Lambert, James David
A spatial model of the distribution of energy flows and storages in Alachua County, Florida, was created and used to analyze spatial patterns of energy transformation hierarchy in relation to spatial patterns of human settlement. Emergy, the available energy of one kind previously required directly or indirectly to make a product or service, was used as a measure of the quality of the different forms of energy flows and storages. Emergy provides a common unit of measure for comparing the productive contributions of natural processes with those of economic and social processes---it is an alternative to using money for measuring value. A geographic information system was used to create a spatial model and make maps that show the distribution and magnitude of different types of energy and emergy flows and storages occurring in one-hectare land units. Energy transformities were used to convert individual energy flows and storages into emergy units. Maps of transformities were created that reveal a clear spatial pattern of energy transformation hierarchy. The maps display patterns of widely-dispersed areas with lower transformity energy flows and storages, and smaller, centrally-located areas with higher transformities. Energy signature graphs and spatial unit transformities were used to characterize and compare the types and amounts of energy being consumed and stored according to land use classification, planning unit, and neighborhood categories. Emergy ratio maps and spatial unit ratios were created by dividing the values for specific emergy flows or storages by the values for other emergy flows or storages. Spatial context analysis was used to analyze the spatial distribution patterns of mean and maximum values for emergy flows and storages. The modeling method developed for this study is general and applicable to all types of landscapes and could be applied at any scale. An advantage of this general approach is that the results of other studies using this method
In this study, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and remote sensing mapping techniques were developed to identify the locations of isolated wetlands in Alachua County, FL, a 2510 sq km area in north-central Florida with diverse geology and numerous isolated wetlands. The resul...
The report gives results of a new house evaluation of potential building design and construction for the control of radon in Marion and Alachua Counties, Florida. During the project, which began in March 1992, the construction of 14 new houses, built in accordance with the Draft ...
Alachua County Schools, Gainesville, FL.
Compiled are materials which describe the Alternative School of the Alachua County, Florida, Public School District, which serves a severely emotionally disturbed population of about 75-85 adolescents. The following materials are included: an introductory letter, which includes information on staff operations and the curriculum framework, given…
Rates of recharge to the Floridan aquifer system at four sites in Alachua County were estimated and water samples were analyzed to determine if the recharge water had any effects on the water quality of the aquifer. A total of about 33 million gal/day (mgd) recharges the upper part of the aquifer system at Haile Sink, Alachua Sink, and drainage wells near Lake Alice. At the Kanapaha Wastewater Treatment Plant, injection wells recharge an average of 6.1 mgd into the lower zone of the system. The samples of water entering the aquifer system collected at the four sites generally conformed to the drinking water standards recommended by the EPA in 1983. Bacteria and nutrient concentrations were more variable in the recharge water than were other constituents. Organic compounds such as diazinon, lindane, and malathion were occasionally detected in all recharge water, but concentrations never exceeded recommended limits. Bacteria were detected in most wells sampled near the Gainesville recharge sites. The highest counts were from wells near Alachua Sink. At only one site was there a significant difference between the quality of the recharge water and water from the wells sampled, although the recharge water tended to be lower in calcium and iron than water from the Floridan aquifer system. A sample from a well about 150 ft down-gradient of a drainage well near Lake Alice consisted of turbid water with a total phosphorus concentration of 75 mg/l and total nitrogen concentration of 57 ml/l. Water flowing into the drainage well from the lake had a total nitrogen concentration of 1.6 mg/l. Apparently, nutrient rich suspended sediment in inflow to the drainage well settles out of the water and accumulates in cavities in the limestone. Estimated loads entering the aquifer include 3,500 kg/d of chloride, < 0.4 kg/day of lead, 310 kg/day of nitrogen, and 150 kg/day of phosphorus. The effects of the loads were not detected in most monitor wells. Apparently, some of the
Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee.
This report presents the results of a systematic study and evaluation of the existing educational plants of the University of Florida's Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS), along with a determination of future plant needs. Section 1 contains an introduction to the educational plant survey, including statutory foundations, procedural…
University of Florida Campus, Plaza of the Americas, University of Florida Campus Quad Bounded by West University Avenue, US 441/Southwest 13th Street, Stadium Road, and North-South Drive, Gainesville, Alachua County, FL
Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Office of Educational Facilities.
This publication describes Florida school and community college facilities completed in 1999, including photographs and floor plans. The facilities profiled are: Buchholz High School (Alachua County); Gator Run Elementary School (Broward); Corkscrew Elementary School (Collier); The 500 Role Models Academy of Excellence (Miami-Dade); Caribbean…
Knochenmus, Darwin D.; Hughes, G.H.
Lake County includes a 1,150 square-mile area consisting of ridges, uplands, and valleys in central-peninsular Florida. About 32 percent of the county is covered by lakes, swamps, and marshes. Water requirements in 1970 averaged about 54 million gallons per day. About 85 percent of the water was obtained from wells; about 15 percent from lakes. The Floridan aquifer supplies almost all the ground water used in Lake County. Annual recharge to the Floridan aquifer averages about 7 inches over the county; runoff average 8.5 inches. The quality of ground and surface water in Lake County is in general good enough for most uses; however, the poor quality of Floridan-aquifer water in the St. John River Valley probably results from the upward movement of saline water along a fault zone. Surface water in Lake County is usually less mineralized than ground water but is more turbid and colored. (Woodard-USGS)
Spechler, Rick M.; Kroening, Sharon E.
Local water managers usually rely on information produced at the State and regional scale to make water-resource management decisions. Current assessments of hydrologic and water-quality conditions in Polk County, Florida, commonly end at the boundaries of two water management districts (South Florida Water Management District and the Southwest Florida Water Management District), which makes it difficult for managers to determine conditions throughout the county. The last comprehensive water-resources assessment of Polk County was published almost 40 years ago. To address the need for current countywide information, the U.S. Geological Survey began a 3?-year study in 2002 to update information about hydrologic and water-quality conditions in Polk County and identify changes that have occurred. Ground-water use in Polk County has decreased substantially since 1965. In 1965, total ground-water withdrawals in the county were about 350 million gallons per day. In 2002, withdrawals totaled about 285 million gallons per day, of which nearly 95 percent was from the Floridan aquifer system. Water-conservation practices mainly related to the phosphate-mining industry as well as the decrease in the number of mines in operation in Polk County have reduced total water use by about 65 million gallons per day since 1965. Polk County is underlain by three principal hydrogeologic units. The uppermost water-bearing unit is the surficial aquifer system, which is unconfined and composed primarily of clastic deposits. The surficial aquifer system is underlain by the intermediate confining unit, which grades into the intermediate aquifer system and consists of up to two water-bearing zones composed of interbedded clastic and carbonate rocks. The lowermost hydrogeologic unit is the Floridan aquifer system. The Floridan aquifer system, a thick sequence of permeable limestone and dolostone, consists of the Upper Floridan aquifer, a middle semiconfining unit, a middle confining unit, and
Kohout, Francis Anthony; Klein, Howard; Sherwood, C.B.; Leach, Stanley D.
Thin layers of dense limestone of low permeability that occur near the top of the Biscayne aquifer in the vicinity of the north end of Levee 30 in Dade County, Florida are of hydrologic importance because they retard the downward infiltration of ponded water in Conservation Area No. 3. This retarding effect frequently results in high head differentials across the levee. Tests made in a small area adjacent to Levee 30 indicate that the coefficient of transmissibility of the aquifer is 3,600,000 gpd (gallons per day) per foot, and the coefficient of vertical permeability of the dense limestones is 13 gpd per square foot. If ground-water flow beneath the levee is laminar, the total inflow to the Levee 30 Canal from Conservation Area No. 3 will be about 350 mgd (million gallons per day), or 540 cfs (cubic feet per second), per mile length of levee when the head difference across the levee is 10 feet.
Two closely related species of Anthocoridae, the minute pirate bugs Orius insidiosus and Orius pumilio, were collected together from false Queen Anne’s lace/ large bullwort (Ammi majus) planted on an organic farm in Gainesville, Alachua County, Florida, over a period of five successive weeks. The pr...
Two closely related species of Orius (Hemiptera:Anthocoridae) inhabit the Florida peninsula. While O. insidiosus is nearly ubiquitous east of the Rocky Mountains, O. pumilio is a tropical/subtropical species found in the U.S. no farther north than Alachua County. For two seasons we have observed p...
Beaulieu, Lionel J.; Anderson, Deborah S.
In 1977 leaders of Hardee County, Florida, listed relationships and attitudes of residents, rural atmosphere, environmental conditions, and economic potential among the county's strong points, and public service and facility improvements, developing economic potential, recreational and entertainment development, and planning and zoning as its most…
Beaulieu, Lionel J.
Agriculture and the railroad were significant forces in the development of Suwannee County, Florida, formally created in 1858 but explored and settled beginning some 300 years earlier. Lumber and cotton caused an early 20th century boom in the county which soon saw the negative effects of both industries. The introduction of tobacco in the late…
An evaluation was conducted to determine how the PLATO Pathways program was used in three high schools in Volusia County, Florida: Deland, New Smyrna Beach, and Atlantic. Of the many PLATO sites in Volusia, these three were selected for study because of the representative patterns of low, medium, and high PLATO use. PLATO is a computer learning…
Stone, Roy B.; Largen, Joseph B.
The drainage basins and subbasins in Duval County, Florida, are delineated on this atlas map. The county 's 840 square-mile area is drained by three major river systems; the St. Johns, 668 square miles; Nassau, 113 square miles; and St. Marys, 59 square miles. The remainder of the county is drained by a network of small streams that flow into either the Intracoastal Waterway or directly into the Atlantic Ocean. The sub-basins range in size from less than one square mile to more than 50 square miles. (USGS)
... AGENCY Florida Petroleum Reprocessors Site, Davie, Broward County, Florida; Notice of Settlement AGENCY... Protection Agency has entered into a settlement with Jap. Tech, Inc. concerning the Florida Petroleum... Ms. Paula V. Painter. Submit your comments by Site name Florida Petroleum Reprocesssors Site by...
Massialas, Byron; Jenkins, Ann
Designed to serve as a reference tool on city and county government in Florida, this handbook consists of lessons that can be used by schools, community groups, newly elected officials, and libraries. These curriculum materials on Florida city and county governments specifically address the general purpose of local governments. Subject areas…
Alvarez, Carlos; Oliver, LeAnn; Kronheim, Steve; Gonzalez, Jorge; Woods-Richardson, Kathleen;
Miami-Dade County, Florida will be piping methane gas from their regional landfill to the adjacent wastewater plant to generate a significant portion of the massive facility's future electricity needs.
Alvarez, Carlos; Oliver, LeAnn; Kronheim, Steve; Gonzalez, Jorge; Woods-Richardson, Kathleen
Miami-Dade County, Florida will be piping methane gas from their regional landfill to the adjacent wastewater plant to generate a significant portion of the massive facility's future electricity needs.
This report describes the landfill mining process as demonstrated under the U.S. EPA, Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory's Municipal Waste Innovative Technology Evaluation (MITE) Program by the Collier County (Florida) Solid Waste Management Department. Landfill mining is the ...
This report describes the landfill mining process as demonstrated under the U.S. EPA, Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory's Municipal Waste Innovative Technology Evaluation (MITE) Program by the Collier County (Florida) Solid Waste Management Department. Landfill mining is the ...
Smoot, James L.; Schiffer, Donna M.
Lake Butler is one of the lakes that collectively make up the Butler chain of lakes in the headwaters of the Kissimmee River, Florida. The bottom configuration of the lake is typical of relict karst features formed during lower stages in sea level. The top of the Floridan aquifer is 50 to 100 feet below the land surface. The drainage area of Lake Butler is approximately 14.5 sq mi and is comprised of sub-basins of other lakes in the vicinity. Surface outflow from Lake Butler is generally southward to Cypress Creek, a tributary of the Kissimmee River. The extremes in lake stage for the period 1933-81 are 94.67 ft on June 23, 1981 and 101.78 ft on September 13, 1960. The median lake stage for this period was 99.28 ft above sea level. The quality of water in Lake Butler is excellent, based on studies of physical, chemical, and biological conditions by the Orange County Pollution Control Department. The lake water is slightly acidic and soft (48 mg/L hardness as calcium carbonate). Pesticides in water were below detection levels at two sites sampled in the lake, but were detected in the bottom sediments. (USGS)
Weitzel, S.; And Others
This Kids Count report presents information on the status of Florida's children. A statistical profile is presented for the state and for each county, based on demographic data and 19 indicators of child well being: (1) per capita income; (2) county population; (3) number of white and nonwhite children under 18 years; (4) number of births in 1993…
Legters, Nettie; Parise, Leigh; Rappaport, Shelley
Researchers from MDRC and Johns Hopkins University partnered with Florida's Broward County Public Schools (BCPS) in 2009 to launch an independent evaluation of the district's initiative to implement Ninth Grade Academies (NGAs) in every district high school. An NGA is a self-contained learning community for ninth-graders that operates as…
Killingsworth, Kelcey Ray
The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of the British Petroleum Gulf Oil Spill on resource change, psychological stress, and resilience for business owners, residents, and workers in Escambia County, Florida. This study was based on Hobfoll's (1988, 1989) Conservation of Resources theory. All business owners, residents, and…
German, Edward R.
Volusia County is in a unique and beautiful setting. This Florida landscape is characterized by low coastal plains bordered by upland areas of sandy ridges and many lakes. Beautiful streams and springs abound within the vicinity. Underneath the land surface is a deep layer of limestone rocks that stores fresh, clean water used to serve drinking and other needs. However, the landscape and the subsurface rocks have not always been as they appear today. These features are the result of environmental forces and processes that began millions of years ago and are still ongoing. This fact sheet provides a brief geologic history of the Earth, Florida, and Volusia County, with an emphasis on explaining why the Volusia County landscape and geologic structure exists as it does today.
Weitzel, Susan L.; Shockley, Cindi C.; Miranda, Barbara
This Kids Count report examines state and countywide trends in the well-being of Florida's children. Demographic information is presented along with a statistical portrait for the state and for each county based on the following indicators: (1) birth, including births to unwed mothers, teen births, early prenatal care, low birth weight, and infant…
Stone, Richard B.; Causey, Lawson V.; Tucker, D.F.
Floods in the consolidated city of Jacksonville, Duval County, Florida, are caused directly by rainfall which, when combined with storm driven tides, causes rivers or other bodies of water to flood the low lying parts of the county. This map report supplies information on areas subject to floods of 100-year frequency; the information will permit evaluation of alternative uses of such areas. The extent of the 100-year flood is shown on the large-scale map accompanying the report. Also included is an index map showing sections of Duval County where more detailed information on the 100-year flood can be obtained. The major flood of record in the county occurred in 1964 when Hurricane Dora crossed the area. (Woodard-USGS)
Early water-resources investigations in Collier County, Fla., were related to saltwater intrusion in Naples. With the advent of canal drainage and land reclamation farther inland, investigations were directed at effects of canals on water resources and the environment. High on the list of investigative needs are: (1) areal and vertical delineation of the shallow aquifer, the prime source of freshwater; (2) delineation of areas of poor quality ground water and the sources of the poor quality; (3) establishment of network of hydrologic data stations; and (4) determination of the relation between canals and the shallow aquifer. (USGS)
Fernandez, Mario, Jr.
The Pinellas County landfill site is on a flat, coastal area characterized by a high water table is subject to tidal flooding. Altitudes within the study area range from 8 to 12 feet above sea level. Three geohydrologic units underlie the landfill site: a surficial aquifer about 19 feet thick composed of sand and shells; a confining bed about 35 feet thick composed of marl and clay; and the Floridan aquifer composed of limestone. The rate of lateral movement of ground water away from the site is about 1.2 feet per year; however, the rate of movement along the boundary of the landfill cells is about 20 feet per year. Vertical movement through the confining layer is about 0.005 foot per year. Landfill operations have not altered surface-water quality. Leachate migration downward into the Floridan aquifer is not indicated, but data do indicate leachate is migrating from the oldest section of the landfill site through the surficial aquifer. Peaks in concentration of selected chemical parameters and flow-rate analysis of water from trenches indicate the possibility of slug-flow leachate. (USGS)
...] Florida Petroleum Reprocessors Superfund Site; Davie, Broward County, FL; Notice of Settlements AGENCY... entered into four (4) settlements for past response costs concerning the Florida Petroleum Reprocessors... settlement are available from Ms. Paula V. Painter. Submit your comments by Site name Florida...
... AGENCY Florida Petroleum Reprocessors Site; Davie, Broward County, FL; Notice of Settlement AGENCY... Agency has entered into a settlement with 2238 NW. 86th Street Inc. concerning the Florida Petroleum... Ms. Paula V. Painter. Submit your comments by Site name Florida Petroleum Reprocesssors Site by...
Ferster, Lucian Edward
Based on the study "Migrant Children in Florida", this paper discusses the Spanish speaking farm workers who migrate to Dade County yearly to harvest the tomato and fresh vegetable crops. During the fall of 1969 and the spring of 1970, questionnaires were given to a random sample of 9,065 adult migrant workers in Florida counties with significant…
... AGENCY Florida Petroleum Reprocessors Superfund Site; Davie, Broward County, FL; Notice of Settlement... costs concerning the Florida Petroleum Reprocessors Superfund Site located in Davie, Broward County... Petroleum Reprocessors Superfund Site by one of the following methods: http://www.regulations.gov :...
In March and April 2011, the Hillsborough County Health Department (HCHD) Epidemiology Department (Tampa, Florida) investigated three clusters of rash illness linked to the white-marked tussock moth caterpillar among persons at two child care centers and one elementary school. At least 23 children and one adult were affected; most had direct contact with caterpillars. HCHD provided recommendations on treatment and preventing caterpillar exposure to the three facilities, health-care providers, and local agencies, and through local news media. Child care centers and elementary schools in Hillsborough County previously have experienced caterpillar-associated rash outbreaks in 2004 and 2005. Awareness of this problem, particularly during periods of caterpillar infestation, can minimize morbidity and help to avoid inappropriate diagnoses and treatment by health-care providers. PMID:22456120
Adamski, James C.; German, Edward R.
Ground water is the main source of water supply in central Florida and is critical for aquatic habitats and human consumption. To provide a better understanding for the conservation, development, and management of the water resources of Orange County, Florida, a study of the hydrogeologic framework, water budget, and ground-water quality characteristics was conducted from 1998 through 2002. The study also included extensive analyses of the surface-water resources, published as a separate report. An increase in population from about 264,000 in 1960 to 896,000 in 2000 and subsequent urban growth throughout this region has been accompanied by a substantial increase in water use. Total ground-water use in Orange County increased from about 82 million gallons per day in 1965 to about 287 million gallons per day in 2000. The hydrogeology of Orange County consists of three major hydrogeologic units: the surficial aquifer system, the intermediate confining unit, and the Floridan aquifer system. Data were compiled from 634 sites to construct hydrogeologic maps and sections of Orange County. Water-level elevations measured in 23 wells tapping the surficial aquifer system ranged from about 10.6 feet in eastern Orange County to 123.8 feet above NGVD 29 in northwestern Orange County from March 2000 through September 2001. Water levels also were measured in 14 wells tapping the Upper Floridan aquifer. Water levels fluctuate over time from seasonal and annual variations in rainfall; however, water levels in a number of wells tapping the Upper Floridan aquifer have declined over time. Withdrawal of ground water from the aquifers by pumping probably is causing the declines because the average annual precipitation rate has not changed substantially in central Florida since the 1930s, although yearly rates can vary. A generalized water budget was computed for Orange County from 1991 to 2000. Average rates for the 10-year period for the following budget components were computed based
A "red tide" is a harmful algal bloom that occurs when toxic, microscopic algae in seawater proliferate to a higher-than-normal concentration (i.e., bloom), often discoloring the water red, brown, green, or yellow. Red tides can kill fish, birds, and marine mammals and cause illness in humans. Florida red tide is caused by the dinoflagellate Karenia brevis, which produces toxins called brevetoxins and is most commonly found in the Gulf of Mexico; however, K. brevis blooms also can occur along the Atlantic coast. On September 25, 2007, a cluster of respiratory illnesses was reported to the Nassau County Health Department (NCHD) in northeastern Florida. All of the ill persons were employed at a beach restoration worksite by a dredging company operating at Fernandina Beach; they reported symptoms of eye or respiratory irritation (e.g., coughing, sneezing, sniffling, and throat irritation). NCHD and the Florida Department of Health promptly conducted epidemiologic and environmental investigations and determined the illnesses likely were associated with exposure to a red tide along the Atlantic coast. These actions highlight the importance of rapid investigation of health concerns with potential environmental causes to enable timely notification of the public and prevent further illness. PMID:18600196
Bellino, Jason C.; Pfeiffer, William R.
Lake Manatee, located in central Manatee County, Florida, is the principal drinking-water source for Manatee and Sarasota Counties. The drainage basin of Lake Manatee encompasses about 120 square miles, and the reservoir covers a surface area of about 1,450 acres at an elevation of 38.8 feet above NAVD 88 or 39.7 feet above NGVD 29. The full pool water-surface elevation is 39.1 feet above NAVD 88 (40.0 feet above NGVD 29), and the estimated minimum usable elevation is 25.1 feet above NAVD 88 (26.0 feet above NGVD 29). The minimum usable elevation is based on the elevation of water intake structures. Manatee County has used the stage/volume relation that was developed from the original survey in the 1960s to estimate the volume of water available for consumption. Concerns about potential changes in storage capacity of the Lake Manatee reservoir, coupled with a recent drought, led to this bathymetry mapping effort.
Trapp, Henry; Pascale, C.A.; Foster, J.B.
Okaloosa County, in the northwest Florida panhandle, uses the Floridan aquifer for water supply, although it also has abundant surface water and ground water in the surficial sand-and-gravel aquifer. Water levels have declined locally more than 90 feet in the upper limestone of the Floridan aquifer. The Floridan aquifer is overlain by the Pensacola clay confining bed, and the Bucatunna Clay subdivides it into two limestone units. Water in the upper limestone is generally of good quality. The lower limestone probably contains saline water. Average daily stream discharge is about 2,500 million gallons. Stream discharge does not diminish excessively during droughts, owing to high base runoff. Water levels in the Floridan aquifer will decline as long as pumping increases in the present areas of withdrawal. The decline could be alleviated by redistribution of pumping, artificial recharge, and the use of the sand-and-gravel aquifer or streams. (Woodard-USGS)
The subject document reports the results of an in-depth investigation of the fiscal year 1992 cost of the Palm Beach County, Florida integrated municipal solid waste management system (IMSWMS), the energy consumed to operate the system, and the environmental performance requirements for each of the system`s waste-processing and disposal facilities. Actual data from records kept by participants is reported in this document. Every effort was made to minimize the use of assumptions, and no attempt is made to interpret the data reported. Analytical approaches are documented so that interested analysts may perform manipulation or further analysis of the data. As such, the report is a reference document for MSW management professionals who are interested in the actual costs and energy consumption for a one-year period, of an operating IMSWMS.
Kapadia, Amit; Swain, Eric D.
The South Florida Ecosystem Restoration Program is an intergovernmental effort, involving a number of agencies, to reestablish and maintain the ecosystem of south Florida. One element of the restoration effort is the development of a firm scientific basis for resource decision making. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), one of the agencies, provides scientific information as part of the South Florida Ecosystem Restoration Program. The USGS began their ow program, called the South Florida Ecosystem Program, in fiscal year 1995 for the purpose of gathering hydrologic, cartographic, and geologic data that relate to the mainland of south Florida, Florida Bay, and the Florida Keys and Reef ecosystems. As part of the South Florida Ecosystem Program, the USGS, in cooperation with the South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD), has conducted a study to determine discharge ratings for 16 coastal hydraulic control structures in eastern Dade County, Fla. (fig. 1 ). Discharge data are needed to quantify water that can be made available for water supply and ecosystem restoration and to calibrate regional hydrologic models.
The report describes the approach, methods, and detailed data used to prepare soil radon potential maps of 12 counties in North-Central Florida. he maps were developed under the Florida Radon Research Program to provide a scientific basis for implementing radon-protective buildin...
Morton, N. E.; Burd, J. J.
Although large, well-known concentrations of corals are found in deeper waters off Florida's eastern seaboard, most mapping of Florida's coral resources addresses the relatively shallow waters of the Florida Keys. To date, technological limitations precluded mapping corals in these deeper waters. Satellite imaging systems and natural color aerial photography, two mapping mainstays, are generally only effective in Florida waters shallower than 20 meters. Conservation of the northern portion of the Florida reef tract, which parallels the Atlantic coast in Miami-Dade, Broward, and Palm Beach counties, has been hampered by minimal or nonexistent coordinated management, monitoring, and mapping activities. In November 2000, the Simrad EM3000 multibeam system was used to collect data south of Port Everglades. Additionally, the Broward County shore protection project conducted a Laser Airborne Depth Sounder (LADS) survey in 2001. Wavelet analyses performed on overlapping transects of the two data sets compare the accuracy of reef bathymetry and complexity captured in the two data collection projects.
Weitzel, S.; Shockley, C.; Goltry, K.
This Kids Count report examines statewide and county level trends in the well-being of Florida's children. Demographic information is presented along with a statistical portrait for the state and for each county based on indicators related to: (1) birth, including births to unwed mothers, births to teenage mothers, births receiving early prenatal…
Lyons, Sandra; Karlstrom, Mikael; Haywood, Thomas
The Comprehensive Services Program of Palm Beach County, Florida, was an ambitious and innovative effort to improve the school readiness of low-income children in Palm Beach County by identifying needs early and providing early intervention services to support physical, cognitive, and emotional health and development. Services were delivered to…
Schneider, James J.
Test hole data, in Palm Beach County, Florida, include lithologic logs from 66 test wells and geophysical logs from 54 test wells. The purpose of the study is to provide the geohydrologic information needed for water management and land use decisions, with emphasis on the urbanized eastern part of the county and the readily developable area in the central part. (Woodard-USGS)
Of the counties in southeastern Florida, Broward County has experienced some of the most severe effects of saltwater intrusion into the surficial Biscayne aquifer because, before 1950, most public water-supply well fields in the county were constructed near the principal early population centers located less than 5 miles from the Atlantic Ocean. The construction of major regional drainage canals in the early 20th century caused a lowering of the water table and a gradual inland movement of the saltwater front toward the well fields. The U.S. Geological Survey began field investigations of saltwater intrusion in the Biscayne aquifer of southeastern Broward County in 1939. As part of the present study, the positions of the saltwater front in 1945, 1969, and 1993 were estimated using chloride concentrations of water samples collected between 1939 and 1994 from various monitoring and exploratory wells. The data indicate that, between 1945 and 1993, the saltwater front has moved as much as 0.5 mile inland in parts of the study area. The position and movement of the saltwater front were simulated numerically to help determine which of the various hydrologic factors and water-management features characterizing the coastal subsurface environment and its alteration by man are of significance in increasing or decreasing the degree of saltwater intrusion. Two representational methods were applied by the selection and use of appropriate model codes. The SHARP code simulates the position of the saltwater front as a sharp interface, which implies that no transition zone (a zone in which a gradational change between freshwater and saltwater occurs) separates freshwater and saltwater. The Subsurface Waste Injection Program (SWIP) code simulates a two-fluid, variable-density system using a convective-diffusion approach that includes a representation of the transition zone that occurs between the freshwater and saltwater bodies. The models were applied to: (1) approximately
Sonenshein, R.S.; Fish, J.E.; Causaras, C.R.; Poore, D.M.
A comprehensive assessment of the surficial aquifers, of southeast Florida, including the Biscayne aquifer, was begun in 1979 by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the South Florida Water Management District. In the initial phase of the study, an inventory was made of existing data available in the files of the U.S. Geological Survey and other public agencies of Dade, Broward, and Palm Beach counties. This report indexes through tables and maps, the ground-water quality, ground-water level, surface-water stage, and geologic data bases for Broward County. (USGS)
Miller, Wesley L.
Water levels in Palm Beach County, Florida, were measured in April 1984 to determine the altitude of the water table in the surficial aquifer. A total of 104 wells and 50 surface-water measurement sites were used to contour the altitude of the water table at 2 and 4-foot intervals. The water-level measurements made in April represent low-water levels near the end of south Florida 's dry season. Contours of the water table at this time ranged from 22 feet above sea level in the north-central part of the county to 2 feet near the coast. (USGS)
Sonenshein, R.S.; Causaras, C.R.; Fish, John E.
A regional assessment of the surficial aquifers in Dade, Broward , and Palm Beach Counties, Florida, including the Biscayne aquifer, was begun in 1979 by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the South Florida Water Management District. The purpose of the first phase of the project was to determine the geologic, hydrologic, and water quality data available in the files of the U.S. Geological Survey and other public agencies. This report summarizes, through tables and maps, the types of data available for Palm Beach County. (USGS)
Peterson, Cathleen J.
Direct-current resistivity data were collected from 94 vertical electric sounding profiles in northeastern Palm Beach County, Florida. Direct-current resistivity data, which may be used to determine the location and thicknesses of shallow, semipermeable marls or locate zones of high chloride concentration, are presented in this report. The resistivity data consist of field data, smoothed data, layer resistivity from smoothed data, and Cartesian graphs of resistivity in relation to depth for 94 sites located in northeastern Palm Beach County. (USGS)
Supovitz, Jonathan A.; Taylor, Brooke Snyder
The major challenge that school districts face is to improve the learning of all students, not just in individual schools, but across the entire system of schools. Duval County, Florida has embarked on a remarkable journey to implement standards-based reform in schools throughout the district with the intent to systematically improve teaching and…
Iatarola, Patrice; Gao, Niu
In 2009, Florida adopted the Differentiated Accountability (DA) plan, making it among the first to specifically incorporate into its existing school grading scheme college readiness targets. In this paper we use a rich panel of data on high school students in Broward County (Ft. Lauderdale) Public Schools to present early evidence of the impact of…
Weitzel, Susan L.; Shockley, Cindi C.
This Kids Count report examines state and countywide trends in the well-being of Florida's children. Demographic information is presented along with a statistical portrait for the state and for each county based on the following indicators: (1) births, including births to unwed mothers, teen births, early prenatal care, low birth weight, and…
Dennis, Danielle; Jacobs, Jennifer; West Burns, Rebecca; Davis, Jeni; Van Ingen, Sarah; Tricarico, Katie; Yendol-Hoppey, Diane
The 2014 Professional Development Schools National Conference recognized the partnership between the University of South Florida and Hillsborough County Public Schools for its outstanding collaborative accomplishments, and so named it one of the four recipients of the National Association for Professional Development Schools Exemplary Professional…
PNNL and Calcs Plus helped the South Sarasota County Florida Habitat for Humanity retrofit a 1978 single-story home by stripping old drywall, air sealing concrete block walls, and installing rigid insulation, furring strips, and new drywall. The attic was sealed and insulated with spray foam to house a new heat pump.
DeSoto County Board of Public Instruction, Arcadia, FL.
Educational specifications of the program for secondary educable mentally handicapped students in DeSoto County (Florida) are described. Specifications for the overall philosophy, purposes, objectives, activities, space and equipment requirements, and special considerations are provided in the following areas: academics, food preparation, clothing…
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Progress Energy Florida, Inc. (Combined License Application for Levy County Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and 2) Notice of Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Reconstitution Pursuant to 10 CFR...
Rich, Lauren; Spielberger, Julie; D'Angelo, Angela Valdovinos
This report compares the circumstances and characteristics of Black immigrant mothers in Palm Beach County, Florida, to those of Latina immigrant and Black native-born mothers, focusing on those living in distressed areas. The study also compares the early developmental outcomes of their children. When controlling for parental and child…
Ground water is a major component of Florida's water resources, accounting for 90 percent of all public-supply and self-supplied domestic water withdrawals, and 58 percent of self-supplied commercial-industrial and agricultural withdrawals of freshwater (Marella, 1992). Ground-water is also an important source of water for streams, lakes, and wetlands in Florida. Because of their importance, a good understanding of these resources is essential for their sound development, use, and protection. One area in which our understanding is lacking is in characterizing the rate at which ground water in aquifers is recharged, and how recharge rates vary geographically. Ground-water recharge (recharge) is the replenishment of ground water by downward infiltration of water from rainfall, streams, and other sources (American Society of Civil Engineers, 1987, p. 222). The recharge rates in many areas of Florida are unknown, of insufficient accuracy, or mapped at scales that are too coarse to be useful. Improved maps of recharge rates will result in improved capabilities for managing Florida's ground-water resources. In 1989, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Florida Department of Environmental Regulation, began a study to delineate high-rate recharge areas in several regions of Florida (Vecchioli and others, 1990). This study resulted in recharge maps that delineated areas of high (greater than 10 inches per year) and low (0 to 10 inches per year) recharge in three counties--Okaloosa, Pasco, and Volusia Counties--at a scale of 1:100,000. This report describes the results of a similar recharge mapping study for Escambia and Santa Rosa Counties (fig. 1), in which areas of high- and low-rates of recharge to the sand-and-gravel aquifer and Upper Floridan aquifer are delineated. The study was conducted in 1992 and 1993 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Florida Department of Environmental Protection.
Armstrong, Kathleen Hague; Massey, Oliver T.; Boroughs, Michael; Bailey, Ralph; LaJoie, Diane
The Safe Schools/Healthy Students Initiative in Pinellas County, FL, emerged as a part of a broader local effort to implement creative educational and mental health programs to support children and families. Describes Pinellas County's plan, and highlights the instrumental roles played by school psychologists, which included grant writing, program…
... process through a notice in the Federal Register on May 9, 2003 (68 FR 25058). The Lower Florida Keys... refuge, refer to a notice in the Federal Register dated May 23, 2008 (73 FR 30139). Alternatives... Register on May 23, 2008 (73 FR 30139). At least 47 persons attended two public meetings held on the...
Krohn, Pearl S.
This report presents survey of the school needs of South Dade County, Florida. It includes study of the county's population, present and future school enrollment, analysis of the feelings of the black and white communities about the desegregation of a local high school, the school plant needs of the county, and recommendations for immediate action…
Beaven, T.R.; Meyer, Frederick W.
The utilization of the Floridan aquifer as a source of potable water has increased. The use of the Floridan aquifer for subsurface storage of freshwater, and as an industrial water supply in Dade and Monroe Counties, is being considered by water management authorities and some industries. Information on locations, depths, casings, and year drilled for 67 wells that penetrate the Floridan aquifer in Dade and Monroe Counties is presented to assist in planning future uses of the Floridan. Chloride concentrations in water from wells ending in the Floridan aquifer in Dade County ranged from 1,200 to 9,000 milligrams per liter. In Monroe County the chloride concentrations ranged from 1,600 to 20,000 milligrams per liter. Water levels were measured in selected wells to determine the altitude of the potentiometric surface. The measurements indicate that the 40-foot potentiometric line extends from southern Dade County to the upper Florida Keys. (Woodard-USGS)
The U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with Leon County is currently (1981) developing a lumped-parameter, rainfall-runoff model for the urban area of the county. Flood information from 16 sites is being collected and will be analyzed to define hydrologic relations useful for estimating magnitude and frequency of discharges in urban areas. This report summarizes methods of collection, processing, and analysis of rainfall-runoff data from the drainage basins that will be used in the model.
Well construction data, lithologic and geophysical logs, and water-quality data are presented for a deep (1,210 feet) well drilled at myakka Head, Manatee County, Florida. A shallow well (600 feet) was drilled at the same site. The wells were drilled as part of the Southwest Florida Water Management District 's Regional Observation and Monitor-Well Program. The deep well is cased to a depth of 909 feet and open from 909 to 1,210 feet. The shallow well is cased to a depth of 563 feet and open from 563 to 600 feet. Chloride concentration of water from the deep well is 17 milligrams per liter. (USGS)
A data base for future natural resources investigations in Collier County, Fla., was initiated by compiling a selected annotated bibliography. This report provides references and annotations for selected reports released between 1950 and 1978. The references are presented by subject material as follows: biologic, ecologic, geologic, geochemical, and hydrologic. (USGS)
This report is ninth in a series documenting the annual hydrologic conditions in Dade County, Florida. The hydrologic conditions in Dade County for the 1974 water year (October 1, 1973 to September 30, 1974) except for rainfall are summarized in tables, graphs, and maps. The locations of ground-water data-collection stations are shown in figure 1, rainfall and surface-water stations in figure 2, and water quality sampling stations in figure 43. As shown, the network of stations is extensive. The long-term records (1940 to 1974) furnish background information vital in the analysis of effects of water-management practices.
Structural contours on the top of the Floridan aquifer in Duval County, Florida, show that the top of the aquifer ranges from less than 300 feet below sea level to more than 600 feet below sea level. Two inferred concealed faults occur in the aquifer; one trending northeast-southwest in the eastern part of the county. The maximum vertical displacement of the top of the aquifer of both faults is about 150 feet. A geologic section included on the map shows the geologic formations of Eocene age that comprise the Floridan aquifer. These are, in ascending order: the Lake City Limestone, the Avon Park Limestone, and the Ocala Limestone. (Woodard-USGS)
A garbage-fueled power plant will begin operating this spring in Pinellas County, Florida. Although the plant will use a mass-burning technique already proven in Europe, it will be the first to generate electricity. Two new technologies are expected to reverse the poor performance of earlier garbage and refuse-derived fuel efforts: new boilers using 100% refuse-derived fuel and the European mass-burning technique, which uses untreated garbage. The institutional arrangements between the builder and operator, UOP, Inc., and Pinellas County reflect the priamry goal of garbage disposal, and will be treated as an expense. (DCK)
Spielberger, Julie; Lockaby, Tracey
This report covers the second year of a 3-year process evaluation of the Prime Time Initiative of Palm Beach County, Florida, a system-building effort to strengthen the availability and quality of after-school programs in the county. During the past two decades, the after-school field has expanded enormously. This growth has occurred partly in…
Hamilton County Public Schools, Jasper, FL.
Presented is the 1972 annual report of a Title VI-B project to develop and coordinate a comprehensive exceptional child program in the north rural Florida counties of Hamilton, Madison, Suwanee, Taylor, and Lafayette. Given are the following eight project objectives: cooperation between two or more counties to employ a special education director…
The Lake Miona area, in northeast Sumter County, is characterized by karstic depressions that contain lakes, ponds, and marshes that drain vertically to the upper Floridan aquifer. Lake Miona, Black Lake, and Cherry Lake are the prominent water features of the area. When the lake levels are lowest, the lakes are not connected, but at higher levels, they become connected and water flows eastward from Lake Miona through Black Lake to Cherry Lake. The chemical and biological conditions in the lakes are such that, although they support a large population of submerged aquatic plants, no problem with algae blooms was observed. (USGS)
Construction of canals related to land development in the Golden Gate Estates area of Collier County, Fla., has altered the natural drainage pattern of the watershed. The area of approximately 300 square miles was topographically mapped with a contour interval of 0.5 foot to assist in determining the effects of canal construction on the surface-water and ground-water resources in the watershed. The topographic map was prepared at a scale of 1:48,000 using aerial photography and ground-control points. (USGS)
Morton, N. E.; Burd, J. J.; McIntyre, M. L.; O'Kiefe, K. M.; Wheaton, J. L.; Naar, D. F.; Donahue, B. T.; Kohler, M. F.
Most mapping of Florida's coral resources has been in the relatively shallow waters of the Florida Keys. However, it is well known that large concentrations of corals are found in deeper waters off Florida's eastern seaboard. To date, technological limitations have precluded the mapping of corals in these deeper waters. Satellite imaging systems and natural color aerial photography, two mapping mainstays, are generally only effective in Florida waters shallower than 20 meters. Conservation of the northern portion of the Florida reef tract, which parallels the Atlantic coast in Miami-Dade, Broward and Palm Beach counties, has been hampered by the fact that there are little or no coordinated management, monitoring and mapping activities in place. To assist the Broward county shore protection project geographic information systems database, a Laser Airborne Depth Sounder (LADS) survey was performed in 2001. The surveyFlanked the 43 km shoreline to a depth of ~50m and distances out to 2km in the north and 3.5km in the southern portion at a spatial resolution of 1.524m (5ft). Additionally, in November 2000 as part of a container vessel grounding lawsuit, funding was allocated to find an alternative anchorage for Port Everglades. The Simrad EM3000 multibeam system was used to collect data in a 2km x 2km square south of Port Everglades, offshore at a depth from 7m to 36m deep and at a spatial resolution of 1m. The area of overlap coincided with the second and third reef tracts, which have the highest biodiversity of the three reef tracts. These datasets were compared at overlapping geographic extents.
The swamps, marshes, and open waters of Tsala Apopka Lake, Florida, were mapped and the hydrologic connection between the lake and the Floridan limestone aquifer was studied from October 1975 to September 1976. Tsala Apopka Lake is a series of shallow , interconnected lakes, ponds, and marshes whose water surface slopes northward at 0.5 foot per mile. According to aerial photographs of December 1972, only 6 percent of the 103 square miles of study area is covered by open water. Open water is abundant along the western side of the lake, dense and sparse marshes occupy most of the lake area, and swamps occupy a thick zone around the Withlacoochee River which borders the lake to the east. Only a small fraction of the total surface flow occurs through the lake. The average lake outflow through S-351 canal is 23.6 cfs; while the average river flow at Holder is 714 cfs. Tsala Apopka Lake is hydraulically connected to the Floridan aquifer. At low flow, the major source of water in the river is ground water from the Floridan aquifer. The specific conductance of water in the Floridan aquifer averages 250-350 umho/cm (micromhos per centimeter) at 25C in this area. The specific conductance of water in the Withlacoochee River near Holder averages 268 umho/cm at 25C, while water in Tsala Apopka Lake at Hernando averages 139 umho/cm at 25C. (Woodard-USGS)
Waller, Bradley G.
Two tropical weather systems, Hurricane Donna (1960) and Tropical Storm Dennis (1981), produced nearly equivalent amounts of rainfall in a 48-hour period south of the Miami (Florida) area. These two systems caused extensive flooding over a 600-square mile area, which is primarily agricultural and low density residential. The 1960 and 1981 storms caused the highest water levels recorded in south Dade County since flood-control measures were initiated for south Florida in 1949. Ground-water levels during both storms rose 4 to 8 feet over most of the area causing widespread inundation. Operation of the water-management system in 1981 provided flood protection and rapid recession of ground-water levels thereby minimizing damage.
Total coliform bacteria data for Floridan aquifer wells in western Lake County, central Florida, are presented. Included are data collected from 1966 to 1979 by the Florida Department of Environmental Regulation for 98 public-supply wells, and data collected during 1982 by the U.S. Geological Survey for 29 wells. The data for the 98 public supplies indicate that 85 percent have a record of total coliform occurrence in the raw water. Data from the 29 wells sampled by the Geological Survey indicate that 55 percent have a record total coliform occurrence. Further comparison of the two data sets indicates that the Geological Survey data generally indicate a lower percentage of sites with coliform occurrence and, in some cases, a different pattern of occurrence than did the Department of Environmental Regulation data. (USGS)
Waller, Bradley G.; Klein, Howard; Lefkoff, Lawrence J.
Infiltration of stormwater in heavily urbanized parts of Dade County, Florida, is a prime source of recharge to the unconfined Biscayne aquifer, the sole source of drinking water for southeast Florida. Ponded stormwater at the test site contained greater concentrations of lead, zinc, manganese, nitrogen (except nitrate), and phosphorus than the water which percolated through the unsaturated limestone. Attenuation of some stormwater contaminants in the surface soils and limestone is indicated at the test site adjacent to a busy throughfare. Lead concentrations of 610 micrograms per kilogram and zinc concentrations of 91 micrograms per kilogram were found in the thin surface soils, nearly 20 times more than the concentrations of these metals at greater depth. In contrast, soil and rock sample at a control site remote from heavy traffic contained low concentrations of metals and showed little variation in concentration with depth. (USGS)
On August 24, 1992, Hurricane Andrew struck southern Florida. More than 28,000 houses, mobile homes, and apartment buildings were destroyed, and approximately 107,000 additional dwellings sustained major damage. An estimated 180,000 persons were left homeless; insured damages were estimated at $15.5 billion and total damages at more than $30 billion. During the recovery period, many private and public health-care facilities damaged or destroyed in the storm were not functional. During November 3-13, to help prioritize health needs and direct public health resources, the Dade County Public Health Unit of the Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services conducted a survey to assess health needs and the availability of health-care services during the recovery phase with funds provided by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). This report summarizes the results of the survey. PMID:8502216
Wagner, Jeffrey R.; Hayes, L.R.; Lewis, C.E.; Barr, D.E.
This report presents hydrologic and water-quality data collected within Okaloosa, Walton, and southeastern Santa Rosa Counties in northwest Florida. The data are presented in graphs and tables. Groundwater data include descriptions of wells and test holes, analyses of water quality, water level measurements, hydrographs of water levels and chloride concentrations in wells open to the upper part of the Floridan aquifer, and municipal and federal facilities pumpage. Surface-water data include streamflow measurements, streamflow hydrographs and analyses of water quality at selected stations. Maps of the area show locations of wells and surface-water stations. (USGS)
Castellanos, Daniel; Kosoy, Jennifer Ellyn; Ayllon, Karla Diaz; Acuna, Juan
This study examines the association between the presence of drugs and alcohol at time of suicide in Hispanic versus non-Hispanic youth suicide victims in Miami-Dade County, Florida. The Medical Examiner's records of 435 persons aged 24 years or younger classified as suicides in Miami-Dade County, Florida, from 1990 to 2011 were reviewed. Hispanic youth in Miami-Dade County, Florida were 1.62 times more likely than non-Hispanic youth to have used drugs and alcohol at time of suicide (OR 1.62; 95 % CI 1.07-2.04; p = 0.049). Firearm use was significantly associated with drug and alcohol use at time of death. Use of drugs and alcohol at the time of death are important risk factors for suicide in Hispanic youth. PMID:27098653
Peek, Harry M.; Anders, Robert B.
Manatee County comprises an area of about 800 square miles adjacent to the Gulf of Mexico in the southwestern part of the Florida peninsula. The county is underlain at depths ranging from about 200 to 350 feet by a series of limestone formations of Tertiary age having a total thickness of several thousand feet. The upper part of the limestone section consists of the Ocala group of Eocene age, the Suwannee limestone of Oligocene age, and the Tampa formation of early Miocene age. These limestone formations are overlain by the Hawthorn formation of middle Miocene age which consists of interbedded clay, limestone, and sand. The Hawthorn is overlain by undifferentiated deposits of sand, limestone, and shell of Pliocene(?) and Pleistocene age that range in thickness from a few feet to about 75 feet.
Chin, David A.
Agencies with jurisdiction over stormwater-management systems in Miami-Dade County, Florida, include the Miami-Dade Department of Environmental Resources Management (DERM), South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD), and Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT). These agencies are primarily concerned with minor drainage systems that handle runoff from storms with return periods of 10 years or less (DERM), major drainage systems that handle runoff from storms with return periods of 25 years or more (SFWMD), and runoff from major roadways (FDOT). All drainage regulations require retention of at least a specified water-quality volume (defined volume of surface runoff), typically the first inch of runoff. The DERM and FDOT intensity duration frequency (IDF) curves used as a basis for design are similar but different, with differences particularly apparent for short-duration storms. The SFWMD 25-year 3-day storm incorporates an IDF curve that is substantially different from both the IDF curves of DERM and FDOT. A DERM methodology for designing closed exfiltration systems is applicable to storms of 1-hour duration, but is not applicable to all storms with a given T-year return period. A trench design that is applicable to all storms with a given T-year return period is presented as an alternative approach.
Robson, S.G.; Wright, W.G.
Rapid population growth in La Plata County, Colorado, has increased the demand for ground water in the Florida Mesa area. This report was prepared in cooperation with La Plata County to provide needed information about the geology, extent, thickness, and depth of the aquifers in the area; sources of ground-water recharge and discharge; direction of ground-water movement; water-level changes; and water quality in the alluvial and bedrock aquifers. Ground water in the study area is present in bedrock formations and in terrace deposits on Florida Mesa. Porous or fractured sandstone beds that contain bedrock aquifers are present near land surface along the northern margin of the study area and are present at depths less than 3,000 feet throughout the study area. Terrace deposits as much as 200 feet thick and consisting of gravel, sand, silt, and clay are present on Florida Mesa. The terrace deposits and the upper part of the underlying Animas and Nacimiento Formations form the principal aquifer under the mesa. Ground water under the mesa is supplied from precipitation and irrigation water. A small part of the precipitation and irrigation water on the mesa percolates to depth in the soil and recharges the aquifer. Irrigation water is the largest source of this recharge. Water levels in the aquifer can decline because of a reduction in irrigation recharge, or because of an increase in well pumping. Because irrigation recharge is so much larger than pumping, changes in recharge can have a much larger effect on ground-water levels than can changes in pumping. Factors that tend to increase ground-water recharge and thereby increase or maintain ground- water levels include: maintaining large rates of surface-water diversion onto Florida Mesa, reducing surface flow off the mesa, increasing use of ponds and spreading basins to promote infiltration, and irrigating by use of flood irrigation. The general direction of ground-water movement on the mesa is from the northern part of
Miller, W.L.; Alvarez, J.A.
Public supply water-use data are listed for 32 utilities in Palm Beach County, Florida, for 1978 through 1982. The data are tabulated as monthly and yearly untreated water withdrawals from each public supply utility. Utilities using ground water as a source are listed separately from those using surface-water sources. In 1978, the total public supply water withdrawal in the county was 37,580.64 million gallons, of which 74.0 percent (27,823.22 million gallons) was ground water. By 1982, the total withdrawal had increased to 43,264.16 million gallons, of which 77.5 percent (33,544.52 million gallons) was ground water. Nearly 57 percent of the ground-water withdrawal was in southeast Palm Beach County (Zone 1) during 1982. The greatest surface-water withdrawal during this time was from Clear Lake and Lake Mangonia (Zone 2) and amounted to 79.3 percent of the county 's total surface-water withdrawal. (USGS)
The report provides data on the use of sanitary landfills (Subtitle D facilities) for hazardous waste disposal in Florida by small quantity generators. It consists of eleven parts including a part called Study Area Data which contains the data aggregated across the counties cover...
German, E.R.; Taylor, G.F.
Although Duval County, Florida, has ample ground-water resources for public supply, the potential exists for a problem with excessive disinfectant by-products. These disinfectant by-products result from the treatment of raw water containing low concentrations of bromide and naturally occurring organic compounds. Because of this potential problem, the relation of bromide concentrations to aquifer tapped, well location and depth, and chemical characteristics of water in the Floridan aquifer system underlying Duval County were studied to determine if these relations could be applied to delineate water with low-bromide concentrations for future supplies. In 1992, water samples from 106 wells that tap the Floridan aquifer system were analyzed for bromide and major dissolved constituents. A comparison of bromide concentrations from the 1992 sampling with data from earlier studies (1979-80) indicates that higher bromide concentrations were detected during the earlier studies. The difference between the old and new data is probably because of a change in analytical methodology in the analysis of samples. Bromide concentrations exceeded the detection limit (0.10 milligrams per liter) in water from 28 of the 106 wells (26 percent) sampled in 1992. The maximum concentration was 0.56 milligrams per liter. There were no relations between bromide and major dissolved constituents, well depth, or aquifer tapped that would be useful for determining bromide concentrations. Areal patterns of bromide occurrence are not clearly defined, but areas with relatively high bromide concentrations tend to be located in a triangular area near the community of Sunbeam, Florida, and along the St. Johns River throughout Duval County.
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION In the Matter of Progress Energy Florida, Inc. (Combined License Application, Levy County Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and 2); Notice of Appointment of Adjudicatory Employee Commissioners: Gregory B. Jaczko, Chairman, Kristine L. Svinicki,...
PNNL and Florida Solar Energy Center worked with Habitat for Humanity of Palm Beach County to upgrade an empty 1996 home with a 14.5 SEER AC, heat pump water heater, CFLs, more attic insulation, and air sealing to cut utility bills $872 annually.
... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 169--Manatee County, Florida; Application for Production Authority; ASO, LLC; Subzone 169A (Textile Fabric Adhesive Bandage Coating and Production); Sarasota... facility is used for the production of plastic and textile fabric adhesive bandages. ASO is also...
CURTIS, H.A.; STUART, FRED
A COMPARISON WAS MADE OF ONE CLIMATE CONTROLLED SCHOOL WITH ONE OR MORE NON-CLIMATE CONTROLLED SCHOOLS OF SIMILAR SIZE WITH RESPECT TO FACTORS OF COST AND OUTCOMES, IN THE PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA PUBLIC SCHOOL SYSTEM. EACH OF THE FOUR SCHOOLS STUDIED HAD THE FOLLOWING SIMILARITIES--LOCATION, COST OF CONSTRUCTION, OCCUPANCY RATE, AND OPERATING…
Mathis, K. (Principal Investigator); Cato, J. C.; Degner, P. D.; Landrum, P. D.; Prochaska, F. J.
The author has identified the following significant results. Seven major counties were examined: Escambia, Bay, Gulf, Franklin, Wakulla, Nassau, and Duval. Population and economic activity were reviewed, along with commercial fishing and port facilities. Recommendations for five northwest Florida counties were based on interpretation of aerial photographs, satellite imagery, an aerial survey site visit, and published data. Major needs in Pensacola included docking, ice supply, and net and engine repair services. Costs for additional docks, an ice plant, and gear storage were estimated at $3,658,600. Port users in Panama City identified additional docking and gear storage as primary needs, along with gear repair and a marine railway. Estimated costs for dock and gear storage were $2,860,000. Added docking, gear storage, and ice supply, as well as gear electronics and diesel repair were needed in Port St. Joe. Costs were calculated at $1,231,500. Franklin County has three ports (Apalachicola - $1,107,000 for docks and gear storage, Eastpoint - $420,000 for additional docks, and Carrabella - $2,824,100 for docks, gear storage, and ice plant).
Tibbals, C.H.; Frazee, J.M.
The city of Cocoa, Brevard County, Florida, supplies water for much of central Brevard County including Cape Kennedy and Patrick Air Force Base. The water supply is obtained from a well field in east Orange County. Many of the easternmost wells in that well field yield salty water (chloride concentration greater than 250 milligrams per liter). The interface between the fresh and salty water in the west part of the well field occurs at a depth of about 1,400 feet. An upward hydraulic gradient exists between the the lower (salty) zones and the upper, or pumped zones of the Floridan aquifer in the west part of the well field. Secondary artesian aquifers in the well-field area are relatively high-yielding but are of limited areal extent. However, they are suitable as a source of water for supplemental supply or for artificially recharging the Floridan aquifer. Fresh water was transferred by siphon from a secondary artesian aquifer to the Floridan aquifer at 90 gallons per minute. Artificial recharge and recovery experiments show that it is feasible to retrieve fresh water stored in salty zones of the Floridan aquifer. (Woodard-USGS)
Miller, Wesley L.; Lietz, Arthur C.
One of the most pressing problems of Palm Beach County, Florida, is the present and potential contamination of the surface and ground-water resources. The canals which dissect the urban and agricultural areas are convenient receptacles for storm-water runoff, sewage effluent, and agricultural wastes. Contaminants in the canals may enter the shallow aquifer as the canal water infiltrates. The quality of water in the shallow aquifer is further influenced by constituents in infiltrating rainwater, septic tank effluent, and many other sources of contamination. The County Health Department has stated that many of the canals and lakes, including Lake Worth, an estuary, have reached levels of contamination rendering them unfit for recreation (Land and others, 1972). The purpose of this report is to: (1) Compile the basic water-quality data collected during 1970-75 as a part of the monitoring program. (2) Make these data available in a usable form to assist in urban and regional planning of the county 's water resources. The water-quality programs include 36 surface-water stations on canals and lakes and 136 ground-water stations which have been regularly sampled. Both urban and agricultural areas are included in the sampling programs. (Woodard-USGS)
Klein, Howard; Ratzlaff, Karl W.
A lobe of salty groundwater that had intruded the Hialeah-Miami Springs area municipal well field, adjacent to the Miami and Tamiami Canals in Dade County, Florida, was stabilized after flow-regulation structures were installed in the canals in 1946. However, in 1971, the saltwater began to readvance toward the center of the well field because of water level declines caused by large increases in withdrawals during a near-record dry season. To better protect the well field, a temporary flow-regulation structure, constructed in 1971, in the Tamiami Canal was moved in 1976 to a permanent site, about 3,000 ft farther seaward; this converted that tidal reach of canal to a controlled reach under a sustained freshwater head. This water management procedure resulted in dilution of the intruding saltwater lobe and a marked concentration of its size even though large municipal withdrawals continued. (USGS)
Sinclair, William C.
A test well drilled for Southwest Florida Water Management District at Sun City Center in Hillsborough County, will serve to monitor the interface between freshwater in the aquifer and the underlying chloride water. The sulfate content of the water in the aquifer at the well site exceeds 250 mg/L below a depth of about 700 feet. Wells for domestic and public supply in the area bottom at less than 500 feet and are separated from the sulfate water by about 100 feet of poorly-permeable limestone. The freshwater-chloride water interface is quite sharp and occurs at a depth of 1,410 feet. The chloride water is similar in composition to seawater but nearly twice as saline. (Woodard-USGS).
Anderson, Warren; Hughes, G.H.
Lake Carlton straddles the line between Lake and Orange Counties in central Florida. The 382-acre lake is highly eutrophic and subject to virtually perpetual algal blooms. The Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission has proposed to restore the lake to a less eutrophic state by dewatering the lake long enough to allow the muck on its bottom to dry and compact. Lake Carlton would be permanently sealed off from Lake Carlton. On the assumption that the seasonal rainfall would be normal, and that the dewatering phase would begin on March 1, the predicted time required to dewater the lake at a pumping rate of 50,000 gpm (gallons per minute) is 21 days. The average rate of pumping required to maintain the lake in a dewatered condition is computed to be 2,400 gpm. If pumping is ended May 31, the predicted altitude to which the lake would recover by October 31 as a result of net natural input is 56.2 feet above sea level. Raising the lake level to 63 feet above sea level by October 31 would require that the net natural input be supplemented at an average rate of about 4,860 gpm between May 31 and October 31. (Woodard-USGS)
The Sunniland Limestone (Lower Cretaceous), consisting of carbonate rock and anhydrite, bears the only oil and gas production in southern Florida. Raccoon Point field, Collier County, Florida, is one of 13 fields discovered along the Sunniland producing trend, producing from paleotopographic highs associated with shelfal patch reefs and high-energy bioclastic deposits. Deposition of the Sunniland Limestone, as determined from detailed stratigraphic and microfacies analysis (using core, thin sections, and well logs), occurred in three transgressive-regressive packages or sequences: the lower, middle, and upper Sunniland. Each sequence is further divided into successive shallowing-upward intervals or parasequences. The dolomite reservoirs at Raccoon Point field occur at the top of the middle Sunniland and within the upper Sunniland. They are interpreted as high-energy deposits formed from bioclastic debris and as a network between rudist mounds. Reservoir development in the middle Sunniland is most likely due to the diagenesis associated with restrictive hypersaline conditions and subaerial exposure when sea level dropped at the end of middle Sunniland deposition. Creation of upper Sunniland reservoir was probably influenced by diagenetic fluids derived from the restricted conditions associated with intertidal-flat and supratidal-sabkha environments, in which the overlying sediments were deposited. Anhydrite and dolomitized carbonate rock from these environments dominate the upper Sunniland and form the overall top seal.
Cathcart, James B.; Patterson, Sam H.; Crandall, Thomas M.
The Natural Area Roadless Area, which is in the Osceola National Forest in Baker County, Fla., is underlain by sedimentary rocks containing phosphate deposits that are not a potential mineral resource by todays standards. The region has a low potential for oil and gas and virtually no potential for other valuable minerals. The phosphate deposits are either slightly low in tonnage and P2O5 content, high in MgO and/or Fe2O3 + Al2O3, or the ratio of CaO to P2O5 is too high for deposits that can be mined profitably at the present time. A low potential for oil and gas is indicated by the numerous dry holes in the region and the absence of the formations that contain these hydrocarbons in southern and westernmost Florida. The only mineral material that has been produced in the study area is clayey sand, used in stabilizing Forest Service roads. This type of clayey sand has no particular value because there are virtually unlimited quantities in the surrounding region. The peaty material in the area is too high in ash content to be mined. Large quantities of limestone underlie the area but are too deeply buried to be quarried. Heavy-mineral and clay deposits, which are mined elsewhere in northern peninsular Florida, are not present in the study area.
Causey, Lawson V.; Phelps, G.G.
The shallow-aquifer system in Duval County, Fla., overlies the Florida aquifer and is composed chiefly of sand, clay, sandy clay, and limestone. Thickness of the system ranges from about 300 to 600 feet. The upper 150 feet of deposits, consisting of the water-table and shallow-rock zones, are the most dependable and economical source of supplemental water supply. The principal shallow water-bearing zone is a limestone bed 40 to 100 feet below land surface. Aquifer tests conducted at 13 sites in Duval County show that yields from the shallow aquifer vary from place to place within the county owing chiefly to variations in lithology of the saturated rocks and sediments. The limestone of the shallow-rock zone will yield as much as 200 gallons per minute to wells; the maximum yield at most of the sites tested was between 30 and 100 gallons per minute. The water-table zone generally yields 10 gallons per minute or less but at one site, where a water-table well tapped a shell bed near land surface, the well yielded more than 40 gallons per minute. The quality of water in the shallow aquifer system in Duval County is generally acceptable for most domestic, commercial, and industrial uses. In some places, however, it has a high iron concentration and is hard. The iron concentration exceeds 0.3 milligrams per liter in water from the water-table or shallow-rock zones at 7 of the 13 aquifer test sites. The hardness of water from the aquifer ranges from about 60 to about 180 milligrams per liter. (Kosco-USGS)
Marella, Richard L.; Dixon, Joann F.
A detailed inventory of irrigated crop acreage is not available at the level of resolution needed to increase the accuracy of current water-use estimates or to project future water demands in many Florida counties. This report provides a detailed digital map and summary of irrigated areas within Osceola County for the agricultural growing period October 2013–April 2014. The irrigated areas were first delineated using land-use data and satellite imagery and then field verified between February and April 2014. Selected attribute data were collected for the irrigated areas, including crop type, primary water source, and type of irrigation system. Results indicate that an estimated 27,450 acres were irrigated during the study period. This includes 4,370 acres of vegetables, 10,970 acres of orchard crops, 1,620 acres of field crops, and 10,490 acres of ornamentals and grasses. Specifically, irrigated acreage included citrus (10,860 acres), sod (5,640 acres), pasture (4,580 acres), and potatoes (3,320 acres). Overall, groundwater was used to irrigate 18,350 acres (67 percent of the total acreage), and surface water was used to irrigate the remaining 9,100 acres (33 percent). Microirrigation systems accounted for 45 percent of the total acreage irrigated, flood systems 30 percent, and sprinkler systems the remaining 25 percent. An accurate, detailed, spatially referenced, and field-verified inventory of irrigated crop acreage can be used to assist resource managers making current and future county-level water-use estimates in Osceola County.
Boggess, Durward H.; Missimer, T.M.; O'Donnell, T. H.
The freshwater underlying Lee, western Hendry, and northern Collier Counties occurs within the marine terrace sands, the Fort Thompson, Caloosahatchee, Tamiami, and Hawthorn Formations. These are, respectively, the water-table aquifer, an aquifer in the Tamiami Formation, and an aquifer in the upper part of the Hawthorn Formation. These aquifers are separated by clay, marl, and marly limestone. Wells tapping the water-table aquifer are commonly less than 50 feet deep, with yields ranging from 5 to 500 gallons per minute. The water quality in the aquifer is usually good, except for iron, which generally exceeds 1 milligram per liter, and color, which ranges from 30 to 600 Platinum-Cobalt units. Wells tapping the Tamiami aquifer range in depth from about 60 to 300 feet; most are less than 100 feet deep. Yields range from 20 to 500 gallons per minute. The water quality in the Tamiami aquifer is good, except where affected by leakage from deep artesian wells. Wells tapping the upper Hawthorn aquifer range in depth from about 100 to 300 feet. Yields range from 10 to 500 gallons per minute. The water quality from the upper Hawthorn aquifer is good, except in areas where upward leakage from the deep artesian aquifer has occurred. (USGS)
Fitterman, David V.; Deszcz-Pan, Maria; Prinos, Scott T.
This report describes a helicopter electromagnetic survey flown over the Model Land Area in southeastern Miami-Dade County, Florida, to map saltwater intrusion in the Biscayne aquifer. The survey, which is located south and east of Florida City, Florida, covers an area of 115 square kilometers with a flight-line spacing of 400 meters. A five-frequency, horizontal, coplanar bird with frequencies ranging from 400 to 100,000 Hertz was used. The data were interpreted using differential resistivity analysis and inversion to produce cross sections and resistivity depth-slice maps. The depth of investigation is as deep as 100 meters in freshwater-saturated portions of the Biscayne aquifer and the depth diminishes to about 50 meters in areas that are intruded by saltwater. The results compare favorably with ground-based, time-domain electromagnetic soundings and induction logs from observation wells in the area. The base of a high-resistivity, freshwater-saturated zone mapped in the northern 2 kilometers of the survey area corresponds quite well with the base of the surficial aquifer that has been determined by drilling. In general, saltwater in the survey area extends 9 to 12 kilometers inland from the coast; however, there is a long nose of saltwater centered along the Card Sound Road Canal that extends 15 kilometers inland. The cause of this preferential intrusion is likely due to uncontrolled surface flow along the canal and subsequent leakage of saltwater into the aquifer. Saltwater also extends farther inland in the area between U.S. Highway 1 and Card Sound Road than it does to the west of this area. Until 1944, a railroad grade occupied the current location of U.S. Highway 1. Borrow ditches associated with the railroad grade connected to Barnes Sound and allowed saltwater to flow during droughts and storm surges to within a few kilometers of Florida City. Relicts of this saltwater that settled to the bottom of the Biscayne aquifer can be seen in the helicopter
Wu, S. T.
Results of digital processing of airborne X-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data acquired over Dade County, Florida, and Acadia Parish, Louisiana are presented. The goal was to investigate the utility of SAR data for land cover mapping and area estimation under the AgRISTARS Domestic Crops and Land Cover Project. In the case of the Acadia Paris study area, LANDSAT multispectral scanner (MSS) data were also used to form a combined SAR and MSS data set. The results of accuracy evaluation for the SAR, MSS, and SAR/MSS data using supervised classification show that the combined SAR/MSS data set results in an improved classification accuracy of the five land cover classes as compared with SAR-only and MSS-only data sets. In the case of the Dade County study area, the results indicate that both HH and VV polarization data are highly responsive to the row orientation of the row crop but not to the specific vegetation which forms the row structure. On the other hand, the HV polarization data are relatively insensitive to the orientation of row crop. Therefore, the HV polarization data may be used to discriminate the specific vegetation that forms the row structure.
Elliott, L.J.; Gupta, S.; Sinks, T.
In response to a request from the Director of Libraries in Broward County, Fort Lauderdale, Florida, an evaluation was undertaken of possible poor air quality in the Main Library Building (SIC-8231). The building was eight stories high, and about 300 county employees worked in the building. Soon after the building was opened in April of 1984, workers began to complain of eye and upper airway irritation, difficulty in breathing and headaches. Particularly on the fifth floor, where government documents were housed, the employees suffered allergy-like symptoms. Some documents had visible growths of mold on their covers. The building had repeated problems with the heating, ventilation and air conditioning system, and numerous rainwater leaks occurred. All air samples collected for viable aerosols contained very low counts of mold, and no thermophilic or mesophilic actinomycetes were found. Formaldehyde was found in air samples at levels from less than 0.01 to 0.07 parts per million. Measurements were taken of temperature, relative humidity, and carbon-dioxide. The carbon-dioxide measurements in some places in the library approached the point which indicated that inadequate quantities of fresh air were being distributed to an occupied space. The study concluded that the employees' symptoms were not the result of exposure to molds released through the ventilation system.
An experimental connector well, screened in the shallow sand aquifer, finished with open hole in the Floridan aquifer, and cased through the confining layer between the two aquifers, was drilled in east Orange County, Florida, to obtain information on the nature and function of the shallow aquifer as related to connector well operation. The potentiometric surface of the shallow aquifer is about 45 feet higher than the potentiometric surface of the Floridan aquifer; hence water flows by gravity from the shallow aquifer to the Floridan aquifer through the well ' connecting ' the two aquifers. Continuous flow measurement over 10 months shows the well discharge varies seasonally and averages slightly more than 50 gallons per minute. Observation wells show that, except for seasonal variation water levels within the area of influence have reached steady state within measurable limits. Vertical anisotrophy in the shallow aquifer is apparently caused by the shape and (or) arrangement of the sand grains that comprise the shallow aquifer , rather than distinct confining layers of different lithology. Transmissivity of the shallow aquifer at the site is about 600 square feet per day. Extensive dewatering of wetlands in east Orange County by connector wells alone is probably not feasible. Nevertheless, large amounts of water could be channeled to the Floridan aquifer by connector wells. The results of the connector well experiment imply that water is being captured from evapotranspiration and runoff in the vicinity of the connector well. (Woodard-USGS)
Geographic information systems have become an important tool in planning for the protection and development of natural resources, including ground water and surface water. A digital spatial data base consisting of 18 data layers that can be accessed by a geographic information system was developed for Broward County, Florida. Five computer programs, including one that can be used to create documentation files for each data layer and four that can be used to create data layers from data files not already in geographic information system format, were also developed. Four types of data layers have been developed. Data layers for manmade features include major roads, municipal boundaries, the public land-survey section grid, land use, and underground storage tank facilities. The data layer for topographic features consists of surveyed point land-surface elevations. Data layers for hydrologic features include surface-water and rainfall data-collection stations, surface-water bodies, water-control district boundaries, and water-management basins. Data layers for hydrogeologic features include soil associations, transmissivity polygons, hydrogeologic unit depths, and a finite-difference model grid for south-central Broward County. Each data layer is documented as to the extent of the features, number of features, scale, data sources, and a description of the attribute tables where applicable.
Frazier, T.; Woocf, N.; Yarnal, B.
Coastal communities in portions of the United States are vulnerable to storm-surge inundation from hurricanes and this vulnerability will likely increase, given predicted rises in sea level from climate change and growing coastal development. In this paper, we provide an overview of research to determine current and future societal vulnerability to hurricane storm-surge inundation and to help public officials and planners integrate these scenarios into their long-range land use plans. Our case study is Sarasota County, Florida, where planners face the challenge of balancing increasing population growth and development with the desire to lower vulnerability to storm surge. Initial results indicate that a large proportion of Sarasota County's residential and employee populations are in areas prone to storm-surge inundation from a Category 5 hurricane. This hazard zone increases when accounting for potential sea-level-rise scenarios, thereby putting additional populations at risk. Subsequent project phases involve the development of future land use and vulnerability scenarios in collaboration with local officials. Copyright ASCE 2008.
Park, Seejeen; Berry, Frances S
Municipal solid waste (MSW) recycling performance, both nationally and in Florida, USA, has shown little improvement during the past decade. This research examines variations in the MSW recycling program performance in Florida counties in an attempt to identify effective recycling programs. After reviewing trends in the MSW management literature, we conducted an empirical analysis using cross-sectional multiple regression analysis. The findings suggest that the convenience-based hypothesis was supported by showing that curbside recycling had a positive effect on MSW recycling performance. Financial (cost-saving) incentive-based hypotheses were partially supported meaning that individual level incentives can influence recycling performance. Citizen environmental concern was found to positively affect the amount of county recycling, while education and political affiliation yielded no significant results. In conclusion, this article discusses the implications of the findings for both academic research and practice of MSW recycling programs. PMID:23836103
Swain, E.D.; Sonenshein, R.S.
The U.S. Geological Survey has developed a method to evaluate the spatial and temporal statistics of a continuous ground-water level recorder network in Broward County, Florida. Because the Broward County network is sparse for most spatial statistics, a technique has been developed to define polygons for each well that represent the area monitored by the well within specified criteria. The boundaries of these "confidence polygons" are defined by the endpoints of radial lines oriented toward the other wells. The lengths of these lines are determined as the statistically estimated distances to the points at which ground-water levels can be predicted within specirfied criteria. The confidence polygons indicate: (1) the areal coverage of the network, (2) locations where data are unavailable, and (3) areas of redundant data collection. Comparison with data from a noncontinuous recorder well indicates that the confidence polygons are a good represen- tation of areal coverages. The temporal analysis utilizes statistical techniques similar to those used in the spatial method, defining variations in time rather than in space. Consequently, instead of defining radial distances to points, time intervals are defined over which water-level values can be predicted within a specified confidence. These "temporal confidence intervals" correspond to maximum allowable periods between field measure- ments. To combine all results from the analyses, a single coefficient reflecting the spatial and temporal results has been developed. The coefficient is referred to as the Spatial and Temporal Adequacy and Redundancy Evaluation (STARE) and is determined by three factors: the size of the confidence polygon, the number of times the well is part of a redundant pair, and the temporal confidence interval. This coefficient and the individual results of each analysis are used in evaluating the present network and determining future management decisions.
Floore, Tom; Wardz, Robert
Effective Mansonia larval control is difficult to achieve in Polk County, Florida, because the larvae attach to the root and stem mass of water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes) and water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes). This study evaluated 2 Bacillus sphaericus larvicides as possible control products in 3 phosphate lakes in 2 areas maintained by Polk County Mosquito Control. VectoLex WDG was applied at 56 kg/km2 and 170 kg/km2 and VectoLex CG at 560 kg/km2 and 1,100 kg/km2. One lake in each site was an untreated control. Larval collections were made by collecting water lettuce plants that were shaken, washed, and processed through a series of sieves to grade larvae as early (1st, 2nd) and late (3rd, 4th) instars. Pretreatment and posttreatment collections were made in each lake. More than 3,100 larvae were collected during the study. Approximately 65% of the larvae collected were Ist/2nd instars in both areas. The higher rate of VectoLex CG reduced the larval population 63% and the higher rate of VectoLex WDG by 44%. Against the Ist/2nd instar aggregate the higher rate of VectoLex CG was more effective (69%) than the VectoLex WDG. The VectoLex CG granules appeared to remain nearer the surface and the larvae than the WDG granules. Better effectiveness might have been attained if the entire lake had been treated. In this study, VectoLex CG appeared to be more effective than VectoLex WDG. PMID:19852221
Drainage wells have been used in Orange County, Florida, and surrounding areas to alleviate flooding and to control lake levels since 1904. Over 400 drainage wells have been drilled in the county, but many are now redundant because of surface drainage systems that have been installed within the last two or three decades. Most of the drainage wells emplace water into the Upper Floridan aquifer, a zone of high transmissivity within the Floridan aquifer system. In 1992, the Orange County Stormwater Management Department identified 23 wells that were considered noncritical or redundant for current drainage control. These wells were targeted for closure to eliminate maintenance and possible contamination problems. A 3-year study (1992 through 1994) encompassed several drainage basins in the county. Inflow to 18 of the 23 drainage wells on the noncritical list and the effects of closure of these noncritical wells on the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer were estimated. Three sites were chosen for intensive study and were used for further extrapolation to other noncritical sites. The total average annual recharge rate through the 18 selected wells was estimated to be 9 cubic feet per second, or about 6 million gallons per day. The highest rate of long-term recharge, 4.6 cubic feet per second, was to well H-35. Several wells on the noncritical list were already plugged or had blocked intakes. Yields, or the sum of surface-water outflows and drainage-well recharge, from the drainage basins ranged from 20 to 33 inches per year. In some of the basins, all the yield from the basin was recharge through a drainage well. In other basins, most of the yield was surface outflow through canals rather than to drainage wells. The removal of the recharge from closure of the wells was simulated by superposition in a three-dimensional ground-water flow model. As a second step in the model, water was also applied to two sites in western Orange County that could receive
Brown, C. Erwin; Krulikas, R.K.; Brendle, D.L.
Direct-current electrical resistivity data were collected from 109 vertical electrical sounding sites in Hendry and Collier Counties, southwestern Florida. Selected direct-current electrical resistivity surveys, together with available borehole geologic and geophysical data, were used to determine the approximate areal extent of the shallow clastic aquifers composed of thick sands and carbonate lithologies. Results indicated that a complex pattern of shallow sands, clays, and carbonate lithologies occur throughout the area. Buried channel sands were found as deep as 50 meters below land surface in some places. The channels contain unconsolidated fine- to medium-grained quartz sand interbedded with sandy limestone, shell fragments, and gray-green sandy clay. Both surface and borehole geophysical techniques with lithologic data were necessary to approximately locate and define layers that might behave as confining layers and to locate and define the extent of any buried sand aquifers. The borehole geophysical data were used to analyze the zones of higher resistivity. Direct-current electrical resistivity data indicated the approximate location of certain layer boundaries. The conjunctive use of natural gamma and short- and long-normal resistivity logs was helpful in determining lithologic effects. Geohydrologic sections were prepared to identify potential locations of buried channels and carbonates containing freshwater. Buried channel sands and carbonate rock sections were identified in the subsurface that potentially may contain freshwater supplies.
Boggess, D.H.; O'Donnell, T. H.
The principal sources of water on Sanibel and Captiva Islands, Lee County, Florida, are two deep artesian aquifers within the upper and lower parts of the Hawthorn Formation. Both aquifers are under artesian pressure and wells flow at the land surface. Water from the upper aquifer is of better quality than that from the lower aquifer and can be used in some areas without desalination. Dissolved solids concentrations in the upper aquifer average 1,540 milligrams per liter. Water levels in wells in the upper aquifer range from 8 to 15 feet above sea level; most wells flow as much as 15 gallons per minute at land surface. The lower aquifer is the source of the public supply for the islands. Dissolved solids concentrations in the lower aquifer range from 1,700 to 4,130 milligrams per liter and average 2,571 milligrams per liter. From July to November 1977, water levels in the aquifer ranged from 7 to 32 feet above sea level throughout Sanibel-Captiva Islands. In 1977 the average pumpage from public supply wells was 1.4 million gallons per day. Pumpage from the artesian aquifers during 1977 was about 690 million gallons. The water is desalinated before distribution. (USGS)
Swanson, Jeffrey W; Easter, Michele M; Robertson, Allison G; Swartz, Marvin S; Alanis-Hirsch, Kelly; Moseley, Daniel; Dion, Charles; Petrila, John
Gun violence kills about ninety people every day in the United States, a toll measured in wasted and ruined lives and with an annual economic price tag exceeding $200 billion. Some policy makers suggest that reforming mental health care systems and improving point-of-purchase background checks to keep guns from mentally disturbed people will address the problem. Epidemiological research shows that serious mental illness contributes little to the risk of interpersonal violence but is a strong factor in suicide, which accounts for most firearm fatalities. Meanwhile, the effectiveness of gun restrictions focused on mental illness remains poorly understood. This article examines gun-related suicide and violent crime in people with serious mental illnesses, and whether legal restrictions on firearm sales to people with a history of mental health adjudication are effective in preventing gun violence. Among the study population in two large Florida counties, we found that 62 percent of violent gun crime arrests and 28 percent of gun suicides involved individuals not legally permitted to have a gun at the time. Suggested policy reforms include enacting risk-based gun removal laws and prohibiting guns from people involuntarily detained in short-term psychiatric hospitalizations. PMID:27269024
Groundwater quality characteristics of the Biscayne aquifer from September 1978 through June 1979 were determined for seven land use areas within the East Everglades in Dade County, Florida. Four agricultural areas, two low-density residential areas, and Chekika Hammock State Park were investigated. The effects of land use on the groundwater were minimal in all areas; only iron, which occurs naturally in high concentrations in the Everglades, exceeded potable groundwater standards. Potassium and nitrate concentrations in certain samples increase over background concentrations in the agricultural areas. Groundwater at Chekika Hammock State Park and at a citrus grove is contaminated by brackish water flowing from an artesian well. The soil at the agricultural areas had higher concentrations of chromium, copper, and manganese than at the two residential areas or at Chekika Hammock State Park. One residential area (Coopertown) had the highest concentrations of lead and zinc and detectable polychlorinated biphenyls. Chlorinated-hydrocarbon insecticide residues in soil at three agricultural areas were higher than background concentrations. 15 refs., 15 figs., 35 tabs.
Reich, Christopher D.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Greenwood, W. Jason; Wiese, Dana S.
Geophysical (CHIRP, boomer, and continuous direct-current resistivity) and geochemical tracer studies (continuous and time-series 222Radon) were conducted along the Broward County coast from Port Everglades to Hillsboro Inlet, Florida. Simultaneous seismic, direct-current resistivity, and radon surveys in the coastal waters provided information to characterize the geologic framework and identify potential groundwater-discharge sites. Time-series radon at the Nova Southeastern University National Coral Reef Institute (NSU/NCRI) seawall indicated a very strong tidally modulated discharge of ground water with 222Rn activities ranging from 4 to 10 disintegrations per minute per liter depending on tidal stage. CHIRP seismic data provided very detailed bottom profiles (i.e., bathymetry); however, acoustic penetration was poor and resulted in no observed subsurface geologic structure. Boomer data, on the other hand, showed features that are indicative of karst, antecedent topography (buried reefs), and sand-filled troughs. Continuous resistivity profiling (CRP) data showed slight variability in the subsurface along the coast. Subtle changes in subsurface resistivity between nearshore (higher values) and offshore (lower values) profiles may indicate either a freshening of subsurface water nearshore or a change in sediment porosity or lithology. Further lithologic and hydrologic controls from sediment or rock cores or well data are needed to constrain the variability in CRP data.
A water-quality sampling reconnaissance of the north Dade County solid-waste disposal facility (landfill) near Carol City, Florida, was conducted during 1977-78. The purpose of the reconnaissance was to determine selected quality characteristics of the surface- and ground-water of the landfill and contiguous area; and to assess, generally, if leachate produced by the decomposition of landfill wastes was adversely impacting the downgradient water quality. Sampling results indicated that several water-quality characteristics were present in landfill ground water at significantly higher levels than in ground water upgradient or downgradient from the landfill. Moreover, many of these water-quality characteristics were found at slightly higher levels at down gradient site 5 than at upgradient site 1 which suggested that some downgradient movement of landfill leachate had occurred. For example, chloride and alkalinity in ground water had average concentrations of 20 and 290 mg/L at background wells (site 1), 144 and 610 mg/L at landfill wells (sites 2 and 4), and 29 and 338 mg/L at downgradient wells (site 5). A comparison of the 1977-78 sampling results with the National Primary and Secondary Drinking Water Regulations indicated that levels of iron and color in ground water of the study area frequently exceeded national maximum contaminant levels, dissolved solids, turbidity, lead, and manganese occasionally exceeded regulations. Concentrations of iron and levels of color and turbidity in some surface water samples also exceeded National maximum contaminant levels. (USGS)
A water-quality reconnaissance was conducted at the south Dade County solid-waste landfill near Goulds, Florida, from December 1977 through August 1978. The landfill is located directly on the unconfined Biscayne aquifer, which, in the study area, is affected by saltwater intrusion. Water samples collected from six monitor well sites at two depths and four surface-water sites were analyzed to determine the chemical, physical, and biological conditions of the ground water and surface water of the study area. Results indicated that water quality beneath the landfill was highly variable with location and depth. Leachate was generally more evident in the shallow wells and during the dry-season sampling, but was greatly diluted and dispersed in the deep wells and during the wet season. High concentrations of contaminants were generated primarily in areas of the landfill with the most recent waste deposits. Chloride (limited to the shallow wells and the dry season), alkalinity, ammonia, iron, manganese, lead, phosphorus, and organic nitrogen indicate leachate contamination of the aquifer. Water-quality characteristics in the surface waters were generally only slightly above background levels. (USGS)
Missimer, T.M.; Gardner, Richard Alfred
High-resolution continuous seismic reflection profiling equipment was utilized to define the configuration of sedimentary layers underlying part of Lee County, Florida. About 45 miles (72 kilometers) of profile were made on the Caloosahatchee River Estuary and San Carlos Bay. Two different acoustic energy sources, a high resolution boomer and a 45-electrode high resolution sparker, both having a power input of 300 joules, were used to obtain both adequate penetration and good resolution. The seismic profiles show that much of the strata of middle Miocene to Holocene age apparently are extensively folded but not faulted. Initial interpretations indicate that: (1) the top of the Hawthorn Formation (which contains the upper Hawthorn aquifer) has much relief due chiefly to apparent folding; (2) the limestone, sandstone, and unconsolidated sand and phosphorite, which together compose the sandstone aquifer, appear to be discontinuous; (3) the green clay unit of the Tamiami Formation contains large scale angular beds dipping eastward; and (4) numerous deeply cut alluvium-filled paleochannels underlie the Caloosahatchee River. (Woodard-USGS)
Waller, Bradley G.; Miller, Wesley L.
An intensive water-quality monitoring program was started in 1969 to determine the effects of man-induced contaminants on the water quality in the primary canal system of eastern Broward County, Florida. This report covers the first 6 years of the program and provides a data base that can be used to compare future changes in water-quality conditions. Most data indicate that beyond the small seasonal fluctuation in constituent level, the greatest adverse effect on the quality of water is caused by discharge of sewage and treated sewage effluent to the canals. The areas affected by sewage have greater concentrations of macronutrients, trace metals, and pesticides than unaffected areas. Major-ion concentrations were affected only by season and local lithology. Over the 6-year study a gradual decrease in macronutrient concentration and an increase in dissolved oxygen have occurred. This improvement in water quality is attributed to a decrease of sewage discharge into canals and better treatment of sewage effluents. (USGS)
Schulz, William H.; Coe, Jeffrey A.; Ellis, William L.; Kibler, John D.
Nearly two-dozen shallow landslides were active during spring 2005 on a hillside located along the east side of the Florida River about one kilometer downstream from Lemon Reservoir in La Plata County, southwestern Colorado. Landslides on the hillside directly threaten human safety, residential structures, a county roadway, utilities, and the Florida River, and indirectly threaten downstream areas and Lemon Dam. Most of the area where the landslides occurred was burned during the 2002 Missionary Ridge wildfire. We performed geologic mapping, subsurface exploration and sampling, radiocarbon dating, and shallow ground-water and ground-displacement monitoring to assess landslide activity. Active landslides during spring 2005 were as large as 35,000 m3 and confined to colluvium. Debris flows were mobilized from most of the landslides, were as large as 1,500 m3, and traveled as far as 250 m. Landslide activity was triggered by elevated ground-water pressures within the colluvium caused by infiltration of snowmelt. Landslide activity ceased as ground-water pressures dropped during the summer. Shallow landslides on the hillside appear to be much more likely following the Missionary Ridge fire because of the loss of tree root strength and evapotranspiration. We used monitoring data and observations to develop preliminary, approximate rainfall/snowmelt thresholds above which shallow landslide activity can be expected. Landslides triggered during spring 2005 occurred within a 1.97 x 107 m3 older landslide that extends, on average, about 40 m into bedrock. The south end of this older landslide appears to have experienced deep secondary landsliding. Radiocarbon dating of sediments at the head of the older landslide suggests that the landslide was active about 1,424-1,696 years ago. A relatively widespread wildfire may have preceded the older landslide, and the landslide may have occurred during a wetter time. The wetter climate and effects of the wildfire would likely have
German, Edward R.; Adamski, James C.
Orange County, Florida, is continuing to experience a large growth in population. In 1920, the population of Orange County was less than 20,000; in 2000, the population was about 896,000. The amount of urban area around Orlando has increased considerably, especially in the northwest part of the County. The eastern one-third of the County, however, had relatively little increase in urbanization from 1977-97. The increase of population, tourism, and industry in Orange County and nearby areas changed land use; land that was once agricultural has become urban, industrial, and major recreation areas. These changes could impact surface-water resources that are important for wildlife habitat, for esthetic reasons, and potentially for public supply. Streamflow characteristics and water quality could be affected in various ways. As a result of changing land use, changes in the hydrology and water quality of Orange County's lakes and streams could occur. Median runoff in 10 selected Orange County streams ranges from about 20 inches per year (in/yr) in the Wekiva River to about 1.1 in/yr in Cypress Creek. The runoff for the Wekiva River is significantly higher than other river basins because of the relatively constant spring discharge that sustains streamflow, even during drought conditions. The low runoff for the Cypress Creek basin results from a lack of sustained inflow from ground water and a relatively large area of lakes within the drainage basin. Streamflow characteristics for 13 stations were computed on an annual basis and examined for temporal trends. Results of the trend testing indicate changes in annual mean streamflow, 1-day high streamflow, or 7-day low streamflow at 8 of the 13 stations. However, changes in 7-day low streamflow are more common than changes in annual mean or 1-day high streamflow. There is probably no single reason for the changes in 7-day low streamflows, and for most streams, it is difficult to determine definite reasons for the flow
... NAF FWS employees working in Broward County and the county is not currently defined to a NAF wage area..., nonappropriated fund (NAF) Federal Wage System (FWS) wage area. The Broward County VA Outpatient Clinic in...
Harder, Amy; Moore, Austen; Mazurkewicz, Melissa; Benge, Matt
Needs assessments are an important tool for informing organizational development efforts in Extension. The purpose of the study reported here was to identify problems faced by county units within UF/IFAS Extension during county program reviews. The findings were drawn from the reports created after five county units experienced program reviews in…
Reich, Christopher; Flocks, James; Davis, Jeffrey
This study was initiated in cooperation with the St. Johns River Water Management District (SJRWMD) to investigate groundwater and surface-water interaction in designated sentinel lakes in central Florida. Sentinel lakes are a SJRWMD established set of priority water bodies (lakes) for which minimum flows and levels (MFLs) are determined. Understanding both the structure and lithology beneath these lakes can ultimately lead to a better understanding of the MFLs and why water levels fluctuate in certain lakes more so than in other lakes. These sentinel lakes have become important water bodies to use as water-fluctuation indicators in the SJRWMD Minimum Flows and Levels program and will be used to define long-term hydrologic and ecologic performance measures. Geologic control on lake hydrology remains poorly understood in this study area. Therefore, the U.S. Geological Survey investigated 16 of the 21 water bodies on the SJRWMD priority list. Geologic information was obtained by the tandem use of high-resolution seismic profiling (HRSP) and direct-current (DC) resistivity profiling to isolate both the geologic framework (structure) and composition (lithology). Previous HRSP surveys from various lakes in the study area have been successful in identifying karst features, such as subsidence sinkholes. However, by using this method only, it is difficult to image highly irregular or chaotic surfaces, such as collapse sinkholes. Resistivity profiling was used to complement HRSP by detecting porosity change within fractured or collapsed structures and increase the ability to fully characterize the subsurface. Lake Saunders (Lake County) is an example of a lake composed of a series of north-south-trending sinkholes that have joined to form one lake body. HRSP shows surface depressions and deformation in the substrate. Resistivity data likewise show areas in the southern part of the lake where resistivity shifts abruptly from approximately 400 ohm meters (ohm-m) along the
Boggess, Durward Hoye; Missimer, T.M.
Lehigh Acres, a residential community with a population of about 13,500 and comprising an area of about 94 square miles (243 square kilometres) in the eastern part of Lee County, has been under development since 1954. Prior to development the area was poorly drained. By 1974, more than 150 miles (241 kilometres) of drainageways had been constructed to drain the area. The water-bearing formations underlying Lehigh Acres include the water-table, sandstone, lower Hawthorn, and Suwannee aquifers. The water-table aquifer is usually not more than 30 feet (9 metres) thick; it contains water of relatively good quality, except for iron and color. Water levels in this aquifer probably have been affected by construction of drainage canals. The sandstone aquifer, used extensively throughout the area as a source of water supply usually contains water of good quality although the water is hard and in places may contain concentrations of dissolved solids and iron which exceed the recommended limits of the U.S. Public Health Service and the State of Florida for drinking water. The lower Hawthorn and Suwannee aquifers, usually encountered at depths between 440 and 850 feet (135 and 262 metres), contains water with relatively high concentrations of sodium, sulfate, chloride, and dissolved solids. Three streams, the Orange River, Hickey Creek, and Bedman Creek and the canals connected to them, provide drainage of the area. Except for the Orange River, where the water is of good chemical quality, little is known of the water quality. Similarly, little information is available on stream discharge except for the Orange River where the average annual discharge was 41.1 cubic feet per second (11.6 cubic metres per second) between 1935-46. Most lakes and ponds in Lehigh Acres are hydraulically connected to the water-table aquifer such that factors which affect one also affect the other. Theoretical drawdown curves indicate that the drainage canals may affect ground-water levels to a
Nair, Anil; Jordan, Melissa; Watkins, Sharon; Washam, Robert; DuClos, Chris; Jones, Serena; Palcic, Jason; Pawlowicz, Marek; Blackmore, Carina
The health effects of mercury in humans are mostly on the developing nervous system. Pregnant women and women who are breastfeeding must be targeted in order to decrease mercury exposure to the populations at highest risk-infants, unborn fetuses, and young children. This purpose of this study is to understand the demographics of fish-consumption patterns among women of childbearing age (including pregnant women) in Martin County, Florida, and to analyze the associations of mercury levels in participants' hair with socio-demographic variables in order to better design prevention messages and campaigns. Mercury concentrations in hair samples of 408 women ages 18-49 were assessed. Data on demographic factors, pregnancy status, fish consumption, and awareness of fish advisories were collected during personal interviews. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression. The geometric and arithmetic means of hair mercury concentration were 0.371 and 0.676 µg/g of hair. One-fourth of the respondents had a concentration ≥1 µg/g of hair. Consuming a higher number of fish meals per month, consumption of commercially purchased or locally caught fish higher in mercury, White race and income ≥$75,000 were positively associated with the likelihood of having higher hair mercury levels. This study confirms the existence of a higher overall mean hair mercury level and a higher percentage of women with ≥1 µg/g hair mercury level than those reported at the national level and in other regional studies. This suggests the need for region-specific fish consumption advisories to minimize mercury exposure in humans. PMID:24807406
Reese, Ronald S.; Wacker, Michael A.
The surficial aquifer system is the major source of freshwater for public water supply in Palm Beach County, Florida, yet many previous studies of the hydrogeology of this aquifer system have focused only on the eastern one-half to one-third of the county in the more densely populated coastal area (Land and others, 1973; Swayze and others, 1980; Swayze and Miller, 1984; Shine and others, 1989). Population growth in the county has resulted in the westward expansion of urbanized areas into agricultural areas and has created new demands on the water resources of the county. Additionally, interest in surface-water resources of central and western areas of the county has increased. In these areas, plans for additional surface-water storage reservoirs are being made under the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan originally proposed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the South Florida Water Management District (1999), and stormwater treatment areas have been constructed by the South Florida Water Management District. Surface-water and ground-water interactions in the Everglades are thought to be important to water budgets, water quality, and ecology (Harvey and others, 2002). Most of the previous hydrogeologic and ground-water flow simulation studies of the surficial aquifer system have not utilized a hydrostratigraphic framework, in which stratigraphic or sequence stratigraphic units, such as those proposed in Cunningham and others (2001), are delineated in this stratigraphically complex aquifer system. A thick zone of secondary permeability mapped by Swayze and Miller (1984) was not subdivided and was identified as only being within the Anastasia Formation of Pleistocene age. Miller (1987) published 11 geologic sections of the surficial aquifer system, but did not delineate any named stratigraphic units in these sections. This limited interpretation has resulted, in part, from the complex facies changes within rocks and sediments of the surficial aquifer
Borg, Mary O'Malley; Plumlee, J. Patrick; Stranahan, Harriet A.
The Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) is a high-stakes test that public school students must pass to be eligible for graduation from high school. Previous research suggests that high-stakes tests have a differential effect on students by race and ethnicity. This study finds that in one Florida school district African American and…
Becker, Alan; Suther, Sandra; Dutton, Matthew; Kearney, Gregory D; Xu, Xiaohui
The objective of the study described here was to determine basic plans and collaboration with first responder stakeholders and to identify perceived roles and responsibilities in preparing for and responding to a chemical disaster. A survey was developed and provided to environmental health personnel at county health departments (CHDs) in Florida. Most of the counties had good collaborative relationships with first responder stakeholders. A little more than half of the respondents had access to a resource manual with contact information and had developed and maintained a chemical plan. Rural counties were less likely to know "what to do" or their responsibility in a chemical disaster; however, both rural and nonrural counties were equally likely not to have a written plan. Public health agencies at the local CHD must be the communicators of public health messages in coordination with the incident commander and the state communications office in a chemical disaster, so it is important to strengthen collaboration and cooperation with chemical response stakeholders. PMID:25619031
Wacker, Michael A.; Cunningham, Kevin J.; Williams, John H.
Evaluations of the lithostratigraphy, lithofacies, paleontology, ichnology, depositional environments, and cyclostratigraphy from 11 test coreholes were linked to geophysical interpretations, and to results of hydraulic slug tests of six test coreholes at the Snapper Creek Well Field (SCWF), to construct geologic and hydrogeologic frameworks for the study area in central Miami-Dade County, Florida. The resulting geologic and hydrogeologic frameworks are consistent with those recently described for the Biscayne aquifer in the nearby Lake Belt area in Miami-Dade County and link the Lake Belt area frameworks with those developed for the SCWF study area. The hydrogeologic framework is characterized by a triple-porosity pore system of (1) matrix porosity (mainly mesoporous interparticle porosity, moldic porosity, and mesoporous to megaporous separate vugs), which under dynamic conditions, produces limited flow; (2) megaporous, touching-vug porosity that commonly forms stratiform groundwater passageways; and (3) conduit porosity, including bedding-plane vugs, decimeter-scale diameter vertical solution pipes, and meter-scale cavernous vugs. The various pore types and associated permeabilities generally have a predictable vertical spatial distribution related to the cyclostratigraphy. The Biscayne aquifer within the study area can be described as two major flow units separated by a single middle semiconfining unit. The upper Biscayne aquifer flow unit is present mainly within the Miami Limestone at the top of the aquifer and has the greatest hydraulic conductivity values, with a mean of 8,200 feet per day. The middle semiconfining unit, mainly within the upper Fort Thompson Formation, comprises continuous to discontinuous zones with (1) matrix porosity; (2) leaky, low permeability layers that may have up to centimeter-scale vuggy porosity with higher vertical permeability than horizontal permeability; and (3) stratiform flow zones composed of fossil moldic porosity, burrow
The quality of ground water on four typical swine farms in Jackson County, Florida, was studied by analyzing water samples from wastewater lagoons, monitoring wells, and supply wells. Water samples were collected quarterly for 1 year and analyzed for the following dissolved species: nitrate, nitrite, ammonium nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, sulfate, chloride, calcium, magnesium, fluoride, total ammonium plus organic nitrogen, total phosphorus, alkalinity, carbonate, and bicarbonate. Additionally, the following field constituents were determined in the water samples: temperature, specific conductance, pH, dissolved oxygen, and fecal streptococcus and fecal coliform bacteria. Chemical changes in swine waste as it leaches and migrates through the saturated zone were examined by comparing median values and ranges of water- quality data from farm wastewater in lagoons, shallow pond, shallow monitoring wells, and deeper farm supply wells. The effects of hydrogeologic settings and swine farmland uses on shallow ground-water quality were examined by comparing the shallow ground-water-quality data set with the results of the chemical analyses of water from the Upper Floridan aquifer, and to land uses adjacent to the monitoring wells. Substantial differences occur between the quality of diluted swine waste in the wastewater lagoons, and that of the water quality found in the shallow pond, and the ground water frm all but two of the monitoring wells of the four swine farms. The liquid from the wastewater lagoons and ground water from two wells adjacent to and down the regional gradient from a lagoon on one site, have relatively high values for the following properties and constituents: specific conductance, dissolved ammonia nitrogen, dissolved potassium, and dissolved chloride. Ground water from all other monitoring wells and farm supply wells and the surface water pond, have relatively much lower values for the same properties and constituents. To determine the relation
Zevallos, Juan C.; Wilcox, Meredith L.; Jean, Naomie; Acuña, Juan M.
Abstract Florida has the greatest proportion (19%) of older population (65 years or older) in the United States. The age distribution of its residents, in conjunction with a major shift in the leading cause of death within all age groups from acute illnesses to chronic disease, creates unprecedented health care challenges for the state. The objective of this study is to profile the older population living in Miami-Dade County (MDC) using 3 population-based, household-based surveys conducted over the past 5 years. This study examined cross-sectional data (demographics, health outcomes, risk factors, health assess, and utilization) collected from probability-sampled, household-based surveys conducted in 3 areas of MDC: north Miami-Dade, Little Haiti, and South Miami. The questionnaire was administered face-to-face by trained interviewers in English, Spanish, French, or Creole. Analyses were restricted to households containing at least 1 member aged 65 years or older (n = 935). One consenting adult answered the questionnaire on behalf of household members. The mean age of the respondent (60% females) was 60 years. Overall, respondents were predominantly African-Americans, Hispanics, and blacks of Haitian origin. One-third of all households fell below the US poverty thresholds. One-quarter of all households had at least 1 member who was uninsured within the year before the survey. Twenty percent of households had at least 1 member with an acute myocardial infarction or stroke during the year before the survey. Bone density tests and blood stool tests were strikingly underutilized. The health outcomes most prevalent within household members were cardiovascular diseases followed by cancer, anxiety/depression, obesity, asthma, and bone fractures. Twenty percent of households reported having at least 1 current smoker. Overall, emergency rooms were the most commonly used places of care after doctor's offices. Findings of 3 household-based surveys show a predominantly
Zevallos, Juan C; Wilcox, Meredith L; Jean, Naomie; Acuña, Juan M
Florida has the greatest proportion (19%) of older population (65 years or older) in the United States. The age distribution of its residents, in conjunction with a major shift in the leading cause of death within all age groups from acute illnesses to chronic disease, creates unprecedented health care challenges for the state. The objective of this study is to profile the older population living in Miami-Dade County (MDC) using 3 population-based, household-based surveys conducted over the past 5 years.This study examined cross-sectional data (demographics, health outcomes, risk factors, health assess, and utilization) collected from probability-sampled, household-based surveys conducted in 3 areas of MDC: north Miami-Dade, Little Haiti, and South Miami. The questionnaire was administered face-to-face by trained interviewers in English, Spanish, French, or Creole. Analyses were restricted to households containing at least 1 member aged 65 years or older (n = 935). One consenting adult answered the questionnaire on behalf of household members.The mean age of the respondent (60% females) was 60 years. Overall, respondents were predominantly African-Americans, Hispanics, and blacks of Haitian origin. One-third of all households fell below the US poverty thresholds. One-quarter of all households had at least 1 member who was uninsured within the year before the survey. Twenty percent of households had at least 1 member with an acute myocardial infarction or stroke during the year before the survey. Bone density tests and blood stool tests were strikingly underutilized. The health outcomes most prevalent within household members were cardiovascular diseases followed by cancer, anxiety/depression, obesity, asthma, and bone fractures. Twenty percent of households reported having at least 1 current smoker. Overall, emergency rooms were the most commonly used places of care after doctor's offices.Findings of 3 household-based surveys show a predominantly elderly
The leakage characteristics of channels that partially penetrate the Biscayne aquifer and have reduced bed permeability were studied. Leakage characteristics were described in terms of a reach transmissivity-defined as the volume flow rate out of the channel per unit length of the channel per unit drawdown, where drawdown is defined as the difference in altitude between the water surface in the canal and the water table in the adjacent aquifer. A theoretical expression was developed to relate the reach transmissivity to the transmissivity of the formation, mean channel width, distance of drawdown measurement from the channel centerline, ratio of drawdowns on both sides of the channel, and local reach transmissivity associated with reduced bed permeability. This theoretical expression was verified using a fine-scale numerical model, which gave accurate results when drawdowns were measured beyond 10 aquifer depths from the side of the channel. Using the theoretical formulation, it is shown that the reach transmissivity employed in regional ground-water models, which are based on average drawdowns within a cell, depends on the size of the cell as well as the transmissivity of the formation, channel width, and local reach transmissivity due to reduced bed permeability. The theoretical reach transmissivity function was compared with field measurements at L-31N Canal and Snapper Creek Extension Canal in Dade County, Florida. Analyses of the data for both canals showed good agreement between the estimated and measured reach transmissivities. At L- 31N Canal, field measurements indicated that the local reach transmissivity was relatively uniform over a 2-mile reach of the channel (averaging 630 cubic feet per second per mile per foot), and the formation transmissivity was 1.8 x106 feet squared per day. At Snapper Creek Extension Canal, an approximate analysis was necessary due to the inability of the acoustic velocity meter to measure very low water velocities in the
Byrne, Michael J., Sr.; Smith, Richard L.; Repert, Deborah A.
The potential for denitrification was tested in water samples from four Upper Floridan aquifer wells near a reclaimed water application site, in west Orange County Florida, and two adjacent springs. Results of the study indicate that denitrifying bacteria are present in the groundwater and spring water samples, and that these bacteria can readily denitrify the waters when suitable geochemical conditions exist. The acetylene block technique was used to assess nitrous oxide in the samples that was produced by denitrification. The laboratory incubation experiment consisted of four different treatments to each of the six samples: (1) ambient water (no added nitrate or glucose), (2) ambient water amended with 1.4 milligrams per liter (mg/L) nitrate as nitrogen (N), (3) ambient water amended with 5.0 mg/L nitrate as N, and (4) ambient water amended with 5.0 mg/L nitrate as N and 10 mg/L glucose as C6H12O6. A companion set of incubations using treatment 2 tracked changes in nitrate and nitrite concentration with time. The rate of denitrification in treatment 2 ranged from 0.059 to 0.124 milligram per liter per day nitrogen [(mg/L)/d N] and in treatment 3 ranged from 0.071 to 0.226 (mg/L)/d N. At all of the sampling sites, treatment 4 yielded denitrification rates at least an order of magnitude greater than those measured for the other treatments; rates ranged from 2.3 to 4.4 (mg/L)/d N. The electron donor supply, dissolved organic carbon, in the groundwater and springwater is sufficient to remove at least 1.1-1.4 mg/L nitrate as N in 20 to 30 days, as indicated by nitrous oxide production rates under ambient conditions (treatment 1). The even higher nitrate removal observed with addition of supplemental carbon in treatment 4 suggests that carbon is a limiting nutrient in this reaction. Denitrifying activity might explain the low ambient nitrate concentrations in the Upper Floridan aquifer in this area.
Hampson, Paul S.; Hayes, Eugene C.
Data collected from 1976 to 1979 indicate large water-quality variations in the upper 300 feet of the Floridan aquifer in St. Johns County, Florida. Chloride concentrations range from less than 10 milligrams per liter in the northwestern part of the county to more than 1,000 milligrams per liter in the southeast and extreme southwest. Total hardness concentrations range from 110 milligrams per liter in the northwest to 1,700 milligrams per liter in the southeast. In most of the county, high chloride and total hardness concentrations indicate the presence of saline water that entered the aquifer during the Pleistocene Epoch and has not been flushed out. Water quality in the aquifer has also been influenced by submarine discharge in the southeast and by heavy pumpage for irrigation in the southwest. High total hardness concentrations not accompanied by high chloride values in the western part of the county may be structurally controlled or may indicate the presence of gypsum evaporite beds in the upper 300 feet of the aquifer. (USGS)
Marella, Richard L.; Dixon, Joann F.
The irrigated acreage estimated for Jackson County in 2014 (31,608) is about 47 percent higher than the 2012 estimated acreage published by the USDA (21,508 acres). The estimates of irrigated acreage field verified during 2014 for Calhoun and Gadsden Counties are also higher than those published by the USDA for 2012 (86 percent and 71 percent, respectively). In Calhoun County the USDA reported 1,647 irrigated acres while the current study estimated 3,060 acres, and in Gadsden County the USDA reported 2,650 acres while the current study estimated 4,547 acres. For Houston County the USDA-reported value of 9,138 acres in 2012 was 13 percent below the 10,333 acres field verified in the current study. Differences between the USDA 2012 values and 2014 field verified estimates in these two datasets may occur because (1) irrigated acreage for some specific crops increased or decreased substantially during the 2-year interval due to commodity prices or economic changes, (2) irrigated acreage calculated for the current study may be estimated high because irrigation was assumed if an irrigation system was present and therefore the acreage was counted as irrigated, when in fact that may not have been the case as some farmers may not have used their irrigation systems during this growing period even if they had a crop in the field, or (3) the amount of irrigated acreages published by the USDA for selected crops may be underestimated in some cases.
An Assessment of the Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services Detention Risk Assessment Instrument on Youths Screened and Processed at the Hillsborough County Juvenile Assessment Center.
Dembo, Richard; And Others
Analyzes screening data on arrested youths (n=361) at the Hillsborough County, Florida Juvenile Assessment Center in November 1993. Results provide support for the effectiveness of the Detention Risk Assessment Instrument in differentiating among youths released to the community unsupervised, youths placed on home detention, and youths placed in…
Quin, Wayne Anthony
This study investigated perceptions of school work culture of instructional staff members (administrators and faculty) in public charter and public non-charter elementary schools in a large urban metropolitan county of Central Florida by assessing differences in perceptions of administrators and faculty related to school work culture, perceptions…
Stake, Bernadine Evans; And Others
The National Sex Equity Demonstration Project (NSEDP) in the Broward County Schools, Florida, was created in 1979 to provide a demonstration of sex equity teaching. The two principal thrusts of the Project were to review materials to be used by regular teachers and to demonstrate how classrooms (and a whole district) could diminish discrimination…
Swayze, L.J.; Miller, W.L.
The surficial aquifer is the primary source of freshwater for the heavily developed coastal area in eastern Palm Beach County, Florida. Well fields are generally located in a discontinuous zone of higher secondary permeability, the northernmost extension of the Biscayne aquifer in the surficial aquifer, that extends from the Juno Beach area south to Broward County and varies in width from about 4 to 15 miles. The zone was formed by varying dissolution of aquifer limestone materials during Pleistocene age changes in sea level, and ranges in depth from about sea level to 220 feet below sea level. Because of proximity to the Atlantic Ocean and saltwater estuaries, the aquifer is susceptible to saltwater intrusion. Ground water to the west of the zone of higher secondary permeability is of poor quality. The ground water is calcium bicarbonate dominant. Dissolved solids, calcium carbonate hardness, and chloride are greatest along the saltwater intruded coastline and in the western part of the study area where diluted residual seawater exists. Total organic carbon increases inland due to infiltration of rainwater through thicker layers of organic soils. Ground-water levels in the surficial aquifer in eastern Palm Beach County are strongly influenced by controlled levels in canals. In March 1981, after 12 months of below average rainfall, ground-water levels ranged from about 2 feet above sea level along the coast to nearly 21 feet above sea level 15 miles inland in the northwest section of the study area. (USGS)
The objectives of the Household Hazardous Waste Characterization Study (the HHW Study) were to: 1) Quantity the annual household hazardous waste (HHW) tonnages disposed in Palm Beach County Florida’s (the County) residential solid waste (characterized in this study as municipal s...
FLORIDA HAZARDOUS WASTE AND SANITARY LANDFILL REPORT, COUNTY DATA. GENERATOR DATA AND CHARACTERISTICS OF SANITARY LANDFILLS. PART 9. COUNTIES: POLK, PUTNAM, ST. JOHNS, ST. LUCIE, SANTA ROSA, SARASOTA, SEMINOLE
The report provides data on the use of sanitary landfills (Subtitle D facilities) for hazardous waste disposal in Florida by small quantity generators. It consists of eleven parts including a part called Study Area Data which contains the data aggregated across the counties cover...
Marcelin, Louis Herns; McCoy, H. Virginia; DiClemente, Ralph J.
This study examined HIV/AIDS knowledge and beliefs in Haitian adolescents in an HIV epicenter, Miami-Dade Florida. This study examined survey data from 300 Haitian adolescents, aged 13 through 18, from both low- and middle-income neighborhoods. A sub-sample of 80 adolescents was selected for in-depth interviews and continuous observations with…
The seven acre Hipps Road Landfill is in the Jacksonville Heights area of Jacksonville, Duval County, Florida. Over 130 contaminants have been detected in various environmental media near the site. The 35 contaminants of concern were detected in one or more of the following on- and off-site media: subsurface soil, sediment, surface water, groundwater, and air. In the past, nearby residents were exposed to arsenic, cadmium, lead, and tetrachloroethene in the environment at doses associated with (noncancer) illnesses in human and animal studies. Furthermore, residents were exposed to arsenic, benzene, 1,2-dichloroethane, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, methylene chlroide, PCBs, and vinyl chloride in the environment at levels that could increase their cancer risk. Presently, all nearby residents drinking from private well water might be exposed to low levels of solvents and metals.
The Brown Wood Preserving site is a National Priorities List (NPL) site located at the intersection of Saw Mill Road and Gold Kist Road, west of the city of Live Oak, Suwannee County, Florida. Surface soil and surface water at the disposal lagoon area were contaminated with polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Groundwater was also tested for PAHs with none found; however, analytical detection limits were greater than appropriate health-based guideline values. The site is located in an area of intermediate karst (sinkhole) development. This area of direct aquifer recharge is surrounded by residences using private potable wells. The exposures of concern for humans include dermal absorption and inhalation of dust from contaminated surface soil. Residents reside 100 feet northwest of the site and may constitute a susceptible population because of their proximity to contaminated soils.
The Agrico Chemical Co. Superfund site (Agrico) is a former sulfuric acid and phosphate fertilizer production facility in Pensacola, Escambia County, Florida. The authors focused their public assessment on the following chemicals: arsenic, chromium, fluoride, lead, manganese, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), sulfate and vanadium. Workers and treapassers on the site may have accidentally eaten contaminated soil or waste sludge, or gotten this material or contaminated water on their skin. Arsenic in surface soil on the site may also increase the risk of skin, bladder, liver, kidney and lung cancer. Arsenic in surface soil at the onsite baseball field, and lead and PAHs in surface soil on and off of the site would result in no apparent increase in the risk of cancer. Analysis of off-site surface soil samples has been limited to PAHs, fluoride and three analyses for lead. Based on the information the authors have, this site is a public health hazard.
McBride, William S.; Wacker, Michael A.
A test well was drilled by the City of Tallahassee to assess the suitability of the site for the installation of a new well for public water supply. The test well is in Leon County in north-central Florida. The U.S. Geological Survey delineated high-permeability zones in the Upper Floridan aquifer, using borehole-geophysical data collected from the open interval of the test well. A composite water sample was collected from the open interval during high-flow conditions, and three discrete water samples were collected from specified depth intervals within the test well during low-flow conditions. Water-quality, source tracer, and age-dating results indicate that the open interval of the test well produces water of consistently high quality throughout its length. The cavernous nature of the open interval makes it likely that the highly permeable zones are interconnected in the aquifer by secondary porosity features.
Walker, Brian K; Gilliam, David S
Climate change has recently been implicated in poleward shifts of many tropical species including corals; thus attention focused on higher-latitude coral communities is warranted to investigate possible range expansions and ecosystem shifts due to global warming. As the northern extension of the Florida Reef Tract (FRT), the third-largest barrier reef ecosystem in the world, southeast Florida (25-27° N latitude) is a prime region to study such effects. Most of the shallow-water FRT benthic habitats have been mapped, however minimal data and limited knowledge exist about the coral reef communities of its northernmost reaches off Martin County. First benthic habitat mapping was conducted using newly acquired high resolution LIDAR bathymetry and aerial photography where possible to map the spatial extent of coral reef habitats. Quantitative data were collected to characterize benthic cover and stony coral demographics and a comprehensive accuracy assessment was performed. The data were then analyzed in a habitat biogeography context to determine if a new coral reef ecosystem region designation was warranted. Of the 374 km(2) seafloor mapped, 95.2% was Sand, 4.1% was Coral Reef and Colonized Pavement, and 0.7% was Other Delineations. Map accuracy assessment yielded an overall accuracy of 94.9% once adjusted for known map marginal proportions. Cluster analysis of cross-shelf habitat type and widths indicated that the benthic habitats were different than those further south and warranted designation of a new coral reef ecosystem region. Unlike the FRT further south, coral communities were dominated by cold-water tolerant species and LIDAR morphology indicated no evidence of historic reef growth during warmer climates. Present-day hydrographic conditions may be inhibiting poleward expansion of coral communities along Florida. This study provides new information on the benthic community composition of the northern FRT, serving as a baseline for future community shift and
Baghdady, Ashraf R.; Howari, Fares M.; Al-Wakeel, Mohamed I.
The Florida phosphate deposits in Four Corners and Hardee County mines are composed mainly of phosphate minerals and quartz in addition to subordinate proportions of feldspars, dolomite, calcite, gypsum, kaolinite, attapulgite and montmorillonite. These phosphorites contain three structurally different types of mudclasts: massive mudclasts, mudclasts with concentric structure and mudclasts consisting of agglomerates of apatite microparticles. The latter are represented by particles resembling phosphatized fossil bacteria associated with microbial filaments, and hollow apatite particles having surfacial coatings and connected to microbial filaments. The Florida phosphate particles are reworked and vary in mineral composition, color and shape. They are composed of a mixture of well-crystalline species including carbonate fluorapatite (francolite), carbonate apatite and fluorapatite. The color variation of the phosphate particles is related to difference in mineral composition, extent of diagenetic effects and reworking. The light-colored mudclasts are characterized by the presence of carbonate apatite and aluminum hydroxide phosphate minerals, whereas the dark mudclasts are rich in iron aluminum hydroxide phosphate minerals. The Florida phosphorites are suggested to be formed partially by authigenetic precipitation, replacement of the sea floor carbonate and diatomite, and microbial processes. With respect to elemental geochemistry, the analyzed particles contain small percentages of sulfur and iron which are related to the occurrence of pyrite. Traces of silica and alumina are recorded which may be attributed to the diagenetic. Some of the tested particles are relatively rich in phosphorous, fluorine, calcium, and magnesium, while poor in silicon, potassium and sulfur. Whereas, the bioclasts (especially teeth) are relatively rich in calcium, phosphorous and fluorine while poor in silicon, aluminum, magnesium and potassium. Hence, the microchemical analyses revealed
Walker, Brian K.; Gilliam, David S.
Climate change has recently been implicated in poleward shifts of many tropical species including corals; thus attention focused on higher-latitude coral communities is warranted to investigate possible range expansions and ecosystem shifts due to global warming. As the northern extension of the Florida Reef Tract (FRT), the third-largest barrier reef ecosystem in the world, southeast Florida (25–27° N latitude) is a prime region to study such effects. Most of the shallow-water FRT benthic habitats have been mapped, however minimal data and limited knowledge exist about the coral reef communities of its northernmost reaches off Martin County. First benthic habitat mapping was conducted using newly acquired high resolution LIDAR bathymetry and aerial photography where possible to map the spatial extent of coral reef habitats. Quantitative data were collected to characterize benthic cover and stony coral demographics and a comprehensive accuracy assessment was performed. The data were then analyzed in a habitat biogeography context to determine if a new coral reef ecosystem region designation was warranted. Of the 374 km2 seafloor mapped, 95.2% was Sand, 4.1% was Coral Reef and Colonized Pavement, and 0.7% was Other Delineations. Map accuracy assessment yielded an overall accuracy of 94.9% once adjusted for known map marginal proportions. Cluster analysis of cross-shelf habitat type and widths indicated that the benthic habitats were different than those further south and warranted designation of a new coral reef ecosystem region. Unlike the FRT further south, coral communities were dominated by cold-water tolerant species and LIDAR morphology indicated no evidence of historic reef growth during warmer climates. Present-day hydrographic conditions may be inhibiting poleward expansion of coral communities along Florida. This study provides new information on the benthic community composition of the northern FRT, serving as a baseline for future community shift and
The 21st Manor Dump site is adjacent to Meadowbrook Elementary School in Ft. Lauderdale, Broward County, Florida. It was originally a borrow pit or natural depression where uncontrolled dumping occurred. Children or other individuals may also have come in contact with contaminated soil and water when the dump was open. On-site shallow groundwater contains arsenic, chromium, lead and vanadium. Off-site groundwater is contaminated with vinyl chloride, trichloroethene, 1,1-dichloroethene, 1,2-dichloroethene, and chloroform, but the contamination does not appear to be site-related. However, the off-site contamination is a public health concern and has resulted in the closure of eight municipal supply wells and seven private wells within a one mile radius of the site. Based on the available information, the authors classify the Broward County-21st Manor Dump site as an indeterminate public health hazard. In consultation with the Health Activities Recommendation Panel, the authors recommend that on- and off-site surface soil samples and on-site deep groundwater samples be analyzed for site-related contaminants.
Subsurface geophysical logs were correlated with logs of drill cuttings to determine the permeability of selected zones of the shallow aquifer, Palm Beach County, Fla. The hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer is estimated to range from 1 to 130 feet per day, based on lithology and physical properties. The yield of wells penetrating this aquifer ranges from 100 to more than 1,000 gallons per minute. Water samples were collected from different depths throughout the county and analyzed for chemical constituents. Stiff diagrams illustrate the changes in types of water by depth and area. Water of suitable quality is in the eastern parts of the county. In this area the aquifer is the thickest and most permeable. The concentration of chemical constituents in the water increase in a westerly direction. The water in the western parts of the county is unsuitable for most purposes. (Woodard-USGS)
Spechler, Rick M.
The Floridan aquifer is the principal source of freshwater to wells in most of St. Johns County. The aquifer consists of a thick sequence of interbedded limestone and dolomite of Eocene age. The top of the Floridan aquifer, which is irregular throughout St. Johns County, ranges from less than 90 feet below sea level in the extreme southestern part to more than 360 feet below sea level in the northern part. (USGS)
Kohout, F.A.; Hartwell, J.H.
Swampy low land (Area B) that fringes the Everglades west of Metropolitan Miami, Florida (Area A) probably will be urbanized in the future. Area B will be protected from flooding by huge pumps that will pump water westward from Area B over a levee system into Conservation Area 3B. The total capacity of the pumps will be about 13,400 cubic feet per second which is sufficient to lower water levels 2 inches per day in the 203 square miles of Area B. As this capacity is about equal to the highest gravity-flow discharge to the ocean through existing canals of the Miami area, a great potential. will exist, not only for control of floods, but also for beneficial control and management of a major segment of the water resources in southeastern Florida.
A 4-year study of the hydrology of the Wolf Branch sinkhole basin in Lake County, Florida, was conducted from 1991-95 by the U.S. Geological Survey to provide information about the hydrologic characteristics of the drainage basin in the vicinity of Wolf Sink. Wolf Branch drains a 4.94 square mile area and directly recharges the Upper Floridan aquifer through Wolf Sink. Because of the direct connection of the sinkhole with the aquifer, a contaminant spill in the basin could pose a threat to the aquifer. The Wolf Branch drainage basin varies in hydrologic characteristics from its headwaters to its terminus at Wolf Sink. Ground- water seepage provides baseflow to the stream north of Wolf Branch Road, but the stream south of State Road 46 is intermittent and the stream can remain dry for months. A single culvert under a railroad crossing conducts flow from wetlands just south of State Road 46 to a well-defined channel which leads to Wolf Sink. The basin morphology is characterized by karst terrain, with many closed depressions which can provide intermittent surface-water storage. Wetlands in the lower third of the basin (south of State Road 46) also provide surface water storage. The presence of numerous water-control structures (impoundments, canals, and culverts), and the surface-water storage capacity throughout the basin affects the flow characteristics of Wolf Branch. Streamflow records for two stations (one above and one below major wetlands in the basin) indicate the flow about State Road 46 is characterized by rapid runoff and continuous baseflow, whereas below State Road 46, peak discharges are much lower but of longer duration than at the upstream station. Rainfall, discharge, ground-water level, and surface-water level data were collected at selected sites in the basin. Hydrologic conditions during the study ranged from long dry periods when there was no inflow to Wolf Sink, to very wet periods, as when nearly 7 inches of rain fell in a 2-day period in
The Floridan aquifer within the area of investigation consists of 1,100 to 1,800 feet of soft, porous limestone interbedded with hard, dense limestone and dolomite overlain by several hundred feet of confining beds. From late 1948 to May 1972, water levels in wells tapping the Floridan aquifer declined as much as 14 feet in northern Clay and St. Johns Counties and more than 20 feet at Jacksonville in Duval County, Florida. These trends will probably continue as withdrawals from the aquifer increase. Water-level depressions exist at Green Cove Springs and Jacksonville because of natural discharge and large scale withdrawals. Withdrawals from wells could result in well interference unless the wells are spaced at least 1,000 ft apart. Two- to four-inch diameter wells drilled 100 ft or less into the aquifer yield 50 to 250 gal/min. Larger and deeper wells yield 1,000 gal/min or more. Hardness of water is generally less than 10 mg/liter. Quality of water from wells sampled over a span of 10 to 30 years has not changed noticeably. Principal recharge to the Floridan occurs southwest of the area in a lake region where rainfall percolates directly into the aquifer. (Woodard-USGS)
Reese, Ronald S.; Wacker, Michael A.
Previous studies of the hydrogeology of the surficial aquifer system in Palm Beach County, Florida, have focused mostly on the eastern one-half to one-third of the county in the more densely populated coastal areas. These studies have not placed the hydrogeology in a framework in which stratigraphic units in this complex aquifer system are defined and correlated between wells. Interest in the surficial aquifer system has increased because of population growth, westward expansion of urbanized areas, and increased utilization of surface-water resources in the central and western areas of the county. In 2004, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the South Florida Water Management District, initiated an investigation to delineate the hydrogeologic framework of the surficial aquifer system in Palm Beach County, based on a lithostratigraphic framework, and to evaluate hydraulic properties and characteristics of units and permeable zones within this framework. A lithostratigraphic framework was delineated by correlating markers between all wells with data available based primarily on borehole natural gamma-ray geophysical log signatures and secondarily, lithologic characteristics. These correlation markers approximately correspond to important lithostratigraphic unit boundaries. Using the markers as guides to their boundaries, the surficial aquifer system was divided into three main permeable zones or subaquifers, which are designated, from shallowest to deepest, zones 1, 2, and 3. Zone 1 is above the Tamiami Formation in the Anastasia and Fort Thompson Formations. Zone 2 primarily is in the upper part or Pinecrest Sand Member of the Tamiami Formation, and zone 3 is in the Ochopee Limestone Member of the Tamiami Formation or its correlative equivalent. Differences in the lithologic character exist between these three zones, and these differences commonly include differences in the nature of the pore space. Zone 1 attains its greatest thickness (50 feet or more
Miller, Wesley L.
The surficial aquifer system is a major source of freshwater in Palm Beach County. In 1982, public supply withdrawals from the aquifer system totaled 33,543 million gallons, 77.5% of total public supply withdrawals. To evaluate the aquifer system and its geologic framework, a cooperative study with Palm Beach County was begun in 1982 by the U.S. Geological Survey. The surficial aquifer system in Palm Beach County is composed primarily of sand, sandstone, shell, silt, calcareous clay (marl), and limestone deposited during the Pleistocene and Pliocene epochs. In the western two-thirds of Palm Beach County, sediments in the aquifer system are poorly consolidated sand, shell, and sandy limestone. Owing to interspersed calcareous clays and silt and very poorly sorted materials, permeabilities in this zone of the aquifer system are relatively low. Two other zones of the aquifer system are found in the eastern one-third of the county where the sediments are appreciably more permeable than in the west due to better sorting and less silt and clay content. The location of more detailed lithologic logs for wells in these sections, along with data from nearby wells, allowed enhanced interpretation and depiction of the lithology which had previously been generalized. The most permeable zone of the aquifer system in this area is characterized by highly developed secondary porosity where infiltrating rainwater and solution by groundwater have removed calcitic-cementing materials from the sediments to produce interconnected cavities. Increased permeability in the aquifer system is generally coincident with the eastern boundary of the overlying organic soils and Lake Flirt Marl. Lithologic logs of wells in Palm Beach County indicate that sediments forming the aquifer system were deposited directly on the erosional surface of the Hawthorn Formation in some areas. In other locations in the county, lithologic logs indicate that the base of the aquifer system was formed by fluvial
The unconfined aquifer in Charlotte County contains some potable water over most of the county, and represents a potential source of water supply to help satisfy the increasing demands of development. An estimated 150 billion cubic feet of relatively good quality water is stored in the unconfined aquifer. Transmissivity of this aquifer averages about 500 square feet per day, ranging from 100 to 7000 feet per day. Although recharge is primarily from rainfall, a significant amount occurs by upward movement of water from underlying confined aquifers through abandoned and flowing irrigation wells. Average annual recharge is estimated at 12 inches per year, and ranges from less than one inch to 16 inches per year. Chemical quality of the water is variable. However, chloride concentrations of water from the unconfined aquifer generally are less than 50 milligrams per liter. The area of greatest potential yield is located east of Telegraph Swamp in eastern Charlotte County. (Woodard-USGS)
Mills, L.R.; Ryder, Paul D.
The coastal parts of Citrus and Hernando Counties, Fla., are undergoing extensive urban development along U.S. Highway 19. The Floridan aquifer, a thick sequence of limestone and dolomite , is the principal source of water supply for the coastal parts of these two counties. The construction of canals that penetrate the Floridan aquifer, deficient rainfall during 1964-75, and pumping of ground water, have caused saltwater to intrude the aquifer. A map shows the inland extend of that intrusion as of 1975. The report is based on field data collected in 1964, 1973, and 1975. (Woodard-USGS)
MIRENGOFF, WILLIAM; SHOSTACK, ALBERT
AT THE PEAK OF THE 1955-56 WINTER SEASON, 1,300 FAMILIES AND 5,600 SINGLE MIGRANT WORKERS WERE LIVING IN DADE COUNTY'S URBAN AREAS AND 71 LABOR CAMPS. MOST LIVED IN OVERCROWDED QUARTERS, BUT THE UNITS WERE SOUNDLY CONSTRUCTED. WATER AND SEWAGE WERE ADEQUATE, BUT THERE WERE MANY STRUCTURAL DEFICIENCIES, INCLUDING LACK OF SCREENS AND LACK OF…
... INFORMATION: On May 21, 2013, OPM issued a proposed rule (78 FR 29658) to define Broward County, FL, as an... first applicable pay period beginning on or after October 31, 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT... Administrative practice and procedure, Freedom of information, Government employees, Reporting and...
Kaplan, Arlene F.; Knight, Karen W.; Parks, Robert D.
The Urban Academies of Broward County (UABC) was conceived and implemented as a collaborative teacher preparation model designed to develop, hire, and retain high-performing and motivated educators in predominantly poor minority schools. The program targets high school students, college students majoring in education, and practicing teachers.…
Swayze, Leo J.; McGovern, Michael C.; Fischer, John N.
Test-hole data that may be used to determine the hydrogeology of the zone of high permeability in Palm Beach County, Fla., are presented. Lithologic logs from 46 test wells and geophysical logs from 40 test wells are contained in this report. (USGS)
Brevard County, on Florida's east coast, contains one of the largest concentrations of manatees remaining in Florida. This population was studied from January 1978 through February 1980 using aerial surveys, and boat and land observations. As many as 250 manatees were counted in the county in the spring of 1979. During the warm months most manatees were observed in the Banana River, but during the winter most manatees (up to 100) were found in the warm effluent zones of two power plants on the Indian River. Declining air and water temperatures were significantly correlated with increases in the number of manatees in the power plant effluents. Manatees rely heavily upon these power plants as winter refuges, and plant shut-downs could prove disastrous for these animals.
Williams, T.; Hickey, J.L.S.
On November 24, 1981, NIOSH received a request concerned with possible biohazards from the handling of hospital waste (human body parts, blood-contaminated bedding and wearing apparel, syringes, and operating room waste) at the incinerator. Interviews with several incinerator operators and general laborers did not reveal any incident of human body parts being seen or spilled from bags. Blood had been observed leaking from bags onto truckbeds and the incinerator floor. The State Epidemiologist was contacted and found to be aware of the concern for worker exposure to infectious waste as it was being handled by personnel outside hospitals and health care units. The 1982 Florida Legislature adopted a bill providing regulation of infectious waste disposal. The act requires that each hospital and ambulatory surgical center properly identify, segregate, and separate infectious from solid waste, and that any transporter of infectious waste be notified of the existence and location of such waste. No immediate biohazard at the incinerator was identified during the survey; however, worker exposure to infectious wastes due to breakage of the bags because of mishandling is possible. There was no indication of unburned infectious wastes in the grate ash. The bill enacted by the 1982 Florida Legislature should be strictly observed by persons delivering wastes, and incinerator managers should reject any waste not properly bagged and marked.
Morgan, Gary S.
A new species of Apatemyidae, Sinclairella simplicidens, is based on four isolated teeth that were screenwashed from fissure fillings at the late Oligocene Buda locality, Alachua County, Florida. Compared to its only congener Sinclairella dakotensis, the new species is characterized by upper molars with more simplified crowns, with the near absence of labial shelves and stylar cusps except for a strong parastyle on M1, loss of paracrista and paraconule on M2 (paraconule retained but weak on M1), lack of anterior cingulum on M1–M3, straighter centrocristae, smaller hypocone on M1 and M2, larger hypocone on M3, distal edge of M2 continuous from hypocone to postmetacrista supporting a large posterior basin, and with different tooth proportions in which M2 is the smallest rather than the largest molar in the toothrow. The relatively rare and poorly-known family Apatemyidae has a long temporal range in North America from the late Paleocene (early Tiffanian) to early Oligocene (early Arikareean). The new species from Florida significantly extends this temporal range by roughly 5 Ma to the end of the Paleogene near the Oligocene-Miocene boundary (from early Arikareean, Ar1, to late Arikareean, Ar3), and greatly extends the geographic range of the family into eastern North America some 10° of latitude farther south and 20° of longitude farther east (about 2,200 km farther southeast) than previously known. This late occurrence probably represents a retreat of this subtropically adapted family into the Gulf Coastal Plain subtropical province at the end of the Paleogene and perhaps the end of the apatemyid lineage in North America. PMID:26713254
Czaplewski, Nicholas J; Morgan, Gary S
A new species of Apatemyidae, Sinclairella simplicidens, is based on four isolated teeth that were screenwashed from fissure fillings at the late Oligocene Buda locality, Alachua County, Florida. Compared to its only congener Sinclairella dakotensis, the new species is characterized by upper molars with more simplified crowns, with the near absence of labial shelves and stylar cusps except for a strong parastyle on M1, loss of paracrista and paraconule on M2 (paraconule retained but weak on M1), lack of anterior cingulum on M1-M3, straighter centrocristae, smaller hypocone on M1 and M2, larger hypocone on M3, distal edge of M2 continuous from hypocone to postmetacrista supporting a large posterior basin, and with different tooth proportions in which M2 is the smallest rather than the largest molar in the toothrow. The relatively rare and poorly-known family Apatemyidae has a long temporal range in North America from the late Paleocene (early Tiffanian) to early Oligocene (early Arikareean). The new species from Florida significantly extends this temporal range by roughly 5 Ma to the end of the Paleogene near the Oligocene-Miocene boundary (from early Arikareean, Ar1, to late Arikareean, Ar3), and greatly extends the geographic range of the family into eastern North America some 10° of latitude farther south and 20° of longitude farther east (about 2,200 km farther southeast) than previously known. This late occurrence probably represents a retreat of this subtropically adapted family into the Gulf Coastal Plain subtropical province at the end of the Paleogene and perhaps the end of the apatemyid lineage in North America. PMID:26713254
Knochenmus, L.A.; Bowman, Geronia
The intermediate aquifer system is an important water source in Sarasota County, Florida, because the quality of water in it is usually better than that in the underlying Upper Floridan aquifer. The intermediate aquifer system consists of a group of up to three water-producing zones separated by less-permeable units that restrict the vertical movement of ground water between zones. The diverse lithology, that makes up the intermediate aquifer system, reflects the variety of depositional environments that occurred during the late Oligocene and Miocene epochs. Slight changes in the depositional environment resulted in aquifer heterogeneity, creating both localized connection between water-producing zones and abrupt culmination of water-producing zones that are not well documented. Aquifer heterogeneity results in vertical and areal variability in hydraulic and water-quality properties. The uppermost water-producing zone is designated producing zone 1 but is not extensively used because of its limited production capability and limited areal extent. The second water-producing zone is designated producing zone 2, and most of the domestic- and irrigation-supply wells in the area are open to this zone. Additionally, producing zone 2 is utilized for public supply in southern coastal areas of Sarasota County. Producing zone 3 is the lowermost and most productive water-producing zone in the intermediate aquifer system. Public-supply well fields serving the cities of Sarasota and Venice, as well as the Plantation and Mabry Carlton Reserve well fields, utilize producing zone 3. Heads within the intermediate aquifer system generally increase with aquifer depth. However, localized head-gradient reversals occur in the study area, coinciding with sites of intense ground-water withdrawals. Heads in producing zones 1, 2, and 3 range from 1 to 23, 0.2 to 34, and 7 to 42 feet above sea level, respectively. Generally, an upward head gradient exists between producing zones 3 and 2
Murphy, W.R., Jr.; Evans, R.P.; Whalen, James K.
Heavy rainfall in the late spring and summer of 1979 caused severe flooding in northwestern Hillsborough and southern Pasco counties, including north Tampa. May 7-9 rainfall for some stations had a recurrence interval in excess of 100 years; the August and September rainfall total had a recurrence interval in excess of 50 years. The frequency of flooding of streams and lakes in the study area for the May 7-9 storm ranged from less than 2 to 25 years; for the period August to October, recurrence intervals ranged from 3 to 25 years. Areas of maximum flooding for a 48-square-mile area of northwestern Hillsborough and southern Pasco Counties are indicated on 12 sheets of aerial photography. Drainage patterns, control structures, drainage basins, and existing and proposed urban developments are shown and related to flooding. Stage and streamflow hydrographs are shown for 12 lakes and 2 streams. (USGS)
Marcelin, Louis Herns; McCoy, H. Virginia; DiClemente, Ralph J.
This study examined HIV/AIDS knowledge and beliefs in Haitian adolescents in an HIV epicenter, Miami-Dade Florida. This study examined survey data from 300 Haitian adolescents, aged 13 through 18, from both low-and middle-income neighborhoods. A sub-sample of 80 adolescents was selected for in-depth interviews and continuous observations with their families and networks of friends, which added rich descriptions to the quantitative data. Overall knowledge about HIV/AIDS was high with the majority of adolescents identifying unprotected sex and sharing injection drug needles as HIV transmission routes. Moreover, approximately 75% of the adolescents reported condom use as an effective preventive strategy. However, misconceptions that could reduce adolescents' adoption of HIV preventive strategies were also identified. The adolescents' sources for information about HIV/AIDS as well as implications for prevention interventions are discussed. PMID:17502921
Franklin, M.A.; Orr, R.A.
Water surface profiles for the 10-, 25-, 50-, and 100-yr recurrence interval floods for most of the streams that drain developing areas of Leon County and the city of Tallahassee are presented. The principal streams studied are in the Lake Munson, Lake Lafayette, and Lake Jackson basins Peak discharges were computed from regression equations based on information gained from 15 streamflow stations in the area. Standard step-backwater procedures were used to determine the water-surface elevations for the streams. The flood elevations were generally higher than those in the Flood Insurance Studies for Tallahassee (1976) and Leon County (1982). The primary reason for the higher profiles is that peak discharges used in this report are larger than those used previously, largely due to changes in land use. The flood profiles for Bradford Brook, North Branch Gum Creek, and West Branch Gum Creek generally match those in the Leon County Flood Insurance Studies. Channel improvements in some areas would lower the flood elevation in that area, but would probably increase flooding downstream. (Lantz-PTT)
Miller, R.L.; Sutcliffe, Horace
Water that contains radium-226 radioactivity in excess of the 5.0-picocurie-per-liter limit set in the National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations was found in the majority of wells sampled throughout Sarasota County. Highest levels were found areally near the coast or near rivers and vertically in the Tamiami-upper Hawthorn aquifer where semiconsolidated phosphate pebbles occur. Analysis of data suggests that part of the radium-226 in ground water of Sarasota County is dissolved by alpha particle recoil. In slightly mineralized water, radium-226 concentrations are decreased by ion exchange or sorption. In more mineralized water, other ions compete with radium-226 for ion exchange or sorption sites. Dissolution of minerals containing radium-226 by mineralized water probably contributes a significant fraction of the dissolved radium-226. Two types of mineralized water were present in Sarasota County. One type is a marine-like water, presumably associated with saltwater encroachment in coastal areas; the other is a calcium magnesium strontium surfate bicarbonate type. In general, water that contains high radium-226 radioactivities also contains too much water hardness or dissolved solids to be used for public supply without treatment that would also reduce radium-226 radioactivities. (USGS)
Byrne, Michael J.; Gabaldon, Jessica N.
Estero Bay is an estuary (about 12 miles long and 3 miles wide) on the southwestern Florida coast, with several inlets connecting the bay to the Gulf of Mexico and numerous freshwater tributaries. Continuous stage and salinity data were recorded at eight gaging stations in Estero Bay estuary from October 2001 to September 2005. Continuous water velocity data were recorded at six of these stations for the purpose of measuring discharge. In addition, turbidity data were recorded at four stations, suspended sediment concentration were measured at three stations, and wind measurements were taken at one station. Salinity surveys, within and around Estero Bay, were conducted 15 times from July 2002 to January 2004. The average daily discharge ranged from 35,000 to -34,000 ft3/s (cubic feet per second) at Big Carlos Pass, 10,800 to -11,200 ft3/s at Matanzas Pass, 2,200 to -2,900 ft3/s at Big Hickory Pass, 680 to -700 ft3/s at Mullock Creek, 330 to -370 ft3/s at Estero River, and 190 to -180 ft3/s at Imperial River. Flood tide is expressed as negative discharge and ebb flow as positive discharge. Reduced salinity at Matanzas Pass was negatively correlated (R2 = 0.48) to freshwater discharge from the Caloosahatchee River at Franklin Locks (S-79). Matanzas Pass is hydrologically linked to Hell Peckney Bay; therefore, water-quality problems associated with the Caloosahatchee River also affect Hell Peckney Bay. Rocky Bay was significantly less saline than Coconut Point and Matanzas Pass was significantly less saline than Ostego Bay, based on data from the salinity surveys. The quality-checked and edited continuous data and the salinity maps have been compiled and are stored on the U.S. Geological Survey South Florida Information Access (SOFIA) website (http://sofia.usgs.gov).
Weinberg, J.M. ); Levine, B.R. ); Cowart, J.B. . Geology Dept.)
The source of anomalously high concentrations of uranium, characterized by U-234/U-238 activity ratios significantly less than unity, in shallow groundwaters of Lee County, Florida, was investigated. Uranium in cores samples was separated into U(IV) and U(VI) oxidation state fractions, and uranium analyses were conducted by alpha spectrometry. Uranium mobility was also studied in selected leaching experiments. Results indicate that mobilization of unusually soluble uranium, present in uranium enriched phosphate of the Pliocene age Tamiami Formation at determined concentrations of up to 729 ppm, is the source for high uranium concentrations in groundwater. In leaching experiments, approximately one-third of the uranium present in the uranium enriched phosphate was mobilized into the aqueous phase. Results of previous investigations suggest that U-234, produced in rock by U-238 decay, is selectively oxidized to U(VI). The uranium enriched phosphate studied in this investigation is characterized by selective reduction of U-234, with a pattern of increasing isotopic fractionation with core depth. As a consequence, U-234/U-238 activity ratios greater than 1.0 in the U(IV) fraction, and less than 1.0 in the U(VI) fraction have developed in the rock phase. In leaching experiments, the U(VI) fraction from the rock was preferentially mobilized into the aqueous phase, suggesting that U-234/U-238 activity ratios of leaching groundwaters are strongly influenced by the isotopic characteristics of the U(VI) fraction of rock. It is suggested that preferential leaching of U(VI), present in selectivity reduced uranium enriched phosphate, is the source for low activity ratio groundwaters in Lee County.
Weedman, S.D.; Paillet, Frederick L.; Edwards, L.E.; Simmons, K.R.; Scott, T.M.; Wardlaw, B.R.; Reese, R.S.; Blair, J.L.
In 1997, ten cores were drilled in eastern Collier County and northern Monroe County, within the limits of the Big Cypress National Preserve. These cores represent a continuation of the study of seven cores in western Collier County begun in 1996 and reported in Weedman and others (1997) and Edwards and others (1998). This joint U.S. Geological Survey and Florida Geological Survey project is designed to acquire subsurface geologic and hydrologic data in southwest Florida to extend current ground-water models, thereby expanding the utility of these models for land and water management. In this report we describe the lithostratigraphy, geophysical logging, sedimentological analysis, dinocyst biostratigraphy, and strontium-isotope stratigraphy of these ten cores. The three geophysical logs (natural gamma-ray, induction conductivity, and neutron porosity) assumed to be related to formation lithology and water quality show that a number of clay-rich zones are present in all of the boreholes, and that pore-water conductivity increases with depth. The clay-rich zones are confirmed by visual examination of core material and sedimentological analysis. The relative transmissivity calculated at 10-foot-thick intervals shows that in six of the boreholes, high values are associated with the shallow aquifer in the 0-40 ft interval. Two of the boreholes (the most northerly and the most easterly) showed relatively higher values of transmissivity in permeable zones at or somewhat below 100 ft in depth. Core geology and logs indicate that the deeper aquifers are not more permeable than similar deeper zones in the other boreholes, but rather that the shallow aquifer appears to be less permeable in these two coreholes. The Arcadia (?) Formation was only penetrated in the deepest core where it is late Miocene in age. The Peace River Formation was penetrated in all but the two westernmost cores. It yields a late Miocene age, based on both dinocysts and strontium-isotope stratigraphy
Shem, L.M.; Van Dyke, G.D.; Zimmerman, R.E.
The goal of the Gas Research Institute Wetland Corridors Program is to document impacts of existing pipelines on the wetlands they traverse. To accomplish this goal, 12 existing wetland crossings were surveyed. These sites varied in elapsed time since pipeline construction, wetland type, pipeline installation techniques, and right-of-way (ROW) management practices. This report presents the results of surveys conducted July 14-18, 1992, at the Deep Creek and the Brandy Branch crossings of a pipeline installed during May 1991 in Nassau County, Florida. Both floodplains supported bottomland hardwood forests. The pipeline at the Deep Creek crossing was installed by means of horizontal directional drilling after the ROW had been clear-cut, while the pipeline at the Brandy Branch crossing was installed by means of conventional open trenching. Neither site was seeded or fertilized. At the time of sampling, a dense vegetative community, made up primarily of native perennial herbaceous species, occupied the ROW within the Deep Creek floodplain. The Brandy Branch ROW was vegetated by a less dense stand of primarily native perennial herbaceous plants. Plant diversity was also lower at the Brandy Branch crossing than at the Deep Creek crossing. The results suggest that some of the differences in plant communities are related to the more hydric conditions at the Brandy Branch floodplain.
Fernandez, Mario, Jr.; Hutchinson, C.B.
An investigation of three detention ponds in Pinellas County, Florida indicated little potential for chemical contamination of surficial-aquifer ground water; however, concentrations of contami- nants in some sediments are sufficient to indicate possible hazardous levels of bioconcentration in benthic organisms. The general direction of ground- water movement at three pond sites indicates that the ponds are ground-water discharge points. Shallow ground water tends to move laterally toward these ponds, which have surface outflow, instead of from the ponds into the aquifer. Surface-water and pond-sediment samples from a 1-year-old pond were collected and analyzed for inorganic constituents and organic compounds. The concentrations were either near or below analytical detection limits. Surface-water and pond-sediment samples from the other two ponds, 20- and 30-years old, respectively, also were analyzed for inorganic constituents and organic compounds. The water quality of these older ponds was not significantly different from that of the 1-year-old pond. However, bottom sediments in the 20- and 30-year-old ponds contained 16 and 23 organic compounds, respectively. None of the organic compounds were in sufficient concentrations to cause concern about their chronic effects on aquatic life. Concentrations of dichlordiphenyl-trichlorethane, dieldrin, and heptachlor were above the hazardous level with respect to bioconcentration in the food chain.
A study was conducted to assess ground-water and surface-water quality in the South Indian River Water Control District in northern Palm Beach County from 1989 to 1994. Contamination of the surficial aquifer system and availability of a potable water supply have become of increasing concern. The study consisted of sampling 11 ground-water wells and 14 surface- water sites for determination of major inorganic constituents and physical characteristics, trace metals, nitrogen and phosphorus species, and synthetic organic compounds. Sodium and chloride concentrations exceeded Florida drinking-water standards in ground water at two wells, dissolved- solids concentrations at five ground-water wells and one surface-water site, and color values at all 11 ground-water wells and all 14 surface-water sites. Other constituents also exhibited concentrations that exceeded drinking-water standards. Cadmium and zinc concentrations exceeded the standards in ground water at one well, and lead concentrations exceeded the standard in ground water at five wells. Nitrogen and phosphorus specie concentrations did not exceed respective drinking-water standards in any ground-water or surface-water samples. Several synthetic organic compounds were detected at or above 50 micrograms per liter in water samples collected from six ground-water wells and three surface-water sites.
A 3-year investigation of the shallow, unconfined Coral Reef Aquifer of northern Collier County, Florida, has revealed the relationship of carbonate lithofacies to the transmissivity and specific yield of the aquifer. The geology of the aquifer was studied using cores, test wells, and both surface and borehole geophysics. Numerous aquifer performance tests were conducted to measure the hydraulic coefficients of the aquifer. The Coral Reef Aquifer consists of a surficial quartz sand mantel from 4 to 20 feet thick underlain by 24 to 70 feet of limestone. Four predominant lithofacies were found in the limestone: moldic arenaceous, molluscan packstone; corraline, moldic boundstone,; molluscan wackestone; and unconsolidated, agrillaceous wackestone. The base of the aquifer is formed by a low permeability, green dolosilt. Transmissivity values measured over a 12-square mile area ranged from 59,000 to 1,550,000 gpd/ft. The highest transmissivity values were associated with the occurrence of molluscan packstones. Estimated porosities in the molluscan packstone ranged up to 65% compared to 40% or less in the other lithofacies. The transmissivity of the aquifer was dependent primarily on the occurrence of the molluscan packstones and not greatly dependent on the overall aquifer thickness.
The Plymouth Avenue Landfill is about 1.75 miles west of the City of DeLand in rural western Volusia County, Florida. From 1971 to 1988 it was a Class I landfill and received all types of nonhazardous industrial and municipal solid waste. From June 1978 to October 1980, the landfill reportedly received 4,500 gallons per week of process waste slurry from the Brunswick Corporation. The authors selected the following contaminants of concern: barium, chromium, 1,2-dichloroethene, iron, nitrate, sulfate, and vinyl chloride. Ingestion of ground water is a past completed human exposure pathway. Concentrations of the contaminants of concern found so far are unlikely to have caused illness in the nearby residents. Analysis of water samples has been inadequate, however, to assess the public health threat from ingestion of sulfate, giardia, or vinyl chloride. Based on the information currently available, the authors classify the public health hazard at this landfill as indeterminate. Groundwater sampling is needed to determine the extent of vinyl chloride contamination.
Bengtsson, T. O.
Well problems, water shortages, local flooding, and induced sinkholes have been periodic problems for residents in east-central Hillsborough County, Florida. This agricultural area has experienced dramatic short-term water-level declines in the Floridan aquifer from seasonal groundwater withdrawals. The sudden declines in the potentiometric surface have been caused from intense irrigation pumpage, primarily for frost and freeze protection and fruit setting. Citrus and strawberry crops are protected from occasional freezes by the application of warm groundwater to maintain minimum soil temperatures of 32°F(0°C). Local residents with inadequately constructed wells lose their source of water when the potentiometric surface is lowered to depths where their wells do not function. Some residents have lost their water supply for a week or more, and many have incurred damage to their pumps. The drawdown of the potentiometric surface in some areas has induced sinkholes causing property damage for some residents and concern for others. In addition, the high application rates for frost and freeze irrigation have created run-off problems resulting in local flooding to some residents. Fortunately, there has been no damage to resident homes from the flooding or sinkholes. This report summarizes the area's hydrogeology, and the consequences of heavy freeze irrigation. A finite-difference, numerical model is used to quantify the regional impacts to the potentiometric surface of the Floridan aquifer from estimated irrigation pumpage. Management recommendations for alleviating the problems are also discussed in the report.
Pitt, William A., Jr.
Except at one site, no fecal coliforms were found below the 10-foot depth. Total coliforms exceeded a count of one colony per ml at the 60- foot depth at two sites. At one site a fecal streptococci count of 53 colonies per ml was found at the 60-foot depth and at another a count of seven colonies was found at the 40-foot depth. The three types of bacteria occur in higher concentration in the northern areas of the county than in the south. Bacteria concentrations were also higher where the septic tanks were more concentrated.
In this 18-home community, all homes are LEED Platinum and meet ENERGY STAR for Homes Version 3 requirements, HERS 23–53. Half way through the project, Habitat for Humanity heard about the DOE Challenge Home program and signed on, committing to build the next home, a three-bedroom, two-bath, 1,143 ft2 duplex, to Challenge Home criteria. The home is the first DOE Challenge Home in Manatee County, and was awarded a 2013 Housing Innovation Award in the affordable builder category.
Simonds, Edward P.; German, E.R.
The Floridan aquifer in the Lake Deaton and Lake Okahumpka area is 50 to 130 feet below land surface. During the 16-year period 1963-78 lake evaporation exceeded rainfall by 0.4 inches. Drainage from Lake Deaton and its surrounding area goes into Chitty Chatty Creek and on the Hogeye Sink when the altitude of the potentiometric surface of the Floridan aquifer is low. During a higher altitude of the Floridan potentiometric surface, Hogeye Sink may discharge water; this water, along with the normal runoff, goes into Lake Okahumpka. Average lake fluctuation is 1.5 to 2.0 feet per year. Lake Deaton supports a large population of blue-green algae and Lake Okahumpka is choked with aquatic plants. The water quality of the two lakes differ, with Lake Deaton having a sodium chloride water and Lake Okahumpka having a calcium bicarbonate water. Analysis of water and bottom material samples showed that only cadmium and mercury exceeded the Florida Department of Environmental Regulation 's criteria for Class III waters; however, the amounts detected were at or slightly above the limits of the analytical method. (USGS)
Klekamp, Benjamin G; Bodager, Dean; Matthews, Sarah D
What is already known on this topic? Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP), caused by the ingestion of predatory reef-dwelling fish harboring ciguatoxins is one of the most commonly reported fish-associated marine intoxications. Ciguatoxin retains toxicity regardless of freezing or cooking. Prompt treatment can reduce debilitating neurologic symptoms that are associated with CFP.What is added by this report? Syndromic surveillance systems in Florida identified six adults with CFP following consumption of black grouper. Five patients sought medical attention; health care providers did not make a diagnosis of CFP or report the cases to public health authorities, and none of the patients received treatment. Close collaboration among several investigating agencies allowed traceback efforts to link black grouper consumed by all patients to a common international distributor.What are the implications for public health practice? Syndromic surveillance systems capable of detecting CFP are essential public health tools to identify outbreaks and enhance investigations. Medical and public health practitioners should be educated to inquire about recent fish consumption when evaluating patients with clinically compatible signs and symptoms to allow for prompt treatment, and report suspected CFP cases to public health authorities to facilitate source-food traceback efforts. Public education on avoidance of consumption of relatively large predatory reef fish species known to be from ciguatoxic-endemic areas might reduce the risk for CFP. PMID:26468736
Romano, Eduardo; de la Rosa, Mario; Sánchez, Mariana; Babino, Rosa; Taylor, Eileen
There is concern that by failing to understand fully the risks associated with driving under the influence (DUI), some Latino immigrants-undocumented in particular-may be overrepresented in alcohol-related crashes. Until now, data on undocumented immigrants has been absent. Data came from an ongoing longitudinal sample of Latino immigrants to Miami-Dade County, FL. Descriptive analyses and regression techniques were applied. Compared with permanent residents, undocumented drivers are more likely to binge drink, less likely to understand DUI laws, and less likely to perceive the risks associated with DUI-three factors largely associated with high DUI rates. Despite facing these risk factors, undocumented immigrants showed low DUI rates, partly due to their limited amount of driving. Differences in risk perceptions and actual DUI events between Latino immigrants of different residency statuses suggest the possibility of early interventions aimed at reducing DUI among Latino immigrants. PMID:26514148
Robertson, Alton F.
The Lakeland ridge are covers about 300 square miles in north-west Polk County. The rapid growth of this area has resulted in an increase in ground-water withdrawals such that in 1968 about 67.5 million gallons per day was pumped to satisfy the demands of municipal, irrigation and industrial users. Declines of water-levels of as much as 30 feet in the area cause pumps to lose suction and increase the hazard of upward migration of saline water. However, no widespread deterioration of water quality has been noted to date. Considerable hydrologic data are available for the Lakeland ridge area. However, in order to give water managers a proper base for decisions that would allow for optimum utilization of the groundwater resources, more detailed data are needed about the hydraulic characteristics of the aquifer, the quantity of groundwater withdrawals, and the quality of water at various depths in the Floridan aquifer.
Conservation Area 2B is an area of recharge for the surficial aquifer system in Broward County. Water stored in the conservation area provides the hydraulic potential for downward flow to the high permeability zone of the Biscayne aquifer. A 5.64 ft head differential (average for the period of record) between water levels in Conservation Area 2B and water levels in the adjacent levee 35A borrow canal causes water to leak into the canal at an average rate of about 0.0022 cu ft per sec per lineal foot of canal and accounts for a loss of 0.013 foot per day of surface water from Conservation Area 2B. Amounts of canal leakage and underflow are constantly changing and are dependent upon the head differential between Conservation Area 2B and the levee 35A borrow canal. (Author 's abstract)
Scott, W.B.; Land, L.F.; Rodis, H.G.
Urban growth has been rapid in recent years in Palm Beach and Martin Counties, Fla. The withdrawal of large quantities of fresh ground water in the vicinity of the coast has reduced or locally reversed the natural seaward hydraulic gradient and, in places, allowed saltwater to advance landward in the aquifer, displacing freshwater. Maps show the position of the saltwater front in eight urban areas adjacent to the coast. The saltwater front, as shown on the profiles, is based on a chloride concentration of 250 mg/liter which is recommended as a limit for water that is considered potable. The chloride concentration of native freshwater almost always is less than 50 mg/liter in the coastal aquifer. (Woodard-USGS)
Parkinson, R. W.; Wang, T. C.; White, J. R.; David, J. R.; Hoffman, M. E.
This project was designed to: (1) document the distribution and migration of organochlorine pesticide residues within marsh substrates of 18 St. Lucie County mosquito control impoundments located along the Indian River Lagoon estuary, and (2) evaluate the impact of water management techniques on residue mobility. Our results indicate that detectible concentrations of organochlorine compounds, applied between the late 1940s and early 1950s, are present in 16 of the 18 St. Lucie County mosquito control impoundments. These compounds are primarily restricted to the surficial, organic-rich wetland sediment, which, based upon geotechnical analysis, was exposed to the atmosphere at a time when the impoundments were subjected to pesticide treatment. Contaminated sediments are present below the surficial, organic-rich layer, suggesting that some vertical migration of pesticides has occurred. It is unlikely that leaching associated with the downward percolation of impounded water was responsible for this migration as pesticide residues were never detected within the in situ pore waters. An alternative explanation is that biological processes (e.g., rooting, burrowing) facilitated the downward flux of organochlorine compounds into sediment horizons not subjected to direct treatment. Eighty-eight surface water samples obtained from two impoundments subjected to contrasting water management techniques were analyzed for pesticide content. None of the surficial water samples collected in association with these impoundments contained detectible concentrations of organochlorine compounds. These samples were unfiltered and contained as much as 25 mg/1 of particulate organic matter. This suggests that the currently preferred management technique (RIM), which is designed to maintain water quality, limit mosquito production, and provide for ecological continuity, does not hydraulically mobilize pesticide residues into the Indian River Lagoon estuary.
Bush, Peter W.
An experimental connector well, screened in the shallow sand aquifer, finished with open hole in the Floridan aquifer and cased through the confining layer between the two aquifers, was drilled in east Orange County, Fla., to obtain information on the nature and function of the shallow aquifer as related to connector well operation. The potentiometric surface of the shallow aquifer is about 45 feet higher than the potentiomettic surface of the Floridan aquifer; hence water flows by gravity from the shallow aquifer to the Floridan aquifer through the well 'connecting' the two aquifers. Continuous flow measurement over 10 months shows the well discharge varies seasonally and averages slightly more than 50 gallons per minute. Observation wells show that, except for seasonal variation, water levels within the area of influence have reached steady state within measurable limits. Vertical anisotropy in the shallow aquifer is apparently caused by the shape and (or) arrangement of the sand grains that comprise the shallow aquifer, rather than because of distinct confining layers of different lithology. Transmissivity of the shallow aquifer at the site is about 600 square feet per clay. Extensive dewatering of wetlands in east Orange County by connector wells alone probably is not feasible. Nevertheless, large amounts of water could be channeled to the Floridan aquifer by connector wells. The results of the connector well experiment imply that water is being captured from evapotranspiration and interception of water that would have discharged to swamps in the vicinity of the connector well. However, the data available from this experiment do not permit a quantitative expression of the net gain in recharge to the Floridan aquifer resulting from operation of the connector well.
Grin, Benjamin M.; Gayle, Tamara L.; Saravia, Diana C.
Introduction Farmers market-based interventions, including the Farmers’ Market Nutrition Program of the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), represent a promising strategy for improving dietary behaviors in low-income communities. Little is known, however, about the health-related characteristics of low-income parents who frequent farmers markets in urban settings. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between family-health factors and the use of farmers markets by mothers of WIC recipients. Methods We recruited a convenience sample of mothers of children seeking care at a primary care clinic in a large urban public hospital in Miami, Florida, in 2011 (n = 181 total). The clinic was adjacent to a newly established farmers market at the hospital. Each mother completed an interviewer-administered survey that included self-reported measures of maternal and child health, acculturation, dietary behaviors, food insecurity, and use of farmers markets. Results Reported use of farmers markets was independently associated with maternal history of diabetes (odds ratio [OR], 6.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3–38.3) and increased maternal vegetable (but not fruit) consumption (OR, 3.5; 95% CI, 1.5–8.1). Intended future use of farmers markets was independently associated with being unemployed (OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.0–5.7), increased maternal vegetable consumption (OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.1–5.7), and food insecurity (OR, 3.6; 95% CI, 1.3–10.3). Conclusions This study provides a snapshot of factors associated with farmers market use in a diverse population of urban low-income families. Understanding these factors may inform public health approaches to increase fresh fruit and vegetable consumption in communities at high risk for preventable chronic conditions. PMID:23764344
Hammett, K.M.; Goodwin, C.R.; Sanders, G.L.
Kings Bay is an estuary on the gulf coast of peninsular Florida with a surface area of less than one square mile. It is a unique estuarine system with no significant inflowing rivers or streams. As much as 99 percent of the freshwater entering the bay originates from multiple spring vents at the bottom of the estuary. The circulation and flushing characteristics of Kings Bay were evaluated by applying SIMSYS2D, a two-dimensional numerical model. Field data were used to calibrate and verify the model. Lagrangian particle simulations were used to determine the circulation characteristics for three hydrologic conditions: low inflow, typical inflow, and low inflow with reduced friction from aquatic vegetation. Spring discharge transported the particles from Kings Bay through Crystal River and out of the model domain. Tidal effects added an oscillatory component to the particle paths. The mean particle residence time was 59 hours for low inflow with reduced friction; therefore, particle residence time is affected more by spring discharge than by bottom friction. Circulation patterns were virtually identical for the three simulated hydroloigc conditions. Simulated particles introduced in the southern part of Kings Bay traveled along the eastern side of Buzzard Island before entering Crystal River and existing the model domain. The flushing characteristics of Kings Bay for the three hydrodynamic conditions were determined by simulating the injection of conservative dye constituents. The average concentration of dye initially injected in Kings Bay decreased asymptotically because of spring discharge, and the tide caused some oscillation in the average dye concentration. Ninety-five percent of the injected dye exited Kings Bay and Crystal River with 94 hours for low inflow, 71 hours for typical inflow, and 94 hours for low inflow with reduced bottom friction. Simulation results indicate that all of the open waters of Kings Bay are flushed by the spring discharge. Reduced
Reese, Ronald S.; Cunningham, Kevin J.
Concerns about water-level decline and seawater intrusion in the surficial Biscayne aquifer, currently the principal source of water supply to Broward County, prompted a study to refine the hydrogeologic framework of the underlying Floridan aquifer system to evaluate its potential as an alternative source of supply. This report presents cross sections that illustrate the stratigraphy and hydrogeology in eastern Broward County; maps of the upper surfaces and thicknesses of several geologic formations or units within the Floridan aquifer system; and maps of two of the potentially productive water-bearing zones within the system, the Upper Floridan aquifer and the Avon Park permeable zone. An analysis of data on rock depositional textures, associated pore networks, and flow zones in the Floridan aquifer system shows that groundwater moves through the system in two ways. These data support a conceptual, dual-porosity model of the system wherein groundwater moves either as concentrated flow in discrete, thin bedding-plane vugs or zones of vuggy megaporosity, or as diffuse flow through rocks with primarily interparticle and moldic-particle porosity. Because considerable exchange of groundwater may occur between the zones of vuggy and matrix-dominated porosity, understanding the distribution of that porosity and flow zone types is important to evaluating the suitability of the several units within the Floridan aquifer system for managing the water through practices such as aquifer storage and recovery (ASR). The salinity of the water in the Floridan aquifer system is highest in the central part of the study area, and lower toward the north and south. Although salinity generally increases with depth, in the western part of the study area a zone of relatively high saline water is perched above water of lower salinity in the underlying Avon Park permeable zone. Overall, the areas of highest salinity in the aquifer system coincide with those with the lowest estimated
Russell, G.M.; Wexler, E.J.
The Lantana landfill in Palm Beach County has a surface that is 40 to 50 feet above original ground level and consists of about 250 acres of compacted garbage and trash. Parts of the landfill are below the water table. Surface-resistivity measurements and water-quality analyses indicate that leachate-enriched ground water along the eastern perimeter of the landfill has moved about 500 feet eastward toward an adjacent lake. Concentrations of chloride and nutrients within the leachate-enriched ground water were greater than background concentrations. The surficial aquifer system in the area of the landfill consists primarily of sand of moderate permeability, from land surface to a depth of about 68 feet deep, and consists of sand interbedded with sandstone and limestone of high permeability from a depth of about 68 feet to a depth of 200 feet. The potentiometric surface in the landfill is higher than that in adjacent areas to the east, indicating ground-water movement from the landfill toward a lake to the east. Steady-state simulation of ground-water flow was made using a telescoping-grid technique where a model covering a large area is used to determine boundaries and fluxes for a finer scale model. A regional flow model encompassing a 500-square mile area in southeastern Palm Beach County was used to calculate ground-water fluxes in a 126.5-square mile subregional area. Boundary fluxes calculated by the subregional model were then used to calculate boundary fluxes for a local model of the 3.75-square mile area representing the Lantana landfill site and vicinity. Input data required for simulating ground-water flow in the study area were obtained from the regional flow models, thus, effectively coupling the models. Additional simulations were made using the local flow model to predict effects of possible remedial actions on the movement of solutes in the ground-water system. Possible remedial actions simulated included capping the landfill with an impermeable layer
The hydrogeology of Hardee and De Soto Counties in west-central Florida was evaluated, and a ground-water flow model was developed to simulate the effects of expected increases in ground-water withdrawals for citrus irrigation on the potentiometric surfaces of the intermediate aquifer system and the Upper Floridan aquifer. In 1988, total citrus acreage in Hardee and De Soto Counties was 89,041 acres. By the year 2020, citrus acreage is projected to increase to 130,000 acres. Ground water is the major source of water supply in the study area, and 94 percent of the ground-water withdrawn in the area is used for irrigation purposes. The principal sources of ground water in the study area are the surficial aquifer, the intermediate aquifer system, and upper water-yielding units of the Floridan aquifer system, commonly referred to as the Upper Floridan aquifer. The surficial aquifer is a permeable hydrogeo1ogic unit contiguous with land surface that is comprised predominately of surficial quartz sand deposits that generally are less than 100 feet thick. The intermediate aquifer system is a somewhat less permeable hydrogeologic unit that lies between and retards the exchange of water between the overlying surficial aquifer and the underlying Upper Floridan aquifer. Thickness of the intermediate aquifer system ranges from about 200 to 500 feet and transmissivity ranges from 400 to 7,000 feet squared per day. The highly productive Upper Floridan aquifer consists of 1,200 to 1,400 feet of solution-riddled and fractured limestone and dolomite. Transmissivity values for this aquifer range from 71,000 to 850,000 feet squared per day. Wells open to the Upper Floridan aquifer. the major source of water in the area, can yield as much as 2,500 gallons of water per minute. The potential effects of projected increases in water withdrawals for citrus irrigation on groundwater heads were evaluated by the use of a quasi-three-dimensional, finite-difference, ground-water flow model. The
Koszalka, Edward J.
Chloride concentrations in water samples from 63 saltwater monitoring wells in eastern Broward County were used to delineate the areal extent of 1,000 milligrams per liter of chloride concentration from the Biscayne aquifer. The 1990 landward extent of saltwater intrusion and data for 1980 and 1990 for each monitoring well are presented. The results of the study indicate that chloride concentrations in ground water east of major well fields have increased and that the saltwater-freshwater interface has moved landward from 1980 to 1990 in response to lowered regional water levels. This lowering of water levels is the result of the construction of tidal canals and the withdrawal of water from well fields. Historical data from three monitoring wells (G-1237, G-1435, and G-20555) were analyzed to determine trends in chloride concen- tration as a function of time. Samples from wells G-1435 and G-2055 indicate that the chloride concentrations have increased steadily with declines of regional water levels, whereas data from well G-1237 indicate that a decrease in pumpage can reverse saltwater intrusion.
Sinclair, W.C.; Reichenbaugh, R.C.
Fourteen interconnected lakes in and around the city of Winter Haven, Polk County, Fla., form the Winter Haven Chain of Lakes. Levels of the lakes during the spring of 1976 were at a record low stage for the 31 years of record. During 1960-76, rainfall had been below average for all but 2 years, and departure from average rainfall totaled 72.34 inches. Fluctuations in stage of Lake Howard, representative of the chain, and of Lake Otis, the nearest isolated lake that has a reasonably long record of stage , were compared with other hydrologic variables. Analyses of lake stage and rainfall records indicate that deficient rainfall has been the key factor in the decline of lake levels in the area. Manipulation of lake levels, pumpage from the lakes and underlying aquifer, and urbanization of the watershed probably have affected the lakes as well, but records are not available to determine the significance of their effects. The surficial aquifer drains to the lakes. Water level in the underlying Floridan aquifer is everywhere lower than in any of the lakes, thus water moves from the lakes and surficial aquifer through the confining clay layer to the Floridan aquifer. (USGS)
Hull, John E.
During 1977 rainfall was 1.52 inches above the long-term average in Dade County, Fla. Ground-water levels ranged from 0.3 foot above to 0.1 foot below average. The highest and lowest ground-water levels for the year were 1 foot below and 1 foot above their long-term average. In the Hialeah-Miami Springs area , water levels in wells near the centers of the heaviest pumping ranged from 7.2 to 11.9 feet below mean sea level, 1929; and in the Southwest well-field area, ground-water levels near the centers of pumping ranged from 1.0 foot above to 1.5 feet below mean sea level. In 1977 the combined average daily discharge from nine major streams and canals that flow eastward into tidal waters was 1,712 cubic feet per second (cfs), 46 cfs above the combined average daily flow for 1976. The combined average daily flow through the Tamiami Canal outlets was 582 cfs, 201 cfs above that of 1976. The 1977 position of the salt front in the coastal part of the Biscayne aquifer was about the same as in 1976, except south of Homestead Air Force Base where the salt front had encroached farther inland. (Woodard-USGS)
Hull, John E.; Beaven, T.R.
During the 1975 calendar year rainfall in Dade County, Fla., was 14.89 inches below the long-term average (57.17 in.). Ground-water levels ranged from 0.1 foot above to 1.1 feet below average. The highest and lowest ground-water levels for the year were both 1 foot below their long-term averages. In the Hialeah-Miami Springs area, ground-water levels in wells near the centers of the heaviest pumping ranged from 9.8 to 11.2 feet below mean sea level and in the Southwest well field area, ground-water levels near the centers of pumping ranged from 3.5 feet above to 3.4 feet below mean sea level. The combined average daily discharge from eight major streams and canals that flow into Biscayne Bay was 1,014 cubic feet per second (cfs), 124 cfs above the combined average daily flow for the 1974 water year. The combined average daily flow through the Tamiami Canal outlets was 568 cfs, 202 cfs below that of the 1974 water year. The position of the salt front in 1975 in the coastal part of the Biscayne aquifer was about the same as in 1974 except at Miami International Airport and Homestead Air Force Base where the salt front had encroached farther inland. (Woodard-USGS)
Watkins, Frank A., Jr.
A connector well pilot installation, in continuous operation in western Orange County since December 4, 1970, was transferring water from the lower of two shallow sand aquifers to the Floridan aquifer at a rate of 13 gallons per minute when measured on September 23, 1971. The recharge water is untreated and analyses show it to be chemically and physically compatible with the water in the Floridan aquifer. The temperatures of the recharging and receiving waters were identical, 23 deg C. The transfer of water from the lower sand aquifer to the Floridan aquifer caused only a small buildup of artesian pressure in the Floridan aquifer but it lowered the artesian head 4 feet in the lower sand aquifer near the well which supplied the recharge water. Water levels in the upper sand aquifer were not affected, probably because of the low permeability of an intervening hardpan layer. However, after six auger holes back-filled with sand connected the two sand aquifers on April 5, 1972, a rise of water levels in the lower sand aquifer was noted. The principal chemical and physical effects on the water in the Floridan aquifer were a general improvement in chemical quality and an increase in color. The color may decrease as more water moves through the sand aquifer and the material responsible for the high color is removed by flushing. (Woodard-USGS)
Ground water in the coastal parts of Citrus, Hernando, and Levy Counties is obtained almost entirely from the Floridan aquifer. The aquifer is unconfined near the coast and semiconfined in the ridge area. Transmissivity ranges from 20,000 feet squared per day in the ridge area to greater than 2,000,000 feet squared per day near major springs. Changes in the potentiometric surface of the aquifer are small between the wet and dry seasons. Water quality within the study area is generally very good except immediately adjacent to the coast where saltwater from the Gulf of Mexico poses a threat to freshwater supply. This threat can be compensated for by placing well fields a sufficient distance away from the zone of transition from saltwater to freshwater so as not to reduce or reverse the hydraulic gradient in that zone. Computer models are presently available to help predict the extent of influence of ground-water withdrawals in an area. These may be used as management tools in planning ground-water development of the area. (USGS)
Espenshade, Gilbert H.
Areas of abnormal radioactivity south of Ocala, Marion County, Fla., discovered in 1953 by aerial survey, were investigated by surface examination and by 10 power auger drill holes. Inter-bedded clay, clayey sand, and uraniferous phosphorite occur in the areas of anomalous radioactivityo Miocene fossils occur at three localities in these beds which are evidently outliers- of Miocene sediments on the Ocala limestone of Eocene age. The preserved outliers are southwest of the main belt of Miocene sediments. The principal uraniferous rocks are clayey, sandy, pellet phosphori1te that occurs in beds a few feet thick, and very porous, phosphatic sand rock which makes abundant float at many places. Apatite forms the phosphate pellets in the unweathered phosphorite. The very porous, phosphatic sand rock is the highly leached residuum of the pellet phosphorite and is composed mainly of quartz, kaolinite, wavellite, and crandallite (pseudowavellite). It closely resembles the aluminum phosphate rock of the 'leached zone' of the Bone Valley formation in the land-pebble phosphate district.
Dodd, C.K., Jr.; Barichivich, W.J.; Smith, L.L.
Because of high numbers of animals killed on Paynes Prairie State Preserve, Alachua County, Florida, the Florida Department of Transportation constructed a barrier wall-culvert system to reduce wildlife mortality yet allow for passage of some animals across the highway. During a one year study following construction, we counted only 158 animals, excluding hylid treefrogs, killed in the same area where 2411 road kills were recorded in the 12 months prior to the construction of the barrier wall-culvert system. Within the survey area lying directly in Paynes Prairie basin, mortality was reduced 65% if hylid treefrogs are included, and 93.5% with hylid treefrogs excluded. Sixty-four percent of the wildlife kills observed along the barrier wall-culvert system occurred at a maintenance road access point and along 300 m of type-A fence bordering private property. The 24 h kill rate during the post-construction survey was 4.9 compared with 13.5 during the pre-construction survey. We counted 1891 dead vertebrates within the entire area surveyed, including the ecotone between the surrounding uplands and prairie basin which did not include the barrier wall and culverts. Approximately 73% of the nonhylid road kills occurred in the 400 m section of road beyond the extent of the barrier wall-culvert system. We detected 51 vertebrate species, including 9 fish, using the 8 culverts after the construction of the barrier wall-culvert system, compared with 28 vertebrate species in the 4 existing culverts prior to construction. Capture success in culverts increased 10-fold from the pre-construction survey to the post-construction survey. Barrier wall trespass was facilitated by overhanging vegetation, maintenance road access, and by the use of the type-A fence. Additional problems resulted from siltation, water holes, and human access. These problems could be corrected using design modifications and by routine, periodic maintenance.
Background Vector-borne diseases (VBDs) and mosquito control programs (MCPs) diverge in settings and countries, and lead control specialists need to be aware of the most effective control strategies. Integrated Vector Management (IVM) strategies, once implemented in MCPs, aim to reduce cost and optimize protection of the populations against VBDs. This study presents a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) analysis to compare IVM strategies used by MCPs in Saint Johns County, Florida and Guayas, Ecuador. This research evaluates MCPs strategies to improve vector control activities. Methods Methods included descriptive findings of the MCP operations. Information was obtained from vector control specialists, directors, and residents through field trips, surveys, and questionnaires. Evaluations of the strategies and assets of the control programs where obtained through SWOT analysis and within an IVM approach. Results Organizationally, the Floridian MCP is a tax-based District able to make decisions independently from county government officials, with the oversight of an elected board of commissioners. The Guayas program is directed by the country government and assessed by non-governmental organizations like the World health Organization. Operationally, the Floridian MCP conducts entomological surveillance and the Ecuadorian MCP focuses on epidemiological monitoring of human disease cases. Strengths of both MCPs were their community participation and educational programs. Weaknesses for both MCPs included limitations in budgets and technical capabilities. Opportunities, for both MCPs, are additional funding and partnerships with private, non-governmental, and governmental organizations. Threats experienced by both MCPs included political constraints and changes in the social and ecological environment that affect mosquito densities and control efforts. IVM pillars for policy making were used to compare the information among the programs. Differences
This report describes the observation-well network in Eldridge-Wilde and East Lake Road well-field areas, Pinellas and Hillsborough Counties, Florida. Data obtained in 1978 from the network in and adjacent to the two well fields, as well as rainfall and pumpage records, are presented. The Southwest Florida Water Management District has established regulatory water-level limits in four observation wells and water-quality limits in three observation wells. Water levels dropped below regulatory limits in the spring of 1978 in three wells. Chloride concentrations in 1978 remained above regulatory limits for the entire year in one well and exceeded the limit during the late spring in the other two deep wells, both west of Eldridge-Wilde well field. (USGS)
Trapp, Henry; Geiger, L.H.
The sand-and-gravel aquifer is the only freshwater aquifer in southern Escambia County, Florida and is the source of public water supply for the area, including the City of Pensacola. The aquifer was simulated by a two-layer, digital model to provide hydrologic information for water resource planning. The lower layer represents the main-producing zone; the upper layer represents all of the aquifer above the main-producing zone including an unconfined zone and discontinuous perched, confined , and confining zones. The model was designed for steady-state simulation and predicts the response of the aquifer (changes in water levels) to groundwater pumping where steady-state conditions have been reached. Input to the model includes matrices representing constant-head nodes, starting head, transmissivity of layer 1, leakance between layers 1 and 2, lateral hydraulic conductivity of layer 2, and altitude of the base layer 2. The sources of water to the model are from recharge by infiltrated precipitation (estimated from base runoff), inflow across boundaries, and induced recharge from river leakance in periods of prolonged groundwater pumping. Model output includes final head and drawdown for each layer and total values for discharge and recharge in the model area. The model was calibrated for 1972 pumping and tested by simulating pumpages during 1939-40, 1958, and 1977. Sensitivity analyses showed water levels in both layers were most sensitive to changes in the recharge matrix and least sensitive to river leakage. Suggestions for further development of the model include subdivision and expansion of the grid, assignment of storage coefficients for transient simulations, more intensive study of the stream-aquifer relations, and consideration of the effects of infiltration basins on recharge. (Author 's abstract)
Mulay, Prakash R; Cavicchia, Philip; Watkins, Sharon M; Tovar-Aguilar, Antonio; Wiese, Michael; Calvert, Geoffrey M
Dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) is a new soil fumigant that is considered a replacement for methyl bromide. In 2014, the Florida Department of Health (FDOH) received several complaints of illness following a strong DMDS odor in Hillsborough County. Public health investigation of DMDS-related illness was conducted to assess illness and identify areas to target for prevention activities. This investigation included surveillance, interviews, review of medical records, review of supporting documentation, and determination of pesticide-related illness and injury case status. FDOH interviewed 66 people complaining of illness related to DMDS. Thirty-two were classified as possible and 11 as suspicious cases of DMDS-related illness. Among cases, the mean age was 48 years (range: 3-71 years). The majority were non-Hispanic (n = 43, 100%), white (n = 40, 93%), and female (n = 23, 53.5%). The most common signs and symptoms reported by exposed people included eye pain, throat irritation, nausea, dizziness, headache, and fatigue. There were 88% of cases classified as having low severity of illness and 12% classified as having moderate severity. The average distance from an application site among individuals who reported being exposed at or near their home was 0.74 miles for those classified as cases (n = 36) and 2.84 miles for those not classified as cases (n = 21, P < .05). This is the first known comprehensive report of DMDS-related illness in humans. Even though illnesses associated with DMDS in this investigation were generally of low severity, it is important to identify better ways to prevent off-target movement of DMDS and to improve notification to communities when nearby DMDS applications are planned. PMID:27409156
Tillis, G.M.; Swain, E.D.
Discharges through 10 selected coastal control structures in Broward and Palm Beach Counties, Florida, are presently computed using the theoretical discharge-coefficient ratings developed from scale modeling, theoretical discharge coefficients, and some field calibrations whose accuracies for specific sites are unknown. To achieve more accurate discharge-coefficient ratings for the coastal control structures, field discharge measurements were taken with an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler at the coastal control structures under a variety of flow conditions. These measurements were used to determine computed discharge-coefficient ratings for the coastal control structures under different flow regimes: submerged orifice flow, submerged weir flow, free orifice flow, and free weir flow. Theoretical and computed discharge-coefficient ratings for submerged orifice and weir flows were determined at seven coastal control structures, and discharge ratings for free orifice and weir flows were determined at three coastal control structures. The difference between the theoretical and computed discharge-coefficient ratings varied from structure to structure. The theoretical and computed dischargecoefficient ratings for submerged orifice flow were within 10 percent at four of seven coastal control structures; however, differences greater than 20 percent were found at two of the seven structures. The theoretical and computed discharge-coefficient ratings for submerged weir flow were within 10 percent at three of seven coastal control structures; however, differences greater than 20 percent were found at four of the seven coastal control structures. The difference between theoretical and computed discharge-coefficient ratings for free orifice and free weir flows ranged from 5 to 32 percent. Some differences between the theoretical and computed discharge-coefficient ratings could be better defined with more data collected over a greater distribution of measuring conditions.
Moyer, Ryan P; Riegl, Bernhard; Banks, Kenneth; Dodge, Richard E
The Atlantic coast of Broward County, Florida (USA) is paralleled by a series of progressively deeper, shore-parallel coral reef communities. Two of these reef systems are drowned early Holocene coral reefs of 5 ky and 7 ky uncorrected radiocarbon age. Despite the case of access to these reefs, and their major contribution to the local economy, accurate benthic habitat maps of the area are not available. Ecological studies have shown that different benthic communities (i.e. communities composed of different biological taxa) exist along several spatial gradients on all reefs. Since these studies are limited by time and spatial extent, acoustic surveys with the QTCView V bottom classification system based on a 50 kHz transducer were used as an alternative method of producing habitat maps. From the acoustic data of a 3.1 km(2) survey area, spatial prediction maps were created for the area. These were compared with habitat maps interpreted from in situ data and Laser Airborne Depth Sounder (LADS) bathymetry, in order to ground-truth the remotely sensed data. An error matrix was used to quantitatively determine the accuracy of the acoustically derived spatial prediction model against the maps derived from the in situ and LADS data sets. Confusion analysis of 100 random points showed that the system was able to distinguish areas of reef from areas of rubble and sand with an overall accuracy of 61%. When asked to detect more subtle spatial differences, for example, those between distinct reef communities, the classification was only about 40% accurate. We discuss to what degree a synthesis of acoustic and in situ techniques can provide accurate habitat maps in coral reef environments, and conclude that acoustic methods were able to reflect the spatial extent and composition of at least three different biological communities. PMID:17465157
Reese, R.S.; Memberg, S.J.
The virtually untapped Floridan aquifer system is considered to be a supplemental source of water for public use in the highly populated coastal area of Palm Beach County. A recent study was conducted to delineate the distribution of salinity in relation to the local hydrogeology and assess the potential processes that might control (or have affected) the distribution of salinity in the Floridan aquifer system. The Floridan aquifer system in the study area consists of the Upper Floridan aquifer, middle confining unit, and Lower Floridan aquifer and ranges in age from Paleocene to Oligocene. Included at its top is part of a lowermost Hawthorn Group unit referred to as the basal Hawthorn unit. The thickness of this basal unit is variable, ranging from about 30 to 355 feet; areas where this unit is thick were paleotopographic lows during deposition of the unit. The uppermost permeable zones in the Upper Floridan aquifer occur in close association with an unconformity at the base of the Hawthorn Group; however, the highest of these zones can be up in the basal unit. A dolomite unit of Eocene age generally marks the top of the Lower Floridan aquifer, but the top of this dolomite unit has a considerable altitude range: from about 1,200 to 2,300 feet below sea level. Additionally, where the dolomite unit is thick, its top is high and the middle confining unit of the Floridan aquifer system, as normally defined, probably is not present. An upper zone of brackish water and a lower zone of water with salinity similar to that of seawater (saline-water zone) are present in the Floridan aquifer system. The brackish-water and saline-water zones are separated by a transition zone (typically 100 to 200 feet thick) in which salinity rapidly increases with depth. The transition zone was defined by using a salinity of 10,000 mg/L (milligrams per liter) of dissolved-solids concentration (about 5,240 mg/L of chloride concentration) at its top and 35,000 mg/L of dissolved
... intervene at a public hearing before the NRC Atomic Safety and Licensing Board to challenge any... that a design flaw may have occurred, meaning the actual design of this containment structure has those... itself be flawed and subject the entire structure to other cracks, fissures, and voids that the...
Knochenmus, Lari A.; Yobbi, Dann K.
The coastal springs in Pasco, Hernando, and Citrus Counties, Florida consist of three first-order magnitude springs and numerous smaller springs, which are points of substantial ground-water discharge from the Upper Floridan aquifer. Spring flow is proportional to the water-level altitude in the aquifer and is affected primarily by the magnitude and timing of rainfall. Ground-water levels in 206 Upper Floridan aquifer wells, and surface-water stage, flow, and specific conductance of water from springs at 10 gaging stations were measured to define the hydrologic variability (temporally and spatially) in the Coastal Springs Ground-Water Basin and adjacent parts of Pasco, Hernando, and Citrus Counties. Rainfall at 46 stations and ground-water withdrawals for three counties, were used to calculate water budgets, to evaluate long-term changes in hydrologic conditions, and to evaluate relations among the hydrologic components. Predictive equations to estimate daily spring flow were developed for eight gaging stations using regression techniques. Regression techniques included ordinary least squares and multiple linear regression techniques. The predictive equations indicate that ground-water levels in the Upper Floridan aquifer are directly related to spring flow. At tidally affected gaging stations, spring flow is inversely related to spring-pool altitude. The springs have similar seasonal flow patterns throughout the area. Water-budget analysis provided insight into the relative importance of the hydrologic components expected to influence spring flow. Four water budgets were constructed for small ground-water basins that form the Coastal Springs Ground-Water Basin. Rainfall averaged 55 inches per year and was the only source of inflow to the Basin. The pathways for outflow were evapotranspiration (34 inches per year), runoff by spring flow (8 inches per year), ground-water outflow from upward leakage (11 inches per year), and ground-water withdrawal (2 inches per year
Edwards, L.E.; Weedman, S.D.; Simmons, R.; Scott, T.M.; Brewster-Wingard, G. L.; Ishman, S.E.; Carlin, N.M.
In 1996, seven cores were recovered in western Collier County, southwestern Florida, to acquire subsurface geologic and hydrologic data to support ground-water modeling efforts. This report presents the lithostratigraphy, X-ray diffraction analyses, petrography, biostratigraphy, and strontium-isotope stratigraphy of these cores. The oldest unit encountered in the study cores is an unnamed formation that is late Miocene. At least four depositional sequences are present within this formation. Calculated age of the formation, based on strontium-isotope stratigraphy, ranges from 9.5 to 5.7 Ma (million years ago). An unconformity within this formation that represents a hiatus of at least 2 million years is indicated in the Old Pump Road core. In two cores, Collier-Seminole and Old Pump Road, the uppermost sediments of the unnamed formation are not dated by strontium isotopes, and, based on the fossils present, these sediments could be as young as Pliocene. In another core (Fakahatchee Strand-Ranger Station), the upper part of the unnamed formation is dated by mollusks as Pliocene. The Tamiami Formation overlies the unnamed formation throughout the study area and is represented by the Ochopee Limestone Member. The unit is Pliocene and probably includes the interval of time near the early/late Pliocene boundary. Strontium-isotope analysis indicates an early Pliocene age (calculated ages range from 5.1 to 3.5 Ma), but the margin of error includes the latest Miocene and the late Pliocene. The dinocyst assemblages in the Ochopee typically are not age-diagnostic, but, near the base of the unit in the Collier-Seminole, Jones Grade, and Fakahatchee Strand State Forest cores, they indicate an age of late Miocene or Pliocene. The molluscan assemblages indicate a Pliocene age for the Ochopee, and a distinctive assemblage of Carditimera arata and Chione cortinaria in several of the cores specifically indicates an age near the early/late Pliocene boundary. Undifferentiated sands
Four test fields in the south Dade agricultural area were studied to determine the effects of sludge application on ground-water quality. Two fields had been cultivated for 10 years or more, and two had not been farmed for at least 10 years. The fields were representative of the area's two soil types (Rockdale and Perrine marl) and two major crop types (row crops and groves). Before the application of sludge, wells upgradient of, within, and downgradient of each field were sampled for possible sludge contaminants at the end of wet and dry seasons. Municipal wastewater treatment sludge from the Dade County Water and Sewe Authority Department was then applied to the fields at varying application rates. The wells at each field were sampled over a 2-year period under different hydrologic conditions for possible sludge-related constituents (specific conductance, pH, alkalinity, nitrogen, phosphorus, total organic carbon, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, potassium, zinc, arsenic, cadmium, chloride, chromium, lead, mercury, nickel, and sodium). Comparisons were made between water quality in the vicinity of the test fields and Florida Department of Environmental Regulation primary and secondary drinking-water regulations, an between water quality upgradient of, beneath, and downgradient of the fields. Comparisons between presludge and postsludge water quality did not indicate any improvement because of retention of agrichemicals by the sludge nor did they indicate any deterioration because of leaching from the sludge. Comparisons of water quality upgradient of the fields to water quality beneath and downgradient of the fields also did not indicate any changes related to sludge. Florida Department of Environmental Regulation primary and secondary drinking-water regulations wer exceeded at the Rockdale maximum-application field by mercury (9.5 ug/L (micrograms per liter)), and the Perrine marl maximum-application field by manganese (60 ug/L) and lead (85 ug/L), and at the
Nemeth, Mark S.; Wilcox, Walter M.; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M.
A coupled ground- and surface-water model (MODBRANCH) was developed to estimate ground-water flow beneath Levee 31N in Miami-Dade County, Florida, and to simulate hydrologic conditions in the surrounding area. The study included compilation of data from monitoring stations, measurement of vertical seepage rates in wetlands, and analysis of the hydrogeologic properties of the ground-water aquifer within the study area. In addition, the MODBRANCH code was modified to calculate the exchange between surface-water channels and ground water using a relation based on the concept of reach transmissivity. The modified reach-transmissivity version of the MODBRANCH code was successfully tested on three simple problems with known analytical solutions. It was also tested and determined to function adequately on one field problem that had previously been solved using the unmodified version of the software. The modified version of MODBRANCH was judged to have performed satisfactorily, and it required about 60 percent as many iterations to reach a solution. Additionally, its input parameters are more physically-based and less dependent on model-grid spacing. A model of the Levee 31N area was developed and used with the original and modified versions of MODBRANCH, which produced similar output. The mean annual modeled ground-water heads differed by only 0.02 foot, and the mean annual canal discharge differed by less than 1.0 cubic foot per second. Seepage meters were used to quantify vertical seepage rates in the Everglades wetlands area west of Levee 31N. A comparison between results from the seepage meters and from the computer model indicated substantial differences that seemed to be a result of local variations in the hydraulic properties in the topmost part of the Biscayne aquifer. The transmissivity of the Biscayne aquifer was estimated to be 1,400,000 square feet per day in the study area. The computer model was employed to simulate seepage of ground water beneath Levee 31N
Daily values of evapotranspiration from a watershed in Volusia County, Florida, were estimated for a 2-year period (January 1998 through December 1999) by using an energy-budget variant of the eddy correlation method and a Priestley-Taylor model. The watershed consisted primarily of pine flatwood uplands interspersed within cypress wetlands. A drought-induced fire in spring 1998 burned about 40 percent of the watershed, most of which was subsequently logged. The model reproduced the 449 measured values of evapotranspiration reasonably well (r2=0.90) over a wide range of seasonal and surface-cover conditions. Annual evapotranspiration from the watershed was estimated to be 916 millimeters (36 inches) for 1998 and 1,070 millimeters (42 inches) for 1999. Evapotranspiration declined from near potential rates in the wet conditions of January 1998 to less than 50 percent of potential evapotranspiration after the fire and at the peak of the drought in June 1998. After the drought ended in early July 1998 and water levels returned to near land-surface, evapotranspiration increased sharply; however, the evapotranspiration rate was only about 60 percent of the potential rate in the burned areas, compared to about 90 percent of the potential rate in the unburned areas. This discrepancy can be explained as a result of fire damage to vegetation. Beginning in spring 1999, evapotranspiration from burned areas increased sharply relative to unburned areas, sometimes exceeding unburned evapotranspiration by almost 100 percent. Possible explanations for the dramatic increase in evapotranspiration from burned areas could include phenological changes associated with maturation or seasonality of plants that emerged after the fire or successional changes in composition of plant community within burned areas. Variations in daily evapotranspiration are primarily the result of variations in surface cover, net radiation, photosynthetically active radiation, air temperature, and water
Phelps, G.G.; Rohrer, K.P.
Northeast Seminole County, Florida, contains an isolated recharge area of the Floridan aquifer system that forms a freshwater lens completely surrounded by saline water. The freshwater lens covers an area of about 22 sq mi surrounding the town of Geneva, and generally is enclosed by the 25 ft land surface altitude contour. Thickness of the lens is about 350 ft in the center of the recharge area. The geohydrologic units in descending order consist of the post-Miocene sand and shell of the surficial aquifer; Miocene clay, sand, clay, and shell that form a leaky confining bed; and permeable Eocene limestones of the Floridan aquifer system. The freshwater lens is the result of local rainfall flushing ancient seawater from the Floridan aquifer system. Sufficient quantities of water for domestic and small public supply systems are available from the Floridan aquifer system in the Geneva area. The limiting factor for water supply in the area is the chemical quality of the water. Chloride concentrations range from < 20 mg/L in the center of the recharge area to about 5,100 mg/L near the St. Johns River southeast of Geneva. Constituents analyzed included sulfate (range 1 to 800 mg/L), hardness (range 89 to 2,076 mg/L), and iron (range 34 to 6,600 mg/L). Because the freshwater lens results entirely from local recharge, the long-term sustained freshwater yield of the aquifer in the Geneva area depends on the local recharge rate. In 1982, recharge was about 13 inches (13.8 million gal/day). Average recharge for 1941 through 1970 was estimated to be about 11 inches (11.3 million gal/day). Freshwater that recharges the aquifer in the Geneva area is either pumped out or flows north and northeast to discharge near or in the St. Johns River. Average annual outflow from the lens is about 10 in/yr. No measurable change in the size or location of the freshwater lens has occurred since studies in the early 1950's. (Lantz-PTT)
King, J. N.; Walsh, V.; Cunningham, K. J.; Evans, F. S.; Langevin, C. D.; Dausman, A.
The Miami-Dade Water and Sewer Department (MDWASD) injects buoyant effluent from the North District Wastewater Treatment Plant (NDWWTP) through four Class I injection wells into the Boulder Zone---a saline (35 parts per thousand) and transmissive (105 to 106 square meters per day) hydrogeologic unit located approximately 1000 meters below land surface. Miami-Dade County is located in southeast Florida, U.S.A. Portions of the Floridan and Biscayne aquifers are located above the Boulder Zone. The Floridan and Biscayne aquifers---underground sources of drinking water---are protected by U.S. Federal Laws and Regulations, Florida Statutes, and Miami-Dade County ordinances. In 1998, MDWASD began to observe effluent constituents within the Floridan aquifer. Continuous-source and impulse-source analytical models for advective and diffusive transport of effluent are used in the present work to test contaminant flow-path hypotheses, suggest transport mechanisms, and estimate dispersivity. MDWASD collected data in the Floridan aquifer between 1996 and 2007. A parameter estimation code is used to optimize analytical model parameters by fitting model data to collected data. These simple models will be used to develop conceptual and numerical models of effluent transport at the NDWWTP, and in the vicinity of the NDWWTP.
O'Reilly, Andrew M.
Wastewater reclamation and reuse has become increasingly popular as water agencies search for alternative water-supply and wastewater-disposal options. Several governmental agencies in central Florida currently use the land-based application of reclaimed water (wastewater that has been treated beyond secondary treatment) as a management alternative to surface-water disposal of wastewater. Water Conserv II, a water reuse project developed jointly by Orange County and the City of Orlando, began operation in December 1986. In 1995, the Water Conserv II facility distributed approximately 28 Mgal/d of reclaimed water for discharge to rapid-infiltration basins (RIBs) and for use as agricultural irrigation. The Reedy Creek Improvement District (RCID) began operation of RIBs in September 1990, and in 1995 these RIBs received approximately 6.7 Mgal/d of reclaimed water. Analyses of existing data and data collected during the course of this study were combined with ground-water flow modeling and particle-tracking analyses to develop a process-oriented evaluation of the regional effects of reclaimed water applied by Water Conserv II and the RCID RIBs on the hydrology of west Orange and southeast Lake Counties. The ground-water flow system beneath the study area is a multi-aquifer system that consists of a thick sequence of highly permeable carbonate rocks overlain by unconsolidated sediments. The hydrogeologic units are the unconfined surficial aquifer system, the intermediate confining unit, and the confined Floridan aquifer system, which consists of two major permeable zones, the Upper and Lower Floridan aquifers, separated by the less permeable middle semiconfining unit. Flow in the surficial aquifer system is dominated regionally by diffuse downward leakage to the Floridan aquifer system and is affected locally by lateral flow systems produced by streams, lakes, and spatial variations in recharge. Ground water generally flows laterally through the Upper Floridan aquifer
Lietz, Arthur C.
Biscayne Bay is an oligotrophic, subtropical estuary located along the southeastern coast of Florida that provides habitat for a variety of plant and animal life. Concern has arisen with regard to the ecological health of Biscayne Bay because of the presence of nutrient-laden discharges from the east coast canals that drain into the bay. This concern, as well as planned diversion of discharges for ecosystem restoration from the urban and agricultural corridors of Miami-Dade County to Everglades National Park, served as the impetus for a study conducted during the 1996 and 1997 water years to estimate nutrient loads discharged from the east coast canals into Biscayne Bay. Analytical results indicated that the highest concentration of any individual nutrient sampled for in the study was 4.38 mg/L (milligrams per liter) for nitrate at one site, and the lowest concentrations determined were below the detection limits for orthophosphate at six sites and nitrite at four sites. Median concentrations for all the sites were 0.75 mg/L for total organic nitrogen, 0.10 mg/L for ammonia, 0.02 mg/L for nitrite, 0.18 mg/L for nitrate, 0.20 mg/L for nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen, 0.02 mg/L for total phosphorus, and 0.005 mg/L for orthophosphate. The maximum total phosphorus concentration of 0.31 mg/L was the only nutrient concentration to exceed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (1986) water-quality criteria. High concentrations of total phosphorus usually reflect contamination as a result of human activities. Five sites exceeded the fresh-water quality standard of 0.5 mg/L for ammonia concentration as determined by the Miami-Dade County Department of Environmental Resources Management. Median total organic nitrogen concentrations were higher in urban and forested/wetland areas than in agricultural areas; median concentrations of nitrite, nitrate, and nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen were higher in agricultural areas than in urban and forested/wetland areas; and ammonia, total
Torres, A.E.; Sacks, L.A.; Yobbi, D.K.; Knochenmus, L.A.; Katz, B.G.
The hydrogeologic framework underlying the 600-square-mile study area in Charlotte, De Soto, and Sarasota Counties, Florida, consists of the surficial aquifer system, the intermediate aquifer system, and the Upper Floridan aquifer. The hydrogeologic framework and the geochemical processes controlling ground-water composition were evaluated for the study area. Particular emphasis was given to the analysis of hydrogeologic and geochemical data for the intermediate aquifer system. Flow regimes are not well understood in the intermediate aquifer system; therefore, hydrogeologic and geochemical information were used to evaluate connections between permeable zones within the intermediate aquifer system and between overlying and underlying aquifer systems. Knowledge of these connections will ultimately help to protect ground-water quality in the intermediate aquifer system. The hydrogeology was interpreted from lithologic and geophysical logs, water levels, hydraulic properties, and water quality from six separate well sites. Water-quality samples were collected from wells located along six ground-water flow paths and finished at different depth intervals. The selection of flow paths was based on current potentiometric-surface maps. Ground-water samples were analyzed for major ions; field parameters (temperature, pH, specific conductance, and alkalinity); stable isotopes (deuterium, oxygen-18, and carbon-13); and radioactive isotopes (tritium and carbon-14). The surficial aquifer system is the uppermost aquifer, is unconfined, relatively thin, and consists of unconsolidated sand, shell, and limestone. The intermediate aquifer system underlies the surficial aquifer system and is composed of clastic sediments interbedded with carbonate rocks. The intermediate aquifer system is divided into three permeable zones, the Tamiami/Peace River zone (PZ1), the Upper Arcadia zone (PZ2), and the Lower Arcadia zone (PZ3). The Tamiami/Peace River zone (PZ1) is the uppermost zone and is
References and abstracts from 149 hydrologic and geologic investigations concerning the surficial aquifers of southeast Florida have been compiled to prepare an annotated bibliography. The references are listed alphabetically by the author 's name. (USGS)
National Migrant Information Clearinghouse, Austin, TX. Juarez-Lincoln Center.
As the last of 3 directories, this lists services available to migrants in Florida. Migrant programs, Community Action Agencies, and labor camps in the state are identified by county. Information for each county includes total population, estimated migrant population, migrant labor demand, estimated migrant wages, crops, work periods, migrant…
Born to Trouble: One Hundred Years of Huckleberry Finn. The Center for the Book Viewpoint Series No. 13. Lecture Presented at the Broward County Library (Fort Lauderdale, Florida, September 11, 1984).
Presented at the Broward County Library (Florida) on September 11, 1984, to coincide with Banned Books Week and to mark the centennial of the "Adventures of Huckleberry Finn," the address in this booklet reviews the reasons why this classic book has always been in trouble with the censors. Drawing upon the Pulitzer Prize winning biography, "Mr.…
Sumner, D.M.; Bradner, L.A.
The Reedy Creek Improvement District disposes of about 7.5 million gallons per day (1992) of reclaimed water through 85 1-acre rapid infiltration basins within a 1,000-acre area of sandy soils in Orange County, Florida. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted field experiments in 1992 at an individual basin to examine and better understand the hydraulic characteristics and nutrient transport and transformation of reclaimed water beneath a rapid infiltration basin. At the time, concentrations of total nitrogen and total phosphorus in reclaimed water were about 3 and 0.25 milligrams per liter, respectively. A two-dimensional, radial, unsaturated/saturated numerical flow model was applied to describe the flow system beneath a rapid infiltration basin under current and hypothetical basin loading scenarios and to estimate the hydraulic properties of the soil and sediment beneath a basin. The thicknesses of the unsaturated and saturated parts of the surficial aquifer system at the basin investigated were about 37 and 52 feet, respectively. The model successfully replicated the field-monitored infiltration rate (about 5.5 feet per day during the daily flooding periods of about 17 hours) and ground-water mounding response during basin operation. Horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivity of the saturated part of the surficial aquifer system were estimated to be 150 and 45 feet per day, respectively. The field-saturated vertical hydraulic conductivity of the shallow soil, estimated to be about 5.1 feet per day, was considered to have been less than the full- saturation value because of the effects of air entrapment. Specific yield of the surficial aquifer was estimated to be 0.41. The upper 20 feet of the basin subsurface profile probably served as a system control on infiltration because of the relatively low field-saturated, vertical hydraulic conductivity of the sediments within this layer. The flow model indicates that, in the vicinity of the basin, flow in the deeper
Quinones-Aponte, Vicente; Kotun, Kevin; Whitley, J.F.
A series of freshwater subsurface injection, storage, and recovery tests were conducted at an injection-well site near Lake Okeechobee in Okeechobee County, Florida, to assess the recoverability of injected canal water from the Lower Floridan aquifer. At the study site, the Lower Floridan aquifer is characterized as having four local, relatively independent, high-permeability flow zones (389 to 398 meters, 419 to 424 meters, 456 to 462 meters, and 472 to 476 meters below sea level). Four subsurface injection, storage, and recovery cycles were performed at the Lake Okeechobee injection-well site in which volumes of water injected ranged from about 387,275 to 1,343,675 cubic meters for all the cycles, and volumes of water recovered ranged from about 106,200 to 484,400 cubic meters for cycles 1, 2, and 3. The recovery efficiency for successive cycles 2 and 3 increased from 22 to 36 percent and is expected to continue increasing with additional cycles. A comparison of chloride concentration breakthrough curves at the deep monitor well (located about 171 meters from the injection well) for cycles 1, 4, and test no. 4 (from a previous study) revealed unexpected finings. One significant result was that the concentration asymptote, expected to be reached at concentration levels equivalent or close to the injected water concentration, was instead reached at higher concentration levels. The injection to recovery rate ratio might affect the chloride concentration breakthrough curve at the deep monitor well, which could explain this unexpected behavior. Because there are four high-permeability zones, if the rate of injection is smaller than the rate of recovery (natural artesian flow), the head differential might not be transmitted through the entire open wellbore, and injected water would probably flow only through the upper high- permeability zones. Therefore, observed chloride concentration values at the deep monitor well would be higher than the concentration of the
Watnick, Beryl; Sacks, Arlene
Miami Dade County Public Schools serves an international community with the highest poverty rate of any large U.S. city as well as the highest percentage of immigrants calling it "home" of any large city throughout the world. This article examines: (a) how Miami-Dade County Public Schools (M-DCPS), the fifth largest school district in the United…
Adamski, J.C.; Knowles, Leel, Jr.
Data from 217 ground-water samples were statistically analyzed to assess the water quality of the surficial aquifer system and Upper Floridan aquifer in the Ocala National Forest and Lake County, Florida. Samples were collected from 49 wells tapping the surficial aquifer system, 141 wells tapping the Upper Floridan aquifer, and from 27 springs that discharge water from the Upper Floridan aquifer. A total of 136 samples was collected by the U.S. Geological Survey from 1995 through 1999. These data were supplemented with 81 samples collected by the St. Johns River Water Management District and Lake County Water Resources Management from 1990 through 1998. In general, the surficial aquifer system has low concentrations of total dissolved solids (median was 41 milligrams per liter) and major ions. Water quality of the surficial aquifer system, however, is not homogeneous throughout the study area. Concentrations of total dissolved solids, many major ions, and nutrients are greater in samples from Lake County outside the Ocala National Forest than in samples from within the Forest. These results indicate that the surficial aquifer system in Lake County outside the Ocala National Forest probably is being affected by agricultural and (or) urban land-use practices. High concentrations of dissolved oxygen (less than 0.1 to 8.2 milligrams per liter) in the surficial aquifer system underlying the Ocala National Forest indicate that the aquifer is readily recharged by precipitation and is susceptible to surface contamination. Concentrations of total dissolved solids were significantly greater in the Upper Floridan aquifer (median was 182 milligrams per liter) than in the surficial aquifer system. In general, water quality of the Upper Floridan aquifer was homogeneous, primarily being a calcium or calciummagnesium- bicarbonate water type. Near the St. Johns River, the water type of the Upper Floridan aquifer is sodium-chloride, corresponding to an increase in total dissolved
Beaven, T.R.; McPherson, Benjamin F.
Water, bottom sediment, and aquatic plants were sampled from ponds near a major south Florida highway interchange to document concentrations of selected constituents in an aquatic environment near heavy vehicular traffic. Generally, concentrations of constituents were within the range expected in an uncontaminated environment in south Florida. However, concentrations did exceed south Florida background levels or Environmental Protection Agency criteria in a few cases. Two trace elements--chromium (20 micrograms per liter) in ponded surface water and lead (500 micrograms per gram) in bottom sediment--exceeded background levels. Concentrations of dieldrin (22 micrograms per kilogram) and polychlorinated biphenyls (53 micrograms per kilogram) also exceed background levels in bottom sediment. The concentration of phenol (23 micrograms per liter) in ground water exceeded Environmental Protection Agency quality criteria by 22 micrograms per liter, but was within the background range for south Florida. Ten metals were detected in the cattail or algal samples, but only iron, manganese, and zinc were in higher concentrations than those in the bottom sediment. (Woodard-USGS)
This treatability study presents the results of field investigations at the Sapp Battery site in Florida, an abandoned battery recycling operation. The site is estimated to contain 14,300 cubic yards of soils with lead levels in excess of 1,000 ppm. The soils in the immediate v...
... FR 74,532 (Dec. 8, 2008) (ADAMS Accession No. ML083430114). On February 6, 2009, the Nuclear.... ML090371107). \\2\\ Progress Energy Florida, Inc.; Establishment of Atomic Safety and Licensing Board, 74 FR... Meetings, 67 FR 36,920, 36,923 (May 28, 2002). C. Submitting a Request To Make an Oral Limited...
Carey, James W; LaLota, Marlene; Villamizar, Kira; McElroy, Tamara; Wilson, M Maximillion; Garcia, Jersey; Sandrock, Robert; Taveras, Janelle; Candio, Darline; Flores, Stephen A
: In response to the release of the National HIV/AIDS Strategy, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention developed the "Enhanced Comprehensive HIV Prevention Planning" project, which provided support to health departments in 12 Metropolitan Statistical Areas with the highest AIDS prevalence to strengthen local HIV programs. We describe a case study of how 1 Metropolitan Statistical Area, Miami-Dade County, developed and implemented a locally tailored plan. Examples include actions to reinforce local partnerships and identify neighborhoods with highest unmet needs, an improved condom distribution system to assist local HIV care providers, collaboration with local stakeholders to establish a new walk-in center for transgender client needs, and overcoming incompatibilities in health department and Ryan White Program computer record systems to facilitate faster and more efficient patient services. These examples show how jurisdictions both within Florida and elsewhere can create low-cost and sustainable activities tailored to improve local HIV prevention needs. PMID:26785398
Burks, K.C.; Hall, D.W.; Vandiver, V.V., Jr.; Jacono, C.C.
Naturalized populations of the Asian amphibious species Rotala rotundifolia are documented for three peninsular Florida counties. Distinguishing characters and a comment on invasive potential are also provided.
Occurrence and potential transport of selected pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater compounds from wastewater-treatment plant influent and effluent to groundwater and canal systems in Miami-Dade County, Florida
Foster, Adam L.; Katz, Brian G.; Meyer, Michael T.
An increased demand for fresh groundwater resources in South Florida has prompted Miami-Dade County to expand its water reclamation program and actively pursue reuse plans for aquifer recharge, irrigation, and wetland rehydration. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Miami-Dade Water and Sewer Department (WASD) and the Miami-Dade Department of Environmental Resources Management (DERM), initiated a study in 2008 to assess the presence of selected pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater compounds in the influent and effluent at three regional wastewater-treatment plants (WWTPs) operated by the WASD and at one WWTP operated by the City of Homestead, Florida (HSWWTP).
Phelps, G.G.; Schiffer, D.M.
The Floridan aquifer system, an approximately 2,000-foot thick sequence of Eocene-age limestone and dolomite, is the main source of water supply in central Florida. Hydraulic conductivity is different in strata of different lithology and is the basis for separating the aquifer system into the Upper Floridan aquifer, a middle semi- confining unit, and the Lower Floridan aquifer. The coastal city of Cocoa withdraws about 26 million gallons of water per day from the Upper Floridan aquifer from a well field in east Orange County, about 25 miles inland. About 60 million gallons per day are withdrawn from the Upper Floridan aquifer and 56 million gallons per day from the Lower Floridan aquifer in the Orlando area, about 15 miles west of the Cocoa well field. Wells drilled in the Cocoa well field from 1955-61 yielded water with chloride concentrations ranging from 25-55 milligrams per liter. Soon after the wells were put in service, chloride concentrations increased; therefore, new wells were drilled further inland. Chloride concen- trations in water from many of the new wells also have increased. Possible sources of saline water are lateral movement of relict seawater in the Upper Floridan aquifer from the east, regional upconing of saline water from the Lower Floridan aquifer or underlying older rocks, or localized upward movement of saline water through fractures. Several test wells were drilled to provide information about chloride concentration changes with depth and to monitor changes with time, including a multi-zone well drilled in 1965 (well C) and two wells drilled in the 1990's (wells R and S). Chloride concentrations have increased in the zone pumped by the supply wells (the upper 500 feet of the aquifer) and in the 1,351-1,357-foot deep zone of well C, but not in the two intervening zones. This indicates that the source of saline water is located laterally, rather than vertically, from the pumped zone in the area of well C. The potential for upward movement
The 250-square-mile area of southwest Sarasota and west Charlotte Counties is underlain by a complex hydrogeologic system having diverse ground-water quality. The surficial and intermediate aquifer systems and the Upper Floridan aquifer of the Floridan aquifer system contain six separate aquifers, or permeable zones, and have a total thickness of about 2,000 feet. Water in the clastic surficial aquifer system is potable and is tapped by hundreds of shallow, low-yielding supply wells. Water in the mixed clastic and carbonate intermediate aquifer system is potable in the upper part, but in the lower part, because of increasing salinity, it is used primarily for reverse-osmosis desalinization feed water and irrigation. Within the Upper Floridan aquifer, limestone and dolomite of the Suwannee permeable zone are tapped by irrigation and reverse-osmosis supply wells. The underlying, less permeable limestone of the Suwannee-Ocala semiconfining unit generally encompasses the transition zone between freshwater and very saline water. Interbedded limestone and dolomite of the Ocala-Avon Park moderately permeable zone and Avon Park highly permeable zone compose the deep, very saline injection zone. Potential ground-water contamination problems include flooding by storm tides, upward movement of saline water toward pumping centers by natural and induced leakage or through improperly constructed and abandoned wells, and lateral and vertical movement of treated sewage and reverse-osmosis wastewater injected into deep zones. Effects of flooding are evident in coastal areas where vertical layering of fresh and saline waters is observed. Approximately 100 uncontrolled flowing artesian wells that have interaquifer flow rates as high as 350 gallons per minute have been located and scheduled for plugging by the Southwest Florida Water Management District--in an attempt to improve ground-water quality of the shallow aquifers. Because each aquifer or permeable zone has unique head and
Yager, Richard M.; Metz, P.A.
Pumpage from the Upper Floridan aquifer in northwest Hillsborough County near Tampa, Florida, has induced downward leakage from the overlying surficial aquifer and lowered the water table in many areas. Leakage is highest where the confining layer separating the aquifers is breached, which is common beneath many of the lakes in the study area. Leakage of water to the Upper Floridan aquifer has lowered the water level in many lakes and drained many wetlands. Ground water from the Upper Floridan aquifer has been added (augmented) to some lakes in an effort to maintain lake levels, but the resulting lake-water chemistry and lake leakage patterns are substantially different from those of natural lakes. Changes in lake-water chemistry can cause changes in lake flora, fauna, and lake sediment composition, and large volumes of lake leakage are suspected to enhance the formation of sinkholes near the shoreline of augmented lakes. The leakage rate of lake water through the surficial aquifer to the Upper Floridan aquifer was estimated in this study using ground-water-flow models developed for an augmented lake (Round Lake) and non-augmented lake (Halfmoon Lake). Flow models developed with MODFLOW were calibrated through nonlinear regression with UCODE to measured water levels and monthly net ground-water-flow rates from the lakes estimated from lake-water budgets. Monthly estimates of ground-water recharge were computed using an unsaturated flow model (LEACHM) that simulated daily changes in storage of water in the soil profile, thus estimating recharge as drainage to the water table. Aquifer properties in the Round Lake model were estimated through transient-state simulations using two sets of monthly recharge rates computed during July 1996 to February 1999, which spanned both average conditions (July 1996 through October 1997), and an El Ni?o event (November 1997 through September 1998) when the recharge rate doubled. Aquifer properties in the Halfmoon Lake model were
On June 7, 2007, the Pinellas County Health Department in central Florida was notified by a private physician regarding a positive laboratory result for Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 (STEC O157) infection in a child aged 9 years. Initial interviews revealed the child had attended a week-long session at a day camp and had come into contact with animals in the camp's petting zoo. On June 8, an investigation was begun by the Pinellas County Health Department; the same day, the petting zoo was closed on the recommendation of the health department. This report summarizes the results of the investigation, which identified seven cases of STEC O157 infection: four laboratory-confirmed primary cases, two probable primary cases, and one laboratory-confirmed secondary case, all associated directly or indirectly with the petting zoo. Two children were hospitalized; all seven patients recovered. Petting zoo operators should adhere to guidelines for supervised handwashing and other prevention measures that will help minimize the risk in children for infection from animal contact. PMID:19407735
Sepulveda, Nicasio; Spechler, Rick M.
The Fernandina permeable zone contains brackish water in parts of Duval County, Florida. Upward flow from the Fernandina permeable zone to the upper zone of the Lower Floridan aquifer increases chloride concentrations in ground water in parts of Duval County. Numerical models of the ground-water flow system in parts of Duval, St. Johns, and Clay Counties, Florida, were used to (1) estimate the vertical flows between the low-quality water of the Fernandina permeable zone and the high-quality water of the upper zone of the Lower Floridan aquifer in the vicinity of Deerwood 3 and Brierwood well fields, based on 2000 ground-water withdrawal rates; (2) determine how such vertical flows change as several scenarios of injection, withdrawal, and intervening rest periods are simulated in the two well fields; and (3) evaluate the effects of changes in less certain hydraulic parameters on the vertical flows between the Fernandina permeable zone and the upper zone of the Lower Floridan aquifer. The ground-water flow system was simulated with a four-layer model using MODFLOW-2000, which was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey. The first layer consists of specified-head cells simulating the surficial aquifer system with prescribed water levels. The second layer simulates the Upper Floridan aquifer. The third and fourth layers simulate the upper zone of the Lower Floridan aquifer and the Fernandina permeable zone, respectively. Average flow conditions in 2000 were approximated with a steady-state simulation. The changes in upward flow from the Fernandina permeable zone due to periods of injections and withdrawals were analyzed with transient simulations. The grid used for the ground-water flow model was uniform and composed of square 250-foot cells, with 400 columns and 400 rows. The active model area encompasses about 360 square miles in parts of Duval, St. Johns, and Clay Counties, Florida. Ground-water flow simulation was limited vertically to the bottom of the Fernandina
In October 1993, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued the report "Evaluation of the Collier County Solid Waste Department and was evaluated as a part of EPA's Municipal Solid Waste Innovative Technology Evaluation (MITE) Program. he purpose of the MITE program is t...
The surficial aquifer system in Palm Beach County was studied during 1982-85 to determine the effects of increased urban and agricultural development on groundwater levels, flow directions, and quality. The surficial aquifer system and its geologic matrix are divisible into three zones on the bases of relative permeabilities and lithologic characteristics. The two greatest water users in the county, public supply utilities and agricultural irrigators, increased total water withdrawals by 123 and 50%, respectively, during 1970-80. By 1980, 76% of public supply withdrawals were from zones I and II of the surficial aquifer system, whereas groundwater pumpage for irrigation decreased to 9% of the total irrigation water used. Increases in groundwater withdrawals for public supply were greatest in the southeast and central coastal parts of the county and served as an indicator for potential changes of flow directions and water quality in the surficial aquifer system. Residual seawater, emplaced in the aquifer system during the Pleistocene Epoch, is still prevalent in the central and western parts of Palm Beach County where low permeabilities in the geologic matrix have retarded its dilution. Chemical analyses of canal-water and groundwater samples collected in April 1984 were used to evaluate the effects of groundwater/surface water exchange on the quality of water during canal conveyance across the area containing residual seawater. (USGS)
Spielberger, Julie; Goyette, Paul
This report summarizes findings from the first year of an implementation study of the Early Childhood Cluster Initiative (ECCI). ECCI is a prekindergarten program in ten elementary schools and a community child care center in Palm Beach County, based on the design of the High/Scope Perry Preschool model. The initiative is characterized by low…