Science.gov

Sample records for al2o3 thin films

  1. Effects of the interfacial layer on electrical characteristics of Al 2O 3/TiO 2/Al 2O 3 thin films for gate dielectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chang Eun; Yun, Ilgu

    2012-01-01

    Effects of thermal annealing on the electrical properties of Al2O3/TiO2/Al2O3 (ATA) dielectric thin films prepared by atomic layer deposition are investigated. The structural properties and chemical states in the interfacial layer are analyzed with varying the annealing temperature. The dielectric constant and leakage current are affected by the formation of Al2O3-TiO2 composite and interfacial layer including SiOx in the interface by the annealing. The transformation of interfacial layer at the interface of the ATA/Si substrate due to the annealing is a critical point to apply ATA thin films as gate dielectric layers.

  2. The chemisorption of H2O, HCOOH and CH3COOH on thin amorphous films of Al2O3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, B. F.; Weinberg, W. H.; Mosesman, M.

    1974-01-01

    Investigation of the irreversible chemisorption of water, formic acid and acetic acid on a thin amorphous aluminum oxide film, using inelastic tunneling spectroscopy. All of the tunnel junctions employed were Al-Al2O3-Pb junctions with the adsorbate on the Al2O3 surface between the Al2O3 and the Pb electrode. The results obtained include the finding that all Al2O3 surfaces prepared by oxidation of Al have free CH groups present on them.

  3. Enhanced Barrier Performance of Engineered Paper by Atomic Layer Deposited Al2O3 Thin Films.

    PubMed

    Mirvakili, Mehr Negar; Van Bui, Hao; van Ommen, J Ruud; Hatzikiriakos, Savvas G; Englezos, Peter

    2016-06-01

    Surface modification of cellulosic paper is demonstrated by employing plasma assisted atomic layer deposition. Al2O3 thin films are deposited on paper substrates, prepared with different fiber sizes, to improve their barrier properties. Thus, a hydrophobic paper is created with low gas permeability by combining the control of fiber size (and structure) with atomic layer deposition of Al2O3 films. Papers are prepared using Kraft softwood pulp and thermomechanical pulp. The cellulosic wood fibers are refined to obtain fibers with smaller length and diameter. Films of Al2O3, 10, 25, and 45 nm in thickness, are deposited on the paper surface. The work demonstrates that coating of papers prepared with long fibers efficiently reduces wettability with slight enhancement in gas permeability, whereas on shorter fibers, it results in significantly lower gas permeability. Wettability studies on Al2O3 deposited paper substrates have shown water wicking and absorption over time only in papers prepared with highly refined fibers. It is also shown that there is a certain fiber size at which the gas permeability assumes its minimum value, and further decrease in fiber size will reverse the effect on gas permeability. PMID:27165172

  4. Growth of highly oriented γ- and α-Al2O3 thin films by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balakrishnan, G.; Babu, R. Venkatesh; Shin, K. S.; Song, J. I.

    2014-03-01

    Highly oriented aluminum oxide (Al2O3) thin films were grown on SrTiO3 (100), α-Al2O3 (11¯02), α-Al2O3 (0001) and MgO (100) single crystal substrates at an optimized oxygen partial pressure of 3.5×10-3 mbar and 700 °C by pulsed laser deposition. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy. The X-ray diffraction studies indicated the highly oriented growth of γ-Al2O3 (400) ǁ SrTiO3 (100), α-Al2O3 (024) ǁ α-Al2O3 (11¯02), α-Al2O3 (006) ǁ α-Al2O3 (0001) and α-Al2O3 (006) ǁ MgO (100). Formation of nanostructures with dense and smooth surface morphology was observed using atomic force microscopy. The root mean square surface roughness of the films were 0.2 nm, 0.5 nm, 0.7 nm and 0.3 nm on SrTiO3 (100), α-Al2O3 (11¯02), α-Al2O3 (0001) and MgO (100) substrates, respectively.

  5. High temperature oxidation of ZrO2/Al2O3 thin films deposited on steel.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Chun; Kim, Sun Kyu; Van Trung, Trinh; Lee, Dong Bok

    2013-11-01

    Thin ZrO2/Al2O3 films that consisted of alternating monoclinic ZrO2 nanolayers and amorphous Al2O3 nanolayers were deposited on a tool steel substrate using Zr and Al cathodes in a cathodic arc plasma deposition system, and then oxidized at 600-900 degrees C in air for up to 50 h. The ZrO2/Al2O3 films effectively suppressed the oxidation of the substrate up to 800 degrees C by acting as a barrier layer against the outward diffusion of the substrate elements and inward diffusion of oxygen. However, rapid oxidation occurred at 900 degrees C due mainly to the increased diffusion and subsequent oxidation of steel as well as the crystallization of amorphous Al2O3. PMID:24245292

  6. Studies on the properties of Al2O3:Cr2O3 (50:50) thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponmudi, S.; Sivakumar, R.; Sanjeeviraja, C.

    2016-05-01

    Aluminium oxide (Al2O3) and chromium oxide (Cr2O3) thin films have received great attention of researchers because of their unique properties of corrosion/oxidation resistance and high dielectric constant. In addition, chromium aluminium oxide has been considered as a best candidate for deep-ultraviolet optical masks. In the present work, thin films of Al2O3:Cr2O3 (50:50) were deposited on pre-cleaned microscopic glass substrate by RF magnetron sputtering technique. The substrate temperature and RF power induced changes in structural, surface morphological, compositional and optical properties of the films have been studied.

  7. Nano porous Al2O3-TiO2 thin film based humidity sensor prepared by spray pyrolysis technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrashekara, H. D.; Angadi, Basavaraj; Ravikiran, Y. T.; Poornima, P.; Shashidhar, R.; Murthy, L. C. S.

    2016-05-01

    The nano porous surface structured TiO2 and Al2O3-TiO2 thin films were prepared using spray pyrolysis technique at 350°C. The XRD pattern of Al2O3-TiO2 film shows anatase phase and mixed phase of Al2TiO5. The surface morphology of films show a uniformly distributed nano porous structure. The elemental analysis through EDAX shows good stoichiometry. The sensitivity for humidity sensing were determined for both films of TiO2 and Al2O3-TiO2 and corresponding values are found to be 74.2% and 84.02%, this result reveal that Al2O3-TiO2 films shows higher sensing percent than the TiO2 due to the nano porous surface nature. The Al2O3-TiO2 film shows fast response time and long recovery time than the TiO2 film, this may be due to the meso-porous morphology of these films.

  8. Twin symmetry texture of energetically condensed niobium thin films on sapphire substrate (a-plane Al2O3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, X.; Phillips, L.; Reece, C. E.; Seo, Kang; Krishnan, M.; Valderrama, E.

    2011-08-01

    An energetic condensation technique, cathodic arc discharge deposition, is used to grow epitaxial Niobium (Nb) thin films on a-plane sapphire (hexagonal-closed-packed Al2O3) at moderate substrate heating temperature (<400 °C). The epitaxial Nb(110)/Al2O3(1,1,-2,0) thin films reached a maximum residual resistance ratio (RRR) value 214, despite using a reactor-grade Nb cathode source whose RRR was only 30. The measurements suggest that the film's density of impurities and structural defects are lower when compared to Nb films produced by other techniques, such as magnetron sputtering, e-beam evaporation or molecular-beam-epitaxy. At lower substrate temperature, textured polycrystalline Nb thin films were created, and the films might have twin symmetry grains with {110} orientations in-plane. The texture was revealed by x-ray diffraction pole figures. The twin symmetry might be caused by a combination effect of the Nb/Al2O3 three-dimensional epitaxial relationship ("3D-Registry" Claassen's nomenclature) and the "Volmer-Weber" (Island) growth model. However, pole figures obtained by electron backscattering diffraction (EBSD) found no twin symmetry on the thin films' topmost surface (˜50 nm in depth). The EBSD pole figures showed only one Nb{110} crystal plane orientation. A possible mechanism is suggested to explain the differences between the bulk (XRD) and surface (EBSD) pole figures.

  9. Physical characterization of thin ALD-Al 2O 3 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakschik, Stefan; Schroeder, Uwe; Hecht, Thomas; Krueger, Dietmar; Dollinger, Guenther; Bergmaier, Andreas; Luhmann, Claudia; Bartha, Johann W.

    2003-04-01

    Aluminum oxide was deposited using atomic layer deposition on either a silicon oxide or a silicon nitride interface. Water vapor or ozone were used as oxidation precursors. The structural properties of these films were investigated by time-of-flight secondary-ion-mass-spectroscopy (ToF-SIMS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and elastic recoil detection (ERD). Special attention was given to contamination issues of the film and the interface, bonding conditions and temperature influence on diffusion. The results suggest that the silicon most likely diffused along grain boundaries of polycrystalline Al 2O 3. Carbon and hydrogen were located at the interface and furthermore hydrogen diffused out of the film to some extent due to anneal. Carbon content in the layer was reduced when using O 3 as an oxidant. The formation of metallic aluminum clusters was not observed for any of the investigated process conditions.

  10. Enhanced TC in granular and thin film Al-Al2O3 nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, J. S.; Greene, R. L.

    It is known since the 1970s that the superconducting transition temperature of granular aluminum films can be as high as two to three times the transition temperature of bulk aluminum, depending on the grain size and how strongly the nanometer size grains are connected1,2. As the strength of the grain connectivity becomes increasingly weak, the enhanced TC is suppressed. The mechanism behind this enhancement is still under debate. Recently, work on larger aluminum nanoparticles (18nm) embedded in an insulating Al2O3 matrix showed an onset of the superconducting transition as high as three times that of bulk aluminum3. In this situation, the Al grains are electrically disconnected and in a regime far removed from that of the granular films. Here we compare the two situations through electronic and thermal measurements in order to help elucidate the mechanism behind the enhancements. 1S. Pracht, et al., arXiv:1508.04270v1 [cond-mat.supr-con] (2015). 2G. Deutscher, New Superconductors From Granular to High TC, New Jersey: World Scientific, 2006, p. 72-74. 3V. N. Smolyaninova, et al., Sci. Rep. 5, 15777 (2015). Funding by NSF DMR # 1410665.

  11. Al2O3/TiO2 nanolaminate thin film encapsulation for organic thin film transistors via plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition.

    PubMed

    Kim, Lae Ho; Kim, Kyunghun; Park, Seonuk; Jeong, Yong Jin; Kim, Haekyoung; Chung, Dae Sung; Kim, Se Hyun; Park, Chan Eon

    2014-05-14

    Organic electronic devices require a passivation layer that protects the active layers from moisture and oxygen because most organic materials are very sensitive to such gases. Passivation films for the encapsulation of organic electronic devices need excellent stability and mechanical properties. Although Al2O3 films obtained with plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) have been tested as passivation layers because of their excellent gas barrier properties, amorphous Al2O3 films are significantly corroded by water. In this study, we examined the deformation of PEALD Al2O3 films when immersed in water and attempted to fabricate a corrosion-resistant passivation film by using a PEALD-based Al2O3/TiO2 nanolamination (NL) technique. Our Al2O3/TiO2 NL films were found to exhibit excellent water anticorrosion and low gas permeation and require only low-temperature processing (<100 °C). Organic thin film transistors with excellent air-stability (52 days under high humidity (a relative humidity of 90% and a temperature of 38 °C)) were fabricated. PMID:24712401

  12. Optical, Structural and Electrochemical Properties of CeO2--Al2O3--SiO2 Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saygin Hinczewski, Dursen; Hinczewski, Michael; Sorar, Idris; Pehlivan, Esat; Tepehan, Fatma Z.; Tepehan, Galip G.

    2008-03-01

    CeO2 thin films can be used as counter-electrodes in electrochromic devices, but have the disadvantage of slow reaction kinetics. Thus research has shifted to composite CeO2 films as more promising ion-storage candidates. In this work, we examine the sol-gel coating and characterization of CeO2--Al2O3--SiO2 transparent thin films deposited onto glass microslides and indium-tin-oxide-coated conducting glass. We investigate the evolution of the surface morphology, and the optical, structural and electrochemical properties of the films with varying Si-Al-Ce mol ratios. In particular we find the formation of novel complex phase-segregated structures at the surface, which have the potential for enhancing Li ion insertion/extraction.

  13. Structural and mechanical characterization of Al/Al2O3 nanotube thin film on TiV alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarraf, M.; Zalnezhad, E.; Bushroa, A. R.; Hamouda, A. M. S.; Baradaran, S.; Nasiri-Tabrizi, B.; Rafieerad, A. R.

    2014-12-01

    In this study, the fabrication and characterization of Al/Al2O3 nanotubular arrays on Ti-6Al-4V substrate were carried out. To this end, aluminum thin films were deposited as a first coating layer by direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering with the coating conditions of 300 W, 150 °C and 75 V substrate bias voltage. Al2O3 nanotube array as a second layer was grown on the Al layer by electrochemical anodisation at the constant potential of 20 V within different time periods in an electrolyte solution. For annealing the coated substrates, plasma treatment (PT) technique was utilized under various conditions to get the best adhesion strength of coating to the substrate. To characterize the coating layers, micro scratch test, Vickers hardness and field emission of scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) were used. Results show that after the deposition of pure aluminum on the substrate the scratch length, load and failure point were 794.37 μm, 1100 mN and 411.43 μm, respectively. After PT, the best adhesion strength (2038 mN) was obtained at RF power of 60 W. With the increase of the RF power up to 80 W, a reduction in adhesion strength was observed (1525.22 mN). From the microstructural point of view, a homogenous porous structure with an average pore size of 40-60 nm was formed after the anodisation for 10-45 min. During PT, the porous structure was converted to dense alumina layer when the RF power rose from 40 to 80 W. This led to an increase in hardness value from 2.7 to 3.4 GPa. Based on the obtained data, the RF power of 60 W was the optimum condition for plasma treatment of Al/Al2O3 nanotubular arrays on Ti-6Al-4V substrate.

  14. Andreev spectroscopy of CrO2 thin films on TiO2 and Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yates, K. A.; Anwar, M. S.; Aarts, J.; Conde, O.; Eschrig, M.; Löfwander, T.; Cohen, L. F.

    2013-09-01

    Here we analyse the spectroscopic information gathered at a number of single CrO2/Pb interfaces. We examine thin films requiring additional interfacial layers to generate long-range spin triplet proximity effect superconductivity (CrO2/TiO2) or not (CrO2/Al2O3). We analyse the data using two theoretical models and explore the use of a parameter-free method to determine the agreement between the models and experimental observations, showing the necessary temperature range that would be required to make a definitive statement. The use of the excess current as a further tool to distinguish between models is also examined. The analysis of the spectra demonstrates that the temperature dependence of the normalised zero-bias conductance is independent of the substrate onto which the films are grown. This result has important implications for the engineering of interfaces required for the long-range spin triplet proximity effect.

  15. Preparation and characterization of thin films of MgO, Al2O3 and MgAl2O4 by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ron; Kitai, Adrian H.

    1993-02-01

    MgO, Al2O3 and MgAl2O4 thin films were deposited on silicon substrates at various temperatures by the atomic layer deposition (ALD) method using bis(cyclopentadienyl)magnesium, triethylaluminum, and H2O and were characterized systematically. High-quality polycrystalline MgO films were deposited for a substrate temperature above 500°C, and amorphous thin films were deposited around 400°C. The deposited Al2O3 and MgAl2O4 thin films were characterized as amorphous in structure. Applicability of ALD to complex oxides is discussed.

  16. Effects of annealing conditions on the dielectric properties of solution-processed Al2O3 layers for indium-zinc-tin-oxide thin-film transistors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Hoon; Kim, Kwang-Ho; Park, Sung Kyu

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, the effects of annealing conditions on the dielectric properties of solution-processed aluminum oxide (Al2O3) layers for indium-zinc-tin-oxide (IZTO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) have been investigated. The dielectric properties of Al2O3 layers such as leakage current density and dielectric strength were largely affected by their annealing conditions. In particular, oxygen partial pressure in rapid thermal annealing, and the temperature profile of hot plate annealing had profound effects on the dielectric properties. From a refractive index analysis, the enhanced dielectric properties of Al2O3 gate dielectrics can be attributed to higher film density depending on the annealing conditions. With the low-temperature-annealed Al2O3 gate dielectric at 350 degrees C, solution-processed IZTO TFTs with a field-effect mobility of approximately 2.2 cm2/Vs were successfully fabricated. PMID:24245333

  17. Superconducting MgB2 thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition on Al2O3(0001) and MgO(100) substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S. F.; Dai, S. Y.; Zhou, Y. L.; Chen, Z. H.; Cui, D. F.; Xu, J. D.; He, M.; Lu, H. B.; Yang, G. Z.; Fu, G. S.; Han, L.

    2001-11-01

    Superconducting MgB2 thin films were fabricated on Al2O3(0001) and MgO(100) substrates by a two-step method. Boron thin films were deposited by pulsed laser deposition followed by an ex-situ annealing process. Resistance measurements of the deposited MgB2 films show a Tc of 38.6 K for MgB2/Al2O3 and 38.1 K for MgB2/MgO. Atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction were used to study the properties of the films. The results indicate that the MgB2/Al2O3 films consist of well-crystallized grains with a highly c-axis-oriented structure while the MgB2/MgO films have a dense uniform appearance with an unfixed orientation.

  18. Synthesis of Al2O3 thin films using laser assisted spray pyrolysis (LASP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhonge, Baban P.; Mathews, Tom; Tripura Sundari, S.; Krishnan, R.; Balamurugan, A. K.; Kamruddin, M.; Subbarao, R. V.; Dash, S.; Tyagi, A. K.

    2013-01-01

    The present study reports the development of a laser assisted ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique and synthesis of dense optical alumina films using the same. In this technique ultrasonically generated aerosols of aluminum acetylacetonate dissolved in ethanol and a laser beam (Nd:YAG, CW, 1064 nm) were fed coaxially and concurrently through a quartz tube on to a hot substrate mounted on an X-Y raster stage. At the laser focused spot the precursor underwent solvent evaporation and solute sublimation followed by precursor vapor decomposition giving rise to oxide coating, the substrate is rastered to get large surface area coating. The surface morphology revealed coalescence of particles with increase in laser power. The observed particle sizes were 17 nm for films synthesized without laser and 18, 21 and 25 nm for films made with laser at 25, 38 and 50 W, respectively. Refractive index of the films synthesized increased from 1.56 to 1.62 as the laser power increased from 0 to 50 W. The stoichiometry of films was studied using XPS and the increase in interfacial layer thickness with laser power was observed from dynamic SIMS depth profiling and ellipsometry.

  19. The adsorption of water on Cu2O and Al2O3 thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Xingyi; Herranz, Tirma; Weis, Christoph; Bluhm, Hendrik; Salmeron, Miquel

    2008-06-27

    The initial stages of water condensation, approximately 6 molecular layers, on two oxide surfaces, Cu{sub 2}O and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, have been investigated by using ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy at relative humidity values (RH) from 0 to >90%. Water adsorbs first dissociatively on oxygen vacancies producing adsorbed hydroxyl groups in a stoichiometric reaction: O{sub lattic} + vacancies + H{sub 2}O = 2OH. The reaction is completed at {approx}1% RH and is followed by adsorption of molecular water. The thickness of the water film grows with increasing RH. The first monolayer is completed at {approx}15% RH on both oxides and is followed by a second layer at 35-40% RH. At 90% RH, about 6 layers of H{sub 2}O film have been formed on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}.

  20. Growth and characterization of ceria thin films and Ce-doped γ-Al2O3 nanowires using sol-gel techniques.

    PubMed

    Gravani, S; Polychronopoulou, K; Stolojan, V; Cui, Q; Gibson, P N; Hinder, S J; Gu, Z; Doumanidis, C C; Baker, M A; Rebholz, C

    2010-11-19

    γ-Al(2)O(3) is a well known catalyst support. The addition of Ce to γ-Al(2)O(3) is known to beneficially retard the phase transformation of γ-Al(2)O(3) to α-Al(2)O(3) and stabilize the γ-pore structure. In this work, Ce-doped γ-Al(2)O(3) nanowires have been prepared by a novel method employing an anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) template in a 0.01 M cerium nitrate solution, assisted by urea hydrolysis. Calcination at 500 °C for 6 h resulted in the crystallization of the Ce-doped AlOOH gel to form Ce-doped γ-Al(2)O(3) nanowires. Ce(3+) ions within the nanowires were present at a concentration of < 1 at.%. On the template surface, a nanocrystalline CeO(2) thin film was deposited with a cubic fluorite structure and a crystallite size of 6-7 nm. Characterization of the nanowires and thin films was performed using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction. The nanowire formation mechanism and urea hydrolysis kinetics are discussed in terms of the pH evolution during the reaction. The Ce-doped γ-Al(2)O(3) nanowires are likely to find useful applications in catalysis and this novel method can be exploited further for doping alumina nanowires with other rare earth elements. PMID:20975211

  1. A light-stimulated synaptic transistor with synaptic plasticity and memory functions based on InGaZnOx-Al2O3 thin film structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H. K.; Chen, T. P.; Liu, P.; Hu, S. G.; Liu, Y.; Zhang, Q.; Lee, P. S.

    2016-06-01

    In this work, a synaptic transistor based on the indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO)-aluminum oxide (Al2O3) thin film structure, which uses ultraviolet (UV) light pulses as the pre-synaptic stimulus, has been demonstrated. The synaptic transistor exhibits the behavior of synaptic plasticity like the paired-pulse facilitation. In addition, it also shows the brain's memory behaviors including the transition from short-term memory to long-term memory and the Ebbinghaus forgetting curve. The synapse-like behavior and memory behaviors of the transistor are due to the trapping and detrapping processes of the holes, which are generated by the UV pulses, at the IGZO/Al2O3 interface and/or in the Al2O3 layer.

  2. Electrically programmable-erasable In-Ga-Zn-O thin-film transistor memory with atomic-layer-deposited Al2O3/Pt nanocrystals/Al2O3 gate stack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Shi-Bing; Zhang, Wen-Peng; Liu, Wen-Jun; Ding, Shi-Jin

    2015-12-01

    Amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistor (TFT) memory is very promising for transparent and flexible system-on-panel displays; however, electrical erasability has always been a severe challenge for this memory. In this article, we demonstrated successfully an electrically programmable-erasable memory with atomic-layer-deposited Al2O3/Pt nanocrystals/Al2O3 gate stack under a maximal processing temperature of 300 oC. As the programming voltage was enhanced from 14 to 19 V for a constant pulse of 0.2 ms, the threshold voltage shift increased significantly from 0.89 to 4.67 V. When the programmed device was subjected to an appropriate pulse under negative gate bias, it could return to the original state with a superior erasing efficiency. The above phenomena could be attributed to Fowler-Nordheim tunnelling of electrons from the IGZO channel to the Pt nanocrystals during programming, and inverse tunnelling of the trapped electrons during erasing. In terms of 0.2-ms programming at 16 V and 350-ms erasing at -17 V, a large memory window of 3.03 V was achieved successfully. Furthermore, the memory exhibited stable repeated programming/erasing (P/E) characteristics and good data retention, i.e., for 2-ms programming at 14 V and 250-ms erasing at -14 V, a memory window of 2.08 V was still maintained after 103 P/E cycles, and a memory window of 1.1 V was retained after 105 s retention time.

  3. Growth of Sputtered-Aluminum Oxide Thin Films on si (100) and si (111) Substrates with Al2O3 Buffer Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Wei Qiang; Shanmugan, Subramani; Devarajan, Mutharasu

    2016-03-01

    Aluminum oxide (Al2O3) thin films with Al2O3 buffer layer were deposited on Si (100) and Si (111) substrates using RF magnetron sputtering of Al2O3 target in Ar atmosphere. The synthesized films were then annealed at the temperature of 400∘C, 600∘C and 800∘C in nitrogen (N2) environment for 6h. Structural properties and surface morphology are examined by using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) and Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). XRD analysis indicated that different orientation of Al2O3 were formed with different intensities due to increase in the annealing temperature. From FESEM cross-section analysis results, it is observed that the thickness of films were increased as the annealing temperature increased. EDX analysis shows that the concentration of aluminum and oxygen on both the Si substrates increased with the increase in annealing temperature. The surface roughness of the films were found to be decreased first when the annealing temperature is increased to 400∘C, yet the roughness increased when the annealing temperature is further increased to 800∘C.

  4. Fabrication and characterization of Al2O3 /Si composite nanodome structures for high efficiency crystalline Si thin film solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ruiying; Zhu, Jian; Zhang, Zhen; Wang, Yanyan; Qiu, Bocang; Liu, Xuehua; Zhang, Jinping; Zhang, Yi; Fang, Qi; Ren, Zhong; Bai, Yu

    2015-12-01

    We report on our fabrication and characterization of Al2O3/Si composite nanodome (CND) structures, which is composed of Si nanodome structures with a conformal cladding Al2O3 layer to evaluate its optical and electrical performance when it is applied to thin film solar cells. It has been observed that by application of Al2O3thin film coating using atomic layer deposition (ALD) to the Si nanodome structures, both optical and electrical performances are greatly improved. The reflectivity of less than 3% over the wavelength range of from 200 nm to 2000 nm at an incident angle from 0° to 45° is achieved when the Al2O3 film is 90 nm thick. The ultimate efficiency of around 27% is obtained on the CND textured 2 μm-thick Si solar cells, which is compared to the efficiency of around 25.75% and 15% for the 2 μm-thick Si nanodome surface-decorated and planar samples respectively. Electrical characterization was made by using CND-decorated MOS devices to measure device's leakage current and capacitance dispersion. It is found the electrical performance is sensitive to the thickness of the Al2O3 film, and the performance is remarkably improved when the dielectric layer thickness is 90 nm thick. The leakage current, which is less than 4x10-9 A/cm2 over voltage range of from -3 V to 3 V, is reduced by several orders of magnitude. C-V measurements also shows as small as 0.3% of variation in the capacitance over the frequency range from 10 kHz to 500 kHz, which is a strong indication of surface states being fully passivated. TEM examination of CND-decorated samples also reveals the occurrence of SiOx layer formed between the interface of Si and the Al2O3 film, which is thin enough that ensures the presence of field-effect passivation, From our theoretical and experimental study, we believe Al2O3 coated CND structures is a truly viable approach to achieving higher device efficiency.

  5. Interface Properties of Atomic-Layer-Deposited Al2O3 Thin Films on Ultraviolet/Ozone-Treated Multilayer MoS2 Crystals.

    PubMed

    Park, Seonyoung; Kim, Seong Yeoul; Choi, Yura; Kim, Myungjun; Shin, Hyunjung; Kim, Jiyoung; Choi, Woong

    2016-05-11

    We report the interface properties of atomic-layer-deposited Al2O3 thin films on ultraviolet/ozone (UV/O3)-treated multilayer MoS2 crystals. The formation of S-O bonds on MoS2 after low-power UV/O3 treatment increased the surface energy, allowing the subsequent deposition of uniform Al2O3 thin films. The capacitance-voltage measurement of Au-Al2O3-MoS2 metal oxide semiconductor capacitors indicated n-type MoS2 with an electron density of ∼10(17) cm(-3) and a minimum interface trap density of ∼10(11) cm(-2) eV(-1). These results demonstrate the possibility of forming a high-quality Al2O3-MoS2 interface by proper UV/O3 treatment, providing important implications for their integration into field-effect transistors. PMID:27117229

  6. Epitaxial growth of (111)-oriented ZrxTi1-xN thin films on c-plane Al2O3 substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ruiteng; Gandhi, Jateen S.; Pillai, Rajeev; Forrest, Rebecca; Starikov, David; Bensaoula, Abdelhak

    2014-10-01

    A systematic study is presented on the effects of process parameters of S-gun configured DC magnetron sputtered ZrN thin films on c-plane Al2O3 substrates. Using a quartz crystal microbalance the deposition rate of ZrN is investigated as a function of Ar and N2 flow rates, target power, chamber pressure and gas injection position in the chamber. Selected growth conditions for ZrN show the interrelation of growth parameters on film orientation and crystallinity. (111) oriented ZrN thin films exhibit X-ray diffraction rocking curve FWHM as low as 0.36°. Additionally, (111) oriented ternary ZrxTi1-xN thin films (0≤x≤1) are also deposited on c-plane Al2O3 substrates. High resolution X-ray diffraction characterization shows that ZrxTi1-xN (x=0, 0.64, 0.80, 0.93, 1) layers exhibit rocking curve FWHM values of 0.0045-0.006° for the (111) reflection, indicating highly crystalline thin films. Atomic force microscopy characterizations show ZrxTi1-xN thin films with a surface roughness between 1.2 nm and 2.9 nm.

  7. Data storage applications based on LiCoO2 thin films grown on Al2O3 and Si substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svoukis, E.; Mihailescu, C. N.; Mai, V. H.; Schneegans, O.; Breza, K.; Lioutas, C.; Giapintzakis, J.

    2016-09-01

    In this study, LiCoO2 thin films were investigated for data storage applications based on scanning probe mediated approaches. LiCoO2, compared to other materials proposed for scanning probe mediated nanoscale patterning, is highly stable and exhibits reversible electrochemical surface modifications. LiCoO2 thin films have been grown by pulsed laser deposition on Al2O3 and Si substrates over a range of deposition temperatures. The crystal structure and the microstructure of the films has been inferred through in- and out-of-plane X-ray diffraction studies and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, respectively. The influence of the film deposition temperature on the surface electrical properties of the LiCoO2 films is discussed along with the relevant mechanism of surface resistance modification.

  8. Surface plasmon coupled emission studies on engineered thin film hybrids of nano α-Al2O3 on silver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulpur, Pradyumna; Lingam, Kiran; Chunduri, Avinash; Rattan, Tanu Mimani; Rao, Apparao M.; Kamisetti, Venkataramaniah

    2014-01-01

    We report the first time engineering and fabrication of a novel thin film hybrid of nano α-alumina doped in a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) matrix along with rhodamine b (Rh.B) on a silver thin film. Silver films of 50 nm thickness on glass slides were fabricated by thermal evaporation. Nano α-alumina was synthesized through the combustion route and characterized by XRD. The α-alumina was dispersed in the PVA-Rh.B matrix by tip sonication. The resultant solution was spin coated on the Ag thin film at 3000 rpm to generate an overcoat of ˜30 nm. We have designed and constructed an opto-mechanical setup for performing the SPCE studies. Excitation with a 532 nm continuous laser, led to the coupling of the energy of Rh.B emission to the surface plasmon modes of silver. The emission @ 580 nm was recorded using an Ocean Optics{copyright, serif} fiber optic spectrometer. Calculation of the ratio of signal intensity between the directional SPCE and isotropic fluorescence gives us the factor of signal enhancements which SPCE offers. We report an '8 fold' signal enhancement attributed to SPCE arising from the metal oxide doped thin film hybrid. We observed only a '5 fold' signal enhancement in the case of a thin film hybrid without α-alumina. The emission was also 92% P-polarized which is in coherence with the theory of SPCE. The greater degree of signal enhancement observed in the α-alumina doped thin film substrate can be attributed to the surface roughness which alumina offers to silver, which along with the porous nature of alumina enables a greater degree of adsorption of Rh.B which results in a higher emission intensity. Computational modeling was also performed, based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) calculations to provide theoretical background to observed experimental data. The α-alumina thin film hybrid can be extended as an economical sensing platform towards the high sensitive detection of analytes.

  9. Fabrication and characterization of highly luminescent Er3+:Al2O3 thin films with optimized growth parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayar, Priyanka; Zhu, Xue-Yi; Yang, Fuyi; Lu, Minghui; Lakshminarayana, G.; Liu, Xiao Ping; Chen, Yan-Feng; Kityk, I. V.

    2016-10-01

    Erbium doped amorphous alumina thin films were fabricated using Co-sputtering technique in various depositions runs with varying parameters for optimizing the deposition parameters to obtain the films with best optical performance. The main subject of investigation includes the effects of change in various deposition parameters such as substrate heating, radio frequency (RF) power and oxygen pressure inside the chamber while deposition. High quality as-deposited films with various Er concentrations and low carbon content have been confirmed by XPS. Substrate heating ∼500 °C was found to be very effective in getting highly dense films with high refractive index of 1.70 at 1530-1570 nm emission band. The Er3+-doped films showed very intense near-infrared luminescence peak at 1550 nm even without any post-deposition annealing treatment.

  10. Enhanced photoelectrocatalytic performance of α-Fe2O3 thin films by surface plasmon resonance of Au nanoparticles coupled with surface passivation by atom layer deposition of Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yuting; Xu, Zhen; Yin, Min; Fan, Haowen; Cheng, Weijie; Lu, Linfeng; Song, Ye; Ma, Jing; Zhu, Xufei

    2015-09-01

    The short lifetime of photogenerated charge carriers of hematite (α-Fe2O3) thin films strongly hindered the PEC performances. Herein, α-Fe2O3 thin films with surface nanowire were synthesized by electrodeposition and post annealing method for photoelectrocatalytic (PEC) water splitting. The thickness of the α-Fe2O3 films can be precisely controlled by adjusting the duration of the electrodeposition. The Au nanoparticles (NPs) and Al2O3 shell by atom layer deposition were further introduced to modify the photoelectrodes. Different constructions were made with different deposition orders of Au and Al2O3 on Fe2O3 films. The Fe2O3-Au-Al2O3 construction shows the best PEC performance with 1.78 times enhancement by localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of NPs in conjunction with surface passivation of Al2O3 shells. Numerical simulation was carried out to investigate the promotion mechanisms. The high PEC performance for Fe2O3-Au-Al2O3 construction electrode could be attributed to the Al2O3 intensified LSPR, effective surface passivation by Al2O3 coating, and the efficient charge transfer due to the Fe2O3-Au Schottky junctions.

  11. Enhanced photoelectrocatalytic performance of α-Fe2O3 thin films by surface plasmon resonance of Au nanoparticles coupled with surface passivation by atom layer deposition of Al2O3.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuting; Xu, Zhen; Yin, Min; Fan, Haowen; Cheng, Weijie; Lu, Linfeng; Song, Ye; Ma, Jing; Zhu, Xufei

    2015-12-01

    The short lifetime of photogenerated charge carriers of hematite (α-Fe2O3) thin films strongly hindered the PEC performances. Herein, α-Fe2O3 thin films with surface nanowire were synthesized by electrodeposition and post annealing method for photoelectrocatalytic (PEC) water splitting. The thickness of the α-Fe2O3 films can be precisely controlled by adjusting the duration of the electrodeposition. The Au nanoparticles (NPs) and Al2O3 shell by atom layer deposition were further introduced to modify the photoelectrodes. Different constructions were made with different deposition orders of Au and Al2O3 on Fe2O3 films. The Fe2O3-Au-Al2O3 construction shows the best PEC performance with 1.78 times enhancement by localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of NPs in conjunction with surface passivation of Al2O3 shells. Numerical simulation was carried out to investigate the promotion mechanisms. The high PEC performance for Fe2O3-Au-Al2O3 construction electrode could be attributed to the Al2O3 intensified LSPR, effective surface passivation by Al2O3 coating, and the efficient charge transfer due to the Fe2O3-Au Schottky junctions. PMID:26415539

  12. A novel p-type and metallic dual-functional Cu-Al2O3 ultra-thin layer as the back electrode enabling high performance of thin film solar cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qinxian; Su, Yantao; Zhang, Ming-Jian; Yang, Xiaoyang; Yuan, Sheng; Hu, Jiangtao; Lin, Yuan; Liang, Jun; Pan, Feng

    2016-09-14

    Increasing the open-circuit voltage (Voc) along with the fill factor (FF) is pivotal for the performance improvement of solar cells. In this work, we report the design and construction of a new structure of CdS/CdTe/Al2O3/Cu using the atomic layer deposition (ALD) method, and then we control Cu diffusion through the Al2O3 atomic layer into the CdTe layer. Surprisingly, this generates a novel p-type and metallic dual-functional Cu-Al2O3 atomic layer. Due to this dual-functional character of the Cu-Al2O3 layer, an efficiency improvement of 2% in comparison with the standard cell was observed. This novel dual-functional back contact structure could also be introduced into other thin film solar cells for their efficiency improvement. PMID:27384986

  13. Decomposition of methanol on partially alumina-encapsulated Pt nanoclusters supported on thin film Al2O3/NiAl(1 0 0)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, C. S.; Li, Y. D.; Liao, T. W.; Hung, T. C.; Luo, M. F.

    2014-08-01

    Various surface probe techniques were applied to investigate the decomposition of methanol on partially alumina-encapsulated Pt nanoclusters on an ordered thin film of Al2O3/NiAl(1 0 0). The alumina-encapsulated Pt clusters were prepared on annealing Pt clusters (grown by vapor deposition onto the Al2O3/NiAl(1 0 0) at 300 K) to 650 K under UHV conditions. The annealed cluster became a Pt1+-Pt2+ state and partially encapsulated with inert alumina. Methanol on the partially encapsulated Pt clusters decomposed only on the uncovered Pt sites, and through both dehydrogenation to CO and scission of the C-O bond. In comparison to the reactions on Pt clusters, the C-O bond scission was altered little on the partially encapsulated clusters whereas the dehydrogenation was hindered to a certain extent. The quantities of CO and hydrogen produced from the dehydrogenation per surface Pt on the partially encapsulated clusters amounted to only half those on Pt clusters. The altered methanol decomposition was correlated to both electronic and ensemble effects.

  14. Abnormal positive bias stress instability of In-Ga-Zn-O thin-film transistors with low-temperature Al2O3 gate dielectric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yu-Hong; Yu, Ming-Jiue; Lin, Ruei-Ping; Hsu, Chih-Pin; Hou, Tuo-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Low-temperature atomic layer deposition (ALD) was employed to deposit Al2O3 as a gate dielectric in amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O thin-film transistors fabricated at temperatures below 120 °C. The devices exhibited a negligible threshold voltage shift (ΔVT) during negative bias stress, but a more pronounced ΔVT under positive bias stress with a characteristic turnaround behavior from a positive ΔVT to a negative ΔVT. This abnormal positive bias instability is explained using a two-process model, including both electron trapping and hydrogen release and migration. Electron trapping induces the initial positive ΔVT, which can be fitted using the stretched exponential function. The breakage of residual AlO-H bonds in low-temperature ALD Al2O3 is triggered by the energetic channel electrons. The hydrogen atoms then diffuse toward the In-Ga-Zn-O channel and induce the negative ΔVT through electron doping with power-law time dependence. A rapid partial recovery of the negative ΔVT after stress is also observed during relaxation.

  15. Microstructure and dielectric properties of (Ba 0.6Sr 0.4)TiO 3 thin films grown on super smooth glazed-Al 2O 3 ceramics substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hongwei; Yang, Chuanren; Zheng, Shanxue; Zhang, Jihua; Zhang, Qiaozhen; Lei, Guanhuan; Lou, Feizhi; Yang, Lijun

    2011-12-01

    Modified substrates with nanometer scale smooth surface were obtained via coating a layer of CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 (CaAlSi) high temperature glaze with proper additives on the rough-95% Al2O3 ceramics substrates. (Ba0.6Sr0.4)TiO3 (BST) thin films were deposited on modified Al2O3 substrates by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering. The microstructure, dielectric, and insulating properties of BST thin films grown on glazed-Al2O3 substrates were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscope (AFM), and dielectric properties measurement. These results showed that microstructure and dielectric properties of BST thin films grown on glazed-Al2O3 substrates were almost consistent with that of BST thin films grown on LaAlO3 (1 0 0) single-crystal substrates. Thus, the expensive single-crystal substrates may be substituted by extremely cheap glazed-Al2O3 substrates.

  16. Effect of Al2O3 insulator thickness on the structural integrity of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide based thin film transistors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hak-Jun; Hwang, In-Ju; Kim, Youn-Jea

    2014-12-01

    The current transparent oxide semiconductors (TOSs) technology provides flexibility and high performance. In this study, multi-stack nano-layers of TOSs were designed for three-dimensional analysis of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) based thin film transistors (TFTs). In particular, the effects of torsional and compressive stresses on the nano-sized active layers such as the a-IGZO layer were investigated. Numerical simulations were carried out to investigate the structural integrity of a-IGZO based TFTs with three different thicknesses of the aluminum oxide (Al2O3) insulator (δ = 10, 20, and 30 nm), respectively, using a commercial code, COMSOL Multiphysics. The results are graphically depicted for operating conditions. PMID:25971080

  17. Comparison of Multilayer Dielectric Thin Films for Future Metal-Insulator-Metal Capacitors: Al2O3/HfO2/Al2O3 versus SiO2/HfO2/SiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sang-Uk; Kwon, Hyuk-Min; Han, In-Shik; Jung, Yi-Jung; Kwak, Ho-Young; Choi, Woon-Il; Ha, Man-Lyun; Lee, Ju-Il; Kang, Chang-Yong; Lee, Byoung-Hun; Jammy, Raj; Lee, Hi-Deok

    2011-10-01

    In this paper, two kinds of multilayered metal-insulator-metal (MIM) capacitors using Al2O3/HfO2/Al2O3 (AHA) and SiO2/HfO2/SiO2 (SHS) were fabricated and characterized for radio frequency (RF) and analog mixed signal (AMS) applications. The experimental results indicate that the AHA MIM capacitor (8.0 fF/µm2) is able to provide a higher capacitance density than the SHS MIM capacitor (5.1 fF/µm2), while maintaining a low leakage current of about 50 nA/cm2 at 1 V. The quadratic voltage coefficient of capacitance, α gradually decreases as a function of stress time under constant voltage stress (CVS). The parameter variation of SHS MIM capacitors is smaller than that of AHA MIM capacitors. The effects of CVS on voltage linearity and time-dependent dielectric breakdown (TDDB) characteristics were also investigated.

  18. Enhancement Of Free Exciton Peak Intensity In Reactively Sputtered ZnO Thin Films On (0001) Al2O3

    SciTech Connect

    Tuezemen, S.; Guer, Emre; Yildirim, T.; Xiong, G.; Williams, R. T.

    2007-04-23

    Wide bandgap materials such as GaN with its direct bandgap structure have been developed rapidly for applications in short wavelength light emission. ZnO, II-VI oxide semiconductor, is also promising for various technological applications, especially for optoelectronic light emitting devices in the visible and ultraviolet (UV) range of the electromagnetic spectrum. Above-band-edge absorption spectra of reactively sputtered Zn- and O-rich samples exhibit free exciton (FX) and neutral acceptor bound exciton (A deg. X) features. It is shown that the residual acceptors which bind excitons with an energy of 75 meV reside about 312 meV above the valence band, according to effective mass theory. An intra-bandgap absorption feature peaking at 2.5 eV shows correlation with the characteristically narrow A-free exciton peak intensity. Relevant annealing processes are presented as a function of time and temperature dependently for both Zn- and O- rich thin films. Enhancement of the free exciton peak intensity is observed without disturbing the residual shallow acceptor profile which is necessary for at least background p-type conductivity.

  19. Low-Loss Optical Waveguides for the Near Ultra-Violet and Visible Spectral Regions with Al2O3 Thin Films from Atomic Layer Deposition

    PubMed Central

    Aslan, Mustafa M.; Webster, Nathan A.; Byard, Courtney L.; Pereira, Marcelo B.; Hayes, Colin M.; Wiederkehr, Rodrigo S.; Mendes, Sergio B.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we report low-loss single-mode integrated optical waveguides in the near ultra-violet and visible spectral regions with aluminum oxide (Al2O3) films using an atomic layer deposition (ALD) process. Alumina films were deposited on glass and fused silica substrates by the ALD process at substrate/chamber temperatures of 200 °C and 300 °C. Transmission spectra and waveguide measurements were performed in our alumina films with thicknesses in the range of 210 – 380 nm for the optical characterization. Those measurements allowed us to determine the optical constants (nw and kw), propagation loss, and thickness of the alumina films. The experimental results from the applied techniques show good agreement and demonstrate a low-loss optical waveguide. Our alumina thin-film waveguides is well transparent in the whole visible spectral region and also in an important region of the UV; the measured propagation loss is below 4 dB/cm down to a wavelength as short as 250 nm. The low propagation loss of these alumina guiding films, in particular in the near ultra-violet region which lacks materials with high optical performance, is extremely useful for several integrated optic applications. PMID:21359156

  20. XRD, ESCA and C- V investigations of Al 2O 3 SiO 2 composite thin films synthesized by high dose oxygen ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubey, S. K.; Yadav, A. D.

    1998-10-01

    High purity aluminium (99.999%) films were deposited onto cleaned silicon substrates. 30 keV 16O 2+ ions were implanted in Al-Si system with dose levels varying from 1 × 10 17 to 7 × 10 17 O 2+ cm -2. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies reveal the formation of α-Al 2O 3 phase at all doses and γ-Al 2O 3 and SiO 2 phases only for high dose implants. ESCA studies for Al 2p 3/2 and Si 2p lines at various depths confirm the formation of Al 2O 3 at all doses and the gradual chemical transformation of the SiO x towards the stoichiometric composition of SiO 2 with implanted oxygen dose. The interface-state density of Al 2O 3·SiO 2-Si MOS device shows approximately U shape distribution with a discrete peak at <0.4 eV above the valence band edge.

  1. Optimization of Al2O3/TiO2 nanolaminate thin films prepared with different oxide ratios, for use in organic light-emitting diode encapsulation, via plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition.

    PubMed

    Kim, Lae Ho; Jeong, Yong Jin; An, Tae Kyu; Park, Seonuk; Jang, Jin Hyuk; Nam, Sooji; Jang, Jaeyoung; Kim, Se Hyun; Park, Chan Eon

    2016-01-14

    Encapsulation is essential for protecting the air-sensitive components of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), such as the active layers and cathode electrodes. Thin film encapsulation approaches based on an oxide layer are suitable for flexible electronics, including OLEDs, because they provide mechanical flexibility, the layers are thin, and they are easy to prepare. This study examined the effects of the oxide ratio on the water permeation barrier properties of Al2O3/TiO2 nanolaminate films prepared by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition. We found that the Al2O3/TiO2 nanolaminate film exhibited optimal properties for a 1 : 1 atomic ratio of Al2O3/TiO2 with the lowest water vapor transmission rate of 9.16 × 10(-5) g m(-2) day(-1) at 60 °C and 90% RH. OLED devices that incorporated Al2O3/TiO2 nanolaminate films prepared with a 1 : 1 atomic ratio showed the longest shelf-life, in excess of 2000 hours under 60 °C and 90% RH conditions, without forming dark spots or displaying edge shrinkage. PMID:26661064

  2. Thickness effect on the optical and morphological properties in Al2O3/ZnO nanolaminate thin films prepared by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, J.; Martínez, J.; Abundiz, N.; Domínguez, D.; Murillo, E.; Castillón, F. F.; Machorro, R.; Farías, M. H.; Tiznado, H.

    2016-02-01

    In this work, we studied the optical and morphological properties of ultrathin nanolaminate films based on Al2O3/ZnO (AZ) bilayers stack. The films were deposited on Si (100) by means of thermal atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique. The bilayer thicknesses (ratio = 1:1) were 0.2, 1, 2, 4, 10 and 20 nm. Refractive index (n) and band gap (Eg) of each nanolaminate were studied via spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE), and spectral reflectance ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis). Surface morphology and roughness parameters of the nanolaminates were measured by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The optical and morphological properties were shown highly dependent on the bilayer thickness. Ellipsometric data treated through the Cody-Lorentz optical model revealed that the refractive index decreases for thinner bilayers. A sharp intensity decay of refractive index and peaks at the UV region (200-400 nm) indicated increased transparency for thinner bilayers. It is also shown that the band gap is tunable. The maximum band gap value was 4.8 eV. These results reveal that ZnO combined with Al2O3 as bilayers stack can be converted into a dielectric material with enhanced band gap, opening the possibility for new optical and dielectric applications.

  3. New half-film method for measuring Al2O3 film MTF of 3rd generation image intensifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yaojin; Shi, Feng; Bai, Xiaofeng; Zhu, Yufeng; Yan, Lei; Liu, Feng; Li, Min

    2012-10-01

    In 3rd generation image intensifier, Al2O3 film on the input of MCP is a serious influence factor on device MTF due to its electron scattering process. There are no reportes about how to measure the MTF of Al2O3 film. In this paper a new Half-film comparssion test method is creatively established for determing the film MTF, which overcomes the difficulty of measuring super thin film less than a few nm. In this way, the MTF curves of 10nm Al2O3 film can be accurately obtained. The measurement results show that 10nm Al2O3 film obviously decay the MTF performance of the 3rd generation image intensifier and take an important role in the improvement work of 3rd generation image intensifier MTF and resolution performances.

  4. Epitaxial Growth of V2O3 Thin Films on c-Plane Al2O3 in Reactive Sputtering and Its Transformation to VO2 Films by Post Annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okimura, Kunio; Suzuki, Yasushi

    2011-06-01

    Epitaxial growth of thin vanadium sesquioxide (V2O3) films on c-plane sapphire (c-Al2O3) substrates was achieved with reactive magnetron sputtering under restricted oxygen flow. Even with a film thickness of approximately 12 nm, highly c-axis textured growth of corundum V2O3 was realized because of the smaller mismatch of V2O3 against corundum Al2O3. Post annealing in O2 atmosphere for as-grown V2O3 films caused phase transformation to oxidized crystalline phases. At a moderate annealing temperature of 450 °C, the V2O3 thin films transformed to VO2 films, which show a resistivity change of over three orders of magnitude. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectra for the annealed VO2 film showed a single charge state of V4+, indicating a homogeneous crystalline structure, in contrast to the inhomogeneous feature with mixed charge states of V in addition to V3+ for as-grown V2O3 film. This method is promising to prepare thin VO2 films with metal-insulator transition in productive reactive sputtering and to examine crystalline phase transformation mechanisms, including phase coexistence.

  5. Tribological properties of Ag/Ti films on Al2O3 ceramic substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dellacorte, Christopher; Pepper, Stephen V.; Honecy, Frank S.

    1991-01-01

    Ag solid lubricant films, with a thin Ti interlayer for enhanced adhesion, were sputter deposited on Al2O3 substrate disks to reduce friction and wear. The dual Ag/Ti films were tested at room temperature in a pin-on-disk tribometer sliding against bare, uncoated Al2O3 pins under a 4.9 N load at a sliding velocity of 1 m/s. The Ag/Ti films reduced the friction coefficient by 50 percent to about 0.41 compared to unlubricated baseline specimens. Pin wear was reduced by a factor of 140 and disk wear was reduced by a factor of 2.5 compared to the baseline. These films retain their good tribological properties including adhesion after heat treatments at 850 C and thus may be able to lubricate over a wide temperature range. This lubrication technique is applicable to space lubrication, advanced heat engines, and advanced transportation systems.

  6. Preparation of γ-Al2O3 films by laser chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Ming; Ito, Akihiko; Goto, Takashi

    2015-06-01

    γ- and α-Al2O3 films were prepared by chemical vapor deposition using CO2, Nd:YAG, and InGaAs lasers to investigate the effects of varying the laser wavelength and deposition conditions on the phase composition and microstructure. The CO2 laser was found to mostly produce α-Al2O3 films, whereas the Nd:YAG and InGaAs lasers produced γ-Al2O3 films when used at a high total pressure. γ-Al2O3 films had a cauliflower-like structure, while the α-Al2O3 films had a dense and columnar structure. Of the three lasers, it was the Nd:YAG laser that interacted most with intermediate gas species. This promoted γ-Al2O3 nucleation in the gas phase at high total pressure, which explains the cauliflower-like structure of nanoparticles observed.

  7. Microstructural characteristics of tin oxide-based thin films on (0001) Al2O3 substrates: effects of substrate temperature and RF power during co-sputtering.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Sooyeon; Lee, Ju Ho; Kim, Young Yi; Yun, Myeong Goo; Lee, Kwan-Hun; Lee, Jeong Yong; Cho, Hyung Koun

    2014-12-01

    While tin oxides such as SnO and SnO2 are widely used in various applications, surprisingly, only a limited number of reports have been presented on the microstructural characteristics of tin oxide thin films grown under various growth conditions. In this paper, the effects of the substrate temperature and content of foreign Zn ion on the microstructural characteristics of tin oxide thin films grown by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering were investigated. The increase in substrate temperature induced change in the stoichiometry of the thin films from SnO(1+x) to SnO(2-x). Additionally, the phase contrast in the transmission electron microscopy image revealed that SnO(1+x) and SnO(2-x) phases were alternating in thin films and the width of each phase became narrower at high substrate temperature. The ternary zinc tin oxide thin films were deposited using the co-sputtering method. As the ZnO target power increased, the crystallinity of the thin films became poly-crystalline, and then showed improved crystallinity again with two types of phases. PMID:25970980

  8. Preparation and Characterization of (Ba0.8Sr0.2)TiO3-Al2O3 Composite Oxide for Thin Film Capacitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Joo-Hee; Kim, Tae-Yoo; Lee, Chang-Hyoung; Zhang, JingJing; Park, Eun-Mi; Park, Chan; Suh, Su-Jeong

    2011-07-01

    Barium strontium titanate-alumina composites were fabricated using a sol-gel and anodizing process for high performance thin film capacitors and the properties of the films were studied. The (Ba0.8Sr0.2)TiO3 (BST) films were formed by spin coating and subsequent annealing at 150-550 °C. The respective annealed films were anodized in a neutral borate solution. The capacitance density increased with increasing annealing temperature up to 450 °C but decreased at 550 °C. The capacitance density was approximately 28.46% higher with the BST coating than without the BST layer.

  9. Novel silicon surface passivation by Al2O3/ZnO/Al2O3 films deposited by thermal atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Kwang-Seok; Oh, Sung-Kwen; Shin, Hong-Sik; Yun, Ho-Jin; Kim, Seong-Hyeon; Lee, Ho-Ryeong; Han, Kyu-Min; Park, Ho-Yun; Lee, Hi-Deok; Lee, Ga-Won

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a novel Al2O3/ZnO/Al2O3 stack is proposed as the silicon passivation layer for c-Si solar cell application. Recently, the Al2O3 film has been proved to be effective for passivating the p-type c-Si surface by forming the negative fixed oxide charge. It is confirmed by this experiment that the amount of negative fixed oxide charge can be controlled by inserting a ZnO interlayer (IL), which is explained by acceptor-like defect (VZn, Oi, and OZn) formation determined by the room-temperature photoluminescence (RTPL) analysis. The effect of ZnO IL is investigated using Al2O3 bottom layers of various thicknesses by electrical and physical analyses. The effective lifetime measurement shows that the electronic recombination losses at the silicon surface are reduced effectively by optimizing the Al2O3/ZnO/Al2O3 stack.

  10. Determination of the coincidence lattice of an ultra thin Al 2O 3 film on Ni 3Al(1 1 1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degen, S.; Krupski, A.; Kralj, M.; Langner, A.; Becker, C.; Sokolowski, M.; Wandelt, K.

    2005-02-01

    Spot profile analysis low energy electron diffraction (SPA-LEED) and low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (LT-STM) measurements were performed on an ultra thin alumina film grown at 1000 K in an oxygen atmosphere on Ni 3Al(1 1 1). By the aid of these two experimental techniques it has been shown that the alumina film exhibits a large superstructure with a lattice constant of 4.16 nm. The unit cell of this superstructure has a commensurate (√67 × √67)R47.784° relation to the Ni 3Al(1 1 1) substrate lattice.

  11. Oxidation precursor dependence of atomic layer deposited Al2O3 films in a-Si:H(i)/Al2O3 surface passivation stacks.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Yuren; Zhou, Chunlan; Jia, Endong; Wang, Wenjing

    2015-01-01

    In order to obtain a good passivation of a silicon surface, more and more stack passivation schemes have been used in high-efficiency silicon solar cell fabrication. In this work, we prepared a-Si:H(i)/Al2O3 stacks on KOH solution-polished n-type solar grade mono-silicon(100) wafers. For the Al2O3 film deposition, both thermal atomic layer deposition (T-ALD) and plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PE-ALD) were used. Interface trap density spectra were obtained for Si passivation with a-Si films and a-Si:H(i)/Al2O3 stacks by a non-contact corona C-V technique. After the fabrication of a-Si:H(i)/Al2O3 stacks, the minimum interface trap density was reduced from original 3 × 10(12) to 1 × 10(12) cm(-2) eV(-1), the surface total charge density increased by nearly one order of magnitude for PE-ALD samples and about 0.4 × 10(12) cm(-2) for a T-ALD sample, and the carrier lifetimes increased by a factor of three (from about 10 μs to about 30 μs). Combining these results with an X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis, we discussed the influence of an oxidation precursor for ALD Al2O3 deposition on Al2O3 single layers and a-Si:H(i)/Al2O3 stack surface passivation from field-effect passivation and chemical passivation perspectives. In addition, the influence of the stack fabrication process on the a-Si film structure was also discussed in this study. PMID:25852428

  12. Controlled direct growth of Al2O3-doped HfO2 films on graphene by H2O-based atomic layer deposition.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Li; Cheng, Xinhong; Yu, Yuehui; Xie, Yahong; Li, Xiaolong; Wang, Zhongjian

    2015-02-01

    Graphene has been drawing worldwide attention since its discovery in 2004. In order to realize graphene-based devices, thin, uniform-coverage and pinhole-free dielectric films with high permittivity on top of graphene are required. Here we report the direct growth of Al2O3-doped HfO2 films onto graphene by H2O-based atom layer deposition (ALD). Al2O3-onto-HfO2 stacks benefited the doping of Al2O3 into HfO2 matrices more than HfO2-onto-Al2O3 stacks did due to the micro-molecular property of Al2O3 and the high chemical activity of trimethylaluminum (TMA). Al2O3 acted as a network modifier, maintained the amorphous structure of the film even to 800 °C, and made the film smooth with a root mean square (RMS) roughness of 0.8 nm, comparable to the surface of pristine graphene. The capacitance and the relative permittivity of Al2O3-onto-HfO2 stacks were up to 1.18 μF cm(-2) and 12, respectively, indicating the high quality of Al2O3-doped HfO2 films on graphene. Moreover, the growth process of Al2O3-doped HfO2 films introduced no detective defects into graphene confirmed by Raman measurements. PMID:25519447

  13. Effect of ZnO channel thickness on the device behaviour of nonvolatile memory thin film transistors with double-layered gate insulators of Al2O3 and ferroelectric polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Sung-Min; Yang, Shin-Hyuk; Park, Sang-Hee Ko; Jung, Soon-Won; Cho, Doo-Hee; Byun, Chun-Won; Kang, Seung-Youl; Hwang, Chi-Sun; Yu, Byoung-Gon

    2009-12-01

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride trifluoroethylene) and ZnO were employed for nonvolatile memory thin film transistors as ferroelectric gate insulator and oxide semiconducting channel layers, respectively. It was proposed that the thickness of the ZnO layer be carefully controlled for realizing the lower programming voltage, because the serially connected capacitor by the formation of a fully depleted ZnO channel had a critical effect on the off programming voltage. The fabricated memory transistor with Al/P(VDF-TrFE) (80 nm)/Al2O3 (4 nm)/ZnO (5 nm) exhibits encouraging behaviour such as a memory window of 3.8 V at the gate voltage of -10 to 12 V, and 107 on/off ratio, and a gate leakage current of 10-11 A.

  14. Pulsed Laser Deposition and Reflection High-Energy Electron Diffraction studies of epitaxial long range order, nano- and microstructured Ag thin films grown on MgO, Al2 O3 , STO and Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velazquez, Daniel; Seibert, Rachel; Man, Hamdi; Spentzouris, Linda; Terry, Jeff

    2015-03-01

    Pulsed Laser Deposition is a state-of-the-art technique that allows for the fine tunability of the deposition rate, highly uniform and epitaxial sample growth, the ability to introduce partial pressures of gases into the experimental chamber for growth of complex materials without interfering with the energy source (laser). An auxiliary in situ technique for growth monitoring, Reflection High-Energy Electron Diffraction, is a powerful characterization tool for predictability of the surface physical structure both, qualitatively and quantitatively. RHEED patterns during and post deposition of Ag thin films on MgO, Al2O3, Si and STO substrtates are presented and their interpretations are compared with surface imaging techniques (SEM, STM) to evidence the usefulness of the technique.

  15. Atomic layer controlled deposition of Al 2O 3 films using binary reaction sequence chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, A. W.; McCarley, K. C.; Klaus, J. W.; Way, J. D.; George, S. M.

    1996-11-01

    Al 2O 3 films with precise thicknesses and high conformality were deposited using sequential surface chemical reactions. To achieve this controlled deposition, a binary reaction for Al 2O 3 chemical vapor deposition (2Al(CH 3) 3 + 3H 2O → Al 2O 3 + 6CH 4) was separated into two half-reactions: (A) AlOH ∗ + Al(CH 3) 3 → AlOAl(CH 3) 2∗ + CH 4, (B) AlCH 3∗ + H 2O → AlOH ∗ + CH 4, where the asterisks designate the surface species. Trimethylaluminum (Al(CH 3) 3) (TMA) and H 2O reactants were employed alternately in an ABAB … binary reaction sequence to deposit Al 2O 3 films on single-crystal Si(100) and porous alumina membranes with pore diameters of ˜ 220 Å. Ellipsometric measurements obtained a growth rate of 1.1 Å/AB cycle on the Si(100) substrate at the optimal reaction conditions. The Al 2O 3 films had an index of refraction of n = 1.65 that is consistent with a film density of ϱ = 3.50 g/cm 3. Atomic force microscope images revealed that the Al 2O 3 films were exceptionally flat with a surface roughness of only ±3 Å ( rms) after the deposition of ˜ 270 Å using 250 AB reaction cycles. Al 2O 3 films were also deposited inside the pores of Anodisc alumina membranes. Gas flux measurements for H 2 and N 2 were consistent with a progressive pore reduction versus number of AB reaction cycles. Porosimetry measurements also showed that the original pore diameter of ˜ 220 Å was reduced to ˜ 130 Å after 120 AB reaction cycles.

  16. Infrared properties of Pt/Al2O3 cermet films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacMillan, M. F.; Devaty, R. P.; Mantese, J. V.

    1991-06-01

    The room-temperature transmittance and front reflectance of mid- and near-infrared radiation (400-15 000 cm-1) by thin Pt/Al2O3 cermet films prepared by electron-beam evaporation onto sapphire substrates were measured using a Fourier-transform spectrometer. The high value of the dc percolation threshold fc (0.50<=fc<=0.59) for the Pt/Al2O3 system is evidence for correlations in the positions of the particles that can be described by coated-grain topologies. The data were compared with the predictions of five effective-medium models, which feature different microstructural topologies and values of fc. Published data on the dielectric functions of the component materials were used in the modeling. The Maxwell-Garnett and Bruggeman models do not describe the data adequately. A simplified version of a model by Sheng (fc~=0.455) provides an improved description. The best agreement is achieved for two models with adjustable, high values of fc. We conclude that an effective-medium theory is able to describe the infrared optical properties of a cermet system over a wide range of composition if proper account is taken of both the microstructure and the value of fc.

  17. Domain epitaxy in TiO2/ -Al2O3 thin film heterostructures with Ti2O3 transient layer

    SciTech Connect

    Bayati, M R; Molaei, R; Narayan, Jagdish; Zhou, Honghui; Pennycook, Stephen J

    2012-01-01

    Rutile TiO2 films were grown epitaxially on -alumina (sapphire(0001)) substrates and characterized by x-ray diffraction and scanning transmission electron microscopy. It was revealed that the rutile film initially grows pseudomorphically on sapphire as Ti2O3 and, after a few monolayers, it grows tetragonally on the Ti2O3/sapphire platform. Formation of the Ti2O3 transient layer was attributed to the symmetry mismatch between tetragonal structure of TiO2 and hexagonal structure of alumina. The separation between the [10](101) misfit dislocations was dictated by Ti2O3 and was determined to be 9.7 which is consistent with 4/3 and 3/2 alternating domains across the film/substrate interface.

  18. Thermal stability of atomic layer deposition Al2O3 film on HgCdTe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, P.; Sun, C. H.; Zhang, Y.; Chen, X.; He, K.; Chen, Y. Y.; Ye, Z. H.

    2015-06-01

    Thermal stability of Atomic Layer Deposition Al2O3 film on HgCdTe was investigated by Al2O3 film post-deposition annealing treatment and Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor device low-temperature baking treatment. The effectiveness of Al2O3 film was evaluated by measuring the minority carrier lifetime and capacitance versus voltage characteristics. After annealing treatment, the minority carrier lifetime of the HgCdTe sample presented a slight decrease. Furthermore, the fixed charge density and the slow charge density decreased significantly in the annealed MIS device. After baking treatment, the fixed charge density and the slow charge density of the unannealed and annealed MIS devices decreased and increased, respectively.

  19. Enhanced water vapor barrier properties for biopolymer films by polyelectrolyte multilayer and atomic layer deposited Al 2 O 3 double-coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirvikorpi, Terhi; Vähä-Nissi, Mika; Harlin, Ali; Salomäki, Mikko; Areva, Sami; Korhonen, Juuso T.; Karppinen, Maarit

    2011-09-01

    Commercial polylactide (PLA) films are coated with a thin (20 nm) non-toxic polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) film made from sodium alginate and chitosan and additionally with a 25-nm thick atomic layer deposited (ALD) Al 2O 3 layer. The double-coating of PEM + Al 2O 3 is found to significantly enhance the water vapor barrier properties of the PLA film. The improvement is essentially larger compared with the case the PLA film being just coated with an ALD-grown Al 2O 3 layer. The enhanced water vapor barrier characteristics of the PEM + Al 2O 3 double-coated PLA films are attributed to the increased hydrophobicity of the surface of these films.

  20. Electrical characteristics of SrTiO3/Al2O3 laminated film capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Yong; Yao, Manwen; Chen, Jianwen; Xu, Kaien; Yao, Xi

    2016-07-01

    The electrical characteristics of SrTiO3/Al2O3 (160 nm up/90 nm down) laminated film capacitors using the sol-gel process have been investigated. SrTiO3 is a promising and extensively studied high-K dielectric material, but its leakage current property is poor. SrTiO3/Al2O3 laminated films can effectively suppress the demerits of pure SrTiO3 films under low electric field, but the leakage current value reaches to 0.1 A/cm2 at higher electric field (>160 MV/m). In this study, a new approach was applied to reduce the leakage current and improve the dielectric strength of SrTiO3/Al2O3 laminated films. Compared to laminated films with Au top electrodes, dielectric strength of laminated films with Al top electrodes improves from 205 MV/m to 322 MV/m, simultaneously the leakage current maintains the same order of magnitude (10-4 A/cm2) until the breakdown occurs. The above electrical characteristics are attributed to the anodic oxidation reaction in origin, which can repair the defects of laminated films at higher electric field. The anodic oxidation reactions have been confirmed by the corresponding XPS measurement and the cross sectional HRTEM analysis. This work provides a new approach to fabricate dielectrics with high dielectric strength and low leakage current.

  1. Influence of Content of Al2O3 on Structure and Properties of Nanocomposite Nb-B-Al-O films.

    PubMed

    Liu, Na; Dong, Lei; Dong, Lei; Yu, Jiangang; Pan, Yupeng; Wan, Rongxin; Gu, Hanqing; Li, Dejun

    2015-12-01

    Nb-B-Al-O nanocomposite films with different power of Al2O3 were successfully deposited on the Si substrate via multi-target magnetron co-sputtering method. The influences of Al2O3's content on structure and properties of obtained nanocomposite films through controlling Al2O3's power were investigated. Increasing the power of Al2O3 can influence the bombarding energy and cause the momentum transfer of NbB2. This can lead to the decreasing content of Al2O3. Furthermore, the whole films showed monocrystalline NbB2's (100) phase, and Al2O3 shaded from amorphous to weak cubic-crystalline when decreasing content of Al2O3. This structure and content changes were proof by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). When NbB2 grains were far from each other in lower power of Al2O3, the whole films showed a typical nanocomposite microstructure with crystalline NbB2 grains embedded in a matrix of an amorphous Al2O3 phase. Continuing increasing the power of Al2O3, the less content of Al2O3 tended to cause crystalline of cubic-Al2O3 between the close distances of different crystalline NbB2 grains. The appearance of cubic-crystallization Al2O3 can help to raise the nanocomposite films' mechanical properties to some extent. The maximum hardness and elastic modulus were up to 21.60 and 332.78 GPa, which were higher than the NbB2 and amorphous Al2O3 monolithic films. Furthermore, this structure change made the chemistry bond of O atom change from the existence of O-Nb, O-B, and O-Al bonds to single O-Al bond and increased the specific value of Al and O. It also influenced the hardness in higher temperature, which made the hardness variation of different Al2O3 content reduced. These results revealed that it can enhance the films' oxidation resistance properties and keep the mechanical properties at high temperature. The study highlighted the importance of controlling the Al2O3's content to prepare

  2. Nanostructured Er3+-doped SiO2-TiO2 and SiO2-TiO2-Al2O3 sol-gel thin films for integrated optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Predoana, Luminita; Preda, Silviu; Anastasescu, Mihai; Stoica, Mihai; Voicescu, Mariana; Munteanu, Cornel; Tomescu, Roxana; Cristea, Dana

    2015-08-01

    The nanostructured multilayer silica-titania or silica-titania-alumina films doped with Er3+ were prepared by sol-gel method. The sol-gel method is a flexible and convenient way to prepare oxide films on several types of substrates, and for this reason it was extensively investigated for optical waveguides fabrication. The selected molar composition was 90%SiO2-10%TiO2 or 85%SiO2-10%TiO2-5% Al2O3 and 0.5% Er2O3. The films were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Spectroellipsometry (SE), as well as by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and photoluminescence (PL). The films deposited on Si/SiO2 substrate by dip-coating or spin-coating, followed by annealing at 900 °C, presented homogenous and continuous surface and good adherence to the substrate. Differences were noticed in the structure and properties of the prepared films, depending on the composition and the number of deposited layers. Channel optical waveguides were obtained by patterning Er3+-doped SiO2-TiO2 and SiO2-TiO2-Al2O3 sol-gel layers deposited on oxidized silicon wafers.

  3. Effect of B content on structure and magnetic properties of FeCoB-Al2O3 nanogranular films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shu; Zhang, Xudong; Li, Jiangong; Tian, Qiang; Kou, Xinli

    2011-07-01

    The effect of B content on the structure, soft magnetic properties, and high frequency characteristics of as-deposited FeCoB-Al2O3 nanogranular films fabricated by radio frequency magnetron co-sputtering was studied in this work. The introduction of B into the FeCo-Al2O3 films leads to a refinement of granular microstructure. The FeCoB-Al2O3 nanogranular films consist of the FeCoB nanoparticles uniformly embedded in the amorphous Al2O3 matrix. An addition of a small amount of B into the FeCo-Al2O3 films can markedly decrease the coercivity of the films. The excellent magnetic softness with a low coercivity of about 0.08 kA/m was achieved in the FeCoB-Al2O3 films. The Henkel plots confirm the existence of intergranular exchange coupling in the FeCoB-Al2O3 films. The FeCoB-Al2O3 films with low B content exhibit a high permeability over 200 at low frequency and a high-resonance frequency of 3.2 GHz, implying a high cut-off frequency for high frequency applications.

  4. Space-charge-controlled field emission model of current conduction through Al2O3 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiraiwa, Atsushi; Matsumura, Daisuke; Kawarada, Hiroshi

    2016-02-01

    This study proposes a model for current conduction in metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) capacitors, assuming the presence of two sheets of charge in the insulator, and derives analytical formulae of field emission (FE) currents under both negative and positive bias. Since it is affected by the space charge in the insulator, this particular FE differs from the conventional FE and is accordingly named the space-charge-controlled (SCC) FE. The gate insulator of this study was a stack of atomic-layer-deposition Al2O3 and underlying chemical SiO2 formed on Si substrates. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics simulated using the SCC-FE formulae quantitatively reproduced the experimental results obtained by measuring Au- and Al-gated Al2O3/SiO2 MIS capacitors under both biases. The two sheets of charge in the Al2O3 films were estimated to be positive and located at a depth of greater than 4 nm from the Al2O3/SiO2 interface and less than 2 nm from the gate. The density of the former is approximately 1 × 1013 cm-2 in units of electronic charge, regardless of the type of capacitor. The latter forms a sheet of dipoles together with image charges in the gate and hence causes potential jumps of 0.4 V and 1.1 V in the Au- and Al-gated capacitors, respectively. Within a margin of error, this sheet of dipoles is ideally located at the gate/Al2O3 interface and effectively reduces the work function of the gate by the magnitude of the potential jumps mentioned above. These facts indicate that the currents in the Al2O3/SiO2 MIS capacitors are enhanced as compared to those in ideal capacitors and that the currents in the Al-gated capacitors under negative bias (electron emission from the gate) are more markedly enhanced than those in the Au-gated capacitors. The larger number of gate-side dipoles in the Al-gated capacitors is possibly caused by the reaction between the Al and Al2O3, and therefore gate materials that do not react with underlying gate insulators should be chosen

  5. Characteristics of nanocomposite ZrO2/Al2O3 films deposited by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition.

    PubMed

    Yun, Sun Jin; Lim, Jung Wook; Kim, Hyun-Tak

    2007-11-01

    Nanocomposite ZrO2/Al2O3 (ZAO) films were deposited on Si by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition and the film characteristics including interfacial oxide formation, dielectric constant (k), and electrical breakdown strength were investigated without post-annealing process. In both the mixed and nano-laminated ZAO films, the thickness of the interfacial oxide layer (T(IL)) was considerably reduced compared to ZrO2 and Al2O3 films. The T(IL) was 0.8 nm in nano-composite films prepared at a mixing ratio (ZrO2:Al2O3) of 1:1. The breakdown strength and the leakage current level were greatly improved by adding Al2O3 as little as 7.9% compared to that of ZrO2 and were enhanced more with increasing content of Al2O3. The k of ZrO2 and mixed ZAO (Al2O3 7.9%) films were 20.0 and 16.5, respectively. These results indicate that the addition of Al2O3 to ZrO2 greatly improves the electrical properties with less cost of k compared to the addition of SiO2. PMID:18047146

  6. Stabilization of Hydrogen Production via Methanol Steam Reforming in Microreactor by Al2O3 Nano-Film Enhanced Catalyst Adhesion.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Heondo; Na, Jeong-Geol; Jang, Min Su; Ko, Chang Hyun

    2016-05-01

    In hydrogen production by methanol steam reforming reaction with microchannel reactor, Al2O3 thin film formed by atomic layer deposition (ALD) was introduced on the surface of microchannel reactor prior to the coating of catalyst particles. Methanol conversion rate and hydrogen production rate, increased in the presence of Al2O3 thin film. Over-view and cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy study showed that the adhesion between catalyst particles and the surface of microchannel reactor enhanced due to the presence of Al2O3 thin film. The improvement of hydrogen production rate inside the channels of microreactor mainly came from the stable fixation of catalyst particles on the surface of microchannels. PMID:27483762

  7. Effect of thermal annealing on the structure of ZnSe/Al2O3 nanocomposite films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dedyukhin, A. A.; Krylov, P. N.; Kostenkov, N. V.; Zakirova, R. M.; Fedotova, I. V.

    2016-04-01

    The ZnSe/Al2O3 nanocomposite films synthesized by laser evaporation followed by heat treatment are studied. X-ray diffraction and electron-microscopic investigations of the as-deposited films demonstrate the presence of ZnSe crystallites in an Al2O3 amorphous matrix. Annealing changes the structures of ZnSe and Al2O3, increases the ZnSe crystallite size, and causes the appearance of the ZnSeO4 phase. The presence of aluminum oxide layers decreases the phase transformation temperature of zinc selenide.

  8. Properties of Ultrathin Al2O3-TiO2 Nanolaminate Films for Gate Dielectric Applications Deposited by Plasma-Assisted Atomic Layer Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garces, Nelson; Meyer, David; Nepal, Neeraj; Wheeler, Virginia; Eddy, Charles

    2012-02-01

    High permittivity dielectrics such as Al2O3, HfO2, Ta2O5, TiO2, etc., are an essential component of aggressively-scaled III-V and graphene field effect transistors (FETs) where insulators are necessary to reduce gate leakage current while maintaining high gate capacitance and charge control of the channel. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) has the capability to deposit hybrid films, or nanolaminates, of two or more dielectrics that have unique properties. Thin [Al2O3+TiO2] nanolaminates with varying TiO2 and Al2O3 content were deposited on n-Si substrates at ˜225-300 C using ALD. A nanolaminate is composed of bilayers, defined as the sum of (x)Al2O3 and (y)TiO2, where x, and y indicate the number of times a component monolayer is repeated. While the overall thickness of the dielectric was held at ˜ 17-20 nm, the relative ratio of Al2O3 to TiO2 in the bilayer stack was varied to evaluate changes in the material properties and electrical performance of the oxides. C-V and I-V measurements on various [(x)TiO2+(y)Al2O3] MOS capacitors were taken. The high-TiO2-content films show limited evidence of oxide charge trapping and relatively large dielectric constants (κ˜15), whereas the high-Al2O3-content films offer a larger optical bandgap and improved suppression of leakage current. We will discuss the properties of very thin nanolaminates and their possible use as gate oxides. Morphological, electrical, and XPS composition assessments will be presented.

  9. Passivation Effect of Atomic Layer Deposition of Al2O3 Film on HgCdTe Infrared Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peng; Ye, Zhen-Hua; Sun, Chang-Hong; Chen, Yi-Yu; Zhang, Tian-Ning; Chen, Xin; Lin, Chun; Ding, Ring-Jun; He, Li

    2016-06-01

    The passivation effect of atomic layer deposition of (ALD) Al2O3 film on a HgCdTe infrared detector was investigated in this work. The passivation effect of Al2O3 film was evaluated by measuring the minority carrier lifetime, capacitance versus voltage (C-V) characteristics of metal-insulator-semiconductor devices, and resistance versus voltage (R-V) characteristics of variable-area photodiodes. The minority carrier lifetime, C-V characteristics, and R-V characteristics of HgCdTe devices passivated by ALD Al2O3 film was comparable to those of HgCdTe devices passivated by e-beam evaporation of ZnS/CdTe film. However, the baking stability of devices passivated by Al2O3 film is inferior to that of devices passivated by ZnS/CdTe film. In future work, by optimizing the ALD Al2O3 film growing process and annealing conditions, it may be feasible to achieve both excellent electrical properties and good baking stability.

  10. Passivation Effect of Atomic Layer Deposition of Al2O3 Film on HgCdTe Infrared Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peng; Ye, Zhen-Hua; Sun, Chang-Hong; Chen, Yi-Yu; Zhang, Tian-Ning; Chen, Xin; Lin, Chun; Ding, Ring-Jun; He, Li

    2016-09-01

    The passivation effect of atomic layer deposition of (ALD) Al2O3 film on a HgCdTe infrared detector was investigated in this work. The passivation effect of Al2O3 film was evaluated by measuring the minority carrier lifetime, capacitance versus voltage ( C- V) characteristics of metal-insulator-semiconductor devices, and resistance versus voltage ( R- V) characteristics of variable-area photodiodes. The minority carrier lifetime, C- V characteristics, and R- V characteristics of HgCdTe devices passivated by ALD Al2O3 film was comparable to those of HgCdTe devices passivated by e-beam evaporation of ZnS/CdTe film. However, the baking stability of devices passivated by Al2O3 film is inferior to that of devices passivated by ZnS/CdTe film. In future work, by optimizing the ALD Al2O3 film growing process and annealing conditions, it may be feasible to achieve both excellent electrical properties and good baking stability.

  11. Ferromagnetic resonance experiments in an obliquely deposited FeCo-Al2O3 film system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesnik, N. A.; Oates, C. J.; Smith, G. M.; Riedi, P. C.; Kakazei, G. N.; Kravets, A. F.; Wigen, P. E.

    2003-11-01

    Granular cermet films (Fe50Co50)x-(Al2O3)1-x fabricated using the electron-beam coevaporation technique at oblique incidence of FeCo and alumina atom fluxes have been found to exhibit both oblique and in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy. This anisotropy first appears just below the percolation threshold due to a magnetic coupling of particles taking place at a certain stage of their growth and coalescence. The FeCo content x varied from 0.07 to 0.49. A simple model of the film microstructure is presented based on the results of magnetization measurements and ferromagnetic resonance at intermediate (9.4 GHz) and high (94 GHz) frequencies. At 94 GHz the concentration dependence of the effective anisotropy field follows the solid solution law, since then the magnetic field is sufficient to magnetize the films close to saturation. The 9.4 GHz data points deviate from the solid solution line below the percolation threshold due to both modification of the resonance fields by intergranular interactions in nonsaturated films and the reduction of the average magnetization of granules, comparing to the saturation magnetization, at room temperature. Different mechanisms of line broadening observed at frequencies used in experiments are also discussed.

  12. Dynamic Friction Performance of a Pneumatic Cylinder with Al2O3 Film on Cylinder Surface.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ho; Lan, Chou-Wei; Wang, Hao-Xian

    2015-11-01

    A friction force system is proposed for accurately measuring friction force and motion properties produced by reciprocating motion of piston in a pneumatic cylinder. In this study, the proposed system is used to measure the effects of lubricating greases of different viscosities on the friction properties of pneumatic cylinder, and improvement of stick-slip motion for the cylinder bore by anodizing processes. A servo motor-driven ball screw is used to drive the pneumatic cylinder to be tested and to measure the change in friction force of the pneumatic cylinder. Experimental results show, that under similar test conditions, the lubricating grease with viscosity VG100 is best suited for measuring reciprocating motion of the piston of pneumatic cylinder. The wear experiment showed that, in the Al2O3 film obtained at a preset voltage 40 V in the anodic process, the friction coefficient and hardness decreased by 55% and increased by 274% respectively, thus achieving a good tribology and wear resistance. Additionally, the amplitude variation in the friction force of the pneumatic cylinder wall that received the anodizing treatment was substantially reduced. Additionally, the stick-slip motion of the pneumatic cylinder during low-speed motion was substantially improved. PMID:26726680

  13. Microwave Band-Pass Filter with Aerosol-Deposited Al2O3-Polytetrafluoroethylene Composite Thick Films.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji-Won; Koh, Jung-Hyuk

    2015-03-01

    Fabrication of microwave band-pass filter with coplanar waveguide with ground structure was realized by employing Al2O3-polytetrafluoroethylene (Al2O3-PTFE) composite thick films for integrated substrates produced by aerosol deposition (AD). In order to predict the performance of the band-pass filter, 3-D electromagnetic simulations were performed by high-frequency structure analysis. The thick Al2O3-PTFE composite films prepared by the AD process had submicron-sized Al2O3 crystallites due to the shock-absorbing effect of PTFE during the film growth. The thick films were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The Cu transmission lines with the thickness of 300 nm were deposited by electron-beam evaporation to form the band-pass filter. The fabricated band-pass filter showed similar characteristics to the simulation results. The insertion loss and resonance frequency were 9.5 dB and 2.3 GHz, respectively. PMID:26413656

  14. Impact of graphene–graphite films on electrical properties of Al2O3 metal–insulator–semiconductor structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Kyeong-Keun; Kee, Jong; Park, Chan-Gyung; Kim, Deok-kee

    2016-08-01

    The diffusion barrier property of directly grown graphene–graphite films between Al2O3 films and Si substrates was evaluated using metal–insulator–semiconductor (MIS) structures. The roughness, morphology, sheet resistance, Raman spectrum, chemical composition, and breakdown field strength of the films were investigated after rapid thermal annealing. About 2.5-nm-thick graphene–graphite films effectively blocked the formation of the interfacial layer between Al2O3 films and Si, which was confirmed by the decreased breakdown field strength of graphene–graphite film structures. After annealing at 975 °C for 90 s, the increase in the mean breakdown field strength of the structure with the ∼2.5-nm-thick graphene–graphite film was about 91% (from 8.7 to 16.6 MV/cm), while that without the graphene–graphite film was about 187% (from 11.2 to 32.1 MV/cm). Si atom diffusion into Al2O3 films was reduced by applying the carbon-based diffusion barrier.

  15. Negative charge trapping effects in Al2O3 films grown by atomic layer deposition onto thermally oxidized 4H-SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schilirò, Emanuela; Lo Nigro, Raffaella; Fiorenza, Patrick; Roccaforte, Fabrizio

    2016-07-01

    This letter reports on the negative charge trapping in Al2O3 thin films grown by atomic layer deposition onto oxidized silicon carbide (4H-SiC). The films exhibited a permittivity of 8.4, a breakdown field of 9.2 MV/cm and small hysteresis under moderate bias cycles. However, severe electron trapping inside the Al2O3 film (1 × 1012 cm-2) occurs upon high positive bias stress (>10V). Capacitance-voltage measurements at different temperatures and stress conditions have been used to determine an activation energy of 0.1eV. The results provide indications on the possible nature of the trapping defects and, hence, on the strategies to improve this technology for 4H-SiC devices.

  16. Effect of adsorbed films on friction of Al2O3-metal systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepper, S. V.

    1976-01-01

    The kinetic friction of polycrystalline Al2O3 sliding on Cu, Ni, and Fe in ultrahigh vacuum was studied as a function of the surface chemistry of the metal. Clean metal surfaces were exposed to O2, Cl2, C2H4, and C2H3Cl, and the change in friction due to the adsorbed species was observed. Auger electron spectroscopy assessed the elemental composition of the metal surface. It was found that the systems exposed to Cl2 exhibited low friction, interpreted as the van der Waals force between the Al2O3 and metal chloride. The generation of metal oxide by oxygen exposures resulted in an increase in friction, interpreted as due to strong interfacial bonds established by reaction of metal oxide with Al2O3 to form the complex oxide (spinel). The only effect of C2H4 was to increase the friction of the Fe system, but C2H3Cl exposures decreases friction in both Ni and Fe systems, indicating the dominance of the chlorine over the ethylene complex on the surface

  17. Microstructure and transport properties of epitaxial topological insulator Bi2Se3 thin films grown on MgO (100), Cr2O3 (0001), and Al2O3 (0001) templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Y. F.; Kumar, R.; Hunte, F.; Narayan, J.; Schwartz, J.

    2015-09-01

    We report the epitaxial integration of defect-induced room temperature ferromagnetic insulators, Cr2O3 and MgO, with topological insulators Bi2Se3 on c-sapphire substrate by pulsed laser deposition. The structural, magnetic, and magnetotransport properties of ˜15 nm Bi2Se3 thin films are investigated on each template. The lattice misfits of Cr2O3/Bi2Se3 and MgO/Bi2Se3 are ˜16% and ˜39%, respectively, where the critical thickness for pseudomorphic growth is less than one monolayer. The insulating behavior is more pronounced due to the additional scattering of the surface states of the Bi2Se3 layer by interfacing with MgO and Cr2O3. The weak antilocalization effect from the surface states is clearly suppressed, accounting for the presence of magnetic bottom layers. This work demonstrates an effective way to study the emergence of a ferromagnetic phase in topological insulators by the magnetic proximity effect in Bi2Se3, a step toward unveiling their exotic properties.

  18. Enhancement of ferromagnetic resonance in Al2O3-doped Co2FeAl Heusler alloy film prepared by oblique sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shan-Dong; Cai, Zhi-Yi; Xu, Jie; Cao, Xiao-Qin; Du, Hong-Lei; Xue, Qian; Gao, Xiao-Yang; Xie, Shi-Ming

    2014-10-01

    Large and variable in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy in a nanocrystalline (Co2FeAl)97.8(Al2O3)2.2 soft magnetic thin film is obtained by an oblique sputtering method without being induced by magnetic field or post annealing. The in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy varies from 50 Oe to 180 Oe (1 Oe = 79.5775 Am-1) by adjusting the sample's position. As a result, the ferromagnetic resonance frequency of the film increases from 1.9 GHz to 3.75 GHz.

  19. Influence of argon plasma on the deposition of Al2O3 film onto the PET surfaces by atomic layer deposition

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) films with and without plasma pretreatment were modified by atomic layer deposition (ALD) and plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition (PA-ALD). It demonstrates that the Al2O3 films are successfully deposited onto the surface of PET films. The cracks formed on the deposited Al2O3 films in the ALD, plasma pretreated ALD, and PA-ALD were attributed to the energetic ion bombardment in plasmas. The surface wettability in terms of water contact angle shows that the deposited Al2O3 layer can enhance the wetting property of modified PET surface. Further characterizations of the Al2O3 films suggest that the elevated density of hydroxyl -OH group improve the initial growth of ALD deposition. Chemical composition of the Al2O3-coated PET film was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, which shows that the content of C 1s reduces with the growing of O 1s in the Al2O3-coated PET films, and the introduction of plasma in the ALD process helps the normal growth of Al2O3 on PET in PA-ALD. PMID:23413804

  20. Dissociation of Al2O3(0001) substrates and the roles of silicon and oxygen in n-type GaN thin solid films grown by gas-source molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Nostrand, J. E.; Solomon, J.; Saxler, A.; Xie, Q.-H.; Reynolds, D. C.; Look, D. C.

    2000-06-01

    Unintentionally doped and silicon doped GaN films prepared by molecular beam epitaxy using ammonia are investigated. Hall, secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS), photoluminescence, and x-ray data are utilized for analysis of sources of autodoping of GaN epitaxial films in an effort to identify whether the n-type background electron concentration is of impurity origin or native defect origin. We identify and quantify an anomalous relationship between the Si doping concentration and free carrier concentration and mobility using temperature dependent Hall measurements on a series of 2.0-μm-thick GaN(0001) films grown on sapphire with various Si doping concentrations. SIMS is used to identify oxygen as the origin of the excess free carriers in lightly doped and undoped GaN films. Further, the source of the oxygen is positively identified to be dissociation of the sapphire substrate at the nitride-sapphire interface. Dissociation of SiC at the nitride-carbide interface is also observed. Finally, SIMS is again utilized to show how Si doping can be utilized to suppress the diffusion of the oxygen into the GaN layer from the sapphire substrate. The mechanism of suppression is believed to be formation of a Si-O bond and a greatly reduced diffusion coefficient of the subsequent Si-O complex in GaN.

  1. Microstructure and Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy Analysis of Interface Between Cu Substrate and Al2O3 Film Formed by Aerosol Deposition Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naoe, Kazuaki; Nishiki, Masashi; Sato, Keishi

    2014-12-01

    Aerosol deposition method is a technique to form dense films by impacting solid particles on a substrate at room temperature. To clarify the bonding mechanism between AD films and substrates, TEM observation and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) analysis of the interface between Al2O3 AD films and Cu substrates were conducted. The Al2O3 film was directly adhered to the Cu substrate without any void or crack. The film was composed of randomly oriented α-Al2O3 crystal grains of about 10-20 nm large. At the Al2O3/Cu interface, the lattice fringes of the film were recognized, and no interfacial layer with nanometer-order thickness could be found. EELS spectra near O- K edge obtained at the interface had the pre-peak feature at around 528 eV. According to previously reported experiments and theoretical calculations, this suggests interactions between Cu and O in Al2O3 at the interface. It is inferred that not only the anchoring effect but also the ionic bonding and covalent bonding that originates from the Cu-O interactions contribute to the bonding between Al2O3 AD films and Cu substrates.

  2. Temperature dependence of microstructure and strain evolution in strained ZnO films on Al2O3(0001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, In-Woo; Lee, Kyu-Mann

    2008-09-01

    We have studied the temperature dependence of the growth mode and microstructure evolution in highly mismatched sputter-grown ZnO/Al2O3(0001) heteroepitaxial films. The growth mode was studied by real-time synchrotron x-ray scattering. We find that the growth mode changes from a two-dimensional (2D) layer to a 3D island in the early growth stage with temperature (300-600 °C), in sharp contrast to the reported transition from three dimensions to two dimensions in metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy. At around 400 °C intermediate 2D platelets nucleate in the early stage, which act as nucleation cores of 3D islands and transform to a misaligned state during further growth. Meanwhile, at high temperature (above 500 °C), the spinel structure of ZnAl2O4 grows in the early stage, and it undergoes a transition to wurtzite-ZnO (w-ZnO) with thickness. The spinel formation is presumably driven by high temperature and large incident energy of impacting atoms during sputtering. The results of the strain evolution as functions of temperature and thickness during growth suggest that the surface diffusion is a major factor determining the microstructural properties in the strained ZnO/Al2O3(0001) heteroepitaxy.

  3. Low Surface Recombination Velocity on P-Type Cz-Si Surface by Sol-Gel Deposition of Al2O3 Films for Solar Cell Applications.

    PubMed

    Balaji, Nagarajan; Park, Cheolmin; Raja, Jayapal; Ju, Minkyu; Venkatesan, Muthukumarasamy Rangaraju; Lee, Haeseok; Yi, Junsin

    2015-07-01

    High quality surface passivation has gained a significant importance in photovoltaic industry for fabricating low cost and high efficiency solar cells using thinner and lower cost wafers. The passivation property of spin coated Al2O3 films with a thickness of about 50 nm on p-type Cz-Si wafers has been investigated as a function of annealing temperatures. An effective surface recombination velocity of 55 cm/s was obtained for the films annealed at 500 °C. The chemical and field effect passivation was analyzed by C-V measurements. A high density of negative fixed charges (Qf) in the order of 9 x 10(11) cm(-2) was detected in Al2O3 films and its impact on the level of surface passivation was demonstrated experimentally. The C-V curves show density of the interface state (Dit) of 1 x 10(12) eV(-1)cm(-2) at annealing temperature of 500 °C. During annealing, a thin interfacial SiOx is formed, and this interfacial layer is supposed to play a vital role in the origin of negative QF and Dit. The homogeneous SiOx interlayer result in higher passivation performance due to both the increase of negative Qf and the decrease of Dit. PMID:26373089

  4. Magnetic properties and anisotropic coercivity in nanogranular films of Co/Al2O3 above the percolation limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulyk, M. M.; Kalita, V. M.; Lozenko, A. F.; Ryabchenko, S. M.; Stognei, O. V.; Sitnikov, A. V.; Korenivski, V.

    2014-08-01

    Magnetic properties of nanogranular ferromagnetic Co/Al2O3 films with 74.5 at% Co, which is above the percolation limit, are investigated. It is established that the films have perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and a weaker in-plane anisotropy. The magnetization curves show that the film consists of two magnetic components: a dominating contribution from magneto-anisotropic isolated grains with the anisotropy axis perpendicular to the film plane and a weaker contribution from the percolated part of the film. This two-component magnetic composition of the films, with the dominating contribution from the nanograins, is confirmed by transmission electron microscopy as well as by ferromagnetic resonance spectroscopy. It is further established that the coercive field of the film is almost entirely determined by the percolated part of the film. In this, the angular dependence of the coercive force, Hc (θH), is essentially proportional to sin-1θH, where θH is the angle between the applied field and the film's normal. However, for θH → 0, Hc (θH) there is a narrow minimum with Hc approaching zero. Such non-linear dependence agrees well with our modelling results for a two-component magnetic system of the film, where the non-percolated nanograins have a distinct perpendicular anisotropy. The reported results should be important for in-depth characterization and understanding the magnetism and anisotropy in inhomogeneous systems as well as for applications, specifically in perpendicular magnetic recording.

  5. Vacuum ultraviolet thin films. I - Optical constants of BaF2, CaF2, LaF3, MgF2, Al2O3, HfO2, and SiO2 thin films. II - Vacuum ultraviolet all-dielectric narrowband filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zukic, Muamer; Torr, Douglas G.; Spann, James F.; Torr, Marsha R.

    1990-01-01

    An iteration process matching calculated and measured reflectance and transmittance values in the 120-230 nm VUV region is presently used to ascertain the optical constants of bulk MgF2, as well as films of BaF2, CaF2, LaF3, MgF2, Al2O3, HfO2, and SiO2 deposited on MgF2 substrates. In the second part of this work, a design concept is demonstrated for two filters, employing rapidly changing extinction coefficients, centered at 135 nm for BaF2 and 141 nm for SiO2. These filters are shown to yield excellent narrowband spectral performance in combination with narrowband reflection filters.

  6. Preparation and characterization of α-Al2O3 film by low temperature thermal oxidation of Al8Cr5 coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Min; Xu, Bajin; Ling, Guoping

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, α-Al2O3 film was prepared by low temperature thermal oxidation of Al8Cr5 coating. The Al8Cr5 alloy coating was prepared on SUS430 stainless steel through a two-step approach including electrodepositing Cr/Al composite coating and subsequent heat treatment at 740 °C for 16 h. After mechanical polishing removal of voids on the surface, the Al8Cr5 coating was thermal oxidized at 720 °C in argon for 100 h. The samples were characterized by SEM, EDX, XRD, XPS and TEM. XPS detection on the surface of oxidized Al8Cr5 coating showed that the oxide film mainly consisted of Al2O3. TEM characterization of the oxide film showed that it was α-Al2O3 films ca. 110 nm. The formation of α-Al2O3 films at low temperature can be attributed to the formation of Cr2O3 nuclei at the initial stage of oxidation which lowers the nucleation energy barrier of α-Al2O3.

  7. Improvement of the GaSb/Al2O3 interface using a thin InAs surface layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, Andrew; Madisetti, Shailesh; Nagaiah, Padmaja; Yakimov, Michael; Tokranov, Vadim; Moore, Richard; Oktyabrsky, Serge

    2012-12-01

    The highly reactive GaSb surface was passivated with a thin InAs layer to limit interface trap state density (Dit) at the III-V/high-k oxide interface. This InAs surface was subjected to various cleaning processes to effectively reduce native oxides before atomic layer deposition (ALD). Ammonium sulfide pre-cleaning and trimethylaluminum/water ALD were used in conjunction to provide a clean interface and annealing in forming gas (FG) at 350 °C resulted in an optimized fabrication for n-GaSb/InAs/high-k gate stacks. Interface trap density, Dit ≈ 2-3 × 1012 cm-2eV-1 resided near the n-GaSb conductance band which was extracted and compared with three different methods. Conductance-voltage-frequency plots showed efficient Fermi level movement and a sub-threshold slope of 200 mV/dec. A composite high-k oxide process was also developed using ALD of Al2O3 and HfO2 resulting in a Dit ≈ 6-7 × 1012 cm-2eV-1. Subjecting these samples to a higher (450 °C) processing temperature results in increased oxidation and a thermally unstable interface. p-GaSb displayed very fast minority carrier generation/recombination likely due to a high density of bulk traps in GaSb.

  8. Impact of device size and thickness of Al2O 3 film on the Cu pillar and resistive switching characteristics for 3D cross-point memory application.

    PubMed

    Panja, Rajeswar; Roy, Sourav; Jana, Debanjan; Maikap, Siddheswar

    2014-12-01

    Impact of the device size and thickness of Al2O3 film on the Cu pillars and resistive switching memory characteristics of the Al/Cu/Al2O3/TiN structures have been investigated for the first time. The memory device size and thickness of Al2O3 of 18 nm are observed by transmission electron microscope image. The 20-nm-thick Al2O3 films have been used for the Cu pillar formation (i.e., stronger Cu filaments) in the Al/Cu/Al2O3/TiN structures, which can be used for three-dimensional (3D) cross-point architecture as reported previously Nanoscale Res. Lett.9:366, 2014. Fifty randomly picked devices with sizes ranging from 8 × 8 to 0.4 × 0.4 μm(2) have been measured. The 8-μm devices show 100% yield of Cu pillars, whereas only 74% successful is observed for the 0.4-μm devices, because smaller size devices have higher Joule heating effect and larger size devices show long read endurance of 10(5) cycles at a high read voltage of -1.5 V. On the other hand, the resistive switching memory characteristics of the 0.4-μm devices with a 2-nm-thick Al2O3 film show superior as compared to those of both the larger device sizes and thicker (10 nm) Al2O3 film, owing to higher Cu diffusion rate for the larger size and thicker Al2O3 film. In consequence, higher device-to-device uniformity of 88% and lower average RESET current of approximately 328 μA are observed for the 0.4-μm devices with a 2-nm-thick Al2O3 film. Data retention capability of our memory device of >48 h makes it a promising one for future nanoscale nonvolatile application. This conductive bridging resistive random access memory (CBRAM) device is forming free at a current compliance (CC) of 30 μA (even at a lowest CC of 0.1 μA) and operation voltage of ±3 V at a high resistance ratio of >10(4). PMID:26088986

  9. Consideration of the formation mechanism of an Al2O3-HfO2 eutectic film on a SiC substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seya, Kyosuke; Ueno, Shunkichi; Nishimura, Toshiyuki; Jang, Byung-Koog

    2016-01-01

    An Al2O3-HfO2 eutectic EBC film was prepared on a SiC substrate by using the electric furnace heating and the optical zone melting methods. All of Al2O3 phase disappeared during the heating step at a temperature below the melting point, and all of the HfO2 phase reacted with the carbon and boron, which are included in SiC bulk as sintering agents, during the heating step at a temperature below the melting point. The thermal decomposition of the SiC phase, the reduction reaction of Al2O3 phase, the vaporization of the Al2O3 component, the reduction reaction of HfO2 and the formation of the HfC phase occurred at a temperature below the melting point. However, a highly dense HfC phase was formed on the SiC substrate. A rapid heating process becomes possible by using the optical zone melting method. A solidified film that was composed of a highly dense HfC layer as the intermediate layer and the Al2O3-HfO2 eutectic structure layer as the top coat was obtained by using the optical zone melting method.

  10. Synthesis of Vertically-Aligned Carbon Nanotubes from Langmuir-Blodgett Films Deposited Fe Nanoparticles on Al2O3/Al/SiO2/Si Substrate.

    PubMed

    Takagiwa, Shota; Kanasugi, Osamu; Nakamura, Kentaro; Kushida, Masahito

    2016-04-01

    In order to apply vertically-aligned carbon nanotubes (VA-CNTs) to a new Pt supporting material of polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC), number density and outer diameter of CNTs must be controlled independently. So, we employed Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique for depositing CNT growth catalysts. A Fe nanoparticle (NP) was used as a CNT growth catalyst. In this study, we tried to thicken VA-CNT carpet height and inhibit thermal aggregation of Fe NPs by using Al2O3/Al/SiO2/Si substrate. Fe NP LB films were deposited on three typed of substrates, SiO2/Si, as-deposited Al2O3/Al/SiO2/Si and annealed Al2O3/Al/SiO2/Si at 923 K in Ar atmosphere of 16 Pa. It is known that Al2O3/Al catalyzes hydrocarbon reforming, inhibits thermal aggregation of CNT growth catalysts and reduces CNT growth catalysts. It was found that annealed Al2O3/Al/SiO2/Si exerted three effects more strongly than as-deposited Al2O3/Al/SiO2/Si. VA-CNTs were synthesized from Fe NPs-C16 LB films by thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. As a result, at the distance between two nearest CNTs 28 nm or less, VA-CNT carpet height on annealed Al2O3/Al/SiO2/Si was about twice and ten times thicker than that on SiO2/Si and that on as-deposited Al2O3/Al/SiO2/Si, respectively. Moreover, distribution of CNT outer diameter on annealed Al2O3/Al/SiO2/Si was inhibited compared to that on SiO2/Si. These results suggest that since thermal aggregation of Fe NPs is inhibited, catalyst activity increases and distribution of Fe NP size is inhibited. PMID:27451619

  11. Effect of annealing temperature on the structural reorganization of Eu3+ optical centers in Al2O3-Eu2O3-BiOF gel films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malashkevich, G. E.; Kornienko, A. A.; Dunina, E. B.; Prusova, I. V.; Shevchenko, G. P.; Bokshits, Yu. V.

    2007-06-01

    The dependence of the structural reorganization of Eu3+ optical centers in Al2O3-Eu2O3-BiOF films on the annealing temperature has been investigated. It is shown by the methods of crystal field theory and computer simulation that the increase in the annealing temperature from 700 to 1100 °C leads to removal of bismuth from Eu-O-Bi complex centers with the C 3V symmetry in the Al2O3 structure and the change in symmetry from D 3 to O h for a large fraction of EuAlO3 centers.

  12. Unique synthesis of hollow Co3O4 nanoparticles embedded in thin Al2O3 nanosheets for enhanced lithium storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jiao; Qiu, Hua-Jun; Peng, Liang; Li, Wenxiang; Wang, Yu

    2015-09-01

    The designed synthesis of advanced nanocomposite architecture is significant for its applications in energy storage, catalysis, sensing, etc. Herein, thin Al2O3 hexagonal nanosheets with encapsulated hollow Co3O4 nanoparticles (Co3O4-HNPs) are successfully synthesized by using Co6Al2CO3(OH)16.4H2O nanosheets as templates followed by a two-step annealing process. When used as an anode material in lithium ion batteries (LIBs), the homogeneous Co3O4-HNP/Al2O3 nanosheet composite exhibits an excellent performance with high reversible capacity and rate capability, and enhanced cycling stability.The designed synthesis of advanced nanocomposite architecture is significant for its applications in energy storage, catalysis, sensing, etc. Herein, thin Al2O3 hexagonal nanosheets with encapsulated hollow Co3O4 nanoparticles (Co3O4-HNPs) are successfully synthesized by using Co6Al2CO3(OH)16.4H2O nanosheets as templates followed by a two-step annealing process. When used as an anode material in lithium ion batteries (LIBs), the homogeneous Co3O4-HNP/Al2O3 nanosheet composite exhibits an excellent performance with high reversible capacity and rate capability, and enhanced cycling stability. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr04221f

  13. Vanadium oxides on aluminum oxide supports. 1. Surface termination and reducibility of vanadia films on alpha-Al2O3(0001).

    PubMed

    Todorova, Tanya K; Ganduglia-Pirovano, M Veronica; Sauer, Joachim

    2005-12-15

    Using density functional theory and statistical thermodynamics, we obtained the phase diagram of thin VnOm films of varying thickness (approximately 2-6 A, 1-6 vanadium layers) supported on alpha-Al2O3(0001). Depending on the temperature, oxygen pressure, and vanadium concentration, films with different thickness and termination may form. In ultrahigh vacuum (UHV), at room temperature and for low vanadium concentrations, an ultrathin (1 x 1) O=V-terminated film is most stable. As more vanadium is supplied, the thickest possible films form. Their structures and terminations correspond to previous findings for the (0001) surface of bulk V2O3 [Kresse et al., Surf. Sci. 2004, 555, 118]. The presence of surface vanadyl (O=V) groups is a prevalent feature. They are stable up to at least 800 K in UHV. Vanadyl oxygen atoms induce a V(2p) core-level shift of about 2 eV on the surface V atoms. The reducibility of the supported films is characterized by the energy of oxygen defect formation. For the stable structures, the results vary between 4.11 and 3.59 eV per 1/2O2. In contrast, oxygen removal from the V2O5(001) surface is much easier (1.93 eV). This provides a possible explanation for the lower catalytic activity of vanadium oxides supported on alumina compared to that of crystalline vanadia particles. PMID:16375327

  14. Atomic rearrangements in amorphous Al2O3 under electron-beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, R.; Ishimaru, M.; Yasuda, H.; Nakajima, H.

    2013-02-01

    The electron-irradiation-induced crystallization of amorphous Al2O3 (a-Al2O3) was investigated by in-situ transmission electron microscopy under the wide electron-energy region of 25-300 keV. The formation of γ-Al2O3 nanocrystallites was induced by irradiating the a-Al2O3 thin film along with the formation of nanovoids in the crystalline grains regardless of the acceleration voltage. The crystallization became more pronounced with decreasing the electron energy, indicating that electronic excitation processes play a dominant role in the formation of γ-Al2O3. Radial distribution analyses suggested that a-Al2O3 transforms to γ-phase via the "excited" ("stimulated") amorphous state, in which the breaking and rearrangement of unstable short-range Al-O bonds, i.e., fivefold-coordinated Al-O (AlO5) basic units, occur.

  15. Dielectric and ferroelectric properties of highly (100)-oriented (Na 0.5Bi 0.5) 0.94Ba 0.06TiO 3 thin films grown on LaNiO 3/γ-Al 2O 3/Si substrates by chemical solution deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yiping; Akai, Daisuke; Sawada, Kazauki; Ishida, Makoto

    2008-07-01

    A (Na 0.5Bi 0.5) 0.94Ba 0.06TiO 3 chemical solution was prepared by using barium acetate, nitrate of sodium, nitrate of bismuth, and Ti-isopropoxide as raw materials. A white precipitation appeared during the preparation was analyzed to be Ba(NO 3) 2. We found that ethanolamine is a very effective coordinating ligand of Ba 2+. A transparent and stable (Na 0.5Bi 0.5) 0.94Ba 0.06TiO 3 precursor chemical solution has been achieved by using ethanolamine as a ligand of Ba 2+. (Na 0.5Bi 0.5) 0.94Ba 0.06TiO 3 films were grown on LaNiO 3/γ-Al 2O 3/Si substrates. Highly (100)-oriented (Na 0.5Bi 0.5) 0.94Ba 0.06TiO 3 films were obtained in this work due to lattice match growth. The dielectric, ferroelectric and insulative characteristics against applied field were studied. The conduction current shows an Ohmic conduction behavior at lower voltages and space-charge-limited behavior at higher voltages, respectively. These results indicate that, the (Na 0.5Bi 0.5) 0.94Ba 0.06TiO 3 film is a promising lead-free ferroelectric film.

  16. Comparison of the microstructure and magnetic properties of strontium hexaferrite films deposited on Al2O3(0001), Si(100)/Pt(111) and Si(100) substrates by pulsed laser technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masoudpanah, S. M.; Seyyed Ebrahimi, S. A.; Ong, C. K.

    2014-01-01

    Strontium hexaferrite SrFe12O19 (SrM) films have been deposited on Al2O3(0001), Si(100)/Pt(111) and Si(100) substrates. The (001) oriented SrFe12O19 films deposited on the Al2O3(0001) and Si(100)/Pt(111) substrates have been confirmed by X-ray diffraction patterns. Higher coercivity in perpendicular direction rather than in-plane direction of the SrM/Al2O3(0001) and SrM/Pt(111) films showed that the films had perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. The (001) orientation and similar microstructure and magnetic properties of the SrM/Al2O3(0001) and SrM/Pt(111) films show the Al2O3(0001) substrate can be replaced by the Si(100)/Pt(111) substrate.

  17. Uniform deposition of ultrathin polymer films on the surfaces of Al2O3 nanoparticles by a plasma treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Donglu; Wang, S. X.; van Ooij, Wim J.; Wang, L. M.; Zhao, Jiangang; Yu, Zhou

    2001-02-01

    Surface modification of nanoparticles will present great challenges due to their extremely small dimensions, high surface areas, and high surface energies. In this research, we demonstrate the uniform deposition of ultrathin polymer films of 2 nm on the surfaces of alumina nanoparticles. The deposited film can also be tailored to multilayers. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy was used to confirm the pyrrole thin film on the nanoparticle surfaces. Using such a nanocoating, it is possible to alter the intrinsic properties of materials that cannot be achieved by conventional methods and materials.

  18. Electronic properties of ultrathin HfO2, Al2O3, and Hf-Al-O dielectric films on Si(100) studied by quantitative analysis of reflection electron energy loss spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Hua; Oh, Suhk Kun; Kang, Hee Jae; Tougaard, Sven

    2006-10-01

    Quantitative analysis of reflection electron energy loss spectra for ultrathin HfO2, Al2O3, and Hf-Al-O dielectric thin films on Si(100) were carried out by using Tougaard-Yubero [Surf. Interface Anal. 36, 824 (2004)] QUEELS-ɛ(k ,ω)-REELS software. Experimental cross sections obtained from reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy were compared with theoretical inelastic scattering cross section Ksc deduced from the simulated energy loss function (ELF). The ELF is expressed as a sum of Drude oscillators. For HfO2, the ELF shows peaks in the vicinity of 10, 17, 22, 27, 37, and 47eV. For Al2O3, a broad peak at 22eV with a very weak shoulder at 14eV and a shoulder at 32eV were observed, while for the Al2O3 doped HfO2, the peak position is similar to that of HfO2. This indicates that when Hf-Al-O film is used as a gate dielectric in a complementary metal-oxide semiconductor transistor, its electronic structure is mainly determined by the d state of Hf. In addition, the inelastic mean free path (IMFP) was also calculated from the theoretical inelastic scattering cross section. The IMFPs at 300eV were about 7.05, 9.62, and 8.48Å and those at 500eV were 11.42, 15.40, and 13.64Å for HfO2, Al2O3, and Hf-Al-O, respectively. The method of determining the IMFP from the ELF is a convenient tool for ultrathin dielectric materials.

  19. Isotope analysis of diamond-surface passivation effect of high-temperature H2O-grown atomic layer deposition-Al2O3 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiraiwa, Atsushi; Saito, Tatsuya; Matsumura, Daisuke; Kawarada, Hiroshi

    2015-06-01

    The Al2O3 film formed using an atomic layer deposition (ALD) method with trimethylaluminum as Al precursor and H2O as oxidant at a high temperature (450 °C) effectively passivates the p-type surface conduction (SC) layer specific to a hydrogen-terminated diamond surface, leading to a successful operation of diamond SC field-effect transistors at 400 °C. In order to investigate this excellent passivation effect, we carried out an isotope analysis using D2O instead of H2O in the ALD and found that the Al2O3 film formed at a conventional temperature (100 °C) incorporates 50 times more CH3 groups than the high-temperature film. This CH3 is supposed to dissociate from the film when heated afterwards at a higher temperature (550 °C) and causes peeling patterns on the H-terminated surface. The high-temperature film is free from this problem and has the largest mass density and dielectric constant among those investigated in this study. The isotope analysis also unveiled a relatively active H-exchange reaction between the diamond H-termination and H2O oxidant during the high-temperature ALD, the SC still being kept intact. This dynamic and yet steady H termination is realized by the suppressed oxidation due to the endothermic reaction with H2O. Additionally, we not only observed the kinetic isotope effect in the form of reduced growth rate of D2O-oxidant ALD but found that the mass density and dielectric constant of D2O-grown Al2O3 films are smaller than those of H2O-grown films. This is a new type of isotope effect, which is not caused by the presence of isotopes in the films unlike the traditional isotope effects that originate from the presence of isotopes itself. Hence, the high-temperature ALD is very effective in forming Al2O3 films as a passivation and/or gate-insulation layer of high-temperature-operation diamond SC devices, and the knowledge of the aforementioned new isotope effect will be a basis for further enhancing ALD technologies in general.

  20. Free standing TiO2 nanotube array electrodes with an ultra-thin Al2O3 barrier layer and TiCl4 surface modification for highly efficient dye sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xianfeng; Guan, Dongsheng; Huo, Jingwan; Chen, Junhong; Yuan, Chris

    2013-10-01

    Dye sensitized solar cells were fabricated with free standing TiO2 nanotube (TNT) array films, which were prepared by template assisted atomic layer deposition (ALD) with precise wall thickness control. Efforts to improve the photovoltaic performance were made by using Al2O3 barrier layer coating in conjunction with TiCl4 surface modification. An Al2O3 thin layer was deposited on the TNT electrode by ALD to serve as the charge recombination barrier, but it suffers from the drawback of decreasing the photoelectron injection from dye into TiO2 when the barrier layer became too thick. With the TiCl4 treatment in combination with optimal thickness coating, this problem could be avoided. The co-surface treated electrode presents superior surface property with low recombination rate and good electron transport property. A high conversion efficiency of 8.62% is obtained, which is about 1.8 times that of the device without surface modifications.Dye sensitized solar cells were fabricated with free standing TiO2 nanotube (TNT) array films, which were prepared by template assisted atomic layer deposition (ALD) with precise wall thickness control. Efforts to improve the photovoltaic performance were made by using Al2O3 barrier layer coating in conjunction with TiCl4 surface modification. An Al2O3 thin layer was deposited on the TNT electrode by ALD to serve as the charge recombination barrier, but it suffers from the drawback of decreasing the photoelectron injection from dye into TiO2 when the barrier layer became too thick. With the TiCl4 treatment in combination with optimal thickness coating, this problem could be avoided. The co-surface treated electrode presents superior surface property with low recombination rate and good electron transport property. A high conversion efficiency of 8.62% is obtained, which is about 1.8 times that of the device without surface modifications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: UV-Vis spectra of desorbed N719 dyes from

  1. IMPERMEABLE THIN Al2O3 OVERLAY FOR TBC PROTECTION FROM SULFATE AND VANADATE ATTACK IN GAS TURBINES

    SciTech Connect

    Scott X. Mao

    2003-03-10

    In order to improve the hot corrosion resistance of conventional YSZ TBC system, a thin and dense {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay has been deposited on the YSZ surface by the composite-sol-gel route (CSG). The YSZ substrates were dipped with boehmite sol containing calcined {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles, dried to form a gel film and calcined at 1200 C to form {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay. Hot corrosion tests were carried out on the TBCs with and without Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating in molten salt mixtures (Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + 5% V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) at 950 C for 10 hours. The results showed that besides a thin and dense alumina overlay with the thickness of about 100-500 nm formed on the YSZ surface, the microcracks and porous near the surface in YSZ was also occupied by alumina because of penetration of the low viscosity precursor. As a result, the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay remarkably refrained the infiltration of the molten salt into the YSZ coating. The amount of M-phase in the TBC coating with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay was substantially reduced comparing to that without alumina overlay. In the next reporting period, we will prepare the alumina overlay by CSG route with different thickness and study the hot corrosion mechanism of YSZ TBC with thin Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay coating produced by CSG.

  2. Effect of the growth conditions on the optical and mechanical properties of TiO2 and Al2O3 films.

    PubMed

    G-Berasategui, E; Bayon, R; Fernandez-Diaz, B; Ruiz de Gopegui, U; Goikoetxea, J; Zubizarreta, C; Ciarsolo, I; Barriga, J

    2010-02-01

    The mechanical and optical properties of TiO2 and Al2O3 films deposited by DC reactive magnetron sputtering were analysed as a function of the deposition conditions. Two different sputtering powers and three different voltages targets which influence the pressure and the deposition rate were studied. The voltage corresponds to two different percentages of the turn down set point of the hysteresis curve and fully poisoned condition. As their optical application is the main functionality of these coatings, the transparency and the refractive index were investigated. However, the mechanical properties are the key factors for determining the performance of these systems in use. For this, the wear resistance of these coatings was studied through the analysis of the evolution of the friction coefficient with time and the analysis of the wear track. The corrosion resistance has been also analysed through electrochemical studies. The results reveal that there is a clear influence of the studied deposition conditions on the mechanical and optical properties of these films. However, while general conclusions could be drawn for Al2O3 films, for TiO2 films the tendency is not so clear and further work needs to be performed. PMID:20352755

  3. A Study on the Growth Behavior and Stability of Molecular Layer Deposited Alucone Films Using Diethylene Glycol and Trimethyl Aluminum Precursors, and the Enhancement of Diffusion Barrier Properties by Atomic Layer Deposited Al2O3 Capping.

    PubMed

    Choi, Dong-Won; Yoo, Mi; Lee, Hyuck Mo; Park, Jozeph; Kim, Hyun You; Park, Jin-Seong

    2016-05-18

    As a route to the production of organic-inorganic hybrid multilayers, the growth behavior of molecular layer deposited (MLD) alucone and atomic layer deposited (ALD) Al2O3 films on top of each other was examined. MLD alucone films were prepared using trimethyl aluminum and diethylene glycol precursors, the latter resulting in faster growth rates than ethylene glycol precursors. The sensitivity of individual alucone films with respect to ambient exposure was found to be related to moisture permeation and hydration reactions, of which the mechanism is studied by density functional theory calculations. Deleterious effects such as thickness reduction over time could be suppressed by applying a protective Al2O3 layer on top of alucone. A preliminary nucleation period was required in the ALD process of Al2O3 films on alucone surfaces, prior to reaching a linear regime where the thickness increases linearly with respect to the number of ALD cycles. The same behavior was observed for alucone growing on Al2O3. The protective Al2O3 films were found to effectively suppress moisture permeation, thus isolating the underlying alucone from the surrounding environment. The water vapor transmission rate was greatly reduced when an Al2O3/alucone/Al2O3 multilayer stack was formed, which suggests that proper combinations of organic/inorganic hybrid structures may provide chemically stable platforms, especially for mechanically flexible applications. PMID:27117392

  4. Preparation of Ca-Si Films on (001) Al2O3 Substrates by an RF Magnetron Sputtering Method and Their Electrical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uehara, Mutsuo; Akiyama, Kensuke; Shimizu, Takao; Matsushima, Masaaki; Uchida, Hiroshi; Kimura, Yoshisato; Funakubo, Hiroshi

    2016-06-01

    The constituent phases, electrical conductivity, and Seebeck coefficient of Ca-Si films deposited on (001) Al2O3 substrates by a radio frequency magnetron sputtering method using a Mg disk target with Ca and Si chips are investigated. X-ray diffraction analysis indicates that the films consist of a single phase of CaSi2, CaSi or Ca5Si3 that are deposited together with the films consisting of a mixture of CaSi2 and CaSi. Films with a CaSi2 or CaSi single phase exhibit a metallic behavior. In contrast, films with a Ca5Si3 single phase show p-type conduction and their Seebeck coefficient reaches 90 μV/K at 400°C.

  5. Al2O3 e-Beam Evaporated onto Silicon (100)/SiO2, by XPS

    SciTech Connect

    Madaan, Nitesh; Kanyal, Supriya S.; Jensen, David S.; Vail, Michael A.; Dadson, Andrew; Engelhard, Mark H.; Samha, Hussein; Linford, Matthew R.

    2013-09-25

    We report the XPS characterization of a thin film of Al2O3 (35 nm) deposited via e-beam evaporation onto silicon (100). The film was characterized with monochromatic Al Ka radiation. An XPS survey scan, an Al 2p narrow scan, and the valence band spectrum were collected. The Al2O3 thin film is used as a diffusion barrier layer for templated carbon nanotube (CNT) growth in the preparation of microfabricated thin layer chromatography plates.

  6. TEM study of defect structure of GaN epitaxial films grown on GaN/Al2O3 substrates with buried column pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mynbaeva, M. G.; Kremleva, A. V.; Kirilenko, D. A.; Sitnikova, A. A.; Pechnikov, A. I.; Mynbaev, K. D.; Nikolaev, V. I.; Bougrov, V. E.; Lipsanen, H.; Romanov, A. E.

    2016-07-01

    A TEM study of defect structure of GaN films grown by chloride vapor-phase epitaxy (HVPE) on GaN/Al2O3 substrates was performed. The substrates were fabricated by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition overgrowth of templates with buried column pattern. The results of TEM study showed that the character of the defect structure of HVPE-grown films was determined by the configuration of the column pattern in the substrate. By choosing the proper pattern, the reduction in the density of threading dislocations in the films by two orders of magnitude (in respect to the substrate material), down to the value of 107 cm-2, was achieved.

  7. Stable, Microfabricated Thin Layer Chromatography Plates without Volume Distortion on Patterned, Carbon and Al2O3-Primed Carbon Nanotube Forests

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, David S.; Kanyal, Supriya S.; Gupta, Vipul; Vail, Michael A.; Dadson, Andrew; Engelhard, Mark H.; Vanfleet, Richard; Davis, Robert C.; Linford, Matthew R.

    2012-09-28

    In a recent report (Song, J.; et al., Advanced Functional Materials 2011, 21, 1132-1139) some of us described the fabrication of thin layer chromatography (TLC) plates from patterned carbon nanotube (CNT) forests, which were directly infiltrated/coated with silicon by low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) of silicon using SiH4. Following infiltration, the nanotubes were removed from the assemblies and the silicon simultaneously converted to SiO2 in a high temperature oxidation step. However, while straightforward, this process had some shortcomings, not the least of which was some distortion of the lithographically patterned features during the volume expansion that accompanied oxidation. Herein we overcome theis issue and also take substantial steps forward in the microfabrication of TLC plates by showing: (i) A new method for creating an adhesion promotion layer on CNT forests by depositing a few nanometers of carbon followed by atomic layer deposition (ALD) of Al2O3. This method for appears to be new, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirms the expected presence of oxygen after carbon deposition. ALD of Al2O3 alone and in combination with the carbon on patterned CNT forests was also explored as an adhesion promotion layer for CNT forest infiltration. (ii) Rapid, conformal deposition of an inorganic material that does not require subsequent oxidation: fast pseudo-ALD growth of SiO2 via alumina catalyzed deposition of tris(tert-butoxy)silanol onto the carbon/Al2O3-primed CNT forests. (iii) Faithful reproduction of the features in the masks used to microfabricate the TLC plates (M-TLC) this advance springs from the previous two points. (iv) A bonded (amino) phase on a CNT-templated microfabricated TLC plate. (v) Fast, highly efficient (125,000 - 225,000 N/m) separations of fluorescent dyes on M-TLC plates. (vi) Extensive characterization of our new materials by TEM, SEM, EDAX, DRIFT, and XPS. (vii) A substantially lower process temperature for the

  8. IMPERMEABLE THIN AL2O3 OVERLAY FOR TBC PROTECTION FROM SULFATE AND VANADATE ATTACK IN GAS TURBINES

    SciTech Connect

    Scott X. Mao

    2003-12-16

    To improve the hot corrosion resistance of YSZ thermal barrier coatings, a 25 {micro}m and a 2 {micro}m thick Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay were deposited by HVOF thermal spray and by sol-gel coating method, respectively, onto to the surface of YSZ coating. Indenter test was employed to investigate the spalling of YSZ with and without Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay after hot corrosion. The results showed that Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay acted as a barrier against the infiltration of the molten salt into the YSZ coating during exposure, thus significantly reduced the amount of M-phase of ZrO{sub 2} in YSZ coating. However, a thick Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay was harmful for TBC by increasing compressive stress which causes crack and spalling of YSZ coating. As a result, a dense and thin Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay is critical for simultaneously preventing YSZ from hot corrosion and spalling. In the next reporting period, we will measure or calculate the residue stress within Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay and YSZ coating to study the mechanism of effect of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay on spalling of YSZ coating.

  9. Radiation-induced charge trapping in thin Al2O3/SiOxNy/Si(100) gate dielectric stacks.

    SciTech Connect

    D'Emic, Chris; Gusev, Evgeni P.; Schrimpf, Ronald D.; Fleetwood, Daniel M.; Schwank, James Ralph; Felix, James Andrew; Shaneyfelt, Marty Ray; Dodd, Paul Emerson; Meisenheimer, Timothy Lee

    2003-07-01

    We examine the total-dose radiation response of capacitors and transistors with stacked Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} on oxynitride gate dielectrics with Al and poly-Si gates after irradiation with 10 keV X-rays. The midgap voltage shift increases monotonically with dose and depends strongly on both Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and SiO{sub x}N{sub y} thickness. The thinnest dielectrics, of most interest to industry, are extremely hard to ionizing irradiation, exhibiting only {approx}50 mV of shift at a total dose of 10 Mrad(SiO{sub 2}) for the worst case bias condition. Oxygen anneals are found to improve the total dose radiation response by {approx}50% and induce a small amount of capacitance-voltage hysteresis. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/SiO{sub x}N{sub y} dielectrics which receive a {approx}1000 C dopant activation anneal trap {approx}12% more of the initial charge than films annealed at 550 C. Charge pumping measurements show that the interface trap density decreases with dose up to 500 krad(SiO{sub 2}). This surprising result is discussed with respect to hydrogen effects in alternative dielectric materials, and may be the result of radiation-induced hydrogen passivation of some of the near-interfacial defects in these gate dielectrics.

  10. IMPERMEABLE THIN Al2O3 OVERLAY FOR TBC PROTECTION FROM SULFATE AND VANADATE ATTACK IN GAS TURBINES

    SciTech Connect

    Scott X. Mao

    2002-11-30

    In order to improve the hot corrosion resistance of conventional YSZ TBC system, the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay coating has been successfully produced on the surface of YSZ by the Sol-gel route. The YSZ substrates were coated with boehmite sol by dip coating process, dried to form a gel film and calcined at 1200 C to form {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay. The microstructures of TBC and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that micro-pores ranged from 3 {micro}m to 20 {micro}m and micro-cracks could be clearly seen on the surface of APS YSZ coating. The thickness of alumina overlay increased with increasing the number of dip coating circles. The small microcracks (0.5-1.0 {micro}m width) on the YSZ surface could be filled and blocked by calcined alumina particles, whereas large pores remained empty and the alumina overlay was un-continuous after one time dip coating circle. Alumina overlay thicker than 5 m m obtained by five times dip coating circles largely cracked after calcinations. As a result, multiple dip coatings up to three times were ideal for getting high quality, crack- free and continuous overlay. The optimal thickness of alumina overlay was in the range of 2.5-3.5 {micro}m. In the next reporting period, we will study the hot corrosion behaviors of YSZ TBC with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay coating produced by sol gel route by exposure the samples to molten salts mixtures (Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + 5%V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) at 950 C.

  11. Atomic layer deposition of TiO2 and Al2O3 on nanographite films: structure and field emission properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleshch, Victor I.; Ismagilov, Rinat R.; Smolnikova, Elena A.; Obraztsova, Ekaterina A.; Tuyakova, Feruza; Obraztsov, Alexander N.

    2016-03-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) of metal oxides (MO) was used to modify the properties of nanographite (NG) films produced by direct current plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique. NG films consist of a few layers of graphene flakes (nanowalls) and nanoscrolls homogeneously distributed over a silicon substrate with a predominantly vertical orientation of graphene sheets to the substrate surface. TiO2 and Al2O3 layers, with thicknesses in the range of 50 to 250 nm, were deposited on NG films by ALD. The obtained NG-MO composite materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray analysis, and Raman spectroscopy. It was found that ALD forms a uniform coating on graphene flakes, while on the surface of needle-like nanoscrolls it forms spherical nanoparticles. Field emission properties of the films were measured in a flat vacuum diode configuration. Analysis based on obtained current-voltage characteristics and electrostatic calculations show that emission from NG-TiO2 films is determined by the nanoscrolls protruding from the TiO2 coverage. The TiO2 layers with thicknesses of <200 nm almost do not affect the overall field emission characteristics of the films. At the same time, these layers are able to stabilize the NG films' surface and can lead to an improvement of the NG cold cathode performance in vacuum electronics.

  12. Effects of ozone post deposition treatment on interfacial and electrical characteristics of atomic-layer-deposited Al2O3 and HfO2 films on GaSb substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Lianfeng; Tan, Zhen; Wang, Jing; Xu, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Atomic-layer-deposited Al2O3 and HfO2 films on GaSb substrates were treated by in-situ ozone post deposition treatment (PDT). The effects of ozone PDT on the interfacial and electrical properties of Al2O3 and HfO2 gate dielectric films on GaSb substrates were investigated carefully. It is found that the dielectric quality and the interfacial properties of the Al2O3 and HfO2 films are improved by ozone PDT. After in-situ ozone PDT for 5 min, the Al2O3 and HfO2 films on GaSb substrates exhibit improved electrical and interfacial properties, such as reduced frequency dispersion, gate leakage current, border traps and interface traps. Interface trap density is reduced by ∼24% for the Al2O3/GaSb stacks and ∼27% for the HfO2/GaSb stacks. In-situ ozone PDT is proved to be a promising technique in improving the quality of high-k gate stacks on GaSb substrates.

  13. Evaluation of the optoelectronic properties and corrosion behavior of Al2O3-doped ZnO films prepared by dc pulsed magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubizarreta, C.; Berasategui, E. G.; Bayón, R.; Escobar Galindo, R.; Barros, R.; Gaspar, D.; Nunes, D.; Calmeiro, T.; Martins, R.; Fortunato, E.; Barriga, J.

    2014-12-01

    The main requirements for transparent conducting oxide (TCO) films acting as electrodes are a high transmission rate in the visible spectral region and low resistivity. However, in many cases, tolerance to temperature and humidity exposure is also an important requirement to be fulfilled by the TCOs to assure proper operation and durability. Besides improving current encapsulation methods, the corrosion resistance of the developed TCOs must also be enhanced to warrant the performance of optoelectronic devices. In this paper the performance of aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) films deposited by pulsed dc magnetron sputtering has been studied. Structure, optical transmittance/reflectance, electrical properties (resistivity, carrier concentration and mobility) and corrosion resistance of the developed coatings have been analyzed as a function of the doping of the target and the coating thickness. Films grown from a 2.0 wt% Al2O3 target with a thickness of approximately 1 µm showed a very low resistivity of 6.54  ×  10-4 Ωcm and a high optical transmittance in the visible range of 84%. Corrosion studies of the developed samples have shown very low corrosion currents (nanoamperes), very high corrosion resistances (in the order of 107 Ω) and very high electrochemical stability, indicating no tendency for electrochemical corrosion degradation.

  14. Reduced impurities and improved electrical properties of atomic-layer-deposited HfO2 film grown at a low temperature (100 °C) by Al2O3 incorporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Tae Joo; Byun, Youngchol; Wallace, Robert M.; Kim, Jiyoung

    2016-05-01

    The HfO2 films grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) at a low temperature (100 °C) necessarily has a large amount of residual impurities due to lack of thermal energy for stable ALD reactions such as ligand removal and oxidation, which degrades various properties. However, Al2O3 incorporation into the film significantly decreased the residual impurities despite of a low growth temperature. The decrease in C impurity is attributed to the reduced oxygen vacancies by the incorporated Al2O3 phase or the high reactivity of Al precursor. Consequently, the electronic band structure of the film, and thereby the electrical properties were improved significantly.

  15. Optical characteristic and numerical study of gold nanoparticles on Al2O3 coated gold film for tunable plasmonic sensing platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumdee, Chatdanai; Yun, Binfeng; Kik, Pieter G.

    2013-09-01

    Substrate-based tuning of plasmon resonances on gold nanoparticles (NP) is a versatile method of achieving plasmon resonances at a desired wavelength, and offers reliable nanogap sizes and large field enhancement factors. The reproducibility and relative simplicity of these structures makes them promising candidates for frequency-optimized sensing substrates. The underlying principle in resonance tuning of such a structure is the coupling between a metal nanoparticle and the substrate, which leads to a resonance shift and a polarization dependent scattering response. In this work, we experimentally investigate the optical scattering spectra of isolated 60 nm diameter gold nanoparticles on aluminum oxide (Al2O3) coated gold films with various oxide thicknesses. Dark-field scattering images and scattering spectra of gold particles reveal two distinct resonance modes. The experimental results are compared with numerical simulations, revealing the magnitude and phase relationships between the effective dipoles of the gold particle and the gold substrate. The numerical approach is described in detail, and enables the prediction of the resonance responses of a particle-on-film structure using methods that are available in many available electromagnetics simulation packages. The simulated scattering spectra match the experimentally observed data remarkably well, demonstrating the usefulness of the presented approach to researchers in the field.

  16. Large modification in insulator-metal transition of VO2 films grown on Al2O3 (001) by high energy ion irradiation in biased reactive sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azhan, Nurul Hanis; Okimura, Kunio; Ohtsubo, Yoshiyuki; Kimura, Shin-ichi; Zaghrioui, Mustapha; Sakai, Joe

    2016-02-01

    High energy ion irradiation in biased reactive sputtering enabled significant modification of insulator-metal transition (IMT) properties of VO2 films grown on Al2O3 (001). Even at a high biasing voltage with mean ion energy of around 325 eV induced by the rf substrate biasing power of 40 W, VO2 film revealed low IMT temperature (TIMT) at 309 K (36 °C) together with nearly two orders magnitude of resistance change. Raman measurements from -193 °C evidenced that the monoclinic VO2 lattice begins to transform to rutile-tetragonal lattice near room temperature. Raman spectra showed the in-plane compressive stress in biased VO2 films, which results in shortening of V-V distance along a-axis of monoclinic structure, aM-axis (cR-axis) and thus lowering the TIMT. In respect to that matter, significant effects in shortening the in-plane axis were observed through transmission electron microscopy observations. V2p3/2 spectra from XPS measurements suggested that high energy ion irradiation also induced oxygen vacancies and resulted for an early transition onset and rather broader transition properties. Earlier band gap closing against the temperature in VO2 film with higher biasing power was also probed by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy. Present results with significant modification of IMT behavior of films deposited at high-energy ion irradiation with TIMT near the room temperature could be a newly and effective approach to both exploring mechanisms of IMT and further applications of this material, due to the fixed deposition conditions and rather thicker VO2 films.

  17. Ultra-sensitive film sensor based on Al2O3-Au nanoparticles supported on PDDA-functionalized graphene for the determination of acetaminophen.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianbo; Sun, Weiyan; Wang, Xiaojiao; Duan, Huimin; Wang, Yanhui; Sun, Yuanling; Ding, Chaofan; Luo, Chuannan

    2016-08-01

    An electrochemical sensor of acetaminophen based on poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA)-functionalized reduced graphene-loaded Al2O3-Au nanoparticles coated onto glassy carbon electrode (Al2O3-Au/PDDA/reduced graphene oxide (rGO)/glass carbon electrode (GCE)) were prepared by layer self-assembly technique. The as-prepared electrode-modified materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The electrocatalytic performances of Al2O3-Au/PDDA/rGO-modified glassy carbon electrode toward the acetaminophen were investigated by cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry. The modified electrodes of graphene oxide (GO)/GCE, PDDA/rGO/GCE, and Al2O3-Au/PDDA/rGO/GCE were constructed for comparison and learning the catalytic mechanism. The research showed Al2O3-Au/PDDA/rGO/GCE having good electrochemical performance, attributing to the synergetic effect that comes from the special nanocomposite structure and physicochemical properties of Al2O3-Au nanoparticles and graphene. A low detection limit of 6 nM (S/N = 3) and a wide linear detection range from 0.02 to 200 μM (R (2) = 0.9970) was obtained. The preparation of sensor was successfully applied for the detection of acetaminophen in commercial pharmaceutical pills. Graphical abstract Schematic diagram of synthesis of Al2O3-Au/PDDA/rGO/GCE. PMID:27255103

  18. A Pt/Al2O3-supported metal-organic framework film as the size-selective core-shell hydrogenation catalyst.

    PubMed

    Aguado, Sonia; El-Jamal, Sawsan; Meunier, Frederic; Canivet, Jerome; Farrusseng, David

    2016-06-01

    The substituted imidazolate-based MOF (SIM-1) easily forms a homogeneous layer at the surface of millimetric platinum-loaded alumina beads. This new core-shell SIM-1@Pt/Al2O3 catalyst shows the fine molecular sieving effect for the Pt-catalyzed hydrogenation of carbon-carbon double bonds. PMID:27172134

  19. On the Structural and Chemical Characteristics of Co/Al2O3/graphene Interfaces for Graphene Spintronic Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canto, Bárbara; Gouvea, Cristol P.; Archanjo, Bráulio S.; Schmidt, João E.; Baptista, Daniel L.

    2015-09-01

    We report a detailed investigation of the structural and chemical characteristics of thin evaporated Al2O3 tunnel barriers of variable thickness grown onto single-layer graphene sheets. Advanced electron microscopy and spectrum-imaging techniques were used to investigate the Co/Al2O3/graphene/SiO2 interfaces. Direct observation of pinhole contacts was achieved using FIB cross-sectional lamellas. Spatially resolved EDX spectrum profiles confirmed the presence of direct point contacts between the Co layer and the graphene. The high surface diffusion properties of graphene led to cluster-like Al2O3 film growth, limiting the minimal possible thickness for complete barrier coverage onto graphene surfaces using standard Al evaporation methods. The results indicate a minimum thickness of nominally 3 nm Al2O3, resulting in a 0.6 nm rms rough film with a maximum thickness reaching 5 nm.

  20. On the Structural and Chemical Characteristics of Co/Al2O3/graphene Interfaces for Graphene Spintronic Devices

    PubMed Central

    Canto, Bárbara; Gouvea, Cristol P.; Archanjo, Bráulio S.; Schmidt, João E.; Baptista, Daniel L.

    2015-01-01

    We report a detailed investigation of the structural and chemical characteristics of thin evaporated Al2O3 tunnel barriers of variable thickness grown onto single-layer graphene sheets. Advanced electron microscopy and spectrum-imaging techniques were used to investigate the Co/Al2O3/graphene/SiO2 interfaces. Direct observation of pinhole contacts was achieved using FIB cross-sectional lamellas. Spatially resolved EDX spectrum profiles confirmed the presence of direct point contacts between the Co layer and the graphene. The high surface diffusion properties of graphene led to cluster-like Al2O3 film growth, limiting the minimal possible thickness for complete barrier coverage onto graphene surfaces using standard Al evaporation methods. The results indicate a minimum thickness of nominally 3 nm Al2O3, resulting in a 0.6 nm rms rough film with a maximum thickness reaching 5 nm. PMID:26395513

  1. On the Structural and Chemical Characteristics of Co/Al2O3/graphene Interfaces for Graphene Spintronic Devices.

    PubMed

    Canto, Bárbara; Gouvea, Cristol P; Archanjo, Bráulio S; Schmidt, João E; Baptista, Daniel L

    2015-01-01

    We report a detailed investigation of the structural and chemical characteristics of thin evaporated Al2O3 tunnel barriers of variable thickness grown onto single-layer graphene sheets. Advanced electron microscopy and spectrum-imaging techniques were used to investigate the Co/Al2O3/graphene/SiO2 interfaces. Direct observation of pinhole contacts was achieved using FIB cross-sectional lamellas. Spatially resolved EDX spectrum profiles confirmed the presence of direct point contacts between the Co layer and the graphene. The high surface diffusion properties of graphene led to cluster-like Al2O3 film growth, limiting the minimal possible thickness for complete barrier coverage onto graphene surfaces using standard Al evaporation methods. The results indicate a minimum thickness of nominally 3 nm Al2O3, resulting in a 0.6 nm rms rough film with a maximum thickness reaching 5 nm. PMID:26395513

  2. Analysis of interface states of FeO-Al2O3 spinel composite film/p-Si diode by conductance technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tataroğlu, Adem; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed A.; El-Tantawy, Farid; Farooq, W. A.; Yakuphanoğlu, F.

    2016-03-01

    The interface states and series resistance properties of the Al/FeO-Al2O3/p-Si diode were investigated by the capacitance ( C) and conductance ( G) measurements. The measured capacitance and conductance values were corrected to eliminate the effect of series resistance to obtain the real capacitance and conductance values of the diode. The C and G characteristics indicate the presence of interface states at the interface of the diode. The interface states density, N ss, was determined using Hill-Coleman method, and it was found that the density of interface states is decreased with the frequency. The obtained results suggest that the series resistance and interface states affect significantly the electronic parameters of the Al/FeO-Al2O3/p-Si diode.

  3. Optical properties of the Al2O3/SiO2 and Al2O3/HfO2/SiO2 antireflective coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marszałek, Konstanty; Winkowski, Paweł; Jaglarz, Janusz

    2014-01-01

    Investigations of bilayer and trilayer Al2O3/SiO2 and Al2O3/HfO2/SiO2 antireflective coatings are presented in this paper. The oxide films were deposited on a heated quartz glass by e-gun evaporation in a vacuum of 5 × 10-3 [Pa] in the presence of oxygen. Depositions were performed at three different temperatures of the substrates: 100 °C, 200 °C and 300 °C. The coatings were deposited onto optical quartz glass (Corning HPFS). The thickness and deposition rate were controlled with Inficon XTC/2 thickness measuring system. Deposition rate was equal to 0.6 nm/s for Al2O3, 0.6 nm - 0.8 nm/s for HfO2 and 0.6 nm/s for SiO2. Simulations leading to optimization of the thin film thickness and the experimental results of optical measurements, which were carried out during and after the deposition process, have been presented. The optical thickness values, obtained from the measurements performed during the deposition process were as follows: 78 nm/78 nm for Al2O3/SiO2 and 78 nm/156 nm/78 nm for Al2O3/HfO2/SiO2. The results were then checked by ellipsometric technique. Reflectance of the films depended on the substrate temperature during the deposition process. Starting from 240 nm to the beginning of visible region, the average reflectance of the trilayer system was below 1 % and for the bilayer, minima of the reflectance were equal to 1.6 %, 1.15 % and 0.8 % for deposition temperatures of 100 °C, 200 °C and 300 °C, respectively.

  4. Super Smooth Modification of Al2O3 Ceramic Substrate by High Temperature Glaze of CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jihua; Zhen, Shanxue; Yang, Lijun; Lou, Feizhi; Chen, Hongwei; Yang, Chuanren

    2011-01-01

    The rough surface of ceramic substrate is an obstacle for the scale down of line-width for thin film passive integrated devices (PID). In this paper, a modification method for Al2O3 ceramic substrate with super smooth in surface was proposed. Coating a layer of CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 (CAS) glass was performed to flat the rough surface of alumina substrate by sol-gel method. It was found that addition of 0.06% V2O5 can inhibit the recrystallization of the glaze. The root-mean-square (RMS) roughness of the glazed substrates reached a surprising flatness as small as 0.5 nm, and its melting temperature is higher than 1300 °C. This substrate with super flatness and high temperature endurance may be promising for high performance thin film devices.

  5. Investigating the electronic properties of Al2O3/Cu(In,Ga)Se2 interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotipalli, R.; Vermang, B.; Joel, J.; Rajkumar, R.; Edoff, M.; Flandre, D.

    2015-10-01

    Atomic layer deposited (ALD) Al2O3 films on Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) surfaces have been demonstrated to exhibit excellent surface passivation properties, which is advantageous in reducing recombination losses at the rear metal contact of CIGS thin-film solar cells. Here, we report, for the first time, experimentally extracted electronic parameters, i.e. fixed charge density (Qf) and interface-trap charge density (Dit), for as-deposited (AD) and post-deposition annealed (PDA) ALD Al2O3 films on CIGS surfaces using capacitance-voltage (C-V) and conductance-frequency (G-f) measurements. These results indicate that the AD films exhibit positive fixed charges Qf (approximately 1012 cm-2), whereas the PDA films exhibit a very high density of negative fixed charges Qf (approximately 1013 cm-2). The extracted Dit values, which reflect the extent of chemical passivation, were found to be in a similar range of order (approximately 1012 cm-2 eV-1) for both AD and PDA samples. The high density of negative Qf in the bulk of the PDA Al2O3 film exerts a strong Coulomb repulsive force on the underlying CIGS minority carriers (ns), preventing them to recombine at the CIGS/Al2O3 interface. Using experimentally extracted Qf and Dit values, SCAPS simulation results showed that the surface concentration of minority carriers (ns) in the PDA films was approximately eight-orders of magnitude lower than in the AD films. The electrical characterization and estimations presented in this letter construct a comprehensive picture of the interfacial physics involved at the Al2O3/CIGS interface.

  6. Effect of annealing on the structural and UV photoluminescence properties of Sb-doped SnO2 films deposited on Al2O3 (0001) substrates by RF magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xianjin; Luo, Yi; Luan, Caina

    2014-11-01

    The antimony-doped tin oxide (SnO2∶Sb) films have been deposited on the Al2O3 (0001) substrates by RF magnetron sputtering. The influence of annealing on the structural and photoluminescence (PL) properties of the SnO2∶Sb films was investigated. The prepared samples were polycrystalline films having a rutile structure of pure SnO2 and a preferred orientation along the (110) direction, with an improvement in the film crystallinity observed after annealing. An ultraviolet PL peak near 334 nm was observed at room temperature both before and after annealing. The corresponding PL mechanism was discussed in detail.

  7. Vacuum ultraviolet photochemical selective area atomic layer deposition of Al2O3 dielectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalker, P. R.; Marshall, P. A.; Dawson, K.; Brunell, I. F.; Sutcliffe, C. J.; Potter, R. J.

    2015-01-01

    We report the photochemical atomic layer deposition of Al2O3 thin films and the use of this process to achieve area-selective film deposition. A shuttered vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light source is used to excite molecular oxygen and trimethyl aluminum to deposit films at 60°C. In-situ QCM and post-deposition ellipsometric measurements both show that the deposition rate is saturative as a function of irradiation time. Selective area deposition was achieved by projecting the VUV light through a metalized magnesium fluoride photolithographic mask and the selectivity of deposition on the illuminated and masked regions of the substrate is a logarithmic function of the UV exposure time. The Al2O3 films exhibit dielectric constants of 8 - 10 at 1 MHz after forming gas annealing, similar to films deposited by conventional thermal ALD.

  8. Sputtering characteristics, crystal structures, and transparent conductive properties of TiOxNy films deposited on α-Al2O3(0 0 0 1) and glass substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akazawa, Housei

    2012-12-01

    Adding N2 gas during reactive sputtering of a Ti target prevented the target surface from being severely poisoned by oxygen atoms and sustained a high deposition rate for titanium oxynitride films under metal-mode-like sputtering conditions. With progress in the degree of oxidization, films deposited onto a glass substrate varied from TiO1-xNx having a face-centered cubic (fcc) structure to TiO2-xNx having an anatase structure. Titanium oxynitride films deposited on an Al2O3(0 0 0 1) substrate were epitaxial with major orientations toward the (1 1 1) and (2 0 0) directions for fcc-TiO1-xNx and (1 1 2) for anatase-TiO2-xNx. Intermediately oxidized films between TiO1-xNx and TiO2-xNx were amorphous on the glass substrate but crystallized into a Magneli phase, TinO(N)2n-1, on the Al2O3(0 0 0 1) substrate. Partially substituting oxygen in TiO2 with nitrogen as well as continuously irradiating the growing film surface with a Xe plasma stream preferentially formed anatase rather than rutile. However, the occupation of anion sites with enough oxygen rather than nitrogen was the required condition for anatase crystals to form. The transparent conductive properties of epitaxial TiO2-xNx films on Al2O3(0 0 0 1) were superior to those of microcrystalline films on the glass substrate. Since resistivity and optical transmittance of TiOxNy films vary continuously with changing N2 flow rate, their transparent conductive properties can be controlled more easily than TiOx. Nb5+ ions could be doped as donors in TiO2-xNx anatase crystals.

  9. Non-polar a-plane ZnO films grown on r-Al2O3 substrates using GaN buffer layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, C. X.; Chen, W.; Pan, X. H.; Chen, S. S.; Ye, Z. Z.; Huang, J. Y.

    2016-09-01

    In this work, GaN buffer layer has been used to grow non-polar a-plane ZnO films by laser-assisted and plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The thickness of GaN buffer layer ranges from ∼3 to 12 nm. The GaN buffer thickness effect on the properties of a-plane ZnO thin films is carefully investigated. The results show that the surface morphology, crystal quality and optical properties of a-plane ZnO films are strongly correlated with the thickness of GaN buffer layer. It was found that with 6 nm GaN buffer layer, a-plane ZnO films display the best crystal quality with X-ray diffraction rocking curve full-width at half-maximum of only 161 arcsec for the (101) reflection.

  10. Trapped charge densities in Al2O3-based silicon surface passivation layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, Paul M.; Simon, Daniel K.; Mikolajick, Thomas; Dirnstorfer, Ingo

    2016-06-01

    In Al2O3-based passivation layers, the formation of fixed charges and trap sites can be strongly influenced by small modifications in the stack layout. Fixed and trapped charge densities are characterized with capacitance voltage profiling and trap spectroscopy by charge injection and sensing, respectively. Al2O3 layers are grown by atomic layer deposition with very thin (˜1 nm) SiO2 or HfO2 interlayers or interface layers. In SiO2/Al2O3 and HfO2/Al2O3 stacks, both fixed charges and trap sites are reduced by at least a factor of 5 compared with the value measured in pure Al2O3. In Al2O3/SiO2/Al2O3 or Al2O3/HfO2/Al2O3 stacks, very high total charge densities of up to 9 × 1012 cm-2 are achieved. These charge densities are described as functions of electrical stress voltage, time, and the Al2O3 layer thickness between silicon and the HfO2 or the SiO2 interlayer. Despite the strong variation of trap sites, all stacks reach very good effective carrier lifetimes of up to 8 and 20 ms on p- and n-type silicon substrates, respectively. Controlling the trap sites in Al2O3 layers opens the possibility to engineer the field-effect passivation in the solar cells.

  11. Nanopore patterning using Al2O3 hard masks on SOI substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaofeng; Goryll, Michael

    2015-07-01

    Aluminum oxide Al2O3, deposited using amorphous atomic layer deposition (ALD), is a very promising material to be utilized as a hard mask for nano-patterning. We used an aluminum oxide hard mask on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrate to implement a sub-100 nm nanopore process. The transfer of nanoscale patterns via dry etching of the Al2O3 thin film was investigated by comparing etch profiles, etch rates, and selectivity of Al2O3 over PMMA resist, using different gas chemistries such as Cl2, Ar, Ar/BCl3 mixtures, and BCl3 plasma. A selectivity of 1:4 was observed using an inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching (ICP-RIE) tool with BCl3 plasma, and the sub-100 nm nanopore patterns were anisotropically transferred to the alumina layer from a 250 nm PMMA layer. The dense and inert Al2O3 hard mask showed exceptional etch selectivity to Si and SiO2, which allowed the subsequent transfer of the nanopore patterns into the 340 nm-thick Si device layer and made it possible to attempt etching the 1 μm-thick buried oxide (BOX) layer. Using chlorine chemistry, nanopores patterned in the Si device layer showed excellent anisotropy while preserving the original pattern dimensions. The process demonstrated is ideally suited for patterning high aspect ratio nanofluidic structures.

  12. MIM capacitors with various Al2O3 thicknesses for GaAs RFIC application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiahui, Zhou; Hudong, Chang; Honggang, Liu; Guiming, Liu; Wenjun, Xu; Qi, Li; Simin, Li; Zhiyi, He; Haiou, Li

    2015-05-01

    The impact of various thicknesses of Al2O3 metal—insulator—metal (MIM) capacitors on direct current and radio frequency (RF) characteristics is investigated. For 20 nm Al2O3, the fabricated capacitor exhibits a high capacitance density of 3850 pF/mm2 and acceptable voltage coefficients of capacitance of 681 ppm/V2 at 1 MHz. An outstanding VCC-α of 74 ppm/V2 at 1 MHz, resonance frequency of 8.2 GHz and Q factor of 41 at 2 GHz are obtained by 100 nm Al2O3 MIM capacitors. High-performance MIM capacitors using GaAs process and atomic layer deposition Al2O3 could be very promising candidates for GaAs RFIC applications. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61274077, 61474031), the Guangxi Natural Science Foundation (No. 2013GXNSFGA019003), the Guangxi Department of Education Project (No. 201202ZD041), the Guilin City Technology Bureau (Nos. 20120104-8, 20130107-4), the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation Funded Project (Nos. 2012M521127, 2013T60566), the National Basic Research Program of China (Nos. 2011CBA00605, 2010CB327501), the Innovation Project of GUET Graduate Education (Nos. GDYCSZ201448, GDYCSZ201449), the State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, UESTC (No. KFJJ201205), and the Guilin City Science and Technology Development Project (Nos. 20130107-4, 20120104-8).

  13. PEDOT gate electrodes with PVP/Al2O3 dielectrics for stable high-performance organic TFTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Young Kyu; Maniruzzaman, Md.; Lee, Chiyoung; Lee, Mi Jung; Lee, Eun-Gu; Lee, Jaegab

    2013-11-01

    A poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) gate electrode on a polyestersulfone (PES) substrate was used to fabricate inverted staggered pentacene organic thin film transistors (OTFTs). The PEDOT gate formed on the PES substrate exhibited semi-transparency, high conductivity, and excellent adhesion to the substrate. Prior to the deposition of poly-4-vinyl phenol (PVP) dielectrics, a thin Al2O3 layer (12 nm) was coated onto a PEDOT electrode, providing an effective barrier against inter-diffusion between the PVP dielectrics and the underlying PEDOT gate electrode, and against moisture penetration through the PES substrate. This led to stable high-performance OTFTs consisting of a PEDOT gate electrode and PVP/Al2O3 dielectrics. The combined PVP/Al2O3 dielectrics with PEDOT gate electrodes were successfully implemented in flexible organic TFTs that exhibit excellent compatibility with flexible electronics.

  14. Investigation on the passivated Si/Al2O3 interface fabricated by non-vacuum spatial atomic layer deposition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lien, Shui-Yang; Yang, Chih-Hsiang; Wu, Kuei-Ching; Kung, Chung-Yuan

    2015-02-01

    Currently, aluminum oxide stacked with silicon nitride (Al2O3/SiNx:H) is a promising rear passivation material for high-efficiency P-type passivated emitter and rear cell (PERC). It has been indicated that atomic layer deposition system (ALD) is much more suitable to prepare high-quality Al2O3 films than plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition system and other process techniques. In this study, an ultrafast, non-vacuum spatial ALD with the deposition rate of around 10 nm/min, developed by our group, is hired to deposit Al2O3 films. Upon post-annealing for the Al2O3 films, the unwanted delamination, regarded as blisters, was found by an optical microscope. This may lead to a worse contact within the Si/Al2O3 interface, deteriorating the passivation quality. Thin stoichiometric silicon dioxide films prepared on the Si surface prior to Al2O3 fabrication effectively reduce a considerable amount of blisters. The residual blisters can be further out-gassed when the Al2O3 films are thinned to 8 nm and annealed above 650°C. Eventually, the entire PERC with the improved triple-layer SiO2/Al2O3/SiNx:H stacked passivation film has an obvious gain in open-circuit voltage ( V oc) and short-circuit current ( J sc) because of the increased minority carrier lifetime and internal rear-side reflectance, respectively. The electrical performance of the optimized PERC with the V oc of 0.647 V, J sc of 38.2 mA/cm2, fill factor of 0.776, and the efficiency of 19.18% can be achieved.

  15. Investigation on the passivated Si/Al2O3 interface fabricated by non-vacuum spatial atomic layer deposition system.

    PubMed

    Lien, Shui-Yang; Yang, Chih-Hsiang; Wu, Kuei-Ching; Kung, Chung-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Currently, aluminum oxide stacked with silicon nitride (Al2O3/SiNx:H) is a promising rear passivation material for high-efficiency P-type passivated emitter and rear cell (PERC). It has been indicated that atomic layer deposition system (ALD) is much more suitable to prepare high-quality Al2O3 films than plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition system and other process techniques. In this study, an ultrafast, non-vacuum spatial ALD with the deposition rate of around 10 nm/min, developed by our group, is hired to deposit Al2O3 films. Upon post-annealing for the Al2O3 films, the unwanted delamination, regarded as blisters, was found by an optical microscope. This may lead to a worse contact within the Si/Al2O3 interface, deteriorating the passivation quality. Thin stoichiometric silicon dioxide films prepared on the Si surface prior to Al2O3 fabrication effectively reduce a considerable amount of blisters. The residual blisters can be further out-gassed when the Al2O3 films are thinned to 8 nm and annealed above 650°C. Eventually, the entire PERC with the improved triple-layer SiO2/Al2O3/SiNx:H stacked passivation film has an obvious gain in open-circuit voltage (V oc) and short-circuit current (J sc) because of the increased minority carrier lifetime and internal rear-side reflectance, respectively. The electrical performance of the optimized PERC with the V oc of 0.647 V, J sc of 38.2 mA/cm(2), fill factor of 0.776, and the efficiency of 19.18% can be achieved. PMID:25852389

  16. Comparison of the strain of GaN films grown on MOCVD-GaN/Al2O3 and MOCVD-GaN/SiC samples by HVPE growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lei; Shao, Yongliang; Hao, Xiaopeng; Wu, Yongzhong; Qu, Shuang; Chen, Xiufang; Xu, Xiangang

    2011-11-01

    In this paper, GaN films were successfully grown on the samples of MOCVD-GaN/Al2O3 (MGA) and MOCVD-GaN/6H-SiC (MGS) by HVPE method. We compare the strain of GaN films grown on the two samples by employing various characterization techniques. The surface morphology of GaN films were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The variations of strain characteristic were also microscopically identified using the Z scan of Raman spectroscopy. The Raman peak (E2) shift indicates that the stress enhanced gradually as a function of increasing the measurement depth. The strain of GaN grown on MGA sample is compressive strain, while on MGS is tensile strain. The stress of GaN films grown on MGA and MGS sample are calculated. The difference in the value of stress between calculation and measurement was interpreted.

  17. Duplex Al2O3/DLC Coating on 15SiCp/2024 Aluminum Matrix Composite Using Combined Microarc Oxidation and Filtered Cathodic Vacuum Arc Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Wenbin; Tian, Hua; Du, Jiancheng; Hua, Ming; Zhang, Xu; Li, Yongliang

    2012-08-01

    Microarc oxidation (MAO) treatment produces a thick Al2O3 coating on the 15SiCp/2024 aluminum matrix composite. After pretreatment of Ti ion implantation, a thin diamond-like carbon film (DLC) was deposited on the top of polished Al2O3 coating by a pulsed filtered cathodic vacuum arc (FCVA) deposition system with a metal vapor vacuum arc (MEVVA) source. The morphology and tribological properties of the duplex Al2O3/DLC multiplayer coating were investigated by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and SRV ball-on-disk friction tester. It is found that the duplex Al2O3/DLC coating had good adhesion and a low friction coefficient of less than 0.07. As compared to a single Al2O3 or DLC coating, the duplex Al2O3/DLC coating on aluminum matrix composite exhibited a better wear resistance against ZrO2 ball under dry sliding, because the Al2O3 coating as an intermediate layer improved load support for the top DLC coating on 15SiCp/2024 composite substrate, meanwhile the top DLC coating displayed low friction coefficient.

  18. Multidisciplinary Investigation of the Structural and Electronic Properties of the Pt/ γ-Al2O3 interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Judith; Zhu, Qing; Bonifacio, Cecile; Kas, Josh; Ayoola, Henry; Kisslinger, Kim; Su, Dong; Vila, Fernando; House, Stephen; Stach, Eric; Rehr, John; Saidi, Wissam; University of Pittsburgh Team; University of Washington Team; Brookhaven National Laboratory Team

    Pt/ γ-Al2O3 is arguably the most important heterogeneous catalyst system. Despite the numerous studies on this system, the detailed structural and electronic properties of this interface remain uncertain. Through controlled oxidation of NiAl (110), we were able to obtain single crystalline Pt/ γ-Al2O3 thin films. We also prepared Pt/ γ-Al2O3 samples. STEM observations show that use of cryo-electron microscopy techniques prevented electron-beam damage, including direct sample damage, and changes in the EELS oxygen K pre-peak (~532 eV). The oxygen K pre-peak was consistently present in spectra taken at the Pt/ γ-Al2O3 interface at cryo-temperatures, but not in those acquired at room temperature. The theoretically calculated EELS oxygen K signals for the Pt on (110) Pt/ γ-Al2O3 exhibited a similar pre-peak at 532 eV correlating to the experimental EELS oxygen K data, and we attribute to this feature to the formation of Pt-O complex. This points out an important factor in understanding the reactivity of this catalysis.

  19. Fabrication and characterization of TS-1 films on α-Al 2O 3 substrates using TiCl 3 as titanium source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaodong; Zhang, Pingping; Liu, Xiufeng; Zhang, Baoquan

    2007-11-01

    The continuous and highly intergrown anatase-free TS-1 film was fabricated with TiCl 3 as the titanium source for the first time. The in situ nucleation and secondary growth method was employed to synthesize the TS-1 film. By means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images, X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, and FT-IR and UV-vis spectra measurements, the resulting film was observed to be anatase-free, continuous and highly intergrown with the MFI-type structure, and the Ti atoms existed only in tetrahedral coordination.

  20. Tensile Behavior of Al2o3/feal + B and Al2o3/fecraly Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Draper, S. L.; Eldridge, J. I.; Aiken, B. J. M.

    1995-01-01

    The feasibility of Al2O3/FeAl + B and Al2O3/FeCrAlY composites for high-temperature applications was assessed. The major emphasis was on tensile behavior of both the monolithics and composites from 298 to 1100 K. However, the study also included determining the chemical compatibility of the composites, measuring the interfacial shear strengths, and investigating the effect of processing on the strength of the single-crystal Al2O3 fibers. The interfacial shear strengths were low for Al203/FeAl + B and moderate to high for Al203/FeCrAlY. The difference in interfacial bond strengths between the two systems affected the tensile behavior of the composites. The strength of the Al203 fiber was significantly degraded after composite processing for both composite systems and resulted in poor composite tensile properties. The ultimate tensile strength (UTS) values of the composites could generally be predicted with either rule of mixtures (ROM) calculations or existing models when using the strength of the etched-out fiber. The Al2O3/FeAl + B composite system was determined to be unfeasible due to poor interfacial shear strengths and a large mismatch in coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE). Development of the Al2O3/FeCrAlY system would require an effective diffusion barrier to minimize the fiber strength degradation during processing and elevated temperature service.

  1. Frustration of Negative Capacitance in Al2O3/BaTiO3 Bilayer Structure

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yu Jin; Park, Min Hyuk; Lee, Young Hwan; Kim, Han Joon; Jeon, Woojin; Moon, Taehwan; Do Kim, Keum; Jeong, Doo Seok; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Hwang, Cheol Seong

    2016-01-01

    Enhancement of capacitance by negative capacitance (NC) effect in a dielectric/ferroelectric (DE/FE) stacked film is gaining a greater interest. While the previous theory on NC effect was based on the Landau-Ginzburg-Devonshire theory, this work adopted a modified formalism to incorporate the depolarization effect to describe the energy of the general DE/FE system. The model predicted that the SrTiO3/BaTiO3 system will show a capacitance boost effect. It was also predicted that the 5 nm-thick Al2O3/150 nm-thick BaTiO3 system shows the capacitance boost effect with no FE-like hysteresis behavior, which was inconsistent with the experimental results; the amorphous-Al2O3/epitaxial-BaTiO3 system showed a typical FE-like hysteresis loop in the polarization – voltage test. This was due to the involvement of the trapped charges at the DE/FE interface, originating from the very high field across the thin Al2O3 layer when the BaTiO3 layer played a role as the NC layer. Therefore, the NC effect in the Al2O3/BaTiO3 system was frustrated by the involvement of reversible interface charge; the highly stored charge by the NC effect of the BaTiO3 during the charging period could not be retrieved during the discharging process because integral part of the polarization charge was retained within the system as a remanent polarization. PMID:26742878

  2. Frustration of Negative Capacitance in Al2O3/BaTiO3 Bilayer Structure.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yu Jin; Park, Min Hyuk; Lee, Young Hwan; Kim, Han Joon; Jeon, Woojin; Moon, Taehwan; Kim, Keum Do; Jeong, Doo Seok; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Hwang, Cheol Seong

    2016-01-01

    Enhancement of capacitance by negative capacitance (NC) effect in a dielectric/ferroelectric (DE/FE) stacked film is gaining a greater interest. While the previous theory on NC effect was based on the Landau-Ginzburg-Devonshire theory, this work adopted a modified formalism to incorporate the depolarization effect to describe the energy of the general DE/FE system. The model predicted that the SrTiO3/BaTiO3 system will show a capacitance boost effect. It was also predicted that the 5 nm-thick Al2O3/150 nm-thick BaTiO3 system shows the capacitance boost effect with no FE-like hysteresis behavior, which was inconsistent with the experimental results; the amorphous-Al2O3/epitaxial-BaTiO3 system showed a typical FE-like hysteresis loop in the polarization - voltage test. This was due to the involvement of the trapped charges at the DE/FE interface, originating from the very high field across the thin Al2O3 layer when the BaTiO3 layer played a role as the NC layer. Therefore, the NC effect in the Al2O3/BaTiO3 system was frustrated by the involvement of reversible interface charge; the highly stored charge by the NC effect of the BaTiO3 during the charging period could not be retrieved during the discharging process because integral part of the polarization charge was retained within the system as a remanent polarization. PMID:26742878

  3. Structural, electronic structure, and band alignment properties at epitaxial NiO/Al2O3 heterojunction evaluated from synchrotron based X-ray techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S. D.; Nand, Mangla; Das, Arijeet; Ajimsha, R. S.; Upadhyay, Anuj; Kamparath, Rajiv; Shukla, D. K.; Mukherjee, C.; Misra, P.; Rai, S. K.; Sinha, A. K.; Jha, S. N.; Phase, D. M.; Ganguli, Tapas

    2016-04-01

    The valence band offset value of 2.3 ± 0.2 eV at epitaxial NiO/Al2O3 heterojunction is determined from photoelectron spectroscopy experiments. Pulsed laser deposited thin film of NiO on Al2O3 substrate is epitaxially grown along [111] direction with two domain structures, which are in-plane rotated by 60° with respect to each other. Observation of Pendellosung oscillations around Bragg peak confirms high interfacial and crystalline quality of NiO layer deposited on Al2O3 substrate. Surface related feature in Ni 2p3/2 core level spectra along with oxygen K-edge soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy results indicates that the initial growth of NiO on Al2O3 substrate is in the form of islands, which merge to form NiO layer for the larger coverage. The value of conduction band offset is also evaluated from the measured values of band gaps of NiO and Al2O3 layers. A type-I band alignment at NiO and Al2O3 heterojunction is also obtained. The determined values of band offsets can be useful in heterojunction based light emitting devices.

  4. Rectification and tunneling effects enabled by Al2O3 atomic layer deposited on back contact of CdTe solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Jun; Lin, Qinxian; Li, Hao; Su, Yantao; Yang, Xiaoyang; Wu, Zhongzhen; Zheng, Jiaxin; Wang, Xinwei; Lin, Yuan; Pan, Feng

    2015-07-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) of Aluminum oxide (Al2O3) is employed to optimize the back contact of thin film CdTe solar cells. Al2O3 layers with a thickness of 0.5 nm to 5 nm are tested, and an improved efficiency, up to 12.1%, is found with the 1 nm Al2O3 deposition, compared with the efficiency of 10.7% without Al2O3 modification. The performance improvement stems from the surface modification that optimizes the rectification and tunneling of back contact. The current-voltage analysis indicates that the back contact with 1 nm Al2O3 maintains large tunneling leakage current and improves the filled factor of CdTe cells through the rectification effect. XPS and capacitance-voltage electrical measurement analysis show that the ALD-Al2O3 modification layer features a desired low-density of interface state of 8 × 1010 cm-2 by estimation.

  5. The role of thermally and chemically stable composite Y2O3:Al2O3 in the development of YBa2Cu3O7-x films on metal substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stan, L.; Tao, B. W.; Holesinger, T. G.; Yang, H.; Feldmann, D. M.; Maiorov, B.; Baily, S. A.; Civale, L.; DePaula, R. F.; Li, Y. R.; Jia, Q. X.

    2010-04-01

    We have developed Y2O3:Al2O3 (YAlO) composites to simplify the architecture of superconducting YBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO) thick films on polycrystalline metal substrates. By implementing the use of YAlO, we have reduced the total number of non-superconducting layers between the polycrystalline metal substrate and the YBCO film from five (as in the standard architecture used by industry) to three. The YBCO films grown on this simplified platform exhibited an in-plane mosaic spread of less than 4° in full width at half-maximum, correlated pinning centered at \\mathbf {H}\\parallel c , and an α value (the proportionality factor of the critical current density H - α) of around 0.38 over the field range of 0.1-1.0 T. We believe that the excellent structural stability at high temperatures and the exceptional chemical inertness in an oxidizing environment make YAlO a good choice for use in the growth of biaxially oriented MgO and subsequent buffer and superconducting layers.

  6. High Temperature Mechanical Characterization and Analysis of Al2O3 /Al2O3 Composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gyekenyesi, John Z.; Jaskowiak, Martha H.

    1999-01-01

    Sixteen ply unidirectional zirconia coated single crystal Al2O3 fiber reinforced polycrystalline Al2O3 was tested in uniaxial tension at temperatures to 1400 C in air. Fiber volume fractions ranged from 26 to 31%. The matrix has primarily open porosity of approximately 40%. Theories for predicting the Young's modulus, first matrix cracking stress, and ultimate strength were applied and evaluated for suitability in predicting the mechanical behavior of Al2O3/Al2O3 composites. The composite exhibited pseudo tough behavior (increased area under the stress/strain curve relative to monolithic alumina) from 22 to 1400 C. The rule-of-mixtures provides a good estimate of the Young's modulus of the composite using the constituent properties from room temperature to approximately 1200 C for short term static tensile tests in air. The ACK theory provides the best approximation of the first matrix cracking stress while accounting for residual stresses at room temperature. Difficulties in determining the fiber/matrix interfacial shear stress at high temperatures prevented the accurate prediction of the first matrix cracking stress above room temperature. The theory of Cao and Thouless, based on Weibull statistics, gave the best prediction for the composite ultimate tensile strength.

  7. Critical current density of YBa2Cu3O7-x films with BaZrO3 inclusions on SrTiO3 and Al2O3 substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augieri, A.; Galluzzi, V.; Celentano, G.; Fabbri, F.; Mancini, A.; Rufoloni, A.; Vannozzi, A.; Gambardella, U.; Padeletti, G.; Cusmà, A.; Petrisor, T.; Ciontea, L.

    2008-02-01

    Recently, many efforts have been dedicated to the development of a reliable technology for the introduction of artificial pinning sites in YBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO) films with the aim of improving the in-field Jc performances. One of the most effective technique resulted to be the inclusion of BaZrO3 (BZO) second phase embedded in the YBCO films. In this contribution we present Jc measurements on BZO-added YBCO films deposited on SrTiO3 (STO) and CeO2-buffered-Al2O3 (ALO) substrates. Samples were deposited by pulsed laser ablation technique using a composite YBCO + 5mol.% BZO target at the optimum conditions for fully oxygenated c-axis oriented YBCO films. Despite of a slight Tc reduction, BZO addition in YBCO-STO films resulted in an improvement of in-field performances with the appearance of a Jc plateau in the low field region which extends up to about 2.5 Tesla irrespective of the temperature at least in the investigated range (down to 65K). On the other hand, samples deposited on ALO did not exhibit any remarkable difference neither in the Jc value nor in the magnetic field dependences as compared with pure YBCO. The presence of 0° (magnetic field parallel to the c-axis) peaks in the Jc. angular behaviour revealed a c-axis correlated character of the pinning forces in BZO added YBCO films grown on both STO and ALO substrates. X-ray diffraction measurements and AFM investigations were carried out in order to determine the influence of BZO addition on films crystalline quality and microstructure.

  8. Atomic layer deposition of highly-doped Er:Al2O3 and Tm:Al2O3 for silicon-based waveguide amplifiers (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roenn, John; Karvonen, Lasse; Pyymäki-Perros, Alexander; Peyghambarian, Nasser; Lipsanen, Harri; Säynätjoki, Antti; Sun, Zhipei

    2016-05-01

    Recently, rare-earth doped waveguide amplifiers (REDWAs) have drawn significant attention as a promising solution to on-chip amplification of light in silicon photonics and integrated optics by virtue of their high excited state lifetime (up to 10 ms) and broad emission spectrum (up to 200 nm) at infrared wavelengths. In the family of rare-earths, at least erbium, holmium, thulium, neodymium and ytterbium have been demonstrated to be good candidates for amplifier operation at moderate concentrations (< 0.1 %). However, efficient amplifier operation in REDWAs is a very challenging task because high concentration of ions (<0.1%) is required in order to produce reasonable amplification over short device length. Inevitably, high concentration of ions leads to energy-transfer between neighboring ions, which results as decreased gain and increased noise in the amplifier system. It has been shown that these energy-transfer mechanisms in highly-doped gain media are inversely proportional to the sixth power of the distance between the ions. Therefore, novel fabrication techniques with the ability to control the distribution of the rare-earth ions within the gain medium are urgently needed in order to fabricate REDWAs with high efficiency and low noise. Here, we show that atomic layer deposition (ALD) is an excellent technique to fabricate highly-doped (<1%) RE:Al2O3 gain materials by using its nanoscale engineering ability to delicately control the incorporation of RE ions during the deposition. In our experiment, we fabricated Er:Al2O3 and Tm:Al2O3 thin films with ALD by varying the concentration of RE ions from 1% to 7%. By measuring the photoluminescence response of the fabricated samples, we demonstrate that it is possible to incorporate up to 5% of either Er- or Tm-ions in Al2O3 host before severe quenching occurs. We believe that this technique can be extended to other RE ions as well. Therefore, our results show the exceptionality of ALD as a deposition technique for

  9. Dependence of electrostatic potential distribution of Al2O3/Ge structure on Al2O3 thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaolei; Xiang, Jinjuan; Wang, Wenwu; Zhao, Chao; Zhang, Jing

    2016-09-01

    Electrostatic potential distribution of Al2O3/Ge structure is investigated vs. Al2O3 thickness by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The electrostatic potential distribution is found to be Al2O3 thickness dependent. This interesting phenomenon is attributed to the appearance of gap states on Al2O3 surface (GSAl2O3) and its higher charge neutrality level (CNL) compared with the CNL of gap states at Al2O3/Ge interface (GSAl2O3/Ge), leading to electron transfer from GSAl2O3 to GSAl2O3/Ge. In the case of thicker Al2O3, fewer electrons transfer from GSAl2O3 to GSAl2O3/Ge, resulting in a larger potential drop across Al2O3 and XPS results.

  10. Plasma-Assisted ALD of an Al2O3 Permeation Barrier Layer on Plastic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Wenwen; Li, Xingcun; Chen, Qiang; Wang, Zhengduo

    2012-02-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique is used in the preparation of organic/inorganic layers, which requires uniform surfaces with their thickness down to several nanometers. For film with such thickness, the growth mode defined as the arrangement of clusters on the surface during the growth is of significance. In this work, Al2O3 thin film was deposited on various interfacial species of pre-treated polyethylene terephthalate (PET, 12 μm) by plasma assisted atomic layer deposition (PA-ALD), where trimethyl aluminium was used as the Al precursor and O2 as the oxygen source. The interfacial species, -NH3, -OH, and -COOH as well as SiCHO (derived from monomer of HMDSO plasma), were grafted previously by plasma and chemical treatments. The growth mode of PA-ALD Al2O3 was then investigated in detail by combining results from in-situ diagnosis of spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) and ex-situ characterization of as-deposited layers from the morphologies scanned by atomic force microscopy (AFM). In addition, the oxygen transmission rates (OTR) of the original and treated plastic films were measured. The possible reasons for the dependence of the OTR values on the surface species were explored.

  11. Capability for Fine Tuning of the Refractive Index Sensing Properties of Long-Period Gratings by Atomic Layer Deposited Al2O3 Overlays

    PubMed Central

    Śmietana, Mateusz; Myśliwiec, Marcin; Mikulic, Predrag; Witkowski, Bartłomiej S.; Bock, Wojtek J.

    2013-01-01

    This work presents an application of thin aluminum oxide (Al2O3) films obtained using atomic layer deposition (ALD) for fine tuning the spectral response and refractive-index (RI) sensitivity of long-period gratings (LPGs) induced in optical fibers. The technique allows for an efficient and well controlled deposition at monolayer level (resolution ∼ 0.12 nm) of excellent quality nano-films as required for optical sensors. The effect of Al2O3 deposition on the spectral properties of the LPGs is demonstrated experimentally and numerically. We correlated both the increase in Al2O3 thickness and changes in optical properties of the film with the shift of the LPG resonance wavelength and proved that similar films are deposited on fibers and oxidized silicon reference samples in the same process run. Since the thin overlay effectively changes the distribution of the cladding modes and thus also tunes the device's RI sensitivity, the tuning can be simply realized by varying number of cycles, which is proportional to thickness of the high-refractive-index (n > 1.6 in infrared spectral range) Al2O3 film. The advantage of this approach is the precision in determining the film properties resulting in RI sensitivity of the LPGs. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that an ultra-precise method for overlay deposition has been applied on LPGs for RI tuning purposes and the results have been compared with numerical simulations based on LP mode approximation.

  12. CoFe2/Al2O3/PMNPT multiferroic heterostructures by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ziyao; Grocke, Garrett; Yanguas-Gil, Angel; Wang, Xinjun; Gao, Yuan; Sun, Nianxiang; Howe, Brandon; Chen, Xing

    2016-05-01

    Multiferroic materials and applications allow electric bias control of magnetism or magnetic bias control of polarization, enabling fast, compact, energy-efficient devices in RF/microwave communication systems such as filters, shifters, and antennas; electronics devices such as inductors and capacitors; and other magnetic material related applications including sensors and memories. In this manuscript, we utilize atomic layer deposition technology to grow magnetic CoFe metallic thin films onto PMNPT, with a ˜110 Oe electric field induced ferromagnetic resonance field shift in the CoFe/Al2O3/PMNPT multiferroic heterostructure. Our work demonstrates an atomic layer deposition fabricated multiferroic heterostructure with significant tunability and shows that the unique thin film growth mechanism will benefit integrated multiferroic application in near future.

  13. Border trap reduction in Al2O3/InGaAs gate stacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Kechao; Winter, Roy; Zhang, Liangliang; Droopad, Ravi; Eizenberg, Moshe; McIntyre, Paul C.

    2015-11-01

    The effect of Al2O3 atomic layer deposition (ALD) temperature on the border trap density (Nbt) of Al2O3/InGaAs gate stacks is investigated quantitatively, and we demonstrate that lowering the trimethylaluminum (TMA)/water vapor ALD temperature from 270 °C to 120 °C significantly reduces Nbt. The reduction of Nbt coincides with increased hydrogen incorporation in low temperature ALD-grown Al2O3 films during post-gate metal forming gas annealing. It is also found that large-dose (˜6000 L) exposure of the In0.53Ga0.47As (100) surface to TMA immediately after thermal desorption of a protective As2 capping layer is an important step to guarantee the uniformity and reproducibility of high quality Al2O3/InGaAs samples made at low ALD temperatures.

  14. Nanocomposite YCrO3/Al2O3: characterization of the core-shell, magnetic properties, and enhancement of dielectric properties.

    PubMed

    Durán, A; Tiznado, H; Romo-Herrera, J M; Domínguez, D; Escudero, R; Siqueiros, J M

    2014-05-19

    Multifuncionality in polycrystalline multiferroic ceramics can be improved using an advanced synthesis process. In this work, core-shell design is being proposed to enhance the transport properties of biferroic YCrO3. The atomic layer deposition (ALD) thin-film growth technique was used for the YCrO3/Al2O3 (Y@Al) nanocomposite fabrication. A continuous, amorphous, and uniform Al2O3 shell, a few nanometers thick, was obtained and characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The transport properties of biferroic YCrO3 coated with 50, 500, and 1000 ALD cycles of insulating Al2O3 were investigated using magnetization and AC conductivity measurements. It is observed that the values of the magnetic coercive field and the magnetization are affected by the amorphous and partially crystallized Al2O3 shell. Additionally, the Y@Al nanocomposite experiments show a notorious decreasing in the loss tangent and the electrical conductivity. Accordingly, hysteresis loops in the polarization versus electric energy data confirm the decrease of the leakage current as a consequence of the Al2O3 shell acting as a barrier layer. The results shown here confirm that the core-shell architecture is a promising alternative for improvement of the magnetic and ferroelectric properties in bulk multiferroics. PMID:24811873

  15. Crystalline gamma-Al2O3 physical vapour deposition-coating for steel thixoforging tools.

    PubMed

    Bobzin, K; Hirt, G; Bagcivan, N; Khizhnyakova, L; Ewering, M

    2011-10-01

    The process of thixoforming, which has been part of many researches during the last decades, combines the advantages of forging and casting for the shaping of metallic components. But due to the high temperatures of semi-solid steel alloys high demands on the tools are requested. To resists the thermal and mechanical loads (wear, friction, thermal and thermomechanical fatigue) protecting thin films are necessary. In this regard crystalline gamma-Al2O3 deposited via Physical Vapour Deposition (PVD) is a promising candidate: It exhibits high thermal stability, high oxidation resistance and high hot hardness. In the present work the application of a (Ti, Al)N/gamma-Al2O3 coating deposited by means of Magnetron Sputter Ion Plating in an industrial coating unit is presented. The coating was analysed by means of Rockwell test, nanoindentation, and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The coated tool was tested in thixoforging experiments with steel grade X210CrW12 (AlSI D6). The surface of the coated dies was examined with Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) after 22, 42, 90 and 170 forging cycles. PMID:22400259

  16. Evaluation of Misfit Relaxation in α-Ga2O3 Epitaxial Growth on α-Al2O3 Substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneko, Kentaro; Kawanowa, Hitoshi; Ito, Hiroshi; Fujita, Shizuo

    2012-02-01

    Corundum-structured α-Ga2O3 epitaxial thin films were grown on c-plane α-Al2O3 (sapphire) substrates by a mist chemical vapor deposition method. To reveal the defect structures, the α-Ga2O3 film was observed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We found that the α-Ga2O3 thin film was in-plane compressive stressed from the α-Al2O3 substrate. Although misfit dislocations were periodically generated at the α-Ga2O3/α-Al2O3 interface owing to the large lattice mismatches between α-Ga2O3 and α-Al2O3, 3.54% (c-axis) and 4.81% (a-axis), most of the misfit dislocations did not thread through the layer. An extra-half plane was {bar 2110} consisting only of Ga. Screw dislocations were not confirmed, i.e., the density was under 107 cm-2. The threading dislocation density was 7 ×1010 cm-2.

  17. Thermally Annealed Iron (Oxide) Thin Film on an Alumina Barrier Layer, by XPS

    SciTech Connect

    Madaan, Nitesh; Kanyal, Supriya S.; Jensen, David S.; Vail, Michael A.; Dadson, Andrew; Engelhard, Mark H.; Linford, Matthew R.

    2013-09-06

    Herein we show characterization of an Fe thin film on Al_2O_3 after thermal annealing under H_2 using Al Ka X-rays. The XPS survey spectrum, narrow Fe 2p scan, and valence band regions are presented. The survey spectrum shows aluminum signals due to exposure of the underlying Al_2O_3 film during Fe nanoparticle formation.

  18. Reduced defect density at the CZTSSe/CdS interface by atomic layer deposition of Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erkan, Mehmet Eray; Chawla, Vardaan; Scarpulla, Michael A.

    2016-05-01

    The greatest challenge for improving the power conversion efficiency of Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 (CZTSSe)/CdS/ZnO thin film solar cells is increasing the open circuit voltage (VOC). Probable leading causes of the VOC deficit in state-of-the-art CZTSSe devices have been identified as bulk recombination, band tails, and the intertwined effects of CZTSSe/CdS band offset, interface defects, and interface recombination. In this work, we demonstrate the modification of the CZTSSe absorber/CdS buffer interface following the deposition of 1 nm-thick Al2O3 layers by atomic layer deposition (ALD) near room temperature. Capacitance-voltage profiling and quantum efficiency measurements reveal that ALD-Al2O3 interface modification reduces the density of acceptor-like states at the heterojunction resulting in reduced interface recombination and wider depletion width. Indications of increased VOC resulting from the modification of the heterojunction interface as a result of ALD-Al2O3 treatment are presented. These results, while not conclusive for application to state-of-the-art high efficiency CZTSSe devices, suggest the need for further studies as it is probable that interface recombination contributes to reduced VOC even in such devices.

  19. Advanced thin film thermocouples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreider, K. G.; Semancik, S.; Olson, C.

    1984-10-01

    The fabrication, materials characterization, and performance of thin film platinum rhodium thermocouples on gas turbine alloys was investigated. The materials chosen for the study were the turbine blade alloy systems MAR M200+Hf with NiCoCrAlY and FeCrAlY coatings, and vane alloy systems MAR M509 with FeCrAlY. Research was focussed on making improvements in the problem areas of coating substrate stability, adhesion, and insulation reliability and durability. Diffusion profiles between the substrate and coating with and without barrier coatings of Al2O3 are reported. The relationships between fabrication parameters of thermal oxidation and sputtering of the insulator and its characterization and performance are described. The best thin film thermocouples were fabricated with the NiCoCrAlY coatings which were thermally oxidized and sputter coated with Al2O3.

  20. Advanced thin film thermocouples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kreider, K. G.; Semancik, S.; Olson, C.

    1984-01-01

    The fabrication, materials characterization, and performance of thin film platinum rhodium thermocouples on gas turbine alloys was investigated. The materials chosen for the study were the turbine blade alloy systems MAR M200+Hf with NiCoCrAlY and FeCrAlY coatings, and vane alloy systems MAR M509 with FeCrAlY. Research was focussed on making improvements in the problem areas of coating substrate stability, adhesion, and insulation reliability and durability. Diffusion profiles between the substrate and coating with and without barrier coatings of Al2O3 are reported. The relationships between fabrication parameters of thermal oxidation and sputtering of the insulator and its characterization and performance are described. The best thin film thermocouples were fabricated with the NiCoCrAlY coatings which were thermally oxidized and sputter coated with Al2O3.

  1. Electrowetting properties of atomic layer deposited Al2O3 decorated silicon nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajkumar, K.; Rajavel, K.; Cameron, D. C.; Mangalaraj, D.; Rajendrakumar, R. T.

    2015-06-01

    This paper reports the electrowetting properties of liquid droplet on superhydrophobic silicon nanowires with Atomic layer deposited (ALD) Al2O3 as dielectric layer. Silicon wafer were etched by metal assisted wet chemical etching with silver as catalyst. ALD Al2O3 films of 10nm thickness were conformally deposited over silicon nanowires. Al2O3 dielectric film coated silicon nanowires was chemically modified with Trichloro (1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-perfluorooctyl) silane to make it superhydrophobic(SHP). The contact angle was measured and all the samples exhibited superhydrophobic nature with maximum contact angles of 163° and a minimum contact angle hysteresis of 6°. Electrowetting induced a maximum reversible decrease of the contact angle of 20°at 150V in air.

  2. Rapid fabrication of Al2O3 encapsulations for organic electronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Kamran; Ali, Junaid; Mehdi, Syed Murtuza; Choi, Kyung-Hyun; An, Young Jin

    2015-10-01

    Organic electronics have earned great reputation in electronic industry yet they suffer technical challenges such as short lifetimes and low reliability because of their susceptibility to water vapor and oxygen which causes their fast degradation. This paper report on the rapid fabrication of Al2O3 encapsulations through a unique roll-to-roll atmospheric atomic layer deposition technology (R2R-AALD) for the life time enhancement of organic poly (4-vinylphenol) (PVP) memristor devices. The devices were then categorized into two sets. One was processed with R2R-AALD Al2O3 encapsulations at 50 °C and the other one was kept as un-encapsulated. The field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) results revealed that pin holes and other irregularities in PVP films with average arithmetic roughness (Ra) of 9.66 nm have been effectively covered by Al2O3 encapsulation having Ra of 0.92 nm. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy XPS spectrum for PVP film showed peaks of C 1s and O 1s at the binding energies of 285 eV and 531 eV, respectively. The respective appearance of Al 2p, Al 2s, and O 1s peaks at the binding energies of 74 eV, 119 eV, and 531 eV, confirms the fabrication of Al2O3 films. Electrical current-voltage (I-V) measurements confirmed that the Al2O3 encapsulation has a huge influence on the performance, robustness and life time of memristor devices. The Al2O3 encapsulated memristor performed with superior stability for four weeks whereas the un-encapsulated devices could only last for one week. The performance of encapsulated device had been promising after being subjected to bending test for 100 cycles and the variations in its stability were of minor concern confirming the mechanical robustness and flexibility of the devices.

  3. Spin-coatable Al2O3 resists in electron-beam nanolithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saifullah, Mohammad S.; Namatsu, Hideo; Yamaguchi, Toru; Yamazaki, Kenji; Kurihara, Kenji

    1999-06-01

    Inorganic resist such as amorphous alumina are projected as potential candidates for high resolution electron beam nanolithography; the drawbacks being its low sensitivity and tedious deposition process such as sputtering. Therefore, a spin-coatable Al2O3 resist with higher sensitivity is strongly desirable to overcome these drawbacks. In this paper, we describe the electron beam exposure characteristics of spin-coatable Al2O3 gel films prepared by reacting aluminium tri-sec-butoxide, Al(OBus)3 with chelating agents like ethylacetoacetate. The electron beam sensitivity of approximately 70nm thick Al2O3 gel films baked at 40 degrees C as well as in the no-bake condition is approximately 4mCcm-2, which is approximately 106 times higher than the sputtered alumina films. Baking at 70 degrees C seems to produce little change in the sensitivity. The Fourier transformed IR spectroscopy studies indicate that the increased sensitivity of these films is due to the rapid breakdown of chelate rings under the electron beam. This rapid breakdown of organic bonds could have resulted in the appearance of inorganic Al-O bonds which are insoluble in acetone. Indeed the spin-coatable Al2O3 resist provides high resolution negative line patterns of linewidth of about 20nm.

  4. ALD of Al2O3 for Highly Improved Performance in Li-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Dillon, A.; Jung, Y. S.; Ban, C.; Riley, L.; Cavanagh, A.; Yan, Y.; George, S.; Lee, S. H.

    2012-01-01

    Significant advances in energy density, rate capability and safety will be required for the implementation of Li-ion batteries in next generation electric vehicles. We have demonstrated atomic layer deposition (ALD) as a promising method to enable superior cycling performance for a vast variety of battery electrodes. The electrodes range from already demonstrated commercial technologies (cycled under extreme conditions) to new materials that could eventually lead to batteries with higher energy densities. For example, an Al2O3 ALD coating with a thickness of ~ 8 A was able to stabilize the cycling of unexplored MoO3 nanoparticle anodes with a high volume expansion. The ALD coating enabled stable cycling at C/2 with a capacity of ~ 900 mAh/g. Furthermore, rate capability studies showed the ALD-coated electrode maintained a capacity of 600 mAh/g at 5C. For uncoated electrodes it was only possible to observe stable cycling at C/10. Also, we recently reported that a thin ALD Al2O3 coating with a thickness of ~5 A can enable natural graphite (NG) electrodes to exhibit remarkably durable cycling at 50 degrees C. The ALD-coated NG electrodes displayed a 98% capacity retention after 200 charge-discharge cycles. In contrast, bare NG showed a rapid decay. Additionally, Al2O3 ALD films with a thickness of 2 to 4 A have been shown to allow LiCoO2 to exhibit 89% capacity retention after 120 charge-discharge cycles performed up to 4.5 V vs Li/Li+. Bare LiCoO2 rapidly deteriorated in the first few cycles. The capacity fade is likely caused by oxidative decomposition of the electrolyte at higher potentials or perhaps cobalt dissolution. Interestingly, we have recently fabricated full cells of NG and LiCoO2 where we coated both electrodes, one or the other electrode as well as neither electrode. In creating these full cells, we observed some surprising results that lead us to obtain a greater understanding of the ALD coatings. We have also recently coated a binder free LiNi0.04Mn0

  5. Catalytic Methane Decomposition over Fe-Al2 O3.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lu; Enakonda, Linga Reddy; Saih, Youssef; Loptain, Sergei; Gary, Daniel; Del-Gallo, Pascal; Basset, Jean-Marie

    2016-06-01

    The presence of a Fe-FeAl2 O4 structure over an Fe-Al2 O3 catalysts is demonstrated to be vital for the catalytic methane decomposition (CMD) activity. After H2 reduction at 750 °C, Fe-Al2 O3 prepared by means of a fusion method, containing 86.5 wt % FeAl2 O4 and 13.5 wt % Fe(0) , showed a stable CMD activity at 750 °C for as long as 10 h. PMID:27159367

  6. Self limiting atomic layer deposition of Al2O3 on perovskite surfaces: a reality?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhury, Devika; Rajaraman, Gopalan; Sarkar, Shaibal K.

    2016-03-01

    The feasibility of self-saturated atomic layer deposition of Al2O3 on an organolead halide perovskite (MAPbI3-xClx) surface through a well known trimethylaluminium (TMA)-water (H2O) chemistry is studied. Though the sequential dosages of reactants form films on the perovskite surfaces, a self saturated growth is never observed. Self-saturation leads to the degradation of the material. Both experimental and density functional theory calculations are carried out for complete understanding of the growth mechanism of self-limiting Al2O3 on the perovskite surface.The feasibility of self-saturated atomic layer deposition of Al2O3 on an organolead halide perovskite (MAPbI3-xClx) surface through a well known trimethylaluminium (TMA)-water (H2O) chemistry is studied. Though the sequential dosages of reactants form films on the perovskite surfaces, a self saturated growth is never observed. Self-saturation leads to the degradation of the material. Both experimental and density functional theory calculations are carried out for complete understanding of the growth mechanism of self-limiting Al2O3 on the perovskite surface. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional QCM results, FTIR spectra and DFT results. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr06974b

  7. Nanoclusters of MoO3-x embedded in an Al2O3 matrix engineered for customizable mesoscale resistivity and high dielectric strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, William M.; Brodie, Alan D.; Mane, Anil U.; Sun, Fuge; Kidwingira, Françoise; McCord, Mark A.; Bevis, Christopher F.; Elam, Jeffrey W.

    2013-06-01

    We have synthesized a material consisting of conducting metal oxide (MoO3-x) nanoclusters embedded in a high-dielectric-strength insulator (Al2O3) matrix. The resistivity of this material can be customized by varying the concentration of the MoO3-x nanoclusters. The Al2O3 protects the MoO3-x from stoichiometry change, thus conserving the number of carriers and maintaining a high dielectric strength. This composite material is grown by atomic layer deposition, a thin film deposition technique suitable for coating 3D structures. We applied these atomic layer deposition composite films to our 3D electron-optical micro electrical mechanical systems devices and greatly improved their performance.

  8. Eliminated Phototoxicity of TiO2 Particles by an Atomic-Layer-Deposited Al2 O3 Coating Layer for UV-Protection Applications.

    PubMed

    Jang, Eunyong; Sridharan, Kishore; Park, Young Min; Park, Tae Joo

    2016-08-16

    We demonstrate the conformal coating of an ultrathin Al2 O3 layer on TiO2 nanoparticles through atomic layer deposition by using a specifically designed rotary reactor to eliminate the phototoxicity of the particles for cosmetic use. The ALD reactor is modified to improve the coating efficiency as well as the agitation of the particles for conformal coating. Elemental and microstructural analyses show that ultrathin Al2 O3 layers are conformally deposited on the TiO2 nanoparticles with a controlled thickness. Rhodamine B dye molecules on Al2 O3 -coated TiO2 exhibited a long life time under UV irradiation, that is, more than 2 h, compared to that on bare TiO2 , that is, 8 min, indicating mitigation of photocatalytic activity by the coated layer. The effect of carbon impurities in the film resulting from various deposition temperatures and thicknesses of the Al2 O3 layer on the photocatalytic activity are also thoroughly investigated with controlled experimental condition by using dye molecules on the surface. Our results reveal that an increased carbon impurity resulting from a low processing temperature provides a charge conduction path and generates reactive oxygen species causing the degradation of dye molecule. A thin coated layer, that is, less than 3 nm, also induced the tunneling of electrons and holes to the surface, hence oxidizing dye molecules. Furthermore, the introduction of an Al2 O3 layer on TiO2 improves the light trapping thus, enhances the UV absorption. PMID:27405514

  9. ALD TiO2-Al2O3 Stack: An Improved Gate Dielectrics on Ga-polar GaN MOSCAPs

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wei, Daming; Edgar, James H.; Briggs, Dayrl P.; Srijanto, Bernadeta R.; Retterer, Scott T.; Meyer, III, Harry M.

    2014-10-15

    This research focuses on the benefits and properties of TiO2-Al2O3 nano-stack thin films deposited on Ga2O3/GaN by plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition (PA-ALD) for gate dielectric development. This combination of materials achieved a high dielectric constant, a low leakage current, and a low interface trap density. Correlations were sought between the films’ structure, composition, and electrical properties. The gate dielectrics were approximately 15 nm thick and contained 5.1 nm TiO2, 7.1 nm Al2O3 and 2 nm Ga2O3 as determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry. The interface carbon concentration, as measured by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) depth profile, was negligible for GaN pretreated bymore » thermal oxidation in O2 for 30 minutes at 850°C. The RMS roughness slightly increased after thermal oxidation and remained the same after ALD of the nano-stack, as determined by atomic force microscopy. The dielectric constant of TiO2-Al2O3 on Ga2O3/GaN was increased to 12.5 compared to that of pure Al2O3 (8~9) on GaN. In addition, the nano-stack's capacitance-voltage (C-V) hysteresis was small, with a total trap density of 8.74 × 1011 cm-2. The gate leakage current density (J=2.81× 10-8 A/cm2) was low at +1 V gate bias. These results demonstrate the promising potential of plasma ALD deposited TiO2/Al2O3 for serving as the gate oxide on Ga2O3/GaN based MOS devices.« less

  10. New battery strategies with a polymer/Al2O3 separator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Kyusung; Cho, Joon Hee; Shanmuganathan, Kadhiravan; Song, Jie; Peng, Jing; Gobet, Mallory; Greenbaum, Steven; Ellison, Christopher J.; Goodenough, John B.

    2014-10-01

    A low-cost, thin, flexible, and mechanically robust alkali-ion electrolyte separator is shown to allow fabrication of a safe rechargeable alkali-ion battery with alternative cathode strategies. A Na-ion battery with an insertion host as cathode and a Li-ion battery with a redox flow-through cathode are demonstrated to cycle without significant fade. The separator membrane is a composite of Al2O3 particles and cross-linked ethylene-oxide chains; it can be fabricated at low cost into a large-area thin membrane that blocks dendrites from an alkali-metal anode. To block a soluble ferrocene redox molecule from crossing from the cathode side to the anode in a Li-ion battery with a redox-flow cathode, a thin mixed Li+/electronic-conducting film has been added to the cathode side of the composite separator. An osmosis issue was minimized by balancing concentrations of solutes on the two sides of the separator where the cathode side contains a soluble redox molecule.

  11. Effect of the addition of Al2O3 nanoparticles on the magnetic properties of Fe soft magnetic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Yuandong; Nie, Junwu; Zhang, Wenjun; Ma, Jian; Bao, Chongxi; Cao, Yang

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the effect of the addition of Al2O3 nanoparticles on the permeability and core loss of Fe soft magnetic composites coated with silicone. Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis revealed that the surface layer of the powder particles consisted of a thin insulating Al2O3 layer with uniform surface coverage. The permeability and core loss of the composite with the Al2O3 addition annealed at 650 °C were excellent. The results indicated that the Al2O3 nanoparticle addition increases the permeability stablility with changing frequency and decreases the core loss over a wide range of frequencies.

  12. Silicon passivation and tunneling contact formation by atomic layer deposited Al2O3/ZnO stacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Alonso, D.; Smit, S.; Bordihn, S.; Kessels, W. M. M.

    2013-08-01

    The passivation of Si by Al2O3/ZnO stacks, which can serve as passivated tunneling contacts or heterojunctions in silicon photovoltaics, was investigated. It was demonstrated that stacks with Al2O3 thicknesses >3 nm lead to lower surface recombination velocities (Seff,max < 4 cm s-1) on n- and p-type Si than single-layer Al2O3 films for a wide range of ZnO thicknesses and irrespective of Al-doping of the ZnO. Stacks with an Al2O3 thickness of 1-2 nm were found to combine reasonable surface passivation (Seff,max = 100-700 cm s-1) with sufficiently high tunneling current densities (10-300 mA cm-2 at 700 mV).

  13. Epitaxial growth and electrochemical transfer of graphene on Ir(111)/α-Al2O3(0001) substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koh, Shinji; Saito, Yuta; Kodama, Hideyuki; Sawabe, Atsuhito

    2016-07-01

    Low-pressure chemical vapor deposition growth of graphene on Iridium (Ir) layers epitaxially deposited on α-Al2O3 (0001) substrates was investigated. The X-ray diffraction, Raman and reflection high energy electron diffraction characterizations revealed that graphene films were epitaxially grown on Ir(111) layers, and the in-plane epitaxial relationship between graphene, Ir(111), and α-Al2O3(0001) was graphene ⟨ 1 1 ¯ 00 ⟩//Ir⟨ 11 2 ¯ ⟩//α-Al2O3⟨ 11 2 ¯ 0 ⟩. The graphene on Ir(111) was electrochemically transferred onto SiO2/Si substrates. We also demonstrated the reuse of the Ir(111)/α-Al2O3(0001) substrates in multiple growth and transfer cycles.

  14. Growth morphology of thin films on metallic and oxide surfaces.

    PubMed

    Krupski, Aleksander

    2014-02-01

    In this work we briefly review recent investigations concerning the growth morphology of thin metallic films on the Mo(110) and Ni3Al(111) surfaces, and Fe and copper phthalocyanine (C32H16N8Cu) on the Al2O3/Ni3Al(111) surface. Comparison of Ag, Au, Sn, and Pb growth on the Mo(110) surface has shown a number of similarities between these adsorption systems, except that surface alloy formation has only been observed in the case of Sn and Au. In the Pb/Mo(110) and Pb/Ni3Al(111) adsorption systems selective formation of uniform Pb island heights during metal thin film growth has been observed and interpreted in terms of quantum size effects. Furthermore, our studies showed that Al2O3 on Ni3Al(111) exhibits a large superstructure in which the unit cell has a commensurate relation with the substrate lattice. In addition, copper phthalocyanine chemisorbed weakly onto an ultra-thin Al2O3 film on Ni3Al(111) and showed a poor template effect of the Al2O3/Ni3Al(111) system. In the case of iron cluster growth on Al2O3/Ni3Al(111) the nucleation sites were independent of deposition temperature, yet the cluster shape showed a dependence. In this system, Fe clusters formed a regular hexagonal lattice on the Al2O3/Ni3Al(111). PMID:24445588

  15. Electrical and structural characterizations of crystallized Al2O3/GaN interfaces formed by in situ metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Jackson, C. M.; Wu, F.; Mazumder, B.; Yeluri, R.; Kim, J.; Keller, S.; Arehart, A. R.; Ringel, S. A.; Speck, J. S.; Mishra, U. K.

    2016-01-01

    Al2O3 films were grown in situ by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition at 900 °C on GaN of both Ga- and N-face polarities. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed that the Al2O3 films were crystalline and primarily γ-phase. The Al2O3/Ga-GaN and Al2O3/N-GaN interfaces were both atomically sharp, and the latter further exhibited a biatomic step feature. The corresponding current-voltage (J-V) characteristics were measured on a metal-Al2O3-semiconductor capacitor (MOSCAP) structure. The leakage current was very high when the Al2O3 thickness was comparable with the size of the crystalline defects, but was suppressed to the order of 1 × 10-8 A/cm2 with larger Al2O3 thicknesses. The interface states densities (Dit) were measured on the same MOSCAPs by using combined ultraviolet (UV)-assisted capacitance-voltage (C-V), constant capacitance deep level transient spectroscopy (CC-DLTS), and constant capacitance deep level optical spectroscopy (CC-DLOS) techniques. The average Dit measured by CC-DLTS and CC-DLOS were 6.6 × 1012 and 8.8 × 1012 cm-2 eV-1 for Al2O3/Ga-GaN and 8.6 × 1012 and 8.6 × 1012 cm-2 eV-1 for Al2O3/N-GaN, respectively. The possible origins of the positive (negative) polarization compensation charges in Al2O3/Ga-GaN (Al2O3/N-GaN), including the filling of interface states and the existence of structure defects and impurities in the Al2O3 layer, were discussed in accordance with the experimental results and relevant studies in the literature.

  16. On the Control of the Fixed Charge Densities in Al2O3-Based Silicon Surface Passivation Schemes.

    PubMed

    Simon, Daniel K; Jordan, Paul M; Mikolajick, Thomas; Dirnstorfer, Ingo

    2015-12-30

    A controlled field-effect passivation by a well-defined density of fixed charges is crucial for modern solar cell surface passivation schemes. Al2O3 nanolayers grown by atomic layer deposition contain negative fixed charges. Electrical measurements on slant-etched layers reveal that these charges are located within a 1 nm distance to the interface with the Si substrate. When inserting additional interface layers, the fixed charge density can be continuously adjusted from 3.5 × 10(12) cm(-2) (negative polarity) to 0.0 and up to 4.0 × 10(12) cm(-2) (positive polarity). A HfO2 interface layer of one or more monolayers reduces the negative fixed charges in Al2O3 to zero. The role of HfO2 is described as an inert spacer controlling the distance between Al2O3 and the Si substrate. It is suggested that this spacer alters the nonstoichiometric initial Al2O3 growth regime, which is responsible for the charge formation. On the basis of this charge-free HfO2/Al2O3 stack, negative or positive fixed charges can be formed by introducing additional thin Al2O3 or SiO2 layers between the Si substrate and this HfO2/Al2O3 capping layer. All stacks provide very good passivation of the silicon surface. The measured effective carrier lifetimes are between 1 and 30 ms. This charge control in Al2O3 nanolayers allows the construction of zero-fixed-charge passivation layers as well as layers with tailored fixed charge densities for future solar cell concepts and other field-effect based devices. PMID:26618751

  17. Formation Mechanism of CuAlO2 Prepared by Rapid Thermal Annealing of Al2O3/Cu2O/Sapphire Sandwich Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, C. H.; Tseng, B. H.

    Single-phase CuAlO2 films were successfully prepared by thin-film reaction of an Al2O3/Cu2O/sapphire sandwich structure. We found that the processing parameters, such as heating rate, holding temperature and annealing ambient, were all crucial to form CuAlO2 without second phases. Thermal annealing in pure oxygen ambient with a lower temperature ramp rate might result in the formation of CuAl2O4 in addition to CuAlO2, since part of Cu2O was oxidized to form CuO and caused the change in reaction path, i.e. CuO + Al2O3 → CuAl2O4. Typical annealing conditions successful to prepare single-phase CuAlO2 would be to heat the sample with a temperature rampt rate higher than 7.3 °C/sec and hold the temperature at 1100 °C in air ambient. The formation mechanism of CuAlO2 has also been studied by interrupting the reaction after a short period of annealing. TEM observations showed that the top Al2O3 layer with amorphous structure reacted immediately with Cu2O to form CuAlO2 in the early stage and then the remaining Cu2O reacted with the sapphire substrate.

  18. Effect of Hydrogen on Interfacial Structure and Adhesion of Metal/Al_2O_3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao-Gang; Scheffler, Matthias

    2001-03-01

    Metal/sapphire interfaces have been intensively studying because of their importance in many technological applications. A large work of adhesion was found for the oxygen-terminated Al_2O_3(0001)/metal interfaces. As well known, the clean oxygen-terminated Al_2O3 surface is not stable even under a high oxygen pressure[1]. The understanding of how the oxygen-terminated interfaces can be formed is limited. Using an ab initio full-potential linearized augmented plane wave method, we investigated the effect of hydrogen on the formation of metal/Al_2O_3(0001) interfaces. Our results reveal that hydrogen plays an important role in the formation of the oxygen-terminated interfaces. Hydrogen impurities greatly decrease the work of adhesion. The behavior of hydrogen in deposition process of ultrathin metal films on sapphire substrates and the possible structures of the ultrathin films are discussed also. [1] Xiao-Gang Wang, Anne Chaka, Matthias Scheffler, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3650 (2000).

  19. Interfacial reactions and oxidation behavior of Al 2O 3 and Al 2O 3/Al coatings on an orthorhombic Ti 2AlNb alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H. Q.; Wang, Q. M.; Gong, J.; Sun, C.

    2011-02-01

    The uniform and dense Al2O3 and Al2O3/Al coatings were deposited on an orthorhombic Ti2AlNb alloy by filtered arc ion plating. The interfacial reactions of the Al2O3/Ti2AlNb and Al2O3/Al/Ti2AlNb specimens after vacuum annealing at 750 °C were studied. In the Al2O3/Ti2AlNb specimens, the Al2O3 coating decomposed significantly due to reaction between the Al2O3 coating and the O-Ti2AlNb substrate. In the Al2O3/Al/Ti2AlNb specimens, a γ-TiAl layer and an Nb-rich zone came into being by interdiffusion between the Al layer and the O-Ti2AlNb substrate. The γ-TiAl layer is chemically compatible with Al2O3, with no decomposition of Al2O3 being detected. No internal oxidation or oxygen and nitrogen dissolution zone was observed in the O-Ti2AlNb alloy. The Al2O3/Al/Ti2AlNb specimens exhibited excellent oxidation resistance at 750 °C.

  20. A short-time fading study of Al2O3:C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nascimento, L. F.; Vanhavere, F.; Silva, E. H.; Deene, Y. De

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the short-time fading from Al2O3:C by measuring optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) signals (Total OSL: TOSL, and Peak OSL: POSL) from droplets and Luxel™ pellets. The influence of various bleaching regimes (blue, green and white) and light power is compared. The fading effect is the decay of the OSL signal in the dark at room temperature. Al2O3:C detectors were submitted to various bleaching regimes, irradiated with a reference dose and read out after different time spans. Investigations were carried out using 2 mm size droplet detectors, made of thin Al2O3:C powder mixed with a photocured polymer. Tests were compared to Luxel™-type detectors (Landauer Inc.). Short-time post-irradiation fading is present in OSL results (TOSL and POSL) droplets for time spans up to 200 s. The effect of short-time fading can be lowered/removed when treating the detectors with high-power and/or long time bleaching regimes; this result was observed in both TOSL and POSL from droplets and Luxel™.

  1. One-nanometer-precision control of Al(2)O(3) nanoshells through a solution-based synthesis route.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Chi, Zi-Xiang; Mao, Wen-Xin; Lv, Rong-Wen; Cao, An-Min; Wan, Li-Jun

    2014-11-17

    Forming uniform metal oxide nanocoatings is a well-known challenge in the construction of core-shell type nanomaterials. Herein, by using buffer solution as a specific reaction medium, we demonstrate the possibility to grow thin nanoshells of metal oxides, typically Al2 O3 , on different kinds of core materials, forming a uniform surface-coating layer with thicknesses achieving one nanometer precision. The application of this methodology for the surface modification of LiCoO2 shows that a thin nanoshell of Al2 O3 can be readily tuned on the surface for an optimized battery performance. PMID:25336171

  2. Mesostructured forms of gamma-Al(2)O(3).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhaorong; Hicks, Randall W; Pauly, Thomas R; Pinnavaia, Thomas J

    2002-02-27

    gamma-Al2O3 is one of the most extensively utilized metal oxides in heterogeneous catalysis. Conventional forms of this oxide typically exhibit a surface area and pore volume less than 250 m2/g and 0.5 cm3/g, respectively. Previous efforts to prepare mesostructured forms of alumina resulted only in structurally unstable derivatives with amorphous framework walls. The present work reports mesostructured aluminas with walls made of gamma-Al2O3, denoted MSU-gamma. These materials are structurally stable and provide surface areas and pore volumes up to 370 m2/g and 1.5 cm3/g, respectively. The key to obtaining these structures is the formation of a mesostructured surfactant/boehmite precursor, denoted MSU-S/B, assembled through the hydrolysis of an aluminum cation, oligomer, or molecule in the presence of a nonionic surfactant. Mesostructured, gamma-aluminas offer the possibility of improving the catalytic efficiency of many heterogeneous catalytic processes, such as petroleum refining, petrochemical processing, and automobile exhaust control. PMID:11853430

  3. Specific heat capacity of nanoporous Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Cong-Liang; Feng, Yan-Hui; Zhang, Xin-Xin; Li, Jing; Wang, Ge

    2013-09-01

    Based on Lindemann's criterion, a specific heat capacity model for nanoporous material was proposed by defining the surface-atom layer, to take the surface atoms and the volume atoms separately into account. The height of the surface-atom layer was determined from the experiment, and results show that only the first layer atoms on the surface should be separately considered for nanoporous Al2O3. The shape factor of the pore was also introduced in the model with values between 2 (for cylindrical pore) and 3 (for spherical pore) to characterize the morphology of the pore. It turns out experimentally that the specific heat capacity of the analyzed nanoporous Al2O3 is much larger than that of the bulk, which can be interpreted as due to the fact that the surface atom plays a more important role than the volume one. And the smaller the radius and/or the larger the porosity, which lead to a larger surface-volume ratio, the larger the specific heat capacity becomes. The nanoporous material could be a better heat storage medium than the corresponding bulk with a much lighter weight, smaller volume but higher heat storage capacity.

  4. Al2O3-based nanofluids: a review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Ultrahigh performance cooling is one of the important needs of many industries. However, low thermal conductivity is a primary limitation in developing energy-efficient heat transfer fluids that are required for cooling purposes. Nanofluids are engineered by suspending nanoparticles with average sizes below 100 nm in heat transfer fluids such as water, oil, diesel, ethylene glycol, etc. Innovative heat transfer fluids are produced by suspending metallic or nonmetallic nanometer-sized solid particles. Experiments have shown that nanofluids have substantial higher thermal conductivities compared to the base fluids. These suspended nanoparticles can change the transport and thermal properties of the base fluid. As can be seen from the literature, extensive research has been carried out in alumina-water and CuO-water systems besides few reports in Cu-water-, TiO2-, zirconia-, diamond-, SiC-, Fe3O4-, Ag-, Au-, and CNT-based systems. The aim of this review is to summarize recent developments in research on the stability of nanofluids, enhancement of thermal conductivities, viscosity, and heat transfer characteristics of alumina (Al2O3)-based nanofluids. The Al2O3 nanoparticles varied in the range of 13 to 302 nm to prepare nanofluids, and the observed enhancement in the thermal conductivity is 2% to 36%. PMID:21762528

  5. Comparing the Thermodynamic Behaviour of Al(1)+ZrO2(s) to Al(1)+Al2O3(s)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copland, Evan

    2004-01-01

    In an effort to better determine the thermodynamic properties of Al(g) and Al2O(g). the vapor in equilibrium with Al(l)+ZrO2(s) was compared to the vapor in equilibrium with Al(l)+Al2O3(s) over temperature range 1197-to-1509K. The comparison was made directly by Knudsen effusion-cell mass spectrometry with an instrument configured for a multiple effusion-cell vapor source (multi-cell KEMS). Second law enthalpies of vaporization of Al(g) and Al2O(g) together with activity measurements show that Al(l)+ZrO2(s) is thermodynamically equivalent to Al(l)+Al2O3(s), indicating Al(l) remained pure and Al2O3(s) was present in the ZrO2-cell. Subsequent observation of the Al(l)/ZrO2 and vapor/ZrO2 interfaces revealed a thin Al2O3-layer had formed, separating the ZrO2-cell from Al(l) and Al(g)+Al2O(g), effectively transforming it into an Al2O3 effusion-cell. This behavior agrees with recent observations made for Beta-NiAl(Pt) alloys measured in ZrO2 effusion-cell.

  6. Characterization of ultrafast microstructuring of alumina (Al2O3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrie, Walter; Rushton, Anne; Gill, Matthew; Fox, Peter; O'Neill, William

    2005-03-01

    Alumina ceramic, Al2O3, presents a challenge to laser micro-structuring due to its neglible linear absorption coefficient in the optical region coupled with its physical properties such as extremely high melting point and high thermal conductivity. In this work, we demonstrate clean micro-structuring of alumina using NIR (λ=775 nm) ultrafast optical pulses with 180 fs duration at 1kHz repetition rate. Sub-picosecond pulses can minimise thermal effects along with collateral damage when processing conditions are optimised, consequently, observed edge quality is excellent in this regime. We present results of changing micro-structure and morphology during ultrafast processing along with measured ablation rates and characteristics of developing surface relief. Initial crystalline phase (alpha Al2O3) is unaltered by femtosecond processing. Multi-pulse ablation threshold fluence Fth ~ 1.1 Jcm-2 and at low fluence ~ 3 Jcm-2, independent of machined depth, there appears to remain a ~ 2μm thick rapidly re-melted layer. On the other hand, micro-structuring at high fluence F ~ 21 Jcm-2 shows no evidence of melting and the machined surface is covered with a fine layer of debris, loosely attached. The nature of debris produced by femtosecond ablation has been investigated and consists mainly of alumina nanoparticles with diameters from 20 nm to 1 micron with average diameter ~ 300 nm. Electron diffraction shows these particles to be essentially single crystal in nature. By developing a holographic technique, we have demonstrated periodic micrometer level structuring on polished samples of this extremely hard material.

  7. Modulation in current density of metal/n-SiC contact by inserting Al2O3 interfacial layer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Metal contact to SiC is not easy to modulate since the contact can be influenced by the metal, the termination of the SiC, the doping, and the fabrication process. In this work, we introduce a method by inserting a thin Al2O3 layer between metal and SiC to solve this problem simply but effectively. The Al2O3/n-SiC interface composition was obtained with X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, and the electrical properties of subsequently deposited metal contacts were characterized by current–voltage method. We can clearly demonstrate that the insertion of Al2O3 interfacial layer can modulate the current density effectively and realize the transfer between the Schottky contact and ohmic contact. PMID:23452618

  8. Surface chemistry of plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition of Al2O3 studied by infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langereis, E.; Keijmel, J.; van de Sanden, M. C. M.; Kessels, W. M. M.

    2008-06-01

    The surface groups created during plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition (ALD) of Al2O3 were studied by infrared spectroscopy. For temperatures in the range of 25-150°C, -CH3 and -OH were unveiled as dominant surface groups after the Al(CH3)3 precursor and O2 plasma half-cycles, respectively. At lower temperatures more -OH and C-related impurities were found to be incorporated in the Al2O3 film, but the impurity level could be reduced by prolonging the plasma exposure. The results demonstrate that -OH surface groups rule the surface chemistry of the Al2O3 process and likely that of plasma-assisted ALD of metal oxides from organometallic precursors in general.

  9. Corrosion behaviour of sintered NdFeB coated with Al/Al 2O 3 multilayers by magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Shoudong; Yang, Hengxiu; Huang, Feng; Xie, Tingting; Song, Zhenlun

    2011-02-01

    Al/Al2O3 multilayers were deposited on sintered NdFeB magnets to improve the corrosion resistance. The amorphous Al2O3 films were used to periodically interrupt the columnar growth of the Al layers. The structure of the multilayers was investigated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM). It was found that the columnar structure was effectively inhibited in the multilayers. Subsequent corrosion testing by potentiodynamic polarization in 3.5 wt.% NaCl and neutral salt spray test (NSS) revealed that the Al/Al2O3 multilayers had much better corrosion resistance than the Al single layer. Furthermore, for multilayers with similar thickness, the corrosion resistance was improved as the period decreased.

  10. Interfacial band configuration and electrical properties of LaAlO3/Al2O3/hydrogenated-diamond metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J. W.; Liao, M. Y.; Imura, M.; Oosato, H.; Watanabe, E.; Tanaka, A.; Iwai, H.; Koide, Y.

    2013-08-01

    In order to search a gate dielectric with high permittivity on hydrogenated-diamond (H-diamond), LaAlO3 films with thin Al2O3 buffer layers are fabricated on the H-diamond epilayers by sputtering-deposition (SD) and atomic layer deposition (ALD) techniques, respectively. Interfacial band configuration and electrical properties of the SD-LaAlO3/ALD-Al2O3/H-diamond metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) with gate lengths of 10, 20, and 30 μm have been investigated. The valence and conduction band offsets of the SD-LaAlO3/ALD-Al2O3 structure are measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to be 1.1 ± 0.2 and 1.6 ± 0.2 eV, respectively. The valence band discontinuity between H-diamond and LaAlO3 is evaluated to be 4.0 ± 0.2 eV, showing that the MOS structure acts as the gate which controls a hole carrier density. The leakage current density of the SD-LaAlO3/ALD-Al2O3/H-diamond MOS diode is smaller than 10-8 A cm-2 at gate bias from -4 to 2 V. The capacitance-voltage curve in the depletion mode shows sharp dependence, small flat band voltage, and small hysteresis shift, which implies low positive and trapped charge densities. The MOSFETs show p-type channel and complete normally off characteristics with threshold voltages changing from -3.6 ± 0.1 to -5.0 ± 0.1 V dependent on the gate length. The drain current maximum and the extrinsic transconductance of the MOSFET with gate length of 10 μm are -7.5 mA mm-1 and 2.3 ± 0.1 mS mm-1, respectively. The enhancement mode SD-LaAlO3/ALD-Al2O3/H-diamond MOSFET is concluded to be suitable for the applications of high power and high frequency electrical devices.

  11. Unraveling the Origin of Structural Disorder in High Temperature Transition Al2O3: Structure of θ-Al2O3

    SciTech Connect

    Kovarik, Libor; Bowden, Mark E.; Shi, Dachuan; Washton, Nancy M.; Anderson, Amity; Hu, Jian Z.; Lee, Jaekyoung; Szanyi, Janos; Kwak, Ja Hun; Peden, Charles HF

    2015-09-22

    The crystallography of transition Al2O3 has been extensively studied in the past due to the advantageous properties of the oxide in catalytic and a range of other technological applications. However, existing crystallographic models are insufficient to describe the structure of many important Al2O3 polymorphs due to their highly disordered nature. In this work, we investigate structure and disorder in high-temperature treated transition Al2O3, and provide a structural description for θ-Al2O3 by using a suite of complementary imaging, spectroscopy and quantum calculation techniques. Contrary to current understanding, our high-resolution imaging shows that θ-Al2O3 is a disordered composite phase of at least two different end members. By correlating imaging and spectroscopy results with DFT calculations, we propose a model that describes θ-Al2O3 as a disordered intergrowth of two crystallographic variants at the unit cell level. One variant is based on β-Ga2O3, and the other on a monoclinic phase that is closely-related to δ-Al2O3. The overall findings and interpretations afford new insight into the origin of poor crystallinity in transition Al2O3, and also provide new perspectives on structural complexity that can emerge from intergrowth of closely related structural polymorphs.

  12. The growth of Al2O3/YAG:Ce melt growth composite by the vertical Bridgman technique using an a-axis Al2O3 seed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimura, Masafumi; Sakata, Shin-ichi; Yamada, Seiya; Taishi, Toshinori; Hoshikawa, Keigo

    2015-10-01

    Al2O3/Y3Al5O12 (YAG):Ce melt growth composites (MGCs) were grown by the vertical Bridgman (VB) method using an a-axis [112¯0] Al2O3 seed, and the crystallographic orientations and optical properties of the grown MGCs were investigated. It was found that a crack-free MGC ingot could be grown from the Al2O3 seed. In the MGC grown using the Al2O3 seed, the position of the seeding interface was almost the same to the initial position of the top of the seed. By means of electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis, it was found that the crystallographic orientation of the Al2O3 phase in the grown MGC corresponded to the a-axis Al2O3 seed, while YAG phases with several different orientations were observed. The light-conversion properties of the MGCs grown using an a axis Al2O3 seed for application to white light emitting diodes (LEDs) were quite similar to those grown using an MGC seed. It was also found that it was possible to grow larger diameter, 2-in., Ce-doped MGC ingots with similar crystallographic properties with the VB method using a small Al2O3 seed.

  13. The impact of thickness and thermal annealing on refractive index for aluminum oxide thin films deposited by atomic layer deposition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zi-Yi; Zhang, Rong-Jun; Lu, Hong-Liang; Chen, Xin; Sun, Yan; Zhang, Yun; Wei, Yan-Feng; Xu, Ji-Ping; Wang, Song-You; Zheng, Yu-Xiang; Chen, Liang-Yao

    2015-01-01

    The aluminum oxide (Al2O3) thin films with various thicknesses under 50 nm were deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) on silicon substrate. The surface topography investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) revealed that the samples were smooth and crack-free. The ellipsometric spectra of Al2O3 thin films were measured and analyzed before and after annealing in nitrogen condition in the wavelength range from 250 to 1,000 nm, respectively. The refractive index of Al2O3 thin films was described by Cauchy model and the ellipsometric spectra data were fitted to a five-medium model consisting of Si substrate/SiO2 layer/Al2O3 layer/surface roughness/air ambient structure. It is found that the refractive index of Al2O3 thin films decrease with increasing film thickness and the changing trend revised after annealing. The phenomenon is believed to arise from the mechanical stress in ALD-Al2O3 thin films. A thickness transition is also found by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and SE after 900°C annealing. PMID:25852343

  14. The impact of thickness and thermal annealing on refractive index for aluminum oxide thin films deposited by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zi-Yi; Zhang, Rong-Jun; Lu, Hong-Liang; Chen, Xin; Sun, Yan; Zhang, Yun; Wei, Yan-Feng; Xu, Ji-Ping; Wang, Song-You; Zheng, Yu-Xiang; Chen, Liang-Yao

    2015-02-01

    The aluminum oxide (Al2O3) thin films with various thicknesses under 50 nm were deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) on silicon substrate. The surface topography investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) revealed that the samples were smooth and crack-free. The ellipsometric spectra of Al2O3 thin films were measured and analyzed before and after annealing in nitrogen condition in the wavelength range from 250 to 1,000 nm, respectively. The refractive index of Al2O3 thin films was described by Cauchy model and the ellipsometric spectra data were fitted to a five-medium model consisting of Si substrate/SiO2 layer/Al2O3 layer/surface roughness/air ambient structure. It is found that the refractive index of Al2O3 thin films decrease with increasing film thickness and the changing trend revised after annealing. The phenomenon is believed to arise from the mechanical stress in ALD-Al2O3 thin films. A thickness transition is also found by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and SE after 900°C annealing.

  15. The thermodynamic properties of hydrated -Al2O3 nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, Elinor; Huang, Baiyu; Parker, Stewart F.; Kolesnikov, Alexander I; Ross, Dr. Nancy; Woodfield, Brian

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we report a combined calorimetric and inelastic neutron scattering (INS) study of hydrated -Al2O3 ( -alumina) nanoparticles. These complementary techniques have enabled a comprehensive evaluation of the thermodynamic properties of this technological and industrially important metal oxide to be achieved. The isobaric heat capacity (Cp) data presented herein provide further critical insights into the much-debated chemical composition of -alumina nanoparticles. Furthermore, the isochoric heat capacity (Cv) of the surface water, which is so essential to the stability of all metal-oxides at the nanoscale, has been extracted from the high-resolution INS data and differs significantly from that of ice Ih due to the dominating influence of strong surface-water interactions. This study also encompassed the analysis of four -alumina samples with differing pore diameters [4.5 (1), 13.8 (2), 17.9 (3), and 27.2 nm (4)], and the results obtained allow us to unambiguously conclude that the water content and pore size have no influence on the thermodynamic behaviour of hydrated -alumina nanoparticles.

  16. Role of interfacial transition layers in VO2/Al2O3 heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Honghui; Chisholm, Matthew F; Yang, Tsung-Han; Pennycook, Stephen J; Narayan, Jagdish

    2011-01-01

    Epitaxial VO2 films grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on c-cut sapphire substrates ((0001) Al2O3) were studied by aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). A number of film/substrate orientation relationships were found and are discussed in the context of the semiconductor-metal transition (SMT) characteristics. A structurally and electronically modified buffer layer was revealed on the interface and was attributed to the interface free-energy minimization process of accommodating the symmetry mismatch between the substrate and the film. This interfacial transition layer is expected to affect the SMT behavior when the interfacial region is a significant fraction of the VO2 film thickness.

  17. Modulus, strength and thermal exposure studies of FP-Al2O3/aluminum and FP-Al2O3/magnesium composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatt, R. T.

    1981-01-01

    The mechanical properties of FP-Al2O3 fiber reinforced composites prepared by liquid infiltration techniques are improved. A strengthening addition, magnesium, was incorporated with the aluminum-lithium matrix alloy usually selected for these composites because of its good wetting characteristics. This ternary composite, FP-Al2O3/Al-(2-3)Li-(3-5)Mg, showed improved transverse strength compared with FP-Al2O3/Al-(2-3)Li composites. The lower axial strengths found for the FP-Al2O3/Al-(2-3)Li-(3-5)Mg composites were attributed to fabrication related defects. Another technique was the use of Ti/B coated FP-Al2O3 fibers in the composites. This coating is readily wet by molten aluminum and permitted the use of more conventional aluminum alloys in the composites. However, the anticipated improvements in the axial and transverse strengths were not obtained due to poor bonding between the fiber coating and the matrix. A third approach studied to improve the strengths of FP-Al2O3 reinforced composites was the use of magnesium alloys as matrix materials. While these alloys wet fibers satisfactorily, the result indicated that the magnesium alloy composites used offered no axial strength or modulus advantage over FP-Al2O3/Al-(2-3)Li composites.

  18. Resistive switching characteristics in memristors with Al2O3/TiO2 and TiO2/Al2O3 bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseeva, Liudmila; Nabatame, Toshihide; Chikyow, Toyohiro; Petrov, Anatolii

    2016-08-01

    Differences between the resistive switching characteristics of Al2O3/TiO2 and TiO2/Al2O3 bilayer structures, fabricated by atomic layer deposition at 200 °C and post-deposition annealing, were studied in Pt bottom electrode (Pt-BE)/insulator/Pt top electrode (Pt-TE) capacitors. The Pt-BE/Al2O3/TiO2/Pt-TE capacitor exhibits stable bipolar resistive switching with an on-resistance/off-resistance ratio of ∼102 controlled by a small voltage of ±0.8 V. The forming process occurs in two steps of breaking of the Al2O3 layer and transfer of oxygen vacancies (VO) into the TiO2 layer. The capacitor showed poor endurance, particularly in the high-resistance state under vacuum conditions. This indicates that the insulating TiO2 layer without VO is not formed near the Al2O3 layer because oxygen cannot be introduced from the exterior. On the other hand, in the Pt-BE/TiO2/Al2O3/Pt-TE capacitor, multilevel resistive switching with several applied voltage-dependent nonvolatile states is observed. The switching mechanism corresponds to the Al2O3 layer’s trapped VO concentration, which is controlled by varying the applied voltage.

  19. Growth-Rate Induced Epitaxial Orientation of CeO2 on Al2O3(0001)

    SciTech Connect

    Kuchibhatla, Satyanarayana V N T; Nachimuthu, Ponnusamy; Gao, Fei; Jiang, Weilin; Shutthanandan, V.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Seal, Sudipta; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai

    2009-05-19

    High-quality ceria (CeO2) films were grown on sapphire (Al2O3) (0001) substrates using oxygen plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The epitaxial orientation of the ceria films has been found to be (100) and (111) at low (< 8 Å/min) and higher growth rates (up to ~30 Å/min), respectively. Evidence shows that CeO2 (100) film grows as three-dimensional islands, while CeO2 (111) proceeds with layered growth. Three in-plane domains at 30° to each other are observed in the CeO2 (100), which is attributed to the close match of the oxygen sub-lattices in the film and substrate that has a three-fold symmetry. Molecular dynamic simulations have further confirmed that the CeO2 film retains (100) orientation on the Al2O3 (0001) substrate.

  20. The MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 system - Free energy of pyrope and Al2O3-enstatite. [in earth mantle formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saxena, S. K.

    1981-01-01

    The model of fictive ideal components is used to determine Gibbs free energies of formation of pyrope and Al2O3-enstatite from the experimental data on coexisting garnet and orthopyroxene and orthopyroxene and spinel in the temperature range 1200-1600 K. It is noted that Al2O3 forms an ideal solution with MgSiO3. These thermochemical data are found to be consistent with the Al2O3 isopleths that could be drawn using most recent experimental data and with the reversed experimental data on the garnet-spinel field boundary.

  1. Interfacial charge-induced polarization switching in Al2O3/Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 bi-layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yu Jin; Park, Min Hyuk; Jeon, Woojin; Kim, Han Joon; Moon, Taehwan; Lee, Young Hwan; Kim, Keum Do; Hyun, Seung Dam; Hwang, Cheol Seong

    2015-12-01

    Detailed polarization switching behavior of an Al2O3/Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (AO/PZT) structure is examined by comparing the phenomenological thermodynamic model to the experimental polarization-voltage (P-V) results. Amorphous AO films with various thicknesses (2-10 nm) were deposited on the polycrystalline 150-nm-thick PZT film. The thermodynamic calculation showed that the transition from the ferroelectric-like state to the paraelectric-like state with increasing AO thickness occurs at ˜3 nm thickness. This paraelectric-like state should have exhibited a negative capacitance effect without permanent polarization switching if no other adverse effects are involved. However, experiments showed typical ferroelectric-like hysteresis loops where the coercive voltage increased with the increasing AO thickness, which could be explained by the carrier injection through the thin AO layer and trapping of the carriers at the AO/PZT interface. The fitting of the experimental P-V loops using the thermodynamic model considering the depolarization energy effect showed that trapped charge density was ˜±0.1 Cm-2 and critical electric field at the Pt electrode/AO interface, at which the carrier transport occurs, was ˜±10 MV/cm irrespective of the AO thickness. Energy band model at each electrostatic state along the P-V loop was provided to elucidate correlation between macroscopic polarization and internal charge state of the stacked films.

  2. Surface phonon polariton characteristics of In(0.04)Al(0.06)Ga(0.90)N/AlN/Al(2)O(3) heterostructure.

    PubMed

    Ng, S S; Lee, S C; Bakhori, S K Mohd; Hassan, Z; Abu Hassan, H; Yakovlev, V A; Novikova, N N; Vinogradov, E A

    2010-05-10

    Surface phonon polariton (SPP) characteristics of In(0.04)Al(0.06)Ga(0.90)N/AlN/Al(2)O(3) heterostructure are investigated by means of p-polarized infrared (IR) attenuated total reflection spectroscopy. Two absorption dips corresponding to In(0.04)Al(0.06)Ga(0.90)N SPP modes are observed. In addition, two prominent dips and one relatively weak and broad dip corresponding to the Al(2)O(3) SPP mode, In(0.04)Al(0.06)Ga(0.90)N/Al(2)O(3) interface mode, and Al(2)O(3) bulk polariton mode, respectively, are clearly seen. No surface mode feature originating from the AlN layer is observed because it is too thin. Overall, the observations are in good agreement with the theoretical predictions. PMID:20588890

  3. Atomic layer etching of Al2O3 using sequential, self-limiting thermal reactions with Sn(acac)2 and hydrogen fluoride.

    PubMed

    Lee, Younghee; George, Steven M

    2015-02-24

    The atomic layer etching (ALE) of Al2O3 was demonstrated using sequential, self-limiting thermal reactions with tin(II) acetylacetonate (Sn(acac)2) and hydrogen fluoride (HF) as the reactants. The Al2O3 samples were Al2O3 atomic layer deposition (ALD) films grown using trimethylaluminum and H2O. The HF source was HF-pyridine. Al2O3 was etched linearly with atomic level precision versus number of reactant cycles. The Al2O3 ALE was monitored at temperatures from 150 to 250 °C. Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) studies revealed that the sequential Sn(acac)2 and HF reactions were self-limiting versus reactant exposure. QCM measurements also determined that the mass change per cycle (MCPC) increased with temperature from -4.1 ng/(cm(2) cycle) at 150 °C to -18.3 ng/(cm(2) cycle) at 250 °C. These MCPC values correspond to etch rates from 0.14 Å/cycle at 150 °C to 0.61 Å/cycle at 250 °C based on the Al2O3 ALD film density of 3.0 g/cm(3). X-ray reflectivity (XRR) analysis confirmed the linear removal of Al2O3 and measured an Al2O3 ALE etch rate of 0.27 Å/cycle at 200 °C. The XRR measurements also indicated that the Al2O3 films were smoothed by Al2O3 ALE. The overall etching reaction is believed to follow the reaction Al2O3 + 6Sn(acac)2 + 6HF → 2Al(acac)3 + 6SnF(acac) + 3H2O. In the proposed reaction mechanism, the Sn(acac)2 reactant donates acac to the substrate to produce Al(acac)3. The HF reactant allows SnF(acac) and H2O to leave as reaction products. The thermal ALE of many other metal oxides using Sn(acac)2 or other metal β-diketonates, together with HF, should be possible by a similar mechanism. This thermal ALE mechanism may also be applicable to other materials such as metal nitrides, metal phosphides, metal sulfides and metal arsenides. PMID:25604976

  4. Comparative analysis of the effects of tantalum doping and annealing on atomic layer deposited (Ta2O5)x(Al2O3)1-x as potential gate dielectrics for GaN/AlxGa1-xN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partida-Manzanera, T.; Roberts, J. W.; Bhat, T. N.; Zhang, Z.; Tan, H. R.; Dolmanan, S. B.; Sedghi, N.; Tripathy, S.; Potter, R. J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a method to optimally combine wide band gap Al2O3 with high dielectric constant (high-κ) Ta2O5 for gate dielectric applications. (Ta2O5)x(Al2O3)1-x thin films deposited by thermal atomic layer deposition (ALD) on GaN-capped AlxGa1-xN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) structures have been studied as a function of the Ta2O5 molar fraction. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows that the bandgap of the oxide films linearly decreases from 6.5 eV for pure Al2O3 to 4.6 eV for pure Ta2O5. The dielectric constant calculated from capacitance-voltage measurements also increases linearly from 7.8 for Al2O3 up to 25.6 for Ta2O5. The effect of post-deposition annealing in N2 at 600 °C on the interfacial properties of undoped Al2O3 and Ta-doped (Ta2O5)0.12(Al2O3)0.88 films grown on GaN-HEMTs has been investigated. These conditions are analogous to the conditions used for source/drain contact formation in gate-first HEMT technology. A reduction of the Ga-O to Ga-N bond ratios at the oxide/HEMT interfaces is observed after annealing, which is attributed to a reduction of interstitial oxygen-related defects. As a result, the conduction band offsets (CBOs) of the Al2O3/GaN-HEMT and (Ta2O5)0.16(Al2O3)0.84/GaN-HEMT samples increased by ˜1.1 eV to 2.8 eV and 2.6 eV, respectively, which is advantageous for n-type HEMTs. The results demonstrate that ALD of Ta-doped Al2O3 can be used to control the properties of the gate dielectric, allowing the κ-value to be increased, while still maintaining a sufficient CBO to the GaN-HEMT structure for low leakage currents.

  5. Influence of Al2O3 on the ionic conductivity of plasticized PVC-PEG blend polymer electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravindran, D.; Vickraman, P.

    2016-05-01

    Polymer electrolytes with PVC-PEG blend as host matrix and LiClO4 as dopant salt was prepared through conventional solution casting method. To enhance the conductivity propylene carbonate (PC) was used as plasticizer. The influence of ceramic filler Al2O3 on the conductivity of the electrolyte films were studied by varying the (PVC: Al2O3) ratio. The films were subjected to XRD, complex impedance analysis and SEM analysis. The XRD studies reveal a marginal increase in the amorphous phase of the electrolyte films due to the incorporation of filler. The AC impedance analysis shows the dependency of ionic conductivity on the content (wt %) of filler and exhibit a maximum at 4 wt% filler. The SEM analysis depicts the occurrence of phase separation in electrolyte which is attributed to the poor solubility of polymer PVC in the liquid electrolyte.

  6. Anomalous elongation of c-axis of GaN on Al2O3 grown by MBE using NH3-cluster ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichinohe, Yoshihiro; Imai, Kazuaki; Suzuki, Kazuhiko; Saito, Hiroshi

    2016-02-01

    GaN thin films were grown on Al2O3 (0001) by MBE using NH3-clusters either ionized with the energy of 4-7 eV/molecule (ionized Cluster Beam, i-CB) or un-ionized with the energy of about 0.1 eV/molecule (neutral Cluster Beam, n-CB) at growth temperatures ranging from 390 to 960 °C. The c-axis is extremely elongated but the a-axis is shrunken at the initial growth stage (up to the film thickness of about 10 nm) in GaN grown by the mixture of n- and i-CB under N-rich condition. The films thicker than 30 nm have the relaxed a- and c-axis lengths close to the unstrained values and obey the Poisson relation. GaN grown by i-CB under Ga-rich condition have the relaxed lattice constants obeying the Poisson relation for the film as thin as 6 nm. In GaN grown by the cluster beam (CB) which is not ionized intentionally, both a- and c-axis lengths are almost independent of the film thickness, having nearly the same values as those of the unstrained samples. These characteristics can be ascribed to the nature of interface between the nitrided Al2O3 substrate and epilayer. It is concluded that the films grown by i-CB bond firmly to underlay AlN than the films by n-CB and CB.

  7. Silicon diffusion control in atomic-layer-deposited Al2O3/La2O3/Al2O3 gate stacks using an Al2O3 barrier layer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xing; Liu, Hong-Xia; Fei, Chen-Xi; Yin, Shu-Ying; Fan, Xiao-Jiao

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the physical and electrical characteristics of Al2O3/La2O3/Al2O3/Si stack structures affected by the thickness of an Al2O3 barrier layer between Si substrate and La2O3 layer are investigated after a rapid thermal annealing (RTA) treatment. Time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) tests indicate that an Al2O3 barrier layer (15 atomic layer deposition (ALD) cycles, approximately 1.5 nm) plays an important role in suppressing the diffusion of silicon atoms from Si substrate into the La2O3 layer during the annealing process. As a result, some properties of La2O3 dielectric degenerated by the diffusion of Si atoms are improved. Electrical measurements (C-V, J-V) show that the thickness of Al2O3 barrier layer can affect the shift of flat band voltage (V FB) and the magnitude of gate leakage current density. PMID:25897303

  8. Performance and retention characteristics of nanocrystalline Si floating gate memory with an Al2O3 tunnel layer fabricated by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Zhongyuan; Wang, Wen; Yang, Huafeng; Jiang, Xiaofan; Yu, Jie; Qin, Hua; Xu, Ling; Chen, Kunji; Huang, Xinfan; Li, Wei; Xu, Jun; Feng, Duan

    2016-02-01

    The down-scaling of nanocrystal Si (nc-Si) floating gate memory must overcome the challenge of leakage current induced by the conventional ultra-thin tunnel layer. We demonstrate that an improved memory performance based on the Al/SiNx/nc-Si/Al2O3/Si structure can be achieved by adopting the Al2O3 tunnel layer fabricated by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition. A larger memory window of 7.9 V and better retention characteristics of 4.7 V after 105 s can be obtained compared with the devices containing a conventional SiO2 tunnel layer of equivalent thickness. The capacitance-voltage characteristic reveals that the Al2O3 tunnel layer has a smaller electron barrier height, which ensures that more electrons are injected into the nc-Si dots through the Al2O3/Si interface. The analysis of the conductance-voltage and high-resolution cross-section transmission microscopy reveals that the smaller nc-Si dots dominate in the charge injection in the nc-Si floating gate MOS device with an Al2O3 tunnel layer. With an increase of the nc-Si size, both nc-Si and the interface contribute to the charge storage capacity and retention. The introduction of the Al2O3 tunnel layer in nc-Si floating gate memory provides a method to achieve an improved performance of nc-Si floating gate memory.

  9. Properties of slow traps of ALD Al2O3/GeOx/Ge nMOSFETs with plasma post oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, M.; Yu, X.; Chang, C.; Takenaka, M.; Takagi, S.

    2016-07-01

    The realization of Ge gate stacks with a small amount of slow trap density as well as thin equivalent oxide thickness and low interface state density (Dit) is a crucial issue for Ge CMOS. In this study, we examine the properties of slow traps, particularly the location of slow traps, of Al2O3/GeOx/n-Ge and HfO2/Al2O3/GeOx/n-Ge MOS interfaces with changing the process and structural parameters, formed by atomic layer deposition (ALD) of Al2O3 and HfO2/Al2O3 combined with plasma post oxidation. It is found that the slow traps can locate in the GeOx interfacial layer, not in the ALD Al2O3 layer. Furthermore, we study the time dependence of channel currents in the Ge n-MOSFETs with 5-nm-thick Al2O3/GeOx/Ge gate stacks, with changing the thickness of GeOx, in order to further clarify the position of slow traps. The time dependence of the current drift and the effective time constant of slow traps do not change among the MOSFETs with the different thickness GeOx, demonstrating that the slow traps mainly exist near the interfaces between Ge and GeOx.

  10. Nucleation of ordered Fe islands on Al 2O 3/Ni 3Al(1 1 1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehnert, A.; Krupski, A.; Degen, S.; Franke, K.; Decker, R.; Rusponi, S.; Kralj, M.; Becker, C.; Brune, H.; Wandelt, K.

    2006-05-01

    Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) has been used to investigate the nucleation and stability of iron clusters on the Al 2O 3/Ni 3Al(1 1 1) surface as a function of coverage and annealing temperature. We show that atomic beam deposition of iron leads to hexagonally ordered cluster arrangements with a distance of 24 Å between the clusters evidencing the template effect of the alumina film. The shape of the iron clusters is two-dimensional (2D) at deposition temperatures from 130 K to 160 K and three-dimensional (3D) at 300 K. However, the 2D iron clusters grown between 130 K and 160 K are stable up to 350 K.

  11. Electrochemical promotion of propane oxidation on Pt deposited on a dense β"-Al2O3 ceramic Ag+ conductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsampas, Michail; Kambolis, Anastasios; Obeid, Emil; Lizarraga, Leonardo; Sapountzi, Foteini; Vernoux, Philippe

    2013-08-01

    A new kind of electrochemical catalyst based on a Pt porous catalyst film deposited on a β"-Al2O3 ceramic Ag+ conductor was developed and evaluated during propane oxidation. It was observed that upon anodic polarization, the rate of propane combustion was significantly electropromoted up to 400%. Moreover, for the first time, exponential increase of the catalytic rate was evidenced during galvanostatic transient experiment in excellent agreement with EPOC equation.

  12. High-reliability passivation of hydrogen-terminated diamond surface by atomic layer deposition of Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daicho, Akira; Saito, Tatsuya; Kurihara, Shinichiro; Hiraiwa, Atsushi; Kawarada, Hiroshi

    2014-06-01

    Although the two-dimensional hole gas (2DHG) of a hydrogen-terminated diamond surface provides a unique p-type conducting layer for high-performance transistors, the conductivity is highly sensitive to its environment. Therefore, the surface must be passivated to preserve the 2DHG, especially at high temperature. We passivated the surface at high temperature (450 °C) without the loss of C-H surface bonds by atomic layer deposition (ALD) and investigated the thermal reliability of the Al2O3 film. As a result, C-H bonds were preserved, and the hole accumulation effect appeared after the Al2O3 deposition by ALD with H2O as an oxidant. The sheet resistivity and hole density were almost constant between room temperature and 500 °C by the passivation with thick Al2O3 film thicker than 38 nm deposited by ALD at 450 °C. After the annealing at 550 °C in air The sheet resistivity and hole density were preserved. These results indicate the possibility of high-temperature application of the C-H surface diamond device in air. In the case of lower deposition temperatures, the sheet resistivity increased after air annealing, suggesting an insufficient protection capability of these films. Given the result of sheet resistivity after annealing, the increase in the sheet resistivity of these samples was not greatly significant. However, bubble like patterns were observed in the Al2O3 films formed from 200 to 400 °C by air annealing at 550 °C for 1 h. On the other hand, the patterns were no longer observed at 450 °C deposition. Thus, this 450 °C deposition is the sole solution to enabling power device application, which requires high reliability at high temperatures.

  13. Thermally Sprayed Coatings as Interlayers for DLC-Based Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolelli, G.; Gualtieri, E.; Lusvarghi, L.; Pighetti Mantini, F.; Pitacco, F.; Valeri, S.; Volz, H.

    2009-06-01

    This article examines the usefulness of a thick thermally sprayed interlayer (plasma-sprayed Ni-50%Cr, plasma-sprayed Al2O3-13%TiO2, or high-velocity oxygen-fuel-sprayed WC-17%Co) for enhancing the wear resistance and the corrosion protectiveness of a diamond-like carbon (DLC)-based thin film deposited onto a carbon steel substrate. Scratch tests indicate that the Al2O3-13%TiO2 and WC-17%Co interlayers definitely increase the critical spallation load of the thin film, but the Al2O3-13%TiO2 interlayer itself undergoes brittle fracture under high-contact loads. Accordingly, during ball-on-disk tests at room temperature, no cracking and spallation occur in the DLC-based film deposited onto the WC-17%Co interlayer, whereas the one onto the Al2O3-13%TiO2 interlayer is rapidly removed because the interlayer itself is fractured. At 300 °C, by contrast, the DLC-based film on the Al2O3-13%TiO2 interlayer offers the best tribological performance, possibly thanks to the increased toughness of the ceramic interlayer at this temperature. Electrochemical polarization tests indicate that the thin film/WC-Co systems possess the lowest corrosion current density.

  14. High Elastic Moduli of a 54Al2O3-46Ta2O5 Glass Fabricated via Containerless Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosales-Sosa, Gustavo A.; Masuno, Atsunobu; Higo, Yuji; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Yanaba, Yutaka; Mizoguchi, Teruyasu; Umada, Takumi; Okamura, Kohei; Kato, Katsuyoshi; Watanabe, Yasuhiro

    2015-10-01

    Glasses with high elastic moduli have been in demand for many years because the thickness of such glasses can be reduced while maintaining its strength. Moreover, thinner and lighter glasses are desired for the fabrication of windows in buildings and cars, cover glasses for smart-phones and substrates in Thin-Film Transistor (TFT) displays. In this work, we report a 54Al2O3-46Ta2O5 glass fabricated by aerodynamic levitation which possesses one of the highest elastic moduli and hardness for oxide glasses also displaying excellent optical properties. The glass was colorless and transparent in the visible region, and its refractive index nd was as high as 1.94. The measured Young’s modulus and Vickers hardness were 158.3 GPa and 9.1 GPa, respectively, which are comparable to the previously reported highest values for oxide glasses. Analysis made using 27Al Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (MAS NMR) spectroscopy revealed the presence of a significantly large fraction of high-coordinated Al in addition to four-coordinated Al in the glass. The high elastic modulus and hardness are attributed to both the large cationic field strength of Ta5+ ions and the large dissociation energies per unit volume of Al2O3 and Ta2O5.

  15. High Elastic Moduli of a 54Al2O3-46Ta2O5 Glass Fabricated via Containerless Processing.

    PubMed

    Rosales-Sosa, Gustavo A; Masuno, Atsunobu; Higo, Yuji; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Yanaba, Yutaka; Mizoguchi, Teruyasu; Umada, Takumi; Okamura, Kohei; Kato, Katsuyoshi; Watanabe, Yasuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Glasses with high elastic moduli have been in demand for many years because the thickness of such glasses can be reduced while maintaining its strength. Moreover, thinner and lighter glasses are desired for the fabrication of windows in buildings and cars, cover glasses for smart-phones and substrates in Thin-Film Transistor (TFT) displays. In this work, we report a 54Al2O3-46Ta2O5 glass fabricated by aerodynamic levitation which possesses one of the highest elastic moduli and hardness for oxide glasses also displaying excellent optical properties. The glass was colorless and transparent in the visible region, and its refractive index nd was as high as 1.94. The measured Young's modulus and Vickers hardness were 158.3 GPa and 9.1 GPa, respectively, which are comparable to the previously reported highest values for oxide glasses. Analysis made using (27)Al Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (MAS NMR) spectroscopy revealed the presence of a significantly large fraction of high-coordinated Al in addition to four-coordinated Al in the glass. The high elastic modulus and hardness are attributed to both the large cationic field strength of Ta(5+) ions and the large dissociation energies per unit volume of Al2O3 and Ta2O5. PMID:26468639

  16. Substrate reactivity as the origin of Fermi level pinning at the Cu2O/ALD-Al2O3 interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deuermeier, Jonas; Bayer, Thorsten J. M.; Yanagi, Hiroshi; Kiazadeh, Asal; Martins, Rodrigo; Klein, Andreas; Fortunato, Elvira

    2016-04-01

    The reduction of a Cu2O layer on copper by exposure to TMA during the atomic layer deposition of Al2O3 has recently been reported. (Gharachorlou et al 2015 ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7 16428-16439). The study presented here analyzes a similar process, leading to the reduction of a homogeneous Cu2O thin film, which allows for additional observations. Angle-resolved in situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirms the localization of metallic copper at the interface. The evaluation of binding energy shifts reveals the formation of a Cu2O/Cu Schottky barrier, which gives rise to Fermi level pinning in Cu2O. An initial enhancement of the ALD growth per cycle (GPC) is only observed for bulk Cu2O samples and is thus related to lattice oxygen, originating from regions lying deeper than just the first few layers of the surface. The oxygen out-take from the substrate is limited to the first few cycles, which is found to be due to a saturated copper reduction, rather than the oxygen diffusion barrier of Al2O3.

  17. High Elastic Moduli of a 54Al2O3-46Ta2O5 Glass Fabricated via Containerless Processing

    PubMed Central

    Rosales-Sosa, Gustavo A.; Masuno, Atsunobu; Higo, Yuji; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Yanaba, Yutaka; Mizoguchi, Teruyasu; Umada, Takumi; Okamura, Kohei; Kato, Katsuyoshi; Watanabe, Yasuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Glasses with high elastic moduli have been in demand for many years because the thickness of such glasses can be reduced while maintaining its strength. Moreover, thinner and lighter glasses are desired for the fabrication of windows in buildings and cars, cover glasses for smart-phones and substrates in Thin-Film Transistor (TFT) displays. In this work, we report a 54Al2O3-46Ta2O5 glass fabricated by aerodynamic levitation which possesses one of the highest elastic moduli and hardness for oxide glasses also displaying excellent optical properties. The glass was colorless and transparent in the visible region, and its refractive index nd was as high as 1.94. The measured Young’s modulus and Vickers hardness were 158.3 GPa and 9.1 GPa, respectively, which are comparable to the previously reported highest values for oxide glasses. Analysis made using 27Al Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (MAS NMR) spectroscopy revealed the presence of a significantly large fraction of high-coordinated Al in addition to four-coordinated Al in the glass. The high elastic modulus and hardness are attributed to both the large cationic field strength of Ta5+ ions and the large dissociation energies per unit volume of Al2O3 and Ta2O5. PMID:26468639

  18. Injection Seeding of Ti:Al2O3 in an unstable resonator theory and experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, J. C.; Wang, L. G.; Barnes, N. P.; Edwards, W. C.; Cheng, W. A.; Hess, R. V.; Lockard, G. E.; Ponsardin, P. L.

    1991-01-01

    Injection Seeding of a Ti:Al2O3 unstable resonator using both a pulsed single-mode Ti:Al2O3 laser and a continuous wave laser diode has been characterized. Results are compared with a theory which calculates injection seeding as function of seed and resonator alignment, beam profiles, and power.

  19. Metastability in the MgAl2O4-Al2O3 System

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wilkerson, Kelley R.; Smith, Jeffrey D.; Hemrick, James G.

    2014-07-22

    Aluminum oxide must take a spinel form ( γ-Al2O3) at elevated temperatures in order for extensive solid solution to form between MgAl2O4 and α-Al2O3. The solvus line between MgAl2O4 and Al2O3 has been defined at 79.6 wt% Al2O3 at 1500°C, 83.0 wt% Al2O3 at 1600°C, and 86.5 wt% Al2O3 at 1700°C. A metastable region has been defined at temperatures up to 1700°C which could have significant implications for material processing and properties. Additionally, initial processing could have major implications on final chemistry. The spinel solid solution region has been extended to form an infinite solid solution with Al2O3 at elevatedmore » temperatures. A minimum in melting at 1975°C and a chemistry of 96 wt% Al2O3 rather than a eutectic is present, resulting in no eutectic crystal formation during solidification.« less

  20. Sinterability, mechanical, and electrical properties of Al2O3/8YSZ nanocomposites prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jae-Kyo; Shim, Kwang-Bo; Kim, Hee-Taik; Choa, Yong-Ho

    2006-11-01

    Al2O3 nanoparticles added the YSZ for improving the mechanical property and the ionic conductivity. Al2O3/YSZ nanocomposites were prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis and PECS process. The relative density of the Al2O3/YSZ nanocomposites was fully densified at a sintering temperature of 1100 degrees C. The grain size for 5 vol.% Al2O3/YSZ was less than 100 nm. The fracture toughness and total ionic conductivity of Al2O3/YSZ nanocomposites were improved compared with Al2O3/YSZ nanocomposites by conventional process, due to homogeneous dispersion and uniform particle size of added Al2O3. PMID:17252776

  1. Formation of gamma'-Ni3Al via the Peritectoid Reaction: gamma plus beta (+Al2O3) equals gamma'(+Al2O3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copland, Evan

    2008-01-01

    The activities of Al and Ni were measured using multi-cell Knudsen effusion-cell mass spectrometry (multi-cell KEMS), over the composition range 8 - 32 at.%Al and temperature range T = 1400 - 1750 K in the Ni-Al-O system. These measurements establish that equilibrium solidification of gamma'-Ni3Al-containing alloys occurs by the eutectic reaction, L (+ Al2O3) = gamma + beta (+ Al2O3), at 1640 plus or minus 1 K and a liquid composition of 24.8 plus or minus 0.2 at.%Al (at an unknown oxygen content). The {gamma + beta + Al2O3} phase field is stable over the temperature range 1633 - 1640 K, and gamma'-Ni3Al forms via the peritectiod, gamma + beta (+ Al2O3) = gamma'(+ Al2O3), at 1633 plus or minus 1 K. This behavior is inconsistent with the current Ni-Al phase diagram and a new diagram is proposed. This new Ni-Al phase diagram explains a number of unusual steady state solidification structures reported previously and provides a much simpler reaction scheme in the vicinity of the gamma'-Ni3Al phase field.

  2. Formation of gamma(sup prime)-Ni3Al via the Peritectoid Reaction: gamma + beta (+ Al2O3)=gamma(sup prime)(+ Al2O3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copeland, Evan

    2008-01-01

    The activities of Al and Ni were measured using multi-cell Knudsen effusion-cell mass spectrometry (multi-cell KEMS), over the composition range 8-32 at.%Al and temperature range T=1400-1750 K in the Ni-Al-O system. These measurements establish that equilibrium solidification of gamma(sup prime)-Ni3Al-containing alloys occurs by the eutectic reaction, L (+ Al2O3)=gamma + Beta(+ Al2O3), at 1640 +/- 1 K and a liquid composition of 24.8 +/- 0.2 at.%al (at an unknown oxygen content). The {gamma + Beta (+Al2O3} phase field is stable over the temperature range 1633-1640 K, and gamma(sup prime)-Ni3Al forms via the peritectoid, gamma + Beta (+ Al2O3)=gamma(sup prime) (+ Al2O3), at 1633 +/- 1 K. This behavior is consistent with the current Ni-Al phase diagram and a new diagram is proposed. This new Ni-Al phase diagram explains a number of unusual steady-state solidification structures reported previously and provides a much simpler reaction scheme in the vicinity of the gamma(sup prime)-Ni2Al phase field.

  3. Influence of Al2O3 sol concentration on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Cu-Al2O3 composite coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xiaojin; Yang, Zhendi; Tang, Ying; Gao, Wei

    2015-03-01

    Copper (Cu) is widely used as electrical conducting and contacting material. However, Cu is soft and does not have good mechanical properties. In order to improve the hardness and wear resistance of Cu, sol-enhanced Cu-Al2O3 nanocomposite coatings were electroplated by adding a transparent Al oxide (Al2O3) sol into the traditional electroplating Cu solution. It was found that the microstructure and mechanical properties of the nanocomposite coatings were largely influenced by the Al2O3 sol concentration. The results show that the Al2O3 nanoparticle reinforced the composite coatings, resulting in significantly improved hardness and wear resistance in comparison with the pure Cu coatings. The coating prepared at the sol concentration of 3.93 mol/L had the best microhardness and wear resistance. The microhardness has been improved by 20% from 145.5 HV (Vickers hardness number) of pure Cu coating to 173.3 HV of Cu-Al2O3 composite coatings. The wear resistance was also improved by 84%, with the wear volume loss dropped from 3.2 × 10-3 mm3 of Cu coating to 0.52 × 10-3 mm3 of composite coatings. Adding excessive sol to the electrolyte deteriorated the properties.

  4. Thermal Properties in the MgAl2O4-Al2O3 System

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkerson, Dr. Kelley R.; Smith, Jeffrey D; Hemrick, James Gordon

    2013-01-01

    Compositional effects on the thermal diffusivity in the MgAl2O4-Al2O3 system were studied. The lowest thermal diffusivity, 0.0258 +/-5% cm/s, was measured between 79.8 and 83.9 wt% Al2O3 quenched from various temperatures between 1500 and 1700C. All of the chemistries in this range extend past the solvus, but still form a singe super-saturated spinel solid solution, regardless of quenching tempeature. A super-saturated metastable solid solution region was observed at 1500, 1600, and 1700C extending to 83.9, 85.2, and 87.1 wt% Al2O3, respectively. Beyond 83.9% Al2O3 a significant increase in thermal diffusivity, 11.7%, was observed and its attributed to precipiation of Al2O3 through spinodal decomposition.

  5. Effects of Al2O3 phase and Cl component on dehydrogenation of propane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jie; Liu, Changcheng; Ma, Aizeng; Rong, Junfeng; Da, Zhijian; Zheng, Aiguo; Qin, Ling

    2016-04-01

    The effects of two Al2O3 phases, γ- and θ-Al2O3, and Cl component on the performances of Pt-Al2O3 catalysts in the dehydrogenation of propane were investigated in this work. The catalysts were systematically characterized by various techniques, such as scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), temperature-programmed desorption with ammonia as probe molecules (NH3-TPD) and temperature-programmed oxidation (TPO). The characterizations and catalytic results show that: (i) the pore structures and acid properties of the two Al2O3 phases can change the quantity, location and property of the carbon deposition, (ii) the existence of Cl plays a significant role on the agglomeration of Pt particles and carbon deposition, which further influence the catalytic performances of Pt-Al2O3 catalysts with different support phases for propane dehydrogenation.

  6. Uniaxial magnetic anisotropy in Pd/Fe bilayers on Al2O3 (0001) induced by oblique deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Chiao-Sung; Wang, Bo-Yao; Pong, Way-Faung; Ho, Tsung-Ying; Tsai, Cheng-Jui; Lo, Fang-Yuh; Chern, Ming-Yau; Lin, Wen-Chin

    2012-06-01

    This study reports the preparation of self-organized 1-dimensional magnetic structures of Fe on Al2O3 (0001) by oblique deposition. The x-ray diffraction (XRD) results in this study show the preferred (110) texture of the Fe films. XRD and extended x-ray adsorption fine structure measurements indicate larger oblique deposition angle (65°) leads to more disorder in the Fe crystalline structure. After capping with a Pd overlayer, the Pd/Fe/Al2O3 (0001) still exhibits uniaxial magnetic anisotropy induced by the underlying 1-dimensional Fe nanostructure. This uniaxial magnetic anisotropy changes with the variation in Fe thickness and oblique deposition angle. These results clearly indicate the feasibility of manipulating uniaxial magnetic anisotropy and crystalline order through the oblique deposition of magnetic materials.

  7. Passivation of Al2O3 / TiO2 on monocrystalline Si with relatively low reflectance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Chun-Ti; Huang, Yu-Shiang; Liu, C. W.

    2016-06-01

    Al2O3/TiO2 stack layers deposited by the plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition enhance photoluminescence intensity by reducing effective surface recombination velocities on both n-type and p-type monocrystalline Si. The field effect of negative oxide charges in the dielectrics is responsible for the low effective surface recombination velocity. The dependence of the effective surface recombination velocity on the photoluminescence intensity is investigated by the 2D numerical simulation. The bilayer stacks without texture also reduce the AM1.5-weighted front side reflectance to 11.8%. The field-effect passivation of Al2O3/TiO2 films is further improved by a forming gas annealing due to the additional increase of the negative oxide charge density.

  8. Excellent passivation of highly doped p-type Si surfaces by the negative-charge-dielectric Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoex, B.; Schmidt, J.; Bock, R.; Altermatt, P. P.; van de Sanden, M. C. M.; Kessels, W. M. M.

    2007-09-01

    From lifetime measurements, including a direct experimental comparison with thermal SiO2, a-Si :H, and as-deposited a-SiNx:H, it is demonstrated that Al2O3 provides an excellent level of surface passivation on highly B-doped c-Si with doping concentrations around 1019cm-3. The Al2O3 films, synthesized by plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition and with a high fixed negative charge density, limit the emitter saturation current density of B-diffused p +-emitters to ˜10 and ˜30fA/cm2 on >100 and 54Ω/sq sheet resistance p+-emitters, respectively. These results demonstrate that highly doped p-type Si surfaces can be passivated as effectively as highly doped n-type surfaces.

  9. Surface passivation and optical characterization of Al2O3/a-SiCx stacks on c-Si substrates.

    PubMed

    López, Gema; Ortega, Pablo R; Voz, Cristóbal; Martín, Isidro; Colina, Mónica; Morales, Anna B; Orpella, Albert; Alcubilla, Ramón

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work is to study the surface passivation of aluminum oxide/amorphous silicon carbide (Al2O3/a-SiCx) stacks on both p-type and n-type crystalline silicon (c-Si) substrates as well as the optical characterization of these stacks. Al2O3 films of different thicknesses were deposited by thermal atomic layer deposition (ALD) at 200 °C and were complemented with a layer of a-SiCx deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) to form anti-reflection coating (ARC) stacks with a total thickness of 75 nm. A comparative study has been carried out on polished and randomly textured wafers. We have experimentally determined the optimum thickness of the stack for photovoltaic applications by minimizing the reflection losses over a wide wavelength range (300-1200 nm) without compromising the outstanding passivation properties of the Al2O3 films. The upper limit of the surface recombination velocity (S eff,max) was evaluated at a carrier injection level corresponding to 1-sun illumination, which led to values below 10 cm/s. Reflectance values below 2% were measured on textured samples over the wavelength range of 450-1000 nm. PMID:24367740

  10. Effect of incorporation of different modified Al2O3 nanoparticles on holographic characteristics of PVA/AA photopolymer composites.

    PubMed

    Li, Yunxi; Wang, Chunhui; Li, Hailong; Wang, Xiaoyi; Han, Junhe; Huang, Mingju

    2015-11-20

    Al2O3 nanoparticles modified with different chemical reagents, prepared by using three chemical dispersants [high definition (HD), sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate, and cetyl trimethyl ammonium chloride], were doped into photopolymer films in a polyvinyl alcohol/acrylamide (PVA/AA) system, respectively. A 647 nm Ar-Kr laser was used to expose and study the holographic properties of the samples. The research shows that doping Al2O3 nanoparticles into PVA/AA photopolymer film leads to different levels of improvement of the holographic characteristics. The diffraction efficiency of the sample can be raised to 93.8%, the maximum refractive index modulation increased to 2.28×10(-3), the shrinkage can be depressed to 0.8%, and the Bragg mismatch is 0.04°, while the concentration of 10 nm Al2O3 nanoparticles modified by HD dispersant is 1.02×10(-3)  mol·L(-1). PMID:26836540

  11. Surface passivation and optical characterization of Al2O3/a-SiCx stacks on c-Si substrates

    PubMed Central

    Ortega, Pablo R; Voz, Cristóbal; Martín, Isidro; Colina, Mónica; Morales, Anna B; Orpella, Albert; Alcubilla, Ramón

    2013-01-01

    Summary The aim of this work is to study the surface passivation of aluminum oxide/amorphous silicon carbide (Al2O3/a-SiCx) stacks on both p-type and n-type crystalline silicon (c-Si) substrates as well as the optical characterization of these stacks. Al2O3 films of different thicknesses were deposited by thermal atomic layer deposition (ALD) at 200 °C and were complemented with a layer of a-SiCx deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) to form anti-reflection coating (ARC) stacks with a total thickness of 75 nm. A comparative study has been carried out on polished and randomly textured wafers. We have experimentally determined the optimum thickness of the stack for photovoltaic applications by minimizing the reflection losses over a wide wavelength range (300–1200 nm) without compromising the outstanding passivation properties of the Al2O3 films. The upper limit of the surface recombination velocity (S eff,max) was evaluated at a carrier injection level corresponding to 1-sun illumination, which led to values below 10 cm/s. Reflectance values below 2% were measured on textured samples over the wavelength range of 450–1000 nm. PMID:24367740

  12. Pinhole Effect on the Melting Behavior of Ag@Al2O3 SERS Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Lingwei; Huang, Yu; Hou, Mengjing; Li, Jianghao; Zhang, Zhengjun

    2016-03-01

    High-temperature surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensing is significant for practical detections, and pinhole-containing (PC) metal@oxide structures possessing both enhanced thermal stability and superior SERS sensitivity are served as promising SERS sensors at extreme sensing conditions. Through tuning the Al2O3 precursors' exposure time during atomic layer deposition (ALD), Al2O3 shells with different amount of pinholes were covered over Ag nanorods (Ag NRs). By virtue of these unique PC Ag@Al2O3 nanostructures, herein we provide an excellent platform to investigate the relationship between the pinhole rate of Al2O3 shells and the melting behavior, high-temperature SERS performances of these core-shell nanostructures. Pinhole effect on the melting procedures of PC Ag@Al2O3 substrates was characterized in situ via their reflectivity variations during heating, and the specific melting point was quantitatively estimated. It is found that the melting point of PC Ag@Al2O3 raised along with the decrement of pinhole rate, and substrates with less pinholes exhibited better thermal stability but sacrificed SERS efficiency. This work achieved highly reliable and precise control of the pinholes over Al2O3 shells, offering sensitive SERS substrates with intensified thermal stability and superior SERS performances at extreme sensing conditions.

  13. Pinhole Effect on the Melting Behavior of Ag@Al2O3 SERS Substrates.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lingwei; Huang, Yu; Hou, Mengjing; Li, Jianghao; Zhang, Zhengjun

    2016-12-01

    High-temperature surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensing is significant for practical detections, and pinhole-containing (PC) metal@oxide structures possessing both enhanced thermal stability and superior SERS sensitivity are served as promising SERS sensors at extreme sensing conditions. Through tuning the Al2O3 precursors' exposure time during atomic layer deposition (ALD), Al2O3 shells with different amount of pinholes were covered over Ag nanorods (Ag NRs). By virtue of these unique PC Ag@Al2O3 nanostructures, herein we provide an excellent platform to investigate the relationship between the pinhole rate of Al2O3 shells and the melting behavior, high-temperature SERS performances of these core-shell nanostructures. Pinhole effect on the melting procedures of PC Ag@Al2O3 substrates was characterized in situ via their reflectivity variations during heating, and the specific melting point was quantitatively estimated. It is found that the melting point of PC Ag@Al2O3 raised along with the decrement of pinhole rate, and substrates with less pinholes exhibited better thermal stability but sacrificed SERS efficiency. This work achieved highly reliable and precise control of the pinholes over Al2O3 shells, offering sensitive SERS substrates with intensified thermal stability and superior SERS performances at extreme sensing conditions. PMID:27033846

  14. Catalytic ozonation of petroleum refinery wastewater utilizing Mn-Fe-Cu/Al2O 3 catalyst.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chunmao; Yoza, Brandon A; Wang, Yandan; Wang, Ping; Li, Qing X; Guo, Shaohui; Yan, Guangxu

    2015-04-01

    There is of great interest to develop an economic and high-efficient catalytic ozonation system (COS) for the treatment of biologically refractory wastewaters. Applications of COS require options of commercially feasible catalysts. Experiments in the present study were designed to prepare and investigate a novel manganese-iron-copper oxide-supported alumina-assisted COS (Mn-Fe-Cu/Al2O3-COS) for the pretreatment of petroleum refinery wastewater. The highly dispersed composite metal oxides on the catalyst surface greatly promoted the performance of catalytic ozonation. Hydroxyl radical mediated oxidation is a dominant reaction in Mn-Fe-Cu/Al2O3-COS. Mn-Fe-Cu/Al2O3-COS enhanced COD removal by 32.7% compared with a single ozonation system and by 8-16% compared with Mn-Fe/Al2O3-COS, Mn-Cu/Al2O3-COS, and Fe-Cu/Al2O3-COS. The O/C and H/C ratios of oxygen-containing polar compounds significantly increased after catalytic ozonation, and the biodegradability of petroleum refinery wastewater was significantly improved. This study illustrates potential applications of Mn-Fe-Cu/Al2O3-COS for pretreatment of biologically refractory wastewaters. PMID:25649390

  15. Structural and Superconducting Properties of (Al2O3) y /CuTl-1223 Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jabbar, Abdul; Qasim, Irfan; Waqee-ur-Rehman, M.; Zaman, Munawar; Nadeem, K.; Mumtaz, M.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of nano-Alumina (Al2O3) particles inclusion on the structural and superconducting transport properties of (Cu0.5Tl0.5)Ba2Ca2Cu3O10-δ (CuTl-1223) matrix were explored in detail. Different concentrations (i.e. y = 0-1.5 wt.%) of Al2O3 nanoparticles were added to a CuTl-1223 matrix to obtain the desired (Al2O3) y /CuTl-1223 nano-superconducting composites. No significant change was observed in the crystal structure and stoichiometry of the host CuTl-1223 superconducting phase after the addition of Al2O3 nanoparticles. This indicates the occupancy of these nanoparticles at the inter-granular spaces. The superconductivity was suppressed with increasing Al2O3 nanoparticles contents in the CuTl-1223 matrix. The suppression of superconducting properties is most probably due to a pair-breaking mechanism caused by the reflection/scattering of carriers across the insulating nano-Al2O3 particles present at the grain boundaries. The non-monotonic variation of the superconducting properties may be due to inhomogeneous distribution of Al2O3 nanoparticles at the grain boundaries.

  16. Pt-Al2O3 dual layer atomic layer deposition coating in high aspect ratio nanopores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pardon, Gaspard; Gatty, Hithesh K.; Stemme, Göran; van der Wijngaart, Wouter; Roxhed, Niclas

    2013-01-01

    Functional nanoporous materials are promising for a number of applications ranging from selective biofiltration to fuel cell electrodes. This work reports the functionalization of nanoporous membranes using atomic layer deposition (ALD). ALD is used to conformally deposit platinum (Pt) and aluminum oxide (Al2O3) on Pt in nanopores to form a metal-insulator stack inside the nanopore. Deposition of these materials inside nanopores allows the addition of extra functionalities to nanoporous materials such as anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes. Conformal deposition of Pt on such materials enables increased performances for electrochemical sensing applications or fuel cell electrodes. An additional conformal Al2O3 layer on such a Pt film forms a metal-insulator-electrolyte system, enabling field effect control of the nanofluidic properties of the membrane. This opens novel possibilities in electrically controlled biofiltration. In this work, the deposition of these two materials on AAO membranes is investigated theoretically and experimentally. Successful process parameters are proposed for a reliable and cost-effective conformal deposition on high aspect ratio three-dimensional nanostructures. A device consisting of a silicon chip supporting an AAO membrane of 6 mm diameter and 1.3 μm thickness with 80 nm diameter pores is fabricated. The pore diameter is reduced to 40 nm by a conformal deposition of 11 nm Pt and 9 nm Al2O3 using ALD.

  17. Thermoluminescence studies of γ-irradiated Al2O3:Ce3+ phosphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, S. Satyanarayana; Nagabhushana, K. R.; Singh, Fouran

    2016-07-01

    Pure and Ce3+ doped Al2O3 phosphors were synthesized by solution combustion method. The synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and its shows α-phase of Al2O3. Crystallite size was estimated by Williamson-Hall (W-H) method and found to be 49, 59 and 84 nm for pure, 0.1 mol% and 1 mol% Ce3+ doped Al2O3 respectively. Trace elemental analysis of undoped Al2O3 shows impurities viz. Fe, Cr, Mn, Mg, Ti, etc. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra of Al2O3:Ce3+ shows emission at 367 nm and excitation peak at 273 nm, which are corresponding to 5D → 4F and 4F → 5D transitions respectively. PL intensity decreases with concentration up to 0.4 mol%, beyond this mol% PL intensity increases with doping concentration up to 2 mol%. Thermoluminescence (TL) studies of γ-rayed pure and Ce3+ doped Al2O3 have been studied. Two well resolved TL glow peaks at 457.5 K and 622 K were observed in pure Al2O3. Additional glow peak at 566 K was observed in Al2O3:Ce3+. Maximum TL intensity was observed for Al2O3:Ce3+ (0.1 mol%) beyond this TL intensity decreases with increasing Ce3+ concentration. Computerized glow curve deconvolution (CGCD) method was used to resolve the multiple peaks and to calculate TL kinetic parameters. Thermoluminescence emission (TLE) spectra of pure Al2O3 glow peaks (457.5 K and 622 K) shows sharp emission at 694 nm and two small humps at 672 nm and 709 nm. The sharp peak at 696 nm corresponds to Cr3+ impurity of 2Eg → 4A2g transition of R lines and 713 nm hump is undoubtedly belongs to Cr3+ emission of near neighbor pairs. The emission at 672 nm is characteristic of Mn4+ impurity ions of 2E → 4A2 transition. TLE of Al2O3:Ce3+ (0.1 mol%) shows additional broad emission at 412 nm corresponds to F-centers. Linearity is observed in the dose range 20-500 Gy in Al2O3:Ce3+ (1 mol%).

  18. Synthesis and optical studies of chemically synthesized PPy/Al2O3 nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahadur, Indra; Mishra, Sheo K.; Tripathi, Akhilesh; Shukla, R. K.

    2016-05-01

    In the present work, we have synthesised pure and 2wt% Al2O3 doped PPy by the chemical oxidation method. XRD patterns of 2wt% Al2O3 doped PPy shows several broad peaks while pure PPy shows only one single peak indicating poor crystalline phase of PPy. FTIR spectra confirm the formation of PPy and also suggest that doping of Al2O3 in PPy does not affect its structure. PL shows several emission peaks for both samples located at ˜365 nm with two shoulders at ˜473 nm and ˜533 nm. The further synthesis and properties study is under investigation.

  19. Electroforming and Ohmic contacts in Al-Al2O3-Ag diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickmott, T. W.

    2012-03-01

    Electroforming of metal-insulator-metal (MIM) diodes is a non-destructive dielectric breakdown process that changes the diode from its initial high resistance state (HRS) to a low resistance state (LRS). After electroforming, resistance switching memories (RSMs) use voltages to switch from HRS to LRS and back. Many MIM combinations are proposed for use in RSMs. In many cases conduction in the LRS is nearly temperature independent at low temperatures; an Ohmic contact with a barrier to electron injection of ˜0 eV results from electroforming. Electroforming of Al-Al2O3-Ag diodes with amorphous anodic Al2O3 thicknesses between 12 and 41 nm has been studied. Two anodizing electrolytes have been used; 0.1 M ammonium pentaborate (bor-H2O) and a solution of 0.1 M of ammonium pentaborate per liter of ethylene glycol (bor-gly). Polarization of Al2O3 and negative charge in Al2O3 are much larger when Al2O3 is formed in bor-H2O solution than when Al is anodized in bor-gly solution. Electroforming of Al-Al2O3-Ag diodes results in an Ohmic contact at the Al-Al2O3 interface, voltage-controlled negative resistance (VCNR) in the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics, electroluminescence (EL), and electron emission into vacuum (EM) from filamentary conducting channels. Two distinct modes of electroforming occur for Al-Al2O3-Ag diodes. α-forming occurs for 2.5 V ≲ VS ≲ 5 V, where VS is the applied voltage. It is characterized by an abrupt current jump with the simultaneous appearance of EL and EM. β-forming occurs for VS ≳ 7 V. I-V curves, EL, and EM develop gradually and are smaller than for α-forming. Electroforming occurs more readily for diodes with Al2O3 formed in bor-H2O that have greater defect densities. Fully developed I-V curves have similar VCNR, EL, and EM after α-forming or β-forming. A model is proposed in which excited states of F-centers, oxygen vacancies in amorphous anodic Al2O3, form defect conduction bands. Electroforming that results in an Ohmic

  20. Tribological evaluation of an Al2O3-SiO2 ceramic fiber candidate for high temperature sliding seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dellacorte, Christopher; Steinetz, Bruce

    1994-01-01

    A test program to determine the relative sliding durability of an alumina-silica candidate ceramic fiber for high temperature sliding seal applications is described. Pin-on-disk tests were used to evaluate the potential seal material by sliding a tow or bundle of the candidate ceramic fiber against a superalloy test disk. Friction was measured during the tests and fiber wear, indicated by the extent of fibers broken in the tow or bundle, was measured at the end of each test. Test variables studied included ambient temperatures from 25 to 900 C, loads from 1.3 to 21.2 N, and sliding velocities from 0.025 to 0.25 m/sec. In addition, the effects of fiber diameter and elastic modulus on friction and wear were measured. Thin gold films deposited on the superalloy disk surface were evaluated in an effort to reduce friction and wear of the fibers. In most cases, wear increased with test temperature. Friction ranged from 0.36 at 500 C and low velocity (0.025 m/sec) to over 1.1 at 900 C and high velocity (0.25 m/sec). The gold films resulted in satisfactory lubrication of the fibers at 25 C. At elevated temperatures diffusion of substrate elements degraded the films. These results indicate that the alumina-silica (Al2O3-SiO2) fiber is a good candidate material system for high temperature sliding seal applications. More work is needed to reduce friction.

  1. Oxidation of Al2O3 continuous fiber-reinforced/NiAl composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doychak, J.; Nesbitt, J. A.; Noebe, R. D.; Bowman, R. R.

    1992-01-01

    The 1200 C and 1300 C isothermal and cyclic oxidation behavior of Al2O3 continuous fiber-reinforced/NiAl composites were studied. Oxidation resulted in formation of Al2O3 external scales in a similar manner as scales formed on monolithic NiAl. The isothermal oxidation of an Al2O3/NiAl composite resulted in oxidation of the matrix along the fiber/matrix interface near the fiber ends. This oxide acted as a wedge between the fiber and the matrix, and, under cyclic oxidation conditions, led to further oxidation along the fiber lengths and eventual cracking of the composite. The oxidation behavior of composites in which the Al2O3 fibers were sputter coated with nickel prior to processing was much more severe. This was attributed to open channels around the fibers which formed during processing, most likely as a result of the diffusion of the nickel coating into the matrix.

  2. First-principles elastic constants of α- and θ-Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Shunli; Wang, Yi; Liu, Zi-Kui

    2007-03-01

    Using an efficient strain-stress method, the first-principles elastic constants cij's of α-Al2O3 and θ-Al2O3 have been predicted within the local density approximation and the generalized gradient approximation. It is indicated that more accurate calculations of cij's can be accomplished by the local density approximation. The predicted cij's of θ-Al2O3 provide helpful guidance for future measurements, especially the predicted negative c15. The present results make the stress estimation in thermally grown oxides containing of α- and θ-Al2O3 possible, which in turn provide helpful insights for preventing the failure of thermal barrier coatings on components in gas-turbine engines.

  3. Feasibility study of plasma sprayed Al2O3 coatings as diffusion barrier on CFC components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobzin, Kirsten; Zhao, Lidong; Kopp, Nils; Warda, Thomas

    2012-12-01

    Carbon fibre reinforced carbon (CFC) materials are increasingly applied as sample carriers in modern furnaces. Only their tendency to react with different metals at high temperatures by C-diffusion is a disadvantage, which can be solved by application of diffusion barriers. Within this study the feasibility of plasma sprayed Al2O3 coatings as diffusion barrier was studied. Al2O3 coatings were prepared by air plasma spraying (APS). The coatings were investigated in terms of their microstructure, bonding to CFC substrates and thermal stability. The results showed that Al2O3 could be well deposited onto CFC substrates. The coatings had a good bonding and thermal shock behavior at 1060°C. At higher temperature of 1270°C, crack network formed within the coating, showing that the plasma sprayed Al2O3 coatings are limited regarding to their application temperatures as diffusion barrier on CFC components.

  4. Fabrication of Al2O3/glass/Cf Composite Substrate with High Thermal Conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S. X.; Liu, G. S.; Ouyang, X. Q.; Wang, Y. D.; Zhang, D.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, carbon fiber with high thermal conductivity was introduced into the alumina-based composites. To avoid oriented alignment of carbon fibers (Cf) and carbothermal reactions during the sintering process, the Al2O3/glass/Cf substrate was hot-pressed under a segmental-pressure procedure at 1123 K. Experimental results show that carbon fibers randomly distribute and form a bridging structure in the matrix. The three-dimensional network of Cf in Al2O3/glass/Cf substrate brings excellent heat conducting performance due to the heat conduction by electrons. The thermal conductivity of Al2O3/30%glass/30%Cf is as high as 28.98 W mK-1, which is 4.56 times larger than that of Al2O3/30%glass.

  5. Determination of transmission factors for beta radiation using Al 2O 3:C commercial OSL dosimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, T. N. O.; Caldas, L. V. E.

    2010-07-01

    In recent years, the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) technique has been used in personal dosimetry, and aluminum oxide (Al 2O 3:C) has become a very useful material for this technique. The objective of this work was the determination of the transmission factors for beta radiation using Al 2O 3:C commercial dosimeters and the OSL method. The obtained results were similar to the transmission factors reported in the beta source calibration certificates.

  6. Postperovskite phase equilibria in the MgSiO3-Al2O3 system.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Jun; Tsuchiya, Taku

    2008-12-01

    We investigate high-P,T phase equilibria of the MgSiO(3)-Al(2)O(3) system by means of the density functional ab initio computation methods with multiconfiguration sampling. Being different from earlier studies based on the static substitution properties with no consideration of Rh(2)O(3)(II) phase, present calculations demonstrate that (i) dissolving Al(2)O(3) tends to decrease the postperovskite transition pressure of MgSiO(3) but the effect is not significant ( approximately -0.2 GPa/mol% Al(2)O(3)); (ii) Al(2)O(3) produces the narrow perovskite+postperovskite coexisting P,T area (approximately 1 GPa) for the pyrolitic concentration (x(Al2O3) approximately 6 mol%), which is sufficiently responsible to the deep-mantle D'' seismic discontinuity; (iii) the transition would be smeared (approximately 4 GPa) for the basaltic Al-rich composition (x(Al2O3) approximately 20 mol%), which is still seismically visible unless iron has significant effects; and last (iv) the perovskite structure spontaneously changes to the Rh(2)O(3)(II) with increasing the Al concentration involving small displacements of the Mg-site cations. PMID:19036928

  7. Influence of annealing temperature on the phase transformation of Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahat, Annie Maria; Mastuli, Mohd Sufri; Kamarulzaman, Norlida

    2016-02-01

    In the present study, Al2O3 powders were prepared via a self-propagating combustion method using citric acid as a combustion agent. Effects of annealing temperature on the phase transformation of the prepared powders were studied on samples annealed at 800 °C and 1000 °C. The Al2O3 samples were characterized using X-Ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and N2 adsorption-desorption measurements. The XRD results showed that pure η-phase and pure α-phase of Al2O3 were obtained at 800 °C and 1000 °C, respectively. Their crystallite sizes are totally different as can be seen clearly from the FESEM micrographs. The η-Al2O3 sample annealed at low temperature has crystallite size smaller than 10 nm compared to the α-Al2O3 sample annealed at higher temperature which has crystallites from few microns to hundreds microns in size. From the BET (Brunauer-Emmett-Teller) method, the specific surface area for both samples are 59.4 m2g-1 and 3.1 m2g-1, respectively. It is proposed that the annealing temperature less pronounced for the morphology, but, it is significant for the phase transitions as well as the size and the specific surface area of the Al2O3 samples.

  8. Sodium ion diffusion in Al2O3: a distinct perspective compared with lithium ion diffusion.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sung Chul; Kim, Hyung-Jin; Choi, Jang Wook; Han, Young-Kyu

    2014-11-12

    Surface coating of active materials has been one of the most effective strategies to mitigate undesirable side reactions and thereby improve the overall battery performance. In this direction, aluminum oxide (Al2O3) is one of the most widely adopted coating materials due to its easy synthesis and low material cost. Nevertheless, the effect of Al2O3 coating on carrier ion diffusion has been investigated mainly for Li ion batteries, and the corresponding understanding for emerging Na ion batteries is currently missing. Using ab initio molecular dynamics calculations, herein, we first find that, unlike lithiation, sodiation of Al2O3 is thermodynamically unfavorable. Nonetheless, there can still exist a threshold in the Na ion content in Al2O3 before further diffusion into the adjacent active material, delivering a new insight that both thermodynamics and kinetics should be taken into account to describe ionic diffusion in any material media. Furthermore, Na ion diffusivity in NaxAl2O3 turns out to be much higher than Li ion diffusivity in LixAl2O3, a result opposite to the conventional stereotype based on the atomic radius consideration. While hopping between the O-rich trapping sites via an Na-O bond breaking/making process is identified as the main Na ion diffusion mechanism, the weaker Na-O bond strength than the Li-O counterpart turns out to be the origin of the superior diffusivity of Na ions. PMID:25286155

  9. Reactive Plasma Spraying of Fine Al2O3/AlN Feedstock Powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahien, Mohammed; Yamada, Motohiro; Yasui, Toshiaki; Fukumoto, Masahiro

    2013-12-01

    Reactive plasma spraying (RPS) is a promising technology for in situ formation of aluminum nitride (AlN) coatings. Recently, AlN-based coatings were fabricated by RPS of alumina (Al2O3) powder in N2/H2 thermal plasma. This study investigated the feasibility of RPS of a fine Al2O3/AlN mixture and the influence of the plasma gases (N2, H2) on the nitriding conversion, and coating microstructure and properties. Thick AlN/Al2O3 coatings with high nitride content were successfully fabricated. The coatings consist of h-AlN, c-AlN, Al5O6N, γ-Al2O3, and a small amount of α-Al2O3. Use of fine particles enhanced the nitriding conversion and the melting tendency by increasing the surface area. Furthermore, the AlN additive improved the AlN content in the coatings. Increasing the N2 gas flow rate improved the nitride content and complete crystal growth to the h-AlN phase, and enhanced the coating thickness. On the other hand, though the H2 gas is required for plasma nitriding of the Al2O3 particles, increasing its flow rate decreased the nitride content and the coating thickness. Remarkable influence of the plasma gases on the coating composition, microstructure, and properties was observed during RPS of the fine particles.

  10. Nano-oxide thin films deposited via atomic layer deposition on microchannel plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Baojun; Liu, Shulin; Heng, Yuekun

    2015-04-01

    Microchannel plate (MCP) as a key part is a kind of electron multiplied device applied in many scientific fields. Oxide thin films such as zinc oxide doped with aluminum oxide (ZnO:Al2O3) as conductive layer and pure aluminum oxide (Al2O3) as secondary electron emission (SEE) layer were prepared in the pores of MCP via atomic layer deposition (ALD) which is a method that can precisely control thin film thickness on a substrate with a high aspect ratio structure. In this paper, nano-oxide thin films ZnO:Al2O3 and Al2O3 were prepared onto varied kinds of substrates by ALD technique, and the morphology, element distribution, structure, and surface chemical states of samples were systematically investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. Finally, electrical properties of an MCP device as a function of nano-oxide thin film thickness were firstly studied, and the electrical measurement results showed that the average gain of MCP was greater than 2,000 at DC 800 V with nano-oxide thin film thickness approximately 122 nm. During electrical measurement, current jitter was observed, and possible reasons were preliminarily proposed to explain the observed experimental phenomenon.