KARRAKER, CYRUS H.
ACCOMPLISHMENTS IN THE WELFARE OF AGRICULTURAL SEASONAL WORKERS ARE REPORTED. PARTICULAR ATTENTION IS PAID TO SUCH SERVICES FOR MIGRANT CHILDREN AS DAY CARE CENTERS. SUCH CENTERS ARE PROVIDED FROM PRIVATE FUNDS, ARE USUALLY CHURCH SPONSORED, AND ARE LARGELY STAFFED BY VOLUNTEERS. STATE-OPERATED CENTERS ARE RECOMMENDED. COLORADO WAS CONE OF THE…
In this article, we examine the adoption of the watershed approach and its technical methods into regulatory programs in Colorado and California. Specific steps and motives for the adoption are explained. Through close collaboration, regulators have systematically been made aware...
Crawford, W.; Pena, A.; Irvine, J. R.
Ecosystems along the west coast of Vancouver Island share features with those of the northern California Current and also with the southern part of the Alaska Coastal Current, and provide the richest fisheries of these two regimes. Studies of the past few decades reveal surprisingly consistent biological responses to changes in ocean temperatures, partly due to the extreme warm and cool years since 1998. Zooplankton populations, migrating salmon, and fledgling seabirds are rapidly affected by changing ocean conditions, whereas the biomass of resident fish stocks responds over several years or even decades. The specific mechanisms responsible for these temperature-related changes vary from species to species, and many are unknown. We will present examples of how influx of predators, timing of food availability, and wind and coastal weather contribute to the response of coastal populations. Results are based on statistical analyses of many decades of observations and also on biophysical models. The responses to past temperature variability suggest which species will eventually thrive with climate warming and the speed with which these changes might occur. One unresolved factor is the ability of cold water species to survive and rebound after warm years, and of warm-water species to recover after cold years. These responses will be increasingly important, because the IPCC models suggest increasing local ocean temperature variability during this century.
Kolls, Mardel R.; And Others
Trends in performance assessments across the states of California, Colorado, Connecticut, and Illinois were explored through the development, administration, and analysis of an interstate survey. These four states were selected to represent the diversity of state-mandated testing programs relative to emphasis placed on performance assessment.…
The decline in Federal funding for state-provided social services during the 1980s triggered a transformation in the states' roles in family policymaking. This booklet documents four state initiatives designed to bring about systems change: (1) Healthy Start (California); (2) the Governor's Families and Children Initiative (Colorado); (3) the…
Bacon, C.E.; Jarman, W.M.; Estes, J.A.; Simon, M.; Norstrom, R.J.
Organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) including non-ortho PCBs, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were measured in sea otter liver tissue from California, southeast Alaska, and the western Aleutian archipelago collected between 1988 and 1992. Average total dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane concentrations for California otters were over 20 times higher than in Aleutian otters and over 800 times higher than otters from southeast Alaska. Levels for total PCBs in Aleutian otters were 1.7 times higher than levels in California otters and 38 times higher than otters from southeast Alaska. Levels for PCDD and PCDF were extremely low in all otter populations. Levels of PCBs in Aleutian and Californian otters are abnormally high when compared with southeast Alaskan otters. The source of PCBs to the Aleutian Islands remains unclear and vital to understanding the potential impacts to sea otters.
All, John D.
Accurate procedures that measure hydrologic variability would have great value for evaluating ecosystem impacts of upstream water use in the Colorado River Basin. Many local extractive income-based stakeholders rely directly or indirectly on ecosystem health and are adversely affected when the river does not flow. This study focuses on the impact of little or no Colorado River flow on the Mexican shrimp industry. Although there have been complaints that U.S. diversions of Colorado River flow have greatly impaired the shrimp fishery, this research demonstrates that freshwater rarely reaches the Gulf even during times of flooding, and that other factors such as overfishing may influence the instability of shrimp populations. Advanced very-high-resolution radiometer (AVHRR) satellite imagery was used to assess water volumes diverted away from the channel of the Colorado River and ultimately the Gulf of California during flooding periods. Analysis of data demonstrated that little freshwater actually reaches the Gulf even during floods because of its diversion into a large dry lake bed basin known as Laguna Salada. Fuller use of the Colorado River throughout its entire course to the sea is possible and could benefit a large cohort of users without catastrophic habitat destruction in delta ecosystems. Reconstruction of a natural earthen berm, as proposed by Ducks Unlimited, would maximize the use of floodwaters for ecosystem benefits. These findings have profound implications for local economic activities dependent on hydrologic resources in the Colorado River Delta and Upper Gulf.
All, John D
Accurate procedures that measure hydrologic variability would have great value for evaluating ecosystem impacts of upstream water use in the Colorado River Basin. Many local extractive income-based stakeholders rely directly or indirectly on ecosystem health and are adversely affected when the river does not flow. This study focuses on the impact of little or no Colorado River flow on the Mexican shrimp industry. Although there have been complaints that U.S. diversions of Colorado River flow have greatly impaired the shrimp fishery, this research demonstrates that freshwater rarely reaches the Gulf even during times of flooding, and that other factors such as overfishing may influence the instability of shrimp populations. Advanced very-high-resolution radiometer (AVHRR) satellite imagery was used to assess water volumes diverted away from the channel of the Colorado River and ultimately the Gulf of California during flooding periods. Analysis of data demonstrated that little freshwater actually reaches the Gulf even during floods because of its diversion into a large dry lake bed basin known as Laguna Salada. Fuller use of the Colorado River throughout its entire course to the sea is possible and could benefit a large cohort of users without catastrophic habitat destruction in delta ecosystems. Reconstruction of a natural earthen berm, as proposed by Ducks Unlimited, would maximize the use of floodwaters for ecosystem benefits. These findings have profound implications for local economic activities dependent on hydrologic resources in the Colorado River Delta and Upper Gulf. PMID:16362490
Wilson, J. C. (Principal Investigator)
The author has identified the following significant results. Many new linear and circular features were found. These features prompted novel tectonic classification and analysis especially in the Ray and Ely areas. Tectonic analyses of the Ok Tedi, Tanacross, and Silvertone areas follow conventional interpretations. Circular features are mapped in many cases and are interpreted as exposed or covered intrusive centers. The small circular features reported in the Ok Tedi test area are valid and useful correlations with tertiary intrusion and volcanism in this remote part of New Guinea. Several major faults of regional dimensions, such as the Denali fault in Alaska and the Colorado mineral belt structures in Colorado are detected in the imagery. Many more faults and regional structures are found in the imagery than exist on present maps.
Teo, Steven L. H.; Botsford, Louis W.; Hastings, Alan
One of the motivations of the GLOBEC Northeast Pacific program is to understand the apparent inverse relationship between the increase in salmon catches in the Gulf of Alaska and concurrent declines in the California Current System (CCS). We therefore used coded wire tag (CWT) data to examine the spatial and temporal patterns of covariability in the survival of hatchery coho salmon along the coast from California to southeast Alaska between release years 1980 and 2004. There is substantial covariability in coho salmon survival between neighboring regions along the coast, and there is clear evidence for increased covariability within two main groups - a northern and southern group. The dividing line between the groups lies approximately at the north end of Vancouver Island. However, CWT survivals do not support inverse covariability in hatchery coho salmon survival between southeast Alaska and the CCS over this 25 year time span. Instead, the hatchery coho survival in southeast Alaska is relatively uncorrelated with coho survival in the California Current System on inter-annual time scales. The 50% correlation and e-folding scales (distances at which magnitude of correlations decreases to 50% and e -1 (32.8%), respectively) of pairwise correlations between individual hatcheries were 150 and 217 km, which are smaller than that reported for sockeye, pink, and chum salmon. The 50% correlation scale of coho salmon is also substantially smaller than those reported for upwelling indices and sea surface temperature. There are also periods of 5-10 years with high covariability between adjacent regions on the scale of hundreds of km, which may be of biological and physical significance.
... this orientation) mountain ranges pictured here include the Medicine Bow, Front, Gore and the Sawatch. The Colorado River originates in the ... NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. The Terra spacecraft is managed ...
Nielson, J. E.; Beratan, K. K.
This paper reports on geologic mapping, stratigraphic and structural observations, and radiometric dating of Miocene deposits of the Whipple detachment system, Colorado River extensional corridor of California and Arizona. From these data, four regions are distinguished in the study area that correspond to four Miocene depositional basins. It is shown that these basins developed in about the same positions, relative to each other and to volcanic sources, as they occupy at present. They formed in the early Miocene from a segmentation of the upper crust into blocks bounded by high-angle faults that trended both parallel and perpendicular to the direction of extension and which were terminated at middle crustal depths by a low-angle detachment fault.
Buising, A.V. )
Mio-Pliocene sediments of the lower Colorado River area represent the nothernmost well documented extent of the proto-Gulf of California, a tectonically enigmatic marine incursion that occupied much of what is now the Gulf of California region--including the lower Colorado River area and the Salton Trough--as much as 8 m.y. prior to the onset of spreading-and transform-related subsidence in that area. Syndepositional folding of the Bouse Formation and bracketing units is believed to reflect slumping on oversteepened slopes, perhaps exacerbated by episodic tectonic activity. The Bouse Formation and bracketing units record four stages in the evolution of the northern proto-Gulf/lower Colorado River area: (1) dissection of preexisting, detachment fault-controlled topography and localized, interior-drainage alluvial deposition (about 14-9 Ma); (2) regional subsidence and proto-Gulf transgression (perhaps as early as about 8 Ma; not later than about 5.5 Ma); (3) progradation of ancestral Colorado River delta into the northern end of the proto-Gulf basin (prior to about 4.3 Ma); and (4) arrival of throughgoing Colorado fluvial channel (prior to about 3.5-4 Ma). Outcrop relations between the Osborne Wash strata and the Bouse Formation, and the relationship of these units to modern landforms, indicate that topography in the lower Colorado River area has not changed significantly since middle Miocene time. Subsidence of the Bouse basin is believed to have occurred via broad regional downwarping. Timing suggests that incipient proto-Gulf extension in the lower Colorado River area was arrested by the approximately 5-Ma shift to the modern transtensional regime.
... Panel is soliciting public comments, ideas, and suggestions on improving customer service at the... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Area 7 Taxpayer Advocacy Panel (Including the States of Alaska, California, Hawaii, and Nevada) AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Treasury. ACTION: Notice of...
... Panel is soliciting public comments, ideas, and suggestions on improving customer service at the... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Area 7 Taxpayer Advocacy Panel (Including the States of Alaska, California, Hawaii, and Nevada) AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Treasury. ACTION: Notice of...
... Panel is soliciting public comments, ideas, and suggestions on improving customer service at the... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Area 7 Taxpayer Advocacy Panel (Including the States of Alaska, California, Hawaii, and Nevada) AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of...
In this spectacular MODIS image from November 7, 2001, the skies are clear over Alaska, revealing winter's advance. Perhaps the most interesting feature of the image is in its center; in blue against the rugged white backdrop of the Alaska Range, Denali, or Mt. McKinley, casts its massive shadow in the fading daylight. At 20,322 ft (6,194m), Denali is the highest point in North America. South of Denali, Cook Inlet appears flooded with sediment, turning the waters a muddy brown. To the east, where the Chugach Mountains meet the Gulf of Alaska, and to the west, across the Aleutian Range of the Alaska Peninsula, the bright blue and green swirls indicate populations of microscopic marine plants called phytoplankton. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC
In this spectacular MODIS image from November 7, 2001, the skies are clear over Alaska, revealing winter's advance. Perhaps the most interesting feature of the image is in its center; in blue against the rugged white backdrop of the Alaska Range, Denali, or Mt. McKinley, casts its massive shadow in the fading daylight. At 20,322 ft (6,194m), Denali is the highest point in North America. South of Denali, Cook Inlet appears flooded with sediment, turning the waters a muddy brown. To the east, where the Chugach Mountains meet the Gulf of Alaska, and to the west, across the Aleutian Range of the Alaska Peninsula, the bright blue and green swirls indicate populations of microscopic marine plants called phytoplankton.
Lane, R S; Emmons, R W; Devlin, V; Dondero, D V; Nelson, B C
A virus very similar or identical to Colorado tick fever (CTF) virus was recovered from the blood clot of one of 104 black-tailed jack rabbits (Lepus californicus) examined during a survey for various zoonotic agents in mammals and ticks from the University of California, Hopland Field Station, Mendocino County, California, 1974--79. This is the first reported isolation of a CTF-like virus from L. californicus, and only the second time such a virus has been found in northwestern California. Mendocino County is located far outside the known distributional ranges of the most common mammalian hosts of CTF virus and of Dermacentor andersoni, the only proven tick vector for man. The viral isolate is very similar to a CTF-like virus previously recovered from the blood and spleen of a western gray squirrel (Sciurus griseus) from San Luis Obispo County, an area also outside of the previously-known CTF area. Virus was not isolated from 14 additional species of mammals (354 specimens) or from eight species of ticks (4,487 individuals), but CTF-neutralizing antibodies were detected in 28 of 771 (3.6%) sera from seven of 15 mammalian species including significant titers (greater than or equal to 1:8) in two species and one subspecies not previously reported as natural hosts, i.e., brush mouse (Peromyscus boylii), pinyon mouse (P. truei), and Columbian black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus). CTF indirect immunofluorescent antibodies also were detected in 26 of 129 (20.2%) sera belonging to four of five mammalian species tested. Neutralizing antibodies were found in sera of deer from other localities in Mendocino County, from a deer mouse from Napa County, and from a brush rabbit from Monterey County as well. These findings suggest that a virus identical or similar to CTF virus is widespread in northwestern-westcentral California, and that surveillance for human cases of CTF or a similar disease should be extended to cover this region. PMID:7102919
Chomel, Bruno B.; Gill, Verena A.; Doroff, Angela M.; Miller, Melissa A.; Burek-Huntington, Kathleen A.; Kasten, Rickie W.; Byrne, Barbara A.; Goldstein, Tracey; Mazet, Jonna A.K.
Abstract Since 2002, an increased number of northern sea otters (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) from southcentral Alaska have been reported to be dying due to endocarditis and/or septicemia with infection by Streptococcus infantarius subsp. coli. Bartonella spp. DNA was also detected in northern sea otters as part of mortality investigations during this unusual mortality event (UME) in Kachemak Bay, Alaska. To evaluate the extent of exposure to Bartonella spp. in sea otters, sera collected from necropsied and live-captured northern sea otters, as well as necropsied southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) unaffected by the UME, were analyzed using an immunofluorescent antibody assay. Antibodies against Bartonella spp. were detected in sera from 50% of necropsied and 34% of presumed healthy, live-captured northern sea otters and in 16% of necropsied southern sea otters. The majority of sea otters with reactive sera were seropositive for B. washoensis, with antibody titers ranging from 1:64 to 1:256. Bartonella spp. antibodies were especially common in adult northern sea otters, both free-living (49%) and necropsied (62%). Adult stranded northern sea otters that died from infectious causes, such as opportunistic bacterial infections, were 27 times more likely to be Bartonella seropositive than adult stranded northern sea otters that died from noninfectious causes (p<0.001; 95% confidence interval 2.62–269.4). Because Bartonella spp. antibodies were detected in necropsied northern sea otters from southcentral (44%) and southwestern (86%) stocks of Alaska, as well as in necropsied southern sea otters (16%) in southcentral California, we concluded that Bartonella spp. exposure is widely distributed among sea otter populations in the Eastern Pacific, providing context for investigating future disease outbreaks and monitoring of Bartonella infections for sea otter management and conservation. PMID:25514118
Carrasco, Sebastian E; Chomel, Bruno B; Gill, Verena A; Doroff, Angela M; Miller, Melissa A; Burek-Huntington, Kathleen A; Kasten, Rickie W; Byrne, Barbara A; Goldstein, Tracey; Mazet, Jonna A K
Since 2002, an increased number of northern sea otters (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) from southcentral Alaska have been reported to be dying due to endocarditis and/or septicemia with infection by Streptococcus infantarius subsp. coli. Bartonella spp. DNA was also detected in northern sea otters as part of mortality investigations during this unusual mortality event (UME) in Kachemak Bay, Alaska. To evaluate the extent of exposure to Bartonella spp. in sea otters, sera collected from necropsied and live-captured northern sea otters, as well as necropsied southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) unaffected by the UME, were analyzed using an immunofluorescent antibody assay. Antibodies against Bartonella spp. were detected in sera from 50% of necropsied and 34% of presumed healthy, live-captured northern sea otters and in 16% of necropsied southern sea otters. The majority of sea otters with reactive sera were seropositive for B. washoensis, with antibody titers ranging from 1:64 to 1:256. Bartonella spp. antibodies were especially common in adult northern sea otters, both free-living (49%) and necropsied (62%). Adult stranded northern sea otters that died from infectious causes, such as opportunistic bacterial infections, were 27 times more likely to be Bartonella seropositive than adult stranded northern sea otters that died from noninfectious causes (p<0.001; 95% confidence interval 2.62-269.4). Because Bartonella spp. antibodies were detected in necropsied northern sea otters from southcentral (44%) and southwestern (86%) stocks of Alaska, as well as in necropsied southern sea otters (16%) in southcentral California, we concluded that Bartonella spp. exposure is widely distributed among sea otter populations in the Eastern Pacific, providing context for investigating future disease outbreaks and monitoring of Bartonella infections for sea otter management and conservation. PMID:25514118
Aldrich, R. C. (Principal Investigator); Dana, R. W.; Greentree, W. J.; Roberts, E. H.; Norick, N. X.; Waite, T. H.; Francis, R. E.; Driscoll, R. S.; Weber, F. P.
The author has identified the following significant results. Four widely separated sites (near Augusta, Georgia; Lead, South Dakota; Manitou, Colorado; and Redding, California) were selected as typical sites for forest inventory, forest stress, rangeland inventory, and atmospheric and solar measurements, respectively. Results indicated that Skylab S190B color photography is good for classification of Level 1 forest and nonforest land (90 to 95 percent correct) and could be used as a data base for sampling by small and medium scale photography using regression techniques. The accuracy of Level 2 forest and nonforest classes, however, varied from fair to poor. Results of plant community classification tests indicate that both visual and microdensitometric techniques can separate deciduous, conifirous, and grassland classes to the region level in the Ecoclass hierarchical classification system. There was no consistency in classifying tree categories at the series level by visual photointerpretation. The relationship between ground measurements and large scale photo measurements of foliar cover had a correlation coefficient of greater than 0.75. Some of the relationships, however, were site dependent.
Owen-Joyce, Sandra J.; Wilson, Richard P.
In the Colorado River valley between the east end of Lake Mead and the international boundary with Mexico (see figure), the river is the principal source of water for agricultural, domestic, municipal, industrial, hydroelectric-power generation, and recreational purposes. Water is stored in surface reservoirs and in the river aquifer---permeable sediments and sedimentary rocks that fill the lower Colorado River valley and adjacent tributary valleys. The hydraulic connection between the river and the river aquifer, overbank flow prior to building of the dams, and infiltration as the reservoirs filled allowed the sediments and sedimentary rocks to become saturated with water from the river. Ratios of isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water from wells indicate that most of the water in the river aquifer beneath the flood plain and in many places beneath the adjacent alluvial slopes originated from the river. The water table in the river aquifer extends from the river, beneath the flood plain, and under the alluvial slopes until it intersects bedrock. Precipitation in the surrounding mountains and inflow from tributary valleys also contribute small quantities of water to the river aquifer. Consumptive use of river water in the valley results from evapotranspiration by vegetation (crops and phreatophytes) on the flood plain, pumpage from wells to meet domestic and municipal needs, and pumpage from the river for export to areas in California, Arizona, and Nevada outside of the river valley. Most crops are grown on the flood plain; in a few areas, land on the adjacent terraces has been cultivated. Crops were grown on about 70 percent of the total vegetated area in 1984. Phreatophytes---natural vegetation that obtains water from the river aquifer---covered the remaining vegetated areas on the uncultivated flood plain. Most of the water used for irrigation is diverted or pumped directly from the river and reservoirs. Most of the water used for domestic and municipal
Though it's not quite spring, waters in the Gulf of Alaska (right) appear to be blooming with plant life in this true-color MODIS image from March 4, 2002. East of the Alaska Peninsula (bottom center), blue-green swirls surround Kodiak Island. These colors are the result of light reflecting off chlorophyll and other pigments in tiny marine plants called phytoplankton. The bloom extends southward and clear dividing line can be seen west to east, where the bloom disappears over the deeper waters of the Aleutian Trench. North in Cook Inlet, large amounts of red clay sediment are turning the water brown. To the east, more colorful swirls stretch out from Prince William Sound, and may be a mixture of clay sediment from the Copper River and phytoplankton. Arcing across the top left of the image, the snow-covered Brooks Range towers over Alaska's North Slope. Frozen rivers trace white ribbons across the winter landscape. The mighty Yukon River traverses the entire state, beginning at the right edge of the image (a little way down from the top) running all the way over to the Bering Sea, still locked in ice. In the high-resolution image, the circular, snow-filled calderas of two volcanoes are apparent along the Alaska Peninsula. In Bristol Bay (to the west of the Peninsula) and in a couple of the semi-clear areas in the Bering Sea, it appears that there may be an ice algae bloom along the sharp ice edge (see high resolution image for better details). Ground-based observations from the area have revealed that an under-ice bloom often starts as early as February in this region and then seeds the more typical spring bloom later in the season.
Jessup, David A; Johnson, Christine K; Estes, James; Carlson-Bremer, Daphne; Jarman, Walter M; Reese, Stacey; Dodd, Erin; Tinker, M Tim; Ziccardi, Michael H
As part of tagging and ecologic research efforts in 1997 and 1998, apparently healthy sea otters of four age-sex classes in six locations in Alaska and three in California were sampled for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and other chemicals of ecologic or environmental concern (COECs). Published techniques for the detection of POPs (specifically ∑polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], ∑DDTs, ∑hexachlorocyclohexanes [HCHs], ∑polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs], ∑chlordanes [CHLs], hexachlorobenzene [HCB], dieldrin, and mirex) in the tissue of dead otters were modified for use with serum from live sea otters. Toxic equivalencies (TEQs) were calculated for POPs with proven bioactivity. Strong location effects were seen for most POPs and COECs; sea otters in California generally showed higher mean concentrations than those in Alaska. Differences in contaminant concentrations were detected among age and sex classes, with high levels frequently observed in subadults. Very high levels of ∑DDT were detected in male sea otters in Elkhorn Slough, California, where strong freshwater outflow from agricultural areas occurs seasonally. All contaminants except mirex differed among Alaskan locations; only ∑DDT, HCB, and chlorpyrifos differed within California. High levels of ∑PCB (particularly larger, more persistent congeners) were detected at two locations in Alaska where associations between elevated PCBs and military activity have been established, while higher PCB levels were found at all three locations in California where no point source of PCBs has been identified. Although POP and COEC concentrations in blood may be less likely to reflect total body burden, concentrations in blood of healthy animals may be more biologically relevant and less influenced by state of nutrition or perimortem factors than other tissues routinely sampled. PMID:20966272
Jessup, David A.; Johnson, Christine K.; Estes, James; Carlson-Bremer, Daphne; Jarman, Walter M.; Reese, Stacey; Dodd, Erin; Tinker, M. Tim; Ziccardi, Michael H.
As part of tagging and ecologic research efforts in 1997 and 1998, apparently healthy sea otters of four age-sex classes in six locations in Alaska and three in California were sampled for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and other chemicals of ecologic or environmental concern (COECs). Published techniques for the detection of POPs (specifically Σpolychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], ΣDDTs, Σhexachlorocyclohexanes [HCHs], Σpolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs], Σchlordanes [CHLs], hexachlorobenzene [HCB], dieldrin, and mirex) in the tissue of dead otters were modified for use with serum from live sea otters. Toxic equivalencies (TEQs) were calculated for POPs with proven bioactivity. Strong location effects were seen for most POPs and COECs; sea otters in California generally showed higher mean concentrations than those in Alaska. Differences in contaminant concentrations were detected among age and sex classes, with high levels frequently observed in subadults. Very high levels of ΣDDT were detected in male sea otters in Elkhorn Slough, California, where strong freshwater outflow from agricultural areas occurs seasonally. All contaminants except mirex differed among Alaskan locations; only ΣDDT, HCB, and chlorpyrifos differed within California. High levels of ΣPCB (particularly larger, more persistent congeners) were detected at two locations in Alaska where associations between elevated PCBs and military activity have been established, while higher PCB levels were found at all three locations in California where no point source of PCBs has been identified. Although POP and COEC concentrations in blood may be less likely to reflect total body burden, concentrations in blood of healthy animals may be more biologically relevant and less influenced by state of nutrition or perimortem factors than other tissues routinely sampled.
Madsen, D.B.; Sarna-Wojcicki, A. M.; Thompson, R.S.
A newly identified tephra in stratified deposits in southwestern Utah, dated ???14,000 14C yr B.P., may aid in correlating late Pleistocene deposits across parts of the southern Great Basin and west-central Colorado Plateau. Geochemical analyses of the ash suggest the tephra originated from Mono Craters, California, and most probably correlates with Wilson Creek ash #3. Because the ash is 2 mm thick ???550 km from its source, the event may have been larger than others correlated to Mono Craters eruptions. ?? 2002 University of Washington.
Beratan, K. K.; Blom, R. G.; Crippen, R. E.; Nielson, J. E.
Enhanced Landsat TM images were used in conjunction with field work to investigate the regional correlation of Miocene rocks in the Colorado River extensional corridor of California and Arizona. Based on field investigations, four sequences of sedimentary and volcanic strata could be recognized in the Mohave Mountains (Arizona) and the eastern Whipple Mountains (California), which display significantly different relative volumes and organization of lithologies. The four sequences were also found to have distinctive appearances on the TM image. The recognition criteria derived from field mapping and image interpretation in the Mohave Mountains and Whipple Mountains were applied to an adjacent area in which stratigraphic affinities were less well known. The results of subsequent field work confirmed the stratigraphic and structural relations suggested by the Tm image analysis.
Varanasi, U.; Stein, J.E.; Tilbury, K.L.; Meador, J.P.; Sloan, C.A.
The concentrations of chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethanes (DDTs), 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p- chlorophenyl) ethenes (DDEs), and chlordanes, and essential (e.g., zinc, selenium, copper) and toxic (e.g., mercury, lead) elements were measured in tissues and stomach contents from 22 gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) stranded between 1988 and 1991. The stranding sites ranged from the relatively pristine areas of Kodiak Island, Alaska, to more urbanized areas in Puget Sound, Washington, and San Francisco Bay, California, with the majority of the sites on the Washington outer coast and in Puget Sound. Similar to concentrations in tissues, no significant differences were observed in concentrations of elements in stomach contents between whales stranded in Puget Sound and whales stranded at the more pristine sites. The lack of data from apparently healthy gray whales limits the assessment of whether the levels of anthropogenic contaminants found in tissues may have deleterious effects on the health of gray whales.
Harvey, J. C.
Identification, correlation, and absolute dating of glassy volcanic ash and cryptically reworked pyroclastic deposits can be problematic. This is especially the case in strongly weathered samples where primary glass chemistry may not be preserved, or in lacustrine and fluvial environments where detrital materials can heavily bias bulk analysis or produce complex age distributions in single crystal dating approaches. These problems have frustrated numerous attempts to date a singular key ash horizon from the Mio-Pliocene Bouse Formation in southern California (fine-grained carbonate beds and clastic sediments derived from the Colorado River, deposited in the lower Colorado River Trough). Constraining the depositional age of the Bouse Formation is important for understanding the evolution of the Colorado River system, the uplift history of the Colorado Plateau, and the climate conditions involved in Colorado River evolution. Prior attempts to directly date the ash have been inconclusive. A K-Ar in glass date of 5.47 × 0.20 Ma (Shafiqullah et al., 1980) was questioned because of the potential disturbance of both the parent and daughter products of potassium decay in glass, and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology on bulk glass and bulk plagioclase separates (Spencer et al., 2000) produced discordant results. Recent glass chemistry correlation of the ash horizon to the 4.83 × 0.011 Ma Lawlor Tuff, Sonoma volcanic field, California (Sarna-Wojcicki et al., 2011), has also been contentious, because that age appears to conflict with the proposed onset of the delivery of Colorado River sediment through to the Gulf of California (Dorsey et al., 2007). To resolve the persistent age arguments, comparative zircon tephrochronology has been undertaken utilizing the single-crystal analysis capabilities of secondary ion mass spectrometry. Here, U-Pb zircon crystallization age spectra, U and Th abundances, and oxygen isotopic composition are presented which confirm the correlation of the Bouse
Mueller, G.A.; Marsh, P.C.; Minckley, W.L.
The lower Colorado is among the most regulated rivers in the world. It ranks as the fifth largest river in volume in the coterminous United States, but its flow is fully allocated and no longer reaches the sea. Lower basin reservoirs flood nearly one third of the river channel and store 2 years of annual flow. Diverted water irrigates 1.5 million ha of cropland and provides water for industry and domestic use by 22 million people in the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. The native fish community of the lower Colorado River was among the most unique in the world, and the main stem was home to nine freshwater species, all of which were endemic to the basin. Today, five are extirpated, seven are federally endangered, and three are being reintroduced through stocking. Decline of the native fauna is attributed to predation by nonnative fishes and physical habitat degradation. Nearly 80 alien species have been introduced, and more than 20 now are common. These nonnative species thrived in modified habitats, where they largely eliminated the native kinds. As a result, the lower Colorado River has the dubious distinction of being among the few major rivers of the world with an entirely introduced fish fauna. ?? 2005 by the American Fisheries Society.
Dorsey, R.J.; Fluette, A.; McDougall, K.; Housen, B.A.; Janecke, S.U.; Axen, G.J.; Shirvell, C.R.
Late Miocene to early Pliocene deposit at Split Mountain Gorge, California, preserve a record of basinal response to changes in regional tectonics, paleogeography, and evolution of the Colorado River. The base of the Elephant Trees Formation, magnetostratigraphically dated as 8.1 ?? 0.4 Ma, provides the earliest well-dated record of extension in the southwestern Salton Trough. The oldest marine sediments are ca. 6.3 Ma. The nearly synchronous timing of marine incursion in the Salton Trough and northern Gulf of California region supports a model for localization of Pacific-North America plate motion in the Gulf ca. 6 Ma. The first appearance of Colorado River sand at the Miocene-Pliocene boundary (5.33 Ma) suggests rapid propagation of the river to the Salton Trough, and supports a lake-spillover hypothesis for initiation of the lower Colorado River. ?? 2007 Geological Society of America.
Gorman, Jessica R.; Clapp, John D.; Calac, Daniel; Kolander, Chelsea; Nyquist, Corinna; Chambers, Christina D.
Health disparities in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are of high importance to American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) communities. We conducted focus groups and interviews with 21 AI/AN women and key informants in Southern California to modify a brief, Web-based program for screening and prevention of prenatal alcohol use. This process…
Ross, S.; Jones, L.; Wilson, R. I.; Bahng, B.; Barberopoulou, A.; Borrero, J. C.; Brosnan, D.; Bwarie, J.; Geist, E. L.; Johnson, L.; Kirby, S. H.; Knight, W.; Long, K.; Lynett, P. J.; Miller, K.; Mortensen, C. E.; Nicolsky, D.; Oglesby, D. D.; Perry, S. C.; Plumlee, G. S.; Porter, K. A.; Real, C. R.; Ryan, K. J.; Suleimani, E.; Thio, H. K.; Titov, V.; Wein, A. M.; Whitmore, P.; Wood, N. J.
The SAFRR Tsunami Scenario models a hypothetical but plausible tsunami, created by an Mw9.1 earthquake occurring offshore from the Alaskan peninsula, and its impacts on the California coast. We present the likely inundation areas, current velocities in key ports and harbors, physical damage and repair costs, economic consequences, environmental impacts, social vulnerability, emergency management, and policy implications for California associated with the tsunami scenario. The intended users are those who must make mitigation decisions before and rapid decisions during future tsunamis. Around a half million people would be present in the scenario's inundation area in residences, businesses, public venues, parks and beaches. Evacuation would likely be ordered for the State of California's maximum mapped tsunami inundation zone, evacuating an additional quarter million people from residences and businesses. Some island and peninsula communities would face particular evacuation challenges because of limited access options and short warning time, caused by the distance between Alaska and California. Evacuations may also be a challenge for certain dependent-care populations. One third of the boats in California's marinas could be damaged or sunk, costing at least 700 million in repairs to boats and docks, and potentially much more to address serious issues due to sediment transport and environmental contamination. Fires would likely start at many sites where fuel and petrochemicals are stored in ports and marinas. Tsunami surges and bores may travel several miles inland up coastal rivers. Debris clean-up and recovery of inundated and damaged areas will take days, months, or years depending on the severity of impacts and the available resources for recovery. The Ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach (POLA/LB) would be shut down for a miniμm of two days due to strong currents. Inundation of dry land in the ports would result in 100 million damages to cargo and additional
Ward, P. L.; Endo, E.; Harlow, D. H.; Allen, R.; Eaton, J. P.
The ERTS Data Collection System makes it feasible for the first time to monitor the level of activity at widely separated volcanoes and to relay these data rapidly to one central office for analysis. While prediction of specific eruptions is still an evasive goal, early warning of a reawakening of quiescent volcanoes is now a distinct possibility. A prototypical global volcano surveillance system was established under the ERTS program. Instruments were installed in cooperation with local scientists on 15 volcanoes in Alaska, Hawaii, Washington, California, Iceland, Guatemala, El Salvador and Nicaragua. The sensors include 19 seismic event counters that count four different sizes of earthquakes and six biaxial borehole tiltmeters that measure ground tilt with a resolution of 1 microradian. Only seismic and tilt data are collected because these have been shown in the past to indicate most reliably the level of volcano activity at many different volcanoes. Furthermore, these parameters can be measured relatively easily with new instrumentation.
Finney, B. P.; Addison, J. A.
Historically, decadal-scale climatic change in the North Pacific region appears to be characterized by circulation modes with coherent and recognizable spatial patterns (i.e., PDO). Examination of trends in paleo-records from widespread regions, allow recognition of how these modes have varied over time. Changes in patterns of correlations of proxies between regions suggest several periods of reorganization of ocean-atmospheric circulation during the Holocene. Major shifts appear to have occurred during climatic transitions into the Neoglacial period (ca 4000 BP), and into and out of the Little Ice Age (LIA; ca. AD 1200 and 1850). Recent paleoclimatic studies from Mt, Logan ice cores and elsewhere suggest these transitions reflect shifts between atmospheric circulation modes of more zonal vs. more meridional flow. These shifts in climate can be tracked into variability in primary productivity and higher trophic levels, such as pelagic fish, in the North Pacific marine ecosystem. Within the Gulf of Alaska, new high-resolution reconstructions of ocean paleoproductivity based on multiproxy analysis of sediment cores suggest persistent variability over multidecadal scales, punctuated by abrupt state changes in overall productivity level. Such “mega-regime shifts” are of a different nature and larger amplitude than historical regime-shifts. Records of Alaskan salmon are generally positively correlated with Gulf of Alaska productivity. Interestingly, records of California Current sardine and anchovy abundance reveal different relationships to Alaska salmon abundance during the LIA relative to historical observations. It is likely that a different pattern of ocean-atmospheric circulation during the LIA, resulted in different relationships between these regional ecosystems.
Michel, R.L.; Schoeder, R.A.
Tritium records were used to study hydrologic processes associated with irrigation and drainage in the Imperial Valley, a 2000-km2 agricultural area in the southeastern California desert. Tritium was analyzed in surface water, ground water, soil-pore water and drain water, and the results were compared to the historical record of tritium in the Colorado River. The Colorado River record was reconstructed using a simple reservoir model and precipitation data in the Colorado River Basin for the period prior to 1965, and from continuous measurements in the river for 1965-1988. This historical record is especially useful in the arid Imperial Valley because recent agricultural development has been entirely dependent on irrigation water diverted from the Colorado River and local recharge is negligible. Results indicate that it takes about 5 a for irrigation drainage to move through the soil to a depth of 2-3 m. Drainwaters have a wide range in tritium concentrations because of varying degrees of influence from ground-water intrusion, and from rapid percolation of irrigation through preferred pathways. The net result is that drainwater from about 40 fields had a range in tritium concentration similar to that of the Colorado River over the last 9 a (1980-1988), a period during which tritium concentration was declining about 15% annually in the river. ?? 1994.
Goldrath, Dara A.; Wright, Michael T.; Belitz, Kenneth
Groundwater quality in the 188-square-mile Colorado River Study unit (COLOR) was investigated October through December 2007 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is the technical project lead. The Colorado River study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of raw groundwater used for public water supplies within COLOR, and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of groundwater quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 28 wells in three study areas in San Bernardino, Riverside, and Imperial Counties. Twenty wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the Study unit; these wells are termed 'grid wells'. Eight additional wells were selected to evaluate specific water-quality issues in the study area; these wells are termed `understanding wells.' The groundwater samples were analyzed for organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOC], gasoline oxygenates and degradates, pesticides and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, 1,4-dioxane, and 1,2,3-trichlorpropane [1,2,3-TCP]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), and radioactive constituents. Concentrations of naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the sources and ages of the sampled groundwater. In total, approximately 220 constituents and water-quality indicators were investigated. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, and matrix spikes) were collected at
Owen-Joyce, Sandra J.; Wilson, Richard P.; Carpenter, Michael C.; Fink, James B.
Accounting for the use of Colorado River water is required by the U.S. Supreme Court decree, 1964, Arizona v. California. Water pumped from wells on the flood plain and from certain wells on alluvial slopes outside the flood plain is presumed to be river water and is accounted for as Colorado River water. The accounting-surface method developed for the area upstream from Laguna Dam was modified for use downstream from Laguna Dam to identify wells outside the flood plain of the lower Colorado River that yield water that will be replaced by water from the river. Use of the same method provides a uniform criterion of identification for all users pumping water from wells by determining if the static water-level elevation in the well is above or below the elevation of the accounting surface. Wells that have a static water-level elevation equal to or below the accounting surface are presumed to yield water that will be replaced by water from the Colorado River. Wells that have a static water-level elevation above the accounting surface are presumed to yield river water stored above river level. The method is based on the concept of a river aquifer and an accounting surface within the river aquifer. The river aquifer consists of permeable sediments and sedimentary rocks that are hydraulically connected to the Colorado River so that water can move between the river and the aquifer in response to withdrawal of water from the aquifer or differences in water-level elevations between the river and the aquifer. The subsurface limit of the river aquifer is the nearly impermeable bedrock of the bottom and sides of the basins that underlie the Yuma area and adjacent valleys. The accounting surface represents the elevation and slope of the unconfined static water table in the river aquifer outside the flood plain of the Colorado River that would exist if the river were the only source of water to the river aquifer. The accounting surface was generated by using water
Chanes-Martínez, J. Juan; González-Escobar, Mario; Suárez-Vidal, Francisco; Gallardo-Mata, Clemente G.
A structural study in the SW section of the Colorado River delta using seismic reflection data is presented. The study area is located along the Cerro Prieto transform fault, which extends from the northern Gulf of California through the Mexicali Valley and is an active fault within the Pacific-North American plate boundary zone. The research was supported by a database of five seismic profiles with a total length of 215 km, collected in the early 80's by Petróleos Mexicanos. The results show a high density of faults, most of which are buried by sediments. Within the Cerro Prieto fault zone, several faults were identified, such as: Palmas, Mesa, and Pangas Viejas, until now unknown. In addition, even though the Indiviso fault was investigated and superficially identify prior to this work, herein mapped at depth. West of the Cerro Prieto fault zone lies the Las Tinajas basin, bound by the Dunas and Saldaña faults and by the Montague basin to the southeast. The deformation zone along the plate boundary is 18-km-wide, stretching from the Cerro Prieto fault in the east to the Pangas Viejas fault in the west. The orientations of the faults are NW-SE, and if projected from the southern side of the Sierra Cucapah southward, the faults tend to join the Cerro Prieto fault. In the Las Tinajas basin, the acoustic basement is deeper than 5,000 m. Some of the largest vertical displacements generated by the 2010 7.2-Mw El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake occurred southeast of the epicenter and coincided with the location of the Pangas Viejas Fault, which is buried by sediments. Before this event, seismic activity was very low, and no structures were known in the area. In this paper, we demonstrate that there are at least seven major faults that may now pose a high seismic hazard.
Tuomi, Pamela A; Murray, Michael J; Garner, Michael M; Goertz, Caroline E C; Nordhausen, Robert W; Burek-Huntington, Kathleen A; Getzy, David M; Nielsen, Ole; Archer, Linda L; Maness, Heather T D; Wellehan, James F X; Waltzek, Thomas B
Small superficially ulcerated skin lesions were observed between October 2009 and September 2011 during captive care of two orphaned sea otter pups: one northern (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) in Alaska and one southern (Enhydra lutris nereis) in California. Inclusions consistent with poxviral infection were diagnosed by histopathology in both cases. Virions consistent with poxvirus virions were seen on electron microscopy in the northern sea otter, and the virus was successfully propagated in cell culture. DNA extraction, pan-chordopoxviral PCR amplification, and sequencing of the DNA-dependent DNA polymerase gene revealed that both cases were caused by a novel AT-rich poxvirus. Bayesian and maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses found that the virus is divergent from other known poxviruses at a level consistent with a novel genus. These cases were self-limiting and did not appear to be associated with systemic illness. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a poxvirus in a mustelid species. The source of this virus, mode of transmission, zoonotic potential, and biological significance are undetermined. PMID:24807180
Ryan, Holly F.; von Huene, Roland; Wells, Ray E.; Scholl, David W.; Kirby, Stephen; Draut, Amy E.
During the past several years, devastating tsunamis were generated along subduction zones in Indonesia, Chile, and most recently Japan. Both the Chile and Japan tsunamis traveled across the Pacific Ocean and caused localized damage at several coastal areas in California. The question remains as to whether coastal California, in particular the California Continental Borderland, is vulnerable to more extensive damage from a far-field tsunami sourced along a Pacific subduction zone. Assuming that the coast of California is at risk from a far-field tsunami, its coastline is most exposed to a trans-Pacific tsunami generated along the eastern Aleutian-Alaska subduction zone. We present the background geologic constraints that could control a possible giant (Mw ~9) earthquake sourced along the eastern Aleutian-Alaska megathrust. Previous great earthquakes (Mw ~8) in 1788, 1938, and 1946 ruptured single segments of the eastern Aleutian-Alaska megathrust. However, in order to generate a giant earthquake, it is necessary to rupture through multiple segments of the megathrust. Potential barriers to a throughgoing rupture, such as high-relief fracture zones or ridges, are absent on the subducting Pacific Plate between the Fox and Semidi Islands. Possible asperities (areas on the megathrust that are locked and therefore subject to infrequent but large slip) are identified by patches of high moment release observed in the historical earthquake record, geodetic studies, and the location of forearc basin gravity lows. Global Positioning System (GPS) data indicate that some areas of the eastern Aleutian-Alaska megathrust, such as that beneath Sanak Island, are weakly coupled. We suggest that although these areas will have reduced slip during a giant earthquake, they are not really large enough to form a barrier to rupture. A key aspect in defining an earthquake source for tsunami generation is determining the possibility of significant slip on the updip end of the megathrust near
Chlorinated, brominated, and perfluorinated compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and trace elements in livers of sea otters from California, Washington, and Alaska (USA), and Kamchatka (Russia)
Kannan, K.; Moon, H.-B.; Yun, S.-H.; Agusa, T.; Thomas, N.J.; Tanabe, S.
Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (DDTs, HCHs, and chlordanes), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), and 20 trace elements were determined in livers of 3- to 5-year old stranded sea otters collected from the coastal waters of California, Washington, and Alaska (USA) and from Kamchatka (Russia). Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, and PBDEs were high in sea otters collected from the California coast. Concentrations of DDTs were 10-fold higher in California sea otters than in otters from other locations; PCB concentrations were 5-fold higher, and PBDE concentrations were 2-fold higher, in California sea otters than in otters from other locations. Concentrations of PAHs were higher in sea otters from Prince William Sound than in sea otters from other locations. Concentrations of several trace elements were elevated in sea otters collected from California and Prince William Sound. Elevated concentrations of Mn and Zn in sea otters from California and Prince William Sound were indicative of oxidative stress-related injuries in these two populations. Concentrations of all of the target compounds, including trace elements, that were analyzed in sea otters from Kamchatka were lower than those found from the US coastal locations. ?? The Royal Society of Chemistry.
Stoffer, P. W.; Hernández, L.; Messina, P.; Dearaujo, J.; Li, A.; Hicks, A.; White, L.
Natural gamma radiation measurements were collected with a hand-held Geiger counter at nearly 400 locations on two general transects across the southwestern United States. The data are used to provide ground-truth comparison to published airborne radiation surveys of the region. The first transect was collected by high school students in the SF-ROCKS program at San Francisco State University in the summer of 2008 starting in San Francisco. Data were collected across the Sierra Nevada Range on I-80, and across Highway 50 in Nevada, and I-70 in Utah. Data were collected in and around Great Basin, Arches, Capitol Reef, Bryce, and Zion National Parks, and Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument. A second transect extends from San José, California to Flagstaff, Arizona and includes the Mojave National Reserve, Death Valley region, and locations throughout the Navajo Reservation region in northern Arizona and western New Mexico. Radiation data (with GPS reference) were collected from all the major sedimentary rock formations and igneous rocks of the Colorado Plateau and from many igneous and metamorphic rocks throughout the Great Basin and southern California deserts. Anomalously high localized levels were noted in selected sedimentary units associated with uranium exploration targets in the Colorado Plateau region, and in caverns and rock fissures where radon gas (and accumulation of derivative fission products) are the inferred sources.
Mueller, D.K.; Liebermann, T.D.
Monthly streamflow and dissolved-solids concentration were estimated for periods prior to the initiation of data collection at selected sites in the Colorado River basin. Techniques used for this record extension included simple and weighted least-squares regression. Streamflow records were extended at 5 sites and dissolved-solids records were extended at 13 sites. Records were extended back through 1941 to provide a completely concurrent data set for all sites. Standard errors were 5 to 74% for monthly streamflow and 3 to 27% for monthly, flow-weighted dissolved-solids concentration. The extended records at all sites were consistent with records from the historical period. (USGS)
Aragón-Noriega, E A; Calderón-Aguilera, L E
After damming the Colorado River the freshwater flow was reduced to 1% of its virgin flow to the Upper Gulf of California (UGC). The ecological effects need to be properly documented. The UGC is the nursery area for Litopenaeus stylirostris, the most profitable fishery in the zone. In order to know the relative abundance of L. stylirostris postlarval stage we conducted a sampled survey every 14 days in 1993, 1994 and 1997, plus an intensive sampling during a complete tide cycle in July 1995 and 1996. We did 10 min trawls each hour during the flood tide. Relative abundance of postlarvae was higher (p < 0.05) in those years when freshwater flow reached the UGC. PMID:11487932
On October 30, 1996, the Seattle-King County Department of Public Health and the Washington State Department of Health reported an outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections epidemiologically associated with drinking Odwalla brand unpasteurized apple juice or Odwalla juice mixtures containing apple juice from a coffee shop chain, grocery stores, or other locations. A case was defined as hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) or a stool culture yielding E. coli O157:H7 in a person who became ill after September 30, 1996, and drank Odwalla juice within 10 days before illness onset. As of November 6, British Columbia, California, Colorado, and Washington had reported a total of 45 cases. PMID:8965797
Foord, Eugene E.; Shawe, Daniel R.
Galena, associated with Pb-Bi-Ag sulfosalts and simple sulfides, contains varied amounts of Ag and Bi in the Dandy vein system, Idarado mine, Ouray, Colorado; the Jackass mine, Darwin District, California; and the Leadville district, Colorado. Silver- and bismuth-bearing galena associated with minor amounts of pyrite, chalcopyrite and sphalerite occur at the Pequea mine, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. Ag and Bi contents in the Dandy suite of galena range from about 1.4 to 3.4 and 2.5 to 6.5 wt.% respectively, and are comparable or lower in galena from the other localities. Exsolved matildite is present in galena from the Dandy, Jackass and Leadville localities. The presence in significant amounts of both Ag and Bi in a Pb-rich sulfide system is necessary for formation of PbSss (galena solid-solution). If Ag (especially) and Bi (to a lesser extent) are absent, the galena formed will be essentially pure PbS. Some minor Sb may substitute for Bi. Compositional data for all of the galena samples are in agreement with a previously proposed linear relationship between a and Ag-Bi(Sb) content. Matildite and seven additional Pb-Bi-Ag-Cu sulfosalts have been identified from the Dandy vein system, based on electron-microprobe analyses and some X-ray powder-diffraction data.
Murata, S.; Takahashi, S.; Agusa, T.; Thomas, N.J.; Kannan, K.; Tanabe, S.
Organotin compounds (OTs) including mono- to tri-butyltins, -phenyltins, and -octyltins were determined in the liver of adult sea otters (Enhydra lutris) found dead along the coasts of California, Washington, and Alaska in the USA and Kamchatka, Russia. Total concentrations of OTs in sea otters from California ranged from 34 to 4100 ng/g on a wet weight basis. The order of concentrations of OTs in sea otters was total butyltins ??? total octyltins ??? total phenyltins. Elevated concentrations of butyltins (BTs) were found in some otters classified under 'infectious-disease' mortality category. Concentrations of BTs in few of these otters were close to or above the threshold levels for adverse health effects. Total butyltin concentrations decreased significantly in the livers of California sea otters since the 1990s. Based on the concentrations of organotins in sea otters collected from 1992 to 2002, the half-lives of tributyltin and total butyltins in sea otters were estimated to be approximately three years. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The Arctic is covered with ice and snow for most of the year. Animals that live in Alaska's arctic region must be able to survive long winters and very cold temperatures. Surprisingly, many animals live in the harsh, cold climate. This first-grade activity plan helps students learn about the animals of the far north. The plan gives six steps for…
Tangborn, Wendell V.; Mayo, Lawrence R.; Scully, David R.; Krimmel, Robert M.
Combined ice and water balances were measured in the 1967 hydrologic year (October 1-September 30) on four glaciers in western North America ranging in latitude from 37 deg to 63 deg N. This hydrologic year was characterized by heavier than normal winter precipitation in California and Washington and abnormally dry winter conditions in coastal Alaska. In summer the western conterminous states were abnormally dry and central and southern Alaska experienced very wet conditions. Maclure Glacier (lat 37 deg 45' N., 3,650-m (metres) mean equilibrium line altitude) had an above normal winter balance of 3.46 m and a positive annual balance of 1.05 m (metres of water equivalent). South Cascade Glacier (lat 48 deg 22' N., 1900-m mean equilibrium line altitude) had a winter balance of 3.28 m, slightly above average. Above normal summer ablation resulted in a final annual balance of -0.58 m, slightly more negative than has been the case for the past decade. Wolverine Glacier's (lat 60 deg 24' N., 1,200-m mean equilibrium line altitude) winter balance was 1.17 m, considerably below normal; the annual balance was -2.04 m. Gulkana Glacier (lat 63 deg 15' N., 1,700-m mean equilibrium line altitude) had a winter balance of 1.05 m, approximately normal for this glacier; the final annual balance was -0.30 m.
Thiros, Susan A.; Paul, Angela P.; Bexfield, Laura M.; Anning, David W.
The Southwest Principal Aquifers consist of many basin-fill aquifers in California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, New Mexico, and Colorado. Demands for irrigation and drinking water have substantially increased groundwater withdrawals and irrigation return flow to some of these aquifers. These changes have increased the movement of contaminants from geologic and human sources to depths used to supply drinking water in several basin-fill aquifers in the Southwest.
Annual Report upon the geographical explorations and surveys west of the one hundredth meridian, in California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Wyoming, and Montana: Being Appendix FF of the Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers for 1874
Wheeler, George Montague
I [G.M. Wheeler] have the honor to submit the following annual report upon geographical explorations and surveys west of the one hundredth meridian, in California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Wyoming, and Montana for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1874. Toward the close of the last fiscal year, the expedition of 1873 had taken the field in three separate divisions from Salt Lake City, Utah, Denver, Col., and Santa Fé, N. Mex.
In 1982-83, the US Geological Survey conducted an investigation of the oil and gas potential of the designated and proposed Wilderness Lands in the Western United States. The scope of this study was limited to the assessment of conventional recoverable petroleum resources occurring in the designated and proposed Wilderness Lands of the Western United States that are administered under four federal agencies: Bureau of Land Management, US Forest Service, National Park Service, and Fish and Wildlife Service. The total area of the study included approximately 74 million acres of Wilderness Lands in these 11 western states: Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming. The 74 million acres represent 31% of the total federal lands within these 11 western states. The objective of this study was to assemble through various means all the available pertinent information that could be brought together within the USGS and integrate these data into a computer-based digital cartographic data system that was focused upon the single issue of reviewing the known geological and geophysical data to determine the geologic characteristics favorable or unfavorable for the occurrence of petroleum resources in these Wilderness Lands. In a joint effort in the USGS between the Geologic Division and the National Mapping Division all of the mappable information used in this study was prepared and processed by using digital cartographic techniques. All 16 papers in this volume were processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.
Kean, J. W.; McCoy, S. W.; Staley, D. M.; Coe, J.; Leeper, R.; Tucker, G. E.
Direct measurements of natural debris flows provide valuable insights into debris-flow processes and hazards. Yet debris flows are difficult to "catch" because they live in rugged terrain, appear infrequently, and have an appetite for destroying monitoring equipment. We present an overview of some successful (and failed) techniques we have used over the past four years to obtain direct measurements of 40+ debris flows in Colorado and southern California. Following the "MacGyver" theme of the session, we focus on the improvised equipment and methods we use in our hunt for quality data. These include an inexpensive erosion sensor to measure rates of debris-flow entrainment, a custom load cell enclosure for measuring debris-flow normal force, tracer rocks implanted with passive integrated transponders, basic pressure transducers to measure debris-flow timing, and standard digital cameras adapted to obtain high-resolution (1936 x 1288 pixels) video footage of debris flows. These techniques are also suitable for catching data on elusive flash floods. In addition, we also share some practical solutions to the logistical problems associated with installing monitoring equipment in rugged debris-flow terrain, such as suspension of non-contact stage gages high above channels.
Dorsey, R. J.; Bykerk-Kauffman, A.
Early Pliocene deposits in the western Salton Trough preserve a high-fidelity record of sediment dispersal into the marine realm during initiation and early evolution of the Colorado River (CR). Grain-size fractionation, sediment routing, and transport dynamics of the early CR delta are recorded in sediments of the Fish Creek - Vallecito basin, which was located ~100 km south of Yuma along the transform plate boundary at 5 Ma. Early Pliocene delivery of CR sand to the basin took place in two distinct pulses: (1) deposition of sandy turbidites (Wind Caves Mbr of the Latrania Fm) in a restricted submarine canyon at Split Mt Gorge between ~5.3 and 5.1 Ma; and (2) progradation of a thick, widespread, coarsening-up deltaic sequence of marine mudstone, sandstone, and coquinas (Deguynos Fm) between ~4.8 and 4.2 Ma. Estimated flux of CR sediment during Wind Caves deposition was weak (~3-5 Mt/yr) compared to the long-term average (172±64 Mt/yr). The two pulses of CR sand input are separated by the Coyote Clay (CC, ~5.1-4.8 Ma), a regionally correlable, greenish-yellow-weathering marine claystone unit at the base of the Deguynos Fm. CC gradationally overlies Wind Caves turbidites in the area of the paleocanyon. In contrast, in the Coyote Mts 15-23 km to the south and SE, CC rests on coarse-grained locally-derived late Miocene sedimentary rocks, Alverson volcanics, and metamorphic basement rock along a regional unconformity. Identical claystone facies occur in the NW Indio Hills (restores to Yuma at the mouth of the CR at 5 Ma), and Sierra Cucapa in Mexico (~200 km south of Yuma at 5 Ma). Marine localities outside of the Wind Caves paleocanyon experienced slow to negligible sedimentation along a rugged rocky shoreline until abrupt arrival of CR-derived clay. CC accumulated in a sand-starved, pro-delta marine setting (Winker, 1987) over an inferred N-S distance of ~200 km. We therefore reject an alternate hypothesis that CC accumulated on the muddy slope of the prograding CR
Annual Report upon the geographical explorations and surveys west of the one hundredth meridian, in California, Nevada, Nebraska, Utah, Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Wyoming, and Montana: Being Appendix LL of the Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers for 1875
Wheeler, George Montague
I have the honor to submit the following report upon geographical surveys west of the one hundredth meridian for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1875. The States and Territories of California, Nevada, Nebraska, Utah, Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Wyoming, and Montana had been entered at the close of the season of 1874, during the several years' operations of the survey. Of the political divisions lying west of the one hundredth meridian, where actual field-work has not been done, are Oregon and the Territories of Washington and Idaho, and portions of Dakota, Kansas, and Texas.
This MODIS true-color image shows the Gulf of Alaska and Kodiak Island, the partially snow-covered island in roughly the center of the image. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team
Roskowski, J.A.; Patchett, P.J.; Spencer, J.E.; Pearthree, P.A.; Dettman, D.L.; Faulds, J.E.; Reynolds, A.C.
We report strontium isotopic results for the late Miocene Hualapai Limestone of the Lake Mead area (Arizona-Nevada) and the latest Miocene to early Pliocene Bouse Formation and related units of the lower Colorado River trough (Arizona-California-Nevada), together with parallel oxygen and carbon isotopic analyses of Bouse samples, to constrain the lake-overflow model for integration of the Colorado River. Sr iso topic analyses on the basal 1-5 cm of marl, in particular along a transect over a range of altitude in the lowest-altitude basin that contains freshwater, brackish, and marine fossils, document the 87Sr/86Sr of first-arriving Bouse waters. Results reinforce the similarity between the 87Sr/86Sr of Bouse Formation carbonates and present-day Colorado River water, and the systematic distinction of these values from Neogene marine Sr. Basal Bouse samples show that 87Sr/86Sr decreased from 0.7111 to values in the range 0.7107-0.7109 during early basin filling. 87Sr/86Sr values from a recently identified marl in the Las Vegas area are within the range of Bouse Sr ratios. 87Sr/86Sr values from the Hualapai Limestone decrease upsection from 0.7195 to 0.7137, in the approach to a time soon after 6 Ma when Hualapai deposition ceased and the Colorado River became established through the Lake Mead area. Bouse Formation ??18O values range from -12.9??? to +1.0??? Vienna Pee Dee belemnite (VPDB), and ??13C between -6.5??? and +3.4??? VPDB. Negative ??18O values appear to require a continental origin for waters, and the trend to higher ??18O suggests evaporation in lake waters. Sr and stable isotopic results for sectioned barnacle shells and from bedding planes of the marine fish fossil Colpichthys regis demonstrate that these animals lived in saline freshwater, and that there is no evidence for incursions of marine water, either long-lived or brief in duration. Lack of correlation of Sr and O isotopic variations in the same samples also argue strongly against systematic
Bonds, Darryl E.
This study is a mixed method examination of two elementary level Colorado Reading First Schools in Colorado Springs, Colorado. This study replicated a study conducted in two California Reading First elementary schools, in one Southern California School District. The purpose of the study was to examine whether there were differences in the…
Cowan, D.S. . Geological Sciences)
The Franciscan-Great Valley-Sierran triad is indisputable evidence for late Mesozoic, west-facing subduction along the California sector of the N. American margin. In the northwestern sector (N of 48[degree]N), however, neither the configuration of plate boundaries, nor the paleogeographic disposition of the Insular and Intermontane superterranes, is confidently established. Models divide into two groups. One set, based entirely on geologic evidence such as the age and nature of deformational events, or putative stratigraphic links among terranes, places the two superterranes exclusively to the north of the Franciscan-Sierran system from 150 to 90 Ma. These hypotheses, which ignore or reject paleomagnetic data from mid-Cretaceous rocks, yield a paleogeography not too different from today's, but they are incompatible with the Franciscan and Great Valley rocks caught between the superterranes in the mid-Cretaceous San Juan-Cascade thrust system. An alternative model fully respecting paleomagnetic data from mid-Cretaceous rocks with paleohorizontal control restores most of the Intermontane superterrane [approximately]1,200 km south of its expected (i.e. present) latitudinal position with respect to North America, and the Insular superterrane [approximately]2,900 km south, at 95--105 Ma. The mid-Cretaceous thrust system along the eastern margin of the Insular superterrane records the collision of Wrangellia et al. with the southern continuation of the Franciscan subduction zone. The thrust system, a silver of hanging wall, and the Insular superterrane were all subsequently translated > 2,500 km northward by post-80, pre-60 Ma coast-parallel dextral slip, accommodated on the proto-Pasayten and proto-Yalakom faults, and along or near the Coast Range shear zone.
Owen-Joyce, Sandra J.
This report summarizes a comprehensive study and development of the method documented in Owen-Joyce and others (2000). That report and one for the area upstream from Laguna Dam (Wilson and Owen-Joyce, 1994) document the accounting-surface method to identify wells that yield water that will be replaced by water from the Colorado River. Downstream from Laguna Dam, the Colorado River is the source for nearly all recharge to the river aquifer. The complex surface-water and ground-water system that exists in the area is, in part, the result of more than 100 years of water-resources development. Agriculture is the principal economy and is possible only with irrigation. The construction and operation of canals provides the means to divert and distribute Colorado River water to irrigate agricultural lands on the flood plains and mesas along the Colorado and Gila Rivers, in Imperial and Coachella Valleys, and in the area upstream from Dome along the Gila River. Water is withdrawn from wells for irrigation, dewatering, and domestic use. The area downstream from Laguna Dam borders additional areas of agricultural development in Mexico where Colorado River water also is diverted for irrigation.
Radtke, D.B.; Kepner, W.G.; Effertz, R.J.
The Lower Colorado River Valley Irrigation Drainage Project area included the Colorado River and its environs from Davis Dam to just above Imperial Dam. Water, bottom sediment, and biota were sampled at selected locations within the study area and analyzed for selected inorganic and synthetic organic constituents that are likely to be present at toxic concentrations. With the exceptions of selenium and DDE, this study found sampling locations to be relatively free of large concentrations of toxic constituents that could be a threat to humans, fish, and wildlife. Selenium was the only inorganic constituent to exceed any existing standard, criterion, or guideline for protection of fish and wildlife resources. Concentrations of DDE in double-crested cormorants, however, exceeded the criterion of 1.0 microgram per gram established by the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering for DDT and its metabolites for protection of wildlife. Dissolved-selenium concentrations in water from the lower Colorado River appear to be derived from sources above Davis Dam. At this time, therefore , agricultural practices in the lower Colorado River valley do not appear to exacerbate selenium concentrations. This fact, however, does not mean that the aquatic organisms and their predators are not in jeopardy. Continued selenium loading to the lower Colorado environment could severely affect important components of the ecosystem. (Author 's abstract)
2008-01-01The Colorado River ends its 2330 km journey in the Gulf of Mexico in Baja California. The heavy use of the river as an irrigation source for the Imperial Valley has dessicated the lower course of the river in Mexico such that it no longer consistently reaches the sea. Prior to the mid 20th century, the Colorado River Delta provided a rich estuarine marshland that is now essentially desiccated, but nonetheless is an important ecological resource. The image was acquired May 29, 2006, covers an area of 44.3 x 57.5 km, and is located at 32.1 degrees north latitude, 115.1 degrees west longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.
Paterson, Scott R.; Sample, James C.
The development of folds and cleavages in slate and graywacke belts is commonly attributed to arc-continent or continent-continent collisions. However, the Kodiak Formation of southern Alaska and the Calaveras Complex of the western Sierra Nevada, California, are two slate and graywacke belts in which folds and slaty cleavages developed during simple underthrusting and underplating within accretionary wedges. The Maastrichtian Kodiak Formation is composed dominantly of coherent turbidites but includes lesser pebbly mudstone, minor conglomerate, and rare chert. The Kodiak Formation is part of a large accretionary complex that youngs in age seaward, but bedding tops generally show landward younging. A progression of structures has been determined by crosscutting relationships and includes (1) syndeformational depositional features; (2) broken formation; (3) slaty cleavage, folds, and thrust faults; (4) crenulations and crenulation cleavage; (5) late brittle thrust faults; and (6) right-lateral strike-slip faults. Broken formation, slaty cleavage, thrust faults, and folds developed during underthrusting and underplating within an accretionary wedge. Crenulations and brittle thrust faults are related to subsequent intrawedge shortening. Based on peak metamorphism in the uppermost zeolite to prehnite-pumpellyite facies, underplating occurred at a minimum depth of 10 km. The Calaveras Complex is composed of argillite, chert, graywacke, pebbly mudstone, limestone, and volcanic rocks. Its age of deposition has a maximum range from Permian to Early Jurassic. Overall, the unit appears to young westward, but local facing indicators show eastward younging of individual blocks. The sequence of structures developed in the Calaveras Complex is (1) syn-depositional olistostromes; (2) broken formation; (3) slaty cleavage, folds, and thrust faults; and (4) younger Jura-Triassic folds and crenulation cleavages. Broken formation and slaty cleavage developed during underthrusting and
Castruccio, P. A.; Loats, H. L., Jr.; Lloyd, D.; Newman, P. A. B. (Principal Investigator)
The author has identified the following significant results. The total cost associated with satellite snow cover area measurement (SATSCAM) in the Colorado ASVT was $2,050 which equates to 0.22/sq km. When extrapolated to the 2,238,890 km area impacted by snow-survey forecasting in the Western United States, the total yearly cost of employing SATSCAM is approximately $493k. The estimated total benefits to hydroeletric energy production is $10m yearly, with the Pacific Northwest receiving the smallest benefits, and the Rio Grande region the highest. Irrigated agriculture receives a yearly total benefit of $38m, with the Lower Colorado region receiving the largest per acre benefit and the Pacific Northwest receiving the lowest.
Leake, Stanley A.; Owen-Joyce, Sandra J.; Heilman, Julian A.
Water use along the lower Colorado River is allocated as “consumptive use,” which is defined to be the amount of water diverted from the river minus the amount that returns to the river. Diversions of water from the river include surface water in canals and water removed from the river by pumping wells in the aquifer connected to the river. A complication in accounting for water pumped by wells occurs if the pumping depletes water in drains and reduces measured return flow in those drains. In that case, consumptive use of water pumped by the wells is accounted for in the reduction of measured return flow. A method is needed to understand where groundwater pumping will deplete water in the river and where it will deplete water in drains. To provide a basis for future accounting for pumped groundwater in the Parker-Palo Verde-Cibola area, a superposition model was constructed. The model consists of three layers of finite-difference cells that cover most of the aquifer in the study area. The model was run repeatedly with each run having a pumping well in a different model cell. The source of pumped water that is depletion of the river, expressed as a fraction of the pumping rate, was computed for all active cells in model layer 1, and maps were constructed to understand where groundwater pumping depletes the river and where it depletes drains. The model results indicate that if one or more drains exist between a pumping well location and the river, nearly all of the depletion will be from drains, and little or no depletion will come from the Colorado River. Results also show that if a well pumps on a side of the river with no drains in the immediate area, depletion will come from the Colorado River. Finally, if a well pumps between the river and drains that parallel the river, a fraction of the pumping will come from the river and the rest will come from the drains. Model results presented in this report may be considered in development or refinement of strategies
Application of Geographic Information System Methods to Identify Areas Yielding Water that will be Replaced by Water from the Colorado River in the Vidal and Chemehuevi Areas, California, and the Mohave Mesa Area, Arizona
Spangler, Lawrence E.; Angeroth, Cory E.; Walton, Sarah J.
Relations between the elevation of the static water level in wells and the elevation of the accounting surface within the Colorado River aquifer in the vicinity of Vidal, California, the Chemehuevi Indian Reservation, California, and on Mohave Mesa, Arizona, were used to determine which wells outside the flood plain of the Colorado River are presumed to yield water that will be replaced by water from the Colorado River. Wells that have a static water-level elevation equal to or below the elevation of the accounting surface are presumed to yield water that will be replaced by water from the Colorado River. Geographic Information System (GIS) interpolation tools were used to produce maps of areas where water levels are above, below, and near (within ? 0.84 foot) the accounting surface. Calculated water-level elevations and interpolated accounting-surface elevations were determined for 33 wells in the vicinity of Vidal, 16 wells in the Chemehuevi area, and 35 wells on Mohave Mesa. Water-level measurements generally were taken in the last 10 years with steel and electrical tapes accurate to within hundredths of a foot. A Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) was used to determine land-surface elevations to within an operational accuracy of ? 0.43 foot, resulting in calculated water-level elevations having a 95-percent confidence interval of ? 0.84 foot. In the Vidal area, differences in elevation between the accounting surface and measured water levels range from -2.7 feet below to as much as 17.6 feet above the accounting surface. Relative differences between the elevation of the water level and the elevation of the accounting surface decrease from west to east and from north to south. In the Chemehuevi area, differences in elevation range from -3.7 feet below to as much as 8.7 feet above the accounting surface, which is established at 449.6 feet in the vicinity of Lake Havasu. In all of the Mohave Mesa area, the water-level elevation is near or below the
Composting operations come in all shapes and sizes, and there are many variables in operating a successful composting operation. The author looked at two markedly different composting operations in Colorado--the recycling/composting program at the Air Force Academy in Colorado Springs, and the biosolids composting operation at the Upper Eagle Valley Sanitation District, Colorado Springs--to report on how each operation was developed and how both are working today. At the Air Force Academy, a three-acre base for the composting facility was prepared in the fall of 1991. As word of the facility started getting out, people began offering to bring in their clean, green yard trimmings. A Wildcat Compost Turner made it possible for the academy to add a variety of organic matter to the typical yard clippings it was collecting. Material currently being composted at the academy includes a mixture of approximately 15% grass, 25% sod, 10% pine needles, and 50% stable bedding. Four years ago, Colorado's Upper Eagle Valley Consolidated Sanitation District looked to composting as a way to handle its biosolids. A small, two-acre parcel, three miles from the nearest community, was chosen as the composting site. After meeting all of the associated regulations, trucks began hauling biosolids to the site. The sludge was mixed with sawdust and recycled sludge, and then windrowed. The district already has 14,000 cubic yards of compost stored up and ready to go.
Louisiana Arts and Science Center, Baton Rouge.
THE UNIT DESCRIBED IN THIS BOOKLET DEALS WITH THE GEOGRAPHY OF ALASKA. THE UNIT IS PRESENTED IN OUTLINE FORM. THE FIRST SECTION DEALS PRINCIPALLY WITH THE PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY OF ALASKA. DISCUSSED ARE (1) THE SIZE, (2) THE MAJOR LAND REGIONS, (3) THE MOUNTAINS, VOLCANOES, GLACIERS, AND RIVERS, (4) THE NATURAL RESOURCES, AND (5) THE CLIMATE. THE…
Analyzing post-fire topography at the hillslope-channel interface with terrestrial LiDAR: contrasting geomorphic responses from the 2012 Waldo Canyon Fire of Colorado and the 2013 Springs Fire of California
Storesund, R.; Chin, A.; Florsheim, J. L.; O'Hirok, L.; Williams, K.; Austin, K. E.
Mountains areas are increasingly susceptible to wildfires because of warming climates. Although knowledge of the hydro-geomorphological impacts of wildfire has advanced in recent years, much is still unknown regarding how environmental fluxes move through burned watersheds. Because of the loss of vegetation and hydrophobic soils, flash floods often accompany elevated runoff events from burned watersheds, making direct process measurements challenging. Direct measurements are also only partly successful at capturing the spatial variations of post-fire effects. Coupled with short temporal windows for observing such responses, opportunities are often missed for collecting data needed for developing predictive models. Terrestrial LiDAR scanning (TLS) of burned areas allows detailed documentation of the post-fire topography to cm-level accuracy, providing pictures of geomorphic responses not previously possible. This paper reports a comparative study of hillslope-channel interactions, using repeat TLS, in two contrasting environments. Burned by the 2012 Waldo Canyon Fire and 2013 Springs Fire, in Colorado and California respectively, the study sites share many similarities including steep erosive slopes, small drainage areas, and step-pool channel morphologies. TLS provided a tool to test the central hypothesis that, dry ravel, distinct in the California Mediterranean environment, would prompt a greater sedimentological response from the Springs Fire compared to the Waldo Canyon Fire. At selected sites in each area, TLS documented baseline conditions immediately following the fire. Repeat scanning after major storms allowed detection of changes in the landscape. Results show a tendency for sedimentation in river channels in the study sites interacting with dry ravel on hillslopes, whereas erosion dominated the response from the Waldo Canyon Fire with an absence of dry ravel. These data provide clues to developing generalizations for post-fire effects at regional scales
... District began filling the reservoir with water from the Colorado River and Northern California. Water appears darker than the ... center is being built to protect these finds. The lower MISR image, from May 20, 2001 (Terra orbit 7564), is a false-color view ...
Kimbrough, D.; Grove, M.; Gehrels, G.; Dorsey, R.; House, K. P.; Howard, K.; Pearthree, P. A.; Spencer, J. E.; Mahoney, B.
The Colorado River is a large, youthful, unequilibrated continental drainage system the base-level for which was established rather abruptly between 5 and 6 million years ago in conjunction with Gulf of California rifting and establishment of the modern river course through the western Grand Canyon and lower Colorado river region. New laser ablation ICPMS detrital zircon U-Pb analyses (~3000) from ~40 samples provide insight into details relating to the cause, timing and consequences of river inception. These samples encompass (1) the modern Colorado River delta, (2) major tributaries including the Green, "Grand", San Juan, Little Colorado and Gila rivers (3) late Miocene to Pliocene sediments along the lower Colorado (4) late Miocene to Pleistocene deltaic and fluvial sediments of the Imperial and Palm Spring Groups in the western Salton Trough, and (5) late Miocene- early Pliocene Bidahochi Formation of eastern Arizona. Data from the western Salton Trough and modern delta yield strata yield remarkably homogeneous age distributions that indicate there was little evolution in Colorado River sediment composition since 5.3 Ma. Detrital zircon is dominated by a mix of local southwest US cratonal basement (1.7 and 1.4 Ga) plus reworked supracrustal sequences of the Colorado Plateau that provide Neoproterozoic, 1.1 Ga, and early Paleozoic zircons. A relative paucity of Grenville-age grains in the earliest part of the delta sequence may reflect an early stage of the modern river prior to deep incision through Colorado Plateau erg deposits. The strong homogeneity of the detrital zircon record from late Miocene to the present is consistent with the `lake spillover model' for inception and integration of the modern Colorado River drainage. Abrupt integration of the lower Colorado River after 5.6 Ma is clearly recorded by detrital zircon ages from the laucustrine Bouse Formation and Bullhead alluvium aggradational package. Fluvial-laucustrine deposits of the Bidahochi
This image is a shaded relief mosaic of Umnak Island in Alaska's Aleutian Islands.It was created with Airsar data that was geocoded and combined into this mosaic as part of a NASA-funded Alaska Digital Elevation Model Project at the Alaska Synthetic Aperture Radar Facility (ASF) at the University of Alaska Geophysical Institute in Fairbanks, Alaska.Airsar collected the Alaska data as part of its PacRim 2000 Mission, which took the instrument to French Polynesia, American and Western Samoa, Fiji, New Zealand, Australia, New Guinea, Indonesia, Malaysia, Cambodia, Philippines, Taiwan, South Korea, Japan, Northern Marianas, Guam, Palau, Hawaii and Alaska. Airsar, part of NASA's Airborne Science Program, is managed for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise by JPL. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.
Tosdal, R. M.; Sherrod, D. R.
The geometry of Miocene extensional deformation, which changes along a 120 km-long, northeast-trending transect from the southestern Chocolate Mountains, southeastern California, to the Trigo and southern Dome Rock Mountains, southwestern Arizona is discussed. Based upon regional differences in the structural response to extension and estimated extensional strain, the transet can be divided into three northwesterly-trending structural domains. From southwest to northeast, these domains are: (1) southestern Chocolate-southernmost Trigo Mountains; (2) central to northern Trigo Mountains; and (3) Trigo Peaks-southern Dome Rock Mountains. All structures formed during the deformation are brittle in style; fault rocks are composed of gouge, cohesive gouge, and local microbreccia. In each structural domain, exposed lithologic units are composed of Mesozoic crystalline rocks unconformably overlain by Oligocene to Early Miocene volcanic and minor interbedded sedimentary rocks. Breccia, conglomerate, and sandstone deposited synchronously with regional extension locally overlie the volcanic rocks. Extensional deformation largely postdated the main phase of volcanic activity, but rare rhyolitic tuff and flows interbedded with the syndeformational clastic rocks suggest that deformation began during the waning stages of valcanism. K-Ar isotopic ages indicate that deformation occurred in Miocene time, between about 22 and m.y. ago.
Stein Zweers, D. C.; Pickering, K. E.; Clark, R. D.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Flynn, C.; Mazzuca, G.; Spinei, E.
Through use of the Millersville University tethersonde balloon an NO2-sonde, developed at the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI), profiled the lower boundary layer as part of the larger NASA Earth Venture program funded mission. This campaign known as DISCOVER-AQ stands for 'Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality'. Recent results from the California, Texas, and Colorado deployments of DISCOVER-AQ highlight the importance of semi-continuous, daytime measurement of the vertical distribution of ozone and NO2 in the lower boundary layer. The balloon profiles, typically from the surface to 500m above ground level, fill an important gap between surface measurements and the lowest extent of aircraft measurements. This near-surface region of the atmosphere is highly variable and local circulation features including land-sea breezes and mountain-valley breezes were observed. These circulations altered local transport patterns and led to changes in the chemical regime at each site. These processes were especially apparent at Smith Point, Texas during an extreme pollution event on 25 September 2013. The extent to which these local circulations influenced diurnal variation and vertical distribution of NO2 and ozone is evaluated and compared for each semi-rural site using wind direction and other meteorological data. NO2-sonde profile data is compared to ground station trace gas analyzers and where available, column and profile measurements from PANDORA spectrometer instruments. These data measured in the segment of the near-surface atmosphere most critical for human health are unique and crucial for validation of satellite columns and atmospheric chemical models.
.... Regulated Area That portion of the lower Colorado River on the Arizona side between Thompson Bay and Copper... portion of the lower Colorado River on the California side at Havasu Landing Resort and Casino. 3. Parker... lower Colorado River encompassed by the following boundaries:Boundary one from 34°27′44″ N, 114°20′53″...
.... Regulated Area That portion of the lower Colorado River on the Arizona side between Thompson Bay and Copper... portion of the lower Colorado River on the California side at Havasu Landing Resort and Casino. 3. Parker... lower Colorado River encompassed by the following boundaries:Boundary one from 34°27′44″ N, 114°20′53″...
2002-01-01The Hayman fire, situated about 65 kilometers southwest of Denver, Colorado, is the largest fire ever recorded in that state. The amount and distribution of smoke from the Hayman fire and from the Ponil Complex fires south of the New Mexico-Colorado border are portrayed in these views from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR). The images were captured on June 9, 2002, on the second day of the Hayman fire, when only about 13 percent of the total 137,000 acres eventually consumed had been scorched.The image at top-left was acquired by MISR's most oblique (70-degree) forward-viewing camera, and the view at bottom-left was captured by MISR's 26-degree forward-viewing camera. Both left-hand panels are 'false color' views, utilizing near-infrared, red, and blue spectral bands displayed as red, green and blue respectively. With this spectral combination, highly vegetated areas appear red. At top right is a map of aerosol optical depth. This map utilizes the capability of the oblique view angles to measure the abundance of particles in the atmosphere. Haze distributed across the eastern part of the state is indicated by a large number of green pixels, and areas where no retrieval occurred are shown in dark grey. The more oblique perspective utilized within the top panels enhances the appearance of smoke and reveals the haze. In the lower left-hand panel the view is closer to nadir (downward-looking). Here the smoke plumes appear more compact and the haze across eastern Colorado is not detected. The lower right-hand panel is a stereoscopically derived height field that echoes the compact shape of the smoke plumes in the near-nadir image. Results indicate that the smoke plumes reached altitudes of a few kilometers above the surface terrain, or about the same height as the small clouds that appear orange along the bottom edge to the left of center.Data used in these visualizations were generated as part of operational processing at the Atmospheric
Of the 20 or so amethyst localities reported in Colorado, four are described in some detail and comments are given on their geology. The Crystal Hill mine, near La Garita, Saguache County, contains rock crystal (long slender prisms with small rhombohedral terminations) and pale lavender amethyst (generally <3 in. in length). The deposit was worked as early as the 1800's as a gold mine and also contains abundant manganese oxides. Amethyst, associated with argentiferous galena, sphalerite and chalcopyrite, occurs in the Amethyst mine, in the Creede district, on West Willow Creek, Mineral County. The specimens here consist of small pale pinkish-purple crystals interlayered with milky quartz, some as banded forms ("sowbelly agate') and as geode-like vugs. Amethyst also occurs in Unaweep Canyon south of Grand Junction in Mesa County. Pale to very dark amethyst occurs as crystals dominated by large rhombohedra and small prisms (approx 1 in. across). At Red Feather Lakes, Larimer County, amethyst crystals are medium to dark purple and have prism and rhombohedral faces nearly equally developed; some are doubly terminated. -R.S.M.
Lim, E.; Eakins, B.; Wigley, R.
The National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC), an office of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), in conjunction with the Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES) at the University of Colorado at Boulder, has developed a 24 arc-second integrated bathymetric-topographic digital elevation model of Southern Alaska. This Coastal Relief Model (CRM) was generated from diverse digital datasets that were obtained from NGDC, the United States Geological Survey, and other U.S. and international agencies. The CRM spans 170° to 230° E and 48.5° to 66.5° N, including the Gulf of Alaska, Bering Sea, Aleutian Islands, and Alaska’s largest communities: Anchorage, Fairbanks, and Juneau. The CRM provides a framework for enabling scientists to refine tsunami propagation and ocean circulation modeling through increased resolution of geomorphologic features. It may also be useful for benthic habitat research, weather forecasting, and environmental stewardship. Shaded-relief image of the Southern Alaska Coastal Relief Model.
Grybeck, Donald J.; Dumoulin, Julie A.
This report gives descriptions of the mineral occurrences in the Noatak 1:250,000-scale quadrangle, Alaska. The data presented here are maintained as part of a statewide database on mines, prospects and mineral occurrences throughout Alaska.
Rittger, K. E.; Painter, T. H.; Mattmann, C. A.; Seidel, F. C.; Burgess, A.; Brodzik, M.
. In the Northwest we use the observations to investigate earlier snowmelt, in the Southwest drought, and in Alaska to measure the change in glacier area. We compare the MODIS retrievals to a time series of AVIRIS retrievals at higher spatial resolution spanning 289km2 and 61km2 in the California's Sierra Nevada and Colorado's Senator Beck Basin. We continue to nest specific investigations of regions and topics that have high priority due to existing or anticipated climate stresses, generally in the context of a variety of other concerns.
Several recent reports exemplify the increasing frequency with which Giardia is being implicated as the cause of waterborne outbreaks of diarrhea. These and past outbreaks have several features in common, namely that they occur in communities in which (1) surface water (streams, ...
Miller, Ronald Dean; Miller, Peggy Jeanne
The only local tribe to migrate into California during recorded history, the Chemehuevi Indians had one of the largest tribal areas in California, though their population probably never exceeded 800. Today most live on the Colorado River Reservation, where they share membership with the Colorado River tribes. First mentioned in a priest's report…
Wiele, Stephen M.; Leake, Stanley A.; Owen-Joyce, Sandra J.; McGuire, Emmet H.
The accounting-surface method was developed in the 1990s by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation, to identify wells outside the flood plain of the lower Colorado River that yield water that will be replaced by water from the river. This method was needed to identify which wells require an entitlement for diversion of water from the Colorado River and need to be included in accounting for consumptive use of Colorado River water as outlined in the Consolidated Decree of the United States Supreme Court in Arizona v. California. The method is based on the concept of a river aquifer and an accounting surface within the river aquifer. The study area includes the valley adjacent to the lower Colorado River and parts of some adjacent valleys in Arizona, California, Nevada, and Utah and extends from the east end of Lake Mead south to the southerly international boundary with Mexico. Contours for the original accounting surface were hand drawn based on the shape of the aquifer, water-surface elevations in the Colorado River and drainage ditches, and hydrologic judgment. This report documents an update of the original accounting surface based on updated water-surface elevations in the Colorado River and drainage ditches and the use of simple, physically based ground-water flow models to calculate the accounting surface in four areas adjacent to the free-flowing river.
Cluff, L.S.; Page, R.A.; Slemmons, D.B.; Grouse, C.B.
The discovery of oil on Alaska's North Slope and the construction of a pipeline to transport that oil across Alaska coincided with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 and a destructive Southern California earthquake in 1971 to cause stringent stipulations, state-of-the-art investigations, and innovative design for the pipeline. The magnitude 7.9 earthquake on the Denali fault in November 2002 was remarkably consistent with the design earthquake and fault displacement postulated for the Denali crossing of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline route. The pipeline maintained its integrity, and disaster was averted. Recent probabilistic studies to update previous hazard exposure conclusions suggest continuing pipeline integrity.
Annual Report upon the geographical surveys west of the one-hundredth meridian in the States and Territories of California, Oregon, Nevada, Texas, Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming: Being Appendix NN of the Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers for 1877
Wheeler, George Montague
I [George M. Wheeler] have the honor to submit the following report for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1877: Including the expeditions of 1876-'77, the fields occupied will have embraced parts of the States and Territories of California, Oregon, Nevada, Texas, Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming. The remaining political divisions of the area west of the one-hundredth meridian, into which parties of this expedition have not entered for its survey, are the State of Kansas and the Territories of Washington and Dakota. The work so far has been directed to the most rugged and thinly-settled portions of the western mountain region. As time and means permit, the areas occupied will adjoin the sections of territory already entered and continue toward completion the topographical survey of the entire region.
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Kuluk Bay, Adak, Alaska; naval..., Alaska; naval restricted area. (a) The area. The northwest portion of Kuluk Bay bounded as follows..., Patrol Wing, U.S. Pacific Fleet, Naval Air Station Moffett Field, California, and such agencies and...
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Kuluk Bay, Adak, Alaska; naval..., Alaska; naval restricted area. (a) The area. The northwest portion of Kuluk Bay bounded as follows..., Patrol Wing, U.S. Pacific Fleet, Naval Air Station Moffett Field, California, and such agencies and...
McKelfresh, David A.; Bender, Kim K.
Colorado State University (CSU) is located in Fort Collins, which is a midsize city of 134,000 situated in Northern Colorado at the western edge of the Great Plains and at the base of the Rocky Mountains. CSU's total enrollment is approximately 25,000 students. The Division of Student Affairs comprises 30 departments organized into programmatic…
Colorado school librarians are in the midst of a crisis. According to a 2009-2010 survey of public schools in Colorado, just 23% of elementary schools have an endorsed librarian, while 37% of middle schools and 32% of high schools report having an endorsed librarian. This report also shows how these percentages have dropped in just a two-year…
Buck, Beverly; Cuciti, Peggy L.; Baker, Robin
The "Colorado Children's Budget 2012" examines the state's commitment to investing in the well-being of children. It tallies up Colorado's actual and planned investment during the past five years (Fiscal Year (FY) 2008-2009 through FY 2012-2013) on programs and services in four areas: Early Childhood Learning and Development, K-12 Education,…
Colorado Children's Campaign, 2011
"Colorado Children's Budget 2011" tallies up Colorado's public investments during FY 2007-08 through FY 2011-12 for programs and services that enhance the well-being of children across four domains--Early Childhood, K-12 Education, Health, and Other Supports. It is intended to be a resource guide for policymakers and advocates who are interested…
Colorado Children's Campaign, 2005
The Children's Budget is a comprehensive report on funding for children's services in Colorado. This report provides a six- year funding history for more than 50 programs funded with state, local, and federal dollars. The Colorado Children's Budget analyzes reductions in programs and services during the economic downturn. The data in the…
The Colorado Pollution Prevention Partnership is a nonprofit, voluntary alliance of government, business, and public interest groups organized in 1990 to develop and promote pollution prevention and waste minimization in Colorado industries. The partnership started with discussions between two individuals concerning a difficulty in a public-private working relationship. The discussions soon expanded to several individuals meeting on a regular basis, then to informal breakfast meetings with representatives from industry, EPA, and the Colorado Department of Health (CDH). Eventually, organizations representing the public interest joined the discussions. The goals of the partnership are clear: strengthen the working relationship between the private and public sectors; improve capabilities for anticipating and avoiding environmental problems; pool resources and focus attention on the mutual goal of pollution prevention; and exchange information and expertise, and help transfer these to medium and small companies and the general public.
Alaska Review of Social and Economic Conditions, 1987
This review describes Alaska's economic boom of the early 1980s, the current recession, and economic projections for the 1990s. Alaska's economy is largely influenced by oil prices, since petroleum revenues make up 80% of the state government's unrestricted general fund revenues. Expansive state spending was responsible for most of Alaska's…
Arnold, Robert D.; And Others
Pursuant to the Native land claims within Alaska, this compilation of background data and interpretive materials relevant to a fair resolution of the Alaska Native problem seeks to record data and information on the Native peoples; the land and resources of Alaska and their uses by the people in the past and present; land ownership; and future…
The Hayman forest fire, started on June 8, is continuing to burn in the Pike National Forest, 57 km (35 miles) south-southwest of Denver. According to the U.S. Forest Service, the fire has consumed more than 90,000 acres and has become Colorado's worst fire ever. In this ASTER image, acquired Sunday, June 16, 2002 at 10:30 am MST, the dark blue area is burned vegetation and the green areas are healthy vegetation. Red areas are active fires, and the blue cloud at the top center is smoke. Meteorological clouds are white. The image covers an area of 32.2 x 35.2 km (20.0 x 21.8 miles), and displays ASTER bands 8-3-2 in red, green and blue.This image was acquired on June 16, 2002 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18,1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats
Water resources data for California, water year 1980; Volume 1, Colorado River basin, Southern Great Basin from Mexican border to Mono Lake basin, and Pacific slope basins from Tijuana River to Santa Maria River
U.S. Geological Survey
Volume 1 of water resources data for the 1980 water year for California consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lake and reservoirs; and water levels in wells. This report contains discharge records for 174 gaging stations; stage and contents for 18 lakes and reservoirs; water quality for 51 stations; water levels for 165 observation wells. Also included are 9 crest-stage partial-record stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.
Water resources data for California, water year 1978; Volume 1: Colorado River basin, southern Great Basin from Mexican border to Mono Lake basin, and Pacific Slope basins from Tijuana River to Santa Maria River
California District of the Water Resources Division
Water-resources data for the 1978 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; records of water levels in selected observation wells; and selected chemical analyses of ground water. Records for a few pertinent streamflow and water-quality stations in bordering States are also included. These data, a contribution to the National water Data System, were collected by the Geological Survey and cooperating local, State, and Federal agencies in California.
Water Resources Data for California, water year 1981: Vol. 1. Colorado River basin, Southern Great basin from Mexican Border to Mono Lake basin, and Pacific slope basins from Tijuana River to Santa Maria River
U.S. Geological Survey
Water-resources data for the 1981 water year for California consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 1 contains discharge records for 169 gaging stations; stage and contents for 19 lakes and reservoirs; water quality for 42 streams and 21 wells; water levels for 169 observation wells. Also included are 10 crest-stage partial-record stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.
Water resources data for California, water year 1979; Volume 1: Colorado River basin, Southern Great Basin from Mexican Border to Mono Lake basin, and Pacific slope basins from Tijuana River to Santa Maria River
California District of the Water Resources Division
Water-resources data for the 1979 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; records of water levels in selected observation wells; and selected chemical analyses of ground water. Records for a few pertinent streamflow and water-quality stations in bordering States are also included. These data, a contribution to the National Water Data System, were collected by the Geological Survey and cooperating local, State, and Federal agencies in California.
Derksen, Dirk V.; Bollinger, K.S.; Ward, David H.; Sedinger, J.S.; Miyabayashi, Y.
Black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) nest in colonies in arctic Canada, Alaska, and Russia (Derksen and Ward 1993, Sedinger et al. 1993). Virtually the entire population stages in fall at Izembek Lagoon near the tip of the Alaska Peninsula (Bellrose 1976) before southward migration (Dau 1992) to winter habitats in British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, California, and Baja California (Subcommittee on Black Brant 1992). A small number of black brant winter in Japan, Korea, and China (Owen 1980). In Japan 3,000–5,000 brant of unknown origin stop over in fall, and a declining population (<1,000) of birds winter here, primarily in the northern islands (Brazil 1991, Miyabayashi et al. 1994). Here, we report sightings of brant in Japan that were marked in Alaska and propose a migration route based on historical and recent observations and weather patterns.
Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Originator: Colorado Geological Survey (CGS) Publication Date: 2012 Title: Regional Faults Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science, University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains the regional faults of Colorado Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4543192.100000 m Left: 144385.020000 m Right: 754585.020000 m Bottom: 4094592.100000 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS ’984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file
Zehner, Richard E.
Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Originator: Xcel Energy Publication Date: 2012 Title: Colorado XcelEnergy NonXcel Transmission Network Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains transmission network of Colorado Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4540689.017558 m Left: 160606.141934 m Right: 758715.946645 m Bottom: 4098910.893397m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shapefile
Venezky, Dina Y.; Murray, Tom; Read, Cyrus
Steam plume from the 2006 eruption of Augustine volcano in Cook Inlet, Alaska. Explosive ash-producing eruptions from Alaska's 40+ historically active volcanoes pose hazards to aviation, including commercial aircraft flying the busy North Pacific routes between North America and Asia. The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) monitors these volcanoes to provide forecasts of eruptive activity. AVO is a joint program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAFGI), and the State of Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys (ADGGS). AVO is one of five USGS Volcano Hazards Program observatories that monitor U.S. volcanoes for science and public safety. Learn more about Augustine volcano and AVO at http://www.avo.alaska.edu.
This paper delivers a brief survey of renewable energy technologies applicable to Alaska's climate, latitude, geography, and geology. We first identify Alaska's natural renewable energy resources and which renewable energy technologies would be most productive. e survey the current state of renewable energy technologies and research efforts within the U.S. and, where appropriate, internationally. We also present information on the current state of Alaska's renewable energy assets, incentives, and commercial enterprises. Finally, we escribe places where research efforts at Sandia National Laboratories could assist the state of Alaska with its renewable energy technology investment efforts.
Zehner, Richard E.
Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Colorado PRS Cool Fairways Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains the weakened basement rocks. Isostatic gravity was utilized to identify structural basin areas, characterized by gravity low values reflecting weakened basement rocks. Together interpreted regional fault zones and basin outlines define geothermal "exploration fairways", where the potential exists for deep, superheated fluid flow in the absence of Pliocene or younger volcanic units Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4544698.569273 m Left: 144918.141004 m Right: 763728.391299 m Bottom: 4094070.397932 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file
Water resources data for California, water year 1976; Volume 1: Colorado River basin, southern Great Basin from Mexican border to Mono Lake basin, and Pacific Slope basins from Tijuana River to Santa Maria River
California District of the Water Resources Division
Water-resources data for the 1976 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; records of water levels in selected observation wells; and selected chemical analyses of ground water. Records for a few pertinent streamflow and water-quality stations in bordering States are also included. The records were collected and computed by the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey under the direction of Lee R. Peterson, district chief; Winchell Smith, assistant district chief for hydrologic data; and Leonard N. Jorgensen, chief of the basic-data section. These data, a contribution to the National Water Data System, were collected by the Geological Survey and cooperating local, State, and Federal agencies in California.
Water resources data for California, water year 1977; Volume 1: Colorado River Basin, Southern Great Basin from Mexican Border to Mono Lake Basin, and Pacific Slope Basins from Tijuana River to Santa Maria River
California District of the Water Resources Division
Water-resources data for the 1977 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; records of water levels in selected observation wells; and selected chemical analyses of ground water. Records for a few pertinent streamflow and water-quality stations in bordering States are also included. The records were collected and computed by the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey under the direction of Winchell Smith, Assistant District Chief for Hydrologic Data and Leonard N. Jorgensen, Chief of the Basic-Data Section. These data, a contribution to the National Water Data System, were collected by the Geological Survey and cooperating local, State, and Federal agencies in California.
Water resources data for California, water year 1975; Volume 1: Colorado River basin, southern Great Basin from Mexican border to Mono Lake basin, and Pacific Slope basins from Tijuana River to Santa Maria River
U.S. Geological Survey
Water-resources data for the 1975 water year for California consist of records of streamflow and contents of reservoirs at gaging stations, partial-record stations, and miscellaneous sites; records of water quality including the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of surface and ground water; and records of water levels in selected observation wells. Records for a few pertinent streamflow and water-quality stations in bordering States are also included. The records were collected and computed by the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey under the direction of Lee R. Peterson, district chief; Winchell Smith, assistant district chief for hydrologic data; and Leonard N. Jorgensen, chief of the basic data section. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the Geological Survey and cooperating local, State, and Federal agencies in California.
Strawn, N.; Jones, J.
The daily choices made as consumers affect the environment and the economy. Based on the state of today's technology and economics, Colorado consumers can include energy efficiency and renewable energy into many aspects of their lives. These choices include where they obtain electricity, how they use energy at home, and how they transport themselves from one place to another. In addition to outlining how they can use clean energy, Colorado's Clean Energy Choices gives consumers contacts and links to Web sites for where to get more information.
Jennings, Mary, Ed.
This directory of Alaska's Libraries lists: members of the Alaska Library Association (AkLA) Executive Council and Committee Chairs; State Board of Education members; members of the Governor's Advisory Council on Libraries; school, academic and public libraries and their addresses, phone and fax numbers, and contact persons; personal,…
Liss, S.A.; Motyka, R.J.; Nye, C.J.
The Alaska geothermal bibliography lists all publications, through 1986, that discuss any facet of geothermal energy in Alaska. In addition, selected publications about geology, geophysics, hydrology, volcanology, etc., which discuss areas where geothermal resources are located are included, though the geothermal resource itself may not be mentioned. The bibliography contains 748 entries.
This report examines the opportunities, challenges, and costs associated with renewable energy implementation in Alaska and provides strategies that position Alaska's accumulating knowledge in renewable energy development for export to the rapidly growing energy/electric markets of the developing world.
Glacial silt along the Copper River in Alaska is picked up by the wind and carried out over the Gulf of Alaska. This true-color MODIS image from October 26, 2001, shows a large gray dust plume spreading out over the Gulf. West of the Copper River Delta, Cook Inlet is full of sediment.
DOUGLASS, M.R.; AND OTHERS
CONDITIONS AND PROBLEMS RELATING TO THE EMPLOYMENT OF SEASONAL FARM WORKERS AND MIGRANTS IN COLORADO ARE PRESENTED. THE FIVE MAJOR SEASONAL FARM LABOR STATE EMPLOYMENT AREAS ARE SURVEYED ACCORDING TO (1) THE ORGANIZATION OF THE SEASONAL FARM LABOR (4) TRENDS IN AGRICULTURAL ACREAGE, PRODUCTION, AND TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE, (5) COMMUNITY ATTITUDES AND…
Supporters of affirmative action may have finally found a way to defeat state ballot measures that would ban such programs: Latch onto an inspirational presidential candidate with piles of cash and an unprecedented voter-turnout machine. Those activists won a narrow victory in Colorado this month, when 50.7 percent of voters made the state the…
Colorado Children's Campaign, 2010
The "Children's Budget 2010" is intended to be a resource guide for policymakers and advocates who are interested in better understanding how Colorado funds children's programs and services. It attempts to clarify often confusing budget information and describe where the state's investment trends are and where those trends will lead the state if…
The ecoregions of Colorado have been identified, mapped, and described and provide a geographic structure for environmental resources research, assessment, monitoring, and management. This project is part of a larger effort by the U.S. EPA to create a national, hierarchical ecor...
Buck, Beverly; Baker, Robin
The "Colorado Children's Budget" presents and analyzes investments and spending trends during the past five state fiscal years on services that benefit children. The "Children's Budget" focuses mainly on state investment and spending, with some analysis of federal investments and spending to provide broader context of state…
Baldwin, Cynthia A.
This study determined, by means of a random sample, how many of Colorado's public schools have asbestos materials and estimated the potential risk of exposure presented by these materials. Forty-one schools were surveyed. Bulk samples of possible asbestos materials were collected and analyzed using the K-squared Asbestos Screening Test to…
Colorado potato beetle (CPB) shifted to the potato crop from native solanaceous weeds in the American West in 1859, and has been a serious pest ever since. CPB is a highly fecund leaf-feeder on potato and eggplant, and often tomatoes, with one to several generations per year. It is the most importa...
Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver.
An overview of the nature, benefits, and steps involved in Colorado's Guaranteed Graduate Program, a process that assures that high school graduates have the knowledge and skills considered essential for entry into employment and postsecondary education, begins this document. A discussion of the portfolio process follows, along with descriptions…
Gorsuch, Marjorie, Ed.
"Alaska's Image in the Lower 48," is the theme selected by a Blue Ribbon panel of state and national leaders who felt that it was important for students to explore the relationship between Alaska's outside image and the effect of that image on the federal programs/policies that impact Alaska. An overview of Alaska is presented first in this…
... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: History Colorado, formerly Colorado Historical Society, Denver, CO AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: History Colorado... culturally affiliated with the human remains may contact History Colorado. Disposition of the human...
LaBelle, J.C.; Wise, J.L.; Voelker, R.P.; Schulze, R.H.; Wohl, G.M.
A comprehensive Atlas of Alaska marine ice is presented. It includes information on pack and landfast sea ice and calving tidewater glacier ice. It also gives information on ice and related environmental conditions collected over several years time and indicates the normal and extreme conditions that might be expected in Alaska coastal waters. Much of the information on ice conditions in Alaska coastal waters has emanated from research activities in outer continental shelf regions under assessment for oil and gas exploration and development potential. (DMC)
Britton, Joe M.
Descriptions of the mineral occurrences shown on the accompanying figure follow. See U.S. Geological Survey (1996) for a description of the information content of each field in the records. The data presented here are maintained as part of a statewide database on mines, prospects and mineral occurrences throughout Alaska.
... dramatically when forced through narrow canyons and mountain passes. Due to Southern California's uneven terrain, the strength of ... from a small fire located near the southern flank of Palomar Mountain in Southern California. This image was acquired during Terra orbit ...
O'Dell, R. )
The superlatives surrounding Alaska are legion. Within the borders of the 49th US state are some of the world's greatest concentrations of waterfowl, bald eagles, fur seals, walrus, sea lions, otters, and the famous Kodiak brown bear. Alaska features the highest peak of North America, the 20,320-foot Mount McKinley, and the longest archipelago of small islands, the Aleutians. The state holds the greatest percentage of protected wilderness per capita in the world. The expanse of some Alaskan glaciers dwarfs entire countries. Like the periodic advance and retreat of its glaciers, Alaska appears with some regularity on the national US agenda. It last achieved prominence when President Jimmy Carter signed the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act in 1980. Since then the conflict between environmental protection and economic development has been played out throughout the state, and Congress is expected to turn to Alaskan issues again in its next sessions.
Chaffee County, located in central Colorado, has immense potential for geothermal development. This report has been prepared to assist residents and developers in and outside the area to develop the hydrothermal resources of the county. Data has been collected and interpreted from numerous sources in order to introduce a general description of the area, estimate energy requirements, describe the resources and postulate a development plan. Electric power generation and direct heat application potential for the region are described.
Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2006
Employment in Colorado (including hourly and salaried jobs and self-employment) is projected to grow by 23 percent from 2002 to 2012, adding some 551,630 new jobs to the state's economy and growing the workforce from 2,355,290 to 2,906,920. The rate of growth is much higher than the 15 percent increase projected for the nation as a whole.…
Grybeck, Donald J.
This report gives descriptions of the mineral occurrences in the Point Lay 1:250,000-scale quadrangle, Alaska. The data presented here are maintained as part of a statewide database on mines, prospects and mineral occurrences throughout Alaska.
Pilcher, Steven H.
Descriptions of the mineral occurrences can be found in the report. See U.S. Geological Survey (1996) for a description of the information content of each field in the records. The data presented here are maintained as part of a statewide database on mines, prospects and mineral occurrences throughout Alaska. There is a website from which you can obtain the data for this report in text and Filemaker Pro formats
Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver.
The Colorado Preschool Program (CPP) serves at-risk preschool children in community programs, including Head Start programs, private for-profit programs, non-profit programs, and programs within public schools. This report to the Colorado legislature provides information on participation in the program, collaborations of CPP with other early…
Ross, S.; Jones, L. M.; Wilson, R. I.; Bahng, B.; Barberopoulou, A.; Borrero, J. C.; Brosnan, D.; Bwarie, J. T.; Geist, E. L.; Johnson, L. A.; Hansen, R. A.; Kirby, S. H.; Knight, E.; Knight, W. R.; Long, K.; Lynett, P. J.; Miller, K. M.; Mortensen, C. E.; Nicolsky, D.; Oglesby, D. D.; Perry, S. C.; Porter, K. A.; Real, C. R.; Ryan, K. J.; Suleimani, E. N.; Thio, H. K.; Titov, V. V.; Wein, A. M.; Whitmore, P.; Wood, N. J.
inform decision makers. The SAFRR Tsunami Scenario is organized by a coordinating committee with several working groups, including Earthquake Source, Paleotsunami/Geology Field Work, Tsunami Modeling, Engineering and Physical Impacts, Ecological Impacts, Emergency Management and Education, Social Vulnerability, Economic and Business Impacts, and Policy. In addition, the tsunami scenario process is being assessed and evaluated by researchers from the Natural Hazards Center at the University of Colorado at Boulder. The source event, defined by the USGS' Tsunami Source Working Group, is an earthquake similar to the 2011 Tohoku event, but set in the Semidi subduction sector, between Kodiak Island and the Shumagin Islands off the Pacific coast of the Alaska Peninsula. The Semidi sector is probably late in its earthquake cycle and comparisons of the geology and tectonic settings between Tohoku and the Semidi sector suggest that this location is appropriate. Tsunami modeling and inundation results have been generated for many areas along the California coast and elsewhere, including current velocity modeling for the ports of Los Angeles, Long Beach, and San Diego, and Ventura Harbor. Work on impacts to Alaska and Hawaii will follow. Note: Costas Synolakis (USC) is also an author of this abstract.
Colorado Department of Education, 2007
The Colorado Model Content Standards for Science specify what all students should know and be able to do in science as a result of their school studies. Specific expectations are given for students completing grades K-2, 3-5, 6-8, and 9-12. Five standards outline the essential level of science knowledge and skills needed by Colorado citizens to…
This catalogue focuses on energy-related education at the college, community college, and university levels, as well as in Colorado's private sector. Useful in identifying energy-related educational opportunities. Lists degree, certificate, and vocational programs in greatest demand by energy industry. Also provides energy-related, noncredit courses available at Colorado universities, colleges, community colleges, technical schools, and in industry.
Feller, Rich; Jacobsen, Brent
The average number of points assigned by 15-25 reviewers to each of 13 guidance and career development videotapes is recorded in a video quality assessment matrix. Reviewers were participants in Colorado State University's 1989-90 Colorado Career Guidance Video Review Project training sessions and videotapes were rated on: (1) instructional…
Records of peak discharge at 183 sites were used to study flood frequency in Alaska. The vast size of Alaska, its great ranges of physiography, and the lack of data for much of the State precluded a comprehensive analysis of all flood determinants. Peak stream discharges, where gaging-station records were available, were analyzed for 2-year, 5-year, 10-year, 25-year, and 50-year average-recurrence intervals. A regional analysis of the flood characteristics by multiple-regression methods gave a set of equations that can be used to estimate floods of selected recurrence intervals up to 50 years for any site on any stream in Alaska. The equations relate floods to drainage-basin characteristics. The study indicates that in Alaska the 50-year flood can be estimated from 10-year gaging- station records with a standard error of 22 percent whereas the 50-year flood can be estimated from the regression equation with a standard error of 53 percent. Also, maximum known floods at more than 500 gaging stations and miscellaneous sites in Alaska were related to drainage-area size. An envelope curve of 500 cubic feet per second per square mile covered all but 2 floods in the State.
Paleomagnetic data from southern Alaska indicate that the Wrangellia and Peninsular terranes collided with central Alaska probably by 65 Ma ago and certainly no later than 55 Ma ago. The accretion of these terranes to the mainland was followed by the arrival of the Ghost Rocks volcanic assemblage at the southern margin of Kodiak Island. Poleward movement of these terranes can be explained by rapid motion of the Kula oceanic plate, mainly from 85 to 43 Ma ago, according to recent reconstructions derived from the hot-spot reference frame. After accretion, much of southwestern Alaska underwent a counterclockwise rotation of about 50 ?? as indicated by paleomagnetic poles from volcanic rocks of Late Cretaceous and Early Tertiary age. Compression between North America and Asia during opening of the North Atlantic (68-44 Ma ago) may account for the rotation. ?? 1987.
The main objective of the study was to develop a simulation model to facilitate analysis of the risk of oil spills to the threatened California sea otter population. Existing data on the dynamics and demography of the population were synthesized. The additional data needed for model development were collected through radiotelemetry studies of sea otters in Alaska and California. The simulation model contains four interrelated stochastic submodels: a short-term population model, a long-term population model, a sea otter distribution model, and a sea otter movement model. The report includes a detailed description of the model, the data on which it is based, and an operating manual.
... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Colorado Historical Society (History Colorado... (History Colorado), Denver, CO. The human remains were removed from Canyon de Chelly, AZ. This notice is... made by the Colorado Historical Society (History Colorado) professional staff in consultation...
... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Colorado Historical Society (History Colorado... (History Colorado), Denver, CO. The human remains were removed from Howiri Ruin (LA 71), Taos County, NM... remains was made by the Colorado Historical Society (History Colorado) professional staff in...
... notice that on May 17, 2010, Colorado Interstate Gas Company (CIG), P.O. Box 1087, Colorado Springs... Affairs, Colorado Interstate Gas Company, P.O. Box 1087, Colorado Springs, Colorado 80944 at 719-667- 7514 or David R. Cain, Senior Counsel, Colorado Interstate Gas Company, P.O. Box 1087, Colorado...
As set forth in Alaska Statute 14.43.840, Alaska's Departments of Education & Early Development (EED) and Labor and Workforce Development (DOLWD), the University of Alaska (UA), and the Alaska Commission on Postsecondary Education (ACPE) present this first annual report on the Alaska Performance Scholarship to the public, the Governor,…
Alaska Department of Education & Early Development, 2012
High academic standards are an important first step in ensuring that all Alaska's students have the tools they need for success. These standards reflect the collaborative work of Alaskan educators and national experts from the nonprofit National Center for the Improvement of Educational Assessment. Further, they are informed by public…
A map of ecoregions of Alaska has been produced as a framework for organizing and interpreting environmental data for state, national, and international inventory, monitoring, and research efforts. he map and descriptions for 20 ecological regions were derived by synthesizing inf...
Examines how the child support enforcement program in Alaska has responded to the challenges of distance, weather, and cultural differences through training representatives, making waiting areas more comfortable, conducting random customer evaluation of services, establishing travel hubs in regional offices and meeting with community leaders and…
Johnston, Thomas F.
The systematic study of Eskimo, Indian, and Aleut musical sound and behavior in Alaska, though conceded to be an important part of white efforts to foster understanding between different cultural groups and to maintain the native cultural heritage, has received little attention from Alaskan educators. Most existing ethnomusical studies lack one or…
Gardine, L.; Tape, C.; West, M. E.
Despite residing in a state with 75% of North American earthquakes and three of the top 15 ever recorded, most Alaskans have limited knowledge about the science of earthquakes. To many, earthquakes are just part of everyday life, and to others, they are barely noticed until a large event happens, and often ignored even then. Alaskans are rugged, resilient people with both strong independence and tight community bonds. Rural villages in Alaska, most of which are inaccessible by road, are underrepresented in outreach efforts. Their remote locations and difficulty of access make outreach fiscally challenging. Teacher retention and small student bodies limit exposure to science and hinder student success in college. The arrival of EarthScope's Transportable Array, the 50th anniversary of the Great Alaska Earthquake, targeted projects with large outreach components, and increased community interest in earthquake knowledge have provided opportunities to spread information across Alaska. We have found that performing hands-on demonstrations, identifying seismological relevance toward career opportunities in Alaska (such as natural resource exploration), and engaging residents through place-based experience have increased the public's interest and awareness of our active home.
Brune, Jeff; And Others
Explores the unique features of Alaska's Arctic ecosystem, with a focus on the special adaptations of plants and animals that enable them to survive in a stressful climate. Reviews the challenges facing public and private land managers who seek to conserve this ecosystem while accommodating growing demands for development. Includes classroom…
The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image on October 7, 2007, showing the Alaska Mountains of south-central Alaska already coated with snow. Purple shadows hang in the lee of the peaks, giving the snow-clad land a crumpled appearance. White gives way to brown on the right side of the image where the mountains yield to the lower-elevation Susitna River Valley. The river itself cuts a silver, winding path through deep green forests and brown wetlands and tundra. Extending from the river valley, are smaller rivers that originated in the Alaska Mountains. The source of these rivers is evident in the image. Smooth white tongues of ice extend into the river valleys, the remnants of the glaciers that carved the valleys into the land. Most of the water flowing into the Gulf of Alaska from the Susitna River comes from these mountain glaciers. Glacier melt also feeds glacier lakes, only one of which is large enough to be visible in this image. Immediately left of the Kahiltna River, the aquamarine waters of Chelatna Lake stand out starkly against the brown and white landscape.
article title: Smoke Signals from the Alaska and Yukon Fires ... the Yukon Territory from mid-June to mid-July, 2004. Thick smoke particles filled the air during these fires, prompting Alaskan officials to issue air quality warnings. Some of the smoke from these fires was detected as far away as New Hampshire. These ...
Between 1975 and 1979 the Alaskan Native suicide rate (90.9 per 100,000) in Northwest Alaska was more than seven times the national average. Alienation, loss of family, low income, alcohol abuse, high unemployment, and more education were factors related to suicidal behavior. Average age for suicidal behavior was 22.5. (Author/MH)
Pearson, Robert C.; Speltz, Charles N.
The Indian Peaks Wilderness northwest of Denver is partly within the Colorado Mineral Belt, and the southeast part of it contains all the geologic characteristics associated with the several nearby mining districts. Two deposits have demonstrated mineral resources, one of copper and the other of uranium; both are surrounded by areas with probable potential. Two other areas have probable resource potential for copper, gold, and possibly molydenum. Detailed gravity and magnetic studies in the southeast part of the Indian Peaks Wilderness might detect in the subsurface igneous bodies that may be mineralized. Physical exploration such as drilling would be necessary to determine more precisely the copper resources at the Roaring Fork locality and uranium resources at Wheeler Basin.
The Solar Energy System is not economically beneficial under the assumed economic conditions at Pueblo, Colorado; Yosemite, California; Albuquerque, New Mexico; Fort Worth, Texas; and Washington, D.C. Economic benefits from this system depend on decreasing the initial investment and the continued increase in the cost of conventional energy. Decreasing the cost depends on favorable tax treatment and continuing development of solar energy technology. Fuel cost would have to increase drastically while the cost of the system would have to remain constant or decrease for the system to become economically feasible.
Malmon, Daniel V.; Howard, Keith A.; Priest, Susan S.
The Needles 7.5' quadrangle straddles the Colorado River in the southern part of the Mohave Valley, in Mohave County, Arizona, and San Bernardino County, California. The quadrangle contains part of the Havasu National Wildlife Refuge, sections of the Fort Mojave Indian Reservation, most of the city of Needles, and several major interstate highways and railroads. The quadrangle is underlain by structurally undeformed sediments of Pliocene and younger age that were deposited by the Colorado River, as well as alluvial fan deposits on the piedmonts that flank the Black Mountains (in Arizona) and the Sacramento Mountains (in California). Multiple cycles of aggradation of the Colorado River, each followed by episodes of downcutting, are recorded by Pliocene through historic deposits on the piedmonts that border the floodplain. Regionally, the complex stratigraphy related to the Colorado River has been the subject of geologic interest for over 150 years. The California and Arizona piedmont portions of the Needles quadrangle expose a subset of this incompletely understood stratigraphic record. Thus, the stratigraphic sequence presented on this map is a version of the stratigraphy of the Colorado River as interpreted locally. The deposits in the recently active Colorado River valley floor support riparian habitat and irrigated agriculture. The distributions of sand-rich channel deposits and mud-rich floodplain deposits in the valley are mapped on the basis of the history of the movement of the Colorado River in the quadrangle, which has been documented in sequential aerial photographs since 1937 and maps dating to 1857.
... Minority Population Profiles > American Indian/Alaska Native > Asthma Asthma and American Indians/Alaska Natives In 2014, 218, ... Native American adults reported that they currently have asthma. American Indian/Alaska Native children are 30% more ...
... title: Smoke from Station Fire Blankets Southern California View Larger Image ... that had not burned in decades, and years of extended drought contributed to the explosive growth of wildfires throughout southern ...
Conn, J.S.; Beattie, K.L.; Shephard, M.A.; Carlson, M.L.; Lapina, I.; Hebert, M.; Gronquist, R.; Densmore, R.; Rasy, M.
Melilotus alba and M. officinalis were introduced to Alaska in 1913 as potential forage crops. These species have become naturalized and are now invading large, exotic plant-free regions of Alaska. We determined distributions of M. alba and M. officinalis in Alaska from surveys conducted each summer from 2002 to 2005. Melilotus alba and M. officinalis occurred at 721 and 205 sites, respectively (39,756 total sites surveyed). The northward limit for M. alba and M. officinalis was 67.15??N and 64.87??N, respectively. Both species were strictly associated with soil disturbance. Melilotus alba extended no farther than 15 m from road edges except where M. alba on roadsides met river floodplains and dispersed downriver (Matanuska and Nenana Rivers). Melilotus has now reached the Tanana River, a tributary of the Yukon River. Populations on floodplains were most extensive on braided sections. On the Nenana River, soil characteristics did not differ between where M. alba was growing versus similar areas where it had not yet reached. The pH of river soils (7.9-8.3) was higher than highway soils (7.3). Upland taiga plant communities grow on acid soils which may protect them from invasion by Melilotus, which prefer alkaline soils; however, early succession communities on river floodplains are susceptible because soils are alkaline. ?? 2008 Regents of the University of Colorado.
Robinson, M.S.; Bundtzen, T.K.
Alaska ranks in the top four states in gold production. About 30.5 million troy oz have been produced from lode and placer deposits. Until 1930, Alaska was among the top 10 states in copper production; in 1981, Kennecott Copper Company had prospects of metal worth at least $7 billion. More than 85% of the 20 million oz of silver derived have been byproducts of copper mining. Nearly all lead production has been as a byproduct of gold milling. Molybdenum is a future Alaskan product; in 1987 production is scheduled to be about 12% of world demand. Uranium deposits discovered in the Southeast are small but of high grade and easily accessible; farther exploration depends on improvement of a depressed market. Little has been done with Alaskan iron and zinc, although large deposits of the latter were discovered. Alaskan jade has a market among craftspeople. A map of the mining districts is included. 2 figures, 1 table.
In the late 1800s, whaling ships carried Alaskan coal, and it was used to thaw ground for placer gold mining. Unfortunate and costly political maneuvers in the early 1900s delayed coal removal, but the Alaska Railroad and then World War II provided incentives for opening mines. Today, 33 million acres (about 9% of the state) is classified as prospectively valuable for coal, much of it under federal title. Although the state's geology is poorly known, potential for discovery of new fields exists. The US Geological Survey estimates are outdated, although still officially used. The total Alaska onshore coal resource is estimated to be 216 to 4216 billion tons of which 141 billion tons are identified resources; an additional 1430 billion tons are believed to lie beneath Cook Inlet. Transportation over mountain ranges and wetlands is the biggest hurdle for removal. Known coal sources and types are described and mapped. 1 figure.
Compiled and edited by Berry, A. L.; Dalrymple, G.B.; Lanphere, M.A.; Von Essen, J. C. and others
Potassium-argon age measurements are reported for 61 mineral separates and rock samples from Alaska, Arizona, California, Idaho, Utah, and Washington. The age report for each sample gives location, analytical data, and a brief geologic interpretation.
Smith, Walter R.
The discovery of a gigantic crater northwest of Aniakchak Bay (see fig. 11) closes what had been thought to be a wide gap in the extensive series of volcanoes occurring at irregular intervals for nearly 600 miles along the axial line of the Alaska Peninsula and the Aleutian Islands. In this belt there are more active and recently active volcanoes than in all the rest of North America. Exclusive of those on the west side of Cook Inlet, which, however, belong to the same group, this belt contains at least 42 active or well-preserved volcanoes and about half as many mountains suspected or reported to be volcanoes. The locations of some of these mountains and the hot springs on the Alaska Peninsula and the Aleutian Islands are shown on a map prepared by G. A. Waring. Attention has been called to these volcanoes for nearly two centuries, but a record of their activity since the discovery of Alaska is far from being complete, and an adequate description of them as a group has never been written. Owing to their recent activity or unusual scenic beauty, some of the best known of the group are Mounts Katmai, Bogoslof, and Shishaldin, but there are many other beautiful and interesting cones and craters.
... notice that on August 12, 2010, Colorado Interstate Gas Company (CIG), P.O. Box 1087, Colorado Springs.... Susan C. Stires, Director, Regulatory Affairs, Colorado Interstate Gas Company, P.O. Box 1087, Colorado... President and General Counsel, Colorado Interstate Gas Company; P.O. Box 1087, Colorado Springs,...
Karlstrom, K. E.; Coblentz, D. D.; Ouimet, W. B.; Kirby, E.; van Wijk, J. W.; Schmandt, B.; Crossey, L. J.; Crow, R.; Kelley, S.; McKeon, R. E.; Aslan, A.; Darling, A. L.; Dueker, K. G.; Aster, R. C.; Lazear, G. D.; Hilton, D. R.
The Colorado River system (CRS), the single river system that drains the western slope of the Colorado Rocky Mountains, is a sensitive gauge of the uplift history and landscape evolution of the western U.S. It has a double concave-up longitudinal profile with a transient knickzone at Lees Ferry, Arizona. This knickzone separates the Lower and Upper CR basins, each with different and interacting uplift histories. The Lower CRS profile has evolved, and Grand Canyon has been incised, since 6 Ma due to drainage integration in response to base level fall associated with opening of the Gulf of California and dynamic uplift of the SW Colorado Plateau. Evidence for ongoing uplift comes from geodynamic models that find that mantle flow induces dynamic topography in the Colorado Plateau region. Mantle-driven tectonism is also recorded by the eastwards sweep of basaltic magmatism and a Neogene change from lithospheric- to asthenospheric-sourced basalts in the W Grand Canyon region. The Upper CR basin profile has been shaped by epeirogenic uplift of the Colorado Rockies.Geomorphic analysis of river profiles along the Green and Colorado rivers reveals steeper (normalized) channel gradients along the upper Colorado, despite greater discharge, and 40% greater topographic roughness of the upper CR relative to the Green River. Both are interpreted to reflect differential rock uplift across the W slope of the Colorado Rockies. Tomographic images show a N-trending low velocity anomaly (Aspen Anomaly) that extends to 200-250 km depth beneath the headwaters of the CRS, whereas the Green River basin in underlain by high velocity mantle. Apatite fission track analyses show rapid exhumation above the Aspen Anomaly beginning 10-5 Ma, preserved at modern elevations ranging from 1.5 to 4 km. This indicates substantial pre-10 Ma relief on a broad epeirogenic uplift. 10-5 Ma upper CRS denudation is not explained by climate change at ~3.5 Ma, nor by upstream propagation of incision driven by
Moucha, R; Forte, A M; Rowley, D B; Mitrovica, J X; Simmons, N A; Grand, S P
Since the advent of plate tectonics, it has been speculated that the northern extension of the East Pacific Rise, specifically its mantle source, has been over-ridden by the North American Plate in the last 30 Myrs. Consequently, it has also been postulated that the opening of the Gulf of California, the extension in the Basin and Range province, and the uplift of the Colorado Plateau are the resulting continental expressions of the over-ridden mantle source of the East Pacific Rise. However, only qualitative models based solely on surface observations and heuristic, simplified conceptions of mantle convection have been used in support or against this hypothesis. We introduce a quantitative model of mantle convection that reconstructs the detailed motion of a warm mantle upwelling over the last 30 Myrs and its relative advance towards the interior of the southwestern USA. The onset and evolution of the crustal uplift in the central Basin and Range province and the Colorado Plateau is determined by tracking the topographic swell due to this mantle upwelling through time. We show that (1) the extension and magmatism in the central Basin and Range province between 25 and 10 Ma coincides with the reconstructed past position of this focused upwelling, and (2) the southwestern portion of the Colorado Plateau experienced significant uplift between 10 Ma and 5 Ma that progressed towards the northeastern portion of the plateau. These uplift estimates are consistent with a young, ca. 6 Ma, Grand Canyon model and the recent commencement of mafic magmatism.
...) published in the Federal Register (74 FR 42105-42106, August 20, 2009, and 69 FR 19232-19233, April 12, 2004... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: The Colorado College, Colorado Springs..., Colorado College, Armstrong Hall, Room 201, 14 E. Cache La Poudre, Colorado Springs, CO 80903,...
... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Colorado College, Colorado Springs, CO..., Chief of Staff, President's Office, Colorado College, 14 E. Cache La Poudre, Colorado Springs, CO 80903... Springs, CO, that meet the definition of unassociated funerary objects under 25 U.S.C. 3001. This...
... Corporation, Colorado Springs, Colorado. The Department's notice of determination was published in the Federal Register on July 2, 2013 (Volume 78 FR Pages 39776-39779). At the request of one-stop operator/partner, the... Employment and Training Administration Atmel Corporation, Colorado Springs, Colorado; Amended...
... Register (69 FR 68162-68169, November 23, 2004). Osteological analysis by the Fort Lewis College and Paul... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Colorado Historical Society (History Colorado... funerary objects in the possession/control of the Colorado Historical Society (History Colorado),...
... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: History Colorado, Formerly Colorado Historical Society, Denver, CO AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. ] SUMMARY: History Colorado... request transfer of control of these human remains should submit a written request to History Colorado....
... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: History Colorado, formerly Colorado Historical Society, Denver, CO AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: History Colorado has... control of these human remains should submit a written request to History Colorado. If no...
Douglas, Dorothy, Ed.
This document consists of the two 2000 issues of "Alaska's Children," which provides information on the Alaska Head Start State Collaboration Project and updates on Head Start activities in Alaska. Regular features include a calendar of conferences and meetings, a status report on Alaska's children, reports from the Alaska Children's Trust, and…
... formal complaint against BP Pipelines (Alaska) Inc., ConocoPhillips Transportation Alaska, Inc., and... Energy Regulatory Commission Flint Hills Resources Alaska, LLC, BP Pipelines (Alaska) Inc., ConocoPhillips Transportation Alaska, Inc., ExxonMobil Pipeline Company; Notice of Complaint Take notice that...
For over two years the National Dropout Prevention Center (NDPC) at Clemson University has been supporting the Lower Kuskokwim School District (LKSD) in NW Alaska with their efforts to reduce high school dropout in 23 remote Yup'ik Eskimo villages. The Rural Alaska Mentoring Project (RAMP) provides school-based E-mentoring services to 164…
Arnold, Robert D.; And Others
Written for students at the secondary level, this textbook on Alaska Native land claims includes nine chapters, eight appendices, photographs, maps, graphs, bibliography, and an index. Chapters are titled as follows: (1) Earliest Times (Alaska's first settlers, eighteenth century territories, and other claimants); (2) American Indians and Their…
This article discusses preparing teachers to teach in rural Alaska. An anecdote illustrates how outsiders who come to work in rural Alaska get into trouble because they are unprepared for conditions unique to the North. These conditions end up being viewed as impediments rather than opportunities. The same is true for the field of education. Of…
Thirty years old this summer, RAHI, the Rural Alaska Honors Institute is a statewide, six-week, summer college-preparatory bridge program at the University of Alaska Fairbanks for Alaska Native and rural high school juniors and seniors. This summer, in collaboration with the University of Texas Austin, the Rural Alaska Honors Institute launched a new program, GeoFORCE Alaska. This outreach initiative is designed to increase the number and diversity of students pursuing STEM degree programs and entering the future high-tech workforce. It uses Earth science to entice kids to get excited about dinosaurs, volcanoes and earthquakes, and includes physics, chemistry, math, biology and other sciences. Students were recruited from the Alaska's Arctic North Slope schools, in 8th grade to begin the annual program of approximately 8 days, the summer before their 9th grade year and then remain in the program for all four years of high school. They must maintain a B or better grade average and participate in all GeoFORCE events. The culmination is an exciting field event each summer. Over the four-year period, events will include trips to Fairbanks and Anchorage, Arizona, Oregon and the Appalachians. All trips focus on Earth science and include a 100+ page guidebook, with tests every night culminating with a final exam. GeoFORCE Alaska was begun by the University of Alaska Fairbanks in partnership with the University of Texas at Austin, which has had tremendous success with GeoFORCE Texas. GeoFORCE Alaska is managed by UAF's long-standing Rural Alaska Honors Institute, that has been successfully providing intense STEM educational opportunities for Alaskan high school students for over 30 years. The program will add a new cohort of 9th graders each year for the next four years. By the summer of 2015, GeoFORCE Alaska is targeting a capacity of 160 students in grades 9th through 12th. Join us to find out more about this exciting new initiative, which is enticing young Alaska Native
In accordance with Alaska statute the departments of Education & Early Development (EED) and Labor and Workforce Development (DOLWD), the University of Alaska (UA), and the Alaska Commission on Postsecondary Education (ACPE) present this second annual report on the Alaska Performance Scholarship (APS). Among the highlights: (1) In the public…
Colorado Department of Education, 2007
This publication illustrates a sampling of Colorado schools that despite a variety of challenges are accomplishing achievement results that are noteworthy. These schools and others were identified through a statewide study of Colorado reading and writing conducted by the Colorado Department of Education Office of Learning and Results. The report,…
The Colorado Peer Review Organization (PRO), the Colorado Foundation for Medical Care, has implemented the PROMPTER concept in an effort to assist physicians in charting information essential to PRO review. The examples that follow are adapted from those widely distributed in Colorado by the PRO and sent to all PRO medical directors. PMID:10113754
The Colorado Bee List contains 940 valid extant bee species in 66 genera. Distributional data are presented at the county level for each bee species found within Colorado. The history of bee research in Colorado is reviewed and important contributors are noted. Gaps in our current understanding o...
Colorado Children's Campaign, 2009
"KidsCount in Colorado!" is an annual publication of the Colorado Children's Campaign, which provides the best available state- and county-level data to measure and track the education, health and general well-being of the state's children. KidsCount in Colorado! informs policy debates and community discussions, serving as a valuable resource for…
Colorado Children's Campaign, 2008
"KidsCount in Colorado!" is an annual publication of the Colorado Children's Campaign, which provides the best available state- and county-level data to measure and track the education, health and general well-being of the state's children. KidsCount in Colorado! informs policy debates and community discussions, serving as a valuable resource for…
Gregory, Mary Volk
Argues for a public sector collective bargaining statute in Colorado and analyzes the issues that must be addressed in effective public sector collective bargaining legislation. Available from University of Colorado Law Review, Inc., Fleming Law Building, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309. (Author/IRT)
... ADMINISTRATION Colorado Disaster CO-00062 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Colorado dated 08/30... adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: El Paso. Contiguous Counties: Colorado:...
This 1995 KidsCount in Colorado report examines challenges and offers examples of how prevention and early intervention strategies can make a difference in the lives of Colorado children. The report looks at the state of child well-being in Colorado in terms of health, early care and education, and primary education. Statistics and descriptions…
... of the cloud bank is San Nicolas Island, and further up the coast are the Channel Islands. The Los Angeles basin is just south of center; ... Mar 14, 2000 Images: California Coast location: United States region: ...
article title: Wildfires Rage in Southern California ... Image Large plumes of smoke rising from devastating wildfires burning near Los Angeles and San Diego on Sunday, October 26, 2003, ... at JPL October 26, 2003 - Smoke from wildfires near Los Angeles and San Diego. project: MISR ...
Olson, Cathy Applefeld
After getting her master's degree from UCLA, Nancy Wills dreamed of starting a school-based guitar program so she could teach students to make music on the instrument she'd loved since she was a kid growing up outside of Yosemite, California. She had a strong belief that guitar was perfect for schools, ideal for individualized playing but also…
The discovery of numerous diamond-bearing kimberlite diatremes in the N Front Range of Colorado and Wyoming is of both scientific and economic interest. Species recovered from heavy-mineral concentrates include Cr-diopside, spinel, Mg-ilmenite, pyrope and diamond. A nodule tentatively identified as a graphite-diamond eclogite was also found. -G.W.R.
Visits to nine of the smallest rural elementary schools in Colorado were conducted to gain insights into types of communities served by the schools. No one definition of "rural" covered all nine communities, so they were classified into six types: predominantly agricultural, rural industrial, stable recreational, ranching/railraod, rural commuter,…
This Kids Count report examines state, county, and regional trends in the well-being of Colorado's children. The first part of the report is presented in four chapters. Chapter 1 includes findings regarding the increasing diversity of the child population, linguistic isolation, the impact of parental unemployment, child poverty, and the affordable…
Millard, Richard M.
Developments that highlight the importance of state oversight and authorization of higher education institutions and the objectives of the current Colorado Springs seminar on this topic are considered. In addition to the basic fact that states are the origin of chartering, licensing, and authorization of educational institutions, states have…
Dusel-Bacon, C.; O-Rourke, E.F.; Reading, K.E.; Fitch, M.R.; Klute, M.A.
A metamorphic-facies of Alaska has been compiled, following the facies-determination scheme of the Working Group for the Cartography of the Metamorphic Belts of the World. Regionally metamorphosed rocks are divided into facies series where P/T gradients are known and into facies groups where only T is known. Metamorphic rock units also are defined by known or bracketed age(s) of metamorphism. Five regional maps have been prepared at a scale of 1:1,000,000; these maps will provide the basis for a final colored version of the map at a scale of 1:2,500,000. The maps are being prepared by the US Geological Survey in cooperation with the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys. Precambrian metamorphism has been documented on the Seward Peninsula, in the Baird Mountains and the northeastern Kuskokwim Mountains, and in southwestern Alaska. Pre-Ordovician metamorphism affected the rocks in central Alaska and on southern Prince of Wales Island. Mid-Paleozoic metamorphism probably affected the rocks in east-central Alaska. Most of the metamorphic belts in Alaska developed during Mesozoic or early Tertiary time in conjuction with accretion of many terranes. Examples are Jurassic metamorphism in east-central Alaska, Early Cretaceous metamorphism in the southern Brooks Range and along the rim of the Yukon-Kovyukuk basin, and late Cretaceous to early Tertiary metamorphism in the central Alaska Range. Regional thermal metamorphism was associated with multiple episodes of Cretaceous plutonism in southeastern Alaska and with early Tertiary plutonism in the Chugach Mountains. Where possible, metamorphism is related to tectonism. Meeting participants are encouraged to comment on the present version of the metamorphic facies map.
Lee, Sunghee; Satter, Delight E.; Ponce, Ninez A.
Racial classification is a paramount concern in data collection and analysis for American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) and has far-reaching implications in health research. We examine how different racial classifications affect survey weights and consequently change health-related indicators for the AI/AN population in California. Using a…
Jerla, C.; Adams, P.; Butler, A.; Nowak, K.; Prairie, J. R.
Spanning parts of the seven states, of Arizona, California, Colorado, New Mexico, Nevada, Utah, and Wyoming, the Colorado River is one of the most critical sources of water in the western United States. Colorado River allocations exceed the long-term supply and since the 1950s, there have been a number of years when the annual water use in the Colorado River Basin exceeded the yield. The Basin is entering its second decade of drought conditions which brings challenges that will only be compounded if projections of climate change are realized. It was against this backdrop that the Colorado River Basin Water Supply and Demand Study was conducted. The Study's objectives are to define current and future imbalances in the Basin over the next 50 years and to develop and analyze adaptation and mitigation strategies to resolve those imbalances. Long-term planning in the Basin involves the integration of uncertainty with respect to a changing climate and other uncertainties such as future demand and how policies may be modified to adapt to changing reliability. The Study adopted a scenario planning approach to address this uncertainty in which thousands of scenarios were developed to encompass a wide range of plausible future water supply and demand conditions. Using Reclamation's long-term planning model, the Colorado River Simulation System, the reliability of the system to meet Basin resource needs under these future conditions was projected both with and without additional future adaptation strategies in place. System reliability metrics were developed in order to define system vulnerabilities, the conditions that lead to those vulnerabilities, and sign posts to indicate if the system is approaching a vulnerable state. Options and strategies that reduce these vulnerabilities and improve system reliability were explored through the development of portfolios. Four portfolios, each with different management strategies, were analyzed to assess their effectiveness at
Grove, M.; Kimbrough, D. L.
The modern Colorado River is a large, youthful, unequilibrated continental drainage system that was established abruptly between 5 and 6 million years ago in conjunction with Gulf of California rifting and establishment of the modern river course through the western Grand Canyon and lower Colorado river region. New detrital zircon U-Pb analyses provide insight into details relating to the cause, timing and consequences of river inception. These samples encompass (1) the modern Colorado River delta, (2) major tributaries including the Green, "Grand", San Juan, Little Colorado and Gila rivers (3) late Miocene to Pliocene sediments along the lower Colorado (4) late Miocene to Pleistocene deltaic and fluvial sediments of the Imperial and Palm Spring Groups in the western Salton Trough, and (5) late Miocene- early Pliocene Bidahochi Formation of eastern Arizona. Data from the western Salton Trough and modern delta yield strata yield remarkably homogeneous age distributions that indicate there was little evolution in Colorado River sediment composition since 5.3 Ma. Detrital zircon is dominated by a mix of local southwest US cratonal basement (1.7 and 1.4 Ga) plus reworked supracrustal sequences of the Colorado Plateau that provide Neoproterozoic, 1.1 Ga, and early Paleozoic zircons. The strong homogeneity of the detrital zircon record from late Miocene to the present combined with the fact that the most easterly tributaries most strongly resemble the delta is consistent with the 'lake spillover model' for inception and integration of the modern Colorado River drainage. Abrupt integration of the lower Colorado River after 5.6 Ma is clearly recorded by detrital zircon ages from the laucustrine Bouse Formation and Bullhead alluvium aggradational package. Fluvial-laucustrine deposits of the Bidahochi Formation may represent a lake that overtopped the Kaibab upwarp to initiate western Grand Canyon incision.
The Alaska Interagency Ecosystem Health Work Group is a community of practice that recognizes the interconnections between the health of ecosystems, wildlife, and humans and meets to facilitate the exchange of ideas, data, and research opportunities. Membership includes the Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium, U.S. Geological Survey, Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation, Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Alaska Sea Life Center, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and Alaska Department of Fish and Game.
Cannon, Christopher M.
Stellar astronomy is a fundamental component of Alaska Athabascan cultures that facilitates time-reckoning, navigation, weather forecasting, and cosmology. Evidence from the linguistic record suggests that a group of stars corresponding to the Big Dipper is the only widely attested constellation across the Northern Athabascan languages. However, instruction from expert Athabascan consultants shows that the correlation of these names with the Big Dipper is only partial. In Alaska Gwich'in, Ahtna, and Upper Tanana languages the Big Dipper is identified as one part of a much larger circumpolar humanoid constellation that spans more than 133 degrees across the sky. The Big Dipper is identified as a tail, while the other remaining asterisms within the humanoid constellation are named using other body part terms. The concept of a whole-sky humanoid constellation provides a single unifying system for mapping the night sky, and the reliance on body-part metaphors renders the system highly mnemonic. By recognizing one part of the constellation the stargazer is immediately able to identify the remaining parts based on an existing mental map of the human body. The circumpolar position of a whole-sky constellation yields a highly functional system that facilitates both navigation and time-reckoning in the subarctic. Northern Athabascan astronomy is not only much richer than previously described; it also provides evidence for a completely novel and previously undocumented way of conceptualizing the sky---one that is unique to the subarctic and uniquely adapted to northern cultures. The concept of a large humanoid constellation may be widespread across the entire subarctic and have great antiquity. In addition, the use of cognate body part terms describing asterisms within humanoid constellations is similarly found in Navajo, suggesting a common ancestor from which Northern and Southern Athabascan stellar naming strategies derived.
Desherevskii, A. V.; Sidorin, A. Ya.
The Alaska earthquake catalog has been analyzed in detail to find and study the diurnal periodicity of earthquake events. For this purpose, a set of spatially and temporally homogeneous samples of earthquakes with the well-known magnitude of completeness ( M c) has been prepared. For each sample, the spectra have been considered, the average diurnal variations in the number of earthquakes have been calculated, and their amplitudes were determined. The average diurnal variations were compared. For representative earthquakes in Alaska, no significant diurnal variation has been found. In subrepresentative samples, either the diurnal variation is insignificant or the signal-to-noise ratio only slightly exceeds 1.3-1.9. The diurnal variation is significant (a signal-to-noise ratio of 2.0-4.5) only for the samples of weak earthquakes with magnitudes of no more than 1.4, which is 0.5 units less than the strong (i.e., guaranteed for the entire sample area) completeness threshold. The results are consistent with the hypothesis explaining the diurnal periodicity of earthquakes by noise-discrimination effects. However, a comparative analysis of the diurnal variation parameters estimated over a large number of spatially and temporally homogeneous samples of earthquakes in the Alaska, southern California, and Greece catalogs shows that all of these results cannot be explained by this model.
The University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) has flown LiDAR missions for Operation IceBridge in Alaska each year since 2009, expanding upon UAF's airborne laser altimetry program which started in 1994. These observations show that Alaska's regional mass balance is -75+11/-16 Gt yr-1 (1994-2013) (Larsen et al., 2015). A surprising result is that the rate of surface mass loss observed on non-tidewater glaciers in Alaska is extremely high. At these rates, Alaska contributes ~1 mm to global sea level rise every 5 years. Given the present lack of adequate satellite resources, Operation IceBridge airborne surveys by UAF are the most effective and efficient method to monitor this region's impact on global sea level rise. Ice depth measurements using radar sounding have been part of these airborne surveys since 2012. Many of Alaska's tidewater glaciers are bedded significantly below sea level. The depth and extent of glacier beds below sea level are critical factors in the dynamics of tidewater retreat. Improved radar processing tools are being used to predict clutter using forward simulation. This is essential to properly sort out true bed returns, which are often masked or obscured by valley wall returns. This presentation will provide an overview of the program, highlighting recent findings and observations from the most recent campaigns, and focusing on techniques used for the extrapolation of surface elevation changes to regional mass balances.
Sass, John H.; Priest, Susan S.
California contains, by far, the greatest geothermal generating capacity in the United States, and with the possible exception of Alaska, the greatest potential for the development of additional resources. California has nearly 2/3 of the US geothermal electrical installed capacity of over 3,000 MW. Depending on assumptions regarding reservoir characteristics and future market conditions, additional resources of between 2,000 and 10,000 MWe might be developed (see e.g., Muffler, 1979).
To protect human health and the environment, the UMTRA project will remediate the uranium mill tailings site at Gunnison, Colorado. There are explicit requirements (i.e., 40 Part CFR Part 192) for the surface remediation of radiologically contaminated soils on UMTRA sites. The removal of subpile sediment to the depth required by 40 CFR Part 192 will leave in place deeper foundation sediment that is contaminated with hazardous constituents other than radium-226 and thorium-230. The Department of Energy and the Colorado Department of Health have questioned whether this contaminated soil could potentially act as a continuing source of ground water contamination even after surface remediation based on 40 CFR Part 192 is complete. To evaluate the subpile sediments as a potential source of ground water contamination, the Gunnison subpile study was initiated. This report summarizes the results and findings of this study.
U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources Division
The surface-water records for the 1962 water year for gaging stations and miscellaneous sites within the State of Colorado are given in this report. For convenience there are also included records for a few pertinent gaging stations in bordering States. The records were collected and computed by the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey, under the direction of J. W. Odell, district engineer, Surface Water Branch.
Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau.
Alaska Goals 2000 is part of a coordinated, statewide effort to improve public education for all students in Alaska. In 1997-1998, 90% of Alaska's federal funding was used to fund grants to local school districts, and 10% was used to fund state-level activities through the Alaska Department of Education. During 1997-1998, curriculum frameworks and…
... Subsistence Management Program for Public Lands in Alaska; Western Interior Alaska Federal Subsistence... subsistence uses on Federal public lands and waters in Alaska. The Federal Subsistence Board, which includes... the subsistence management of fish and wildlife on Federal public lands in Alaska. The Board...
Douglas, Dorothy, Ed.
This document consists of four issues of the quarterly report "Alaska's Children," which provides information on the Alaska Head Start State Collaboration Project and updates on Head Start activities in Alaska. Regular features in the issues include a calendar of conferences and meetings, a status report on Alaska's children, reports from the…
Castle, S.; Famiglietti, J. S.; Reager, J. T.; Thomas, B.
Over the past decade the Western US has experienced extreme drought conditions, which have affected both agricultural and urban areas. An example of water infrastructure being impacted by these droughts is Lake Mead, the largest reservoir in the United States at its full capacity that provides water and energy for several states in the Western US. Once Lake Mead falls below the critical elevation of 1050 feet above sea level, the Hoover Dam, the structure that created Lake Mead by damming flow within the Colorado River, will stop producing energy for Las Vegas. The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites, launched in 2002, have proven successful for monitoring changes in water storage over large areas, and give hydrologists a first-ever picture of how total water storage is changing spatially and temporally within large regions. Given the importance of the Colorado River to meet water demands to several neighboring regions, including Southern California, it is vital to understand how water is transported and managed throughout the basin. In this research, we use hydrologic remote sensing to characterize the human and natural water balance of the Colorado River basin and Lake Mead. The research will include quantifying the amount of Colorado River water delivered to Southern California, coupling the GRACE Total Water Storage signal of the Upper and Lower Colorado River with Landsat-TM satellite imagery and areal extent of Lake Mead water storage, and combining these data together to determine the current status of water availability in the Western US. We consider water management and policy changes necessary for sustainable water practices including human water use, hydropower, and ecosystem services in arid regions throughout the Western US.
The geology and tectonism of California have been influenced greatly by the collision and interaction between the Pacific plate and the North American plate. The forces generated by this interaction caused substantial horizontal movement along the San Andreas fault system and created the Gulf of California rift zone. This article summarizes the unique features of the gulf, describes the theory of plate tectonics, explains how tectonism may have affected the geologic evolution and physiography of the gulf, and illustrates the process by which the Colorado River became linked to the gulf.
RAHI, the Rural Alaska Honors Institute is a statewide, six-week, summer college-preparatory bridge program at the University of Alaska Fairbanks for Alaska Native and rural high school juniors and seniors. A program of rigorous academic activity combines with social, cultural, and recreational activities. Students are purposely stretched beyond their comfort levels academically and socially to prepare for the big step from home or village to a large culturally western urban campus. This summer RAHI is launching a new program, GeoFORCE Alaska. This outreach initiative is designed to increase the number and diversity of students pursuing STEM degree programs and entering the future high-tech workforce. It uses Earth science as the hook because most kids get excited about dinosaurs, volcanoes and earthquakes, but it includes physics, chemistry, math, biology and other sciences. Students will be recruited, initially from the Arctic North Slope schools, in the 8th grade to begin the annual program of approximately 8 days, the summer before their 9th grade year and then remain in the program for all four years of high school. They must maintain a B or better grade average and participate in all GeoFORCE events. The carrot on the end of the stick is an exciting field event each summer. Over the four-year period, events will include trips to Fairbanks, Arizona, Oregon and the Appalachians. All trips are focused on Earth science and include a 100+ page guidebook, with tests every night culminating with a final exam. GeoFORCE Alaska is being launched by UAF in partnership with the University of Texas at Austin, which has had tremendous success with GeoFORCE Texas. GeoFORCE Alaska will be managed by UAF's long-standing Rural Alaska Honors Insitute (RAHI) that has been successfully providing intense STEM educational opportunities for Alaskan high school students for almost 30 years. The Texas program, with adjustments for differences in culture and environment, will be
... substitution of Channel 247C3 for vacant Channel 275C3 at DeBeque, Colorado. See 75 FR 4036, published January..., Crawford, Colorado, to Channel 275C3 at Battlement Mesa, Colorado, as its first local service. A...
Bragg, Debra D.
In fall 2007, the state of Colorado received one of four federal grants from the Ready for College (RFC) grant program of the Office of Vocational and Adult Education (OVAE), U.S. Department of Education. The Colorado (CO) SUN project (where SUN stands for Success UNlimited) was designed to identify and enhance innovative practices from Colorado's…
...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 948 Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Reestablishment of Membership on the Colorado Potato Administrative Committee, Area No. 2 AGENCY: Agricultural... membership on the Colorado Potato Administrative Committee, Area No. 2 (Committee). The Committee...
Colorado Children's Campaign, 2011
"Kids Count in Colorado!" is an annual publication of the Colorado Children's Campaign, which provides the best available state- and county-level data to measure and track the education, health and general well-being of the state's children. "Kids Count in Colorado!" informs policy debates and community discussions, serving as a valuable resource…
Edmiaston, Rebecca; And Others
By creating the Colorado Preschool Program (CPP) in 1988, the Colorado General Assembly responded to the needs of 4- and 5-year-old children who are at risk of educational failure in Colorado. This paper is an executive summary of a report to the state's general assembly on the project's first 6 months of progress. The CPP addresses two critical…
... million American Indians and Alaska Natives. Typically, this urban clientele has less accessibility to hospitals; health clinics ... IHS and tribal health programs. Studies on the urban American Indian and Alaska Native population have documented ...
... Kuskokwim Corporation, Successor in Interest to Red Devil Incorporated. The decision approves the surface... Devil, Alaska, and are located in: Seward Meridian, Alaska T. 22 N., R. 44 W., Secs. 27 to 34,...
This image from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument on NASA's Terra satellite covers an area of 55 by 40 kilometers (34 by 25 miles) over the southwest part of the Malaspina Glacier and Icy Bay in Alaska. The composite of infrared and visible bands results in the snow and ice appearing light blue, dense vegetation is yellow-orange and green, and less vegetated, gravelly areas are in orange. According to Dr. Dennis Trabant (U.S. Geological Survey, Fairbanks, Alaska), the Malaspina Glacier is thinning. Its terminal moraine protects it from contact with the open ocean; without the moraine, or if sea level rises sufficiently to reconnect the glacier with the ocean, the glacier would start calving and retreat significantly. ASTER data are being used to help monitor the size and movement of some 15,000 tidal and piedmont glaciers in Alaska. Evidence derived from ASTER and many other satellite and ground-based measurements suggests that only a few dozen Alaskan glaciers are advancing. The overwhelming majority of them are retreating.This ASTER image was acquired on June 8, 2001. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next six years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18,1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high-resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, along-term research and
... Management (BLM) published a Notice of Filing of Plats by the Colorado State Office, Lakewood, Colorado . The... Surveyor for Colorado, BLM, Colorado State Office, 2850 Youngfield Street, Lakewood, Colorado...
Owen-Joyce, Sandra J.
Estimates of tributary inflow by basin or area and by surface water or groundwater are presented in this report and itemized by subreaches in tabular form. Total estimated average annual tributary inflow to the Colorado River between Hoover Dam and Mexico, excluding the measured tributaries, is 96,000 acre-ft or about 1% of the 7.5 million acre-ft/yr of Colorado River water apportioned to the States in the lower Colorado River basin. About 62% of the tributary inflow originates in Arizona, 30% in California, and 8% in Nevada. Tributary inflow is a small component in the water budget for the river. Most of the quantities of unmeasured tributary inflow were estimated in previous studies and were based on mean annual precipitation for 1931-60. Because mean annual precipitation for 1951-80 did not differ significantly from that of 1931-60, these tributary inflow estimates are assumed to be valid for use in 1984. Measured average annual runoff per unit drainage area on the Bill Williams River has remained the same. Surface water inflow from unmeasured tributaries is infrequent and is not captured in surface reservoirs in any of the States; it flows to the Colorado River gaging stations. Estimates of groundwater inflow to the Colorad River valley. Average annual runoff can be used in a water budget; although in wet years, runoff may be large enough to affect the calculation of consumptive use and to be estimated from hydrographs for the Colorado River valley are based on groundwater recharge estimates in the bordering areas, which have not significantly changed through time. In most areas adjacent to the Colorado River valley, groundwater pumpage is small and pumping has not significantly affected the quantity of groundwater discharged to the Colorado River valley. In some areas where groundwater pumpage exceeds the quantity of groundwater discharge and water levels have declined, the quantity of discharge probably has decreased and groundwater inflow to the Colorado
Leask, Linda; Killorin, Mary; Martin, Stephanie
This booklet provides data on Alaska's population, economy, health, education, government, and natural resources, including specific information on Alaska Natives. Since 1960, Alaska's population has tripled and become more diverse, more stable, older, less likely to be male or married, and more concentrated. About 69 percent of the population…
... WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM HUNTING AND FISHING Refuge-Specific Regulations for Hunting and Fishing § 32.21 Alaska. Alaska refuges are opened to hunting, fishing and trapping pursuant to the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act (Pub. L. 96-487, 94 Stat. 2371). Information regarding specific...
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alaska. 32.21 Section 32.21 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM HUNTING AND FISHING Refuge-Specific Regulations for Hunting and Fishing § 32.21 Alaska. Alaska refuges are opened to...
Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau. Div. of State Libraries.
This publication is an annotated listing of 143 books about Alaska or the Arctic, received by the Alaska Division of State Libraries in 1986. Most of the material is current or published in recent years, with the exception of government publications. Categories are juvenile, adult non-fiction, adult fiction, and reference. A few Alaska state and…
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alaska. 80.1705 Section 80.1705 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Alaska § 80.1705 Alaska. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all the sounds,...
Hatch, Shyla A.; Gill, V.A.; Mulcahy, D.M.
We used satellite telemetry to investigate the migration patterns and wintering areas of Glaucouswinged Gulls (Larus glaucescens) from Middleton Island, Alaska, where this species' population increased tenfold from the 1970s to the 1990s. Fall migration spanned 11 weeks, including numerous stopovers en route, apparently for feeding. Spring migration from wintering sites to Middleton Island was shorter (4 weeks) and more direct. One juvenile spent several months in southern Prince William Sound. An adult spent several months near Craig, southeast Alaska, while three others overwintered in southern British Columbia. For all four wintering adults use of refuse-disposal sites was evident or strongly suggested. Commensalism with humans may have contributed to the increase on Middleton, but a strong case can also be made for a competing explanation-regional recruitment of gulls to high-quality nesting habitat in Alaska created after the earthquake of 1964. An analysis of band returns reveals broad overlap in the wintering grounds of gulls from different Alaska colonies and of gulls banded on the west coast from British Columbia to California. The seasonal movement of many gulls from Alaska is decidedly migratory, whereas gulls from British Columbia, Washington, and Oregon disperse locally in winter. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2011.
Hatch, Scott A.; Gill, V.A.; Mulcahy, Daniel M.
We used satellite telemetry to investigate the migration patterns and wintering areas of Glaucous-winged Gulls (Larus glaucescens) from Middleton Island, Alaska, where this species' population increased tenfold from the 1970s to the 1990s. Fall migration spanned 11 weeks, including numerous stopovers en route, apparently for feeding. Spring migration from wintering sites to Middleton Island was shorter (4 weeks) and more direct. One juvenile spent several months in southern Prince William Sound. An adult spent several months near Craig, southeast Alaska, while three others overwintered in southern British Columbia. For all four wintering adults use of refuse-disposal sites was evident or strongly suggested. Commensalism with humans may have contributed to the increase on Middleton, but a strong case can also be made for a competing explanation-regional recruitment of gulls to high-quality nesting habitat in Alaska created after the earthquake of 1964. An analysis of band returns reveals broad overlap in the wintering grounds of gulls from different Alaska colonies and of gulls banded on the west coast from British Columbia to California. The seasonal movement of many gulls from Alaska is decidedly migratory, whereas gulls from British Columbia, Washington, and Oregon disperse locally in winter.
West of British Columbia, Canada, and south of the Yukon Territory, the southeastern coastline of Alaska trails off into the islands of the Alexander Archipelago. The area is rugged and contains many long, U-shaped, glaciated valleys, many of which terminate at tidewater. The Alexander Archipelago is home to Glacier Bay National Park. The large bay that has two forks on its northern end is Glacier Bay itself. The eastern fork is Muir inlet, into which runs the Muir glacier, named for the famous Scottish-born naturalist John Muir. Glacier Bay opens up into the Icy Strait. The large, solid white area to the west is Brady Icefield, which terminates at the southern end in Brady's Glacier. To locate more interesting features from Glacier Bay National Park, take a look at the park service map. As recently as two hundred years ago, a massive ice field extended into Icy Strait and filled the Glacier Bay. Since that time, the area has experienced rapid deglaciation, with many large glaciers retreating 40, 60, even 80 km. While temperatures have increased in the region, it is still unclear whether the rapid recession is part of the natural cycle of tidewater glaciers or is an indicator of longer-term climate change. For more on Glacier Bay and climate change, read an online paper by Dr. Dorothy Hall, a MODIS Associate Science Team Member. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC
Crude oil moving through the 800-mile Trans-Alaska Pipeline must be kept at a relatively high temperature, about 180 degrees Fahrenheit, to maintain the fluidity of the oil. In Arctic weather, that demands highly effective insulation. General Electric Co.'s Space Division, Valley Forge, Pennsylvania, provided it with a spinoff product called Therm-O-Trol. Shown being installed on the pipeline, Therm-O-Trol is a metal-bonded polyurethane foam especially formulated for Arctic insulation. A second GE spinoff product, Therm-O-Case, solved a related problem involved in bringing hot crude oil from 2,000-foot-deep wells to the surface without transferring oil heat to the surrounding permafrost soil; heat transfer could melt the frozen terrain and cause dislocations that might destroy expensive well casings. Therm-O-Case is a double-walled oil well casing with multi-layered insulation which provides an effective barrier to heat transfer. Therm-O-Trol and Therm-O-Case are members of a family of insulating products which stemmed from technology developed by GE Space Division in heat transferlthermal control work on Gemini, Apollo and other NASA programs.
Understanding shifts in ecosystem state is a frontier in ecology with important implications for land management and human well-being. The goals of this study are 1) to describe long-term vegetation change in a high-elevation sagebrush steppe park (California Park, Colorado) and 2) evaluate evidenc...
Papp, K.; Clough, J.; Swenson, R.; Crimp, P.; Hanson, D.; Parker, P.
Alaska has considerable energy resources distributed throughout the state including conventional oil, gas, and coal, and unconventional coalbed and shalebed methane, gas hydrates, geothermal, wind, hydro, and biomass. While much of the known large oil and gas resources are concentrated on the North Slope and in the Cook Inlet regions, the other potential sources of energy are dispersed across a varied landscape from frozen tundra to coastal settings. Despite the presence of these potential energy sources, rural Alaska is mostly dependent upon diesel fuel for both electrical power generation and space heating needs. At considerable cost, large quantities of diesel fuel are transported to more than 150 roadless communities by barge or airplane and stored in large bulk fuel tank farms for winter months when electricity and heat are at peak demands. Recent increases in the price of oil have severely impacted the price of energy throughout Alaska, and especially hard hit are rural communities and remote mines that are off the road system and isolated from integrated electrical power grids. Even though the state has significant conventional gas resources in restricted areas, few communities are located near enough to these resources to directly use natural gas to meet their energy needs. To address this problem, the Alaska Energy Inventory project will (1) inventory and compile all available Alaska energy resource data suitable for electrical power generation and space heating needs including natural gas, coal, coalbed and shalebed methane, gas hydrates, geothermal, wind, hydro, and biomass and (2) identify locations or regions where the most economic energy resource or combination of energy resources can be developed to meet local needs. This data will be accessible through a user-friendly web-based interactive map, based on the Alaska Department of Natural Resources, Land Records Information Section's (LRIS) Alaska Mapper, Google Earth, and Terrago Technologies' Geo
The Colorado economic impact study summarizes employment and economic benefits to the state from activities associated with the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project during Colorado state fiscal year (FY) 1993. To capture employment benefits, a questionnaire was distributed to subcontractor employees at the active UMTRA Project sites of Grand Junction, Rifle, and Gunnison, Colorado. An estimated 52 percent of the employees working on the UMTRA Project responded to this information request. Economic data were requested from each prime subcontractor, as well as from the Remedial Action Contractor. The most significant benefits associated with the UMTRA Project in Colorado are: Direct employment was estimated at 894 workers; An estimated 89 percent of all direct employment was local; Secondary employment resulting from remedial action at the active Colorado UMTRA Project sites and the Grand Junction vicinity property program is estimated at 546 workers. Total employment (direct and secondary) is estimated at 1440 workers for the period of study (July 1, 1992, to June 30, 1993). An estimated $24.1 million was paid in wages to UMTRA workers in Colorado during FY1993; Direct and secondary wage earnings were estimated at $39.9 million; Income tax payments to the state of Colorado were estimated at $843,400 during FY1993; The gross economic impact of UMTRA Project activities in the state of Colorado is estimated at $70 million during the 1-year study period; and the net economic benefit to the state of Colorado was estimated at $57.5 million, or $5.90 per dollar of funding provided by Colorado. This figure includes both direct and secondary benefits but does not include the impact of alternative uses of the state funding.
Holdren, G. Chris; Tietjen, Todd; Turner, Kent; Miller, Jennell M.
The Colorado River Basin covers parts of seven States: Colorado, Wyoming, Utah, New Mexico, Nevada, Arizona, and California; at 1,450 mi (2,333.5 km) in length, the Colorado River is the seventh longest river in the United States (fig. 3-1). The Bureau of Reclamation has the responsibility for management of this system, in coordination with the seven basin States, within a complex framework of law, regulations, compact, treaty, and policies often referred to collectively as the “Law of the River.” Lake Mead is a critical component of the overall Colorado River management, providing the capacity to store almost 2 years of the average runoff of the river.
... conditions of approval of the Colorado program in the December 15, 1980, Federal Register (45 FR 82173). You... Information), 2.04 (Application for Permit for Surface Coal Mining and Reclamation Operations: Minimum... Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement 30 CFR Part 906 Colorado Regulatory Program...
Colorado Children's Campaign, 2013
"Kids Count in Colorado!" is an annual publication of the Children's Campaign, providing state and county level data on child well-being factors including child health, education, and economic status. Since its first release 20 years ago, "Kids Count in Colorado!" has become the most trusted source for data and information on…
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Colorado. 32.25 Section 32.25 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM HUNTING AND FISHING Refuge-Specific Regulations for Hunting and Fishing § 32.25 Colorado. The following refuge units...
Colorado Advanced Tech. Inst., Denver.
Recognizing the importance of technology transfer to economic growth, the U.S. Economic Development Administration (EDA) provided the Colorado Advanced Technology Institute (CATI) with a grant to coordinate the development of a plan for using technology transfer in Colorado's economic development. The plan, outlined in this report, describes the…
This report describes the impact of nurse consultant services to child care programs in Colorado on the children, parents, and staff of the centers they serve as part of the Healthy Child Care Colorado (HCCC) initiative. Study participants included 25 child care center directors and 24 nurse consultants, representing large and small centers in…
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Colorado River. 117.963 Section 117.963 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.963 Colorado River. The draw of...
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Colorado River. 117.963 Section 117.963 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.963 Colorado River. The draw of...
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Colorado River. 117.963 Section 117.963 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.963 Colorado River. The draw of...
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Colorado River. 117.963 Section 117.963 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.963 Colorado River. The draw of...
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Colorado River. 117.963 Section 117.963 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.963 Colorado River. The draw of...
Nordbye, Jody Ohmert, Ed.
This Colorado education and library directory, published annually, contains the following sections: (1) Colorado Department of Education; (2) State Advisory Committees; (3) School District Map, School Districts, Buildings, and Personnel; (4) Charter Schools; (5) District Calendars; (6) Boards of Cooperative (Educational) Services (BOCES); (7)…
Martinez, Roger D.
Three hundred twelve respondents representing a cross section of Colorado Hispanic families participated in a 1978 questionnaire survey developed by the Colorado Department of Education to assess the mobility and point of origin of the state's Hispanic population and to provide information about attitudes and feelings concerning the public school…