaging autobiographical material in “normal alertness.” A group of 9 subjects under polygraphic monitoring

Pierre Maquet; Marie Elisabeth Faymonville; Christian Degueldre; Guy Delfiore; Georges Franck; André Luxen; Maurice Lamy

1999-01-01

368

Climates of the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document is designed to provide basic information about the climates of the United States and the causes of these climates. Events of interest in the climatological history of the United States are described and illustrated by many maps, charts and diagrams. The booklet has three major parts. Part I discusses climate and climate control in…

Baldwin, John L.

369

Fiscal Worries Shadow State Elections  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article reports that the new class of governors and state legislators to be elected November 4 will inherit financial problems that pose both immediate and long-term threats to existing education programs, while constraining their ability to mount new initiatives. The prospect of a deepening economic slowdown--with state-level budget…

McNeil, Michele

2008-01-01

370

The State and Rural Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examines relations between the state and rural systems worldwide. Notes growing international concern for declining environmental quality, implying new imperatives for international cooperation. Relates these trends to state intervention's changing nature and alternative governance systems, political economy theory respecting family farms and…

Moran, Warren; Cocklin, Chris

1989-01-01

371

Ground State of Anderson Hamiltonian  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following the Wiegmann approach the exact expression of the ground state energy for the symmetric Anderson Hamiltonian was obtained. In this paper the calculation is done for the asymmetric Anderson Hamiltonian, of the ground state energy, of the average number of localized electrons and of the charge susceptibility.

Kawakami, Norio; Okiji, Ayao

1982-04-01

372

Caesium chemistry: Beyond state I  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although caesium is well known in its oxidation state +I, many chemists have speculated about a possible higher state. Such a species has not yet been prepared, but based on quantum-chemical calculations CsFn compounds have now been predicted to be stable.

Riedel, Sebastian; Schwerdtfeger, Peter

2013-10-01

373

Penn State's Expansion Worries Competitors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Pennsylvania State University will turn 14 of its two-year campuses into four-year colleges, changing the face of higher education in the state and raising concerns for competing institutions. Three campuses will retain two-year status. The change is due to overcrowding at the University Park flagship campus, and because too few two-year campus…

Healy, Patrick

1997-01-01

374

Are cloned quantum states macroscopic?  

PubMed

We study quantum states produced by optimal phase covariant quantum cloners. We argue that cloned quantum superpositions are not macroscopic superpositions in the spirit of Schrödinger's cat, despite their large particle number. This is indicated by calculating several measures for macroscopic superpositions from the literature, as well as by investigating the distinguishability of the two superposed cloned states. The latter rapidly diminishes when considering imperfect detectors or noisy states and does not increase with the system size. In contrast, we find that cloned quantum states themselves are macroscopic, in the sense of both proposed measures and their usefulness in quantum metrology with an optimal scaling in system size. We investigate the applicability of cloned states for parameter estimation in the presence of different kinds of noise. PMID:23215165

Fröwis, F; Dür, W

2012-10-24

375

Stable States of Biological Organisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel model of biological organisms is advanced, treating an organism as a self-consistent system subject to a pathogen flux. The principal novelty of the model is that it describes not some parts, but a biological organism as a whole. The organism is modeled by a five-dimensional dynamical system. The organism homeostasis is described by the evolution equations for five interacting components: healthy cells, ill cells, innate immune cells, specific immune cells, and pathogens. The stability analysis demonstrates that, in a wide domain of the parameter space, the system exhibits robust structural stability. There always exist four stable stationary solutions characterizing four qualitatively differing states of the organism: alive state, boundary state, critical state, and dead state.

Yukalov, V. I.; Sornette, D.; Yukalova, E. P.; Henry, J.-Y.; Cobb, J. P.

2009-04-01

376

Radon in New York State  

SciTech Connect

The discovery of extremely high radon levels in homes in Pennsylvania in 1985 has resulted in a public call for quick action to deal with the problem. Because of the shared geology of the Reading Prong and some common media, residents in Pennsylvania, New Jersey and New York turned toward their state and local governments looking for assistance. However, the approaches that the states have taken in addressing this problem have differed for a variety of reasons, including differences in the scope and intensity of the problem, the inherent differences in the geography and populations in the states and the nature of each state's governmental decision-making processes. The New York State strategy for addressing the issue is discussed in this report.

Reese, J.P.; Watson, M.R. (New York State Energy Office, Albany, NY (USA))

1988-01-01

377

Are Cloned Quantum States Macroscopic?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study quantum states produced by optimal phase covariant quantum cloners. We argue that cloned quantum superpositions are not macroscopic superpositions in the spirit of Schrödinger’s cat, despite their large particle number. This is indicated by calculating several measures for macroscopic superpositions from the literature, as well as by investigating the distinguishability of the two superposed cloned states. The latter rapidly diminishes when considering imperfect detectors or noisy states and does not increase with the system size. In contrast, we find that cloned quantum states themselves are macroscopic, in the sense of both proposed measures and their usefulness in quantum metrology with an optimal scaling in system size. We investigate the applicability of cloned states for parameter estimation in the presence of different kinds of noise.

Fröwis, F.; Dür, W.

2012-10-01

378

State-to-state collision dynamics of molecular free radicals  

SciTech Connect

State-to-state collision dynamics of molecular radicals were investigated by the laser-induced fluorescence technique in a pulsed, crossed-beam apparatus. Dramatically different product state distributions were observed for two prototypical radicals, NCO({tilde X}{sup 2}{product}) and CH(X{sup 2}{product}). Based on a quantum scattering formalism and general considerations of the potential energy surfaces these observations were interpreted as generic features for the inelastic scattering of {sup 2}{product} radicals. The differences observed for NCO and CH are the results of well-known Hund's coupling classification of linear molecules.

Macdonald, R.G.; Liu, K.

1992-01-01

379

State-to-state collision dynamics of molecular free radicals  

SciTech Connect

State-to-state collision dynamics of molecular radicals were investigated by the laser-induced fluorescence technique in a pulsed, crossed-beam apparatus. Dramatically different product state distributions were observed for two prototypical radicals, NCO({tilde X}{sup 2}{product}) and CH(X{sup 2}{product}). Based on a quantum scattering formalism and general considerations of the potential energy surfaces these observations were interpreted as generic features for the inelastic scattering of {sup 2}{product} radicals. The differences observed for NCO and CH are the results of well-known Hund`s coupling classification of linear molecules.

Macdonald, R.G.; Liu, K.

1992-02-01

380

77 FR 48591 - State Rail Plan Guidance  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. FRA-2012-0066] State Rail Plan Guidance AGENCY: Federal Railroad...Request for Public Comment on Proposed State Rail Plan Guidance...submission, and acceptance of State rail plans. State rail plans are...

2012-08-14

381

40 CFR 272.1800 - State authorization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...STATE HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS Ohio § 272.1800 State authorization. (a) The State of Ohio is authorized to administer and enforce...State's program, as administered by the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency, was...

2013-07-01

382

First-Class State Change in Plaid.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Objects model the world, and state is fundamental to a faithful modeling. Engineers use state machines to understand and reason about state transitions, but programming languages provide little support for building software based on state abstractions. We...

J. Aldrich J. Sunshine K. Naden S. Stork

2011-01-01

383

Joint remote state preparation of arbitrary two-qubit state with six-qubit state  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a novelty scheme for joint remote preparation of an arbitrary two-qubit state in a probabilistic manner from a spatially separated multi-sender to one receiver. The probability of success regarding this preparation scheme is calculated in both general and some particular cases. Our results show that in general such remote state preparation can be realized with a probability of

Dong Wang; Xin-Wei Zha; Qian Lan

2011-01-01

384

Coupling between {alpha}-condensed states and normal cluster states  

SciTech Connect

We have studied the {alpha}-condensed states of {sup 16}O and {sup 20}Ne based on a microscopic {alpha}-cluster model. This was performed by introducing a Monte Carlo technique for the description of the THSR (Tohsaki Horiuchi Schuck Roepke) wave function, which is called the ''virtual THSR'' wave function. Earlier microscopic calculations pointed out the possibility of the existence of four-{alpha}-cluster condensed states. Here, in addition to studying the four-{alpha} case, we also studied the case of five-{alpha} particles, for which the states are shown to be stable around the threshold energy even after taking into account the coupling effect between normal cluster states with {sup 16}O+{alpha} configurations.

Itagaki, N. [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Hongo, 113-0033 Tokyo (Japan); Kokalova, Tz. [Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin, D-14109 Berlin (Germany); Ito, M. [RIKEN Nishina Center, 351-0098 Wako (Japan); Kimura, M. [Institute of Physics, University of Tsukuba, 305-8571 Tsukuba (Japan); Oertzen, W. von [Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin, D-14109 Berlin (Germany); Freie Universitaet Berlin, Fachbereich Physik, D-14195 Berlin (Germany)

2008-03-15

385

Report to the State Legislature, State of Hawaii (9th).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Commission tailored its recommendations to address four major concerns: (1) Achieving control over the costs of state and county government; (2) making government responsive to people; (3) improving efficiency, effectiveness and economy; and (4)improv...

1977-01-01

386

Photoionization of excited molecular states  

SciTech Connect

Rapid advances in laser and detector technologies are making it possible to investigate molecular photophysics and photochemistry in powerful new ways. For example, resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) measurements, in which the total (or the mass selected) ion current is monitored as a function of laser wavelength, have yielded extensive and often novel information on the spectroscopy of the resonant intermediate states. With the addition of photoelectron spectrometry (PES) to analyze the kinetic energy of the ejected electrons, it is possible to determine the branching ratios into different electronic, vibrational, and rotational levels of the product ion and to focus directly on both the dynamics of the multiphoton ionization process and the photoionization of excited state species. In the present paper, we report several REMPI/PES studies of H/sub 2/ and N/sub 2/. The results reflect both the spectroscopy and the dynamics of photoionization of excited molecular states and are discussed in terms of the selection rules for photoionization and the relative probabilities of photoionization from Rydberg and valence states. In some cases, in accordance with the Franck-Condon principle, the results demonstrate that resonant multiphoton ionization through Rydberg states may be a powerful technique for the production of electronic, vibrational, and rotational state selected ions. However, in other cases, systematic departures from Franck-Condon behavior are observed, which reflect the more subtle dynamics of excited state photoionization.

Dehmer, P.M.; Dehmer, J.L.; Pratt, S.T.

1984-01-01

387

Tensor Network States and Geometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tensor network states are used to approximate ground states of local Hamiltonians on a lattice in D spatial dimensions. Different types of tensor network states can be seen to generate different geometries. Matrix product states (MPS) in D=1 dimensions, as well as projected entangled pair states (PEPS) in D>1 dimensions, reproduce the D-dimensional physical geometry of the lattice model; in contrast, the multi-scale entanglement renormalization ansatz (MERA) generates a ( D+1)-dimensional holographic geometry. Here we focus on homogeneous tensor networks, where all the tensors in the network are copies of the same tensor, and argue that certain structural properties of the resulting many-body states are preconditioned by the geometry of the tensor network and are therefore largely independent of the choice of variational parameters. Indeed, the asymptotic decay of correlations in homogeneous MPS and MERA for D=1 systems is seen to be determined by the structure of geodesics in the physical and holographic geometries, respectively; whereas the asymptotic scaling of entanglement entropy is seen to always obey a simple boundary law—that is, again in the relevant geometry. This geometrical interpretation offers a simple and unifying framework to understand the structural properties of, and helps clarify the relation between, different tensor network states. In addition, it has recently motivated the branching MERA, a generalization of the MERA capable of reproducing violations of the entropic boundary law in D>1 dimensions.

Evenbly, G.; Vidal, G.

2011-11-01

388

State Geological Surveys and Related Agencies in the United States  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page is part of the California Department of Conservation, Division of Mines and Geology Web site. It provides a list of state geological surveys and related organizations in the United States (and Puerto Rico). For all of these agencies, mail addresses as well as known e-mail and Internet links are provided. Links are also provided to pages on geologic mapping, geologic hazards, earthquake engineering, mineral resources, and technical information and publications.

389

Measuring State Disgust: Evaluation of a German State Disgust Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present analysis was to develop and evaluate a state disgust questionnaire (Ekel-State-Fragebogen, ESF) in German, considering three student sample studies. Twenty-six items were constructed using information drawn from literature research and from the self-report of subjects after an induction of disgust. In Study 1, the questionnaire was given to 160 subjects after disgust induced by a

Jan Marten Ihme; Kristin Mitte

2009-01-01

390

State 1\\/State 2 changes in higher plants and algae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current ideas regarding the molecular basis of State 1\\/State 2 transitions in higher plants and green algae are mainly centered around the view that excitation energy distribution is controlled by phosphorylation of the light-harvesting complex of photosystem II (LHC-II). The evidence supporting this view is examined and the relationship of the transitions occurring in these systems to the corresponding transitions

W. Patrick Williams; John F. Allen

1987-01-01

391

Matrix product states for trial quantum Hall states  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We obtain an exact matrix-product-state (MPS) representation of a large series of fractional quantum Hall (FQH) states in various geometries of genus 0. The states in question include all paired k=2 Jack polynomials, such as the Moore-Read and Gaffnian states, as well as the Read-Rezayi k=3 state. We also outline the procedures through which the MPSs of other model FQH states can be obtained, provided their wave function can be written as a correlator in a 1+1 conformal field theory (CFT). The auxiliary Hilbert space of the MPS, which gives the counting of the entanglement spectrum, is then simply the Hilbert space of the underlying CFT. This formalism enlightens the link between entanglement spectrum and edge modes. Properties of model wave functions such as the thin-torus root partitions and squeezing are recast in the MPS form, and numerical benchmarks for the accuracy of the new MPS prescription in various geometries are provided.

Estienne, B.; Papi?, Z.; Regnault, N.; Bernevig, B. A.

2013-04-01

392

Multipartite squeezed states as SU(1, 1) coherent states  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One goal of quantum information science is quantum information processing using complex quantum optical networks comprising passive and active linear optical elements, such as beam splitters and squeezers. Such a network can be described mathematically as a Sp(2n, R) transformation on n modes, which corresponds to mappings that preserve Gaussian states. Recently tripartite squeezed states have been produced experimentally and are quite useful for quantum information tasks such as quantum state sharing and quantum teleportation. We have developed a theoretical framework for three-boson realizations of SU(1, 1) and characterized all squeezed states of this type as SU(1, 1) coherent states. Inspired by the elegance of this theory, we generalize it to multi-boson realizations of SU(1, 1) that characterize any multiport linear optical system constructed from a two-mode squeezer and several passive elements, or by concatenating such multiport systems to each other. Thus, this theory gives us new insight into the properties of multipartite squeezed states generated in any complex optical network with concatenated sections each with one two-mode squeezer.

Shaterzadeh Yazdi, Zahra; Turner, Peter S.; Sanders, Barry C.

2007-06-01

393

Negativity of random pure states  

SciTech Connect

This paper deals with the entanglement, as quantified by the negativity, of pure quantum states chosen at random from the invariant Haar measure. We show that it is a constant (0.72037) multiple of the maximum possible entanglement. In line with the results based on the concentration of measure, we find evidence that the convergence to the final value is exponentially fast. We compare the analytically calculated mean and standard deviation with those calculated numerically for pure states generated via pseudorandom unitary matrices proposed by Emerson et al. [Science 302, 2098 (2003)]. Finally, we draw some conclusions about the geometry of quantum states based on our result.

Datta, Animesh [Institute for Mathematical Sciences, 53 Prince's Gate, Imperial College, London, SW7 2PG (United Kingdom); QOLS, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, SW7 2BW (United Kingdom)

2010-05-15

394

Functional observer and state feedback  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we show the relation between state space approach and transfer function approach for functional observer and state feedback design. Two approaches can be transformed into each other, based on this result. More importantly, we find that the state space approach introduces some severe, unnecessary restrictions in solving the problem. The restrictions are, however, reduced to be a trivial condition in transfer function approach. It is believed that the result presented in this paper will be useful in developing both approaches, and motivate some new results for solving the problem.

Zhang, S.Y.

1986-01-01

395

Image states in metal clusters  

SciTech Connect

The existence of image states in small clusters is shown, using a quantum-mechanical many-body approach. We present image state energies and wave functions for spherical jellium clusters up to 186 atoms, calculated in the GW approximation, where G is the Green's function and W is the dynamically screened Coulomb interaction, which by construction contains the dynamic long-range correlation effects that give rise to image effects. In addition, we find that image states are also subject to quantum confinement. To extrapolate our investigations to clusters in the mesoscopic size range, we propose a semiclassical model potential, which we test against our full GW results.

Rinke, Patrick; Delaney, Kris; Godby, R.W. [Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Garcia-Gonzalez, P. [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain)

2004-12-01

396

State building energy codes status  

SciTech Connect

This document contains the State Building Energy Codes Status prepared by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC06-76RL01830 and dated September 1996. The U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Codes and Standards has developed this document to provide an information resource for individuals interested in energy efficiency of buildings and the relevant building energy codes in each state and U.S. territory. This is considered to be an evolving document and will be updated twice a year. In addition, special state updates will be issued as warranted.

NONE

1996-09-01

397

Black hole bound state metamorphosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

{N}=4 supersymmetric string theories contain negative discriminant states whose numbers are known precisely from microscopic counting formulæ. On the macroscopic side, these results can be reproduced by regarding these states as multi-centered black hole configurations provided we make certain identification of apparently distinct multi-centered black hole configurations according to a precise set of rules. In this paper we provide a physical explanation of such identifications, thereby establishing that multi-centered black hole configurations reproduce correctly the microscopic results for the number of negative discriminant states without any ad hoc assumption.

Chowdhury, Abhishek; Lal, Shailesh; Saha, Arunabha; Sen, Ashoke

2013-05-01

398

Tetraquark states from lattice QCD  

SciTech Connect

Recently there have been considerable interests in studying hadronic states beyond the usual two and three quark configurations. With the renewed experimental interests in {sigma}(600) and the inability of quark model to incorporate too many light scalar mesons, it is quite appropriate to study hadronic states with four quark configurations. Moreover, some of the newly observed charmed hadrons may well be described by four quark configurations. Lattice QCD is perhaps the most desirable tool to adjudicate the theoretical controversy of the scalar mesons and to interpret the structures of the newly observed charmed states. Here we briefly reviewed the lattice studies of four-quark hadrons.

Mathur, Nilmani [Department of Theoretical Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400005 (India)

2011-10-24

399

Arkansas Digital State Publications Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The state of Arkansas publishes hundreds of official newsletters, technical reports, and advisory documents each year. This archive contains over 6,100 of these documents, including the "2005 Arkansas Youth Tobacco Survey" and the "Spring 2001 Arkansas Wild Turkey Harvest Report." First-time visitors can look over the scrolling list of available documents here to get a feel for these materials. The site offers a great trove for those with an interest in public policy matters throughout the state and for students of state governance it is truly invaluable.

400

State of Control Over the  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text Version... Be circumspect, realistic and open-minded ... process remains in a state of control (the ... are sources of variation identified, monitored, and controlled? ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/developmentapprovalprocess

401

State of Arizona Planning System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The conclusions and recommendations of an evaluation task force which analyzed the status of Arizona's comprehensive planning capacity are presented. The purpose of the study was to identify problems caused by existing Federal, State, and local interrelat...

1974-01-01

402

Changing state structures: Outside in  

PubMed Central

In explaining the development of institutional structures within states, social science analysis has focused on autochthonous factors and paid less attention to the way in which external factors, especially purposive agent-directed as opposed to more general environmental factors, can influence domestic authority structures. For international relations scholarship, this lacunae is particularly troubling or perhaps, just weird. If the international system is anarchical, then political leaders can pursue any policy option. In some cases, the most attractive option would be conventional state to state interactions, diplomacy, or war. In other instances, however, changing the domestic authority structures of other states might be more appealing. In some cases, domestic authority structures have been influenced through bargaining, and in others through power. Power may reflect either explicit agent-oriented decisions or social processes that reflect the practices, values, and norms of more powerful entities.

Krasner, Stephen D.

2011-01-01

403

Nuclear Threats From Small States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

What are the policy implications regarding proliferation and counterproliferation of nuclear weapons among Third World states. How does deterrence operate outside the parameters of superpower confrontation as defined by the cold war 5 elaborate system of ...

J. H. Kahan

1994-01-01

404

State Education Agencies: Planning Requirements.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the role that state departments of education in California, Florida, Maryland, and Washington play with local school districts in planning, designing, constructing, and/or operation and management of educational facilities. (MLF)

Stenzler, Yale

1989-01-01

405

Solid State Doppler Sensor Investigation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes the investigations for a new airborne solid state doppler sensor that provides 3-axis velocity data for doppler navigation with greatly improved accuracy and low lag. Heading velocity estimation within 0.05% is achieved with smoothing...

A. E. Ruvin L. I. Smilen L. Weinberg

1972-01-01

406

Desertification of the United States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There is an extensive and growing body of scientific literature on desertification. The purposes of the report, therefore, are: To synthesize the available scientific information on desertification in the United States and; To identify federal policies th...

D. Sheridan

1981-01-01

407

Metastable states in microwave ionization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 38-GHz microwave field required to effect 50% ionization of Li atoms decreases from 60 V/cm at n=37, where the microwave frequency is one-third the Kepler frequency, to 45 V/cm at n=56, where the microwave frequency is equal to the Kepler frequency. For n>56 the 50% ionization field is constant at E?2.4?5/3 until ˜80 GHz below the ionization limit, where it begins to decline. In spite of the fact that the pulse is 8000 cycles long, we detect approximately 5% of the initial population in very-high-lying (n>215) states subsequent to the microwave pulse. We suggest that these atoms are trapped in metastable atom-field states during the microwave pulse and relax to the high-lying states when the field is turned off. The existence of such states is predicted by the simple man's model of above-threshold ionization.

Arakelyan, A.; Gallagher, T. F.

2013-02-01

408

Review of Quantum Electromagnetic States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This program provided a review of the conceptual and mathematical apparatus to apply modern theories of electromagnetic fields. As a study in low- noise electromagnetic states, it centers on the need to transition basic physics into the engineering arena ...

M. A. Parker

1999-01-01

409

My Church and My State.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Three issues--the Catholic school experience, the ruling of the Supreme Court on abortion, and the nuclear debate--are discussed from the point of view of a Catholic living in the United States. (JM)|

Knoerle, Jeanne

1983-01-01

410

Motion out of noisy states  

SciTech Connect

The relative occupation of competing states of local stability is not determined solely by the characteristics of the locally favored states, but depends on the noise along the whole path connecting the competing states. This is now new, but the sophistication of most modern treatments has obscured the simplicity of this central point, and here it is argued for in simple physical terms. In addition, recent work by van Kampen and by Buettiker, for particles in closed loops, subject to a force field, heavy damping, and a temperature which is a function of position in the loop, are supplemented. In that case, circulating currents are set up, and these are evaluated. A final speculative section emphasizes the difficulty in calculating the long-term time evolution of the probability distribution in complex multistable systems with state-dependent noise.

Landauer, R.

1988-10-01

411

Host State Incentives and Compensation:.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

After reviewing several options for selecting a host state, the Commission elected to proceed with anoption that builds upon developing grass-roots acceptance and support. To foster such support the Commission has adopted an incentives and compensation pa...

P. Schneider

1986-01-01

412

Mental Health, United States, 1992.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Data presented in the fifth edition of 'Mental Health, United States' derive principally from national surveys. For the first time, the volume includes a chapter that highlights the characteristics of seriously mentally ill persons in the household popula...

R. W. Manderscheid M. A. Sonnenschein

1992-01-01

413

Electron transfer to continuum states  

SciTech Connect

Gene Rudd`s analysis of doubly differential cross sections for the ionization of He atoms by proton impact suggested that electrons were being carried along by the proton for a short period of time after being ejected from the target region. Normally, this would represent an electron capture event in which an excited state of atomic hydrogen is formed. Because the electron ends up ionized it was recognized that these states of the proton must be continuum states. This insight was confirmed by observations of the continuum electron capture (CEC) cusp when the electron velocity equals the proton velocity in the final state. The impact of this idea upon the theory of ionization at high energies is reviewed.

Macek, J.H. [Univ. of Tenenssee, Knoxville, TN (United States)]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1994-12-31

414

Abnormal States of Nuclear Matter.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results for abnormal states in nuclear matter are reviewed and compared with pi exp - condensates in the context of chiral invariance and the sigma model. The relative importance of symmetry breaking and conserving interactions is assessed for the two pro...

L. Castillejo

1975-01-01

415

Some Tasks for State Leadership  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"The conference reported in this article was sponsored by the Agricultural Policy Institute at North Carolina State University. A limited number of copies of the conference proceedings will be available. (Editor)|

Bryant, C. Douglas; Liner, Hugh L.

1970-01-01

416

Death Rates - State Cancer Profiles  

Cancer.gov

Profiles Home > Death Rates Area: US by State Alabama Counties Alaska Counties Arizona Counties Arkansas Counties California Counties Colorado Counties Connecticut Counties Delaware Counties District of Columbia Florida Counties Georgia Counties Hawaii

417

Psychological State During First Pregnancy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Six women were studied in group, hospital, and home settings from the beginning of their first pregnancy for 15 months. Their psychological state is discussed in terms of altered field of consciousness, medical symptoms and concerns, and approaches and re...

A. D. Colman

1968-01-01

418

Ground-state spin logic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Designing and optimizing cost functions and energy landscapes is a problem encountered in many fields of science and engineering. These landscapes and cost functions can be embedded and annealed in experimentally controllable spin Hamiltonians. Using an approach based on group theory and symmetries, we examine the embedding of Boolean logic gates into the ground-state subspace of such spin systems. We describe parameterized families of diagonal Hamiltonians and symmetry operations which preserve the ground-state subspace encoding the truth tables of Boolean formulas. The ground-state embeddings of adder circuits are used to illustrate how gates are combined and simplified using symmetry. Our work is relevant for experimental demonstrations of ground-state embeddings found in both classical optimization as well as adiabatic quantum optimization.

Whitfield, J. D.; Faccin, M.; Biamonte, J. D.

2012-09-01

419

Changing state structures: outside in.  

PubMed

In explaining the development of institutional structures within states, social science analysis has focused on autochthonous factors and paid less attention to the way in which external factors, especially purposive agent-directed as opposed to more general environmental factors, can influence domestic authority structures. For international relations scholarship, this lacunae is particularly troubling or perhaps, just weird. If the international system is anarchical, then political leaders can pursue any policy option. In some cases, the most attractive option would be conventional state to state interactions, diplomacy, or war. In other instances, however, changing the domestic authority structures of other states might be more appealing. In some cases, domestic authority structures have been influenced through bargaining, and in others through power. Power may reflect either explicit agent-oriented decisions or social processes that reflect the practices, values, and norms of more powerful entities. PMID:22198756

Krasner, Stephen D

2011-12-22

420

IGBT: a solid state switch.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A Copper Vapour Laser Power Supply has been designed using a solid state switch consisting in eighteen Isolated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBT), -1200 volts, 400 Amps, each-in parallel. This paper presents the Isolated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBTs) repl...

D. Chatroux J. Maury B. Hennevin

1993-01-01

421

Model State Housing Societies Law.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report suggests means by which legal relationships and responsibilities of urban residents to each other may be worked out. The Model State Housing Societies Law is designed to authorize and encourage the formation of neighborhood housing organization...

J. Krasnowiecki

1970-01-01

422

Optimal preparation of graph states  

SciTech Connect

We show how to prepare any graph state of up to 12 qubits with (a) the minimum number of controlled-Z gates and (b) the minimum preparation depth. We assume only one-qubit and controlled-Z gates. The method exploits the fact that any graph state belongs to an equivalence class under local Clifford operations. We extend up to 12 qubits the classification of graph states according to their entanglement properties, and identify each class using only a reduced set of invariants. For any state, we provide a circuit with both properties (a) and (b), if it does exist, or, if it does not, one circuit with property (a) and one with property (b), including the explicit one-qubit gates needed.

Cabello, Adan; Lopez-Tarrida, Antonio J. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada II, Universidad de Sevilla, E-41012 Sevilla (Spain); Danielsen, Lars Eirik [Department of Informatics, University of Bergen, P.O. Box 7803, Bergen N-5020 (Norway); Portillo, Jose R. [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada I, Universidad de Sevilla, E-41012 Sevilla (Spain)

2011-04-15

423

Entropy of quantum states: Ambiguities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The von Neumann entropy of a generic quantum state is not unique unless the state can be uniquely decomposed as a sum of extremal or pure states. As pointed out to us by Sorkin, this happens if the GNS representation (of the algebra of observables in some quantum state) is reducible, and some representations in the decomposition occur with non-trivial degeneracy. This non-unique entropy can occur at zero temperature. We will argue elsewhere in detail that the degeneracies in the GNS representation can be interpreted as an emergent broken gauge symmetry, and play an important role in the analysis of emergent entropy due to non-Abelian anomalies. Finally, we establish the analogue of an H -theorem for this entropy by showing that its evolution is Markovian, determined by a stochastic matrix.

Balachandran, A. P.; de Queiroz, A. R.; Vaidya, S.

2013-10-01

424

Energy Forms, States and Conversions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students participate in many demonstrations during the first day of this lesson to learn basic concepts related to the forms and states of energy. This knowledge is then applied the second day as students assess various everyday objects to determine what forms of energy are transformed to accomplish the object's intended task. Students use block diagrams to illustrate the form and state of energy flowing into and out of the process.

Office Of Educational Partnerships

425

Mechanical energy states during running  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Changes in total mechanical work and its partitioning into different energy states (kinetic, potential and rotational) during a step cycle of running were investigated on six well trained athletes who ran at the test speeds of 40, 60, 80, and 100% (9.3±0.3 m\\/s) of maximum. Cinematographic techniques were utilized to calculate the mechanical energy states as described by Norman et

Pekka Luhtanen; Paavo V. Komi

1978-01-01

426

Quantum state of the multiverse  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A third quantization formalism is applied to a simplified multiverse scenario. A well-defined quantum state of the multiverse is obtained which agrees with standard boundary condition proposals. These states are found to be squeezed, and related to accelerating universes: they share similar properties to those obtained previously by Grishchuk and Siderov. We also comment on related works that have criticized the third quantization approach.

Robles-Pérez, Salvador; González-Díaz, Pedro F.

2010-04-01

427

Final State Interactions in GENIE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Final state interactions (FSI) are an important part of all neutrino event generators because modern detectors are made of nuclei to maximize count rate. The incident neutrino will interact with one (or two) nucleons but the final state can be quite different because the hadrons will have further interactions in the residual nucleus. This has historically been one of the major differences between event generators. GENIE will now have 2 FSI codes which allow interesting comparisons for the first time.

Dytman, S. A.; Meyer, A. S.

2011-11-01

428

Keynes and the Welfare State  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the question of what influence J.M. Keynes had on the evolution of the welfare state after the Second World War. First it weighs whether his non-utilitarian approach to economic theory and welfare measurement had an impact on the growth of the welfare state. Then it considers whether the influence came through Keynes’s advocacy of deficit spending. After

Roger E. Backhouse; Bradley W. Bateman

2012-01-01

429

The Unfolded Protein State Revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most studies on proteins have centered on the conformation and stability of the folded state. The unfolded state has essentially\\u000a been neglected because of its reputation of being devoid of biological function, and not well-defined. Recently the importance\\u000a of unfolded segments, as part of the secondary structure of globular proteins and their role in the performance of biological\\u000a functions, has

Patricio A. Carvajal; Tyre C. Lanier

430

Continuous variable remote state preparation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We extend exact deterministic remote state preparation (RSP) with minimal classical communication to quantum systems of continuous variables. We show that, in principle, it is possible to remotely prepare states of an ensemble that is parametrized by infinitely many real numbers--i.e., by a real function--while the classical communication cost is one real number only. We demonstrate continuous variable RSP in

Z. Kurucz; Z. Kis; P. Adam; J. Janszky

2005-01-01

431

Continuous variable remote state preparation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We extend exact deterministic remote state preparation (RSP) with minimal classical communication to quantum systems of continuous variables. We show that, in principle, it is possible to remotely prepare states of an ensemble that is parametrized by infinitely many real numbers---i.e., by a real function---while the classical communication cost is one real number only. We demonstrate continuous variable RSP in

Z. Kurucz; P. Adam; Z. Kis; J. Janszky

2005-01-01

432

Excited states in 130Ba  

Microsoft Academic Search

Excited states of 130Ba have been studied by means of in-beam gamma-ray spectroscopy and electron-spectroscopy via the reaction 120Sn(13C, 3n). Spin and parity assignments have been made for 28 new levels. A comparison with a cranking-model calculation shows that the negative-parity band based on the 5- state is a two-quasiproton band.

Sun Xianfu; D. Bazzacco; W. Gast; A. Gelberg; U. Kaup; K. Schiffer; A. Dewald; R. Reinhardt; K. O. Zell; P. von Brentano

1985-01-01

433

Final State Interactions in GENIE  

SciTech Connect

Final state interactions (FSI) are an important part of all neutrino event generators because modern detectors are made of nuclei to maximize count rate. The incident neutrino will interact with one (or two) nucleons but the final state can be quite different because the hadrons will have further interactions in the residual nucleus. This has historically been one of the major differences between event generators. GENIE will now have 2 FSI codes which allow interesting comparisons for the first time.

Dytman, S. A.; Meyer, A. S. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Univ. of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States)

2011-11-23

434

Elkhorn ruling boosts state authority  

Microsoft Academic Search

On 31 May 1994, a landmark U.S. Supreme Court decision expanded state authority to establish conditions to protect water quality and included stream flows, aesthetics, and, potentially, other elements in a broad definition of water quality. Called the {open_quotes}Elkhorn case{close_quotes} the Supreme Court ruled that the state of Washington Department of Ecology has authority to set instream flows for fish

Beecher

1995-01-01

435

Solid State Nano Gears Manipulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The detailed fabrication and manipulations of solid state nano gears up to 350 nm in diameter is reported. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and ultra high vacuum (UHV) scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) are used to maneuver the gears. The aim is to bridge the gap between the current solid state gears and the now available nanoscale gears. As in many technology integrations, miniaturization is a way to boost efficiency and an opening to new applications.

Troadec, Cedric; Deng, Jie; Ample, Francisco; Thamankar, Ramesh; Joachim, Christian

436

BPS states in string theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this thesis we discuss a number of interesting and important properties of BPS states in string theory. We study wall-crossing behavior of BPS states at large volume limit and implications of it for the OSV conjecture. We find that the weak topological coupling OSV conjecture can be true at most in a special chamber of the Kahler cone. We also clarify an interesting puzzle arising in the description of BPS states on the Higgs branch of supersymmetic quantum mechanics. Using methods of toric geometry we compute Hilbert spaces of BPS states on the compactified Higgs branch and arrive at completely consistent picture of spatial Spin(3) structure of those spaces. We introduce new kinds of walls, called Bound State Transformation(BST) walls, in the moduli space across which the nature of BPS bound states changes but the index remains continuous. These walls are necessary to explain the continuity of BPS index. BPS states can undergo recombination, conjugation or hybrids of the two when crossing a BST wall. Conjugation phenomenon happens near singularities in the moduli space and we relate massless spectra of BPS states at such singularities to monodromies around them. In cases when massless vector BPS particles are present we find new constraints on the spectrum and in particular predict the existence of magnetic monopoles becoming massless at such singularities. We give a simple physical derivation of the Kontsevich-Soibelman wall-crossing formula. Considering galaxy-like configurations of BPS particles with a central supermassive black hole with a number of stellar BPS systems around it we derive a consistency requirement on the partition function of such BPS galaxies. This requirement turns out to be nothing but Kontsevich-Soibelman wall-crossing formula. Our approach gives a generalization of the formula for the case when massless BPS particles are present.

Andriyash, Evgeny

437

High power solid state lasers  

SciTech Connect

These proceedings discuss the following subjects: trends in materials processing with laser radiation; slabs and high power systems; glasses and new crystals; solid state lasers at HOYA Corp.; lamps, resonators and transmission; glasses as active materials for high average power solid state lasers; flashlamp pumped GGG-crystals; alexandrite lasers; designing telescope resonators; mode operation of neodymium: YAG lasers; intracavity frequency doubling with KTP crystal and thermal effects in cylinder lasers.

Weber, H.

1988-01-01

438

Edge states in stacked nanographene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanocarbon materials are investigated intensively. In this paper, the edge-state in nanographene materials with zigzag edges is studied theoretically. In particular, while the inter-layer interactions are considered, we prove that edge states exist at the energy of the Dirac point in the doubly stacked nanographene, and in the case of the infinitely-wide lower layer case. This property applies both for the A-B and A-C stackings.

Harigaya, Kikuo

2012-12-01

439

Ironies of controlling state crime  

Microsoft Academic Search

Control mechanisms and their effects are seldom analyzed in the subject matter of state crime. When what might be viewed as legitimate attempts to rectify a given situation occur, it happens all too often that well-intended individuals (i.e., advocates) and\\/or organizations can become additional victims of state crime. This truism has rarely been systematically reviewed. We aim to fill this

Jeffrey Ian Ross; Dawn L. Rothe

2008-01-01

440

Chimera states are chaotic transients  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spatiotemporal chaos and turbulence are universal concepts for the explanation of irregular behavior in various physical systems. Recently, a remarkable new phenomenon, called “chimera states,” has been described, where in a spatially homogeneous system, regions of irregular incoherent motion coexist with regular synchronized motion, forming a self-organized pattern in a population of nonlocally coupled oscillators. Whereas most previous studies of chimera states focused their attention on the case of large numbers of oscillators employing the thermodynamic limit of infinitely many oscillators, here we investigate the properties of chimera states in populations of finite size using concepts from deterministic chaos. Our calculations of the Lyapunov spectrum show that the incoherent motion, which is described in the thermodynamic limit as a stationary behavior, in finite size systems appears as weak spatially extensive chaos. Moreover, for sufficiently small populations the chimera states reveal their transient nature: after a certain time span we observe a sudden collapse of the chimera pattern and a transition to the completely coherent state. Our results indicate that chimera states can be considered as chaotic transients, showing the same properties as type-II supertransients in coupled map lattices.

Wolfrum, Matthias; Omel'Chenko, Oleh E.

2011-07-01

441

Clustering of Resting State Networks  

PubMed Central

Background The goal of the study was to demonstrate a hierarchical structure of resting state activity in the healthy brain using a data-driven clustering algorithm. Methodology/Principal Findings The fuzzy-c-means clustering algorithm was applied to resting state fMRI data in cortical and subcortical gray matter from two groups acquired separately, one of 17 healthy individuals and the second of 21 healthy individuals. Different numbers of clusters and different starting conditions were used. A cluster dispersion measure determined the optimal numbers of clusters. An inner product metric provided a measure of similarity between different clusters. The two cluster result found the task-negative and task-positive systems. The cluster dispersion measure was minimized with seven and eleven clusters. Each of the clusters in the seven and eleven cluster result was associated with either the task-negative or task-positive system. Applying the algorithm to find seven clusters recovered previously described resting state networks, including the default mode network, frontoparietal control network, ventral and dorsal attention networks, somatomotor, visual, and language networks. The language and ventral attention networks had significant subcortical involvement. This parcellation was consistently found in a large majority of algorithm runs under different conditions and was robust to different methods of initialization. Conclusions/Significance The clustering of resting state activity using different optimal numbers of clusters identified resting state networks comparable to previously obtained results. This work reinforces the observation that resting state networks are hierarchically organized.

Lee, Megan H.; Hacker, Carl D.; Snyder, Abraham Z.; Corbetta, Maurizio; Zhang, Dongyang; Leuthardt, Eric C.; Shimony, Joshua S.

2012-01-01

442

State variations in Medicare expenditures.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: This study examined variations in Medicare expenditures across states. METHODS: 1992 data on average Medicare expenditures per enrollee, users of services per 1000 enrollees, service use per user, and payment per unit of service were compared across states for various services. Weighted least squares regression analysis was employed to examine total Medicare expenditures per enrollee by state. RESULTS: Variation in Medicare expenditures across states is driven more by average number of service users per 1000 enrollees and average service units per user than by average payment per service unit. Medicare expenditures per enrollee by state are primarily a function of Medicare HMO penetration rate (P = .000), urban area (P = .001), hospital bed supply (P = .005), elderly mortality rate (P = .012), Medicare physician assignment rate (P = .026), percentage of primary care practitioners (P = .042), and interactions between urban elderly and percentage of primary care physicians (P = .005) and Black elderly and nursing home bed supply (P = .012). CONCLUSIONS: Before sweeping Medicare cuts are undertaken or excessive reliance on managed care occurs, attention should be focused on the current disproportionate distribution of expenditures across states.

Kane, R L; Friedman, B

1997-01-01

443

A complicity continuum of state crime  

Microsoft Academic Search

State crime scholars and radical criminologists have struggled to draw distinctions between state-initiated and statefacilitated state crimes and state-corporate crimes. The first of these, a less contentious concept, denotes an explicit and distinct action by a state for the furtherance of its organizational goals which violates law or produces social injury. State-facilitated and state-corporate crimes have been defined as implicit

David Kauzlarich; Christopher Mullins; Rick Matthews

2003-01-01

444

State electricity profiles, March 1999  

SciTech Connect

Due to the role electricity plays in the Nation`s economic and social well-being, interested parties have been following the electric power industry`s transition by keeping abreast of the restructuring and deregulation events that are taking place almost daily. Much of the attention centers around the States and how they are restructuring the business of electricity supply within their respective jurisdictions. This report is designed to profile each State and the District of Columbia regarding not only their current restructuring activities, but also their electricity generation and concomitant statistics from 1986 through 1996. Included are data on a number of subject areas including generating capability, generation, revenues, fuel use, capacity factor for nuclear plants, retail sales, and pollutant emissions. Although the Energy Information Administration (EIA) publishes this type of information, there is a lack of a uniform overview for each individual State. This report is intended to help fill that gap and also to serve as a framework for more detailed studies. In addition to basic statistics in tables and graphs, a textual section is provided for each State, discussing some of the points relative to electricity production that are noteworthy in, or unique to, that particular State. Also, each State is ranked according to the place it holds, as compared to the rest of the states, in various relevant areas, such as its average price of electricity per kilowatthour, its population, and its emissions of certain atmospheric pollutants. The final chapter covers the Nation as a whole. 451 figs., 520 tabs.

NONE

1999-03-01

445

Bound anionic states of adenine  

PubMed Central

Anionic states of nucleic acid bases are involved in DNA damage by low-energy electrons and in charge transfer through DNA. Previous gas phase studies of free, unsolvated nucleic acid base parent anions probed only dipole-bound states, which are not present in condensed phase environments, but did not observe valence anionic states, which for purine bases are thought to be adiabatically unbound. Contrary to this expectation, we have demonstrated that some thus far ignored tautomers of adenine, which result from enamine-imine transformations, support valence anionic states with electron vertical detachment energies as large as 2.2 eV, and at least one of these anionic tautomers is adiabatically bound. Moreover, we predict that the new anionic tautomers should also dominate in solutions and should be characterized by larger values of electron vertical detachment energy than the canonical valence anion. All of the newfound anionic tautomers might be formed in the course of dissociative electron attachment followed by a hydrogen atom attachment to a carbon atom, and they might affect the structure and properties of DNA and RNA exposed to low-energy electrons. The new valence states observed here, unlike the dipole-bound state, could exist in condensed phases and might be relevant to radiobiological damage. The discovery of these valence anionic states of adenine was facilitated by the development of (i) an experimental method for preparing parent anions of nucleic acid bases for photoelectron experiments, and (ii) a combinatorial/quantum chemical approach for identification of the most stable tautomers of organic molecules.

Haranczyk, Maciej; Gutowski, Maciej; Li, Xiang; Bowen, Kit H.

2007-01-01

446

Entangled States of Trapped Ions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Entangled states of the internal degrees of freedom are an important resource in Quantum Information Processing (QIP) and Quantum Simulation (QS) with trapped ions. Most basic requirements for QIP and QS have been demonstrated for trapped ions, with two big challenges remaining: Improving operation fidelity and scaling up to larger numbers of qubits. In the last few years, steady progress has been achieved with laser-based entanglement schemes with demonstrated fidelities of deterministically produced Bell states of 99.3% and up to 14 ion-qubits entangled in generalized GHZ-states. Scalable architectures have been proposed; one scheme, where ion-qubits are moved through a multi-zone trap array, is studied in several laboratories. Sympathetic cooling with a second ion species, which initializes the motional states for multi-qubit operations, has been demonstrated in an experiment where arbitrary operations on two qubits were implemented. Micro-fabrication approaches to ion-trap-arrays have yielded structures that should be capable of holding and manipulating large numbers of ions. Recently, with the use of microwaves, single-qubit rotations with fidelities of 99.998% per gate operation were demonstrated and two ion-qubit gates have been implemented. Microwave control could potentially be easier to scale by directly integrating microwave-lines on micro-fabricated trap devices. It also eliminates several sources of decoherence that are present in laser-based schemes by exclusively coupling to long lived hyperfine ground states.

Leibfried, Dietrich

2012-02-01

447

Minimum complexity echo state network.  

PubMed

Reservoir computing (RC) refers to a new class of state-space models with a fixed state transition structure (the reservoir) and an adaptable readout form the state space. The reservoir is supposed to be sufficiently complex so as to capture a large number of features of the input stream that can be exploited by the reservoir-to-output readout mapping. The field of RC has been growing rapidly with many successful applications. However, RC has been criticized for not being principled enough. Reservoir construction is largely driven by a series of randomized model-building stages, with both researchers and practitioners having to rely on a series of trials and errors. To initialize a systematic study of the field, we concentrate on one of the most popular classes of RC methods, namely echo state network, and ask: What is the minimal complexity of reservoir construction for obtaining competitive models and what is the memory capacity (MC) of such simplified reservoirs? On a number of widely used time series benchmarks of different origin and characteristics, as well as by conducting a theoretical analysis we show that a simple deterministically constructed cycle reservoir is comparable to the standard echo state network methodology. The (short-term) MC of linear cyclic reservoirs can be made arbitrarily close to the proved optimal value. PMID:21075721

Rodan, Ali; Tino, Peter

2010-11-11

448

Entanglement sharing with separable states  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose an entanglement sharing protocol based on separable states. Initially, two parties, Alice and Bob, share a two-mode separable Gaussian state. Alice then splits her mode into two separable modes and distributes them between two players. Bob is separable from the players but he can create entanglement with either of the players if the other player moves to his location and collaborates with him. Any two parties are separable and the creation of entanglement is thus mediated by transmission of a mode which is separable from individual modes on Alice's side and Bob's side. For the state shared by the players and Bob one cannot establish entanglement between any two modes even with the help of operation on the third mode provided that Bob is restricted to Gaussian measurements and the state thus carries a nontrivial signature of bound entanglement. The present protocol also demonstrates switching between different separability classes of tripartite systems by coherent operations on its bipartite parts and complements studies on protocols utilizing mixed partially entangled multipartite states.

Mišta, Ladislav, Jr.

2013-06-01

449

Linearized theory of peridynamic states.  

SciTech Connect

A state-based peridynamic material model describes internal forces acting on a point in terms of the collective deformation of all the material within a neighborhood of the point. In this paper, the response of a state-based peridynamic material is investigated for a small deformation superposed on a large deformation. The appropriate notion of a small deformation restricts the relative displacement between points, but it does not involve the deformation gradient (which would be undefined on a crack). The material properties that govern the linearized material response are expressed in terms of a new quantity called the modulus state. This determines the force in each bond resulting from an incremental deformation of itself or of other bonds. Conditions are derived for a linearized material model to be elastic, objective, and to satisfy balance of angular momentum. If the material is elastic, then the modulus state is obtainable from the second Frechet derivative of the strain energy density function. The equation of equilibrium with a linearized material model is a linear Fredholm integral equation of the second kind. An analogue of Poincare's theorem is proved that applies to the infinite dimensional space of all peridynamic vector states, providing a condition similar to irrotationality in vector calculus.

Silling, Stewart Andrew

2009-04-01

450

Thermodynamic States in Explosion Fields  

SciTech Connect

Here we investigate the thermodynamic states occurring in explosion fields from the detonation of condensed explosives in air. In typical applications, the pressure of expanded detonation products gases is modeled by a Jones-Wilkins-Lee (JWL) function: P{sub JWL} = f(v,s{sub CJ}); constants in that function are fit to cylinder test data. This function provides a specification of pressure as a function of specific volume, v, along the expansion isentrope (s = constant = s{sub CJ}) starting at the Chapman-Jouguet (CJ) state. However, the JWL function is not a fundamental equation of thermodynamics, and therefore gives an incomplete specification of states. For example, explosions inherently involve shock reflections from surfaces; this changes the entropy of the products, and in such situations the JWL function provides no information on the products states. In addition, most explosives are not oxygen balanced, so if hot detonation products mix with air, they after-burn, releasing the heat of reaction via a turbulent combustion process. This raises the temperature of explosion products cloud to the adiabatic flame temperature ({approx}3,000K). Again, the JWL function provides no information on the combustion products states.

Kuhl, A L

2009-10-16

451

Regional and State Level Water Scarcity Report: Northeast United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are an abundance of large-scale, coarse resolution global water scarcity studies, but the existing literature fails to address regional and state specific scarcity measures. Moreover, while environmental water requirements are an integral factor in the development and implementation of sustainable water management practices, only recently has this notion been introduced to water scarcity research. In this paper, we argue that developing a preliminary measure of water scarcity, at the regional and state levels, will allow for more informed policy development. The goal of this study is to generate a more comprehensive understanding of water scarcity in the Northeast, by gathering fine scale data, applying a consistent methodology to the calculation of a scarcity index, and analyzing the results to see relative trends in spatio-temporal water scarcity. Public supply, irrigation, rural, industrial and thermo-power withdrawals have been compiled from USGS state water use publications from 1950 to 1985. Using the WBMplus water model runoff data, state specific in-stream environmental water requirements were calculated using the accepted hydro-ecological methodology. Water scarcity was then calculated as a ratio of water withdrawals to total available water minus environmental flow requirements for the system. In so doing, this study generates a spatially explicit and temporally varying water scarcity indicator (WSI) for the Northeastern United States between 1950 and 2000 at the regional and state levels at a five-year time interval. Calculation of a spatial and temporal water scarcity indicator enabled us to identify regions and specific states that were: slightly exploited (WSI < 0.3), moderately exploited (0.31.0). The minimum environmental water requirements to maintain in-stream aquatic and riparian ecosystems for the Northeastern states ranged between 27.5 to 36.3 percent of the mean annual runoff within Vermont and Maryland, respectively. The regional WSI values ranged between 0.199 in 1950 and 0.512 in 1995, indicating increasing water scarcity over time as population and employment growth has placed greater demands on water resources. Additionally, our study revealed that in 1980, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania and New Jersey scarcity levels were 0.733, 0.790 and 0.857, respectively. Although the Northeastern United States is commonly perceived as a water rich region, moderate to heavily exploited levels of water stress were observed over the time period when a finer spatial scale is utilized. Water scarcity indicator values were disaggregated by state for each time period and illustrated using a series of maps. Additional descriptive statistics were used to elucidate the differences in water scarcity between states over time.

Nicoletti, C. K.; Lopez-Morales, C. A.; Hoover, J. H.; Voigt, B. G.; Vorosmarty, C. J.; Mohammed, I. N.

2010-12-01

452

Analysis of state-energy-program capabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential effects on state energy programs of a reduction in the financial assistance available through the state and local assistance programs and the distribution of those effects are assessed. The assessment is based on a survey of nine state energy offices (SEOs), which were selected on the basis of state support of energy programs weighted by state energy consumption.

J. Tatar; D. Clifford; F. Gunnison; B. Humphrey

1981-01-01

453

State monopolies and alcoholic beverage consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifteen states have state monopolies to regulate the retail distribution of distilled spirits or wine. One objective of state ownership is the reduction of consumption. However, previous research supports both no effect and a negative effect of state monopoly (control) states on consumption.

Jon P. Nelson

1990-01-01

454

Synthesizing Results from the Trial State Assessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses data from the Trial State Assessment of the National Assessment of Educational Progress to describe and illustrate a two-stage statistical model for investigating state-to-state variation in mathematics achievement. Results reveal considerable state-to-state heterogeneity in mathematics proficiency, but most heterogeneity is explainable on…

Raudenbush, Stephen W.; Fotiu, Randall P.; Cheong, Yuk Fai

1999-01-01

455

State Education Finance and Governance Profile: Georgia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article presents the state education finance and governance profile of Georgia. States develop educational funding formulas to determine the total amount of funds needed for each student and to establish the state's share of those costs. Although the large majority of states use the common base or foundation formula (25 states and D.C.) or…

Iosava, Lela

2010-01-01

456

Economies of Scale within State Prisons  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the cost of state prisons as a function of state prison populations across U.S. states. Historically and intuitively, a given state's prison expenditures have risen as more inmates enter the prison system. Through panel regression analysis, a detailed understanding is obtained of how state prisons experience economies of scale as inmate populations rise over time. Our model

Nicholas William Irving; David Anthony King

2012-01-01

457

State Constitutional Law: Teaching and Scholarship.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

State constitutional law is an emerging area for legal education, partly because of state supreme court decisions relying on state rather than federal constitutional law. Studying state constitutional law highlights similarities and diversity of legal and governmental systems. Interest in establishment of curricula and materials in state law is…

Williams, Robert F.

1991-01-01

458

7 CFR 1205.23 - United States.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false United States. 1205.23 Section 1205.23 Agriculture...Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.23 United States. The term United States means the 50 states of the United States...

2012-01-01

459

7 CFR 1205.313 - United States.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false United States. 1205.313 Section 1205.313 Agriculture...Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.313 United States. United States means the 50 States of the United States of...

2012-01-01

460

Optimal Purification of Arbitrary Quantum Mixed States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quantum state purification is very important in quantum information processing. Our purpose is to purify arbitrary mixed state into some pure state. We present one simple method to purify arbitrary mixed state from its normal Schmidt decomposition. This scheme is also simplified by using only two special unitary transformations, and can be used to prove the typical entanglement thresholds for random mixed states.

Ping, Yuan; Li, Huina; Pan, Xiuqin; Luo, Mingxing; Zhang, Zhili

2013-08-01

461

State Death in the International System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under what conditions do states die? Survival is often assumed to be the primary goal of states. Yet international relations scholars have not previously examined the rate or the causes of state death in a systematic way. I argue that buffer states states caught between two rivals are particularly vulnerable to being coerced out of existence. Each rival is afraid

Tanisha M. Fazal

2004-01-01

462

Engineering multiphoton entangled states by quantum interference  

SciTech Connect

By combining a coherent state with fields from a number of parametric down-conversion processes, we are able to generate arbitrary N-photon entangled states, including the maximally entangled photon-number state or the so-called NOON state (|N,0>+|0,N>). This is achieved through destructive quantum interference for the cancellation of the unwanted states.

Liu, B.; Ou, Z. Y. [Department of Physics, Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis, 402 North Blackford Street, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202 (United States)

2006-09-15

463

Negativity of random pure states  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with the entanglement, as quantified by the negativity, of pure quantum states chosen at random from the invariant Haar measure. We show that it is a constant (0.72037) multiple of the maximum possible entanglement. In line with the results based on the concentration of measure, we find evidence that the convergence to the final value is exponentially fast. We compare the analytically calculated mean and standard deviation with those calculated numerically for pure states generated via pseudorandom unitary matrices proposed by Emerson [ScienceSCIEAS0036-807510.1126/science.1090790 302, 2098 (2003)]. Finally, we draw some conclusions about the geometry of quantum states based on our result.

Datta, Animesh

2010-05-01

464

The language of altered states.  

PubMed

To compare the subjective experience of different forms of altered states of consciousness, computerized content analysis was applied to 66 autobiographical accounts of schizophrenia, hallucinogenic drug states, or mystical ecstasy and to 28 autobiographical control accounts of important personal experiences. The patterns of lexical choice used by the four groups were significantly different in word frequencies from 49 of 83 lexical categories measured. When data from the 13 most statistically significant categories were used in discriminant and classification analyses, 84% of the samples were correctly identified by their word frequencies. These findings suggest that the subjective experiences of schizophrenia, hallucinogenic drug-induced states, and mystical ecstasy are more different from one another than alike. PMID:3411311

Oxman, T E; Rosenberg, S D; Schnurr, P P; Tucker, G J; Gala, G

1988-07-01

465

Elkhorn ruling boosts state authority  

SciTech Connect

On 31 May 1994, a landmark U.S. Supreme Court decision expanded state authority to establish conditions to protect water quality and included stream flows, aesthetics, and, potentially, other elements in a broad definition of water quality. Called the {open_quotes}Elkhorn case{close_quotes} the Supreme Court ruled that the state of Washington Department of Ecology has authority to set instream flows for fish (primarily steelhead, chinook, and coho salmon) as a condition of a Water Quality Certification (WQC) issued by the state under Section 401 of the federal Clean Water Act (CWA). The case surrounded the petitioners (applicants) proposed building of the Elkhorn Hydroelectric Project on the Dosewallips River, Washington. The project would have consisted of a dam near the boundary of Olympic National Park and a pipeline to carry diverted water around a 1.2-mile bypass reach to a powerhouse at Olympic National Forest`s Elkhorn Campground.

Beecher, H.A. [Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA (United States)

1995-03-01

466

United States National seismograph network  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The USGS National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC) has planned and is developing a broadband digital seismograph network for the United States. The network will consist of approximately 150 seismograph stations distributed across the contiguous 48 states and across Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Data transmission will be via two-way satellite telemetry from the network sites to a central recording facility at the NEIC in Golden, Colorado. The design goal for the network is the on-scale recording by at least five well-distributed stations of any seismic event of magnitude 2.5 or greater in all areas of the United States except possibly part of Alaska. All event data from the network will be distributed to the scientific community on compact disc with read-only memory (CD-ROM). ?? 1989.

Masse, R. P.; Filson, J. R.; Murphy, A.

1989-01-01

467

Solid state reduced voltage starters  

SciTech Connect

This article predicts that as the relatively low cost, reliability and flexibility of solid state starters become recognized, they will replace conventional devices for starting ac motors under reduced voltage conditions. It explains that reduced voltage starters are used to reduce motor starting current, and to limit starting torque which thereby reduces excessive shock to driven machinery. For squirrel cage motors, there are 2 types of reduced voltage starters: electromechanical (part-winding, autotransformer, primary resistor, wye-delta, and reactor) and solid state (using SCRs). Solid state reduced voltage starters (SRVSs) provide smooth, stepless acceleration of ac squirrel cage and wound rotor motors from standstill to full speed. A rugged, low cost SRVS teamed with a standard squirrel cage motor can perform the starter functions normally accomplished by fluid couplings, eddy current drives, wound rotor drives and even some dc motor drives.

Posma, B.W.

1982-11-01

468

Pennsylvania State University Libraries: Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Maps of the Keystone State are in abundance here, and there are some rare surprises among this bunch. The site was created by the Pennsylvania State University Libraries and it contains five separate areas for cartographers, historians, and others who love spatial relationships. First up is the 1861 Digital Atlas of Centre County. Centre County is home to State College, PA and the interface here allows interested parties to wander around at their leisure. After that, why not look at the 15 minute series topographic maps offered here? Of course, those with a love of the urban landscape should look over the extensive Sanborn Fire Insurance maps, which document cities from Harrisburg to Chester.

469

The Kissinger State Department Telcons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Security Archive released its 135th electronic briefing book on October 1, 2004, and it is one that will be one of great interest to those with a penchant for United States foreign relations in the 1970s. This particular electronic briefing book contains sixteen telcons (transcripted telephone conversations) between Secretary of State Henry Kissinger and other government officials, and such personages as William F. Buckley and Frank Sinatra. These telcons are only a small sampling of the 3200 telcons obtained through a Freedom of Information Act request to the State Department. Some of the rather interesting conversation transcripts featured here include discussions with William D. Rogers (the Assistant Secretary on Latin America) on the situation in Chile and other equally historic phone calls, such as the one that informed Mr. Kissinger that Saigon had surrendered.

470

National States Geographic Information Council  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With the exponential growth in geographic information systems (GIS) across the United States, there are a number of organizations with an interest in coordinating a variety of activities around the sustained growth and management of these various systems. One such group is the National States Geographic Information Council (NSGIC). With members drawn from the federal government, academia, and the private sector, the Council is committed to advocating on behalf of these state GIS agencies in the interest of creating efficient and accessible databases. A good place to start on their website is the ÂHot Topics area, which provides access to their blog and information about some of their latest initiatives, which include those that address homeland security and topographic accuracy. Additionally, visitors can also learn more about their events and conferences, and also about membership opportunities.

471

Subgap states in disordered superconductors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We revise the problem of the density of states in disordered superconductors. Randomness of local sample characteristics translates to the quenched spatial inhomogeneity of the spectral gap, smearing the BCS coherence peak. We show that various microscopic models of potential and magnetic disorder can be reduced to a universal phenomenological random order parameter model, whereas the details of the microscopic description are encoded in the correlation function of the order parameter fluctuations. The resulting form of the density of states is generally described by two parameters: the width ? measuring the broadening of the BCS peak and the energy scale ?tail that controls the exponential decay of the density of subgap states. We refine the existing instanton approaches for determination of ?tail and show that they appear as limiting cases of a unified theory of optimal fluctuations in a nonlinear system. The application to various types of disorder is discussed.

Skvortsov, M. A.; Feigel'man, M. V.

2013-09-01

472

Are State-Ranking Indicators Correlated with State Economic Performance?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variety of rankings appear regularly in the popular press. Such rankings purport to indicate livability, economic well-being, crime propensity, obesity, and business climate to name a few. An investigation was conducted to assess whether state-ranking indicators developed by Forbes would be correlated with overall economic performance. We find that labor and quality of life have relatively high correlation with

Yu Hsing; Michael C. Budden

473

Stated preference analysis of travel choices: the state of practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stated preference (SP) methods are widely used in travel behaviour research and practice to identify behavioural responses to choice situations which are not revealed in the market, and where the attribute levels offered by existing choices are modified to such an extent that the reliability of revealed preference models as predictors of response is brought into question. This paper reviews

David A. Hensher

1994-01-01

474

Adult Learning in Focus: National and State by State Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|There is a strong and growing argument for higher educational attainment in the United States. The jobs that are expected to support the economy in the coming years will depend on a skilled workforce that is able to learn and adapt quickly to new challenges. However, demographic patterns demonstrate that relying on the traditional K-16 pipeline…

Council for Adult and Experiential Learning (NJ1), 2008

2008-01-01

475

TEACHER EVALUATION--A STATE-BY-STATE ANALYSIS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

STATES THAT HAVE ATTEMPTED TO EVALUATE TEACHERS BY WAYS OTHER THAN DEGREES GAINED AND/OR EXPERIENCE INCLUDE (1) SOUTH CAROLINA WHICH USED THE NATIONAL TEACHER EXAMINATIONS (NTE), (2) NEW YORK--MERIT PROMOTIONAL INCREMENTS, (3) DELAWARE--SALARY INCREASE FOR TEACHERS WITH CERTAIN RATINGS, (4) TENNESSEE--A SALARY DIFFERENTIAL SUPPLEMENT TO SUPERIOR…

MCPHAIL, JAMES H.

476

Mayflies of the United States  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In keeping with its excellent reputation, the Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center (first described in the October 15, 1997 Scout Report for Science & Engineering) has posted this useful, work-in-progress resource, one of several on the distribution of several groups of flying insects. Mayflies of the United States, contains information on the known distribution of Mayflies (Ephemeroptera) in the US, including distribution maps, county checklists, published references, photo thumbnails, and numerous links to related sites. Dr. Boris Kondratieff of Colorado State University coordinated the production of all three sites. While the authors stress the "work-in-progress" nature of this site, it represents an excellent and useful contribution.

477

Ground-state Dirac monopole  

SciTech Connect

We show theoretically that a monopole defect, analogous to the Dirac magnetic monopole, may exist as the ground state of a dilute spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensate. The ground-state monopole is not attached to a single semi-infinite Dirac string but forms a point where the circulation of a single vortex line is reversed. Furthermore, the three-dimensional dynamics of this monopole defect is studied after the magnetic field pinning the monopole is removed and the emergence of antimonopoles is observed. Our scheme is realizable with the current experimental facilities.

Ruokokoski, E. [Department of Applied Physics/COMP, Aalto University, P.O. Box 14100, FI-00076 AALTO (Finland); Pietilae, V. [Physics Department, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Moettoenen, M. [Department of Applied Physics/COMP, Aalto University, P.O. Box 14100, FI-00076 AALTO (Finland); Low Temperature Laboratory, Aalto University, P.O. Box 13500, FI-00076 AALTO (Finland)

2011-12-15

478

Optically excited states in positronium  

SciTech Connect

We report optical excitation of the 1{sup 3}S-2{sup 3}P transition in positronium, and a second excitation from n=2 to higher n states. The experiment used light from two pulsed dye lasers. Changes in the positronium annihilation rate during and after the laser pulse were used to deduce the excited state populations. We found that we could saturate the n=2 level and excite a substantial fraction of n=2 positronium to higher levels. Preliminary spectroscopic measurements were performed on n=14 and n=15 positronium. 14 refs., 7 figs.

Howell, R.H.; Ziock, K.P.; Magnotta, F.; Dermer, C.D.; Failor, R.A. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Jones, K.M. (Williams Coll., Williamstown, MA (USA))

1989-11-03

479

Insulating states of correlated electrons  

SciTech Connect

The insulating states of three model systems, the two-chain Hubbard model, the two-layer two-dimensional Hubbard model, and the two-dimensional symmetric periodic Anderson model are discussed. All of these systems at half-filling have a charge gap but they can exhibit various types of spin gaps ranging from a vanishing spin gap in systems with strong antiferromagnetic correlations to a spin gap which is equal to the charge gap on the band-insulator regime. The interchain, interplane, or Anderson model f-d hybridization plays a key role in determining the spin-to-charge gap ratio and the nature of the insulating state.

Scalapino, D.J.; Sugar, R.L.; Noack, R. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)] [and others

1995-05-01

480

Vortex states in superconducting nanowires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Confinement effect of vortices in mesoscopic type-I superconductors has been suggested recently in an intermediate state of flux patterns with numerical calculations. We have tried to confirm the effect in In cylindrical nanowires encapsulated in ZnS nanotubes. We have measured the detailed magnetization of the bundle of In nanowires. During flux entry and exit, we have observed a topological hysteresis. We show the existence of metastable configurations of vortices and recipes to access them. We also will demonstrate manifestation of super-heating and supercooling between superconducting and normal states, respectively, across the superconducting transition.

Hirata, Kazuto; Thakur, Ajay D.; Ooi, Shuuichi

2013-10-01

481

Hiding Bits in Bell States  

SciTech Connect

We present a scheme for hiding bits in Bell states that is secure even when the sharers, Alice and Bob, are allowed to carry out local quantum operations and classical communication. We prove that the information that Alice and Bob can gain about a hidden bit is exponentially small in n , the number of qubits in each share, and can be made arbitrarily small for hiding multiple bits. We indicate an alternative efficient low-entanglement method for preparing the shared quantum states. We discuss how our scheme can be implemented using present-day quantum optics.

Terhal, Barbara M.; DiVincenzo, David P.; Leung, Debbie W.

2001-06-18

482

Prairie State begins development work  

SciTech Connect

Lively Grove will be a state-of-the-art super section mine which will supply 6.7 million tons of bituminous coal per annum to a 1,600 MWS supercritical plant which is expected to begin generation electricity in 2011/2012. The projected cost of Prairie State Energy Campus is over $4 billion. The power plant will be 15% more efficient that similar sized plants and could be a model plant for the industry. The article describes the development plans which are 10% complete. 2 photos.

Buchsbaum, L.

2008-12-15

483

The nuclear equation of state  

SciTech Connect

The role of the nuclear equation of state in determining the fate of the collapsing cores of massive stars is examined in light of both recent theoretical advances in this subject and recent experimental measurements with relativistic heavy ions. The difficulties existing in attempts to bring the softer nuclear matter apparently required by the theory of Type II supernovae into consonance with the heavy ion data are discussed. Relativistic mean field theory is introduced as a candidate for derivation of the equation of state, and a simple form for the saturation compressibility is obtained. 28 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Kahana, S.

1986-01-01

484

Michigan Omnibus State Safety Survey: Fall 1987.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Omnibus State Safety Survey is a multi-year study providing information on highway safety attitudes, perceptions, and reported behaviors of adult residents throughout the State of Michigan. The first phase of the Omnibus State Safety Survey was conduc...

A. C. Wagenaar L. J. Molnar F. M. Streff R. H. Schultz

1988-01-01

485

7 CFR 1217.30 - United States.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false United States. 1217.30 Section...RESEARCH, PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY...Research, Promotion, Consumer Education, and Industry...Definitions § 1217.30 United States. United States...

2013-01-01

486

42 CFR 438.350 - State responsibilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 false State responsibilities. 438.350 Section 438.350 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID...PROGRAMS MANAGED CARE External Quality Review § 438.350 State responsibilities. Each State that...

2012-10-01

487

42 CFR 438.202 - State responsibilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 false State responsibilities. 438.202 Section 438.202 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID... Quality Assessment and Performance Improvement § 438.202 State responsibilities. Each State...

2012-10-01

488

Science and Engineering State Profiles, Fall 1997  

NSF Publications Database

... State Profiles,Fall 1996 Hypertext Format Science and Engineering State Profiles Portable Document ... Format (.pdf) Science and Engineering State Profiles This page was last updated on June 26 ...

489

Death in the United States, 2011  

MedlinePLUS

... Briefs NCHS Data Brief Number 115, March 2013 Death in the United States, 2011 On This Page ... 2011 SOURCE: National Vital Statistics System, Mortality. Do death rates vary by state? States experience different mortality ...

490

28 CFR 35.178 - State immunity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Edition] [Title 28 - JUDICIAL ADMINISTRATION...35.178 - State immunity.] 28 JUDICIAL ADMINISTRATION 1... Sec. 35.178 JUDICIAL ADMINISTRATION DEPARTMENT...Sec. 35.178 State immunity. A State shall...

2009-07-01

491

Insure Kids Now: Providers in Your State  

MedlinePLUS

... State Questions & Answers For Professionals Eligibility & Enrollment Options Policy Guidance Dental Health Quality of Care Connecting Kids to Coverage Support Reports & Data Conferences & Events Webinars About Us Home > Learn About Programs in Your State Programs in Your State To find ...

492

Institution Library Services in New York State.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper examines state and local institutions in New York State and discusses library services, resources and programs available to the institutionalized, with recommendations for improvement. State and federal monies provide library services for seven...

B. V. Finney

1978-01-01

493

44 CFR 13.11 - State plans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...assurances required in the plan, the State may: (1) Cite by number the...by law. (d) Amendments. A State will amend a plan whenever necessary...regulations or (2) a material change in any State law, organization, policy,...

2012-10-01

494

36 CFR 1207.11 - State plans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...assurances required in the plan, the State may: (1) Cite by number the...by law. (d) Amendments. A State will amend a plan whenever necessary...regulations or (2) a material change in any State law, organization, policy,...

2012-07-01

495

43 CFR 12.51 - State plans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...assurances required in the plan, the State may: (1) Cite by number the...by law. (d) Amendments. A State will amend a plan whenever necessary...regulations or (2) a material change in any State law, organization, policy,...

2012-10-01

496

15 CFR 24.11 - State plans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...assurances required in the plan, the State may: (1) Cite by number the...by law. (d) Amendments. A State will amend a plan whenever necessary...regulations or (2) a material change in any State law, organization, policy,...

2012-01-01

497

43 CFR 12.51 - State plans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...assurances required in the plan, the State may: (1) Cite by number the...by law. (d) Amendments. A State will amend a plan whenever necessary...regulations or (2) a material change in any State law, organization, policy,...

2011-10-01

498

45 CFR 92.11 - State plans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...assurances required in the plan, the State may: (1) Cite by number the...by law. (d) Amendments. A State will amend a plan whenever necessary...regulations or (2) a material change in any State law, organization, policy,...

2012-10-01

499

49 CFR 18.11 - State plans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...assurances required in the plan, the State may: (1) Cite by number the...by law. (d) Amendments. A State will amend a plan whenever necessary...regulations or (2) a material change in any State law, organization, policy,...

2011-10-01

500

14 CFR 1273.11 - State plans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...assurances required in the plan, the State may: (1) Cite by number the...by law. (d) Amendments. A State will amend a plan whenever necessary...regulations; or (2) A material change in any State law, organization, policy,...

2012-01-01