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1

Comparative evaluation of laser-assisted micro-milling for AISI 316, AISI 422, TI-6AL-4V and Inconel 718 in a side-cutting configuration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is focused on numerical modeling and experimental evaluation of laser-assisted micro-milling (LAMM). An experimental setup consisting of a 25 W CO2 laser, three-axis CNC linear stages and a high-speed spindle was used to implement the LAMM process. Micro-endmills between 100 and 300 µm in diameter were used to perform side-cutting operations with and without laser preheat on four materials: AISI 316, AISI 422, Ti-6Al-4V and Inconel 718. A three-dimensional transient finite-volume-based thermal model was used to analytically predict appropriate process parameters on the basis of material-removal temperatures. The effects of LAMM on the machined surface finish, edge burrs, tool wear and workpiece microstructure were evaluated experimentally.

Shelton, Jonathan A.; Shin, Yung C.

2010-07-01

2

Interfacial properties of diffusion bonded Ti6Al4V to AISI 304 stainless steel by inserting a Cu interlayer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The joining characteristics of Ti-6Al-4V with AISI 304 stainless steel by inserting a Cu interlayer was investigated in a\\u000a vacuum-free diffusion bonding process. The diffusion bonds were carried out in the temperature range of 820, 850 and 870°C\\u000a for 50, 70 and 90 minutes, respectively, under 1 MPa load in argon atmosphere. The joining performances of diffusion bonded\\u000a Ti-6Al-4V to AISI 304

N. Özdemir; B. Bilgin

2009-01-01

3

Tribological and mechanical properties of Ti/TiAlN/TiAlCN nanoscale multilayer PVD coatings deposited on AISI H11 hot work tool steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new [Ti/TiAlN/TiAlCN]5 multilayer coatings were deposited onto polished substrate AISI H11 (DIN 1.2343) steel by an industrial magnetron sputtering device. The tribological performance of the coated system was investigated by a ball-on-disk tribometer against 100Cr6 steel and Al2O3 balls. The friction coefficients and specific wear rates were measured at various normal loads (2, 5, 8, and 10 N) and sliding velocities (0.2, 0.4, and 0.8 m/s) in ambient air and dry conditions. The phase structure, composition, wear tracks morphologies, hardness, and film/substrate adhesion of the coatings were characterized by light-microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), 3D-surface analyzer, nanoindentation, and scratch tests. Results showed that the deposited coatings showed low wear rates in the scale of 10-15 m3/N m, low friction coefficients against 100Cr6 and Al2O3 balls in the range of 0.25-0.37, and good hardness in the range of 17-20 GPa. Results also revealed that the friction coefficients and disc wear rates decrease and increase, respectively with the increase in normal load and sliding velocity for both coating/Al2O3 and coating/100Cr6 sliding system. Compared with the uncoated-H11 substrate, the deposited coating exhibited superior tribological and mechanical properties. The dominant wear mechanism was abrasive wear for coating/Al2O3 pair, while for coating/100Cr6 pair, a combination of mild adhesive wear, severe adhesive wear, and abrasive wear (extensive plowing) were the dominant wear mechanisms at different applied normal loads.

AL-Bukhaiti, M. A.; Al-hatab, K. A.; Tillmann, W.; Hoffmann, F.; Sprute, T.

2014-11-01

4

Diffusion bonding of TI6AL4V to AISI 316L stainless steel: mechanical resistance and interface microstructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interface microstructure and mechanical strength of joints obtained by diffusion bonding of alloy Ti-6A1-4V to AISI 316L stainless steel are presented. Bonding took place at 850, 900 and 950°C, maintained for different lengths of time (60 to 180 min). The highest recorded shear strength was equal to 382 MPa and was displayed by the specimen bonded at 950°C\\/180 min.

M. Ferrante; E. V. Pigoretti

2002-01-01

5

Microstructure and Corrosion Properties of AlCoCrFeNi High Entropy Alloy Coatings Deposited on AISI 1045 Steel by the Electrospark Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrospark deposition (ESD) was employed to clad the AlCoCrFeNi high-entropy alloy (HEA) on AISI 1045 carbon steel. The relationship between the microstructure and corrosion properties of the HEA-coated specimens was studied and compared with that of the copper-molded cast HEA material. Two major microstructural differences were found between the cast HEA material and the HEA coatings. First, the cast material comprises both columnar and equiaxed crystals with a columnar-to-equiaxed transition (CET), whereas the HEA coatings consist of an entirely columnar crystal structure. The CET phenomenon was analyzed based on Hunt's criterion. Second, unlike the cast HEA material, there was no obvious Cr-rich interdendritic segregation and nano-sized precipitate distributed within the dendrites of the HEA coating. With regard to corrosion properties, the corrosion current of the HEA-coated specimen was significantly lower than for the 1045 steel and the cast HEA material. This was attributed to the ESD specimen having a relatively high Cr oxide and Al oxide content at the surface. Moreover, for the ESD specimen, the absence of Cr-rich interdendritic phase and second-phase precipitation resulted in a relatively uniform corrosion attack, which is different from the severe galvanic corrosion attack that occurred in the cast specimen.

Li, Q. H.; Yue, T. M.; Guo, Z. N.; Lin, X.

2013-04-01

6

Mechanical behavior and cutting performance of nano-multi-layer Ti x Al 1? x N coated tools for high-speed machining of AISI D2 die steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nano-multi-layer TixAl1?xN coatings were successfully synthesized on WC–Co substrates by a cathodic arc ion plating (AIP). The synthesized TixAl1?xN films were revealed as nano-multi-layer consisting of nano-sized fine (Ti,Al)N crystallites by characteristics of microstructure, hardness, residual stress and oxidation resistance. The tool performances for the high-hardened AISI D2 die steel (60 HRC) were studied under high-speed cutting conditions. The reliable

Y. G. Jeong; M. C. Kang; J. S. Kim; K. H. Kim; W. G. Kim; I. D. Park; Y. H. Jun

2009-01-01

7

Microstructure, Mechanical, and Scratch Resistance Properties of TiAlCrNbN-Graded Composite Coating Deposited on AISI H13 Steel Substrate with Pulsed DC Closed Field Unbalanced Magnetron Sputtering Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Structure and adhesion properties of TiAlCrNbN coatings were investigated. These coatings were deposited onto AISI H13 steel substrate using pulsed dc closed field unbalanced magnetron sputtering at different deposition parameters including duty cycle, bias voltage, and working pressure. The coatings have been characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The TiAlCrNbN-graded composite coatings have a dense and columnar structure. The X-ray diffraction patterns of coatings exhibited predominantly c-TiAlCrN, h-NbN, and h-TiAlN reflections. Scratch resistance test showed that the highest adhesion strength was attained as 68 N at 2.5 ?s duty time, 100 V bias voltages, and 3 × 10-3 Torr deposition parameters. The lowest adhesion strength was obtained as 55 N at 0.5 ?s duty time, 50V bias voltage, and 2 × 10-3 Torr deposition parameters.

Kara, Levent; Küçükömero?lu, Tevfik; Baran, Özlem; Efeo?lu, ?hsan; Yamamoto, Kenji

2014-04-01

8

Effect of tip relief on endurance characteristics of super nitralloy and AISI M-50 spur gears  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tests were conducted with two groups of 8.89-centimeter (3.5-in.) pitch diameter spur gears with standard 20 deg involute profile with tip relief made of CVM Super-Nitralloy (5Ni-2Al) and CVM AISI M-50 at a temperature of 350 K (170 F). Super-Nitralloy gears with tip relief had a life 150 percent that of gears without tip relief. An increased scoring phenomenon was noted with the Super-Nitralloy gears with tip relief. Through-hardened AISI M-50 gears with tip relief failed due to tooth fracture. AISI M-50 gears without tip relief had a life approximately 40 times greater than the AISI M-50 gears with tip relief.

Townsend, D. P.; Zaretsky, E. V.

1974-01-01

9

Surface fatigue and failure characteristics of hot forged powder metal AISI 4620, AISI 4640, and machined AISI 4340 steel spur gears  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spur gear surface fatigue endurance tests were conducted to investigate hot forged powder metal AISI 4620 and 4640 steel for use as a gear material, to determine endurance characteristics and to compare the results with machined AISI 4340 and 9310 steel gear materials. The as-forged and unground SISI 4620 gear exhibited a 10 percent fatigue life that was approximately one-fourth of that for AISI 9310 and less than one-half that for the AISI 4340 gears. The forged and finish ground AISI 4620 gears exhibited a 10 percent life, approximately 70 percent that of AISI 9310 and slightly better than that of AISI 4340. The AISI 4640 hot forged gears had less fracture toughness and slightly less fatigue life than the AISI 4620 test gears.

Townsend, D. P.

1986-01-01

10

A life study of AISI M-50 and Super Nitralloy spur gears with and without tip relief  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tests were conducted at 170 F with groups of 3.5-in.-pitch-diameter spur gear with and without tip relief made of consumable-electrode vacuum melted (CVM) Spur Nitralloy (5Ni-2Al) and CVM AISI M-50 steel. The AISI M-50 gears without tip relief had lives approximately 50 percent longer than the Super Nitralloy gears without tip relief. However, the Super Nitralloy gears with tip relief had lives equal to the AISI M-50 gears without tip relief. The difference in lives were not statistically significant. All gears failed by classical pitting fatigue at the pitch circle. However, the AIAI M-50 gears with tip relief failed by tooth fracture. AISI M-50 gear sets without tip relief having a spalled gear tooth which were deliberately overrun after spalling had occurred, failed by tooth fracture.

Townsend, D. P.; Zaretsky, E. V.

1973-01-01

11

Comparing the Formability of AISI 304 and AISI 202 Stainless Steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formability of AISI 202 austenitic stainless steel was compared with that of type AISI 304 stainless steel. Type 202 is a low-nickel austenitic stainless steel alloyed with manganese and nitrogen. In this study, the formability of the two grades was examined using Erichsen cupping tests and room temperature uniaxial tensile tests performed at various angles to the rolling direction. AISI 202 appears to work-harden at a slightly higher rate than AISI 304, even though the austenite in type 202 is more stable than that in 304 with respect to the formation of deformation-induced ?' martensite. Although both grades are predicted to be susceptible to earing during deep drawing, AISI 202 displays a higher work-hardening exponent, higher average normal anisotropy, and a higher limiting drawing ratio than AISI 304. Similar cup heights were measured during Erichsen cupping tests, confirming that the two grades have very similar deep drawing properties. The results of this investigation therefore suggest that AISI 202 is a suitable alternative for AISI 304 in applications requiring good deep drawing properties.

du Toit, M.; Steyn, H. G.

2012-07-01

12

Hard turning: AISI 4340 high strength low alloy steel and AISI D2 cold work tool steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to evaluate the machinability of hardened steels at different levels of hardness and using a range of cutting tool materials. More specifically, the work was focused on the machinability of hardened AISI 4340 high strength low alloy steel and AISI D2 cold work tool steel. The tests involving the AISI 4340 steel were performed

J. G. Lima; R. F. Ávila; A. M. Abrão; M. Faustino; J. Paulo Davim

2005-01-01

13

Sliding wear behavior of niobium carbide coated AISI 1040 steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, the wear and friction behavior of AISI 52100 steel and alumina against niobium carbide coated AISI 1040 steel disk was studied using ball-on-disk arrangement. Niobium carbide coating treatment was performed on AISI 1040 steels using thermo-reactive diffusion techniques. The presence of NbC phase in the coating layer was confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. Friction and wear

Saduman Sen; Ugur Sen

2008-01-01

14

Characterization of AISI 4140 borided steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study characterizes the surface of AISI 4140 steels exposed to the paste-boriding process. The formation of Fe 2B hard coatings was obtained in the temperature range 1123-1273 K with different exposure times, using a 4 mm thick layer of boron carbide paste over the material surface. First, the growth kinetics of boride layers at the surface of AISI 4140 steels was evaluated. Second, the presence and distribution of alloying elements on the Fe 2B phase was measured using the Glow Discharge Optical Emission Spectrometry (GDOES) technique. Further, thermal residual stresses produced on the borided phase were evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The fracture toughness of the iron boride layer of the AISI 4140 borided steels was estimated using a Vickers microindentation induced-fracture testing at a constant distance of 25 ?m from the surface. The force criterion of fracture toughness was determined from the extent of brittle cracks, both parallel and perpendicular to the surface, originating at the tips of an indenter impression. The fracture toughness values obtained by the Palmqvist crack model are expressed in the form KC( ?/2) > KC > KC(0) for the different applied loads and experimental parameters of the boriding process.

Campos-Silva, I.; Ortiz-Domínguez, M.; López-Perrusquia, N.; Meneses-Amador, A.; Escobar-Galindo, R.; Martínez-Trinidad, J.

2010-02-01

15

Pack Cementation Coatings for High-Temperature Oxidation Resistance of AISI 304 Stainless Steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aluminum and titanium are deposited on the surface of steel by the pack cementation method to improve its hot-corrosion and high-temperature oxidation resistance. In this research, coatings of aluminum and titanium and a two-step coating of aluminum and titanium were applied on an AISI 304 stainless steel substrate. The coating layers were examined by carrying out scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). The SEM results showed that the aluminized coating consisted of two layers with a thickness of 450 ?m each, the titanized coating consisted of two layers with a thickness of 100 ?m each, and the two-step coatings of Al and Ti consisted of three layers with a thickness of 200 ?m each. The XRD investigation of the coatings showed that the aluminized coating consisted of Al2O3, AlCr2, FeAl, and Fe3Al phases; the titanized layers contained TiO2, Ni3Ti, FeNi, and Fe2TiO5 phases; and the two-step coating contained AlNi, Ti3Al, and FeAl phases. The uncoated and coated specimens were subjected to isothermal oxidation at 1050 °C for 100 h. The oxidation results revealed that the application of a coating layer increased the oxidation resistance of the coated AISI 304 samples as opposed to the uncoated ones.

Zandrahimi, Morteza; Vatandoost, Javad; Ebrahimifar, Hadi

2012-10-01

16

Hot hardness characteristics of ausformed AISI M-50, Matrix 2, WD-65, modified AISI 440-C, and Super Nitralloy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Short-term hot hardness studies were performed with ausformed AISI M-50, Matrix 2, WD-65, modified AISI 440-C (14-4-1) and case hardened Super Nitralloy. Hardness levels of each material were measured at elevated temperatures in an electric furnace with a low oxygen environment. Test temperatures ranged from 294 to 877 K. The hot hardness characteristics of the ausformed AISI-M-50, Matrix 2 WD-65, and modified AISI 440-C were the same as those determined for high-speed tool steels. Hot hardness for these steels can be predicted within one point Rockwell C. The hot hardness characteristics of both the case and core of Super Nitralloy were superior to AISI 52100 but inferior to the high-speed tool steels. The short-term Rockwell C hardness at temperature for the Super Nitralloy material between 294 and 769 K can be predicted within one point Rockwell C hardness.

Chevalier, J. L.; Dietrich, M. W.; Zaretsky, E. V.

1973-01-01

17

An investigation on borided AISI 1020 steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we investigated some properties of borided AISI 1020 steel. Boronizing heat treatment was carried out at 800°C, 875°C and 950°C for 2, 4, 6 and 8 h using Ekabor 1 powders. The hardness of borides formed on the steel substrate measured via Vickers indenter was about 1500 HVN. The thickness of boride layers depending on the process temperature and time was ranged from 20.5 to 216 ?m. The presence of Fe2B boride was determined by XRD analysis. SEM microscope studies showed that the borides formed on the AISI 1020 steel have columnar nature. Kinetics studies reveal a parabolic relationship between layer depth and process time, and the activation energy is calculated as 164,356 kJ/mol. Moreover, an attempt was made to investigate the possibility of predicting the iso-thickness of boride layer and to establish an empirical relationship between process parameters of boriding and boride layer for industrial applications.

Altinsoy, I.; Efe, F. G. Celebi; Ipek, M.; Ozbek, I.; Zeytin, S.; Bindal, C.

2013-12-01

18

Effects of low-temperature aging on AISI 444 steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The consequences of aging at 400 and 475 °C on the mechanical properties, corrosion resistance, and magnetic properties of the ferritic stainless steel (SS) AISI 444 were investigated. Age hardening was measured as a function of aging time at both temperatures and was found to be more intense at 475 °C. The localized corrosion susceptibility increased, while the impact toughness decreased with aging time. These two effects were also more important at 475 °C. Unlike duplex SSs, AISI 444 did not present any variation in coercive force or Curie temperature with aging time. The effects on the Mössbauer spectra were also determined and analyzed.

Souza, José A.; Abreu, Hamilton F. G.; Nascimento, Alex M.; de Paiva, José A. C.; de Lima-Neto, Pedro; Tavares, Sérgio S. M.

2005-06-01

19

Colloquium on Large Scale Improvement: Implications for AISI  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Alberta Initiative for School Improvement (AISI) is a province-wide partnership program whose goal is to improve student learning and performance by fostering initiatives that reflect the unique needs and circumstances of each school authority. It is currently ending its third cycle and ninth year of implementation. "The Colloquium on Large…

McEwen, Nelly, Ed.

2008-01-01

20

AISI waste oxide recycling program. Final technical report  

Microsoft Academic Search

In March 1995 AISI completed a five-year, $60 million collaborative development program on Direct Steelmaking cost-shared by DOE under the Metals Initiative. This program defined an energy-efficient and environmentally-friendly technology to produce hot metal for steelmaking directly from coal and iron ore pellets without incurring the high capital costs and environmental problems associated with traditional coke oven and blast furnace

E. Aukrust; K. B. Downing; B. Sarma

1995-01-01

21

Cerium hybrid silica coatings on stainless steel AISI 304 substrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

AISI 304 Stainless Steel is widely used in different industrial fields because of its mechanical and corrosion properties.\\u000a However, its tendency to corrosion in presence of halide ions limits the applications. One strategy to improve the corrosion\\u000a resistance is the use of coatings barriers containing corrosion inhibitors in their formulation. The lanthanides present attractive\\u000a green and corrosion properties for the

A. Pepe; M. Aparicio; A. Durán; S. Ceré

2006-01-01

22

Corrosion Resistance of Friction Surfaced AISI 304 Stainless Steel Coatings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Corrosion resistance of friction surfaced AISI 304 coating in boiling nitric acid and chloride containing environments was found to be similar to that of its consumable rod counterpart. This was in contrast to the autogenous fusion zone of GTAW weld which showed inferior corrosion resistance with respect to the consumable rod. The superior corrosion resistance of friction surfaced coatings was attributed to the absence of ?-ferrite in it.

Khalid Rafi, H.; Phanikumar, G.; Prasad Rao, K.

2013-02-01

23

Comparison of pitting fatigue life of ausforged and standard forged AISI M-50 and AISI 9310 spur gears  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Standard forged and ausforged spur gears made of vacuum-induction-melted, consumable-electrode, vacuum-arc-remelted AISI M-50 steel were tested under conditions that produced fatigue pitting. The gears were 8.89 cm (3.5 in.) in pitch diameter and had tip relief. The M-50 standard forged and ausforged test results were compared with each other. They were then compared with results for machined vacuum-arc-remelted AISI 9310 gears tested under identical conditions. Both types of M-50 gears had lives approximately five times that of the 9310 gears. The life at which 10 percent of the M-50 ausforged gears failed was slightly less than that at which the M-50 standard forged gears failed. The ausforged gears had a slightly greater tendency to fail by tooth fracture than did the standard forged gears, most likely because of the better forging and grain flow pattern of standard forged gears.

Townsend, D. P.; Bamberger, E. N.; Zaretsky, E. V.

1975-01-01

24

High speed end milling of hardened AISI D2 tool steel (?58 HRC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tool steels conforming to AISI group D are used widely in the manufacture of blanking and cold-forming dies, on account of their excellent wear resistance and deep hardening characteristics. The present paper gives details of machining experiments with hardened AISI D2 cold work tool steel (?58HRC) using indexable insert ball nose end mills employing carbide and cermet tools, and solid

P Koshy; R. C Dewes; D. K Aspinwall

2002-01-01

25

Rolling Contact Fatigue Life and Spall Propagation of AISI M50, M50NiL, and AISI 52100, Part I: Experimental Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is the first part of a three-part series that investigates the rolling contact fatigue (RCF) initiation and spall propagation characteristics of three bearing materials, namely, AISI 52100, VIM-VAR AISI M50, and VIM-VAR M50NiL steels. Although there is substantial prior work published on the rolling contact fatigue initiation of these materials, little has been published on their spall propagation

Lewis Rosado; Nelson H. Forster; Kevin L. Thompson; Jason W. Cooke

2009-01-01

26

Transporte electronico en nanoestructuras de carbono  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this work is the study of the electronic transport properties in several structures made of carbon nanotubes. This dissertation is divided in four chapters: (1) Chapter 1: Carbon Nanotubes. This chapter is a brief review of the foundations of carbon nanotubes (CNT). Main properties of CNT are explained. The subject developed here is important for the understanding of the results obtained in the bulk of this thesis. We carry out, in the first part of this chapter, an historical review of the discovering of CNT, that includes the history of the discovering of fullerenes, the predecessors for carbon nanotubes. Afterwards, a revision of the different methods for synthesizing nanotubes is done. The main part of this chapter treats of the description of the geometry, properties and electronic structure of CNT. Many equations deduced here will be used later. Finally, we discuss some research lines related to carbon nanotubes. (2) Chapter 2: Theoretical and numerical method. In this chapter we describe the numerical method we have developed to obtain the results presented in this work. For this purpose it is necessary to describe previously the theoretical method on which our calculations are based. We extensively explain the Green's function and its properties. A large part of our calculations are based in the obtention the GF of the system under study. This chapter finishes with the application of the equations described in order to obtain electronic properties associated with pure carbon nanotubes as an example of use. Anyway, these previous results will be used later. (3) Chapter 3: Cavities made of nanotubes. We denote as a cavity to the structure formed with a carbon nanotube sandwiched between other two carbon nanotubes (contacts), provided that the central region is wider than these contacts. In this chapter we perform some calculations of the properties associated to the electronic transport in cavities, as the local density of states and the transmission function. We analyze the influence of the width of the cavity and the distance between them (in the case of multiple cavities). Some interesting results are obtained in these calculations which have been published in international journals (Jodar et al. 2006, Jodar y Perez-Garrido 2007). We emphasize the presence of quasi-localized states in the cavities, which affects to the transmission function, the behaviour of some cavities formed with semi-conductor as quantum dots, or the study of the evolution of the system with multiple cavities to the limit of infinite cavities. (4) Chapter 4: Bloch Oscillations. In this chapter we investigate the properties of carbon nanotubes under a constant electric field. This configuration show Bloch oscillations, according to the work of Bloch and Zener. We study here the dynamics of these oscillations for different geometries as a function of the electric field applied. Specially, the behaviour of the occupation probability and the averaged quadratic displacement as a function of time. We have not found bibliography that deals with this phenomenon in Carbon Nanotubes, which is the aim of this chapter. We first study the behaviour of electrons in pure carbon nanotubes in a constant electric field, for different lengths of the CNT and different values of the electric field applied. We show how wavefunctions oscillate with a period that coincides with that given by theoretical expressions of Bloch oscillations for linear chains of atoms. Besides, we show the different kind of behaviour of localized and extended waves. In the final part of this chapter we apply a constant electric field to the structure studied in the chapter 3, i.e., the cavity. We show in this case that, besides Bloch oscillations, electrons can be confined in certain regions only by inserting the nanotube in an electric field.

Jodar Ferrandez, Esther

27

Fretting of AISI 9310 and selected fretting resistant surface treatments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fretting wear experiments were conducted with uncoated AISI 9310 mating surfaces, and with combinations incorporating a selected coating to one of the mating surfaces. Wear measurements and SEM observations indicated that surface fatigue, as made evident by spallation and surface crack formation, is an important mechanism in promoting fretting wear to uncoated 9310. Increasing humidity resulted in accelerated fretting, and a very noticeable difference in nature of the fretting debris. Of the coatings evaluated, aluminum bronze with a polyester additive was most effective at reducing wear and minimizing fretting damage to the mating uncoated surface, by means of a selflubricating film that developed on the fretting surfaces. Chromium plate performed as an effective protective coating, itself resisting fretting and not accelerating damage to the uncoated surface.

Bill, R. C.

1977-01-01

28

Fretting of AISI 9310 and selected fretting resistant surface treatments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fretting wear experiments were conducted with uncoated AISI 9310 mating surfaces, and with combinations incorporating a selected coating to one of the mating surfaces. Wear measurements and SEM observations indicated that surface fatigue, as made evident by spallation and surface crack formation, is an important mechanism in promoting fretting wear to uncoated 9310. Increasing humidity resulted in accelerated fretting, and a very noticeable difference in nature of the fretting debris. Of the coatings evaluated, alumimum bronze with a polyester additive was most effective at reducing wear and minimizing fretting damage to the mating uncoated surface, by means of a self-lubricating film that developed on the fretting surfaces. Chromium plate performed as an effective protective coating, itself resisting fretting and not accelerating damage to the uncoated surface.

Bill, R. C.

1977-01-01

29

Solid-particle erosion of tungsten carbide/cobalt cermet vs. hardened AISI 440C stainless steel.  

SciTech Connect

Solid-particle erosion tests were conducted on hardened AISI 440C stainless steel and a cermet that consisted of {approx}90 vol.% submicrometer WC embedded in {approx}10 vol.% Co. Angular Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} abrasives were used as the erodent. Experimental variables were: angle of impact = 20, 50, or 90 degrees; erodent velocity = 60 or 120 m/s; erodent nominal diameter = 63 or 143 {micro}m. For all test conditions, the stainless steel eroded faster than the cermet. Analysis of weight-loss data and examination of eroded surfaces by scanning electron microscopy indicated that the erosion mechanisms were similar for the two hard materials. Both exhibited significant plasticity when impacted, but the stainless steel's response to impact appeared to have been more ductile in nature.

Rateick, R. G., Jr.; Karasek, K. R.; Cunningham, A.; Goretta, K. C.; Routbort, J. L.; Energy Technology; Honeywell

2006-01-01

30

Investment cast AISI H13 tooling for automotive applications  

SciTech Connect

While many techniques exist for production of soft tooling, for die casting there is limited recent experience with cast tooling. The most common US alloy used for manufacture of die casting tooling is wrought AISI H13. If the performance of the cast material is comparable to the wrought counterpart, the use of investment cast HI 3 tooling directly from patterns made via rapid prototyping is of considerable interest. A metallurgical study of investment cast H13 was conducted to evaluate the mechanical behavior in simulated die casting applications. Variable thickness plate investment castings of AISI H13 hot work die steel were produced and characterized in the as-cast and heat-treated conditions. The characterization included light microscopy and mechanical testing. Wrought samples of standard and premium grade H13 were heat-treated and characterized similarly for comparison. Microstructural differences were observed in as-cast samples produced in different section thicknesses. Dendrite cell size and carbide morphology constituted the most prominent microstructural differences observed. After a full heat-treatment, microstructural differences between the wrought material and cast materials were slight regardless of section thickness.The mechanical properties of the cast and heat-treated material proved similar to the properties of the standard heat-treated wrought material. A thermal fatigue testing unit was to con-elate the heat checking susceptibility of H13 steel to its processing and consequent microstructural condition. Surface hardness decreased significantly with thermal cycling, and heat checking was observed in as few as 50 cycles. Thermal softening and thermal fatigue susceptibility were quantified and discussed relative to the microstructural conditions created by processing and heat-treatment. It was found that the premium grade wrought H13 steel provided the best overall resistance to heat checking.

Maguire, M.C.; Baldwin, M.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hochanadel, P.W.; Edwards, G.R. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, OH (United States)

1995-07-01

31

A Life Study of Ausforged, Standard Forged and Standard Machined AISI M-50 Spur Gears  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tests were conducted at 350 K (170 F) with three groups of 8.9 cm (3.5 in.) pitch diameter spur gears made of vacuum induction melted (VIM) consumable-electrode vacuum-arc melted (VAR), AISI M-50 steel and one group of vacuum-arc remelted (VAR) AISI 9310 steel. The pitting fatigue life of the standard forged and ausforged gears was approximately five times that of the VAR AISI 9310 gears and ten times that of the bending fatigue life of the standard machined VIM-VAR AISI M-50 gears run under identical conditions. There was a slight decrease in the 10-percent life of the ausforged gears from that for the standard forged gears, but the difference is not statistically significant. The standard machined gears failed primarily by gear tooth fracture while the forged and ausforged VIM-VAR AISI M-50 and the VAR AISI 9310 gears failed primarily by surface pitting fatigue. The ausforged gears had a slightly greater tendency to fail by tooth fracture than the standard forged gears.

Townsend, D. P.; Bamberger, E. N.; Zaretsky, E. V.

1975-01-01

32

En este artículo se presenta un estudio de la calidad del aire en la ciudad de Rosario, Argentina. Se detallan las concentraciones de Monóxido de Carbono, Dióxido de Azufre y Oxidos de Nitrógeno que se obtuvieron mediante la operación de cuatro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Los resultados reflejan la existencia de bajas concentraciones de estos conta- minantes en zonas suburbanas y altas concentraciones en zonas cercanas al centro comercial, motivado por una mayor circulación de automotores en estas últimas. También muestran una tendencia creciente para los Oxidos de Nitrógeno en 1995 respecto a 1994, acompañado por un crecimiento en la cantidad de Monóxido de Carbono.

Daniel A. Andrés; Eduardo J. Ferrero; E. Zeballos

33

AISI waste oxide recycling program. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

In March 1995 AISI completed a five-year, $60 million collaborative development program on Direct Steelmaking cost-shared by DOE under the Metals Initiative. This program defined an energy-efficient and environmentally-friendly technology to produce hot metal for steelmaking directly from coal and iron ore pellets without incurring the high capital costs and environmental problems associated with traditional coke oven and blast furnace technology. As it becomes necessary to replace present capacity, this new technology will be favored because of reduced capital costs, higher energy efficiency, and lower operating costs. In April 1994, having failed to move forward with a demonstration plant for direct ironmaking, despite substantial efforts by both Stelco and Geneva Steel, an alternative opportunity was sought to commercialize this new technology without waiting until existing ironmaking capacity needed to be replaced. Recycling and resource recovery of steel plant waste oxides was considered an attractive possibility. This led to approval of a ten-month, $8.3 million joint program with DOE on recycling steel plant waste oxides utilizing this new smelting technology. This highly successful trial program was completed in December 1994. The results of the pilot plant work and a feasibility study for a recycling demonstration plant are presented in this final technical report.

Aukrust, E.; Downing, K.B.; Sarma, B.

1995-08-01

34

Surface fatigue life of CBN and vitreous ground carburized and hardened AISI 9310 spur gears  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spur gear surface endurance tests were conducted to investigate CBN ground AISI 9310 spur gears for use in aircraft applications, to determine their endurance characteristics and to compare the results with the endurance of standard vitreous ground AISI 9310 spur gears. Tests were conducted with VIM-VAR AISI 9310 carburized and hardened gears that were finish ground with either CBN or vitreous grinding methods. Test conditions were an inlet oil temeprature of 320 K (116 F), an outlet oil temperature of 350 K (170 F), a maximum Hertz stress of 1.71 GPa (248 ksi), and a speed of 10,000 rpm. The CBN ground gears exhibited a surface fatigue life that was slightly better than the vitreous ground gears. The subsurface residual stress of the CBN ground gears was approximately the same as that for the standard vitreous ground gears for the CBN grinding method used.

Townsend, Dennis P.; Patel, P. R.

1988-01-01

35

Coupled Multi-Electrode Investigation of Crevice Corrosion of AISI 316 Stainless Steel  

SciTech Connect

Close packed coupled multi-electrodes arrays (MEA) simulating a planar electrode were used to measure the current evolution as a function of position during initiation and propagation of crevice corrosion of AISI 316 stainless steel. Scaling laws derived from polarization data enabled the use of rescaled crevices providing spatial resolution. Crevice corrosion of AISI 316 stainless steel in 0.6 M NaCl at 50 C was found to initiate close to the crevice mouth and to spread inwards with time. The local crevice current density increased dramatically over a short period to reach a limiting value.

F. Bocher; F. Presuel-Moreno; N.D. Budinasky; J.R. Scully

2006-06-23

36

Laser gas assisted treatment of AISI H12 tool steel and corrosion properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser gas assisted treatment of AISI H12 tool steel surface is carried out and the electrochemical response of the laser treated surface is investigated. Morphological and metallurgical changes in the treated layer are examined using a scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Potentiodynamic polarization tests are carried out for untreated and laser treated specimen in 0.2 M NaCl solution at room temperature. It is found that the laser treated AISI H12 workpiece surfaces exhibit higher corrosion resistance as compared to untreated specimen as confirmed by lower corrosion rate, higher pitting potential, and lower passive current density.

Yilbas, B. S.; Toor, Ihsan-ul-Haq; Malik, Jahanzaib; Patel, F.

2014-03-01

37

Microchemistry characterization by Auger electron spectroscopy of a cold-worked AISI304L stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) has been performed on grain boundaries of an AISI-304L stainless steel. The aim of the work was to study microchemistry at grain boundaries by AES after simulating irradiation effects by cold work followed by heat treatments. The results show that phosphorus was present at interfaces in all material conditions. Sometimes, phosphorus was accompanied by molybdenum and

M. Hernandez-Mayoral; G. de Diego; M Garc??a-Mazar??o

2000-01-01

38

Alberta Initiative for School Improvement: AISI Handbook for Cycle 3, 2006-2009  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the AISI (Alberta Initiative for School Improvement) Handbook for Cycle 3, 2006-2009 is to provide school authorities with the provincial and local requirements and processes for planning, funding, implementing, managing, evaluating, reporting and sharing school improvement projects. The handbook provides a framework for the…

Online Submission, 2006

2006-01-01

39

Process parameter influence on performance of friction taper stud welds in AISI 4140 steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Friction taper stud welding is a new variant of friction welding which has been developed from the principles of friction hydro-pillar processing. This paper considers the effect of weld process parameters on weld defects, macrostructure and mechanical properties in AISI 4140 steel. It also presents 3D residual stress data for a typical friction taper stud weld. Applied downwards force, rotational

D. G. Hattingh; D. L. H. Bulbring; A. Els-Botes; M. N. James

2011-01-01

40

AFM surface imaging of AISI D2 tool steel machined by the EDM process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The surface morphology, surface roughness and micro-crack of AISI D2 tool steel machined by the electrical discharge machining (EDM) process were analyzed by means of the atomic force microscopy (AFM) technique. Experimental results indicate that the surface texture after EDM is determined by the discharge energy during processing. An excellent machined finish can be obtained by setting the machine parameters

Y. H. Guu

2005-01-01

41

Prediction of cutting force in end-milling operation of modified AISI P20 tool steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper discusses the development of the first and second order models for predicting the cutting force produced in end-milling operation of modified AISI P20 tool steel. The first and second order cutting force equations are developed using the response surface methodology (RSM) to study the effect of four input cutting parameters (cutting speed, feed rate, radial depth and

K. A. Abou-El-Hossein; K. Kadirgama; M. Hamdi; K. Y. Benyounis

2007-01-01

42

Experimental investigation on cubic boron nitride turning of hardened AISI 52100 steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the performance and wear behavior of different cubic boron nitride (CBN) tools in finish turning of hardened AISI 52100 steel. Tool performance was evaluated based on the part surface finish and the tool flank wear. Wear conditions of CBN cutting tools were primarily characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Machining results showed that low CBN content tools

Y. Kevin Chou; Chris J. Evans; Moshe M. Barash

2003-01-01

43

Studies on the Sliding Wear Performance of Plasma Spray Ni-20Cr and Ni3Al Coatings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two metallic powders namely Ni-20Cr and Ni3Al were coated on AISI 309 SS steel by shrouded plasma spray process. The wear behavior of the bare, Ni-20Cr and Ni3Al-coated AISI 309 SS steel was investigated according to ASTM Standard G99-03 on a Pin-on-Disc Wear Test Rig. The wear tests were carried out at normal loads of 30 and 50 N with a sliding velocity of 1 m/s. Cumulative wear rate and coefficient of friction (?) were calculated for all the cases. The worn-out surfaces were then examined by scanning electron microscopy analysis. Both the as-sprayed coatings exhibited typical splat morphology. The XRD analysis indicated the formation of Ni phase for the Ni-20Cr coating and Ni3Al phase for the Ni3Al coating. It has been concluded that the plasma-sprayed Ni-20Cr and Ni3Al coatings can be useful to reduce the wear rate of AISI 309 SS steel. The coatings were found to be adherent to the substrate steel during the wear tests. The plasma-sprayed Ni3Al coating has been recommended as a better choice to reduce the wear of AISI 309 SS steel, in comparison with the Ni-20Cr coating.

Kaur, Maninder; Singh, Harpreet; Singh, Balraj; Singh, Bhupinder

2010-01-01

44

The influence of Johnson–Cook material constants on finite element simulation of machining of AISI 316L steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

In literature, five different sets of work material constants used in the Johnson–Cook's (J–C) constitutive equation are implemented in a numerical model to describe the behaviour of AISI 316L steel. The aim of this research is to study the effects of five different sets of material constants of the J–C constitutive equation in finite-element modelling of orthogonal cutting of AISI

D. Umbrello; R. M’Saoubi; J. C. Outeiro

2007-01-01

45

Thermal nitridation of chromium electroplated AISI316L stainless steel for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell bipolar plate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrical and corrosion properties of surface-nitrided AISI316L stainless steel are evaluated to assess the potential use of this material as a bipolar plate for a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell. Chromium is electroplated on the surface of the AISI316L stainless steel before nitridation. The nitriding condition is selected so as to form Cr2N nitride only and the result is

Dae-Geun Nam; Hu-Chul Lee

2007-01-01

46

Comparison of wear properties of tool steels AISI D2 and O1 with the same hardness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two commercial cold work tool steels, AISI D2 and O1, were heat treated in order to obtain the same hardness 700HV (60HRc) and were subsequently tested in three different modes of wear, namely in adhesion, three-body and two-body abrasion, by using pin-on-disk, dry sand\\/rubber wheel apparatus and pin abrasion on SiC, respectively. Even though AISI O1 and D2 steel are

L. Bourithis; G. D. Papadimitriou; J. Sideris

2006-01-01

47

Assessment of XM-19 as a Substitute for AISI 348 in ATR Service  

SciTech Connect

It has been proposed that XM-19 alloy be considered as a possible replacement steel for AISI 348 in the construction of Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) capsules. AISI 348 works well, but is currently very difficult to obtain commercially. The superior and desirable mechanical properties of XM-19 alloy have been proven in non-nuclear applications, but no data are available regarding its use in radiation environments. While most 300 series alloys will meet the conditions required in ATR , it cannot be confidently assumed that XM-19 can be substituted without prior qualification in a radiation test. Compared to AISI 348, XM-19 will have an enhanced tendency for phase instabilities due to its higher levels of Ni and, especially, Si. However, transmutation of important elemental components in the highly thermalized ATR spectrum may have a very pronounced effect on its performance during irradiation. Not only will strong transmutation of Mn to Fe reduce the ductility and strength advantages provided by the higher initial Mn content of XM-19, but the extensive loss of Mn will also release from solution much of the N upon which the higher strength of XM-19 depends. In addition, the combined influence of transmutation and Inverse Kirkendall processes may lead to gas-bubble-covered grain boundaries, producing a very fragile alloy after significant irradiation has accumulated. At present, there are no radiation data available to substantiate this possible scenario. An alternate proposal is therefore advanced. Since the response of AISI 348 and 347 to radiation are expected to be relatively indistinguishable, the AISI 347 might serve as an acceptable replacement. While AISI 348 is usually chosen for nuclear service in order to reduce the overall radioactivity arising from relatively small amounts of highly transmutable elements such as cobalt, these elements have very little effect on the radiation performance of the steel. In the proposed application, however, the activity induced in this highly thermalized spectrum to large doses (10 to 50 dpa) will be overwhelmed by the activation arising from the major steel components: Fe, Cr, and especially Ni. The mechanical properties, irradiation creep, and void swelling behavior of the two steels should be practically indistinguishable.

F. A. Garner; L. R. Greenwood; R. E. Mizia; C. R. Tyler

2007-11-01

48

Behavior of AISI SAE 1020 Steel Implanted by Titanium and Exposed to Bacteria Sulphate Deoxidizer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A hybrid technology to treat solid surfaces with the pulse high voltage and electric arc discharges of low pressure with a three-dimensional ion implantation technique (3DII) is applied. This technology is used to protect AISI SAE 1020 steel against a microbiological corrosion. The titanium ion implanted steel samples (coupons) are subjected to a medium of bacteria sulphate deoxidizer (BSD) which are very typical of the hydrocarbon industry and are potentially harmful for structures when are in contact with petroleum and some of its derivatives. The used technology aims to find an effective hybrid procedure to minimize the harmful effects of bacteria on AISI SAE 1020 steel. The hybrid technology efficiency of superficial titanium implantation is estimated through the measurements of the point corrosion characteristics obtained after testing both the treated and non-treated coupons. The three-dimensional surface structures of the samples are reconstructed with help of a confocal microscope.

Niño, Ely Dannier V.; Garnica, Hernán; Dugar-Zhabon, Veleriy; Castillo, Genis

2014-05-01

49

On electrical resistivity of AISI D2 steel during various stages of cryogenic treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of dislocation densities and residual stresses is well known in tool steels. Measurement of electrical resistivity in order to monitor dislocation densities or residual stresses has seldom been used in investigating the effect of cryogenic treatment on tool steels. Monitoring residual stresses during cryogenic treatment becomes important as it is directly related to changes due to cryogenic treatment of tool steels. For high carbon high chromium (HCHC- AISI D2) steels, not only wear resistance but dimensional stability is an important issue as the steels are extensively used in dies, precision measuring instruments. This work comprises of study of measurement of electrical resistivity of AISI D2 steel at various stages of cryogenic treatment. Use of these measurements in order to assess the dimensional stability of these steels is discussed in this paper.

Lomte, Sachin Vijay; Gogte, Chandrashekhar Laxman; Peshwe, Dilip

2012-06-01

50

Plasma nitriding of AISI 52100 ball bearing steel and effect of heat treatment on nitrided layer  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  In this paper an effort has been made to plasma nitride the ball bearing steel AISI 52100. The difficulty with this specific\\u000a steel is that its tempering temperature (~170–200°C) is much lower than the standard processing temperature (~460–580°C) needed\\u000a for the plasma nitriding treatment. To understand the mechanism, effect of heat treatment on the nitrided layer steel is investigated.\\u000a Experiments

RAVINDRA KUMAR; J ALPHONSA; RAM PRAKASH; K S BOOB; J GHANSHYAM; P A RAYJADA; P M RAOLE; S MUKHERJEE

51

Diffusion bonding of electroless Ni plated WC composite to Cu and AISI 316 stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, a composite containing WC (Tungsten Carbide) and Ni was produced by two different processing routes. Electroless\\u000a Ni coated WC powders were consolidated and sintered at 1200 °C. Diffusion bonding couples of WC(Ni)-electrolytic Cu, WC(Ni)-AISI\\u000a 316 stainless steel and WC(Ni)-WC(Ni) were manufactured by using a preloaded compression system under Ar atmosphere. Diffusion\\u000a bonding was carried out at varying

Ahmet Yönetken; Mehmet Çakmakkaya; Ayhan Erol; ?ükrü Tala?

2011-01-01

52

The effect of phosphorus content on grain boundary cementite formation in AISI 52100 steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intergranular fracture surfaces of high phosphorus (0.023 wt pct P) and low phosphorus (0.009 wt pct P) AISI 52100 steels\\u000a were investigated by Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES). Cementite, identified by composition and Auger peak shape, was found\\u000a to form on austenite boundaries in specimens oil quenched from 960 C to room temperature as well as in specimens quenched\\u000a from 960

Teiichi Ando; George Krauss

1981-01-01

53

Sensitization resistance of friction stir welded AISI 409 M grade ferritic stainless steel joints  

Microsoft Academic Search

Friction stir welded low chromium AISI 409 M ferritic stainless steel was investigated for susceptibility to intergranular\\u000a corrosion by oxalic and double-loop electrochemical potentiodynamic reactivation tests, and the degree of sensitization were\\u000a evaluated by the ratio of the reactivating and activating currents. Stir zone of friction stir welded joint exhibited smaller\\u000a degree of sensitization compared to the base metal and it

A. K. Lakshminarayanan; V. Balasubramanian

54

Evaluation of hard coatings obtained on AISI D2 steel by thermo-reactive deposition treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Niobium carbide, vanadium carbide and iron boride layers were obtained on AISI D2 steel by thermo-reactive treatments in different borax baths, containing ferroniobium, ferrovanadium or ferrotitanium, and aluminum. Vickers microhardness and micro-abrasive (ball crater) wear tests were used to evaluate the tribologic properties of the layers. Hardness values of the niobium carbide layer and the vanadium carbide layer, having depths

C. K. N. Oliveira; C. L. Benassi; L. C. Casteletti

2006-01-01

55

Wear properties of niobium carbide coatings performed by pack method on AISI 1040 steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of experiments was performed to evaluate tribological properties of niobium carbide coated AISI 1040 steel. In coating process, thermo-reactive diffusion treatment by pack method was performed at the temperatures of 800, 900 and 1000 °C for 1–4 h, respectively. Depending on coating process time and temperature, the thickness of niobium carbide layer formed on substrate ranged from 3.4±0.5

Ugur Sen

2005-01-01

56

An investigation of the plastic fracture of AISI 4340 and 18 Nickel200 grade maraging steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanisms of plastic fracture (dimpled rupture) in high-purity and commercial 18 Ni, 200 grade maraging steels and quenched\\u000a and tempered AISI 4340 steels have been studied. Plastic fracture takes place in the maraging alloys through void initiation\\u000a by fracture of titanium carbo-nitride inclusions and the growth of these voids until impingement results in coalescence and\\u000a final fracture. The fracture

T. B. Cox; J. R. Low

1974-01-01

57

Analysis and prevention of cracking phenomenon occurring during cold forging of two AISI 1010 steel pulleys  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is concerned with the effects of microstructural parameters on the cracking phenomenon occurring during cold forging\\u000a of two AISI 1010 steels that were fabricated by converter steel making and electric furnace steel making, respectively. This\\u000a allowed a comparison between microstructures that contained a small or large amount of nitrogen. Detailed microstructural\\u000a analyses of the cracked region showed that

Dong-Kuk Kim; Suk Young Kang; Sunghak Lee; Kyung Jong Lee

1999-01-01

58

Effect of variable intensity ultraviolet radiation on passivity breakdown of AISI Type 304 stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of ultraviolet illumination on passivity breakdown of a commercial grade (CG) of AISI Type 304 stainless steel and of a high purity heat (HPH) of the same material in neutral 0.5 M NaCl solution and in 0.025 M NaCl + 0.15 M H3BO3\\/0.007 M Na2B4O7, pH = 7.5, solution was experimentally studied. Passivity breakdown on the CG, as

Digby D. Macdonald; Donald F. Heaney

2000-01-01

59

Analysis and prevention of microcracking phenomenon occurring during strip casting of an AISI 304 stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was concerned with the effects of microstructural parameters on the microcracking phenomenon occurring during strip\\u000a casting of an AISI 304 stainless steel. Detailed microstructural analyses of the microcracked regions showed that microcracks\\u000a were formed mainly along tortoise-shell-shaped depressions and that their number and size were considerably reduced when strip\\u000a casting was done right after a shot-blasting or pickling

Manjin Ha; Jutae Choi; Seongin Jeong; Heekyung Moon; Taewook Kang; Sunghak Lee

2002-01-01

60

Low Temperature Salt Bath Hardening of AISI 201 Austenitic Stainless Steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Salt bath hardening at low temperature was applied in order to enhance the surface hardness of AISI 201 stainless steel. The structure and properties of the hardened layer were investigated, such as microstructure, hardness, wear resistance and corrosion resistance. The experiment results show that the treatment temperature plays an importance role in the microstructure and properties of the hardened layer. If the treatment temperature is below 460°C, the hardened layer was a face centre tetragonal (fct) structure without chromium nitride precipitation. The corrosion resistance of hardened layer is better than the matrix and as good as AISI 316 austenitic stainless steel. If the temperature rises above 460 °C the precipitation show up and the corrosion resistance gets worse. The hardness and thickness of the layer increase as the raising of treatment temperature. The test of wear resistance shows that the amount of wear reduces rapidly after hardening treatment and the worn morphology of the surface behaves abrasive wear while that of AISI 201 stainless steel behaves adhesive wear.

Luo, H. S.; Zhao, C.

61

A study on the control of melting ratio to increase mechanical properties of laser welded joints between AISI 440C and AISI 430F  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser beam welding of dissimilar AISI 440C and AISI 430F stainless steels was investigated in a circular constrained configuration. The beam incidence angle and the offset of the focusing position respect to the contact point between the two materials were used as main control parameters to vary the melting ratio inside the seam. The objective of the study is twofold: to avoid surface microcracks related to the high percentage of carbon of the martensitic steel and to enhance the shear strength of the weld by making it less brittle. To reach this scope the effects of incidence angle and offset on weld bead geometry and melting ratio were studied by means of metallographic analyses, microstructure and microhardness characterization. As last step, the weld mechanical strength was tested by tensile-shear stress test on the whole seam. Experiments demonstrated that varying incidence angle and offsetting the focal position is a reliable method to modify the melting ratio and maintaining the expected resistance length at the material interface, as well. It was found that increasing the percentage of ferritic steel into the joint has beneficial effects on the weld quality and on the shear resistance. The critical carbon content determining the mechanical properties in the fusion zone can be calculated by taking into account the melting ratio.

Romoli, L.; Rashed, C. A. A.; Lovicu, G.; Ishak, R.

2015-05-01

62

Endurance and failure characteristics of modified Vasco X-2, CBS 600 and AISI 9310 spur gears. [aircraft construction materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gear endurance tests and rolling-element fatigue tests were conducted to compare the performance of spur gears made from AISI 9310, CBS 600 and modified Vasco X-2 and to compare the pitting fatigue lives of these three materials. Gears manufactured from CBS 600 exhibited lives longer than those manufactured from AISI 9310. However, rolling-element fatigue tests resulted in statistically equivalent lives. Modified Vasco X-2 exhibited statistically equivalent lives to AISI 9310. CBS 600 and modified Vasco X-2 gears exhibited the potential of tooth fracture occurring at a tooth surface fatigue pit. Case carburization of all gear surfaces for the modified Vasco X-2 gears results in fracture at the tips of the gears.

Townsend, D. P.; Zaretsky, E. V.

1980-01-01

63

Corrosion behavior of AISI 316L stainless steel surface-modified with NiTi  

Microsoft Academic Search

AISI 316L stainless steel was surface-modified with NiTi using three different methods: (1) laser surface alloying using NiTi powder (LSA-NiTi-powder), (2) laser cladding using NiTi strips (LC-NiTi-strip), and (3) microwave-assisted brazing using NiTi plates (MB-NiTi-plate). These methods are capable of bringing significant improvement in the cavitation erosion resistance as reported elsewhere. The present work aims at studying the corrosion behaviors

K. Y. Chiu; F. T. Cheng; H. C. Man

2006-01-01

64

Electrochemical investigation of passive film in pre-deformation AISI 304 stainless steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electrochemical measures in deformed AISI 304 stainless steels ranged from 0% to 24% were investigated. With the increasing of the strain ?'-martensite was gradually increasing. Moreover, the morphologies and densities of dislocations changed with increasing strain. The Mott-Schottky plots showed that the maximum total of donor and acceptor densities in passive film occurred in borate buffer solution when ?-martensite was most, while in borate buffer solution with 5000 ppm Cl- the maximum total of donor and acceptor densities occurred when the content of ?-martensite was most. These results were proven by further impedance spectroscopy experiments.

Jinlong, Lv; Hongyun, Luo

2012-12-01

65

Microstructural Evolution During Friction Surfacing of Austenitic Stainless Steel AISI 304 on Low Carbon Steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Austenitic stainless steel AISI 304 coating was deposited over low carbon steel substrate by means of friction surfacing and the microstructural evolution was studied. The microstructural characterization of the coating was carried out by optical microscopy (OM), electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The coating exhibited refined grains (average size of 5 ?m) as compared to the coarse grains (average size of 40 ?m) in as-received consumable rod. The results from the microstructural characterization studies show that discontinuous dynamic recrystallization (DDRX) is the responsible mechanism for grain evolution as a consequence of severe plastic deformation.

Khalid Rafi, H.; Kishore Babu, N.; Phanikumar, G.; Prasad Rao, K.

2013-01-01

66

AISI/DOE Advanced Process Control Program Vol. 6 of 6: Temperature Measurement of Galvanneal Steel  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the successful completion of the development of an accurate in-process measurement instrument for galvanneal steel surface temperatures. This achievement results from a joint research effort that is a part of the American Iron and Steel Institute's (AISI) Advanced Process Control Program, a collaboration between the U.S> Department of Energy and fifteen North American Steelmakers. This three-year project entitled ''Temperature Measurement of Galvanneal Steel'' uses phosphor thermography, and outgrowth of Uranium enrichment research at Oak Ridge facilities. Temperature is the controlling factor regarding the distribution of iron and zinc in the galvanneal strip coating, which in turn determines the desired product properties

S.W. Allison; D.L. Beshears; W.W. Manges

1999-06-30

67

Wear behavior of AISI 1090 steel modified by pulse plasma technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AISI 1090 steel was pulse plasma treated (PPT) using a Molybdenum electrode. Two different pulse numbers were chosen to obtain modified layers of 20±5 ?m thickness. The dry sliding wear studies performed on this steel with and without PPT against an alumina ball counterpart showed that the PPT improved the wear resistance. The pulse number of the PPT modified layer was found to be highly influential in imparting the wear resistance to this steel, due to enhancement of surface hardness depending on treatment time.

Ayday, Aysun; Durman, Mehmet

2012-09-01

68

Wear behavior of AISI 1090 steel modified by pulse plasma technique  

SciTech Connect

AISI 1090 steel was pulse plasma treated (PPT) using a Molybdenum electrode. Two different pulse numbers were chosen to obtain modified layers of 20{+-}5 {mu}m thickness. The dry sliding wear studies performed on this steel with and without PPT against an alumina ball counterpart showed that the PPT improved the wear resistance. The pulse number of the PPT modified layer was found to be highly influential in imparting the wear resistance to this steel, due to enhancement of surface hardness depending on treatment time.

Ayday, Aysun; Durman, Mehmet [Sakarya University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Adapazar Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I , 54187 (Turkey)

2012-09-06

69

Study of passive films formed on AISI 304 stainless steel by impedance measurements and photoelectrochemistry  

SciTech Connect

Moss-Schottky plots and photoelectrochemical measurements were made on films formed at different potentials on AISI 304 stainless steel in a borate/boric acid solution, pH 9.2. The results allowed the determination of the semiconductive properties and band structure of the films, which account for the existence of two kinds of films depending on the formation potential. For potentials below 0 V (SCE), the results point out for a film with an inverse spinel structure constituted by Cr-substituted magnetite with two donor levels. Above 0 V only one donor level is detected, which should be Fe{sup 2 +} on tetrahedral sites.

Simoes, A.M.P.; Ferreiro, M.G.S. (Dept. de Engenharia Quimica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, 1096 Lisboa Codex (PT)); Rondot, B.; Belo, M. (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 94 - Vitry-sur-Seine (France). Centre d'Etudes de Chimie Metallurgique)

1990-01-01

70

Study of Carbide Evolution During Thermo-Mechanical Processing of AISI D2 Tool Steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The microstructure of a cold-worked tool steel (AISI D2) with various thermo-mechanical treatments was examined in the current study to identify the effects of these treatments on phases. X-ray diffraction was used to identify phases. Microstructural changes such as spheroidization and coarsening of carbides were studied. Thermodynamic calculations were used to verify the results of the differential thermal analysis. It was found that soaking temperature and time have a large influence on dissolution, precipitation, spheroidization, and coalescence of carbides present in the steel. This consequently influences the hot workability and final properties.

Bombac, D.; Fazarinc, M.; Podder, A. Saha; Kugler, G.

2013-03-01

71

Improving the empirical model for plasma nitrided AISI 316L corrosion resistance based on Mössbauer spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditional plasma nitriding treatments using temperatures ranging from approximately 650 to 730 K can improve wear, corrosion resistance and surface hardness on stainless steels. The nitrided layer consists of some iron nitrides: the cubic ? ' phase (Fe4N), the hexagonal phase ? (Fe2 - 3N) and a nitrogen supersatured solid phase ? N . An empirical model is proposed to explain the corrosion resistance of AISI 316L and ASTM F138 nitrided samples based on Mössbauer Spectroscopy results: the larger the ratio between ? and ? ' phase fractions of the sample, the better its resistance corrosion is. In this work, this model is examined using some new results of AISI 316L samples, nitrided under the same previous conditions of gas composition and temperature, but at different pressure, for 3, 4 and 5 h. The sample nitrided for 4 h, whose value for ?/ ? ' is maximum (= 0.73), shows a slightly better response than the other two samples, nitrided for 5 and 3 h ( ?/ ? ' = 0.72 and 0.59, respectively). Moreover, these samples show very similar behavior. Therefore, this set of samples was not suitable to test the empirical model. However, the comparison between the present results of potentiodynamic polarization curves and those obtained previously at 4 and 4.5 torr, could indicated that the corrosion resistance of the sample which only presents the ? N phase was the worst of them. Moreover, the empirical model seems not to be ready to explain the response to corrosion and it should be improved including the ? N phase.

Campos, M.; de Souza, S. D.; de Souza, S.; Olzon-Dionysio, M.

2011-11-01

72

Pitting and Intergranular Corrosion Resistance of AISI Type 301LN Stainless Steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pitting and intergranular corrosion (IGC) resistance of AISI type 301LN stainless steels were evaluated using ASTM methods, anodic polarization, and electrochemical impedance techniques. The IGC results indicated that the microstructure of the samples after sensitization heat treatment at 675 °C for 1 h shows step or dual structure for both imported and indigenous materials indicating insignificant Cr23C6 precipitation. The results of immersion tests in boiling 6% copper sulfate + 16% sulfuric acid + copper solution for 24 h followed by the bend test (ASTM A262 Practice-E method) indicated no crack formation in any of the tested specimens. Pitting corrosion resistance carried out in 6% FeCl3 solution at different temperatures of 22 ± 2 and 50 ± 2 °C (ASTM G 48) up to the period of 72 h revealed pitting corrosion attack in all the investigated alloys. The potentiodynamic anodic polarization results in 0.5 M NaCl revealed variation in passive current density and pitting potential depending on the alloy chemistry and metallurgical condition. The passive film properties studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) correlated well with the polarization results. The x-ray diffraction (XRD) results revealed the presence of austenite (?) and martensite (?') phases depending on the material condition. The suitability of three indigenously developed AISI type 301LN stainless steels were compared with imported type 301LN stainless steel and the results are highlighted in this article.

Ningshen, S.; Kamachi Mudali, U.

2010-03-01

73

Effect of mechanical activation on jell boronizing treatment of the AISI 4140  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The article presents the effect of mechanical activation on the growth kinetics of boride layer of boronized AISI 4140 steel. The samples were boronized by ferroboron + (SiO2-Na2O) powders for 873-1173 K temperature and 2, 4, 6 and 8 h times, respectively. The morphology and types of borides formed on the surface of AISI 4140 steel substrate were analyzed. Layer growth kinetics were analyzed by measuring the extent of penetration of FeB and Fe2B sublayers as function of treatment time and temperature in the range of 873-1173 K. High diffusivity was obtained by creating a large number of defects through mechanical activation in the form of nanometer sized crystalline particles through the repeated fracturing and cold-welding of the powder particles, and a depth of 100 ?m was found in the specimen borided by the 2 h MA powders, for 4 h and 1073 K, where 2000-2350 HV were measured. Consequently, the application conditions of boronizing were improved by usage of mechanical activation. The preferred Fe2B boride without FeB could be formed in the boride layer under 973 K boronizing temperature by mechanically activated by ferroboron + sodium silicate powder mixture due to the decrease of the activation energy.

Y?lmaz, S. O.; Karata?, S.

2013-06-01

74

Surface Treatments for Improved Performance of Spinel-coated AISI 441 Ferritic Stainless Steel  

SciTech Connect

Ferritic stainless steels are promising candidates for IT-SOFC interconnect applications due to their low cost and resistance to oxidation at SOFC operating temperatures. However, steel candidates face several challenges; including long term oxidation under interconnect exposure conditions, which can lead to increased electrical resistance, surface instability, and poisoning of cathodes due to volatilization of Cr. To potentially extend interconnect lifetime and improve performance, a variety of surface treatments were performed on AISI 441 ferritic stainless steel coupons prior to application of a protective spinel coating. The coated coupons were then subjected to oxidation testing at 800 and 850°C in air, and electrical testing at 800°C in air. While all of the surface-treatments resulted in improved surface stability (i.e., increased spallation resistance) compared to untreated AISI 441, the greatest degree of improvement (through 20,000 hours of testing at 800°C and 14,000 hours of testing at 850°C) was achieved by surface blasting.

Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Riel, Eric M.; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

2013-01-01

75

Variation in sessile microflora during biofilm formation on AISI-304 stainless steel coupons.  

PubMed

Coupons of stainless steel type AISI-304 were exposed to the industrial cooling system of a petrochemical plant fed by seawater from the Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in order to study the in situ formation of biofilms. Bacteria, microalgae and fungi were detected on the coupons as soon as 48 h after exposure. Their respective numbers were determined at times 48, 96 and 192 h and over the following 8 weeks. Aerobic, anaerobic and sulfate-reducing bacteria were quantified according to the technique of the most probable number, and fungi by the pour plate technique. The number of microorganisms present in the forming biofilm varied over the experimental period, reaching maximal levels of 14 x 10(11) cells cm-2, 30 x 10(13) cells cm-2, 38 x 10(11) cells cm-2 and 63 x 10(5) cells cm-2, respectively, for aerobic bacteria, anaerobic bacteria, sulfate-reducing bacteria and fungi, and the dynamics of this variation depended on the group of microorganisms. Bacillus sp, Escherichia coli, Serratia sp and Pseudomonas putrefaciens were identified among the aerobic bacteria isolated. Additionally, microalgae and bacteria of the genus Gallionella were also detected. Nonetheless, no evidence of corrosion was found on the stainless steel type AISI-304 coupons over the experimental period. PMID:8987686

de França, F P; Lutterbach, M T

1996-07-01

76

Microstructure, Texture, and Mechanical Property Analysis of Gas Metal Arc Welded AISI 304 Austenitic Stainless Steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study elaborately explains the effect of welding parameters on the microstructure, texture, and mechanical properties of gas metal arc welded AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel sheet (as received) of 4 mm thickness. The welded joints were prepared by varying welding speed (WS) and current simultaneously at a fixed heat input level using a 1.2-mm-diameter austenitic filler metal (AISI 316L). The overall purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of the variation of welding conditions on: (i) Microstructural constituents using optical microscope and transmission electron microscope; (ii) Micro-texture evolution, misorientation distributions, and grain boundaries at welded regions by measuring the orientation data from electron back scattered diffraction; and (iii) Mechanical properties such as hardness and tensile strength, and their correlation with the microstructure and texture. It has been observed that the higher WS along with the higher welding current (weld metal W1) can enhance weld metal mechanical properties through alternation in microstructure and texture of the weld metal. Higher ?-ferrite formation and high-angle boundaries along with the <101> + <001> grain growth direction of the weld metal W1 were responsible for dislocation pile-ups, SFs, deformation twinning, and the induced martensite with consequent strain hardening during tensile deformation. Also, fusion boundary being the weakest link in the welded structure, failure took place mainly at this region.

Saha, Saptarshi; Mukherjee, Manidipto; Pal, Tapan Kumar

2014-12-01

77

Improvement in cavitation erosion resistance of AISI 316L stainless steel by friction stir processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Commercial AISI 316L plates with the initial grain size of 14.8 ?m were friction stir processed (FSP) with different processing parameters, resulting in two fine-grained microstructures with the grain sizes of 4.6 and 1.7 ?m. The cavitation erosion behavior, before and after FSP, was evaluated in terms of incubation time, cumulative mass loss and mean depth of erosion. A separate cavitation erosion test was performed on the transverse cross section of a FSP sample to reveal the effect of grain structure. It was observed that FSP samples, depending on their grain size, are at least 3-6 times more resistant than the base material against cavitation erosion. The improvement in cavitation erosion resistance is attributed to smaller grain structure, lower fraction of twin boundaries, and favorable crystallographic orientation of grains in FSP samples. The finer the grain size, the more cavitation erosion resistance was achieved. Moreover, the microstructures of eroded surfaces were studied using a scanning electron microscope equipped with EBSD, and an atomic force microscope. The mechanisms controlling the cavitation erosion damage in friction stir processed AISI 316L are also discussed.

Hajian, M.; Abdollah-zadeh, A.; Rezaei-Nejad, S. S.; Assadi, H.; Hadavi, S. M. M.; Chung, K.; Shokouhimehr, M.

2014-07-01

78

DAFS contribution: the influence of dislocation density and radiation on carbon activity and phase development in AISI 316. [LMFBR  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this effort is to identify the role of each major element in the microchemical evolution of AISI 316 and the dependence of that role on preirradiation treatment and parameters such as neutron energy and flux, temperature and stress.

Garner, F.A.; Wolfer, W.G.

1980-01-01

79

Surface fatigue life and failure characteristics of EX-53, CBS 1000M, and AISI 9310 gear materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spur gear endurance tests and rolling-element surface fatigue tests are conducted to investigate EX-53 and CBS 1000M steels for use as advanced application gear materials, to determine their endurance characteristics, and to compare the results with the standard AISI 9310 gear material. The gear pitch diameter is 8.89 cm (3.50 in). Gear test conditions are an oil inlet temperature of 320 K (116 F), an oil outlet temperature of 350 K (170 F), a maximum Hertz stress of 1.71 GPa (248 ksi), and a speed of 10,000 rpm. Bench-type rolling-element fatigue tests are conducted at ambient temperature with a bar specimen speed of 12,500 rpm and a maximum Hertz stress of 4.83 GPa (700 ksi). The EX-53 test gears have a surface fatigue life of twice that of the AISI 9310 spur gears. The CBS 1000M test gears have a surface fatigue life of more than twice that of the AISI 9310 spur gears. However, the CBS 1000M gears experience a 30-percent tooth fracture failure which limits its use as a gear material. The rolling-contact fatigue lines of RC bar specimens of EX-53 and ASISI 9310 are approximately equal. However, the CBS 1000M RC specimens have a surface fatigue life of about 50 percent that of the AISI 9310.

Townsend, D. P.

1985-01-01

80

An Experimental Investigation into the Effect of Minimum Quality Lubricant on Cutting Temperature for Machinability of AISI 9310 Steel Alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industries and researchers are trying to reduce the use of coolant lubricant fluids in metal cutting to obtain safety, environmental and economical benefits. This work is focused on the effect of minimal quantity lubricant on chip-tool interface temperature under different cutting velocity and feed rate in turning of AISI 9310 steel. Chip-tool interface temperatures were measured for three different cooling

M. M. Rahman; M. M. A. Khan; N. R Dhar

81

Investigating the Tool Life, Cutting Force Components, and Surface Roughness of AISI 302 Stainless Steel Material Under Oblique Machining  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work is to investigate the machinability of austenitic AISI 302 stainless steel under oblique cutting. This can be achieved by studying the cutting forces, analysis of tool life, and investigation of the surface roughness at different cutting conditions and nose radius. A factorial experiment and analysis of variance technique are used in which several factors are

A. M. El-Tamimi; T. M. El-Hossainy

2008-01-01

82

Influence of plasma nitriding on plain fatigue and fretting fatigue behaviour of AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel samples were plasma nitrided at 420 °C for 6 h in vacuum atmosphere by glow discharge technique, in the presence of nitrogen gas. Plain fatigue and fretting fatigue tests were carried out on unnitrided and plasma nitrided samples. Plasma nitrided samples exhibited higher surface hardness, compressive residual stresses at the surface and lower surface roughness compared with

S. Ganesh Sundara Raman; M. Jayaprakash

2007-01-01

83

Effect of electrical discharge machining on surface characteristics and machining damage of AISI D2 tool steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work the electrical discharge machining (EDM) of AISI D2 tool steel was investigated. The surface characteristics and machining damage caused by EDM were studied in terms of machining parameters. Based on the experimental data, an empirical model of the tool steel was also proposed. A new damage variable was used to study the EDM damage. The workpiece surface

Y. H. Guu; H. Hocheng; C. Y. Chou; C. S. Deng

2003-01-01

84

Corrosion behaviour of a surface-treated AISI H11 hot work tool steel in molten aluminium alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immersion tests in a molten aluminium alloy of a surface-treated AISI H11 hot work tool steel were carried out in order to study the corrosion mechanisms and the effect of different surface treatments on the resistance of the material. The steel has a great reactivity with molten aluminium, which causes a generalised attack on the exposed surface. Plasma nitriding and

A. Molinari; M. Pellizzari; G. Straffelini; M. Pirovano

2000-01-01

85

Microchemistry characterization by Auger electron spectroscopy of a cold-worked AISI-304L stainless steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) has been performed on grain boundaries of an AISI-304L stainless steel. The aim of the work was to study microchemistry at grain boundaries by AES after simulating irradiation effects by cold work followed by heat treatments. The results show that phosphorus was present at interfaces in all material conditions. Sometimes, phosphorus was accompanied by molybdenum and by chromium enrichment. Those analyses were attributed to ferrite/austenite interfaces while those where phosphorus was found alone were thought to belong to austenite/austenite interfaces. Cold work when combined with heat treatment at low temperature was shown to affect phosphorus and chromium segregation in a similar way to radiation-induced segregation. In this respect, cold work enhanced non-equilibrium phosphorus segregation to interfaces, while it induced chromium diffusion away from grain boundaries. Finally, corrosion and stress corrosion tests were performed to study the influence of this particular microchemistry on 304L performance.

Hernández-Mayoral, M.; de Diego, G.; García-Mazarío, M.

2000-06-01

86

Ultrasonic and metallographic studies on AISI 4140 steel exposed to hydrogen at high pressure and temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis conducts an investigation to study the effects of hydrogen exposure at high temperature and pressure on the behavior of AISI 4140 steel. Piezoelectric ultrasonic technique was primarily used to evaluate surface longitudinal wave velocity and defect geometry variations, as related to time after exposure to hydrogen at high temperature and pressure. Critically refracted longitudinal wave technique was used for the former and pulse-echo technique for the latter. Optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to correlate the ultrasonic results with the microstructure of the steel and to provide better insight into the steel behavior. The results of the investigation indicate that frequency analysis of the defect echo, determined using the pulse-echo technique at regular intervals of time, appears to be a promising tool for monitoring defect growth induced by a high temperature and high pressure hydrogen-related attack.

Oruganti, Malavika

87

Study of the Sensitization on the Grain Boundary in Austenitic Stainless Steel Aisi 316  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intergranular corrosion (IGC) is one of the major problems in austenitic stainless steels. This type of corrosion is caused by precipitation of secondary phases on grain boundaries (GB). Precipitation of the secondary phases can lead to formation of chromium depleted zones in the vicinity of grain boundaries. Mount of the sensitization of material is characterized by the degree of sensitization (DOS). Austenitic stainless steel AISI 316 as experimental material had been chosen. The samples for the study of sensitization were solution annealed on 1100 °C for 60 min followed by water quenching and then sensitization by isothermal annealing on 700 °C and 650 °C with holding time from 15 to 600 min. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used for identification of secondary phases. Electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) was applied for characterization of grain boundary structure as one of the factors which influences on DOS.

Kocsisová, Edina; Dománková, Mária; Slatkovský, Ivan; Sahul, Martin

2014-12-01

88

Long-range effect in nitrogen ion-implanted AISI 316L stainless steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of nitrogen ion implantation on AISI 316L stainless steel was investigated. The microstructure and composition of an N implanted layer were studied by RBS, GIXRD, SEM, and EDX measurements. Friction and wear tests were also performed. The discrepancy between the measured and calculated stopped ion maximum range does not exceed 0.03 ?m. After nitrogen implantation with a fluence of 5 × 1017 ion/cm2, additional phases of expanded austenite were detected. At a 5-fold larger depth than the maximum ion range, improvement in the coefficient of friction and wear was detected. We have shown, for the first time, the long-range effect in tribological investigations. The long-range effect is caused by movement of not only defects along the depth of the sample, as assumed so far, but also nitrogen atoms.

Budzynski, P.

2015-01-01

89

On the oxide formation on stainless steels AISI 304 and incoloy 800H investigated with XPS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of cold work on the initially formed oxide layer on the stainless steels AISI 304 and Incology 800H has been studied by XPS. Oxidations were performed at pressures of 10 -6-10 -4 Pa and temperatures of 300-800 K. All samples showed a similar oxidation behaviour. The oxidation rates of iron and chromium are of the same order of magnitude at temperatures below 650 K. Subsequent oxidation results in an iron oxide on top of a chromium oxide layer. At temperatures above 650 K the metal surface becomes enriched in chromium, which is preferentially oxidized at these temperatures and pressures. Even prolonged oxidation does not result in an iron-rich oxide surface. Nickel has never been found in its oxidized form. The binding energy of oxygen, in the various oxide layers, is independent of the extent of oxidation and is 530.6 eV.

Langevoort, J. C.; Sutherland, I.; Hanekamp, L. J.; Gellings, P. J.

1987-04-01

90

Pitting fatigue characteristics of AISI M-50 and super nitralloy spur gears  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two groups of 3.50-in. pitch-diameter spur gears, without tip relief, made from consumable-electrode vacuum-melted (CVM) AISI M-50 steel and CVM super nitralloy (5Ni-2A1) were tested under conditions which produced fatigue pitting. The M-50 gears had fatigue lives approximately 50 percent longer than the super nitralloy gears. Both groups of gears failed by classical rolling-element fatigue at the pitch circle. When the gears were overrun past initial spall formation, the spalled M-50 gear teeth failed by fatigue fracture. The M-50 material had higher wear than the super nitralloy material. Differences in fatigue life and wear were not considered statistically significant.

Townsend, D. P.; Chevalier, J. L.; Zaretsky, E. V.

1973-01-01

91

Comparisons of modified Vasco X-2 and AISI 9310 gear steels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Endurance tests were conducted with four groups of spur gears manufactured from three heats of consumable electrode vacuum melted (CVM) modified Vasco X-2. Endurance tests were also conducted with gears manufactured from CVM AISI 9310. Bench type rolling element fatigue tests were conducted with both materials. Hardness measurements were made to 811 K. There was no statistically significant life difference between the two materials. Life differences between the different heats of modified Vasco X-2 can be attributed to heat treat variation and resultant hardness. Carburization of gear flanks only can eliminate tooth fracture as a primary failure mode for modified Vasco X-2. However, a tooth surface fatigue spall can act as a nucleus of a tooth fracture failure for the modified Vasco X-2.

Townsend, D. P.; Zaretsky, E. V.

1980-01-01

92

Microstructure evolution and texture development in a friction stir-processed AISI D2 tool steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Crystallographic texture developments during friction stir processing (FSP) of AISI D2 tool were studied with respect to grain sizes in different tool rotation rates. Comparison of the grain sizes in various rotation rates confirmed that grain refinement occurred progressively in higher rotation rates by severe plastic deformation. It was found that the predominant mechanism during FSP should be dynamic recovery (DRV) happened concurrently with continuous dynamic recrystallization (CDRX) caused by particle-stimulated nucleation (PSN). The developed shear texture relates to the ideal shear textures of D1 and D2 in bcc metals. The prevalence of highly dense arrangement of close-packed planes of bcc and the lowest Taylor factor showed the lowest compressive residual stress which is responsible for better mechanical properties compared with the grain-precipitate refinement.

Yasavol, N.; Abdollah-zadeh, A.; Vieira, M. T.; Jafarian, H. R.

2014-02-01

93

Tensile and fatigue data for irradiated and unirradiated AISI 310 stainless steel and titanium - 5 percent aluminum - 2.5 percent tin: Application of the method of universal slopes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Irradiated and unirradiated tensile and fatigue specimens of AISI 310 stainless steel and Ti-5Al-2.5Sn were tested in the range of 100 to 10,000 cycles to failure to determine the applicability of the method of universal slopes to irradiated materials. Tensile data for both materials showed a decrease in ductility and increase in ultimate tensile strength due to irradiation. Irradiation caused a maximum change in fatigue life of only 15 to 20 percent for both materials. The method of universal slopes predicted all the fatigue data for the 310 SS (irradiated as well as unirradiated) within a life factor of 2. For the titanium alloy, 95 percent of the data was predicted within a life factor of 3.

Debogdan, C. E.

1973-01-01

94

Nitrided layer embrittlement due to edge effect on duplex treated AISI M2 high-speed steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasma nitriding prior to TiN deposition on single-point turning tools made of high-speed steel (HSS) AISI M2 has been carried out in order to investigate the improvement of machining performance. Optical and scanning electron microscopy, microhardness test, glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize the nitrided layer. Machining tests using a tool life

C. Kwietniewski; W. Fontana; C. Moraes; A. da S. Rocha; T. Hirsch; A. Reguly

2004-01-01

95

Micro-abrasive wear test of niobium carbide layers produced on AISI H13 and M2 steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Very hard and wear resistant layers were produced on AISI H13 and M2 steels by TRD (thermoreactive deposition and diffusion) treatment in molten borax added with ferroniobium and aluminum, at 1000 °C for 4 h. Optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Vickers microhardness were used to analyze the samples. The wear resistances of the layers were evaluated by the micro-abrasive (ball-cratering)

C. K. N. Oliveira; R. M. Muñoz Riofano; L. C. Casteletti

2006-01-01

96

Surface roughness and cutting force prediction in MQL and wet turning process of AISI 1045 using design of experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an investigation into the MQL (minimum quantity lubrication) and wet turning processes of AISI 1045 work\\u000a material with the objective of suggesting the experimental model in order to predict the cutting force and surface roughness,\\u000a to select the optimal cutting parameters, and to analyze the effects of cutting parameters on machinability. Fractional factorial\\u000a design and central composite

Young Kug Hwang; Choon Man Lee

2010-01-01

97

On the effect of electrodischarge machining parameters on the fatigue life of AISI D6 tool steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of current setting and pulse-on time on the fatigue lives of AISI D6 tool steel specimens produced using three-dimensional cavity machining are investigated. Optical and scanning electron microscopy, microprobe analysis and microhardness tests have been used to study the characteristics of the machined and fractured specimens. The results have confirmed the deteriorating effect of electrodischarge machining (EDM) on

O. A. Abu Zeid

1997-01-01

98

Improvement of fatigue life of electrical discharge machined AISI D2 tool steel by TiN coating  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents the effects of titanium nitride (TiN) coating by physical vapor deposition (PVD) on the fatigue life of AISI D2 tool steel, which was electrical discharge machined (EDM) at various machining parameters, such as pulse current and pulse-on duration. Surface hardness, surface roughness, residual stress and fatigue strength were measured. Experimental results indicate that EDM treatment has a

Y. H. Guu; H. Hocheng

2001-01-01

99

Plasma nitriding process by direct current glow discharge at low temperature increasing the thermal diffusivity of AISI 304 stainless steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work reports for the first time on the use of the open photoacoustic cell technique operating at very low frequencies and at room temperature to experimentally determine the thermal diffusivity parameter of commercial AISI304 stainless steel and AISI304 stainless steel nitrided samples. Complementary measurements of X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy were also performed. The results show that in standard AISI 304 stainless steel samples the thermal diffusivity is (4.0 ± 0.3) × 10-6 m2/s. After the nitriding process, the thermal diffusivity increases to the value (7.1 ± 0.5) × 10-6 m2/s. The results are being associated to the diffusion process of nitrogen into the surface of the sample. Carrying out subsequent thermal treatment at 500 °C, the thermal diffusivity increases up to (12.0 ± 2) × 10-6 m2/s. Now the observed growing in the thermal diffusivity must be related to the change in the phases contained in the nitrided layer.

Prandel, L. V.; Somer, A.; Assmann, A.; Camelotti, F.; Costa, G.; Bonardi, C.; Jurelo, A. R.; Rodrigues, J. B.; Cruz, G. K.

2013-02-01

100

ALS Association  

MedlinePLUS

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101

Some Temperature Effects on AISI-304 Nitriding in an Inductively Coupled RF Plasma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some recent results obtained from nitriding AISI 304 stainless steel samples, 1.2 cm in diameter and 0.5 cm thick are reported here in the case of an 85% hydrogen and 15% nitrogen mixture work gas. The process was carried out from 300 to 400 W for (13.56 MHz) inductively coupled plasma within a 60 cm long pyrex glass tube 3.5 cm in diameter where the samples were biased up to -300 V with respect to earth. The resulting hardness appears to be a function of the substrate temperature which varied from 200 °C at a 0 V bias to 550 °C at -300 V. The plasma density at 400 W reached 3×1010 cm-3 with a 4 eV electron temperature. Prior to nitriding, all the samples were polished with 0.05 ?m diamond paste, leading to a 30 nm average roughness (Ra). After nitriding at -300 V, the Ra rose until ˜400 nm while hardness values of 1500 HV under 300 g loads were measured. X ray diffraction indicates that the extended phase amplitude (?N), Fe and Cr nitride depends on the substrate temperature.

Valencia-Alvarado, R.; de la Piedad-Beneitez, A.; de la Rosa-Vázquez, J.; López-Callejas, R.; Barocio, S. R.; Godoy-Cabrera, O. G.; Mercado-Cabrera, A.; Peña-Eguiluz, R.; Muñoz-Castro, A. E.

2006-12-01

102

Microstructural features of hot pressure bonding between stainless steel type AISI-304 L and Zircaloy-2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The diffusion zone formed after reaching quasi-equilibrium in hot pressure bonding between stainless steel type AISI-304 L and Zircaloy-2 under particular thermal and compressive conditions (1000-1100°C and 2-3 atm) contains two distinct layers, each separately localized in the modified stainless steel and Zircaloy matrices. SEM, TEM, X-ray diffraction and microanalysis were used to identify the phase structure and composition of the two diffusion layers. The nature and distribution of phases found in the diffusion layers can be explained in connection with the diffusion mechanisms operating after the initial stages of bond formation and interface disappearance: (a) The strong zirconium diffusion promotes ferrite and ZrCr 2 formation in a narrow zone located near the stainless steel matrix, (b) Iron and nickel diffusion over large distances in the Zircaloy matrix leads to the occurrence of a larger zone having a two-phase structure. The light grey phase consists of untransformed ?-Zr and a small percentage of high-temperature ?-Zr phase. The darker grey phase contains essentially a very high amount of intermetallic bct compounds Zr-Fe-Ni, Zr 2Fe and Zr 2Ni dispersed in the small residue of Zircaloy matrix.

Lucuta, P. Gr.; P?tru, I.; Vasiliu, F.

1981-09-01

103

Effect of lubricant extreme-pressure additives on surface fatigue life of AISI 9310 spur gears  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Surface fatigue tests were conducted with AISI 9310 spur gears using a formulated synthetic tetraester oil (conforming to MIL-L-23699 specifications) as the lubricant containing either sulfur or phosphorus as the EP additive. Four groups of gears were tested. One group of gears tested without an additive in the lubricant acted as the reference oil. In the other three groups either a 0.1 wt % sulfur or phosphorus additive was added to the tetraester oil to enhance gear surface fatigue life. Test conditions included a gear temperature of 334 K (160 F), a maximum Hertz stress of 1.71 GPa (248 000 psi), and a speed of 10,000 rpm. The gears tested with a 0.1 wt % phosphorus additive showed pitting fatigue life 2.6 times the life of gears tested with the reference tetraester based oil. Although fatigue lives of two groups of gears tested with the sulfur additive in the oil showed improvement over the control group gear life, the results, unlike those obtained with the phosphorus oil, were not considered to be statistically significant.

Scibbe, H. W.; Townsend, D. P.; Aron, P. R.

1984-01-01

104

The effect of phosphorus content on grain boundary cementite formation in AISI 52100 steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intergranular fracture surfaces of high phosphorus (0.023 wt pct P) and low phosphorus (0.009 wt pct P) AISI 52100 steels were investigated by Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES). Cementite, identified by composition and Auger peak shape, was found to form on austenite boundaries in specimens oil quenched from 960 °C to room temperature as well as in specimens quenched from 960 °C and isothermally held at temperatures between Acm and A1. Phosphorus segregates to austenite boundaries during austenitizing and accelerates cementite formation on the austenite boundaries. Concentration profiles obtained by AES during ion sputtering showed that phosphorus may be incorporated in the first-formed cementite and concentrates at cementite/matrix interfaces in later stages of cementite growth. The amount of interphase P segregation in the later stages is proportional to bulk alloy P concentration in accord with McLean’s theory of grain boundary segregation in dilute alloys and appears to approach equilibrium at high reaction temperatures (785 °C). At lower reaction temperatures (740 °C), the interphase segregation is lower than expected, a result that may be attributed to reduced diffusivity of P at the lower reaction temperature.

Ando, Teiichi; Krauss, George

1981-07-01

105

Some Temperature Effects on AISI-304 Nitriding in an Inductively Coupled RF Plasma  

SciTech Connect

Some recent results obtained from nitriding AISI 304 stainless steel samples, 1.2 cm in diameter and 0.5 cm thick are reported here in the case of an 85% hydrogen and 15% nitrogen mixture work gas. The process was carried out from 300 to 400 W for (13.56 MHz) inductively coupled plasma within a 60 cm long pyrex glass tube 3.5 cm in diameter where the samples were biased up to -300 V with respect to earth. The resulting hardness appears to be a function of the substrate temperature which varied from 200 deg. C at a 0 V bias to 550 deg. C at -300 V. The plasma density at 400 W reached 3x1010 cm-3 with a 4 eV electron temperature. Prior to nitriding, all the samples were polished with 0.05 {mu}m diamond paste, leading to a 30 nm average roughness (Ra). After nitriding at -300 V, the Ra rose until {approx}400 nm while hardness values of 1500 HV under 300 g loads were measured. X ray diffraction indicates that the extended phase amplitude ({gamma}N), Fe and Cr nitride depends on the substrate temperature.

Valencia-Alvarado, R.; Barocio, S. R.; Mercado-Cabrera, A.; Pena-Eguiluz, R.; Munoz-Castro, A. E. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Plasma Physics Laboratory, AP. 18-1027, 11801, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Piedad-Beneitez, A. de la [Instituto Tecnologico de Toluca, Departamento de Electronica, Apartado Postal 890, Toluca (Mexico); Rosa-Vazquez, J. de la [ESIME-Zacatenco-IPN, 07738, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Lopez-Callejas, R.; Godoy-Cabrera, O. G. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Plasma Physics Laboratory, AP. 18-1027, 11801, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Instituto Tecnologico de Toluca, Departamento de Electronica, Apartado Postal 890, Toluca (Mexico)

2006-12-04

106

Investigation of Low-Cycle Bending Fatigue of AISI 9310 Steel Spur Gears  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation of the low-cycle bending fatigue of spur gears made from AISI 9310 gear steel was completed. Tests were conducted using the single-tooth bending method to achieve crack initiation and propagation. Tests were conducted on spur gears in a fatigue test machine using a dedicated gear test fixture. Test loads were applied at the highest point of single tooth contact. Gear bending stresses for a given testing load were calculated using a linear-elastic finite element model. Test data were accumulated from 1/4 cycle to several thousand cycles depending on the test stress level. The relationship of stress and cycles for crack initiation was found to be semilogarithmic. The relationship of stress and cycles for crack propagation was found to be linear. For the range of loads investigated, the crack propagation phase is related to the level of load being applied. Very high loads have comparable crack initiation and propagation times whereas lower loads can have a much smaller number of cycles for crack propagation cycles as compared to crack initiation.

Handschuh, Robert F.; Krantz, Timothy L.; Lerch, Bradley A.; Burke, Christopher S.

2007-01-01

107

Niobized AISI 304 stainless steel bipolar plate for proton exchange membrane fuel cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AISI 304 stainless steel (SS) has been niobized by a plasma surface diffusion alloying method. A 3 ?m niobized layer with dominant niobium elements has been formed on the 304 SS surface and the performances of the niobized 304 SS has been examined and evaluated as bipolar plate for proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). Results show that the average contact angle with water for the niobized 304 SS is about 90.4°, demonstrating better hydrophobicity as compared with the untreated 304 SS (68.1°). The corrosion resistance of the 304 SS is considerably improved by the niobized layer with the corrosion current densities decreased at 0.2 and 0.4 ?A cm-2 in simulated PEMFC anode purged with hydrogen and the cathode purged with air condition (0.05 M H2SO4 + 2 ppm F- solution at 70 °C), respectively. The interfacial contact resistance (ICR) for the as-prepared niobized 304 SS is 10.53 m? cm2 at the compaction of 140 N cm-2. Furthermore, after 4 h potentiostatic tests, the niobizied specimens exhibit much lower ICR than that for the untreated ones. Thus, the niobized layer can act as a conductively protective layer of the 304 SS bipolar plate for PEMFC.

Wang, Lixia; Sun, Juncai; Li, Pengbin; Jing, Bo; Li, Song; Wen, Zhongsheng; Ji, Shijun

2012-06-01

108

An Electrochemical Processing Strategy for Improving Tribological Performance of Aisi 316 Stainless Steel Under Grease Lubrication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to improve the tribological performance of AISI 316 stainless steel (316 SS) under grease lubrication, electrochemical processing was conducted on it to obtain a rough (surface texturing-like) surface by making use of the high sensitivity of austenitic stainless steel to pitting corrosion in Cl--rich environment. Numerous corrosion pits or micro-ditches acted as micro-reservoirs on the obtained surface. While the grease could offer consistent lubrication, and then improve the tribological performance of 316 SS. Tribological behaviors of raw 316 SS and the treated sample were measured using a reciprocating type tribometer sliding against GCr15 steel counterpart under dry and grease lubrication conditions. The results showed that the mass losses of the two samples were in the same order of magnitude, and the raw sample exhibited lower friction coefficient in dry sliding. When the tests were conducted under grease lubrication condition, the friction coefficients and mass losses of the treated sample were far lower than those of the raw 316 SS. The tribological performance of 316 SS under grease lubrication was drastically improved after electrochemical processing.

Zou, Jiaojuan; Li, Maolin; Lin, Naiming; Zhang, Xiangyu; Qin, Lin; Tang, Bin

2014-12-01

109

Effect of Surface Integrity of Hard Turned AISI 52100 Steel on Fatigue Performance  

SciTech Connect

This paper addresses the relationship between surface integrity and fatigue life of hard turned AISI 52100 steel (60-62 HRC), with grinding as a benchmark. The impact of superfinishing on the fatigue performance of hard turned and ground surfaces is also discussed. Specifically, the surface integrity and fatigue life of the following five distinct surface conditions are examined: hard turned with continuous white layer, hard turned with no white layer, ground, and superfinished hard turned and ground specimens. Surface integrity of the specimens is characterized via surface topography measurement, metallography, residual stress measurements, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and nano-indentation tests. High cycle tension-tension fatigue tests show that the presence of white layer does not adversely affect fatigue life and that, on average, the hard turned surface performs as well or better than the ground surface. The effect of superfinishing is to exaggerate these differences in performance. The results obtained from this study suggest that the effect of residual stress on fatigue life is more significant than the effect of white layer. For the hard turned surfaces, the fatigue life is found to be directly proportional to both the surface compressive residual stress and the maximum compressive residual stress. Possible explanations for the observed effects are discussed.

Lara-Curzio, Edgar [ORNL; Watkins, Thomas R [ORNL; Allard Jr, Lawrence Frederick [ORNL; Riester, Laura [ORNL

2007-01-01

110

Fe-Based Amorphous Coatings on AISI 4130 Structural Steel for Corrosion Resistance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current study focuses on synthesizing a novel functional coating for corrosion resistance applications, via laser surface alloying. The iron-based (Fe48Cr15Mo14Y2C15B) amorphous precursor powder is used for laser surface alloying on AISI 4130 steel substrate, with a continuous wave ytterbium Nd-YAG fiber laser. The corrosion resistance of the coatings is evaluated for different processing conditions. The microstructural evolution and the response of the microstructure to the corrosive environment is studied using x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Microstructural studies indicate the presence of face-centered cubic Fe-based dendrites intermixed within an amorphous matrix along with fine crystalline precipitates. The corrosion resistance of the coatings decrease with an increase in laser energy density, which is attributed to the precipitation and growth of chromium carbide. The enhanced corrosion resistance of the coatings processed with low energy density is attributed to the self-healing mechanism of this amorphous system.

Katakam, Shravana; Santhanakrishnan, S.; Dahotre, Narendra B.

2012-06-01

111

The Meta-Lax method of stress reduction in welds. [ASTM A36; AISI 4140  

SciTech Connect

This study is the second phase of ongoing research into the mechanics and feasibility of using the Meta-Lax method of vibratory stress relief in place of thermal methods of stress relief. The first phase of this research revealed results that were similar to, and even superior to those achieved using thermal methods. The testing here was designed to eliminate the effects of interbead tempering by utilizing single pass bead-on-plate welds only. A metallurgical explanation for the success of the Meta-Lax method was not found. No significant structure or chemical changes were noted when used with ASTM A36 or AISI 4140 materials, and the phenomena noted in phase I was apparently due to interbead tempering. The theory of accelerated aging has been proposed and studies exist which observed dislocation motion as a result of vibratory treatment. It is evident that the vibratory stress relief system does not impart sufficient energy to bring about the magnitude of change seen with thermal methods. however the physical improvement is a reality, and vibratory methods should be evaluated further.

Smith, S.M.

1992-07-31

112

Effect of Hydrogen and Magnetic Field on the Mechanical Behavior of High Strength AISI 4340 Steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Presence of hydrogen in materials is known to affect their mechanical properties due to hydrogen embrittlement problem. Steels used in various applications are prone to be exposed to aqueous electrochemical environments, which may introduce hydrogen into the alloy. These alloys are also prone to be simultaneously exposed to magnetic field, which may affect the hydrogen embrittlement susceptibility of these alloys. Therefore, it is important to examine the effect of hydrogen and magnetic field on the mechanical behavior of iron-based alloys. In this work, the effect of hydrogen and magnetic field on the fracture behavior of high strength AISI 4340 steel was examined. Three-point bend test was used to study the fracture behavior. In all the cases, the samples tested with hydrogen charging show a drastic reduction in ductility and fracture stress values. The effect of magnetic field was seen to be negligible. The hydrogen embrittlement was characterized by a change in the fracture surface from a ductile-type fracture to a brittle cleavage-type fracture. Acoustic emission signals collected during the test corresponds to the fracture behavior.

Ramanathan, Meenakshisundaram; Saha, Biswadeep; Ren, Chai; Guruswamy, Sivaraman; McCarter, Michael

2013-04-01

113

Effect of two synthetic lubricants on life of AISI 9310 spur gears  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spur-gear fatigue tests were conducted with two lubricants using a single lot of consumable-electrode vacuum-melted (CVM) AISI 9310 spur gears. The gears were case carburized and hardened to Rockwell C60. The gear pitch diameter was 8.89 cm. The lot of gears was divided into two groups, each of which was tested with a different lubricant. The test lubricants can be classified as synthetic polyol-ester-based lubricants. One lubricant was 30 percent more viscous that the other. Both lubricants have similar pressure viscosity coefficients. Test conditions included a bulk gear temperature of 350 K, a maximum Hertz stress of 1.71 GPa at the pitch line, and a speed of 10,000 rpm. The surface fatigue life of gears tested with one lubricant was approximately 2.4 times that for gears tested with the other lubricant. The lubricant with the 30 percent higher viscosity gave a calculated elastohydrodynamic (EHD) film thickness that was 20 percent higher than the other lubricant. This increased EHD film thickness is the most probable reason for the improvement in surface fatigue life of gears tested with this lubricant over gears tested with the less viscous lubricant.

Townsend, Dennis P.; Shimski, John

1991-01-01

114

DCEMS Study of Thin Stainless Steel Films Deposited by RF Sputtering of AISI316L  

SciTech Connect

Thin stainless steel films were prepared on SiO2/Si plate heated at 100 deg. C and 400 deg. C using AISI316L as target, by a RF magnetron Ar sputtering method. RF sputtered-deposited films and the oxidized surface layers by post heating were characterized by depth selective conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopy (DCEMS) using a He+5%CH4 gas proportional counter. The as-deposited films consisted of magnetic phases, the magnetic orientation of which had a tendency to be perpendicular to the surface of the film. In the case of the deposited films at substrate temperature of 100 deg. C, a small amount of Fe2O3 and ferritic stainless steel formed by post-heating in air. A magnetic subcomponent and a austenite phase were formed in the films deposited at substrate temperature of 400 deg. C. {alpha}-Fe2O3 and magnetite formed easily on the top and middle layers of the films by post-heating in air. The oxide states of the films deposited at different temperatures of substrate were clearly distinguished by post-heating. Thus it was found by DCEMS that the structures of the deposited films were strongly affected by the preparation method and the temperature of the substrate.

Nomura, K.; Iio, S.; Ujihira, Y.; Terai, T. [School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

2005-04-26

115

Thermodynamic modeling and kinetics simulation of precipitate phases in AISI 316 stainless steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work aims at utilizing modern computational microstructural modeling tools to accelerate the understanding of phase stability in austenitic steels under extended thermal aging. Using the CALPHAD approach, a thermodynamic database OCTANT (ORNL Computational Thermodynamics for Applied Nuclear Technology), including elements of Fe, C, Cr, Ni, Mn, Mo, Si, and Ti, has been developed with a focus on reliable thermodynamic modeling of precipitate phases in AISI 316 austenitic stainless steels. The thermodynamic database was validated by comparing the calculated results with experimental data from commercial 316 austenitic steels. The developed computational thermodynamics was then coupled with precipitation kinetics simulation to understand the temporal evolution of precipitates in austenitic steels under long-term thermal aging (up to 600,000 h) at a temperature regime from 300 to 900 °C. This study discusses the effect of dislocation density and difusion coefficients on the precipitation kinetics at low temperatures, which shed a light on investigating the phase stability and transformation in austenitic steels used in light water reactors.

Yang, Y.; Busby, J. T.

2014-05-01

116

Computational Modeling of Microstructural-Evolution in AISI 1005 Steel During Gas Metal Arc Butt Welding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fully coupled (two-way), transient, thermal-mechanical finite-element procedure is developed to model conventional gas metal arc welding (GMAW) butt-joining process. Two-way thermal-mechanical coupling is achieved by making the mechanical material model of the workpiece and the weld temperature-dependent and by allowing the potential work of plastic deformation resulting from large thermal gradients to be dissipated in the form of heat. To account for the heat losses from the weld into the surroundings, heat transfer effects associated with natural convection and radiation to the environment and thermal-heat conduction to the adjacent workpiece material are considered. The procedure is next combined with the basic physical-metallurgy concepts and principles and applied to a prototypical (plain) low-carbon steel (AISI 1005) to predict the distribution of various crystalline phases within the as-welded material microstructure in different fusion zone and heat-affected zone locations, under given GMAW-process parameters. The results obtained are compared with available open-literature experimental data to provide validation/verification for the proposed GMAW modeling effort.

Grujicic, M.; Ramaswami, S.; Snipes, J. S.; Yavari, R.; Arakere, A.; Yen, C.-F.; Cheeseman, B. A.

2013-05-01

117

Nondestructive measurement of the residual stress TiN thin film coated on AISI 304 substrate by x-ray stress analyzer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Titanium nitride films are deposited on AISI 304 steel with a hollow-cathode-discharge (HCD) ion-plating technique. The status of residual stresses in TiN thin film coated on AISI304 substrate by HCD is studied by x-ray diffraction stress analyzer. By analyzing morphology of the residual stress of TiN thin film at interface between TiN film and AISI 304 substrate, the adhering mechanism of TiN thin film is understood as follows: the mechanical interlocking had important contribution to the adhesion strength, the thermal stress is the major factor which resulting TiN thin film peeling off spontaneously. The results show that the value of thin film is -210MPa~-650Mpa, and the thermal stress is compressive, the intrinsic stress is tensile, origins of the residual stress are primarily discussed.

Zhang, Y. K.; Feng, A. X.; Lu, J. Z.; Kong, D. J.; Tang, C. P.

2006-01-01

118

Machining Performance and Surface Integrity of AISI D2 Die Steel Machined Using Electrical Discharge Surface Grinding Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study is to establish optimum machining conditions for EDSG of AISI D2 die steel through an experimental investigation using Taguchi Methodology. To achieve combined grinding and electrical discharge machining, metal matrix composite electrodes (Cu-SiCp) were processed through powder metallurgy route. A rotary spindle attachment was developed to perform the EDSG experimental runs on EDM machine. Relationships were developed between various input parameters such as peak current, speed, pulse-on time, pulse-off time, abrasive particle size, and abrasive particle concentration, and output characteristics such as material removal rate and surface roughness. The optimized parameters were further validated by conducting confirmation experiments.

Choudhary, Rajesh; Kumar, Harmesh; Singh, Shankar

2013-12-01

119

X-ray diffraction study of oxide scales formed at high temperatures on AISI 304 stainless steel after cerium deposition  

SciTech Connect

High-resolution X-ray diffraction has been used to characterize the structure of oxide scales grown during oxidation at 1,173 K of cerium-modified stainless steels. The oxide scales consist of a mixture of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, as well as spinels. Several oxidation treatments prior to cerium deposition have been applied. New phases, which are cerium-related, appear, depending on the pre-oxidation treatment. By comparing these results with previous ones on lanthanum-modified AISI 304 stainless steel, some possible explanations for the reactive-element effect are proposed.

Capitan, M.J. [E.S.R.F., Grenoble (France)] [E.S.R.F., Grenoble (France); Paul, A.; Odriozola, J.A. [Centro Mixto Univ. de Sevilla-CSIC (Spain). Inst. de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla] [Centro Mixto Univ. de Sevilla-CSIC (Spain). Inst. de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla; Pastol, J.L. [CECM, Vitry s/Seinne (France)] [CECM, Vitry s/Seinne (France)

1999-12-01

120

Mechanical behavior of AISI 304SS determined by miniature test methods after neutron irradiation to 28 dpa  

SciTech Connect

The mechanical properties of AISI 304 stainless steel irradiated for over a decade in the Experimental Breeder Reactor (EBR-II) were measured using miniature mechanical testing methods. The shear punch method was used to evaluate the shear strengths of the neutron-irradiated steel and a correlation factor was empirically determined to predict its tensile strength. The strength of the stainless steel slightly decreased with increasing irradiation temperature, and significantly increased with increasing dose until it saturated above approximately 5 dpa. Ferromagnetic measurements were used to observe and deduce the effects of the stress-induced austenite to martensite transformation as a result of shear punch testing.

Ellen M. Rabenberg; Brian J. Jaques; Bulent H. Sencer; Frank A. Garner; Paula D. Freyer; Taira Okita; Darryl P. Butt

2014-05-01

121

Investigation of AISI 441 Ferritic Stainless Steel and Development of Spinel Coatings for SOFC Interconnect Applications  

SciTech Connect

As part of an effort to develop cost-effective ferritic stainless steel-based interconnects for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stacks, both bare and spinel coated AISI 441 were studied in terms of metallurgical characteristics, oxidation behavior, and electrical performance. The conventional melt metallurgy used for the bulk alloy fabrication leads to significant processing cost reduction and the alloy chemistry with the presence of minor alloying additions of Nb and Ti facilitate the strengthening by precipitation and formation of Laves phase both inside grains and along grain boundaries during exposure in the intermediate SOFC operating temperature range. The Laves phase formed along the grain boundaries also ties up Si and prevents the formation of an insulating silica layer at the scale/metal interface during prolonged exposure. The substantial increase in ASR during long term oxidation due to oxide scale growth suggested the need for a conductive protection layer, which could also minimize Cr evaporation. In particular, Mn1.5Co1.5O4 based surface coatings on planar coupons drastically improved the electrical performance of the 441, yielding stable ASR values at 800ºC for over 5,000 hours. Ce-modified spinel coatings retained the advantages of the unmodified spinel coatings, and also appeared to alter the scale growth behavior beneath the coating, leading to a more adherent scale. The spinel protection layers appeared also to improve the surface stability of 441 against the anomalous oxidation that has been observed for ferritic stainless steels exposed to dual atmosphere conditions similar to SOFC interconnect environments. Hence, it is anticipated that, compared to unmodified spinel coatings, the Ce-modified coatings may lead to superior structural stability and electrical performance.

Yang, Zhenguo; Xia, Guanguang; Wang, Chong M.; Nie, Zimin; Templeton, Joshua D.; Singh, Prabhakar; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

2008-05-30

122

Multi-component boron coatings on low carbon steel AISI 1018  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Boronizing and metalizing are thermo-chemical surface hardening treatments in which boron and metal atoms diffuse into the metal substrate forming metallic boride layers, providing complex properties of B-Me-Fe system. To study multi-component boron coatings on low carbon steel AISI 1018, the simultaneous powder pack method of boronizing and metalizing was selected to perform the coatings. One B-Fe system and eight boron-metal (B-Me-Fe) systems from transition metals group IVB (Ti, Zr, HO, group VB (Nb, Ta), and group VIB (Cr, Mo, W) were studied. The system specimens were thereto-chemically treated at 950°C for 4 hours in a crucible containing powder mixture of boron source, transition metal powder, and activator. After the heat treatment process, the multi-component boron coatings were characterized by using optical microscope, microhardness tester, TGA, XRD, and Synchrotron microdiffraction. The coating morphology was observed and the coating thickness was measured as well as the microhardness across the depth of coating. The corrosion resistance of the coatings was evaluated by the continuous weighting method. The high temperature oxidation was also detected by isothermal method at a temperature range of 400-800°C for 24 hours. The Rietveld refinement method was used to examine the quantitative phase analysis, crystalline size, microstrain and lattice parameters of the multi-component boron coatings. The results have shown that adding transition metals into the B-Fe system caused the formation of solid solution of transition-metal borides. The distortion of crystal lattice parameters generated microstrain in the boride phase. The Synchrotron microdiffraction confirmed the presence of about 5-10 microns of transition-metal boride phase at the surface. Moreover, the additional transition metal can provide better corrosion and high temperature oxidation resistance to the B-Fe system, preventing the deboronizing and stabilizing the boride phases.

Suwattananont, Naruemon

123

Comparison of the tool life of tungsten carbides coated by multi-layer TiCN and TiAlCN for end mills using the Taguchi method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the experiments reported in this paper is to use the Taguchi methods to investigate the wear of TiCN\\/TiAlCN coated onto various tool materials under various cutting conditions in the milling of quenched AISI 1045 carbon steel. The experimental results demonstrate that the tool material is the major parameter among the four controllable factors (different coated deposition, feed

Tsao Chung-Chen; Hocheng Hong

2002-01-01

124

Effect of cutting atmosphere on dry machining performance with Al 2 O 3 \\/ZrB 2 \\/ZrO 2 ceramic tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, Al2O3\\/ZrB2\\/ZrO2 ceramic cutting tool was produced by hot pressing. Dry cutting tests in air and nitrogen atmospheres were carried out on\\u000a normalized AISI 1045 steel. The tool wear, cutting temperature, cutting force, and friction coefficient were measured. Compared\\u000a in nitrogen, the friction coefficient in air was reduced when the cutting speed was higher than 160 m\\/min. Scanning electron

Bin Li; Jianxin Deng; Ze Wu

2010-01-01

125

Diagnosing ALS  

MedlinePLUS

... About ALS Share Print Diagnosing ALS En español ALS is a very difficult disease to diagnose. To date, there is no one ... series of diagnostic tests, often ruling out other diseases that mimic ALS, that a diagnosis can be established. A comprehensive ...

126

Stopping of 5-100 keV helium in tantalum, niobium, tungsten, and AISI 316L steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stopping power of Ta, Nb, W, and AISI 316L stainless steel for He ions at velocities below the Bohr velocity has been deduced by comparing the ranges of 5 to 100 keV He +-ions determined with the elastic-recoil-detection-analysis method with those obtained in molecular dynamics simulations. The nuclear slowing down was treated through the use of molecular dynamics calculations and a potential obtained from density-functional theory calculations. The comparisons showed that the electronic stopping powers given by Ziegler, Biersack and Littmark (The Stopping Powers and Ranges of Ions in Matter (Pergamon, New York, 1985), Vol. 1 [1], had to be multiplied with a factor of 1.4 for Ta, 1.0 for Nb, 1.1 for W, and 1.0 for AISI 316L. The uncertainty of the factors and hence the scaled stopping power values is ±5%. The total stopping powers were obtained from molecular dynamics simulations in which the modified electronic stopping powers were used.

Haussalo, P.; Nordlund, K.; Keinonen, J.

1996-04-01

127

High temperature oxidation behavior of austenitic stainless steel AISI 304 in steam of nanofluids contain nanoparticle ZrO2  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study is to evaluate high temperature oxidation behavior of austenitic stainless steel SS 304 in steam of nanofluids contain nanoparticle ZrO{sub 2}. The oxidation was performed at high temperatures ranging from 600 to 800°C. The oxidation time was 60 minutes. After oxidation the surface of the samples was analyzed by different methods including, optical microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). X-ray diffraction examination show that the oxide scale formed during oxidation of stainless steel AISI 304 alloys is dominated by iron oxide, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Minor element such as Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} is also appeared in the diffraction pattern. Characterization by optical microscope showed that cross section microstructure of stainless steel changed after oxidized with the oxide scale on the surface stainless steels. SEM and x-ray diffraction examination show that the oxide of ZrO{sub 2} appeared on the surface of stainless steel. Kinetic rate of oxidation of austenite stainless steel AISI 304 showed that increasing oxidation temperature and time will increase oxidation rate.

Prajitno, Djoko Hadi, E-mail: djokohp@batan.go.id; Syarif, Dani Gustaman, E-mail: djokohp@batan.go.id [Research Center for Nuclear Materials and Radiometry, Jl. Tamansari 71, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

2014-03-24

128

Swelling and creep observed in AISI 304 fuel pin cladding from three MOX fuel assemblies irradiated in EBR-II  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three 37-pin MOX-fueled experimental subassemblies were irradiated in EBR-II with fuel pin cladding constructed from annealed AISI 304 stainless steel. Analysis of the swelling and irradiation creep of the cladding showed that the terminal swelling rate of AISI 304 stainless steel appears to be ˜1%/dpa and that swelling is very reproducible for identical irradiation conditions. The swelling at a given neutron fluence is rather sensitive to both irradiation temperature and especially to the neutron flux, however, with the primary influence residing in the transient regime. As the neutron flux increases the duration of the transient regime is increased in agreement with other recent studies. The duration of the transient regime is also decreased by increasing irradiation temperature. In these assemblies swelling reached high levels rather quickly, reducing the opportunity for fuel pin cladding interaction and thereby reducing the contribution of irradiation creep to the total deformation. It also appears that in this swelling-before-creep scenario that the well-known "creep disappearance" phenomenon was operating strongly.

Garner, F. A.; Makenas, B. J.; Chastain, S. A.

2011-06-01

129

Wear resistance of TiAlSiN thin coatings.  

PubMed

In the last decades TiAIN coatings deposited by PVD techniques have been extensively investigated but, nowadays, their potential development for tribological applications is relatively low. However, new coatings are emerging based on them, trying to improve wear behavior. TiAlSiN thin coatings are now investigated, analyzing if Si introduction increases the wear resistance of PVD films. Attending to the application, several wear test configurations has been recently used by some researchers. In this work, TiAISiN thin coatings were produced by PVD Unbalanced Magnetron Sputtering technique and they were conveniently characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) provided with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Electron Probe Micro-Analyzer (EPMA), Micro Hardness (MH) and Scratch Test Analysis. Properties as morphology, thickness, roughness, chemical composition and structure, hardness and film adhesion to the substrate were investigated. Concerning to wear characterization, two very different ways were chosen: micro-abrasion with ball-on-flat configuration and industrial non-standardized tests based on samples inserted in a feed channel of a selected plastic injection mould working with 30% (wt.) glass fiber reinforced polypropylene. TiAISiN coatings with a small amount of about 5% (wt.) Si showed a similar wear behavior when compared with TiAIN reported performances, denoting that Si addition does not improve the wear performance of the TiAIN coatings in these wear test conditions. PMID:23447962

Silva, F J G; Martinho, R P; Alexandre, R J D; Baptista, A P M

2012-12-01

130

Effect of sulfuric acid, oxygen, and hydrogen in high temperature water on stress corrosion cracking of sensitized AISI 304 stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of dissolved oxygen and hydrogen and dilute sulfuric acid in 289 C water on the stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of lightly and moderately sensitized AISI 304 stainless steel was determined in constant extension rate tensile (CERT) tests. The CERT parameters and the fracture surface morphologies were correlated with the concentrations of dissolved oxygen and sulfate, and the electrochemical

Ruther; G. Ayrault; T. F. Kassner

1984-01-01

131

The effect of the welding temperature on the weldability in diffusion welding of martensitic (AISI 420) stainless steel with ductile (spheroidal graphite-nodular) cast iron  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the effect of welding temperature on the weldability in diffusion welding of martensitic (AISI 420), stainless steel with ductile (spheroidal graphite-nodular) cast iron was investigated experimentally under protective atmosphere at various temperatures and constant prescribed pressure blow those which would cause macrodeformation. Microstructure examinations were carried out by SEM and EDS. Hardness values were measured by Hv

Sedat Kolukisa

2007-01-01

132

Mechanical behavior of AISI 304SS determined by miniature test methods after neutron irradiation to 28 dpa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanical properties of AISI 304 stainless steel irradiated for over a decade in the Experimental Breeder Reactor (EBR-II) were measured using miniature mechanical testing methods. The shear punch method was used to evaluate the shear strengths of the neutron-irradiated steel and a correlation factor was empirically determined to predict its tensile strength. The strength of the stainless steel slightly decreased with increasing irradiation temperature, and significantly increased with increasing dose until it saturated above approximately 5 dpa. An effective tensile strain hardening exponent was also obtained from the data which shows a relative decrease in ductility of steel with increased irradiation damage. Ferromagnetic measurements were used to observe and deduce the effects of the stress-induced austenite to martensite transformation as a result of shear punch testing.

Rabenberg, Ellen M.; Jaques, Brian J.; Sencer, Bulent H.; Garner, Frank A.; Freyer, Paula D.; Okita, Taira; Butt, Darryl P.

2014-05-01

133

Application of strainrange partitioning to the prediction of creep-fatigue lives of AISI types 304 and 316 stainless steel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As a demonstration of the predictive capabilities of the method of Strainrange Partitioning, published high-temperature, low cycle, creep-fatigue test results on AISI Types 304 and 316 stainless steel were analyzed and calculated, cyclic lives compared with observed lives. Predicted lives agreed with observed lives within factors of two for 76 percent, factors of three for 93 percent, and factors of four for 98 percent of the laboratory tests analyzed. Agreement between observed and predicted lives is judged satisfactory considering that the data are associated with a number of variables (two alloys, several heats and heat treatments, a range of temperatures, different testing techniques, etc.) that are not directly accounted for in the calculations.

Saltsman, J. F.; Halford, G. R.

1976-01-01

134

Application of Strainrange Partitioning to the prediction of creep-fatigue lives of AISI Types 304 and 316 stainless steel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As a demonstration of the predictive capabilities of the method of Strainrange Partitioning, published high-temperature, low cycle, creep-fatigue test results on AISI Types 304 and 316 stainless steel were analyzed and calculated cyclic lives compared with observed lives. Predicted lives agreed with observed lives within factors of two for 76 percent, factors of three for 93 percent, and factors of four for 98 percent of the laboratory tests analyzed. Agreement between observed and predicted lives is judged satisfactory considering that the data are associated with a number of variables (two alloys, several heats and heat treatments, a range of temperatures, different testing techniques, etc.) that are not directly accounted for in the calculations.

Saltsman, J. F.; Halford, G. R.

1977-01-01

135

Near surface chemistry and corrosion behavior of excimer laser surface-melted AISI type 304 stainless steel  

SciTech Connect

The effects of excimer laser surface melting on the near-surface chemistry, and corrosion behavior of AISI 304 stainless steel have been examined as a function of total energy deposited on the specimen. The surface chemistry resulting from the laser treatments has been examined using Auger electron spectroscopy. Electrochemical methods were used to monitor the corrosion behavior of the specimens in deaerated 0.1 M NaCl. Electron microscopy was used to characterize the extent of local corrosion of the specimens. Laser treatment was observed to increase the chromium concentration of the surface oxide and to reduce the number of pits. Two types of pits were observed on untreated material, but only one type of pit occurred after laser treatment. 7 refs., 5 figs.

Baer, D.R.; Frydrych, D.J.; Jervis, T.R.

1988-05-01

136

Evaluation of Microstructure and Toughness of AISI D2 Steel by Bright Hardening in Comparison with Oil Quenching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AISI D2 is used widely in the manufacture of blanking and cold-forming dies, on account of its excellent hardness and wear behavior. Increasing toughness at a fixed high level of hardness is growing requirement for this kind of tool steel. Improving microstructure characteristics, especially refinement of coarse carbides, is an appropriate way to meet such requirement. In this study, morphology and size of carbides in martensite matrix were compared between two kinds of samples, which were bright hardened (quenching in hot alkaline salt bath consisting of 60% KOH and 40% NaOH) at 230 °C and quenched in oil bath at 60 °C. Results showed that morphology and distribution of carbides in samples performed by bright hardening were finer and almost spherical compared to that of oil quenched. This microstructure resulted in an improvement in toughness and tensile properties of alloy.

Torkamani, H.; Raygan, Sh.; Rassizadehghani, J.

2011-12-01

137

Comparison of Austenite Decomposition Models During Finite Element Simulation of Water Quenching and Air Cooling of AISI 4140 Steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An indigenous, non-linear, and coupled finite element (FE) program has been developed to predict the temperature field and phase evolution during heat treatment of steels. The diffusional transformations during continuous cooling of steels were modeled using Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Komogorov equation, and the non-diffusion transformation was modeled using Koistinen-Marburger equation. Cylindrical quench probes made of AISI 4140 steel of 20-mm diameter and 50-mm long were heated to 1123 K (850 °C), quenched in water, and cooled in air. The temperature history during continuous cooling was recorded at the selected interior locations of the quench probes. The probes were then sectioned at the mid plane and resultant microstructures were observed. The process of water quenching and air cooling of AISI 4140 steel probes was simulated with the heat flux boundary condition in the FE program. The heat flux for air cooling process was calculated through the inverse heat conduction method using the cooling curve measured during air cooling of a stainless steel 304L probe as an input. The heat flux for the water quenching process was calculated from a surface heat flux model proposed for quenching simulations. The isothermal transformation start and finish times of different phases were taken from the published TTT data and were also calculated using Kirkaldy model and Li model and used in the FE program. The simulated cooling curves and phases using the published TTT data had a good agreement with the experimentally measured values. The computation results revealed that the use of published TTT data was more reliable in predicting the phase transformation during heat treatment of low alloy steels than the use of the Kirkaldy or Li model.

Babu, K.; Prasanna Kumar, T. S.

2014-08-01

138

Study on welding such dissimilar materials as AISI 304 stainless steel and DHP copper in a sea-water environment. Influence of weld metals on corrosion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work determines which material performs best according to its specific properties, by means of welding joints and evaluating the different welding processes and weld metals employed, considering their mechanical performance and resistance to sea-water corrosion. The base materials were butt-welded to produce 1.5 mm thick test pieces of AISI 304 stainless steel and copper, and de-oxidized in DHP phosphorus,

E. Zumelzu; C. Cabezas

1996-01-01

139

Evaluation of the atmospheric corrosion resistance of AISI A-36 steel painted with coatings based on epoxy and poly(urethane) resins using semi-accelerated testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of temperature, humidity, salinity, and the number of wet-dry cycles in the atmospheric corrosion resistance\\u000a of the AISI A-36 steel, painted with coatings based on epoxy and poly(urethane) resins was studied. The aim of this work is\\u000a to present an alternative to the accelerated and field tests developing a semi-accelerated test for evaluating the resistance\\u000a and durability of

E. M. Oliveira; J. R. G. Carneiro; V. F. Cunha Lins

2009-01-01

140

In vitro response of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells to AISI 316L austenitic stainless steel subjected to nitriding and collagen coating treatments.  

PubMed

Surface modification treatments can be used to improve the biocompatibility of austenitic stainless steels. In the present research two different modifications of AISI 316L stainless steel were considered, low temperature nitriding and collagen-I coating, applied as single treatment or in conjunction. Low temperature nitriding produced modified surface layers consisting mainly of S phase, which enhanced corrosion resistance in PBS solution. Biocompatibility was assessed using human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in culture. Proliferation, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels, release of cytokines (TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-12, IL-10), secretion of metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and its inhibitor TIMP-1, and the gelatinolytic activity of MMP-9 were determined. While the 48-h incubation of PBMC with all the sample types did not negatively influence cell proliferation, LDH and MMP-9 levels, suggesting therefore a good biocompatibility, the release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines was always remarkable when compared to that of control cells. However, in the presence of the nitrided and collagen coated samples, the release of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1? decreased, while that of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 increased, in comparison with the untreated AISI 316L samples. Our results suggest that some biological parameters were ameliorated by these surface treatments of AISI 316L. PMID:25655502

Stio, Maria; Martinesi, Maria; Treves, Cristina; Borgioli, Francesca

2015-02-01

141

Cobalt-Free Laser Cladding on AISI Type 316L Stainless Steel for Improved Cavitation and Slurry Erosion Wear Behavior  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser cladding of Colmonoy-5 (a nickel base alloy) and Metco-41C (an iron base alloy) on AISI type 316L stainless steel (SS316L) and their wear behaviors were investigated to establish Co-free clad layers for potential applications in nuclear industry. A 3.5 kW CO2 laser-based system was used to optimize the laser cladding on SS316L substrate. The observed optimum parameters were: laser power of 1.6 kW, scan speed of 0.6 m/min, and powder feed rate of 8 g/min with 60% overlapping. The microstructure studies revealed that the clad layers primarily comprise very fine columnar dendritic structures, while clad-substrate interface exhibited planar and non-epitaxial mode of solidification due to high cooling rates. The cavitation and slurry erosion behaviors of laser clad layers were also compared to that of Stellite-6 for potential direct replacement. The cavitation erosion resistance was improved by a factor of 1.6, 3.7, and 4.1, while the slurry erosion resistances at an impingement angle of 30° were 1.5, 4.8, and 1.8 times better for laser clad surfaces of Colmonoy-5, Metco-41C, and Stellite-6, respectively, as compared to that of bare SS316L substrate. The study demonstrated that Metco-41C is a better choice as Co-free clad material for potential nuclear applications.

Paul, C. P.; Gandhi, B. K.; Bhargava, P.; Dwivedi, D. K.; Kukreja, L. M.

2014-12-01

142

Selection of Wire Electrical Discharge Machining Process Parameters on Stainless Steel AISI Grade-304 using Design of Experiments Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) is a specialized thermal machining process capable of accurately machining parts of hard materials with complex shapes. Parts having sharp edges that pose difficulties to be machined by the main stream machining processes can be easily machined by WEDM process. Design of Experiments approach (DOE) has been reported in this work for stainless steel AISI grade-304 which is used in cryogenic vessels, evaporators, hospital surgical equipment, marine equipment, fasteners, nuclear vessels, feed water tubing, valves, refrigeration equipment, etc., is machined by WEDM with brass wire electrode. The DOE method is used to formulate the experimental layout, to analyze the effect of each parameter on the machining characteristics, and to predict the optimal choice for each WEDM parameter such as voltage, pulse ON, pulse OFF and wire feed. It is found that these parameters have a significant influence on machining characteristic such as metal removal rate (MRR), kerf width and surface roughness (SR). The analysis of the DOE reveals that, in general the pulse ON time significantly affects the kerf width and the wire feed rate affects SR, while, the input voltage mainly affects the MRR.

Lingadurai, K.; Nagasivamuni, B.; Muthu Kamatchi, M.; Palavesam, J.

2012-06-01

143

Influence of low energy-high flux nitrogen implantation on the oxidation behavior of AISI 304L austenitic stainless steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low energy-high flux (1.2 keV, 1 mA/cm2) nitriding of an austenitic AISI 304L stainless steel has been carried out by implanting a dose of 3.5×1019ions cm-2 at 400 °C for 1 h. An important increase in surface hardness has been found to occur as a result of the formation of the so-called expanded austenite ?N phase. Transmission electron microscopy studies have also shown the existence of hexagonal Cr2N precipitates at the nitrided layer/matrix interfacial region. The oxidation behavior has been then studied in the temperature range between 400 and 550 °C for 24 h under synthetic air. It is shown that nitridation slightly modifies the oxidation kinetics as a result of the progressive transformation of the ?N phase towards CrN precipitation and ?-FeNi matrix formation. More chromium enriched scales are, anyhow, developed on the nitrided steel than in the untreated one. These results are discussed on the basis of the chromium diffusion in the nitrided layer and its preferential chemical bonding with nitrogen atoms.

Pedraza, F.; Grosseau-Poussard, J. L.; Abrasonis, G.; Rivière, J. P.; Dinhut, J. F.

2003-12-01

144

The corrosion protection of AISI(TM) 1010 steel by organic and inorganic zinc-rich primers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The behavior of zinc-rich primer-coated AISI 1010 steel in 3.5-percent Na-Cl was investigated using electrochemical techniques. The alternating current (ac) method of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), in the frequency range of 0.001 to 40,000 Hz, and the direct current (dc) method of polarization resistance (PR), were used to evaluate the characteristics of an organic, epoxy zinc-rich primer and an inorganic, ethyl silicate zinc-rich primer. A dc electromechanical galvanic corrosion test was also used to determine the corrosion current of each zinc-rich primer anode coupled to a 1010 steel cathode. Duration of the EIS/PR and galvanic testing was 21 days and 24 h, respectively. The galvanic test results demonstrated a very high current between the steel cathode and both zinc-rich primer anodes (38.8 and 135.2 microns A/sq cm for the organic and inorganic primers, respectively). The results of corrosion rate determinations demonstrated a much higher corrosion rate of the zinc in the inorganic primer than in the organic primer, due primarily to the higher porosity in the former. EIS equivalent circuit parameters confirmed this conclusion. Based on this investigation, the inorganic zinc-rich primer appears to provide superior galvanic protection and is recommended for additional study for application on solid rocket booster steel hardware.

Danford, M. D.; Mendrek, M. J.

1995-01-01

145

Effects of strain and strain-induced ?'-martensite on passive films in AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel.  

PubMed

In this paper, the effects of strain and heat treatment on strain-induced ?'-martensite of AISI 304 stainless steel tubes were measured by X-ray diffraction. Moreover, the effects of strain and content of ?'-martensite on passivated property on the surface of the material in borate buffer solution were evaluated by electrochemical technique. The results showed that the volume fraction of ?'-martensite increased gradually with the increase of tensile strain for as-received and solid solution samples. However, ?'-martensite in as-received sample was more than that in the solid solution sample. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy results showed that the solid solution treatment improved corrosion resistance of the steel, especially for samples with small strain. Moreover, acceptor densities were always higher than donor densities for as-received and solid solution samples. With the increase of strain, the increase tendency of acceptor density was more significant than that of donor density. We also found that the total density of the acceptor and donor almost increased linearly with the increase of ?'-martensite. The present results indicated that the increased acceptor density might lead to the decreased corrosion resistance of the steel. PMID:24268285

Lv, Jinlong; Luo, Hongyun

2014-01-01

146

Biocompatibility studies of low temperature nitrided and collagen-I coated AISI 316L austenitic stainless steel.  

PubMed

The biocompatibility of austenitic stainless steels can be improved by means of surface engineering techniques. In the present research it was investigated if low temperature nitrided AISI 316L austenitic stainless steel may be a suitable substrate for bioactive protein coating consisting of collagen-I. The biocompatibility of surface modified alloy was studied using as experimental model endothelial cells (human umbilical vein endothelial cells) in culture. Low temperature nitriding produces modified surface layers consisting mainly of S phase, the supersaturated interstitial solid solution of nitrogen in the austenite lattice, which allows to enhance surface microhardness and corrosion resistance in PBS solution. The nitriding treatment seems to promote the coating with collagen-I, without chemical coupling agents, in respect of the untreated alloy. For biocompatibility studies, proliferation, lactate dehydrogenase levels and secretion of two metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) were determined. Experimental results suggest that the collagen protection may be favourable for endothelial cell proliferation and for the control of MMP-2 release. PMID:23471501

Martinesi, M; Stio, M; Treves, C; Borgioli, F

2013-06-01

147

Correlation between surface physicochemical properties and the release of iron from stainless steel AISI 304 in biological media.  

PubMed

Stainless steel is widely used in biological environments, for example as implant material or in food applications, where adsorption-controlled ligand-induced metal release is of importance from a corrosion, health, and food safety perspective. The objective of this study was to elucidate potential correlations between surface energy and wettability of stainless steel surfaces and the release of iron in complexing biological media. This was accomplished by studying changes in surface energies calculated from contact angle measurements, surface oxide composition (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy), and released iron (graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy) for stainless steel grade AISI 304 immersed in fluids containing bovine serum albumin or citric acid, and non-complexing fluids such as NaCl, NaOH, and HNO3. It was shown that the surface wettability and polar surface energy components were all influenced by adventitious atmospheric carbon (surface contamination of low molecular weight), rather than differences in surface oxide composition in non-complexing solutions. Adsorption of both BSA and citrate, which resulted in ligand-induced metal release, strongly influenced the wettability and the surface energy, and correlated well with the measured released amount of iron. PMID:25048358

Hedberg, Yolanda; Karlsson, Maria-Elisa; Blomberg, Eva; Odnevall Wallinder, Inger; Hedberg, Jonas

2014-10-01

148

Surface interactions of a W-DLC-coated biomedical AISI 316L stainless steel in physiological solution.  

PubMed

The corrosion stability of a W-DLC coated surgical AISI 316L stainless steel in Hanks' solution has been evaluated. Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) measurements were performed to evaluate the incorporation of potentially bioactive elements from the physiological solution. The film structure was analyzed by X-ray diffractometry and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The wear behavior was assessed using the sphere-on-disc geometry. The in vitro biocompatibility of the W-DLC film was evaluated by cytotoxicity tests. The corrosion resistance of the stainless steel substrate decreased in the presence of the PVD layer. EIS measurements suggest that this behavior was closely related to the corrosion attack through the coating pores. PIXE measurements revealed the presence of Ca and P in the W-DLC film after immersion in Hanks' solution. This result shows that the PIXE technique can be applied to identify and evaluate the incorporation of bioactive elements by W-DLC films. The film showed good wear resistance and biocompatibility. PMID:23371768

Antunes, Renato A; de Lima, Nelson Batista; Rizzutto, Márcia de Almeida; Higa, Olga Zazuco; Saiki, Mitiko; Costa, Isolda

2013-04-01

149

The effect of extracellular polymeric substances on the attachment of Pseudomonas NCIMB 2021 to AISI 304 and 316 stainless steel.  

PubMed

Surfaces of AISI 304 and 316 stainless steels were pre-treated with three different types of extracellular polymeric substances, viz. (i) exopolymers released into the culture medium ("free"; or planktonic exopolymers), (ii) capsular exopolymers, and (iii) biofilm exopolymers, produced by continuous cultures of marine Pseudomonas NCIMB 2021. The initial attachment of Pseudomonas cells to exopolymer-conditioned steel surfaces varied with the exopolymer type and concentration. Results gained from wettability studies of exopolymer-treated steel using contact angle measurements, as well as from the surface roughness measurements conducted employing atomic force microscopy analysis, could not account for the observed, statistically significant differences (p < 0.1) in the level of bacterial surface colonisation. It is therefore proposed that neither surface hydrophobicity nor roughness play an important part in the early attachment of Pseudomonas NCIMB 2021 to the conditioned steel surfaces and that a difference in the chemistry of the exopolymers is most likely a key parameter influencing initial cell adhesion to pre-treated steel. PMID:22115289

Gubner, R; Beech, I B

2000-01-01

150

Investigation of different surface morphologies formed on AISI 304 stainless steel via millisecond Nd:YAG pulsed laser oxidation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Different surface morphologies on AISI 304 stainless steel have been obtained after millisecond Nd:YAG pulsed laser oxidation. The effects of laser processing parameters, especially pulse width and laser energy density on the surface morphologies of the stainless steel were emphatically investigated. The results showed that surface morphologies were significantly changed with increasing laser pulse widths and laser energy densities. When the pulse width was 0.2-1.0 ms and laser energy density was 4.30×10 6-7.00×10 6 J/m 2, the surface was obviously damaged and the morphologies varied gradually from craters to ripple structures. However, when the pulse width was longer than 1 ms and the laser energy density was increased from 1.90×10 7 to 3.16×10 7 J/m 2, the sizes of craters got smaller until disappeared and the surface became flatter and smoother. Nevertheless, the smooth surface was not obtained under overhigh laser energy densities. In addition, the schematic relationship was used to describe the formation process and mechanism of different surface morphologies.

Cui, C. Y.; Cui, X. G.; Zhao, Q.; Hu, J. D.; Liu, Y. H.; Wang, Y. M.

2012-06-01

151

Assessment of Retained Austenite in AISI D2 Tool Steel Using Magnetic Hysteresis and Barkhausen Noise Parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inaccurate heat treatment process could result in excessive amount of retained austenite, which degrades the mechanical properties, like strength, wear resistance, and hardness of cold work tool steel parts. Thus, to control the mechanical properties, quantitative measurement of the retained austenite is a critical step in optimizing the heat-treating parameters. X-ray diffraction method is the most frequently used technique for this purpose. This technique is, however, destructive and time consuming. Furthermore, it is not applicable to 100% quality inspection of industrial parts. In the present paper, the influence of austenitizing temperature on the retained austenite content and hardness of AISI D2 tool steel has been studied. Additionally, nondestructive magnetic hysteresis parameters of the samples including coercivity, magnetic saturation, and maximum differential permeability as well as their magnetic Barkhausen noise features (RMS peak voltage and peak position) have been investigated. The results revealed direct relations between magnetic saturation, differential permeability, and MBN peak amplitude with increasing austenitizing temperature due to the retained austenite formation. Besides, both parameters of coercivity and peak position had an inverse correlation with the retained austenite fraction.

Kahrobaee, Saeed; Kashefi, Mehrdad

2015-01-01

152

Mechanical and Electro-Chemical Properties of Laser Surface Alloyed AISI 304 Stainless Steel with WC+Ni+NiCr  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study, a detailed evaluation of wear and corrosion resistance properties of laser surface alloyed of AISI 304 stainless steel with WC+Ni+NiCr (in the ratio of 70:15:15) has been undertaken. Laser processing has been carried out using a 5 kW continuous wave (CW) Nd:YAG laser (at a beam diameter of 3 mm) by surface melting and simultaneous deposition of precursor powder mixture in the melt zone (at a flow rate of 10 mg/s) and using Ar shroud at a gas flow rate of 5 l/min. Followed by laser processing, a detailed evaluation of fretting wear behavior has been conducted against WC surface. Finally, the corrosion property is measured using a potentiodynamic polarization testing unit in a 3.56 wt.% NaCl solution. The wear resistance property is significantly improved due to laser surface alloying which is attributed to the improvement in surface microhardness to 1350 VHN as compared to 220 VHN of as-received ?-stainless steel substrate. The mechanism of wear is established. The pitting corrosion resistance property is also improved due to the presence of Ni and Cr in solution and homogenization of microstructure due to laser processing.

Majumdar, J. D.

153

Exploration of surface hydrophilic properties on AISI 304 stainless steel and silicon wafer against aging after atmospheric pressure plasma treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this work is to seek the enhanced surface hydrophilic properties on AISI 304 stainless steel and silicon wafer after atmospheric pressure plasma treatment using a specifically designed atmospheric pressure plasma jet. The aging tendency of surface hydrophilic property under air is highlighted. It is concluded that both of the silicon wafer and stainless steel treated with plasma generated from supply gas of argon 15 slm mixed with oxygen 40 sccm shows a better tendency on remaining high water contact angle as compared to that with pure argon and nitrogen addition. Additional peaks of O I (777, 844 nm), O II (408 nm) are detected by optical emission spectroscope indicating the presence of the oxygen radicals and ionic species, which interact with surfaces and thus contribute to low water contact angle (WCA) surfaces. Moreover, the result acquired from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) indicates that the increase in the oxygen-related bonding exhibits a better contribution on remaining high surface energy over a period of time.

Chuang, Shang-I.; Duh, Jenq-Gong

2014-11-01

154

Fracture prediction in hydraulic bulging of AISI 304 austenitic steel sheets based on a modified ductile fracture criterion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The demand for weight reduction in modern vehicle construction has resulted in an increase in the application of hydroforming processes for the manufacture of automotive lightweight components. This trend led to the research of evaluation on formability of the sheet or tube hydroforming to be noted, particularly the prediction of fracture. In this study, a new proposed approach based on damage theory for fracture prediction considering the deformation history was introduced. And the modified ductile fracture criterion was applied to predict the failure for hydraulic bulging of AISI 304 austenitic steel sheets. The material parameters in terms of the function of strain rate in the failure criterion were determined from the equivalent fracture strains corresponding tensile tests under different stress conditions. Then, in the finite element simulation the effect of strain rates and their distribution as well during practical sheet metal forming process was considered. The hydraulic bulging tests were carried out to identify the fracture behavior predicted from FE analysis. A comparison between the prediction and experimental results showed that the proposed approach with a modified ductile fracture criteria can give better fracture predictions than traditional ways.

Xu, Y.; Song, H. W.; Zhang, S. H.; Cheng, M.

2011-08-01

155

Al Composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study, cold spraying technique was used to fabricate a metal matrix composite (MMC) that consists of Ni matrix and 20 vol.% Ni3Al particles at two different particle sizes as reinforcement. This study intends to investigate the effect of reinforcement particle size on microstructural and mechanical properties of cold sprayed MMCs. Two different Ni3Al powders with nominal particle size of -45 to +5 and +45 to 100 ?m were used as reinforcement in this study. Cold sprayed Ni-Ni3Al samples were subjected to the microstructural observation and characterization prior to any mechanical testing. Then, samples were tested using nano-indentation, Knoop hardness, Vickers hardness, and Resonance frequency to evaluate their mechanical properties. No significant changes were observed in microstructural characteristics due to different particle sizes. The results obtained from a variety of mechanical testings indicated that the increasing reinforcement particle size resulted in the slight reduction of mechanical properties such as elastic modulus and hardness in cold sprayed MMCs. The mechanical interlock between deposited particles defines the bonding strength in cold sprayed samples. Small size particles have a higher velocity and impact resulting in stronger interlock between deformed particles.

Chandanayaka, Tharaka; Azarmi, Fardad

2014-05-01

156

Influence of electroless nickel-phosphorus deposits on the corrosion-fatigue life of notched and unnotched samples of an AISI 1045 steel  

SciTech Connect

Electroless nickel-phosphorus deposits of approximately 10% phosphorus and about 20 {micro}m thickness are shown either to have no effect or sometimes to increase the corrosion-fatigue properties of a quenched and tempered AISI 1045 steel in the stress amplitude range of 481 to 687 MPa, in the presence of an aqueous solution of 3% sodium chloride. Such an increase is produced when the stress amplitude is below 516 MPa. For the notched specimens, no substantial differences are found between the fatigue life of the coated and uncoated specimens.

Chitty, J.A.; Pertuz, A.; Puchi, E.S. [Central Univ. of Venezuela, Caracas (Venezuela)] [Central Univ. of Venezuela, Caracas (Venezuela); Hintermann, H. [Univ. of Neuchatel (Switzerland). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering] [Univ. of Neuchatel (Switzerland). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1999-02-01

157

Solid-state diffusion welding of wrought AISI 304 stainless steel to Nimonic AP-1 superalloy powder by hot isostatic pressing  

SciTech Connect

The diffusion welding characteristics of wrought AISI 304 stainless steel to a superalloy powder Nimonic AP-1 were examined in this study. After encapsulation, evacuation and degassing, the welds were hot isostatically pressed (HIPed) in two different cycles, i.e., 1,200 C (2,192 F)/3h/147 MPa and 1,270 C (2,318 F)/3h/121 MPa. A variation in surface condition of stainless steel was also studied for its influence on properties of the joints. These diffusion-welded joints were characterized for diffusion of alloying elements, microstructural features and tensile properties.

Somani, M.C.; Birla, N.C. [Defence Metallurgical Research Lab., Hyderabad (India); Tekin, A. [Istanbul Technical Univ., Istanbul (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering

1998-02-01

158

Ion-nitriding of the AISI M2 high speed tool steel and comparison of its mechanical properties with nitrided steels  

SciTech Connect

In the past it was shown that plasma diffusion treatment of steels has several advantages over conventional processes such as gas or salt bath nitriding and nitrocarburizing. Plasma diffusion treatment allows close control of the process so that surface layers with defined microstructures and properties can be obtained. The amount of {gamma}{prime} and {epsilon} phase present can be easily controlled. In this paper, variation of surfaces hardness properties of AISI M2 high speed tool speed after ion nitriding treatments were investigated. The mechanical and electro-chemical advantages of the ion nitrided structures were compared with the other methods.

Cimen, O.; Alnipak, B. [Univ. of Istanbul, Avcilar, Istanbul (Turkey)

1995-12-31

159

AL Amyloidosis  

PubMed Central

Definition of the disease AL amyloidosis results from extra-cellular deposition of fibril-forming monoclonal immunoglobulin (Ig) light chains (LC) (most commonly of lambda isotype) usually secreted by a small plasma cell clone. Most patients have evidence of isolated monoclonal gammopathy or smoldering myeloma, and the occurrence of AL amyloidosis in patients with symptomatic multiple myeloma or other B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders is unusual. The key event in the development of AL amyloidosis is the change in the secondary or tertiary structure of an abnormal monoclonal LC, which results in instable conformation. This conformational change is responsible for abnormal folding of the LC, rich in ? leaves, which assemble into monomers that stack together to form amyloid fibrils. Epidemiology AL amyloidosis is the most common type of systemic amyloidois in developed countries with an estimated incidence of 9 cases/million inhabitant/year. The average age of diagnosed patients is 65 years and less than 10% of patients are under 50. Clinical description The clinical presentation is protean, because of the wide number of tissues or organs that may be affected. The most common presenting symptoms are asthenia and dyspnoea, which are poorly specific and may account for delayed diagnosis. Renal manifestations are the most frequent, affecting two thirds of patients at presentation. They are characterized by heavy proteinuria, with nephrotic syndrome and impaired renal function in half of the patients. Heart involvement, which is present at diagnosis in more than 50% of patients, leading to restrictive cardiopathy, is the most serious complication and engages prognosis. Diagnostic methods The diagnosis relies on pathological examination of an involved site showing Congo red-positive amyloid deposits, with typical apple-green birefringence under polarized light, that stain positive with an anti-LC antibody by immunohistochemistry and/or immunofluorescence. Due to the systemic nature of the disease, non-invasive biopsies such as abdominal fat aspiration should be considered before taking biopsies from involved organs, in order to reduce the risk of bleeding complications. Differential diagnosis Systemic AL amyloidosis should be distinguished from other diseases related to deposition of monoclonal LC, and from other forms of systemic amyloidosis. When pathological studies have failed to identify the nature of amyloid deposits, genetic studies should be performed to diagnose hereditary amyloidosis. Management Treatment of AL amyloidosis is based on chemotherapy, aimed at controlling the underlying plasma clone that produces amyloidogenic LC. The hematological response should be carefully checked by serial measurements of serum free LC. The association of an alkylating agent with high-dose dexamethasone has proven to be effective in two thirds of patients and is considered as the current reference treatment. New agents used in the treatment of multiple myeloma are under investigation and appear to increase hematological response rates. Symptomatic measures and supportive care is necessary in patients with organ failure. Noticeably, usual treatments for cardiac failure (i.e. calcium inhibitors, ?-blockers, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors) are inefficient or even dangerous in patients with amyloid heart disease, that should be managed using diuretics. Amiodarone and pace maker implantation should be considered in patients with rhythm or conduction abnormalities. In selected cases, heart and kidney transplantation may be associated with prolonged patient and graft survival. Prognosis Survival in AL amyloidosis depends on the spectrum of organ involvement (amyloid heart disease being the main prognosis factor), the severity of individual organs involved and haematological response to treatment. PMID:22909024

2012-01-01

160

Metal objects mapping after small charge explosions. A study on AISI 304Cu steel with two different grain sizes.  

PubMed

Evidence of exposure of a metal component to a small charge explosion can be detected by observing microstructural modifications; they may be present even if the piece does not show noticeable overall plastic deformations. Particularly, if an austenitic stainless steel (or another metal having a face-centered cubic structure and a low stacking fault energy) is exposed to an explosive shock wave, high-speed deformation induces primarily mechanical twinning, whereas, in nonexplosive events, a lower velocity plastic deformation first induces slip. The occurrence of mechanical twins can be detected even if the surface is damaged or oxidized in successive events. In the present research, optical metallography (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) were used to detect microstructural modifications caused on AISI 304Cu steel disks by small-charge explosions. Spherical charges of 54.5 or 109 g TNT equivalent mass were used at explosive-to-target distances from 6.5 to 81.5 cm, achieving peak pressures from 160 to 0.5 MPa. Explosions induced limited or no macro-deformation. Two alloy grain sizes were tested. Surface OM and SEM evidenced partial surface melting, zones with recrystallization phenomena, and intense mechanical twinning, which was also detected by STM and X-ray diffraction. In the samples' interior, only twins were seen, up to some distance from the explosion impinged surface and again, at the shortest charge-to-sample distances, in a thin layer around the reflecting surface. For forensic science locating purposes after explosions, the maximum charge-to-target distance at which the phenomena disappear was singled out for each charge or grain size and related to the critical resolved shear stress for twinning. PMID:16696699

Firrao, Donato; Matteis, Paolo; Scavino, Giorgio; Ubertalli, Graziano; Ienco, Maria G; Pellati, Gabriella; Piccardo, Paolo; Pinasco, Maria R; Stagno, Enrica; Costanza, Girolamo; Montanari, Roberto; Tata, Maria E; Brandimarte, Giovanni; Petralia, Santo

2006-05-01

161

AISI/DOE Technology Roadmap Program: A Technology of Low Coal Rate and High Productivity of RHF Ironmaking  

SciTech Connect

An economical and environment-friendly ironmaking process based on heating the chemiexecy self-sufficient green balls of iron ore and coal in a hearth furnace is being developed with financial support from AISI members and DOE. DRI, which is hot (1400 C), dense (3.2 g/cm) and of high degree of metallization (95%), has been produced in laboratory and in a pilot plant in Genoa, Italy. Products of such quality have been made from American and Brazilian ores, BOF sludge, EAF dust/BOF sludge mixtures and millscale. The removal of zinc and lead from green balls by this process is essentially complete. In comparison with typical blast furnace operation, the new technology with a melter would have a lower total coal rate by 200kg.THM. The elimination of cokemaking and high temperature agglomeration steps, and a simpler gas handling system would lead to lower capital and operating costs. In comparison with commercial RHF practice it is different in atmosphere (fully oxidized at 1600 to 1650 C), in bed height (120 mm instead of 20-25 mm) and in pellet composition (much less coal but of higher VM). The combined effect leads to three times higher furnace productivity, lower coal consumption and superior DRI quality. The risk of re-oxidation (slag formation) and dusty operation are practiexecy eliminated. The process is stable, tolerant and independent of the size, shape and movement of the hearth. However, materials handling (e.g., discharge of hot DRI) and the exact energy savings have to be established in a larger furnace, straight or rotary, and in a continuous mode of operation.

Wei-Kao Lu

2002-09-15

162

[AL amyloidosis].  

PubMed

AL amyloidosis belongs to the group of conformational diseases. It is the most common type of amyloidosis with an estimated 500 new cases per year in France. It is due to a small and usually indolent plasma cell clone which synthesizes an unstable, misfolded monoclonal immunoglobulin light chain that is prone to aggregate and form amyloid fibrils. Non-invasive biopsy such as abdominal fat aspiration or minor salivary gland biopsy should be performed to confirm the diagnosis and if negative, involved tissues have to be examined. Clinical presentation is very diverse, as AL amyloidosis can affect almost any organ or tissue in the body, other than the brain. The kidney is the most frequent organ involved, whereas heart disease characterized by restrictive cardiomyopathy is the most severe. Early diagnosis, before advanced cardiomyopathy, is essential for improving outcome. The association of alkylating agent and high-dose dexamethasone is effective in almost two-thirds of patients. Combinations of proteasome inhibitors, dexamethasone, and alkylating agents achieve high response rates. Close monitoring of clonal and organ response is mandatory to guide therapy changes and duration. New treatments designed to eliminate amyloid deposits are under development. PMID:25194219

Jaccard, A; Desport, E; Mohty, D; Bridoux, F

2015-02-01

163

Microstructural Characterization and Properties Evaluation of Ni-Based Hardfaced Coating on AISI 304 Stainless Steel by High Velocity Oxyfuel Coating Technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study concerns a detailed investigation of microstructural evolution of nickel based hardfaced coating on AISI 304 stainless steel by high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) deposition technique. The work has also been extended to study the effect of coating on microhardness, wear resistance and corrosion resistance of the surface. Deposition has been conducted on sand blasted AISI 304 stainless steel by HVOF spraying technique using nickel (Ni)-based alloy [Ni: 68.4 wt pct, chromium (Cr): 17 wt pct, boron (B): 3.9 wt pct, silicon (Si): 4.9 wt pct and iron (Fe): 5.8 wt pct] of particle size 45 to 60 ?m as precursor powder. Under the optimum process parameters, deposition leads to development of nano-borides (of chromium, Cr2B and nickel, Ni3B) dispersion in metastable and partly amorphous gamma nickel (?-Ni) matrix. The microhardness of the coating was significantly enhanced to 935 VHN as compared to 215 VHN of as-received substrate due to dispersion of nano-borides in grain refined and partly amorphous nickel matrix. Wear resistance property under fretting wear condition against WC indenter was improved in as-deposited layer (wear rate of 4.65 × 10-7 mm3/mm) as compared to as-received substrate (wear rate of 20.81 × 10-7 mm3/mm). The corrosion resistance property in a 3.56 wt pct NaCl solution was also improved.

Sharma, Prashant; Majumdar, Jyotsna Dutta

2013-01-01

164

Ion Beam Analysis, structure and corrosion studies of nc-TiN/a-Si3N4 nanocomposite coatings deposited by sputtering on AISI 316L  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, nanocomposite coatings of nc-TiN/a-Si3N4, were deposited on AISI 316L stainless steel substrate by a DC and RF reactive magnetron co-sputtering technique using an A-N2 plasma. The structure of the coatings was characterized by means of XRD (X-ray Diffraction). The substrate and coating corrosion resistance were evaluated by potentiodynamic polarization using a Ringer solution as electrolyte. Corrosion tests were conducted with the purpose to evaluate the potential of this coating to be used on biomedical alloys. IBA (Ion Beam Analysis) techniques were applied to measure the elemental composition profiles of the films and, XPS (X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy) were used as a complementary technique to obtain information about the compounds present in the films. The nanocomposite coatings of nc-TiN/a-Si3N4 show crystalline (TiN) and amorphous (Si3N4) phases which confer a better protection against the corrosion effects compared with that of the AISI 316L.

García, J.; Canto, C. E.; Flores, M.; Andrade, E.; Rodríguez, E.; Jiménez, O.; Solis, C.; de Lucio, O. G.; Rocha, M. F.

2014-07-01

165

Wear and Corrosion Behavior of CoNiCrAlY Bond Coats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study focusses on the wear and microstructural properties of CoNiCrAlY coatings fabricated on AISI 316L stainless steel substrate by using the (HVOF) and (CGDS) methods. A triobiological test was performed on the samples in order to understand the wear behaviour of thermally sprayed coatings. The microstructures of as-sprayed and worn out coatings were investigated by scanning electron microscopy. Coating hardness measurements were performed with nanoindentation. HVOF coating revealed lower hardness value in comparison with CGDS. Studies depicted better wear resistance of the CGDS sprayed with He, when compared to CGDS N2 and HVOF processing. Potentiodynamic polarization curves and tafel extrapolation experiments were carried at 7.5 pH value using 3.5 % NaCl as an electrolyte. Electrochemical studies depicted better corrosion resistance of the He processed coating when compared to N2 and HVOF processing.

Rathod, W. S.; Khanna, A. S.; Rathod, R. C.; Sapate, S. G.

2014-07-01

166

Thermal conductivity of PVD TiAlN films using pulsed photothermal reflectance technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present work, we have measured thermal-conductivity of industrial thin film TiAlN with a thickness of around 3 ?m. These films are used in machining industry for cutting tools in order to increase their service life. A series of TiAlN coating with a different Al/Ti atomic ratio were deposited on Fe-304 stainless steel (AISI304) substrate by a lateral rotating cathode arc process. The samples were then coated with a 0.8 ?m gold layer on top by magnetron sputtering. We present the thermal-conductivity measurement of these samples using pulsed photothermal reflectance (PPR) technique at room temperature. The thermal conductivity of the pure TiN coating is about 11.9 W/mK. A significant decrease in thermal conductivity was found with increasing Al/Ti atomic ratio. A minimum thermal conductivity of about 4.63 W/mK was obtained at the Al/Ti atomic ratio of around 0.72.

Ding, Xing-Zhao; Samani, M. K.; Chen, George

2010-11-01

167

Effect of Beam Energy on Weld Geometric Characteristics in Nd:YAG Laser Overlapping Spot Welding of Thin AISI 304 Stainless Steel Sheets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Weld geometric characteristics in laser overlapping spot welding of 0.6-mm AISI 304 stainless steel sheets were investigated. A pulsed Nd:YAG laser with maximal average power of 150 W was used for welding experiments with different laser beam energies in the range of 3.5 J to 6.2 J, keeping all other processing parameters constant. The main objective of these experiments was to study the effect of energy changes and to identify the welding mode in dependency on the beam effective peak power density. Each weld surface and its cross section were analyzed using a laser scanning confocal microscope. The spot diameter on the specimen, weld width, and penetration depth were measured. Three-dimensional surface reconstruction was realized to describe the effect of energy changes on weld surface properties.

Lapsanska, Hana; Chmelickova, Hana; Hrabovsky, Miroslav

2010-10-01

168

Combined bending-torsion fatigue reliability of AISI 4340 steel shafting with K sub t = 2.34. [stress concentration factor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results generated by three, unique fatigue reliability research machines which can apply reversed bending loads combined with steady torque are presented. Six-inch long, AISI 4340 steel, grooved specimens with a stress concentration factor of 2.34 and R sub C 35/40 hardness were subjected to various combinations of these loads and cycled to failure. The generated cycles-to-failure and stress-to-failure data are statistically analyzed to develop distributional S-N and Goodman diagrams. Various failure theories are investigated to determine which one represents the data best. The effect of the groove and of the various combined bending-torsion loads on the S-N and Goodman diagrams are determined. Three design applications are presented. The third one illustrates the weight savings that may be achieved by designing for reliability.

Kececioglu, D.; Chester, L. B.; Dodge, T. M.

1974-01-01

169

Strain-induced phase transformation at the surface of an AISI-304 stainless steel irradiated to 4.4 dpa and deformed to 0.8% strain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface relief due to localized deformation in a 4.4-dpa neutron-irradiated AISI 304 stainless steel was investigated using scanning electron microscopy coupled with electron backscattering diffraction and scanning transmission electron microscopy. It was found a body-centered-cubic (BCC) phase (deformation-induced martensite) had formed at the surface of the deformed specimen along the steps generated from dislocation channels. Martensitic hill-like formations with widths of ˜1 ?m and depths of several microns were observed at channels with heights greater than ˜150 nm above the original surface. Martensite at dislocation channels was observed in grains along the [0 0 1]-[1 1 1] orientation but not in those along the [1 0 1] orientation.

Gussev, M. N.; Field, K. G.; Busby, J. T.

2014-03-01

170

Weld-bead profile and costs optimisation of the CO 2 dissimilar laser welding process of low carbon steel and austenitic steel AISI316  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dissimilar full depth laser-butt welding of low carbon steel and austenitic steel AISI 316 was investigated using CW 1.5 kW CO 2 laser. The effect of laser power (1.1-1.43 kW), welding speed (25-75 cm/min) and focal point position (-0.8 to -0.2 mm) on the weld-bead geometry (i.e. weld-bead area, A; upper width, Wu; lower width, Wl and middle width, Wm) and on the operating cost C was investigated using response surface methodology (RSM). The experimental plan was based on Box-Behnken design; linear and quadratic polynomial equations for predicting the weld-bead widthness references were developed. The results indicate that the proposed models predict the responses adequately within the limits of welding parameters being used. The regression equations were used to find optimum welding conditions for the desired geometric criteria.

Ruggiero, A.; Tricarico, L.; Olabi, A. G.; Benyounis, K. Y.

2011-02-01

171

Impact of localized surface preheating on the microstructure and crack formation in laser direct deposition of Stellite 1 on AISI 4340 steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Crack formation in laser cladding of the hardfacing alloy Stellite 1 on AISI-SAE 4340 steel was prevented through locally preheating the substrate prior to the deposition process. Numerical analysis showed that the preheating process helps developing a relatively steadier melt temperature as well as decreasing the cooling rates and consequently the thermal stresses during the subsequent deposition process. Microstructural analysis revealed a thicker cross-section with smoother surface profile, more uniform surface hardness and even distribution of a dendritic morphology in the preheated sample. This confirmed the presence of a well-developed melt pool with a homogeneous composition at solidification. The microstructure of non-preheated sample was, however, considerably non-uniform consisting of macro-scale colonies of dendritic and lamellar (eutectic) structures. The experimental observations, as implied through the numerical results, showed that the preheated sample, in general, reveals more uniform structure and properties making it less prone to cracking during the deposition process.

Fallah, Vahid; Alimardani, Masoud; Corbin, Stephen F.; Khajepour, Amir

2010-12-01

172

An experimental analysis of process parameters to manufacture micro-channels in AISI H13 tempered steel by laser micro-milling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports the characterization of laser machining (milling) process to manufacture micro-channels in order to understand the incidence of process parameters on the final features. Selection of process operational parameters is highly critical for successful laser micromachining. A set of designed experiments is carried out in a pulsed Nd:YAG laser system using AISI H13 hardened tool steel as work material. Several micro-channels have been manufactured as micro-mold cavities varying parameters such as scanning speed (SS), pulse intensity (PI) and pulse frequency (PF). Results are obtained by evaluating the dimensions and the surface finish of the micro-channel. The dimensions and shape of the micro-channels produced with laser-micro-milling process exhibit variations. In general the use of low scanning speeds increases the quality of the feature in both surface finishing and dimensional.

Teixidor, D.; Ferrer, I.; Ciurana, J.

2012-04-01

173

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  

MedlinePLUS

... Workshop: Executive Summary MicroRNA Triggers Protective Response in Mice with ALS New study shows that a molecule ... protective response to repair nerve-muscle connections in mice with ALS. Therapy Investigated for ALS May Find ...

174

Long-term evaluation of solid oxide fuel cell candidate materials in a 3-cell generic stack test fixture, part III: Stability and microstructure of Ce-(Mn,Co)-spinel coating, AISI441 interconnect, alumina coating, cathode and anode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A generic solid oxide fuel cell stack test fixture was developed to evaluate candidate materials and processing under realistic conditions. Part III of the work investigated the stability of Ce-(Mn,Co) spinel coating, AISI441 metallic interconnect, alumina coating, and cell's degradation. After 6000 h test, the spinel coating showed densification with some diffusion of Cr. At the metal interface, segregation of Si and Ti was observed, however, no continuous layer formed. The alumina coating for perimeter sealing areas appeared more dense and thick at the air side than the fuel side. Both the spinel and alumina coatings remained bonded. EDS analysis of Cr within the metal showed small decrease in concentration near the coating interface and would expect to cause no issue of Cr depletion. Inter-diffusion of Ni, Fe, and Cr between spot-welded Ni wire and AISI441 interconnect was observed and Cr-oxide scale formed along the circumference of the weld. The microstructure of the anode and cathode was discussed relating to degradation of the top and middle cells. Overall, the Ce-(Mn,Co) spinel coating, alumina coating, and AISI441 steel showed the desired long-term stability and the developed generic stack fixture proved to be a useful tool to validate candidate materials for SOFC.

Chou, Yeong-Shyung; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Choi, Jung-Pyung

2014-07-01

175

Microstructures and Mechanical Performance of Plasma-Nitrided Al0.3CrFe1.5MnNi0.5 High-Entropy Alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates the effect of plasma nitriding at 798 K (525 °C) on microstructures and the mechanical performance of Al0.3CrFe1.5MnNi0.5 high-entropy alloys (HEAs) obtained using different cast and wrought processing. All the alloys can be well nitride, with a thickness of around 80 ?m, and attain a peak hardness level around Hv 1300 near the surface. The main nitride phases are CrN, AlN, and (Mn, Fe)4N. Those of the substrates are bcc, fcc, Al-, and Ni-rich B2 precipitates, and ? phase. Their relative amounts depend on the prior processing and also change under the heat treatment during nitriding. The formation of ? phase during nitriding could in-situ harden the substrate to attain the suitable level required for wear applications. This gives the advantage in simplifying the processing for making a wear-resistance component or a mold since austenitizing, quench hardening, and tempering required for steels such as SACM and SKD steels are no longer required and final finishing can be accomplished before nitriding. Nitrided Al0.3CrFe1.5MnNi0.5 samples have much better wear resistance than un-nitrided ones by 49 to 80 times and also exhibit superior adhesive wear resistance to conventional nitrided alloys: nitriding steel SACM-645 (AISI 7140), 316 stainless steel, and hot-mold steel SKD-61 (AISI H13) by 22 to 55 times depending on prior processing. The superiority is due to the fact that the present nitrided alloys possess a much thicker highly hardened layer than the conventional alloys.

Tang, Wei-Yeh; Chuang, Ming-Hao; Lin, Su-Jien; Yeh, Jien-Wei

2012-07-01

176

Schwartz et al., Tella et al., Foltin et al., Trippenbach et al., Regalado et al., Magnano et al., Levin et al., Hale et al., Cocaine day  

E-print Network

., Levin et al., Hale et al., Cocaine day 7 day dry-out period Session I: Baseline Session II: Fixed 8mg, and 32 mg\\70kg respectively with a 100kg cap. All cocaine self-administration sessions take place at the Yale Center for Clinical Investigations Hospital Research Unit. Detecting Signatures of Cocaine Using

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

177

The Effect of Surface Roughness on the Corrosion Properties of Type AISI 304 Stainless Steel in Diluted NaCl and Urban Rain Solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to their good corrosion resistance, favorable mechanical properties, and reasonable price regarding their excellent properties, austenitic stainless steels have, over recent decades, become one of the alloys that are increasingly used in civil engineering and building, as well as for specific architectural purposes. Architects often design stainless steel exterior elements with higher surface roughnesses, which are not resistant to corrosion processes. The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of different types of surface finishes to stainless steel of quality AISI 304 on the corrosion properties of this steel. In order to achieve this goal, electrochemical tests were performed on different surface finishes in two different environments: in an NaCl aqueous solution, and in simulated urban rain which contained no chlorides. In addition to the electrochemical methods used, surface roughness was also measured, and XPS surface analyses were performed. The results of the investigation showed that surface roughness affects the growth of the passive layer in urban rain significantly; however, the growth of such a film is retarded in the case of the NaCl aqueous solution. Based on the results of the performed analyses, it was found that, in the NaCl solution, the pitting potential depended strongly upon the surface roughness and the surface finish, but this was not true for the samples tested in urban rain.

Leban, Mirjam Bajt; Mikyška, ?rt; Kosec, Tadeja; Markoli, Boštjan; Kova?, Janez

2014-05-01

178

Prediction of scuffing failure based on competitive kinetics of oxide formation and removal: Application to lubricated sliding of AISI 52100 steel on steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method for predicting scuffing failure based on the competitive kinetics of oxide formation and removal has been developed and applied to the sliding of AISI 52100 steel on steel with poly-alpha-olefin as the lubricant. Oxide formation rates were determining using static oxidation tests on coupons of 52100 steel covered with poly-alpha-olefin at temperatures of 140 C to 250 C. Oxide removal rates were determined at different combinations of initial average nominal contact pressures (950 MPa to 1578 MPa) and sliding velocities (0.4 m/s to 1.8 m/s) using a ball-on-disk vacuum tribotester. The nominal asperity flash temperatures generated during the wear tests were calculated and the temperatures corresponding to the intersection of the the Arrhenius plots of oxide formation and removal rates were determined and taken as the critical failure temperatures. The pressure-velocity failure transition diagram was constructed by plotting the critical failure temperatures along isotherms of average nominal asperity flash temperatures calculated at different combinations of contact stress and sliding speed. The predicted failure transition curve agreed well with experimental scuffing data.

Cutiongco, Eric C.; Chung, Yip-Wah

1994-07-01

179

In vitro corrosion study by EIS of an equiatomic NiTi alloy and an implant quality AISI 316 stainless steel.  

PubMed

The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique was used for the study of the electrochemical behavior of an equiatomic NiTi alloy and an implant quality AISI 316 stainless steel type ASTM F138. Experiments were carried out using four different different test solutions: phosphate buffered saline (PBS), Dulbecco minimum essential medium (MEM), MEM + fetal calf serum (FCS), and MEM + fetal calf serum + fibroblast cell (CELL). Specimens were finished to 600-grit SiC paper and were tested in conditions that did not provoke abrupt mechanical damage of the passive film. Bode-phase spectra showed the presence of two maxima and were fitted with an equivalent circuit characterized by two parallel combinations (R, resistance; CPE, constant phase element). The R(1) and CPE(1) branch was assigned to the inner compact passive film and the R(2) and CPE(2) branch to the external porous film. The resistance of the inner film R(1), roughly corresponding to the polarization resistance (R(p)), which is inversely proportional to the material's corrosion rate, increased with the immersion time and was generally greater in PBS than in other media. With the exception of FCS solution, R(1) for NiTi alloy is better or similar to that of ASTM F138. PMID:16850480

Rondelli, G; Torricelli, P; Fini, M; Rimondini, L; Giardino, R

2006-11-01

180

Influence of Surface Position along the Working Range of Conoscopic Holography Sensors on Dimensional Verification of AISI 316 Wire EDM Machined Surfaces  

PubMed Central

Conoscopic holography (CH) is a non-contact interferometric technique used for surface digitization which presents several advantages over other optical techniques such as laser triangulation. Among others, the ability for the reconstruction of high-sloped surfaces stands out, and so does its lower dependence on surface optical properties. Nevertheless, similarly to other optical systems, adjustment of CH sensors requires an adequate selection of configuration parameters for ensuring a high quality surface digitizing. This should be done on a surface located as close as possible to the stand-off distance by tuning frequency (F) and power (P) until the quality indicators Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) and signal envelope (Total) meet proper values. However, not all the points of an actual surface are located at the stand-off distance, but they could be located throughout the whole working range (WR). Thus, the quality of a digitized surface may not be uniform. The present work analyses how the quality of a reconstructed surface is affected by its relative position within the WR under different combinations of the parameters F and P. Experiments have been conducted on AISI 316 wire EDM machined flat surfaces. The number of high-quality points digitized as well as distance measurements between different surfaces throughout the WR allowed for comparing the metrological behaviour of the CH sensor with respect to a touch probe (TP) on a CMM. PMID:24662452

Fernández, Pedro; Blanco, David; Rico, Carlos; Valiño, Gonzalo; Mateos, Sabino

2014-01-01

181

Surface properties of nitrided layer on AISI 316L austenitic stainless steel produced by high temperature plasma nitriding in short time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has generally been believed that the formation of the S phase or expanded austenite ?N with enough thickness depends on the temperature (lower than 480 °C) and duration of the process. In this work, we attempt to produce nitrogen expanded austenite layer at high temperature in short time. Nitriding of AISI 316L austenitic stainless steel was carried out at high temperatures (>520 °C) for times ranging from 5 to 120 min. The microstructures, chemical composition, the thickness and the morphology of the nitrided layer, as well as its surface hardness, were investigated using X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and microhardness tester. The corrosion properties of the untreated and nitrided samples were evaluated using anodic polarization tests in 3.5% NaCl solution. The results confirmed that nitrided layer was shown to consist of ?N and a small amount of free-CrN and iron nitrides. High temperature plasma nitriding not only increased the surface hardness but also improved the corrosion resistance of the austenitic stainless steel, and it can critically reduce processing time compared with low temperature nitriding.

Li, Yang; Wang, Zhuo; Wang, Liang

2014-04-01

182

Experimental Evaluation and Optimization of Flank Wear During Turning of AISI 4340 Steel with Coated Carbide Inserts Using Different Cutting Fluids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The understanding of cutting fluids performance in turning process is very important in order to improve the efficiency of the process. This efficiency can be determined based on certain process parameters such as flank wear, cutting forces developed, temperature developed at the tool chip interface, surface roughness on the work piece, etc. In this study, the objective is to determine the influence of cutting fluids on flank wear during turning of AISI 4340 with coated carbide inserts. The performances of three types of cutting fluids were compared using Taguchi experimental method. The results show that palm kernel oil based cutting fluids performed better than the other two cutting fluids in reducing flank wear. Mathematical models for cutting parameters such as cutting speed, feed rate, depth of cut and cutting fluids were obtained from regression analysis using MINITAB 14 software to predict flank wear. Experiments were conducted based on the optimized values to validate the regression equations for flank wear and 5.82 % error was obtained. The optimal cutting parameters for the flank wear using S/N ratio were 160 m/min of cutting speed (level 1), 0.18 mm/rev of feed (level 1), 1.75 mm of depth of cut (level 2) and 2.97 mm2/s palm kernel oil based cutting fluid (level 3). ANOVA shows cutting speed of 85.36 %; and feed rate 4.81 %) as significant factors.

Lawal, S. A.; Choudhury, I. A.; Nukman, Y.

2015-01-01

183

Influence of surface position along the working range of conoscopic holography sensors on dimensional verification of AISI 316 wire EDM machined surfaces.  

PubMed

Conoscopic holography (CH) is a non-contact interferometric technique used for surface digitization which presents several advantages over other optical techniques such as laser triangulation. Among others, the ability for the reconstruction of high-sloped surfaces stands out, and so does its lower dependence on surface optical properties. Nevertheless, similarly to other optical systems, adjustment of CH sensors requires an adequate selection of configuration parameters for ensuring a high quality surface digitizing. This should be done on a surface located as close as possible to the stand-off distance by tuning frequency (F) and power (P) until the quality indicators Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) and signal envelope (Total) meet proper values. However, not all the points of an actual surface are located at the stand-off distance, but they could be located throughout the whole working range (WR). Thus, the quality of a digitized surface may not be uniform. The present work analyses how the quality of a reconstructed surface is affected by its relative position within the WR under different combinations of the parameters F and P. Experiments have been conducted on AISI 316 wire EDM machined flat surfaces. The number of high-quality points digitized as well as distance measurements between different surfaces throughout the WR allowed for comparing the metrological behaviour of the CH sensor with respect to a touch probe (TP) on a CMM. PMID:24662452

Fernández, Pedro; Blanco, David; Rico, Carlos; Valiño, Gonzalo; Mateos, Sabino

2014-01-01

184

Characterization of the oxides formed at 1000 °C on the AISI 304 stainless steel by X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this work is to show the contribution of the infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) to the identification of the oxides formed on the AISI 304 stainless steel during isothermal oxidation at 1000 °C, in air. This work focuses on the differentiation of spinel type AB 2O 4 structures and corundum type M 2O 3 structures. It is shown that after 100 h oxidation, the scale is composed of two subscales. The structural analyses were performed both on the adherent subscale and on the external subscale, which spalled off during cooling to room temperature. In the spalled subscale, the infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses exhibit the presence of two spinel phases: Mn 1.5Cr 1.5O 4 and FeCr 2O 4, as well as hematite Fe 2O 3. The FT-IR and XRD analyses of the adherent subscale enable us to distinguish the spinel Mn 1.5Cr 1.5O 4 and FeCr 2O 4 structures which are difficult to identify by XRD alone. Chromia Cr 2O 3 appears to be slightly present in the adherent subscale. According to our results, the parabolic regime of the kinetic curve corresponds to a scale growth mechanism governed by an inward oxygen diffusion.

Karimi, N.; Riffard, F.; Rabaste, F.; Perrier, S.; Cueff, R.; Issartel, C.; Buscail, H.

2008-02-01

185

Effect of Welding Current and Time on the Microstructure, Mechanical Characterizations, and Fracture Studies of Resistance Spot Welding Joints of AISI 316L Austenitic Stainless Steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article aims at investigating the effect of welding parameters, namely, welding current and welding time, on resistance spot welding (RSW) of the AISI 316L austenitic stainless steel sheets. The influence of welding current and welding time on the weld properties including the weld nugget diameter or fusion zone, tensile-shear load-bearing capacity of welded materials, failure modes, energy absorption, and microstructure of welded nuggets was precisely considered. Microstructural studies and mechanical properties showed that the region between interfacial to pullout mode transition and expulsion limit is defined as the optimum welding condition. Electron microscopic studies indicated different types of delta ferrite in welded nuggets including skeletal, acicular, and lathy delta ferrite morphologies as a result of nonequilibrium phases, which can be attributed to a fast cooling rate in the RSW process. These morphologies were explained based on Shaeffler, WRC-1992, and pseudo-binary phase diagrams. The optimum microstructure and mechanical properties were achieved with 8-kA welding current and 4-cycle welding time in which maximum tensile-shear load-bearing capacity or peak load of the welded materials was obtained at 8070 N, and the failure mode took place as button pullout with tearing from the base metal. Finally, fracture surface studies indicated that elongated dimples appeared on the surface as a result of ductile fracture in the sample welded in the optimum welding condition.

Kianersi, Danial; Mostafaei, Amir; Mohammadi, Javad

2014-09-01

186

Effect of pulse laser parameters on TiC reinforced AISI 304 stainless steel composite coating by laser surface engineering process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, TiC reinforced steel composite layer has been produced by laser scanning over the preplaced TiC powder on AISI 304 steel substrate, using a pulse Nd:YAG laser. Depending on the pulse laser parameters, TiC either deposited or dispersed on the surface of steel substrate. Depth and width of laser processed TiC-steel composite layer has been deliberated from the SEM images at the transverse cross section of the laser scanned samples. Hardness of the laser processed composite layer has been measured through Vickers micro-hardness tester. Effect of pulsed laser parameters i.e. peak power, pulse duration, overlapping factor (corresponding to scan speed and frequency) on micro-hardness, composite layer profile (depth and width) and microstructure of the laser processed TiC-steel composite layer has been studied. From the experimental analysis, it is revealed that, laser peak power and overlapping factor have significant effect on the TiC-steel composite layer profile and its hardness value.

Sahoo, Chinmaya Kumar; Masanta, Manoj

2015-04-01

187

MDA ALS Caregiver's Guide  

MedlinePLUS

... emotional strategies for being an effective caregiver. The MDA ALS Caregiver’s Guide is meant to give guidance, ... strength and finding help. It frequently refers to MDA’s Everyday Life with ALS: A Practical Guide . Everyone ...

188

Mitochondrial pathobiology in ALS  

PubMed Central

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the third most common human adult-onset neurodegenerative disease. Some forms of ALS are inherited, and disease-causing genes have been identified. Nevertheless, the mechanisms of neurodegeneration in ALS are unresolved. Genetic, biochemical, and morphological analyses of human ALS as well as cell and animal models of ALS reveal that mitochondria could have roles in this neurodegeneration. The varied functions and properties of mitochondria might render subsets of selectively vulnerable neurons intrinsically susceptible to cellular aging and stress and overlying genetic variations. Changes occur in mitochondrial respiratory chain enzymes and mitochondrial programmed cell death proteins in ALS. Transgenic mouse models of ALS reveal possible principles governing the biology of neurodegeneration that implicate mitochondria and the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. This paper reviews how mitochondrial pathobiology might contribute to the mechanisms of neurodegeneration in ALS. PMID:22083126

2014-01-01

189

Initial Symptoms of ALS  

MedlinePLUS

... in order to survive. Since ALS attacks only motor neurons, the sense of sight, touch, hearing, taste and smell are not ... The ALS Association - 1275 K Street NW - Suite 250 - Washington, DC 20005 All content and works posted on this ...

190

About ALS: FAQ  

MedlinePLUS

... a patient with ALS, is important to consider seeing a sub specialist - a neurologist specializing in neuromuscular ... questions in advance. Since you will likely be seeing an ALS expert, take advantage of the opportunity ...

191

Who Gets ALS?  

MedlinePLUS

... of ALS is more equal between men and women. There are several research studies – past and present – investigating possible risk factors that may be associated with ALS. More work is needed to conclusively determine what genetics and/or environment factors contribute to developing ALS. It is known, ...

192

Laser welding of NiTi shape memory alloy: Comparison of the similar and dissimilar joints to AISI 304 stainless steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The unique properties of NiTi alloy, such as its shape memory effect, super-elasticity and biocompatibility, make it ideal material for various applications such as aerospace, micro-electronics and medical device. In order to meet the requirement of increasing applications, great attention has been given to joining of this material to itself and to other materials during past few years. Laser welding has been known as a suitable joining technique for NiTi shape memory alloy. Hence, in this work, a comparative study on laser welding of NiTi wire to itself and to AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel wire has been made. Microstructures, mechanical properties and fracture morphologies of the laser joints were investigated using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), Vickers microhardness (HV0.2) and tensile testing techniques. The results showed that the NiTi-NiTi laser joint reached about 63% of the ultimate tensile strength of the as-received NiTi wire (i.e. 835 MPa) with rupture strain of about 16%. This joint also enabled the possibility to benefit from the pseudo-elastic properties of the NiTi component. However, tensile strength and ductility decreased significantly after dissimilar laser welding of NiTi to stainless steel due to the formation of brittle intermetallic compounds in the weld zone during laser welding. Therefore, a suitable modification process is required for improvement of the joint properties of the dissimilar welded wires.

Mirshekari, G. R.; Saatchi, A.; Kermanpur, A.; Sadrnezhaad, S. K.

2013-12-01

193

What Is ALS?  

MedlinePLUS

... prolong survival. It is important to remember that ALS is a quite variable disease; no two people will have the same journey or experiences. There are medically documented cases of people in whom ALS ‘burns out,’ stops progressing or progresses at a ...

194

ANALYSE DES PHOTOCOURANTS DANS LES STRUCTURES Al-Al2O3-Al  

E-print Network

773 ANALYSE DES PHOTOCOURANTS DANS LES STRUCTURES Al-Al2O3-Al PR�PAR�ES PAR BOMBARDEMENT travail a consisté à étudier et analyser les photocourants dans les structures Al-Al2O3-Al dans lesquelles stoechiométriques et amorphes. La hauteur de barrière de l'interface Al-Al2O3 déterminée par photoémission interne

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

195

[Environmental factors in ALS].  

PubMed

ALS is likely to be a disorder of multifactorial origin. Among all the factors that may increase the risk of ALS, environmental ones are being studied for many years, but in the recent years, several advances have pointed to a new interest in their potential involvement in the disease process, especially for the cyanotoxin BMAA. Food containing BMAA has been found on Guam, a well-known focus of ALS/parkinsonism/dementia and high levels of BMAA have been identified into the brain of these patients. The BMAA cyanotoxin is potentially ubiquitous and have also been found into the food of patients who died from ALS both in Europe and USA. BMAA can be wrongly integrated into the protein structure during mRNA traduction, competing with serine. This may induce abnormal protein folding and a subsequent cell death. Heavy metals, such as lead or mercury may be directly toxic for neuronal cells. Several works have suggested an increased risk of ALS in individuals chronically exposed to these metals. Exposure to pesticides has been suggested to be linked to an increased risk of developing ALS. The mechanism of their toxicity is likely to be mediated by paraoxonases. These proteins are in charge of detoxifying the organism from toxins, and particularly organophosphates. To date, there are insufficient scientific data to suggest that exposure to electromagnetic fields may increase the risk of having ALS. We are particularly missing longitudinal cohorts to demonstrate that risk. PMID:24703731

Juntas-Morales, Raul; Pageot, Nicolas; Corcia, Philippe; Camu, William

2014-05-01

196

Determination of damage functions for the pitting of AISI type 403 blade alloy and ASTM A470/471 disk alloy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The prediction of pitting accumulation on turbine blades and disks is of particular importance to predict localized corrosion damages in low pressure (LP) steam turbines. Damage Function Analysis (DFA) and Deterministic Extreme Value Statistics (DEVS) have been employed to predict the pitting damage on AISI Type 403 stainless steel (SS) blade alloy and ASTM A470/471 disk steel in simulated LP steam turbine environments within the phase transition zone. The passivity properties of Type 403 SS and A470/471 steel in the passive regions, including defect type, defect concentration in the barrier film, barrier film thickness, and the steady-state current density, agree with the predictions of the Point Defect Model (PDM) for an n-type semiconductor. Optimization of the PDM based impedance model on the experimental electrochemical impedance data has yielded a set of parameter values that can be used to predict the barrier film growth on Type 403 SS in deaerated borate buffer solution ( pH = 8.2) at ambient temperature. Experimental relationships between the breakdown potential and chloride activity, pH, temperature, and potential scan rate have demonstrated the applicability of the PDM for describing passivity breakdown on Type 403 SS and A470/471 steel. The obtained parameter values were used to calculate the breakdown potential, induction time, and their distributions, via the PDM, which represents the first quantitative characterization of the passivity breakdown behavior on Type 403 SS. Pitting damage functions for Type 403 SS have been experimentally determined for the first time. However, low pit density on A470/471 steel led to insufficient pit numbers on the 1.27 cm2 surface for the effective determination of damage functions. DEVS has been demonstrated by predicting the average maximum pit depth for 750 hours from short-term (24 hours and 240 hours) maximum pit depth data on Type 403 SS in deaerated buffer solution with 0.10 M NaCl at an applied potential of 0.090 VSCE and on A470/471 steel in the solution with 0.028 M NaCl at 0.058 VSCE. To the author's knowledge, the work reported in this dissertation represents the first instance in which DEVS has been used to predict the accumulation of pitting damage on LP steam turbine alloys, thereby heralding a new era in the prediction of corrosion damage in these systems.

Zhang, Yancheng

197

ALS (Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis)  

MedlinePLUS

... of other conditions. One of these tests is electromyography (EMG), a special recording technique that detects electrical activity in muscles. Certain EMG findings can support the diagnosis of ALS. Another ...

198

Genetic Testing for ALS  

MedlinePLUS

... a person will develop symptoms of ALS. Genetic Counseling If there is more than one person with ... testing based on your concerns and values. Genetic counseling does not always lead to genetic testing. For ...

199

Leakage current behaviors of Al/ZrO2/Al and Al/YSZ/Al devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The leakage current behaviors of Al/ZrO2/Al and Al/yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ)/Al devices are investigated for resistive random access memory (RRAM) applications. A silicon oxide layer (450 nm) is first formed on a Si wafer by thermal oxidation. Onto it an Al bottom electrode (270 nm), a ZrO2 or YSZ nano-film (75 nm), and an Al top electrode (270 nm) are sequentially deposited by sputtering. These RRAM devices exhibit ohmic behaviors in the low-field region, while Schottky and Poole–Frenkel emissions take over in the high-field regions. Both the Schottky and trap barrier levels are decreased when monoclinic ZrO2 is replaced by cubic YSZ in the metal/oxide/metal structure. This is attributed not only to the higher symmetry crystal structure and lower binding energy of YSZ, but also to the formation of more oxygen vacancies and their re-distribution associated with yttria doping.

Yeh, Tsung-Her; Lin, Ruei-De; Cherng, Bo-Ruei; Cherng, Jyh-Shiarn

2015-01-01

200

ALS superbend magnet performance  

SciTech Connect

The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has been engaged in the design, construction and testing of four superconducting dipoles (Superbends) that are installed in three arcs of the Advanced Light Source (ALS), with the fourth magnet as a spare. This represents a major upgrade to the ALS providing an enhanced flux and brightness at photon energies above 10 keV. In preparation for installation, an extensive set of tests and measurements have been conducted to characterize the magnetic and cryogenic performance of the Superbends and to fiducialize them for accurate placement in the ALS storage ring. The magnets are currently installed, and the storage ring is undergoing final commissioning. This paper will present the results of magnetic and cryogenic testing.

Marks, Steve; Zbasnik, John; Byrne, Warren; Calais, Dennis; Chin, Michael; DeMarco, Richard; Fahmie, Michael; Geyer, Alan; Krupnick, Jim; Ottens, Fred; Paterson, James A.; Pipersky, Paul; Robin, David S.; Schlueter, RossD.; Steier, Christoph; Wandesforde, Alan

2001-12-10

201

Al Qaeda Training Manual  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The first resource is a US Department of Justice release of portions of an English translation of the Al Qaeda training manual located by police in Manchester, England during a search of an Al Qaeda member's home. The manual was found in a computer file described as "the military series" related to the "Declaration of Jihad." The cover and excerpts from the 12 chapters can be viewed as a .pdf file. Content of the text includes religious commentary, organizational tactics, guidelines for member selection, techniques for spying, and security measures. The DOJ does not provide the entire document because it does not want to encourage terrorism.

2001-01-01

202

ALS superbend magnet system  

SciTech Connect

The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is preparing to upgrade the Advanced Light Source (ALS) with three superconducting dipoles (Superbends). In this paper we present the final magnet system design which incorporates R&D test results and addresses the ALS operational concerns of alignment, availability, and economy. The design incorporates conduction-cooled Nb-Ti windings and HTS current leads, epoxy-glass suspension straps, and a Gifford-McMahon cryocooler to supply steady state refrigeration. We also present the current status of fabrication and testing.

Zbasnik, J.; Wang, S.T.; Chen, J.Y.; DeVries, G.J.; DeMarco, R.; Fahmie, M.; Geyer, A.; Green, M.A.; Harkins, J.; Henderson, T.; Hinkson, J.; Hoyer, E.H.; Krupnick, J.; Marks, S.; Ottens, F.; Paterson, J.A.; Pipersky, P.; Portmann, G.; Robin, D.A.; Schlueter, R.D.; Steier, C.; Taylor, C.E.; Wahrer, R.

2000-09-15

203

Al Shanker Remembers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a 1996 interview shortly before his death, Al Shanker, longtime president of the American Federation of Teachers, discussed such topics as: his own educational experiences; how he learned about political fighting in the Boy Scouts; the appeal of socialism; multinational corporations and the nation state; teaching tough students; and John Dewey…

American Educator, 2000

2000-01-01

204

Lou Gehrig's Disease (ALS)  

MedlinePLUS

... ALS. The official name comes from these Greek words: "a" for without "myo" for muscle "trophic" for nourishment "lateral" for side (of the spinal cord) "sclerosis" for hardening or scarring So, amyotrophic means that the muscles have lost their nourishment. When this happens, they become smaller ...

205

Smith et al Supporting Information  

E-print Network

Smith et al 1 Supporting Information for Smith et al. 2006, PLoS Computational Biology 2:e161-hyperpallium apicale; HF-hippocampal formation, and M-mesopallium. #12;Smith et al 2 FigureS2,nolinkswerefoundbetweenelectrodesindifferentbirds,andnolinkswerefoundintothesoundstimulusvariable. CombinedAnalysisofAllBirds'ElectrodesPlusSound #12;Smith et al 3 Analysis of Data from Subsections

Jarvis, Erich D.

206

Al Parker: American Illustrator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tribute to Al Parker, the noted magazine illustrator and artist, was fashioned from extensive holdings at the Washington University Library in St. Louis. Known as "The Dean of Illustrators," Al Parker attended school at the St. Louis School of Fine Arts at Washington University and went on to become of the most prolific and important American illustrators of the twentieth century. Parker was best-known for his modernist deployment of line, patterning, and bold, flat colors, which helped shape the general "look" of the period from the 1930s to the 1960s. Using short clips of Parker's original illustrations and drawings, this exhibit offers a glimpse into his work and contributions to the medium. Of particular interest is the section devoted to Parker's famous "Mother-Daughter" covers for the Ladies Home Journal, which began in 1939 and ran for 17 years.

207

Iniciacin al Windsurf DESCRIPCIN  

E-print Network

oportunidad a la comunidad universitaria al acercamiento a los deportes náuticos, siendo entre ellos de.): · Origen y fundamentos básicos del deporte del windsurf · Partes de las que se compone el material náutico de seguridad y de actuación a tener en cuenta para la práctica de este deporte · Nudos náuticos

Escolano, Francisco

208

Abu Musab Al Suri: Architect of the New Al Qaeda  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drawing on new sources, the authors argue that Abu Musab al Suri (real name Mustafa Setmariam Nasar), now in U.S. custody, is the principle architect of Al Qaeda's post–9\\/11 structure and strategy. His vision, which predated 9\\/11, of transforming Al Qaeda from a vulnerable hierarchical organization into a resilient decentralized movement, was largely the formula Al Qaeda adopted after the

Paul Cruickshank; Mohannad Hage Ali

2007-01-01

209

Al-Adwiyah Al-Qalbiyah: introduction and commentary.  

PubMed

Avicenna was a great scientist and philosopher of the 10th century A.D. He wrote about 456 books in various fields of learning. Al-Adwiyah Al-Qalbiyah is perhaps the most important work of Avicenna after Al-Qanun fil Tibb or canon of medicine. Like Al-Qanun, it was also very popular in Europe and was translated into Latin. It has also been translated in Turkish, Uzbbek, and later on in Persian and Urdu. PMID:11609033

Azmi, K A; Hussain, S

1994-07-01

210

Oxidation of NiAl and FeAl  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies on the oxidation of the ?-phases NiAl and FeAl are reviewed. Generally, these aluminides form an alumina layer which should be protective, however, certain special features render the pure phases rather susceptible to accelerated oxidation and corrosion. At 1000°C fast growing metastable modifications ?-, ?- and ?-Al2O3 are formed, which are undergrown by ?-Al2O3 and transform to that

H. J Grabke

1999-01-01

211

Optical gain characteristics in Al-rich AlGaN/AlN quantum wells  

SciTech Connect

The optical gain characteristics of Al-rich AlGaN/AlN quantum wells (QWs) were assessed by the variable stripe length method at room temperature. An Al{sub 0.79}Ga{sub 0.21}N/AlN QW with a well width of 5?nm had a large optical gain of 140?cm{sup ?1}. Increasing the excitation length induced a redshift due to the gain consumption and the consequent saturation of the amplified spontaneous emission. Moreover, a change in the dominant gain polarization with Al composition, which was attributed to switching of the valence band ordering of strained AlGaN/AlN QWs at Al compositions of ?0.8, was experimentally demonstrated.

Oto, Takao; Banal, Ryan G.; Funato, Mitsuru; Kawakami, Yoichi, E-mail: kawakami@kuee.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Electronic Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan)

2014-05-05

212

Thermal behavior of Al, AlFe- and AlCu-pillared interlayered clays  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purified bentonite parent clay, fraction ?; 2 mm of montmorillonite type, has been pillared by various polyhydroxy cations,\\u000a Al, AlFe and AlCu, using conventional pillaring methods. The thermal behavior of PILCs was investigated by combination of\\u000a X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal analysis (DTA, TG) and low temperature N2 adsorption\\/desorption (LTNA). Thermal stability\\u000a of Al-, AlFe- and AlCu-PILC samples was estimated

R. P. Marinkovic-Neducin; E. E. Kiss; T. Z. Cukic; D. Z. Obadovic

2004-01-01

213

Al Jazirah, Sudan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Al Jazirah (also Gezira) is one of the 26 states of Sudan. The state lies between the Blue Nile and the White Nile in the east-central region of the country. It is a well populated area suitable for agriculture. The area was at the southern end of Nubia and little is known about its ancient history and only limited archaeological work has been conducted in this area. The region has benefited from the Gezira Scheme, a program to foster cotton farming begun in 1925. At that time the Sennar Dam and numerous irrigation canals were built. Al Jazirah became the Sudan's major agricultural region with more than 2.5 million acres (10,000 km) under cultivation. The initial development project was semi-private, but the government nationalized it in 1950. Cotton production increased in the 1970s but by the 1990s increased wheat production has supplanted a third of the land formerly seeded with cotton.

The image was acquired December 25, 2006, covers an area of 56 x 36.4 km, and is located near 14.5 degrees north latitude, 33.1 degrees east longitude.

The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

2008-01-01

214

Atomic simulations of kinetic friction and its velocity dependence at Al/Al and -Al2O3/ -Al2O3 interfaces  

E-print Network

Atomic simulations of kinetic friction and its velocity dependence at Al/Al and -Al2O3/ -Al2O3-scale Al 001 /Al 001 and -Al2O3 0001 / -Al2O3 0001 interfaces has been investigated using molecular. It is found that kinetic friction during sliding at commensurate -Al2O3 0001 / -Al2O3 0001 interfaces exceeds

Goddard III, William A.

215

Analysis of Wear Mechanisms in Low Friction, Nanocomposite AlMgB14-TiB2 Coatings  

SciTech Connect

Recent developments in coating science and technology offer new opportunities to enhance the energy-efficiency and performance of industrial machinery such as hydraulic fluid pumps and motors. The lubricated friction and wear characteristics of two wear-resistant coatings, diamond-like carbon and a nanocomposite material based on AlMgB{sub 14}-50 vol.% TiB{sub 2}, were compared in pin-on-disk tribotests using Mobil DTE-24{trademark} oil as the lubricant. In each case, the pins were fixed 9.53 mm diameter spheres of AISI 52100 steel, the load was 10 N, and the speed 0.5 m/s in all tests. Average steady-state friction coefficient values of 0.10 and 0.08 were measured for the DLC and nanocomposite, respectively. The coatings and their 52100 steel counterfaces were analyzed after the tests by X-ray photoelectron and Auger spectroscopy for evidence of material transfer or tribo-chemical reactions. The low-friction behavior of the boride nanocomposite coating is due to the formation of lubricative boric acid, B(OH){sub 3}. In contrast, the low-friction behavior of the DLC coating is related to the relatively low dielectric constant of the oil-based lubricant, leading to desorption of surface hydrogen from the coating.

Cook, Bruce A [Ames Laboratory; Harringa, J [Ames Laboratory; Anderegg, A [Ames Laboratory; Russell, A M [Iowa State University; Qu, Jun [ORNL; Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL; Higdon, Clifton [Eaton Corporation; Elmoursi, Alaa A [Eaton Corporation

2010-01-01

216

Al Mashriq: Lebanon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part of the Al-Mashriq online Web resource for countries located in the Levant, this site is devoted to providing a host of materials, thematically organized, about the country of Lebanon. Persons seeking to read a bit about Lebanon's early history will want to read the first chapter of Kamal Salibi's "A House of Many Mansions-The History of Lebanon," which is provided here. For those looking for a geographic orientation to the landscape of Lebanon, an interactive map provides a number of photographs and brief remarks on various important cities and cultural sites, such as Beirut and the Roman temples at Baalbak. Along with these sections, the site also offers thematic sections devoted to education, food, maps, money, politics, and religion that will be useful to those students looking for background information on Lebanon.

217

Doppelthydrophile Blockcopolymere als Mineralisationstemplate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Die vorliegende Arbeit beschäftigt sich mit der Synthese und den Eigenschaften von doppelthydrophilen Blockcopolymeren und ihrer Anwendung in einem biomimetischen Mineralisationsprozeß von Calciumcarbonat und Bariumsulfat. Doppelthydrophile Blockcopolymere bestehen aus einem hydrophilen Block, der nicht mit Mineralien wechselwirkt und einem zweiten Polyelektrolyt-Block, der stark mit Mineraloberflächen wechselwirkt. Diese Blockcopolymere wurden durch ringöffnende Polymerisation von N-carboxyanhydriden (NCA's) und a-methoxy-?-amino[poly(ethylene glycol)] PEG-NH2 als Initiator hergestellt. Die hergestellten Blockcopolymere wurden als effektive Wachstumsmodifikatoren für die Kristallisation von Calciumcarbonat und Bariumsulfat Mineralien eingesetzt. Die so erhaltenen Mineralpartikel (Kugeln, Hantel, eiförmige Partikel) wurden durch Lichtmikroskopie in Lösung, SEM und TEM charakterisiert. Röntgenweitwinkelstreuung (WAXS) wurde verwendet, um die Modifikation von Calciumcarbonat zu ermitteln und die Größe der Calciumcarbonat- und Bariumsulfat-Nanopartikel zu ermitteln. This work describes the synthesis and characterization of double hydrophilic block copolymers and their use in a biomimetic mineralization process of Calcium Carbonate and Barium Sulfate. Double hydrophilic block copolymers consist of a hydrophilic block that does not interact with minerals and another hydrophilic polyelectrolyte block that strongly interacts with mineral surfaces. These polymers were synthesised via ring opening polymerisation of N-carboxyanhydride (NCA), and the first hydrophilic block a-methoxy-?-amino[poly(ethylene glycol)] PEG-NH2 was used as an initiator. The prepared block copolymers were used as effective crystal growth modifiers to control the crystallization of Calcium Carbonate and Barium Sulfate minerals. The resulting mineral particles (spheres, dumbbells, egg-like particles) were characterised by light microscopy in solution, by SEM, and by TEM. X-Ray scattering measurements (WAXS) were used to prove the modification of Calcium Carbonate particles and to calculate the size of Calcium Carbonate and Barium Sulfate nanoparticles.

Kasparova, Pavla

2002-07-01

218

Effects of Si content on microstructure and mechanical properties of TiAlN/Si3N4-Cu nanocomposite coatings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

TiAlN/Si3N4-Cu nanocomposite coatings of various Si content (0-5.09 at.%) were deposited on AISI-304 stainless steel by DC reactive magnetron sputtering technique. The chemical composition, microstructure, mechanical and tribological properties of these coatings were systematically investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), nanoindentation tester, a home-made indentation system, a scratch tester and a wear tester. Results indicated that with increasing Si content in these coatings, a reduction of grain size and surface roughness, a transformation of the (1 1 1) preferred orientation was detected by XRD and FESEM. Furthermore the hardness of these coatings increase from 9.672 GPa to 18.628 GPa, and the elastic modulus reveal the rising trend that increase from 224.654 GPa to 251.933 GPa. However, the elastic modulus of TiAlN/Si3N4-Cu coating containing 3.39 at.% Si content dropped rapidly and changed to about 180.775 GPa. The H3/E2 ratio is proportional to the film resistance to plastic deformation. The H3/E2 ratio of the TiAlN/Si3N4-Cu coating containing 3.39 at.% Si content possess of the maximum of 0.11 GPa, and the indentation test indicate that few and fine cracks were observed from its indentation morphologies. The growth pattern of cracks is mainly bending growing. The present results show that the best toughness is obtained for TiAlN/Si3N4-Cu nanocomposite coating containing 3.39 at.% Si content. In addition, the TiAlN/Si3N4-Cu coating containing 3.39 at.% Si content also has good adhesion property and superior wear resistance, and the wear mechanism is mainly adhesion wear.

Feng, Changjie; Hu, Shuilian; Jiang, Yuanfei; Wu, Namei; Li, Mingsheng; Xin, Li; Zhu, Shenglong; Wang, Fuhui

2014-11-01

219

Rub' al Khali, Arabia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Rub' al Khali is one of the largest sand deserts in the world, encompassing most of the southern third of the Arabian Peninsula. It includes parts of Oman, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen. The desert covers 650,000 square kilometers, more than the area of France. Largely unexplored until recently, the desert is 1000 km long and 500 km wide. The first documented journeys made by Westerners were those of Bertram Thomas in 1931 and St. John Philby in 1932. With daytime temperatures reaching 55 degrees Celsius, and dunes taller than 330 meters, the desert may be one of the most forbidding places on Earth.

The image was acquired December 2, 2005, covers an area of 54.8 x 61.9 km, and is located near 20.7 degrees north latitude, 53.6 degrees east longitude.

The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

2008-01-01

220

Thermodynamic properties of Al, Ni, NiAl, and Ni3Al from first-principles calculations  

E-print Network

Thermodynamic properties of Al, Ni, NiAl, and Ni3Al from first-principles calculations Y. Wang *, Z The thermodynamic properties of Al, Ni, NiAl, and Ni3Al were studied using the first-principles approach. The 0-K of )1.6 J/mol/K for NiAl and )1.2 J/mol/K for Ni3Al. For Ni, the inclusion of thermal electronic

Chen, Long-Qing

221

Thin Films Using Al Doping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied the influence of Al doping on the microstructural, optical, and electrical properties of spray-deposited WO3 thin films. XRD analyses confirm that all the films are of polycrystalline WO3 in nature, possessing monoclinic structure. EDX profiles of the Al-doped films show aluminum peaks implying incorporation of Al ions into WO3 lattice. On Al doping, the average crystallite size decreases due to increase in the density of nucleation centers at the time of film growth. The observed variation in the lattice parameter values on Al doping is attributed to the incorporation of Al ions into WO3 lattice. Enhancement in the direct optical band gap compared to the undoped film has been observed on Al doping due to decrease in the width of allowed energy states near the conduction band edge. The refractive indices of the films follow the Cauchy relation of normal dispersion. Electrical resistivity compared to the undoped film has been found to increase on Al doping.

Mukherjee, Ramnayan; Prajapati, C. S.; Sahay, P. P.

2014-09-01

222

Identification of Candida albicans ALS2 and ALS4 and Localization of Als Proteins to the Fungal Cell Surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

Additional genes in the growing ALS family of Candida albicans were isolated by PCR screening of a genomic fosmid library with primers designed from the consensus tandem-repeat sequence of ALS1. This procedure yielded fosmids encoding ALS2 and ALS4. ALS2 and ALS4 conformed to the three-domain structure of ALS genes, which consists of a central domain of tandemly repeated copies of

L. L. HOYER; T. L. PAYNE; J. E. HECHT

1998-01-01

223

[ALS and excitatory amino acid].  

PubMed

AMPA receptor, one of ionotropic glutamate receptors, has been proposed to play a critical role to initiate the neuronal death cascade in motor neuron disease by an increase of Ca2+ influx. There are at least two mechanisms to increase Ca2+ influx through Ca2+-permiable AMPA receptor: a decrease of RNA editing efficacy at the GluR2 Q/R site and a decrease of GluR2 level relative to AMPA receptor subunits. Deficient RNA editing of the AMPA receptor subunit GluR2 at the Q/R site is a primary cause of neuronal death and recently has been reported to be a tightly linked etiological cause of motor neuron death in sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). On the other hand, relative low GluR2 level among AMPA receptor subunits seems to increase Ca2+ permeability of motor neurons in familial ALS (ALS1) linked to mutated cupper-zinc superoxide dismutase gene (SOD1). AMPA receptor-mediated mechanism does not seem to play any role in death of motor neurons in X-linked spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA). From the molecular pathomechanism of sporadic ALS and ALS1, drugs which increase RNA editing efficacy at the GluR2 Q/R site could be a potent therapy for sporadic ALS, while AMPA receptor antagonists could prevent deterioration from ALS1. PMID:17969352

Aizawa, Hitoshi; Kwak, Shin

2007-10-01

224

In Memory of Al Cameron  

E-print Network

Al Cameron, who died recently (October 3, 2005) at 80, was one of the giants in astrophysics. His insights were profound and his interests were wide-ranging. Originally trained as a nuclear physicist, he made major contributions in a number of fields, including nuclear reactions in stars, nucleosynthesis, the abundances of the elements in the Solar System, and the origin of the Solar System and the Moon. In 1957, Cameron and, independently, Burbidge, Burbidge, Fowler and Hoyle, wrote seminal papers on nuclear astrophysics. Most of our current ideas concerning element formation in stars have followed from those two pioneering and historical works. Al also made many contributions in the field of Solar System physics. Particularly noteworthy in this regard was Cameron's work on the formation of the Moon. Al was also a good friend and mentor of young people. Al Cameron will be missed by many in the community both for his scientific contributions and for his friendship.

Cowan, J J; Cowan, John J.; Truran, James W.

2006-01-01

225

In Memory of Al Cameron  

E-print Network

Al Cameron, who died recently (October 3, 2005) at 80, was one of the giants in astrophysics. His insights were profound and his interests were wide-ranging. Originally trained as a nuclear physicist, he made major contributions in a number of fields, including nuclear reactions in stars, nucleosynthesis, the abundances of the elements in the Solar System, and the origin of the Solar System and the Moon. In 1957, Cameron and, independently, Burbidge, Burbidge, Fowler and Hoyle, wrote seminal papers on nuclear astrophysics. Most of our current ideas concerning element formation in stars have followed from those two pioneering and historical works. Al also made many contributions in the field of Solar System physics. Particularly noteworthy in this regard was Cameron's work on the formation of the Moon. Al was also a good friend and mentor of young people. Al Cameron will be missed by many in the community both for his scientific contributions and for his friendship.

John J. Cowan; James W. Truran

2006-11-27

226

Comparing the Thermodynamic Behaviour of Al(1)+ZrO2(s) to Al(1)+Al2O3(s)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In an effort to better determine the thermodynamic properties of Al(g) and Al2O(g). the vapor in equilibrium with Al(l)+ZrO2(s) was compared to the vapor in equilibrium with Al(l)+Al2O3(s) over temperature range 1197-to-1509K. The comparison was made directly by Knudsen effusion-cell mass spectrometry with an instrument configured for a multiple effusion-cell vapor source (multi-cell KEMS). Second law enthalpies of vaporization of Al(g) and Al2O(g) together with activity measurements show that Al(l)+ZrO2(s) is thermodynamically equivalent to Al(l)+Al2O3(s), indicating Al(l) remained pure and Al2O3(s) was present in the ZrO2-cell. Subsequent observation of the Al(l)/ZrO2 and vapor/ZrO2 interfaces revealed a thin Al2O3-layer had formed, separating the ZrO2-cell from Al(l) and Al(g)+Al2O(g), effectively transforming it into an Al2O3 effusion-cell. This behavior agrees with recent observations made for Beta-NiAl(Pt) alloys measured in ZrO2 effusion-cell.

Copland, Evan

2004-01-01

227

[Current treatment of AL amyloidosis].  

PubMed

Systemic AL amyloidosis is a rare complication of monoclonal gammopathies. Renal manifestations are frequent, mostly characterized by heavy proteinuria, with nephrotic syndrome and renal failure in more than half of the patients at diagnosis. Without treatment, median survival does not exceed 12 months. Amyloid heart disease and diffusion of amyloid deposits are associated with reduced survival. Treatment of systemic AL amyloidosis has been profoundly modified with the introduction of international criteria for the definition of organ involvement and hematologic response, and with the use of sensitive tests for the measurement of serum-free light chain levels. Melphalan plus dexamethasone is now established as the gold standard for first line treatment of systemic AL, with similar efficacy and reduced treatment-related mortality compared to high-dose therapy. Modern chemotherapy regimens, based on the use of novel agents such as bortezomib and lenalidomide, might further improve patient survival. PMID:21497573

Desport, Estelle; Moumas, Eric; Abraham, Julie; Delbès, Sébastien; Lacotte-Thierry, Laurence; Touchard, Guy; Fermand, Jean-Paul; Bridoux, Frank; Jaccard, Arnaud

2011-11-01

228

Modeling of the ALS linac  

SciTech Connect

The ALS injector linac is used for the Beam Test Facility (BTF) and the Damping Experiments when it is available in between the ALS filings. These experiments usually require higher quality beams and a better characterization than is normally required for ALS operations. This paper focuses on the beam emittance, energy tilt, and especially the longitudinal variation of the beam parameters. For instance, the authors want to avoid longitudinal variations at the low beta section of the BTF. On the other hand, a large energy tilt is required for post-acceleration compression of the bunch using an alpha magnet. The PARMELA code was modified to calculate and display longitudinal variations of the emittance ellipse. Using the Microsoft Development Studio under Windows NT environment the code can handle a much larger number of particles than was previously possible.

Kim, C.H. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Advanced Light Source Center

1996-08-01

229

Al Akhawayn University Al Akhawayn partner of TUM since 2002  

E-print Network

Haddouti · Dissertation at Chair for Databases (Prof. Bayer), Professor at Al Akhawayn, now working at BMW) · BMW, Hachim.haddouti@bmw.de #12;Double Degree TUM - Georgia Tech Fakultät für Informatik TUM School

Cengarle, María Victoria

230

Al Akhawayn University Al Akhawayn partner of TUM since 2002  

E-print Network

Haddouti · Dissertation at Chair for Databases (Prof. Bayer), Professor at Al Akhawayn, now working at BMW Alumni) · BMW, Hachim.haddouti@bmw.de #12;Double Degree TUM - Georgia Tech Fakultät für Informatik TUM

Cengarle, María Victoria

231

Al Akhawayn University Al Akhawayn partner of TUM since 2002  

E-print Network

Haddouti · Dissertation at Chair for Databases (Prof. Bayer), Professor at Al Akhawayn, now working at BMW (TUM & AUI Alumni) · BMW, Hachim.haddouti@bmw.de #12;Double Degree TUM - Georgia Tech Fakultät für

Cengarle, María Victoria

232

AlN/Fe/AlN nanostructures for magnetooptic magnetometry  

SciTech Connect

AlN/Fe/AlN/Cu nanostructures with ultrathin Fe grown by sputtering on Si substrates are evaluated as probes for magnetooptical (MO) mapping of weak currents. They are considered for a laser wavelength of ??=?410?nm (3.02?eV) and operate at oblique light incidence angles, ?{sup (0)}, to enable detection of both in-plane and out-of-plane magnetization. Their performance is evaluated in terms of MO reflected wave electric field amplitudes. The maximal MO amplitudes in AlN/Fe/AlN/Cu are achieved by a proper choice of layer thicknesses. The nanostructures were characterized by MO polar Kerr effect at ?{sup (0)}???5° and longitudinal Kerr effect spectra (?{sup (0)}?=?45°) at photon energies between 1 and 5?eV. The nominal profiles were refined using a model-based analysis of the spectra. Closed form analytical expressions are provided, which are useful in the search for maximal MO amplitudes.

Lišková-Jakubisová, E., E-mail: liskova@karlov.mff.cuni.cz; Viš?ovský, Š. [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague, Ke Karlovu 5, 12116 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Široký, P.; Hrabovský, D.; Pištora, J. [Nanotechnology Center, Technical University of Ostrava, 17. listopadu 15/2172, 70833 Ostrava Poruba (Czech Republic); Harward, I.; Celinski, Z. [Center for Magnetism and Magnetic Nanostructures, University of Colorado at Colorado Springs, 1420 Austin Bluffs Pkwy., Colorado Springs, Colorado 80918 (United States)

2014-05-07

233

A nuclear magnetic resonance probe of Fe-Al and Al20V2Eu intermetallics  

E-print Network

Al-rich Fe-Al systems (FeAl2, Fe2 Al5 and Fe4Al13) and Al20V2Eu have complicated structures with quasicrystal-like features making these materials potentially of interest for magnetic behavior. However, there is not much work on these materials...

Chi, Ji

2009-05-15

234

Multiple 0Multiple 0 ----transitions intransitions in NbNb/Al/Al/Al/Al22OO33/Ni/Ni33Al/Al/NbNb Josephson tunnel junctions.Josephson tunnel junctions.  

E-print Network

in Strong Ferromagnetic Pi-Junctions, cond. mat.0606067 4,1 1,2 Ni 2.8 105 1000 This work 4,6 0,45 Ni3Al 1 reasons. · Ni3Al forms a single-crystalline layer and can exhibit a heteroepitaxial relation of being normalizedresidualmagneticmoment,a.u. T, K Normalised residual magnetic moment against temperature of a Nb/Al/Ni3Al/Al/Nb sample

Fominov, Yakov

235

Sobrevivir al cáncer: comer bien  

Cancer.gov

Sobrevivir al cáncer: comer bien Por el Instituto Nacional del Cáncer Bethesda, MD. - Más de 13 millones de personas que viven en Estados Unidos han recibido un diagnóstico de cáncer. Muchas de las personas que han tenido cáncer quieren seguir una

236

Grunditz et al. SUPPLEMENTAL METHODS  

E-print Network

Grunditz et al. 1 SUPPLEMENTAL METHODS Comparing FRAP of different fluorophores To compare YFP and Alexa-Fluor 594 FRAP measurements, YFP-expressing pyramidal cells were filled with Alexa-Fluor 594 through a patch pipette. Two-photon FRAP experiments were performed at 920 nm, and the recovery of both

Oertner, Thomas

237

Dynamic Modeling of ALS Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of dynamic modeling and simulation of Advanced Life Support (ALS) systems is to help design them. Static steady state systems analysis provides basic information and is necessary to guide dynamic modeling, but static analysis is not sufficient to design and compare systems. ALS systems must respond to external input variations and internal off-nominal behavior. Buffer sizing, resupply scheduling, failure response, and control system design are aspects of dynamic system design. We develop two dynamic mass flow models and use them in simulations to evaluate systems issues, optimize designs, and make system design trades. One model is of nitrogen leakage in the space station, the other is of a waste processor failure in a regenerative life support system. Most systems analyses are concerned with optimizing the cost/benefit of a system at its nominal steady-state operating point. ALS analysis must go beyond the static steady state to include dynamic system design. All life support systems exhibit behavior that varies over time. ALS systems must respond to equipment operating cycles, repair schedules, and occasional off-nominal behavior or malfunctions. Biological components, such as bioreactors, composters, and food plant growth chambers, usually have operating cycles or other complex time behavior. Buffer sizes, material stocks, and resupply rates determine dynamic system behavior and directly affect system mass and cost. Dynamic simulation is needed to avoid the extremes of costly over-design of buffers and material reserves or system failure due to insufficient buffers and lack of stored material.

Jones, Harry

2002-01-01

238

Sliding wear behavior of plasma sprayed Fe 3Al–Al 2O 3 graded coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fe3Al–Al2O3 double-layer coatings (DC), Fe3Al–Fe3Al\\/50%Al2O3–Al2O3 triple-layer coatings (TC) and Fe3Al–Al2O3 graded coatings (GC) were produced from a series of Fe3Al\\/Al2O3 composite powders with different compositions on low carbon steel substrate using PLAXAIR plasma spraying equipment. Friction behaviors and wear resistance of the three kinds of coatings have been investigated under different loads. Tests were carried out using an MRH-3 standard

Jingde Zhang; Kangning Sun; Jiangting Wang; Baoyan Tian; Hongsheng Wang; Yansheng Yin

2008-01-01

239

SMERDON ET AL.: AUXILIARY MATERIAL Auxiliary Material  

E-print Network

SMERDON ET AL.: AUXILIARY MATERIAL 1 Auxiliary Material Spatial Performance of Four Climate Field run [Ammann et al., 2007; hereinafter CCSM] and the GKSS ECHO-g ERIK2 run [González-Rouco et al., 2006-longitude grids and comprise the grid from which all samplings are performed [Smerdon et al., 2008

Smerdon, Jason E.

240

(12) United States Patent Hendricks et al.  

E-print Network

/1976 McGuire 5/1977 Ryan et al. 111978 Bushnell et al. 4/1980 Sukonick et al. (Continued) FOREIGN PATENT DOCUMENTS 4,959,810 A 9/1990 Darbee et al. 4,961,109 A 10/1990 Tanaka 4,272,819 A 611981 Katsumata et al. 4,965,819 A 10/1990 Kannes 4,298,793 A 1111981 Melis et al. 4,965,825 A 10/1990 Harvey et al. 4,361,848 A 1111982

Shamos, Michael I.

241

Identification of Candida albicans ALS2 and ALS4 and localization of als proteins to the fungal cell surface.  

PubMed

Additional genes in the growing ALS family of Candida albicans were isolated by PCR screening of a genomic fosmid library with primers designed from the consensus tandem-repeat sequence of ALS1. This procedure yielded fosmids encoding ALS2 and ALS4. ALS2 and ALS4 conformed to the three-domain structure of ALS genes, which consists of a central domain of tandemly repeated copies of a 108-bp motif, an upstream domain of highly conserved sequences, and a domain of divergent sequences 3' of the tandem repeats. Alignment of five predicted Als protein sequences indicated conservation of N- and C-terminal hydrophobic regions which have the hallmarks of secretory signal sequences and glycosylphosphatidylinositol addition sites, respectively. Heterologous expression of an N-terminal fragment of Als1p in Saccharomyces cerevisiae demonstrated function of the putative signal sequence with cleavage following Ala17. This signal sequence cleavage site was conserved in the four other Als proteins analyzed, suggesting identical processing of each protein. Primary-structure features of the five Als proteins suggested a cell-surface localization, which was confirmed by indirect immunofluorescence with an anti-Als antiserum. Staining was observed on mother yeasts and germ tubes, although the intensity of staining on the mother yeast decreased with elongation of the germ tube. Similar to other ALS genes, ALS2 and ALS4 were differentially regulated. ALS4 expression was correlated with the growth phase of the culture; ALS2 expression was not observed under many different in vitro growth conditions. The data presented here demonstrate that ALS genes encode cell-surface proteins and support the conclusion that the size and number of Als proteins on the C. albicans cell surface vary with strain and growth conditions. PMID:9765564

Hoyer, L L; Payne, T L; Hecht, J E

1998-10-01

242

AlSb/InAs/AlSb quantum wells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Researchers studied the InAs/AlSb system recently, obtaining 12nm wide quantum wells with room temperature mobilities up to 28,000 cm(exp 2)/V center dot S and low-temperature mobilities up to 325,000 cm(exp 2)/V center dot S, both at high electron sheet concentrations in the 10(exp 12)/cm(exp 2) range (corresponding to volume concentrations in the 10(exp 18)/cm(exp 2) range). These wells were not intentionally doped; the combination of high carrier concentrations and high mobilities suggest that the electrons are due to not-intentional modulation doping by an unknown donor in the AlSb barriers, presumably a stoichiometric defect, like an antisite donor. Inasmuch as not intentionally doped bulk AlSb is semi-insulating, the donor must be a deep one, being ionized only by draining into the even deeper InAs quantum well. The excellent transport properties are confirmed by other observations, like excellent quantum Hall effect data, and the successful use of the quantum wells as superconductive weak links between Nb electrodes, with unprecendentedly high critical current densities. The system is promising for future field effect transistors (FETs), but many processing problems must first be solved. Although the researchers have achieved FETs, the results so far have not been competitive with GaAs FETs.

Kroemer, Herbert

1990-01-01

243

SCIENCE CAREER Al nanoclusters in coagulants and granulates: application  

E-print Network

SCIENCE CAREER Al nanoclusters in coagulants and granulates: application in arsenic removal from suitable for arsenic removal. The aluminum nanocl- usters Al13 (AlO4Al12(OH)24H2O12 7? ) and Al30 (Al2O8Al coagulant or in Al granulate during water treatment. Keywords Arsenic Á Water treatment Á Al nanoclusters Á

Wehrli, Bernhard

244

(12) United States Patent Hendricks et al.  

E-print Network

,272,819 A 611981 Katsumata et al. 4,405,829 A * 911983 Rivest et al. ................. 380/30 4,513,390 A 411985 Walter et al. 4,528,643 A * 711985 Freeny, Jr.................... 705/52 4,578,531 A * 311986 Everhart et Kollin et al. 4,796,220 A 111989 Wolfe 4,829,569 A * 511989 Seth-Smith et al. ........ 380/234 4

Shamos, Michael I.

245

Ordering process of Al 5Ti 3, hAl 2Ti and r-Al 2Ti with f.c.c.-based long-period superstructures in rapidly solidified Al-rich TiAl alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Change in microstructure and stability of superstructural phases in Al-rich TiAl alloys containing 58.0–62.5at.% Al were investigated using melt-spun ribbons. Ordering processes of long-period ordered phases such as Al5Ti3, h-Al2Ti and r-Al2Ti in the L10 matrix during annealing were examined. The presence of Al5Ti3 and h-Al2Ti phases in the L10 matrix was confirmed in melt-spun Ti–60.0at.% Al and Ti–62.5at.% Al

T. Nakano; A. Negishi; K. Hayashi; Y. Umakoshi

1999-01-01

246

First-principles calculations on Al/AlB 2 interfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The AlB 2 (1 1 1) surfaces and Al (1 1 1)/AlB 2 (0 0 0 1) interface were studied by first-principles calculations to clarify the heterogeneous nucleation potential of ?-Al grains on AlB 2 particles in purity aluminium and hypoeutectic Al-Si alloys. It is demonstrated that the AlB 2 (0 0 0 1) surface models with more than nine atomic layers exhibit bulk-like interior, wherein the interlayer relaxations localized within the top three layers are well converged. The outmost layer of AlB 2 free surface having a preference of metal atom termination is evidenced by surface energy calculations. With Al atoms continuing the natural stacking sequence of bulk AlB 2, Al-Al metallic bonds are formed across interface during the combination of Al atoms with Al-terminated AlB 2 surface. The calculated interfacial energy of the Al/AlB 2 interface is much larger than that between the ?-Al and aluminium melts, elucidating the poor nucleation potency of ?-Al grains on AlB 2 particles from thermodynamic considerations.

Han, Y. F.; Dai, Y. B.; Wang, J.; Shu, D.; Sun, B. D.

2011-06-01

247

Mg isotopic heterogeneity, Al-Mg isochrons, and canonical 26Al/27Al in the early solar system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abstract-There is variability in the Mg isotopic composition that is a reflection of the widespread heterogeneity in the isotopic composition of the elements in the solar system at approximately 100 ppm. Measurements on a single calcium-aluminum-rich inclusion (CAI) gave a good correlation of 26Mg/24Mg with 27<span class="hlt">Al</span>/24Mg, yielding an isochron corresponding to an initial (26<span class="hlt">Al</span>/27<span class="hlt">Al</span>)o = (5.27 ± 0.18) × 10-5 and an initial (26Mg/24Mg)o = -0.127 ± 0.032‰ relative to the standard. This isochron is parallel to that obtained by <link href="#b41 #b42">Jacobsen et <span class="hlt">al</span>. (2008), but is distinctively offset. This demonstrates that there are different initial Mg isotopic compositions in different samples with the same 26<span class="hlt">Al</span>/27<span class="hlt">Al</span>. No inference about uniformity/heterogeneity of 26<span class="hlt">Al</span>/27<span class="hlt">Al</span> on a macro scale can be based on the initial (26Mg/24Mg)o values. Different values of 26<span class="hlt">Al</span>/27<span class="hlt">Al</span> for samples representing the same point in time would prove heterogeneity of 26<span class="hlt">Al</span>/27<span class="hlt">Al</span>. The important issue is whether the bulk solar inventory of 26<span class="hlt">Al</span>/27<span class="hlt">Al</span> was approximately 5 × 10-5 at some point in the early solar system. We discuss ultra refractory phases of solar type oxygen isotope composition with 26<span class="hlt">Al</span>/27<span class="hlt">Al</span> from approximately 5 × 10-5 to below 0.2 × 10-5. We argue that the real issues are: intrinsic heterogeneity in the parent cloud; mechanism and timing for the later production of 16O-poor material; and the relationship to earlier formed 16O-rich material in the disk. 26<span class="hlt">Al</span>-free refractories can be produced at a later time by late infall, if there is an adequate heat source, or from original heterogeneities in the placental molecular cloud from which the solar system formed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wasserburg, G. J.; Wimpenny, Josh; Yin, Qing-Zhu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">248</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://darmuseum.org.kw/dai/the-collections/"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Collections - Dar <span class="hlt">al</span>-Athar <span class="hlt">al</span>-Islamiyyah</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Regarded by experts as one of a handful of the most comprehensive collections of Islamic art in the world, the <span class="hlt">al</span>-Sabah holdings in Kuwait feature 20,000 objects from geographically and chronologically diverse locations. Nine categories - Metals, Ceramics, Glass, Ivory & Wood, Jewelry & Hardstone, Numismatics, Rugs & Textiles, Manuscripts & Calligraphy, and Stone & Stucco - can be accessed from the collections page with the click of a mouse. Within each category, short essays contextualize the beautiful photographs of ancient, medieval, and modern Islamic art in a wide variety of mediums and styles.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">249</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-12-11/pdf/2012-29870.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">77 FR 73732 - In the Matter of Amendment of the Designation of <span class="hlt">al</span>-Qa'ida in Iraq, aka Jam'at <span class="hlt">al</span> Tawhid wa'<span class="hlt">al</span>...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...<span class="hlt">al</span>-Rafidayn, aka The Organization of <span class="hlt">al</span>-Jihad's Base of Operations in Iraq, aka <span class="hlt">al</span>-Qaida of Jihad in Iraq, aka <span class="hlt">al</span>-Qaida in Iraq, aka <span class="hlt">al</span>-Qaida in Mesopotamia, aka <span class="hlt">al</span>-Qaida in the Land of the Two Rivers, aka <span class="hlt">al</span>-Qaida of the...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-11</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">250</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40366577"> <span id="translatedtitle">Electrochemical behaviour and corrosion inhibition of <span class="hlt">Al</span>, <span class="hlt">Al</span>6061 and <span class="hlt">Al</span>–Cu in neutral aqueous solutions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The electrochemical behaviour of <span class="hlt">Al</span> and two of its widely used alloys, <span class="hlt">Al</span>-6061 and <span class="hlt">Al</span>–Cu, was investigated in neutral solutions at pH 7. The corrosion inhibition of these materials was studied in neutral solutions using sulphates, molybdates and dichromates as passivators. The effectiveness of dichromates as passivators for <span class="hlt">Al</span> and its alloys in these solutions was discussed. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">W. A. Badawy; F. M. Al-Kharafi; A. S. El-Azab</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">251</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940032245&hterms=base+comp&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dbase%2Bcomp"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>-base composite containing high volume fraction of <span class="hlt">Al</span>N for advanced engines</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A particulate reinforced Ni<span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>N composite alloy has a Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> matrix and greater than about 13 volume percent fine particles of <span class="hlt">Al</span>N within the matrix. The particles preferably have a diameter from about 15 nanometers to about 50 nanometers. The particulate reinforced Ni<span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>N composite alloy may be prepared by cryomilling prealloyed Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> in liquid nitrogen using grinding media having a diameter of from about 2 to 6 mm at an impeller speed of from about 450 RPM to about 800 RPM. The cryomilling may be done for a duration of from about 4 hours to about 20 hours to obtain a cryomilled powder. The cryomilled powder may be consolidated to form the particulate reinforced Ni<span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>N composite alloy. The particulate reinforced alloy can further include a toughening alloy. The toughening alloy may include NiCr<span class="hlt">Al</span>Y, FeCr<span class="hlt">Al</span>Y, and Fe<span class="hlt">Al</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hebsur, Mohan (inventor); Whittenbeger, John D. (inventor); Lowell, Carl F. (inventor)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">252</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40360843"> <span id="translatedtitle">New <span class="hlt">Al–Al</span>N composites fabricated by squeeze casting: interfacial phenomena</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Three <span class="hlt">Al–Al</span>N composites (2024, 6060, 5754 with ?45vol% <span class="hlt">Al</span>N) fabricated by squeeze casting were studied by TEM. Chemical reactions occurring at the matrix–<span class="hlt">Al</span>N interfaces have been investigated. Mg<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O4 spinel crystals were found in 6060 and 5754 composites. The magnesium element of the matrix reacts with a very thin alumina layer which is deposited on the <span class="hlt">Al</span>N surfaces during the liquid</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J Vicens; M Chédru; J. L Chermant</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">253</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://sims.ess.ucla.edu/argonlab/pdf/young_etal_Science_2005.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Supra-Canonical 26<span class="hlt">Al</span>/27<span class="hlt">Al</span> and the Residence Time of CAIs in the</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Supra-Canonical 26<span class="hlt">Al</span>/27<span class="hlt">Al</span> and the Residence Time of CAIs in the Solar Protoplanetary Disk Edward D initial 26<span class="hlt">Al</span>/27<span class="hlt">Al</span> ratio of 4.5 Ã? 10­5 has been a fiducial marker for the beginning of the solar system that some CAIs had initial 26<span class="hlt">Al</span>/27<span class="hlt">Al</span> values at least 25% greater than canonical and that the canonical</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Harrison, Mark</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">254</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/7368756"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">ALS</span> Gun Electronics system</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">ALS</span> Gun Electronics system has been designed to accommodate gun with a custom made socket and high speed electronics circuit which is capable of producing single and multiple electron bunches with time jitters measured at better than 50 PS. The system generates the gated RF signal at ground level before sending it up to the 120 KV-biased gun deck via a fiber optic cable. The current pulse width as a function of grid bias, using an Eimac 8847A planar triode simulating an electron gun, was measured to show the relationship between the two parameters.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lo, C.C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">255</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://arep.med.harvard.edu/pdf/Church98_opore.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">United States Patent [19] Church et <span class="hlt">al</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">United States Patent [19] Church et <span class="hlt">al</span>. [54] CHARACTERIZATION OF INDIVIDUAL POLYMER MOLECULES BASED 1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 US005795782A [11] Patent Number: [45] Date of Patent: 5,795,782 Aug. 18, 1998 Boulanger et <span class="hlt">al</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Church, George M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">256</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6044393"> <span id="translatedtitle">Characterization of Nb/<span class="hlt">Al</span>O/sub x-/<span class="hlt">Al</span>/Nb junction structures by anodization spectroscopy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The thin tunneling barrier in Nb/<span class="hlt">AlOx-Al</span>/Nb Josephson junction was characterized by anodization spectroscopy. The authors' studies focus on Nb/<span class="hlt">Al</span>Ox and <span class="hlt">Al</span>/Nb interfaces in Nb/<span class="hlt">AlOx-Al</span>/Nb structures made by varying certain process parameters. The interface quality is greatly affected by film thickness, layer sequence, annealing, and existence of a thin oxide. Anodization spectroscopy is a useful technique to diagnose the tunneling barrier in the Nb/<span class="hlt">AlOx-Al</span>/Nb Josephson junctions during fabrication processes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Imamura, T.; Hasuo, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">257</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://vertes.columbian.gwu.edu/publicat_html/Vertes%202011%20US%207,964,843%20B2.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">(12) United States Patent Vertes et <span class="hlt">al</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">(12) United States Patent Vertes et <span class="hlt">al</span>. (54) THREE-DIMENSIONAL MOLECULAR IMAGING BY INFRARED LASER/0012831 <span class="hlt">Al</span> Jan. 21, 2010 Related U.S. Application Data (63) Continuation-in-part of application No. 121176,656,690 B2 6,744,046 B2 6,991,903 B2 7,084,396 B2 12/2003 Crooke et <span class="hlt">al</span>. 612004 Valaskovic et <span class="hlt">al</span>. 112006 Fu</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vertes, Akos</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">258</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://vertes.columbian.gwu.edu/publicat_html/Vertes%202011%20US%208,084,734%20B2.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">(12) United States Patent Vertes et <span class="hlt">al</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">(12) United States Patent Vertes et <span class="hlt">al</span>. (54) LASER DESORPTION IONIZATION AND PEPTIDE SEQUENCING. (21) Appl. No.: 11/674,671 (22) Filed: Feb. 14,2007 (65) Prior Publication Data US 2009/0321626 <span class="hlt">Al</span> Dec Suizdak et <span class="hlt">al</span>. 6,589,485 B2 7/2003 Koster 6,794,196 B2 912004 Fonash et <span class="hlt">al</span>. 6,846,681 B2 112005 Buriak et</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vertes, Akos</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">259</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22150036"> <span id="translatedtitle">Aluminium distribution in ZSM-5 revisited: The role of <span class="hlt">Al-Al</span> interactions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present a theoretical study of the distribution of <span class="hlt">Al</span> atoms in zeolite ZSM-5 with Si/<span class="hlt">Al</span>=47, where we focus on the role of <span class="hlt">Al-Al</span> interactions rather than on the energetics of <span class="hlt">Al</span>/Si substitutions at individual sites. Using interatomic potential methods, we evaluate the energies of the full set of symmetrically independent configurations of <span class="hlt">Al</span> siting in a Si{sub 94}<span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 2}O{sub 192} cell. The equilibrium <span class="hlt">Al</span> distribution is determined by the interplay of two factors: the energetics of the <span class="hlt">Al</span>/Si substitution at an individual site, which tends to populate particular T sites (e.g., the T14 site), and the <span class="hlt">Al-Al</span> interaction, which at this Si/<span class="hlt">Al</span> maximises <span class="hlt">Al-Al</span> distances in general agreement with Dempsey's rule. However, it is found that the interaction energy changes approximately as the inverse of the square of the distance between the two <span class="hlt">Al</span> atoms, rather than the inverse of the distance expected if this were merely charge repulsion. Moreover, we find that the anisotropic nature of the framework density plays an important role in determining the magnitude of the interactions, which are not simply dependent on <span class="hlt">Al-Al</span> distances. - Graphical abstract: Role of <span class="hlt">Al-Al</span> interactions in high silica ZSM-5 is shown to be anisotropic in nature and not dependent solely on Coulombic interactions. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Si-<span class="hlt">Al</span> distribution in ZSM-5 is revisited, stressing the role of the <span class="hlt">Al-Al</span> interaction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Coulomb interactions are not the key factors controlling the <span class="hlt">Al</span> siting. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Anisotropy of the framework is identified as a source of departure from Dempsey's rule.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ruiz-Salvador, A. Rabdel, E-mail: rabdel@imre.oc.uh.cu [Group of Materials Developed by Design, Division of Chemistry and Technology of Materials, Institute of Materials Science and Engineering (IMRE), University of Havana, Havana 10400 (Cuba); Grau-Crespo, Ricardo; Gray, Aileen E.; Lewis, Dewi W. [Department of Chemistry, University College London, 20 Gordon Street, London, WC1H OAJ (United Kingdom)] [Department of Chemistry, University College London, 20 Gordon Street, London, WC1H OAJ (United Kingdom)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-02-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">260</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10174408"> <span id="translatedtitle">Nonstoichiometry of <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Zr intermetallic phases</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Nonstoichiometry of metastable cubic {beta}{prime} and equilibrium tetragonal {beta} <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Zr intermetallic phases of the nominal composition <span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 3}Zr in <span class="hlt">Al</span>-rich alloys has been extensively studied. It is proposed that the ``dark contrast`` of {beta}{prime} core in {beta}{prime}/{sigma}{prime} complex precipitates, in <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Li-Zr based alloys, is caused by incorporation of <span class="hlt">Al</span> and Li atoms into the {beta}{prime} phase on Zr sublattice sites, forming nonstoichiometric <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Zr intermetallic phases, rather than by Li partitioning only. {beta}{prime} particles contain very small amounts of Zr, approximately 5 at.%, much less than the stoichiometric 25 at.% in the <span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 3}Zr metastable phase. These particles are, according to simulation of high resolution images, of the <span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 3}(<span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 0.4}Li{sub 0.4}Zr{sub 0.2}) type. Nonstoichiometric particles of average composition <span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 4}Zr and <span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 6}Zr are observed also in the binary <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Zr alloy, even after annealing for several hours at 600{degree}C.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Radmilovic, V.; Thomas, G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" 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showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">261</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014IJMMM..21..796S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span>N, <span class="hlt">Al</span>CrN, and <span class="hlt">AlCrN/TiAl</span>N coatings for cutting-tool applications</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Monolayer and bilayer coatings of Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span>N, <span class="hlt">Al</span>CrN, and <span class="hlt">AlCrN/TiAl</span>N were deposited onto tungsten carbide inserts using the plasma enhanced physical vapor deposition process. The microstructures of the coatings were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The SEM micrographs revealed that the <span class="hlt">Al</span>CrN and <span class="hlt">AlCrN/TiAl</span>N coatings were uniform and highly dense and contained only a limited number of microvoids. The Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span>N coating was non-uniform and highly porous and contained more micro droplets. The hardness and scratch resistance of the specimens were measured using a nanoindentation tester and scratch tester, respectively. Different phases formed in the coatings were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The <span class="hlt">AlCrN/TiAl</span>N coating exhibited a higher hardness (32.75 GPa), a higher Young's modulus (561.97 GPa), and superior scratch resistance ( L CN = 46 N) compared to conventional coatings such as Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span>N, <span class="hlt">Al</span>CrN, and TiN.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sampath Kumar, T.; Balasivanandha Prabu, S.; Manivasagam, Geetha; Padmanabhan, K. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">262</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://sci.kj.yamagata-u.ac.jp/~htomimatsu/reprints/Tomimatsu_2007_JpnJEcol.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Klimes et <span class="hlt">al</span>. 1997 Dioscorea japonica</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">and Silvertown 2004 Charpentier et <span class="hlt">al</span>. 2000 Eckert 2000 Maynard Smith 1980 Utricularia australis f. tenuicaulis U. macrorhiza U. australis F1 Kameyama et <span class="hlt">al</span>. 2005 Kameyama and Ohara 2006 3 genet #12;262 Barrett et <span class="hlt">al</span>. 1993, Ohara M (2005) Hybrid origins and F1 dominance in the free-floating, sterile bladderwort, Utricularia</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tomimatsu,, Hiroshi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">263</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://hal.inria.fr/docs/00/14/36/39/PDF/Lazennec.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Freund et <span class="hlt">al</span>. Mechanisms underlying differential expression</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">), colon (Brew et <span class="hlt">al</span>., 1996), lung (Masuya et <span class="hlt">al</span>., 2001), ovary (Xu & Fidler, 2000) and melanoma cancersFreund et <span class="hlt">al</span>. - 1 - Mechanisms underlying differential expression of interleukin-8 in breast cancer, Françoise Vignon and Gwendal Lazennec ¶ INSERM U540 "Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology of Cancers", 60</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Boyer, Edmond</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">264</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/52758384"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ag-<span class="hlt">Al</span>-Mg (Silver - Aluminium - Magnesium)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This document is part of Subvolume A1 'Light Metal Systems. Part 1: Selected Systems from Ag-<span class="hlt">Al</span>-Cu to <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Cu-Er' of Volume 11 'Ternary Alloy Systems - Phase Diagrams, Crystallographic and Thermodynamic Data critically evaluated by MSIT®' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group IV Physical Chemistry. It provides the data for the ternary system Ag-<span class="hlt">Al</span>-Mg (Silver - Aluminium - Magnesium).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">265</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/11409636"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effect of magnesium content on the high temperature adhesion of <span class="hlt">Al</span>–Mg alloys to steel surfaces</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The transfer and adhesion of material to die surfaces during the rolling or stamping of aluminum alloy sheets reduce the surface quality of the finished product, particularly when these operations are conducted at elevated temperatures. This study investigates the effect of magnesium content on high-temperature adhesion between aluminum alloys containing different percentages of magnesium, and an <span class="hlt">AISI</span> 52100 steel. 5000</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. R. Riahi; A. Edrisy; A. T. Alpas</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">266</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10177889"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">AISI</span> Direct Steelmaking Program. Final technical report</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This final report deals with the results of a 5-yr project for developing a more energy-efficient, environmentally friendly, less costly process for producing hot metal than current coke ovens and blast furnaces. In the process, iron ore pellets are smelted in a foamy slag created by reaction of coal char with molten slag to produce CO. The CO further reacts with oxygen, which also reacts with coal volatile matter, to produce the heat necessary to sustain the endothermic reduction reaction. The uncombusted CO and H{sub 2} from the coal are used to preheat and prereduce hematite pellets for the most efficient use of the energy in the coal. Laboratory programs confirmed that the process steps worked. Pilot plant studies were successful. Economic analysis for a 1 million tpy plant is promising.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Aukrust, E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">267</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920064247&hterms=resistance+change&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dresistance%2Bchange"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cyclic oxidation resistance of a reaction milled Ni<span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>N composite</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Based upon recent mechanical property tests a Ni<span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>N composite produced by cryomilling has very attractive high temperature strength. This paper focuses on the oxidation resistance of the Ni<span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>N composite at 1473 and 1573 K as compared to that of Ni-47<span class="hlt">Al</span>-0.15Zr, one of the most oxidation resistant intermetallics. The results of cyclic oxidation tests show that the Ni<span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>N composite has excellent properties although not quite as good as those of Ni-47<span class="hlt">Al</span>-0.15Zr. The onset of failure of the Ni<span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>N was unique in that it was not accompanied by a change in scale composition from alumina to less protective oxides. Failure in the composite appears to be related to the entrapment of <span class="hlt">Al</span>N particles within the alumina scale.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lowell, Carl E.; Barrett, Charles A.; Whittenberger, J. D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">268</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040087167&hterms=factors+required+decision+making&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dfactors%2Brequired%2Bdecision%2Bmaking"> <span id="translatedtitle">Systems Engineering Techniques for <span class="hlt">ALS</span> Decision Making</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Advanced Life Support (<span class="hlt">ALS</span>) Metric is the predominant tool for predicting the cost of <span class="hlt">ALS</span> systems. Metric goals for the <span class="hlt">ALS</span> Program are daunting, requiring a threefold increase in the <span class="hlt">ALS</span> Metric by 2010. Confounding the problem, the rate new <span class="hlt">ALS</span> technologies reach the maturity required for consideration in the <span class="hlt">ALS</span> Metric and the rate at which new configurations are developed is slow, limiting the search space and potentially giving the perspective of a <span class="hlt">ALS</span> technology, the <span class="hlt">ALS</span> Metric may remain elusive. This paper is a sequel to a paper published in the proceedings of the 2003 ICES conference entitled, "Managing to the metric: an approach to optimizing life support costs." The conclusions of that paper state that the largest contributors to the <span class="hlt">ALS</span> Metric should be targeted by <span class="hlt">ALS</span> researchers and management for maximum metric reductions. Certainly, these areas potentially offer large potential benefits to future <span class="hlt">ALS</span> missions; however, the <span class="hlt">ALS</span> Metric is not the only decision-making tool available to the community. To facilitate decision-making within the <span class="hlt">ALS</span> community a combination of metrics should be utilized, such as the Equivalent System Mass (ESM)-based <span class="hlt">ALS</span> metric, but also those available through techniques such as life cycle costing and faithful consideration of the sensitivity of the assumed models and data. Often a lack of data is cited as the reason why these techniques are not considered for utilization. An existing database development effort within the <span class="hlt">ALS</span> community, known as OPIS, may provide the opportunity to collect the necessary information to enable the proposed systems analyses. A review of these additional analysis techniques is provided, focusing on the data necessary to enable these. The discussion is concluded by proposing how the data may be utilized by analysts in the future.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rodriquez, Luis F.; Drysdale, Alan E.; Jones, Harry; Levri, Julie A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">269</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA07216&hterms=Arabic+Arabic+al-+arab+yah&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DArabic%2B%257C%2B%25D8%25A7%25D9%2584%25D8%25B9%25D8%25B1%25D8%25A8%25D9%258A%25D8%25A9%2B%257C%2Bal-%25CA%25BBarab%25C4%25AByah%2B%257C%2B%25D8%25B9%25D8%25B1%25D8%25A8%25D9%258A%252F%2526"> <span id="translatedtitle">Opportunity's 'Rub <span class="hlt">al</span> Khali' Panorama</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><p/> [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Opportunity's 'Rub <span class="hlt">al</span> Khali' Panorama (QTVR) <p/> This panoramic image, dubbed 'Rub <span class="hlt">al</span> Khali,' was acquired by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity on the plains of Meridiani during the period from the rover's 456th to 464th sols on Mars (May 6 to May 14, 2005). Opportunity was about 2 kilometers (1.2 miles) south of 'Endurance Crater' at a place known informally as 'Purgatory Dune.' <p/> The rover was stuck in the dune's deep fine sand for more than a month. 'Rub <span class="hlt">al</span> Khali' (Arabic translation: 'the empty quarter') was chosen as the name for this panorama because it is the name of a similarly barren, desolate part of the Saudi Arabian desert on Earth. <p/> The view spans 360 degrees. It consists of images obtained in 97 individual pointings of the panoramic camera. The camera took images with five camera filters at each pointing. This 22,780-by-6,000-pixel mosaic is an approximately true-color rendering generated using the images acquired through filters admitting light wavelengths of 750, 530, and 480 nanometers. <p/> Lighting varied during the nine sols it took to acquire this panorama, resulting in some small image seams within the mosaic. These seams have been smoothed in sky parts of the mosaic to better simulate the vista that a person would see if able to view it all at the same time on Mars. <p/> Opportunity's tracks leading back to the north (center of the panorama) are a reminder of the rover's long trek from Endurance Crater. The deep ruts dug by Opportunity's wheels as it became stuck in the sand appear in the foreground. The crest and trough of the last ripple the rover crossed before getting stuck is visible in the center. These wind-formed sand features are only about 10 to 15 centimeters (4 to 6 inches) tall. The crest of the actual ripple where the rover got stuck can be seen just to the right of center. The tracks and a few other places on and near ripple crests can be seen in this color image to be dustier than the undisturbed or 'normal' plains soils in Meridiani. Since the time these ruts were made, some of the dust there has been blown away by the wind, reaffirming the dynamic nature of the martian environment, even in this barren, ocean-like desert of sand.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">270</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ApPhL.102e1912S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Oxidation induced softening in <span class="hlt">Al</span> nanowires</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The mechanical properties of metallic nanowires depend dramatically on the atmospheric conditions. Molecular-dynamics simulations with ReaxFF were conducted to study tensile elastic deformation of oxidized <span class="hlt">Al</span> nanowires. The thin amorphous oxide shell formed around <span class="hlt">Al</span> nanowires had a very low Young's modulus of 26 GPa, due to its low density and low <span class="hlt">Al</span>-O coordination. Consequently, for diameters less than 100 nm, the composite Young's modulus of oxide-covered <span class="hlt">Al</span> nanowires showed a size dependence implying that in this case "smaller is softer." The model developed also explained the discrepancies in the reported modulus values of nanometer-scale <span class="hlt">Al</span> thin films.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sen, Fatih G.; Qi, Yue; van Duin, Adri C. T.; Alpas, Ahmet T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">271</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009bein.book...29D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Instandhaltungsmanagement <span class="hlt">als</span> Gestaltungsfeld Ganzheitlicher Produktionssysteme</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Sich kontinuierlich verändernde Rahmenbedingungen, wie beispielsweise eine steigende Variantenvielfalt, verkürzte Produktlebenszyklen sowie Kundenforderungen nach höherer Qualität, kürzeren Lieferzeiten und geringeren Kosten, fordern von produzierenden Unternehmen eine stetige Anpassung der Prozesse, der Organisation und der Strukturen. Seit den 90er Jahren versuchen immer mehr deutsche Unternehmen diesen veränderten Anforderungen mit der Einführung eines Ganzheitlichen Produktionssystems (GPS) zu begegnen. Ganzheitliche Produktionssysteme sind dabei in ihren Grundlagen an das Toyota Produktionssystem angelehnt, vereinigen aber auch weitere Methoden zu einem unternehmensspezifischen Regelwerk. Im Rahmen des langfristigen Trends zu unternehmensindividuellen Produktionssystemen wird sowohl in der Industrie <span class="hlt">als</span> auch in der Forschung intensiv über das Toyota Produktionssystem, Lean Production, Lean Management und Ganzheitliche Produktionssysteme diskutiert, werden Konzepte zu Implementierung und Betrieb erstellt und die Wirtschaftlichkeit untersucht.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dombrowski, Uwe; Schulze, Sven; Otano, Isabel Crespo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">272</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JTST...22.1283S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Reactive Plasma Spraying of Fine <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3/<span class="hlt">Al</span>N Feedstock Powder</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Reactive plasma spraying (RPS) is a promising technology for in situ formation of aluminum nitride (<span class="hlt">Al</span>N) coatings. Recently, <span class="hlt">Al</span>N-based coatings were fabricated by RPS of alumina (<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3) powder in N2/H2 thermal plasma. This study investigated the feasibility of RPS of a fine <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3/<span class="hlt">Al</span>N mixture and the influence of the plasma gases (N2, H2) on the nitriding conversion, and coating microstructure and properties. Thick <span class="hlt">AlN/Al</span>2O3 coatings with high nitride content were successfully fabricated. The coatings consist of h-<span class="hlt">Al</span>N, c-<span class="hlt">Al</span>N, <span class="hlt">Al</span>5O6N, ?-<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3, and a small amount of ?-<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3. Use of fine particles enhanced the nitriding conversion and the melting tendency by increasing the surface area. Furthermore, the <span class="hlt">Al</span>N additive improved the <span class="hlt">Al</span>N content in the coatings. Increasing the N2 gas flow rate improved the nitride content and complete crystal growth to the h-<span class="hlt">Al</span>N phase, and enhanced the coating thickness. On the other hand, though the H2 gas is required for plasma nitriding of the <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 particles, increasing its flow rate decreased the nitride content and the coating thickness. Remarkable influence of the plasma gases on the coating composition, microstructure, and properties was observed during RPS of the fine particles.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shahien, Mohammed; Yamada, Motohiro; Yasui, Toshiaki; Fukumoto, Masahiro</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">273</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://depts.washington.edu/cosmolab/chem/Al-26_Be-10.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">UW Cosmogenic Isotopes <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Be 1 EXTRACTION OF <span class="hlt">Al</span> & Be FROM QUARTZ FOR ISOTOPIC ANALYSIS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">UW Cosmogenic Isotopes <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Be 1 EXTRACTION OF <span class="hlt">Al</span> & Be FROM QUARTZ FOR ISOTOPIC ANALYSIS Summary This method is used to separate <span class="hlt">Al</span> and Be for AMS analysis from pure quartz samples. After adding Be carrier, quartz is dissolved in HF. The solution is sub-sampled for determination of total <span class="hlt">Al</span> content, then dried</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stone, John</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">274</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/53608137"> <span id="translatedtitle">Adhesion and nonwetting-wetting transition in the <span class="hlt">Al\\/alpha-Al</span>2O3 interface</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Using a reactive force field (ReaxFF), we investigated the structural, energetic, and adhesion properties, of both solid and liquid <span class="hlt">Al\\/alpha-Al</span>2O3 interfaces. The ReaxFF was developed solely with ab initio calculations on various phases of <span class="hlt">Al</span> and <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 and <span class="hlt">Al</span>-O-H clusters. Our computed lattice constants, elastic constants, surface energies, and calculated work of separation for the solid-solid interface agree well with</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Qing Zhang; Tahir Çagin; Adri van Duin; William A. Goddard; Yue Qi; Louis G. Hector</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">275</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/18507617"> <span id="translatedtitle">Delafossite Cu<span class="hlt">Al</span>O 2 films prepared by reactive sputtering using Cu and <span class="hlt">Al</span> targets</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Composition and structure of Cu<span class="hlt">Al</span>O2 films, deposited through the dc-reactive sputtering method using Cu and <span class="hlt">Al</span> elemental targets and Ar-diluted oxygen gas, were controlled by the Cu and <span class="hlt">Al</span> deposition periods and the postannealing temperature. The delafossite Cu<span class="hlt">Al</span>O2 films were successfully prepared by the postannealing of the films with [Cu]\\/[<span class="hlt">Al</span>]=1 at temperatures higher than 700 °C in the nitrogen atmosphere.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">N. Tsuboi; Y. Takahashi; S. Kobayashi; H. Shimizu; K. Kato; F. Kaneko</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">276</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22162790"> <span id="translatedtitle">Atom probe analysis of <span class="hlt">Al</span>N interlayers in <span class="hlt">AlGaN/Al</span>N/GaN heterostructures</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Atom probe tomography was used to characterize <span class="hlt">Al</span>N interlayers in <span class="hlt">AlGaN/Al</span>N/GaN heterostructures grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE), NH{sub 3}-based molecular beam epitaxy (NH{sub 3}-MBE), and metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The PAMBE-grown <span class="hlt">Al</span>N interlayer had the highest purity, with nearly 100% of group-III sites occupied by <span class="hlt">Al</span>. The group-III site concentrations of <span class="hlt">Al</span> for interlayers grown by NH{sub 3}-MBE and MOCVD were {approx}85% and {approx}47%, respectively. Hall measurements were performed to determine the two-dimensional electron gas mobility and sheet concentration. Sheet concentrations were {approx}25%-45% higher with molecular beam epitaxy than with MOCVD, and these results matched well with atom probe data.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mazumder, Baishakhi; Kaun, Stephen W.; Speck, James S. [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)] [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Lu, Jing; Keller, Stacia; Mishra, Umesh K. [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)] [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-18</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">277</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19970023021&hterms=Messing&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DMessing"> <span id="translatedtitle">Tensile Behavior of <span class="hlt">Al</span>2o3/feal + B and <span class="hlt">Al</span>2o3/fecraly Composites</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The feasibility of <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3/Fe<span class="hlt">Al</span> + B and <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3/FeCr<span class="hlt">Al</span>Y composites for high-temperature applications was assessed. The major emphasis was on tensile behavior of both the monolithics and composites from 298 to 1100 K. However, the study also included determining the chemical compatibility of the composites, measuring the interfacial shear strengths, and investigating the effect of processing on the strength of the single-crystal <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 fibers. The interfacial shear strengths were low for <span class="hlt">Al</span>203/Fe<span class="hlt">Al</span> + B and moderate to high for <span class="hlt">Al</span>203/FeCr<span class="hlt">Al</span>Y. The difference in interfacial bond strengths between the two systems affected the tensile behavior of the composites. The strength of the <span class="hlt">Al</span>203 fiber was significantly degraded after composite processing for both composite systems and resulted in poor composite tensile properties. The ultimate tensile strength (UTS) values of the composites could generally be predicted with either rule of mixtures (ROM) calculations or existing models when using the strength of the etched-out fiber. The <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3/Fe<span class="hlt">Al</span> + B composite system was determined to be unfeasible due to poor interfacial shear strengths and a large mismatch in coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE). Development of the <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3/FeCr<span class="hlt">Al</span>Y system would require an effective diffusion barrier to minimize the fiber strength degradation during processing and elevated temperature service.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Draper, S. L.; Eldridge, J. I.; Aiken, B. J. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">278</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/58715877"> <span id="translatedtitle">Una aproximación didáctica <span class="hlt">al</span> Guernica de Picasso</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">L’article presenta una aproximació <span class="hlt">al</span> Guernica, de Pablo Picasso, mitjançant l’anàlisi de les seves possibilitats per a l’estudi de la pintura i de la relació entre la creació i el coneixement de la Història de l’Art. <span class="hlt">Al</span> mateix temps, es presenta un model de treball que s’inicia amb una mirada <span class="hlt">als</span> problemes derivats de l’observació per tal d’assolir la interpretació</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Antonia Fernández Valencia</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">279</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/13327420"> <span id="translatedtitle">Overlay-Netze <span class="hlt">als</span> Innovationsmotor im Internet</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Zusammenfassung  Das Internet ist heute eine globale Infrastruktur, deren ständige Verfügbarkeit mehr oder weniger <span class="hlt">als</span> gegeben angenommen wird.\\u000a Die Einführung neuer Technologien (z.?B. Multicast, IPv6) in diese Infrastruktur erweist sich aus unterschiedlichen Gründen\\u000a <span class="hlt">als</span> schwierig. Vielmehr haben sich Overlay-Netze in diesem Kontext <span class="hlt">als</span> Innovationsmotor etabliert. Diese werden von Endgeräten\\u000a am Netzrand aufgespannt, benötigen somit keine neuen Komponenten in der Netzinfrastruktur und</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Oliver P. Waldhorst; Roland Bless; Martina Zitterbart</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">280</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://kuscholarworks.ku.edu/handle/1808/3402"> <span id="translatedtitle">Teatro <span class="hlt">al</span> Sur y la escena Argentina</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">140 LATIN AMERICAN THEATRE REVIEW Teatro <span class="hlt">al</span> Sur y la escena Argentina Acaba de aparecer un nuevo número de Teatro <span class="hlt">al</span> Sur, Revista Latinoamericana. Su título de tapa - Teatro Argentino a varias voces - resume la intención de esta nueva entrega... publicación: nos pareció oportuno apelar <span class="hlt">al</span> testimonio directo de algunos de nuestros creadores y a través de sus voces - con particulares texturas y coloraturas - ir configurando un fragmento significativo del presente de nuestra escena. Hemos preferido...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Editors</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return 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<a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">281</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/827568"> <span id="translatedtitle">Superbend era begins swiftly at the <span class="hlt">ALS</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The successful installation and commissioning of high-field superconducting bend magnets (superbends) in three curved sectors of <span class="hlt">ALS</span> storage ring was the first time the magnet lattice of an operating synchrotron light source has been retrofitted in this fundamental way. As a result, the <span class="hlt">ALS</span> now offers an expanded spectral range well into the hard x-ray region without compromising either the number of undulators or their high brightness in the soft x-ray region for which the <span class="hlt">ALS</span> design was originally optimized. In sum, when the superbend-enhanced <span class="hlt">ALS</span> started up for user operations in October 2001, it marked the beginning of a new era in its history.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Robinson, Art; Tamura, Lori</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-11-29</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">282</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JCrGr.383...25P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Growth and characterization of <span class="hlt">AlGaN/AlN/GaN/Al</span>GaN double heterojunction structures with <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaN as buffer layers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">High electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) structures with GaN, <span class="hlt">Al</span>0.025Ga0.975N and <span class="hlt">Al</span>0.04Ga0.96N high resistivity (HR) buffers were grown on sapphire by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The structural and electrical properties of these three samples were investigated and compared. By increasing <span class="hlt">Al</span> composition of <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaN buffer, full width at half maximum (FWHM) values of (0002) and (10-12) x-ray rocking curves for buffer increase, indicating higher threading dislocation density. Room temperature noncontact Hall measurements were performed, and the measured 2DEG mobility was 1828 cm2/V s for GaN buffer, 1728 cm2/V s for <span class="hlt">Al</span>0.025Ga0.975N buffer, and 1649 cm2/V s for <span class="hlt">Al</span>0.04Ga0.96N buffer, respectively. Combining the theoretical calculation with the experiments, it was demonstrated that the decrease of mobility was attributed to higher dislocation density in sample with higher <span class="hlt">Al</span> composition of <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaN buffer. Devices were fabricated and it was found that the double heterojunction (DH) HEMT with <span class="hlt">Al</span>0.025Ga0.975N buffer could effectively reduce the buffer leakage current.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Peng, Enchao; Wang, Xiaoliang; Xiao, Hongling; Wang, Cuimei; Yin, Haibo; Chen, Hong; Feng, Chun; Jiang, Lijuan; Hou, Xun; Wang, Zhanguo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">283</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/20016104"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">AlN\\/Al</span>GaN\\/GaN Metal Insulator Semiconductor Heterostructure Field Effect Transistor</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present the characteristics of a novel <span class="hlt">AlN\\/Al</span>GaN\\/GaN metal insulator semiconductor heterostructure field-effect transistor (MIS-HFET) structure with an <span class="hlt">Al</span>N cap layer as a gate insulating layer. The gate leakage current for the <span class="hlt">AlN\\/Al</span>GaN\\/GaN MIS-HFET was shown to be more than three orders of magnitude smaller than that for the <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaN\\/GaN HFET at around -20 V gate bias. This demonstrates that</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dong-Hyun Cho; Mitsuaki Shimizu; Toshihide Ide; Hideyuki Ookita; Hajime Okumura</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">284</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16706418"> <span id="translatedtitle">Observation of triatomic species with conflicting aromaticity: <span class="hlt">Al</span>Si2- and <span class="hlt">Al</span>Ge2-.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We created mixed triatomic clusters, <span class="hlt">Al</span>CGe(-), <span class="hlt">Al</span>Si(2)(-), and <span class="hlt">Al</span>Ge(2)(-), and studied their electronic structure and chemical bonding using photoelectron spectroscopy and ab initio calculations. Excellent agreement between theoretical and experimental photoelectron spectra confirmed the predicted global minimum structures for these species. Chemical bonding analysis revealed that the <span class="hlt">Al</span>Si(2)(-) and <span class="hlt">Al</span>Ge(2)(-) anions can be described as species with conflicting (sigma-antiaromatic and pi-aromatic) aromaticity. The <span class="hlt">Al</span>CGe(-) anion represents an interesting example of chemical species which is between classical and aromatic. PMID:16706418</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zubarev, Dmitry Yu; Boldyrev, Alexander I; Li, Xi; Wang, Lai-Sheng</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-05-25</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">285</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/g8826m46hk4581g1.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Precipitation behavior of Heusler phase (Ni 2 <span class="hlt">Al</span>Hf) in multiphase Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> alloy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Precipitation behavior of Heusler phase (Ni2<span class="hlt">Al</span>Hf) in a directionally solidified (DS) Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>- 28Cr-5Mo-1Hf (at.%) alloy was examined using scanning electron microscope (SEM)\\u000a and transmission electron microscope (TEM). In the as-cast alloy, the Ni2<span class="hlt">Al</span>Hf phase generally appeared on the Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>\\/Cr(Mo) interface, which degraded the Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>\\/Cr(Mo) eutectic structure. In the heat-treated\\u000a alloy, the density of the intercellular Ni2<span class="hlt">Al</span>Hf phase was slightly reduced.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">C. Y. Cui; J. T. Guo; H. Q. Ye</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">286</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JNuM..410....1K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Interdiffusion in U 3Si-<span class="hlt">Al</span>, U 3Si 2-<span class="hlt">Al</span>, and USi-<span class="hlt">Al</span> dispersion fuels during irradiation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Uranium-silicide compound fuel dispersion in an <span class="hlt">Al</span> matrix is used in research and test reactors worldwide. Interaction layer (IL) growth between fuel particles and the matrix is one of performance issues. The interaction layer growth data for U 3Si, U 3Si 2 and USi dispersions in <span class="hlt">Al</span> were obtained from both out-of-pile and in-pile tests. The IL is dominantly U(<span class="hlt">Al</span>Si) 3 from out-of-pile tests, but its (<span class="hlt">Al</span> + Si)/U ratio from in-pile tests is higher than the out-of-pile data, because of amorphous behavior of the ILs. IL growth correlations were developed for U 3Si-<span class="hlt">Al</span> and U 3Si 2-<span class="hlt">Al</span>. The IL growth rates were dependent on the U/Si ratio of the fuel compounds. During irradiation, however, the IL growth rates did not decrease with the decreasing U/Si ratio by fission. It is reasoned that transition metal fission products in the IL compensate the loss of U atoms by providing chemical potential for <span class="hlt">Al</span> diffusion and volume expansion by solid swelling and gas bubble swelling. The addition of Mo in U 3Si 2 reduces the IL growth rate, which is similar to that of UMo alloy dispersion in a silicon-added <span class="hlt">Al</span> matrix.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kim, Yeon Soo; Hofman, Gerard L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">287</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/22492060"> <span id="translatedtitle">Characteristics of Cu<span class="hlt">Al</span> 2 Cu 9 <span class="hlt">Al</span> 4 \\/<span class="hlt">Al</span> 2 O 3 nanocomposites synthesized by mechanical treatment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Summary Reactive milling of Cu-hydroxycarbonate - powder aluminium mixture brings many complex chemical reactions such as decomposition, aluminothermic reduction and mechanical alloying resulting in the formation of nanometer size composites that contain intermetallic phases, ?-Cu9<span class="hlt">Al</span>4 and ?-Cu<span class="hlt">Al</span>2, with aluminium oxide.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">K. Wieczorek-Ciurowa; K. Gamrat; Z. Saw?owicz</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">288</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JMEP...24..426N"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of Methods of Soldering <span class="hlt">Al</span>Si and <span class="hlt">Al</span>Si-SiC Particle Composite <span class="hlt">Al</span> Foams</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The cellular structure and unique properties of aluminum foams are the reason of their numerous applications and interests in respect of their joining. The paper includes the characterization of the essence of properties and application of aluminum and aluminum composite foams, the limitations, and possibilities of their soldering. The aim of the research is the consideration of methods of soldering <span class="hlt">Al</span>Si foams and <span class="hlt">Al</span>Si-SiC composite foams, and the joint structure. EDS and XRD investigations of the <span class="hlt">Al</span>Si-SiC composite foams' joints were done. The possibility of soldering <span class="hlt">Al</span>Si9 foams and <span class="hlt">Al</span>Si9-SiC composite foams using S-Bond 220 solder was confirmed, and higher tensile strength of the joint than the parent material was also ascertained</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nowacki, Jerzy; Moraniec, Kacper</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">289</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://enpub.fulton.asu.edu/cms/papers/siegel_MRS_f2000.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Adhesion, Atomic Structure, and Bonding at theAdhesion, Atomic Structure, and Bonding at the ----<span class="hlt">AlAl</span>22OO33(0001)/<span class="hlt">Al</span>(111) Interface:(0001)/<span class="hlt">Al</span>(111) Interface</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">.5 -3.3 -3.1 -Ecoh/atom[eV] GGA LDA LDA GGA <span class="hlt">Al</span> Bulk 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 Volume/<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 unit [Ã? 3 ] -39 -38 -37 -36 -35 -34 -33 -32 -31 -30 -Ecoh /<span class="hlt">Al</span>2 O3 unit[eV] GGA LDA GGA LDA <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 Bulk #12)<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 || (111)<span class="hlt">Al</span> [1010] <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 || [110]<span class="hlt">Al</span> <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 Oxygen <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 Aluminum <span class="hlt">Al</span> Interfacial Atoms Supercells</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Adams, James B</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">290</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/653353"> <span id="translatedtitle">Electrochemical passivation of ordered Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The passivity and electrochemical behavior of single crystalline, ordered Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> intermetallic compound in buffered solutions of pH 2, 7, and 12.5 was compared to that of polycrystalline Ni and <span class="hlt">Al</span>. Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> exhibited improved passivity compared to Ni at a pH of 2, and improved passivity compared to <span class="hlt">Al</span> at pH 12.5. Water oxidation and reduction were enhanced on Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> compared to <span class="hlt">Al</span>, suggesting the presence of a more conductive or catalytic oxide film. <span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 2}O{sub 3} was preferentially formed (>60 atom % of all oxidized Ni and <span class="hlt">Al</span> species) throughout the interior of oxide films formed anodically at each pH as well as within the air-formed oxide grown at room temperature. However, the oxide surface layers exhibited a tendency toward nearly equal presence of oxidized Ni{sup +2}, especially as the pH was increased to 7 and 12.5. Therefore, <span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 2}O{sub 3} formation was favored, but not exclusively, during electrochemical passivation. In contrast, little or no Ni{sup +2} (as NiO or Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 2}O{sub 4}) has been reported after high temperature oxidation of Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>. The composition of the electrochemically grown oxide is influenced by the specific oxide solubility and kinetic formation/dissolution rates at the oxide/solution interface as well as by the free energy of formation of the oxides.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lillard, R.S.; Scully, J.R. [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">291</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/115436"> <span id="translatedtitle">Stoichiomeetric interlayer bonding of Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">New joining methods must be developed in order to fully utilize the high temperature properties of advanced intermetallic alloys such as Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>. In this study, a liquid-assisted diffusion bonding method is evaluated which eliminates the need for foreign melting-point depressants. Instead, the intermetallic compound, Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>, is synthesized within the joint by isothermal reaction of elemental Ni and <span class="hlt">Al</span> coatings preplaced in stoichiometric proportions on the surfaces to be joined. The kinetics of this bonding process were evaluated from a series of interrupted thermal treatments. Single-crystal Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> substrates were coated with a stoichiometric proportion of <span class="hlt">Al</span> on one side of the joint and Ni on the other by electron beam evaporation. The joints were heated in vacuum above the aluminum liquidus (1200{degrees}C) but below the melting point of the Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> substrates for times between 1 and 32 h. Relatively thick interlayers, 0.25 mm (0.010 in.) <span class="hlt">Al</span> and 0.165 mm (0.0065 in.) Ni, were used to facilitate characterization of the bond evolution. The composition profiles across the joints were measured by electron probe microanalysis. The liquid <span class="hlt">Al</span> readily wet the Ni interlayer such that a commercial stop-off agent was required to control liquid spreading at 1200{degrees}C. Isothermal solidification was completed after approximately 1 h at 1200{degrees}C and a residual layer of Ni solid-solution fully transformed to Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> within 4 h at 1200{degrees}C. Grain boundary migration across the joint interface was observed for all heat treatments. The process of stoichiometric interlayer bonding was demonstrated to be a feasible, and potentially very useful method for joining intermetallic compounds such as Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>. Single-phase Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> bonds were produced at relatively low temperatures, without applied pressure, and without the addition of foreign melting-point depressants.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Strum, M.J.; Henshall, G.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-12-31</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">292</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JEMat.tmp...23H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Preparation and Thermoelectric Properties of Yb<span class="hlt">Al</span>3 Thermoelectric Materials with Excessive <span class="hlt">Al</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A method to prepare Yb<span class="hlt">Al</span>3 sample with an accurate stoichiometric ratio has been developed by a melting, quenching, annealing and spark plasma sintering (SPS) method. A series of Yb<span class="hlt">Al</span>3 thermoelectric materials with nominal compositions Yb<span class="hlt">Al</span>3+x (x = 0-0.3, ?x = 0.1) have been prepared using the method. We have explored the effects of the excessive <span class="hlt">Al</span> on phase compositions, microstructure and transport properties. The quenched samples are composed of Yb<span class="hlt">Al</span>3, Yb<span class="hlt">Al</span>2, Yb, and <span class="hlt">Al</span>. All the annealed samples are composed of main phase Yb<span class="hlt">Al</span>3 and a trace of <span class="hlt">Al</span>; some annealed samples with x = 0 and x = 0.1 still contain a trace of Yb<span class="hlt">Al</span>2. The SPSed samples with x ? 0.1 are composed of single-phase Yb<span class="hlt">Al</span>3, though a trace of Yb<span class="hlt">Al</span>2 still occured in the SPSed sample with x = 0. The electrical conductivity, Seebeck coefficient, power factor, thermal conductivity and ZT values are first increased with increasing x in the range of 0-0.2 and then decreased when x > 0.2. These thermoelectric properties evolutions originate from the change of densities and chemical composition induced by the excessive <span class="hlt">Al</span>. The highest ZT value reaches 0.28 at 300 K for the SPSed sample with x = 0.2.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">He, Dan-qi; Zhao, Wen-Yu; Mu, Xin; Zhou, Hong-yu; Zhang, Qing-jie</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">293</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40939800"> <span id="translatedtitle">Formation of nickel aluminide coating on ?-Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span> alloy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A nickel aluminide coating process was developed on ?-Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span> alloy by electroplating a Ni film followed by a high <span class="hlt">Al</span> activity pack cementation carried out in a vacuum with a mixture of fine <span class="hlt">Al</span>, NH4Cl, and <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 powders at 1273 K for 18 ks. The coating has a duplex layer structure, an outer Ni2<span class="hlt">Al</span>3 layer and an inner Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span>3\\/Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span>2\\/TiNi<span class="hlt">Al</span>2 layer.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Takeshi Izumi; Takumi Nishimoto; Toshio Narita</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">294</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25193032"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sporadic and hereditary amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (<span class="hlt">ALS</span>).</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Genetic discoveries in <span class="hlt">ALS</span> have a significant impact on deciphering molecular mechanisms of motor neuron degeneration. The identification of SOD1 as the first genetic cause of <span class="hlt">ALS</span> led to the engineering of the SOD1 mouse, the backbone of <span class="hlt">ALS</span> research, and set the stage for future genetic breakthroughs. In addition, careful analysis of <span class="hlt">ALS</span> pathology added valuable pieces to the <span class="hlt">ALS</span> puzzle. From this joint effort, major pathogenic pathways emerged. Whereas the study of TDP43, FUS and C9ORF72 pointed to the possible involvement of RNA biology in motor neuron survival, recent work on P62 and UBQLN2 refocused research on protein degradation pathways. Despite all these efforts, the etiology of most cases of sporadic <span class="hlt">ALS</span> remains elusive. Newly acquired genomic tools now allow the identification of genetic and epigenetic factors that can either increase <span class="hlt">ALS</span> risk or modulate disease phenotype. These developments will certainly allow for better disease modeling to identify novel therapeutic targets for <span class="hlt">ALS</span>. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Neuromuscular Diseases: Pathology and Molecular Pathogenesis. PMID:25193032</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ajroud-Driss, Senda; Siddique, Teepu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">295</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1149231"> <span id="translatedtitle">Quantitatively Probing the <span class="hlt">Al</span> Distribution in Zeolites</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The degree of substitution of Si4+ by <span class="hlt">Al</span>3+ in the oxygen-terminated tetrahedra (<span class="hlt">Al</span> T-sites) of zeolites determines the concentration of ion-exchange and Brønsted acid sites. As the location of the tetrahedra and the associated subtle variations in bond angles influence the acid strength, quantitative information about <span class="hlt">Al</span> T-sites in the framework is critical to rationalize catalytic properties and to design new catalysts. A quantitative analysis is reported that uses a combination of extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis and 27<span class="hlt">Al</span> MAS NMR spectroscopy supported by DFT-based molecular dynamics simulations. To discriminate individual <span class="hlt">Al</span> atoms, sets of ab initio EXAFS spectra for various T-sites are generated from DFT-based molecular dynamics simulations allowing quantitative treatment of the EXAFS single- and multiple-photoelectron scattering processes out to 3-4 atom shells surrounding the <span class="hlt">Al</span> absorption center. It is observed that identical zeolite types show dramatically different <span class="hlt">Al</span>-distributions. A preference of <span class="hlt">Al</span> for T-sites that are part of one or more 4-member rings in the framework over those T-sites that are part of only 5- and 6-member rings in the HBEA150 sample has been determined from a combination of these methods. This work was supported by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vjunov, Aleksei; Fulton, John L.; Huthwelker, Thomas; Pin, Sonia; Mei, Donghai; Schenter, Gregory K.; Govind, Niranjan; Camaioni, Donald M.; Hu, Jian Z.; Lercher, Johannes A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-06-11</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">296</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://hal.inria.fr/docs/00/29/83/74/PDF/osd-3-165-2006.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">3, 165198, 2006 G. Petihakis et <span class="hlt">al</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">for the Mediterranean Sea took place under the Mediterranean 166 #12;OSD 3, 165­198, 2006 M3A system G. Petihakis et <span class="hlt">al</span>-ocean conditions in the Mediterranean Sea (Nittis et5 <span class="hlt">al</span>., 2003). This first phase was devoted to the design Abstract During the Pilot Phase of the Mediterranean Forecasting System (MFSPP) (1998­ 2001) a prototype</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Boyer, Edmond</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">297</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ddd.uab.cat/pub/ruta/20130740n2a6.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Al</span> Qaida and islamismo: two different phenomena</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Despite the general media discourse, the identification of the <span class="hlt">Al</span> Qaida phenomenon with the islamist one, and of the islamist phenomenon with terrorism, is not totally right. The aim of the present paper is to contribute to the denial of the prejudice that Islam is the only reason for <span class="hlt">Al</span> Qaida's violence, and to criticize the use media often do</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Valentina Saini</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">298</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://kuscholarworks.ku.edu/handle/1808/3040"> <span id="translatedtitle">Homenaje <span class="hlt">al</span> medio siglo de TEUCH</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">SPRING 1993 197 Homenaje <span class="hlt">al</span> medio siglo de TEUCH Domingo Piga El 22 de junio de 1941 se presentó <span class="hlt">al</span> público en la sala Imperio un nuevo grupo teatral, el Teatro Experimental de la Universidad de Chile, formado por estudiantes de la Escuela de...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Piga, Domingo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">299</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6089800"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cross-sectional TEM observation of Nb/<span class="hlt">AlOx-Al</span>/Nb junction structures</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper reports on a study of microstructure of Nb/<span class="hlt">Al</span>O{sub x}---<span class="hlt">Al</span>/Nb Josephson junctions by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) which yielded much information regarding the unction barrier region. Both thick Nb and several-nm <span class="hlt">Al</span> form polycrystalline films with columnar structures. Nb is oriented to the (110) plane, and <span class="hlt">Al</span> is (111). The 200-nm lower Nb has a wavy surface with {approximately}5 nm smoothness, but its surface is planarized by several-nm <span class="hlt">Al</span> deposited on it. Thus <span class="hlt">Al</span>O{sub x} with a smoothness under 1 nm can be formed on <span class="hlt">Al</span>. The upper Nb has a good crystalline structure even just above the <span class="hlt">Al</span>O{sub x} barrier.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Imamura, T.; Hasuo, S. (Fujitsu Lab., Ltd., 10-1 Morinosato-Wakamiya, Atsugi 243-01 (JP))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">300</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/347546"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effect of zirconium in two phase (Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> + Ni{sub 3}<span class="hlt">Al</span>) alloy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In order to develop nickel aluminides, such as Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> and Ni{sub 3}<span class="hlt">Al</span> for high-temperature structural applications, extensive work has been focused on improvement of the mechanical properties. Much work has been carried out with single-phase Ni{sub 3}<span class="hlt">Al</span> alloys with L1{sub 2} structure. As a result, remarkable improvements in these areas have been achieved. Single-phase Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> with B2 structure has also been studied to some extent, but a remedy for room temperature brittleness has not yet been proposed. Nevertheless, little development effort has been devoted to the two-phase alloys composed of Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> and Ni{sub 3}<span class="hlt">Al</span>. In this investigation, the effect of zirconium addition on the microstructure and compressive deformation properties of the two-phase alloy consisting of Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> and Ni{sub 3}<span class="hlt">Al</span> is studied.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lee, J.H.; Kim, H.M. [Korea Inst. of Machinery and Metals, Changwon (Korea, Republic of)] [Korea Inst. of Machinery and Metals, Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Choe, B.H. [Kangnung National Univ. (Korea, Republic of)] [Kangnung National Univ. (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Z.H. [Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)] [Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-03-05</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a 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title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">301</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/15020715"> <span id="translatedtitle">Stress Corrosion Cracking of <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Mg and Mg-<span class="hlt">Al</span> Alloys</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Aluminum and magnesium based alloys are being used for reducing the weight of automobiles. For structural applications they must have adequate stress corrosion resistance and yet, under some circumstances, stress corrosion cracking can occur in both alloy systems. Precipitation of the Mg rich Beta-phase (<span class="hlt">Al</span>3Mg2) at grain boundaries of <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Mg alloys and the Beta-phase (Mg17<span class="hlt">Al</span>12) at grain boundaries of the Mg-<span class="hlt">Al</span> alloys are critical factors in their stress corrosion performance. In Mg-<span class="hlt">Al</span>, the Beta-phase is cathodic to the matrix while in the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Mg case, the Beta-phase is anodic to the matrix. These phases produce localized galvanic induced-corrosion that leads to intergranular stress corrosion cracking and cracking growth rates of 5 and 103 times faster than the solution treated condition, for <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Mg and Mg-<span class="hlt">Al</span>, respectively.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jones, Russell H.; Vetrano, John S.; Windisch, Charles F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">302</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21852572"> <span id="translatedtitle">Energetics of <span class="hlt">Al</span>?? Keggin cluster compounds.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The ?-<span class="hlt">Al</span>(13) Keggin aluminum hydroxide clusters are essential models in establishing molecular pathways for geochemical reactions. Enthalpies of formation are reported for two salts of aluminum centered ?-Keggin clusters, <span class="hlt">Al</span>(13) selenate, (Na(<span class="hlt">Al</span>O(4))<span class="hlt">Al</span>(12)(OH)(24)(SeO(4))(4)•12H(2)O) and <span class="hlt">Al</span>(13) sulfate, (Na<span class="hlt">Al</span>O(4)<span class="hlt">Al</span>(12)(OH)(24)(SO(4))(4)•12H(2)O). The measured enthalpies of solution, ?H(sol), at 28?°C in 5 N HCl for the ?-<span class="hlt">Al</span>(13) selenate and sulfate are -924.57 (± 3.83) and -944.30 ( ± 5.66) kJ·mol(-1), respectively. The enthalpies of formation from the elements, ?H(f,el), for <span class="hlt">Al</span>(13) selenate and sulfate are -19,656.35 ( ± 67.30) kJ·mol(-1), and -20,892.39 ( ± 70.01) kJ·mol(-1), respectively. In addition, ?H(f,el) for sodium selenate decahydrate was calculated using data from high temperature oxide melt solution calorimetry measurements: -4,006.39 ( ± 11.91) kJ·mol(-1). The formation of both ?-<span class="hlt">Al</span>(13) Keggin cluster compounds is exothermic from oxide-based components but energetically unfavorable with respect to a gibbsite-based assemblage. To understand the relative affinity of the ?-Keggin clusters for selenate and sulfate, the enthalpy associated with two S-Se exchange reactions was calculated. In the solid state, selenium is favored in the <span class="hlt">Al</span>(13) compound relative to the binary chalcogenate, while in 5 N HCl, sulfur is energetically favored in the cluster compound compared to the aqueous solution. This contribution represents the first thermodynamic study of ?-<span class="hlt">Al</span>(13) cluster compounds and establishes a method for other such molecules, including the substituted versions that have been created for kinetic studies. Underscoring the importance of ?-<span class="hlt">Al</span>(13) clusters in natural and anthropogenic systems, these data provide conclusive thermodynamic evidence that the <span class="hlt">Al</span>(13) Keggin cluster is a crucial intermediate species in the formation pathway from aqueous aluminum monomers to aluminum hydroxide precipitates. PMID:21852572</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Armstrong, Christopher R; Casey, William H; Navrotsky, Alexandra</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">303</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25155020"> <span id="translatedtitle">Peripheral nerve ultrasound in <span class="hlt">ALS</span> phenotypes.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Introduction. We sought to determine the cross sectional area (CSA) of peripheral nerves in patients with distinct subtypes of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (<span class="hlt">ALS</span>). Methods. Ulnar and median nerve ultrasound was performed in 78 <span class="hlt">ALS</span> patients [classic, n=21, upper motor neuron dominant (UMND), n=14, lower motor neuron dominant (LMND), n=20, bulbar, n=15, primary lateral sclerosis (PLS) n=8] and 18 matched healthy controls. Results. Compared to controls <span class="hlt">ALS</span> patients had significant, distally pronounced reductions of ulnar CSA (forearm/wrist level) across all disease groups except for PLS. Median nerve CSA (forearm/wrist level) did not differ between controls and <span class="hlt">ALS</span>. Conclusion. Ulnar nerve ultrasound in <span class="hlt">ALS</span> subgroups revealed significant differences in distal CSA values, which suggests it has value as a marker of LMN involvement. Its potential was particularly evident in UMND and PLS groups, which can be hard to separate clinically, yet their accurate separation has important prognostic implications. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25155020</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schreiber, Stefanie; Abdulla, Susanne; Debska-Vielhaber, Grazyna; Machts, Judith; Dannhardt-Stieger, Verena; Feistner, Helmut; Oldag, Andreas; Goertler, Michael; Petri, Susanne; Kollewe, Katja; Kropf, Siegfried; Schreiber, Frank; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Dengler, Reinhard; Nestor, Peter J; Vielhaber, Stefan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-08-25</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">304</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840053031&hterms=live+old&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dlive%2Bold"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Al</span>-26 in the interstellar medium</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The amount of dispersed interstellar <span class="hlt">Al</span>-26 detected by the HEAO 3 gamma-ray spectrometer cannot have been synthesized by supernova explosions if current calculations of the production ratio p(26)/p(27) approximately equal to 0.001 are correct. Simple models of chemical evolution of the Galaxy are presented to explain this point. The observed <span class="hlt">Al</span>-26 is more likely due to about 100 million dispersed novae, or to a single old (10,000-1,000,000 yr) supernova remnant that today surrounds the solar system. If the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-26 is dispersed, the high interstellar ratio today <span class="hlt">Al</span>-26/<span class="hlt">Al</span>-27 about equal to 0.00002 calls into question the requirement that a supernova trigger for formation of the solar system was the cause of a concentration 3-times larger. Also discussed is p-process production in novae with application to the question of live Sm-146 in the solar system.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Clayton, D. D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">305</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940007975&hterms=Ni3Al&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DNi3Al"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> alloys for structural uses</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Alloys based on the intermetallic compound Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> are of technological interest as high temperature structural alloys. These alloys possess a relatively low density, high melting temperature, good thermal conductivity, and (usually) good oxidation resistance. However, Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> and Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>-base alloys suffer from poor fracture resistance at low temperatures as well as inadequate creep strength at elevated temperatures. This research program explored macroalloying additions to Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>-base alloys in order to identify possible alloying and processing routes which promote both low temperature fracture toughness and high temperature strength. Initial results from the study examined the additions of Fe, Co, and Hf on the microstructure, deformation, and fracture resistance of Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>-based alloys. Of significance were the observations that the presence of the gamma-prime phase, based on Ni3<span class="hlt">Al</span>, could enhance the fracture resistance if the gamma-prime were present as a continuous grain boundary film or 'necklace'; and the Ni-35<span class="hlt">Al</span>-20Fe alloy was ductile in ribbon form despite a microstructure consisting solely of the B2 beta phase based on Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>. The ductility inherent in the Ni-35<span class="hlt">Al</span>-20Fe alloy was explored further in subsequent studies. Those results confirm the presence of ductility in the Ni-35<span class="hlt">Al</span>-20Fe alloy after rapid cooling from 750 - 1000 C. However exposure at 550 C caused embrittlement; this was associated with an age-hardening reaction caused by the formation of Fe-rich precipitates. In contrast, to the Ni-35<span class="hlt">Al</span>-20Fe alloy, exploratory research indicated that compositions in the range of Ni-35<span class="hlt">Al</span>-12Fe retain the ordered B2 structure of Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>, are ductile, and do not age-harden or embrittle after thermal exposure. Thus, our recent efforts have focused on the behavior of the Ni-35<span class="hlt">Al</span>-12Fe alloy. A second parallel effort initiated in this program was to use an alternate processing technique, mechanical alloying, to improve the properties of Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>-alloys. Mechanical alloying in the conventional sense requires ductile powder particles which, through a cold welding and fracture process, can be dispersion strengthened by submicron-sized oxide particles. Using both the Ni-35<span class="hlt">Al</span>-Fe alloys to contain approx. 1 v/o Y2O3. Preliminary results indicate that mechanically alloyed and extruded Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>-Fe + Y2O3 alloys when heat treated to a grain-coarsened condition, exhibit improved creep resistance at 1000 C when compared to Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>; oxidation resistance comparable to Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>; and fracture toughness values a factor of three better than Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>. As a result of the research initiated on this NASA program, a subsequent project with support from Inco Alloys International is underway.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Koss, D. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">306</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23890868"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Al</span>-Akhawayni's description of pulmonary circulation.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Since antiquity, heart function and the mechanism of blood circulation within the human body have been the focus of attention of scientists from different parts of the world. Over the passage of time, the theories and works of these scientists have resulted in the achievement of today's knowledge of circulation. The medieval Persian scholar, <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Akhawayni Bukhari (?-983AD), is among the physicians who investigated both the anatomy and the physiology of the human body. <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Akhawayni describes the mechanism of pulmonary circulation in his only extant book, "Hidayat <span class="hlt">al</span>-Muta`llemin fi <span class="hlt">al</span>-Tibb" (A Scholar's Guide to Medicine) with which he made a contribution to the development of knowledge regarding this mechanism in the medicine of the Islamic world. In this paper, <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Akhawayni's viewpoints on anatomy and the function of the heart, its related vessels, and also pulmonary circulation will be briefly discussed. PMID:23890868</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yarmohammadi, Hassan; Dalfardi, Behnam; Rezaian, Jafar; Ghanizadeh, Ahmad</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">307</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005GeCoA..69.5263K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Assessment of isotopically exchangeable <span class="hlt">Al</span> in soil materials using 26<span class="hlt">Al</span> tracer</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The solubility of aluminium (<span class="hlt">Al</span>) in many acidic soils is controlled by complexation reactions with soil organic matter. In such soils, <span class="hlt">Al</span> solubility is theoretically a function of the pool size of "active" <span class="hlt">Al</span>, i.e., the total amount of <span class="hlt">Al</span> that equilibrates with the soil solution within a defined period of time. To date, no reliable measurements of "active" <span class="hlt">Al</span> in soil materials exist. In this study, we determined the isotopically exchangeable pool of <span class="hlt">Al</span> ( EAl) as an operationally defined assessment of "active" <span class="hlt">Al</span> in acidic mineral soils. The suitability of CuCl 2 and pyrophosphate (Na 4P 2O 7) as extractants for "active" <span class="hlt">Al</span> was also evaluated. Eleven samples, mostly from spodic B horizons, were spiked with carrier-free 26<span class="hlt">Al</span> and equilibrated for different time periods (1-756 h). The size of the <span class="hlt">Al</span> pool with which the 26<span class="hlt">Al</span> tracer exchanged increased with time during the whole experimental period. Thus, contact time between solid and solution phases needs to be defined when assessing the "active" <span class="hlt">Al</span> pool. Values of EAl obtained after 1 to 5 d of equilibration were equal to the amount of CuCl 2 extractable <span class="hlt">Al</span>, but considerably smaller than the Na 4P 2O 7-extractable pool. Equilibration times greater than 5 d resulted in CuCl 2 extractable <span class="hlt">Al</span> concentrations that under-estimated the "active" <span class="hlt">Al</span> pool. Three of the investigated samples were rich in imogolite-type materials (ITM). In these samples, 30-50 % of the added 26<span class="hlt">Al</span> rapidly became associated with soil constituents in forms that could not be extracted by Na 4P 2O 7, indicating that a part of ITM may be in a dynamic state.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kleja, D. Berggren; Standring, W.; Oughton, D. H.; Gustafsson, J.-P.; Fifield, K.; Fraser, A. R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">308</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60753372"> <span id="translatedtitle">A new discontinuously reinforced aluminum MMC: <span class="hlt">Al+Al</span>Bâ flakes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Development of a novel metal matrix composite based on the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-B alloy system has been undertaken. Preparation of this discontinuously reinforced material is based on the precipitation of high aspect ratio <span class="hlt">Al</span>Bâ from an <span class="hlt">Al</span>-B alloy. This paper describes a number of efforts forced on preparing high volume fractions (> 30 v%) of <span class="hlt">Al</span>Bâ in aluminum. New insights into the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">AARON C. HALL; J. ECONOMY</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">309</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/18308614"> <span id="translatedtitle">27<span class="hlt">Al</span> NMR studies of NpPd 5<span class="hlt">Al</span> 2</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present 27<span class="hlt">Al</span> NMR studies for a single crystal of the Np-based superconductor NpPd5<span class="hlt">Al</span>2(Tc=4.9K). We have observed a five-line 27<span class="hlt">Al</span> NMR spectrum with a center line and four satellite lines separated by first-order nuclear quadrupole splittings. The Knight shift clearly drops below Tc. The temperature dependence of the 27<span class="hlt">Al</span> nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate shows no coherence peak below Tc, indicating</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">H. Chudo; H. Sakai; Y. Tokunaga; S. Kambe; D. Aoki; Y. Homma; Y. Shiokawa; Y. Haga; S. Ikeda; T. D. Matsuda; Y. ?nuki; H. Yasuoka</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">310</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/22929995"> <span id="translatedtitle">Electrochemical analysis of zincate treatments for <span class="hlt">Al</span> and <span class="hlt">Al</span> alloy films</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Electrochemical behavior of <span class="hlt">Al</span> and <span class="hlt">Al</span> alloy films in zincate solution was investigated to elucidate the effect of the zincate pretreatment for electroless NiP deposition, which is used for under bump metallization for LSI interconnects. The immersion potential for <span class="hlt">Al</span>Cu and <span class="hlt">Al</span>SiCu, immediately reached to constant, which was almost equal potential to zinc reference electrode. The corrosion current for the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mikiko Saito; Takeyuki Maegawa; Takayuki Homma</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">311</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19441466"> <span id="translatedtitle">Thermal stability of Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span>N and nanocomposite Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span>SiN thin films.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span>N and Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span>SiN coatings were synthesized by a cathodic arc deposition process. Titanium, Ti50<span class="hlt">Al</span>50 alloy and <span class="hlt">Al</span>Si (88 at.% of <span class="hlt">Al</span> and 12 at.% of Si) alloy targets were adopted as the cathode materials. X-ray diffraction analyses revealed that Ti0.5<span class="hlt">Al</span>0.5N and Ti49<span class="hlt">Al</span>0.44Si0.07N possess a B1-NaCl crystal structure. The lattice constants of the Ti0.5<span class="hlt">Al</span>0.5N and Ti0.49<span class="hlt">Al</span>0.44Si0.07N calculated from XRD pattern were 0.418 nm and 0.422 nm, respectively. For the high temperature oxidation test, the coated samples were annealed at 900 degrees C in air atmosphere for 2 hours. In this study, the deposited Ti0.5<span class="hlt">Al</span>0.5N had completely transformed to TiO2 and <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3, and Ti0.49<span class="hlt">Al</span>0.44Si0.07N remained the as-deposited structure after oxidation treatment. It indicated that Ti0.49<span class="hlt">Al</span>0.44Si0.07N possesses superior oxidation resistance than Ti0.5<span class="hlt">Al</span>0.5N, due to the amorphous SiNx phase existed in the nanocomposite structure. The different oxidation mechanisms of Ti50<span class="hlt">Al</span>50N and Ti0.49<span class="hlt">Al</span>0.44Si0.07N at high temperature of 900 degrees C are developed in this study. PMID:19441466</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yang, Sheng-Min; Chang, Yin-Yu; Lin, Dong-Yih; Wang, Da-Yung; Wu, Weite</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">312</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19980019510&hterms=blast+building&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dblast%2Bbuilding"> <span id="translatedtitle">Corrosion Studies of 2195 <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Li Alloy and 2219 <span class="hlt">Al</span> Alloy with Differing Surface Treatments</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Corrosion studies of 2195 <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Li and 2219 <span class="hlt">Al</span> alloys have been conducted using the scanning reference electrode technique (SRET) and the polarization resistance (PR) technique. The SRET was used to study corrosion mechanisms, while corrosion rate measurements were studied with the PR technique. Plates of <span class="hlt">Al</span>203 blasted, soda blasted and conversion coated 2219 <span class="hlt">Al</span> were coated with Deft primer and the corrosion rates studied with the EIS technique. Results from all of these studies are presented.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Danford, M. D.; Mendrek, M. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">313</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/42362138"> <span id="translatedtitle">An investigation of the ordering of the phases Co<span class="hlt">Al</span> and Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">An investigation of the variation of lattice parameter with composition over a small range of composition for the phases Co<span class="hlt">Al</span> and Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> has confirmed that a peak value occurs and has enabled the corresponding phase-composition to be determined. For Co<span class="hlt">Al</span> this is close to the ideal 50—50% (atomic) composition, but in the case of Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> the nickel sites are found</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. J. Cooper</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1963-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">314</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.alsa.org/als-care/resources/publications-videos/factsheets/patient-bill-of-rights.html"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">ALS</span> Association's Patient Bill of Rights for People Living with <span class="hlt">ALS</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... The <span class="hlt">ALS</span> Association's Patient Bill of Rights creates a vision of what the <span class="hlt">ALS</span> community is striving to achieve for each person living with <span class="hlt">ALS</span>. > > View the full Patient Bill of Rights Site Map | Press Room | FAQ | Privacy Policy | Link Policy | RSS | Contact Us ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">315</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005PhRvB..72k5423F"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ab initio study of Ag/ <span class="hlt">Al</span>2 O3 and Au/ <span class="hlt">Al</span>2 O3 interfaces</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Structural stability, adhesion, and chemical bonding of the Ag(111)/?-<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 (0001) and Au(111)/?-<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 (0001) interfaces are investigated by an ab initio approach based on density functional theory. The interfaces are shown to have different stable structures of <span class="hlt">Al</span>2 , <span class="hlt">Al</span>, or O termination depending on the chemical potential of aluminum or oxygen atom. A link to thermodynamic factors, i.e., the partial pressure of oxygen gas or the activity of aluminum, is established based on the ab initio thermodynamics developed recently. For condition applicable to sessile drop experiments, the O-terminated interface could exist for the Ag/<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 system but be hard to observe for the Au/<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 interfaces, consistent with the known experiments. The <span class="hlt">Al</span>2 termination is possible for the Au/<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 interface at relatively low O2 pressure or high <span class="hlt">Al</span> activity but may be hard to form for the Ag/<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 interface. Works of adhesion Wad of the stoichiometric interfaces are calculated to be 0.33J/m2 in generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and 0.59J/m2 in local density approximation (LDA) for the Ag/<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 interface, 0.29J/m2 in GGA and 0.58J/m2 in LDA for the Au/<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 interface, in reasonable agreement with measured data.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Feng, Jiwei; Zhang, Wenqing; Jiang, Wan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">316</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40939202"> <span id="translatedtitle">Influence of <span class="hlt">Al</span> content on cast microstructures of Ti–<span class="hlt">Al</span> intermetallic compounds</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Cast microstructures of Ti–(35–58) at% <span class="hlt">Al</span> alloys have been studied using optical microscope, scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope. The critical compositions of transition from primary ? to ? phase and from ? to ? phase were determined to be about 49.5 at% <span class="hlt">Al</span> and 55.5 at% <span class="hlt">Al</span> respectively. The peritectic compositions of ?p and ?p were measured to</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. Y. Jung; J. K. Park; C. H. Chun</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">317</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26924857"> <span id="translatedtitle">EFFECT OF <span class="hlt">AL</span> PARTICLE SIZE ON THE THERMAL DEGRADATION OF <span class="hlt">AL</span>\\/TEFLON MIXTURES</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Reactive mixtures of aluminum (<span class="hlt">Al</span>) and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE or Teflon) have applications in propellants, explosives, and pyrotechnics. This study examines the thermal degradation behavior of Teflon and nanometer scale <span class="hlt">Al</span> particles compared with micron-scale <span class="hlt">Al</span> particles. Differential scanning calorimetry and thermo-gravimetric analyses were performed in an argon environment on both nanometer and micron scale particulate mixtures revealing lower ignition temperatures</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">DUSTIN T. OSBORNE; MICHELLE L. PANTOYA</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">318</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://policy.rutgers.edu/vtc/reports/REPORTS/VTC_Annual_Report-2010.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Annu<span class="hlt">Al</span> report of the <span class="hlt">Al</span>An M. Voorhees</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">, Sally Scott, Sandra Gligorijevic, EdwinVerin, Natalia Bratslavsky, kaczor58) istockphoto #12;Alan MAnnu<span class="hlt">Al</span> report of the <span class="hlt">Al</span>An M. Voorhees TrAnsporTATion CenTer 2 0 1 0 <span class="hlt">Al</span>An M. Voorhees Tr Jersey 33 livingston Avenue new Brunswick, nJ 08901 policy.rutgers.edu/vtc #12;Contact: Alan M. Voorhees</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Delgado, Mauricio</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">319</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://cacs.usc.edu/papers/Seymour-NiAlindentation-APL14red.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Nanoindentation of Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> and Ni3<span class="hlt">Al</span> crystals on (100), (110), and (111) surfaces: A molecular dynamics study</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Nanoindentation of Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> and Ni3<span class="hlt">Al</span> crystals on (100), (110), and (111) surfaces: A molecular performed to study the nanoindentation of Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> and Ni3<span class="hlt">Al</span> crystals on three surfaces: (100), (110), and (111 on the indented crystallographic plane: the (100) surface is the softest for Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> and the hardest for Ni3<span class="hlt">Al</span>. We</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Southern California, University of</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">320</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/756425"> <span id="translatedtitle">A new discontinuously reinforced aluminum MMC: <span class="hlt">Al+Al</span>B{sub 2} flakes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Development of a novel metal matrix composite based on the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-B alloy system has been undertaken. Preparation of this discontinuously reinforced material is based on the precipitation of high aspect ratio <span class="hlt">Al</span>B{sub 2} from an <span class="hlt">Al</span>-B alloy. This paper describes a number of efforts forced on preparing high volume fractions (> 30 v%) of <span class="hlt">Al</span>B{sub 2} in aluminum. New insights into the behavior of the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-B alloys system allowed this effort to be successful.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">HALL,AARON C.; ECONOMY,J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-06-08</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return 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showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">321</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/1540232"> <span id="translatedtitle">High <span class="hlt">Al</span>-content <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaN\\/GaN MODFETs for ultrahigh performance</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The use of an <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaN layer with high <span class="hlt">Al</span> mole-fraction is proposed to increase the equivalent figures of merit of the <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaN\\/GaN MODFET structure. It is shown that the room temperature mobility has little degradation with increasing <span class="hlt">Al</span> mole-fraction up to 50%. 0.7-?m gate-length <span class="hlt">Al</span>0.5Ga0.5N\\/GaN MODFETs by optical lithography exhibit a current density of 1 A\\/mm and three-terminal breakdown voltages</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Y.-F. Wu; B. P. Keller; P. Fini; S. Keller; T. J. Jenkins; L. T. Kehias; S. P. Denbaars; U. K. Mishra</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">322</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40939579"> <span id="translatedtitle">Single-phase interdiffusion in the B2 type intermetallic compounds Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>, Co<span class="hlt">Al</span> and Fe<span class="hlt">Al</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Interdiffusion coefficients, D, in the B2 type Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>, Co<span class="hlt">Al</span> and Fe<span class="hlt">Al</span> phases have been determined by single phase diffusion couples over a wide temperature range from 1073 to 1773 K. The value of D in the Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> and Co<span class="hlt">Al</span> phases shows a minimum at about 47 at.% <span class="hlt">Al</span> deviating slightly from the stoichiometric composition, while the value of D in</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ryusuke Nakamura; Koichi Takasawa; Yoshihiro Yamazaki; Yoshiaki Iijima</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">323</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ApSS..317..140C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Wetting of polycrystalline SiC by molten <span class="hlt">Al</span> and <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Si alloys</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The wetting of ?-SiC by molten <span class="hlt">Al</span> and <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Si alloys was investigated using a dispensed sessile drop method in a high vacuum. In the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-SiC system, representative wetting stages were identified. The liquid spreading was initially controlled by the deoxidation of the SiC surface and then by the formation of <span class="hlt">Al</span>4C3 at the interface. The intrinsic contact angle for molten <span class="hlt">Al</span> on the polycrystalline ?-SiC surface was suggested to be lower than 90? provided that the oxide films covering the <span class="hlt">Al</span> and SiC surfaces were removed, i.e., the system is partial wetting in nature. An increase in the Si concentration in liquid <span class="hlt">Al</span> weakened the interfacial reaction but improved the final wettability. The role of the Si addition on the wetting was presumably attributed to its segregation at the interface and the formation of strong chemical bonds with the SiC surface.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cong, Xiao-Shuang; Shen, Ping; Wang, Yi; Jiang, Qichuan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">324</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920074405&hterms=Al2O3&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DAl2O3"> <span id="translatedtitle">Oxidation of <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 continuous fiber-reinforced/Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> composites</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The 1200 C and 1300 C isothermal and cyclic oxidation behavior of <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 continuous fiber-reinforced/Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> composites were studied. Oxidation resulted in formation of <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 external scales in a similar manner as scales formed on monolithic Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>. The isothermal oxidation of an <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3/Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> composite resulted in oxidation of the matrix along the fiber/matrix interface near the fiber ends. This oxide acted as a wedge between the fiber and the matrix, and, under cyclic oxidation conditions, led to further oxidation along the fiber lengths and eventual cracking of the composite. The oxidation behavior of composites in which the <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 fibers were sputter coated with nickel prior to processing was much more severe. This was attributed to open channels around the fibers which formed during processing, most likely as a result of the diffusion of the nickel coating into the matrix.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Doychak, J.; Nesbitt, J. A.; Noebe, R. D.; Bowman, R. R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">325</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22116017"> <span id="translatedtitle">Thermal diffusion in Ni/<span class="hlt">Al</span> multilayer</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Two Ni/<span class="hlt">Al</span> multilayers deposited by ion beam sputtering of nominal design [Ni(200A)/<span class="hlt">Al</span>(100A)] Multiplication-Sign 5 and [Ni(50A)/<span class="hlt">Al</span>(227A)] Multiplication-Sign 5 on Si substrates were annealed at 200 Degree-Sign C. As-deposited and annealed samples were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and x-ray reflectometry (XRR). The effort was to study the path of alloying in the above two multilayers of same elements but of opposite stoichiometric ratio. We find distinct differences in alloying of these samples.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Swain, M.; Bhattacharya, D.; Singh, S.; Basu, S. [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Mumbai 400085 (India); Gupta, M. [UGC-DAE-Consortium for Scientific Research, University Campus, Khandwa Road, Indore 452017 (India)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-02-05</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">326</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10191071"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ni{sub 3}<span class="hlt">Al</span> aluminide alloys</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper provides a brief review of the recent progress in research and development of Ni{sub 3}<span class="hlt">Al</span> and its alloys. Emphasis has been placed on understanding low ductility and brittle fracture of Ni{sub 3}<span class="hlt">Al</span> alloys at ambient and elevated temperatures. Recent studies have resulted in identifying both intrinsic and extrinsic factors governing the fracture behavior of Ni{sub 3}<span class="hlt">Al</span> alloys. Parallel efforts on alloy design using physical metallurgy principles have led to properties for structural use. Industrial interest in these alloys is high, and examples of industrial involvement in processing and utilization of these alloys are briefly mentioned.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Liu, C.T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">327</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/971365"> <span id="translatedtitle">Interdiffusion in Diffusion Couples: U-Mo v. <span class="hlt">Al</span> and <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Si</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Interdiffusion and microstructural development in the U-Mo-<span class="hlt">Al</span> system was examined using solid-tosolid diffusion couples consisting of U-7wt.%Mo, U-10wt.%Mo and U-12wt.%Mo vs. pure <span class="hlt">Al</span>, annealed at 600°C for 24 hours. The influence of Si alloying addition (up to 5 wt.%) in <span class="hlt">Al</span> on the interdiffusion microstructural development was also examined using solid-to-solid diffusion couples consisting of U-7wt.%Mo, U-10wt.%Mo and U-12wt.%Mo vs. pure <span class="hlt">Al</span>, <span class="hlt">Al</span>-2wt.%Si, and <span class="hlt">Al</span>-5wt.%Si annealed at 550°C up to 20 hours. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) were employed to examine the development of a very fine multiphase intermetallic layer. In ternary U-Mo-<span class="hlt">Al</span> diffusion couples annealed at 600°C for 24 hours, interdiffusion microstructure varied of finely dispersed UAl3, UAl4, U6Mo4<span class="hlt">Al</span>43, and UMo2<span class="hlt">Al</span>20 phases while the average composition throughout the interdiffusion zone remained constant at approximately 80 at.% <span class="hlt">Al</span>. Interdiffusion microstructure observed by SEM/TEM analyses and diffusion paths drawn from concentration profiles determined by EPMA appear to deviate from the assumption of “local thermodynamic equilibrium,” and suggest that interdiffusion occurs via supersaturated UAl4 followed by equilibrium transformation into UAl3, U6Mo4<span class="hlt">Al</span>43, UAl4 and UMo2<span class="hlt">Al</span>20 phases. Similar observation was made for U-Mo vs. <span class="hlt">Al</span> diffusion couples annealed at 550°C. The addition of Si (up to 5 wt.%) in <span class="hlt">Al</span> significantly reduced the thickness of the intermetallic layer by changing the constituent phases of the interdiffusion zone developed in U-Mo vs. <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Si diffusion couples. Specifically, the formation of (U,Mo)(<span class="hlt">Al</span>,Si)3 with relatively large solubility for Mo and Si, along with UMo2<span class="hlt">Al</span>20 phases was observed along with disappearance of U6Mo4<span class="hlt">Al</span>43 and UAl4 phases. Simplified understanding based on U-<span class="hlt">Al</span>, U-Si, and Mo-Si binary phase diagrams is discussed in the light of the beneficial effect of Si alloying addition.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D. D. Keiser, Jr.; E. Perez; B. Yao; Y. H. Sohn</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">328</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JAP...111f3708H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Electroforming and Ohmic contacts in <span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>2O3-Ag diodes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Electroforming of metal-insulator-metal (MIM) diodes is a non-destructive dielectric breakdown process that changes the diode from its initial high resistance state (HRS) to a low resistance state (LRS). After electroforming, resistance switching memories (RSMs) use voltages to switch from HRS to LRS and back. Many MIM combinations are proposed for use in RSMs. In many cases conduction in the LRS is nearly temperature independent at low temperatures; an Ohmic contact with a barrier to electron injection of ˜0 eV results from electroforming. Electroforming of <span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>2O3-Ag diodes with amorphous anodic <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 thicknesses between 12 and 41 nm has been studied. Two anodizing electrolytes have been used; 0.1 M ammonium pentaborate (bor-H2O) and a solution of 0.1 M of ammonium pentaborate per liter of ethylene glycol (bor-gly). Polarization of <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 and negative charge in <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 are much larger when <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 is formed in bor-H2O solution than when <span class="hlt">Al</span> is anodized in bor-gly solution. Electroforming of <span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>2O3-Ag diodes results in an Ohmic contact at the <span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>2O3 interface, voltage-controlled negative resistance (VCNR) in the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics, electroluminescence (EL), and electron emission into vacuum (EM) from filamentary conducting channels. Two distinct modes of electroforming occur for <span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>2O3-Ag diodes. ?-forming occurs for 2.5 V ? VS ? 5 V, where VS is the applied voltage. It is characterized by an abrupt current jump with the simultaneous appearance of EL and EM. ?-forming occurs for VS ? 7 V. I-V curves, EL, and EM develop gradually and are smaller than for ?-forming. Electroforming occurs more readily for diodes with <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 formed in bor-H2O that have greater defect densities. Fully developed I-V curves have similar VCNR, EL, and EM after ?-forming or ?-forming. A model is proposed in which excited states of F-centers, oxygen vacancies in amorphous anodic <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3, form defect conduction bands. Electroforming that results in an Ohmic contact requires injection of positive charge at the <span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>2O3 interface. ?-forming is the result of ionization of F-center recombination centers with energies that are close to the <span class="hlt">Al</span> Fermi level. Hole injection by high-field ionization of valence band states of <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 causes ?-forming.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hickmott, T. W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">329</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2650295"> <span id="translatedtitle">Substitutional alloy of Ce and <span class="hlt">Al</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The formation of substitutional alloys has been restricted to elements with similar atomic radii and electronegativity. Using high-pressure at 298 K, we synthesized a face-centered cubic disordered alloy of highly dissimilar elements (large Ce and small <span class="hlt">Al</span> atoms) by compressing the Ce3<span class="hlt">Al</span> intermetallic compound >15 GPa or the Ce3<span class="hlt">Al</span> metallic glass >25 GPa. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction, Ce L3-edge absorption spectroscopy, and ab initio calculations revealed that the pressure-induced Kondo volume collapse and 4f electron delocalization of Ce reduced the differences between Ce and <span class="hlt">Al</span> and brought them within the Hume-Rothery (HR) limit for substitutional alloying. The alloy remained after complete release of pressure, which was also accompanied by the transformation of Ce back to its ambient 4f electron localized state and reversal of the Kondo volume collapse, resulting in a non-HR alloy at ambient conditions. PMID:19188608</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zeng, Qiao-Shi; Ding, Yang; Mao, Wendy L.; Luo, Wei; Blomqvist, Andreas; Ahuja, Rajeev; Yang, Wenge; Shu, Jinfu; Sinogeikin, Stas V.; Meng, Yue; Brewe, Dale L.; Jiang, Jian-Zhong; Mao, Ho-kwang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">330</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/792926"> <span id="translatedtitle">12th Annual <span class="hlt">ALS</span> Users' Association Meeting</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Science took the front seat as 219 Advanced Light Source (<span class="hlt">ALS</span>) users and staff gathered on Monday and Tuesday, October 18 and 19 for the twelfth annual users' meeting. The bulk of the meeting was dedicated to reports on science at the <span class="hlt">ALS</span>. Packed into two busy days were 31 invited oral presentations and 80 submitted poster presentations, as well as time to visit 24 vendor booths. The oral sessions were dedicated to environmental science, chemical dynamics, biosciences, magnetic materials, and atomic and molecular science. In addition, there was an <span class="hlt">ALS</span> highlights session that emphasized new results and a session comprising highlights from the young scientists who will carry the <span class="hlt">ALS</span> into the future.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Robinson, Arthur L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-12-17</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">331</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://mda.org/publications/everyday-life-with-als"> <span id="translatedtitle">Everyday Life with <span class="hlt">ALS</span>: A Practical Guide</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... a need for practical solutions, <span class="hlt">ALS</span> brings a host of emotional, family and financial concerns that are ... are nearly 200 MDA support groups across the country for people affected by neuromuscular diseases, their families ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">332</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18625409"> <span id="translatedtitle">Glial cells in <span class="hlt">ALS</span>: the missing link?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (<span class="hlt">ALS</span>) was initially known as Charcot's sclerosis, named after the French neurobiologist and physician Jean-Martin Charcot who first described this type of muscular atrophy in the early nineteenth century. In the United States, <span class="hlt">ALS</span> became widely known as Lou Gehrig's disease after the famous baseball player who succumbed to the disease in the late 1930s. Currently, <span class="hlt">ALS</span> is the most common motor neuron disease, with a worldwide incidence of 8 cases per 100,000 population per year. Familial forms constitute approximately 5% to 10% of all cases. Onset increases with age, with a peak in the seventh decade and a slight preponderance (relative risk, 1.3-1.5) among men compared with women. Rapid progression of motor neuron loss leads to death an average of 3 to 5 years after symptom onset. The cause of <span class="hlt">ALS</span> remains unknown and there is still no curative therapy. PMID:18625409</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Raibon, Elsa; Todd, Lisa Marie; Möller, Thomas</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">333</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3866720"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">ALS</span> and Oxidative Stress: The Neurovascular Scenario</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Oxidative stress and angiogenic factors have been placed as the prime focus of scientific investigations after an establishment of link between vascular endothelial growth factor promoter (VEGF), hypoxia, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (<span class="hlt">ALS</span>) pathogenesis. Deletion of the hypoxia-response element in the vascular endothelial growth factor promoter and mutant superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) which are characterised by atrophy and muscle weakness resulted in phenotype resembling human <span class="hlt">ALS</span> in mice. This results in lower motor neurodegeneration thus establishing an important link between motor neuron degeneration, vasculature, and angiogenic molecules. In this review, we have presented human, animal, and in vitro studies which suggest that molecules like VEGF have a therapeutic, diagnostic, and prognostic potential in <span class="hlt">ALS</span>. Involvement of vascular growth factors and hypoxia response elements also highlights the converging role of oxidative stress and neurovascular network for understanding and treatment of various neurodegenerative disorders like <span class="hlt">ALS</span>. PMID:24367722</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Thakur, Keshav; Gupta, Pawan Kumar</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">334</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25080252"> <span id="translatedtitle">Structure of decagonal <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Ni-Rh.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The crystal structure of the decagonal phase in the system <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Ni-Rh (d-<span class="hlt">Al</span>-Ni-Rh) was analyzed in the five-dimensional embedding approach based on single-crystal synchrotron X-ray diffraction data. The structure can be described as a quasiperiodic packing of partially overlapping decagonal and pentagonal columnar clusters with ??21?Å diameter and ??4?Å period along the tenfold axis. PMID:25080252</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Logvinovich, Dmitry; Simonov, Arkadiy; Steurer, Walter</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">335</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/862324"> <span id="translatedtitle">17th Annual <span class="hlt">ALS</span> Users' Association Meeting</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">It's not exactly Russian roulette, but scheduling October events outdoors is not risk-free, even in usually sunny California. An overflow crowd of more than 400 registered users, <span class="hlt">ALS</span> staff, and vendors enjoyed a full indoor program featuring science highlights and workshops spread over two and a half days from October 18 to October 20. However, a major storm, heralding the onset of the San Francisco Bay Area rainy season, posed a few weather challenges for the events on the <span class="hlt">ALS</span> patio.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Robinson, Art; Tamura, Lori</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-11-29</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">336</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1972SSCom..11..123M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Critical currents in Nb 3<span class="hlt">Al</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Alternating current measurements on Nb 3<span class="hlt">Al</span> have shown that large amounts of the sample are driven normal at relatively low fields. Small variations of Tc are associated with very large variations of Hc2 , caused, most probably, by varying degrees of disorder. These regions of low Hc2 material may explain the low critical current densities measured in Nb 3<span class="hlt">Al</span> and other A-15 superconductors.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Martin, P. J.; Campbell, A. M.; Evetts, J. E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1972-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">337</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/51327012"> <span id="translatedtitle">Structure of Cu32<span class="hlt">Al</span>19</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">POWDER photographs show that the deformed gamma structure Cu32<span class="hlt">Al</span>19 has 51 atoms in each of the pseudo-cubic unit cells; it is closely related to the cubic structure of Cu9<span class="hlt">Al</span>4 with 52 atoms per unit cell1. Whereas the latter is found with 21\\/13 or 22\\/13 electrons per atom, the deformed structure takes up to 89 electrons to 51 atoms. The complex</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. J. Bradley</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1951-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">338</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40287595"> <span id="translatedtitle">Transient oxidation of Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The transient oxidation stage of single crystal (001)Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> was investigated using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, electron diffraction and high resolution electron microscopy. (001)Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> was oxidized in air at 950°C for 50h in order to produce transient forms of alumina on the surface. After oxidation, an oxide scale with plate-like surface morphology formed. The platelets on the surface of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. C. Yang; E. Schumann; I. Levin; M. Rühle</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">339</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40658438"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dry sliding wear of Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The dry sliding wear behavior of the B2-structured (ordered body-centered cubic) compound Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> has been studied. Pin-on-disk experiments were conducted at room temperature in air using pins made from extruded Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> with compositions of 50, 48, and 45 at.% aluminum. Partially stabilized zirconia was the disk material. Wear rate measurements showed an inverse relation between wear and hardness. Hardness increased</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">B. J. Johnson; F. E. Kennedy; I. Baker</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">340</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41027235"> <span id="translatedtitle">Morphological changes of the Ti 3<span class="hlt">Al</span> 5 phase formed by phase-decomposition of Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span> intermetallics</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">When Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span> intermetallics containing <span class="hlt">Al</span> of 56, 58 and 60 at.% are aged at 973 K, the Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span> phase decomposes into the two-phase state of Ti3<span class="hlt">Al</span>5 and Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span>. Transmission electron microscopy observations showed the following microstructure changes because of ageing: (1) in Ti-56<span class="hlt">Al</span>, first Ti3<span class="hlt">Al</span>5 precipitate particles are thin plates having (001) surfaces and then they coalesce with each other</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Minoru Doi; Toshiyuki Koyama; Takeshi Taniguchi; Shizuo Naito</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img 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href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">341</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://enpub.fulton.asu.edu/cms/papers/met-ox_bonding.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Electronic structure and bonding at the Alterminated <span class="hlt">Al</span>(111)/<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3(0001) interface: A first principles study</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Electronic structure and bonding at the <span class="hlt">Al</span>­terminated <span class="hlt">Al</span>(111)/«­<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3(0001) interface: A first to determine the bonding character of the <span class="hlt">Al</span>­terminated <span class="hlt">Al</span>(111)/«­<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3(0001) interface. By using an optimized is that between Aluminum and its native ox- ide, <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3. Aluminum is one of the world's most widely used metals</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Adams, James B</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">342</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4332387"> <span id="translatedtitle">Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in Sporadic <span class="hlt">ALS</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objective To investigate oxidative stress biomarkers in a cross-sectional pilot study of 50 participants with sporadic <span class="hlt">ALS</span> (s<span class="hlt">ALS</span>) compared to 46 control subjects. Methods We measured urinary 8-oxodeoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), urinary 15-F2t-isoprostane (IsoP), and plasma protein carbonyl by ELISA methods. We also determined if ELISA measurement of 8-oxodG could be validated against measures from high pressure liquid chromatography coupled with electrochemical detection, the current standard method. Results 8-oxodG and IsoP levels adjusted for creatinine were significantly elevated in s<span class="hlt">ALS</span> participants. These differences persisted after age and gender were controlled in regression analyses. These markers are highly and positively correlated with each other. 8-oxodG measured by the two techniques from the same urine sample were positively correlated (P < .0001). Protein carbonyl was not different between s<span class="hlt">ALS</span> participants and controls. Conclusion Using ELISA we confirmed that certain oxidative stress biomarkers were elevated in s<span class="hlt">ALS</span> participants. ELISA may be reliable and thus useful in epidemiology studies requiring large numbers of samples to determine the significance of increased oxidative stress markers in s<span class="hlt">ALS</span>. Further studies are required. PMID:18574762</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mitsumoto, Hiroshi; Santella, Regina M.; Liu, Xinhua; Bogdanov, Mikhail; Zipprich, Jennifer; Wu, Hui-Chen; Mahata, Julie; Kilty, Mary; Bednarz, Kate; Bell, Daniel; Gordon, Paul H.; Hornig, Mady; Mehrazin, Mahsa; Naini, Ali; Beal, M. Flint; Factor-Litvak, Pam</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">343</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009PhyB..404.3216C"> <span id="translatedtitle">27<span class="hlt">Al</span> NMR studies of NpPd 5<span class="hlt">Al</span> 2</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present 27<span class="hlt">Al</span> NMR studies for a single crystal of the Np-based superconductor NpPd 5<span class="hlt">Al</span> 2(Tc=4.9 K). We have observed a five-line 27<span class="hlt">Al</span> NMR spectrum with a center line and four satellite lines separated by first-order nuclear quadrupole splittings. The Knight shift clearly drops below Tc. The temperature dependence of the 27<span class="hlt">Al</span> nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate shows no coherence peak below Tc, indicating that NpPd 5<span class="hlt">Al</span> 2 is an unconventional superconductor with an anisotropic gap. The analysis of the present NMR data provides evidence for strong-coupling d-wave superconductivity in NpPd 5<span class="hlt">Al</span> 2.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chudo, H.; Sakai, H.; Tokunaga, Y.; Kambe, S.; Aoki, D.; Homma, Y.; Shiokawa, Y.; Haga, Y.; Ikeda, S.; Matsuda, T. D.; ?nuki, Y.; Yasuoka, H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">344</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1093153"> <span id="translatedtitle">Thermal Properties in the Mg<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O4-<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 System</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Compositional effects on the thermal diffusivity in the Mg<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O4-<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 system were studied. The lowest thermal diffusivity, 0.0258 +/-5% cm/s, was measured between 79.8 and 83.9 wt% <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 quenched from various temperatures between 1500 and 1700C. All of the chemistries in this range extend past the solvus, but still form a singe super-saturated spinel solid solution, regardless of quenching tempeature. A super-saturated metastable solid solution region was observed at 1500, 1600, and 1700C extending to 83.9, 85.2, and 87.1 wt% <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3, respectively. Beyond 83.9% <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 a significant increase in thermal diffusivity, 11.7%, was observed and its attributed to precipiation of <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 through spinodal decomposition.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wilkerson, Dr. Kelley R. [Missouri University of Science and Technology; Smith, Jeffrey D [ORNL; Hemrick, James Gordon [ORNL</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">345</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920049226&hterms=Al2O3&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DAl2O3"> <span id="translatedtitle">Protective <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 scale formation on Nb<span class="hlt">Al</span>3-base alloys</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The oxidation of Nb<span class="hlt">Al</span>3 with additions of Cr and Y was studied to determine the mechanisms of the beneficial effects of these elements upon oxidation. Cr additions to the binary Nb<span class="hlt">Al</span>3 alloy of up to 6.8 at. percent reduced the scale growth rates and promoted alpha-<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 formation over much longer times relative to binary Nb<span class="hlt">Al</span>3. A major effect of Cr is to form a layer of <span class="hlt">Al</span>NbCr at the metal/scale interface, which is inherently more oxidation-resistant than the matrix alloy in the long term. Yttrium additions to a Cr-containing alloy improved the scale growth rate and adherence and changed the scale microstructure to mimic that of a typical protective <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 scale.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Doychak, J.; Hebsur, M. G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">346</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890059135&hterms=Ni3Al&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DNi3Al"> <span id="translatedtitle">TEM studies of oxidized Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> and Ni3<span class="hlt">Al</span> cross sections</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Cross sections of oxide scale/(Ni-<span class="hlt">Al</span>) intermetallics were prepared by a new method and studied using primarily TEM. The cross sections were prepared by encasing an oxidized metal specimen sandwich in a low-melting-temperature zinc alloy. Observations of oxidized zirconium-doped beta-Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> cross sections revealed crystallographic voids beneath an adherent <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 scale. The oxide-metal interface was incoherent, but a high dislocation density in the metal near the interface suggested that a large tensile stress was induced by the attached oxide scale. A duplex <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3-Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O4 scale formed on zirconium-doped and zirconium/boron-doped gamma-prime-Ni3<span class="hlt">Al</span> alloys. Additional results are presented involving oxidation mechanisms and oxide-metal interface structures.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Doychak, J.; Ruhle, M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">347</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6445913"> <span id="translatedtitle">Theoretical studies of Ni/sub 3/<span class="hlt">Al</span> and Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> with impurities</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Intermetallic compound has been extensively studied because of their superior properties in strength, low creep rate, and high melting point. But most of the systems have room temperature ductility problems, like Ll/sub 2/ and B2 compounds. Both Ll/sub 2/ Ni/sub 3/<span class="hlt">Al</span> and B2 Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> exhibit intergranular fracture mode. Understanding grain boundaries in these materials is of particular importance since intergranular fracture limits the applicability of these otherwise promising material. In an effort trying to understand the fracture mechanism, we have used embedded atom potentials to study the properties of Ni/sub 3/<span class="hlt">Al</span> and Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>. We also consider the effect of boron, sulfur, and nickel segregation on the strength of grain boundaries in Ni/sub 3/<span class="hlt">Al</span> and Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>. 22 refs., 2 figs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chen, S.P.; Voter, A.F.; Boring, A.M.; Albers, R.C.; Hay, P.J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">348</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.phys.ufl.edu/~afh/reprints/GlassyTunnelJunctions_prb.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Time-dependent glassy behavior of interface states in <span class="hlt">Al-AlOx-Al</span> tunnel junctions Jeremy R. Nesbitt and Arthur F. Hebard</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">, aluminum is known to completely wet transition metal surfaces and, when oxidized to completion, forms a tunnel barrier suitable for magnetic4,5 or Josephson6 tunnel junctions. Aluminum oxide <span class="hlt">Al</span>Ox barriers-temperature monitoring of electrical properties of <span class="hlt">Al-AlOx-Al</span> planar tunnel junctions beginning when the deposition</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hebard, Arthur F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">349</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.phy.mtu.edu/pandey/publications/GLDPGG2004.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Structure, Energetics, Electronic, and Hydration Properties of Neutral and Anionic <span class="hlt">Al</span>3O6, <span class="hlt">Al</span>3O7, and <span class="hlt">Al</span>3O8 Clusters</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">-coordinated <span class="hlt">Al</span> sites. I. Introduction Aluminum oxide, <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3, traditionally referred to as alumina, is a very. Clusters of aluminum oxide have, conse- quently, been studied both theoretically and experimentallyStructure, Energetics, Electronic, and Hydration Properties of Neutral and Anionic <span class="hlt">Al</span>3O6, <span class="hlt">Al</span>3O7</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pandey, Ravi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">350</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19916417"> <span id="translatedtitle">Magnetron sputtered nc-<span class="hlt">Al/alpha-Al</span>2O3 nanocomposite thin films for nonvolatile memory application.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper, we developed nc-<span class="hlt">Al/a-Al</span>2O3 nanocomposite thin films using magnetron sputtering. The nc-<span class="hlt">Al/a-Al</span>2O3 films were sputtered on p-type Si substrates from pure <span class="hlt">Al</span> target in gas mixture of Ar and O2. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscope studies confirm that the nanocrystalline <span class="hlt">Al</span> are embedded in amorphous <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 matrix thus nc-<span class="hlt">Al</span>/ a-<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 nanocomposite forms. This nanocomposite thin film exhibits memory effect as a result of charge trapping. PMID:19916417</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Li, Yibin; Zhang, Sam; Liu, Y; Chen, T P; Sritharan, Thirumany; Xu, Cong</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">351</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41015824"> <span id="translatedtitle">Weldability of <span class="hlt">Al</span> 4C 3–<span class="hlt">Al</span> composites via diffusion welding technique</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this study, <span class="hlt">Al–Al</span>4C3 composites, produced by powder metallurgy in situ techniques, were joined by diffusion welding technique at 250 MPa pressure with various welding temperatures and durations. Microstructures and shear strengths of the joined areas were determined. <span class="hlt">Al</span> powders were mixed with 2% carbon black and milled in a high energy ball mill (mechanical alloying) for up to 20</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Halil Arik; Mustafa Aydin; Adem Kurt; Mehmet Turker</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">352</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40530908"> <span id="translatedtitle">On structure and mechanical properties of ultrasonically cast <span class="hlt">Al</span>–2% <span class="hlt">Al</span> 2O 3 nanocomposite</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">An investigation on the structure of an ultrasonically cast nanocomposite of <span class="hlt">Al</span> with 2wt.% nano-sized <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 (average size ?10nm) dispersoids showed that the nanocomposite was consisting of nearly continuous nano-alumina dispersed zones (NDZs) in the vicinity of the grain boundaries encapsulating <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 depleted zones (ADZs). The mechanical properties were investigated by nanoindentation and tensile tests. The nano-sized dispersoids caused a</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. Mula; P. Padhi; S. C. Panigrahi; S. K. Pabi; S. Ghosh</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">353</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://theory.bio.uu.nl/immbio/sheets/College_7_juni_2.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Polly Matzinger & Michel Oldstone Ohashi et <span class="hlt">al</span> Cell 1991, Oldstone et <span class="hlt">al</span> Cell 1991</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">of the clonotypes recognizing the pitopes that fail to induce tolerance. Otherwise the clo g Borghans et <span class="hlt">al</span>. [4] we. Otherwise the clone will be held <span class="hlt">al</span>. [4] we let be the fraction of clonotypes recognizing - p)(1-f)S . (4 . Following Borghans et <span class="hlt">al</span>. [4] we let be the fraction pe, i.e., = 1 - (1 - p)(1-f)S . emains tolerant when</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Utrecht, Universiteit</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">354</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41066273"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hydrogen solubility of two-phase (Ti 3<span class="hlt">Al</span> + Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span>) titanium aluminides</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this study, two-phase (αâ + γ) titanium aluminides were thermally charged with hydrogen, and the hydrogen solubility and the hydrogen evolution behavior were investigated by means of thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). Hydrogen solubility of two-phase (Tiâ<span class="hlt">Al</span> + Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span>) titanium aluminides occurred endothermically. A heat of solution for hydrogen dissolution in a Ti-50<span class="hlt">Al</span> alloy was estimated to be 36.4 kJ\\/mol</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Akito Takasaki; Yoshio Furuya; Kozo Ojima; Youji Taneda</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">355</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40433908"> <span id="translatedtitle">Martensitic transformation in CVD Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> and (Ni,Pt)<span class="hlt">Al</span> bond coatings</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The martensitic phase transformation in single-phase ?-Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> and (Ni,Pt)<span class="hlt">Al</span> coatings was investigated. After isothermal exposure to 1150 °C for 100 h, the ? phase in both types of coatings was transformed to a martensite phase during cooling to room temperature. Martensitic transformation was also observed in the (Ni,Pt)<span class="hlt">Al</span> bond coat with and without a YSZ top layer after thermal cycling</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Y Zhang; J. A Haynes; B. A Pint; I. G Wright; W. Y Lee</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">356</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/39757700"> <span id="translatedtitle">TEM studies of oxidized Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> and Ni 3 <span class="hlt">Al</span> cross sections</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Cross sections of oxide scale\\/(Ni-<span class="hlt">Al</span>) intermetallics were prepared by a new method and studied using primarily transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The cross sections were prepared by encasing an oxidized metal specimen sandwich in a low-melting-temperature zinc alloy. Observations of oxidized zirconium-doped ß-Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> cross sections revealed crystallographic voids beneath an adherent <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 scale. The oxide-metal interface was incoherent, but a high</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. Doychak; M. Rühle</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">357</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890001234&hterms=potential+curves&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dpotential%2Bcurves"> <span id="translatedtitle">The lowest ionization potentials of <span class="hlt">Al</span>2</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Potential curves for the lowest two electronic states (X 2 sigma g + and A 2 pi u) of <span class="hlt">Al</span>2(+) were computed using complete active space SCF/multireference CI wave functions and large Gaussian basis sets. The lowest observable vertical ionization potential (to <span class="hlt">Al</span>2(+) X 2 sigma g +) of the <span class="hlt">Al</span>2 X 3 pi u ground state is calculated to occur around 6.1 eV, in excellent agreement with the experimental range of 6.0 to 6.42 eV obtained in recent cluster ionization studies by Cox and co-workers. The second vertical ionization potential (to <span class="hlt">Al</span>2(+) A 2 pi u) occurs near 6.4 eV, also within the experimental range. The adiabatic IP of 5.90 eV is in good agreement with the value of 5.8 to 6.1 eV deduced by Hanley and co-workers from the difference in thresholds between collision induced dissociation processes of <span class="hlt">Al</span>3(+). The computed IP values are somewhat larger than those deduced from branching ratios in cluster fragmentation experiments by Jarrold and co-workers. The observation of an ionization threshold below 6.42 eV is shown to be incompatible with an <span class="hlt">Al</span>2 ground electronic state assignment of 3 sigma g -, but the separation between the two lowest states of <span class="hlt">Al</span>2 is so small that it is likely that both are populated in the experiments, so that this does not provide unambiguous support for the recent theoretical assignment of the ground state as 3 pi u.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Barnes, Leslie A.; Taylor, Peter R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">358</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890057866&hterms=potential+curves&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dpotential%2Bcurves"> <span id="translatedtitle">Lowest ionization potentials of <span class="hlt">Al</span>2</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Potential curves for the lowest two electronic states, X 2Sigma(+)g and A 2Pi(u), of <span class="hlt">Al</span>2(+) were computed using complete active space SCF/multireference CI wave functions and large Gaussian basis sets. The lowest observable vertical ionization potential, to <span class="hlt">Al</span>2(+) X 2Sigma(+)g, of the <span class="hlt">Al</span>2 X 3 Pi(u) ground state is calculated to occur around 6.1 eV, in excellent agreement with the experimental range of 6.0 to 6.42 eV obtained in recent cluster ionization studies by Cox and co-workers. The second vertical ionization potential, to <span class="hlt">Al</span>2(+) A 2Pi(u), occurs near 6.4 eV, also within the experimental range. The adiabatic IP of 5.90 eV is in good agreement with the value of 5.8 to 6.1 eV deduced by Hanley and co-workers from the difference in thresholds between collision induced dissociation processes of <span class="hlt">Al</span>3(+). The computed IP values are somewhat larger than those deduced from branching ratios in cluster fragmentation experiments by Jarrold and co-workers. The observation of an ionization threshold below 6.42 eV is shown to be incompatible with an <span class="hlt">Al</span>2 ground electronic state assignment of 3Sigma(-)g, but the separation between the two lowest states of <span class="hlt">Al</span>2 is so small that it is likely that both are populated in the experiments, so that this does not provide unambiguous support for the recent theoretical assignment of the ground state as 3Pi(u).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Barnes, Leslie A.; Taylor, Peter R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">359</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15870470"> <span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of the Candida albicans <span class="hlt">Als</span>2p and <span class="hlt">Als</span>4p adhesins suggests the potential for compensatory function within the <span class="hlt">Als</span> family.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">ALS</span> (agglutinin-like sequence) gene family encodes eight large cell-surface glycoproteins. The work presented here focuses on <span class="hlt">Als</span>2p and <span class="hlt">Als</span>4p, and is part of a larger effort to deduce the function of each <span class="hlt">Als</span> protein. Both <span class="hlt">ALS</span>4 alleles were deleted from the Candida albicans genome and the phenotype of the mutant strain (<span class="hlt">als</span>4Delta/<span class="hlt">als</span>4Delta; named 2034) studied. Loss of <span class="hlt">Als</span>4p slowed germ tube formation of cells grown in RPMI 1640 medium and resulted in decreased adhesion of C. albicans to vascular endothelial cells. Loss of <span class="hlt">Als</span>4p did not affect adhesion to buccal epithelial cells, biofilm formation in a catheter model, or adhesion to or destruction of oral reconstituted human epithelium (RHE). Although deletion of one <span class="hlt">ALS</span>2 allele was achieved readily, a strain lacking the second allele was not identified despite screening thousands of transformants. The remaining <span class="hlt">ALS</span>2 allele was placed under control of the C. albicans MAL2 promoter to create an <span class="hlt">als</span>2Delta/PMAL2-<span class="hlt">ALS</span>2 strain (named 2342). Real-time RT-PCR analysis of strain 2342 grown in glucose-containing medium (non-inducing conditions) showed that although <span class="hlt">ALS</span>2 transcript levels were greatly reduced compared to wild-type cells, some <span class="hlt">ALS</span>2 transcript remained. The decreased <span class="hlt">ALS</span>2 expression levels were sufficient to slow germ tube formation in RPMI 1640 and Lee medium, reduce adhesion to vascular endothelial cells and to RHE, decrease RHE destruction, and impair biofilm formation. Growth of strain 2342 in maltose-containing medium (inducing conditions) restored the wild-type phenotype in all assays. Real-time RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that in maltose-containing medium, strain 2342 overexpressed <span class="hlt">ALS</span>2 compared to wild-type cells; however no overexpression phenotype was apparent. Microarray analysis revealed little transcriptional response to <span class="hlt">ALS</span>4 deletion, but showed twofold up-regulation of orf19.4765 in the glucose-medium-grown <span class="hlt">als</span>2Delta/PMAL2-<span class="hlt">ALS</span>2 strain. orf19.4765 encodes a protein with features of a glycosylated cell wall protein with similarity to Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ccw12p, although initial analysis suggested functional differences between the two proteins. Real-time RT-PCR measurement of <span class="hlt">ALS</span>2 and <span class="hlt">ALS</span>4 transcript copy number showed a 2.8-fold increase in <span class="hlt">ALS</span>2 expression in the <span class="hlt">als</span>4Delta/<span class="hlt">als</span>4Delta strain and a 3.2-fold increase in <span class="hlt">ALS</span>4 expression in the <span class="hlt">als</span>2Delta/PMAL2-<span class="hlt">ALS</span>2 strain, suggesting the potential for compensatory function between these related proteins. PMID:15870470</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhao, X; Oh, S-H; Yeater, K M; Hoyer, L L</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">360</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SSCom.152.2078N"> <span id="translatedtitle">Chemical trend of superconducting transition temperature in hole-doped delafossite of Cu<span class="hlt">Al</span>O2, Ag<span class="hlt">Al</span>O2 and Au<span class="hlt">Al</span>O2</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We have performed the first-principles calculations about the superconducting transition temperature Tc of hole-doped delafossite Cu<span class="hlt">Al</span>O2, Ag<span class="hlt">Al</span>O2 and Au<span class="hlt">Al</span>O2. Calculated Tc are about 50 K (Cu<span class="hlt">Al</span>O2), 40 K (Ag<span class="hlt">Al</span>O2) and 3 K(Au<span class="hlt">Al</span>O2) at maximum in the optimum hole-doping concentration. The low Tc of Au<span class="hlt">Al</span>O2 is attributed to the weak electron-phonon interaction caused by the low covalency and heavy atomic mass.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nakanishi, Akitaka; Katayama-Yoshida, Hiroshi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span 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id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">361</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SurSc.624....1L"> <span id="translatedtitle">First-principle study of adhesion, wetting and bonding on <span class="hlt">Al/Al</span>3V(001) interface</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The adhesion, wetting, and bonding on fcc-<span class="hlt">Al</span>(001)/D022-<span class="hlt">Al</span>3V(001) interface were investigated using density functional calculations. Considering different terminations of <span class="hlt">Al</span>3V(001) (<span class="hlt">Al</span>- and <span class="hlt">Al</span> + V-terminated) and stacking sites (center-, hollow- and top-sites), six <span class="hlt">Al/Al</span>3V(001) models were calculated. For the models with same stacking site, <span class="hlt">Al</span> + V-terminated model has larger work of adhesion (Wad) than the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-terminated one. For the models with same termination, the work of adhesion decreases, and the interface energy (?int) increases as the order of top-, bridge- and center-sites. <span class="hlt">Al</span>-terminated-center-sited and <span class="hlt">Al</span> + V-terminated-center-sited models are more stable among six models. After complete structure relaxation, both models have the same epitaxial stacking style. Therefore, the both models can be regarded as of the same and most stable one (noted as CSI model), but separating along <span class="hlt">Al-Al</span> and <span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>+V inter-planes. Based on the perfect wetting and strong adhesion in CSI model, the heterogeneous nucleation of ?-<span class="hlt">Al</span> on <span class="hlt">Al</span>3V(001) was interpreted in terms of crystallography and thermodynamics. The interfacial bonding was discussed with analysis of valence electron density distribution and partial density of states (PDOS). The bonding is mainly contributed from <span class="hlt">Al</span>V covalent bonds and <span class="hlt">AlAl</span> metallic interactions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Li, Jian; Qi, Yuning; Zhang, Ming; Zhou, Yong; Li, Xiao</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">362</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/docs/00/67/69/13/PDF/GRL_2010_37_L20306.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Elasticity of <span class="hlt">Al</span>FeO3 and Fe<span class="hlt">Al</span>O3 perovskite and postperovskite from firstprinciples calculations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Elasticity of <span class="hlt">Al</span>FeO3 and Fe<span class="hlt">Al</span>O3 perovskite and postperovskite from firstprinciples calculations R constants tensor of perovskite and postperovskite with formulas <span class="hlt">Al</span>FeO3 and Fe<span class="hlt">Al</span>O3 in which Fe or <span class="hlt">Al</span> perovskite and postperovskite is associated with a site exchange, during which Fe from the interoctahedral</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Paris-Sud XI, Université de</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">363</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://coolchips.sfsu.edu/LT_XXI-2.doc.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Preparation and characterization of <span class="hlt">Al/Al</span>2O3/Cu SIN tunnel junctions microfabricated with a full wafer process</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Preparation and characterization of <span class="hlt">Al/Al</span>2O3/Cu SIN tunnel junctions microfabricated with a full at Storrs We have developed a "full wafer" process for producing <span class="hlt">Al/Al</span>2O3/Cu superconductor the "full wafer" process developed for Nb/<span class="hlt">Al</span> 2 O 3 /Nb superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) devices</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Neuhauser, Barbara</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">364</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/616445"> <span id="translatedtitle">Long range order and vacancy properties in <span class="hlt">Al</span>-rich Fe{sub 3}<span class="hlt">Al</span> and Fe{sub 3}<span class="hlt">Al</span>(Cr) alloys</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Neutron powder diffraction measurements have been carried out in situ from room temperature to about 100 C in Fe28<span class="hlt">Al</span> (28 at.% <span class="hlt">Al</span>), Fe32.5<span class="hlt">Al</span> (32.5 at.% <span class="hlt">Al</span>) and Fe28<span class="hlt">Al</span>15Cr (28 at.% <span class="hlt">Al</span>, 5 at.% Cr) alloys. X-ray diffraction and TEM studies provided supporting information. The data were analyzed to obtain information about the temperature dependence of the DO{sub 3} and B2 long range order parameters, the location of the Cr atoms and their effect on the ordering energies, and on the vacancy formation and migration properties in Fe28<span class="hlt">Al</span> and Fe32.5<span class="hlt">Al</span> alloys. The location of the ternary alloying addition in DO{sub 3} and B2 ordered <span class="hlt">Al</span>-rich Fe{sub 3}<span class="hlt">Al</span> is shown to be consistent with considerations of interatomic bond energies.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kim, S.M. [AECL, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada). Chalk River Labs.] [AECL, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada). Chalk River Labs.; Morris, D.G. [Univ. of Neuchatel (Switzerland). Inst. of Structural Metallurgy] [Univ. of Neuchatel (Switzerland). Inst. of Structural Metallurgy</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">365</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/0804.0824.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evidence for High Tc Superconducting Transitions in Isolated <span class="hlt">Al</span>45- and <span class="hlt">Al</span>47- Nanoclusters</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Heat capacities measured for <span class="hlt">Al</span>45- and <span class="hlt">Al</span>47- nanoclusters have reproducible jumps at ~ 200 K. These jumps are consistent with theoretical predictions that some clusters with highly degenerate electronic states near the Fermi level will undergo a transition into a high Tc superconducting state. An analysis based on a theoretical treatment of pairing in <span class="hlt">Al</span>45- and <span class="hlt">Al</span>47- agrees well with the experimental data in both the value of the critical temperature and in the size and width of the jumps in the heat capacity.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cao, Baopeng; Starace, Anne K; Ovchinnikov, Yurii N; Kresin, Vladimir Z; Jarrold, Martin F</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">366</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19830003032&hterms=coal&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dcoal"> <span id="translatedtitle">High temperature deformation of Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> and Co<span class="hlt">Al</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The high temperature mechanical properties of the aluminides are reviewed with respect to their potential as high temperature structural materials. It is shown that Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> and Co<span class="hlt">Al</span> are substantially stronger than the pure metals Ni and Co at high temperatures and approach the strength of some superalloys, particularly when those superalloys are tested in "weak" directions. The factors that limit and control the high temperature strengths of Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> and Co<span class="hlt">Al</span> are examined to provide a basis for the development of intermetallic alloys of this type.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nix, W. D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">367</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014MMTB...45.1380P"> <span id="translatedtitle">-CaO Slags by <span class="hlt">Al</span> in Fe-<span class="hlt">Al</span>(-Si) Melts</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Kinetic models considering mass transport in, (i) metal phase only and (ii) both metal and slag phases (mixed control or two-phase mass transfer) were developed for the reduction of SiO2 in a SiO2-<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3-CaO slag by <span class="hlt">Al</span> in an <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Fe melt. The models were validated with experiments of the reaction with Fe-<span class="hlt">Al</span> melt and SiO2-<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3-CaO-MgOsat slags at 1873 K (1600 °C). The models predict that the rate of reaction is slower in the mixed control model because of the added resistance of slag phase mass transport. The mixed control becomes applicable when the slag contains low amounts of SiO2. In this case, when the initial <span class="hlt">Al</span> content in the metal increases, the normalized rate of reaction decreases. The increased <span class="hlt">Al</span> content in the metal retards the reaction due to the limited SiO2 provided to the reaction interface in the mixed control model. Sensitivity analyses were done using the models for the ratios of mass transfer coefficients of Si to <span class="hlt">Al</span>, and <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 to Si, along with slag density, which did not impose a significant effect.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Park, Jiwon; Sridhar, Seetharaman; Fruehan, Richard J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">368</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhLA..374.3230Y"> <span id="translatedtitle">Glassy ferromagnetism in <span class="hlt">Al</span>-doped 4H-SiC: <span class="hlt">Al</span>Si-V complexes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The recent observed glassy ferromagnetism in <span class="hlt">Al</span>-doped 4 H-SiC is investigated using first principles calculations. We find that the formation energy of V is significantly reduced by <span class="hlt">Al</span> atoms doped in SiC. The <span class="hlt">Al</span> Si- V complex induces a half-filled narrow a level in the band gap and contributes a net local moment of 1 ?. The exchange parameter J can be either positive or negative along different directions. Both the strong anisotropy of J and the correlation effects of the a level can lead to a glassy ferromagnetism in <span class="hlt">Al</span>-doped 4 H-SiC.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yang, Mao; Shi, Jun-jie</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">369</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920053767&hterms=Al2O3&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DAl2O3"> <span id="translatedtitle">Combustion synthesis of TiB2-<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3-<span class="hlt">Al</span> composite materials</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The oxide-aluminum exothermic reduction reaction is presently used in the combustion-synthesis of ceramic/metal composites. An excess of <span class="hlt">Al</span> is used in the reacting materials, which rapidly generate enough heat to exceed <span class="hlt">Al</span>'s melting point. The molten <span class="hlt">Al</span> thus evolved is allowed to infiltrate the porous ceramic matrix as the exothermic reaction proceeds; this feature of the process turns the disadvantage of high porosity levels in combustion-synthesized materials into an advantage. Attention is given to the system obtained with 3TiO2 + 3B2O3 + (10-x)<span class="hlt">Al</span> starting materials.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Feng, H. J.; Moore, J. J.; Wirth, D. G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">370</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/571807"> <span id="translatedtitle">Microstructure and strengthening of creep-tested cryomilled Ni<span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>N</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The B2 intermetallic Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> is considered to be a prime candidate material for use as very high temperature structural components in gas turbine engines. The mechanical grinding of prealloyed Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> powder in liquid nitrogen (cryomilling) results in an intermetallic matrix composite where micron sized particle free aluminide cores (grains) are surrounded by thin mantles comprised of nanometer sized <span class="hlt">Al</span>N particles and Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> grains. Under high temperature, slow strain rate conditions both compressive and tensile creep testing have shown that the mechanical strength of hot extruded cryomilled Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> approaches the levels exhibited by advanced Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>-based single crystals and simple Ni-based superalloys. Transmission electron microscopy of cryomilled materials tested between 1,100 and 1,300 K revealed little, if any, dislocation structure within the mantle regions, while the Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> cores contained subgrains and dislocation networks after testing at all strain rates between 10{sup {minus}4} and 10{sup {minus}8} s{sup {minus}1}. These and other microstructural observations suggest that creep strength is the result of a fine Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> grain/subgrain size, the inability of dislocations to move through the mantle and stabilization of the microstructure by the <span class="hlt">Al</span>N particles.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Garg, A. [AYT, Cleveland, OH (United States); Whittenberger, J.D. [NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH (United States); Luton, M.J. [Exxon Research and Engineering Co., East Annandale, NJ (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-12-31</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">371</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.tau.ac.il/~gilast/PAPERS/Science2003reviewed.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">ported by Nomura et <span class="hlt">al</span>. (1) meets the on-</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">suited to AMLCD select transis- tor applications. Hoffman et <span class="hlt">al</span>. (3) and Carcia et <span class="hlt">al</span>. (4) have demonstrated on-to-off current ratios greater than 106. Moreover, Carcia et <span class="hlt">al</span>. (4) have fabricated ZnO trans</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ast, Gil</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">372</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www2.ece.ttu.edu/nanophotonics/papers/APL%20papers/AlGaN%20GaN%20AlN%20quantum-well%20field-effect%20transistors%20with%20highly%20resistive%20AlN%20epilayers.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">AlGaN/GaN/Al</span>N quantum-well field-effect transistors with highly resistive <span class="hlt">Al</span>N epilayers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">AlGaN/GaN/Al</span>N quantum-well field-effect transistors with highly resistive <span class="hlt">Al</span>N epilayers Z. Y. Fana 66506-2601 Received 23 November 2005; accepted 5 January 2006; published online 16 February 2006 <span class="hlt">AlGaN/GaN/Al</span>N quantum-well field-effect transistors have been demonstrated. By replacing a semi-insulating GaN epilayer</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jiang, Hongxing</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">373</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004APS..MARD33006C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Photoemission from <span class="hlt">Al</span> Alloys during Tensile Deformation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report simultaneous measurements of strain and photoelectron emission intensity from high purity <span class="hlt">Al</span> (1350), <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Mg (5052), <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Mn (3003), <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Cu (2024) and <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Mg-Si (6061) alloys under uniaxial tension due to pulsed excimer laser radiation (248-nm). The photoemission signals are sensitive to deformation-induced changes in surface morphology, including the formation of slip lines and slip bands. In the early stages of deformation (strain Â¡Ü 0.03), the photoemission intensity increases gradually in a nonlinear fashion. Depending on sample composition and heat treatment, the photoemission intensity subsequently grows linearly until the accumulated strain reaches about 0.20. Finally, the photoemission intensity increases parabolically until failure. The onset of strain localization corresponds to the transition from linear to parabolic growth. A constitutional model incorporating microstructure evolution and work-hardening during tensile deformation is proposed to qualitatively interpret the growth of the photoemission signals as a function of strain. The photoemission signals from the tested alloys are interpreted in terms of the effect of surface treatment, work function, microstructure, and composition on the development of dislocation structures during deformation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cai, Mingdong; Langford, Stephen; Levine, Lyle; Dickinson, Thomas</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">374</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/414032"> <span id="translatedtitle">Survey and alignment at the <span class="hlt">ALS</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper describes survey and alignment at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory`s Advanced Light Source (<span class="hlt">ALS</span>) accelerators from 1993 to 1995. The <span class="hlt">ALS</span> is a 1.0 - 1.9 GeV electron accelerator producing extremely bright synchrotron light in the UV and soft-X-ray wavelengths. At the <span class="hlt">ALS</span>, electrons are accelerated in a LINAC to 50 MeV, injected into a booster ring for further acceleration and finally injected into the storage ring. This is shown schematically in Figure 1. The storage ring, some 200 m in circumference, has been run with electron currents above 400 mA with lifetimes as high as 24 hours. The <span class="hlt">ALS</span> is a third generation light source and requires for efficient storage ring operation, magnets aligned to within 150 mm of their ideal position. To accomplish this a network of monuments was established and their positions measured with respect to one another. The data was reduced using GEONET`` and STAR*NET`` software. Using the monuments as reference points, magnet positions were measured and alignment confirmed using the Kem Electronic Coordinate Determination System (ECDS``). A number of other papers dealing with survey and alignment (S&A) at the <span class="hlt">ALS</span> have been written that may further elucidate some details of the methods and systems described in this paper.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Krebs, G.F.; Lauritzen, T.; Thur, W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">375</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/603868"> <span id="translatedtitle">Tensile properties of Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> bicrystals</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The intermetallic compound {beta}-Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> continues to receive considerable attention in spite of its lack of room temperature toughness and high temperature strength. Although the dislocations are mobile at room temperature, the lack of a sufficient number of slip systems precludes significant elongation in single and polycrystalline Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> except in single crystals under special conditions. In the case of polycrystals of stoichiometric Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>, the room temperature fracture tends to be mostly intergranular; this has been related to the stresses that build up at the grain boundaries during plastic deformation due to the lack of active independent deformation mechanisms or the possibility that the grain boundaries are intrinsically weak. The present study was designed to establish the condition of grain boundary fracture by performing tensile tests at different temperatures and strain rates on bicrystals of Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> containing natural boundaries produced by Bridgman growth. This approach was selected based on the previous work on Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> bicrystals produced by diffusion bonding/brazing and Bridgman growth. In some cases, these boundaries were reportedly enriched in nickel although it is unclear, based on the limited atomistic modeling efforts to date, whether this is a result of sample processing or is a characteristic of this compound. Furthermore, the previous studies of slip behavior were performed in compression which is less suitable for examining the relative strength of the grain boundaries.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">LeBleu, J.B. Jr.; Mei, P.R.; Levit, V.I.; Kaufman, M.J. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering] [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-06</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">376</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25284449"> <span id="translatedtitle">Computational cogitation of cn @<span class="hlt">al</span>12 clusters.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A variety of novel Cn <span class="hlt">Al</span>12 core-shell nanoclusters have been investigated using density functional calculations. A series of Cn cores (n=1-4) have been encapsulated by icosahedral <span class="hlt">Al</span>12 , with characteristic physical properties (energetics and stabilities, ionisation energies, electron affinities) calculated for each cluster. Other isomers, with the Cn moiety bound externally to the <span class="hlt">Al</span>12 shell, have also been studied. For both series, a peak in stability was found for n(C)=2, a characteristic that appears to be inextricably linked with the relaxation of the constituent parts upon dissociation. Analysis of trends for ionisation energies and electron affinities includes evaluation of contributions from the carbon and aluminium components, which highlights the effects of composition and morphology on cluster properties. PMID:25284449</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Irving, Benjamin J; Naumkin, Fedor Y</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-01-12</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">377</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/434994"> <span id="translatedtitle">The mechanical properties of Fe<span class="hlt">Al</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Only in the last few years has progress been made in obtaining reproducible mechanical properties data for Fe<span class="hlt">Al</span>. Two sets of observations are the foundation of this progress. The first is that the large vacancy concentrations that exist in Fe<span class="hlt">Al</span> at high temperature are easily retained at low temperature and that these strongly affect the low-temperature mechanical properties. The second is that RT ductility is adversely affected by water vapor. Purpose of this paper is not to present a comprehensive overview of the mechanical properties of Fe<span class="hlt">Al</span> but rather to highlight our understanding of key phenomena and to show how an understanding of the factors which control the yield strength and fracture behavior has followed the discovery of the above two effects. 87 refs, 9 figs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Baker, I. [Dartmouth Coll., Hanover, NH (United States); George, E.P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-12-31</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">378</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/676870"> <span id="translatedtitle">Boron strengthening in Fe<span class="hlt">Al</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The effect of boron on the strength of B2-structured Fe<span class="hlt">Al</span> is considered as a function of composition, grain size and temperature. Boron does not affect the concentrations of antisite atoms or vacancies present, with the former increasing and the latter decreasing with increasing deviation from the stoichiometric composition. When vacancies are absent, the strength increase per at. % B per unit lattice strain, {Delta}{sigma}/({Delta}c x {epsilon}) increases with increasing aluminum concentration, but when vacancies are present (>45 at. % <span class="hlt">Al</span>), {Delta}{sigma}/({Delta}c x {epsilon}) decreases again. Boron increases grain size strengthening in Fe<span class="hlt">Al</span>. B strengthening is roughly independent of temperature up to the yield strength peak but above the point, when diffusion-assisted deformation occurs, boron strengthening increases dramatically.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Baker, I.; Li, X.; Xiao, H.; Klein, O.; Nelson, C. [Dartmouth Coll., Hanover, NH (United States). Thayer School of Engineering; Carleton, R.L.; George, E.P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Metals and Ceramics Div.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">379</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10386051"> <span id="translatedtitle">[<span class="hlt">Al</span>-Biruni--a universal scientist].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Al</span>-Biruni's was of Persian descent. He was born in Horesmiya and had studied mathematics, history and medicine. Acquiring knowledge from these sciences, he wrote an outstanding work on chronology of several nations and devoted it to Ziyarit ruler Kabus. He made a chronological overview of calendars from many nations, including Persians, Greeks, Egyptians, Jews, Melkitian and Nestorian Christians, Sabeyaans as well as the old Arabs. Data presented in the work, according to the later authors, were taken from very reliable sources. He was contemporary of Ibn-Sina, and thanks to their friendship, they have discussed very much miscellaneous topics. He belonged to the group of scholars, taken by Gaznevian Soultan Mahmud to a long journey to India. Afterwards <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Biruni wrote and published detailed work "Description of India"--a work on cultural history of India. Due to excellent abilities of <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Biruni as a philosopher and scholar, there are still significant and reliable notes about buddhistic philosophy, structure of castes and Brahmans' life style. In this <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Biruni's masterpiece, there are many comparative analysis of Suffism and certain Indian philosophical methods. <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Biruni's most important work is "Pharmacopoeia"--"Kitab <span class="hlt">al</span>-saydala", which brilliantly describes all medicaments. This work has been published in many languages. He also wrote few works on astronomy and astrology. In those works he has explained some astrological events through scientific approach in a such peculiar way that nobody has ever explained before. He was also interested in sciences like geology, mineralology, geography, mathematics, psychology and many others. PMID:10386051</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kujundzi?, E; Masi?, I</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">380</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ipn2.epfl.ch/LNS/publications/papers/2006_Lehnert_SS.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Nucleation of ordered Fe islands on <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3/Ni3<span class="hlt">Al</span>(111) A. Lehnert a</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Nucleation of ordered Fe islands on <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3/Ni3<span class="hlt">Al</span>(111) A. Lehnert a , A. Krupski b,c,*, S. Degen b the nucleation and stability of iron clusters on the <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3/ Ni3<span class="hlt">Al</span>(111) surface as a function of coverage, it was also shown that metal deposition on <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3/Ni3<span class="hlt">Al</span>(111) may lead to ordered cluster arrays [16</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brune, Harald</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" 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showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">381</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://web.phys.ntu.edu.tw/nanomagnetism/eng/pdf/056-WCLin'sAPL.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Controlled growth of Co nanoparticle assembly on nanostructured template <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3/Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>,,100...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Controlled growth of Co nanoparticle assembly on nanostructured template <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3/Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>,,100... Wen, and alignment is demonstrated to be feasible on a nanostructured template <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3/Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> 100 . At 140­170 K, a slow to reveal the similar growth mode in the particle size and alignment, on the <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3/Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> 100 ,6 the detailed</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lin, Minn-Tsong</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">382</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20653227"> <span id="translatedtitle">Nb3<span class="hlt">Al</span> Development for HEP Applications</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recent developments in Nb3<span class="hlt">Al</span> strand for HEP applications are presented and discussed. The present state of available precursor is detailed. Two routes have been shown to lead to successful construction of MF Nb<span class="hlt">Al</span> composite wires. An extrusion method has so far produced the highest filament counts and smallest filament diameters, but requires more processing steps. A direct restack and draw approach has also been demonstrated which minimizes the number of processing steps while still leading to a high performance conductor. This latter route also allows for a lower cost per billet, potentially allowing the exploration of more process parameters.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sumption, M.D.; Buta, F.; Collings, E.W. [Laboratories for Applied Superconductivity and Magnetism (LASM), MSE Dept, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Tomsic, M.; Phillips, J.; McFadden, K. [Hyper Tech Research Inc., Troy, OH 45373 (United States); Wu, X</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-06-28</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">383</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10176774"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">ALS</span> Storage Ring RF System</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">ALS</span> Storage Ring RF System is characterized by the use of the following features: (1) High power loading of two single cell cavities. (2) The use of a tubular ceramic input window employing aperture coupling. (3) The use of waveguide filters and matchers designed for HOM absorption. (4) A comprehensive HOM monitoring system. (5) The use of waveguide water-wedge loads for the magic tee and circulator loads. The results of cavity measurements and high power tests are reported together with the performance of the system during the commissioning and operation phases of the <span class="hlt">ALS</span> project. Plans for future window development are discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Taylor, B.; Lo, C.C.; Baptiste, K.; Guigli, J.; Julian, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">384</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/19006219"> <span id="translatedtitle">Giant magnetoresistance in Cu-Mn-<span class="hlt">Al</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Giant negative magnetoresistance (GMR) has been observed in melt-spun CuxMnyAlz ribbons (x=50-65, y=5-25, and z=25-30), with values up to 15% at 30 K. GMR was observed in all samples with off-stoichiometric composition which had a tweed structure consisting of a mixture of Mn-rich and Mn-poor Cu2Mn<span class="hlt">Al</span>-type (2:1:1) regions and\\/or of a fine mixture of magnetic 2:1:1 and nonmagnetic Cu9<span class="hlt">Al</span>4 (9:4)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">L. Yiping; A. Murthy; G. C. Hadjipanayis; H. Wan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">385</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://research.pbsci.ucsc.edu/chemistry/li/publications/2006_NanoLett_6_1468.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dopant-Free GaN/<span class="hlt">AlN/Al</span>GaN Radial Nanowire Heterostructures as High</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">, for the heterostructure. Field-effect transistors fabricated with ZrO2 dielectrics and metal top gates showed excellent for nanoscale electronic devices, including field-effect transistors (FETs),3-5 inverters,6 logic circuits,7Dopant-Free GaN/<span class="hlt">AlN/Al</span>GaN Radial Nanowire Heterostructures as High Electron Mobility Transistors</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Li, Yat</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">386</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.era.lib.ed.ac.uk/handle/1842/5689"> <span id="translatedtitle">I have never touched her: the body in <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Ghazal <span class="hlt">Al</span>-‘Udhri </span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Al</span>-ghazal <span class="hlt">al</span>-‘udhri emerged as a remarkable literary genre in Arabic literature during the Umayyad period (7th-8th centuries CE). The leaders of this genre are famous poet-lovers who were known for their dramatic love ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Alharthi, Jokha Mohammed</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-02-09</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">387</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JOM....66i1785S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Melting, Processing, and Properties of Disordered Fe-<span class="hlt">Al</span> and Fe-<span class="hlt">Al</span>-C Based Alloys</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This article presents a part of the research work conducted in our laboratory to develop lightweight steels based on Fe-<span class="hlt">Al</span> alloys containing 7 wt.% and 9 wt.% aluminum for construction of advanced lightweight ground transportation systems, such as automotive vehicles and heavy-haul truck, and for civil engineering construction, such as bridges, tunnels, and buildings. The melting and casting of sound, porosity-free ingots of Fe-<span class="hlt">Al</span>-based alloys was accomplished by a newly developed cost-effective technique. The technique consists of using a special flux cover and proprietary charging schedule during air induction melting. These alloys were also produced using a vacuum induction melting (VIM) process for comparison purposes. The effect of aluminum (7 wt.% and 9 wt.%) on melting, processing, and properties of disordered solid solution Fe-<span class="hlt">Al</span> alloys has been studied in detail. Fe-7 wt.% <span class="hlt">Al</span> alloy could be produced using air induction melting with a flux cover with the properties comparable to the alloy produced through the VIM route. This material could be further processed through hot and cold working to produce sheets and thin foils. The cold-rolled and annealed sheet exhibited excellent room-temperature ductility. The role of carbon in Fe-7 wt.% <span class="hlt">Al</span> alloys has also been examined. The results indicate that Fe-<span class="hlt">Al</span> and Fe-<span class="hlt">Al</span>-C alloys containing about 7 wt.% <span class="hlt">Al</span> are potential lightweight steels.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Satya Prasad, V. V.; Khaple, Shivkumar; Baligidad, R. G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">388</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://justice.uaa.alaska.edu/forum/30/3-4fall2013winter2014/303-4.fall2013winter2014.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">University of <span class="hlt">Al</span>AskA AnchorAge <span class="hlt">Al</span>AskA Justice Forum</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">and regulations that create hurdles to successful reintegration in seven areas: employment, public assistance to employment, public assistance, and parenting. Many of these institutionally created barriers (often referredUniversity of <span class="hlt">Al</span>AskA AnchorAge <span class="hlt">Al</span>AskA Justice Forum A PUblicAtion of the JUstice center Fall 2013</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pantaleone, Jim</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">389</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://justice.uaa.alaska.edu/forum/27/2summer2010/272summer2010.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">University of <span class="hlt">Al</span>AskA AnchorAge <span class="hlt">Al</span>AskA Justice Forum</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">assistance for low-income persons. (Municipal, state, and federal public defenders provide attorneysUniversity of <span class="hlt">Al</span>AskA AnchorAge <span class="hlt">Al</span>AskA Justice Forum A PUblicAtion of the JUstice center Summer 2010 states and the lack of at- torney assistance for a growing number of low-income citizens. In 1965</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pantaleone, Jim</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">390</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006PMM...102..646N"> <span id="translatedtitle">Preparation, deformation, and failure of functional <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Sn and <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Sn-Pb nanocrystalline alloys</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Changes in the structure, hardness, mechanical properties, and friction coefficient of <span class="hlt">Al</span>-30% Sn, <span class="hlt">Al</span>-15% Sn-25% Pb, and <span class="hlt">Al</span>-5% Sn-35% Pb (wt %) alloys subjected to severe plastic deformation by equal-channel angular pressing (with a force of 40 tonne) and by shear at a pressure of 5 GPa have been studied. The transition into the nanocrystalline state was shown to occur at different degrees of plastic deformation. The hardness exhibits nonmonotonic variations, namely, first it increases and subsequently decreases. The friction coefficient of the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-30% Sn, <span class="hlt">Al</span>-15% Sn-25% Pb, and <span class="hlt">Al</span>-5% Sn-35% Pb alloys quenched from the melt was found to be 0.33; the friction coefficients of these alloys in the submicrocrystalline state (after equal-channel angular pressing) equal 0.24, 0.32, and 0.35, respectively. The effect of disintegration into nano-sized powders was found to occur in the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-15% Sn-25% Pb, and <span class="hlt">Al</span>-5% Sn-35% Pb alloys after severe plastic deformation to ? = 6.4 and subsequent short-time holding.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Noskova, N. I.; Vil'Danova, N. F.; Filippov, Yu. I.; Churbaev, R. V.; Pereturina, I. A.; Korshunov, L. G.; Korznikov, A. V.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">391</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Axioms&pg=5&id=EJ689425"> <span id="translatedtitle">An Alternative Perspective on von Winterfeldt et <span class="hlt">al.'s</span> (1997) Test of Consequence Monotonicity</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">D. von Winterfeldt, N.-K. Chung, R. D. Luce, and Y. Cho (see record 1997-03378-008) provided several tests for consequence monotonicity of choice or judgment, using certainty equivalents of gambles. The authors reaxiomatized consequence monotonicity in a probabilistic framework and reanalyzed von Winterfeldt et <span class="hlt">al.'s</span> main experiment via a…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ho, Moon-Ho R.; Regenwetter, Michel; Niederee, Reinhard; Heyer, Dieter</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">392</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002yCat..33880704V"> <span id="translatedtitle">VizieR Online Data Catalog: <span class="hlt">Al</span> I & <span class="hlt">Al</span> II absolute transition probabilities (Vujnovic+, 2002)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Relative intensity measurements of <span class="hlt">Al</span> I and <span class="hlt">Al</span> II spectral lines in the visible and ultraviolet spectral ranges are performed using a capacitively coupled high frequency double hollow electrode discharge. Branching ratios and intensity ratios within multiplets are determined. By using selected lifetimes absolute transition probabilities are calculated. (4 data files).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vujnovic, V.; Blagoev, K.; Fuerboeck, C.; Neger, T.; Jaeger, H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">393</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1987PThPh..78..189H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Is Thieberger's Result Inconsistent with Stubbs et <span class="hlt">al.'s</span> One?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">As to the presence of a fifth force Thieberger's outcome can be compatible with Stubbs et <span class="hlt">al.'s</span> one if the force is assumed to arise universal vector coupling to `oblique' fermion number defined by a linear combination of quark number and lepton number.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hayashi, K.; Shirafuji, T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">394</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/docs/00/02/97/48/PS/clouet05.ps"> <span id="translatedtitle">ccsd00004518, Precipitation kinetics of <span class="hlt">Al</span> 3 Zr and <span class="hlt">Al</span> 3 Sc in</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">ccsd­00004518, version 2 ­ 21 Mar 2005 Precipitation kinetics of <span class="hlt">Al</span> 3 Zr and <span class="hlt">Al</span> 3 Sc in aluminum/Si#18;ege, 31-33, rue de la F#19;ed#19;eration, 75752 Paris cedex 15, France Abstract Precipitation dynamics, a mesoscopic modeling technique which describes the various stages of homogeneous precipitation</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">395</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/doepatents/biblio/872577"> <span id="translatedtitle">Electronic circuits having Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> and Ni.sub.3 <span class="hlt">Al</span> substrates</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An electronic circuit component having improved mechanical properties and thermal conductivity comprises Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> and/or Ni.sub.3 <span class="hlt">Al</span>, upon which an alumina layer is formed prior to applying the conductive elements. Additional layers of copper-aluminum alloy or copper further improve mechanical strength and thermal conductivity.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Deevi, Seetharama C. (Midlothian, VA); Sikka, Vinod K. (Oak Ridge, TN)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">396</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21690942"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Al</span> compositional inhomogeneity of <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaN epilayer with a high <span class="hlt">Al</span> composition grown by metal-organic chemical vapour deposition.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">Al</span> compositional distribution of <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaN is investigated by cathodoluminescence (CL). Monochromatic CL images and CL spectra reveal a lateral <span class="hlt">Al</span> compositional inhomogeneity, which corresponds to surface hexagonal patterns. Cross-sectional CL images show a relatively uniform <span class="hlt">Al</span> compositional distribution in the growth direction, indicating columnar growth mode of <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaN films. In addition, a thin <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaN layer with lower <span class="hlt">Al</span> composition is grown on top of the buffer <span class="hlt">Al</span>N layer near the bottom of the <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaN epilayer because of the larger lateral mobility of Ga adatoms on the growth surface and their accumulation at the grain boundaries. PMID:21690942</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wang, X L; Zhao, D G; Jiang, D S; Yang, H; Liang, J W; Jahn, U; Ploog, K</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-04-30</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">397</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SeScT..29i5011Z"> <span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of interface trap states in In<span class="hlt">AlN/Al</span>N/GaN heterostructures</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Gate-source frequency-dependent capacitance and conductance measurements were performed on the In0.17<span class="hlt">Al</span>0.83N/<span class="hlt">Al</span>N/GaN heterostructure field-effect transistor with side-Ohmic contacts to study the characteristics of trap states at the interface between In<span class="hlt">Al</span>N and GaN. The values of interface trap state density and time constant were determined to be (0.96-3.36) × 1013 cm-2 eV-1 and (0.29-1.61) ?s, respectively. We calculated the strain in the In<span class="hlt">Al</span>N barrier layer under the gate and found that the In<span class="hlt">Al</span>N barrier layer was compressively strained with the in-plane strain of 1.31%. This is a possible reason for such a high interface trap state density which is not as low as supposed in the lattice-matched heterostructures.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhou, Yang; Lin, Zhaojun; Luan, Chongbiao; Zhao, Jingtao; Yang, Qihao; Yang, Ming; Wang, Yutang; Feng, Zhihong; Lv, Yuanjie</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">398</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21013666"> <span id="translatedtitle">Intersubband absorption in <span class="hlt">AlN/GaN/Al</span>GaN coupled quantum wells</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">AlN/GaN/Al</span>GaN coupled quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy have been developed and characterized via intersubband absorption spectroscopy. In these structures, an <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaN layer of sufficiently low <span class="hlt">Al</span> content is used to achieve strong interwell coupling without the need for ultrathin inner barriers. At the same time, <span class="hlt">Al</span>N is used in the outer barriers to provide the large quantum confinement required for near-infrared intersubband transitions. The composition of the inner barriers also provides a continuously tunable parameter to control the coupling strength. Double intersubband absorption peaks are measured in each sample, at photon energies in good agreement with theoretical expectations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Driscoll, Kristina; Bhattacharyya, Anirban; Moustakas, Theodore D.; Paiella, Roberto; Zhou, Lin; Smith, David J. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Photonics Center, Boston University, 8 Saint Mary's Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Department of Physics and School of Materials, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">399</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19980210984&hterms=ajo&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dajo"> <span id="translatedtitle">CVD Fiber Coatings for <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3/Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> Composites</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">While sapphire-fiber-reinforced nickel aluminide (<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3/Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>) composites are an attractive candidate for high-temperature structures, the significant difference in the coefficient of thermal expansion between the Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> matrix and the sapphire fiber creates substantial residual stresses in the composite. This study seeks to produce two fiber-coating systems with the potential to reduce the residual stresses in the sapphire/Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> composite system. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) was used to produce both the compensating and compliant-fiber coatings for use in sapphire/Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> composites. A special reactor was designed and built to produce the FGM and to handle the toxic nickel precursors. This process was successfully used to produce 500-foot lengths of fiber with coating thicknesses of approximately 3 microns, 5 microns, and 10 microns.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Boss, Daniel E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">400</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5188197"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Al</span>/sub 2/O/sub 3/ adherence on CoCr<span class="hlt">Al</span> alloys</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Adherence of protective oxides on NiCr<span class="hlt">Al</span> and CoCr<span class="hlt">Al</span> superalloys has been promoted by a dispersion of a highly oxygen reactive element or its oxide being produced within the protection system. Two aspects of this subject are investigated here: the use of <span class="hlt">Al</span>/sub 2/O/sub 3/ as both the dispersion and protective oxide; and the production of an HfO/sub 2/ dispersion while simultaneously aluminizing the alloy. It was found that an <span class="hlt">Al</span>/sub 2/O/sub 3/ dispersion will act to promote the adherence of an external scale of <span class="hlt">Al</span>/sub 2/O/sub 3/ to a degree comparable to previously tested dispersions and an HfO/sub 2/ dispersion comparable to that produced by a Rhines pack treatment is produced during aluminization.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kingsley, L.M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1980-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#" 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onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">401</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JTePh..57..840P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Properties and structure of oxidized coatings deposited onto <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Cu and <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Mg alloys</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The results of new studies of creating protective oxide coatings based on <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 (Si, Mn) and deposited onto aluminum alloys using electrolyte-plasma oxidation are presented. An analysis is performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction, Rutherford backscattering of 4He+ and protons, nanoindentation, scratching, friction coefficient measurements, and acoustic emission measurements. The results demonstrate that the deposited coatings have a high quality, hardness, and wear resistance and a low thermal diffusivity. Apart from <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3, the coatings are found to have Si, Mn, C, and Ca. The stoichiometry of the coatings is determined. The density and hardness of the coatings are close to those of ?-<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 in the coating on an <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Cu (D-16) substrate, and these values of the coating on an <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Mg (S006) are lower by a factor of 1.5.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pogrebnyak, A. D.; Kylyshkanov, M. K.; Tyurin, Yu. N.; Kaverina, A. Sh.; Yakushchenko, I. V.; Borisenko, A. A.; Postol'ny, B. A.; Kulik, I. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">402</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920058951&hterms=High+compressive+stresses&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DHigh%2Bcompressive%2Bstresses"> <span id="translatedtitle">1400 and 1500 K Compressive Creep Properties of an Ni<span class="hlt">Al/Al</span>N Composite</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Compressive creep properties of an Ni<span class="hlt">Al/Al</span>N(p) composite produced by a reaction milling process were investigated at 1400 and 1500 K and at slow strain rates, to investigate the relative strength of this composite at high temperatures, and to determine if the consolidation technique affects the 1400 K creep properties. Results indicate that the stress exponent of the Ni<span class="hlt">Al/Al</span>N(p) composite was similar to that for unreinforced Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>. However, the activation energy for the composite was found to be more than twice that measured in the unreinforced matrix. Oxidation did not affect the composite at 1400 K, but a significant attack was observed in a sample subjected to fast deformation at 1500 K.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Whittenberger, J. D.; Arzt, Eduard; Luton, Michael J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">403</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20100042390&hterms=Al2O3&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DAl2O3"> <span id="translatedtitle">Formation of gamma'-Ni3<span class="hlt">Al</span> via the Peritectoid Reaction: gamma plus beta (+<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3) equals gamma'(+<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The activities of <span class="hlt">Al</span> and Ni were measured using multi-cell Knudsen effusion-cell mass spectrometry (multi-cell KEMS), over the composition range 8 - 32 at.%<span class="hlt">Al</span> and temperature range T = 1400 - 1750 K in the Ni-<span class="hlt">Al</span>-O system. These measurements establish that equilibrium solidification of gamma'-Ni3<span class="hlt">Al</span>-containing alloys occurs by the eutectic reaction, L (+ <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3) = gamma + beta (+ <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3), at 1640 plus or minus 1 K and a liquid composition of 24.8 plus or minus 0.2 at.%<span class="hlt">Al</span> (at an unknown oxygen content). The {gamma + beta + <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3} phase field is stable over the temperature range 1633 - 1640 K, and gamma'-Ni3<span class="hlt">Al</span> forms via the peritectiod, gamma + beta (+ <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3) = gamma'(+ <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3), at 1633 plus or minus 1 K. This behavior is inconsistent with the current Ni-<span class="hlt">Al</span> phase diagram and a new diagram is proposed. This new Ni-<span class="hlt">Al</span> phase diagram explains a number of unusual steady state solidification structures reported previously and provides a much simpler reaction scheme in the vicinity of the gamma'-Ni3<span class="hlt">Al</span> phase field.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Copland, Evan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">404</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080047352&hterms=Al2O3&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DAl2O3"> <span id="translatedtitle">Formation of gamma(sup prime)-Ni3<span class="hlt">Al</span> via the Peritectoid Reaction: gamma + beta (+ <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3)=gamma(sup prime)(+ <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The activities of <span class="hlt">Al</span> and Ni were measured using multi-cell Knudsen effusion-cell mass spectrometry (multi-cell KEMS), over the composition range 8-32 at.%<span class="hlt">Al</span> and temperature range T=1400-1750 K in the Ni-<span class="hlt">Al</span>-O system. These measurements establish that equilibrium solidification of gamma(sup prime)-Ni3<span class="hlt">Al</span>-containing alloys occurs by the eutectic reaction, L (+ <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3)=gamma + Beta(+ <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3), at 1640 +/- 1 K and a liquid composition of 24.8 +/- 0.2 at.%<span class="hlt">al</span> (at an unknown oxygen content). The {gamma + Beta (+<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3} phase field is stable over the temperature range 1633-1640 K, and gamma(sup prime)-Ni3<span class="hlt">Al</span> forms via the peritectoid, gamma + Beta (+ <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3)=gamma(sup prime) (+ <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3), at 1633 +/- 1 K. This behavior is consistent with the current Ni-<span class="hlt">Al</span> phase diagram and a new diagram is proposed. This new Ni-<span class="hlt">Al</span> phase diagram explains a number of unusual steady-state solidification structures reported previously and provides a much simpler reaction scheme in the vicinity of the gamma(sup prime)-Ni2<span class="hlt">Al</span> phase field.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Copeland, Evan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">405</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://mitralab.org/_uploads/partha.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Partha P. Mitra's Publications (Erlich, Mitra et <span class="hlt">al</span>. 2008; Saar and Mitra 2008; DeCoteau, Thorn et <span class="hlt">al</span>. 2007; DeCoteau,</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Partha P. Mitra's Publications (Erlich, Mitra et <span class="hlt">al</span>. 2008; Saar and Mitra 2008; DeCoteau, Thorn et <span class="hlt">al</span>. 2007; DeCoteau, Thorn et <span class="hlt">al</span>. 2007; Lin, Bohland et <span class="hlt">al</span>. 2007; Mitra 2007; Mitra and Bokil 2007; Valente, Golani et <span class="hlt">al</span>. 2007; Valente, Wang et <span class="hlt">al</span>. 2007; Andrews, Saar et <span class="hlt">al</span>. 2006; Bokil, Purpura et <span class="hlt">al</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">406</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/doepatents/biblio/87741"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ternary Dy-Er-<span class="hlt">Al</span> magnetic refrigerants</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A ternary magnetic refrigerant material comprising (Dy{sub 1{minus}x}Er{sub x})<span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 2} for a magnetic refrigerator using the Joule-Brayton thermodynamic cycle spanning a temperature range from about 60K to about 10K, which can be adjusted by changing the Dy to Er ratio of the refrigerant. 29 figs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.; Takeya, Hiroyuki</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-07-25</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">407</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=progression&pg=6&id=EJ869605"> <span id="translatedtitle">Kinematics of Disease Progression in Bulbar <span class="hlt">ALS</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The goal of this study was to investigate the deterioration of lip and jaw movements during speech longitudinally in three individuals diagnosed with bulbar amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (<span class="hlt">ALS</span>). The study was motivated by the need to understand the relationship between physiologic changes in speech movements and clinical measures of speech…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yunusova, Yana; Green, Jordan R.; Lindstrom, Mary J.; Ball, Laura J.; Pattee, Gary L.; Zinman, Lorne</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">408</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/503734"> <span id="translatedtitle">Bierman {ital et <span class="hlt">al</span>.}Reply:</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">reply to the Comment by C.H.Dasso et <span class="hlt">al</span>., Phys. Rev. Lett. 78,XXX(1997). A Reply to the Comment by C.H. Dasso and J. Fern{acute a}ndez-Niello. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bierman, J.D.; Chan, P.; Liang, J.F.; Kelly, M.P.; Sonzogni, A.A.; Vandenbosch, R. [Nuclear Physics Laboratory University of Washington Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)] [Nuclear Physics Laboratory University of Washington Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">409</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21111103"> <span id="translatedtitle">Discussion: 'Congenital toxoplasmosis' by Berrébi et <span class="hlt">al</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the roundtable that follows, clinicians discuss a study published in this issue of the Journal in light of its methodology, relevance to practice, and implications for future research. Article discussed: Berrébi A, Assouline C, Bessières M-H, et <span class="hlt">al</span>. Long-term outcome of children with congenital toxoplasmosis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2010;203:552.e1-6. PMID:21111103</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Macones, George A; McNamara, Jennifer; Wallenstein, Matthew; Squires, Kate</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">410</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://euro.ecom.cmu.edu/people/faculty/mshamos/7702541.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">(12) United States Patent Black et <span class="hlt">al</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Alamos, New Mexico. After one test explos:ion, two atomic .bombs: were dropped on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima (6 Aug 1945) and Nagasaki (9 _:Aug 1945); the bomb dropped on - .Hiroshima was as. powerful as metric tons of TNT, that on equivalent to 22.000 metrie tOI"ll The USSR first detbnated <span class="hlt">al</span>'l atomic 1949</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shamos, Michael I.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">411</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://physics.nyu.edu/grierlab/US8791985.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">(12) United States Patent Grier et <span class="hlt">al</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">(12) United States Patent Grier et <span class="hlt">al</span>. US008791985B2 US 8,791,985 B2 Jul. 29, 2014 (10) Patent N0.: (45) Date of Patent: (54) (75) (73) (21) (22) (86) (87) (65) (60) (51) (52) TRACKING to any disclaimer, the term ofthis patent is extended or adjusted under 35 U.S.C. 154(b) by 744 days. 12</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Grier, David</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">412</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://physics.nyu.edu/grierlab/US8502132.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">(12) United States Patent Grier et <span class="hlt">al</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">(12) United States Patent Grier et <span class="hlt">al</span>. US008502132B2 US 8,502,132 B2 Aug. 6, 2013 (10) Patent N0.: (45) Date of Patent: (54) (75) (73) (*) (21) (22) (65) (62) (60) (51) (52) MANIPULATION OF OBJECTS) Assignee: New York University, NeW York, NY (Us) Notice: Subject to any disclaimer, the term ofthis patent</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Grier, David</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">413</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/doepatents/biblio/869994"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ternary Dy-Er-<span class="hlt">Al</span> magnetic refrigerants</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A ternary magnetic refrigerant material comprising (Dy.sub.1-x Er.sub.x)<span class="hlt">Al</span>.sub.2 for a magnetic refrigerator using the Joule-Brayton thermodynamic cycle spanning a temperature range from about 60K to about 10K, which can be adjusted by changing the Dy to Er ratio of the refrigerant.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gschneidner, Jr., Karl A. (Ames, IA); Takeya, Hiroyuki (Ibaraki, JP)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-07-25</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">414</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/43093701"> <span id="translatedtitle">Superoutburst Photometry of <span class="hlt">AL</span> Comae Berenices</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Photometric observations obtained during the 1995 April - May superoutburst of the dwarf nova <span class="hlt">AL</span> Comae Berenices are presented. This star shows rare, large-amplitude outbursts, the last definitely seen in 1975. During the 1995 outburst, as with that of 1961, there was a sharp, two-magnitude temporary minimum in the outburst light curve at about 28 days after maximum tight. We</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Steve B. Howell; James De Young; Janet A. Mattei; Grant Foster; Paula Szkody; John K. Cannizzo; Gary Walker; Erik Fierce</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">415</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23114496"> <span id="translatedtitle">Novel <span class="hlt">Al</span>-based FLP systems.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Al</span>/P based frustrated Lewis pairs (FLPs) having coordinatively unsaturated aluminium and phosphorus atoms in a single molecule were obtained on a multigram scale by hydroalumination of alkynylphosphines. Steric shielding prevented the formation of adducts and the quenching of the conflicting Lewis acidic and basic functionalities. These FLPs reacted with terminal alkynes by C-H bond cleavage with the protons bonded to phosphorus and the alkynido groups coordinated to aluminium. Alternatively, a five-membered heterocycle was formed by C?C triple bond activation. Similar heterocycles resulted from the reversible coordination of carbon dioxide. Particularly interesting is their unique propensity to react as effective ion pair receptors for the complexation of alkali metal hydrides and their capability to activate such ionic hydrides as phase transfer catalysts. Sterically less shielded compounds gave dimers via <span class="hlt">Al</span>-P interactions. These compounds are still active as masked FLPs and form complexes with carbon dioxide or phenyl isocyanate. Alternative routes gave methylene bridged <span class="hlt">Al</span>-P compounds which were also shown to coordinate CO2. Bimolecular systems exhibit similar properties. They activate terminal alkynes and isobutene or reduce CO2 to methanol and carbon monoxide. Hydroalumination of ynamines proved to be an excellent method for the generation of <span class="hlt">Al</span>/N based Lewis pairs. These compounds were shown to activate phenylethyne reversibly or to undergo insertion reactions with carbodiimide. The constitution of the latter products is determined by cooperative interactions between aluminium and nitrogen. PMID:23114496</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Uhl, Werner; Würthwein, Ernst-Ulrich</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">416</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/30138316"> <span id="translatedtitle">Die intravenöse Eisenbelastung <span class="hlt">als</span> Funktionsprobe des RES</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Zusammenfassung Intravenös injiziertes Kolloideisen wird schnell aus der Blutbahn eliminiert und im RES deponiert. Die Geschwindigkeit dieses Eisenabstroms aus dem zirkulierenden Blut in das Gewebe läßt sich am Abfall der Serumeisenkonzentration bestimmen und für einen bestimmten Zeitraum nach der Eisenapplikation <span class="hlt">als</span> Halbwertzeit angeben. Sie beträgt normalerweise 40 bis 55 Minuten, ist bei entzündlichen Alterationen und bei Hyperplasien des RES stark</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">I. Hoppe; W. Götte; C. Demke; E. Jahn; K. Schweikart; H. Overkamp</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1961-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">417</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19720000526&hterms=molten+salt+battery&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dmolten%2Bsalt%2Bbattery"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Al</span>/Cl2 molten salt battery</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Molten salt battery has been developed with theoretical energy density of 5.2 j/kg (650 W-h/lb). Battery, which operates at 150 C, can be used in primary mode or as rechargeable battery. Battery has aluminum anode and chlorine cathode. Electrolyte is mixture of <span class="hlt">Al</span>Cl3, NaCl, and some alkali metal halide such as KCl.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Giner, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1972-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">418</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://sigpubs.biostr.washington.edu/archive/00000160/01/3937Rickard.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">MEDINFO 2004 M. Fieschi et <span class="hlt">al</span>. (Eds)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">420 MEDINFO 2004 M. Fieschi et <span class="hlt">al</span>. (Eds) Amsterdam: IOS Press © 2004 IMIA. All rights reserved the physical organization of the human body [3]. Its concept domain encom- passes anatomical entities ranging system. Our intent with the FMA is to make anatomical information available in a machine-underst</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Washington at Seattle, University of</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">419</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://cisoft.usc.edu/assets/023/86281.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Nada <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Alusi Torrey Pines High</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Students Nada <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Alusi Torrey Pines High Triana Anderson Lowell High Catherine Badart Holy Names Academy Kitae Bae Torrey Pines High Marika Buchholz Louisiana School for Math, Science, and the Arts Royce Temitope Olabinjo Elkins High School Anshul Ramachandran Monta Vista High Daniel Schneller Saint Louis</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shahabi, Cyrus</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">420</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://cisoft.usc.edu/assets/023/86261.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Nada <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Alusi Torrey Pines High</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Students Nada <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Alusi Torrey Pines High Triana Anderson Lowell High Catherine Badart Holy Names Academy Kitae Bae Torrey Pines High Marika Buchholz Louisiana School for Math, Science, and the Arts Royce Temitope Olabinjo Elkins High School Anshul Ramachandran Monte Vista High Daniel Schneller Saint Louis</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shahabi, Cyrus</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span 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</span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">421</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://spo.nwr.noaa.gov/olo6thedition/24--Unit%2013.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">AL</span> ASK A SALMON alaska Salmon</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">189 <span class="hlt">AL</span> ASK A SALMON UNIT 13 alaska Salmon INTRODUCTION Pacific salmon have played an important and pivotal role in the history of Alaska. Salmon, along with mining, timber, and furs, were the keystone now, the abundant salmon resources of this region continue to shape much of the con- temporary lives</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">422</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23030513"> <span id="translatedtitle">Clinical epidemiology of <span class="hlt">ALS</span> in Liguria, Italy.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Our objective was to assess the incidence and trends of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (<span class="hlt">ALS</span>) in Liguria, a north-west region of Italy, utilizing a prospective design. Liguria (1,615,064 residents in 2010) is the site of a multicentre-multisource prospective population based registry called LIGALS (Liguria Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Registry). All incident <span class="hlt">ALS</span> cases during the period 2009-2010 were enrolled and followed up. Cases were identified using several concurrent sources. <span class="hlt">ALS</span> diagnosis was based on the revised El Escorial criteria. One hundred and four cases were enrolled, generating an annual crude incidence of 3.22/100,000 (95% CI 2.66-3.90), with a male/female ratio of 1.34. The annual standardized incidence, age and gender adjusted to the 2001 Italian population, was 2.51. At last observation on 1 March 2012, 45% of patients registered in the LIGALS had died, with a median survival of 45 months from symptoms onset. According to capture-recapture estimation, three patients were unobserved. For both genders, demographic and clinical features were collected. In conclusion, comparing these data to those of epidemiological studies with a similar prospective design, the occurrence of <span class="hlt">ALS</span> is similar. The observed crude incidence was higher compared to other Italian studies, due in part to a very careful case ascertainment and in part to a high percentage of the elderly in Liguria. PMID:23030513</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bandettini di Poggio, Monica; Sormani, Maria Pia; Truffelli, Romina; Mandich, Paola; Origone, Paola; Verdiani, Simonetta; Mantero, Vittorio; Scialò, Carlo; Schenone, Angelo; Mancardi, Giovanni Luigi; Caponnetto, Claudia</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">423</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://darwin.biology.utah.edu/PubsHTML/PDF-Files/30.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Page et <span class="hlt">al</span>. 1 POINTS IN QUESTION</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">switches; Hafner & Nadler (1988), whose data require at most two host switches out of nine speciation events (Page, 1990); and his own studies (Barker, 1991) of 11 species of rock- #12;Page et <span class="hlt">al</span>. 3 wallaby lice for which he found little evidence for cospeciation. It is hard to see how Barker arrived at his</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Clayton, Dale H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">424</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996JPCM....8.1729S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Electronic conduction in `random' <span class="hlt">Al</span> - Ge films</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Electronic transport properties have been measured for 3500 Å <span class="hlt">Al</span> - Ge films with a random microstructure. The room temperature resistivity exhibits a sharp discontinuous jump at the metal - insulator transition, allowing for the direct determination of the critical metallic fraction, 0953-8984/8/11/016/img12 vol% <span class="hlt">Al</span>. A new procedure is described for extracting values for the zero-temperature conductivity 0953-8984/8/11/016/img13 from the low-temperature conductivity data. When 0953-8984/8/11/016/img13 is extrapolated to zero as a function of <span class="hlt">Al</span> content, the value obtained for the critical aluminium fraction 0953-8984/8/11/016/img15 is in excellent agreement with the value obtained from the room temperature data. The films exhibit two transition regions below 1.2 K as the <span class="hlt">Al</span> content is decreased - a transition from the superconductivity state to the normal-metallic state, followed by a second transition from the normal-metallic state to the insulating, variable-range-hopping state. Superconducting fluctuation data taken above 1.2 K were well described using the 2D Aslamazov - Larkin and Maki - Thompson formulae; the `resistive tails' below 1.2 K are also discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shoshany, J.; Goldner, V.; Rosenbaum, R.; Witcomb, M.; McLachlan, D. S.; Palevski, A.; Karpovski, M.; Gladkikh, A.; Lereah, Y.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">425</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://faculty.kfupm.edu.sa/EE/husainm/EE%20340/Research%20Projects/Students%20Reports/3-Optical%20Fibers-%20Al%20Harbi.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Optical Fiber Ziyad G. <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Harbi</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Optical Fiber Ziyad G. <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Harbi Electrical Engineering Sr. Student King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia. Abstract- Introductions to optical fiber explaining internal reflection effect their operation. Also we will see the applications of fiber optics</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Masoudi, Husain M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">426</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://jeannicod.ccsd.cnrs.fr/docs/00/05/35/49/PDF/ijn_00000490_00.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Combating <span class="hlt">Al</span> Qaeda's Splinters: Mishandling Suicide Terrorism</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The past three years saw more suicide attacks than the last quarter century. Most of these were religiously motivated. While most Westerners have imagined a tightly coordinated transnational terrorist organization headed by <span class="hlt">Al</span> Qaeda, it seems more likely that nations under attack face a set of largely autonomous groups and cells pursuing their own regional aims. Repeated suicide actions show</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Scott Atran</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">427</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/56496475"> <span id="translatedtitle">Microbial Bioreactor Development in the <span class="hlt">ALS</span> NSCORT</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The NASA Specialized Center of Research and Training in Advanced Life Support (the <span class="hlt">ALS</span> NSCORT), a partnership of Alabama A & M, Howard, and Purdue Universities, was established by NASA in 2002 to develop technologies that will reduce the Equivalent System Mass (ESM) of regenerative processes within future space life-support systems. A key focus area of NSCORT research has been</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cary Mitchell; Dawn Whitaker; M. Katherine Banks; Albert J. Heber; Ronald F. Turco; Loring F. Nies; James E. Alleman; Sybil E. Sharvelle; Congna Li; Megan Heller</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">428</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/docs/00/89/02/78/PDF/hal-00890278.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">DER SONNENSTAND <span class="hlt">ALS</span> ZEITGEBER FR DIE BIENE</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">DER SONNENSTAND <span class="hlt">ALS</span> ZEITGEBER FÃ?R DIE BIENE La position du soleil comme indicateur de temps chez l Institut der Universitât, Frankfurt am Main SUMMARY THE ADJUSTEMENT OF THE INTERNAL CLOCK OF HONEY BEES ACCORDING TO THE POSITION OF THE SUN 1. The internal clock of honey bees can be reset, if time</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Paris-Sud XI, Université de</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">429</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.unimi.it/cataloghi/ufficio_stampa/n._38_x_sito.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Scott (e Amundsen) <span class="hlt">al</span> Polo Sud,</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">pag. 2 Scott (e Amundsen) <span class="hlt">al</span> Polo Sud, cento anni dopo di Nicoletta Brazzelli pag. 4 pag. 6 Entra motorie di Sandro Saronni e Stefano Benedini pag. 10 La cooperazione internazionale allo sviluppo in un Cominelli, Giovanni de Berti, e Albert Henke Misurare la moderna agorà virtuale di Luigi Curini, Stefano M</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">De Cindio, Fiorella</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">430</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://faculty.kfupm.edu.sa/EE/husainm/EE%20340/Research%20Projects/Students%20Reports/6-%20Railguns-%20Al-Khaldi.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Rail Gun Muad <span class="hlt">Al</span> Khaldi</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Rail Gun Muad <span class="hlt">Al</span> Khaldi Department of Electrical Engineering King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals Abstract- The rail gun is one of promising ways of launching projectiles. Recently, many. In this project, I am going to investigate the construction of electromagnetic rail guns, the way the function</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Masoudi, Husain M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">431</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.mi.informatik.uni-frankfurt.de/research/phdtheses/rfischlin.dissertation.2002.ps"> <span id="translatedtitle">Das Faktorisierungsrepr asentationsproblem <span class="hlt">als</span> Basis kryptographischer Protokolle</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Wolfgang Goethe-Universit at in Frankfurt am Main | von Roger Fischlin aus O#11;enbach am Main | Frankfurt am Main 2002 D F 1 #12; ii Vom Fachbereich Mathematik der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universit at <span class="hlt">als</span> Mitarbeit von 1998 bis 2001 in der Gruppe von Prof. Dr.Schnorr am Fachbereich Ma- thematik der J.W.Goethe</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">432</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://web.mit.edu/bigdata-priv/pdf/Salil-Vadhan.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Current Developments in Differen1<span class="hlt">al</span> Privacy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">­ Not necessarily by adding noise to answer! · Good for Big Data: more u1lity and more] · clustering [BDMN05,NRS07] · social network analysis [HLMJ09,GRU11,KRSY11,KNRS13,BBDS13,KPRU12] · ... See Simons Ins1tute Workshop on Big Data & Differen1<span class="hlt">al</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Oliva, Aude</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">433</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED542783.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">U-<span class="hlt">ALS</span>: A Ubiquitous Learning Environment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The diffusion of the use of the learning virtual environments presents a great potential for the development of an application which meet the necessities in the education area. In view of the importance of a more dynamic application and that can adapt itself continuously to the students' necessities, the "U-<span class="hlt">ALS</span>" (Ubiquitous Adapted Learning…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Piovesan, Sandra Dutra; Passerino, Liliana Maria; Medina, Roseclea Duarte</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">434</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/g560036739k63n82.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hautdrüsen <span class="hlt">als</span> träger der pilzsymbiose bei ambrosiakäfern</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">1.Die Ambrosiapilze holzbrütender Ipiden und Platypodiden überwintern in Form von Oidien und Sproßzellen in Ansammlungen von Hautdrüsensekreten dieser Käfer. Die Lokalisation der symbiontischen Pike ist bei den einzelnen Ambrosiakäfergruppen verschieden. Die Weibchen der Trypodendron-Arten besitzen <span class="hlt">als</span> Symbiontenwohnstätten schlauchförmige, unter der Hautduplikatur am Hinterrande des Pronotums gelegene Öldrüsen, die Weibchen von Xylosandrus germanus und von Anisandrus dispar überwintern ihre Pilze in</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">H. Francke-Grosmann</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1956-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">435</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AcPPA.107..776F"> <span id="translatedtitle">Defects Associated with Nanostructures in <span class="hlt">Al</span>ZnMg and <span class="hlt">Al</span>Cu(Mg) Alloys</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The present work reports on a positron annihilation study addressing the structural and chemical characterization of solute aggregates containing open volumes (vacancies and/or misfit regions at precipitate-matrix interfaces) in <span class="hlt">Al</span>ZnMg, <span class="hlt">Al</span>Cu, and <span class="hlt">Al</span>CuMg alloys. High resolution transmission electron microscopy results for selected ageing conditions are also presented. Two main points are discussed: (i) differentiation of the origin of hardening during artificial ageing between the <span class="hlt">Al</span>ZnMg and <span class="hlt">Al</span>Cu(Mg) alloy systems; (ii) structural origin of secondary ageing at low temperature, after a few minutes of high temperature exposure. It is shown that in <span class="hlt">Al</span>ZnMg alloys hardening at a high temperature is concomitant with the loss of coherency; on the contrary, in <span class="hlt">Al</span>Cu(Mg) alloys hardening is associated with coherent structures. Positron lifetime and coincidence Doppler broadening data taken during secondary ageing indicate that the residual solute supersaturation leads to the formation of coherent Zn-Mg-v (or Cu-Mg-v) aggregates.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ferragut, R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">436</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19790025135&hterms=Nazarova&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DE.%2BNazarova"> <span id="translatedtitle">Some TEM observations of <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 scales formed on NiCr<span class="hlt">Al</span> alloys</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The microstructural development of <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 scales on NiCr<span class="hlt">Al</span> alloys has been examined by transmission electron microscopy. Voids were observed within grains in scales formed on a pure NiCr<span class="hlt">Al</span> alloy. Both voids and oxide grains grew measurably with oxidation time at 1100 C. The size and amount of porosity decreased towards the oxide-metal growth interface. The voids resulted from an excess number of oxygen vacancies near the oxidemetal interface. Short-circuit diffusion paths were discussed in reference to current growth stress models for oxide scales. Transient oxidation of pure, Y-doped, and Zr-doped NiCr<span class="hlt">Al</span> was also examined. Oriented alpha-(<span class="hlt">Al</span>, Cr)2O3 and Ni(<span class="hlt">Al</span>, Cr)2O4 scales often coexisted in layered structures on all three alloys. Close-packed oxygen planes and directions in the corundum and spinel layers were parallel. The close relationship between oxide layers provided a gradual transition from initial transient scales to steady state <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 growth.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Smialek, J.; Gibala, R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1979-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">437</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19800028901&hterms=scale+corrosion&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dscale%2Bcorrosion"> <span id="translatedtitle">Some TEM observations of <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 scales formed on NiCr<span class="hlt">Al</span> alloys</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The microstructural development of <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 scales on NiCr<span class="hlt">Al</span> alloys has been examined by transmission electron microscopy. Voids have been observed within grains in scales formed on a pure NiCr<span class="hlt">Al</span> alloy. Both voids and oxide grains grew measurably with oxidation time at 1100 C. The size and amount of porosity decreased towards the oxide-metal growth interface. It was postulated that the voids resulted from an excess number of oxygen vacancies near the oxide-metal interface. Short-circuit diffusion paths were discussed in reference to current growth stress models for oxide scales. Transient oxidations of pure, Y-doped, and Zr-doped NiCr<span class="hlt">Al</span> was also examined. Oriented alpha-(<span class="hlt">Al</span>,Cr)2O3 and Ni(<span class="hlt">Al</span>,Cr)2O4 scales often coexisted in layered structures on all three alloys. Close-packed oxygen planes and directions in the corundum and spinel layers were parallel. The close relationships between oxide layers provided a gradual transition from initial transient scales to steady state <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 growth.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Smialek, J.; Gibala, R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1979-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">438</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23924708"> <span id="translatedtitle">High-performance nonvolatile <span class="hlt">Al/Al</span>O(x)/CdTe:Sb nanowire memory device.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Here we demonstrate a room temperature processed nonvolatile memory device based on an <span class="hlt">Al/Al</span>O(x)/CdTe:Sb nanowire (NW) heterojunction. Electrical analysis shows an echelon hysteresis composed of a high-resistance state (HRS) and a low-resistance state (LRS), which can allow it to write and erase data from the device. The conductance ratio is as high as 10?, with a retention time of 3 × 10? s. Moreover, the SET voltages ranged from +6 to +8 V, whilst the RESET voltage ?0 V. In addition, flexible memory nano-devices on PET substrate with comparable switching performance at bending condition were fabricated. XPS analysis of the <span class="hlt">Al/Al</span>O(x)/CdTe:Sb NW heterojunction after controlled Ar? bombardment reveals that this memory behavior is associated with the presence of ultra-thin <span class="hlt">Al</span>O(x) film. This <span class="hlt">Al/Al</span>O(x)/CdTe:Sb NW heterojunction will open up opportunities for new memory devices with different configurations. PMID:23924708</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Xie, Chao; Nie, Biao; Zhu, Long; Zeng, Long-Hui; Yu, Yong-Qiang; Wang, Xian-He; Fang, Qun-Ling; Luo, Lin-Bao; Wu, Yu-Cheng</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">439</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/896194"> <span id="translatedtitle">Abrasive wear behavior of Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> and Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>-TiB2 composites</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Abrasive wear of Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> and Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> with 10, 20, and 40 vol.% TiB2 has been investigated using particles of different types and sizes. The addition of TiB2 as a particulate reinforcement to Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> increases the hardness of the composite with respect to Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>, and reduces the wear rate at all volume fractions on garnet and <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 abrasives. Abrasion on SiC resulted in a minimum of the wear rate for the composite with 20% TiB2for most conditions. The composite with 40% TiB2consistently exhibited wear rates higher than the other composites when abraded on SiC. The only instance when the Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>?40% TiB2 composite had a lower wear rate was when it was abraded on 16 and 37 mm SiC particles. The Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>?TiB2 composite serves as a model system for studying the effect of reinforcement volume fraction on composite wear behavior and is discussed in terms of a composite wear model developed by Axe?n and Jacobson. q1999 Published by Elsevier Science S.A. All rights reserved.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hawk, Jeffrey A.; Alman, David E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">440</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21880027"> <span id="translatedtitle">An <span class="hlt">Al</span>-inducible MATE gene is involved in external detoxification of <span class="hlt">Al</span> in rice.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A number of plant species, including rice, secretes citrate from roots in response to <span class="hlt">Al</span> stress. Here we characterized the functions of a gene, OsFRDL4 (Os01g0919100) that belongs to the multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) family in rice (Oryza sativa). Heterologous expression in Xenopus oocyte showed that the OsFRDL4 protein was able to transport citrate and was activated by <span class="hlt">Al</span>. The expression level of the OsFRDL4 gene in roots was very low in the absence of <span class="hlt">Al</span>, but was greatly enhanced by <span class="hlt">Al</span> after short exposure. Furthermore, the OsFRDL4 expression was regulated by ART1, a C2H2-type zinc finger transcription factor for <span class="hlt">Al</span> tolerance. Transient expression of OsFRDL4 in onion epidermal cells showed that it localized to the plasma membrane. Immunostaining showed that OsFRDL4 was localized in all cells in the root tip. These expression patterns and cell specificity of localization of OsFRDL4 are different from other MATE members identified previously. Knockout of OsFRDL4 resulted in decreased <span class="hlt">Al</span> tolerance and decreased citrate secretion compared with the wild-type rice, but did not affect citrate concentration in the xylem sap. Furthermore, there is a positive correlation between OsFRDL4 expression level and the amount of citrate secretion in rice cultivars that are differing in <span class="hlt">Al</span> tolerance. Taken together, our results show that OsFRDL4 is an <span class="hlt">Al</span>-induced citrate transporter localized at the plasma membrane of rice root cells and is one of the components of high <span class="hlt">Al</span> tolerance in rice. PMID:21880027</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yokosho, Kengo; Yamaji, Naoki; Ma, Jian Feng</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> 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src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">441</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AIPC.1251..300A"> <span id="translatedtitle">Precipitation mechanism of <span class="hlt">Al</span>-substituted tobermorite using hydrothermal reaction</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We examined the addition of different crystal phases of alumina (?-<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3, ?-<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3) to slurries consisting of quartz and slaked lime for synthesis of <span class="hlt">Al</span>-substituted tobermorite. XRD results showed that <span class="hlt">Al</span>-substituted tobermorite formed after the reaction. It was clear that two kinds of <span class="hlt">Al</span>-substituted tobermorite synthesized using different alumina crystal phases shows different morphologies. The difference in the reactivity of the <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 had an influence in the hydrothermal reaction environment. The coordination number and chemical bonding-state of <span class="hlt">Al</span> caused the different morphology of the tobermorite.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Abe, Kazuki; Maeda, Hirotaka; Ishida, Emile H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">442</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ApPhL.105n1604Q"> <span id="translatedtitle">A crystalline oxide passivation for <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3/<span class="hlt">Al</span>GaN/GaN</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and low energy electron diffraction are performed to study the formation of a crystalline oxide on the <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaN surface. The oxidation of the <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaN surface is prepared by annealing and remote N2 + O2 plasma pretreatments resulting in a stable crystalline oxide. The impact of the oxide on the interface state density is studied by capacitance voltage (C-V) measurements. It is found that a remote plasma exposure at 550 °C shows the smallest frequency dispersion. Crystalline oxide formation may provide a novel passivation method for high quality <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaN/GaN devices.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Qin, Xiaoye; Dong, Hong; Kim, Jiyoung; Wallace, Robert M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">443</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870044771&hterms=Al2O3&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DAl2O3"> <span id="translatedtitle">Adherent <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 scales formed on undoped NiCr<span class="hlt">Al</span> alloys</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Changes in the spalling behavior of <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 scales formed on an undoped NiCr<span class="hlt">Al</span> alloy are described. Two samples of Ni-15Cr-13<span class="hlt">Al</span> (wt pct), one a control and the other sanded, were subjected to 25 oxidation cycles. It is observed that adherent scales formed on the sanded sample; however, the control sample had speckled, spalled scales. The data reveal that the adherent scales are caused by repeated removal of surface layers after each oxidation cycle. It is determined that interfacial segregation of sulfur influences spallation and sulfur removal increases bonding. The effect of moisture on scale adhesions is investigated.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Smialek, James L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">444</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015MMTB...46..485V"> <span id="translatedtitle">Density of Low-Temperature KF-<span class="hlt">Al</span>F3 Aluminum Baths with <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 and <span class="hlt">Al</span>PO4 Additives</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The density of the KF-<span class="hlt">Al</span>F3 melts of various KF and <span class="hlt">Al</span>F3 ratio with <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 and <span class="hlt">Al</span>PO4 addition has been measured using the Archimedean method. On the basis of the obtained density data the molar volumes of the melts were calculated. These molar volumes decrease with concentration of <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 or <span class="hlt">Al</span>PO4. In the system containing <span class="hlt">Al</span>PO4, the relation between cryolite ratios (CRs) vs slopes of molar volume trend lines was identified with excellent correlation factor of R 2 = 0.9844, while in the system containing <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 a discontinuity at CR = 2.5 can be observed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vasková, Zuzana; Kontrík, Martin; Mlynáriková, Jarmila; Bo?a, Miroslav</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">445</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40268099"> <span id="translatedtitle">Enthalpies of formation of the <span class="hlt">Al</span>–Ni intermetallic compounds</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">Al</span>–Ni system has been investigated by direct reaction calorimetry at high temperatures. Enthalpies of formation of the intermetallic compounds <span class="hlt">Al</span>Ni3, <span class="hlt">Al</span>Ni, <span class="hlt">Al</span>3Ni2, and <span class="hlt">Al</span>3Ni were determined and compared with the available experimental values based on calorimetric and emf measurements and with the calculated values from theoretical models. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) were used to</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">F. Z Chrifi-Alaoui; M Nassik; K Mahdouk; J. C Gachon</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">446</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/20020993"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 Insulated-Gate Structure for <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaN\\/GaN Heterostructure Field Effect Transistors Having Thin <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaN Barrier Layers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">An <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 insulated-gate (IG) structure was utilized for controlling the surface potential and suppressing the gate leakage in <span class="hlt">Al</span>0.2Ga0.8N\\/GaN heterostructure field effect transistors (HFETs) having thin <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaN barrier layers (less than 10 nm). In comparison with the Schottky-gate devices, the <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 IG device showed successful gate control of drain current up to VGS = +4 V without leakage problems. The</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tamotsu Hashizume; Sanguan Anantathanasarn; Noboru Negoro; Eiichi Sano; Hideki Hasegawa; Kazuhide Kumakura; Toshiki Makimoto</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">447</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://research.chemistry.ohio-state.edu/allen/files/2011/09/15.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Characterization of Ultrathin Films of -<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 and the Chemistry of 1,3-Butadiene on Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>(001) and -<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Characterization of Ultrathin Films of -<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 and the Chemistry of 1,3-Butadiene on Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>(001) and -<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 Michelle M. Ivey, Kathryn A. Layman, Armen Avoyan, Heather C. Allen, and John C. HemmingerVine, California 92697 ReceiVed: October 3, 2002; In Final Form: March 27, 2003 Ultrathin films of -<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 grown</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">448</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://irvinginstitute.columbia.edu/2012/pdf/prize4life_press_release_v13_ccaNrc.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">THE NEXT <span class="hlt">ALS</span> BREAKTHROUGH COULD BE YOURS Prize4Life Awards Prizes for <span class="hlt">ALS</span> Biomarker Challenge to InnoCentive</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">THE NEXT <span class="hlt">ALS</span> BREAKTHROUGH COULD BE YOURS Prize4Life Awards Prizes for <span class="hlt">ALS</span> Biomarker Challenge dedicated to reaching breakthroughs in effective treatments for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (<span class="hlt">ALS</span> handheld technologies capable #12;THE NEXT <span class="hlt">ALS</span> BREAKTHROUGH COULD BE YOURS of taking these highly sensitive</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Grishok, Alla</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">449</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.isfh.de/institut_solarforschung/files/35ieee_schmidt.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">SILICON SURFACE PASSIVATION BY ULTRATHIN <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 FILMS AND <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3/SiNx STACKS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">SILICON SURFACE PASSIVATION BY ULTRATHIN <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 FILMS AND <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3/SiNx STACKS Jan Schmidt, Boris Veith Ohrberg 1, 31860 Emmerthal, Germany ABSTRACT We show that aluminum oxide (<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3) layers depo- sited thickness if the <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 films are</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">450</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://dept.lamar.edu/zhanhu/publication/PANI-Al2O3_JMC.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Electrical and dielectric properties of polyaniline<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 nanocomposites derived from various <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 nanostructures</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Electrical and dielectric properties of polyaniline­<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 nanocomposites derived from various <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O303908j Four <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 nanostructures (i.e. nanofiber, nanoplatelet, nanorod and nanoflake) have been, polyaniline (PANI) nanocomposites incorporating these four <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 nanostructures have been fabricated using</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Guo, John Zhanhu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">451</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.uramamurthy.com/papers/bmm150.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Franklin et <span class="hlt">al</span>., The Role of Consciousness in Memory 2005 Franklin et <span class="hlt">al</span>. http//:www.brains-minds-media.org</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Franklin et <span class="hlt">al</span>., The Role of Consciousness in Memory © 2005 Franklin et <span class="hlt">al</span>. http//:www.brains et <span class="hlt">al</span>., The Role of Consciousness in Memory © 2005 Franklin et <span class="hlt">al</span>. http//:www.brains-minds-media.org 1 The Role of Consciousness in Memory Stan Franklin1* , Bernard J. Baars2 , Uma Ramamurthy1</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ramamurthy, Uma</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">452</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-11-17/pdf/2011-29656.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">76 FR 71355 - United States et <span class="hlt">al</span>. v. Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Montana, Inc. et <span class="hlt">al</span>.; Proposed Final...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...JUSTICE Antitrust Division United States et <span class="hlt">al</span>. v. Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Montana, Inc. et <span class="hlt">al</span>.; Proposed Final Judgment...Montana, Billings Division, in United States et <span class="hlt">al</span>. v. Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Montana, Inc. et <span class="hlt">al</span>.,...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-11-17</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">453</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41016826"> <span id="translatedtitle">The effect of material type and plate thickness on drilling time of abrasive water jet drilling process</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Abrasive water jet processing is being developed in relation to the developments in engineering materials science. In this study, brass-353 (?+? brass), 99% pure aluminum, <span class="hlt">Al</span>-6061 aluminum alloy, <span class="hlt">AISI</span> 304, <span class="hlt">AISI</span> 1030 and cold working tool steel (D3) materials were drilled with AWJ. The effects of thickness and material type on the drilling time were investigated and discussed. Hardness of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Adnan Akkurt</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">454</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JaJAP..52hJA07N"> <span id="translatedtitle">Self-Separation of Sublimation-Grown <span class="hlt">Al</span>N with <span class="hlt">Al</span>SiN Buffer Layer</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Al</span>N was grown by a sublimation method on 6H-SiC. We found the grown <span class="hlt">Al</span>N layer is easily separated from the substrate when Si powder is added to the <span class="hlt">Al</span>N source powder. The formation of <span class="hlt">Al</span>SiN layer with the Si content of 15% at the <span class="hlt">Al</span>N/6H-SiC interface was confirmed by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). This <span class="hlt">Al</span>SiN layer causes the separation of <span class="hlt">Al</span>N.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nishino, Katsushi; Nakauchi, Jun; Hayashi, Kotaro; Tsukihara, Masashi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">455</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3626945"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fabrication of Fe-<span class="hlt">Al</span> nanoparticles by selective oxidation of Fe-<span class="hlt">Al</span> thin films</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The possibility of a new technique for fabricating nanoparticles from thin films using selective oxidation in an atmosphere mixture of water vapor and hydrogen was investigated. Fe-5wt.%<span class="hlt">Al</span> films were RF-sputtered and annealed in the atmosphere mixture at 900°C for up to 200 min, in order to oxidize aluminum selectively. Thermodynamics simulation showed that temperatures exceeding 800°C are necessary to prevent iron from being oxidized, as confirmed by the depth profile of XPS. As the annealing time increased, the morphology of the 200-nm Fe-<span class="hlt">Al</span> films changed from the continuous to the discontinuous type; thus, particulate Fe-<span class="hlt">Al</span> films formed after 100 min. The particulate 10- to 100-nm Fe-<span class="hlt">Al</span> films showed super-paramagnetic behavior after the oxidation. Thus, a new technique for fabricating nanoparticles was successfully introduced using selective oxidation. PMID:23547781</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">456</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/65719"> <span id="translatedtitle">The evolution of <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Azhar Street, <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Qahira, Egypt</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The historic quarter of Cairo, <span class="hlt">al</span>-Qahira, is going through a period intense transformation that is threatening the physical environment as well as the social and economic fabric of the city. The transformations taking place ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Elkatsha, Markus Fawzy Fahmy</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">457</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19720050230&hterms=molten+salt+battery&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dmolten%2Bsalt%2Bbattery"> <span id="translatedtitle">Rechargeable <span class="hlt">Al</span>/Cl2 battery with molten <span class="hlt">Al</span>Cl4/-/ electrolyte.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A molten salt system based on <span class="hlt">Al</span>- and Cl2 carbon electrodes, with an <span class="hlt">Al</span>Cl3 alkali chloride eutectic as electrolyte, offers promise as a rechargeable, high energy density battery which can operate at a relatively low temperature. Electrode kinetic studies showed that the electrode reactions at the <span class="hlt">Al</span> anode were rapid and that the observed passivation phenomena were due to the formation at the electrode surface of a solid salt layer resulting from concentration changes on anodic or cathodic current flow. It was established that carbon electrodes were intrinsically active for chlorine reduction in <span class="hlt">Al</span>Cl3-alkali chloride melts. By means of a rotating vitreous carbon disk electrode, the kinetic parameters were determined.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Holleck, G. L.; Giner, J.; Burrows, B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1972-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">458</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15941115"> <span id="translatedtitle">Oddities in Kirkpatrick, et <span class="hlt">al.'s</span> study of children of lesbian mothers.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Kirkpatrick, et <span class="hlt">al.'s</span> 1976 study of what happened to 20 lesbians' children has received considerable attention, apparently later being matched with 20 heterosexuals' children. In 2004, Kirkpatrick generally acknowledged Schumm's caution that her findings are less impressive than are needed, yet, Kirkpatrick stated her "early findings have been reinforced" and that "no evidence of differences in the children grouped by the mother's sexual orientation" have been documented by subsequent research. Close examination of the data of these studies indicates that children from 13 lesbian mothers were compared with children from 13 divorced heterosexuals. Further, there are contradictions between the published reports regarding the nature of samples and various findings. Analysis of Kirkpatrick, et <span class="hlt">al.'s</span> study suggests that children do less well when raised by homosexual parents. PMID:15941115</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cameron, Paul</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">459</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1007835"> <span id="translatedtitle">Interdiffusion in the Mg-<span class="hlt">Al</span> system and Intrinsic Diffusion in (<span class="hlt">Al</span>3Mg2) Phase</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Increasing use and development of lightweight Mg-alloys have led to the desire for more fundamental research in and understanding of Mg-based systems. As a strengthening component, <span class="hlt">Al</span> is one of the most important and common alloying elements for Mg-alloys. In this study, solid-to-solid diffusion couple techniques were employed to examine the interdiffusion between pure Mg and <span class="hlt">Al</span>. Diffusion anneals were carried out at 300 , 350 , and 400 C for 720, 360, and 240 hours, respectively. Optical and scanning electron microscopies (SEM) were employed to observe the formation of the intermetallics -<span class="hlt">Al</span>12Mg17 and -<span class="hlt">Al</span>3Mg2, but not -phase. Concentration profiles were determined using X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (XEDS). The growth constants and activation energies were determined for each intermetallic phase.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brennan, Sarah [University of Central Florida; Bermudez, Katrina [University of Central Florida; Kulkarni, Nagraj S [ORNL; Sohn, Yong Ho [University of Central Florida</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">460</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930070119&hterms=Al2O3&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DAl2O3"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fabrication and properties of functionally graded Ni<span class="hlt">Al/Al</span>2O3 composites</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A modified sedimentation process was used in the production of a functionally gradient material (FGM), Ni<span class="hlt">Al/Al</span>2O3. A simple finite element model was used to guide our design and fabrication efforts by estimating residual stress states as a function of composite structure. This approach could lead to tailored designs that enhance or avoid specific residual stress states. Thermal cycling tests were factored into the model to predict time dependent or steady-state internal temperature and stress profiles. Four-point bend tests were conducted to establish the mechanical load-displacement behavior of a single interlayer FGM at room temperature, 800 and 1000 K. Room temperature bend strength of the FGM was 3-4 times that of the base Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>. At elevated temperatures, composite fracture occurred in a gradual, noncatastrophic mode involving Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> retardation of a succession of cracks originating in the alumina face.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Miller, D. P.; Lannutti, J. J.; Noebe, R. D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">461</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880043042&hterms=Al2O3&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DAl2O3"> <span id="translatedtitle">Adherent <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 scales produced on undoped NiCr<span class="hlt">Al</span> alloys</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Repeated oxidation and polishing of high purity Ni-15Cr-13<span class="hlt">Al</span> has dramatically changed its cyclic oxidation behavior from nonadherent to adherent. No apparent change in scale phase, morphology or interface structure occurred during this transition, dismissing any mechanism based on pegging, vacancy sink, or growth stress. The principle change that did occur was a reduction in the sulfur content from 10 ppmw to 3 ppmw after 25 cycles at 1120 C. These observations are used to support the model of <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 scale adherence put forth by Smeggil et <span class="hlt">al</span>. which claims that <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 scale spallation occurs due to sulfur segregation and bond deterioration at the oxide-metal interface.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Smialek, James L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">462</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6955311"> <span id="translatedtitle">Accurate interatomic potentials for Ni, <span class="hlt">Al</span> and Ni/sub 3/<span class="hlt">Al</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">To obtain meaningful results from atomistic simulations of materials, the interatomic potentials must be capable of reproducing the thermodynamic properties of the system of interest. Pairwise potentials have known deficiencies that make them unsuitable for quantitative investigations of defective regions such as crack tips and free surfaces. Daw and Baskes (Phys. Rev. B 29, 6443 (1984)) have shown that including a local ''volume'' term for each atom gives the necessary many-body character without the severe computational dependence of explicit n-body potential terms. Using a similar approach, we have fit an interatomic potential to the Ni/sub 3/<span class="hlt">Al</span> alloy system. This potential can treat diatomic Ni/sub 2/, diatomic <span class="hlt">Al</span>/sub 2/, fcc Ni, fcc <span class="hlt">Al</span> and L1/sub 2/ Ni/sub 3/<span class="hlt">Al</span> on an equal footing. Details of the fitting procedure are presented, along with the calculation of some properties not included in the fit.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Voter, A.F.; Chen, Shao Ping</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">463</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JPhCS.325a2023R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Antiferromagnetic behaviour of Tb2<span class="hlt">Al</span> alloy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The structural, thermal and magnetic properties ol the Tb2<span class="hlt">Al</span> alloy have been investigated by AC/DC magnetic susceptibility, specific heat, X-ray and neutron diffraction measurements. DC and AC-magnetic susceptibility results are consistent with an AFM order at TN = 52 K. The specific heat data show a lambda anomaly associated to the magnetic transition with a peak at 52 K (cord = 99 J/molTbK). The analysis of thermodiffractograms of neutron diffraction patterns indicates that, below the ordering temperature, the magnetic reflections can be indexed with a commensurate lattice related to the crystallographic cell (Pmna) by a propagation vector k = (1/2, 1/2, 1/2). The results are compared with those reported for other magnetic rare earth alloys of R2<span class="hlt">Al</span>-type (with R = Nd, Gd and Dy).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rojas, D. P.; André, G.; Rodríguez Fernández, J.; Sánchez Marcos, J.; Fernández Barquín, L.; Echevarria, C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">464</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1983JAP....54.3172R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Interdiffusion in ? phase Cu-<span class="hlt">Al</span> alloys</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The diffusion behavior of ? phase Cu-<span class="hlt">Al</span> has been studied at 800, 850, and 950 °C using the experimental approach and analysis scheme of Kirkendall and Darken. Diffusion couples were made using the window frame technique and concentration profiles were determined by electron probe microanalysis. The chemical diffusion coefficient, D˜ was found to be D˜=0.65 exp(-42200/RT) cm2/s. The diffusivity was observed to be independent of composition over the range 11-13 wt. % <span class="hlt">Al</span>. The self-diffusion coefficients DCu and DAl were determined to be DAl =0.13 exp(-38900/RT) cm2/s and DCu =2.2 exp(-43400/RT) cm2/s. All activation energies are in calories/mole.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Romig, A. D., Jr.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1983-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">465</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/960677"> <span id="translatedtitle">Observable Proxies For 26 <span class="hlt">Al</span> Enhancement</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We consider the cospatial production of elements in supernova explosions to find observationally detectable proxies for enhancement of {sup 26}<span class="hlt">Al</span> in supernova ejecta and stellar systems. Using four progenitors we explore a range of 1D explosions at different energies and an asymmetric 3D explosion. We find that the most reliable indicator of the presence of {sup 26}<span class="hlt">Al</span> in unmixed ejecta is a very low S/Si ratio ({approx} 0.05). Production of N in O/S/Si-rich regions is also indicative. The biologically important element P is produced at its highest abundance in the same regions. Proxies should be detectable in supernova ejecta with high spatial resolution multi wavelength observations, but the small absolute abundance of material injected into a proto-planetary disk makes detection unlikely in existing or forming stellar/planetary systems.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fryer, Christopher L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Young, Patrick A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ellinger, Carola I [ASU; Arnett, William D [UNIV ARIZONA</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">466</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996PhRvB..54.3033Y"> <span id="translatedtitle">Giant magnetoresistance in Cu-Mn-<span class="hlt">Al</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Giant negative magnetoresistance (GMR) has been observed in melt-spun CuxMnyAlz ribbons (x=50-65, y=5-25, and z=25-30), with values up to 15% at 30 K. GMR was observed in all samples with off-stoichiometric composition which had a tweed structure consisting of a mixture of Mn-rich and Mn-poor Cu2Mn<span class="hlt">Al</span>-type (2:1:1) regions and/or of a fine mixture of magnetic 2:1:1 and nonmagnetic Cu9<span class="hlt">Al</span>4 (9:4) phases. The highest value was obtained in samples with the 2:1:1 phase as a majority phase. The observed GMR is attributed to interfacial scattering at these fine structural mixtures.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yiping, L.; Murthy, A.; Hadjipanayis, G. C.; Wan, H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">467</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/1501.04880.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Status of the <span class="hlt">Al</span>Cap experiment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">Al</span>Cap experiment is a joint project between the COMET and Mu2e collaborations. Both experiments intend to look for the lepton-flavour violating conversion $\\mu + A \\rightarrow e + A$, using tertiary muons from high-power pulsed proton beams. In these experiments the products of ordinary muon capture in the muon stopping target are an important concern, both in terms of hit rates in tracking detectors and radiation damage to equipment. The goal of the <span class="hlt">Al</span>Cap experiment is to provide precision measurements of the products of nuclear capture on Aluminium, which is the favoured target material for both COMET and Mu2e. The results will be used for optimising the design of both conversion experiments, and as input to their simulations. Data was taken in December 2013 and is currently being analysed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Litchfield, R Phillip</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">468</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/1501.04880v1"> <span id="translatedtitle">Status of the <span class="hlt">Al</span>Cap experiment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">Al</span>Cap experiment is a joint project between the COMET and Mu2e collaborations. Both experiments intend to look for the lepton-flavour violating conversion $\\mu + A \\rightarrow e + A$, using tertiary muons from high-power pulsed proton beams. In these experiments the products of ordinary muon capture in the muon stopping target are an important concern, both in terms of hit rates in tracking detectors and radiation damage to equipment. The goal of the <span class="hlt">Al</span>Cap experiment is to provide precision measurements of the products of nuclear capture on Aluminium, which is the favoured target material for both COMET and Mu2e. The results will be used for optimising the design of both conversion experiments, and as input to their simulations. Data was taken in December 2013 and is currently being analysed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. Phillip Litchfield</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-01-20</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">469</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26597809"> <span id="translatedtitle">An independent assessment of Groeneveld et <span class="hlt">al.'s</span> 1995 CHF look-up table</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The prediction capability of the 1995 CHF look-up table (Groeneveld D.C., et <span class="hlt">al</span>., Nucl. Eng. Des. 163 (1996) 1–23) is independently assessed based on the KAIST data base consisting of 10?822 data for uniformly-heated, vertical, round tubes. This confirms the error statistics for the heat balance method reported by Groeneveld et <span class="hlt">al</span>. and shows overall average and RMS errors of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Won-Pil Baek; Hong-Chae Kim; Soon Heung Chang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">470</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40081139"> <span id="translatedtitle">PVD Coating of Mg–AZ31 by Thin Layer of <span class="hlt">Al</span> and <span class="hlt">Al</span>–Si</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Although magnesium alloys have the advantage of high specific strength, they have poor atmospheric corrosion resistance. An\\u000a important method of improving the corrosion resistance is by applying a coating layer. In this work, the physical vapor deposition\\u000a (PVD) technique is used for coating a magnesium (Mg) AZ31 sheet substrate with a thin layer of high purity aluminum (<span class="hlt">Al</span>) and\\u000a <span class="hlt">Al</span>–12.6%</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mohamed A. Taha; Nahed A. El-Mahallawy; Rawia M. Hammouda; Sherif I. Nassef</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">471</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013RuMet2013..633L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Simulation of aluminothermic smelting of <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Zr and <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Zr-Mo-Sn alloys</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Aluminothermic smelting of <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Zr and <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Zr-Mo-Sn alloys has been simulated in terms of thermodynamics. The thermodynamic properties of molybdenum and zirconium intermetallic compounds are calculated. It is demonstrated that, with consideration for their formation, the calculated compositions of aluminothermic blends and the forecasted extraction of target metals into an alloy are in good agreement with the data obtained during pilot tests.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Larionov, A. V.; Chumarev, V. M.; Udoeva, L. Yu.; Mansurova, A. N.; Rylov, A. N.; Raikov, A. Yu.; Aleshin, A. P.; Trubachev, M. V.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">472</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/39670943"> <span id="translatedtitle">Diffusion in single crystal of melilite: interdiffusion of <span class="hlt">Al</span> + <span class="hlt">Al</span> vs. Mg + Si</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Interdiffusion coefficients of <span class="hlt">Al</span> + <span class="hlt">Al</span> vs. Mg + Si in the gehlenite–åkermanite system of melilite were determined by coupled\\u000a annealing of synthesized end-member single crystals. The observed diffusion coefficients for a couple-annealed sample vary\\u000a for about 2 orders of magnitude, showing strong dependence on the gehlenite–åkermanite composition: diffusion coefficient\\u000a observed at 1350 °C, for example, is 3 × 10?13</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">H. Nagasawa; T. Suzuki; M. Ito; M. Morioka</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">473</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/47871365"> <span id="translatedtitle">Microstructural study of laser-clad Fe<span class="hlt">Al</span> bronze on <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Si alloy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Microstructure studies of laser-clad Fe-<span class="hlt">Al</span> bronze on an <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Si alloy were carried out by OM(optical microscope), SEM(scanning electron microscope), TEM(transmission electron microscope) and XRD(X ray diffraction) analyses. The cross-section of the laser-cladding was divided into clad region and transitional region. The clad region composes a matrix with a twin structure of needle-like and feathery appearance and a second phase of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. H. Wang; C. S. Xie</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">474</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11207932"> <span id="translatedtitle">Transmission electron microscopy studies of squeeze cast <span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>N composites.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Aluminium-matrix composites containing approximately 45 vol.% <span class="hlt">Al</span>N particles were fabricated by melt infiltration of aluminium into an <span class="hlt">Al</span>N preform under a pressure up to 130 MPa. Three types of aluminium alloy (2024, 6060 and 5754) were used. The as-prepared composites were studied by light microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopies, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. As a result of the melt infiltration process, the composites are very dense and the microstructure shows a homogeneous distribution of the reinforcement. The interfaces are clean with very little porosity. Composites with 2024 and 6060 matrices were carefully studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution electron microscopy (HREM) after heat treatments. Dislocation density in the matrix of the reinforced material increases due to the difference in thermal expansion coefficients of aluminium alloys and <span class="hlt">Al</span>N. This can induce an accelerated ageing response of the coherent and semicoherent precipitations of age-hardened matrices. This behaviour has been studied in the 2024 and 6060 composites by using microhardness measurements and TEM. Reactions between the <span class="hlt">Al</span>N reinforcement and aluminium matrices (6060 and 5754) were observed and analysed by TEM. Matrices containing some of magnesium display a Mg<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O4 spinel formation at the <span class="hlt">Al</span>N/matrix interface. The spinel formation is probably due to the reaction between magnesium of the matrix and the thin <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 layer on the <span class="hlt">Al</span>N surfaces. This reaction can affect the mechanical behaviour of the composite infiltrated with the 5754 matrix. This has been confirmed by overageing some samples at high temperatures (300 degrees C and 550 degrees C) for 10 days in order to emphasize the interfacial reactions. PMID:11207932</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chédru, M.; Vicens, J.; Chermant, J. L.; Mordike, B. L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">475</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60713082"> <span id="translatedtitle">Surface structures of <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Pd-Mn and <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Cu-Fe icosahedral quasicrystals</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this dissertation, the author reports on the surface structure of i-<span class="hlt">Al</span>-Pd-Mn twofold, threefold, fivefold and i-<span class="hlt">Al</span>-Cu-Fe fivefold surfaces. The LEED studies indicate the existence of two distinct stages in the regrowth of all four surfaces after Ar{sup +} sputtering. In the first stage, upon annealing at relatively low temperature: 500K--800K (depending on different surfaces), a cubic phase appears. The</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">476</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/53906245"> <span id="translatedtitle">Antiferromagnetic behaviour of Tb2<span class="hlt">Al</span> alloy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The structural, thermal and magnetic properties ol the Tb2<span class="hlt">Al</span> alloy have been investigated by AC\\/DC magnetic susceptibility, specific heat, X-ray and neutron diffraction measurements. DC and AC-magnetic susceptibility results are consistent with an AFM order at TN = 52 K. The specific heat data show a lambda anomaly associated to the magnetic transition with a peak at 52 K (cord</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D. P. Rojas; G. André; J. Rodríguez Fernández; J. Sánchez Marcos; L. Fernández Barquín; C. Echevarria</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">477</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/35466827815ru516.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Prognosis and clinical varieties of <span class="hlt">ALS</span> disease</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">210 cases of <span class="hlt">ALS</span> disease in the period 1955–1979 are considered. Different parameters such as sex, age, duration and clinical course have been correlated with four clinical types: conventional, pseudopolyneuritic, pyramidal and bulbar. The age distribution shows a peak in the fifth decade of life. The sex ratio is 2.08?1. Considering together all the clinical types, the mean duration of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">P. Mortara; D. Bardelli; M. Leone; D. Schiffer</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">478</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://web.mit.edu/persci/people/adelson/patent_pdfs/void87.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">United States Patent [19] Burt et <span class="hlt">al</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">United States Patent [19] Burt et <span class="hlt">al</span>. [11] Patent Number: 4 , 6 98, 84 3 [45] Date of Patent: Oct, 43, 49, 50, 54, 55 [56] References Cited U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS 3,737,855 6/1973 Cutaia.S. Patent Oct. 6, 1987 Sheet 1 of 3 4,698,843 #12;U.S. Patent Oct. 6, 1987 Sheet 2 of 3 4,698,843 #12;U</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Adelson, Edward</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">479</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://web.mit.edu/persci/people/adelson/patent_pdfs/patent1985.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">United States Patent [19] Carlson et <span class="hlt">al</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">United States Patent [19] Carlson et <span class="hlt">al</span>. [11] Patent Number: 4,523,230 [45] Date of Patent: Jun. 11 ............. 358/160, 163; 166; 167, 358/905, 21 R, 36; 382/49, 54 [56] References Cited U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS 4 signals. 24 Claims, 8 Drawing Figures #12;U.S. Patent Jun. 11, 1985 Sheet 1 of 4 4,523,230 #12;U.S. Patent</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Adelson, Edward</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">480</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/39857347"> <span id="translatedtitle">Intermetallic phases in <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Mn alloys</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The intermetallic phases present in high-purity and commercial purity <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Mn alloys (up to 2% Mn) in as-cast and heat-treated conditions were extracted electrolytically in 10% HCl in methanol solution and identified by X-ray diffraction. As iron is known to increase the coarse cast-intermetallic particles and to cause refinement of the grain size after recrystallization, different amounts of iron (up to</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Aruna Bahadur</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" 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id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">481</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001PhuZ...32...84G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Euklid <span class="hlt">als</span> Physiker: Die Realgeltung der Geometrie</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Es lässt sich beweisen, dass die Winkelsumme in einem ebenen, euklidischen Dreieck 180 Grad beträgt. Ebenso ergibt sich, dass die Winkelsumme in einem Dreieck auf einer Kugeloberfläche größer <span class="hlt">als</span> 180 Grad ist. Auch der Satz des Pythagoras ist beweisbar. In allen Fällen beruhen die Beweise auf Euklids Parallelenaxiom. Das aber lässt sich nicht beweisen. Beweisbar aber ist, dass es in nicht-euklidischen Geomerien nicht gilt.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Genz, Henning</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">482</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=MImg&_imagekey=B6TX5-4WSRDSV-2-13&_cdi=5581&_user=10&_orig=browse&_coverDate=01%2F31%2F2010&_sk=999689998&view=c&wchp=dGLbVzb-zSkWb&_valck=1&md5=be3b4d5793bccd5fb7320b7462a7523c&ie=/sdarticle.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mechanical properties of in situ <span class="hlt">Al</span> 2O 3 formed <span class="hlt">Al</span>–Si composite coating via atmospheric plasma spraying</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this study, mechanically alloyed <span class="hlt">Al</span>–12Si\\/SiO2 composite powder was deposited onto an aluminum substrate by atmospheric plasma spraying. The composite coating consisting of in situ formed <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 reinforced hypereutectic <span class="hlt">Al</span>–18Si matrix alloy was achieved. The produced coatings were extensively analyzed with respect to X-ray diffraction (XRD). The XRD patterns of the coatings include <span class="hlt">Al</span>, Si and <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 phase formation. Mechanical</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">O. Culha; C. Tekmen; M. Toparli; Y. Tsunekawa</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">483</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/18802183"> <span id="translatedtitle">Formation and stability of transitional long-period superstructures in <span class="hlt">Al</span>-rich Ti-<span class="hlt">Al</span> single crystals</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The phase transition and thermal stability of long-period superstructures were examined in Ti-58.0 at.% <span class="hlt">Al</span>, Ti-60.0 at.% <span class="hlt">Al</span> and Ti-62.5 at.% <span class="hlt">Al</span> single crystals focusing on reflections based on sets of lattice planes parallel to {310)fcc. Some long-period superstructures appear accompanied by obscure coherent boundaries in the L10 matrix. It was found that the <span class="hlt">Al</span>5Ti3' structure distinguished from the <span class="hlt">Al</span>5Ti3</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">T. Nakano; K. Hayashi; Y. Umakoshi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">484</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.me.concordia.ca/~mmedraj/papers/mg-al-mn.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Advance View Proofs Thermodynamic Description of the Mg-Mn, <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Mn and Mg-<span class="hlt">Al</span>-Mn Systems</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Advance View Proofs Thermodynamic Description of the Mg-Mn, <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Mn and Mg-<span class="hlt">Al</span>-Mn Systems Using-consistent thermodynamic model of the Mg-Mn, <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Mn and Mg-<span class="hlt">Al</span>-Mn systems has been developed. The major difference between work on the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Mn system that uses the same model for the liquid phase reveals that better agreement</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Medraj, Mamoun</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">485</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://hal.inria.fr/docs/00/24/51/44/PDF/ajp-rphysap_1983_18_12_763_0.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Structures <span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>2O3-InP : Analyse des processus de drive et valuation des hauteurs</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">763 Structures <span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>2O3-InP : Analyse des processus de dérive et évaluation des hauteurs de photoémission interne de structures <span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>2O3-InP. Cette technique permet, entre autres, la mesure directe de la hauteur de barrière semiconducteur-isolant et le contrôle du remplissage des pièges d'interface. <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 est</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Boyer, Edmond</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">486</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004JPS...133..302T"> <span id="translatedtitle">Preparation and characterization of Ppy/<span class="hlt">Al</span> 2O 3/<span class="hlt">Al</span> used as a solid-state capacitor</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The characteristics of a solid-state capacitor based on Ppy (polypyrrole)/<span class="hlt">Al</span> 2O 3/<span class="hlt">Al</span> prepared by the constant-current method are investigated. The surface composition of aluminum (<span class="hlt">Al</span>) foil analyzed to by electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA) is found to be <span class="hlt">Al</span>O 2- when the native oxide on the <span class="hlt">Al</span> foil is etched by 0.1 M NaOH. Three stages are defined from the relationship between the potential and the electrolysis time in simultaneously preparing the dielectric layer (<span class="hlt">Al</span> 2O 3) and the conducting polymer (Ppy) on <span class="hlt">Al</span> foil etched with 0.1 M NaOH. The experimental results indicate that only stage one, i.e. the formation of <span class="hlt">Al</span> 2O 3, occurs in the preparation of Ppy/<span class="hlt">Al</span> 2O 3/<span class="hlt">Al</span> at a current density greater than 0.9 mA cm -2. A higher concentration of pyrrole enhances the nucleation of Ppy within the pores of <span class="hlt">Al</span> 2O 3 such that the period of the first stage decrease and the second stage of the propagation of Ppy is increased. The leakage current of Ppy/<span class="hlt">Al</span> 2O 3/<span class="hlt">Al</span> rises from 0.009 to 0.405 ?A cm -2 with increase in the concentration of pyrrole in preparing Ppy/<span class="hlt">Al</span> 2O 3/<span class="hlt">Al</span> from 0.05 to 0.15 M. Raising the cut-off potential for preparing Ppy/<span class="hlt">Al</span> 2O 3/<span class="hlt">Al</span> from 20 to 60 V increases the thickness of <span class="hlt">Al</span> 2O 3 and lowers the capacity of Ppy/<span class="hlt">Al</s