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1

Peacebuilding Mechanisms in Akwa Ibom State Oil-Bearing Communities in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major multinational oil companies depend largely on oil wells in Akwa Ibom State because of increased oil bunkering, hostage-taking, and incessant militants’ attacks in other parts of the region. The explanation of the state’s peaceful conditions lies in the utilization of the traditional peacebuilding mechanism of the Ayei and Mbiam of the Ibibio people to manage conflicts between the operating

David Udofia

2011-01-01

2

Surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria 2004-2009  

PubMed Central

Introduction The last case of wild polio virus transmission occurred in Akwa Ibom state in October 2001; however, combination high routine immunization coverage with OPV, high quality AFP surveillance, mass immunization campaign in which two doses of potent oral polio vaccine is administered to eligible children and mop-up campaigns in areas with identified immunization or surveillance gaps has help the state in maintaining a free polio status for over ten years. This study was carried out to describe the characteristics of reported acute flaccid paralysis cases between 2004 and 2009, and to evaluate the performance of the acute flaccid paralysis surveillance system using indicators recommended by the World Health Organization. Methods A retrospective study was conducted among children, 0-15 years, by the World Health Organization (WHO) and Epidemiology unit of State Ministry of Health (SMOH), Uyo. The demographic characteristics and the results of isolation and identification of polio and other enteroviruses in stool samples sent to the WHO Polio Laboratory Ibadan for cases was analyzed. Results A total of 521 cases of AFP (270 males and 251 females) aged 0 month to=15 years were reported by the surveillance system between 2004 and 2009. Those below 5 years of age accounted for 82.5% of cases reported and investigated. Of the 521 cases investigated 512 (98.3%) received at least three doses of oral polio vaccine, while 9(1.7) never received any oral polio vaccine (zero-dose). In all 5.1% of the isolates were Sabin, 7.9% non polio enterovirus (NPEV) and 2.3% were classified by national expert committee as compatible with poliomyelitis. There was consistent and steady increase in three critical indicators; Non polio AFP rate in children <15 years from 4.5 to 6.4 per 100 000 population, proportion of AFP cases with 2 stool specimens collected within 14 days of onset of paralysis from 57% in 2005 to 91% in 2009 and proportion of Local Government Areas (Districts) meeting both core indicators from 23% in 2005 to 87% in 2009. The highest numbers of cases were seen in the months of March, May and September. Conclusion This study showed high levels of surveillance performance with some challenges in reverse the cold chain system, the continuation and sustained AFP case detection, prompt investigation and response, improvement in the reserve cold chain system would achieve optimal standards recommended by WHO and might provide a good model for the eradication of poliomyelitis.

Bassey, Bassey Enya; Gasasira, Alex; Mitula, Pamela; Frankson, Umoh Utobong; Adeniji, Johnson Adekunle

2011-01-01

3

Preventing malaria in pregnancy through community-directed interventions: evidence from Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Despite massive anti-malaria campaigns across the subcontinent, effective access to intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp) and insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) among pregnant women remain low in large parts of sub-Saharan Africa. The slow uptake of malaria prevention products appears to reflect lack of knowledge and resistance to behavioural change, as well as poor access to resources, and limited support of programmes by local communities and authorities. Methods A recent community-based programme in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria, is analysed to determine the degree to which community-directed interventions can improve access to malaria prevention in pregnancy. Six local government areas in Southern Nigeria were selected for a malaria in pregnancy prevention intervention. Three of these local government areas were selected for a complementary community-directed intervention (CDI) programme. Under the CDI programme, volunteer community-directed distributors (CDDs) were appointed by each village and kindred in the treatment areas and trained to deliver ITNs and IPTp drugs as well as basic counseling services to pregnant women. Findings Relative to women in the control area, an additional 7.4 percent of women slept under a net during pregnancy in the treatment areas (95% CI [0.035, 0.115], p-value < 0.01), and an additional 8.5 percent of women slept under an ITN after delivery and prior to the interview (95% CI [0.045, 0.122], p-value < 0.001). The effects of the CDI programme were largest for IPTp adherence, increasing the fraction of pregnant women taking at least two SP doses during pregnancy by 35.3 percentage points [95% CI: 0.280, 0.425], p-value < 0.001) relative to the control group. No effects on antenatal care attendance were found. Conclusion The presented results suggest that the inclusion of community-based programmes can substantially increase effective access to malaria prevention, and also increase access to formal health care access in general, and antenatal care attendance in particular in combination with supply side interventions. Given the relatively modest financial commitments they require, community-directed programmes appear to be a cost-effective way to improve malaria prevention; the participatory approach underlying CDI programmes also promises to strengthen ties between the formal health sector and local communities.

2011-01-01

4

PAH depositional history and sources in recent sediment core from Ukwa Ibom Lake, S. E. Nigeria.  

PubMed

Analyses of recent sediment core from the Ukwa Ibom Lake show evidence of aquatic production, terrigenous, combustion and petroleum inputs. Total organic carbon/total nitrogen values (>10) for the sediments indicate greater wash-in of land-plant organic matter relative to algal production. The characteristic combustion ratios, fluoranthene/fluoranthene+pyrene (>0.50), anthracene/anthracene+phenanthrene (>0.10), benzo(a)anthracene/benzo(a)anthracene+chrysene (>0.35) as well as 1,7/1,7+2,6-dimethylphenanthrene (>0.70) were observed for the top section only. These results coincided with the most recent pave-road extension exercise involving tree logging and burning of bush. The highest total PAH concentration (91.13ng/g dry weight (dw)) observed for the bottom section coincided with the period of inhabitation of the lake catchments (~5 decades ago) when discharge to the Lake water of domestic sewage and mill waste water were prevalent. The regular decline in total PAH concentrations upcore is a reflection of the ban placed on indiscriminate dumping of wastes following relocation of the inhabitants of the catchments. Besides the local depositional history, the irregular decrease in unresolved complex mixture (UCM) profiles suggests regional contaminant influx from the adjacent upper Cross River estuary, especially during intense rainfall event. The non-uniformity in methylphenanthrene indices (MPI-1 and MPI-2) shows evidence of importation and utilization of petroleum products of different thermal maturity histories into the Nigerian economy. PMID:22821212

Oyo-Ita, O E; Oyo-Ita, I O

2013-04-01

5

State  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The notion of state is fundamental to the design and analysis of virtually all computational systems. The Myhill-Nerode Theorem\\u000a of Finite Automata theoryand the concepts underlying the Theoremis a source of sophisticated fundamental insights about\\u000a a large class of state-based systems, both finite-state and infinite-state systems. The Theorems elegant algebraic characterization\\u000a of the notion of state often allows one to

Arnold L. Rosenberg

2006-01-01

6

Pollution status of swimming pools in south-south zone of south-eastern Nigeria using microbiological and physicochemical indices.  

PubMed

Microbiological and physicochemical characteristics of swimming pools in South Eastern states of Nigeria (Akwa Ibom and Cross River) were investigated. The bacterial isolates included Enterococcus faecalis, Clostridium perfringens, Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli. Others were Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris and Staphylococcus epidermidis, while fungal isolates were Penicillium sp, Rhizopus sp, Aspergillus versicolor Fusarium sp, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Mucor sp, Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger and Absidia sp. The total viable count of microorganims in Ibeno (B) and Uyo (E) swimming pools were 6 x 10(6) cfu/ml and for Calabar (H) swimming pool, 3.3 x 10(7) cfu/ml. The total coliform counts were 10(6) cfu/100 ml for Calabar (G) swimming pools and 2 x 10(7) cfu/100 ml for Calabar (H) swimming pools while the fungal count ranged from 5 x 10(6) cfu/ml to 3 x 10(7) cfu/ml. Physical and chemical parameters known to be hazardous to health were also identified. The presence of high levels of coliform and fecal coliform bacteria (E. coli) revelaed that the swimming pools have not met the World Health Organization (WHO) standard for recreational waters. The swimming pools constitute a serious public health hazard. PMID:15691161

Itah, Alfred Young; Ekpombok, Mandu-Uwen M

2004-06-01

7

Perception and practice of female genital cutting in a rural community in southern Nigeria.  

PubMed

This study was carried out to determine the awareness and practice of FGC in a rural community in southern Nigeria. A cross sectional study was carried out among Ayadehe women in Itu, LGA Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria using a semi-structured interviewer administered questionnaire. Information obtained was analysed using SPSS version 17. A total of 218 respondents participated in the study. Majority, 215 (98.6%) were aware of the practice of FGC. Type 2 FGC was the commonest type reported by 71.2% of respondents. Prevalence of FGC was 92.7%. A total of 69.8% were circumcised at 6-12 years. Health complications experienced included excruciating pains, (36.6%), severe bleeding, (15.8%), and painful urination, (26.7%). Up to 53.5% were circumcised by traditional birth attendants. The belief that FGM should be discontinued increased with educational level. The practice of FGC was high in this community. Increased female education, community involvement and legislation are needed to reduce this practice. PMID:23444550

Johnson, Ofonime E; Okon, Rose D

2012-12-01

8

Distribution of vibrio species in shellfish and water samples collected from the atlantic coastline of south-east Nigeria.  

PubMed

Crayfish, lobster, and sea-water samples collected from five fishing islands on the Atlantic coast-Bight of Biafra (Bonny)-belonging to Ibaka Local Government Area of Akwa-Ibom State of Nigeria were bacteriologically evaluated on thiosulphate citrate bile-salt sucrose (TCBS) agar for Vibrio load and pathotypes. Mean log10 Vibrio counts of 7.64+/-2.78 cfu/g (in crayfish), 5.07+/-3.21 cfu/g (in lobster), and 3.06+/-2.27 cfu/mL (in sea-water) were obtained in rainy season (June-July) while counts in the dry season (November-December) were 6.25+/-1.93 cfu/g, 5.99+/-1.54 cfu/g, and 3.84+/-1.78 cfu/mL respectively. The physicochemical measurements (temperature, pH, and total dissolved solutes) of the sea-water did not vary significantly in the two seasons across all five islands. Vibrio species isolated were Vibrio cholerae (both O1 and non-O1 serotypes), V parahaemolyticus, V vulnificus, V mimicus, and V fluvialis. Both Ogawa and Inaba subtypes of V cholerae O1 serotype were found. In addition, the Hikojima subtype, which had not been previously reported in the region, was isolated in two samples. The results show that these Vibrio species are endemic in the area. PMID:24288944

Eyisi, Onyedikachukwu A L; Nwodo, Uchechukwu U; Iroegbu, Christian U

2013-09-01

9

Staining characteristics of Lonchocarpus cyanescens leaf extract on the testis of Sprague-Dawley rats.  

PubMed

The use of nonallergic, nontoxic, and eco-friendly natural dyes has become a matter of significant importance due to increased environmental awareness on the need to avoid hazardous synthetic dyes. This study was to determine the staining properties of the dye extract of Lonchocarpus cyanescens on histomorphology of the testis. Freshly cut leaves of L. cyanescens obtained from Akpan Ifia Inan village in Ikono local government area of Akwa Ibom state (latitude 5 10' 12? N; longitude 7 48' 0? E) were put into a plastic jar and boiling water was poured to cover the leaves. It was covered and left for an hour. The liquid was strained and potassium hydroxide was added to the dye water mixture to reach a pH of 9. A whisk was used to mix air into the liquid, and the mixuture was then allowed to sit until the blue indigo had settled to the bottom of the container. The dye was diluted with 70% ethanol to a concentration of 0.1 g/mL and was used to stain sections of testes. Its potential for use as a counterstain was also investigated. The testes sections were stained in shades of blue. The dye overshadowed the colors of haematoxylin and eosin. Preliminary phytochemical screening of L. cyanescens revealed that it contains alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, and tannins. PMID:22832176

Bassey, Rosemary B; Bakare, Airat A; Edagha, Innocent A; Osinubi, Abraham A A; Oremosu, Ademola A

2012-08-01

10

Spatio-temporal dynamics of African swine fever outbreaks in Nigeria, 2002-2007.  

PubMed

African swine fever (ASF) was first introduced into Nigeria through Lagos state in 1997. The disease rapidly spread to Ogun state in 1998 and extended to the Niger Delta (Delta, Rivers and Akwa Ibom states) in the same year. In 1998, Kaduna, Plateau and Benue states all north of the country experienced ASF for the first time. Poor farm biosecurity, bad abattoir practices and extensive/free range pig farming systems led to extensive spread of the diseases to about 16 Nigerian states excluding the far northwest and north east. A total of 1036 field samples collected over a 6-year period covering 19 Nigerian states were analysed during the period under review; 805 samples were PCR positive and 231 negative. Positive samples were detected in all three surveillance phases and from all agroecological zones across the country. For the first time since its incursion, ASF was identified in some states; Bauchi, Adamawa Taraba and Gombe with chances of control very slim and further spread of the virus northward envisaged. Outbreaks of the disease are now a perennial problem with an increasing disease burden in areas where high numbers of pigs are produced in the country. The National Veterinary Research Institute (NVRI), Vom, since 2002 investigated ASF based on tissue submissions and reports made by individuals, private & commercial farms and agricultural bodies. We present an analysis of geographical and temporal distribution of ASF in the country from 2002 to 2007 and a review of historic outbreaks since the first incursion. Risk factors and prospects for control are discussed. PMID:20659268

Owolodun, O A; Yakubu, B; Antiabong, J F; Ogedengbe, M E; Luka, P D; John Audu, B; Ekong, P S; Shamaki, D

2010-10-01

11

Nigeria's women look beyond literacy.  

PubMed

Vocational training programs in Nigeria offer hope for providing women with skills to earn income as self-employed workers. The National Open Apprenticeship Scheme provides training for 100,000 boys and girls annually. Women's Vocational Training Centers are being developed in 589 local areas. The Nigerian government and a number of community banks are providing start-up funds for the self-employed. Traditional craft and art forms are being revived in the process. Cooperatives are being established for selling products. Girls find it easy to get married once they are trained. Women are valued for their ability to add to income and in turn are placed in a position to bargain for power in the relationship. It is unknown yet how these schemes will affect fertility. The example is given of Grace Mfon who left a village 500 miles from Lagos in the impoverished, oil-producing state of Akwa Ibom. She is apprenticed with 3 others in a 1-room "Fashion House" to learn tailoring. The 2-year apprenticeship program cost her $38/year, which she saved from her $20/month job. She plans to save for her own shop and get married and have children. She joined the apprenticeship program because of the poor job prospects and the dead end life of farming for her husband. There is both a great need and interest in providing vocational training. The government has been involved in an economic restructuring under the guidance of the International Monetary Fund, and must find work for the hugh number of unemployed workers, many of whom are school dropouts. PMID:12318183

Obadina, E

1993-01-01

12

Study of electrolyte changes in patients with prolonged labour in ikot ekpene, a rural community in niger delta region of Nigeria.  

PubMed

Background. Prolonged obstructed labour is a major cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality especially in the developing countries of the world, where the incidence is high. These complications are partly attributed to the metabolic and electrolyte derangements that are often associated with this problem. It is, therefore, important to evaluate the metabolic and electrolyte changes of these patients in a rural community in a developing country. Objective. To compare the electrolyte changes, maternal, and perinatal outcomes in patients with prolonged obstructed labour with that of normal labour in General Hospital Ikot Ekpene, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Patients and Methods. This is a prospective cross-sectional case control study conducted in the Labour Ward of the General Hospital Ikot Ekpene to compare the electrolyte levels and perinatal outcome of 95 pregnant women who had prolonged labour with 105 women who had normal labour within the same period. Main Outcome Measures. Electrolyte changes, ketonuria, maternal complications, and perinatal outcome. Results. The majority of women with prolonged labour (91.6%) had major surgical interventions requiring anaesthesia. Perinatal death occurred in 12.6%, and a major life-threatening maternal complications (including two deaths) occurred in 13.7% of those with prolonged labour compared to 2.9% (with no death) in those with normal labour. Significant abnormal electrolyte changes included hyperkalemia, high urea, and creatinine as well as low bicarbonate levels were recorded. Metabolic abnormality was shown by ketonuria in 91.1% of the patients compared to 1.9% in women with normal labour. Conclusion. Women with prolonged labour in Ikot Ekpene have significant electrolyte and metabolic changes which impact adversely on the maternal and perinatal outcomes of the pregnancy. Effort should be made to correct these electrolyte and metabolic abnormalities during resuscitation of the woman in order to reduce the complications associated with such derangements. PMID:23316380

Ekanem, E I; Umoiyoho, A; Inyang-Otu, A

2012-01-01

13

Epidemiology of human furuncular myiasis of Cordylobia anthropophaga (Grunberg) in Nigeria.  

PubMed

Two hundred people were randomly selected for myiasis infection in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria, except in some states where we did not get the stipulated number (200) to sample. In each of the six states sampled within the Niger Delta in 2009, 88% of 200 patients examined in Rivers State had the Cordylobia infection followed by Cross Rivers State (>86%), Bayelsa (>84%) while Edo, Delta, and Akwa Ibom states showed higher than 82% infection in that order. Our findings showed that women, children, and infants are commonly affected by furuncular myiasis irrespective of skin color, age, blood group, race, sex, genotype, etc. Infection due to C. anthropophaga occurs throughout the year; the rate of infection is higher during the rainy season (when humidity is normally higher) than the dry seasons. Most cases of human myiasis are not reported but treated locally. The Niger Delta populace (especially the areas sampled) consists of people with diverse occupations; some are fishermen, traders, farmers, and refuse disposers. They move from one place to another predisposed to myiasis-causing agents due to the types of work they do. Two major categories of people based on skin color (i.e., white and black skinned) are recognized for this research. People with albinism are also part of the colored African group, however, according to the data, there does not seem to be any difference between them and others. Cordylobia infection is a neglected disease of the Niger Delta region. Therefore, there was the need to know the spread and factors that promote spreading as well as populations of the myiasis-causing agent in the Niger Delta. The data presented here provides good travel information to the Niger Delta region as well as other parts of Nigeria. Human furuncular myiasis affects neonates ranging from 3 to 11 days old, children, and adults in Nigeria. C. anthropophaga maggots penetrate all types of skin; people with albinism, white skin, and black skin. Some of the factors that affect the distribution include unhygienic situations, high humidity, poverty, and use of soiled clothes. Details of our findings are presented. PMID:22861528

Ogbalu, Ogugua K; Achufusi, Ted George Ody; Orlu, Eme E

2013-03-01

14

Reducing mother-to-child transmission of HIV: findings from an early infant diagnosis program in south-south region of Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Early diagnosis of HIV in infants provides a critical opportunity to strengthen follow-up of HIV-exposed children and assure early access to antiretroviral (ARV) treatment for infected children. This study describes findings from an Early Infant Diagnosis (EID) program and the effectiveness of a prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) intervention in six health facilities in Cross-River and Akwa-Ibom states, south-south Nigeria. Methods This was a retrospective study. Records of 702 perinatally exposed babies aged six weeks to 18 months who had a DNA PCR test between November 2007 and July 2009 were reviewed. Details of the ARV regimen received to prevent mother-to-child transmission (MTCT), breastfeeding choices, HIV test results, turn around time (TAT) for results and post test ART enrolment status of the babies were analysed. Results Two-thirds of mother-baby pairs received ARVs and 560 (80%) babies had ever been breastfed. Transmission rates for mother-baby pairs who received ARVs for PMTCT was 4.8% (CI 1.3, 8.3) at zero to six weeks of age compared to 19.5% (CI 3.0, 35.5) when neither baby nor mother received an intervention. Regardless of intervention, the transmission rates for babies aged six weeks to six months who had mixed feeding was 25.6% (CI 29.5, 47.1) whereas the transmission rates for those who were exclusively breastfed was 11.8% (CI 5.4, 18.1). Vertical transmission of HIV was eight times (AOR 7.8, CI: 4.52-13.19) more likely in the sub-group of mother-baby pairs who did not receive ARVS compared with mother-baby pairs that did receive ARVs. The median TAT for test results was 47 days (IQR: 35-58). A follow-up of 125 HIV positive babies found that 31 (25%) were enrolled into a paediatric ART program, nine (7%) were known to have died before the return of their DNA PCR results, and 85 (67%) could not be traced and were presumed to be lost-to-follow-up. Conclusion Reduction of MTCT of HIV is possible with effective PMTCT interventions, including improved access to ARVs for PMTCT and appropriate infant feeding practices. Loss to follow up of HIV exposed infants is a challenge and requires strategies to enhance retention.

2012-01-01

15

United States  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Find out everything you might need (or want) to know about the states in the U.S. Students, You have been assigned two states to research as part of our United States history studies this year. Now it is time to learn about your states! Your final project/mobile should include: 1. IMPORTANT FACTS - population - capital - area - state ...

Glover, Mrs.

2008-09-10

16

State Soils  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developed by the US Department of Agriculture\\'s Soil Survey Division (SSD), this website describes state soils and their significance. All states have chosen a state soil, which share the same level of distinction as state flowers or birds. Information includes a photo of each official soil, a description of major characteristics and formation, and a map showing the coverage of the soil within the state. There are also links to additional information about that soil series, including more specific characteristics, other locations, related soil types, and more.

2007-02-14

17

State Soils  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developed by the US Department of Agriculture's Soil Survey Division (SSD), this website describes state soils and their significance. All states have chosen a state soil, which share the same level of distinction as state flowers or birds. Information includes a photo of each official soil, a description of major characteristics and formation, and a map showing the coverage of the soil within the state. There are also links to additional information about that soil series, including more specific characteristics, other locations, related soil types, and more.

18

Supersqueezed states from squeezed states  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Using super-Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff relations on the elements of the supergroup OSP(2/2), we derive the supersqueeze operator and the supersqueezed states, which are the supersymmetric generalization of the squeezed states of the harmonic oscillator.

Nieto, Michael Martin

1993-01-01

19

The State of State Standards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Fordham Foundation commissioned experts in each of the five core academic subjects (English, history, geography, mathematics, and science) to develop criteria for excellence and apply them to as many state standards as could be obtained. This summary report compiles the numerical scores and letter grades that each state earned in every

Finn, Chester E., Jr.; Petrilli, Michael J.; Vanourek, Gregg

1998-01-01

20

Multiquark States  

SciTech Connect

The pentaquark state recently discovered has been discussed based on various quark model calculations. Odd parity for the state cannot be ruled out theoretically because the contributions related to nontrivial color structures have not been studied completely. Other multiquark states, especially dibaryons, have been discussed also. A strangeness -3N{omega} dibaryon has been shown to have a width as small as 12-22 keV and should be detectable in {omega}-high-productivity reactions such as at RHIC, COMPAS, and the planned JHF and FAIR projects.

Wang, F. [Department of Physics and Center for Theoretical Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing (China); Ping, J.L. [Department of Physics and Center for Theoretical Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing (China); Department of Physics, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing (China); School of Physics and Microelectronics, Shandong University, Jinan (China); Qing, D. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Goldman, T. [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos (United States)

2005-05-01

21

MIDWEST STATES  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These links will help you to learn the Midwest States and their capitals. Follow the links in order to get the most from them. Also the quizzes and games are fun as well. Enjoy, have fun, and learn those capitals! Welcome to the Midwest States links page. Follow the links in order, and the suggestions as well to get the most from these sites. Remember to avoid the ads on the pages, stick to the content. This first link has two parts. Part one consist of flash cards. Start with BOTH ...

Amsden

2013-01-22

22

Workfare States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book discusses the evolution of workfare policies in the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom. Chapter 1 defines the term "workfare" and examines the concepts of transnationalizing workfare and workfarist labor regulation. Chapter 2 establishes workfare's theoretical context and explores the relationship between welfare arrangements

Peck, Jamie

23

State Aid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report, published by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), will most likely be used by financial aid professionals and researchers. The report, offered in .pdf format, is a statistical analysis of the differences among students attending institutions in states that provide different levels of financial aid.

24

State Treasure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When a music teacher is named Teacher of the Year for an entire state, one just know a special story awaits. The narrative of Heidi Welch, director of music at Hillsboro-Deering High School in New Hampshire, does not disappoint. Welch, who grew up in abject poverty and was often homeless, developed her love of music through memorizing and singing

Olson, Cathy Applefeld

2013-01-01

25

Southeastern states  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total exploratory drilling in Mississippi, Alabama, Florida, and Georgia increased by 9.1% from 1979. A total of 373 tests were drilled, compared to 342 in 1979, but new field discoveries decreased 31.8%, from 44 to 30. The new field success rate was 8.7% compared to 14.2% in 1979. Mississippi was the most active state, with 286 exploratory tests and 22

1981-01-01

26

State Names  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this data analysis lesson students explore various representations, including bar graphs, steam-and-leaf plots, and box-and-whisker plots, to analyze the frequency of letters in the names of the 50 states. Students are encouraged to use a systematic approach to collect their data and are shown various tools to help them gather and display it. The lesson includes a student worksheet (PDF), links to a Decrypting Text website, Bar Grapher tool, and Box Plotter tool, and suggested questions, extension, and assessment ideas.

Zordak, Samuel E.

2014-01-01

27

State of the States, 2012: Arts Education State Policy Summary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "State of the States 2012" summarizes state policies for arts education identified in statute or code for all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Information is based primarily on results from the AEP Arts Education State Policy Survey conducted in 2010-11, and updated in April 2012.

Arts Education Partnership (NJ1), 2012

2012-01-01

28

State Correctional Education Programs. State Policy Update.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Secure state correctional facilities currently house more than 1.8 million adults, and nearly 4.4 million adults fall under state-administered community corrections. A state's approach to corrections and the communication between the state correctional components can have a large impact on the state's correctional education program. Decentralized

Tolbert, Michelle

29

The State of State Standards, 2006  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two-thirds of schoolchildren in America attend class in states with mediocre (or worse) expectations for what their students should learn. That's just one of the findings of Fordham's The State of State Standards 2006, which evaluates state academic standards. The average state grade is a "C-minus"--the same as six years earlier, even though most

Finn, Chester E., Jr.; Julian, Liam; Petrilli, Michael J.

2006-01-01

30

Continuum Bound States as surface states  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss the relation between continuum bound states (CBS) localized on a defect, and surface states of a finite periodic system. We use the transfer matrix method to model an experiment of Capasso, and find all continuum bound and anti-bound states. We compute the rate for intra-subband transitions from the ground state to the CBS and derive a sum rule.

D. W. L. Sprung; P. Jagiello; J. D. Sigetich; J. Martorell

2001-01-01

31

The 50 States  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This unit we will be learning the 50 states and their capitals. How many states do we have in the United States? They all have capitals too?! Well, buckle your seat belts and lets go! Learning the 50 States and their capitals 50 States Songl State capitals song This is a blank map of the United ...

Thomas, Ms.

2008-11-19

32

Qutrit magic state distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magic state distillation (MSD) is a purification protocol that plays an important role in fault-tolerant quantum computation. Repeated iteration of the steps of an MSD protocol generates pure single non-stabilizer states, or magic states, from multiple copies of a mixed resource state using stabilizer operations only. Thus mixed resource states promote the stabilizer operations to full universality. MSD was introduced

Hussain Anwar; Earl T Campbell; Dan E Browne

2012-01-01

33

State Highway Safety Laws  

MedlinePLUS

State Highway Safety Laws & Funding State Laws Each state and U.S. territory has enacted laws governing various driver behaviors, ... page contains charts for a specific type of highway safety law, listing the provisions for all U.S. ...

34

Stats of the States  

MedlinePLUS

... rates for fatal drug poisonings. Death Rates from Firearm Injuries: United States, 2010 [PDF - 113 KB] - The latest state-based age-adjusted death rates for firearm-related fatalities. Death Rates from Homicide: United States, ...

35

Practice States and Capitals!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This year we are learning the states and capitals of the United States. The best way to learn them is to practice, practice, practice! Use the following links to review and practice the states and capitals of the United States. Although you may prefer one website over another, try them all to see what they have to offer and to test your knowledge. Enjoy! Geospy USA State Capitals Quiz Sheppard Software States and Capitals Practice ...

Hoffman, Mr.

2007-09-06

36

State Endangered Species Acts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of state governments in protecting not just endangered species but all species can be summed up with one fact: state governments traditionally have been the chief stewards of wildlife within their borders. The states therefore serve a vital role in protecting and conserving their own plants, animals, and habitats. Yet while states historically were given the role of

Snape William J. III

2010-01-01

37

State Appropriations: Drought Warning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After two decades of increase, state funding for higher education is drying up because of inflation and declining state revenues due to recession. States need to reemphasize the importance of higher education. Political action may be the way to reverse the downward trend in state financing of higher education. (MLW)

Ream, James A.

1981-01-01

38

The Pennsylvania State University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Founded in 1855 as the Farmer's High School, the Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) began as a small college in Centre County providing agricultural education to young men from regional farm families. Penn State became a land-grant university in 1863 following passage of the Morrill Act. Today, Penn State enrolls more than 83,000 students

Burlingame, Philip J.; Dowhower, Andrea L.

2009-01-01

39

Acid Rain: Its State by State Impacts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report, which was released by the National Wildlife Federation in April of 1984, documents the impacts of acid rain on 21 non-New England states. Each state analysis includes information on the sources of acid rain, the acidity of monitored rainfall,...

1984-01-01

40

The State of State Science Standards, 2005  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Until now, the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) has focused everyone's attention on reading and math--and on whether schools are making "adequate yearly progress" in those two core subjects. Although some states incorporate additional subjects into their own accountability systems, reading and math have dominated most discussions of state

Gross, Paul R.

2005-01-01

41

State Government Tax Collections Data by State  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Census Bureau has released new datasets. State Tax Collection data contains "information on tax revenues of the 50 States and District of Columbia" for the period 1992 to 1996. Datasets can be downloaded in either ASCII or spreadsheet (.wk1) format. Technical information about the datasets is also available online. Note that data coverage may vary by format.

42

State Electricity Profiles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An update to the 1996 State Electricity Profiles, this report from the Energy Information Administration (EIA) is "designed to provide basic information about the electricity industry on a State-by-State basis by profiling each State and the District of Columbia with a description of its electricity industry through graphics, and tables." The data for ten states has been changed, with future updates due in the coming weeks.

43

Nonclassical polarization states  

SciTech Connect

We study nonclassical polarization states characterized by polarization distributions taking negative values. We consider two different families of polarization distributions that include polarization analogs of the Wigner function. We apply different measures of nonclassical behavior such as the nonclassical depth and the distance of the polarization distribution to its modulus. This approach is applied to relevant quantum field states such as one-photon states, SU(2) coherent states, quadrature coherent states, and twin number states. We examine observables allowing the detection of the negativity of the polarization distributions.

Luis, Alfredo [Departamento de Optica, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

2006-06-15

44

State-Chart Autocoder  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer program translates Unified Modeling Language (UML) representations of state charts into source code in the C, C++, and Python computing languages. ( State charts signifies graphical descriptions of states and state transitions of a spacecraft or other complex system.) The UML representations constituting the input to this program are generated by using a UML-compliant graphical design program to draw the state charts. The generated source code is consistent with the "quantum programming" approach, which is so named because it involves discrete states and state transitions that have features in common with states and state transitions in quantum mechanics. Quantum programming enables efficient implementation of state charts, suitable for real-time embedded flight software. In addition to source code, the autocoder program generates a graphical-user-interface (GUI) program that, in turn, generates a display of state transitions in response to events triggered by the user. The GUI program is wrapped around, and can be used to exercise the state-chart behavior of, the generated source code. Once the expected state-chart behavior is confirmed, the generated source code can be augmented with a software interface to the rest of the software with which the source code is required to interact.

Clark, Kenneth; Watney, Garth; Murray, Alexander; Benowitz, Edward

2007-01-01

45

State Analysis Database Tool  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The State Analysis Database Tool software establishes a productive environment for collaboration among software and system engineers engaged in the development of complex interacting systems. The tool embodies State Analysis, a model-based system engineering methodology founded on a state-based control architecture (see figure). A state represents a momentary condition of an evolving system, and a model may describe how a state evolves and is affected by other states. The State Analysis methodology is a process for capturing system and software requirements in the form of explicit models and states, and defining goal-based operational plans consistent with the models. Requirements, models, and operational concerns have traditionally been documented in a variety of system engineering artifacts that address different aspects of a mission s lifecycle. In State Analysis, requirements, models, and operations information are State Analysis artifacts that are consistent and stored in a State Analysis Database. The tool includes a back-end database, a multi-platform front-end client, and Web-based administrative functions. The tool is structured to prompt an engineer to follow the State Analysis methodology, to encourage state discovery and model description, and to make software requirements and operations plans consistent with model descriptions.

Rasmussen, Robert; Bennett, Matthew

2006-01-01

46

The Welfare State vs. the Redistributive State.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While the principles of progressive taxation and the welfare state have come to be almost universally accepted, it would be a serious error to infer that American policy has ever embraced the idea of income redistribution. (Author)

Plattner, Marc F.

1979-01-01

47

State Innovations in Health.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Resulting from a seminar sponsored in 1978 by the National Conference of State Legislatures, these papers demonstrate that state and provincial governments can play crucial roles in making the heath care system more accessible and more cost effective. To ...

R. Merritt S. Mertes

1980-01-01

48

State Workers' Compensation Laws.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is comprised of tables of benefits, on a state by state basis, as required by law including: Type of Law and Insurance Requirements for Private Employment; Numerical Exemptions; Coverage of Agricultural Workers; Jurisdictions in Which Workers' ...

1992-01-01

49

Engaging Future Failing States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 2010 National Security Strategy of the United States identified the global security threat posed by failing states. The USG response for these threats in the past has vacillated between diplomacy and military intervention, with less than optimum resul...

R. A. Stakelum

2011-01-01

50

CVLC: United States Geography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are the major rivers, mountain ranges, and plains of the United States? Follow the directions in each section carefully to fill in and label a blank map of the United States. You will use only one map. Or in other words complete each section on the same map. 1. Mountain Ranges of the United States With ...

Cade

2008-09-04

51

Liminal States in Designing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers a sketch of a concept called the "liminal state" that may represent a central element of designing and a condition that facilitates the best design products and processes. A definition of "liminal state," some contexts in which it may occur, and some areas where liminal states might improve performance are given. (Contains 34 references.)

Rowland, Gordon; Wilson, Glenn

1994-01-01

52

States of Matter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are the states of matter and how are they alike or different? We will be learning about the different states of matter , solids, liquids, and gases . As you read and watch the videos, make sure to fill out your Venn diagram worksheet. To introduce you to the states of matter, watch the Solid Liquid Gas Video. Next, ...

Laterrade, Ms.

2010-03-25

53

State Energy Consumption Estimates  

EIA Publications

This is one of the three reports of the State Energy Data System (SEDS). SEDS is the U.S. Energy Information Administration's (EIA) source for comprehensive state-level estimates for energy production, consumption, prices, and expenditures. The multidimensional completeness of SEDS allows users to make comparisons across states, energy sources, sectors, and over time. Consumption estimates are available from 1960 forward.

2014-06-27

54

Cameron's competition state  

Microsoft Academic Search

The arguments in this article proceed from the grounded empirical observation that over the past three decades the character of the British State has transformed from an industrial welfare state into a competition state. Hence, it is argued that successive governments, regardless of their traditional ideological complexion, have increasingly assumed the characteristics of what Michael Oakeshott would term an enterprise

Mark Evans

2010-01-01

55

Model State Efforts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Models of state involvement in training child care providers are briefly discussed and the employers' role in training is explored. Six criteria for states that are taken as models are identified, and four are described. Various state activities are described for each criterion. It is noted that little is known about employer and other private

Morgan, Gwen

56

Introduction to State Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to provide an overview of programs offered by state humanities councils, this publication is divided into seven sections. An introduction defines the humanities and outlines the Division of State Programs within the National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH). A section entitled "The State Humanities Councils" presents the history,

National Endowment for the Humanities (NFAH), Washington, DC.

57

State Standards and Evolution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Throughout the United States various individuals and groups have tried to subvert science education by removing or weakening the treatment of evolution in state science-education standards. Most states' science-education standards support the teaching of evolution, but many in the general public and some policymakers want science classrooms to

Moore, Randy

2004-01-01

58

One State, Two State, Red State, Blue State: Education Funding Accounts for Outcome Differences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using publically available data, states coded as "blue" based upon results from the 2004 presidential election were significantly higher in education funding than were states coded as "red." Students in blue states scored significantly higher on outcome measures of math and reading in grades four and eight in 2004 and 2007 than did students in red

Meece, Darrell

2008-01-01

59

State Technologies Advancement Collaborative  

SciTech Connect

The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Association of State Energy Officials (NASEO), and Association of State Energy Research and Technology Transfer Institutions (ASERTTI) signed an intergovernmental agreement on November 14, 2002, that allowed states and territories and the Federal Government to better collaborate on energy research, development, demonstration and deployment (RDD&D) projects. The agreement established the State Technologies Advancement Collaborative (STAC) which allowed the states and DOE to move RDD&D forward using an innovative competitive project selection and funding process. A cooperative agreement between DOE and NASEO served as the contracting instrument for this innovative federal-state partnership obligating funds from DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and Office of Fossil Energy to plan, fund, and implement RDD&D projects that were consistent with the common priorities of the states and DOE. DOE's Golden Field Office provided Federal oversight and guidance for the STAC cooperative agreement. The STAC program was built on the foundation of prior Federal-State efforts to collaborate on and engage in joint planning for RDD&D. Although STAC builds on existing, successful programs, it is important to note that it was not intended to replace other successful joint DOE/State initiatives such as the State Energy Program or EERE Special Projects. Overall the STAC process was used to fund, through three competitive solicitations, 35 successful multi-state research, development, deployment, and demonstration projects with an overall average non-federal cost share of 43%. Twenty-two states were awarded at least one prime contract, and organizations in all 50 states and some territories were involved as subcontractors in at least one STAC project. Projects were funded in seven program areas: (1) Building Technologies, (2) Industrial Technologies, (3) Transportation Technologies, (4) Distributed Energy Resources, (5) Hydrogen Technology Learning Centers, (6) Fossil Energy, and (7) Rebuild America.

David S. Terry

2012-01-30

60

The State of State Science Standards, 2012  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report examines K-12 science standards for fifty states and the District of Columbia, as well as the science assessment framework of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). The reviewers' aim is to evaluate them for their intrinsic clarity, completeness, and scientific correctness. Their earlier evaluations, as well as those

Lerner, Lawrence S.; Goodenough, Ursula; Lynch, John; Schwartz, Martha; Schwartz, Richard

2012-01-01

61

Gallup Interactives: State of the States  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tool allows the user to view indicators in a map format by state and year.  The indicators that are displayed on the map are taken from Gallup Polls including Wellbeing, Economy, Politics, and Religion.  Data can be exported. 

Gallup

62

The State of State MATH Standards, 2005  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two decades after the United States was diagnosed as "a nation at risk," academic standards for our primary and secondary schools are more important than ever?and their quality matters enormously. In 1983, as nearly every American knows, the National Commission on Excellence in Education declared that "The educational foundations of our society

Klein, David; Braams, Bastiaan J.; Parker,Thomas; Quirk, William; Schmid, Wilfried; Wilson, W. Stephen

2005-01-01

63

Maryland State Archives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"The Maryland State Archives, through a grant from the Information Technology Fund of the state of Maryland, is working to provide on-line access to over one million historical documents that form the constitutional, legal, legislative, and administrative basis of Maryland government." Included here are documents from the following sources: legislative records, state council, judicial records, executive records, council of safety, land records, laws, codes, compilations, military records, constitutional conventions, public officials, and early state records. Recent editions to the electronic archive include the Proceedings and Acts of the 1796 General Assembly and Proceedings and Debates of the 1850, 1864, and 1967 State Constitutional Conventions. The archives are searchable as a whole or by selected section with a number of different parameter options available. Scholars doing research into the state of Maryland or the history of the early American Republic's governance will want to avail themselves of this site.

64

State Energy Data System  

EIA Publications

The State Energy Data System (SEDS) is the U.S. Energy Information Administration's (EIA) source for comprehensive state energy statistics. Included are estimates of energy production, consumption, prices, and expenditures broken down by energy source and sector. Production and consumption estimates begin with the year 1960 while price and expenditure estimates begin with 1970.The multidimensional completeness of SEDS allows users to make comparisons across states, energy sources, sectors, and over time.

2013-06-28

65

Relativistic state reduction model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to address the measurement problem of quantum theory we make the assumption that quantum state reduction should be regarded as a genuine physical process deserving of a dynamical description. Generalizing the nonrelativistic spontaneous localization models of Ghirardi, Rimini, Weber, and Pearle, a relativistic state reduction mechanism is proposed. The mechanism involves nonlinear stochastic modifications to the standard description of unitary state evolution and the introduction of a mediating field to facilitate smearing of quantum field interactions.

Bedingham, Daniel

2011-07-01

66

State Association Market  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigated relationships between association characteristics-such as the association type, age, size, and budget-and convention site selection factors. The data were collected through a fax survey with 673 state-wide associations in 6 states. There were 252 usable questionnaires, which represented a 37% response rate. State associations surveyed appeared to be homogeneous among association types when selecting their convention site.

Jeong-Ja Choi; Carl A. Boger Jr

2002-01-01

67

New squeezed landau states  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We introduce a new set of squeezed states through the coupled two-mode squeezed operator. It is shown that their behavior is simpler than the correlated coherent states introduced by Dodonov, Kurmyshev, and Man'ko in order to quantum mechanically describe the Landau system, i.e., a planar charged particle in a uniform magnetic field. We compare results for both sets of squeezed states.

Aragone, C.

1993-01-01

68

The Glassy State  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physical state of materials is often defined by their thermodynamic properties and equilibrium. Simple one-component systems\\u000a may exist as crystalline solids, liquids or gases, and these equilibrium states are controlled by pressure and temperature.\\u000a In most food and other biological systems, water content is high and the physical state of water often defines whether the\\u000a systems are frozen or

Yrj H. Roos

69

United States Travel Challenge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Find out everything you might need (or want) to know about the states in the U.S. Students, You have been assigned two states to research as part of our United States history studies this year. Your task is to create a brochure or video that will entice people to come to your school. We will be presenting these to another grade level. Those students ...

Glover, Mrs.

2008-10-01

70

State Standards and Evolution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Most states' science-education standards support the teaching of evolution, but many in the general public and some policymakers want science classrooms to include creationism. As a result of this influence, are educators teaching creationism even though state standards support the teaching of evolution? To answer this question, the author examined evolution education in Minnesota to determine if teachers emphasize evolution in their biology classes as mandated by Minnesota's state educational standards.

Moore, Randy

2004-07-01

71

Rotating quantum states  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We revisit the definition of rotating thermal states for scalar and fermion fields in unbounded Minkowski space-time. For scalar fields such states are ill-defined everywhere, but for fermion fields an appropriate definition of the vacuum gives thermal states regular inside the speed-of-light surface. For a massless fermion field, we derive analytic expressions for the thermal expectation values of the fermion current and stress-energy tensor. These expressions may provide qualitative insights into the behaviour of thermal rotating states on more complex space-time geometries.

Ambru?, Victor E.; Winstanley, Elizabeth

2014-06-01

72

State Clean Energy Policies Analysis (SCEPA): State Tax Incentives.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As a policy tool, state tax incentives can be structured to help states meet clean energy goals. Policymakers often use state tax incentives in concert with state and federal policies to support renewable energy deployment or reduce market barriers. This ...

E. Doris E. Lantz

2009-01-01

73

Phase properties of hypergeometric states and negative hypergeometric states  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that the three quantum states (Plya states, the generalized non-classical states related to Hahn polynomials and negative hypergeometric states) introduced recently as intermediate states which interpolate between the binomial states and negative binomial states are essentially identical. By using the Hermitian-phase-operator formalism, the phase properties of the hypergeometric states and negative hypergeometric states are studied in detail. We find that the phase probability distribution exhibits one peak for the hypergeometric states and multiple peaks for the negative hypergeometric states.

Wang, Xiao-Guang

2000-02-01

74

Scattering states and bound states in ??(?) 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

By analyzing the Bethe-Salpeter equation for even ??(?)2 models we show that for weak coupling the mass spectrum is discrete and of finite multiplicity below 2m. Moreover on even states of energy less than 4(m??) we show that theS matrix is unitary. Herem is the physical mass and ?=?(?)?0 as ??0. Our results rely essentially only on a simple assumption

Thomas Spencer; Francesco Zirilli

1976-01-01

75

An Unsteady State  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Additional state laws and federal legislation will probably be enacted to authorize collective bargaining in the public sector. The effect of that legislation will be to facilitate the unionization of a majority of the public two-year colleges throughout the fifty states. (Author/NHM)

Sumner, Patsy R.

1975-01-01

76

The State Regulatory Picture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A national survey of 31 college business officers at state and land-grant colleges and universities finds that, although several states have given greater management flexibility to colleges and universities, many campuses operate in a highly regulated mode, with layers of external, and frequently internal, rules. Most difficult business officers

Albright, Brenda N.

1998-01-01

77

? bound states in nuclei  

Microsoft Academic Search

The energies and widths of bound states of the ? meson in different nuclei are obtained using the results for its selfenergy in a nuclear medium, which is evaluated in a selfconsistent manner using techniques of unitarized chiral perturbation theory. We find bound states in all studied nuclei (from 12C on) and the half widths obtained are larger than the

C Garc??a-Recio; T. Inoue; J. Nieves; E. Oset

2002-01-01

78

Continuum bound states  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compare three procedures for constructing bound states whose energies are embedded in the continuous part of the energy spectrum. We use methods based on the Gel'fand-Levitan and Marchenko equations to generate new potentials which look superficially similar to potentials supporting continuum bound states, but which instead produce isolated energies embedded in the continuum for which no physically acceptable wave

T. A. Weber; D. L. Pursey

1994-01-01

79

States of Matter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students act as chemical engineers and use LEGO® MINDSTORMS® NXT robotics to record temperatures and learn about the three states of matter. Properties of matter can be measured in various ways, including volume, mass, density and temperature. Students measure the temperature of water in its solid state (ice) as it is melted and then evaporated.

Applying Mechatronics to Promote Science (AMPS) Program GK-12,

80

The state of offshore  

SciTech Connect

In this book, the author explains the factors behind state involvement in offshore petroleum activities. From his analysis of government workings in Great Britain and Norway, he concludes that state intervention is determined by complex interactions among government officials, economic interests, and environmental pressures.

Nelson, B.F.

1991-01-01

81

Education and Fragile States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Within the fragile states agendas and policies of development agencies and organisations education is of concern; education is a social service sector in which the impacts of state fragility are significant, in terms of access and quality of provision for children, working conditions and support for teachers, good governance and legitimacy for the

Kirk, Jackie

2007-01-01

82

Church and State.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Church and state is discussed in four articles: "Recent Threats to Religious Liberty" (Dean M. Kelley, pp.16-22); "Municipal Church-State Litigation and the Issue of Standing" (Kenneth S. Saladin, pp. 23-25); "Prayer in Public Schools: The Court's Decisions" (Leo Pfeffer, pp. 26-29); and "Religion and Public Education: The American Context" (Peggy

National Forum: Phi Kappa Phi Journal, 1988

1988-01-01

83

Solid State Division  

SciTech Connect

This report contains brief discussions on work done in the Solid State Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The topics covered are: Theoretical Solid State Physics; Neutron scattering; Physical properties of materials; The synthesis and characterization of materials; Ion beam and laser processing; and Structure of solids and surfaces. (LSP)

Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M. (eds.)

1989-08-01

84

State alternative route designations  

SciTech Connect

Pursuant to the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA), the Department of Transportation (DOT) has promulgated a comprehensive set of regulations regarding the highway transportation of high-level radioactive materials. These regulations, under HM-164 and HM-164A, establish interstate highways as the preferred routes for the transportation of radioactive materials within and through the states. The regulations also provide a methodology by which a state may select alternative routes. First,the state must establish a ``state routing agency,`` defined as an entity authorized to use the state legal process to impose routing requirements on carriers of radioactive material (49 CFR 171.8). Once identified, the state routing agency must select routes in accordance with Large Quantity Shipments of Radioactive Materials or an equivalent routing analysis. Adjoining states and localities should be consulted on the impact of proposed alternative routes as a prerequisite of final route selection. Lastly, the states must provide written notice of DOT of any alternative route designation before the routes are deemed effective.

Not Available

1989-07-01

85

States of Matter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is a lab investigation where students observe the four states of matter. At the end of the investigation students should be able to know that the differences among the physical states depend on the distance between the atoms or molecules and on the rate of movement of the atoms or molecules. And, that pressure and temperature control these two factors.

86

State summaries: California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

According to the United States Geological Survey (USGS), California ranked second behind Arizona among the states in nonfuel mineral production during 2005. It accounted for 7% of the US's total. The market value of mineral production for California amounted to $3.7 billion. During the year, California produced 30 varieties of industrial minerals. The nonfuel minerals came from 820 active mines.

Kohler, S.

2006-01-01

87

Tennessee State Parks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

People might know Tennessee for its fabulous Great Smoky Mountains, but have you ever heard of the Cedars of Lebanon or Fall Creek Falls? Oh yes, those two gems are just a small part of the Tennessee State Park system. After looking at some of the beautiful images on the Tennessee State Parks homepage, visitors can explore the Popular Places People Want to Go section to get a taste of the diverse hiking trails, restaurants, camp sites, and other features that are contained throughout the park system. Visitors can also look over over a dozen topical areas, including What to do?, Park Information, and Resource Management. Policy enthusiasts will appreciate the "Estimated Economic Impacts of Tennessee State Parks" report, that is also featured on the homepage, and travelers will love the "Upcoming Events at Tennessee State Parks" area, as it provides a taste of what they might expect on a visit to the Volunteer State.

88

State Licensing and Regulation Information  

MedlinePLUS

... Licensing and Regulation Information State Licensing and Regulation Information States are contacted at least twice per year to verify the accuracy of regulatory information. Click on state below to view state information. ...

89

The Triplet State  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface; List of participants; Part I. Spin-orbit Coupling and Intersystem Crossing: 1. Spin-orbit interactions in organic molecules; 2. Singlet-triplet transitions in organic molecules; 3. Triplet decay and intersystem crossing in aromatic hydrocarbons; 4. Statistical aspects of resonance energy transfer; Discussion; Part II. Magnetic Resonance and Magnetic Interactions: 5. Magnetic resonance spectra of organic molecules in triplet states in single crystals; 6. Magnetic interactions related to phosphorescence; 7. ESR investigations of naphthalene-d8:Naphthalene-h8 mixed crystals; 8. Biradicals and polyradicals in the nitroxide series; 9. Changes induced in the phosphorescent radiation of aromatic molecules by paramagnetic resonance in their metastable triplet states; 10. Paramagnetic resonance of the triplet state of tetramethylpyrazine; 11. On magnetic dipole contributions to the intrinsic S0 = T1 transition in simple aromatics; Discussion; Part III. Photochemistry: 12. The kinetics of energy transfer from the triplet state in rigid solutions; 13. Triplet states in gas-phase photochemistry; 14. Biphotonic photochemistry, involving the triplet state: polarisation of the effective T-T transition and solvent effects; 15. Direct and sensitised photo-oxidation of aromatic hydrocarbons in boric acid glass; Discussion; Part IV. Radiationless Transitions: 16. Radiationless transitions in gaseous benzene; 17. Low-lying excited triplet states and intersystem crossing in aromatic hydrocarbons; 18. De-excitation rates of triplet states in condensed media; 19. Lifetimes of the triplet state of aromatic hydrocarbons in the vapour phase; Discussion; Part V. Triplet Excitons: 20. Some comments on the properties of triplet excitons in molecular crystals; 21. Exact treatment of coherent and incoherent triplet exciton migration; 22. Magnetic susceptibility of a system of triplet excitons: Wrster's Blue Perchlorate; 23. A study of triplet excitons in anthracene crystals under laser excitation; 24. The electronic states in crystaline anthracene; Discussion; Part VI. Delayed Fluorescent and Phosphorescence: 25. Delayed fluorescence of solutions; 26. The kinetics of the excited states of anthracene and phenanthrene vapor; 27. Optical investigations of the triplet states of naphthalene in different crystalline environments; 28. Excitation of the triplet states of organic molecules; 29. The delayed luminescence and triplet quantum yields of pyrene solutions; 30. Triplet state studies of some polyphenyls in rigid glasses; 31. Decay time of delayed fluorescence of anthracene as a function of temperature (2-30K); 32. Energy transfer between benzene and biacetyl and the lifetime of triplet benzene in the gas phase; 33. Charge transfer triplet state of molecular complexes. 34. Flash-photolytic detection of triplet acridine formed by energy transfer from biacetyl; 35. Extinction coefficients of triplet-triplet transitions between 3000 and 8800 A in anthracene; 36. Anthracene triplet-triplet annihilation rate constant; Discussion; Part VII. Triplet State Related to Biology: 37. ESR and optical studies of some triplet states of biological interest; 38. The triplet state of DNA; 39. Some characteristics of the triplet states of the nucleic bases; Discussion; Indexes.

Zahlan, A. B.

2010-01-01

90

Bound entangled Gaussian states.  

PubMed

We discuss the entanglement properties of bipartite states with Gaussian Wigner functions. For the separability, and the positivity of the partial transpose, we establish explicit necessary and sufficient criteria in terms of the covariance matrix of the state. It is shown that, for systems composed of a single oscillator for Alice and an arbitrary number for Bob, positivity of the partial transpose implies separability. However, this implication fails with two oscillators on each side, as we show by constructing a five parameter family of bound entangled Gaussian states. PMID:11328047

Werner, R F; Wolf, M M

2001-04-16

91

State of the Beach  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This annual Surfrider Foundation report surveys the state of the beaches in coastal and Great Lakes states that are home to Foundation chapters. Each state is rated based on the availability of information and status of eight indicators, including beach access, Website access, surf zone water quality, and beach erosion, among others. The report is written from the perspective of a "concerned local citizen" and aimed at "the people who use and care most about this precious resource." The online report contains six sections, including an executive summary, an explanation of the indicators, conclusions, and recommendations.

2000-01-01

92

State Data (Illuminations)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson plan students use various types of visual representation to compare data about the number of letters in the name of each state; students create bar graphs from which they find the Mean, Median, Mode, and Range of their data set (10 states only). These data landmarks and visual representations are used to compare their data with their classmates. The lesson plan includes a grid paper document for creating the bar graph and a link to an applet for a State Data Map (cataloged separately).

Burton, Grace M.

2012-01-01

93

State Data Map  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This application uses percentages to shade in a map of the United States. It displays ten different data sets and their proportional relationships across the nation and offers an option to generate random numbers. Each state is represented by its number value in the data set and then shaded based on its percentage of the greatest value. A box and whisker plot is provided as well as mean, median, lower quartile, and upper quartile. This application is used in a related resource that is cataloged separately, "State Data (Illuminations)".

2012-01-01

94

Tri-State Buffer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive presentation, created by Terry Bartelt and hosted by the Electromechanical Digital Library, discusses the tri-state buffer used in devices employing digital circuitry. A tri-state buffer is "one type of device that is used in digital circuits receiving two logic states but producing three different types of output signals." The presentation is filled with useful flash animations presenting the buffer's use. Furthermore, a series of slides presents the application of this device in different situations. Once complete, a short four-question quiz is provided to test the full understanding of the different concepts.

Bartelt, Terry L.

2009-04-20

95

Coma / Vegetative State  

MedlinePLUS

... the Vegetative and Minimally Conscious States After Severe Brain Injury Brain Trauma, Concussion, and Coma What Is the ... for Families with a Loved One with Severe Brain Injury Why Predicting Outcomes After Traumatic Brain Injury Can ...

96

United States Earthquakes, 1978.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This publication describes all earthquakes that were reported felt in the United States and nearby territories in 1978. The publication is composed of four major chapters: 'Earthquake Descriptions,' which includes a summary of macroseismic data reported f...

C. W. Stover C. A. Hake

1980-01-01

97

United States Earthquakes, 1979.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This publication describes all earthquakes that were reported felt in the United States and nearby territories in 1979. The publication is composed of four major chapters: 'Earthquake Descriptions,' which includes a summary of macroseismic data reported f...

C. W. Stover C. A. von Hake

1981-01-01

98

United States Earthquakes, 1977.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This publication describes all earthquakes that were reported felt in the United States and nearby territories in 1977. The publication is composed of three major chapters: 'Earthquake Descriptions,' which includes a chronological list of earthquakes by s...

J. L. Coffman C. W. Stover

1979-01-01

99

State Health Plan 1975.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 1975 revision of the Florida State Health Plan is presented, representing an edited and reorganized version of the original Florida Comprehensive Health Plan, published in April of 1974. Following an introductory discussion of the health planning proc...

J. M. Wagner J. N. Conger

1975-01-01

100

Aquaculture in Washington State,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The simply written and illustrated brochure provides an overview of culture methods used in Washington State by commercial growers of salmon and trout, oysters, clams, mussels, abalone, and nori (an edible seaweed). It also lists associations and agencies...

A. H. Bill T. Y. Nosho

1988-01-01

101

Solid State Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report covers in detail the research work of the Solid State Division at Lincoln Laboratory for the period 1 February through 30 April 1993. The topics covered are Electrooptical Devices, Quantum Electronics, Materials Research, Submicrometer Technol...

A. L. McWhorter

1993-01-01

102

STATE System Interactive Maps  

MedlinePLUS

... as of December 31, 2012) Preemption of Local Tobacco Control OrdinancesAdvertising, Smoke-free Indoor Air, or Youth ... as of December 31, 2012) Related Archived Links ? Tobacco Control State Highlights 2010 2006 Data Highlights ? Persons with ...

103

Cluster State Quantum Computation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the final report for the AFRL/RI in-house project Cluster State Quantum Computation. Under this project investigations were conducted which included: (i) the development and characterization of a new multipli- entangled photon source that increase...

G. Lott M. Fanto P. Alsing

2014-01-01

104

The Organic Solid State.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews interesting and useful electrical, magnetic, and optical properties of the organic solid state. Offers speculation as to areas of fruitful research. Discusses organic superconductors, conducting organic polymers, organic metals, and traces recent history of creation of organic metals. (JM)

Cowan, Dwaine O.; Wlygul, Frank M.

1986-01-01

105

Negative-ion states  

SciTech Connect

In this brief review, we discuss some of the properties of atomic and molecular negative ions and their excited states. Experiments involving photon reactions with negative ions and polar dissociation are summarized. 116 references, 14 figures.

Compton, R.N.

1982-01-01

106

States as Morphisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using elementary categorical methods, we survey recent results concerning D-posets (equivalently effect algebras) of fuzzy sets and the corresponding category ID in which states are morphisms. First, we analyze the canonical structures carried by the unit interval I = [0,1] as the range of states and the impact of states as morphisms on the probability domains. Second, we analyze categories of various quantum and fuzzy structures and their relationships. Third, we describe some basic properties of ID and show that traditional probability domains such as fields of sets and bold algebras can be viewed as full subcategories of ID and probability measures on fields of sets and states on bold algebras become morphisms. Fourth, we discuss the categorical aspects of the transition from classical to fuzzy probability theory. We conclude with some remarks about generalized probability theory based on ID.

Chovanec, Ferdinand; Fri?, Roman

2010-12-01

107

Giardiasis in Washington State.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective was to determine the potential for transmission of giardiasis through approved drinking water supplies in Washington State. The project consisted of five studies: the first was conducted during trapping seasons (1976-1979) and resulted in ex...

F. Frost L. Harter B. Plan K. Fukutaki B. Holman

1982-01-01

108

Model State Idling Law.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In May, 2004, at the National Idle Reduction Planning Conference in Albany, New York, representatives from the trucking industry identified the inconsistent pattern and design of state and local vehicle idle restriction laws as a barrier to greater implem...

2006-01-01

109

State Air Quality Standards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents in tabular form the air quality standards for sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, photochemicals, non-methane hydrocarbons and particulates for each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. (CS)

Pollution Engineering, 1978

1978-01-01

110

Remarriages: United States, 1969.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Analysis of national trends in remarriage including data by previous marital status and color, variation by State, remarriage rates by age and sex, selection by previous marital status, and selected characteristics of remarrying persons in 1969.

K. M. Williams R. P. Kuhn

1973-01-01

111

State of mind.  

PubMed

The State of Mind programme was set up in 2011 to improve the mental health and wellbeing of rugby league players and their communities after the suicide of Wigan and England player Terry Newton. PMID:24916248

Daly, Shelagh

2014-06-11

112

United States Earthquakes, 1976.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

All earthquakes that occurred in the United States and nearby territories in 1976 are described. The purpose is to provide a continuous history of U.S. earthquakes for studying seismic risk, evaluating nuclear powerplant sites, designing earthquake-resist...

J. L. Coffman C. W. Stover

1978-01-01

113

Solid state switch  

DOEpatents

A solid state switch, with reverse conducting thyristors, is designed to operate at 20 kV hold-off voltage, 1500 A peak, 1.0 .mu.s pulsewidth, and 4500 pps, to replace thyratrons. The solid state switch is more reliable, more economical, and more easily repaired. The switch includes a stack of circuit card assemblies, a magnetic assist and a trigger chassis. Each circuit card assembly contains a reverse conducting thyristor, a resistor capacitor network, and triggering circuitry.

Merritt, Bernard T. (Livermore, CA); Dreifuerst, Gary R. (Livermore, CA)

1994-01-01

114

State Environmental Resource Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides information on Wisconsin environmental policies and assembles information and tools to help legislators make decisions on environmental issues. The State Environmental Resource Center identifies effective state policies as well as exposing anti-environmental legislative trends. Included in this site are sample bills, press clips, fact sheets, research, and other background information on a large assortment of environmental issues such as clean energy, urban issues, saving wildlands, safe air and water, children's health, land and water use, and environmental citizenship.

Wildlife, Defenders O.; The State Environmental Resource Center (SERC)

115

United States Code  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Every six years, the Office of the Law Revision Counsel, US House of Representatives, publishes the United States Code, the "codification of the general and permanent laws of the United States." The first seven titles of the 2000 code have been made available this month at GPO Access. The code can be browsed and searched, and search results include citations plus links to the full text of the legislation.

2001-01-01

116

Solid state research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following aspects of solid state research Solid State Device Research - Heterodyne Radiometry at 28 micrometers; Wideband Integrated-Optics Electrooptic Intensity Modulator for 3.39- micrometers Operation; Quantum Electronics - Transient Carrier Density and Light Output Measurements of Pulsed Diode Lasers; Materials Research Zone-Melting Recrystallization of Si- and Ge-on-Insulator Films, MOSFETs Fabricated Using Self-Aligned Silicide Technology, GaAs Optical MESFET Detectors Fabricated

A. L. McWhorter

1985-01-01

117

Nonlinear Squeezed Vacuum States:  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some of the properties of nonlinear squeezed vacuum states associated with trapped ions are considered, especially the photon number distribution, the phase properties, the Husimi-Kano Q function and the Wigner-Moyal W function of these nonlinear squeezed vacuum states. The structure of these functions is shown to depend on the nonlinearity parameter, its functional dependence and the squeezing parameter. It is shown that increasing the nonlinearity parameter results in the photon number distribution being squeezed independent.

Darwish, M.

118

Iowa State Fair.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of the "Goldfinch" focuses on the Iowa state fair. The magazine begins with a map of the fair as it looks today. The article explains that the first Iowa state fair was held in 1854. After traveling from town to town for several years, the fair settled in the capital city of Des Moines in 1878. Eight years later, in 1886, the first fair

Ohrn, Deborah Gore, Ed.

1994-01-01

119

Generalized supersymetric boundary state  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following our previous paper (hep-th/9909027), we generalize a supersymmetric boundary state so that arbitrary configuration of the gauge field coupled to the boundary of the worldsheet is incorpolated. This generalized boundary state is BRST invariant and satisfies the non-linear boundary conditions with non-constant gauge field strength. This boundary state contains divergence which is identical with the loop divergence in a superstring sigma model. Hence vanishing of the beta function in the superstring sigma model corresponds to a well-defined boundary state with no divergence. The coupling of a single closed superstring massless mode with multiple open string massless modes is encoded in the boundary state, and we confirm that derivative correction to the D-brane action in this sector vanishes up to the first non-trivial order O(alpha'partial2). Combining T-dualities, we incorpolate also general configurations of the scalar fields on the D-brane, and construct boundary states representing branes stuck to another D-brane, with use of BIon configuration.

Hashimoto, Koji

2000-04-01

120

Two-Photon Spin States and Entanglement States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we have given the spin states of two-photon, which are expressed by the quadratic combination of two single-photon spin states, and given all entanglement states of two-photon from the spin states of two-photon. The new expression of two-photon entanglement states should be used in quantum computation and quantum communication.

Liu, Xiao-Jing; Wu, Xiang-Yao; Lu, Jing-Bin; Zhang, Si-Qi; Li, Hong; Ma, Ji; Chen, Wan-Jin; Wang, Guang-Huai; Yuan, Hong-Chun; Li, Heng-Mei; Gao, Hai-Xin; Li, Jing-Wu

2014-05-01

121

Complete Bell state measurement with a solid state device  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solid state device, composed of two photon absorption crystals, rotators, and retarders, is proposed to discriminate all the four Bell states. Crystal symmetry and interference allow the absorption of a particular Bell state. The rotators and the retarders transform the other states to the state that can be detected.

Akihisa Tomita

2001-01-01

122

Intranets and Extranets at State Libraries in the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is an analysis of Intranets and Extranets at selected state libraries in the United States. The paper does not review World Wide Web sites designed for use by the general public; rather, it focuses on Web sites designed and delivered by the state library to a targeted audience, typically state government employees, state library

Bolt, Nancy M.

123

Regions of the United States  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What influences where people live in the United States? Essential Concepts and/or Skills from the IOWA CORE can be found: Link for IOWA CORE What are your guiding questions? Use the following resources to get to know the states in the particular regions of the USA 50 States Practice Regions of the United States Teacherfirst 50 states Map and Facts of the United States United States HIstory Link ...

Evans, Ms.

2011-12-09

124

Maryland State Data Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In 1978, the US Census established a cooperative program with the 50 states to "make census information available locally through a network of State agencies, universities, libraries, and regional and local governments." As part of this effort, the Maryland Department of Planning, in cooperation with the State Library Resource Center (Enoch Pratt) and the University of Maryland's Computer Science Center, has produced an excellent Website posting up-to-date and archival data on the demographics of Maryland. "Sample profiles of 1990 census data, historic trends and forecasts are available here for Maryland, its six planning regions and jurisdictions" with charts highlighting key items from the profiles. Projections from this data include population, race, age, households, labor force, jobs, income, and school enrollment. Recent posts to the Website provide data on socioeconomic profiles of Maryland residents, foreign immigration to Maryland from 1992-1998, household median and mean income estimates, new school enrollment projections, and IRS-monitored state-to-state migration. Documents are posted in HTML, with some also available in .pdf format for printing.

125

State Trees and Arbor Days.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides information on state trees for each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Includes for each state: (1) year in which state tree was chosen; (2) common and scientific names of the tree; (3) arbor day observance; (4) address of state forester; and (5) drawings of the tree, leaf, and fruit or cone. (JN)

Forest Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

126

See Your State From Space!  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Each of the 50 States in the United States is beautiful in its own way. That beauty can be seen from a unique perspective using satellite images taken from high above the Earth. These State images were created from multiple satellite images stitched together into one seamless image for each State. Names of major cities, administrative boundaries, and State flags have been added.

Geological Survey (U.S.)

2008-01-01

127

Quasisteady state interpulse plasmas  

SciTech Connect

The generation of quasisteady state plasmas in the power off phase, by short pulses [pulse duration ({tau}{sub p}){approx}0.5-1.2 {mu}s] of intense (60-100 kW) microwaves in the X band (9.45 GHz) is observed experimentally. The steady state is sustained from a few to tens of microseconds and depends upon the ionization processes in the interpulse phase and the characteristic diffusion length. The results are explained by a model, which considers the electron acceleration effects by the large amplitude of the field, the energy losses, and the characteristic electromagnetic field decay time. The effects of wave frequency, microwave power density, and particle diffusion on the steady state are investigated. A striking difference with conventional afterglows of pulsed discharges is pointed out.

Bhattacharjee, Sudeep; Dey, Indranuj; Sen, Abhijit; Amemiya, Hiroshi [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208016 (India); Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382 428 (India); Graduate School of Chuo University, Bunkyo, Tokyo 112-8551 (Japan)

2007-06-01

128

Vatican City State  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On February 11, 1929 the Vatican City State was inaugurated with the signing of the Lateran Accords. With its motto, "A small territory with a great mission", the State is celebrating its 80th anniversary with a number of celebrations this year. This very fine site brings together a veritable cornucopia of information about the Vatican City State, including information about its governance structure, monuments, and philatelic culture. Visitors can start their journey by looking at webcams that provide a top-notch view of St. Peter's Square and the Governorate Palace. Moving on, visitors can also click on the "History" section to learn about the long history of the Vatican, and how the term has been used over the millennia. Visitors can also listen in to Vatican Radio, and check up on official news releases from the Vatican Information Service.

129

GFP's Mechanical Intermediate States  

PubMed Central

Green fluorescent protein (GFP) mutants have become the most widely used fluorescence markers in the life sciences, and although they are becoming increasingly popular as mechanical force or strain probes, there is little direct information on how their fluorescence changes when mechanically stretched. Here we derive high-resolution structural models of the mechanical intermediate states of stretched GFP using steered molecular dynamics (SMD) simulations. These structures were used to produce mutants of EGFP and EYFP that mimic GFP's different mechanical intermediates. A spectroscopic analysis revealed that a population of EGFP molecules with a missing N-terminal ?-helix was significantly dimmed, while the fluorescence lifetime characteristic of the anionic chromophore state remained unaffected. This suggests a mechanism how N-terminal deletions can switch the protonation state of the chromophore, and how the fluorescence of GFP molecules in response to mechanical disturbance might be turned off.

Saeger, John; Hytonen, Vesa P.; Klotzsch, Enrico; Vogel, Viola

2012-01-01

130

Parametric State Space Structuring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Structured approaches based on Kronecker operators for the description and solution of the infinitesimal generator of a continuous-time Markov chains are receiving increasing interest. However, their main advantage, a substantial reduction in the memory requirements during the numerical solution, comes at a price. Methods based on the "potential state space" allocate a probability vector that might be much larger than actually needed. Methods based on the "actual state space", instead, have an additional logarithmic overhead. We present an approach that realizes the advantages of both methods with none of their disadvantages, by partitioning the local state spaces of each submodel. We apply our results to a model of software rendezvous, and show how they reduce memory requirements while, at the same time, improving the efficiency of the computation.

Ciardo, Gianfranco; Tilgner, Marco

1997-01-01

131

Pfaffian States: Quantum Computation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Pfaffian determinant is sometimes used to multiply the Laughlin's wave function at the half filled Landau level. The square of the Pfaffian gives the ordinary determinant. We find that the Pfaffian wave function leads to four times larger energies and two times faster time. By the same logic, the Pfaffian breaks the supersymmetry of the Dirac equation. By using the spin properties and the Landau levels, we correctly interpret the state with 5/2 filling. The quantum numbers which represent the state vectors are now products of n (Landau level quantum number), l(orbital angular momentum quantum number and the spin, s |n, l, s>. In a circuit, the noise measures the resistivity and hence the charge. The Pfaffian velocity is different from that of the single-particle states and hence it has important consequences in the measurement of the charge of the quasiparticles.

Shrivastava, Keshav N.

2009-09-01

132

The plasma state  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This segment of a tutorial about plasma--the main state of matter in space--deals with what plasma is and how it is formed. Background information on electric and magnetic fields is also included because plasmas interact with these fields. Enlargeable graphics and an interactive game about the four states of matter complement the segment's four pages of text. In the game, students direct falling objects, such as rocks, lightning, and gasoline, into the appropriate state-of-matter slot. The segment also explains why plasma is so rare on Earth and so abundant in space. A concluding vignette explores Hannes Alfven's ongoing influence on space physics. Alfven was a twentieth-century Nobel laureate. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Institute, Space S.

2005-01-01

133

Changing States of Matter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson about states of matter. Learners will explore the conditions required for water to be in a liquid state. They discover that temperature is the essential variable. They then explore how temperature affects the motion of molecules and molecular bonds. The lesson models scientific inquiry using the 5E instructional model and includes teacher notes, prerequisite concepts, common misconceptions, student journal and reading. This is lesson 5 in the Astro-Venture Astronomy Unit. The lessons are designed for educators to use in conjunction with the Astro-Venture multimedia modules.

134

Channel-state duality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Channel-state duality refers to the correspondence between quantum channels and bipartite states, and it is extremely useful and fruitful in quantum information theory. It is often called the Jamio?kowski isomorphism, the Jamio?kowski-Choi isomorphism, or the Choi-Jamio?kowski isomorphism. We trace the original roots of this duality from a historic perspective, clarify the somewhat misleading term isomorphism, reveal the underlying subtle nature, and highlight the seemingly similar but actually different features of the original correspondences in the manner of Pillis, Jamio?kowski, and Choi that lead to the duality. We further illustrate some fundamental properties and diverse applications.

Jiang, Min; Luo, Shunlong; Fu, Shuangshuang

2013-02-01

135

State summaries: Illinois  

USGS Publications Warehouse

According to the United States Geological Survey (USGS), Illinois ranked third in the amount of crushed stone produced from underground mining operations. In 2004, Illinois produced more than 76.5 Mt of crushed stone and 38.7 Mt of sand-and-gravel. Preliminary data for 2005 showed an increase in the production of crushed stone and a slight decrease in the production of sand-and-gravel. The state remained 16th in total value of nonfuel mineral production. In decreasing order of value, the minerals produced included crushed stone, cement, construction sand and gravel, lime, clay, peat, tripoli, industrial sand, crushed sandstone and gemstone.

Lasemi, Z.; Mikulic, D. G.

2006-01-01

136

State Population Projections  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson plan students create graphs and analyze data based on the data provided by the United States Census Bureau. Students choose five states to focus on and create a bar graph for each, then students compare the data represented in the graphs and answer questions about the data. The lesson includes student activity sheet, the link to the U.S. Census Bureau is no longer active, please follow this link instead: http://www.census.gov/population/projections/files/stateproj/stpjpop.txt

Burton, Grace M.; Midgett, Carol

2008-01-01

137

Colorado State Forest Service  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This public information site from Colorado State University offers sections on managing private and community forests, Colorado wildfires, fire rehabilitation, employment opportunities, and Project Learning Tree, a series of learning modules for K-12 students and educators that address current environmental topics and issues.

2008-10-06

138

Health, United States, 1978.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Health, United States, 1978 is the third annual report on the health status of the Nation submitted by the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare to the President and Congress. It was jointly compiled by the National Center for Health Statistics and ...

1978-01-01

139

Geometry of Quantum States  

Microsoft Academic Search

A geometric framework for quantum mechanics arose during the mid 1970s when authors such as Cantoni explored the notion of generalized transition probabilities, and Kibble promoted the idea that the space of pure quantum states provides a natural quantum mechanical analogue for classical phase space. This central idea can be seen easily since the projection of Schrdinger's equation from a

D W Hook

2008-01-01

140

[Mixed states and neuroimaging].  

PubMed

Despite the growing number of neuroimaging studies in bipolar disorder over the past years, the brain regions involved in mood dysregulation in this disease are still poorly understood. If some neurofunctional abnormalities seem to be independent of mood state, others were preferentially associated with mania or depression, involving the amygdala and other limbic regions as well as ventral frontal regions, with a likely hemispheric lateralization of these abnormalities according to the thymic state that was examined. Very few imaging studies became interested in bipolar patients in a mixed state, making it harder to connect brain malfunction to a given mood state. However, data obtained so far support the hypothesis of a lateralization of brain abnormalities in relation to bipolar symptomatology, suggesting that neurofonctional abnormalities preferentially located in the right ventral frontal and limbic areas may underlie the depressive component, associated with abnormalities of the left similar regions for the manic component. Identification of brain dysfunctions that may explain the emergence of mixed symptoms will likely provide useful information to better understand the respective roles of each hemisphere in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder. PMID:24359855

Kaladjian, A; Belzeaux, R; Micoulaud-Franchi, J A; Cermolacce, M; Fakra, E; Azorin, J-M

2013-12-01

141

Arizona State University. Exemplars.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report discusses how the Arizona Board of Regents, which has governing authority over the state's three public universities, dealt with the inability of the universities to respond to new societal needs in a timely manner; a major impediment was felt to be tenure. After a series of meetings of administrators and faculty leaders, the Board

Wegner, Gregory R.

142

Solid state heat engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A compact solid state turbine heat engine can be devised by pairing the nitinol elements. Each element is characterized by being in thermal contact with at least one hot water and one cold water bath and mechanically coupled to at least one driven pulley and driver pulley. A second nitinol element is similarly configured with a driver pulley, driven pulley,

Cory

1981-01-01

143

State Skill Standards: Photography  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Department of Education has undertaken an ambitious effort to develop statewide skill standards for all content areas in career and technical education. The standards in this document are for photography programs and are designed to clearly state what the student should know and be able to do upon completion of an advanced high-school program.

Howell, Frederick; Reed, Loretta; Jensen, Capra; Robison, Gary; Taylor, Susan; Pavesich, Christine

2007-01-01

144

What State Tests Test.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What the Illinois Goal Assessment Program (IGAP) test actually tests and the consequences of these tests for funding decisions were studied with a random sample of 100 school districts in the Cook County suburbs of Chicago. Eighth-grade IGAP scores for reading were obtained from the state report card, a document prepared by each school district

McGee, Glenn W.

145

State Skill Standards: Metalworking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Department of Education has undertaken an ambitious effort to develop statewide occupational skill standards. The standards in this document are for metalworking programs and are designed to clearly state what the student should know and be able to do upon completion of an advanced high-school program. The writing team determined that any

Pointer, Mike; Naylor, Randy; Warden, John; Senek, Gene; Shirley, Charles; Lefcourt, Lew; Munson, Justin; Johnson, Art

2005-01-01

146

Inferences about mental states  

PubMed Central

Human social cognition relies on an ability to predict what others will think, feel or do in novel situations. Research in social neuroscience has consistently observed several brain regions that contribute ubiquitously to these abilities, including medial prefrontal cortex and aspects of lateral and medial parietal cortex. Interestingly, parallel work has suggested that this same network of regions subserves several seemingly distinct phenomenanotably, the abilities to remember the past, imagine the future and visualize spatial layoutssuggesting the existence of a common set of cognitive processes devoted to projecting oneself into worlds that differ mentally, temporally or physically from one's current experience. This use of self-projection to understand others' minds requires perceivers to solve three distinct cognitive challenges: (i) generating a simulated facsimile of one's own hypothetical mental states in a given situation, (ii) suppressing one's own current mental states, and (iii) deciding on the appropriateness of simulated states for understanding a particular other person. The present paper reviews recent psychology and neuroscience research aimed at understanding the underlying mechanisms that allow humans to solve each of these cognitive challenges to use self-projection to predict and understand the mental states of others.

Mitchell, Jason P.

2009-01-01

147

Create Your State  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students are often encouraged to work together with their classmates, sometimes with other classes, occasionally with kids at other schools, but rarely with kids across the country. In this article the authors describe the Create Your State project, a collaborative nationwide project inspired by the Texas Chair Project wherein the artist, Damien

Dunham, Kris; Melvin, Samantha

2011-01-01

148

States Address Academic Concerns  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

State and local officials are slowly untangling complicated webs of accountability, testing, and graduation policies, hoping to give thousands of students displaced by Hurricane Katrina a better handle on their academic standing. While officials in Texas, Tennessee, and Alabama offered some guidance to such students, school leaders in

Hoff, David J.

2005-01-01

149

State Fair Recipes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As the summer continues to wane on, one tradition remains intact throughout much of America: the state fair. Usually the state fair is a place for local residents to showcase their agricultural marvels, and for urbanites to experience a bit of the country life, albeit rather briefly and somewhat voyeuristically. While there may be an uneasy alliance between urbanites and rural denizens during these periods, one thing is for sure: they both love the award-winning eats that are often the highlight of such gatherings. One is certain to find certain specialties at every fair, ranging from the famous scones of the Washington State Fair in Puyallup to the roast corn that may be found at just about every state fair. This website brings all of those award-winning recipes together in one place, as visitors can find recipes for such dishes as beef and cheddar puffs, braised lamb shanks, and down home chicken pot pie. Desserts don't get short thrift here either, as visitors can read the recipes for ginger lime pear pie and many others as well. Finally, visitors can read profiles of the various award-winning cooks and find recipes from 2000 to 2004.

150

State Skill Standards: Welding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Department of Education has undertaken an ambitious effort to develop statewide occupational skill standards. The standards in this document are for welding programs and are designed to clearly state what the student should know and be able to do upon completion of an advanced high-school program. The writing team determined that any statewide

Pointer, Mike; Naylor, Randy; Warden, John; Senek, Gene; Shirley, Charles; Lefcourt, Lew; Munson, Justin; Johnson, Art

2005-01-01

151

GIARDIASIS IN WASHINGTON STATE  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective was to determine the potential for transmission of giardiasis through approved drinking water supplies in Washington State. The project consisted of five studies: the first was conducted during trapping seasons (1976-1979) and resulted in examining of 656 beaver sto...

152

Colorado State University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Colorado State University (CSU) is located in Fort Collins, which is a midsize city of 134,000 situated in Northern Colorado at the western edge of the Great Plains and at the base of the Rocky Mountains. CSU's total enrollment is approximately 25,000 students. The Division of Student Affairs comprises 30 departments organized into programmatic

McKelfresh, David A.; Bender, Kim K.

2009-01-01

153

The Kent State Coverup.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A definitive account of the May 4, 1970 Kent State shootings and the trial that followed is presented by the lawyer who served as chief counsel for the 13 victims. Part One, "The Long Road to the Cleveland Courthouse," provides all the information on the victims, the shootings, and preparation for the trial. Part Two, "At Last, Our Day in Court,"

Kelner, Joseph; Munves, James

154

Keystone State of Confusion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When high school seniors begin searching for the best school to fit their higher education goals, they may need a road map, tour guide and interpreter to help them sort through Pennsylvania's higher education universe. For sure there are seemingly endless choices--public, private, large, small, urban and rural. The Keystone State boasts nearly 200

Stuart, Reginald

2009-01-01

155

Modelling Java requires state  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interesting questions concerning Java-like languages are often studied in the context of smaller programming calculi such as Featherweight Java. The simplicity of the syntax, and small number of features, and in particular the lack of state, make it possible to focus on the issues of interest. Although the programming languages are imperative, Featherweight Java and various similar calculi are functional.

Alexander J. Summers

2009-01-01

156

Bound states of quarks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review consists of two parts, the phenomenology of non-relativistic potential models and the theoretical understanding of the forces between quarks. The first part reports on the description of hadrons as bound states of quarks by non-relativistic potential models. It starts with a brief sketch of the way in which information on the interquark potential may be gained from quantum

Wolfgang Lucha; Franz F. Schberl; Dieter Gromes

1991-01-01

157

Protein States and Proteinquakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

After photodissociation of carbon monoxide bound to myoglobin, the protein relaxes to the deoxy equilibrium structure in a quake-like motion. Investigation of the proteinquake and of related intramolecular equilibrium motions shows that states and motions have a hierarchical glasslike structure.

Anjum Ansari; Joel Berendzen; Samuel F. Bowne; Hans Frauenfelder; Icko E. T. Iben; Todd B. Sauke; Erramilli Shyamsunder; Robert D. Young

1985-01-01

158

State Health Profiles, 2001  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Center for Health Statistics offers Excel files of the data used to produce this year's State Health Profiles publications. The files can be downloaded in Excel format and cover a variety of topics in eight categories including Deaths from Injuries, Infectious Diseases, Environmental Health Concerns, and more.

2001-01-01

159

The State of Albania  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These reports from the International Crisis Group (ICG) provide information about the volatile socio-political situation in the South Balkans, specifically in the nations of Albania, Bosnia, Kosovo, Macedonia, Montenegro, and Serbia. The State of Albania summarizes the current political, social, and economic conditions in Albania.

1999-01-01

160

Oregon State University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Oregon State University (OSU) is located in Corvallis, a community of 53,000 people situated in the heart of the Willamette Valley between Portland and Eugene. Approximately 15,700 undergraduate and 3,400 graduate students, including 2,600 U.S. students of color and 950 international students, are currently enrolled at OSU across 11 academic

Sanderson, Rebecca A.; Ketcham, Patricia L.

2009-01-01

161

State Prison Expenditures, 1996.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For fiscal year 1996 States and the District of Columbia reported that they spent $22 billion for adult prisons--to build, staff, and maintain the facilities and to house the prisoners. The Federal Bureau of Prisons spent an additional $2.5 billion. These...

J. J. Stephan

1999-01-01

162

SOLID STATE TESLA COIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some years ago I developed an interest in Tesla coils. I was teaching a senior elective course at Kansas State University where we talked about power MOSFETs and topics related to high voltages and currents. I decided to use a Tesla coil as a class project. We would talk about design aspects, then design, build, and test a coil. The

Gary L. Johnson

2001-01-01

163

New State of Leadership  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents how minorities break color barriers in top administrative positions at Pennsylvania institutions. Pennsylvania, the state with the sixth-largest population in the country with more than 12 million people, reportedly has more than 450 public and private colleges, universities and career and technical training schools. "Diverse"

Ford, William J.

2009-01-01

164

Cortical state and attention  

Microsoft Academic Search

The brain continuously adapts its processing machinery to behavioural demands. To achieve this, it rapidly modulates the operating mode of cortical circuits, controlling the way that information is transformed and routed. This article will focus on two experimental approaches by which the control of cortical information processing has been investigated: the study of state-dependent cortical processing in rodents and attention

Alexander Thiele; Kenneth D. Harris

2011-01-01

165

Crystalline beam ground state  

SciTech Connect

In order to employ molecular dynamics (MD) methods, commonly used in condensed matter physics, we have derived the equations of motion for a beam of charged particles in the rotating rest frame of the reference particle. We include in the formalism that the particles are confined by the guiding and focusing magnetic fields, and that they are confined in a conducting vacuum pipe while interacting with each other via a Coulomb force. Numerical simulations using MD methods has been performed to obtain the equilibrium crystalline beam structure. The effect of the shearing force, centrifugal force, and azimuthal variation of the focusing strength are investigated. It is found that a constant gradient storage ring can not give a crystalline beam, but that an alternating-gradient (AG) structure can. In such a machine the ground state is, except for one-dimensional (1-D) crystals, time dependent. The ground state is a zero entropy state, despite the time-dependent, periodic variation of the focusing force. The nature of the ground state, similar to that found by Schiffer et al. depends upon the density and the relative focusing strengths in the transverse directions. At low density, the crystal is 1-D. As the density increases, it transforms into various kinds of 2-D and 3-D crystals. If the energy of the beam is higher than the transition energy of the machine, the crystalline structure can not be formed for lack of radial focusing.

Wei, Jie [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Li, Xiao-Ping [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States). Dept. of Physics; Sessler, A.M. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

1993-06-11

166

Charged exotic charmonium states  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this review, we present and discuss all the experimental information about the charged exotic charmonium states, which have been observed over the last five years. We try to understand their properties such as masses and decay widths with QCD sum rules. We describe this method, show the results and compare them with the experimental data and with other theoretical approaches.

Nielsen, Marina; Navarra, Fernando S.

2014-02-01

167

Biodiversity Laws: State Experiences  

PubMed

/ The Western Governors' Association (WGA) includes both the public lands states with their issues and the plains states, which are 98% privately owned. WGA deals with most legislation affecting biodiversity, whether the effect is direct or tangential. It will probably not be possible, or desirable, for one entity to be in charge of biodiversity conservation. The Endangered Species Act, public lands laws, agricultural laws, water law, environmental laws, and funding legislation all affect biodiversity conservation and the responsibility for it. None of them on their own are enough, and most can cause harmful unintended consequences for biodiversity. The experience of western states in developing consensus principles for reauthorization of the Endangered Species Act provides an example of common-sense ways to improve management of biodiversity, notwithstanding the complexity and large stakes involved. The WGA's proposed changes call for increasing the role of states, streamlining the act, and increasing certainty for landowners and water users.To achieve sustainable conservation for biodiversity, the better question is not "Who is/should be in charge?", it is "How do we get this done?" To answer this, we need goals, guidance, and bottom lines from federal laws, and management and oversight at the state level, but they all need to support local on-the-ground partnerships. Sustainable conservation requires the active participation of those who live there. WGA's experience in coordinating the Great Plains Partnership as well as its work with watershed efforts shed light on what to expect. Multilevel partnerships are not easy and require a different way of doing business. The ad hoc, site-specific processes that result do not lend themselves to being legislated, fit into organizational boxes, or scored on a budget sheet. They do require common sense and a long-term perspective.KEY WORDS: Biodiversity; Partnerships; Environmental laws; Endangered Species Act; Conservation; Local empowerment PMID:8895414

CLARK

1996-11-01

168

The State "of" State U.S. History Standards 2011  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is the Thomas B. Fordham Institute's first review of the quality of state U.S. history standards since 2003. Key findings include: (1) A majority of states' standards are mediocre-to-awful. The average grade across "all" states is barely a D. In twenty-eight jurisdictions--a majority of states--the history standards earn Ds or below.

Stern, Sheldon M.; Stern, Jeremy A.

2011-01-01

169

State of Florida Consolidated State Application Accountability Workbook. Revised  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This workbook, submitted by the State of Florida to the U.S. Department of Education, is for State Grants under Title IX, Part C, Section 9302 of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (Public Law 107-110). By January 31, 2003, States must complete and submit to the Department this Consolidated State Application Accountability Workbook. The

US Department of Education, 2006

2006-01-01

170

Implementing the Common Core State Standards: State Spotlights  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As of the 2012-2013 school year, over 20 states have formally moved to the Common Core State Standards being used as the learning expectations for all students across the state, and the remainder will be doing so in the 2014-2015 school year. This document highlights state initiatives that are supporting Common Core implementation in the following

Council of Chief State School Officers, 2013

2013-01-01

171

Solid State Laser  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Titan-CW Ti:sapphire (titanium-doped sapphire) tunable laser is an innovation in solid-state laser technology jointly developed by the Research and Solid State Laser Divisions of Schwartz Electro-optics, Inc. (SEO). SEO is producing the laser for the commercial market, an outgrowth of a program sponsored by Langley Research Center to develop Ti:sapphire technology for space use. SEO's Titan-CW series of Ti:sapphire tunable lasers have applicability in analytical equipment designed for qualitative analysis of carbohydrates and proteins, structural analysis of water, starch/sugar analyses, and measurements of salt in meat. Further applications are expected in semiconductor manufacture, in medicine for diagnosis and therapy, and in biochemistry.

1990-01-01

172

Relativistic State Reduction Dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A mechanism describing state reduction dynamics in relativistic quantum field theory is outlined. The mechanism involves nonlinear stochastic modifications to the standard description of unitary state evolution and the introduction of a relativistic field in which a quantized degree of freedom is associated to each point in spacetime. The purpose of this field is to mediate in the interaction between classical stochastic influences and conventional quantum fields. The equations of motion are Lorentz covariant, frame independent, and do not result in divergent behavior. It is shown that the mathematical framework permits the specification of unambiguous local properties providing a connection between the model and evidence of real world phenomena. The collapse process is demonstrated for an idealized example.

Bedingham, Daniel J.

2011-04-01

173

Arizona State Museum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Located at University of Arizona, the Arizona State Museum features a variety of programs and exhibits, many of which offer an introspective look into the culture of the American Indian groups in the region. One of the main highlights of the site are the several online exhibits that feature objects and photographs from recent shows. The most recent of these is the "Connections Across Generations: The Avery Collection of American Indian Paintings," which highlights selections from the exhibit that is set to open on October 4th, 2002. Also documented on the site are the numerous ongoing archaeological projects that are often joint projects between researchers at the Museum and within Arizona State University. Finally, the site also has a variety of educational resource materials for teachers planning to visit the museum, and information about joining the Museum and volunteering in one of their many programs.

2001-01-01

174

In the states.  

PubMed

In Minnesota, the Hennepin County Medical Center will be the second State hospital to offer abortions and the eighth provider of the service. Approximately 25 residents from the University of Minnesota will receive abortion training at the Center each year. In legislative action taken during January and February 1994, an Alabama Judiciary Committee supported the requirement that a parent giving consent for a daughter's abortion present a picture identification and the patient's birth certificate. Other states considering parental notification rules are Iowa, Kansas, Oklahoma, and Virginia. In Arizona, a legislative committee approved a bill requiring one-parent notification 48 hours before a minor's abortion and approved requirement of a notice to be posted in abortion clinics warning that termination of a first pregnancy increases the risk of breast cancer. Committees in Colorado, Connecticut, Florida, and Kansas considered ways to limit the number of children born in families receiving Aid to Families with Dependent Children either by limiting benefits at a 2-child level or by providing financial incentives to mothers who accept the use of a long-acting contraceptive. Committees considered changes in state funding in Missouri (to allow abortion funding in cases of medical necessity, rape, or incest), New Mexico (a prohibition of the use of state funds for most abortions was tabled), and Utah (to allow state funding in cases of rape or incest). In Hawaii, a ban on most post-20-week abortions died. This bill would also have required biased counseling and a physician-reporting requirement. Indiana rejected a prohibition against blocking abortion clinics and mandatory 24-hour delay and biased counseling requirements. In Utah, a committee is considering prohibiting the delivery of mandatory information via the telephone and requiring that abortion-seekers be offered an ultrasound prior to the procedure. California is seeking to criminalize participation in an organization whose members engage in terrorist activities such as stalking. Connecticut, on the other hand, as a response to the Supreme Court ruling in NOW vs. Scheidler which held that the anti-racketeering statutes used against abortion protesters blocking clinics do not have to prove a financial gain motive, is considering amending its anti-racketeering law to require an economic motive. Nebraska wants to prohibit obstruction of abortion clinics or approaching a person within 8 feet without their consent. This state is also considering including the use of a controlled substance while pregnant under its definition of child abuse or neglect. Missouri committees are considering action to prohibit the use of physician's offices for abortions at 14-18 weeks gestation and to require that all post-18 week abortions take place in a hospital. This state is also considering requiring abortion providers to purchase $500,000 in malpractice insurance and to follow a reporting procedure. Abortion-seekers in Missouri would have a 24-hour delay and would be provided with state-approved materials about abortion. PMID:12345515

1994-02-25

175

Illinois State Highway Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Most states produce detailed road maps for use by their residents, commercial firms, and the curious tourist. This nice collection of Illinois state highway maps is part of the Illinois Digital Archives and it contains dozens of maps dating back to the 1920s. Visitors can start by reading about the history of the covers of these unique items on the homepage. After that, visitors can scan through the high-resolution images here for each map. Users can zoom in and out around each map as they see fit, and there are some nice tools here for rotating the maps as well. It's a great way to learn about the expansion of the road system in Illinois over the decades, and students of the Land of Lincoln will find it most enjoyable. [KMG

176

The Pervasive Plasma State  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site by the Division of Plasma Physics of the American Physical Society explores plasma, a state of matter that blankets the Earth as a result of solar winds. Pictures and text are used to convey the significance and commonplace use of plasmas in society. Information provided by the site includes understanding plasmas, commercial applications, plasma in space, the future of plasma use, and more.

2006-07-14

177

The Pervasive Plasma State  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site by the Division of Plasma Physics of the American Physical Society explores plasma, a state of matter that blankets the Earth as a result of solar winds. Pictures and text are used to convey the significance and commonplace use of plasmas in society. Information provided by the site includes understanding plasmas, commercial applications, plasma in space, the future of plasma use, and more.

Berk, Herbert L.

2008-05-06

178

Solid State Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report covers in detail the research work of the Solid State Division at Lincoln Laboratory for the period 1 May - 31 July 1996. The topics covered are Electrooptical Devices, Quantum Electronics, Materials Research, Submicrometer Technology, High Speed Electronics, Microelectronics, and Analog Device Technology. Funding is provided primarily by the Air Force, with additional Support provided by the Army, DARPA, Navy, BMDO, NASA, and NIST.

Shaver, David C.

1996-01-01

179

Solid State Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report covers in detail the research work of the Solid State Division at Lincoln Laboratory for the period 1 May-31 July 1995. The topics covered are: Electrooptical Devices, Quantum Electronics, Materials Research, Submicrometer Technology, High Speed Electronics, Microelectronics, and analog device technology. Funding is provided primarily by the Air Force, with additional Support provided by the Army, ARPA, Navy, BMDO, NASA and NIST.

Shaver, David C.

1995-01-01

180

Virginia State Climatology Office  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A constituent of the University of Virginia, the Virginia State Climatology Office provides information on the atmospheric environment and analyzes the effects weather and climate have on the economic and ecologic systems. Researchers can find information on how to obtain climate and weather data and can view meteorological maps as well as links to various radar and satellite images. Students can learn about Virginia's climate and its prominent weather systems. Virginia residents will value the site for its forecasts and advisories.

181

Solid state accelerator  

SciTech Connect

We present a solid state accelerator concept utilizing particle acceleration along crystal channels by longitudinal electron plasma waves in a metal. Acceleration gradients of order 100 GV/cm are theoretically possible, but channeling radiation limits the maximum attainable energy to 10/sup 5/ TeV for protons. Beam dechanneling due to multiple scattering is substantially reduced by the high acceleration gradient. Plasma wave dissipation and generation in metals are also discussed.

Chen, P.; Noble, R.J.

1987-05-05

182

A Solid state accelerator  

SciTech Connect

We present a solid state accelerator concept utilizing particle acceleration along crystal channels by longitudinal electron plasma waves in a metal. Acceleration gradients of order 100 GV/cm are theoretically possible, but channeling radiation limits the maximum attainable energy to 10/sup 5/ TeV for protons. Beam dechanneling due to multiple scattering is substantially reduced by the high acceleration gradient. Plasma wave dissipation and generation in metals are also discussed.

Chen, P.; Noble, R.J.

1986-11-06

183

Superconducting states in graphene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In spite of the remarkable electronic properties of graphene, which include the existence of massless Dirac quasiparticles, the low density of states near the Dirac points seems to conspire against the formation of new many body ground states. In this context, the search for intriscic superconductivity in graphene has involved either combining graphene with other materials [1], or else exploring ways to modify the electronic density of states at the Fermi level. In this talk, after discussing the classification of symmetry states in the honeycomb lattice and analysing the general thermodynamic properties for Dirac fermion superconductors [2], I will describe a few promissing mechanisms to induce superconductivity in graphene. In particular, I will show that in the situation where strain effects lead to a reconstruction of the vacuum into a discrete spectrum of Landau levels due to pseudo magnetic fields, which preserve overall time reversal symmetry, superconductivity is quantum critical at integer filling of the Landau levels, when the system is incompressible. At partial filling, the quenching of the kinetic energy due to the Landau levels leads to a crossover to a non-Fermi liquid regime, where the critical temperature scales linearly with the coupling in the weak coupling limit. I will show that the critical temperature can be orders of magnitude larger than in conventional weak coupling superconductors, and may be triggered by phonons.[4pt] [1] B. Uchoa, A. H. Castro Neto, Physical Review Letters 98, 146801 (2007);[0pt] [2] V. N. Kotov, B. Uchoa et al., Reviews of Modern Physics 84, 1067 (2012).

Uchoa, Bruno

2013-03-01

184

Reasons of state  

SciTech Connect

This editor's note is concerned with historical aspects of the Soviet Union's nuclear weapons program. Noted in the article is the viewpoint of Yuli Khariton, who has been speaking out lately in an attempt to set the record straight regarding the early years of the weapons program. Stories told by Andrei Sakharov are included to ultimately make the point that history teaches many lessons, not the least of which is that many crimes are committed by reasons of state.

Moore, M.

1993-05-01

185

Penn State Geography Department  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Pennsylvania State University offers B.S., B.A., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees in Geography. The faculty encourage students to arrange courses of study appropriate to their individual needs and aspirations. Programs in geography may be directed toward a career in public service, teaching and research, private industry, or one of the many other vocational opportunities open to geographers.

2010-11-19

186

Northwest Washington State  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Portions of northwest Washington State (48.0N, 122.5) can be seen in this view as well as portions of British Columbia, Canada. The snow covered Cascade Mountains are on the eastern side of the scene. Vancouver Island is visible in the northeast corner of the photo. The strait of Juan de Fuca separates Vancouver Islannd from the northwest corner of Washington. Seattle is near the center and the snow covered Olympic Mountains are to the east.

1973-01-01

187

Asthma. The states' challenge.  

PubMed Central

At the national level, asthma is increasingly being recognized as an important public health problem. Because of the significant role of environmental exposure in asthma morbidity, public health agencies have a critical role to play in the surveillance and prevention of the disease. In April 1996, the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists, with assistance from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, surveyed state and territorial public health departments to determine the status of their asthma surveillance and intervention programs. Of the 51 health departments that responded, only eight reported that they had implemented an asthma control program within the previous 10 years. Reasons cited for not having programs included lack of funds, shortage of personnel, and asthma not being a priority. Most states were unable to assess the burden of asthma because they lack data or face barriers to using existing data. Removing barriers to the use of data is a first step toward defining the scope of the asthma problem. Images p198-a p200-a p203-a

Brown, C M; Anderson, H A; Etzel, R A

1997-01-01

188

Iowa State University Extension  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Iowa State University Extension, like many state university extension services, concerns itself with almost every aspect of life a person will encounter from birth to death. Even though this website is geared towards Iowans and the unique problems and opportunities they face living in a heavily rural state, this website has a lot of practical research-based information that would be helpful to people living elsewhere as well. For visitors who want to learn more about Iowa, this website will give them a unique perspective. Visitors shouldn't miss the Extension's newly launched interactive learning website by clicking on "Check ISU's Extension's Managing Tough Times Website" on the homepage. The categories covered are "Families and Households", "Businesses and Communities Surviving Economic Uncertainty" and "Farming in Today's Changing Economy". For community information, visitors should check out the Extension Information heading on the left side of the home page. Links to "Disaster Recovery", "Hotlines," "Markets", "Publications" and "Weather" are available, where visitors can listen to the latest futures market report, watch segments of a video conference on flood recovery, and find numbers for hotlines concerning teens, new farmers, horticulture and problem gambling. There are numerous publications that are available from the Extension, some of which can be purchased as hard copies and some of which can be downloaded for free. Visitors can click on the "Publications" on the left side of the page, under the "Extension Information" heading.

189

Michigan: The Great Lakes State  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although Michigan is often called the "Wolverine State," its more common nickname is the "Great Lakes State." This name comes from the fact that Michigan is the only state in the United States that borders four of the five Great Lakes. Also referred to as the "Water Wonderland," Michigan has 11,000 additional lakes, 36,000 miles of streams, and

McKay, Sandra Lee; La Luzerne-Oi, Sally

2009-01-01

190

Quantum properties of exponential states  

SciTech Connect

The use of Renyi entropy as an uncertainty measure alternative to variance leads to the study of states with quantum fluctuations below the levels established by Gaussian states, which are the position-momentum minimum uncertainty states according to variance. We examine the quantum properties of states with exponential wave functions, which combine reduced fluctuations with practical feasibility.

Luis, Alfredo [Departamento de Optica, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

2007-05-15

191

A search for equilibrium states  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An efficient search algorithm is described for the location of equilibrium states in a search set of states which differ from one another only by the choice of pure phases. The algorithm has three important characteristics: (1) it ignores states which have little prospect for being an improved approximation to the true equilibrium state; (2) it avoids states which lead to singular iteration equations; (3) it furnishes a search history which can provide clues to alternative search paths.

Zeleznik, F. J.

1982-01-01

192

Our Nations States and Capitals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will be researching and learning about our Nations states and capitals in a fun interactive lesson. This lesson will be a fun way to learn our 50 states and their capitals. Follow this check list to complete your assignments. 1. We will be learning the 50 States song to help us memorize all 50 States. 50 States Song Click here to learn song. 2. If your name starts ...

Hansen, Miss

2009-11-23

193

State Clean Energy Policies Analysis (SCEPA): State Tax Incentives  

SciTech Connect

As a policy tool, state tax incentives can be structured to help states meet clean energy goals. Policymakers often use state tax incentives in concert with state and federal policies to support renewable energy deployment or reduce market barriers. This analysis used case studies of four states to assess the contributions of state tax incentives to the development of renewable energy markets. State tax incentives that are appropriately paired with complementary state and federal policies generally provide viable mechanisms to support renewable energy deployment. However, challenges to successful implementation of state tax incentives include serving project owners with limited state tax liability, assessing appropriate incentive levels, and differentiating levels of incentives for technologies with different costs. Additionally, state tax incentives may result in moderately higher federal tax burdens. These challenges notwithstanding, state tax incentives that consider certain policy design characteristics can support renewable energy markets and state clean energy goals.The scale of their impact though is directly related to the degree to which they support the renewable energy markets for targeted sectors and technologies. This report highlights important policy design considerations for policymakers using state tax incentives to meet clean energy goals.

Lantz, E.; Doris, E.

2009-10-01

194

Parameter and State Estimator for State Space Models  

PubMed Central

This paper proposes a parameter and state estimator for canonical state space systems from measured input-output data. The key is to solve the system state from the state equation and to substitute it into the output equation, eliminating the state variables, and the resulting equation contains only the system inputs and outputs, and to derive a least squares parameter identification algorithm. Furthermore, the system states are computed from the estimated parameters and the input-output data. Convergence analysis using the martingale convergence theorem indicates that the parameter estimates converge to their true values. Finally, an illustrative example is provided to show that the proposed algorithm is effective.

Zhuang, Linfan

2014-01-01

195

Solid state thermal engine  

SciTech Connect

An improved solid state thermal engine utilizes as a drive member a braided belt fabricated from a memory alloy such as nickel-titanium and nickel-titanium ternary alloys, copper-zinc and copper-zinc ternary alloys, and the like. The braided belt is mounted on a set of pulleys to provide passage through a hot zone where the belt contracts and develops tension, and through a cold zone where it relaxes and stretches. Since more energy is delivered by contraction than is required for relaxation, positive work output results with an efficiency of between onefifth and one-third of the carnot cycle.

Wayman, C.M.

1981-01-27

196

Chico State Herbarium Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With over 88,000 mounted and dried specimens, the "Biological Sciences Herbarium at California State University, Chico is the most complete repository of plant specimens from northeastern California. The emphasis is on the local flora, and includes a number of rare, threatened, and endangered plant species." Samples in the Herbarium include ferns, conifers, flowering plants, lichens, bryophytes, and slime molds. The Herbarium Database is still adding specimen label information. The Database includes search fields for Genus, Species, and Subspecies. All higher academic institutions are eligible for specimen loans from the Herbarium.

2007-08-28

197

Steady state thermal radiometers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A radiometer is described operating in a vacuum under steady state conditions. The front element is an aluminum sheet painted on the outer side with black or other absorptive material of selected characteristics. A thermocouple is bonded to the inner side of the aluminum sheet. That is backed by highly insulative layers of glass fiber and crinkled, aluminized Mylar polyester. Those layers are backed with a sturdy, polyester sheet, and the entire lamination is laced together by nylon cords. The device is highly reliable in that it does not drift out of calibration, and is significantly inexpensive.

Loose, J. D. (inventor)

1974-01-01

198

Solid state oxygen sensor  

DOEpatents

Solid state oxygen sensors are provided with a yttria-doped zirconia as an electrolyte and use the electrochemical oxygen pumping of the zirconia electrolyte. A linear relationship between oxygen concentration and the voltage arising at a current plateau occurs when oxygen accessing the electrolyte is limited by a diffusion barrier. A diffusion barrier is formed herein with a mixed electronic and oxygen ion-conducting membrane of lanthanum-containing perovskite or zirconia-containing fluorite. A heater may be used to maintain an adequate oxygen diffusion coefficient in the mixed conducting layer. 4 figs.

Garzon, F.H.; Chung, B.W.; Raistrick, I.D.; Brosha, E.L.

1996-08-06

199

Solid state devices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Solid State Device research program is directed toward developing innovative devices for space remote and in-situ sensing, and for data processing. Innovative devices can result from the standard structures in innovative materials such as low and high temperature superconductors, strained layer superlattices, or diamond films. Innovative devices can also result from innovative structures achieved using electron tunneling or nanolithography in standard materials. A final step is to use both innovative structures and innovative materials. A new area of emphasis is the miniaturization of sensors and instruments molded by using the techniques of electronic device fabrication to micromachine silicon into micromechanical and electromechanical sensors and actuators.

1991-01-01

200

Solid state optical microscope  

DOEpatents

A solid state optical microscope wherein wide-field and high-resolution images of an object are produced at a rapid rate by utilizing conventional optics with a charge-coupled photodiode array. A galvanometer scanning mirror, for scanning in one of two orthogonal directions is provided, while the charge-coupled photodiode array scans in the other orthogonal direction. Illumination light from the object is incident upon the photodiodes, creating packets of electrons (signals) which are representative of the illuminated object. The signals are then processed, stored in a memory, and finally displayed as a video signal. 2 figs.

Young, I.T.

1983-08-09

201

Solid state optical microscope  

DOEpatents

A solid state optical microscope wherein wide-field and high-resolution images of an object are produced at a rapid rate by utilizing conventional optics with a charge-coupled photodiode array. A galvanometer scanning mirror, for scanning in one of two orthogonal directions is provided, while the charge-coupled photodiode array scans in the other orthogonal direction. Illumination light from the object is incident upon the photodiodes, creating packets of electrons (signals) which are representative of the illuminated object. The signals are then processed, stored in a memory, and finally displayed as a video signal.

Young, Ian T. (Pleasanton, CA)

1983-01-01

202

Illinois State Geological Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Illinois State Geological Survey (ISGS) homepage provides information on geologic mapping, earthquakes, fossils, groundwater, wetlands, glacial geology, bedrock geology, and Lake Michigan geology. Educational materials include field trip guides, short publications on Illinois geology for students and teachers, online tours, single-page maps, and a geologic column. Other materials include databases and collections of GIS data, well records, drill cores, and mining information; a bibliography of Illinois geology; online maps and data; and information on water and land use, resource development, and geologic hazards.

203

Living State Physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Vanderbilt University's Living State Physics group combines physics and biomedical research in order to increase knowledge of biological systems and phenomena. After learning how physics can enhance the fields of medicine and biology, users can discover the group's greatest accomplishments for the past twenty years in topics such as Non Destructive Evaluation, Biomagnetics, and Cardiophysics. Researchers can learn the details of the group's Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID). The expansive website features information and helpful figures about its many physics research projects in cardiac electrodynamics and gastrointestinal smooth muscle. Those interested can also find out about employment opportunities.

204

Generalized states in SFT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The search for analytic solutions in open string fields theory la Witten often meets with singular expressions, which need an adequate mathematical formalism to be interpreted. In this paper we discuss this problem and propose a way to resolve the related ambiguities. Our claim is that a correct interpretation requires a formalism similar to distribution theory in functional analysis. To this end we concretely construct a locally convex space of test string states together with the dual space of functionals. We show that the above suspicious expressions can be identified with well defined elements of the dual.

Bonora, L.; Giaccari, S.

2013-12-01

205

State Energy Alternatives: Alternative Energy Resources by State  

DOE Data Explorer

This U.S. map provides state by state information on incentives and laws related to alternative fuels and advanced vehicles. Discover what's available in each state for innovation grants, infrastructure grants, and production grants and who to contact. Find out how many alternative refueling stations are available in each state and where they are. Tennessee, for example, in 2009, has 114 alternative refueling stations: 36 biodiesel, 1 electrical, 29 ethanol, 4 natural gas, and 44 propane. There are also 5 Truck Stop Electrification (TSE) sites in Tennessee. Users can also find out from this map interface the contacts for Clean Cities in a state, information about renewable energy projects and activities in each state, fuel prices across a state, and biomass potential resources and current production in each state.

206

State Measurements Needs Study. Part II: State Profile (Oklahoma).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Association of State and Territorial Solid Waste Management Officials prepared report on State Measurement Needs in order to determine various measurement requirements under Subtitle C, Hazardous Waste Management Regulations; Subtitle D, Solid Waste M...

1981-01-01

207

State of the Salmon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Salmon, like many other species of fish, know no political boundaries. In effect, this makes it hard for humans to craft detailed and meaningful policies for the survival and health of these important creatures. The State of the Salmon is an international consortium that is "dedicated to improving understanding of salmon status and trends across the North Pacific--and building a knowledge network that can inform salmon conservation and management decisions in the future." Given this broad range of cooperation, visitors will not be surprised to find that much of the material featured on the site is available in Russian, English, and Chinese. The materials on the site are divided into several sections, including "Monitoring", "Data & Maps", "Status & Trends", and "Collaborate". The "Data & Maps" area is quite useful, and it features a variety of interactive maps that document existing salmon populations and their movements. Moving on, the "Status & Trends" area provides updates on salmon population trends in Canada, Japan, Russia, and the United States. The site is rounded out by a glossary and information about the organization's basic operating principles.

208

Solid state heat engine  

SciTech Connect

A compact solid state turbine heat engine can be devised by pairing the nitinol elements. Each element is characterized by being in thermal contact with at least one hot water and one cold water bath and mechanically coupled to at least one driven pulley and driver pulley. A second nitinol element is similarly configured with a driver pulley, driven pulley, hot and cold water bath. The driver pulley associated with the first nitinol element is mechanically coupled to the driven pulley of the second nitinol element. Similarly, the driver pulley of the second nitinol element is mechanically coupled to the driven pulley of the first nitinol element. The paired nitinol elements form a compound solid state turbine engine wherein each nitinol element lies in a single plane and wherein the engine may be combined with a plurality of such pairs for increased power output. The nitinol elements may also incorporate a snubber to limit the strain on the element and the engine may further incorporate a variable radius pulley to increase the efficiency of mechanical conversion.

Cory, J.S.

1981-12-15

209

Colorado State University Extension  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

State university extension services have been helping farmers since the 1930s, as well as anyone who might need some help tending their gardens, canning vegetables, keeping a house in good repair, and a family in good health. Extension services still perform those functions, plus new ones. They have stepped up their knowledge of technology and reasserted their emphasis on conservation practices. The Colorado State University Extension Services website has materials on all these classic categories. Visitors should check out the left side menu, to see links to such topics as "Yard & Garden", "Nutrition, Health and Food Safety", and "4-H Youth Development", but there are also links to "Clean & Renewable Energy" and "Water". The "News & Events" links in the bottom right hand corner of the homepage gives dates for a lecture on "Introduction to Wind Energy" and also provides "H1N1 Resources". The "Multimedia Zone", on the right side of the page should not be missed. PlantTalk Colorado is one standout here, and it provides "reliable, timely information on more than 400 gardening and home landscaping topics."

210

State of the Union  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Upon hearing about a site dedicated to State of the Union speeches, the eyes (and mousse) of some gentle readers may gravitate elsewhere. That would be a tremendous mistake in the case of this fine site, which presents graphical representations of how specific words have been used in these speeches over the years. Created by Brad Borevitz, the site draws on a number of open resources available on the web, and attempts to âexamine changes in the language of the State of the Union address over the past 200 years.â From the homepage, visitors can move their mouse over the graph featured prominently, and in doing so, they can view a visual representation of which words were featured in each speech. Of course, visitors can also examine the grade level at which each speech was written. After clicking on a given word (such as âtobaccoâ, which appears quite frequently in President Taftâs 1911 address), visitors will learn how many times the word was mentioned and where it appeared in the address. The entire site provides an interesting and unique glimpse into one type of content analysis, and one that is historically informed and quite relevant.

Borevitz, Brad

211

Solid State Humidity Sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are only a few solid state humidity sensors available today. Most of those sensors use a porous oxide material as a principal part of the device. The devices work on the basis of a change in resistance as the moisture in the air varies. In this experiment, two solid state humidity sensors have been developed for use under practical conditions. One is a Polymer Oxide Semiconductor device with a POLYOX film that absorbs the moisture from the air. The amount of water dipoles absorbed by the polymer is a function of relative humidity. This sensor can measure relative humidity from 20% to 90%. The other is a Dew Point sensor. The sensor is in contact with the upper surface of a miniature Peltier cooler. Water molecules deposited on the sensor surface cause the electrical current through the sensor to increase. The operator adjusts the temperature of the Peltier cooler until a saturated current through the sensor is reached. About one min. is required to measure low relative humidities. The Dew Point sensor can measure a range of relative humidities of 30% to 80%.

Chang, Song-Lin

212

Forbidden states and the three-body bound state collapse  

Microsoft Academic Search

The appearance of bound states with large binding energies of several hundred MeV in the three-body system, known as bound state collapse, is investigated. For this purpose three classes of two-body potentials are employed; local potentials equivalent to nonlocal interactions possessing a continuum bound state, in addition to the usual negative-energy bound state; local potentials with a strong attractive well

G. Pantis; I. E. Lagaris; S. A. Sofianos

2001-01-01

213

Decoy state quantum key distribution with modified coherent state  

SciTech Connect

To beat photon-number splitting attack, decoy state quantum key distribution (QKD) based on the coherent state has been studied widely. We present a decoy state QKD protocol with a modified coherent state (MCS). By destructive quantum interference, a MCS with fewer multiphoton events can be obtained, which may improve the key bit rate and security distance of QKD. Through numerical simulation, we show about a 2-dB increment on the security distance for Bennett-Brassard (1984) protocol.

Yin Zhenqiang; Han Zhengfu; Sun Fangwen; Guo Guangcan [Key Lab of Quantum Information, CAS, USTC (China)

2007-07-15

214

Macroscopic state interferometry over large distances using state discrimination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The propagation of macroscopic entangled states over large distances in the presence of loss is of fundamental interest and may have practical applications as well. Here we describe two different techniques in which state discrimination can be used to violate Bell's inequality with macroscopic phase-entangled coherent states. We find that Bell's inequality can be violated by these macroscopic states over a distance of approximately 400 km in commercially available optical fibers.

Kirby, B. T.; Franson, J. D.

2014-03-01

215

STATE SOIL GEOGRAPHIC (STATSGO) DATA BASE FOR THECOTERNIMOUS UNITED STATES  

EPA Science Inventory

USSOILS is an Arc 7.0 coverage containing hydrology-relevant information for 10,498 map units covering the entire conterminous United States. The coverage was compiled from individual State coverages contained in the October 1994 State Soil Geographic (STATSGO) Data Base produce...

216

State Leadership for School Improvement: An Analysis of Three States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Extant reports on states' policy differences are mostly descriptive and largely ignore the pervasive role of political culture on their educational policy-making processes. This article examines the effect of policy culture on states' policy-making mechanisms. There is evidence that a state's political culture is a significant mediating

Louis, Karen Seashore; Thomas, Emanda; Gordon, Molly F.; Febey, Karen S.

2008-01-01

217

States' Progress and Challenges in Implementing Common Core State Standards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most states are participating in the initiative led by the National Governors Association and the Council of Chief State School Officers to develop and adopt voluntary common core state standards that will outline what elementary and secondary school students are expected to learn in English language arts and mathematics. Implementing these

Kober, Nancy; Rentmer, Diane Stark

2011-01-01

218

Excited State Absorption from Metastable States of Ions in Crystal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A spectrometer system for studying optical absorption from metastable states of ions in crystal is described. Absorption cross sections for excited state absorption from the metastable (2)E state in Al2O3:Cr(3+) were measured at temperatures of 300K, 105K...

J. W. Huang

1968-01-01

219

Education in the States. Volume I: State Education Indicators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report represents the beginning of an effort by chief state school officers to compile information systematically on the states' educational programs and to report that information regularly to the public and their policymakers. This year, the report emphasizes demographic and fiscal background information bearing on the states' education

Council of Chief State School Officers, Washington, DC.

220

ChemTeacher: Oxidation States  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

ChemTeacher compiles background information, videos, articles, demonstrations, worksheets and activities for high school teachers to use in their classrooms. The Oxidation States page includes resources for teaching students about determining oxidation states of atoms within compounds.

2011-01-01

221

OLEDs for solid state lighting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic light emitting devices represent an exciting potential technology for solid state lighting. In this tutorial, key areas of progress in performance and low cost fabrication are described and compared to solid-state lighting needs.

Anil R. Duggal

2008-01-01

222

Updated Principle of Corresponding States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The rule of corresponding states, which shows the connection between the thermodynamic properties of various liquids is re-examined. The overall likeness is observed by using an updated scaling technique of Lennard-Jones corresponding states (LJ-CS).

Ben-Amotz, Dor; Gift, Alan D.; Levine, R. D.

2004-01-01

223

State Machine Approach: A Tutorial.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The state machine approach is a general method for achieving fault tolerance and implementing decentralized control in distributed computing systems. This paper reviews the approach and identifies abstractions needed for coordinating ensembles of state ma...

F. B. Schneider

1986-01-01

224

Experimental multilocation remote state preparation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transmission of quantum states is a central task in quantum information science. Remote state preparation (RSP) has the same goal as teleportation, i.e., transferring quantum information without sending physically the information carrier, but in RSP the sender knows the state which is to be transmitted. We present experimental demonstrations of RSP for two and three locations. In our experimental scheme Alice (the preparer) and her three partners share four and six photon polarization entangled singlets. This allows us to perform RSP of two or three copies of a single-qubit state, a two-qubit Bell state, and a three-qubit W, or W state. A possibility to prepare two-qubit nonmaximally entangled and GHZ states is also discussed. The ability to remotely prepare an entangled states by local projections at Alice is a distinguishing feature of our scheme.

Rdmark, Magnus; Wie?niak, Marcin; ?ukowski, Marek; Bourennane, Mohamed

2013-09-01

225

Breast Cancer Rates by State  

MedlinePLUS

... State, 2010 Color on Map Interval States Light green 106.3 to 114.0 Arizona, Florida, Indiana, ... Dakota, Texas, Utah, West Virginia, and Wyoming Medium green 114.1 to 118.6 Alabama, California, Georgia, ...

226

Environmental Education: A State Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes survey results sent to all state environmental education coordinators designed to reveal a generalized picture of environmental education requirements, guidelines, resource materials, staff, and teacher education requirements in the United States. Includes survey. (MKR)

Holtz, Robert E.

1996-01-01

227

Joint state and parameter estimation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent results are described concerning the problem of state reconstruction for a class of nonlinear distributed systems. The methods are then applied to the problem of joint state and parameter estimation. An example with the wave equation is presented.

Carmichael, N.; Quinn, M. D.

1983-01-01

228

A Tornado in My State?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will analyze data of tornadoes throughout the United States. They will create a bar graph of the number of tornadoes for the top ten states in the country and then calculate the median and the mode of the data.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

229

Plymouth State Weather Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Plymouth State Weather Center provides a variety of weather information, including a tropical weather menu with current and archived data on tropical depressions, storms, or hurricanes in the Atlantic or Eastern Pacific Oceans. An interactive Weather Product Generator allows students to make their own surface data maps and meteograms (24-hour summaries of weather at a specific location), and view satellite imagery. There are also interactive weather maps for the U.S., Canada, and Alaska that display the latest observations, and text servers which provide current written observations for New England and North America. A set of past and current weather data products provides information on minimum and maximum temperatures, wind chill, and heat index. In addition, there are collections of satellite loops/movies, radar/lightning images, loops, and movies, and a set of tutorials on clouds, the sun and its effects on the environment, and balanced atmospheric flows.

230

Organization of American States  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In 1948, 21 nations in the Western hemisphere signed the Organization of American States (OAS) Charter which was designed to affirm their commitment to a number of common goals and their respect for each nation's sovereignty. In the present day, the members of the OAS continue to work together to protect human rights, strengthen security throughout the region, and to fight corruption. On this site (last reviewed in the Scout Report on August 8, 1996), scholars and the general public can take advantage of the organization's many online resources, including the audio archives of OAS Radio, detailed information on the OAS's governing bodies, and its annual reports. From the homepage, visitors can also peruse some of their other online materials, such as online exhibits from the Art Museum of the Americas and The Children's Corner. Young people will enjoy the Children's Corner as it provides material on the culture, history, art, and folklore of South, Central and North America.

231

Antisymmetrical optical states  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The general properties of antisymmetrical solutions of the coupled-dipole equation are studied. This equation is used to describe the interaction of a cluster of small particles acting as elementary dipoles with an external electromagnetic wave. It is shown that antisymmetrical (with zero total dipole moment) eigenstates can be excited even in clusters that are much smaller in size than the wavelength of the incident radiation. In this case the quality of the collective optical resonance may be enhanced by the large parameter ( lambda /Rc )2 ( Rc is the characteristic size of the cluster). This phenomenon, in contrast to superradiance, leads to an increased [by the factor ( lambda /Rc )2 ] lifetime of the system in the excited state and can be called antisuperradiance. Copyright (c) 1995 Optical Society of America

Markel, Vadim A.

1995-10-01

232

State v. Kruzicki.  

PubMed

The Wisconsin Supreme Court reversed the appellate court's denial of review of writs under which a pregnant woman sought release from the court's detention and protective custody of her viable fetus. Although she had given birth, the court considered the now moot issue of a child in need of protection or services. When Angela M.W. was thirty-six weeks pregnant, blood tests confirmed drug use in each of the preceding three months and it was decided that her continued use of drugs would cause the fetus serious harm. The county took protective custody of the fetus by a court order requiring that the woman be confined to an inpatient drug treatment facility. After considering the meanings of "child" and "person", the court concluded that under state law a child is a human being born alive, not a fetus. The dissenting judge argued that the meanings of "child" and "person" include a viable fetus. PMID:12041172

1997-04-22

233

Kansas State University Herbarium  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Located in Manhattan, Kansas, Kansas State University is well-known for their various agricultural outreach programs, and their Herbarium is a fascinating place for botanists and the general public. For those who can't make a trip out to Kansas, they also have a nice website. Visitors to the site can start by looking over the "Information" section, which includes information on the history of the Herbarium, along with offering up a nice answer to the question, "What is an herbarium?" Moving on, visitors can also query their online database of plant species from Kansas and learn about their forthcoming Central Great Plains Network. The site is rounded out with a list of contact information and other noteworthy links.

2006-01-01

234

Solid state power controllers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The rationale, analysis, design, breadboarding and testing of the incremental functional requirements are reported that led to the development of prototype 1 and 5 Amp dc and 1 Amp ac solid state power controllers (SSPC's). The SSPC's are to be considered for use as a replacement of electro-mechanical relays and circuit breakers in future spacecraft and aircraft. They satisfy the combined function of both the relay and circuit breaker and can be remotely controlled by small signals, typically 10 mA, 5 to 28 Vdc. They have the advantage over conventional relay/circuit breaker systems in that they can be located near utilization equipment and the primary ac or dc bus. The low level control, trip indication and status signals can be circuited by small guage wire for control, computer interface, logic, electrical multiplexing, unboard testing, and power management and distribution purposes. This results in increased system versatility at appreciable weight saving and increased reliability.

Gibbs, R. S.

1973-01-01

235

State of the art.  

PubMed

Many falls and injuries related to falls can be prevented with existing knowledge and technology. But effective fall prevention will require the collaborative efforts of many organizations as well as changes in the behavior of older adults and providers, and systematic changes in organizations. Many effective interventions currently exist, but improved access, additional resources, and coordination and commitment across systems are needed. In summary, we know how to prevent falls and reduce injuries, using proven intervention strategies aimed at both low-risk and high-risk older adults. There is a wide spectrum of screening and assessment tools available and effective intervention practices. The challenge now is to put into practice throughout California the state-of-the art knowledge that has already been compiled through innovative programs and rigorous research. PMID:15202185

Rose, Debra J

2004-06-01

236

Covariant Closed String Coherent States  

SciTech Connect

We give the first construction of covariant coherent closed string states, which may be identified with fundamental cosmic strings. We outline the requirements for a string state to describe a cosmic string, and provide an explicit and simple map that relates three different descriptions: classical strings, light cone gauge quantum states, and covariant vertex operators. The resulting coherent state vertex operators have a classical interpretation and are in one-to-one correspondence with arbitrary classical closed string loops.

Hindmarsh, Mark; Skliros, Dimitri [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, Brighton, East Sussex BN1 9QH (United Kingdom)

2011-02-25

237

Supercoherent states and physical systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method is developed for obtaining coherent states of a system admitting a supersymmetry. These states are called supercoherent states. The presented approach is based on an extension to supergroups of the usual group-theoretic approach. The example of the supersymmetric harmonic oscillator is discussed, thereby illustrating some of the attractive features of the method. Supercoherent states of an electron moving in a constant magnetic field are also described.

Fatyga, B. W.; Kostelecky, V. Alan; Nieto, Michael Martin; Truax, D. Rodney

1992-01-01

238

Supercoherent states and physical systems  

SciTech Connect

A method is developed for obtaining coherent states of a system admitting a supersymmetry. These states are called supercoherent states. The approach presented in this talk is based on an extension to supergroups of the usual group-theoretic approach. The example of the supersymmetric harmonic oscillator is discussed, thereby illustrating some of the attractive features of the method. Supercoherent states of an electron moving in a constant magnetic field are also described. 35 refs.

Fatyga, B.W.; Kostelecky, V.A. (Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (USA). Dept. of Physics); Nieto, M.M. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Truax, D.R. (Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry)

1991-01-01

239

New system-specific coherent states for bound state calculations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

System-specific coherent states are constructed based on the formulation of supersymmetric quantum mechanics for arbitrary quantum systems. By regarding the superpotential as a generalized displacement variable, we identity the ground state of a quantum system as the minimizer of the supersymmetric Heisenberg uncertainty product. A special case is the ground state of the standard harmonic oscillator. One constructs standard coherent states by applying a shift operator to a fiducial function, taken as the ground state Gaussian. By analogy, we use the ground state for any other system as a new fiducial function, generating from its shifts new dynamically-adapted, overcomplete coherent states. The discretized system-specific coherent states can serve as a dynamically-adapted basis for bound state calculations. Accurate computational results for the Morse potential, the double well potential and the two-dimensional anharmonic oscillator systems demonstrate that the system-specific coherent states can provide rapidly-converging approximations for excited state energies and wave functions.

Chou, Chia-Chun; Biamonte, Mason T.; Bodmann, Bernhard G.; Kouri, Donald J.

2012-12-01

240

Office of the Secretary of State: Rhode Island State Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Far more than a collection of basic government documents, the Rhode Island State Library website is a nice resource for anyone seeking to learn more about the Ocean State. The materials here are divided into three main sections: "Research Tools", "Publications", and "Everything RI". In "Research Tools", users will find executive orders issued by the governor, annual reports, as well as state regulations and rules. Moving on, the "Publications" area contains some colorful historical documents, including the Rhode Island Royal Charter of 1663 and the state constitution. Finally, the "Everything RI" area contains documents that narrate the state's history, such as "State Symbols", "Famous Rhode Islanders", "Rhode Island Landmarks", and "City & Town Incorporation Dates". Just for reference, some of the notable persons from the Ocean State include George M. Cohan, Anne Hutchinson, and baseball legend Nap Lajoie.

241

Controlled remote state preparation protocols via AKLT states  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we proposed two controlled remote state preparation of an arbitrary single-qubit state schemes one for deterministic controlled remote state preparation the other for probabilistic controlled-joint remote state preparation with 2/3 probability. Both of them used the Affleck-Kennedy-Lieb-Tasaki (AKLT) state which consisted of bulk spin-1's and two spin-12's at the ends. Up to now, no RSP protocols using AKLT gapped ground states as a shared quantum resource had been presented thus far and Fan et al. showed the other AKLT property was that if we performed a Bell measurement on bulk, then a maximally entangled state would be shared by two ends. We utilized these properties to develop our controlled protocols.

Liu, Lin Lin; Hwang, Tzonelih

2014-07-01

242

States Trend toward Performance Funding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As college completion becomes a priority, more state legislatures are challenging community colleges to demonstrate progress by tying funding measures to institutional performance. Tom Harnisch, a policy analyst with the American Association of State Colleges and Universities, reports that 17 states are currently implementing or considering the

Hermes, Jim

2012-01-01

243

State Consumer Education Policy Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is a compilation of state policies in consumer education. It is based on a national survey, conducted in 1978 by the Education Commission of the States (ECS), of the 50 states and Washington, D.C. Intended for use by policymakers, administrators, curriculum specialists, and consumer educators, the manual defines consumer education as

Alexander, Robert J.

244

State of Maine's Environment 2009  

Microsoft Academic Search

The State of Maine's Environment is a regular series of reports written by senior environmental policy majors at Colby College in Waterville, Maine. The State of Maine's Environment 2009 is the fifth State of Maine's Environment report created by students enrolled in ES 493: Environmental Policy Practicum taught by Philip J. Nyhus, Environmental Studies Program. Topics in this report include

Philip J. Nyhus

2009-01-01

245

Penn State DOE GATE Program  

SciTech Connect

The Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Program at The Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) was established in October 1998 pursuant to an award from the U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE). The focus area of the Penn State GATE Program is advanced energy storage systems for electric and hybrid vehicles.

Anstrom, Joel

2012-08-31

246

Study of State Library Legislation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objectives of this study are to: (1) analyze current state library legislation in relation to a number of characteristics of the states to determine patterns of state-level legislation; (2) correlate information about legislation which provides present grants-in-aid support for library development and operation; (3) describe and analyze the

Hartsfield, Annie Mary; And Others

247

State Definitions of Emotional Disturbance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines definitions state education agencies use to describe the federal education disability called "emotional disturbance." State definitions were collected so that various aspects of them could be analyzed and compared with results of similar studies completed in the 1970s and 1980s. Among results are that state definitions have

Wery, Jessica J.; Cullinan, Douglas

2013-01-01

248

Criteria for Stating IPI Objectives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Criteria to be used in evaluating the quality of the form in which Individually Prescribed Instruction (IPI) objectives are stated include writing the objective in terms of observable pupil behavior, stating the performance in terms of an "action verb", specifying the object of the action verb, stating the context or conditions for displaying the

Lindvall, C. M.

249

Science, technology, and the states  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between World War 2 and 1980, the federal government served as the prime source of funding for science and technology. In the 1980s, however, states emerged as significant players in science and technology policy, principally for economic development. In 1980, only nine states had technology innovation programs. In 1983, the number had increased to 22. In 1988, 45 states had

W. H. Lambright; D. Rahm

2009-01-01

250

Threshold States in Schematic Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In an extended Brown-Bolsterli schematic model the possibility of strength decoupling from the giant dipole resonance is shown. A part of the particle-hole excited states, the threshold states are supposed to have lower energy than the other normal states...

L. P. Csernai

1977-01-01

251

Local cloning of CAT states  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this Letter we analyze the (im)possibility of the exact cloning of orthogonal three-qubit CAT states under local operation and classical communication (LOCC) with the help of a restricted entangled state. We also classify the three-qubit CAT states that can (not) be cloned under LOCC restrictions and extend the results to the n-qubit case.

Rahaman, Ramij

2011-06-01

252

State-to-state and state-to-all-states reactive scattering angular distributions: F+H /sub 2/. -->. HF+H  

SciTech Connect

How each state-to-state reactive transition determines nonundulatory ''state-to-all-states'' angular distribution has not yet been investigated. Here we present a complete exposure of state-to-state distorted-wave Born-approximation angular distributions in order to examine how the nonoscillatory and backward-peaked state-to-all-states reactive scattering angular distribution occurs.

Emmons, R.W.; Suck, S.H.

1983-04-01

253

77 FR 72742 - Approval and Promulgation of State Implementation Plans: State of Washington; Regional Haze State...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...TransAlta). The Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) submitted its Regional Haze State Implementation...Haze Rule at 40 CFR 50.308. On December 29, 2011 Ecology submitted an update to the SIP submittal...

2012-12-06

254

Topics in coherent state quantum computation and state purification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation discusses mainly transmission of coherent state qubits, generation of cat states, and entanglement purification of any stabilizer state. A quantum computer is any device for computation that makes direct use of distinctively quantum mechanical phenomena, such as superposition and entanglement, to perform operations on data. The elementary carriers in quantum computation and information are the quantum bits, or qubits. In contrast to classical bits, qubits can be in every superposition of the states |0> and |1>. This means that a vector describing a qubit may be any vector in a two dimensional Hilbert space. In this dissertation, we review a method for constructing a linear optical quantum computer using coherent states of light as the qubits, developed by Ralph, Gilchrist, Milburn, Munro, and Clancy. We show how an universal set of logic operations can be performed using coherent states, beam splitters, photon counters, and a source of superpositions of coherent state, called "cat states". We also discuss the principal source of errors for this scheme and then present this author's analysis of the behavior of teleportation or Z gate when a non-maximally entangled Bell state is used. We describe several different schemes to generate cat states and make an analysis of these schemes in a realistic experimental environment subject to problems such as photon loss, detector inefficiency, and limited strength of nonlinear interactions. Next, we consider that photon loss is the principal decoherence mechanism that affects a coherent-state based qubit transmission though a long optical fiber, and show how the errors introduced during transmission can be corrected in two different ways to encode the qubit. Lastly, we present a method for multipartite entanglement purification of any stabilizer state shared by several parties. In this protocol, each party measures the stabilizer operators of an error correction code on his or her qubits, exchange their syndrome results, correct errors, and decode to obtain the desired purified state.

Vasconcelos, Hilma Helena Macedo De

255

Population projections: states, 1995 - 2025.  

PubMed

All states will have more people in the future, especially in the south and west, while population aging occurs as the baby boomers age. This report identifies population changes projected to affect the US's 50 states and District of Columbia during 1995-2015. Basic assumptions for state population projections are presented with regard to population, births, deaths, net international migration, and net internal migration. The methodology used to produce the report is also described. Total population and net change is presented in tabular format for each state over the period. These data are used as the basic input to many federal, state, and local projection models which produce detailed statistics on education, economic factors, labor force, health care, voting, and other subjects. State differentials in fertility and mortality are also projected to widen, reflecting the concentration of race and ethnic groups with high fertility in some states and differential migration patterns. PMID:12347954

Campbell, P

1997-05-01

256

United States, Capitals and Abbreviations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will use the links below to practice locating, naming, and spelling the 50 U.S.States, Capitals and Abbreviation. Go to these different websites to test your skills and knowledge on states and capitals. Be sure to visit every site. They each have different ways to study. #1 States and Capitals Spelling Practice #2 Practice States and Capitals #3 United States Map Puzzle #4 Where is That?! Practice spelling of state and capital names. #5 State Abbreviations Practice Abbreviations Want to listen to Wakko's America song? Click on the first video below. Wakko s America

Ribera, Mr.

2009-04-22

257

Toroidal magnetohydrodynamic steady states  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The axisymmetric steady states of a toroidal, current-carrying magnetofluid are determined for constant, scalar viscosity and resistivity, in the presence of a dc toroidal magnetic field. Non-ideal boundary conditions are assumed at an impenetrable, dielectric-coated, conducting material wall. The current is sustained by a constant toroidal inductive electric field. Poloidal and toroidal velocity fields are required for force balance [1,2]. We use FEMLAB, a commercial software package. Here, we focus on: (1) a wall boundary layer whose properties scale with powers of the viscous Lundquist number and inside which the steepest pressure drop occurs; and (2) a flow pattern that turns out to be sensitively dependent upon the shape of the cross-section of the toroid, and can go from dipolar to monopolar, in a poloidal plane, as the cross section goes from circularly symmetric about the major axis to D-shaped. The toroidal velocity becomes more important than the poloidal as the viscous Lundquist number increases. [1] L.P.J.Kamp et al, Phys. Fluids 10, 1757 (1998) and Phys. Plasmas 10, 157 (2003). [2] J.W. Bates et al, Phys. Plasmas 5, 2649 (1998).

Kamp, L. P. J.; Montgomery, D. C.

2003-11-01

258

United States v. Jacobson.  

PubMed

Court Decision: 785 Federal Supplement; 1992 Jan 9 (date of decision). The United States District Court for the Eastern District of Virginia granted in part the Government's motion to protect the true identities of parents and children involved in a criminal fraud case against a doctor accused of using his own sperm in the artificial insemination of his patients. Dr. Cecil B. Jacobson represented that the female patients would be inseminated with sperm from an anonymous donor. The Government alleged that the doctor used his own sperm to inseminate the patients. The District Court decided that significant psychological harm may result to the children if the parents' true identities were disclosed in an open court. In order to safeguard the children's well-being, "information regarding their paternity should be revealed to them in a careful manner and directed by their parents." Rather than close the courtroom, the District Court balanced a First Amendment and common law interest in openness and narrowly tailored measures to protect parent and child privacy. The court permitted the parent witnesses to use pseudonyms, excluded sketch artists from the courtroom, sealed judicial documents containing identifying information regarding the parents or children, and redacted all identifying information from copies of the sealed documents in the public file. PMID:16372436

1992-01-01

259

United States v. Jacobson.  

PubMed

The United States District Court for the Eastern District of Virginia, on 9 January 1992, granted in part the Government's motion to protect the true identities of parents and children involved in a criminal fraud case against a doctor accused of using his own sperm in the artificial insemination of his patients. Dr. Cecil B. Jacobson represented that the female patients would be inseminated with sperm from an anonymous donor. The Government alleged that the doctor used his own sperm to inseminate the patients. The District Court decided that significant psychological harm may result to the children if the parents' true identities were disclosed in an open court. In order to safeguard the children's well-being, "information regarding their paternity should be revealed to them in a careful manner and directed by their parents." Rather than close the courtroom, the District Court balanced a First Amendment and common law interest in openness and narrowly tailored measures to protect parent and child privacy. The court permitted the parent witnesses to use pseudonyms, excluded sketch artists from the courtroom, sealed judicial documents containing identifying information regarding the parents or children, and redacted all identifying information from copies of the sealed documents in the public file. PMID:16285101

1992-01-01

260

Solid state research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Solid State division of Lexington Lincoln Lab reports on its progress for this quarter. The areas of study are: Time Dye Laser Using Integrated Optics; GaP Microlenses by Mass Transport; A New OMVPE Reactor for Growth of InP and Related Alloys; Microchannel Heat Sinks for Two-Dimensional High Power-Density Diode Laser Arrays; Novel Scalloped-Mirror Diffraction-Coupled Laser Arrays; Three-Mirror Ti:Al2O3 Ring Laser Cavity; Femtosecond TiAl2O3 Injection-Seeded Laser; End-Pumped Nd:LaF3 and Nd:LaMgA11O19 Lasers; Single Frequency Mixing of Frequency Modulated Laser Radiation; Vertical Rotating Disk OMVPE Reactor; New Electron Beam Lithography System; Dry Etching Induced Damage on Vertical Sidewalls of GaAs Channels; Homoepitaxial Semiconducting Diamond; 420 X 420 CCD Frame Transfer Imager; Technique for Monolithically Integrating GaAs/AlGaAs Lasers of Different Wavelengths; Superconducting Thin Films of BiSrCaCuO; and Nb Thin Film Capacitors for Superconductive Circuits.

McWhorter, Alan L.

1989-03-01

261

Solid state research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solid state research of the Lexington Lincoln Lab is review for this time period. Areas of study are: Microwave Bandpass Modulators in Lithium Niobate; Surface Energy and Temperature Effect on Etched Structures in Compound Semiconductors Model of the Mass Transport Phenomenon; Kinetics of Mass Transport of Etched Structures in InP Due to Surface Energy Minimization; A Simple Model of Amplified Spontaneous Emission Spectral Narrowing High Power, Diffraction Limited, Narrowband External Cavity Diode Laser; Si-on-Insulator Films Prepared by Zone Melting Recrystallization with Enhanced Radiative Heating; Selective Plasma Etching of Si from GaAs-on-Si Wafers; Selective Area Laser Photodeposition of Transparent Conductive SnO2 Films; Electrical Characteristics of Ultrashallow Junction Diodes Fabricated by Laser Doping; Patterned Excimer Laser Etching of GaAs Within a Molecular Beam Epitaxy Machine; PBT Amplification at 94 GHz; A 64 X 64-Pixel Back Illuminated CCD Imager with Low Noise and High Frame Rates; High Speed Resonant Tunneling Diodes Made from the Pseudomorphic In(0.53)Ga(0.47) As/AlAs System; Superconductive Nb Thin Film Capacitors with Ta2O5 Dielectric; Deposition of YBa2Cu3Ox Films by Sequential RF Diode Sputtering; and Microwave Surface Resistance of BiSrCaCuO Films.

McWhorter, Alan L.

1988-11-01

262

Pointer states via engineered dissipation  

SciTech Connect

Pointer states are long-lasting high-fidelity states in open quantum systems. We show how any pure state in a non-Markovian open quantum system can be made to behave as a pointer state by suitably engineering the coupling to the environment via open-loop periodic control. Engineered pointer states are constructed as approximate fixed points of the controlled open-system dynamics, in such a way that they are guaranteed to survive over a long time with a fidelity determined by the relative precision with which the dynamics is engineered. We provide quantitative minimum-fidelity bounds by identifying symmetry and ergodicity conditions that the decoherence-inducing perturbation must obey in the presence of control, and develop explicit pulse sequences for engineering any desired set of orthogonal states as pointer states. These general control protocols are validated through exact numerical simulations as well as semiclassical approximations in realistic single- and two-qubit dissipative systems. We also examine the role of control imperfections, and show that while pointer-state engineering protocols are highly robust in the presence of systematic pulse errors, the latter can also lead to unintended pointer-state generation in dynamical decoupling implementations, explaining the initial-state selectivity observed in recent experiments.

Khodjasteh, Kaveh; Viola, Lorenza [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 (United States); Dobrovitski, Viatcheslav V. [Ames Laboratory, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States)

2011-08-15

263

Three State Nuclear Decay Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Three State Nuclear Decay model extends the Two State Nuclear Decay model (also available through OSP and ComPADRE) to simulate the radioactive decay of atomic nuclei in which the parent nucleus first decays into an intermediate state before decaying into a stable state. Although the decay of both the parent and intermediate nucleus (radionuclides) is spontaneous and unpredictable, the probability of decay of each radionuclide is constant and is usually known. The model displays a color-coded sample with N1 parent nuclides, N2 intermediate state nuclides, and N3 stable state nuclides.  Users can set the initial numbers N1 and N2, the decay the decay constants k1 and k2, and the time interval between measurements Δt before the simulation is run. The simulation counts the number of decay events and stops when all nuclides are in the stable state.   Check boxes display a plot and a table showing the time evolution of each state as well as the number of decay events in each time interval.  The data plot allows users to compare the data generated by the random decay model with a differential equation-based model. The Three State Nuclear Decay model was developed using the Easy Java Simulations (Ejs) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_nuclear_ThreeStateNuclearDecay.jar file will run the program if Java is installed.

Christian, Wolfgang

2011-01-07

264

State of the States: Fuel Cells in America  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report from the Breakthrough Technologies Institute looks at the status of fuel cells in America in 2011. A profile of how fuel cells are being used in most U.S. states is included; the amount of data provided varies from state to state. The top five states utilizing fuel cells are identified as California, Connecticut, New York, Ohio and South Carolina. An introductory statement includes information on how the use of fuel cells may be beneficial to the U.S. economy. This document may be downloaded in PDF file format.

2012-08-28

265

Mixed states in ferromagnetic superconductors  

SciTech Connect

A detailed study of the mixed state of the ferromagnetic rare-earth compounds RRh/sub 4/B/sub 4/, R/sub x/Mo/sub 6/S/sub 8/, and R/sub x/Mo/sub 6/Se/sub 6/ is presented. The saturation effect of the magnetic moments is taken into account. Depending on the parameters, there are many types of phase transitions between the type-II/2, type-II/1, and type-I mixed states and the paramagnetic Meissner state, ferromagnetic Meissner state, spin-periodic Meissner state, and the self-induced vortex state. It is predicted that the magnetization can exhibit a variety of unusual modes.

Matsumoto, H.; Teshima, R.; Umezawa, H.; Tachiki, M.

1983-01-01

266

Amplitude-mediated chimera states.  

PubMed

We investigate the possibility of obtaining chimera state solutions of the nonlocal complex Ginzburg-Landau equation (NLCGLE) in the strong coupling limit when it is important to retain amplitude variations. Our numerical studies reveal the existence of a variety of amplitude-mediated chimera states (including stationary and nonstationary two-cluster chimera states) that display intermittent emergence and decay of amplitude dips in their phase incoherent regions. The existence regions of the single-cluster chimera state and both types of two-cluster chimera states are mapped numerically in the parameter space of C(1) and C(2), the linear and nonlinear dispersion coefficients, respectively, of the NLCGLE. They represent a new domain of dynamical behavior in the well-explored rich phase diagram of this system. The amplitude-mediated chimera states may find useful applications in understanding spatiotemporal patterns found in fluid flow experiments and other strongly coupled systems. PMID:24229259

Sethia, Gautam C; Sen, Abhijit; Johnston, George L

2013-10-01

267

United States Vital Records Information  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Amateur genealogists beginning their searches through the vital records at the state or county level will find useful resources on this web site. Organized by state and then by county, these pages present instructions on how to make inquiries concerning vital records. In addition to general guidelines on what data to include in a request for birth, marital, and death records, each state's page has addresses for both state and county records offices and information about fees. All fifty states and several US possessions are included. There are also links to other local and national genealogy resources, as well as state and local historical societies, which can often be a good source for genealogical information.

268

FREE QUASI-FREE STATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

this paper free analogs of the quasi-free states on the CARand CCR algebras.Quasi-free states are important in mathematics and physics, and a vastbody of literature exists (a partial list includes [2, 1, 3, 7, 17, 22], see alsothe references in [7]). In particular, quasi-free states on the CAR algebragive rise, via the GNS construction, to the Araki-Woods factors. Thesefactors are

Dimitri Shlyakhtenko

1997-01-01

269

New York State Museum: GIS  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from The New York State Museum features a compilation of regional and statewide geology/hydrology GIS datasets that are available in ArcInfo and ArcView formats. Datasets are separated into four categories: statewide - coverage for the whole state (may be comprised of several datasets), regional based data - coverage for a portion of the state, county based data - coverage for an entire county, and quad based data - coverage for an entire 7.5' quadrangle.

Museum, New Y.

270

B States at the Tevatron  

SciTech Connect

The CDF and D0 experiments have produced a wealth of heavy flavor physics results since the beginning of RunII of the Fermilab Tevatron. They review recent measurements of B hadron states including excited B states (B**, B{sub s}**) and the B{sub c}{sup +} meson. They also summarize the discoveries of the {Sigma}{sub b} baryon states and the {Xi}{sub b}{sup -} baryon.

Paulini, Manfred; /Carnegie Mellon U.

2009-06-01

271

New York State  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On March 26, New York Mayor Michael Bloomberg declared a drought emergency for the city and four upstate counties in response to the worst drought to hit the eastern United States in nearly 70 years. Restrictions on water use will affect more than 8 million residents of New York. The city's reservoirs, located in the Catskill Mountains, are at 52 percent capacity. One of these, Ashokan Reservoir, is seen in this pair of ASTER images acquired on September 18, 2000 and February 3, 2002.

These images were acquired by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18,1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, along-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system.

The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

Size: 16.5 x 13 km (10.2 x 8.1 miles) Location: 41.9 deg. North lat., 74.2 deg. West long. Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER bands 1,2, and 3. Original Data Resolution: 15 m Date Acquired: September 18, 2000 and February 3, 2002

2002-01-01

272

Maintaining the unmethylated state  

PubMed Central

Background A remarkable correspondence exists between the cytogenetic locations of the known fragile sites and frequently reported sites of hypermethylation. The best-known features of fragile sites are sequence motifs that are prone to the spontaneous formation of a non-B DNA structure. These facts, coupled with the known enzymological specificities of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1), the ATP-dependent and actin-dependent helicases, and the ten-eleven translocation (TET) dioxygenases, suggest that these enzymes are involved in an epigenetic cycle that maintains the unmethylated state at these sites by resolving non-B structure, preventing both the sequestration of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) and hypermethylation in normal cells. Presentation of the hypothesis The innate tendency of DNA sequences present at fragile sites to form non-B DNA structures results in de novo methylation of DNA at these sites that is held in check in normal cells by the action of ATP-dependent and actin-dependent helicases coupled with the action of TET dioxygenases. This constitutes a previously unrecognized epigenetic repair cycle in which spontaneously forming non-B DNA structures formed at fragile sites are methylated by DNMTs as they are removed by the action of ATP-dependent and actin-dependent helicases, with the resulting nascent methylation rendered non-transmissible by TET dioxygenases. Testing the hypothesis A strong prediction of the hypothesis is that knockdown of ATP-dependent and actin-dependent helicases will result in enhanced bisulfite sensitivity and hypermethylation at non-B structures in multiple fragile sites coupled with global hypomethylation. Implications of the hypothesis A key implication of the hypothesis is that helicases, like the lymphoid-specific helicase and alpha thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked helicase, passively promote accurate maintenance of DNA methylation by preventing the sequestration of DNMTs at sites of unrepaired non-B DNA structure. When helicase action is blocked due to mutation or downregulation of the respective genes, DNMTs stall at unrepaired non-B structures in fragile sites after methylating them and are unable to methylate other sites in the genome, resulting in hypermethylation at non-B DNA-forming sites, along with hypomethylation elsewhere.

2013-01-01

273

2-photon multiqubit cluster states  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cluster states of two photons and four qubits, built on the double entanglement of two photons in the degrees of freedom of polarization and linear momentum, have been used in the realization of a complete set of basic operations of one-way quantum computation. Basic computation algorithms, namely, the Grover's search and the Deutsch's algorithm, have been realized by using these states. Hyperentangled states of increasing size are of paramount importance for the realization of even more complex algorithms and can be extended to a lager number of degrees of freedom of the photons. Some recent results obtained with entangled states of two photons and six qubits are presented.

Vallone, G.; Ceccarelli, R.; Mataloni, P.

2009-01-01

274

Coherent states on the circle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a possible construction of coherent states on the unit circle as configuration space. In our approach the phase space is the product ?S1. Because of the duality of canonical coordinates and momenta, i.e. the angular variable and the integers, this formulation can also be interpreted as coherent states over an infinite periodic chain. For the construction we use the analogy with our quantization over a finite periodic chain where the phase space was ?M ?M. Properties of the coherent states constructed in this way are studied and the coherent states are shown to satisfy the resolution of unity.

Chadzitaskos, G.; Luft, P.; Tolar, J.

2011-03-01

275

State observer for synchronous motors  

DOEpatents

A state observer driven by measurements of phase voltages and currents for estimating the angular orientation of a rotor of a synchronous motor such as a variable reluctance motor (VRM). Phase voltages and currents are detected and serve as inputs to a state observer. The state observer includes a mathematical model of the electromechanical operation of the synchronous motor. The characteristics of the state observer are selected so that the observer estimates converge to the actual rotor angular orientation and velocity, winding phase flux linkages or currents.

Lang, Jeffrey H. (Waltham, MA)

1994-03-22

276

State Energy Overview. [Contains glossary  

SciTech Connect

An overview of selected energy-related data for the United States, for each state, and for the District of Columbia is presented. Included are the quantities of energy produced and consumed, estimates of fuel reserves, the value of nonrenewable fuels produced by type, energy expenditures, and consumer prices. Also provided for each state are selected demographic and energy-related information that have been ranked and expressed as a percent of the national total. This overview provides a ready reference and a quick access to selected state energy information and state rankings for various socioeconomic and energy items. The State Energy Overview is arranged in five sections. The first section presents United States totals and an overview of state rankings. The second depicts data for the 50 states and the District of Columbia. The glossary presents definitions germane to this publication and the fourth section describes methodology and includes remarks concerning the information and methods used to estimate 1982 consumption numbers. The fifth section presents sources of data and information for this publication. A summary of each section is included.

Not Available

1983-10-01

277

State coal profiles, January 1994  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of State Coal Profiles is to provide basic information about the deposits, production, and use of coal in each of the 27 States with coal production in 1992. Although considerable information on coal has been published on a national level, there is a lack of a uniform overview for the individual States. This report is intended to help fill that gap and also to serve as a framework for more detailed studies. While focusing on coal output, State Coal Profiles shows that the coal-producing States are major users of coal, together accounting for about three-fourths of total US coal consumption in 1992. Each coal-producing State is profiled with a description of its coal deposits and a discussion of the development of its coal industry. Estimates of coal reserves in 1992 are categorized by mining method and sulfur content. Trends, patterns, and other information concerning production, number of mines, miners, productivity, mine price of coal, disposition, and consumption of coal are detailed in statistical tables for selected years from 1980 through 1992. In addition, coal`s contribution to the State`s estimated total energy consumption is given for 1991, the latest year for which data are available. A US summary of all data is provided for comparing individual States with the Nation as a whole. Sources of information are given at the end of the tables.

Not Available

1994-02-02

278

OR State Profile. Oregon: Oregon State Assessment System (OSAS)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides information about Oregon State Assessment System. Its purpose is to assess proficiency in the Essential Skills for the purpose of earning a regular or modified high school diploma. Oregon Assessment of Knowledge and Skills is also used for federal accountability purposes under No Child Left Behind. [For the main report, "State

Center on Education Policy, 2010

2010-01-01

279

Eyes State Detection Method in Fatigue State Surveillance System  

Microsoft Academic Search

(Abstract)To solve the insufficiency of distinguishing the state of eyes in the supervising system for identifying the driver's fatigue, this paper proposes a fast algorithm for eyes' state identifying which integrates image processing, complexity, combines projection and geometry feature. The detail of distinguish process is described and the core algorithm is discussed. Tests verifie that this algorithm can be used

NIU Jie; SHEN Xiao-feng

2009-01-01

280

State of Disparities in Cardiovascular Health in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundReducing health disparities remains a major public health challenge in the United States. Having timely access to current data on disparities is important for policy and program development. Accordingly, we assessed the current magnitude of disparities in cardiovascular disease (CVD) and its risk factors in the United States. Methods and ResultsUsing national surveys, we determined CVD and risk factor prevalence

George A. Mensah; Ali H. Mokdad; Earl S. Ford; Kurt J. Greenlund; Janet B. Croft

281

State Higher Education Budgeting Mechanisms in the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

(Purpose) The purpose of this study was to examine the correlation between certain characteristics of US states and their budgeting systems for higher education (HE), and to derive implications for Japanese HE budgeting policy from the results. (Methodology) The US's State Higher Education Executive Officers (SHEEO) conducted a 30-item

Mizuta, Kensuke; Yoshida, Kana; Yanagiura, Takeshi

2010-01-01

282

State and Local Government on the Net  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

State and Local Government on the Net is a listing of pointers to state, county, and city government pages. Sites included are those which meet the criteria of being produced and managed by state, county, or local agencies. Each state is divided into state, county and local sites when available. Links to Native American tribal sites, federal resources related to state and local governments, and national organizations serving state and local governments are also included. http://www.piperinfo.com/state/states.html

1999-01-01

283

Cryptography and system state estimation using polarization states  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present new results on cryptography and system state estimation using polarization states of photons. Current quantum cryptography applications are based on the BB84 protocol which is not secure against photon siphoning attacks. Recent research has established that the information that can be obtained from a pure state in repeated experiments is potentially infinite. This can be harnessed by sending a burst of photons confined to a very narrow time window, each such burst containing several bits of information. The proposed method represents a new way of transmitting secret information. While polarization shift-keying methods have been proposed earlier, our method is somewhat different in that it proposes to discover the polarization state of identical photons in a burst from a laser which codes binary information. We also present results on estimating the state of a system based on the polarization of the received photons which can have applications in intrusion detection.

Kak, Subhash; Verma, Pramode; MacDonald, Greg

2011-09-01

284

Science and Engineering State Profiles: Fall 1997  

NSF Publications Database

... and Engineering State Profiles: 1997 Hypertext Format Science and Engineering State Profiles ... Format (.pdf) Science and Engineering State Profiles This report is available in hypertext (.htm ...

285

Controlled remote state preparation of arbitrary two and three qubit states via the Brown state  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, several new protocols for the controlled remote state preparation (CRSP) by using the Brown state as the quantum channel are proposed. Firstly, we propose a CRSP protocol of an arbitrary two qubit state. Then, the CRSP protocol of an arbitrary three qubit state, which has rarely been considered by the previous papers, is investigated. The coefficients of the prepared states can be not only real, but also complex. To design these protocols, some useful and general measurement bases are constructed, which can greatly reduce the restrictions for the coefficients of the prepared states. The security analysis is provided in detail. Moreover, receiver's all recovery operations are summarized into a concise formula.

Chen, Xiu-Bo; Ma, Song-Ya; Su, Yuan; Zhang, Ru; Yang, Yi-Xian

2012-12-01

286

New states above charm threshold  

SciTech Connect

We revise and extend expectations for the properties of charmonium states that lie above charm threshold, in light of new experimental information. We refine the Cornell coupled-channel model for the coupling of c{bar c} levels to two-meson states, defining resonance masses and widths by pole positions in the complex energy plane, and suggest new targets for experiment.

Eichten, Estia J.; /Fermilab; Lane, Kenneth; /Boston U.; Quigg, Chris; /Fermilab

2005-11-01

287

Superdense coding using multipartite states  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that with the fourpartite quantum channel used to teleport an arbitrary two qubit state, we can construct a superdense coding protocol where it is possible to transmit 4 bits of classical information sending only 2 qubits. Alice and Bob initially share a four qubit maximally entangled state and by locally manipulating her two qubits Alice can generate 16

G. Rigolin

2004-01-01

288

Markov Monitoring with Unknown States  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pattern recognition methods and hidden Markov models can be effective tools for online health monitoring of communications systems. Previous work has assumed that the states in the system model are exhaustive. This can be a significant drawback in real-world fault monitoring applications where it is difficult if not impossible to model all the possible fault states of the system in advance.

Smyth, Padhraic

1993-01-01

289

Conclusive exclusion of quantum states  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the task of quantum state exclusion, we consider a quantum system prepared in a state chosen from a known set. The aim is to perform a measurement on the system which can conclusively rule that a subset of the possible preparation procedures cannot have taken place. We ask what conditions the set of states must obey in order for this to be possible and how well we can complete the task when it is not. The task of quantum state discrimination forms a subclass of this set of problems. Within this paper, we formulate the general problem as a semidefinite program (SDP), enabling us to derive sufficient and necessary conditions for a measurement to be optimal. Furthermore, we obtain a necessary condition on the set of states for exclusion to be achievable with certainty, and we give a construction for a lower bound on the probability of error. This task of conclusively excluding states has gained importance in the context of the foundations of quantum mechanics due to a result from Pusey, Barrett, and Rudolph (PBR). Motivated by this, we use our SDP to derive a bound on how well a class of hidden variable models can perform at a particular task, proving an analog of Tsirelson's bound for the PBR experiment and the optimality of a measurement given by PBR in the process. We also introduce variations of conclusive exclusion, including unambiguous state exclusion, and state exclusion with worst-case error.

Bandyopadhyay, Somshubhro; Jain, Rahul; Oppenheim, Jonathan; Perry, Christopher

2014-02-01

290

State estimation for mega RTOs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Control and operation of electric power system is based on the ability to determine the state of the system in real time. State estimation has been introduced in the 60s to achieve this objective. The initial implementation was based on single phase measurements and a power system model that is assumed to operate under single frequency, balanced conditions and symmetric

A. P. Sakis Meliopoulos

2002-01-01

291

Solid State Physics: An Introduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

There's a wealth of excellent textbooks on solid state physics. The author of the present book is well aware of this fact and does not attempt to write just another one. Rather, he has provided a very compact introduction to solid state physics for third-year students. As we are faced with the continuous appearance interdisciplinary fields and associated study curricula

Bernhard Jakoby

2009-01-01

292

Landforms of the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of a series of general interest publications on science topics, the booklet provides those interested in landforms of the United States with a nontechnical introduction to the subject. Separate sections examine deposital versus erosional landforms in the central stable region of the United States, the Appalachian Highlands, the Ozark Region,

Geological Survey (Dept. of Interior), Reston, VA.

293

Relaxed states with plasma flow.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the theory of relaxation, a plasma reaches a state of minimum energy subject to constant magnetic helicity. In this state the plasma velocity is zero. Several authors have attempted to extend the theory, by introducing a number of different helicity in...

K. Avinash J. B. Taylor

1991-01-01

294

Bound states in the continuum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantum-mechanical examples have been constructed of local potentials with bound eigenstates embedded in the dense continuum of scattering states. The method employed corrects and extends a procedure invented by von Neumann and Wigner. Cases are cited whereby deformation of the local potential causes the continuum bound state to move downward through the bottom of the continuum, and to connect analytically

Frank H. Stillinger; David R. Herrick

1975-01-01

295

Bound states of ? + in nuclei  

Microsoft Academic Search

The energies and widths of bound states of themeson in different nuclei are obtained using the results for its selfenergy in a nuclear medium, which is evaluated in a selfconsistent manner using techniques of unitarized chiral perturbation theory. We find bound states in all studied nuclei (from 12C on) and the half widths obtained are larger than the separation of

E. Oset; D. Cabrera; Q. B. Li; V. K. Magas; M. J. Vicente Vacas

2005-01-01

296

Equation of State of Solid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although solid helium is arguably the simplest realiza- tion of a quantum crystal, its phase diagram is surprisingly rich (1,2). Obtaining a satisfactory theoretical equation of state (EOS) for this archetypal quantum solid is both a long standing problem and a worthwhile objective, not only for its intrinsic interest and its broad relevance to solid state physics, but also as

Francesco Pederiva; Massimo Boninsegni

2000-01-01

297

Children in the States, 1997.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report from the Children's Defense Fund lists statistics on child and youth well-being for each of the states and the United States as a whole. Statistics are provided in the following categories: (1) children participating in federally subsidized programs (including Title 1 Education for the Disadvantaged, bilingual education programs,

Children's Defense Fund, Washington, DC.

298

The Shadow of State Secrets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The shadow of state secrets casts itself longer than previously acknowledged. Between 2001 and 2009 the government asserted state secrets in more than 100 cases, while in scores more litigants appealed to the doctrine in anticipation of government intervention. Contractor cases ranged from breach of contract, patent disputes, and trade secrets, to fraud and employment termination. Wrongful death, personal injury,

Laura K. Donohue

2010-01-01

299

State Testing Standards versus Creativity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The balance between conformity to state standards and creativity in providing for individual differences in the classroom is discussed. With the current emphases on accountability and standards, learning opportunities for students are supposed to be aligned with state-mandated objectives. This may lead to a situation in which rote learning,

Ediger, Marlow

300

Magnetic edge states in graphene  

Microsoft Academic Search

We theoretically study the magnetic edge states of the Dirac fermions in graphene, formed along the boundary between the two domains in a spatially nonuniform magnetic field, B0 in one domain and B1 in the other domain, in the quantum Hall regime. The energy spectra of the magnetic edge states depend on whether B0 is parallel or antiparallel to B1.

H.-S. Sim

2008-01-01

301

State Governance Action Report, 2008  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the fifth edition of the State Governance Action Report that has been produced since 2000 by the Association of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges' (AGB's) Ingram Center for Public Trusteeship and Governance. Focusing primarily on state and higher education policies directly affecting governance, trusteeship, and institutionally

Ogle, Greg

2008-01-01

302

Alaska State Educational Technology Plan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Alaska Department of Educational and Early Development (EED) has developed this five-year educational technology plan based on the recommendations of a taskforce representing education stakeholders throughout the state and has submitted this report to the Office of Educational Technology at the U.S. Department of Education. A state technology

Alaska Department of Education and Early Development, 2005

2005-01-01

303

Linearized theory of peridynamic states  

Microsoft Academic Search

A state-based peridynamic material model describes internal forces acting on a point in terms of the collective deformation of all the material within a neighborhood of the point. In this paper, the response of a state-based peridynamic material is investigated for a small deformation superposed on a large deformation. The appropriate notion of a small deformation restricts the relative displacement

Stewart A. Silling; Stewart Andrew

2009-01-01

304

Index to the State Standards.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present index comprises all State Standards (GOST and OST) in force on 1 January 1965, and also the State Standards which had been laid down at this date but which have not yet come into force. All the GOST and OST are compiled in the index according ...

1968-01-01

305

Caesium chemistry: Beyond state I  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although caesium is well known in its oxidation state +I, many chemists have speculated about a possible higher state. Such a species has not yet been prepared, but based on quantum-chemical calculations CsFn compounds have now been predicted to be stable.

Riedel, Sebastian; Schwerdtfeger, Peter

2013-10-01

306

Studying Thermodynamics of Metastable States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simple classical thermodynamic approach to the general description of metastable states is presented. It makes possible to calculate the explicit dependence of the Gibbs free energy on temperature, to calculate the heat capacity, the thermodynamic barrier, dividing metastable and more stable states, and the thermal expansion coefficient. Thermodynamic stability under mechanical loading is considered. The influence of the heating (cooling)

Yuri Kornyushin

2007-01-01

307

Glass for Solid State Devices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Glass film has low intrinsic compressive stress for isolating active layers of magnetic-bubble and other solid-state devices. Solid-state device structure incorporates low-stress glasses as barrier and spacer layers. Glass layers mechanically isolate substrate, conductor, and nickel/iron layers.

Bailey, R. F.

1982-01-01

308

Coherent states: a contemporary panorama  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coherent states (CS) of the harmonic oscillator (also called canonical CS) were introduced in 1926 by Schrdinger in answer to a remark by Lorentz on the classical interpretation of the wave function. They were rediscovered in the early 1960s, first (somewhat implicitly) by Klauder in the context of a novel representation of quantum states, then by Glauber and Sudarshan for

S Twareque Ali; Jean-Pierre Antoine; Fabio Bagarello; Jean-Pierre Gazeau

2012-01-01

309

States Seek Flexibility on Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the debut of common assessments less than two years away, states and districts are worried about the accountability systems that hinge on those tests. A growing chorus of policy groups is urging more flexibility in how states evaluate teachers, label schools, and enforce other high-stakes consequences during what's likely to be a messy

McNeil, Michele; Gewertz, Catherine

2013-01-01

310

Psychopathology and primitive mental states.  

PubMed

The author discusses the psychoanalytic concept of primitive mental states, arguing that normal primitive mental states contain omnipotent fantasies that in an adult would be classified as delusions and hallucinations, but also contain sufficient reality sense to allow the infant to learn through experience that its omnipotent unconscious fantasies are not real, but only ordinary unconscious fantasies. Psychopathology of the type requiring psychoanalytic treatment is connected to persistent unconscious omnipotent fantasies (delusions). It is not the result of a regression to a normal primitive mental state, since in a normal primitive mental state, such delusions and their resultant inhibitions, symptoms and anxieties are gradually and spontaneously overcome through learning from experience. The unconscious delusions related to psychopathology persist because they are insulated from the effects of the learning from experience that would ordinarily convert them into unconscious fantasies by the use of transformations in hallucinosis, reversal of perspective and realistic projective identification by the psychotic part of the personality. Together, these mechanisms distort experience in such a way that reality appears to confirm, not challenge, the delusions, making learning impossible. The theory that psychopathology is due to a regression or fixation to a normal primitive mental state acts as a defence against the awareness that the mental states associated with current psychopathology are not like normal primitive ones, and that they differ from normal primitive mental states by containing forces that are sufficiently destructive of learning from experience to have prevented the patient's mental state from evolving in a normal fashion. PMID:9717101

Caper, R

1998-06-01

311

State Governance Action Report, 2007  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents the State Governance Action Report for 2007. Compiled in this report are state policy developments, including legislation, commissions, and studies, affecting the structure, responsibilities, and operations of public higher education governing boards and institutionally related foundations. Governance and governance-related

Association of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges, 2007

2007-01-01

312

The Journey for Jackson State  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article profiles Jackson State University, a historically Black school of more than 8,000 students located at the southern end of Jackson, Mississippi's majority-Black capital city. Founded in 1877, Jackson State has emerged as one of Mississippi's leading research institutions as well as one of the top HBCUs in the country for research. Its

Roach, Ronald

2007-01-01

313

Stable States of Biological Organisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel model of biological organisms is advanced, treating an organism as a self-consistent system subject to a pathogen flux. The principal novelty of the model is that it describes not some parts, but a biological organism as a whole. The organism is modeled by a five-dimensional dynamical system. The organism homeostasis is described by the evolution equations for five interacting components: healthy cells, ill cells, innate immune cells, specific immune cells, and pathogens. The stability analysis demonstrates that, in a wide domain of the parameter space, the system exhibits robust structural stability. There always exist four stable stationary solutions characterizing four qualitatively differing states of the organism: alive state, boundary state, critical state, and dead state.

Yukalov, V. I.; Sornette, D.; Yukalova, E. P.; Henry, J.-Y.; Cobb, J. P.

2009-04-01

314

Cluster states in 11B  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The differential cross-sections of the elastic and inelastic 11B + ? scattering was measured at E(?) = 65 MeV. The analysis of the data by Modified diffraction model (MDM) showed that the RMS radii of the 11B state 3/2-, E* = 8.56 MeV is ~ 0.6 fm larger than that of the ground state. The 12.56 MeV state was not observed contrary to the predictions of the ?-condensate model. The 13.1 MeV state was excited with the angular momentum transfer L = 4 confirming its belonging to the rotational band with the 8.56 MeV state as a head.

Danilov, A. N.; Demyanova, A. S.; Ogloblin, A. A.; Dmitriev, S. V.; Belyaeva, T. L.; Goncharov, S. A.; Gurov, Yu. B.; Maslov, V. A.; Sobolev, Yu. G.; Trzaska, W.; Khlebnikov, S. V.; Burtebaev, N.; Zholdybayev, T.; Saduyev, N.; Heikkinen, P.; Julin, R.; Tyurin, G. P.

2014-03-01

315

Are Cloned Quantum States Macroscopic?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study quantum states produced by optimal phase covariant quantum cloners. We argue that cloned quantum superpositions are not macroscopic superpositions in the spirit of Schrdingers cat, despite their large particle number. This is indicated by calculating several measures for macroscopic superpositions from the literature, as well as by investigating the distinguishability of the two superposed cloned states. The latter rapidly diminishes when considering imperfect detectors or noisy states and does not increase with the system size. In contrast, we find that cloned quantum states themselves are macroscopic, in the sense of both proposed measures and their usefulness in quantum metrology with an optimal scaling in system size. We investigate the applicability of cloned states for parameter estimation in the presence of different kinds of noise.

Frwis, F.; Dr, W.

2012-10-01

316

State estimation: A comparison between direct state measurement and tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compare direct state measurement (DSM, or weak state tomography) to conventional state reconstruction (tomography) through accurate Monte Carlo simulations. We find that DSM is much less precise than tomography, but it is surprisingly robust to its inherent bias, which introduces an unavoidable error in the reconstruction. In addition to studying DSM and proposing a method to estimate such bias from the experimental data, we show that the number of DSM measurements can be optimized and that the dimensionality of the DSM pointer is irrelevant: Both finite- and infinite-dimensional pointers provide comparable reconstructions.

Maccone, Lorenzo; Rusconi, Cosimo C.

2014-02-01

317

Insure Kids Now: Providers in Your State  

MedlinePLUS

... find information on health insurance programs and dental providers in your state, go directly to your state's ... select your state from the drop-down box. Providers in States map. Flash Player 9 is required. ...

318

42 CFR 457.50 - State plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO STATES Introduction; State Plans for Child Health Insurance Programs and Outreach Strategies § 457.50 State plan. The State plan is a comprehensive written...

2013-10-01

319

State Profiles of Underage Drinking Laws  

MedlinePLUS

State Profiles of Underage Drinking Laws This section of the APIS Web site provides State-by-State summaries of statutes and regulations related to underage drinking and access to alcohol. For each State, summaries ...

320

77 FR 48591 - State Rail Plan Guidance  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. FRA-2012-0066] State Rail Plan Guidance AGENCY: Federal Railroad...Request for Public Comment on Proposed State Rail Plan Guidance...submission, and acceptance of State rail plans. State rail plans are...

2012-08-14

321

State of Coral Reef Ecosystems of the United States and Pacific Freely Associated States: 2008.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is the third in an ongoing series of assessments of the condition of coral reef ecosystems in the United States and Pacific Freely Associated states, and the second report to focus specifically on summarizing the results of coral reef ecosyste...

A. M. Clarke J. E. Waddell

2008-01-01

322

64 FR 10412 - State Child Health; State Children's Health Insurance Program Allotments and Payments to States  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administrator must notify the State in writing of a deferral and the State's responsibility...more than 85 percent. This formula, mathematically, could be expressed as the lesser...FMAP) + 30 percent. This formula is mathematically equal to the statutory formula....

1999-03-04

323

Capillary states of granular materials in the funicular state  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a multi-phase lattice Boltzmann model, we investigate the capillary states of a 2D granular packing gradually saturated by condensation from a homogeneously injected vapor phase. The internal stresses induced by surface tension and Laplace pressure are directly calculated from the forces acting on the grains with increasing amount of liquid. The evolution of cohesive strength with the amount of liquid reveals four different states reflecting the connectivity of the liquid phase and local grain environments. It increases in the pendular state, characterized by binary liquid bridges holding the grains together, and within the funicular state with an increasing number of liquid clusters connected to several grains. Beyond 40% of saturation, the cohesive strength falls off due to a decreasing Laplace pressure of liquid clusters.

Delenne, Jean-Yves; Richefeu, Vincent; Radjai, Farhang

2013-06-01

324

Federation of State Medical Boards of the United States  

MedlinePLUS

... org/safeprescribing . About the FSMB??s new guidelines for telemedicine Representatives of state medical licensing boards have approved ... quality of medicine when it is practiced using telemedicine technology ?? which can connect a patient in ...

325

Separable States with Unique Decompositions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We search for faces of the convex set consisting of all separable states, which are affinely isomorphic to simplices, to get separable states with unique decompositions. In the two-qutrit case, we found that six product vectors spanning a five dimensional space give rise to a face isomorphic to the 5-dimensional simplex with six vertices, under a suitable linear independence assumption. If the partial conjugates of six product vectors also span a 5-dimensional space, then this face is inscribed in the face for PPT states whose boundary shares the fifteen 3-simplices on the boundary of the 5-simplex. The remaining boundary points consist of PPT entangled edge states of rank four. We also show that every edge state of rank four arises in this way. If the partial conjugates of the above six product vectors span a 6-dimensional space then we have a face isomorphic to 5-simplex, whose interior consists of separable states with unique decompositions, but with non-symmetric ranks. We also construct a face isomorphic to the 9-simplex. As applications, we give answers to questions in the literature Chen and Djokovi? (J Math Phys 54:022201, 2013) and Chen and Djokovi? (Commun Math Phys 323:241-284, 2013), and construct 3 ? 3PPT states of type (9,5). For the qubit-qudit cases with d ? 3, we also show that ( d + 1)-dimensional subspaces give rise to faces isomorphic to the d-simplices, in most cases.

Ha, Kil-Chan; Kye, Seung-Hyeok

2014-05-01

326

Reusable State Machine Code Generator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The State Machine model is frequently used to represent the behaviour of a system, allowing one to express and execute this behaviour in a deterministic way. A graphical representation such as a UML State Chart diagram tames the complexity of the system, thus facilitating changes to the model and communication between developers and domain experts. We present a reusable state machine code generator, developed by the Universidad Tcnica Federico Santa Mara and the European Southern Observatory. The generator itself is based on the open source project architecture, and uses UML State Chart models as input. This allows for a modular design and a clean separation between generator and generated code. The generated state machine code has well-defined interfaces that are independent of the implementation artefacts such as the middle-ware. This allows using the generator in the substantially different observatory software of the Atacama Large Millimeter Array and the ESO Very Large Telescope. A project-specific mapping layer for event and transition notification connects the state machine code to its environment, which can be the Common Software of these projects, or any other project. This approach even allows to automatically create tests for a generated state machine, using techniques from software testing, such as path-coverage.

Hoffstadt, A. A.; Reyes, C.; Sommer, H.; Andolfato, L.

2010-12-01

327

Quantum State Discrimination with Bosonic Channels and Gaussian States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Discriminating between quantum states is an indispensable part of quantum information theory. This thesis investigates state discrimination of continuous quantum variables, focusing on bosonic communication channels and Gaussian states. The specific state discrimination problems studied are (a) quantum illumination and (b) optimal measurements for decoding bosonic channels. Quantum illumination is a technique for detection and imaging which uses entanglement between a probe and an ancilla to enhance sensitivity. I shall show how entanglement can help with the discrimination between two noisy and lossy bosonic channels, one in which a target reflects back a small part of the probe light, and the other in which all probe light is lost. This enhancement is obtained even though the channels are entanglement-breaking. The main result of this study is that, under optimum detection in the asymptotic limit of many detection trials, 6 dB of improvement in the error exponent can be achieved by using an entangled state as compared to a classical state. In the study of optimal measurements for decoding bosonic channels, I shall present an alternative measurement to the pretty-good measurement for attaining the classical capacity of the lossy bosonic channel given product coherent-state inputs. This new measurement has the feature that, at each step of the measurement, only projective measurements are needed. The measurement is a sequential one: the number of steps required is exponential in the code length, and the error rate of this measurement goes to zero in the limit of large code length. Although not physically practical in itself, this new measurement has a simple physical interpretation in terms of collective energy measurements, and may give rise to an implementation of an optimal measurement for lossy bosonic channels. The two problems studied in my thesis are examples of how state discrimination can be useful in solving problems by using quantum mechanical properties such as entanglement and entangling measurements. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, libraries.mit.edu/docs - docs mit.edu)

Tan, Si Hui

328

Perfect State Transfer on a Spin Chain without State Initialization  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate that perfect state transfer can be achieved using an\\u000aengineered spin chain and clean local end-chain operations, without requiring\\u000athe initialization of the state of the medium nor fine tuning of\\u000acontrol-pulses. This considerably relaxes the prerequisites for obtaining\\u000areliable transfer of quantum information across interacting-spin systems.\\u000aMoreover, it allows us to shed light on the interplay among

C. Di Franco; M. Paternostro; M. S. Kim

2008-01-01

329

Perfect State Transfer on a Spin Chain without State Initialization  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate that perfect state transfer can be achieved using an engineered spin chain and clean local end-chain operations, without requiring the initialization of the state of the medium nor fine-tuning of control pulses. This considerably relaxes the prerequisites for obtaining reliable transfer of quantum information across interacting-spin systems. Moreover, it allows us to shed light on the interplay among

C. di Franco; M. Paternostro; M. S. Kim

2008-01-01

330

Matrix product states for trial quantum Hall states  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We obtain an exact matrix-product-state (MPS) representation of a large series of fractional quantum Hall (FQH) states in various geometries of genus 0. The states in question include all paired k=2 Jack polynomials, such as the Moore-Read and Gaffnian states, as well as the Read-Rezayi k=3 state. We also outline the procedures through which the MPSs of other model FQH states can be obtained, provided their wave function can be written as a correlator in a 1+1 conformal field theory (CFT). The auxiliary Hilbert space of the MPS, which gives the counting of the entanglement spectrum, is then simply the Hilbert space of the underlying CFT. This formalism enlightens the link between entanglement spectrum and edge modes. Properties of model wave functions such as the thin-torus root partitions and squeezing are recast in the MPS form, and numerical benchmarks for the accuracy of the new MPS prescription in various geometries are provided.

Estienne, B.; Papi?, Z.; Regnault, N.; Bernevig, B. A.

2013-04-01

331

Quantum optical state comparison amplifier.  

PubMed

It is a fundamental principle of quantum theory that an unknown state cannot be copied or, as a consequence, an unknown optical signal cannot be amplified deterministically and perfectly. Here we describe a protocol that provides nondeterministic quantum optical amplification in the coherent state basis with high gain and high fidelity and which does not use quantum resources. The scheme is based on two mature quantum optical technologies: coherent state comparison and photon subtraction. The method compares favorably with all previous nondeterministic amplifiers in terms of fidelity and success probability. PMID:24313486

Eleftheriadou, Electra; Barnett, Stephen M; Jeffers, John

2013-11-22

332

Arkansas Digital State Publications Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The state of Arkansas publishes hundreds of official newsletters, technical reports, and advisory documents each year. This archive contains over 6,100 of these documents, including the "2005 Arkansas Youth Tobacco Survey" and the "Spring 2001 Arkansas Wild Turkey Harvest Report." First-time visitors can look over the scrolling list of available documents here to get a feel for these materials. The site offers a great trove for those with an interest in public policy matters throughout the state and for students of state governance it is truly invaluable.

333

Determinate-state convolutional codes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A determinate state convolutional code is formed from a conventional convolutional code by pruning away some of the possible state transitions in the decoding trellis. The type of staged power transfer used in determinate state convolutional codes proves to be an extremely efficient way of enhancing the performance of a concatenated coding system. The decoder complexity is analyzed along with free distances of these new codes and extensive simulation results is provided of their performance at the low signal to noise ratios where a real communication system would operate. Concise, practical examples are provided.

Collins, O.; Hizlan, M.

1991-01-01

334

An Empirical State Error Covariance Matrix for Batch State Estimation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

State estimation techniques serve effectively to provide mean state estimates. However, the state error covariance matrices provided as part of these techniques suffer from some degree of lack of confidence in their ability to adequately describe the uncertainty in the estimated states. A specific problem with the traditional form of state error covariance matrices is that they represent only a mapping of the assumed observation error characteristics into the state space. Any errors that arise from other sources (environment modeling, precision, etc.) are not directly represented in a traditional, theoretical state error covariance matrix. Consider that an actual observation contains only measurement error and that an estimated observation contains all other errors, known and unknown. It then follows that a measurement residual (the difference between expected and observed measurements) contains all errors for that measurement. Therefore, a direct and appropriate inclusion of the actual measurement residuals in the state error covariance matrix will result in an empirical state error covariance matrix. This empirical state error covariance matrix will fully account for the error in the state estimate. By way of a literal reinterpretation of the equations involved in the weighted least squares estimation algorithm, it is possible to arrive at an appropriate, and formally correct, empirical state error covariance matrix. The first specific step of the method is to use the average form of the weighted measurement residual variance performance index rather than its usual total weighted residual form. Next it is helpful to interpret the solution to the normal equations as the average of a collection of sample vectors drawn from a hypothetical parent population. From here, using a standard statistical analysis approach, it directly follows as to how to determine the standard empirical state error covariance matrix. This matrix will contain the total uncertainty in the state estimate, regardless as to the source of the uncertainty. Also, in its most straight forward form, the technique only requires supplemental calculations to be added to existing batch algorithms. The generation of this direct, empirical form of the state error covariance matrix is independent of the dimensionality of the observations. Mixed degrees of freedom for an observation set are allowed. As is the case with any simple, empirical sample variance problems, the presented approach offers an opportunity (at least in the case of weighted least squares) to investigate confidence interval estimates for the error covariance matrix elements. The diagonal or variance terms of the error covariance matrix have a particularly simple form to associate with either a multiple degree of freedom chi-square distribution (more approximate) or with a gamma distribution (less approximate). The off diagonal or covariance terms of the matrix are less clear in their statistical behavior. However, the off diagonal covariance matrix elements still lend themselves to standard confidence interval error analysis. The distributional forms associated with the off diagonal terms are more varied and, perhaps, more approximate than those associated with the diagonal terms. Using a simple weighted least squares sample problem, results obtained through use of the proposed technique are presented. The example consists of a simple, two observer, triangulation problem with range only measurements. Variations of this problem reflect an ideal case (perfect knowledge of the range errors) and a mismodeled case (incorrect knowledge of the range errors).

Frisbee, Joseph H., Jr.

2011-01-01

335

Orthogonality of biphoton polarization states  

SciTech Connect

Orthogonality of two-photon polarization states belonging to a single frequency and spatial mode is demonstrated experimentally, in a generalization of the well-known anticorrelation 'dip' experiment.

Chekhova, M.V.; Krivitsky, L.A.; Kulik, S.P.; Maslennikov, G.A. [Department of Physics, Moscow State University, 119992 Moscow (Russian Federation)

2004-11-01

336

Solid State Doppler Sensor Investigation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes the investigations for a new airborne solid state doppler sensor that provides 3-axis velocity data for doppler navigation with greatly improved accuracy and low lag. Heading velocity estimation within 0.05% is achieved with smoothing...

A. E. Ruvin L. I. Smilen L. Weinberg

1972-01-01

337

Wright State Expands Continuing Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By leasing the Eugene W. Kettering Engineering and Science Center in downtown Dayton, Ohio, Wright State University plans to enlarge significantly its activities in continuing education for engineers, scientists, and others. (JR)

Chemical and Engineering News, 1974

1974-01-01

338

Solid State Technology: A Compilation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A compilation, covering selected solid state devices developed and integrated into systems by NASA to improve performance, is presented. Data are also given on device shielding in hostile radiation environments. (Author)

1973-01-01

339

Review of Quantum Electromagnetic States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This program provided a review of the conceptual and mathematical apparatus to apply modern theories of electromagnetic fields. As a study in low- noise electromagnetic states, it centers on the need to transition basic physics into the engineering arena ...

M. A. Parker

1999-01-01

340

State New Construction Technologies-1963.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report gives a detailed explanation of the methodology used to estimate for each State 1963 input coefficients for new construction. This report deals only with new construction since data on maintenance and repair construction is fragmentary. The stu...

O. Dixon J. V. Wells

1970-01-01

341

State Support of Domestic Production  

SciTech Connect

This project was developed in response to a cooperative agreement offering by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) under the State Support of Domestic Production DE-FC26-04NT15456. The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) performed efforts in support of State programs related to the security, reliability and growth if our nation's domestic production of oil and natural gas. The project objectives were to improve the States ability to monitor the security of oil and gas operations; to maximize the production of domestic oil and natural gas thereby minimizing the threat to national security posed by interruptions in energy imports; to assist States in developing and maintaining high standards of environmental protection; to assist in addressing issues that limit the capacity of the industry; to promote the deployment of the appropriate application of technology for regulatory efficiency; and to inform the public about emerging energy issues.

Amy Wright

2007-12-30

342

Ohio State Energy Conservation Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Ohio state conservation program expenditures are presented for the following areas: local government; lighting efficiency; thermal and lighting standards; residential; public education; and administrative. (ERA citation 09:043545)

1983-01-01

343

Altair Western States Fire Mission.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Altair Western States Fire Mission teamed NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) (Edwards, California), NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) (Moffett Field, California) and General Atomics Aeronautical Systems Inc. (GA-ASI) (San Diego, California) with ...

B. Cobleigh J. Willhite R. Navarro

2007-01-01

344

Recognizing Problems in State Universities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recognizing problems in state universities involves a critical analysis of both internal and external environments, as well as a simplification of the complex factors to help people understand the problems and marshall the forces necessary to address them. (MSE)

Ping, Charles J.

1986-01-01

345

State of the Lab 2012  

SciTech Connect

Ames Laboratory Director Alex King delivers the annual State of the Lab address on Thursday, May 17, 2012, the 65th Anniversary of the founding of The Ames Laboratory. This video contains highlights from the address.

King, Alex

2012-01-01

346

Mental Health, United States, 1992.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Data presented in the fifth edition of 'Mental Health, United States' derive principally from national surveys. For the first time, the volume includes a chapter that highlights the characteristics of seriously mentally ill persons in the household popula...

R. W. Manderscheid M. A. Sonnenschein

1992-01-01

347

State of Tobacco Control 2014  

MedlinePLUS

... Search Home At A Glance Overview State of Tobacco Control 2014 Renewing the Nations Commitment: The 50th Anniversary ... Federal Overview: Poor Results in 2013 Death of Tobacco Control Champion Dr. C. Everett Koop As we commemorate ...

348

Optimal preparation of graph states  

SciTech Connect

We show how to prepare any graph state of up to 12 qubits with (a) the minimum number of controlled-Z gates and (b) the minimum preparation depth. We assume only one-qubit and controlled-Z gates. The method exploits the fact that any graph state belongs to an equivalence class under local Clifford operations. We extend up to 12 qubits the classification of graph states according to their entanglement properties, and identify each class using only a reduced set of invariants. For any state, we provide a circuit with both properties (a) and (b), if it does exist, or, if it does not, one circuit with property (a) and one with property (b), including the explicit one-qubit gates needed.

Cabello, Adan; Lopez-Tarrida, Antonio J. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada II, Universidad de Sevilla, E-41012 Sevilla (Spain); Danielsen, Lars Eirik [Department of Informatics, University of Bergen, P.O. Box 7803, Bergen N-5020 (Norway); Portillo, Jose R. [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada I, Universidad de Sevilla, E-41012 Sevilla (Spain)

2011-04-15

349

State and Local Government Publications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews trends in library programs for state and local government publications and documents the increased interest in microforms and databases. Discussion focuses on publication distribution and control, and efforts to support interstate networking. There are 28 references. (RAA)

Nakata, Yuri; Kopec, Karen

1980-01-01

350

Desertification of the United States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There is an extensive and growing body of scientific literature on desertification. The purposes of the report, therefore, are: To synthesize the available scientific information on desertification in the United States and; To identify federal policies th...

D. Sheridan

1981-01-01

351

Future Drivers for State Alignments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The primary drivers for nation-state alignments have been and will remain Political Ideology and Self Interest. Over the next fifty years, Western political dominance will diminish with the constriction of global economic interdependence and the rise of I...

B. P. Donohoo

2009-01-01

352

Supersymmetric approach to excited states.  

PubMed

We present here a supersymmetric (SUSY) approach for determining excitation energies within the context of a quantum Monte Carlo scheme. By using the fact that SUSY quantum mechanics gives rises to a series of isospectral Hamiltonians, we show that Monte Carlo ground-state calculations in the SUSY partners can be used to reconstruct accurately both the spectrum and states of an arbitrary Schrodinger equation. Since the ground state of each partner potential is nodeless, we avoid any "node" problem typically associated with the Monte Carlo technique. Although we provide an example of using this approach to determine the tunneling states in a double-well potential, the method is applicable to any 1D potential problem. We conclude by discussing the extension to higher dimensions. PMID:19919079

Bittner, Eric R; Maddox, Jeremy B; Kouri, Donald J

2009-12-31

353

State of the Lab 2012  

ScienceCinema

Ames Laboratory Director Alex King delivers the annual State of the Lab address on Thursday, May 17, 2012, the 65th Anniversary of the founding of The Ames Laboratory. This video contains highlights from the address.

King, Alex

2013-03-01

354

Entropy of quantum states: Ambiguities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The von Neumann entropy of a generic quantum state is not unique unless the state can be uniquely decomposed as a sum of extremal or pure states. As pointed out to us by Sorkin, this happens if the GNS representation (of the algebra of observables in some quantum state) is reducible, and some representations in the decomposition occur with non-trivial degeneracy. This non-unique entropy can occur at zero temperature. We will argue elsewhere in detail that the degeneracies in the GNS representation can be interpreted as an emergent broken gauge symmetry, and play an important role in the analysis of emergent entropy due to non-Abelian anomalies. Finally, we establish the analogue of an H -theorem for this entropy by showing that its evolution is Markovian, determined by a stochastic matrix.

Balachandran, A. P.; de Queiroz, A. R.; Vaidya, S.

2013-10-01

355

40 CFR Appendix - State Requirements  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION] [Subpart Bb - Montana] [Sec. Appendix A to Subpart Bb of Part 147 - State Requirements] 40 PROTECTION... false Appendix Sec. Appendix A to Subpart BB of Part 147 PROTECTION OF ENVIRONMENT...

2009-07-01

356

LANDSAT information for state planning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The transfer of remote sensing technology for the digital processing of LANDSAT data to state and local agencies in Georgia and other southeastern states is discussed. The project consists of a series of workshops, seminars, and demonstration efforts, and transfer of NASA-developed hardware concepts and computer software to state agencies. Throughout the multi-year effort, digital processing techniques have been emphasized classification algorithms. Software for LANDSAT data rectification and processing have been developed and/or transferred. A hardware system is available at EES (engineering experiment station) to allow user interactive processing of LANDSAT data. Seminars and workshops emphasize the digital approach to LANDSAT data utilization and the system improvements scheduled for LANDSATs C and D. Results of the project indicate a substantially increased awareness of the utility of digital LANDSAT processing techniques among the agencies contracted throughout the southeast. In Georgia, several agencies have jointly funded a program to map the entire state using digitally processed LANDSAT data.

Faust, N. L.; Spann, G. W.

1977-01-01

357

IGBT: a solid state switch.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A Copper Vapour Laser Power Supply has been designed using a solid state switch consisting in eighteen Isolated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBT), -1200 volts, 400 Amps, each-in parallel. This paper presents the Isolated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBTs) repl...

D. Chatroux J. Maury B. Hennevin

1993-01-01

358

State of the Air 2013  

MedlinePLUS

... footer Smart links footer - Homepage Key Findings Ozone Pollution Year Round Particle Short Term Particle Cleanest Cities ... Your Air Select Your State Health Risks Ozone Pollution Particle Pollution Childrens Health Disparities & Near Highways Protect ...

359

APSRS state-base graphics  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The National Cartographic Information Center (NCIC) is the information branch of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Mapping Division. In order to organize and distribute information about U.S. aerial photography coverage and to help eliminate aerial mapping duplication by tracking individual aerial projects, NCIC developed the Aerial Photography Summary Record System (APSRS). APSRS's principal products are State-Base Graphics (SBG), graphic indexes that show the coverage of conventional aerial photography projects over each State.

U.S. Geological Survey

1981-01-01

360

Pyramidal atoms: Berylliumlike hollow states  

SciTech Connect

Based on the idea that four excited electrons arrange themselves around the nucleus in the corners of a pyramid in order to minimize their mutual repulsion, we present an analytical model of quadruply excited states. The model shows excellent comparison with ab initio results and provides a clear physical picture of the intrinsic motion of the four electrons. The model is used to predict configuration-mixing fractions and spectra of these highly correlated states.

Poulsen, Marianne Dahlerup; Madsen, Lars Bojer [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, 8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)

2005-06-15

361

Edge states in stacked nanographene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanocarbon materials are investigated intensively. In this paper, the edge-state in nanographene materials with zigzag edges is studied theoretically. In particular, while the inter-layer interactions are considered, we prove that edge states exist at the energy of the Dirac point in the doubly stacked nanographene, and in the case of the infinitely-wide lower layer case. This property applies both for the A-B and A-C stackings.

Harigaya, Kikuo

2012-12-01

362

Compact solid state laser projector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Industrial, consumer and military requirements for high resolution large screen data displays are taxing the capabilities of current display technologies,, such as cathode ray tubes, liquid crystal devices, digital mirror devices and plasma. Solid state laser projection provides a variety of advantages when used in displays with more than 1000 lines of resolution and measuring over 40 to 300 inches diagonally. Solid state laser technology can provide the best image quality in a compact package.

Gibeau, Frank C.; McKinney, Kerry K.

1997-07-01

363

Lee v. State of Oregon.  

PubMed

HELD: Oregon's Death with Dignity Act, Measure 16, which legalizes physician-assisted suicide for certain terminally ill persons, violates the equal protection clause of the fourteenth amendment to the United States Constitution. Measure 16 fails to withstand even the lowest level of judicial scrutiny because the disparate treatment afforded the class of terminally ill persons does not further any legitimate state interest. PMID:8934861

Devlin, M M

1996-01-01

364

Solid-state light valve  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent developments in the solid-state light valve promise a high-quality projection display. The heart of the solid-state light valve is a cathode-ray tube which operates with a modulated and scanning write beam depositing charge on an electrooptic crystal target. The charge pattern on the target causes optical changes which result in modulation of an external light source. The tube incorporates

C. J. Salvo

1971-01-01

365

2007 Western States Fire Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A general overview of the Ikhana Uninhabited Air System (UAS) is presented. The contents include: 1) Ikhana UAS; 2) Ikhana UAS / Ground Control Station (GCS); 3) Ikhana UAS / Antennas; 4) Western States Fire Mission 2007 Partners; 5) FAA Certificate of Authorization (COA); 6) Western States Fire Missions (WSFM) 2007; 7) WSFM 1-4 2007; 8) California Wildfire Emergency Response 2007; 9) WSFM 5-8 Emergency Response 2007; 10) WSFM Achievements; and 11) WSFM Challenges.

Howell, Kathleen

2008-01-01

366

Linearized Theory of Peridynamic States  

Microsoft Academic Search

A state-based peridynamic material model describes internal forces acting on a point in terms of the collective deformation\\u000a of all the material within a neighborhood of the point. In this paper, the response of a state-based peridynamic material\\u000a is investigated for a small deformation superposed on a large deformation. The appropriate notion of a small deformation restricts\\u000a the relative displacement

S. A. Silling

2010-01-01

367

The Electronic States of Carotenoids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The photochemistry of Carotenoids is determined by the electronic structures of their low energy, excited states. This chapter first relates the optical spectroscopy of carotenoids to current theoretical descriptions of polyene electronic states. Highly detailed spectroscopic information now available for model polyenes leads to a simple, three-levelenergy scheme: S2(I1 Bu)>S1(21Ag)>S0(I1 Ag) Optical studies of polyenes and carotenoids of intermediate length

Ronald L. Christensen

368

Diffusion Processes and Coherent States  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown that stochastic processes of diffusion type possess, in all\\u000agenerality, a structure of uncertainty relations and of coherent and squeezed\\u000astates. This fact is used to obtain, via Nelson stochastic formulation of\\u000aquantum mechanics, the harmonic-oscillator coherent and squeezed states. The\\u000amethod allows to derive new minimum uncertainty states in time-dependent\\u000aoscillator potentials and for the Caldirola-Kanai

S. De Martino; S. De Siena; F. Illuminati; G. Vitiello

1994-01-01

369

Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the progress of the Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch of the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) from October 1, 1988, through September 30,l 1989. Six technical sections of the report cover these main areas of SERIs in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, and Laser Raman and Luminescence Spectroscopy. Sections have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

Not Available

1990-09-01

370

Localized oscillatory states in magnetoconvection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Localized states are found in many pattern forming systems. The aim of this paper is to investigate the occurrence of oscillatory localized states in two-dimensional Boussinesq magnetoconvection. Initially considering an idealized model, in which the vertical structure of the system has been simplified by a projection onto a small number of Fourier modes, we find that these states are restricted to the low ? regime (where ? represents the ratio of the magnetic to thermal diffusivities). These states always exhibit bistability with another nontrivial solution branch; in other words, they show no evidence of subcritical behavior. This is due to the weak flux expulsion that is exhibited by these time-dependent solutions. Using the results of this parameter survey, we locate corresponding states in a fully resolved two-dimensional system, although the mode of oscillation is more complex in this case. This is the first time that a localized oscillatory state, of this kind, has been found in a fully resolved magnetoconvection simulation.

Buckley, Matthew C.; Bushby, Paul J.

2013-02-01

371

Chimera states are chaotic transients.  

PubMed

Spatiotemporal chaos and turbulence are universal concepts for the explanation of irregular behavior in various physical systems. Recently, a remarkable new phenomenon, called "chimera states," has been described, where in a spatially homogeneous system, regions of irregular incoherent motion coexist with regular synchronized motion, forming a self-organized pattern in a population of nonlocally coupled oscillators. Whereas most previous studies of chimera states focused their attention on the case of large numbers of oscillators employing the thermodynamic limit of infinitely many oscillators, here we investigate the properties of chimera states in populations of finite size using concepts from deterministic chaos. Our calculations of the Lyapunov spectrum show that the incoherent motion, which is described in the thermodynamic limit as a stationary behavior, in finite size systems appears as weak spatially extensive chaos. Moreover, for sufficiently small populations the chimera states reveal their transient nature: after a certain time span we observe a sudden collapse of the chimera pattern and a transition to the completely coherent state. Our results indicate that chimera states can be considered as chaotic transients, showing the same properties as type-II supertransients in coupled map lattices. PMID:21867244

Wolfrum, Matthias; Omel'chenko, Oleh E

2011-07-01

372

Hexadecapole states in deformed nuclei  

SciTech Connect

In the framework of the quasiparticle-phonon model we have calculated energies and wave functions of low-lying nonrotational hexadecapole states with K/sup ..pi../ = 4/sup +/ and 3/sup +/ in deformed even-even nuclei in the region 158less than or equal toAless than or equal to188. The calculations were carried out with fixed values of the hexadecapole force constants kappa-cur/sup (44)//sub 0/ and kappa-cur/sup (43)//sub 0/. We have shown that in the isotopes of Gd and Dy at energies below 2 MeV there are K/sup ..pi../ = 4/sup +/ states with dominant two-quasiparticle components. In the isotopes of Er, Yb, and Hf there should be collective K/sup ..pi../ = 3/sup +/ states with energies 1.2--1.6 MeV. In the isotopes of Os there are collective K/sup ..pi../ = 4/sup +/ states at energies 1.0--1.4 MeV. The calculated characteristics of K/sup ..pi../ = 4/sup +/ and 3/sup +/ states agree qualitatively with the existing experimental data. We have studied the influence of hexadecapole forces on the first K/sup ..pi../ = 2/sup +/ states and have shown that for certain values of the constant kappa-cur/sup (44)//sub 0/ it can be appreciable.

Nesterenko, V.O.; Solov'ev, V.G.; Sushkov, A.V.; Shirikova, N.Y.

1986-12-01

373

BUILDING STRONGER STATE ENERGY PARTNERSHIPS  

SciTech Connect

When initiated by the National Association of State Energy Officials (NASEO) and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Rebuild America Program (RBA), this project--Strengthening the Partnerships Between the State and Territory Energy Offices and the U.S. Department of Energy--was geared toward addressing some project development and communications barriers between the State Energy Offices and the RBA program. While successful in some states, RBA officials were having difficulty assisting states in forming partnerships with communities and taking advantage of the programs technical assistance and other resources. NASEO's efforts under the project were, in large part, aimed at educating state energy offices about RBA's resources and delivering timely information to help move the program forward by emphasizing the successes of key states and identifying concerns and problems in states beginning to implement RBA activities. This report defines these outreach needs and challenges, the tasks designed to address these issues, and results during the first year of the project. As contemplated in NASEO's workplan, the approach during the first year of the agreement focuses on working through NASEO's State Energy Committee structure. Support provided under the agreement for tasks one and two during year one was intended to address partnerships in the buildings area. Specifically, NASEO was to work with its buildings committee, various state energy office members, and the Rebuild America program to improve partnership efforts, communications, and effectiveness of these combined efforts. The approach of to the project included three elements during year one. First, NASEO and its Buildings Committee were to focus on raising awareness and coordination of Rebuild activities. Through education, one-on-one communications, and presentations at NASEO meetings and other events, staff and the committee will assist Rebuild officials in stimulating interest in the program and building greater support among State Energy Office Directors. Second, NASEO would work to improve the efficiency of America's schools by assisting states and DOE in promoting projects that result in more energy efficient (and clean energy) schools and a better learning environment. Third, NASEO was to identify opportunities, needs, and priorities related to the emerging public benefit funds/programs operated by many states emerging from utility restructuring. This third activity, while still a high-priority for the state energy offices, has not been funded under this agreement. Thus, no activity will be reported. The results of the two funded efforts described above are a significant increase in the awareness of RBA resources and assistance, as well as a better understanding of successful approaches to implementing RBA activities. This technical progress report includes an update of the progress during the first year of cooperative agreement DE-FC26-00nt40802, Building Stronger State Energy Partnerships with the U.S. Department of Energy. The report also describes the barriers in conduct of the effort, and our assessment of future progress and activities.

David Terry

2002-04-22

374

Analysis of State Education Indicators: State Profiles and NAEP Results Related to State Policies and Practices, 1993.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With this volume, the Council of Chief State School Officers introduces a new 2-year format for state education indicators. The first section of this report is an analysis of state-level data related to the first-ever state-by-state achievement results from the 1990 mathematics assessment of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP).

Council of Chief State School Officers, Washington, DC. State Education Assessment Center.

375

State nonpoint source programs affecting forestry: The 12 northeastern states  

SciTech Connect

Programs addressing nonpoint source (NPS) water pollution impacts in forestry cover a wide range of activities in the Northeast. While state water program managers rate forestry-related sedimentation as a low priority problem, monitoring data to verify this are scanty. Most states have cooperative arrangements between environmental agencies which handle enforcement and forestry agencies which deliver NPS programs. Field assessments show that properly installed BMPs are effecting in minimizing sedimentation from forestry activities. Only a few field reviews of compliance have been done. These show that while noncompliance is significant, and erosion does occur, the water quality impacts appear to be minimal. While significant progress has been made, it will be difficult to maintain program momentum in the extremely difficult fiscal climate faced by the northeastern states. Also, the research base for defining more cost-effective practices and administrative programs has important gaps.

Irland, L.C.; Connors, J.F. (Irland Group, Winthrop, ME (United States))

1994-03-01

376

Bound anionic states of adenine.  

PubMed

Anionic states of nucleic acid bases are involved in DNA damage by low-energy electrons and in charge transfer through DNA. Previous gas phase studies of free, unsolvated nucleic acid base parent anions probed only dipole-bound states, which are not present in condensed phase environments, but did not observe valence anionic states, which for purine bases are thought to be adiabatically unbound. Contrary to this expectation, we have demonstrated that some thus far ignored tautomers of adenine, which result from enamine-imine transformations, support valence anionic states with electron vertical detachment energies as large as 2.2 eV, and at least one of these anionic tautomers is adiabatically bound. Moreover, we predict that the new anionic tautomers should also dominate in solutions and should be characterized by larger values of electron vertical detachment energy than the canonical valence anion. All of the newfound anionic tautomers might be formed in the course of dissociative electron attachment followed by a hydrogen atom attachment to a carbon atom, and they might affect the structure and properties of DNA and RNA exposed to low-energy electrons. The new valence states observed here, unlike the dipole-bound state, could exist in condensed phases and might be relevant to radiobiological damage. The discovery of these valence anionic states of adenine was facilitated by the development of (i) an experimental method for preparing parent anions of nucleic acid bases for photoelectron experiments, and (ii) a combinatorial/quantum chemical approach for identification of the most stable tautomers of organic molecules. PMID:17360375

Hara?czyk, Maciej; Gutowski, Maciej; Li, Xiang; Bowen, Kit H

2007-03-20

377

Bound anionic states of adenine  

PubMed Central

Anionic states of nucleic acid bases are involved in DNA damage by low-energy electrons and in charge transfer through DNA. Previous gas phase studies of free, unsolvated nucleic acid base parent anions probed only dipole-bound states, which are not present in condensed phase environments, but did not observe valence anionic states, which for purine bases are thought to be adiabatically unbound. Contrary to this expectation, we have demonstrated that some thus far ignored tautomers of adenine, which result from enamine-imine transformations, support valence anionic states with electron vertical detachment energies as large as 2.2 eV, and at least one of these anionic tautomers is adiabatically bound. Moreover, we predict that the new anionic tautomers should also dominate in solutions and should be characterized by larger values of electron vertical detachment energy than the canonical valence anion. All of the newfound anionic tautomers might be formed in the course of dissociative electron attachment followed by a hydrogen atom attachment to a carbon atom, and they might affect the structure and properties of DNA and RNA exposed to low-energy electrons. The new valence states observed here, unlike the dipole-bound state, could exist in condensed phases and might be relevant to radiobiological damage. The discovery of these valence anionic states of adenine was facilitated by the development of (i) an experimental method for preparing parent anions of nucleic acid bases for photoelectron experiments, and (ii) a combinatorial/quantum chemical approach for identification of the most stable tautomers of organic molecules.

Haranczyk, Maciej; Gutowski, Maciej; Li, Xiang; Bowen, Kit H.

2007-01-01

378

State electricity profiles, March 1999  

SciTech Connect

Due to the role electricity plays in the Nation`s economic and social well-being, interested parties have been following the electric power industry`s transition by keeping abreast of the restructuring and deregulation events that are taking place almost daily. Much of the attention centers around the States and how they are restructuring the business of electricity supply within their respective jurisdictions. This report is designed to profile each State and the District of Columbia regarding not only their current restructuring activities, but also their electricity generation and concomitant statistics from 1986 through 1996. Included are data on a number of subject areas including generating capability, generation, revenues, fuel use, capacity factor for nuclear plants, retail sales, and pollutant emissions. Although the Energy Information Administration (EIA) publishes this type of information, there is a lack of a uniform overview for each individual State. This report is intended to help fill that gap and also to serve as a framework for more detailed studies. In addition to basic statistics in tables and graphs, a textual section is provided for each State, discussing some of the points relative to electricity production that are noteworthy in, or unique to, that particular State. Also, each State is ranked according to the place it holds, as compared to the rest of the states, in various relevant areas, such as its average price of electricity per kilowatthour, its population, and its emissions of certain atmospheric pollutants. The final chapter covers the Nation as a whole. 451 figs., 520 tabs.

NONE

1999-03-01

379

Bound Anionic States of Aadenine  

SciTech Connect

The research described in this product was performed in part in the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Anionic states of nucleic acid bases are involved in DNA damage by low-energy electrons and in charge transfer through DNA. Previous gas phase studies of free, unsolvated nucleic acid base parent anions probed only dipole-bound states, which are not present in condensed phase environments, but did not observe valence anionic states, which for purine bases are thought to be adiabatically unbound. Contrary to this expectation,wehave demonstrated that some thus far ignored tautomers of adenine, which result from enamine-imine transformations, support valence anionic states with electron vertical detachment energies as large as 2.2 eV, and at least one of these anionic tautomers is adiabatically bound. Moreover, we predict that the new anionic tautomers should also dominate in solutions and should be characterized by larger values of electron vertical detachment energy than the canonical valence anion. All of the newfound anionic tautomers might be formed in the course of dissociative electron attachment followed by a hydrogen atom attachment to a carbon atom, and they might affect the structure and properties of DNA and RNA exposed to low-energy electrons. The new valence states observed here, unlike the dipole-bound state, could exist in condensed phases and might be relevant to radiobiological damage. The discovery of these valence anionic states of adenine was facilitated by the development of (i) an experimental method for preparing parent anions of nucleic acid bases for photoelectron experiments, and (ii) a combinatorial/quantum chemical approach for identification of the most stable tautomers of organic molecules.

Haranczyk, Maciej; Gutowski, Maciej S.; Li, Xiang; Bowen, Kit H.

2007-03-20

380

Bound Anionic States of Adenine  

SciTech Connect

The research described in this product was performed in part in the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Anionic states of nucleic acid bases are involved in DNA damage by low-energy electrons and in charge transfer through DNA. Previous gas phase studies of free, unsolvated nucleic acid base parent anions probed only dipole-bound states, which are not present in condensed phase environments, but did not observe valence anionic states, which for purine bases are thought to be adiabatically unbound. Contrary to this expectation, we have demonstrated that some thus far ignored tautomers of adenine, which result from enamine-imine transformations, support valence anionic states with electron vertical detachment energies as large as 2.2 eV, and at least one of these anionic tautomers is adiabatically bound. Moreover, we predict that the new anionic tautomers should also dominate in solutions and should be characterized by larger values of electron vertical detachment energy than the canonical valence anion. All of the newfound anionic tautomers might be formed in the course of dissociative electron attachment followed by a hydrogen atom attachment to a carbon atom, and they might affect the structure and properties of DNA and RNA exposed to low-energy electrons. The new valence states observed here, unlike the dipole-bound state, could exist in condensed phases and might be relevant to radiobiological damage. The discovery of these valence anionic states of adenine was facilitated by the development of (i) an experimental method for preparing parent anions of nucleic acid bases for photoelectron experiments, and (it) a combinatorial/quantum chemical approach for identification of the most stable tautomers of organic molecules.

Haranczyk, Maciej; Gutowski, Maciej S.; Li, Xiang; Bowen, Kit H.

2007-03-20

381

Conformationally controlled chemistry: Excited state dynamics dictate ground state dissociation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ion imaging results show distinct photodissociation dynamics for propanal cations initially prepared in either the cis- or gauche- conformation, even though these differ only slightly in energy and there is a small barrier between them. The product kinetic energy distributions for the H elimination channels are bimodal, and the two peaks are readily assigned to propanoyl cation + H and hydroxyallyl cation + H. Ab initio multiple spawning dynamical calculations show that distinct ultrafast dynamics in the excited state leads to internal conversion to the ground state in isolated regions of the potential surface for the two conformers, and from these distinct regions, conformer interconversion does not effectively compete with dissociation.

Suits, Arthur; Kim, Myung-Hwa; Shen, Lei; Zhang, Bailin; Tao, Hongli; Martinez, Todd

2007-03-01

382

State of stress and intraplate earthquakes in the United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Recently compiled data on the state of stress have been used to define stress provinces in the conterminous United States in which the orientation and relative magnitude of the horizontal principal stresses are fairly uniform. The observed patterns of stress constrain mechanisms for generating intraplate lithospheric stresses. Coupled with new information on geologic structure and tectonism in seismically active areas of the Midcontinent and East, these data help to define some characteristics common to these areas and to identify key questions regarding why certain faults seem to be seismically active. Copyright ?? 1981 AAAS.

Zoback, M. D.; Zoback, M. L.

1981-01-01

383

[Treatment of depressive mixed states].  

PubMed

Mixed states are a frequent mood state characterized by the mixture of manic and depressive symptoms. Their clinical description has been studied for centuries but has known a renewal of interest recently. Several authors intend to redefine its diagnostic criteria to develop an appropriate therapeutic strategy. Current recommendations suggest to treat mixed depression as a mixed state whatever the dominant polarity is, and therefore according to the rules of therapeutic management of the manic state. Mood stabilizers and antipsychotic medications are indicated and have proven their effectiveness. Lithium, which was considered controversial, now appears to have some therapeutic value, especially in the prevention of suicidal behavior. The depressive component of mixed states, even pronounced, should not be an argument for a prescription of antidepressants, at the risk of aggravating clinical components such as irritability and impulsivity and increasing the danger of suicide attempt. Furthermore, electroconvulsivetherapy represents a real alternative ; psychotherapies have their place in relapse prevention and psychoeducation, but not during acute phases. Finally, an accurate assessment and appropriate management of suicide risk should be a constant concern for the clinicians. PMID:24359858

Dubois, M; Dassa, D; Belzeaux, R; Fakra, E; Cermolacce, M; Corrard, N; Kaladjian, A; Azorin, J-M

2013-12-01

384

Classical simulation of entangled states  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Characterization of nonclassicality or quantumness of a state is fundamental to foundations of quantum mechanics and quantum information. At the heart of the problem is the question whether there exist classical systemshowsoever complicatedthat can mimic a given quantum state. Whilst this has been traditionally addressed through the violation of Bell inequality or nonseparability, we show that it is possible to go beyond them, by introducing the concept of classical simulation. Focusing on the two-qubit case, we show that, while for pure states, classical simulability is equivalent to existence of a local hidden variable (LHV) model, the conditions for simulability can be weaker for mixed states, demanding what we call only a generalized LHV description. Consequently, quantum states which defy a classical simulationwhich we call exceptionalmay require conditions which are more stringent than violation of Bell inequalities. We illustrate these features with a number of representative examples and discuss the underlying reasons, by employing fairly simple arguments.

Bharath, H. M.; Ravishankar, V.

2014-06-01

385

Thermodynamic States in Explosion Fields  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the thermodynamic states occurring in explosion fields from condensed explosive charges. These states are often modeled with a Jones-Wilkins-Lee (JWL) function. However, the JWL function is not a Fundamental Equation of Thermodynamics, and therefore cannot give a complete specification of such states. We use the Cheetah code of Fried to study the loci of states of the expanded detonation products gases from C-4 charges, and their combustion products air. In the Le Chatelier Plane of specific-internal-energy versus temperature, these loci are fit with a Quadratic Model function u(T), which has been shown to be valid for T < 3,000 K and p < 1k-bar. This model is used to derive a Fundamental Equation u(v,s) for C-4. Given u(v,s), one can use Maxwell's Relations to derive all other thermodynamic functions, such as temperature: T(v,s), pressure: p(v,s), enthalpy: h(v,s), Gibbs free energy: g(v,s) and Helmholz free energy: f(v,s); these loci are displayed in figures for C-4. Such complete equations of state are needed for numerical simulations of blast waves from explosive charges, and their reflections from surfaces.

Kuhl, A L

2010-03-12

386

Thermodynamic States in Explosion Fields  

SciTech Connect

Here we investigate the thermodynamic states occurring in explosion fields from the detonation of condensed explosives in air. In typical applications, the pressure of expanded detonation products gases is modeled by a Jones-Wilkins-Lee (JWL) function: P{sub JWL} = f(v,s{sub CJ}); constants in that function are fit to cylinder test data. This function provides a specification of pressure as a function of specific volume, v, along the expansion isentrope (s = constant = s{sub CJ}) starting at the Chapman-Jouguet (CJ) state. However, the JWL function is not a fundamental equation of thermodynamics, and therefore gives an incomplete specification of states. For example, explosions inherently involve shock reflections from surfaces; this changes the entropy of the products, and in such situations the JWL function provides no information on the products states. In addition, most explosives are not oxygen balanced, so if hot detonation products mix with air, they after-burn, releasing the heat of reaction via a turbulent combustion process. This raises the temperature of explosion products cloud to the adiabatic flame temperature ({approx}3,000K). Again, the JWL function provides no information on the combustion products states.

Kuhl, A L

2009-10-16

387

Regional and State Level Water Scarcity Report: Northeast United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are an abundance of large-scale, coarse resolution global water scarcity studies, but the existing literature fails to address regional and state specific scarcity measures. Moreover, while environmental water requirements are an integral factor in the development and implementation of sustainable water management practices, only recently has this notion been introduced to water scarcity research. In this paper, we argue that developing a preliminary measure of water scarcity, at the regional and state levels, will allow for more informed policy development. The goal of this study is to generate a more comprehensive understanding of water scarcity in the Northeast, by gathering fine scale data, applying a consistent methodology to the calculation of a scarcity index, and analyzing the results to see relative trends in spatio-temporal water scarcity. Public supply, irrigation, rural, industrial and thermo-power withdrawals have been compiled from USGS state water use publications from 1950 to 1985. Using the WBMplus water model runoff data, state specific in-stream environmental water requirements were calculated using the accepted hydro-ecological methodology. Water scarcity was then calculated as a ratio of water withdrawals to total available water minus environmental flow requirements for the system. In so doing, this study generates a spatially explicit and temporally varying water scarcity indicator (WSI) for the Northeastern United States between 1950 and 2000 at the regional and state levels at a five-year time interval. Calculation of a spatial and temporal water scarcity indicator enabled us to identify regions and specific states that were: slightly exploited (WSI < 0.3), moderately exploited (0.31.0). The minimum environmental water requirements to maintain in-stream aquatic and riparian ecosystems for the Northeastern states ranged between 27.5 to 36.3 percent of the mean annual runoff within Vermont and Maryland, respectively. The regional WSI values ranged between 0.199 in 1950 and 0.512 in 1995, indicating increasing water scarcity over time as population and employment growth has placed greater demands on water resources. Additionally, our study revealed that in 1980, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania and New Jersey scarcity levels were 0.733, 0.790 and 0.857, respectively. Although the Northeastern United States is commonly perceived as a water rich region, moderate to heavily exploited levels of water stress were observed over the time period when a finer spatial scale is utilized. Water scarcity indicator values were disaggregated by state for each time period and illustrated using a series of maps. Additional descriptive statistics were used to elucidate the differences in water scarcity between states over time.

Nicoletti, C. K.; Lopez-Morales, C. A.; Hoover, J. H.; Voigt, B. G.; Vorosmarty, C. J.; Mohammed, I. N.

2010-12-01

388

Synthesizing Results from the Trial State Assessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses data from the Trial State Assessment of the National Assessment of Educational Progress to describe and illustrate a two-stage statistical model for investigating state-to-state variation in mathematics achievement. Results reveal considerable state-to-state heterogeneity in mathematics proficiency, but most heterogeneity is explainable on

Raudenbush, Stephen W.; Fotiu, Randall P.; Cheong, Yuk Fai

1999-01-01

389

Model Act for State Licensure of Psychologists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As APA policy, the Model Act for State Licensure of Psychologists serves as a prototype for drafting state legislation regulating the practice of psychology. State legislatures are encouraged to use the language of this document and the policies that it espouses as the model for their own state licensure laws. Inevitably each state law will

American Psychologist, 2011

2011-01-01

390

Economies of Scale within State Prisons  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the cost of state prisons as a function of state prison populations across U.S. states. Historically and intuitively, a given state's prison expenditures have risen as more inmates enter the prison system. Through panel regression analysis, a detailed understanding is obtained of how state prisons experience economies of scale as inmate populations rise over time. Our model

Nicholas William Irving; David Anthony King

2012-01-01

391

Harmonic State Space model of power electronics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a technique for deriving the linearized Harmonic State Space model of a power electronic converter. The Harmonic State Space model, in which harmonics of state variables, inputs and outputs are posed separately in a State Space form, can be used for dynamic small signal studies, and for harmonic steady state studies. The technique can handle autonomous switches

G. N. Love; A. R. Wood

2008-01-01

392

State-of-charge coulometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A coulometer for accurately measuring the state-of-charge of an open-cell battery utilizing an aqueous electrolyte, includes a current meter for measuring the battery/discharge current and a flow meter for measuring the rate at which the battery produces gas during charge and discharge. Coupled to the flow meter is gas analyzer which measures the oxygen fraction of the battery gas. The outputs of the current meter, flow meter, and gas analyzer are coupled to a programmed microcomputer which includes a CPU and program and data memories. The microcomputer calculates that fraction of charge and discharge current consumed in the generation of gas so that the actual state-of-charge can be determined. The state-of-charge is then shown on a visual display.

Rowlette, J. J. (inventor)

1985-01-01

393

ATP and ADP Actin States  

PubMed Central

This minireview is dedicated to the memory of Henryk Eisenberg and honors his major contributions to many areas of biophysics and to the analysis of macromolecular states and interactions in particular. This work reviews the ATP and ADP states of a ubiquitous protein, actins, and considers the present evidence for and against unique, nucleotide-dependent conformations of this protein. The effects of ATP and ADP on specific structural elements of actins, its loops and clefts, as revealed by mutational, crosslinking, spectroscopic, and EPR methods are discussed. It is concluded that the existing evidence points to dynamic equilibria of these structural elements among various conformational states in both ATP- and ADP-actins, with the nucleotides impacting the equilibria distributions.

Kudryashov, Dmitri S.; Reisler, Emil

2013-01-01

394

Vortex state in ferromagnetic nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evolution of the magnetic state of a soft ferromagnetic nanoparticle with its size is usually thought to be from superparamagnetic single domain to blocked single domain to a blocked multidomain structure. Nel pointed out that a vortex configuration produces practically no stray field at the cost of an increase in the exchange energy, of the order of RJS2lnR /c, where JS2 is the bond energy, R is the particle radius, and c is of the order of the exchange length. A vortex structure is energetically cheaper than single domain when the radius is greater than a certain value. The correct sequence should include a vortex configuration between the single domain and the multidomain states. The critical size is calculated for spherical particles of four important materials (nickel, magnetite, permalloy, and iron) both numerically and analytically. A vortex state is favored in materials with high magnetisation.

Betto, Davide; Coey, J. M. D.

2014-05-01

395

The Kissinger State Department Telcons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Security Archive released its 135th electronic briefing book on October 1, 2004, and it is one that will be one of great interest to those with a penchant for United States foreign relations in the 1970s. This particular electronic briefing book contains sixteen telcons (transcripted telephone conversations) between Secretary of State Henry Kissinger and other government officials, and such personages as William F. Buckley and Frank Sinatra. These telcons are only a small sampling of the 3200 telcons obtained through a Freedom of Information Act request to the State Department. Some of the rather interesting conversation transcripts featured here include discussions with William D. Rogers (the Assistant Secretary on Latin America) on the situation in Chile and other equally historic phone calls, such as the one that informed Mr. Kissinger that Saigon had surrendered.

396

Chemical thermodynamics and indifferent states  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A more general procedure to compute the compositions and thermodynamic properties of complex systems, based on which a new modernized version of the TETRAN software was developed, is suggested. A new alternative method to evaluating the possibility of formation of indifferent states in chemically interacting heterogeneous systems based on the above-mentioned procedure is given. The number of free intensive thermodynamic parameters decreases because of the formation of indifferent states. The detailed investigation of the formation of indifferent states in the system consisting of the condensed sodium chloride and atmosphere of vapors formed during the evaporation of this substance is presented as an example. Concrete computations are confirmed by the comparison with the experimental data.

Samuilov, E. V.

2012-12-01

397

Subgap states in disordered superconductors  

SciTech Connect

We revise the problem of the density of states in disordered superconductors. Randomness of local sample characteristics translates to the quenched spatial inhomogeneity of the spectral gap, smearing the BCS coherence peak. We show that various microscopic models of potential and magnetic disorder can be reduced to a universal phenomenological random order parameter model, whereas the details of the microscopic description are encoded in the correlation function of the order parameter fluctuations. The resulting form of the density of states is generally described by two parameters: the width {Gamma} measuring the broadening of the BCS peak and the energy scale {Gamma}{sub tail} that controls the exponential decay of the density of subgap states. We refine the existing instanton approaches for determination of {Gamma}{sub tail} and show that they appear as limiting cases of a unified theory of optimal fluctuations in a nonlinear system. The application to various types of disorder is discussed.

Skvortsov, M. A., E-mail: skvor@itp.ac.ru; Feigel'man, M. V., E-mail: feigel@landau.ac.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics (Russian Federation)

2013-09-15

398

Washington State gasoline prices study  

SciTech Connect

In spring 1990, responding to strong public and private concern over gasoline supplies and pricing policies, the Washington Legislature commissioned the Washington State Energy Office (WSEO) to study this issue. The responsible committee-the Legislative Transportation Committee asked WSEO to clearly explain why gasoline prices differ from city to city in the state of Washington. This report summarizes the conclusions of a 1 year investigation. To support this investigation, WSEO collected data from 51 cities throughout the state of Washington, representing 750 gasoline stations, 10 refiners, and 131 gasoline wholesalers. To try to explain city-to-city and region-to-region differences, we collected information prices, volumes sold, suppliers, on-site convenience stores, cash discounts, whether a station was independently owned or oil company owned, and a host of other factors. About 150 factors were sought to assist in the analysis.

Anderson, M.; Lagerberg, B.; Byers, D.

1991-07-01

399

National States Geographic Information Council  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With the exponential growth in geographic information systems (GIS) across the United States, there are a number of organizations with an interest in coordinating a variety of activities around the sustained growth and management of these various systems. One such group is the National States Geographic Information Council (NSGIC). With members drawn from the federal government, academia, and the private sector, the Council is committed to advocating on behalf of these state GIS agencies in the interest of creating efficient and accessible databases. A good place to start on their website is the âHot Topicsâ area, which provides access to their blog and information about some of their latest initiatives, which include those that address homeland security and topographic accuracy. Additionally, visitors can also learn more about their events and conferences, and also about membership opportunities.

400

Spectral properties of chimera states.  

PubMed

Chimera states are particular trajectories in systems of phase oscillators with nonlocal coupling that display a spatiotemporal pattern of coherent and incoherent motion. We present here a detailed analysis of the spectral properties for such trajectories. First, we study numerically their Lyapunov spectrum and its behavior for an increasing number of oscillators. The spectra demonstrate the hyperchaotic nature of the chimera states and show a correspondence of the Lyapunov dimension with the number of incoherent oscillators. Then, we pass to the thermodynamic limit equation and present an analytic approach to the spectrum of a corresponding linearized evolution operator. We show that, in this setting, the chimera state is neutrally stable and that the continuous spectrum coincides with the limit of the hyperchaotic Lyapunov spectrum obtained for the finite size systems. PMID:21456826

Wolfrum, M; Omel'chenko, O E; Yanchuk, S; Maistrenko, Y L

2011-03-01

401

Elkhorn ruling boosts state authority  

SciTech Connect

On 31 May 1994, a landmark U.S. Supreme Court decision expanded state authority to establish conditions to protect water quality and included stream flows, aesthetics, and, potentially, other elements in a broad definition of water quality. Called the {open_quotes}Elkhorn case{close_quotes} the Supreme Court ruled that the state of Washington Department of Ecology has authority to set instream flows for fish (primarily steelhead, chinook, and coho salmon) as a condition of a Water Quality Certification (WQC) issued by the state under Section 401 of the federal Clean Water Act (CWA). The case surrounded the petitioners (applicants) proposed building of the Elkhorn Hydroelectric Project on the Dosewallips River, Washington. The project would have consisted of a dam near the boundary of Olympic National Park and a pipeline to carry diverted water around a 1.2-mile bypass reach to a powerhouse at Olympic National Forest`s Elkhorn Campground.

Beecher, H.A. [Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA (United States)

1995-03-01

402

Subgap states in disordered superconductors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We revise the problem of the density of states in disordered superconductors. Randomness of local sample characteristics translates to the quenched spatial inhomogeneity of the spectral gap, smearing the BCS coherence peak. We show that various microscopic models of potential and magnetic disorder can be reduced to a universal phenomenological random order parameter model, whereas the details of the microscopic description are encoded in the correlation function of the order parameter fluctuations. The resulting form of the density of states is generally described by two parameters: the width ? measuring the broadening of the BCS peak and the energy scale ?tail that controls the exponential decay of the density of subgap states. We refine the existing instanton approaches for determination of ?tail and show that they appear as limiting cases of a unified theory of optimal fluctuations in a nonlinear system. The application to various types of disorder is discussed.

Skvortsov, M. A.; Feigel'man, M. V.

2013-09-01

403

Lattice QCD Beyond Ground States  

SciTech Connect

In this work, we apply black box methods (methods not requiring input) to find excited-state energies. A variety of such methods for lattice QCD were introduced at the 3rd iteration of the numerical workshop series. We first review a selection of approaches that have been used in lattice calculations to determine multiple energy states: multiple correlator fits, the variational method and Bayesian fitting. In the second half, we will focus on a black box method, the multi-effective mass. We demonstrate the approach on a toy model, as well as on real lattice data, extracting multiple states from single correlators. Without complicated operator construction or specialized fitting programs, the black box method shows good consistency with the traditional approaches.

Huey-Wen Lin; Saul D. Cohen

2007-09-11

404

The State of Computers in the State of Arkansas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To explore and document the status of computer use in Arkansas, a survey was sent to each of the 310 school superintendents in the state, and 221 surveys were returned. Results indicated that only a minority of the schools had a computer in every room; these tended to be placed in lower grade classrooms. Excepting kindergarten, the majority of

Schoppmeyer, Martin W.; And Others

405

The Changing State of State Funding--Opportunity and Challenge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The recent economic downturn has had a serious effect on public higher education, and problems will linger for some years hence. The impact of this disinvestment has been particularly severe for the University of California. The dramatic decrease in state funding has necessitated large relative increases in education and registration fees for our

White, Timothy P.

2010-01-01

406

The polaron: Ground state, excited states, and far from equilibrium  

SciTech Connect

The authors describe a variational approach for solving the Holstein polaron model with dynamical quantum phonons on an infinite lattice. The method is simple, fast, extremely accurate, and gives ground and excited state energies and wavefunctions at any momentum k. The method can also be used to calculate coherent quantum dynamics for inelastic tunneling and for strongly driven polarons far from equilibrium.

Trugman, S.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Theory Div.; Bonca, J. [Univ. of Ljubljana (Slovenia)]|[Jozef Stefan Inst., Ljubljana (Slovenia)

1998-12-01

407

A State Transition Model of United States Congressional Information.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a study that determined which reference sources, including nongovernment, were most useful in answering questions about U.S. congressional matters by using a computer science technique called state-transition modeling. Implications for document librarians, the Government Printing Office, and the Superintendent of Documents are discussed.

Richardson, John; Zarnosky, Margaret R.

1994-01-01

408

Professional-Development Systems: The State of the States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes states' efforts to implement a school-age credentialing system for child caregivers. Identifies basic problems hindering progress: readiness, infrastructure, and sustainability of infrastructure. Delineates implications for school-age care of significant initiatives in California, Florida, and New York. Suggests that there is no

Gannett, Ellen; Nee, Judy; Smith, Darci

2001-01-01

409

State of stress in the conterminous United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inferring principal stress directions from geologic data, focal mechanisms, and in situ stress measurements, we have prepared a map of principal horizontal stress orientations for the conterminous United States. Stress provinces with linear dimensions which range between 100 and 2000 km were defined on the basis of the directions and relative magnitude of principal stresses. Within a given provinces, stress

Mary Lou Zoback; Mark Zoback

1980-01-01

410

The nuclear equation of state  

SciTech Connect

The role of the nuclear equation of state in determining the fate of the collapsing cores of massive stars is examined in light of both recent theoretical advances in this subject and recent experimental measurements with relativistic heavy ions. The difficulties existing in attempts to bring the softer nuclear matter apparently required by the theory of Type II supernovae into consonance with the heavy ion data are discussed. Relativistic mean field theory is introduced as a candidate for derivation of the equation of state, and a simple form for the saturation compressibility is obtained. 28 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Kahana, S.

1986-01-01

411

FRONTLINE: United States of Secrets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

FRONTLINE doesn't shy away from difficult topics, as demonstrated by "United States of Secrets" a recent documentary on the activities of the National Security Agency (NSA) in the United States. On this site, visitors can view both parts of the documentary, explore interviews with tech industry experts, learn about journalistic guidelines, and also look over a raft of extra features. In The Latest section, visitors can look over meditations that include "How the NSA Can Get Onto Your iPhone" and "Inside the NSA the Day After 9/11." Additionally, visitors can view related programs, such as "Top Secret America" and several others.

2014-05-20

412

Hiding bits in bell states.  

PubMed

We present a scheme for hiding bits in Bell states that is secure even when the sharers, Alice and Bob, are allowed to carry out local quantum operations and classical communication. We prove that the information that Alice and Bob can gain about a hidden bit is exponentially small in n, the number of qubits in each share, and can be made arbitrarily small for hiding multiple bits. We indicate an alternative efficient low-entanglement method for preparing the shared quantum states. We discuss how our scheme can be implemented using present-day quantum optics. PMID:11415363

Terhal, B M; DiVincenzo, D P; Leung, D W

2001-06-18

413

Optically excited states in positronium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Optical excitation are reported of the 1 3S-2 3P transition in positronium, and a second excitation from n=2 to higher n states. The experiment used light from two pulsed dye lasers. Changes in the positronium annihilation rate during and after the laser pulse were used to deduce the excited state populations. The n=2 level was found to be saturable and excitable to a substantial fraction of n=2 positronium to higher levels. Preliminary spectroscopic measurements were performed on n=14 and n=15 positronium.

Howell, R. H.; Ziock, Klaus P.; Magnotta, F.; Dermer, Charles D.; Failor, R. A.; Jones, K. M.

1990-01-01

414

Mayflies of the United States  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In keeping with its excellent reputation, the Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center (first described in the October 15, 1997 Scout Report for Science & Engineering) has posted this useful, work-in-progress resource, one of several on the distribution of several groups of flying insects. Mayflies of the United States, contains information on the known distribution of Mayflies (Ephemeroptera) in the US, including distribution maps, county checklists, published references, photo thumbnails, and numerous links to related sites. Dr. Boris Kondratieff of Colorado State University coordinated the production of all three sites. While the authors stress the "work-in-progress" nature of this site, it represents an excellent and useful contribution.

415

Solid-state radar transmitters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The technology and design procedures for introducing transistors into radio transmitters are discussed. The design characteristics of solid-state radar transmitters are described, with emphasis given to power amplifier/modules and devices for summing the output power in space or in an output combiner. Some design issues related to power supplies, pulse waveform amplitude regulation; reliability; and cost; and also considered. Some examples of successful solid-state radar systems are described, including the AN/TPS-59 radar, the AN/SPS-40 system, and the Pave/PAWS phased array radar. Black and white photographs of the different systems are provided.

Ostroff, E. D.; Borkowski, M.; Thomas, H.; Curtis, J.

416

Vortex states in superconducting nanowires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Confinement effect of vortices in mesoscopic type-I superconductors has been suggested recently in an intermediate state of flux patterns with numerical calculations. We have tried to confirm the effect in In cylindrical nanowires encapsulated in ZnS nanotubes. We have measured the detailed magnetization of the bundle of In nanowires. During flux entry and exit, we have observed a topological hysteresis. We show the existence of metastable configurations of vortices and recipes to access them. We also will demonstrate manifestation of super-heating and supercooling between superconducting and normal states, respectively, across the superconducting transition.

Hirata, Kazuto; Thakur, Ajay D.; Ooi, Shuuichi

2013-10-01

417

MPI photoelectron spectroscopy of ungerade excited states of acetylene: Intermediate state mixing and ion state selection  

SciTech Connect

Three photon resonant, four photon (3+1) ionization spectroscopy and photoelectron spectroscopy have been used to study the ungerade excited states of acetylene in the energy range from 74 500 to 90 000 cm/sup -1/. Sharp bands from the nR (..pi../sup 3//sub u/ nssigma/sub g/) and /sup 1/Phi/sub u/ (..pi../sup 3//sub u/ nddelta/sub g/) Rydberg series dominate the MPI spectrum. A large number of Rydberg and valence states which are prominent in VUV absorption spectra are absent or weak in MPI studies. These weak bands are only observable under high power conditions, which suggests that nonradiative decay is rapid enough to depopulate these states before ionization occurs. The photoelectron results provide further insight into the nature of the excited states. Ionization through the sharp bands occurs via ..delta nu.. = 0 Franck--Condon transitions, resulting in ions in a single vibrational state. Ionization through bands which are mixed results in complicated ion vibrational distributions including excitation of both cis and trans bends.

Orlando, T.M.; Anderson, S.L.; Appling, J.R.; White, M.G.

1987-07-15

418

Guidelines for Developing State Cogeneration Policies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document contains a set of guidelines for use by state decision makers in establishing policies regarding industrial cogeneration. By providing state officials with means of assessing the state potential for future cogeneration development and identi...

1979-01-01

419

Teaching Evolution: Do State Standards Matter?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the relationship of state standards for the teaching of evolution to the actual teaching of that subject. Compares a grading of states for their performance and discusses the question of whether state standards matter. (MM)

Moore, Randy

2002-01-01

420

Kidney Disease Statistics for the United States  

MedlinePLUS

... Disease Statistics for the United States Kidney Disease Statistics for the United States On this page: The ... The Growing Burden of Kidney Disease Kidney disease statistics for the United States convey the burden of ...

421

Finite Translations in Solid-State Physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eigenvalues of finite translations are used for specifying a complete set of states in quantum mechanics. A derivation of these states is given and they are shown to be very useful in solid-state physics.

J. Zak

1967-01-01

422

34 CFR 303.732 - State allotments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES State Monitoring...aggregate amount as the number of infants and toddlers in the State bears to the number of infants and toddlers in all States. (b) Minimum...

2013-07-01

423

State of the World's Children Reports  

MedlinePLUS

... STATISTICS BLOGS Search GO The State of the World's Children The State of the World's Children reports Newsline Searchable PDF archive The State of the World's Children reports Each year, UNICEFs flagship publication, The ...

424

31 CFR 539.312 - United States.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION TRADE CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 539.312 United States. The term United States means the United States,...

2009-07-01

425

40 CFR 272.1800 - State authorization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false State authorization. 272...AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) APPROVED STATE HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT...to the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of...program for which a State may receive...

2013-07-01

426

40 CFR 272.700 - State authorization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false State authorization. 272...AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) APPROVED STATE HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT...to the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments...program for which a State may receive...

2013-07-01

427

40 CFR 272.1300 - State authorization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false State authorization. 272...AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) APPROVED STATE HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT...to the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of...program for which a State may receive...

2013-07-01

428

40 CFR 272.1150 - State authorization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false State authorization. 272...AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) APPROVED STATE HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT...to the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of...program for which a State may receive...

2013-07-01

429

State Capabilities to Address Intrastate Fiscal Disparities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report reviews instruments currently used by State governments to limit intrastate fiscal disparities and discusses three aspects of the relationship between fiscal conditions at the State level and fiscal disparities within States. It surveys the in...

S. M. Barro

1985-01-01

430

What are squeezed states really like  

SciTech Connect

The simple harmonic oscillator and some quantum mechanics are reviewed. Then a special case of the squeezed states, the coherent states, is discussed. Next, the coherent states are described from the operator formalism. The squeezed states are described from the Schroedinger point of view, and their properties are discussed. Harmonic motion and coherent and squeezed states are discussed for general potentials. Then the (harmonic oscillator) squeezed states are discussed from the operator point of view and some of their mathematical properties. (WHK)

Nieto, M.M.

1984-01-01

431

Models of Communication in Multilingual States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper draws attention to communication in multilingual states which may be said to exist at three levels: sub-state, state, and inter-state level. Communication at the sub-state level may involve an "in-group" language or a regional one, and hence a multilingual model is required at this level. At the state level, on the other hand, there will

Bamgbose, Ayo

432

Unambiguous discrimination between two unknown qudit states  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the unambiguous discrimination between two unknown qudit states in n-dimensional ( n ? 2) Hilbert space. By equivalence of unknown pure states to known mixed states and with the Jordan-basis method, we demonstrate that the optimal success probability of the discrimination between two unknown states is independent of the dimension n. We also give a scheme for a physical implementation of the programmable state discriminator that can unambiguously discriminate between two unknown states with optimal probability of success.

Zhou, Tao

2012-12-01

433

State Standards and Assessment Update  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

High-quality state assessment systems are the cornerstone of No Child Left Behind (NCLB), making it possible for school systems to collect data on student achievement to diagnose where students are doing well and where they are doing poorly. This provides information that teachers, administrators, and policymakers can use to customize and improve

US Department of Education, 2008

2008-01-01

434

Children's Books--United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report, given at a special meeting held in Tehran, presents an outline of the situation of children's literature in the United States. Information provided includes lists of organizations interested in the publication, selection, and distribution of children's books and of institutions serving international interests in children's books and

Havilland, Virginia

435

Solid State Photovoltaics Research Branch  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The major areas of in-house photovoltaic research covered include: semiconductor crystal growth and devices; material preparation and purification; solid state theory; amorphous materials; thin film compound semiconductor solar cells; and high efficiency multijunction solar cells. The purpose and major accomplishments of the work is explained in the context of the overall goals of the national photovoltaics program.

1983-09-01

436

CDC Growth Charts: United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesThis report presents the revised growth charts for the United States. It summarizes the history of the 1977 National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) growth charts, reasons for the revision, data sources and statistical procedures used, and major features of the revised charts. MethodsData from five national health examination surveys collected from 1963 to 1994 and five supplementary data sources

Robert J. Kuczmarski; Cynthia L. Ogden; Laurence M. Grummer-Strawn; Katherine M. Flegal; Shumei S. Guo; Rong Wei; Zuguo Mei; Lester R. Curtin; Alex F. Roche; Clifford L. Johnson

2000-01-01

437

Tamm states in electron plasma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Researchers have fabricated a voltage-tunable plasmonic crystal in a two-dimensional electron gas that operates at terahertz frequencies. Nature Photonics spoke to Eric Shaner, Greg Dyer and Greg Aizin about the observation of Tamm states at the crystal's edge.

2013-11-01

438

Advances in Solid State Physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present volume 45 of Advances in Solid-State Physics contains the written versions of selected invited lectures from the spring meeting of the Arbeitskreis Festkrperphysik of the Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft in the World Year of Physics 2005, the Einstein Year, which was held from 4 - 11 March 2005 in Berlin, Germany. Many topical talks given at the numerous symposia

Bernhard Kramer

2006-01-01

439

Rydberg states in condensed matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Wannier formula is unable to fit the energy of the lowest level (n=1) simultaneously with that of the higher states (n>=2) in materials exhibiting a weak dielectric screening. We discuss the theory and the use of the Rydberg formula in condensed matter. We show that it describes all levels (n=1 and n>=2) and provides values for the energy gaps

L. Resca; R. Resta

1979-01-01

440

2014 State of Western's Assets  

SciTech Connect

In this report we document the State of Westerns Assets in terms of physical equipment, financial resources, strategic direction, and human capital, both at the organizational and regional levels. We identify the condition of our assets today and share what work we will be doing in these areas in the coming years.

none,

2014-01-01

441

CLIMATE CHANGE: STATE OF KNOWLEDGE  

EPA Science Inventory

This State of Knowledge document presents an introduction to human effects that during the past 100 years have led to increased atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases and corresponding increases in global temperatures. The world's leading climate scientists have concluded that Ea...

442

State of the Lab Address  

ScienceCinema

In his third-annual State of the Lab address, Ames Laboratory Director Alex King called the past year one of "quiet but strong progress" and called for Ames Laboratory to continue to build on its strengths while responding to changing expectations for energy research.

443

Solid state safety jumper cables  

Microsoft Academic Search

This invention consists of solid state jumper cables for connecting two batteries in parallel, having two bridge rectifiers for developing a reference voltage, a four-input decoder for determining which terminals are to be connected based on a comparison of the voltage at each of the four terminals to the reference voltage, and a pair of relays for effecting the correct

Kronberg

1991-01-01

444

Solid state safety jumper cables  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid state jumper cables for connecting two batteries in parallel, having two bridge rectifiers for developing a reference voltage, a four-input decoder for determining which terminals are to be connected based on a comparison of the voltage at each of the four terminals to the reference voltage, and a pair of relays for effecting the correct connection depending on the

Kronberg

1993-01-01

445

A Solid State Scintillation Detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efforts to substitute a solid state device for the usual photomultiplier of a scintillation type nuclear detector led to the photoconductive cell. Although extremely sensitive, cadmium sulfide responds slowly to low levels of light, and a technique providing improvement over several orders of magnitude failed to achieve measurement of individual pulses. In an integrating application, however, such a method makes

George E. Wilcox

1967-01-01

446

Irrigation in the United States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Beginning with the Mormon colonization of Salt Lake Valley, Utah, in 1847, irrigation has been a significant part of agriculture in the United States. Most of the Nation's irrigated acreage has always been located in the arid and semiarid regions of the W...

D. M. Lea

1985-01-01

447

States Get Flexibility on Targets  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As President Bush nears the end of his tenure, his administration is putting its final stamp on the No Child Left Behind Act and trying to lay the groundwork for the law's future. This article reports on the latest effort of President Bush's administration that will allow as many as 10 states to create alternative interventions for schools that

Hoff, David J.

2008-01-01

448

Marine positioning: state of technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is a state of technology report on marine positioning. Three technical advances having significant impacts on marine positioning and its applications are highlighted in this report. They are (1) the seafloor positioning experiments organized by the Scripps Institution of Oceanography and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory that have demonstrated high accuracy seafloor positioning and its potential contribution to seafloor

Patrick Fell; George A. Maul

2000-01-01

449

SALT steady state systems code  

Microsoft Academic Search

A steady state system code has been developed at ANL and has been used to analyze or evaluate the following technologies: open cycle magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), liquid metal MHD, fuel cells, combined cycle coal gasification plants, pulverized coal fired power plants with flue gas desulfurization, pressurized and atmospheric fluidized bed combustion plants, municipal solid waste disposal systems, geothermal systems, fusion reactor

G. Berry; H. Geyer

1983-01-01

450

Observation of three upsilon states  

SciTech Connect

Three narrow resonances have been observed in e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation into hadrons at total energies between 9.4 and 10.4 GeV. Measurements of mass spacings and ratios of lepton pair widths support the interpretation of these ''UPSILON'' states as the lowest triplet-S levels of the bb-bar quark-antiquark system.

Andrews, D.; Berkelman, K.; Billing, M.; Cabenda, R.; Cassel, D.G.; DeWire, J.W.; Ehrlich, R.; Ferguson, T.; Gentile, T.; Gibbard, B.G.; Gilchriese, M.G.D.; Gittelman, B.; Hartill, D.L.; Herrup, D.; Herzlinger, M.; Kreinick, D.L.; Larson, D.; Mistry, N.B.; Nordberg, E.; Peggs, S.; Pechonok, R.; Plunkett, R.K.; Seeman, J.; Shinsky, K.A.; Siemann, R.H.; Silverman, A.; Stein, P.C.; Stone, S.; Talman, R.; Thonemann, H.G.; Weber, D.; Bebek, C.; Haggerty, J.; Izen, J.M.; Kline, R.; Loomis, W.A.; Pipkin, F.M.; Tanenbaum, W.; Wilson, R.; Sadoff, A.J.; Bridges, D.L.; Chadwick, K.; Ganci, P.; Kagan, H.; Lobkowicz, F.; Metcalf, W.; Olsen, S.L.; Poling, R.; Rosenfeld, C.; Rucinski, G.; Thorndike, E.H.; Warren, G.; Bechis, D.; Chang, G.K.; Imlay, R.; Mueller, J.J.; Potter, D.; Sannes, F.; Skubic, P.; Stone, R.; Brody, A.; Chen, A.; Goldberg, M.; Horwitz, N.; Kandaswamy, J.; Kooy, H.; Lariccia, P.; Moneti, G.C.; Whitman, R.; Alam, M.S.; Csorna, S.E.; Panvini, R.S.; Poucher, J.S.

1980-04-28

451

State Energy Data Needs Assessment  

EIA Publications

This report responds to Section 805(d) of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA), Public Law 110-140, requiring the Energy InformationAdministration to assess State-level energy data needs and submit to Congress a plan to address those needs.

Information Center

2009-01-01

452

The State of the Art  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Blackwell Companion and Blackwell Guide to the philosophy of education, edited respectively by Randall Curren and by Nigel Blake, Paul Smeyers, Richard Smith and Paul Standish, are potentially field-defining volumes. The present essay moves back and forth between the two books to assess the overall impression they provide of the "state of the

Corngold, Josh; Katz, Rebecca M.; Newman, Anne; Phillips, D. C.

2005-01-01

453

State Tobacco Control Highlights--1999.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document provides a compilation of tobacco information for all 50 states and the District of Columbia, covering topics such as the prevalence of tobacco use, the health impact and costs associated with tobacco use, tobacco control laws, and tobacco agriculture and manufacturing. Recommended practices for school-based programs are included.

Stevens, Perry; Alexander, Vickie L.; Allison, Harmony; Coole, David F.; Fishman, Julie A.; Knox, Steven R.; Malarcher, Ann M.; Schooley, Michael W.; Shelton, Dana M.; Woollery, Trevor A.

454

Introduction to Solid State Physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This upper-division textbook on solid state physics describes how the excitations and imperfections of actual solids can be understood with simple models. Recent advances in the field have been added including high temperature superconductors, quasicrystals, nanostructures, superlattices, Bloch/Wannier levels, Zener tunneling, light-emitting diodes and new magnetic materials.

Kittel, C.

2004-06-14

455

Feds, States Dicker over Evaluations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Even though 34 states and the District of Columbia have No Child Left Behind Act waivers in hand, many of them are still negotiating with the U.S. Department of Education over their teacher evaluation systems--a crucial component if they want to keep their newfound flexibility. More than six months after waiver recipients turned in their

McNeil, Michele

2013-01-01

456

Two State Nuclear Decay Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Two State Nuclear Decay model simulates the radioactive decay of atomic nuclei into other nuclei. In this model, the resultant nuclei are stable and there are no intermediate decay states. Although the decay of a radioactive nucleus (radionuclide) is spontaneous and the time of its decay cannot be predicted, the probability of its decay k is constant and is usually known. The model displays a radioactive sample with N nuclides. Radioactive nuclides are color-coded red and decayed nuclides are color-coded blue. Users can set the number of nuclides N, the decay constant k, and the time interval between measurements before the simulation is run. The simulation counts the number of decay events and stops when there are no radionuclides remaining. The Two State Nuclear Decay model was developed using the Easy Java Simulations (Ejs) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_nuclear_TwoStateNuclearDecay.jar file will run the program if Java is installed.

Christian, Wolfgang

2011-01-07

457

Equations of State in Liquids.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Part I of the report is an extension of Eyring's Significant Structure Theory of the liquid state to high pressures. This extension is accomplished by introducing a Lennard-Jones and Devonshire cell model for calculating the energy of cold compression use...

C. T. Tung D. McLachlan G. E. Duvall

1970-01-01

458

Florida State University Heritage Protocol  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Florida State University (FSU) Heritage Protocol was created to preserve the history of FSU through collections of various ephemeral items, including yearbooks, photographs, items of clothing, audio recordings, and films. The materials on the site are divided into six primary sections that include: "Virtual Museum", "Photo Galleries", "Mixed Media", and "Publications". In the "Virtual Museum", visitors can look at the mortar board of physical education professor, Katherine W. Montgomery, and the 1913 commencement announcement for the Florida State College for Women. Moving on, the "Photo Galleries" area includes a photo of the week feature, a collection of images from the Florida State College for Women and some unique photos of one Burt Reynolds, who went to Florida State University in the 1950s. The "Mixed Media" area is quite interesting, and visitors can view a FSU circus rehearsal film from the early 1950s and listen to an album of performances from FSU's School of Music. Finally, the "Publications" area includes primary documents like an article on the FSU Circus from the March 31, 1952 issue of Life magazine and a piece from 1955 on the FSU Marine Lab.

459

Humboldt State University Fisheries Biology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Fisheries Science Department of Humboldt State University offers an interdisciplinary Bachelor of Sciences degree in Aquarium Sciences. To prepare for a career as a professional aquarist or aquarium curator, training includes: husbandry, culture of aquatic organisms, ichthyology, pathology, life support, exhibit design, conservation, business management. Internships with major public aquariums are available.

2010-11-18

460

Group Theory for String States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

All string theories can be described in terms of an infinite number of states equally spaced in mass and their spectrum can be constructed out of harmonic oscillators of bosonic and fermionic types. It is the purpose of this lecture to provide an introduc...

P. Ramond

1985-01-01

461

Solid-State Cyclotron Maser.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A solid-state cyclotron maser for generating low power (1 watt or less) signals in the submillimeter frequency range (300 GHz-30,000 GHz) includes an accelerating region, a drift region, and a metal grid therebetween. Both regions are formed from semicond...

A. K. Ganguly K. L. Davis K. R. Chu

1983-01-01

462

State of the Lab Address  

ScienceCinema

In his third-annual State of the Lab address, Ames Laboratory Director Alex King called the past year one of "quiet but strong progress" and called for Ames Laboratory to continue to build on its strengths while responding to changing expectations for energy research.

King, Alex

2013-03-01

463

Intermediate State of Thin Superconductors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the study was to examine the state of a thin type-I superconductor in a magnetic field to determine its dependence on the speciment thickness and on the value of the Ginzburg-Landau parameter k. Three materials (aluminum, indium, and In(0.9...

B. L. Brandt R. D. Parks R. D. Chaudhari

1970-01-01

464

Entanglement for All Quantum States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is shown that a state that is factorizable in the Hilbert space corresponding to some choice of degrees of freedom becomes entangled for a different choice of degrees of freedom. Therefore, entanglement is not a special case but is ubiquitous in quantum systems. Simple examples are calculated and a general proof is provided. The physical

de la Torre, A. C.; Goyeneche, D.; Leitao, L.

2010-01-01

465

Mental Health, United States, 1987.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents timely statistical information on the nation's organized mental health service delivery system. Included are: (1) "Chronic Mental Disorder in the United States" (Howard H. Goldman and Ronald W. Manderscheid); (2) "Specialty Mental Health System Characteristics" (Michael J. Witkin, Joanne E. Atay, Adele S. Fell, and Ronald W.

National Inst. of Mental Health (DHHS), Rockville, MD.

466

Autodetaching States in I Minus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Collisional excitation of negative iodine ions produces a group of peaks between 5 and 8 eV in the detached-electron spectrum. The autodetaching states decaying into these peaks appear to have dominant configurations of the form (I(+) core) 6s6l. No struc...

D. L. Cunningham A. K. Edwards

1974-01-01

467

"New State of Matter" Created  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Yesterday, scientists from 20 different countries working at CERN, the European Laboratory for Particle Physics, announced that, after years of work, they had created "a new state of matter." In this new state of matter, quarks, the smallest known particles, roam freely instead of being bound up into more complex particles such as protons and neutrons. By smashing heavy lead ions at temperatures 100,000 times as high as those at the sun's center and at energy densities never before reached in laboratory experiments, the scientists claim they have created a form of matter, "quark-gluon" soup or plasma, that has not existed since a few millionths of a second after the Big Bang created the universe. Although the evidence is indirect, since the particles were measured after they returned to a confined state, many believe that this "Little Bang" verifies a key part of the Big Bang theory -- that quarks and gluons existed in a free state before they joined to form the larger particles that make up the atom. CERN is winding down its current research, and the momentum for high-energy science research will transfer to the US, where a new facility in New York, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), is due to begin experiments later this year.

De Nie, Michael W.

468

Background: What the States Created  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prior to 2003, virtual universities were being created at a rate that would question the usual perception that higher education rarely changed, or changed (if at all) at a glacial speed. No comprehensive study of what was actually being created had been done; nor had anyone tapped the experiences of the developers in the states to see what was

Cox, James C.

2009-01-01

469

Inventory of state energy models  

SciTech Connect

These models address a variety of purposes, such as supply or demand of energy or of certain types of energy, emergency management of energy, conservation in end uses of energy, and economic factors. Fifty-one models are briefly described as to: purpose; energy system; applications;status; validation; outputs by sector, energy type, economic and physical units, geographic area, and time frame; structure and modeling techniques; submodels; working assumptions; inputs; data sources; related models; costs; references; and contacts. Discussions in the report include: project purposes and methods of research, state energy modeling in general, model types and terminology, and Federal legislation to which state modeling is relevant. Also, a state-by-state listing of modeling efforts is provided and other model inventories are identified. The report includes a brief encylopedia of terms used in energy models. It is assumed that many readers of the report will not be experienced in the technical aspects of modeling. The project was accomplished by telephone conversations and document review by a team from the Colorado School of Mines Research Institute and the faculty of the Colorado School of Mines. A Technical Committee (listed in the report) provided advice during the course of the project.

Melcher, A.G.; Gist, R.L.; Underwood, R.G.; Weber, J.C.

1980-03-31

470

States Curb Exemptions on Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pressure from the U.S. Department of Education has led some states to curb a testing exemption that applies only to the 1 percent of students with the most severe disabilities, but districts that have long used that flexibility to win some breathing room in their accountability systems are bristling. Under the federal No Child Left Behind Act,

Shah, Nirvi

2011-01-01

471

The Changing United States Diet  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The nature of the United States diet has changed markedly in this century. We are using more meat, poultry, fish, and dairy products; sugars and other sweeteners; fats and oils; and processed fruits and vegetables. We are using fewer grain products, potatoes, fresh fruits and vegetables, and eggs. (BB)

Page, Louise; Friend, Berta

1978-01-01

472

Correlation effects and bound states  

SciTech Connect

Bound states in a simple quark model that are due to correlation effects are analyzed. The confining properties of this model in meson (quark-antiquark and diquark) channels manifest themselves at any quark momenta, and an extra potential field may only enhance the confining effect.

Zinovjev, G. M. [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics (Ukraine); Molodtsov, S. V., E-mail: molodtsov@itep.ru [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation)

2012-11-15

473

Washington State's Student Achievement Initiative  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes Washington State's Student Achievement Initiative, an accountability system implemented in 2005-06 that measures students' gains in college readiness, college credits earned, and degree or certificate completion. The goal of the initiative is to increase educational attainment by focusing on the critical momentum points

Pettitt, Maureen; Prince, David

2010-01-01

474

Have Pentaquark States Been Seen?  

SciTech Connect

The status of the search for pentaquark baryons is reviewed in light of new results from the first two dedicated experiments from CLAS at Jefferson Lab and of new analyses from several laboratories on the {Theta}{sup +}(1540). Evidence for and against two heavier pentaquark states is also discussed.

Volker Burkert

2005-10-10

475

State of Utah water, 1975  

Microsoft Academic Search

This third general status report on the comprehensive water planning process in Utah addresses the current issues and the water planning process itself. The major water resources planning problem in this water-deficient state is one of economics, that is, projects which are technically and physically feasible are often beyond the means of the potential users to pay the costs. The

Saunder

1976-01-01

476

Ground-State of Water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of the ground-state properties of molecular systems has long been the focus of both quantum chemists as well as physicists. In general, most of the calculational methods are dependent on the use of high-power computers to generate large basis states. Such schemes as the full-configuration-interaction method, coupled-pair functionals and its modification, Moller-Plesset perturbation theory as well as both the restricted and unrestricted Hartree-Fock schemes have been used not only for ground-state calculations but also to calculate electron correlation energies. In general such schemes are limited to those basis which are constructed from single Slatter determinant. Here we wish to study the ground-state of water as well as hydrogen fluoride using the recently developed canonical sequence scheme which is a calculational cousin of the Connected Moments Expansion of Cioslowski. Comparisons are then made with other methods [for example P.J. Knowles Chem. Phys. Lett. 134, 512 (1987)].

Saltzman, Emily; Carey, Mike; Fessatidis, Vassilios; Mancini, Jay D.; Bowen, Samuel P.

2002-03-01

477

State Governance Action Report, 2009  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This sixth edition of the State Governance Report summarizes the most relevant issues, legislative proposals, and proposed policies facing public higher education and its governance and oversight. The majority of coverage is devoted to the current or just recently completed 2009 legislative sessions. Other issues covered in this report include

Toutsi, Cristin

2009-01-01

478

Field Programmable Stateful Logic Array  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kyosun Kim, Sangho Shin, Member, IEEE, and Sung-Mo Kang, Fellow, IEEE AbstractRecently, researchers have demonstrated that mem- ristive switches can be used to implement logic and latches as well as memory and programmable interconnects. In this paper, we propose a novel stateful logic pipeline architecture based on memristive switches. The proposed architecture mapped to the field programmable nanowire interconnect fabric

Kyosun Kim; Sangho Shin; Sung-Mo Kang

2011-01-01

479

Floating Cities, Islands and States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many small countries are in need of additional territory. They build landfills and expensive artificial islands. The ocean covers 71 per cent of the Earth surface. Those countries (or persons of wealth) starting the early colonization of the ocean may obtain advantages through additional territory or creating their own independent state. An old idea is building a big ship. The

Alexander Bolonkin

2008-01-01

480

Solid-state radioluminescent compositions  

DOEpatents

A solid state radioluminescent composition for light source comprises an optically clear polymer organic matrix containing tritiated organic materials and dyes capable of "red" shifting primary scintillation emissions from the polymer matrix. The tritiated organic materials are made by reducing, with tritium, an unsaturated organic compound that prior to reduction contains olefinic or alkynylic bonds.

Clough, Roger L. (Albuquerque, NM); Gill, John T. (Miamisburg, OH); Hawkins, Daniel B. (Fairbanks, AK); Renschler, Clifford L. (Tijeras, NM); Shepodd, Timothy J. (Livermore, CA); Smith, Henry M. (Overland Park, KS)

1991-01-01

481

Accreditation in the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Accreditation is a process of external quality review created and used by higher education to scrutinize colleges, universities, and programs for quality assurance and quality improvement. Accreditation in the United States is more than a hundred years old, emerging from concerns to protect public health and safety and to serve the public

Eaton, Judith S.

2009-01-01

482

Maximally Entangled Set of Multipartite Quantum States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Entanglement is a resource in quantum information theory when state manipulation is restricted to local operations assisted by classical communication (LOCC). It is therefore of paramount importance to decide which LOCC transformations are possible and, particularly, which states are maximally useful under this restriction. While the bipartite maximally entangled state is well known (it is the only state that cannot be obtained from any other and, at the same time, it can be transformed to any other by LOCC), no such state exists in the multipartite case. In order to cope with this fact, we introduce here the notion of the maximally entangled set (MES) of n-partite states. This is the set of states which are maximally useful under LOCC manipulation; i.e., any state outside of this set can be obtained via LOCC from one of the states within the set and no state in the set can be obtained from any other state via LOCC. We determine the MES for states of three and four qubits and provide a simple characterization for them. In both cases, infinitely many states are required. However, while the MES is of measure zero for 3-qubit states, almost all 4-qubit states are in the MES. This is because, in contrast to the 3-qubit case, deterministic LOCC transformations are almost never possible among fully entangled four-partite states. We determine the measure-zero subset of the MES of LOCC convertible states. This is the only relevant class of states for entanglement manipulation.

de Vicente, J. I.; Spee, C.; Kraus, B.

2013-09-01

483

Operational Approach to Generalized Coherent States  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Generalized coherent states for general potentials, constructed through a controlling mechanism, can also be obtained applying on a reference state suitable operators. An explicit example is supplied.

DeMartino, Salvatore; DeSiena, Silvio

1996-01-01

484

Solid state electrochromic smart'' windows  

SciTech Connect

The structure under development at EIC Laboratories consists of a multilayer stack of thin films, incorporating the two principal electrochemically active elements, the electrochromic (EC) and counter electrode (CE) layers, respectively. The EC layer changes from colorless to a state of reduced transmission on reduction while the CE layer has the opposite (complementary) behavior (or is colorless in both oxidized and reduced states). These are separated by an ion conducting electrolyte. The stack is completed with top and bottom transparent electrodes. The major achievements are as follows: (1) Tunable thermal emittance for the EC layer over a range of 0.2 to 0.8 was demonstrated, indicating the feasibility of surfaces with adjustable heat transfer properties. (2) Thin film ion conductors based on the Li{sub 2}O/B{sub 2}O{sub 3} and LiNbO{sub 3} were developed using thermal and electron beam evaporation with ionic conductivities >10{sup {minus}8} S/cm, fulfilling a major requirement for this component. (3) A variety of improved vanadium oxide-based counter electrode materials were demonstrated and patented which undergo reversible electrochemical Li insertion reactions and which increase their solar transmission on reduction. (4) Devices incorporating a laminated Li+ conducting polymer electrolyte were demonstrated with bleached state visible transmittance of >65% and colored state transmittance of <15%. These devices were tested for >10{sup 4} complete cycles. (5) An all thin film solid state device was demonstrated with a visible transmission range of 65/13%, using the component materials developed on this program. The device was tested for >3000 complete cycles without degradation. A fabrication sequence was specified which forms the basis of initial production cost estimates. (6) Window modeling studies have been used to compare the relative performance of amorphous and crystalline WO{sub 3}-based electrochromic structures. 10 refs., 17 figs., 2 tabs.

Not Available

1991-03-01

485

SALT steady state systems code  

SciTech Connect

A steady state system code has been developed at ANL and has been used to analyze or evaluate the following technologies: open cycle magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), liquid metal MHD, fuel cells, combined cycle coal gasification plants, pulverized coal fired power plants with flue gas desulfurization, pressurized and atmospheric fluidized bed combustion plants, municipal solid waste disposal systems, geothermal systems, fusion reactor coolant systems, nuclear power plants, and ocean thermal energy conversion power plants. The SALT systems code contains many unique and state-of-the-art features that have promoted its use in the many extensive systems. These features are: (1) a language translator, which allows free format and unsorted input; (2) a preprocessor, which allows great flexibility in defining a system and permitting the user to generate his own labels; (3) a state-of-the-art hybrid nonlinear N-dimensional equation solver that is extremely fast and robust (this algorithm has been incorporated in the latest version of the EPRI dynamic systems code (MMS) to find the steady-state solution), (4) a state-of-the-art optimizer; (5) a chemical-equilibrium subroutine for calculating thermodynamic gas properties for specific chemical compositions; (6) off-design analysis capability; (7) economic modeling subroutines; (8) extensive use of splines for accurate and quick numerical evaluations (e.g., steam tables are represented by cubic splines); (9) precompiled models, so that only one set of generic instructions is loaded into core for each unique model type; (10) total modularity; and (11) compactness (an abridged version has fit on a 64K microprocessor).

Berry, G.; Geyer, H.

1983-01-01

486

The state of American management.  

PubMed

Every year, the president of the United States offers his State of the Union address. Here, from one of the most respected managers in America, is a report on the State of American Management. The state of management, says Walter B. Wriston, is good. Despite the predictions of America's decline, our economy continues to prosper. That is because of this fundamental truth: the United States is the only country in the world that renews itself daily. This is the Age of Pluralism, and U.S. business is based on pluralism. The spirit of the entrepreneur has entered the mainstream of U.S. management, transforming bureaucracy and emphasizing leadership. Today's top executives need to be more like politicians than the number-crunchers of yesterday. At the same time, information is flowing more freely, so corporations are eliminating layers of managers who were really just transmission lines. And top managers are learning to listen to the people who are closest to the work. Everyone today is a knowledge worker. The accelerating pace of knowledge has put a greater premium than ever on talent. Globalization is a big part of this new world. From the manager's viewpoint, globalization means that "you're in a marketplace where you're suddenly waking up with a guy...from a country you're not too sure where it is, who's eating your lunch in your hometown." To understand global competition, managers in large and small companies need broad vision. Finally, to deal with change, U.S. managers must confront some issues at home. For instance, our accounting systems are obsolete, both in companies and in our national accounts.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:10103813

Wriston, W B

1990-01-01

487

Ohio State at Michigan: Michigan at Ohio State  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The title of this Web site may suggest that it is a tribute to the long-standing football rivalry between these two institutions, but in actuality, it is a nice collection of primary documents relating to the history of Michigan and Ohio. The idea for such a project was first proposed in 2001 by Fred G. Ruffner, Jr. (an alumnus of Ohio State), and working together, the two institutions worked to develop several Web sites that utilized their fine library holdings of historical materials. Visitors can browse through five volumes on Michigan history (including Jonathan Carver's 1796 volume, _Travels through the Interior Parts of North-America_) and two on Ohio history. Several maps and illustrations from various volumes have also been placed on the site for general perusal. Finally, the site does provide a link to a page dedicated to exploring the long-standing Big Ten rivalry between the Ohio State and Michigan football teams.

2003-05-15

488

Identifying mental states from neural states under mental constraints  

PubMed Central

This article emphasizes how the recently proposed interlevel relation of contextual emergence for scientific descriptions combines bottom-up and top-down kinds of influence. As emergent behaviour arises from features pertaining to lower level descriptions, there is a clear bottom-up component. But, in general, this is not sufficient to formulate interlevel relations stringently. Higher level contextual constraints are needed to equip the lower level description with those details appropriate for the desired higher level description to emerge. These contextual constraints yield some kind of downward confinement, a term that avoids the sometimes misleading notion of downward causation. This will be illustrated for the example of relations between (lower level) neural states and (higher level) mental states.

Atmanspacher, Harald

2012-01-01

489

Iowa State University: Iowa State's Deer Tick Home Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Iowa State's Deer Tick site is an excellent resource for anyone learning to identify deer tick specimens. The site provides links to size comparison images and movies for female, male, and larva deer ticks, as well as nymph images. Most tick images use a dime to provide a reference point, showing how small and easy to miss these creatures are. Movies are available in both MPEG and QuickTime format.

2008-02-07

490

The state of the dark energy equation of state  

Microsoft Academic Search

By combining data from seven cosmic microwave background experiments (including the latest WMAP results) with the Hubble parameter measurement from the Hubble space telescope and luminosity measurements of type Ia supernovae, we demonstrate the bounds on the dark energy equation of state wQ to be -1.45

Alessandro Melchiorri; Laura Mersini; Carolina J. dman; Mark Trodden

2003-01-01

491

Truncated Coherent States and Photon-Addition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A class of states of the electromagnetic field involving superpositions of all the excited states above a specified low energy eigenstate of the electromagnetic field is introduced. These states and the photon-added coherent states are shown to be the limiting cases of a generalized photon-added coherent state. This new class of states is nonclassical, non-Gaussian and has equal uncertainties in the field quadratures. For suitable choices of parameters, these uncertainties are very close to those of the coherent states. Nevertheless, these states exhibit sub-Poissonian photon number distribution, which is a nonclassical feature. Under suitable approximations, these states become the generalized Bernoulli states of the field. Nonclassicality of these states is quantified using their entanglement potential.

Sivakumar, S.

2014-05-01

492

Bound States for Magic State Distillation in Fault-Tolerant Quantum Computation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magic state distillation is an important primitive in fault-tolerant quantum computation. The magic states are pure nonstabilizer states which can be distilled from certain mixed nonstabilizer states via Clifford group operations alone. Because of the Gottesman-Knill theorem, mixtures of Pauli eigenstates are not expected to be magic state distillable, but it has been an open question whether all mixed states

Earl T. Campbell; Dan E. Browne

2010-01-01

493

Quantum State Sharing of an Arbitrary Three-Atom State by Using Five-Atom Cluster State in Cavity QED  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a scheme for implementing the deterministic quantum state sharing of an arbitrary three-atom state by using a five-atom cluster state and a Bell-state in cavity QED. In the scheme, it does not involve Bell-state measurement and only needs to perform the single-atom measurements. Our scheme is not sensitive to both the cavity decay and the atom radiation, which is of importance in view of decoherence.

Nie, Yi-you; Xu, Yue; Li, Yuan-hua; Sang, Ming-huang

2014-04-01

494

Dynamics of Schrdinger cat states  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A review of the definition of Crystallized Schrdinger cat states and their statistical properties is presented. The associated Wigner and Husimi quasi-probability distribution functions are also calculated together with the second moment of the Husimi function. The Hamiltonian formulation of the Nther's theorem is used to get the linear time dependent invariants of until general quadratic Hamiltonians in the quadratures of the electromagnetic field. By means of these invariants, the evolution of Crystallized Schrdinger cats is studied, thus we have explicit time dependent expressions for the means and dispersions of the quadratures of the electromagnetic field together with the corresponding Wigner and Husimi functions. By means of these results, we establish some conditions on the parameters of the Crystallized cat states to have the description of non-classical light.

Castaos, O.; Lpez-Saldvar, J. A.

2012-08-01

495

Michigan State Housing Development Authority  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Most states have a housing development authority; Michigan¢â¬â¢s SHDA is well known for its work in encouraging downtown redevelopment projects and a range of creative solutions to providing long-term housing solutions for the state's residents. On the homepage, visitors can look over the Spotlight area to learn about the long-term projects that the SHDA is working on. On the left hand side of the page, visitors can look over fifteen different thematic areas, including Historic Preservation, Homeownership, and Property Managers. Contractors and other groups may want to pay close attention to the RFP's and Grants area, which includes information about applying for statewide housing grants and information on key statewide programs, such as the Housing and Community Development Fund. Visitors can also set up email alerts to learn when new material is added to the site.

2013-01-01

496

Solid-state membrane module  

DOEpatents

Solid-state membrane modules comprising at least one membrane unit, where the membrane unit has a dense mixed conducting oxide layer, and at least one conduit or manifold wherein the conduit or manifold comprises a dense layer and at least one of a porous layer and a slotted layer contiguous with the dense layer. The solid-state membrane modules may be used to carry out a variety of processes including the separating of any ionizable component from a feedstream wherein such ionizable component is capable of being transported through a dense mixed conducting oxide layer of the membrane units making up the membrane modules. For ease of construction, the membrane units may be planar.

Gordon, John Howard (Salt Lake City, UT); Taylor, Dale M. (Murray, UT)

2011-06-07

497

Helical liquid of snake states  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We derive an exact solution to the problem of spin snake states induced in a nonhomogeneous magnetic field by a combined action of the Rashba spin-orbit and Zeeman fields. The electron spin behavior as a function of the cyclotron orbit center position and an external homogeneous magnetic field was obtained. It is shown that in an antisymmetric magnetic field the electron spin in the snake states has only an in-plane projection, perpendicular to the magnetic interface, which vanishes at large positive momenta. Applying an external homogeneous magnetic field adds a finite out-of-plane spin component and simultaneously gaps out the spectral branches, which results in regular beating patterns of the spin current components.

Shakouri, Kh.; Badalyan, S. M.; Peeters, F. M.

2013-11-01

498

Polycomb complexes and epigenetic states.  

PubMed

Important advances in the study of Polycomb Group (PcG) complexes in the past two years have focused on the role of this repressive system in programing the genome. Genome-wide analyses have shown that PcG mechanisms control a large number of genes regulating many cellular functions and all developmental pathways. Current evidence shows that, contrary to the classical picture of their role, PcG complexes do not set a repressed chromatin state that is maintained throughout development but have a much more dynamic role. PcG target genes can become repressed or be reactivated or exist in intermediate states. What controls the balance between repression and derepression is a crucial question in understanding development and differentiation in higher organisms. PMID:18439810

Schwartz, Yuri B; Pirrotta, Vincenzo

2008-06-01

499

Stoneflies of the United States  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In keeping with its excellent reputation, the Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center (first described in the October 15, 1997 Scout Report for Science & Engineering) has posted this useful, work-in-progress resource, one of several on the distribution of flying insects. This site, Stoneflies of the United States, contains information on the known distribution of Stoneflies (Plecoptera) in the US, including distribution maps, county checklists, published references, photo thumbnails, and numerous links to related sites. Dr. Boris Kondratieff of Colorado State University coordinated the production of this site, with collaboration by Dr. Richard Baumann of Brigham Young University. While the authors stress the "work-in-progress" nature of this site, it represents an excellent and useful contribution.

500

Sterilization in the United States  

PubMed Central

Unintended pregnancies are expensive for patients and for society in terms of medical costs, the cost of caring for more children, and the cost to personal and professional goals. Sterilization is the most common contraceptive method utilized by couples in the United States. Given technological advances over the past few decades, male and female surgical sterilization has become a safe, convenient, easy, and highly effective birth control method for the long term. This article reviews current male and female sterilization options.

Bartz, Deborah; Greenberg, James A

2008-01-01